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A History of the County; its Townships, Towns, Churches, 

Schools, etc ; General and Local Statistics; Military 

Record; Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent 

Men ; History of The Northwest Territory; 

History of Ohio; Miscellaneous 

matters, etc., etc. 






After months of unremitting toil, the result of our efforts to produce a 
reliable history of Marion County is before the public. None can better appre- 
ciate than those who so kindly and liberally assisted us, the difficulties incident 
to the preparation of a work of this character. After a thorough inspection 
of public documents and of newspaper files ; after old settlers and prominent 
citizens have been interviewed, the whole mass of information had to be sys- 
tematized into one harmonious whole ; and after all this there intervenes the in- 
completeness of the public documents, the often imperfect, because hastily pre- 
pared, items in the newspaper files, and the conflicting statements of pioneers 
who have memory alone upon which to place their dependence. But while 
perfection is written upon no human work, we trust that on the whole the His- 
tory of Marion County may as nearly approximate to this title as is possible. 
To this end no pains have been spared, wherever possible, the manuscript hav- 
ing been submitted for inspection to those who furnished the facts, and in the 
biographical department invariably opportunity has been given for thorough 

We take this opportunity, in general terms, to tender our warmest thanks 
to the county officials, pioneers, pastors of churches, members of the bar, offi- 
cers of societies, and especially the editorial corps of Marion Count}', for the 
many acts of courtesy and kindness which the}' have extended to us while la- 
boring in their midst. And in this connection we cannot forbear to name 
Messrs. J. E. Davids, J. S. Reed, T. P. Wallace, Col. W. W. Concklin. Dr. T. 
B. Fisher, Hon. J. J. Hane, W. Z. Davis, J. F. McNeal, J. A. Wolford, George 
B. Christian, J. C. Johnston, Rev. S. D. Bates, Dr. F. W. Thomas, Capt. Valen- 
tine Lapham, Henry True, George Crawford, S. R. Dumble and R. D. Dumm, 
John R. Knapp (of Washington, D. C), and many others, who in various ways 
materially aided us in the preparation of this volume. 

We feel assured that its mechanical execution, the press work, the binding, 
and the portrait work are such as to insure a favorable reception, and we now 
issue our work to the people of Marion County. 

Chicago, October, 1883. 





Geographical Position 19 

Early Explorations 20 

Discovery of Ohio 32 

English Explorations and Settlements 34 


American Settlements 59 

Division of the Northwest Territory 65 

Tecumseh and the War of 1812 69 

Black Hawk and the Black Hawk War 73 


History of Ohio 93 

French Histor* 96 

Ordinance of 1787, No. 32 105 

The War of 1812 122 

Banking 126 

The Canal System 128 

Ohio Land Tracts 129 

Improvements 132 

State Boundaries 136 

Organization of Counties 137 

Description of Counties 137 

Early Events 137 

Governors of Ohio 160 

Ancient Works 174 

Some Genera! Characteristics 177 

Outline Geology of Ohio 179 

Ohio's Bank During the War 182 

A Brief Mention of Prominent Ohio Generals... 191 

Some Discussed Subjects 196 

Conclusion 200 

Comments upon the Ordinance of 1787, from the 

Statutes of Ohio. Edited by Salmon P. 

Chase, and Published in the year 1833 204 



CHAPTEB I.— Geology, Zoology, Meteor- 
ology 215 

Situation and Area 215 

Surface, Features and Soil 215 

Geological Structure 215 

Material Besources 218 

Animals 219 

Birds 220 

Fishes 224 

Beptiles 224 

Anecdotal 227 

Meteorology 228 

CHAPTEB II. — Indians and Early Settle- 
ment 230 

Prehistoric 230 

F. C. Buehrmund's Collection 231 

Other Collections 233 

Historic or Modern Indians 233 

The Tribes of this Vicinity 234 

The Burning of Col. William Crawford 234 

The Wyandots and Delawares 235 

The Greenville Treaty 236 

Capt. Beckley's Beminisconces of Indian 

Life 237 

Last Exodus of the Indian* 242 

The Wyandot's Farewell Song 245 

Early White Occupants of Ohio 245 

Early Settlement of Marion County 248 

First Marriages 253 

The First Deed 255 

The First Will 255 

CHAPTEB III— Pioneer Life 256 

The Log Cabin 257 

Sleeping Accommodations 259 

Cooking 259 

Women's Work 260 

Beligious Worship 260 

Hospitality 264 

Trade and Money 264 

Milling 265 

Agricultural Implements 266 

Hog Killing 266 

Wild Hogs 267 

Bee Hunting 267 

The Shakes 2C.7 

Education 268 

Spelling and Singing Schools 270 

Guarding Against Indians 271 

Uees 271 

A Retrospect.... 271 

CHAPTER IV.— Reminiscences 273 

By Capt. George Beekley 273 

By William La Bue 287 

By Daniel S. Drake 288 

By Henry Peters 289 

By Joseph Morris 290 



CHAPTER V— Organic 293 

Marion County 294 

First County Officers and their Work 295 

Districts 296 

The County Seat 296 

The First Court House 299 

The Proposed Court House 301 

The Jail 301 

Infirmary 302 

Wall Maps 302 

County Atlas 302 

Table of Air Line Distances 303 

Post Offices in Marion County 303 

CHAPTER VI.— Political 305 

Log Cabin Campaign of 1840 306 

Pole-Raising 309 

Election Returns 311 

Representatives in Congress 338 

State Senators 338 

Representatives to the Legislature 338 

County Officers 339 

First Justices of the Peace 340 

Personal Sketches 341 

CHAPTER VII.— Bench and Bar 347 

Introductory 347 

The Bench 348 

The Common Pleas Court 356 

Some of the Associate Judges 362 

Bill Anderson 363 

The Barol the Past 365 

The Bar of the Present 372 

CHAPTER VIII.— Material Progress 377 

Population 377 

First Roads and Turnpikes 377 

Railroads 380 

Proposed Railroads 383 


Express and Telegraph 384 

Agriculture — 384 

Marion County Agricultural Society 385 

Patrons of Husbandry 386 

Fine Stock 389 

Marion County Importing Company 389 

Manufactures in 1881 390 

Buildings, value of, in 1881 390 

Valuation of Property 391 

Financial Condition of the County 391 

CHAPTER IX— Religion, Temperance, Edu- 
cation, Literature and Art 393 

Churches 393 

County Bible Society *. 394 

< ounty Sunday School Union 396 

Temperance 396 

Educational 399 

Literature 401 

Marion Art School 410 

Music 411 

CHAPTER X.— Medical 414 

Early Physicians of Marion County 414 

First County Bible Society 416 

The New Organization 417 

CHAPTER XL— The Press 418 

Early Marion Journals 418 

The Independent 421 

The Mirror 425 

Daily Star 432 

Prospect Advocate 433 

La Rue News 434 

Caledonia Argus 434 

CHAPTER XIL— Miscellaneous 135 

Criminal 436 

Cholera 438 



CHAPTER I.— Earlier Wars 441 

Revolutionary War 441 

War of 1812 442 

Mexican War 444 

CHAPTER II— Militia 445 

CHAPTER III.— War of the Rebellion 447 

CHAPTER IV.— Regimental Histories and 

Soldiers' Roster 454 

War Reminiscences of James F. Mohr 482 


CHAPTER I.— Marion Village 487 

Jacob's Well 487 

War Road 487 

First Settlers 488 

General Progress 488 

Marion in 1825 490 

Marion in RS'J" 49i 

Marion in 1828...: 495 

Sundry Beginnings 497 

Reminiscences of Marion. 498 

Business Establishments 501 

Municipal History 507 

Churches : 517 

Secret Societies 527 

Educational 535 

Miscellaneous Societies 539 

Two Great Fires 54:i 

Anecdotal 543 

Marion Township - _ >4C> 

Biographical Sketches 550 

CHAPTER II.— Big Island Township...^ 650 

Biographical Sketches 654 

CHAPTER III.— Rowling Green Township 672 

Biographical Sketches 676 

CHAPTER IV.— Claridon Township 691 

Biographical Sketches 710 

CHAPTER V.— Grand Township 757 

Biographical Sketches 760 

CHAPTER VI.— (hand Prairie Township 767 

Biographical Sketches 772 

CHAPTER VII.— Green Camp Township 778 

Biographical Sketches 785 

CHAPTER VII I— Montgomery Township 804 

Biographical Sketches 821 

CHAPTER IX— Pleasant Township 866 

Biographical Sketches 874 

CHAPTER X.— Prospect Township 888 

Biographical Sketches 910 

CHAPTER XL— Richland Township 949 

Biographical Sketches 954 



CHAPTER XII.— Salt Rock Township 962 

Biographical Sketches 966 

CHAPTER XIII.— Scott Township 970 

Biographical Sketches 975 


CHAPTER XIV.— Tully Township 988 

Biographical Sketches 393 

CHAPTER XV.— Waldo Township 1004 

Biographical Sketches 1014 


Baiu, John >■ 530 

Baker, Eber 211 

Bowen, Judge Ozias 351 

Brocklesby, William 563 

Court, Joseph 387 

Crawford, George 423 

Fields, Rev. Joseph 406 

Garberson, J. R 494 

Gast, David 475 

Hoch, Enoch 631 

Holverstott, Henry 262 

Kerr, Robert 6 9 7 

Likins, James 728 

Messenger, Col. Everett 188 

Miller, Obadiah 761 

Peters, Nathan - 226 

Roads, J. Q -279 

Rosencrans, John 370 

Seaburn, Jacob 243 

Thew, Henry 511 

Thew William 169 

Thew, William P 598 

Van Fleet, H. T 334 

Vaughan, J. H 458 

Wood, Hampton 664 


Source of the Mississippi 22 

La Salle Landing on the Shores of Green Bay... 24 

Buffalo Hunt 26 

Trapping 28 

Mouth of the Mississippi 31 

High Bridge 33 

Pontiac, the Ottawa Chieftain 42 

Indians Attacking Frontiersmen 55 

Present Site Lake Street Bridge, Chicago in lS->3 o< 

A Pioneer Dwelling 60 

Lake Bluff. 62 

Tecumseh, the Shawnee Chieftain 68 

Indians Attacking a Stockade 71 

Black Hawk, the Sac Chieftain 74 

Perry's Monument, Cleveland 91 

Niagara Falls 92 


Map of Marion County .14-15 

Constitution of the United States 79 

Area of the United States 203 

Marion County Court House, Lithograph 298 

Proposed Marion County Court House, Litho- 
graph 315 

Marion Cemetery Vault 524 

Population of the Principal Countries in the 

World 203 

Population of Ohio by Counties 203 

Population of Marion County 377 



[Ex-Union soldiers are marked with a *.] 


Abel, Christian 910 

Abston, John N 373 

Ackerman, Henry 550 

Adams, Benjamin C 910 

Allen, Curtis 550 

Allen, E. G 551 

*Allinger, G. C 821 

Almendinger, Jacob 912 

Amrine, David 822 

Anderson, Ezra 822 

Anderson, James H 368 

Anderson, John 551 

Anderson, Joseph 823 

Anderson, Thomas J 362 

Anderson, Mrs. Sarah 823 

Anselment, John W 710 

Apt, George W 711 

*Apt, Capt. Jacob F 711 

Aronhalt, William 785 

Augenstein, Daniel 1014 

Augenstein, George F 1015 

Augenstein, W. D 1015 

*Ault, George W 711 

Ault, John A 993 

Aye, Melville C 712 

Aye, Morris J 712 

Backus, Thomas 365 

Bader, Samuel 676 

Bain, John 823 

*Bain, William 824 

Bain, William (deceased) 346 

Bair, A. J 367 

Baker, Charles 551 

B*ker, Hon. Eber 341 

Baldinger, Jacob 993 

Barks. George F 552 

Bartram. Hon. John / 363 

Bartraml Samuel H 372, 552 

♦Bates, Rev. Samuel D 553 

Battenfeld, J 553 

Bauer, Philip 554 

*Beach,John 993 

Bean, D. J 421 

Beckley, Mrs. Eliza 712 

Beckl.v, F. C 554 

Beckley, Capt. George 342 

Bechtold, Christian 824 

bechtold, John C 825 

Bee;:, Judge Thomas 361 

Beerbower, Peter 554 

*Beerbowar, Samuel T 555 

Behner, Gottleib 874 

Behiier, John 875 

Bell, David M 676 

Bell, Jonathan 556 

Bell, J. L 556 

Bell, Layfayette 676 

Hell. Mrs. Margaret 676 

Bell, Samuel 557 

Bender, Philip..... ...1015 

Bennett, Judge Sauford S 362 

Berger, Jacob 825 

Beringer, John 954 

Berridge, Samuel 713 

Berry, James H 875 

Kerry, James R 785 

*Borry, William A 786 

Biggerstalf, Friend 912 


Billings, Joseph 414 

Birch, David 825 

Birch, Martin J 825 

Blanchard. John 713 

Bland, William 557 

Boalt, Charles L 365 

Bonham, Harrison 677 

*Bonham, Timothy C 677 

Bottenfield, Meeker 912 

Bowdish, Dr., Russell C 654 

Bowen, Hon. Ozias 359 

*Bower, David J 760 

Bower, Jacob P 761 

Boyd, Austin A ,. 913 

Boyd, John Wesley 913 

Boyd, Robert A 557 

Boyd, Robert G 875 

Boynton, Cashius 714 

Brady, Albert J 654 

Brady, B. D 655 

Bretz, Andrew D 772 

Brewer, Emery 772 

Bricker, John 655 

Brigel, Michael 558 

Briggs, Silas W 773- 

Briggs, W. W 416- 

*Bnnker, John 786 

Britton , James 655 

Britton, Mrs. Mary S 655 

Brenizer, Dr. N. 914 

Brown, Ellis W 827 

Brown, Ezekiel 773 

Brown, George 558 

Brown, Hon. William 343 

Brocklesby, William 714 

Brownlee, D.W 994 

Brownlee, James 994 

Brugger, John 787 

Brundige Family 1005 

Bi-mdige, John 1016 

Brundige, John F 1017 

Brunner, Hon. L. A 431 

Bryan, James E 559 

Bunker, Peleg 368 

Burdge, Marshall S 827 

Burkhart, John S 994 

Burtsfield, John 773 

Busby, Hon. George H 342 

Bush, Frederick 714 

Camp, B.J 559 

Campbell, Francis 559 

Campbell, Michael 773 

Campbell, W. J 827 

Carey, William A 787 

Chard, David 787 

Chase, M. B 374 

♦Christian, George B 130 

Christian, Dr. J. M 560 

Christanz, John 715 

Church, James S28 

Church, Oliver 828 

Clark, A. L 561 

(lark, David M 829 

( Hark, Enoch 761 

Clark, Oeorge S 678 

Clark, Isaac 762 

Clark, John G 561 

*Clark, Joseph 994 



'Clark, J. W 561 

*Clark, Nathan 678 

Clark, Robert T 561 

(lark, Samuel W 678 

(lark, William N 715 

Clary, Michael 562 

Cleveland, Sumner 829 

♦Click, Michael 876 

(line, Jerome N 715 

*Cline, William H 715 

*Clowes, H. R 433 

*Cluff, Ami 716 

Clutter, William 975 

Cochran, Alexander 995 

Codding, J. Q 562, 374 

Coify, James 562 

*Cole, Ira B 788 

Cole, William 788 

Conch, Simeon A 414 

Concklin, W. W 565 

Conklin, Ezra M 1017 

Conklin, Jacob S 361 

Conley, Edmund 565 

Coon, Elkana 566 

Coons, C 656 

Conrad, George W 566 

Conrad, Harry 566 

Coonrod, Mrs. Mary 774 

Cook Brothers 915 

Cook, Frank M 914 

Cook, G. W 915 

Cook, Dr. E. R 914 

Coulter, J. Harvey 976 

Court, B. Frank 876 

Court, George 876 

Court, John J 915 

Court, Jr., Joseph 877 

Court, Joseph 567 

Court, Stephen A 567, 375 

Court, William F 915 

Copeland, George D 376 

Copeland, Dr., Joshua 829 

Copeland, Josiah S 345 

Coutu, Joseph B 656 

*Cranmer, A. 656 

*Cratty, Joseph 915 

Cratty. Robert 916 

*Crawford, George 422 

Crissinger, David... 995 

Crissinger, Elias 976 

Crissinger, John 716 

Criswell, Dr. John H 717 

Croft, John 717 

Croft. Samuel 717 

Cromer, Christian H 877 

Cross, T. A 371 

Crowley, James 830 

Culbertson, James 568 

Cull, John 568 

Cummin, T. S 568 

*Cunningham, H. H 569 

Cunningham, Isaac D 877 

Curl, Mrs. Sarah E 717 

Curren, Hugh 1017 

Cusick, Bartholomew 569 

Cyphers, Barnet 995 

Davids, John E 570, 372 

Davis, Dr. B. W 571 

*Davis, John J 788 

Davis, Josiah T 917 

Davis, Nehemiah 763 

Davis, Richard B 877 

*Davis. William Z 572,373 

Day, Allen 657 

Day, Samuel 831 

Deal, Harrison S31 

Deal, Henry 762 

Delauder, George D 831 

Denison, L 572 

*Denman, Isaac 1018 

Denman, Dr. William C 573 

Denman, William E 679 

Dennig, William C 573 

Devore, Hon. James W 718 

Dickson, Isaac 996 

Dickson, Thomas 990 

Dickson, W. H 996 


I Diebold, John 573 

Diegle, George 574, 374 

! Dietrich, Philip 574 

I Dilts, Austin M 718 

Dilts, Peter 719 

I Dix Brothers 918 

*Dix, Clark 575 

Dix, Elijah 918 

I Dodd, Thomas P 679 

! Dodds, S. C 762 

Dombaugh, Philip 462 

*Donithen, Alfred L 1018 

Douce, Mrs. Ann 719 

Douce, George W : 719 

Douce, James L .. 720 

Douce, Richard R 720 

Douce, William T 720 

| Dowling, John W -» 976 

Drake, Daniel S 1008 

Drake, Francis M 1019 

Drake, Capt. William S 1007 

*Drake, Dr. William S 575 

*Drollsbough, John 997 

Dumble, John B 426 

*Dunible, Samuel R 421 

Dumm, R. D 431 

Duncan, Thomas 371 

Dutt, Philip 878 

Dutton, Benjamin P 657 

*Durfee, Bradford R 367 

Durfee, E 5«5 

Ehlers, John 721 

Eibling, Gottleib 576 

*Elseroad, John W 789 

Emery, James 1019 

Emery, Martih 954 

Epley, Francis M 721 

Evans, John 576 

Everett, William 763 

Everhardt, John 720 

Farnum, Dr. J. L 918 

Fatzler, Jacob F 789 

Fehl, Valentine 764 

Fetter, Jr., George 721 

Fields, Eward D 721 

Fields, John 722 

Fields, Joseph 722 

Fies, William 577 

Fink, Mrs. Elizabeth 723 

Firstenberger, Daniel 955 

Firstenberger, Elias 955 

Firstenberger, Jacob 955 

Fish, Samuel 872 

Fish, Samuel A 790 

Fisher, Charles C 375 

♦Fisher, J.B 657 

Fisher, T. B 577 

Fisher, William 367 

Flaherty, Anthony 832 

Folk, Byron 878 

Foos, John A 723 

Foos, Hiram K 658 

*Fox, Jr., Jacob F 920 

Fox, Sr.. Jacob F 919 

Frame, H. C 658 

*Francis, Joseph A 723 

Francis, P. K 1020 

Free, Adam 878 

Free, Dr., Daniel 790 

Frederick, John L 833 

*Gable, Abraham 724 

*Gabler, William 1021 

Garberson, Charles F 578, 375 

Garberson, Judge John R 724 

Gavin, Henry C 725 

;: ( laivin, William 726 

Gast, Christian 920 

Cast, Christian 921 

Gast, David 922 

Cast, George 922 

Gast, G. F 923 

Gast, John B 923 

Gast, John M 923 

Cast, Philip M 924 

Cast, Rev. Philip 923 

(last, William W 924 

Gearhiser, George W 1021 



Gearhiser, Jacob 1021 

Giddis, .John ,T 726 

Gillespie, Evan 833 

Gillespie, Noah 764 

Glidden, Dr. T. J 924 

Qodman, H. C 371 

*Godman, (ien. James H 365 

Gotnpf, J. G 955 

Gompf, John P 1022 

Gooding, Charles H 879 

Gooding, George 879 

Gooding, John 879 

Gorenflo, Frederick, Jr 880 

Gorton, Hezekiah 343 

Gracely, Christian 833 

Gracely, Christopher 658 

Grant, Samuel H 790 

Gray, George 362 

Gray, J. F 658 

Gregory, James D 579 

Grimke, Frederick 359 

Griswold, S. A 421 

Gruber, Abraham... 579 

Gruber, Sidney W 579 

Gruber, Thomas B 579 

Gugle, John 579 

Gurley, John 580 

Gurley, John 581 

Gunn, Lewis 580 

Guthery, Hon. John D 679 

Guthery, Philip E 680 

Guthrie, Joseph D 791 

Guthrie, J. H 659 

Haberman, Christian 581 

Haberman, Fred 582 

*Haberman, John 791 

Hahn, Dr. Charles 582 

Hain, Adam 880 

Hain, Daniel 880 

Hain, Henry 925 

*Haines, Columbus L 727 

Haines, L.C 583 

Haines, Mrs. M. F 727 

Haines, M. W 584 

Halloway, Dr. George 415 

Halt, Frederick 956 

Hane, Hon. J.J 584 

Hanley, John 727 

*Harrah, Mathew 835 

Harraman, Aaron (559 

Harraman, James 659 

Harraman, M. J 835 

Harris, Jacob 774 

♦Harris, John 681 

Harrison, John V 585 

Harrison, Michael R 727 

Hardy, Capt. Elisha 585 

Harder, Perry 834 

Harper, Charles 791 

Harper, James 834 

Harsch, Wesley 586 

Harshberger, J. R 586 

♦Harshberger, L. D 925 

Harvey, D. H 587 

Harvey, James M.- 587 

Harvey, Paul G 587 

Harvey, Thomas 587 

Hastings, John 836 

Hastings, John D 836 

♦Hastings, Hunter 835 

Havens, Mrs. James 402 

Hazen, Martin L 792 

Hecker, Jacob 660 

Heimlich, John - 956 

Heiner, John 660 

Heller, Uev. J. M 588 

Henness, George ". 434 

Henderson, Mrs. Martha 837 

Herbster, Benjamin K 926 

Hettler, Frederick G 660 

Higgins, David 359 

♦Highly, Robert L 728 

Hill, Alexander 977 

Hill, Kdraon E 977 

Hill, Hon. Robert 774 

Hill, Samuel 977 

Hiller, Martin 792 


Hinds, Charles W 728 

Hinds, John B 728 

Hinds, Joseph D 729 

Hinds, Mrs. R. A 729 

Hinds, William W 729 

Hinerman, Frederick 775 

Hinklin, Henry 837 

Hinklin, Mrs. Susan 837 

Hippie, Dr. J. R 1022 

Hipsher, Adam 977 

Hipsher, Lemma 978 

Hipsher, Uriah 978 

Hipsher, Z. W 978 

Hite, Benjamin F 775 

Hoberman, H. C 588 

Hoch, Enoch 661 

Hodder, Thomas H 428 

Holverstott, Jacob 73o 

Holverstott, Henry J 730 

Holverstott, La Fayette J 730 

Holverstott, Michael 838 

Holverstott, Peter W 731 

Holmes, William 362 

*Hood, John 589 

Hopkins, Archibald 661 

Hopkins, Hon. John J 838 

Hopkins, Reuben 881 

Hopkins, Bobert 589 

Hord, Amaziah H 590 

Hord, Hon. Peyton 589 

Hostetter, John G 839 

Houser, Anthony 979 

Howison, John H 927 

Howser, Andrew H 732 

Howser, Jacob 732 

Howser, James 732 

Howser, John H 732 

Huber, Edward 590 

Hudson, John 591 

Hudson, Mrs. Sarah A 662 

Hughes, E van 927 

Hull, E. H 371 

Hull, William 371 

Hume, John F 368 

Hume, S 432 

♦Humphrey, David J 592 

Hummer, Mrs. Pauline 591 

Hummer, William T 979 

Hunter, Hezekiah 733 

Hurd, Adolphus R 792 

Idlemau, C. M 376 

Idleman, Rev., Jacob 869 

Idleman, Silas 593 

Imbody, John 793 

Irey, James S 734 

*Irey, John F 793 

*Irey, Harrison H 733 

Irvine, James and Brothers 966 

fosleib, Frederick A 594 

Jackson, Abner M 361 

Jacoby, Michael .* 957 

Jones, Albert 681 

Jones, Andrew J 682 

Jones, David 997 

Jones, John 682 

Jones, Levi 1022 

Jones, Nelson 1023 

Johnson, James 928 

Johnson, John 681 

♦Johnson, Joseph E 839 

Johnson, Mrs. Martha 839 

Johnson, R. H 594 

Johnson, Mrs. Sarah E 840 

Johnson, William C. M. D 595, 416 

Johnson, William G., Jr 662 

Johnson, William G., Sr 662 

Johnston, Elizabeth 794 

♦Johnston, J. C 595, 372 

Johnston, Jesse T 794 

Johnston, John N 794 

Johnston, Bezin W 794 

♦Kanable, Byron 881 

♦Keiler, Jacob 596 

♦Keller, C. F 1024 

Keller. Gottlop 795 

♦Kelley, Tim 596 

Kellogg, George 997 



Kellogg, W. II 998 

Kemper, Benjamin G 840 

Kennedy, J. W 998 

"'Kennedy, Thadeus C • 979 

Kennedy, W. K 998 

Kerr, Mrs. Jane 998 

Kerr, Robert 979 

Key, George 599 

*Keyes, George W 734 

*Kibler, John 795 

King, A. L. D 967 

King, George J 967 

King, James 599 

King, John 840 

King, Samuel H 967 

Kinsler, John 599 

Kinsler, John H 599 

Kinnamon, William 734 

Kirts, William 928 

Knapp, James W 841" 

*Knapp, John R 426 - 

*Knachel, Emmanuel 929 

Knickel, Christian 1024 

Kniekel, Henry 882 

Knight, George C 898 

Knowles, Capt. Hiram 981 

Kling, Amos H 600 

Klingel, Adam....TT>. 958 

Klingel, Lucas 1024 

Klinefelter, Joseph 881 

Kolb, Jacob 682 

*Koons, Hiram A 735 

Kridler, Alexander 841 

Kramer, William C 958 

Kraner, Christian 600 

Lafferty, William F 735 

Lance, Joseph 999 

Lane, Ebenezer 358 

*Lannon, Patrick 601 

*Lapham, Capt. Valentine 601 

La Rue, David H 795 

La Rue, Luther R 841 

La Rue, Maj William 811 

La Rue, William P 683 

La Tourrette, Abram 601 

Lawrence, Charles W 602 

Lawrence, Daniel 602 

Lawrence, George 603 

Lawrence, George E 603 

Lawrence, James 736 

Lawrence, William 361 

Leatham, Henry 099 

Lee, John C 736 

Lee, Noah 737 

Leech, Dr. W. C 603 

Leeper, William 738 

Leffler, Andrew 603 

Leffler, Charles W 604 

Leffler, Godfrey 604 

Leffler, J. G .\ 605 

Leffler, John F 605 

Lenox, Luke 683 

Leonard, James H 842 

Leonard, John E 605 

Likins, James 981 

Lindsay, James 981 

Lindsey, J. F 606 

Lindsay, Oliver 738 

Lingo, Edward H 842 

Linn, Daniel 606 

Linn, Philip Jr., 607 

Lippincott, Christopher S 843 

*Little, David D 929 

Little, James M ... 843 

Livingston, J 415 

Long, James 844 

Longacre, Elmus 662 

*Lucas, H. S 607 

Lust, Jacob D 775 

Lust, John F 60S 

Luvisi, Daniel 663 

Mack, George 882 

Mack, Albright 958 

Mahaffey, Samuel 967 

Malone, John W 775 

Maloney, Bryan 9:!0 

Mann , ( yms' B 345 


Manning, Jabez P , 415 

Marggraf, Charles T.,i 

Marggraf, Gustavus 738 

Magruder, T. J 608 

Markert, J. C 609 

Markey, John , 609 

Martin, Jacob F 959 

Martin, John 739 

•Martin, John T 795 

Mason, Isaac 7o9 

Mason, Joseph 082 

Marsh, James F 844 

Marshall, Dr. Samuel B 845 

Matthews .Albin D '. 609 

Matthews, John 663 

Matthews, John B 610 

Matthews, J. N _ 610 

Mautz, Jacob 959 

McClellan, Mrs. Elizabeth 845 

McClenathan, John L 959 

McDole, John W 846 

McDonald, James 739 

McDonald, J. S 366 

McDowell, John Adair 358 

McElheny, Thomas D 846 

McElheny, Theodore 846 

McKinstry, Mathew 999 

McMurray, Dr. A. B 610 

*McMurray, Thomas J 611 

McNeal, Allen 1000 

*McNeal, J. F 611, 374 

McNeff, Thomas 684 

McWherter, William B 776 

Mears, George N 846 

Mears. Robert 847 

Meinhart, John 796 

Melvin, Mrs. Elizabeth (Adair) 684 

Melvin, William A 684 

♦Merchant, Isaac A 739 

Merchant, John T 612 

Merrill, John 363 

Merritt, Caleb 740 

*Messenger, Col. Everett 664 

Messenger, Mrs. Elizabeth M 663 

Messenger, Orren 664 

Messenger, Reuben W 665 

Messenger, Mrs. Patience 664 

Metcalf Benjamin F 360 

Metz, Henry 847 

Metz, James 847 

Metz, Leonard 665 

Metzger, John 740 

*Miller, Mathew G 685 

Miller, Jacob, Jr 1025 

Miller, Mrs. Mary 982 

Miller, Obadiah 741 

Miller, T. S 982 

Miller, Thomas S „ 847 

Miller, Washington E 848 

Miller, William 741 

Milisor, Jacob 882 

Millisor, Barney F 740 

*Morgenthaler, Henrv 614 

Mohr, C. L .*. 930 

Mohr, David 931 

*Mohr, James F 932 

Monnett, Abraham 983 

Monnett, Josephus 984 

Monnett, John T 776 

Monnett, M. H 984 

Morral, David 849 

Morral, Milton 849 

Morral, Samuel, Jr 968 

Morral, Samuel, Sr 967 

Morral, William L . 849 

Mollov, Edmond L 613 

Moon^ Henry N S49 

Moore, Charles 618 

Moore, John E 685 

Moore, William II 613 

Morris, Albert B 796 

Morris, John R 796 

Morris, Joseph 850 

Morris, Joseph 960 

Morris, Rev. William R 850 

Morrow, Adam T 932 

Morrow Brothers 932 



Morrow, James 742 

*Morrow, James M 933 

Morrow, John F 742 

Morrow, Joseph 932 

Morrow, Joseph K 932 

♦Mounts, Amos C 883 

Mouser, Isaac 850 

Mouser, David 014 

Mouser, Dr. J. A 851 

Mouser, John B 614 

♦Mouser, Robert 1 968 

Muntsinger, W. M (114 

Mustain, James C 852 

Mvers.Elias 852 

Mvers, Gilbert N 852 

Myers, John J 883 

Myers, Jonathan 853 

Myers, Mrs. Mary 884 

Mvers, William J 853 

Neff, Mrs. Rosanna 1001 

Neimeyer, Conrad 933 

Neimeyer, Reuben 933 

Nesbitt, Henry W 742 

Neubauer, Charles 960 

Newcomer, James K 429 

Nickelson, Jobn 884 

Norton, Alson 414 

Norris, C. H 015 

Noyes, Charles 853 

O'Hara, Lara 854 

Orr, Joseph 685 

Osborne, A 371 

Osborn, Lewis 743 

Osbun, Nathaniel 765 

Owens, Mrs. Jane 854 

Owen, William T 015 

Parker, William E 854 

♦Patten, Charles L 797 

Patten, Benjamin R 743 

Patten, L. L 615 

Patten, Orren 616 

Patten, Dr. Milton 797 

Payne, M. V 373 

Penry, David 933 

♦Penry, John P 934 

Penry, Thomas L 934 

Pettibone, Milo D 365 

♦Peters, Capt. Ebenezer 610 

Peters, Harvey 617 

Peters, Nathan 718 

♦Peters, Wilson 019 

Pettey, Hugh B 798 

Pettit, David 619 

Pfeiffer, John 666 

Phillips, Philip 411 

Phillips. Thomas , 934 

Pittmau, Mrs. Jane M 743 

Plotner, Mrs. Sarah 1001 

Pommert, Christian 744 

Porter, David H 798 

Postles, George H 856 

Prettyman, Cord H 855 

Pretty man, David 855 

I'ugh, Thomas 936 

Pugh, Wesley 936 

Raichley, Lewis F 376 

Ramer, Henry 744 

Ramer, Winfield S 744 

Ranck, Lewis 745 

Randall, John 930 

Randall, Kelsey E". 937 

Randall, M. F 937 

♦Rapp, William C • • 619 

Raub, William L 686 

Rayl, James & 799 

Rayl, John '. 799 

Rayl, Samuel L 020 

Reber, Felix 621 

Redd, Philip O... 884 

Redding, J W 666 

Reed, J. S 021 

Reeser, William 937 

Reid, William II 415 

Reiley, John (3d) 937 

Reiner, (iodfrey 1020 

Reiner, Jacob 1026 

Betierer, David 885 


Retterer, George 960 

Retterer. Jacob 961 

Rhoads, George 006 

Rhoads, Henry 968 

♦Rhoads, Milton H 908 

Rice, E. Melvin 745 

Rice, John 985 

Rider, Harvey 885 

Ridgway, John H 686 

Riley, Ellas 622 

Riley, James B 023 

Riley, John P 622 

Riley, John S 623 

Riley, S. R 856 

Riley, William 856 

Riley, Horace W 667 

Ringer, Jacob C 938 

Rinker, George C 745 

Ritzier, George A 799 

Roads, J. Q 938 

Roberts, J. J 939 

Roberts, Thomas \V 746 

Roberts, Madison 985 

Robinson, Alexander 856 

Robinson, Daniel T 939 

♦Robinson, Thomas M 985 

♦Robinson, William H 968 

Robbins, William 367 

Rowe, George 367 

Rosencrans, Hon. John 985 

Rosencrans, S. F 987 

Roston, Mrs. Catherine 1002 

Roston, Miles 1002 

♦Rubins, Edward H 765 

♦Rubins, Joseph S 766 

Ruehrmund, F. C 023 

Rundle, Mrs. Minerva 401 

Runyan, Noah M 371 

Rupp. S. H 624 

Russell, William A 939 

Russell, William M 940 

Ruthardt, Jacob 021 

♦Rutter, Orsamus 940 

Sager, Benjamin 686 

Sager, Benjamin F 687 

♦Salmon, George E 885 

Sappington, John A 667 

Sargent, Richard 025 

Sawyer, Dr. Charles E 857 

♦Schaft'ner, Henry 625 

♦Schaaf, Jacob A 1026 

♦Schoenlaub, Jacob 020 

Schoenlaub, Jacob J 626 

Schneider, John 025 

Schotte, Henry 688 

Schrote, Jacob 026 

Schweinfurth, George 627 

♦Scofield, Capt. William E 371 

Scofield, Will E 375 

♦Scott, Dr. J.K 857 

♦Scranton, Leroy 858 

♦Scranton, Warner 858 

Seaburn, Jacob 766 

Seckel, Andrew 987 

Seckel, Thomas M 746 

Seckel, Washington 746 

Seiter, Daniel, Sr 961 

Sells, P. C 940 

♦Sharp, Henry II 858 

Sharpless, P. 027 

Sharrock, Timothy 1002 

Shewey, David 747 

Shields, D. A 371 

Short, John 688 

Short, Henry L 688 

Shoots, Barton 776 

Shoots, Landy 770 

Showen, Peter 028 

Shrock, Adam 628 

Shupp, Isaac 028 

Sifritt, Joseph II 689 

♦Simons, II. L 859 

Simons, Mrs. Lydia s.~>9 

Slagle, Jacob 1002 

♦Slagle, Joseph 869 

Slanser, Joseph 800 

Sloan, Wm. B 367 



Smeltzer, Daniel J 800 

-ataith, David 747 

Smith, Isaac 629 

- Smith, James 747 

— -Smith, J.K 667 

♦Smith, John J 747 

-Smith, JohnS 1027 

— -xSmith, Samuel 748 

Smith, S. N 941 

"Smith, Thomas 941 

-Smith, T R 376 

*Smith, William J 748 

Snyder, George 629 

Spelman, E. G 367 

Sprague, Sarah 860 

Sprague, William H 861 

Stahl, B. F 374 

Stallsniitli, William M 886 

Steinhelfer, Christopher 1003 

Stiffler, Alpheus 886 

Stockman, Daniel 1028 

Strelitz, Julius 630 

Strinc, John 1027 

*Sulser, Jacob H 1003 

Suit, Joseph 667 

Sutter, Rev. John J 630 

Sutton, Rev. Jeremiah A 8<>0 

*Sweney, Dr. Robert L 633 

Swinnerton, James 6o4 

Swinnerton, James (deceased) 776 

Taylor, Amos 968 

Tavenner, Addison 886 

Terpany, Charles H 634 

Terry, Chauipness 766 

Thew, Henry 861 

Thew, John W 749 

Thew, Richard 749 

Thew, P. B 635 

Thew, William 750 

Thew, William P 751 

Thomas, Charles E 942 

Thomas, Dr. F. W 635 

Thomas, John H 636 

Thomas, William B 942 

Thompson, Thomas A 969 

Thomasson, Albert 689 

Thomasson, John D 689 

*Thomasson, Richard H 690 

*Titus, Major S. N 777 

*Titus, John C 636 

Tidd, A. M 374 

Toplift', Mrs. Dorcas 861 

*Travis, John B 800 

Treese, Henry 943 

Tristram, Bartholomew 636 

Trumbo, Emanuel 690 

Trumbo, Henry 690 

True, Henry 637 

True, Dr. H. A 416,637 

*Turney, Clark 638 

Turney, W. A 638 

*Uhler, Ira 638 

Ulsh, David 752 

Ulsh, George 752 

Ulsh, Harrison 752 

Ulsh, John 753 

Ulsh, Levi 753 

Ulsh, Samuel 753 

Uncapher, Andrew 801 

Uncapher, Daniel 639 

Uncapher, Edward W 639 

Uncapher, Isaiah 668 

Uncapher, James O 640 

Uncapher, John A 668 

Uncapher, John G 668 

Uncapher, Joseph 640 

Uncapher., Martin V 640 

Uncapher, Thomas J 669 

*Underwood, Benjamin E 753 

Underwood, Elihu F 753 

Vanarsdall, Mrs. Lucy 862 

*Van Fleet, H. T 640, 373 

*Van Houten, Charles 886 


*Vanorsdall, John A 864 

Vaughau, James H i'n 

Virden, George W §62 

Virden, Henry H 863 

Virden, Henry M 863 

Virden, Joshua D 863 

Virden, T. D 863 

Virden, William A 863 

Virden, William J 864 

Waddel, William 1029 

Walters, Daniel 777 

Walters, G. W 777 

Walters, James^C 643 

Wall, Joseph S01 

Wallace, Thomas P 641 

Waples, Eli 864 

Ward, Washington P 943 

*Watkins, Ephraim II 691 

Watkins, Thomas P 644 

Watkins, Watkin 944 

Watkins, Watt 945 

Watson, Cooper K 371 

Weaver, John II 644 

*Weber, Jacob 754 

Weeks, Mrs. Jeannette 755 

*Weeks, O. W 644 

Weir, Samuel 987 

Weisel, Redden S 945 

Weist, Philip 865 

Welch, Solomon B 945 

Weston, David M 801 

Weston, John 802 

Wheat, Almeron 371 

Wick, George J 962 

Wilcox, Hira .1008 

Williams, Andrew M 755 

Williams, Benjamin 645 

Williams, George W 755 

Williams. John J 372 

Wilson, Amos H, 865 

Wilson, Richard 345 

Wilson, Samuel 1029 

Wishek, John H 375 

*Wittred, William 756 

Wittred, William P 756 

Wixtead, John 669 

Wixtead, William 669 

Wolfe, Henry R 969 

Wolfe, Nelson L 969 

Wolford, J. A 645, 375 

Wolford, John G 803 

Wolfinger, Elias 961 

Wolfinger, William 802 

Wood, George S 670 

Wood, F. M 670 

Wood, Hampton 670 

Wood, Isaac M 671 

Wood, Dr. James M 865 

Wood, William B 671 

Wottring, James F 946 

Wottring, L. H 946 

Wrenn, Mrs. Priscilla 1004 

Wright, G. H 646 

Wyatt, David H 1030 

Wyatt Family 1006 

*Wyatt, James B 647' 

Wyatt, John B 946 

Wynn, Charles 947 

Wynn, Edward 947 

*Wynn, Isaac 80S 

Wynn, John 948 

Yake, Daniel 647 

Yake, Jacob 962 

Yake, John J 647 

Yauger, Mrs. Mary 671 

Young, B. G 648, 375 

Young, Gabriel M 948 

Young, Isaac 648 

Zachman, Francis X 1030 

*Zachman, Solomon 649 

Zieg, Christian 887 

Zieg, Justus 887 

Ziegler, Mrs. Lydia 756 




The Northwest Territory. 


When the Northwestern Territory was ceded to the United States 
by Virginia in 1784, it embraced only the territory lying between the 
Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers, and north to the northern limits of the 
United States. It coincided with the area now embraced in the States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that portion of 
Minnesota lying on the east side of the Mississippi River. The United 
States itself at that period extended no farther west than the Mississippi 
River ; but by the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, the western boundary 
of the United States was extended to the Rocky Mountains and the 
Northern Pacific Ocean. The new territory thus added to the National 
domain, and subsequently opened to settlement, has been called the 
" New Northwest," in contradistinction from the old " Northwestern 
Territory. " 

In comparison with the old Northwest this is a territory of vast 
magnitude. It includes an area of 1,887,850 square miles ; being greater 
in extent than the united areas of all the Middle and Southern States, 
including Texas. Out of this magnificent territory have been erected 
eleven sovereign States and eight Territories, with an aggregate popula- 
tion, at the present time, of 13,000,000 inhabitants, or nearly one third of 
the entire population of the United States. 

Its lakes are fresh-water seas, and the larger rivers of the continent 
flow for a thousand miles through its rich alluvial valleys and far- 
stretching prairies, more acres of which are arable and productive of the 
highest percentage of the cereals than of any other area of like extent 
on the globe. 

For the last twenty years the increase of population in the North- 
west has been about as three to one in any other portion of the United 




In the year 1541, DeSoto first saw the Great West in the New 
World. He, however, penetrated no farther north than the 35th parallel 
of latitude. The expedition resulted in his death and that of more than 
half his army, the remainder of whom found their way to Cuba, thence 
to Spain, in a famished and demoralized condition. DeSoto founded no 
settlements, produced no results, and left no traces, unless it were that 
he awakened the hostility of the red man against the white man, and 
disheartened such as might desire to follow up the career of discovery 
for better purposes. The French nation were eager and ready to seize 
upon any news from this extensive domain, and were the first to profit by 
DeSoto's defeat. Yet it was more than a century before any adventurer 
took advantage of these discoveries. 

In 1616, four years before the pilgrims " moored their bark on the 
wild New England shore," Le Caron, a French Franciscan, had pene- 
trated through the Iroquois and Wyandots (Hurons) to the streams which 
run into Lake Huron ; and in 1634, two Jesuit missionaries founded the 
first mission among the lake tribes. It was just one hundred years from 
the discovery of the Mississippi by DeSoto (1541) until the Canadian 
envoys met the savage nations of the Northwest at the Falls of St. Mary, 
below the outlet of Lake Superior. This visit led to no permanent 
result; yet it was not until 1659 that any of the adventurous fur traders 
attempted to spend a Winter in the frozen wilds about the great lakes, 
nor was it until 1660 that a station was established upon their borders by 
Mesnard, who perished in the woods a few months after. In 1665, Claude 
Allouez built the earliest lasting habitation of the white man among the 
Indians of the Northwest. In 1668, Claude Dablon and James Marquette 
founded the mission of Sault Ste. Marie at the Falls of St. Mary, and two 
years afterward, Nicholas Perrot, as agent for M. Talon, Governor Gen- 
eral of Canada, explored Lake Illinois (Michigan) as far south as the 
present City of Chicago, and invited the Indian nations tq meet him at a 
grand council at Sault Ste. Marie the following Spring, where they were 
taken under the protection of the king, and formal possession was taken 
of the Northwest. This same year Marquette established a mission at 
Point St. Ignatius, where was founded the old town of Michillimackinac. 
•'During M. Talon's explorations and Marquette's residence at St. 
Ignatius, they learned of a great river away to the west, and fancied 
— as all others did then — that' upon its fertile banks whole tribes of God's, 
children resided, to whom the sound of the Gospel had never come. 
Filled with a wish to go and preach to them, and in compliance with a 


request of M. Talon, who earnestly desired to extend the domain of his 
king, and to ascertain whether the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico 
or the Pacific Ocean, Marquette with Joliet, as commander of the expe- 
dition, prepared for the undertaking. 

On the 13th of May, 1673, the explorers, accompanied by five assist- 
ant French Canadians, set out from Mackinaw on their daring voyage of 
discovery. The Indians, who gathered to witness their departure, were 
astonished at the boldness of the undertaking, and endeavored to dissuade 
them from their purpose by representing the tribes on the Mississippi as 
exceedingly savage and cruel, and the river itself as full of all sorts of 
frightful monsters ready to swallow them and their canoes together. But, 
nothing daunted by these terrific descriptions, Marquette told them he 
was willing not only to encounter all the perils of the unknown region 
they were about to explore, but to lay down his life in a cause in which 
the salvation of souls was involved ; and having prayed together they 
separated. Coasting along the northern shore of Lake Michigan, the 
adventurers entered Green Bay, and passed thence up the Fox River and 
Lake Winnebago to a village of the Miamis and Kickapoos. Here Mar- 
quette was delighted to find a beautiful cross planted in the middle of the 
town ornamented with white skins, red girdles and bows and arrows, 
which these good people had offered to the Great Manitou, or God, to 
thank him for the pity he had bestowed on them during the Winter in 
giving them an abundant " chase." This was the farthest outpost to 
which Dablon and Allouez had extended their missionary labors the 
year previous. Here Marquette drank mineral waters and was instructed 
in the secret of a root which cures the bite of the venomous rattlesnake. 
He assembled the chiefs and old men of the village, and, pointing to 
Joliet, said: " My friend is an envoy of France, to discover new coun- 
tries, and I am an ambassador from God to enlighten them with the truths 
of the Gospel." Two Miami guides were here furnished to conduct 
them to the Wisconsin River, and they set out from the Indian village on 
the 10th of June, amidst a great crowd of natives who had assembled to 
witness their departure into a region where no white man had ever yet 
ventured. The guides, having conducted them across the portage, 
returned. The explorers launched their canoes upon the Wisconsin, 
which they descended to the Mississippi and proceeded down its unknown 
waters. What emotions must have swelled their breasts as they struck 
out into the broadening current and became conscious that they were 
now upon the bosom of ths Father of Waters. The mystery was about 
to be lifted from the long-sought river. The scenery in that locality is 
beautiful, and on that delightful seventeenth of June must have been 
clad in all its primeval loveliness as it had been adorned by the hand of 



Nature. Drifting rapidly, it is said that the bold bluffs on either hand 
" reminded them of the castled shores of their own beautiful rivers of 
France." By-and-by, as they drifted along, great herds of buffalo appeared 
on the banks. On going to the heads of the valley they could see a 
country of the greatest beauty and fertility, apparently destitute of inhab- 
itants yet presenting the appearance of extensive manors, under the fas- 
tidious cultivation of lordly proprietors. 


On June 25, they went ashore and found some fresh traces of men upon 
the sand, and a path which led to the prairie. The men remained in the 
boat, and Marquette and Joliet followed the path till they discovered a 
village on the banks of a river, and two other villages on a hill, within a 
half league of the first, inhabited by Indians. They were received most 
hospitably by these natives, who had never before seen a white person. 
After remaining a few days they re-embarked and descended the river to 
about latitude 33°, where they found a village of the Arkansas, and being 
satisfied that the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, turned their course 


up the river, and ascending the stream to the mouth of the Illinois, 
rowed up that stream to its source, and procured guides from that point 
to the lakes. " Nowhere on this journey," says Marquette, " did we see 
such grounds, meadows, woods, stags, buffaloes, deer, wildcats, bustards, 
swans, ducks, parroquets, and even beavers, as on the Illinois River." 
The party, without loss or injury, reached Green Bay in September, and 
reported their discovery — one of the most important of the age, but of 
which no record was preserved save Marquette's, Joliet losing his by 
the upsetting of his canoe on his way to Quebec. Afterward Marquette 
returned to the Illinois Indians by their request, and ministered to them 
until 1675. On the 18th of May, in that year, as he was passing the 
mouth of a stream — going with his boatmen up Lake Michigan — he asked 
to land at its mouth and celebrate Mass. Leaving his men with the canoe, 
he retired a short distance and began his devotions. As much time 
passed and he did not return, his men went in search of him, and found 
him upon his knees, dead. He had peacefully passed away while at 
prayer. He was buried at this spot. Charlevoix, who visited the place 
fifty years after, found the waters had retreated from the grave, leaving 
the beloved missionary to repose in peace. The river has since been 
called Marquette. 

While Marquette and his companions were pursuing their labors in 
the West, two men, differing widely from him and each other, were pre- 
paring to follow in his footsteps and perfect the discoveries so well begun 
by him. These were Robert de La Salle and Louis Hennepin. 

After La Salle's return from the discovery of the Ohio River (see 
the narrative elsewhere), he established himself again among the French 
trading posts in Canada. Here he mused long upon the pet project of 
those ages — a short way to China and the East, and was busily planning an 
expedition up the great lakes, and so across the continent to the Pacific, 
when Marquette returned from the Mississippi. At once the vigorous mind 
of LaSalle received from his and his companions' stories the idea that by fol- 
lowing the Great River northward, or by turning up some of the numerous 
western tributaries, the object could easily be gained. He applied to 
Frontenac, Governor General of Canada, and laid before him the plan, 
dim but gigantic. Frontenac entered warmly into his plans, and saw that 
LaSalle's idea to connect the great lakes by a chain of forts with the Gulf 
of Mexico would bind the country so wonderfully together, give un- 
measured power to France, and glory to himself, under whose adminis- 
tration he earnestly hoped all would be realized. 

LaSalle now repaired to France, laid his plans before the King, who 
warmly approved of them, and made him a Chevalier. He also received 
from all the noblemen the warmest wishes for his success. The Chev- 



alier returned to Canada, and busily entered upon his work. He at 
once rebuilt Fort Frontenac and constructed the first ship to sail on 
these fresh-water seas. On the 7th of August, 1679, having been joined 
by Hennepin, he began his voyage in the Griffin up Lake Erie. He 
passed over this lake, through the straits beyond, up Lake St. Clair and 
into Huron. In this lake they encountered heavy storms. They were 
some time at Michillimackinac, where LaSalle founded a, fort, and passed 
on to Green Bay, the " Baie des Puans " of the French, where he found 
a large quantity of furs collected for him. He loaded the Griffin with 
these, and placing her under the care of a pilot and fourteen sailors, 


started her on her return voyage. The vessel was never afterward heard 
of. He remained about these parts until early in the Winter, when, hear- 
ing nothing from the Griffin, he collected all the men — thirty working 
men and three monks — and started again upon his great undertaking. 

By a short portage they passed to the Illinois or Kankakee, called by 
the Indians, "Theakeke," zvolf, because of the tribes of Indians called 
by that name, commonly known as the Maliingans, dwelling there. The 
French pronounced it Kiakiki, which became corrupted to Kankakee. 
"Falling down the said river by easy journeys, the better to observe the 
country," about the last of December they reached a village of the Illi- 
nois Indians, containing some five hundred cabins, but at that moment 


no inhabitants. The Seur de LaSalle being in want of some breadstuff's, 
took advantage of the absence of the Indians to help himself to a suffi- 
ciency of maize, large quantities of which he found concealed in holes 
under the wigwams. This village was situated near the present village 
of Utica in LaSalle County, Illinois. The corn being securely stored, 
the voyagers again betook themselves to the stream, and toward evening, 
on the 4th day of January, 1680, they came into a lake which must have 
been the lake of Peoria. This was called by the Indians Pim-i-te-wi, that 
is, a place where there are many fat beasts. Here the natives were met 
with in large numbers, but they were gentle and kind, and having spent 
some time with them, LaSalle determined to erect another fort in that 
place, for he had heard rumors that some of the adjoining tribes were 
trying to disturb the good feeling which existed, and some of his men 
were disposed to complain, owing to the hardships and perils of the travel. 
He called this fort " Crevecoeur'''' (broken-heart), a name expressive of the 
very natural sorrow and anxiety which the pretty certain loss of his ship, 
Griffin, and his consequent impoverishment, the danger of hostility on the 
part of the Indians, and of mutiny among his own men, might well cause 
him. His fears were not entirely groundless. At one time poison was 
placed in his food, but fortunately was discovered. 

While building this fort, the Winter wore away, the prairies began to 
look green, and LaSalle, despairing of any reinforcements, concluded to 
return to Canada, raise new means and new men, and embark anew in 
the enterprise. For this purpose he made Hennepin the leader of a party 
to explore the head waters of the Mississippi, and he set out on his jour- 
ney. This journey was accomplished with the aid of a few persons, and 
was successfully made, though over an almost unknown route, and in a 
bad season of the year. He safely reached Canada, and set out again for 
the object of his search. 

Hennepin and his party left Fort Crevecoeur on the last of February, 
1680. When LaSalle reached this place on his return expedition, he 
found the fort entirely deserted, and he was obliged to return again to 
Canada. He embarked the third time, and succeeded. Seven days after 
leaving the fort, Hennepin reached the Mississippi, and paddling up the 
icy stream as best he could, reached no higher than the Wisconsin River 
by the 11th of April. Here he and his followers were taken prisoners by a 
band of Northern Indians, who treated them with great kindness. Hen- 
nepin's comrades were Anthony Auguel and Michael Ako. On this voy- 
age they found several beautiful lakes, and " saw some charming prairies." 
Their captors were the Isaute or Sauteurs, Chippewas, a tribe of the Sioux 
nation, who took them up the river until about the first of May, when 
they reached some falls, which Hennepin christened Falls of St. Anthony 



in honor of his patron saint. Here they took the land, and traveling 
nearly two hundred miles to the northwest, brought them to their villages. 
Here they were kept about three months, were treated kindly by their 
captors, and at the end of that time, were met by a band of Frenchmen, 


headed by one Seur de Luth, who, in pursuit of trade and game, had pene- 
trated thus far by the route of Lake Superior ; and with these fellow- 
countrymen Hennepin and his companions were allowed to return to the 
borders of civilized life in November, 1680, just after LaSalle had 
returned to the wilderness on his second trip. Hennepin soon after went 
to France, where he published an account of his adventures. 



The Mississippi was first discovered by De Soto in April, 1541, in his 
vain endeavor to find gold and precious gems. In the following Spring, 
De Soto, weary with hope long deferred, and worn out with his wander- 
ings, fell a victim to disease, and on the 21st of May died. His followers, 
reduced by fatigue and disease to less than three hundred men, wandered 
about the country nearly a year, in the vain endeavor to rescue them- 
selves by land, and finally constructed seven small vessels, called brig- 
antines, in which they embarked, and descending the river, supposing it 
would lead them to the sea, in July they came to the sea (Gulf of 
Mexico), and by September reached the Island of Cuba. 

They were the first to see the great outlet of the Mississippi; but, 
being so weary and discouraged, made no attempt to claim the country, 
and hardly had an intelligent idea of what they had passed through. 

To La Salle, the intrepid explorer, belongs the honor of giving the 
first account of the mouths of the river. His great desire was to possess 
this entire country for his king, and in January, 1682, he and his band of 
explorers left the shores of Lake Michigan on their third attempt, crossed 
the Portage, passed down the Illinois River, and on the 6th of February 
reached the banks of the Mississippi. 

On the 13th they commenced their downward course, which they 
pursued with but one interruption, until upon the 6th of March they dis- 
covered the three great passages by which the river discharges its waters 
into the gulf. La Salle thus narrates the event : 

" We landed on the bank of the most western channel, about three 
leagues (nine miles) from its mouth. On the seventh, M. de La Salle 
went to reconnoiter the shores of the neighboring sea, and M. de Tonti 
meanwhile examined the great middle channel. They found the main 
outlets beautiful, large and deep. On the eighth we reascended the river, 
a little above its confluence with the sea, to find a dry place beyond the 
reach of inundations. The elevation of the North Pole was here about 
twenty-seven degrees. Here we prepared a column and a cross, and to 
the column were affixed the arms of France with this inscription : 

" Louis Le Grand, Roi de France et de Navarre, regne ; Le neuvieme April, 1682." 

The whole party, under arms, chanted the Te Deum, and then, after 
a salute and cries of "Vive le Roi" the column was erected by M. de 
La Salle, who, standing near it, proclaimed in a loud voice the authority of 
the King of France. La Salle returned and laid the foundations of the Mis- 
sissippi settlements in Illinois ; thence he proceeded to France, where 
another expedition was fitted out, of which he was commander, and in two 
succeeding voyages failed to find the outlet of the river by sailing along 
the shore of the gulf. On the third voyage he was killed, through the 



treachery of his followers, and the object of his expeditions was not 
accomplished until 1609, when D'Iberville, under the authority of the 
crown, discovered, on the second of March, by way of the sea, the mouth 
of the " Hidden River." This majestic stream was called by the natives 
" Malhoucliia" and by the Spaniards, " la Palissade" from the great 

11 / 



number of trees about its mouth. After traversing the several outlets, 
and satisfying himself as to its certainty, he erected a fort near its western 
outlet, and returned to France. 

An avenue of trade was now opened out which was fully improved. 
In 1718, New Orleans was laid out and settled by some European colo- 
nists. In 1762, the colony was made over to Spain, to be regained by 
France under the consulate of Napoleon. In 1803, it was purchased by 


the United States for the sum of fifteen million dollars, and the territory 
of Louisiana and commerce of the Mississippi River came under the 
charge of the United States. Although LaSalle's labors ended in defeat 
and death, he had not worked and suffered in vain. He had thrown 
open to France and the world an immense and most valuable country ; 
had established several ports, and laid the foundations of more than one 
settlement there. " Peoria, Kaskaskia and Cahokia, are to this day monu- 
ments of LaSalle's labors ; for, though he had founded neither of them 
(unless Peoria, which was built nearly upon the site of Fort Crevecoeur,) 
it was by those whom he led into the West that these places were 
peopled and civilized. He was, if not the discoverer, the first settler of 
the Mississippi Valley, and as such deserves to be known and honored." 
The French early improved the opening made for them. Before the 
year 1698, the Rev. Father Gravier began a mission among the Illinois, 
and founded Kaskaskia. For some time this was merely a missionary 
station, where none but natives resided, it being one of three such vil- 
lages, the other two being Cahokia and Peoria. What is known of 
these missions is learned from a letter written by Father Gabriel Marest, 
dated " Aux Cascaskias, autrement dit de lTmmaculate Conception de 
la Sainte Vierge, le 9 Novembre, 1712." Soon after the founding of 
Kaskaskia, the missionary, Pinet, gathered a flock at Cahokia, while 
Peoria arose near the ruins of Fort Crevecoeur. This must have been 
about the year 1700. The post at Vincennes on the Oubache river, 
(pronounced Wa-ba, meaning summer cloud moving siviftly') was estab- 
lished in 1702, according to the best authorities.* It is altogether prob- 
able that on LaSalle's last trip he established the stations at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia. In July, 1701, the foundations of Fort Ponchartrain 
were laid by De la Motte Cadillac on the Detroit River. These sta- 
tions, with those established further north, were the earliest attempts to 
occupy the Northwest Territory. At the same time efforts were being 
made to occupy the Southwest, which finally culminated in the settle- 
ment and founding of the City of New Orleans by a colony from England 
in 1718. This was mainly accomplished through the efforts of the 
famous Mississippi Company, established by the notorious John Law, 
who so quickly arose into prominence in France, and who with his 
scheme so quickly and so ignominiously passed away. 

From the time of the founding of these stations for fifty years the 
French nation were engrossed with the settlement of the lower Missis- 
sippi, and the Avar with the Chicasaws, who had, in revenge for repeated 

* There is considerable dispute about this date, some asserting it was founded as late as 1742. When 
the new court house at Vincennes was erected, all authorities on the subject were carefully examined, and 
1702 fixed upon as the correct date. It was accordingly engraved on the corner-stone of the court house. 


injuries, cut off the entire colony at Natchez. Although the company 
did little for Louisiana, as the entire West was then called, yet it opened 
the trade through the Mississippi River, and started the raising of grains 
indigenous to that climate. Until the year 1750, but little is known of 
the settlements in the Northwest, as it was not until this time that the 
attention of the English was called to the occupation of this portion of the 
New World, which they then supposed they owned. Vivier, a missionary 
among the Illinois, writing from " Aux Illinois," six leagues from Fort 
Chartres, June 8, 1750, says : " We have here whites, negroes and 
Indians, to say nothing of cross-breeds. There are five French villages, 
and three villages of the natives, within a space of twenty-one leagues 
situated between the Mississippi and another river called the Karkadaid 
(Kaskaskias). In the five French villages are, perhaps, eleven hundred 
whites, three hundred blacks and some sixty red slaves or savages. The 
three Illinois towns do not contain more than eight hundred souls all 
Id. Most of the French till the soil; they raise wheat, cattle, pigs and 
horses, and live like princes. Three times as much is produced as can 
be consumed ; and great quantities of grain and flour are sent to New 
Orleans." This city was now the seaport town of the Northwest, and 
save in the extreme northern part, where only furs and copper ore were 
found, almost all the products of the country found their way to France 
by the mouth of the Father of Waters. In another letter, dated Novem- 
ber 7, 1750, this same priest says : " For fifteen leagues above the 
mouth of the Mississippi one sees no dwellings, the ground being too low 
to be habitable. Thence to New Orleans, the lands are only partially 
occupied. New Orleans contains black, white and red, not more, I 
think, than twelve hundred persons. To this point come all lumber, 
bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins and bear's grease ; and above all, pork 
and flour from the Illinois. These things create some commerce, as forty 
vessels and more have come hither this year. Above New Orleans, 
plantations are again met with ; the most considerable is a colony of 
Germans, some ten leagues up the river. At Point Coupee, thirty-five 
leagues above the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, within five 
or six leagues, are not less than sixty habitations. Fifty leagues farther 
up is the Natchez post, where we have a garrison, who are kept prisoners 
through fear of the Chickasaws. Here and at Point Coupee, they raise 
excellent tobacco. Another hundred leagues brings us to the Arkansas, 
where we have also a fort and a garrison for the benefit of the river 
traders. * * * From the Arkansas to the Illinois, nearly five hundred 
leagues, there is not a settlement. There should be, however, a fort at 
the Oubache (Ohio), the only path by which the English can reach the 
Mississippi. In the Illinois country are numberless mines, but no one to 



work them as they deserve." Father Marest, writing from the post at 
Vincennes in 181 2, makes the same observation. Vivier also says : " Some 
individuals dig lead near the surface and supply the Indians and Canada. 
Two Spaniards now here, who claim to be adepts, say that our mines are 
like those of Mexico, and that if we would dig deeper, we should find 
silver under the lead ; and at any rate the lead is excellent. There is also 
in this country, beyond doubt, copper ore, as from time to time large 
pieces are found in the streams." 


At the close of the year 1750, the French occupied, in addition to the 
lower Mississippi posts and those in Illinois, one at Du Quesne, one at 
the Mauinee in the country of the Miamis, and one at Sandusky in what 
may be termed the Ohio Valley. In the northern part of the Northwest 
they had stations at St. Joseph's on the St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan, 
at Fort Ponchartrain (Detroit), at Michillimackanac or Massillimacanac, 
Fox River of Green Bay, and at Sault Ste. Marie. The fondest dreams of 
LaSalle were now fully realized. The French alone were possessors of 
this vast realm, basing their claim on discovery and settlement. Another 
nation, however, was now turning its attention to this extensive country, 


and hearing of its wealth, began to lay plans for occupying it and for 
securing the great profits arising therefrom. 

The French, however, had another claim to this country, namely, the 


This " Beautiful" river was discovered by Robert Cavalier de La- 
Salle in 1669, four years before the discovery of the Mississippi by Joliet 
and Marquette. 

While LaSalle was at his trading post on the St. Lawrence, he found 
leisure to study nine Indian dialects, the chief of which was the Iroquois. 
He not only desired to facilitate his intercourse in trade, but he longed 
to travel and explore the unknown regions of the West. An incident 
soon occurred which decided him to fit out an exploring expedition. 

While conversing with some Senecas, he learned of a river called the 
Ohio, which rose in their country and flowed to the sea, but at such a 
distance that it required eight months to reach its mouth. In this state- 
ment the Mississippi and its tributaries were considered as one stream. 
LaSalle believing, as most of the French at that period did, that the great 
rivers flowing west emptied into the Sea of California, was anxious to 
embark in the enterprise of discovering a route across the continent to 
the commerce of China and Japan. 

He repaired at once to Quebec to obtain the approval of the Gov- 
ernor. His eloquent appeal prevailed. The Governor and the Intendant, 
Talon, issued letters patent authorizing the enterprise, but made no pro- 
vision to defray the expenses. At this juncture the seminary of St. Sul- 
pice decided to send out missionaries in connection with the expedition, 
and LaSalle offering to sell his improvements at LaChine to raise money, 
the offer was accepted by the Superior, and two thousand eight hundred 
dollars were raised, with which LaSalle purchased four canoes and the 
necessary supplies for the outfit. 

On the 6th of July, 1669, the party, numbering twenty-four persons, 
embarked in seven canoes on the St. Lawrence ; two additional canoes 
carried the Indian guides. In three days they were gliding over the 
bosom of Lake Ontario. Their guides conducted them directly to the 
Seneca village on the bank of the Genesee, in the vicinity of the present 
City of Rochester, New York. Here they expected to procure guides to 
conduct them to the Ohio, but in this they were disappointed. 

The Indians seemed unfriendly to the enterprise. LaSalle suspected 
that the Jesuits had prejudiced their minds against his plans. After 
waiting a month in the hope of gaining their object, they met an Indian 



from the Iroquois colony at the head of Lake Ontario, who assured them 
that they could there find guides, and offered to conduct them thence. 

On their way they passed the mouth of the Niagara River, when they 
heard for the first time the distant thunder of the cataract. Arriving 


among the Iroquois, they met with a friendly reception, and learned 
from a Shawanee prisoner that they could reach the Ohio in six weeks. 
Delighted with the unexpected good fortune, they made ready to resume 
their journey ; but just as they were about to start they heard of the 
arrival of two Frenchmen in a neighboring village. One of them proved 
to be Louis Joliet, afterwards famous as an explorer in the West. Es 


had been sent by the Canadian Government to explore the copper mines 
on Lake Superior, but had failed, and was on his way back to Quebec. 
He gave the missionaries a map of the country he had explored in the 
lake region, together with an account of the condition of the Indians in 
that quarter. This induced the priests to determine on leaving the 
expedition and going to Lake Superior. LaSalle warned them that the 
Jesuits were probably occupying that field, and that they would meet 
with a cold reception. Nevertheless they persisted in their purpose, and 
after worship on the lake shore, parted from LaSalle. On arriving at 
Lake Superior, they found, as LaSalle had predicted, the Jesuit Fathers, 
Marquette and Dablon, occupying the field. 

These zealous disciples of Loyola informed them that they wanted 
no assistance from St. Sulpice, nor from those who made him their patron 
saint ; and thus repulsed, they returned to Montreal the following June 
without having made a single discovery or converted a single Indian. 

After parting with the priests, LaSalle went to the chief Iroquois 
village at Onondaga, where he obtained guides, and passing thence to a 
tributary of the Ohio south of Lake Erie, he descended the latter as far 
as the falls at Louisville. Thus was the Ohio discovered by LaSalle, the 
persevering and successful French explorer of the West, in 1669. 

The account of the latter part of his journey is found in an anony- 
mous paper, which purports to have been taken from the lips of LaSalle 
himself during a subsequent visit to Paris. In a letter written to Count 
Frontenac in 1667, shortly after the discovery, he himself says that he 
discovered the Ohio and descended it to the falls. This was regarded as 
an indisputable fact by the French authorities, who claimed the Ohio 
Valley upon another ground. When Washington was sent by the colony 
of Virginia in 1753, to demand of Gordeur de St. Pierre why the French 
had built a fort on the Monongahela, the haughty commandant at Quebec 
replied : " We claim the country on the Ohio by virtue of the discoveries 
of LaSalle, and will not give it up to the English. Our orders are to 
make prisoners of every Englishman found trading in the Ohio Valley." 


When the new year of 1750 broke in upon the Father of Waters 
and the Great Northwest, all. was still wild save at the French posts 
already described. In 1749, when the English first began to think seri- 
ously about sending men into the West, the greater portion of the States 
of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were yet 
under the dominion of the red men. The English knew, however, pretty 


conclusively of the nature of the wealth of these wilds. As early as 
1710, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, had commenced movements to 
secure the country west of the Alleghenies to the English crown. In 
Pennsylvania, Governor Keith and James Logan, secretary of the prov- 
ince, from 1719 to 1731, represented to the powers of England the neces- 
sity of securing the Western lands. Nothing was done, however, by that 
power save to take some diplomatic steps to secure the claims of Britain 
to this unexplored wilderness. 

England had from the outset claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
on the ground that the discovery of the seacoast and its possession was a 
discovery and possession of the country, and, as is well known, her grants 
to the colonies extended " from sea to sea." This was not all her claim. 
She had purchased from the Indian tribes large tracts of land. This lat- 
ter was also a strong argument. As early as 1684, Lord H oward, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, held a treaty with the six nations. These were the 
great Northern Confederacy, and comprised at first the Mohawks, Onei- 
das, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Afterward the Tuscaroras were 
taken into the confederacy, and it became known as the Six Nations. 
They came under the protection of the mother country, and again in 
1701, they repeated the agreement, and in September, 1726, a formal deed 
was drawn up and signed by the chiefs. The validity of this claim has 
often been disputed, but never successfully. In 1744, a purchase was 
made at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, of certain lands within the " Colony of 
Virginia," for which the Indians received .£200 in gold and a like sum in 
goods, with a promise that, as settlements increased, more should be paid. 
The Commissioners from Virginia were Colonel Thomas Lee and Colonel 
William Beverly. As settlements extended, the promise of more pay was 
called to mind, and Mr. Conrad Weiser was sent across the mountains with 
presents to appease the savages. Col. Lee, and some Virginians accompa- 
nied him with the intention of sounding the Indians upon their feelings 
regarding the English. They were not satisfied with their treatment, 
and plainly told the Commissioners why. The English did not desire the 
cultivation of the country, but the monopoly of the Indian trade. In 
1748, the Ohio Company was formed, and petitioned the king for a grant 
of land beyond the Alleghenies. This was granted, and the government 
of Virginia was ordered to grant to them a half million acres, two hun- 
dred thousand of which were to be located at once. Upon the 12th of 
June, 1749, 800,000 acres from the line of Canada north and west was 
made to the Loyal Company, and on the 29th of October, 1751, 100,000 
acres were given to the Greenbriar Company. All this time the French 
were not idle. They saw that, should the British gain a foothold in the 
West, especially upon the Ohio, they might not only prevent the French 


settling upon it, but in time would come to the lower posts and so gain 
possession of the whole country. Upon the 10th of May, 1774, Vaud- 
reuil, Governor of Canada and the French possessions, well knowing the 
consequences that must arise from allowing the English to build trading- 
posts in the Northwest, seized some of their frontier posts, and to further 
secure the claim of the French to the West, he, in 1749, sent Louis Cel- 
eron with a party of soldiers to plant along the Ohio River, in the mounds 
and at the mouths of its principal tributaries, plates of lead, on which 
were inscribed the claims of Fiance. These were heard of in 1752, and 
within the memory of residents now living along the " Oyo," as the 
beautiful river was called by the French. One of these plates was found 
with the inscription partly defaced. It bears date August 10, 1749, and 
a copy of the inscription with particular account of the discovery of the 
plate, was sent by DeWitt Clinton to the American Antiquarian Society, 
among whose journals it may now be found.* These measures did not, 
however, deter the English from going on with their explorations, and 
though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was gathering, and 
it was only a question of time when the storm would burst upon the 
frontier settlements. In 1750, Christopher Gist was sent by the Ohio 
Company to examine its lands. He went to a village of the Twigtwees, 
on the Miami, about one hundred and fifty miles above its mouth. He 
afterward spoke of it as very populous. From there he went down 
the Ohio River nearly to the falls at the present City of Louisville, 
and in November he commenced a survey of the Company's lands. Dur- 
ing the Winter, General Andrew Lewis performed a similar work for the 
Greenbriar Company. Meanwhile the French were busy in preparing 
their forts for defense, and in opening roads, and also sent a small party 
of soldiers to keep the Ohio clear. This party, having heard of the Eng- 
lish post on the Miami River, early in 1652, assisted by the Ottawas and 
Chippewas, attacked it, and, after a severe battle, in which fourteen of 
the natives were killed and others wounded, captured the garrison. 
(They were probably garrisoned in a block house). The traders were 
carried away to Canada, and one account says several were burned. This 
fort or post was called by the English Pickawillany. A memorial of the 
king's ministers refers to it as " Pickawillanes, in the center of the terri- 
tory between the Ohio and the Wabash. The name is probably some 
variation of Pickaway or Picqua in 1773, written by Rev. David Jones 

* The following is a translation of the inscription on the plate: "In the year 1749. reign of Louis XV., 
King of France, we, Celeron, commandant of a detachment by Monsieur the Marquis of Gallisoniere, com- 
mander-in-chief of New France, to establish tranquility in certain Indian villages of these cantons, have 
burled this plate at the confluence of the Toradakoin, this twenty- ninth of July, near the river Ohio, otherwise 
Beautiful River, as a monument of renewal of possession which we have taken of the said river, and all its 
tributaries; inasmuch as the preceding Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maintained it by their arms and 
treaties; especially by those of Ryswick, Utrecht, and Aix La Chapelle." 


This was the first blood shed between the French and English, and 
occurred near the present City of Piqua, Ohio, or at least at a point about 
forty-seven miles north of Dayton. Each nation became now more inter- 
ested in the progress of events in the Northwest. The English deter- 
mined to purchase from the Indians a title to the lands they wished to 
occupy, and Messrs. Fry (afterward Commander-in-chief over Washing- 
ton at the commencement of the French War of 1775-1763), Loraax and 
Patton were sent in the Spring of 1752 to hold a conference with the 
natives at Logstown to learn what they objected to in the treaty of Lan- 
caster already noticed, and to settle all difficulties. On the 9th of June, 
these Commissioners met the red men at Logstown, a little village on the 
north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles below the site of Pitts- 
burgh. Here had been a trading point for many years, but it was aban- 
doned by the Indians in 1750. At first the Indians declined to recognize 
the treaty of Lancaster, but, the Commissioners taking aside Montour, 
the interpreter, who was a son of the famous Catharine Montour, and a 
chief among the six nations, induced him to use his influence in their 
favor. This he did, and upon the 13th of June they all united in signing 
a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in its full extent, consenting to a 
settlement of the southeast of the Ohio, and guaranteeing that it should 
not be disturbed by them. These were the means used to obtain the first 
treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley. 

Meanwhile the powers beyond the sea were trying to out-mano3uvre 
each other, and were professing to be at peace. The English generally 
outwitted the Indians, and failed in many instances to fulfill their con- 
tracts. They thereby gained the ill-will of the red men, and further 
increased the feeling by failing to provide them with arms and ammuni- 
tion. Said an old chief, at Easton, in 1758 : " The Indians on the Ohio 
left you because of your own fault. When we heard the French were 
coming, we asked you for help and arms, but we did not get them. The 
French came, they treated us kindly, and gained our affections. The 
Governor of Virginia settled on our lands for his own benefit, and, when 
we wanted help, forsook us." 

At the beginning of 1653, the English thought they had secured by 
title the lands in the West, but the French had quietly gathered cannon 
and military stores to be in readiness for the expected blow. The Eng- 
lish made other attempts to ratify these existing treaties, but not until 
the Summer could the Indians be gathered together to discuss the plans 
of the French. They had sent messages to the French, warning them 
away ; but they replied that they intended to complete the chain of forts 
already begun, and would not abandon the field. 

Soon after this, no satisfaction being obtained from the Ohio regard- 


ing the positions and purposes of the French, Governor Dinwiddie of 
Virginia determined to send to them another messenger and learn from 
them, if possible, their intentions. For this purpose he selected a young 
man, a surveyor, who, at the early age of nineteen, had received the rank 
of major, and who was thoroughly posted regarding frontier life. This 
personage was no other than the illustrious George Washington, who then 
held considerable interest in Western lands. He was at this time just 
twenty-two years of age. Taking Gist as his guide, the two, accompanied 
by four servitors, set out on their perilous march. They left Will's 
Creek on the 10th of November, 1753, and on the 22d reached the Monon- 
gahela, about ten miles above the fork. From there they went to 
Logstown, where Washington had a long conference with the chiefs of 
the Six Nations. From them he learned the condition of the French, and 
also heard of their determination not to come down the river till the fol- 
lowing Spring. The Indians were non-committal, as they were afraid to 
turn either way, and, as far as they could, desired to remain neutral. 
Washington, finding nothing could be done with them, went on to 
Venango, an old Indian town at the mouth of French Creek. Here the 
French had a fort, called Fort Machault. Through the rum and flattery 
of the French, he nearly lost all his Indian followers. Finding nothing 
of importance here, he pursued his way amid great privations, and on the 
11th of December reached the fort at the head of French Creek. Here 
he delivered Governor Dinwiddie's letter, received his answer, took his 
observations, and on the 16th set out upon his return journey with no one 
but Gist, his guide, and a few Indians who still remained true to him, 
notwithstanding the endeavors of the French to retain them. Their 
homeward journey was one of great peril and suffering from the cold, yet 
they reached home in safety on the 6th of January, 1754. 

From the letter of St. Pierre, commander of the French fort, sent by 
Washington to Governor Dinwicldie, it was learned that the French would 
not give up without a struggle. Active preparations were at once made 
in all the English colonies for the coming conflict, while the French 
finished the fort at Venango and strengthened their lines of fortifications, 
and gathered their forces to be in readiness. 

The Old Dominion was all alive. Virginia was the center of great 
activities ; volunteers were called for, and from all the neighboring 
colonies men rallied to the conflict, and everywhere along the Potomac 
men were enlisting under the Governor's proclamation — which promised 
two hundred thousand acres on the Ohio. Along this river they were 
gathering as far as Will's Creek, and far beyond this point, whither Trent 
had come for assistance for his little band of forty-one men, who were 


working away in hunger and want, to fortify that point at the fork of 
the Ohio, to which both parties were looking with deep interest. 

" The first birds of Spring filled the air with their song ; the swift 
river rolled by the Allegheny hillsides, swollen by the melting snows of 
Spring and the April showers. The leaves were appearing ; a few Indian 
scouts were seen, but no enemy seemed near at hand ; and all was so quiet, 
that Frazier, an old Indian scout and trader, who had been left by Trent 
in command, ventured to his home at the mouth of Turtle Creek, ten 
miles up the Monongahela. But, though all was so quiet in that wilder- 
ness, keen eyes had seen the low intrenchment rising at the fork, and 
swift feet had borne the news of it up the river ; and upon the morning 
of the 17th of April, Ensign Ward, who then had charge of it, saw 
upon the Allegheny a sight that made his heart sink — sixty batteaux and 
three hundred canoes filled with men, and laden deep with cannon and 
stores. * * * That evening he supped with his captor, Contrecceur, 
and the next day he was bowed off by the Frenchman, and with his men 
and tools, marched up the Monongahela." 

The French and Indian war had begun. The treaty of Aix la 
Chapelle, in 1748, had left the boundaries between the French and 
English possessions unsettled, and the events already narrated show the 
French were determined to hold the country watered by the Mississippi 
and its tributaries ; while the English laid claims to the country by virtue 
of the discoveries of the Cabots, and claimed all the country from New- 
foundland to Florida, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The 
first decisive blow had now been struck, and the first attempt of the 
English, through the Ohio Company, to occupy these lands, had resulted 
disastrously to them. The French and Indians immediately completed 
the fortifications begun at the Fork, which they had so easily captured, 
and when completed gave to the fort the name of DuQuesne. Washing- 
ton was at Will's Creek when the news of the capture of the fort arrived. 
He at once departed to recapture it. On his way he entrenched him- 
self at a place called the " Meadows," where he erected a fort called 
by him Fort Necessity. From there he surprised and captured a force of 
French and Indians inarching against him, but was soon after attacked 
in his fort by a much superior force, and was obliged to yield on the 
morning of July 4th. He was allowed to return to Virginia. 

The English Government immediately planned four campaigns ; one 
against Fort DuQuesne ; one against Nova Scotia ; one against Fort 
Niagara, and one against Crown Point. These occurred during 1755-6, 
and were not successful in driving the French from their possessions. 
The expedition against Fort DuQuesne was led by the famous General 
Braddock, who, refusing to listen to the advice of Washington and those 


acquainted with Indian warfare, suffered such an inglorious defeat. This 
occurred on the morning of July 9th, and is generally known as the battle 
of Monongahela, or " Braddock's Defeat." The war continued with 
various vicissitudes through the years 1756-7 ; when, at the commence- 
ment of 1758, in accordance with the plans of William Pitt, then Secre- 
tary of State, afterwards Lord Chatham, active preparations were made to 
carry on the war. Three expeditions were planned for this year : one, 
under General Amherst, against Louisburg ; another, under Abercrombie, 
against Fort Ticonderoga ; and a third, under General Forbes, against 
Fort DuQuesne. On the 26th of July, Louisburg surrendered after a 
desperate resistance of more than forty days, and the eastern part of the 
Canadian possessions fell into the hands of the British. Abercrombie 
.captured Fort Frontenac, and when the expedition against Fort DuQuesne, 
of which Washington had the active command, arrived there, it was 
found in flames and deserted. The English at once took possession, 
rebuilt the fort, and in honor of their illustrious statesman, changed the 
name to Fort Pitt. 

The great object of the campaign of 1759, was the reduction of 
Canada. General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec ; Amherst was to 
reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and General Prideaux was to 
capture Niagara. This latter place was taken in July, but the gallant 
Prideaux lost his life in the attempt. Amherst captured Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point without a blow ; and Wolfe, after making the memor- 
able ascent to the Plains of Abraham, on September 13th, defeated 
Montcalm, and on the 18th, the city capitulated. In this engagement 
Montcolm and Wolfe both lost their lives. De Levi, Montcalm's successor, 
marched to Sillery, three miles above the city, with the purpose of 
defeating the English, and there, on the 28th of the following April, was 
fought one of the bloodiest battles of the French and Indian War. It 
resulted in the defeat of the French, and the fall of the City of Montreal. 
The Governor signed a capitulation by which the whole of Canada was 
surrendered to the English. This practically concluded the war, but it 
was not until 1763 that the treaties of peace between France and England 
were signed. This was done on the 10th of February of that year, and 
under its provisions all the country east of the Mississippi and north of 
the Iberville River, in Louisiana, were ceded to England. At the same 
time Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain. 

On the 13th of September, 1760, Major Robert Rogers was sent 
from Montreal to take charge of Detroit, the only remaining French post 
in the territory. He arrived there on the 19th of November, and sum- 
moned the place to surrender. At first the commander of the post, 
Beletre, refused, but on the 29th, hearing of the continued defeat of the 


French arms, surrendered. Rogers remained there until December 23d 
under the personal protection of the celebrated chief, Pontiac, to whom, 
no doubt, he owed his safety. Pontiac had come here to inquire the 
purposes of the English in taking possession of the country. He was 
assured that they came simply to trade with the natives, and did not 
desire their country. This answer conciliated the savages, and did much 
to insure the safety of Rogers and his party during their stay, and while 
on their journey home. 

Rogers set out for Fort Pitt on December 23, and was just one 
month on the way. His route was from Detroit to Maumee, thence 
across the present State of Ohio directly to the fort. This was the com- 
mon trail of the Indians in their journeys from Sandusky to the fork of 
the Ohio. It went from Fort Sandusky, where Sandusky City now is, 
crossed the Huron river, then called Bald Eagle Creek, to " Mohickon 
John's Town" on Mohickon Creek, the northern branch of White 
Woman's River, and thence crossed to Beaver's Town, a Delaware town 
on what is now Sandy Creek. At Beaver's Town were probably one 
hundred and fifty warriors, and not less than three thousand acres of 
cleared land. From there the track went up Sandy Creek to and across 
Big Beaver, and up the Ohio to Logstown, thence on to the fork. 

The Northwest Territory was now entirely under the English rule. 
New settlements began to be rapidly made, and the promise of a large 
trade was speedily manifested. Had the British carried out their promises 
with the natives none of those savage butcheries would have been perpe- 
trated, and the country would have been spared their recital. 

The renowned chief, Pontiac, was one of the leading spirits in these 
atrocities. We will now pause in our narrative, and notice the leading 
events in his life. The earliest authentic information regarding this 
noted Indian chief is learned from an account of an Indian trader named 
Alexander Henry, who, in the Spring of 1761, penetrated his domains as 
far as Missillimacnac. Pontiac was then a great friend of the French, 
but a bitter foe of the English, whom he considered as encroaching on his 
hunting grounds. Henry was obliged to disguise himself as a Canadian 
to insure safety, but was discovered by Pontiac, who bitterly reproached 
him and the English for their attempted subjugation of the West. He 
declared that no treaty had been made with them; no presents sent 
them, and that he would resent any possession of the West by that nation. 
He was at the time about fifty years of age, tall and dignified, and was 
civil and military ruler of the Ottawas, Ojibwas and Pottawatamies. 

The Indians, from Lake Michigan to the borders of North Carolina, 
were united in this feeling, and at the time of the treaty of Paris, ratified 
February 10, 1763, a general conspiracy was formed to fall suddenly 





upon the frontier British posts, and with one blow strike every man dead. 
Pontiac was the marked leader in all this, and was the commander 
of the Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Miamis, Shawanese, Delawares 
and Mingoes, who had, for the time, laid aside their local quarrels to unite 
in this enterprise. 

The blow came, as near as can now be ascertained, on May 7, 1763. 
Nine British posts fell, and the Indians drank, " scooped up in the hollow 
of joined hands," the blood of many a Briton. 

Pontiac's immediate field of action was the garrison at Detroit. 
Here, however, the plans were frustrated by an Indian woman disclosing 
the plot the evening previous to his arrival. Everything was carried out, 
however, according to Pontiac's plans until the moment of action, when 
Major Gladwyn, the commander of the post, stepping to one of the Indian 
chiefs, suddenly drew- aside his blanket and disclosed the concealed 
musket. Pontiac, though a brave man, turned pale and trembled. He 
saw his plan was known, and that the garrison were prepared. He 
endeavored to exculpate himself from any such intentions ; but the guilt 
was evident, and he and his followers were dismissed with a severe 
reprimand, and warned never to again enter the walls of the post. 

Pontiac at once laid siege to the fort, and until the treaty of peace 
between the British and the Western Indians, concluded in August, 1764, 
continued to harass and besiege the fortress. He organized a regular 
commissariat department, issued bills of credit written out on bark, 
which, to his credit, it may be stated, were punctually redeemed. At 
the conclusion of the treaty, in which it seems he took no part, he went 
further south, living many year.s among the Illinois. 

He had given up all hope of saving his country and race. After a 
time he endeavored to unite the Illinois tribe and those about St. Louis 
in a war with the whites. His efforts were fruitless, and only ended in a 
quarrel between himself and some Kaskaskia Indians, one of whom soon 
afterwards killed him. His death was, however, avenged by the northern 
Indians, who nearly exterminated the Illinois in the wars which followed. 

Had it not been for the treachery of a few of his followers, his plan 
for the extermination of the whites, a masterly one, would undoubtedly 
have been carried out. 

It was in the Spring of the year following Rogers' visit that Alex- 
ander Henry went to Missillimacnac, and everywhere found the strongest 
feelings against the English, who had not carried out their promises, and 
were doing -nothing to conciliate the natives. Here he met the chief, 
Pontiac, who, after conveying to him in a speech the idea that their 
French father would awake soon and utterly destroy his enemies, said : 
" Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not 


yet conquered us ! We are not your slaves ! These lakes, these woods, 
these mountains, were left us by our ancestors. They are our inheritance, 
and we will part with them to none. Your nation supposes that we, like 
the white people, can not live without bread and pork and beef. But you 
ought to know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided 
food for us upon these broad lakes and in these mountains." 

He then spoke of the fact that no treaty had been made with them, 
no presents sent them, and that he and his people were yet for war. 
Such were the feelings of the Northwestern Indians immediately after 
the English took possession of their country. These feelings were no 
doubt encouraged by the Canadians and French, who hoped that yet the 
French arms might prevail. The treaty of Paris, however, gave to the 
English the right to this vast domain, and active preparations were going 
on to occupy it and enjoy its trade and emoluments. 

In 1762, France, by a secret treaty, ceded Louisiana to Spain, to pre- 
vent it falling into the hands of the English, who were becoming masters 
of the entire West. The next year the treaty of Paris, signed at Fon- 
tainbleau, gave to the English the domain of the country in question. 
Twenty years after, by the treaty of peace between the United States 
and England, that part of Canada lying south and west of the Great 
Lakes, comprehending a large territory which is the subject of these 
sketches, was acknowledged to be a portion of the United States ; and 
twenty years still later, in 1803, Louisiana was ceded by Spain back to 
France, and by France sold to the United States. 

In the half century, from the building of the Fort of Crevecoeur by 
LaSalle, in 1680, up to the erection of Fort Chartres, many French set- 
tlements had been made in that quarter. These have already been 
noticed, being those at St. Vincent (Vincennes), Kohokia or Cahokia, 
Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher, on the American Bottom, a large tract 
of rich alluvial soil in Illinois, on the Mississippi, opposite the site of St. 

By the treaty of Paris, the regions east of the Mississippi, including 
all these and other towns of the Northwest, were given over to England; 
but they do not appear to have been taken possession of until 1765, when 
Captain Stirling, in the name of the Majesty of England, established him- 
self at Fort Chartres bearing with him the proclamation of General Gage, 
dated December 30, 1764, which promised religious freedom to all Cath- 
olics who worshiped here, and a right to leave the country with their 
effects if they wished, or to remain with the privileges of Englishmen. 
It was shortly after the occupancy of the West by the British that the 
war with Pontiac opened. It is already noticed in the sketch of that 
chieftain. By it many a Briton lost his life, and many a frontier settle- 


merit in its infancy ceased to exist. This was not ended until the year 
17G4, when, failing to capture Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt, his confed- 
eracy became disheartened, and, receiving no aid from the French, Pon- 
tiac abandoned the enterprise and departed to the Illinois, among whom 
he afterward lost his life. 

As soon as these difficulties were definitely settled, settlers began 
rapidly to survey the country and prepare for occupation. During the 
year 1770, a number of persons from Virginia and other British provinces 
explored and marked out nearly all the valuable lands on the Mononga- 
hela and along the banks of the Ohio as far as the Little Kanawha. This 
was followed by another exploring expedition, in which George Washing- 
ton was a party. The latter, accompanied by Dr. Craik, Capt. Cnuvford 
and others, on the 20th of October, 1770, descended the Ohio from Pitts- 
burgh to the mouth of the Kanawha ; ascended that stream about fourteen 
miles, marked out several large tracts of land, shot several buffalo, which 
were then abundant in the Ohio Valley, and returned to the fort. 

Pittsburgh was at this time a trading post, about which was clus- 
tered a village of some twenty houses, inhabited by Indian traders. This 
same year, Capt. Pittman visited Kaskaskia and its neighboring villages. 
He found there about sixty-five resident families, and at Cahokia only 
forty-five dwellings. At Fort Chartres was another small settlement, and 
at Detroit the garrison were quite prosperous and strong. For a year 
or two settlers continued to locate near some of these posts, generally 
Fort Pitt or Detroit, owing to the fears of the Indians, who still main- 
tained some feelings of hatred to the English. The trade from the posts 
was quite good, and from those in Illinois large quantities of pork and 
flour found their way to the New Orleans market. At this time the 
policy of the British Government was strongly opposed to the extension 
of the colonies west. In 1763, the King of England forbade, by royal 
proclamation, his colonial subjects from making a settlement beyond the 
sources of the rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean. At the instance 
of the Board of Trade, measures were taken to prevent the settlement 
without the limits prescribed, and to retain the commerce within easy 
reach of Great Britain. 

The commander-in-chief of the king's forces wrote in 1769 : " In the 
course of a few years necessity will compel the colonists, should they 
extend their settlements west, to provide manufactures of some kind for 
themselves, and when all connection upheld by commerce with the mother 
country ceases, an independency in their government will soon follow." 

In accordance with this policy, Gov. Gage issued a proclamation 
in 1772, commanding the inhabitants of Vincennes to abandon their set- 
tlements and join some of the Eastern English colonies. To this they 


strenuously objected, giving good reasons therefor, and were allowed to 
remain. The strong opposition to this policy of Great Britain led to its 
change, and to such a course as to gain the attachment of the French 
population. In December, 1773, influential citizens of Quebec petitioned 
the king for an extension of the boundary lines of that province, which 
was granted, and Parliament passed an act on June 2, 1774, extend- 
ing the boundary so as to include the territory lying within the present 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

In consequence of the liberal policy pursued by the British Govern- 
ment toward the French settlers in the West, they were disposed to favor 
that nation in the war which soon followed with the colonies ; but the 
early alliance between France and America soon brought them to the side 
of the war for independence. 

In 1774, Gov. Dunmore, of Virginia, began to encourage emigration 
to the Western lands. He appointed magistrates at Fort Pitt under the 
pretense that the fort was under the government of that commonwealth. 
One of these justices, John Connelly, who possessed a tract of land in the 
Ohio Valley, gathered a force of men and garrisoned the fort, calling it 
Fort Dunmore. This and other parties were formed to select sites for 
settlements, and often came in conflict with the Indians, who yet claimed 
portions of the valley, and several battles followed. These ended in the 
famous battle of Kanawha in July, where the Indians were defeated and 
driven across the Ohio. 

During the years 1775 and 1776, by the operations of land companies 
and the perseverance of individuals, several settlements were firmly estab- 
lished between the Alleghanies and the Ohio River, and western land 
speculators were busy in Illinois and on the Wabash. At a council held 
in Kaskaskia on July 5, 1773, an association of English traders, calling 
themselves the " Illinois Land Company," obtained from ten chiefs of the 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Peoria tribes two large tracts of land lying on 
the east side of the Mississippi River south of the Illinois. In 1775, a mer- 
chant from the Illinois Country, named Viviat, came to Post Vincennes 
as the agent of the association called the " Wabash Land Company." On 
the 8th of October he obtained from eleven Piankeshaw chiefs, a deed for 
37,497,600 acres of land. This deed was signed by the grantors, attested 
by a number of the inhabitants of Vincennes, and afterward recorded in 
the office of a notary public at Kaskaskia. This and other land com- 
panies had extensive schemes for the colonization of the West ; but all 
were frustrated by the breaking out of the Revolution. On the 20th of 
April, 1780, the two companies named consolidated under the name of the 
" United Illinois and Wabash Land Company." They afterward made 


strenuous efforts to have these grants sanctioned by Congress, but all 
signally failed. 

When the War of the Revolution commenced, Kentucky was an unor- 
ganized country, though there were several settlements within her borders. 

In Hutchins' Topography of Virginia, it is stated that at that time 
" Kaskaskia contained 80 houses, and nearly 1,000 white and black in- 
habitants — the whites being a little the more numerous. Cahokia con- 
tains 50 houses and 300 white inhabitants, and 80 negroes. There were 
east of the Mississippi River, about the year 1771 " — when these observa- 
tions were made — " 300 white men capable of bearing arms, and 230 

From 1775 until the expedition of Clark, nothing is recorded and 
nothing known of these settlements, save what is contained in a report 
made by a committee to Congress in June, 1778. From it the following 
extract is made : 

"Near the mouth of the River Kaskaskia, there is a village which 
appears to have contained nearly eighty families from the beginning of 
the late revolution. There are twelve families in a small village at la 
Prairie du Rochers, and near fifty families at the Kahokia Village. There 
are also four or five families at Fort Chartres and St. Philips, which is five 
miles further up the river." 

St. Louis had been settled in February, 1764, and at this time con- 
tained, including its neighboring towns, over six hundred whites and one 
hundred and fifty negroes. It must be remembered that all the country 
west of the Mississippi was now under French rule, and remained so until 
ceded again to Spain, its original owner, who afterwards sold it and the 
country including New Orleans to the United States. At Detroit there 
were, according to Capt. Carver, who was in the Northwest from 1766 to 
1768, more than one hundred houses, and the river was settled for more 
than twenty miles, although poorly cultivated — the people being engaged 
in the Indian trade. This old town has a history, which we will here 

It is the oldest town in the Northwest, having been founded by 
Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac, in 1701. It was laid out in the form of an 
oblong square, of two acres in length, and an acre and a half in width. 
As described by A. D. Frazer, who first visited it and became a permanent 
resident of the place, in 1778, it comprised within its limits that space 
between Mr. Palmer's store (Conant Block) and Capt. Perkins' house 
(near the Arsenal building), and extended back as far as the public barn, 
and was bordered in front by the Detroit River. It was surrounded by 
oak and, cedar pickets, about fifteen feet long, set in the ground, and had 
four gates — east, west, north and south. Over the first three of these 


gates were block houses provided with four guns apiece, each a six- 
pounder. Two six-gun batteries were planted fronting the river and in a 
parallel direction with the block houses. There were four streets running 
east and west, the main street being twenty feet wide and the rest fifteen 
feet, while the four streets crossing these at right angles were from ten 
to fifteen feet in width. 

At the date spoken of by Mr. Frazer, there was no fort within the 
enclosure, but a citadel on the ground corresponding to the present 
northwest corner of Jefferson Avenue and Wayne Street. The citadel was 
inclosed by pickets, and within it were erected barracks of wood, two 
stories high, sufficient to contain ten officers, and also barracks sufficient 
to contain four hundred men, and a provision store built of brick. The 
citadel also contained a hospital and guard-house. The old town of 
Detroit, in 17T8, contained about sixty houses, most of them one story, 
with a few a story and a half in height. They were all of logs, some 
hewn and some round. There was one building of splendid appearance, 
called the " King's Palace," two stories high, which stood near the east 
gate. It was built for Governor Hamilton, the first governor commissioned 
by the British. There were two guard-houses, one near the west gate and 
the other near the Government House. Each of the guards consisted of 
twenty-four men and a subaltern, who mounted regularly every morning 
between nine and ten o'clock, Each furnished four sentinels, who were 
relieved every two hours. There was also an officer of the day, who pjr- 
formed strict duty. Each of the gates was shut regularly at sunset, 
even wicket gates were shut at nine o'clock, and all the keys were 
delivered into the hands of the commanding officer. They were opened 
in the morning at sunrise. No Indian or squaw was permitted to enter 
town with any weapon, such as a tomahawk or a knife. It was a stand- 
ing order that the Indians should deliver their arms and instruments of 
every kind before they were permitted to pass the sentinel, and they were 
restored to them on their return. No more than twenty-five Indians were 
allowed to enter the town at any one time, and they were admitted only 
at the east and west gates. At sundown the drums beat, and all the 
Indians were required to leave town instantly. There was a council house 
near the water side for the purpose of holding council with the Indians. 
The population of the town was about sixty families, in all about two 
hundred males and one hundred females. This town was destroyed by 
fire, all except one dwelling, in 1805. After which the present "new" 
town was laid out. 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, the British held every post of 
importance in the West. Kentucky was formed as a component part of 
Virginia, and the sturdy pioneers of the West, alive to their interests, 


and recognizing the great benefits of obtaining the control of the trade in 
this part of the New World, held steadily to their purposes, and those 
within the commonwealth of Kentucky proceeded to exercise their 
civil privileges, by electing John Todd and Richard Gallaway, 
burgesses to represent them in the Assembly of the parent state. 
Early in September of that year (1777) the first court was held 
in Harrodsburg, and Col. Bowman, afterwards major, who had arrived 
in August, was made the commander of a militia organization which 
had been commenced the March previous. Thus the tree of loyalty 
was growing. The chief spirit in this far-out colony, who had represented 
her the year previous east of the mountains, was now meditating a move 
unequaled in its boldness. He had been watching the movements of the 
British throughout the Northwest, and understood their whole plan. He 
saw it was through their possession of the posts at Detroit, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia, and other places, which would give them constant and easy 
access to the various Indian tribes in the Northwest, that the British 
intended to penetrate the country from the north and soutn, ana annihi- 
late the frontier fortresses. This moving, energetic man was Colonel, 
afterwards General, George Rogers Clark. He knew the Indians were not 
unanimously in accord with the English, and he was convinced that, could 
the British be defeated and expelled from the Northwest, the natives 
might be easily awed into neutrality ; and by spies sent for the purpose, 
he satisfied himself that the enterprise against the Illinois settlements 
might easily succeed. Having convinced himself of the certainty of the 
project, he repaired to the Capital of Virginia, which place he reached on 
November 5th. While he was on his way, fortunately, on October 17th, 
Burgoyne had been defeated, and the spirits of the colonists greatly 
encouraged thereby. Patrick Henry was Governor of Virginia, and at 
once entered heartily into Clark's plans. The same plan had before been 
agitated in the Colonial Assemblies, but there was no one until Clark 
came who was sufficiently acquainted with the condition of affairs at the 
scene of action to be able to guide them. 

Clark, having satisfied the Virginia leaders of the feasibility of his 
plan, received, on the 2d of January, two sets of instructions — one secret, 
the other open — the latter authorized him to proceed to enlist seven 
companies to go to Kentucky, subject to his orders, and to serve three 
months from their arrival in the West. The secret order authorized him 
to arm these troops, to procure his powder and lead of General Hand 
at Pittsburgh, and to proceed at once to subjugate the country. 

With these instructions Clark repaired to Pittsburgh, choosing rather 
to raise his men west of the mountains, as he well knew all were needed 
in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. W. B. Smith to Hoi- 


ston for the same purpose, but neither succeeded in raising the required 
number of men. The settlers in these parts were afraid to leave their 
own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few could be induced to 
join the proposed expedition. With three companies and several private 
volunteers, Clark at length commenced his descent of the Ohio, which he 
navigated as far as the Falls, where he took possession of and fortified 
Corn Island, a small island between the present Cities of Louisville, 
Kentucky, and New Albany, Indiana. Remains of this fortification may 
yet be found. At this place he appointed Col. Bowman to meet him 
with such recruits as had reached Kentucky by the southern route, and 
as many as could be spared from the station. Here he announced to 
the men their real destination. Having completed his arrangements, 
and chosen his party, he left a small garrison upon the island, and on the 
24th of June, during a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured 
no good, and which fixes beyond dispute the date of starting, he with 
his chosen band, fell down the river. His plan was to go by water as 
far as Fort Massac or Massacre, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. 
Here he intended to surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to 
Cahokia, then to Vincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he 
intended to march directly to the Mississippi River and cross it into the 
Spanish country. Before his start he received two good items of infor- 
mation : one that the alliance had been formed between France and the 
United States ; and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants, at the various frontier posts, had been led to 
believe by the British that the " Long Knives" or Virginians, were the 
most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped a foe. With 
this impression on their minds, Clark saw that proper management would 
cause them to submit at once from fear, if surprised, and then from grati- 
tude would become friendly if treated with unexpected leniency. 

The march to Kaskaskia was accomplished through a hot July sun, 
and the town reached on the evening of July 4. He captured the fort 
near the village, and soon after the village itself by surprise, and without 
the loss of a single man or by killing any of the enemy. After sufficiently 
working upon the fears of the natives, Clark told them they were at per- . 
feet liberty to worship as they pleased, and to take whichever side of the 
great conflict they would, also he would protect them from any barbarity 
from British or Indian foe. This had the desired effect, and the inhab- 
itants, so unexpectedly and so gratefully surprised by the unlooked 
for turn of affairs, at once swore allegiance to the American arms, and 
when Clark desired to go to Cahokia on the 6th of July, they accom- 
panied him, and through their influence the inhabitants of the place 
surrendered, and gladly placed themselves under his protection. Thus 


the two important posts in Illinois passed from the hands of the English 
into the possession of Virginia. 

In the person of the priest at Kaskaskia, M. Gibault, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw that, to retain possession 
of the Northwest and treat successfully with the Indians within its boun- 
daries, he must establish a government for the colonies he had taken. 
St. Vincent, the next important post to Detroit, remained yet to be taken 
before the Mississippi Valley was conquered. M. Gibault told him that 
he would alone, by persuasion, lead Vincennes to throw off its connection 
with England. Clark gladly accepted his offer, and on the 14th of July, 
in company with a fellow-townsman, M. Gibault started on his mission of 
peace, and on the 1st of August returned with the cheerful intelligence 
that the post on the " Oubache " had taken the oath of allegiance to 
the Old Dominion. During this interval, Clark established his courts, 
placed garrisons at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his 
men, sent word to have a fort, which proved the germ of Louisville, 
erected at the Falls of the Ohio, and dispatched Mr. Rocheblave, who 
had been commander at Kaskaskia, as a prisoner of war to Richmond. 
In October the County of Illinois was established by the Legislature 
of Virginia, John Todd appointed Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Governor, 
and in November General Clark and his men received the thanks of 
the Old Dominion through their Legislature. 

In a speech a few days afterward, Clark made known fully to the 
natives his plans, and at its close all came forward and swore alle- 
giance to the Long Knives. While he was doing this Governor Hamilton, 
having made his various arrangements, had left Detroit and moved down 
the Wabash to Vincennes intending to operate from that point in reducing 
the Illinois posts, and then proceed on down to Kentucky and drive the 
rebels from the West. Gen. Clark had, on the return of M. Gibault, 
dispatched Captain Helm, of Fauquier County, Virginia, with an attend- 
ant named Henry, across the Illinois prairies to command the fort. 
Hamilton knew nothing of the capitulation of the post, and was greatly 
surprised on his arrival to be confronted by Capt. Helm, who, standing at 
the entrance of the fort by a loaded cannon ready to fire upon his assail- 
ants, demanded upon what terms Hamilton demanded possession of the 
fort. Being granted the rights of a prisoner of war, he surrendered to 
the British General, who could scarcely believe his eyes when he saw the 
force in the garrison. 

Hamilton, not realizing the character of the men with whom he was 
contending, gave up his intended campaign for the Winter, sent his four 
hundred Indian warriors to prevent troops from coming down the Ohio, 


and to annoy the Americans in all ways, and sat quietly down to pass the 
Winter. Information of all these proceedings having reached Clark, he 
saw that immediate and decisive action was necessary, and that unless 
he captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Clark received the 
news on the 29th of January, 1779, and on February 4th, having suffi- 
ciently garrisoned Kaskaskia and Cahokia, he sent down the Mississippi 
a " battoe," as Major Bowman writes it, in order to ascend the Ohio and 
Wabash, and operate with the land forces gathering for the fray. 

On the next day, Clark, with his little force of one hundred and 
twenty men, set out for the post, and after incredible hard marching 
through much mud, the ground being thawed by the incessant spring 
rains, on the 22d reached the fort, and being joined by his " battoe," at 
once commenced the attack on the post. The aim of the American back- 
woodsman was unerring, and on the 24th the garrison surrendered to the 
intrepid boldness of Clark. The French were treated with great kind- 
ness, and gladly renewed their allegiance to Virginia. Hamilton was 
sent as a prisoner to Virginia, where he was kept in close confinement. 
During his command of the British frontier posts, he had offered prizes 
to the Indians for all the scalps of Americans they would bring to him, 
and had earned in consequence thereof the title " Hair-buyer General," 
by which he was ever afterward known. 

Detroit was now without doubt within easy reach of the enterprising 
Virginian, could he but raise the necessary force. Governor Henry being 
apprised of this, promised him the needed reinforcement, and Clark con- 
cluded to wait until he could capture and sufficiently garrison the posts. 
Had Clark failed in this bold undertaking, and Hamilton succeeded in 
uniting the western Indians for the next Spring's campaign, the West 
would indeed have been swept from the Mississippi to the Allegheny 
Mountains, and the great blow struck, which had been contemplated from 
the commencement, by the British. 

" But for this small army of dripping, but fearless Virginians, the 
union of all the tribes from Georgia to Maine against the colonies might 
have been effected, and the whole current of our history changed." 

At this time some fears were entertained by the Colonial Govern- 
ments that the Indians in the North and Northwest were inclining to the 
British, and under the instructions of Washington, now Commander-in- 
Chief of the Colonial army, and so bravely fighting for American inde- 
pendence, armed forces were sent against the Six Nations, and upon the 
Ohio frontier, Col. Bowman, acting under the same general's orders, 
marched against Indians within the present limits of that State. These 
expeditions were in the main successful, and the Indians were compelled 
to sue for peace. 


During this same year (1779) the famous " Land Laws" of Virginia 
were passed. The passage of these laws was of more consequence to the 
pioneers of Kentucky and the Northwest than the gaining of a few Indian 
conflicts. These laws confirmed in main all grants made, and guaranteed 
to all actual settlers their rights and privileges. After providing for the 
settlers, the laws provided for selling the balance of the public lands at 
forty cents per acre. To carry the Land Laws into effect, the Legislature 
sent four Virginians westward to attend to the various claims, over many 
of which great confusion prevailed concerning their validity. These 
gentlemen opened their court on October 13, 1779, at St. Asaphs, and 
continued until April 26, 1780, when they adjourned, having decided 
three ^thousand claims. They were succeeded by the surveyor, who 
came in the person of Mr. George May, and assumed his duties on the 
10th day of the month whose name he bore. With the opening of the 
next year (1780) the troubles concerning the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi commenced. The Spanish Government exacted such measures in 
relation to its trade as to cause the overtures made to the United States 
to be rejected. The American Government considered they had a right 
to navigate its channel. To enforce their claims, a fort was erected below 
the mouth of the Ohio on the Kentucky side of the river. The settle- 
ments in Kentucky were being rapidly filled by emigrants. It was dur- 
ing this year that the first seminary of learning was established in the 
West in this young and enterprising Commonwealth. 

The settlers here did not look upon the building of this fort in a 
friendly manner, as it aroused the hostility of the Indians. Spain had 
been friendly to the Colonies during their struggle for independence, 
and though for a while this friendship appeared in danger from the 
refusal of the free navigation of the river, yet it was finally settled to the 
satisfaction of both nations. 

The Winter of 1779-80 was one of the most unusually severe ones 
ever experienced in the West. The Indians always referred to it as the 
"Great Cold." Numbers of wild animals perished, and not a few 
pioneers lost their lives. The following Summer a party of Canadians 
and Indians attacked St. Louis, and attempted to take possession of it 
in consequence of the friendly disposition of Spain to the revolting 
colonies. They met with such a determined resistance on the part of the 
inhabitants, even the women taking part in the battle, that they were 
compelled to abandon the contest. They also made an attack on the 
settlements in Kentucky, but, becoming alarmed in some unaccountable 
manner, they fled the country in great haste. 

About this time arose the question in the Colonial Congress con- 
cerning the western lands claimed by Virginia, New York, Massachusetts 


and Connecticut. The agitation concerning this subject finally led New 
York, on the 19th of February, 1780, to pass a law giving to the dele- 
gates of that State in Congress the power to cede her western lands for 
the benefit of the United States. This law was laid before Congress 
during the next month, but no steps were taken concerning it until Sep- 
tember 6th, when a resolution passed that body calling upon the States 
claiming western lands to release their claims in favor of the whole body. 
This basis formed the union, and was the first after all of those legislative 
measures which resulted in the creation of the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. In December of the same 
year, the plan of conquering Detroit again arose. The conquest might 
have easily been effected by Clark had the necessary aid been furnished 
him. Nothing decisive was done, yet the heads of the Government knew 
that the safety of the Northwest from British invasion lay in the capture 
and retention of that important post, the only unconquered one in the 

Before the close of the year, Kentucky was divided into the Coun- 
ties of Lincoln, Fayette and Jefferson, and the act establishing the Town 
of Louisville was passed. This same year is also noted in the annals of 
American history as the year in which occurred Arnold's treason to the 
United States. 

Virginia, in accordance with the resolution of Congress, on the 2d 
day of January, 1781, agreed to yield her western lands to the United 
States upon certain conditions, which Congress would not accede to, and 
the Act of Cession, on the part of the Old Dominion, failed, nor was 
anything farther done until 1783. During all that time the Colonies 
were busily engaged in the struggle with the mother country, and in 
consequence thereof but little heed was given to the western settlements. 
Upon the 4th of July, 1773, the first birth north of the Ohio River of 
American parentage occurred, being that of John L. Roth, son of John 
Roth, one of the Moravian missionaries, whose band of Christian Indians 
suffered in after years a horrible massacre by the hands of the frontier 
settlers, who had been exasperated by the murder of several of their 
neighbors, and in their rage committed, without regard to humanity, a 
deed which forever afterward cast a shade of shame upon their lives. 
For this and kindred outrages on the part of the whites, the Indians 
committed many deeds of cruelty which darken the years of 1771 and 
1772 in the history of the Northwest. 

During the year 1782 a number of battles among the Indians and 
frontiersmen occurred, and between the Moravian Indians and the Wyan- 
dots. In these, horrible acts of cruelty were practised on the captives, 
many of such dark deeds transpiring under the leadership of the notorious 



frontier outlaw, Simon Girty, whose name, as well as those of his brothers, 
was a terror to women and children. These occurred chiefly in the Ohio 
valleys. Cotemporary with them were several engagements in Kentucky, 
in which the famous Daniel Boone engaged, and who, often by his skill 
and knowledge of Indian warfare, saved the outposts from cruel destruc- 


tion. By the close of the year victory had perched upon the American 
banner, and on the 30th of November, provisional articles of peace had 
been arranged between the Commissioners of England and her uncon- 
querable colonies. Cornwallis had been defeated on the 19th of October 
preceding, and the liberty of America was assured. On the 19th of 
April following, the anniversary of the battle of Lexington, peace was 


proclaimed to the army of the United States, and on the 3d of the next 
September, the definite treaty which ended our revolutionary struggle 
was concluded. By the terms of that treaty, the boundaries of the West 
were as follows : On the north the line was to extend along the center of 
the Great Lakes ; from the western point of Lake Superior to Long Lake ; 
thence to the Lake of the Woods ; thence to the head of the Mississippi 
River ; down its center to the 31st parallel of latitude, then on that line 
east to the head of the Appalachicola River ; down its center to its junc- 
tion with the Flint ; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and 
thence down along its center to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Following the cessation of hostilities with England, several posts 
were still occupied by the British in the North and West. Among these 
was Detroit, still in the hands of the enemy. Numerous engagements 
with the Indians throughout Ohio and Indiana occurred, upon whose 
lands adventurous whites would settle ere the title had been acquired by 
the proper treaty. 

To remedy this latter evil, Congress appointed commissioners to 
treat with the natives and purchase their lands, and prohibited the set- 
tlement of the territory until this could be done. Before the close of the 
year another attempt was made to capture Detroit, which was, however, 
not pushed, and Virginia, no longer feeling the interest in the Northwest 
she had formerly done, withdrew her troops, having on the 20th of 
December preceding authorized the whole of her possessions to be deeded 
to the United States. This was done on the 1st of March following, and 
the Northwest Territory passed from the control of the Old Dominion. 
To Gen. Clark and his soldiers, however, she gave a tract of one hundred 
and fifty thousand acres of land, to be situated any where north of the 
Ohio wherever they chose to locate them. They selected the region 
opposite the falls of the Ohio, where is now the dilapidated village of 
Clarksville, about midway between the Cities of New Albany and Jeffer- 
sonville, Indiana. 

While the frontier remained thus, and Gen. Haldimand at Detroit 
refused to evacuate alleging that he had no orders from his King to do 
so, settlers were rapidly gathering about the inland forts. In the Spring 
of 1784, Pittsburgh was regularly laid out, and from the journal of Arthur 
Lee, who passed through the town soon after on his way to the Indian 
council at Fort Mcintosh, we suppose it was not very prepossessing in 
appearance. He says : 

" Pittsburgh is inhabited almost entirely by Scots and Irish, who 
live in paltry log houses, and are as dirty as if in the north of Ireland or 
even Scotland. There is a great deal of trade carried on, the goods being 
bought at the vast expense of forty-five shillings per pound from Phila- 


delphia and Baltimore. They take in the shops flour, wheat, skins and 
money. There are in the town four attorneys, two doctors, and not a 
priest of any persuasion, nor church nor chapel." 

Kentucky at this time contained thirty thousand inhabitants, and 
was beginning to discuss measures for a separation from Virginia. A 
land office was opened at Louisville, and measures were adopted to take 
defensive precaution against the Indians who were yet, in some instances, 
incited to deeds of violence by the British. Before the close of this year, 
1784, the military claimants of land began to occupy them, although no 
entries were recorded until 1787. 

The Indian title to the Northwest was not yet extinguished. They 
held large tracts of lands, and in order to prevent bloodshed Congress 
adopted means for treaties with the original owners and provided for the 
surveys of the lands gained thereby, as well as for those north of the 
Ohio, now in its possession. On January 31, 1786, a treaty was made 
with the Wabash Indians. The treaty of Fort Stanwix had been made 
in 1784. That at Fort Mcintosh in 1785, and through these much land 
was gained. The Wabash Indians, however, afterward refused to comply 
with the provisions of the treaty made with them, and in order to compel 
their adherence to its provisions, force was used. During the year 1786, 
the free navigation of the Mississippi came up in Congress, and caused 
various discussions, which resulted in no definite action, only serving to 
excite speculation in regard to the western lands. Congress had promised 
bounties of land to the soldiers of the Revolution, but owing to the 
unsettled condition of affairs along the Mississippi respecting its naviga- 
tion, and the trade of the Northwest, that body had, in 1783, declared 
its inability to fulfill these promises until a treaty could be concluded 
between the two Governments. Before the close of the year 1786, how- 
ever, it was able, through the treaties with the Indians, to allow some 
grants and the settlement thereon, and on the 14th of September Con- 
necticut ceded to the General Government the tract of land known as 
the " Connecticut Reserve," and before the close of the following year a 
large tract of land north of the Ohio was sold to a company, who at once 
took measures to settle it. By the provisions of this grant, the company 
were to pay the United States one dollar per acre, subject to a deduction 
of one-third for bad lands and other contingencies. They received 
750,000 acres, bounded on the south by the Ohio, on the east by the 
seventh range of townships, on the west by the sixteenth range, and on 
the north by a line so drawn as to make the grant complete without 
the reservations. In addition to this, Congress afterward granted 100,000 
acres to actual settlers, and 214,285 acres as army bounties under the 
resolutions of 1789 and 1790. 


While Dr. Cutler, one of the agents of the company, was pressing 
its claims before Congress, that body was bringing into form an ordinance 
for the political and social organization of this Territory. When the 
cession was made by Virginia, in 1784, a plan was offered, but rejected. 
A motion had been made to strike from the proposed plan the prohibition 
of slavery, which prevailed. The plan was then discussed and altered, 
and finally passed unanimously, with the exception of South Carolina. 
By this proposition, the Territory was to have been divided into states 


by parallels and meridian lines. This, it was thought, would make ten 
states, which were to have been named as follows — beginning at the 
northwest corner and going southwardly : Sylvania, Michigania, Cher- 
sonesus, Assenisipia, Mesopotamia, Illenoia, Saratoga, Washington, Poly- 
potamia and Pelisipia. 

There was a more serious objection to this plan than its category of 
names,— the boundaries. The root of the difficulty was in the resolu- 
tion of Congress passed in October, 1780, which fixed the boundaries 
of the ceded lands to be from one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles 


square. These resolutions being presented to the Legislatures of Vir- 
ginia and Massachusetts, they desired a change, and in July, 1786, the 
subject was taken up in Congress, and changed to favor a division into 
not more than five states, and not less than three. This was approved by 
the State Legislature of Virginia. The subject of the Government was 
again taken up by Congress in 1786, and discussed throughout that year 
and until July, 1787, when the famous "Compact of 1787" was passed, 
and the foundation of the government of the Northwest laid. This com- 
pact is fully discussed and explained in the history of Illinois in this book, 
and to it the reader is referred. 

The passage of this act and the grant to the New England Company 
was soon followed by an application to the Government by John Cleves 
Symmes, of New Jersey, for a grant of the land between the Miamis. 
This gentleman had visited these lands soon after the treaty of 1786, and, 
being greatly pleased with them, offered similar terms to those given to the 
New England Company. The petition was referred to the Treasury 
Board with power to act, and a contract was concluded the following 
year. During the Autumn the directors of the New England Company 
were preparing to occupy their grant the following Spring, and upon the 
23d of November made arrangements for a party of forty-seven men, 
under the superintendency of Gen. Rufus Putnam, to set forward. Six 
boat-builders were to leave at once, and on the first of January the sur- 
veyors and their assistants, twenty-six in number, were to meet at Hart- 
ford and proceed on their journey westward ; the remainder to follow as 
soon as possible. Congress, in the meantime, upon the 3d of October, 
had ordered seven hundred troops for defense of the western settlers, and 
to prevent unauthorized intrusions ; and two days later appointed Arthur 
St. Clair Governor of the Territory of the Northwest. 


The civil organization of the Northwest Territory was now com- 
plete, and notwithstanding the uncertainty of Indian affairs, settlers from 
the East began to come into the country rapidly. The New England 
Company sent their men during the Winter of 1787-8 pressing on over 
the Alleghenies by the old Indian path which had been opened into 
Braddock's road, and which has since been made a national turnpike 
from Cumberland westward. Through the weary winter days they toiled 
on, and by April were all gathered on the Yohiogany, where boats had 
been built, and at once started for the Muskingum. Here they arrived 
on the 7th of that month, and unless the Moravian missionaries be regarded 
as the pioneers of Ohio, this little band can justly claim that honor. 



Gen. St. Clair, the appointed Governor of the Northwest, not having 
yet arrived, a set of laws were passed, written out, and published by 
being nailed to a tree in the embryo town, and Jonathan Meigs appointed 
to administer them. 

Washington in writing of this, the first American settlement in the 
Northwest, said : " No colony in America was ever settled under 
such favorable auspices as that which has just commenced at Muskingum. 
Information, property and strength will be its characteristics. I know 
many of its settlers personally, and there never were men better calcu- 
lated to promote the welfare of such a community." 



On the 2d of July a meeting of the directors and agents was held 
on the banks of the Muskingum, " for the purpose of naming the new- 
born city and its squares." As yet the settlement was known as the 
"Muskingum," but that was now changed to the name Marietta, in honor 
of Marie Antoinette. The square upon which the block - houses stood 
was called " Campus Martins ;" square number 19, "Capitolium;" square 
number 61, "Cecilia;" and the great road through the covert way, " Sacra 
Via." Two days after, an oration was delivered by James M. Varnum, 
who with S. H. Parsons and John Armstrong had been appointed to the 
judicial bench of the territory on the 16th of October, 1787. On July 9, 
Gov. St. Clair arrived, and the colony began to assume form. The act 
of 1787 provided two district grades of government for the Northwest, 


under the first of which the whole power was invested in the hands of a 
governor and three district judges. This was immediately formed upon 
the Governor's arrival, and the first laws of the colony passed on the 25th 
of July. These provided for the organization of the militia, and on the 
next day appeared the Governor's proclamation, erecting all that country 
that had been ceded by the Indians east of the Scioto River into the 
County of Washington. From that time forward, notwithstanding the 
doubts yet existing as to the Indians, all Marietta prospered, and on the 
2d of September the first court of the territory was held with imposing 

The emigration westward at this time was very great. The com- 
mander at Fort Harmer, at the mouth of the Muskingum, reported four 
thousand five hundred persons as having passed that post between Feb- 
ruary and June, 1788 — many of whom would have purchased of the 
"Associates," as the New England Company was called, had they been 
ready to receive them. 

On the 26th of November, 1787, Symmes issued a pamphlet stating 
the terms of his contract and the plan of sale he intended to adopt. In 
January, 1788, Matthias Denman, of New Jersey, took an active interest 
in Symmes' purchase, and located among other tracts the sections upon 
which Cincinnati has been built. Retaining one-third of this locality, he 
sold the other two-thirds to Robert Patterson and John Filson, and the 
three, about August, commenced to lay out a town on the spot, which 
was designated as being opposite Licking River, to the mouth of which 
they proposed to have a road cut from Lexington. The naming of the 
town is thus narrated in the "Western Annals " : — " Mr. Filson, who had 
been a schoolmaster, was appointed to name the town, and, in respect to 
its situation, and as if with a prophetic perception of the mixed race that 
were to inhabit it in after days, he named it Losantiville, which, being 
interpreted, means : ville, the town ; anti, against or opposite to ; os, the 
mouth ; L. of Licking." 

Meanwhile, in July, Symmes got thirty persons and eight four-horse 
teams under way for the West. These reached Limestone (now Mays- 
ville) in September, where were several persons from Redstone. Here 
Mr. Symmes tried to found a settlement, but the great freshet of 1789 
caused the " Point," as it was and is yet called, to be fifteen feet under 
water, and the settlement to be abandoned. The little band of settlers 
removed to the mouth of the Miami. Before Symmes and his colony left 
the " Point," two settlements had been made on his purchase. The first 
was by Mr. Stiltes, the original projector of the whole plan, who, with a 
colony of Redstone people, had located at the mouth of the Miami, 
whither Symmes went with his Maysville colony. Here a clearing had 



been made by the Indians owing to the great fertility of the soil. Mr. 
Stiltes with his colony came to this place on the 18th of November, 1788, 
with twenty-six persons, and, building a block-house, prepared to remain 
through the Winter. They named the settlement Columbia. Here they 
were kindly treated by the Indians, but suffered greatly from the flood 
of 1789. 

On the 4th of March, 1789, the Constitution of the United States 
went into operation, and on April 30, George Washington was inaug- 
urated President of the American people, and during the next Summer, 
an Indian war was commenced by the tribes north of the Ohio. The 
President at first used pacific means ; but these failing, he sent General 
Harmer against the hostile tribes. He destroyed several villages, but 

The frontage of Lake Bluff Grounds on Lake Michigan, with one hundred and seventy feet of gradual ascent. 

was defeated in two battles, near the present City of Fort Wayne, 
Indiana. From this time till the close of 1795, the principal events were 
the wars with the various Indian tribes. In 1796, General St. Clair 
was appointed in command, and marched against the Indians ; but while 
he was encamped on a stream, the St. Mary, a branch of the Maumee, 
he was attacked and defeated with the loss of six hundred men. 

General Wayne was now sent against the savages. In August, 1794, 
he met them near the rapids of the Maumee, and gained a complete 
victory. This success, followed by vigorous measures, compelled the 
Indians to sue for peace, and on the 30th of July, the following year, the 
treaty of Greenville was signed by the principal chiefs, by which a large 
tract of country was ceded to the United States. 

Before proceeding in our narrative, we will pause to notice Fort 
Washington, erected in the early part of this war on the site of Cincinnati. 
Nearly all of the great cities of the Northwest, and indeed of the 


whole country, have had their nuclei in those rude pioneer structures, 
known as forts or stockades. Thus Forts Dearborn, Washington, Pon- 
chartrain, mark the original sites of the now proud Cities of Chicago, 
Cincinnati and Detroit. So of most of the flourishing cities east and west 
of the Mississippi. Fort Washington, erected by Doughty in 1790, was a 
rude but highly interesting structure. It was composed of a number of 
strongly-built hewed log cabins. Those designed for soldiers' barracks 
were a story and a half high, while those composing the officers quarters 
were more imposing and more conveniently arranged and furnished. 
The whole were so placed as to form a hollow square, enclosing about an 
acre of ground, with a block house at each of the four angles. 

The logs for the construction of this fort were cut from the ground 
upon which it was erected. It stood between Third and Fourth Streets 
of the present city (Cincinnati) extending east of Eastern Row, now 
Broadway, which was then a narrow alley, and the eastern boundary of 
of the town as it was originally laid out. On the bank of the river, 
immediately in front of the fort, was an appendage of the fort, called the 
Artificer's Yard. It contained about two acres of ground, enclosed by 
small contiguous buildings, occupied by workshops and quarters of 
laborers. Within this enclosure there was a large two-story frame house, 
familiarly called the " Yellow House," built for the accommodation of 
the Quartermaster General. For many years this was the best finished 
and most commodious edifice in the Queen City. Fort Washington was 
for some time the headquarters of both the civil and military governments 
of the Northwestern Territory. 

Following the consummation of the treaty various gigantic land spec- 
ulations were entered into by different persons, who hoped to obtain 
from the Indians in Michigan and northern Indiana, large tracts of lands. 
These were generally discovered in time to prevent the outrageous 
schemes from being carried out, and from involving the settlers in war. 
On October 27, 1795, the treaty between the United States and Spain 
was signed, whereby the free navigation of the Mississippi was secured. 

No sooner had the treaty of 1795 been ratified than settlements began 
to pour rapidly into the West. The great event of the year 1796 was the 
occupation of that part of the Northwest including Michigan, which was 
this year, under the provisions of the treaty, evacuated by the British 
forces. The United States, owing to certain conditions, did not feel 
justified in addressing the authorities in Canada in relation to Detroit 
and other frontier posts. When at last the British authorities were 
called to give them up, they at once complied, and General Wayne, who 
had done so much to preserve the frontier settlements, and who, before 
the year's close, sickened and died near Erie, transferred his head- 


quarters to the neighborhood of the lakes, where a county named after 
him was formed, which included the northwest of Ohio, all of Michigan, 
and the northeast of Indiana. During this same year settlements were 
formed at the present City of Chillicothe, along the Miami from Middle- 
town to Piqua, while in the more distant West, settlers and speculators 
began to appear in great numbers. In September, the City of Cleveland 
was laid out, and during the Summer and Autumn, Samuel Jackson and 
Jonathan Sharpless erected the first manufactory of paper — the " Red- 
stone Paper Mill" — in the West. St. Louis contained some seventy 
houses, and Detroit over three hundred, and along the river, contiguous 
to it, were more than three thousand inhabitants, mostly French Canadians, 
Indians and half-breeds, scarcely any Americans venturing yet into that 
part of the Northwest. 

The election of representatives for the territory had taken place, 
and on the 4th of February, 1799, they convened at Losantiville — now 
known as Cincinnati, having been named so by Gov. St. Clair, and 
considered the capital of the Territory — to nominate persons from whom 
the members of the Legislature were to be chosen in accordance with 
a previous ordinance. This nomination being made, the Assembly 
adjourned until the 16th of the following September. From those named 
the President selected as members of the council, Henry Vandenburg, 
of Vincennes, Robert Oliver, of Marietta, James Findlay and Jacob 
Burnett, of Cincinnati, and David Vance, of Vanceville. On the 16th 
of September the Territorial Legislature met, and on the 24th the two 
houses were duly organized, Henry Vandenburg being elected President 
of the Council. • 

The message of Gov. St. Clair was addressed to the Legislature 
September 20th, and on October 13th that body elected as a delegate to 
Congress Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison, who received eleven of the votes 
cast, being a majority of one over his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of 
Gen. St. Clair. 

The whole number of acts passed at this session, and approved by 
the Governor, were thirty-seven — eleven others were passed, but received 
his veto. The most important of those passed related to the militia, to 
the administration, and to taxation. On the 19th of December this pro- 
tracted session of the first Legislature in the West was closed, and on the 
30th of December the President nominated Charles Willing Bryd to the 
office of Secretary of the Territory vice Wm. Henry Harrison, elected to 
Congress. The Senate confirmed his nomination the next day. 



The increased emigration to the Northwest, the extent of the domain, 
and the inconvenient modes of travel, made it very difficult to conduct 
the ordinary operations of government, and rendered the efficient action 
of courts almost impossible. To remedy this, it was deemed advisable to 
divide the territory for civil purposes. Congress, in 1800, appointed a 
committee to examine the question and report some means for its solution. 
This committee, on the 3d of March, reported that : 

" In the three western countries there has been but one court having 
cognizance of crimes, in five years, and the immunity which offenders 
experience attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile and abandoned crim- 
inals, and at the same time deters useful citizens from making settlements 
in such society. The extreme necessity of judiciary attention and assist- 
ance is experienced in civil as well as in criminal cases. * * * * To 
minister a remedy to these and other evils, it occurs to this committee 
that it is expedient that a division of said territory into two distinct and 
separate governments should be made ; and that such division be made 
by a line beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, running 
directly north until it intersects the boundary between the United States 
and Canada." 

The report was accepted by Congress, and, in accordance with its 
suggestions, that body passed an Act extinguishing the Northwest Terri- 
tory, which Act was approved May 7. Among its provisions were these : 

" That from and after July 4 next, all that part of the Territory of 
the United States northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the westward 
of a line beginning at a point on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the 
Kentucky River, and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north 
until it shall intersect the territorial line between the United States and 
Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a 
separate territory, and be called the Indiana Territory." 

After providing for the exercise of the civil and criminal powers of 
the territories, and other provisions, the Act further provides: 

" That until it shall otherwise be ordered by the Legislatures of the 
said Territories, respectively, Chillicothe on the Scioto River shall be the 
seat of government of the Territory of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio River ; and that St. Vincennes on the Wabash River shall be the 
seat of government for the Indiana Territory." 

Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison was appointed Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and entered upon his duties about a year later. Connecticut 
also about this time released her claims to the reserve, and in March a law 


was passed accepting this cession. Settlements had been made upon 
thirty-five of the townships in the reserve, mills had been built, and seven 
hundred miles of road cut in various directions. On the 3d of November 
the General Assembly met at Chillicothe. Near the close of the year, 
the first missionary of the Connecticut Reserve came, who found no 
township containing more than eleven families. It was upon the first of 
October that the secret treaty had been made between Napoleon and the 
King of Spain, whereby the latter agreed to cede to France the province 
of Louisiana. 

In January, 1802, the Assembly of the Northwestern Territory char- 
tered the college at Athens. From the earliest dawn of the western 
colonies, education was promptly provided for, and as early as 1787, 
newspapers were issued from Pittsburgh and Kentucky, and largely read 
throughout the frontier settlements. Before the close of this year, the 
Congress of the United States granted to the citizens of the Northwestern 
territory the formation of a State government. One of the provisions of 
the " compact of 1787" provided that whenever the number of inhabit- 
ants within prescribed limits exceeded 45,000, they should be entitled to 
a separate government. The prescribed limits of Ohio contained, from a 
census taken to ascertain the legality of the act, more than that number, 
and on the 30th of April, 1802, Congress passed the act defining its limits, 
and on the 29th of November the Constitution of the new State of Ohio, 
so named from the beautiful river forming its southern boundary, came 
into existence. The exact limits of Lake Michigan were not then known, 
but the territory now included within the State of Michigan was wholly 
within the territory of Indiana. 

Gen. Harrison, while residing at Vincennes, made several treaties 
with the Indians, thereby gaining large tracts of lands. The next year is 
memorable in the history of the West for the purchase of Louisiana from 
Fiance by the United States for $15,000,000. Thus by a peaceful mode, 
the domain of the United States was extended over a large tract of 
country west of the Mississippi, and was for a time under the jurisdiction 
of the Northwest government, and, as has been mentioned in the early 
part of this narrative, was called the "New Northwest." The limits 
of this history will not allow a description of its territory. The same year 
large grants of land were obtained from the Indians, and the House of 
Representatives of the new State of Ohio signed a bill respecting the 
College Township in the district of Cincinnati. 

Before the close of the year, Gen. Harrison obtained additional 
giants of lands from the various Indian nations in Indiana and the present 
limits of Illinois, and on the 18th of August, 1804, completed a treaty at 
St. Louis, whereby over 51,000,000 acres of lands were obtained from the 


aborigines. Measures were also taken to learn the condition of affairs in 
and about Detroit. 

C. Jouett, the Indian agent in Michigan, still a part of Indiana Terri- 
tory, reported as follows upon the condition of matters at that post : 

" The Town of Detroit. — The charter, which is for fifteen miles 
square, was granted in the time of Louis XIV. of France, and is now, 
from the best information I have been able to get, at Quebec. Of those 
two hundred and twenty-five acres, only four are occupied by the town 
and Fort Lenault. The remainder is a common, except twenty-four 
acres, which were added twenty years ago to a farm belonging to Wm. 
Macomb. * * * A stockade incloses the town, fort and citadel. The 
pickets, as well as the public houses, are in a state of gradual decay. The 
streets are narrow, straight and regular, and intersect each other at right 
angles. The houses are, for the most part, low and inelegant." 

During this year, Congress granted a township of land for the sup- 
port of a college, and began to offer inducements for settlers in these 
wilds, and the country now comprising the State of Michigan began to 
fill rapidly with settlers along its southern borders. This same year, also, 
a law was passed organizing the Southwest Territory, dividing it into two 
portions, the Territory of New Orleans, which city was made the seat of 
government, and the District of Louisiana, which was annexed to the 
domain of Gen. Harrison. 

On the 11th of January, 1805, the Territory of Michigan was formed, 
Wm. Hull was appointed governor, with headquarters at Detroit, the 
change to take effect on June 30. On the 11th of that month, a fire 
occurred at Detroit, which destroyed almost every building in the place. 
When the officers of the new territory reached the post, they found it in 
ruins, and the inhabitants scattered throughout the country. Rebuild- 
ing, however, soon commenced, and ere long the town contained more 
houses than before the fire, and many of them much better built. 

While this was being done, Indiana had passed to the second grade 
of government, and through her General Assembly had obtained large 
tracts of land from the Indian tribes. To all this the celebrated Indian, 
Tecumthe or Tecumseh, vigorously protested, and it was the main cause 
of his attempts to unite the various Indian tribes in a conflict with the 
settlers. To obtain a full account of these attempts, the workings of the 
British, and the signal failure, culminating in the death of Tecumseh at 
the battle of the Thames, and the close of the war of 1812 in the Northwest, 
we will step aside in our story, and relate the principal events of his life, 
and his connection with this conflict. 






This famous Indian chief was born about the year 1768, not far from 
the site of the present city of Springfield, Ohio. His father, Puckeshinwa, 
was a member of the Kisopok tribe of the Swanoese nation, and his 
mother, Methontaske, was a member of the Turtle tribe of the same 
people. They removed from Florida about the middle of the last century 
to the birthplace of Tecumseh. In 1774, his father, who had risen to be 
chief, was slain at the battle of Point Pleasant, and not long after Tecum- 
seh, by his bravery, became the leader of his tribe. In 1795 he was 
declared chief, and then lived at Deer Creek, near the site of the 
present City of Urbana. He remained here about one year, when he 
returned to Piqua, and in 1798, he went to White River, Indiana. In 
1805, he and his brother, Laulewasikan (Open Door), who had announced 
himself as a prophet, went to a tract of land on the Wabash River, given 
them by the Pottawatomies and Kickapoos. From this date the chief 
comes into prominence. He was now about thirty-seven years of age, 
was five feet and ten inches in height, was stoutly built, and possessed of 
enormous powers of endurance. His countenance was naturally pleas- 
ing, and he was, in general, devoid of those savage attributes possessed 
by most Indians. It is stated he could read and write, and had a confi- 
dential secretary and adviser, named Billy Caldwell, a half-breed, who 
afterward became chief of the Pottawatomies. He occupied the first 
house built on the site of Chicago. At this time, Tecumseh entered 
upon the great work of his life. He had long objected to the grants of 
land made by the Indians to the whites, and determined to unite all the 
Indian tribes into a league, in order that' no treaties or grants of land 
could be made save by the consent of this confederation. 

He traveled constantly, going from north to south ; from the south 
to the north, everywhere urging the Indians to this step. He was a 
matchless orator, and his burning words had their effect. 

Gen. Harrison, then Governor of Indiana, by watching the move- 
ments of the Indians, became convinced that a grand conspiracy was 
forming, and made preparations to defend the settlements. Tecumseh's 
plan was similar to Pontiac's, elsewhere described, and to the cunning 
artifice of that chieftain was added his own sagacity. 

During the year 1809, Tecumseh and the prophet were actively pre- 
paring for the work. In that year, Gen. Harrison entered into a treaty 
with the Delawares, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel River Indians 
and Weas, in which these tribes ceded to the whites certain lands upon 
the Wabash, to all of which Tecumseh entered a bitter protest, averring 


as one principal reason that he did not want the Indians to give up any 
lands north and west of the Ohio River. 

Tecumseh, in August, 1810, visited the General at Vincennes and 
held a council relating to the grievances of the Indians. Becoming unduly 
angry at this conference he was dismissed from the village, and soon after 
departed to incite the southern Indian tribes to the conflict. 

Gen. Harrison determined to move upon the chief's headquarters at 
Tippecanoe, and for this purpose went about sixty-five miles up the 
Wabash, where he built Fort Harrison. From this place he went to the 
prophet's town, where he informed the Indians he had no hostile inten- 
tions, provided they were true to the existing treaties. He encamped 
near the village early in October, and on the morning of November 7, he 
was attacked by a large force of the Indians, and the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe occurred. The Indians were routed and their town broken 
up. Tecumseh returning not long after, was greatly exasperated at his 
brother, the prophet, even threatening to kill him for rashly precipitating 
the war, and foiling his (Tecumseh's) plans. 

Tecumseh sent word to Gen. Harrison that he was now returned 
from the South, and was read}' - to visit the President as had at one time 
previously been proposed. Gen. Harrison informed him he could not go 
as a chief, which method Tecumseh desired, and the visit was never 

In June of the following year, he visited the Indian agent at 
Fort Wayne. Here he disavowed any intention to make a war against 
the United States, and reproached Gen. Harrison for marching against his 
people. The agent replied to this ; Tecumseh listened with a cold indif- 
ference, and after making a few general remarks, with a haughty air drew 
his blanket about him, left the council house, and departed for Fort Mai- 
den, in Upper Canada, where he joined the British standard. 

He remained under this Government, doing effective work for the 
Crown while engaged in the war of 1812 which now opened. He was, 
however, always humane in his treatment of the prisoners, never allow- 
ing his warriors to ruthlessly mutilate the bodies of those slain, or wan- 
tonly murder the captive. 

In the Summer of 1813, Perry's victory on Lake Erie occurred, and 
shortly after active preparations were made to capture Maiden. On the 
27th of September, the American army, under Gen. Harrison, set sail for 
the shores of Canada, and in a few hours stood around the ruins of Mai- 
den, from which the British army, under Proctor, had retreated to Sand- 
wich, intending to make its way to the heart of Canada by the Valley of 
the Thames. On the 29th Gen. Harrison was at Sandwich, and Gen, 
Mc Arthur took possession of Detroit and the territory of Michigan. 



On the 2d of October, the Americans began their pursuit of Proctor, 
whom they overtook on the 5th, and the battle of the Thames followed. 
Early in the engagement, Tecumseh who was at the head of the column 
of Indians was slain, and they, no longer hearing the voice of their chief- 
tain, fled. The victory was -decisive, and practically closed the war in 
the Northwest. 


Just who killed the great chief has been a matter of much dispute ; 
but the weight of opinion awards the act to Col. Richard M. Johnson, 
who fired at him with a pistol, the shot proving fatal. 

In 1805 occurred Burr's Insurrection. He took possession of a 
beautiful island in the Ohio, after the killing of Hamilton, and is charged 
by many with attempting to set up an independent government. His 
plans were frustrated by the general government, his property confiscated 
and he was compelled to flee the country for safety. 


In January, 1807, Governor Hull, of Michigan Territory, made a 
treaty with the Indians, whereby all that peninsula was ceded to the 
United States. Before the close of the year, a stockade was built about 
Detroit. It was also during this year that Indiana and Illinois endeavored 
to obtain the repeal of that section of the compact of 1787, whereby 
slavery was excluded from the Northwest Territory. These attempts, 
however, all signally failed. 

In 1809 it was deemed advisable to divide the Indiana Territory. 
This was done, and the Territory of Illinois was formed from the western 
part, the seat of government being fixed at Kaskaskia. The next year, 
the intentions of Tecumseh manifested themselves in open hostilities, and 
then began the events already narrated. 

While this war was in progress, emigration to the West went on with 
surprising rapidity. In 1811, under Mr. Roosevelt of New York, the 
first steamboat trip was made on the Ohio, much to the astonishment of 
the natives, many of whom fled in terror at the appearance of the 
" monster." It arrived at Louisville on the 10th day of October. At the 
close of the first week of January, 1812, it arrived at Natchez, after being 
nearly overwhelmed in the great earthquake which occurred while on its 
downward trip. 

The battle of the Thames was fought on October 6, 1813. It 
effectually closed hostilities in the Northwest, although peace was not 
fully restored until July 22, 1814, when a treaty was formed at Green- 
ville, under the direction of General Harrison, between the United States 
and the Indian tribes, in which it was stipulated that the Indians should 
cease hostilities against the Americans if the war were continued. Such, 
happily, was not the case, and on the 24th of December the treaty 
of Ghent was signed by the representatives of England and the United 
States. This treaty was followed the next year by treaties with various 
Indian tribes throughout the West and Northwest, and quiet was again 
restored in this part of the new world. 

On the 18th of March, 1816, Pittsburgh was incorporated as a city. 
It then had a population of 8,000 people, and was already noted for its 
manufacturing interests. On April 19, Indiana Territory was allowed 
to form a state government. At that time there were thirteen counties 
organized, containing about sixty-three thousand inhabitants. The first 
election of state officers was held in August, when Jonathan Jennings 
was chosen Governor. The officers were sworn in on November 7, and 
on December 11, the State was formally admitted into the Union. For 
some time the seat of government was at Corydon, but a more central 
location being desirable, the present capital, Indianapolis (City of Indiana), 
was laid out January 1, 1825. 


On the 28th of December the Bank of Illinois, at Shawneetown, was 
chartered, with a capital of $300,000. At this period all banks were 
under the control of the States, and were allowed to establish branches 
at different convenient points. 

Until this time Chillicothe and Cincinnati had in turn enjoyed the 
privileges of being the capital of Ohio. But the rapid settlement of the 
northern and eastern portions of the State demanded, as in Indiana, a 
more central location, and before the close of the year, the site of Col- 
umbus was selected and surveyed as the future capital of the State. 
Banking had begun in Ohio as early as 1808, when the first bank was 
chartered at Marietta, but here as elsewhere it did not bring to the state 
the hoped-for assistance. It and other banks were subsequently unable 
to redeem their currency, and were obliged to suspend. 

In 1818, Illinois was made a state, and all the territory north of her 
northern limits was erected into a separate territory and joined to Mich- 
igan for judicial purposes. By the following year, navigation of the lakes 
was increasing with great rapidity and affording an immense source of 
revenue to the dwellers in the Northwest, but it was not until 1826 that 
the trade was extended to Lake Michigan, or that steamships began to 
navigate the bosom of that inland sea. 

Until the year 1832, the commencement of the Black Hawk War, 
but few hostilities were experienced with the Indians. Roads were 
opened, canals were dug, cities were built, common schools were estab- 
lished, universities were founded, many of which, especially the Michigan 
University, have achieved a world wide-reputation. The people were 
becoming wealthy. The domains of the United States had been extended, 
and had the sons of the forest been treated with honesty and justice, the 
record of many years would have been that of peace and continuous pros- 


This conflict, though confined to Illinois, is an important epoch in 
the Northwestern history, being the last war with the Indians in this part 
of the United States. 

Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, or Black Hawk, was born in the principal 
Sac village, about three miles from the junction of Rock River with the 
Mississippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa or Pahaes ; 
his grandfather's, Na-na-ma-kee, or the Thunderer. Black Hawk early 
distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of fifteen was permitted 
to paint and was ranked among the braves. About the year 1783, he 
went on an expedition against the enemies of his nation, the Osages, one 





of whom he killed and scalped, and for this deed of Indian bravery he was 
permitted to join in the scalp dance. Three or four years after he, at the 
head of two hundred braves, went on another expedition against the 
Osages, to avenge the murder of some women and children belonging to 
his own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued, in which the latter tribe lost one-half their number. The 
Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the Cherokees 
for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them, near the present City 
of St. Louis, his father was slain, and Black Hawk, taking possession of 
the " Medicine Bag," at once announced himself chief of the Sac nation. 
He had now conquered the Cherokees, and about the year 1800, at the 
head of five hundred Sacs and Foxes, and a hundred Iowas, he waged 
war against the Osage nation and subdued it. For two years he battled 
successfully with other Indian tribes, all of whom he conquered. 

Black Hawk does not at any time seem to have been friendly to 
the Americans. When on a visit to St. Louis to see his " Spanish 
Father," he declined to see any of the Americans, alleging, as a reason, 
he did not want two fathers. 

The treaty at St. Louis was consummated in 1804. The next year the 
United States Government erected a fort near the head of the Des Moines 
Rapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, who 
at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the west side of 
the Mississippi above the mouth of the Des Moines River. The fort was 
garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. The difficulties 
with the British Government arose about this time, and the War of 1812 
followed. That government, extending aid to the Western Indians, by 
giving them arms and ammunition, induced them to remain hostile to the 
Americans. In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing on 
his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn Massacre 
had a few days before occurred. Of his connection with the British 
Government but little is known. In 1813 he with his little band descended 
the Mississippi, and attacking some United States troops at Fort Howard 
was defeated. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace had been declared between the United States 
and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Black Hawk did not 
sign any treaty, however, until May of the following year. He then recog- 
nized the validity of the treaty at St. Louis in 1804. From the time of 
signing this treaty in 1816, until the breaking out of the war in 1832, he 
and his band passed their time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and Fox 


Indians were urged to join the Iowas on the west bank of the Father of 
Waters. All were agreed, save the band known as the British Band, of 
which Black Hawk was leader. He strenuously objected to the removal, 
and was induced to comply only after being threatened with the power of 
the Government. This and various actions on the part of the white set- 
tlers provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture of his 
native village now occupied by the whites. The war followed. He and 
his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and had his wishes been 
acquiesced in at the beginning of the struggle, much bloodshed would 
have been prevented. 

Black Hawk was chief now of the Sac and Fox nations, and a noted 
warrior. He and his tribe inhabited a village on Rock River, nearly three 
miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, where the tribe had lived 
many generations. When that portion of Illinois was reserved to them, 
they remained in peaceable possession of their reservation, spending their 
time in the enjoyment of Indian life. The fine situation of their village 
and the quality of their lands incited the more lawless white settlers, who 
from time to time began to encroach upon the red men's domain. From 
one pretext to another, and from one step to another, the crafty white 
men gained a foothold, until through whisky and artifice they obtained 
deeds from many of the Indians for their possessions. The Indians were 
finally induced to cross over the Father of Waters and locate among the 
Iowas. Black Hawk was strenuously opposed to all this, but as the 
authorities of Illinois and the United States thought this the best move, he 
was forced to comply. Moreover other tribes joined the whites and urged 
the removal. Black Hawk would not agree to the terms of the treaty 
made with his nation for their lands, and as soon as the military, called to 
enforce his removal, had retired, he returned to the Illinois side of the 
river. A large force was at once raised and marched against him. On 
the evening of May 14, 1832, the first engagement occurred between a 
band from this army and Black Hawk's band, in which the former were 

This attack and its result aroused the whites. A large force of men 
was raised, and Gen. Scott hastened from the seaboard, by way of the 
lakes, with United States troops and artillery to aid in the subjugation of 
the Indians. On the 24th of June, Black Hawk, with 200 warriors, was 
repulsed by Major Demont between Rock River and Galena. The Ameri- 
can army continued to move up Rock River toward the main body of 
the Indians, and on the 21st of July came upon Black Hawk and his band, 
and defeated them near the Blue Mounds. 

Before this action, Gen. Henry, in command, sent word to the main 
army by whom he was immediately rejoined, and the whole crossed the 


Wisconsin in pursuit of Black Hawk and his band who were fleeing to the 
Mississippi. They were overtaken on the 2d of August, and in the battle 
which followed the power of the Indian chief was completely broken. He 
fled, but was seized by the Winnebagoes and delivered to the whites. 

On the 21st of September, 1832, Gen. Scott and Gov. Reynolds con- 
cluded a treaty with the Winnebagoes, Sacs and Foxes by which they 
ceded to the United States a vast tract of country, and agreed to remain 
peaceable with the whites. For the faithful performance of the provi- 
sions of this treaty on the part of the Indians, it was stipulated that 
Black Hawk, his two sons, the prophet Wabokieshiek, and six other chiefs 
of the hostile bands should be retained as hostages during the pleasure 
of the President. They were confined at Fort Barracks and put in irons. 

The next Spring, by order of the Secretary of War, they were taken 
to Washington. From there they were removed to Fortress Monroe, 
"there to remain until the conduct of their nation was such as to justify 
their being set at liberty." They were retained here until the 4th of 
June, when the authorities directed them to be taken to the principal 
cities so that they might see the folly of contending against the white 
people. , Eve^where they were observed by thousands, the name of the 
old chief being extensively known. By the middle of August they 
reached Fort Armstrong on Rock Island, where Black Hawk was soon 
after released to go to his countrymen. As he passed the site of his birth- 
place, now the home of the white man, he was deeply moved. His village 
where he was born, where he had so happily lived, and where he had 
hoped to die, was now another's dwelling place, and he was a wanderer. 

On the next day after his release, he went at once to his tribe and 
his lodge, His wife was yet living, and with her he passed the remainder 
of his days. To his credit it may be said that Black Hawk always re- 
mained true to his wife, and served her with a devotion uncommon among 
the Indians, living with her upward of forty years. 

Black Hawk now passed his time hunting and fishing. A deep mel- 
ancholy had settled over him from which he could not be freed. At all 
times when he visited the whites he was received with marked atten- 
tion. He was an honored guest at the old settlers' reunion in Lee County, 
Illinois, at some of their meetings, and received many tokens of esteem. 
In September, 1838, while on his way to Rock Island to receive his 
annuity from the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted 
in a fatal attack of bilious fever which terminated his life on October 3. 
His faithful wife, who was devotedly attached to him, mourned deeply 
during his sickness. After his death he was dressed in the uniform pre- 
sented to him by the President while in Washington. He was buried in 
a grave six feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. " The 


body was placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture, upon a 
seat constructed for the purpose. On his left side, the cane, given him 
by Henry Clay, was placed upright, with his right hand resting upon it. 
Many of the old warrior's trophies were placed in the grave, and some 
Indian garments, together with his favorite weapons." 

No sooner was the Black Hawk war concluded than settlers began 
rapidly to pour into the northern parts of Illinois, and into Wisconsin, 
now free from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown to a commercial center, and was rapidly coming into prominence. 
In 1835, the formation of a State Government in Michigan was discussed, 
but did not take active form until two years later, when the State became 
a part of the Federal Union. 

The main attraction to that portion of the Northwest lying west of 
Lake Michigan, now included in the State of Wisconsin, was its alluvial 
wealth. Copper ore was found about Lake Superior. For some time this 
region was attached to Michigan for judiciary purposes, but in 183(3 was 
made a territory, then including Minnesota and Iowa. The latter State 
was detached two years later. In 1848, Wisconsin was admitted as a 
State, Madison being made the capital. We have now traced the various 
divisions of the Northwest Territory (save a little in Minnesota) from 
the time it was a unit comprising this vast territory, until circumstances 
compelled its present division. 



We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common 
defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty 
to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution 
for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in 
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of mem- 
bers chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the 
electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of 
the most numerous branch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-live years, and been seven years a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in 
which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the sev- 
eral states which may be included within this Union, according to their 
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole 
number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of 
years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual enumeration shall be made within three 3-ears after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subse- 
quent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The 
number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, 
but each state shall have at least one Representative ; and until such 
enumeration shall be made the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 
to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plan- 
tations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylva- 
nia eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, 
and Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the 
Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such 

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other 
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each state, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years ; 
and each Senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. 
The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expira- 


tion of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth 
year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that 
one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by 
resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any state, 
the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next 
meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty years and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he 
shall be chosen. 

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro 
tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise 
the office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When 
sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the 
President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall preside. 
And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds 
of the members present. 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of 
honor, trust, or profit under the United States ; but the party convicted 
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, 
and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Sen- 
ators and Representatives shall be prescribed' in each state by the Legis- 
lature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter 
such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by 
law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the election, returns, and 
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute 
a quorum to do business ; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to 
day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members 
in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its 
members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, 
expel a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, 
require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house 
on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered 
on the journal. 

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the 
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other 
place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. b\ The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compen- 
sation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the 
treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, 



felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their 
attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and 
returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either house 
they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall 
have been increased during such time ; and no person holding any office 
under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his 
continuance in office. 

Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of 
Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments 
as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed/the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President 
of the United States ; if he approve he shall sign it ; but if not he shall 
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have origi- 
nated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration two-thirds of that 
house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objec- 
tions, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if 
approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all 
such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, 
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered 
on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned 
by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted), after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he 
had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its 
return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the 
United States, and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by 
him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of 
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and lim- 
itations prescribed in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts, 
and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United 
States ; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout 
the United States ; 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States ; 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
States, and with the Indian tribes ; 

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on 
the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States ; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and 
fix the standard of weights and measures ; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current coin of the United States ; 

To establish post offices and post roads ; 


To promote the progress of sciences and useful arts, by securing, 
for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their 
respective writings and discoveries ; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court ; 

To define and puni.sli piracies and felonies committed on the high 
seas, and offenses against the law of nations ; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water ; 

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that 
use shall be for a longer term than two years ; 

To provide and maintain a navy ; 

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and 
naval forces ; 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the 
Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions ; 

To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and 
for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the states respectively the appointment of the 
officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the disci- 
pline prescribed by Congress ; 

To exercise legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not 
exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the 
acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United 
States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the 
consent of the Legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for 
the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful 
buildings ; and 

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this 
Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any depart- 
ment or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the 
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited 
by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, 
but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may 
require it. 

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion 
to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. 

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or rev- 
enue to the ports of one state over those of another ; nor shall vessels 
bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in 

No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law ; and a regular statement and account of 
the receipts and expeditures of all public money shall be published from 
time to time. 


No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States : and no 
person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the 
consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title 
of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confeder- 
ation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; emit bills of 
credit ; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of 
debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the 
obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts 
or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and 
imposts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the 
Treasury of the United States ; and all such laws shall be subject to the 
revision and control of the Congress. 

No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on 
tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any 
agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or 
engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will 
not admit of delay. 

Article II. 

Section 1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term 
of four years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same 
term, be elected as follows : 

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof 
may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators 
and Representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress ; 
but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or 
profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 

[ * The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of 
the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the 
persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government 
of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The Pres- 
ident of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. 
The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; 
and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal 
number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately 
choose by ballot one of them for President ; and if no person have a ma- 
jority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like 
manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the vote 
shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one 
vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members 
from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be 
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, 

•This clause between, brackets has been superseded and annulled by the Twelttbameuduient. 


the person having the greatest number of votes of the Electors shall be 
the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have 
equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-Presi- 

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Electors, and 
the day on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United 
States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible 
to the office of President ; neither shall any person be eligible to that 
office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been 
fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, 
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said 
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress 
may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inabil- 
ity, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer sshall 
then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the dis- 
ability be removed, or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a com- 
pensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the 
j^eriod for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive 
within that period any other emolument from the United States or any of 

Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the fol- 
lowing oath or affirmation : 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, 
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the army and 
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when 
called into the actual service of the United States ; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive 
departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective 
offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardon for offenses 
against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present con- 
cur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice of the Senate, 
shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of 
the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose 
appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be 
established by law ; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment 
of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in 
the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may 
happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which 
shall expire at the end of their next session. 

Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information 
of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such mea- 
sures as he shall judge necessary and expedient ; he may on extraordinary 


occasions convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagree- 
ment between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may 
adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper ; he shall receive 
ambassadors and other public ministers ; he shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United 

Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the 
United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and con- 
viction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

Article III. 

Section I. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested 
in one Supreme Court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may from 
time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and 
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and 
treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority ; to all cases 
affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls ; to all cases of 
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United 
States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more states ; 
between a state and citizens of another state ; between citizens of differ- 
ent states ; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants 
of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign 
states, citizens, or subjects. 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, 
and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have 
original jurisdiction. 

In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall 
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions 
and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by 
jury ; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall 
have been committed ; but when not committed within any state, the 
trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have 

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levy- 
ing war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid 
and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the tes- 
timony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open 

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, 
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, 
except during the life of the person attainted. 

Article IV. 

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the 
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of everv other state. And 


the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such 
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges 
and immunities of citizens in the several states. 

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, 
who shall flee from justice and be found in another state, shall, on demand 
of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered 
up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime. 

No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation 
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered 
up on the claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3. New states may be admitted b}^ the Congress into this Union ; 
but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other state ; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, 
or parts of states, without the consent of the Legislatures of the states 
concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful 
rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging 
to the United States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed 
as to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this 
Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them 
against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or of the Execu- 
tive (when the Legislature can not be convened), against domestic vio- 

Article V. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it 
necessar}', shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the ap- 
plication of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call 
a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be 
valid to all intents and purposes as part of this Constitution, when rati- 
fied by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by con- 
ventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratifi- 
cation may be proposed by the Congress. Provided that no amendment 
which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth 
section of the first article ; and that no state, without its consent, shall 
be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

Article VI. 

All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adop- 
tion of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under 
this Constitution as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be 
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the 
land ; and the Judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in 
the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the mem- 



bers of the several state Legislatures, and all executive and judicial offi- 
cers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound 
by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution ; but no religious test 
shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under 
the United States. 

Article VII. 

The ratification of the Conventions of nine states shall be sufficient 
for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratifying 
the same. 

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the 
seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the 
United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto subscribed our names. 


President and Deputy from Virginia. 

New Hampshire. 
John Langdon, 
Nicholas Gilman. 

Nathaniel Gorham, 
Rufus King. 

Wm. Sam'l Johnson, 
Roger Sherman. 

Geo. Read, 
John Dickinson, 
Jaco. Broom, 
Gunning Bedford, Jr., 
Richard Bassett. 

James M' Henry, 
Danl. Carroll, 
Dan. of St. Thos. Jenifer. 

New York. 
Alexander Hamilton. 

New Jersey. 
Wil. Livingston, 
Wm. Paterson, 
David Brearley, 
Jona. Dayton. 

B. Franklin, 
Robt. Morris, 
Thos. Fitzsimons, 
James Wilson, 
Thos. Mifflin, ■ 
Geo. Clymer, 
Jared Ingersoll, 
Gouv. Morris. 

John Blair, 
James Madison, Jr. 

North Carolina. 
Wm. Blount, 
Hit. Williamson, 
Rich'd Dobbs Spaight. 

South Carolina. 
j. rutledge, 
Charles Pinckney, 
Chas. Cotesworth Pinckney, 
Pierce Butler. 

William Few, 
Abr. Baldwin. 



Articles in Addition to and Amendatory op the Constitution 
of the United States op America. 

Proposed by Congress and ratified by the Legislatures of the several states, 
pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution. 

Article I. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of 
speech, or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Article II. 

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free 
state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

Article III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Article IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, 
and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be vio- 
lated ; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched 
and the persons or things to be seized. 

Article V. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual 
service in time of war or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall 
be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law ; nor 
ehall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

Article VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have 
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and 
cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; 
to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor ; and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

Article VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 


tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United 
States than according to the rules of the common law. 

Article VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

Article IX. 

The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

Article X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, 
or to the people. 

Article XI. 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one 
of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or sub- 
jects of any foreign state. 

Article XII. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot 
for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an 
inhabitant of the same state with themselves ; they shall name in their 
ballots the person to be voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the 
person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of 
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice- 
President, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign 
and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United 
States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the 
Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person 
having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; 
and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the 
highest number not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as 
President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by 
ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be 
taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; a 
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two- 
thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to 
a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a Presi- 
dent whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 
fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as 
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice- 
President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be the majority 
of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a major- 


ity then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose 
the Vice-President ; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds 
of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number 
shall be necessary to a -choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible 
to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the 
United States. 

Akticle XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their juris- 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 

Article XIV. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and 
of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law 
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United 
States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
the equal protection of the laws. 

Sec. 2. Representatives shall be appointed among the several states 
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of per- 
sons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed ; but when the right to 
vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice- 
President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the execu- 
tive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the Legislature 
thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being 
twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way 
abridged except for participation in rebellion or other crimes, the basis of 
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the num- 
ber of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 
twenty-one years of age in such state. 

Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, 
or Elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or 
military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previ- 
ously taken an oath as a Member of Congress, or as an officer of the 
United States, or as a member of any state Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any state to support the Constitution of the 
United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
6ame, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may. 
by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. 

Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States author- 
ized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and boun- 
ties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be ques- 
tioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall pay any debt 
or obligation incurred in the aid of insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States, or any loss or emancipation of any slave, but such debts, 
obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 


Article XV. 


Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not 
be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on account of race, 
color, or previous condion of servitude. 


On Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway. 


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IT is not our province in a volume of this description, to delineate the chronol- 
ogy of prehistoric epochs, or to dwell at length upon those topics pertaining 
to the scientific causes which tended to the formation of a continent, undiscov- 
ered for centuries, by the wisdom and energy of those making a history of the 
Old World, by the advancement of enlightenment in the Eastern Hemisphere. 

Naturally, the geological formation of the State of Ohio cannot be entirely 
separated from facts relative to the strata, which, in remote ages accumulated 
one layer above the other, and finally constituted a "built-up" America, from 
a vast sea. The action of this huge body of water washed sediment and what- 
ever came in its way upon primitive rocks, which were subjected to frequent 
and repeated submersions, emerging as the water subsided, thus leaving a 
stratum or layer to solidify and mark its number in the series — a system of 
growth repeated in trees of the forest — in those descernible rings that count so 
many years. The southeastern part of North America emerging a second 
time from the Silurian Sea, which extended west to the Rocky Mountains and 
north to the primitive hills of British America, a succession of rock -bound, 
salt-water lakes remained. These covered a large portion of the continent, and 
their water evaporating, organic and mineral matter remained to solidify. This 
thick stratum has been designated by geologists as the water-lime layer. This 
constitutes the upper layer of rock in the larger portion of the west half of 
Ohio. In other sections it forms the bed rock. 

Following the lime-rock deposit, must have been more frequent sweeps of 
the great sea, since the layers are comparatively thin, proving a more speedy 
change. During this scientific rising and falling of the sea, other actions were 
taking place, such as volcanic and other influences which displaced the regular- 
ity of the strata, and occasionally came out in an upheaval or a regular perpen- 
dicular dip. A disturbance of this character formed the low mountain range 
extending from the highlands of Canada to the southern boundary of Tennes- 
see. This "bulge" is supposed to be the consequence of the cooling of the 
earth and the pressure of the oceans on either side of the continent. Geolo- 
gists designate this as the Cincinnati arch. This forms a separation between 
the coal fields of the Alleghanies and those of Illinois. 

Passing over several periods, we reach the glacial, during which the topog- 
raphy of the continent was considerably modified, and which is among the 
latest epochs of goology, though exceedingly remote as compared with human 



history. Previously, a torrid heat prevailed the entire Northern hemisphere. 
Now the temperature of the frigid zone crept southward until it reached Cincin- 
nati. A vast field of ice, perhaps hundreds of feet thick, extended from the 
north pole to this point. As this glacial rigor came southward, the flow of 
the St. Lawrence River was stopped, and the surplus water of the great lake 
basin was turned into the Ohio and Mississippi. This glacial sea was by no 
means stationary even after its southern limit had been reached. It possessed 
the properties of a solid and a fluid. Its action was slow but powerful, grind- 
ing mountains to powder and forming great valleys and basins. Separating 
into two glacial portions, one moved toward the watershed north of the Ohio 
River ; and, continuing westerly, it hollowed out the basin of Lake Erie and 
crushed the apex of the Cincinnati arch. From this point, it turned south- 
ward and swept with a regular course through the Maumee and Miami Valleys 
to the Ohio River. The southern border constantly melting, and flowing toward 
the Gulf of Mexico, the great field was pressed forward by the accumulations 
of ice in the northern latitudes. Thus for ages, this powerful force was fitting 
the earth for the habitation of man. The surface was leveled, huge rocks 
broken and reduced to pebbles, sand, clay, etc., other soil and surface-material — 
while the debris was embedded at the bottom. In some sections, as the ice 
melted and freed the bowlders and rocks, the lighter material was swept away. 
The glacier moving forward, and the forces proving an " equilibrium," the 
edge of this ice-field was held in a solid stronghold, and the material thus de- 
posited forms a ridge, called by geologists "terminal moraine," first exemplified 
in Ohio by the "Black Swamp," in the Maumee Valley. 

The most extreme rigor of this period beginning to wane, the ice of the 
Maumee and Miami Valleys began to move slowly forward, toward the north, 
reaching the points now termed Hudson, Mich.; Fort Wayne, Ind., and Kenton, 
Ohio — reaching somewhat further south than Lima and Van Wert. The edge of 
the glacier was defined in outline by the present western border of Lake Erie, and 
parallel with it. Climatic influences " acting and counteracting," the glacial 
force was concentrated, the Maumee Valley being subjected to a grinding proc- 
ess, and a deposit of material going on, which now forms the boundary of the 
" Black Swamp." As our readers are aware, the waters of the St. Joseph and 
St. Mary's meet at Fort Wayne, and their united waters form the Maumee; 
thence the turn is northwest, and, wearing an outlet through the ridge, it 
reaches the head of Lake Erie. 

The torrid zone yet gaining the ascendency, the ice-fields continuing their 
reverse motion, and retreating toward the north, the basin of the great lakes 
was formed ; and the blocks of ice melting therein, a vast sea of fresh water was 
formed, which gradually overflowed a portion of Canada and Michigan, But 
the St. Lawrence, that important outlet, was under the restraint of an ice 
blockade, and the surplus water of the fresh sea was turned into the Ohio and 
and Mississippi. 


Later, mountains of ice-float were drifted from the north by winds and cur- 
rents, into temperate latitudes, and melting, deposited rocks, stones and general 
debris. Following the iceberg-drift, came the permanent elevation above the ocean- 
level. The St. Lawrence outlet was formed. The inland sea was assuming its 
division into lakes. The united waters of Erie and Huron flowed through the 
Wabash Valley and into the Ohio, until, through some agency, that section was 
dry, and the lakes drained in another direction. The action of the glacial 
period in the Erie basin vicinity created what is known as the "Niagara lime- 
stone," by grinding upper strata and drifting the debris elsewhere. This seems 
to have occurred at intervals, exposures being made in Seneca, Sandusky and 
Wood Counties, and beneath the axis of the Cincinnati arch. Oriskany lime- 
stone is also available in another stratum, which has been brought to the surface. 
Again, there is a carboniferous stratum of limestone, and along the Maumee is 
a thin exposure of the Hamilton limestone and shale. 

A glacier having both fluid and solid properties, it will readily be compre- 
hended that obdurate projections of rock resisted its action, and created currents 
in other directions, for its forces. When this specified epoch had ceased to be, 
Ohio was a rough, irregular and crude mixture of ridges and knobs and pinnacles, 
which were "leveled up " and finished by iceberg-drift and inland-sea deposits. 
This settled and accumulated, and the work of hundreds of years produced a 
beautiful surface, its inequalities overcome, the water having receded and " terra 
firma" remaining. A deep bed of clay, sufficiently compact to hold the germs 
of organic matter, and sufficiently porous to absorb moisture, was especially 
adapted to encourage the growth of vegetation. These seeds had been brought 
by the winds and waves and natural agencies, and now began to produce plants 
and shrubs, which withered to enrich the soil, after scattering broadcast seeds 
that would again perpetuate verdure. Worms, land crabs and burrowing ani- 
mals assisted in the creation of soil, while the buffalo, deer and bear followed, 
as soon as forestry appeared. Decomposed foliage and fallen timber aided in 
the great work of preparing the present State of Ohio for the habitation of man. 
Prairie, marsh, forest, rivers and lakes were formed, which, in turn, were modi- 
fied and prepared for a grand destiny by other influences. 

In glancing over the compiled histories of Ohio, those containing details of 
her early struggles, afflictions and triumphs, we are especially impressed with 
its near and sympathetic relation with the great Northwest, and the republic of 
the United States of America. From the early years when white men built 
their rude cabins in the then tangled wilderness, to the opulent and magnificent 
present of this united nation, Ohio has been stanch, loyal and earnest, both 
in action and principle. 

We shall endeavor to trace the history of the State concisely and accurately, 
according to the data given by the most reliable historians. We are obliged to 
glean the prominent events only, our space being limited, compared with the 
multitudinous interests connected with this important part of the United States. 



All through early French history, is the fact especially prominent, that in 
their explorations and expeditions, they united piety and business. They were 
zealous in sending out their missionaries, but they were always attended by 
traders and those who were as skilled in the world's profit and loss, as their 
companions were in propagating Christianity. 

Prior to the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers upon Plymouth Rock, the 
Upper Lakes were visited by the French, and records prove that during the first 
half of the seventeenth century, a vagabondish set, working in the interests of 
the fur company of New France, understood the geographical position of the 
lakes and their tributary streams. M. Perrot, an intelligent explorer, made 
overtures of peace to the Indian tribes around these bodies of water, and 
effected a treaty, which, it is claimed, established the right for the French, in 
the name of their king, to hold the place near St. Mary's Falls. They further 
assert that the Mississippi was discovered by the French from Lake Superior, 
but this is not authenticated, and Father Marquette and M. Joliet are accepted 
as the first who found this large stream, in 1763. The good missionary won 
his way with his patient and sympathetic nature. 

Ohio was, like the other portions of the West, originally in the possession 
of aborigines or Indians. Of their origin, many suppositions are advanced, 
but no certainties sustained. From practical evidences, the Mound-Builders 
were active in Ohio, and here as elsewhere, their work marked retrogression 
rather than advancement. The territory of Ohio was claimed by the French, 
and included in that wide tract between the Alleghanies and the Rockies, held 
by them under the name of Louisiana. Before the year 1750, a French trad- 
ing-post was established at the mouth of the Wabash, and communication was 
established between that point and the Maumee, and Canada. Between the 
years 1678 and 1682, the intrepid La Salle and Father Hennepin, assisted by 
Fondi, an Italian, with a small band of followers, inaugurated a series of 
explorations about the great lakes anfl. the Mississippi, building forts on their 
way and planting the French priority. In 1680, La Salle erected a stockade at 
the foot of the rapids of the Maumee, which was a general rendezvous for mission- 
aries, traders and explorers, besides constituting a primitive "stock exchange." 

The English colonies were at this time east of the Alleghanies, while the 
French were establishing themselves west of this range, gaining an entrance 
north and south, the two portions separated by hostile and barbarous foejs. 
La Salle's spirit of adventure led him into new fields, but Father Hennepin 
was detailed to investigate that part of the world now known as the State of 
Ohio. The records assert that he published a volume containing an account of 
his observations "in the country between New Mexico and the frozen ocean," 
in 1684, together with maps of Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan, and a plat 
of the larger streams in Ohio. 


Apparently, the French more speedily comprehended the value of their 
advantages in the New World than^the English, and vigorously inaugurated and 
sustained commercial and religious projects. They were essentially benefited 
by the mediation of the Catholic priests between settlers and Indians, this 
really earnest class everywhere ingratiating themselves with the savages. The 
Order of Jesuits were very vigorous, and representatives were stationed at every 
trading-post, village and settlement. The English colonists engaged mostly in 
agriculture, while the French took a lively interest in the fur trade with the 
natives, probably from their former settlement in Quebec and thereabouts, where 
the climate is advantageous for this business. This added to the influence of 
the priests, and the natural assimilation of French and the Indians, through 
the tact and amiability of the former, the French possessions gained more 
rapidly than the English or Spanish. They courted their daughters and 
married them. They engaged in feasts and trades, and took advantage of 
those unimpeded times to extend their dominion with surprising celerity. A 
chain of trading, missionary and military posts extended from New Orleans to 
Quebec, by way of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, thence via Mackinaw and 
Detroit to Lakes Erie and Ontario. This route was shortened thereafter by 
following the Ohio River to the Wabash, following the latter upward, and 
down the Maumee to Lake Erie. 

About the same time, and to check the advancement of the French, the 
Ohio Company was formed by the English. This was an outgrowth of the 
contest between these two nations for the ascendency, whether empire, settle- 
ment or individual. After thirty years' peace between these two nations, 
u King George's War" opened the campaign in 1744, but terminated in 1748, 
the treaty at Aix-la-Chapelle unfortunately omitting a settlement of any division 
of claims in America. , The English, French and Spanish were the first to 
enter America, and the right of possession by each monarch or empire was 
held by right of a first discovery. The only right that England could advance 
regarding Ohio was that the portion of the Six Nations found in the Ohio 
Valley had placed some of their lands under British jurisdiction, and that other 
portions had been purchased at Lancaster, Penn., by means of a treaty with 
the same nations. All this was strenuously denied and ignored by the French. 
Thus several conflicting influences swept carnage over fair Ohio. The Indians were 
allied to one side and the other, and were against each other. The Indians and 
French would advance against the English, and they, in retaliation, would 
make a raid into the Indian territory and overcome a French settlement. 
Whenever they could as well, Indians would take the cause in their own keep- 
ing and fight each other. The wide, verdant fields of Ohio were drenohed 
ghastly red under a glowing sun, and the great forests echoed moans from the 
dying and distressed. The English colonists had partially overcome their 
deprivation, caused by a struggle for subsistence, and means to guard against 
the savages — this distress augmented by campaigns against Canada — by their 


increased numbers and wealth, but were now alarmed by the French rule in 
America, which gained so rapidly, unmolested as it was by Indian raids and 
other devastating circumstances. A constant conflict was going on between 
Lake Erie and the Upper Ohio. Atrocities and massacres were committed 
indiscriminately, which opened the way for a desperate class of marauders and 
villains from the colonies and European States. These people enlisted with 
the Indians on cither Bide for the purpose of leadership and plunder. Every 
fortification, trading-post and settlement was garrisoned or deserted, and the 
ground between the Alleghanies and the Maumee became a conflict field, rife 
with thrilling deeds, sacrifice and adventures, the half never having been 
chronicled, and many heroes falling uncrowned by even a lasting memory, since 
during these times the people kept few annals, and cared less for historical 
memories than anything on earth. • They were living, and dying, and struggling, 
and that was more than they could carry through safely. The French formed 
a road from the Ohio River to Detroit, via the foot of the Lower Rapids of the 
Maumee, and the foot of the Lower Rapids of the Sandusky. 

The Ohio Company obtained a charter under English views, from the 
British Government, with a grant of 6,000 acres of land on the Ohio. The 
English now reverted to the times of the Cabots, and protested that by right 
they held the entire country between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, bounded 
by those parallels of latitude defining their Atlantic coast settlements. France 
claimed the region drained by the Mississippi and tributaries, the great lakes 
and their tributaries, the area being west of the Alleghanies. Ohio was thus 
included in the disputed tract. 

The Ohio Company was formed in 1748, by a number of Virginians and 
Londoners, two brothers of George Washington taking conspicuous parts in the 
movement ; Tliomas Lee was especially active. When the surveys were begun, 
the Governor of Canada entered vigorous protests, and indicated his displeasure 
by a prompt line of posts from Erie to Pittsburgh, named respectively, Presque 
Isle, Le Boeuf, Vedango, Kittaning and Du Quesne. The latter was begun 
by the English, captured by the French, and by them completed. 

The first English settlement of which we can find traces was a block -house 
at Piqua, about the year 1752. It was attacked, and a bitter struggle ensued, 
resulting in the death of fourteen of the assailants. Those within the garrison 
suffered severely, many being burned, and the remainder captured and dis- 
patched to Canada. 

In 1753, the French and Indian war actively began. It did not extend 
beyond the American continent until 1756, when the home governments took 
an interest in its progress beyond encouraging their respective colonists to pur- 
sue the war-path to a direful finale for their adversaries. For four years, the 
French captured and conquered, spreading terror wherever they went, and 
they followed every Englishman that set his foot on Ohio soil to the death. 
We may state that these people had not retained their civilized habits, and 


constant association with savages had embued them with barbarous methods of 
warfare which were sickening and revolting to the English, and to which they 
could not resort. It is highly probable that French success was vastly brought 
about by these means, together with the assistance of their Indian allies. In 
1758, when the English hope was almost exterminated, the elder Pitt being 
placed at the head of the administration, a new and energetic system was 
inaugurated, wise measures instituted, and military science triumphed over 
savage cunning and French intrigue. The first brilliant English achievement 
was the conquest of Canada. When the home governments interfered, the 
war assumed the character of a French and English conflict, regardless of 
Indian right, yet the tribes continued to participate in the carnage. 

A certain Christian, Frederick Post, a Moravian missionary, located upon 
the Muskingum, near Beavertown. Heckewelder consented to become his 
associate. The Indians receiving them kindly, under conditions that Post 
should serve as tutor, this missionary began clearing a field for the purpose of 
planting corn for sustenance. This did not accord with Indian logic. They 
had stipulated that he teach and he was planting corn, which to them was a 
signal of the coming of other whites, the building of a fort and encroachments 
upon the Indians. They referred to the French priests, who were in good 
physical condition, did not till land, but were in charge of the Great Spirit 
who provided for them, a conclusive proof to them that when divine work was 
acceptable to the Great Spirit, priests were somehow sustained by other than 
the plans which disturbed their great hunting-grounds. However, they 
allowed him a small space, and he remained with them, preaching and teaching 
during the summer of 1762, when, accompanied by one of the principal chiefs, 
he returned to Lancaster, Penn., where a treaty was concluded. On his return 
to his post, he was met by Heckewelder, who imparted the tidings that friendly 
Indians had warned him that the war was about to sweep over their section, 
and destruction awaited them if they remained. The mission was accordingly 
abandoned. This failure was not so bitter as the English effort to sustain their 
trading-post in 1749, on the Great Miami, afterward called Laramie's store. 
It pursued a feeble existence until 1752, when a French raid upon the Twig- 
twees and English colonists proved fatal. 

A European treaty now excluded the French from any rights to make 
treaties with the Indians, and the English, in their flush of victory after Pitt's 
succession, assumed the authority over Indians and lands. The savages did 
not accept the situation with anything resembling the gentle spirit of resigna- 
tion, and the Ottawa chief, Pontiac, led the several tribes into a general war 
against the intruders. It was no longer French and English, but Indian and 
English, the former being instigated and assisted many times by the French, 
now desperate and unscrupulous in a mad spirit for revenge. 

The intention of the Indians was to drive the whites east of the mountains, 
destroying their numerous strongholds in Pennsylvania and Virginia, if they 


failed in their hope of utterly exterminating them. Pontiac had effected a 
consolidation of the tribes ranging from Mackinaw to North Carolina, thus 
being enabled to swoop down upon all the settlements simultaneously. A 
deadly beginning was made in the Ohio Valley, and only two or three English 
traders escaped out of the one hundred and twenty located in that vicinity. 
The forts at Presque Isle, St. Joseph and Mackinaw, were captured amid scenes 
of slaughter too terrible to perpetuate in description. The years 1763 and 
1764 were literally drenched in human carnage and anguish. Ohio was a 
great field of crime, murder, pain and horror. The expeditions of Bradstreet 
and Bouquet crushed the war in 1764, and Pontiac with his Ottawas removed 
to the Maumee and settled. English settlement now progressed with great 
rapidity, but this was destined to be disturbed in 1774, by the action of Lord 
Dunmore, who led an expedition against the tribes of the Ohio country, termi- 
nated by his treaty on the Scioto plains. At this period, the colonists were not 
in strict harmony with England, and the spirit of revolution was spreading 
every day. 

When Lord Dunmore made his treaty, the affirmation was made and gained 
ground that he, being a thorough loyalist, had compromised under such terms 
as held the Indians British allies against the settlers. Directly following this 
treaty, was the deliberate murder of a number of Indians, near Wheeling, 
including the family of the great chief, Logan — which inaugurated retaliating 

In the year 1773, July 4, the first white child was born within the 
present limits of Ohio, and was christened John L. Roth, son of a Mora- 
vian missionary. All the settlers of these Moravian towns on the Muskingum 
were made prisoners in September of the same year. Heckwelder was trans- 
ported to Detroit, but English tyranny failed to find any evidence against him 
or his colaborers, and they were reluctantly released, and returned to their fam- 
ilies in Sandusky. Poverty added to their sufferings, and in the forlorn 
hope of finding a remnant of their property at the old settlements, which might 
assist in mitigating their necessities, they wearily went thitherward. They 
began gathering their grain, but the Wyandots attacked them, and many lives 
were lost. Frontiersmen had also grown jealous of them, and a body of about 
ninety marched out together, for the fiendish purpose of pillaging, slaughtering 
and laying waste all Moravian towns and posts. With the wily insidiousness of 
savages, they went about their diabolical plan. The Moravians were cordial and 
bade this band welcome, when they reached their towns in the guise of friend- 
ship. Williamson, the leader, and the gleaners, were called from the fields, 
when, to the dismay of these trusting and frank people, they were all bound, 
and only fifteen out of the marauding band of ninety were in favor of even 
sparing the lives of these hapless men, women and children. Forty men, 
twenty-two women and thirty-four children were then cruelly and heartlessly 
murdered, their sufferings laughed to scorn, and the last sound that fell on their 


ears was exultant derision. It would seem that whatever the Indians left un- 
done, in the way of horror, in the State of Ohio, the whites improved upon, and 
blackened the pages of American history with deeds of blood. Succeeding this 
barbarity, was the expedition against Moravian Indian towns, upon the San- 
dusky. Not an Indian, whether an enemy or friend, old or young, male or 
female, was to escape the assault, including an extermination of the Moravian 

Col. William Crawford led the expedition, which counted 500 men, in their 
dastardly work. Warning had in some manner reached the towns, and 
the troops found them deserted. But the Indians were incensed, and 
their wrath had not driven them to hiding-places, but to a preparation to 
meet their foes. They fought desperately, and Crawford's troops were defeated 
and scattered, many being captured, and among them, Col. Crawford himself. 
It is hardly probable that Crawford could justly expect much mercy at the 
hands of his captors. His battle-cry had been "no quarter," and yet he evi- 
dently hoped for some consideration, as he requested an interview with Simon 
Girty, who lived with and influenced the Indians. Accounts state that Craw- 
ford implored the aid of Girty, and at last secured a promise to use his power 
to obtain the Colonel's pardon. However, this was of no avail, and it is doubt- 
ful whether Girty was disposed to intercede. The prisoners were tortured and 
put to death, and Crawford's agonies were protracted as long as possible. Dr. 
Knight managed to disable the Indian who had him in charge, and made his 
escape to the settlements, where he related the result of the expedition and the 
tortures of the captured. 

On October 27, 1784, a treaty was concluded, at Fort Stanwix, with the 
sachems and warriors of the Mohawks, Onondagas, Senecas, Cayugas, Onei- 
das and Tuscarawas, and the Six Nations then ceded to the Colonial Govern- 
ment all claims to the country west of a line defined by the western boundary 
to the Ohio — thus rendering the Indian claim to a large portion of Ohio lands 
practically extinct. 

Although the French and Indian war was a series of heart-rending events, 
it was a serious and remarkable school of discipline for the untrained troops 
which soon engaged in the Revolutionary struggle. On the fields of Ohio, many 
valuable officers, who earned distinction in the war of independence, learned their 
first lessons in intrepid valor. 

During the Revolution, the colonial troops were engaged east of the moun- 
tains, and western settlements and frontier people were left alone to defend them- 
selves and their property against encroachments and attacks. 

The Indian tribes again became belligerent, and united with the English 
against the "Americans." The latter held a line of posts along the Upper 
Ohio, while the British were stationed in the old French strongholds on the 
lakes and the Mississippi. The unscrupulous whites and Indians ranged at ran- 
dom between this boundary and the Cuyahoga, thence southerly to the Ohio, 

102 history OF THE STATE OF OHIO. 

thus including the Scioto and Miami Valleys. Southeastern Ohio constituted 
"the neutral ground." 

Gen. Clarke's expedition, although chiefly confined to Indiana and Illinois, 
greatly influenced the settlement of Ohio. His exploits and the resolution of 
his troops were chiefly instrumental in holding the country west of the Alle- 
ghanies, and insuring its possession by the United States during the Revolution. 
The British had been emphatic, in. the Paris treaty, at the time of the settlement 
of the French and English difficulties, in demanding the Ohio River as the 
northern boundary of the United States. The American Commissioners relied 
upon Gen. Clarke's valor and energy in holding the country west of the Alle- 
ghanies, which he had conquered, and the British Commissioners were compelled 
to give their consent, under civil and military measures. In 1783, by the 
treaty of Paris, at the close of the Revolutionary war, the English relinquished 
all rights to the fertile territory between the Alleghanies and the Mississippi, 
and the United States held undisputed possession. 

January 10, 1786, Gens. Rufus Putnam and Benjamin Tupper circulated a 
pamphlet, proposing the formation of a company for the purpose of settling the 
Ohio lands, and soliciting the attention and consideration of all those desiring a 
future home and prosperity. A meeting was also called, to assemble during the 
following February, and select delegates to represent each county in Massachu- 
setts. These dignitaries should convene during the month of March, at the 
" Bunch of Grapes " tavern, in Boston, for the purpose of definitely forming the 
association, and adopting such measures as would benefit all directly interested. 
The meeting and " convention " followed, and the subscription books were opened. 
One million dollars, chiefly represented by Continental certificates, was the 
price of the land. The shares were valued at $1,000 each, and there was a 
division of a thousand shares. The first payment was to be $10 per share, this 
money to be set aside for such expenses as might accrue. A year's interest was 
to be devoted to the establishment of the settlement, and those families who 
were unable to incur the expense of moving were to be assisted. Those who 
purchased shares to the number of twenty were entitled to a representation by 
an agent, who was permitted to vote for Directors. This plan matured and was 
acted upon during the following year. It may be that the action of Connecti- 
cut, in ceding her territorial claims to the General Government, with few excep- 
tions, greatly encouraged this new undertaking. That tract was, until recently, 
designated the " Western Reserve " — an extent 170 miles from the western 
boundary of Pennsylvania, and parallel thereto, being reserved. 

On October 27, 1787, a contract was made between the Board of the Treas- 
ury, for the United States, and Manasseh Cutler and Winthrop Sargent, agents 
for the Directors of the New England Ohio Company, for the purchase of a tract 
of land, bounded by the Ohio, and from the mouth of the Scioto to the inter- 
section of the western boundary of the seventh townships, then surveying ; 
thence by said boundary to the northern boundary of the tenth township from 


the Ohio ; thence, by a due west line, to the Scioto ; thence, by the Scioto, to 
the beginning. 

However fertile and attractive Ohio was known to have been, settlement did 
not gain rapidly after the close of the war with England, although the United 
States has gained her freedom. It was more than six years after Cornwallis 
laid down his sword, before a white settlement was formed on the Ohio side of the 
river. The French and Indian war had incited the English to be jealous of her 
colonial conquests, and mistrusting their loyalty, they had, so soon as the French 
claims were annulled, taken measures to crush all colonial claims also, and a 
royal proclamation rescinded all colonial land grants and charters, holding all 
the country west of the sources of the Atlantic rivers under the protection and 
sovereignty of the king of Great Britain, for the use of the Indians. All white 
persons were forbidden to remain or settle within the prescribed limits. Parlia- 
ment then attached this tract to Quebec, and the English Government felt assured 
that the thirteen colonies were restricted and held secure east of the Alleghanies. 

The result of the war between the colonies and England did not constitute 
an Indian treaty. Although England signed over her title and right, the sava- 
ges held the land and ignored all white agreements, one way or the other. 
Whenever an attempt at settlement was undertaken, Indian depredations proved 
disastrous. The tribes were encouraged by the English fur traders, and the 
English commandant at Detroit incited them to destroy all Americans who 
attempted to usurp the rights of red men. 

Added to this serious difficulty was the unsettled debate regarding State 
claims, which rendered a title precarious. A treaty, signed at Fort Mcintosh, 
previous to the war, and authenticated, shows that during the conflict the Dela- 
wares and Wyandots occupied the Indian and British frontier, on the southern 
shore of Lake Erie, from the Cuyahoga to the Maumee, and from the lake to 
the sources of its tributaries. Later, these two tribes ceded to the United 
States "the neutral ground," by warranty deed, and by quit-claim, the terri- 
tory south and west of the described tract, set apart for their use. 

By special measures, the grant of Congress in the matter of the Ohio Com- 
pany extended to nearly 5,000,000 acres, valued at $3,500,000. The original 
Ohio Company obtained 1,500,000 acres, the remaining being reserved by indi- 
viduals, for private speculation. 

The same year, Congress appointed Arthur St. Clair, Governor, and Win- 
throp Sargent, Secretary, of the Territory. 

Fort Harmar had previously been built, at the mouth of the Muskingum, 
and in 1788, 'a New England colony attempted the " Muskingum settlement," 
on the opposite side, which was afterward named Marietta. In July, 1788, the 
Territorial officers were received in this village, and there established the first 
form of civil government, as set forth in the Ordinance of 1787. Three United 
States Judges were appointed, and Courts of Common Pleas, Probate and 
Justice were established. 


If the stormy times were supposed to be of the past, that composure was 
rudely broken by the utter disregard of the Shawnee and other Indian tribes, 
who soon induced the Delawares and Wyandots to repudiate their consent in the 
matter of settlement. The miseries of frontier horrors were repeated. The 
British commandant at Detroit instigated many of these hostilities, yet the 
American Government took honorable action in assuring the English represent- 
ative that American military preparations in the West was not an expedition 
against Detroit, or other British possessions, although the possession of Detroit 
by that nation was in direct opposition to the treaty of 1783. Gov. St. Clair, 
to avert the direful consequences of a border war, dispatched a Frenchman, 
Gameline, to the principal Indian towns of the Wabash and Maumee countries, 
to request them to meet the United States agents, and make a compromise for 
the benefit of both parties, at the same time reiterating the desire of the General 
Government to adhere to the Fort Harmar treaty. The Miamis, Shawnees, 
Ottawas, Kickapoos and Delawares received this representative kindly, but 
declined the wampum sent by the Governor, and deferred giving an answer 
until they had considered the subject with the " father at Detroit." 

Blue Jacket, chief of the Shawnees, informed the Frenchman that the Indi- 
ans doubted the sincerity of the Americans. The new settlement on the Ohio 
was a proof that the whites intended to crowd further and further, until the 
Indians were again and again robbed of their just right. He then emphatically 
asserted that unless the north side of the river was kept free from these inroads 
there could be no terms of peace with the Shawnees, and many other tribes. 

Blue Jacket was unusually intelligent and sagacious, and expressed himself 
eloquently. He was persistent in his determination to engage in the war of 
extermination, should the white settlements continue north of the Ohio. 

These overtures were continued, but they failed in producing any arrange- 
ment that permitted the whites to locate north of the Ohio. 

Congress called upon Kentucky and Pennsylvania to lend the aid of their 
militia. Gen. Harmar was instructed to destroy the Miami villages at the 
head of the Maumee. Late in the fall of 1790, he executed this order. 

The Indians had stored a large quantity of provisions, in expectation of a 
campaign, and this dependence was devastated. Without authority, and with 
undue carelessness, he divided his army and attempted to achieve other victo- 
ries. He more than lost what he had gained. Two raids upon the Wabash In- 
dians, thereafter, proved successful, but the campaign under Gov. St. Clair was 
not calculated to establish peace or obtain power, and was deemed but little less 
than a failure. 

The year 1792 was a series of skirmishes, so far as a settlement was con- 
cerned, but 1793 succeeded well enough to convene a meeting of United States 
Commissioners and representatives of the hostile tribes, at the rapids of the 
Maumee. It is highly probable that a satisfactory treaty might have been 
arranged, had it not been for the intervention and malicious influence of the 


British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Col. McKee, his assistant Capt. 
Elliott, and the notorious Capt. Simon Girty, who instigated the savages to 
deeds more horrible than their own barbarisms. 

It was evident that a severe struggle must ensue, and Capt. Wayne, in 
1792, appointed to the command of the Western army, was called upon to con- 
duct the campaign. He exhibited his wisdom in the beginning, by preparing 
his men in military discipline and fully equipping them before marching to meet 
a savage foe in a wilderness. Various causes detained the army, and it was not 
until the fall of lt93, that the force marched from Fort Washington (Cincin- 
nati) to begin the battle. 

It was already late in the season, and, before any progress had been made, 
the army went into winter quarters at Greenville, on a branch of the Big 

In the mean time, the Ohio Company had not matured its practical " settle- 
ment plan," although a generous grant had been obtained. In 1792, they 
received a clear title to 750,000 acres of land, for which the full price had pre- 
viously been paid, in Continental currency. Congress set aside 214,285 acres 
as army bounties, and 100,000 acres to actual settlers. The two latter appro- 
priations joined that of the Ohio Company. 

There had been numerous conventions, discussions and other fruitless 
attempts to somehow form a plan for the government of the Northwest Terri- 
tory, but it was not until July 13, 1787, that an ordinance was passed, and that 
was the result of Dr. Cutler's efforts. Every State sustained its measures. 

This ordinance was the foundation of the constitution of the future State of 
Ohio, and indeed, permeates the entire Northwestern creed. 

ORDINANCE OF 1787.— No. 32. 
An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, Northwest of 
the Ohio River. 

Be it ordained by the United States in Congress assembled, That the said Territory, for the pur- 
pose of government, be one district; subject, however, to be divided into two districts, as future cir- 
cumstances may, in the opinion of Congress, make it expedient. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the estates of both resident and non-resident 
proprietors in the said Territory, dying intestate, shall descend to and be distributed among their 
children and the descendants of a deceased child, in equal parts; the descendants of a deceased 
child or grandchild to take the share of their deceased parent in equal parts among them. And 
when there shall be no children or descendants, then in equal parts to the next of kin in equal 
degree : and among collaterals, the children of a deceased brother or sister of the intestate shall 
have, in equal parts among them, their deceased parent's share; and there shall in no case be a 
distribution between kindred of the whole and half blood, saving in all cases to the widow of 
intestate, her third part of the real estate, for life, and one-third part of the personal estate ; and 
this law relative to descents and dower, shall remain in full force until altered by the Legis- 
lature of the district. And until the Governor and Judges shall adopt laws as hereinafter 
mentioned, estates in said Territory may be devised or bequeathed by wills in writing, signed 
and sealed by him or her in whom the estate may be (being of full age), and attested by three 
witnesses: and real estate may be conveyed by lease and release, or bargain and sale, signed and 
sealed, and delivered by the person (being i» lull age) in whom the estate may be, and attested 


by two witnesses, provided such wills be duly proved, and such conveyances be acknowledged, or 
the execution thereof duly proved and be recorded within one year after proper magistrates, 
courts and registers shall be appointed for that purpose. And personal property may be trans- 
ferred by delivery, saving, however, to the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of 
the Kaskaskias, St. Vincent's and the neighboring villages, who have heretofore professed them- 
selves citizens of Virginia, their laws and customs now in force among them, relative to the 
descent and conveyance of property. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That there shall be appointed from time to time, by 
Congress, a Governor whose commission shall continue in force for a term of three years, unless 
sooner revoked by Congress. He shall reside in the district and have a freehold estate therein, 
of a thousand acres of land while in the exercise of his office. 

There shall be appointed from time to time by Congress, a Secretary whose commission shall 
continue in force for two years, unless sooner revoked. He shall reside in the district, and shall 
have a freehold estate therein in 500 acres of land, while in the exercise of his office. It shall be 
his duty to keep and preserve the acts and laws passed by the Legislature, and the public records 
of the district, and the proceedings of the Governor in his executive department, and transmit 
authentic copies of such acts and proceedings every six months, to the Secretary of Congress. 
There shall also be appointed a court to consist of three Judges, any two of whom to form a 
court, who shall have a common law jurisdiction and shall reside in the district and have each 
therein a freehold estate in 500 acres of land, while in the exercise of their office, and their 
commissions shall continue in force during good behavior. 

The Governor and Judges, or a majority of them, shall adopt and publish in the district 
such laws of the original States, criminal and civil, as may be necessary and best suited to the 
circumstances of the district, and report them to Congress from time to time, which laws shall be 
in force in the district until the organization of the General Assembly therein, unless disapproved 
by Congress. But afterward, the Legislature shall have authority to alter them, as they shall 
think fit, 

The Governor, for the time being, shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, appoint and 
commission all officers in the same, below the rank of general officers. All general officers shall 
be appointed and commissioned by Congress. 

Previous to the organization of the General Assembly, the Governor shall appoint such mag- 
istrates and other civil officers in each county or township, as he shall find necessary for the 
preservation of the peace and good order in the same. After the General Assembly shall be 
organized, the powers and duties of magistrates and other civil officers shall be regulated and 
defined by the said Assembly, but all magistrates and other civil officers not herein otherwise 
directed, shall, during the continuance of this temporary government, be appointed by the 

For the prevention of crimes and injuries, the laws to be adopted or made shall have force 
in all parts of the district, and for the execution of process, criminal or civil, the Governor shall 
make proper divisions thereof, and he shall proceed from time to time as circumstances may 
require, to lay out the parts of the district in which the Indian titles shall have been extin- 
guished, into counties and townships, subject, however, to such alterations as may thereafter be 
made by the Legislature. So soon as there shall be 5,000 free male inhabitants of full age in the 
district, upon giving proof thereof to the Governor, they shall receive authority with time and 
place, to elect representatives from their counties or townships, to represent them in the General 
Assembly. Provided, That for every 500 free male inhabitants, there shall be one representative, 
and so on progressively with the number of free male inhabitants, shall the right of representa- 
tion increase, until the number of representatives shall amount to twenty-five. After which, the 
number shall be regulated by the Legislature. Provided, That no person be eligible or qualified 
to act as a representative unless he shall have been a citizen of one of the United States three 
years, and be a resident in the district, or unless he shall have resided in the district three 
years, and in either case, shall likewise hold in his own right in fee simple 200 acres of land 
within the same. 


Provided, Also, that a freehold in 50 acres of land in the district, having been a citizen of 
one of the States, and being a resident in the district, or the like freehold and two years' resi- 
dence in the district, shall be necessary to qualify a man as an elector of a representative. 

The representatives thus elected, shall serve for the term of two years. And in case of the 
death of a representative or removal from office, the Governor shall issue a writ to the county or 
township for which he was a member, to elect another in his stead, to serve for the residue of the 

The General Assembly or Legislature shall consist of the Governor, Legislative Council, and 
a House of Representatives. The Legislative Council shall consist of five members, to continue 
in office five years, unless sooner removed by Congress; any three of whom to be a quorum. 
And the members of the Council shall be nominated and appointed in the following manner, to wit : 

As soon as representatives shall be elected, the Governor shall appoint a time and place for 
them to meet together, and when met, they shall nominate ten persons, residents in the district, 
and each person in a freehold in 500 acres of land, and return their names to Congress, five of 
whom Congress shall appoint and commission as aforesaid. And whenever a vacancy shall hap- 
pen in the Council by death or removal from office, the House of Representatives shall nominate 
two persons, qualified as aforesaid, for each vacancy, and return their names to Congress, one of 
whom Congress shall appoint and commission for the residue of the term. And every five years, 
four months at least before the expiration of the time of service of the members of the Council, 
the said House shall nominate ten persons qualified as aforesaid, and return their names to 
Congress, five of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as members of the 
Council five years, unless sooner removed. And the Governor, Legislative Council and House 
of Representatives shall have authority to make laws in all cases, for the good government 
of the district, not repugnant to the principles and articles in this Ordinance, established and 

And all bills having passed by a majority in the House, and by a majority in the Council, 
shall be referred to the Governor for his assent. But no bill or legislative act whatever, shall be 
of any force without his assent. The Governor shall have power to convene, prorogue and dis- 
solve the General Assembly, when in his opinion it shall be expedient. 

The Governor, Judges, Legislative Council, Secretary, and such other officers as Congress 
shall appoint in the district, shall take an oath or affirmation of fidelity and of office. The Gov- 
ernor before the President of Congress, and all other officers before the Governor. 

As soon as a Legislature shall be formed in the district, the Council and House assembled 
in one room, shall have authority by joint ballot to elect a delegate to Congress, who shall 
have a seat in Congress, with a right of debating, but not of voting, during this temporary gov- 

And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious liberty, which forms 
the basis whereon these republics, their laws and constitutions, are created ; to fix and establish 
those principles as the basis of all laws, constitutions and governments, which forever hereafter 
shall be formed in said Territory. To provide for the establishment of States, and permanent 
governments therein, and for their admission to a share in the Federal Council on an equal footing 
with the original States, at as early periods as may be consistent with the general interest. 

It is hereby ordained and declared by the authority aforesaid, That the following articles shall 
be considered as articles of compact between the original States and the people, and States in 
said Territory, and forever remain unaltered unless by common consent, to wit : 

Article II. The inhabitants of said Territory shall always be entitled to the benefits of the 
writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury; of a proportionate representation of the people 
in the Legislature, and of judicial procedure according to the course of common law. All per- 
sons shall be bailable, except for capital offenses, where the proof shall be evident or the pre- 
sumption great. All fines shall be moderate, and no cruel or unreasonable punishment shall be 
inflicted. No man shall be deprived of his liberty or property, but by the judgment of his peers 
or the law of the land. And should the public exigencies make it necessary for the common 
preservation, to take any person's property, or to demand his particular services, full compensation 


shall be made for the same. And in the just preservation of rights and property, it is under- 
stood and declared that no law aught ever to be made or have force in the said Territory, 
that shall in any manner whatever interfere with or effect private contracts or engagements bona 
fide and without fraud, previously formed. 

Art. III. Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the 
happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. The 
utmost good faith shall always be observed toward the Indians ; their lands and property shall 
never be taken from them without their consent; and in their property, rights and liberty they 
shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress. But 
laws founded in justice and humanity, shall from time to time be made for preventing wrongs 
being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with them. 

Art. IV. The said Territory and the States which may be formed therein, shall ever remain 
a part of the confederacy of the United States of America, subject to the articles of confedera- 
tion, and to such alterations therein as shall be constitutionally made, and to all the acts and 
ordinances of the United States in Congress assembled conformable thereto. The inhabitants and 
settlers in said Territory shall be subject to pay a part of the federal debts contracted or to be 
contracted, and a proportional part of the expenses of the Government, to be apportioned on 
them by Congress, according to the same common rule and measure by which apportionments 
thereof shall be made on the other States, and the taxes for paying their proportion shall be laid 
and levied by the authority and directions of the Legislature of the district or districts or new 
States, within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled. The Legisla- 
tures of those districts or new States, shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil 
by the United States in Congress assembled, nor with any regulations Congress may find neces- 
sary for securing the title in such soil to the bona-fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on 
lands the property of the United States, and in no case, shall non-residents be taxed higher than 
residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and St Lawrence, and the carry- 
ing places between the same, shall be common highways, and forever free as well to the inhabi- 
tants of the said Territory as to the citizens of the United States and those of any other States 
that may be admitted into the confederacy, without any tax, impost or duty therefor. 

Art. V. There shall be formed in said Territory not less than three, nor more than five, 
States, and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession and 
consent to the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit : The western State in 
the said Territory shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, the Wabash Rivers ; a direct 
line drawn from the Wabash and Post St. Vincent, due north to the Territorial line between the 
United States and Canada; and by the said Territorial line to the Lake of the Woods and Missis- 
sippi. The middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Post St. Vin- 
cent to the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great 
Miami to the said Territorial line. The eastern State shall be bounded by the last-mentioned 
direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania and said territorial line. Provided, however, and it is further 
understood and declared, that the boundaries of those three' States shall be subject so far to be 
altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one 
or two States in that part of the said Territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn 
through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever any of the said States 
shall have 60,000 free inhabitants therein, such State shall be admitted by its delegates into the 
Congress of the United States on an equal footing with the original States in all respects what- 
ever, and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and State government. Provided, 
The constitution and government so to be formed, shall be represented, and in conformity to the 
principles contained in these articles ; and so far as it can be consistent with the general interest 
of the confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be 
a less number of free inhabitants than 60,000. 

Art. VI. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said Territory, 
otherwise than in the punishment of crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. 
Provided always, That any person escaping into the same from whom labor or service is lawfully 


claimed in one of the original States, each fugitive may be lawfully claimed and conveyed to the 
person claiming his or her labor or services as aforesaid. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the resolutions of the 23d of April, 1784, 
relative to the subject of this ordinance, be and the same are hereby repealed and declared null 
and void. 

The passage of this ordinance, since known as the " Ordinance of 1787," 
was immediately followed by an application to the Government, by John Cleves 
Symmes, of New Jersey, in behalf of the country, between the Miamis, and a 
contract was concluded the following year. The Ohio Company were exceed- 
ingly energetic in inaugurating settlements. Gen. Putman, with a party of 
forty-seven men, set out on an exploring expedition, accompanied by six boat 
builders. On the 1st of January, 1788, twenty-six surveyors followed, from 
Hartford, Conn. They arrived in Ohio on the 7th of April, 1788, and their 
active energy founded the permanent beginning of this great Western State- 
When we review the dangerous experiments that have been made, in this land 
west of the Alleghanies, the horrors which had overwhelmed every attempt, we 
can faintly realize the stalwart courage that sent these men on their way, and 
sustained them in their pioneer hardships. With characteristic vigor, they 
began their little town. Enthusiastic and happy, they did not rest from their 
toilsome march over the old Indian roads, but kept busily at work to estab- • 
lish an oasis in this wide expanse of wilderness, before they should take nec- 
essary ease to recuperate their strength. 

The wise men met on the 2d of May, and the little town was named 
Marietta. Situated as it was, in the midst of danger, they had used precaution 
to build and equip a fortified square, which was designated Campus Martius ; 
Square No. 19 was Capitolium, and Square No. 61 was Cecelia, and the main 
street was Sacra Via. 

Marietta was especially fortunate in her actual "first families." Ten of the 
forty-eight men had received a thorough college education ; the remaining were 
individuals of sterling merit, honorable, and several had already attained reputations 
for superior excellence of abilities. Patriotic and brave, the settlement certainly 
possessed a foundation that promised well for the future. The following 4th of 
July was an auspicious event, and the Hon. James M. Varnum was the eloquent 
orator of the occason. 

The opening of the court, on the 2d of September, was a solemn ceremonial, 
the High Sheriff leading with drawn sword, followed by citizens, with an escort 
of officers from Fort Harmar, the members of the bar, the Governor and Clergy- 
men, the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas — Gen. Rufus Putman and 
Benjamin Tupper — all these constituted an imposing spectacle, as they pro- 
gressed over a path which had been cut through the forest to Campus Martius 
Hall, the edifice of law and order. 

The Judges took their seats, a prayer was offered by the Rev. Dr. Cutler, 
and immediately the Sheriff, Col. Ebenezer Sprout, proclaimed the response, 
and the court of impartial justice was convened. 


This ceremonial was, perhaps, made all the more impressive by the presence 
of several powerful Indian chiefs, who had journeyed to Marietta for the pur- 
pose of making a treaty. 

The settlement now increased rapidly, new cabins were erected constantly. 
On the 17th of December, a society event occurred, in the form of a grand ball, 
fifteen ladies being present. 

John Cleves Symmes had contracted for 2,000,000 acres of land, and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining his grant, but circumstances prevented him from meeting 
his part of the obligations, and the specification was reduced to 1,000,000. 
After vain attempt to make his payments, a settlement was finally effected for 
248,540 acres, and Symmes was prepared to dispose of clear titles to new-com- 
ers. In 1788, a town was established within the boundaries of his grant, at the 
mouth of the little Miami, known as Columbia, and in the early part of 1787 
another was formed opposite the mouth of the Licking River, by name Losanti- 
ville, analyzed by a frontier scholar — ville, the town ; anti, opposite to ; os, the 
mouth of; L, Licking. 

Judge Symmes had projected building his main town at North Bend. This 
plan was frustrated by reason of Ensign Luce — who had been commissioned by 
Gen. Harmar to erect a fort — deciding that North Bend was not suitable for the 
purpose. He selected Losantiville for the purpose, and Fort Washington was 
the result. In 1790, Gov. St. Clair was called to inspect the settlement, and 
proceeded to organize Hamilton County, at the same time calling the town 

It will be remembered that Connecticut ceded most of her western lands to 
General Government, retaining, however, a minor portion. As the settlements 
began to increase on the " Virginia Reserve" and between the Scioto and Miami 
Rivers, all those holding claims were not disposed to part with them, while 
others were anxious to secure grants for the purpose of speculation, rather than 
the advancement of civilization. The Scioto Company was a questionable ad- 
herent of the Ohio Company, and began operations, which resulted well, what- 
ever their purpose may have been. 

Gen. Putnam cleared the land and directed the building of 100 dwellings and 
six block-houses. During 1791, the colony arrived, consisting of 500 persons. 
Only ten of these were tillers of the soil. Viscount Malartie ventured into the 
wilderness, but instead of settling, joined Gen. St. Clair's army, and was ulti- 
mately his aid-de-camp. Indian conquests were not to his taste, and he soon 
returned to France. This new colony was essentially French, and its location 
was Gallia County. The name " Gallipolis " was selected. 

These settlers, being unaccustomed to severe toil, and disinclined to learn 
its hard lesson, soon became demoralized, through deprivation and absolute 
want. Congress came to their aid with a land grant of 24,000 acres, but few 
of them cared to enter claims, and soon all traces of the old town were lost, and 
its inhabitants scattered. 


Gen. St. Clair having become unpopular, through repeated failures in Indian 
campaigns, and Gen. Anthony Wayne having wintered at Fort Washington, 
the spring of 1793 was opened by a march of the army, well disciplined and 
led by " Mad Anthony," on a campaign that must crush the rapidly increasing 
depredations of the Indians, notwithstanding which these new settlements had 
been made. All winter, Gen. Wayne had dispatched scouts, spies and hardy 
frontiersmen on errands of discovery, and his plans were, therefore, practically 
matured. His army cut its way through the forests, gathering horses, provis- 
ions, etc., as they marched, and finally came nearly up to the enemy before dis- 
covery. They again returned to Fort Washington, as the Commander-in-Chief, 
under the order of the Executive, had proclaimed inaction until the Northern 
or British Commissioners and Indians should convene and discuss the situation 
and prospects. Gen. Wayne, meantime, drilled his men at " Hobson's Choice," 
a place near Fort Washington. 

The Commissioners came from Detroit, and assembled at Capt. Matthew 
Elliot's house, at the mouth of the Detroit River. 

A meeting was called at Sandusky, and twenty Indian representatives were 
present, to argue the grounds of a treaty. Simon Girty acted as interpreter, 
and has been vehemently accused of unfaithfulness in this trust, since he did 
not advocate the adjustment of matters on any grounds. The Indians reiterated 
their rights and wrongs, and offered to receive the half of the purchase money, 
provided the actual settlers would accept it as the price of the land, move away, 
and leave the original owners the proud possessors of their lands. The Govern- 
ment would then expend less money than they would have done in a full Indian 
purchase, or a long and cruel war. This being out of the question and rejected, 
a decided specification was made that the Ohio boundary was to be obliterated, 
and a new one adopted, that encompassed a mere fraction of territory. This 
was also rejected, The Indians indignantly bade the Americans to go back to 
their father, and they would return to their tribes. 

The council was terminated in confusion. It is highly probable that some 
settlement might have been made, had it not been for English influence which 
instigated the savages, in the hope of ultimately making conquests for them- 
selves. The commander at Detroit evinced great uneasiness whenever there 
was a shadow of an opportunity for a peaceful understanding. • 

On Christmas Day, 1793, a detachment of the army encamped on the 
identical ground made memorable by St. Clair's horrible defeat. A reward was 
offered for every human skull that was found, and 600 were gathered. The 
bones of the victims were removed from the spot where they built Fort Recovery. 
This point was left in charge of Alexander Gibson. 

Early in the year 1794, Lord Dorchester addressed the Commissioners in 
behalf of the English. Even at this time, Gen. Wayne, to avoid the terrors of 
a great war, again made overtures of peace, dispatching Freeman, Trueman and 
Hardin, all initiated in savage tactics, on errands of mercy — and the three men 


jcece inhumanly murdered. The English went so far as to order Gov. Simcoe 
to erect a fort, in April, 1794, on the Rapids of the Maumee, thus rousing the 
Indians by a bold proof that they had espoused their cause. In May, the 
Spanish, who were ever jealous of colonial encroachments, were willing to aid 
in a general raid against the Americans. 

In June, a scouting party from Fort Recovery, fell into an Indian ambush 
and suffered severely, their foes following them to the very entrance. The siege 
continued for two days. It was plainly evident that white men augmented the 
Indian force ; ounce balls and buck-shot surely came from their rifles. Again, 
the Indians immediately began a search beneath the logs where pieces of artillery 
were hidden during the great battle of St Clair, but fortunately, Fort Recovery 
had the use of them and they accomplished much. 

On July 26, Scott joined Wayne at Greenville, with 1,600 mounted 
Kentuckians, and on the 28th, the legion took up its line of deadly march. 
Halting at Girty's Town, they built Fort Mary's, later on Fort Adams. Throw- 
ing the enemy off their guard by feints and counter-marching, the troops surprised 
the Indians, and without the slightest resistance took possession of their villages 
at the confluence of the Auglaize and Maumee. They found provision in 
abundance, and tarried a week building Fort Defiance. 

Again Gen. Wayne would have made terms of peace, on the principle of the 
Government to arrest bloodshed, but the Indians were rendered cruelly intent 
on war by an addition of a body of British militia from Detroit, and by regulars 
stationed at a fort they had built on the left bank of the river, below the rapids, 
called Fort Miami. The "Fallen Timber" ground was selected as the field 
for a battle by the savages, in the expectation that the trees cast down by a 
tornado and there remaining, would seriously impede American progress. 

August 15th, Wayne marched down the river, and at Roche de Boeuf, erected 
a fortification for their stores and luggage, naming it " Fort Deposit." On the 
20th, the American army began the attack. Maj. Price and Maj. Gen. Scott 
were heroic in their assistance, and after a sharp, deadly conflict, the enemy 
was routed, fleeing in confusion, and leaving their dead and wounded strewn 
thickly over the field. The savages were pressed to the front always, and when 
the carnage was painful, the British troops not engaged looked on coolly from the 
fort and offered no assistance, aiding their own, however, when possible. Gen. 
Wayne being an ardent soldier, was apt to forget his position, and impetuously 
place himself constantly in danger. Lieut. Harrison is reported to have 
rei [nested the General not to forget to give him field orders, in his own partici- 
pation in the battle, and to have received the reply that the standing order was 
always to charge bayonets. 

Notwithstanding the treaty of 1783, and the fact that the British were tres- 
passing, they encroached upon the Ohio soil, and essayed to vindicate their 
action by discarding American claims and recognizing the Indian rights, whereby 
they might seek their own colonization and make treaties. 


Maj. Campbell was in command at Fort Miami, and when lie saw the sava- 
ges being cut down almost mercilessly, he not only refrained from offering aid, 
but when, in their desperate retreat, they attempted to enter the fort for pro- 
tection, he ordered the doors closed in their faces. 

On the following day, Campbell sent a message to Wayne, demanding a 
reason for hostile action, adding that Great Britain was not now at war with the 
United States. He received a characteristic reply. 

During the Revolution, Detroit was an important British point, and the 
Maumee was its outlet. Therefore, the English clung tenaciously to this pos- 
session, giving, as it did, the advantage of the great fur trade. The English 
Government evidently regretted ceding so much of her territory in the West, 
and were searching for an excuse to quarrel and attempt to regain at least a part 
of what they had lost. Their policy was to sustain the bitter hatred between 
the Indians and the Americans. 

The settlement of the Maumee Valley had been rapid, but the very name 
was an agony of remembrance of frightful massacres and atrocities. Col. 
McKee, the British Indian agent, and his assistant, Capt. Elliott, were from 
Pennsylvania, but being Tories, they had assimilated with the Indians. They 
joined the Shawnee tribe and married Indian wives, and made their fortunes 
thereby, through British appointments to secure the savage interests. The 
Indians were directly served by McKee and Elliott, with ammunition and sup- 
plies, during the Wayne conflict. 

Several skirmishes ensued, but severe weather approaching, the troops 
moved for quarters, and on the 14th day of September, they attacked the Miami 
villages, captured them with provisions and stores, and erected a fort, leaving 
it in charge of Lieut. Col. Hamtramck. With cheers and rifle-shooting, this post 
was named Fort Wayne. The main army marched into Greenville and went into 
winter quarters. 

AVayne had achieved a brilliant victory, but his success did not overcome his 
practical reasoning, and he was unwilling to subject his men to a severe winter's 
campaign unless necessity was peremptory. 

Gov. Simcoe, Col. McKee and a few of the most savage Indian chiefs 
attempted to rally the Indians for a new attack. Gov. Simcoe, of Detroit, was 
aware that the mounted volunteers under Wayne had been allowed to return 
home, and that the term of service of a portion of the " Legion " was about to 

The British and Indians held a conference, but the latter were weary with 
fighting for the glory of the Great Father at Detroit, and did not enter into the 
plan. The winter proved most poverty stricken to them, the English failing to 
supply them, and their crops and sustenance having been destroyed by Wayne. 
They were then fully prepared to listen to the faintest signal from Wayne to 
conciliate affairs, and the Wyandots and Delawares were the first to confer with 
him on the subject. Their position was exposed and they had suffered severely. 


They soon influenced other tribes to consider the question. As a mass, they 
were convinced of their inability to overcome the Americans, and had become 
impatient and disgusted with the duplicity of their British friends, who had not 
hesitated to sacrifice them in every instance, and who deserted them in their 
hour of distress. United, they sued for peace. Terms were made, and about 
the 1st of August, the famous Greenville treaty was ratified and established, 
and the old Indian war in Ohio terminated. 

The Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnees, Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, 
Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas, Kickapoos, Piankeshaws and Kaskaskias were thus 
conciliated. The old Indian boundary line, settled upon at the Fort Mcintosh 
treaty, was retained, and the southwestern line was prolonged from old Fort 
Recovery, southwest of the Ohio River. 

" The general boundary lines between the lands of the United States and 
the lands of the said Indian tribes shall begin at the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
River, and thence run up the same to the portage between that and the Tus- 
carawas Branch of the Muskingum ; thence down that branch to the crossing- 
place above Fort Laurens ; thence westerly to a fork of that branch of the 
Great Miami River (running into the Ohio), at or near which fork stood Lar- 
amie's store — Mary's River, which is a branch of the Miami that runs into Lake 
Erie ; thence a westerly course to Fort Recovery, which stands on a branch of 
the Wabash ; thence southwesterly on a direct line to the Ohio, so as to inter- 
sect that river opposite the mouth of the Kentucky or Cuttawa River." 

This boundary line has, ever since this memorable treaty, been a prominent 
landmark, and may now be traced as the southern boundary line of Stark, Ash- 
land, Richland and Marion Counties, and the northern line, in part, of Tuscar- 
awas and Knox. Old Fort Recovery was located in Mercer, near the Indiana 
line. Laramie's store was in Shelby. 

Within the Indian Reservation, the United States held sixteen distinct sec- 
tions of land, for the purpose of military posts, so arranged that the Govern- 
ment had full right of way north and west. 

The "Joy treaty " between England and the United States was ratified early 
in 1796, and the British were obliged to vacate Detroit and Fort Miami, and recall 
the fact that they had no claim or right to either points. Gen. Wayne received 
them, and accompanied by Gov. St. Clair, proceeded to Detroit. Here the lat- 
ter laid out a county, calling it Wayne, and designated Detroit as its seat of 
justice. This was the fifth county in the Northwest Territory, north of tin' 
Ohio River. Washington County, with Marietta as a seat of justice, was first 
established ; next Hamilton, with Cincinnati as a county seat. Wayne County 
was organized in 1796, and included about twenty-six of the present counties, 
in the northwest part of the State, covering about a quarter of its area, besides 
parts of Indiana and Michigan. 

In other parts of the State, the population was rapidly increasing. In May, 
1795, the Legislature authorized a committee to institute measures for the 


disposal of their Western lands. The Virginia and Connecticut Reservations 
required some action on the part of Government, inasmuch as ceding a portion 
and re-selling had in a measure disturbed free titles. Fifty-six persons negoti- 
ated and purchased lands, receiving quit-claim titles and entire rights. They 
re-sold to John Morgan and John Caldwell and Jonathan Bruce, in trust. Thus 
3,000,000 acres were prepared for settlement. Upon the quit-claim deeds of 
these representatives, the full title of lands included within the old Western 
Reserve rests. 

Judge Symmes began his active operations in 1796, and by the close of 
1797 all lands east of the Cuyahoga were laid out in townships, five miles square. 
The agent of the Connecticut Land Company was Gen. Moses Cleveland, and in 
his honor the leading city in the Reserve was named. Some townships were 
retained for private sale, and others were disposed of by lottery, in 1798. 

Wayne's treaty led to the formation of Dayton, and the peopling of that 
section. A difficulty arose regarding the original Symmes grant and its modifi- 
cation. Symmes had sold land titles, in good faith, beyond his vested power, 
and Congress was now called upon to adjust these claims and titles. Seventeen 
days after the Wayne or Greenville treaty, St. Clair, Wilkinson, Dayton and 
Ludlow contracted with Symmes for seven and eight ranges, between the Mad 
and Little Miami Rivers. November 4, 1795, Mr. Ludlow laid out Dayton. 

During the years 1790 and 1795, the Governor and Supreme Judges of the 
Northwest Territory had published sixty-four statutes. Thirty-four of these 
were ratified at Cincinnati, for the purpose of forming a complete statutory. It 
was termed the " Maxwell Code." 

Mr. Nathaniel Massie founded a town on the Scioto, which was called 
Chillicothe. The Iroquois treaty had previously invited settlement, and embryo 
towns had begun as early as 1769, under the protection of the Connecticut 
Company. A land company was organized in Hartford, Conn., in 1795, sending 
out forty-three surveyors to divide the townships of that part of the Western 
Reserve, east of the Cuyahoga, five miles square. The first resident of the town 
of Cleveland was Mr. Job Stiles and family, and Mrs. Stiles was the mother of 
the first white child born on the Reserve. Some other parts of the territory 
progressed more rapidly in population. 

Along the Muskingum, Scioto and Miami, towns began to spring up, which 
might perhaps better be termed farming settlements. 

Cincinnati was increasing, and in 1796, had reached 100 cabins, 15 frame 
houses and 600 persons, with prospects for a firm future. 

The Virginia Military Land District was between the Little Miami and 
Scioto, and was rapidly increasing in population. 

Mr. Massie was unceasing in his efforts to advance the West, and laid out 
Manchester, offering inducements that could not fail to attract settlers. 

Ebenezer Zane procured a grant in consideration of opening a bridle path 
from the Ohio River at Wheeling, over the country via Chillicothe, to Limestone, 


in Kentucky. The year following, the United States mail was taken over 
this route. \ 

The comparatively tranquil condition of the country and the inducements it 
had to offer encouraged a rapid settlement of the Territory. A prominent 
feature of the early growth of Ohio was the general prevalence of reliable, 
stanch principle. The people were of the good colonial stock. 

In 1800, Chillicothe was denominated the seat of the Territorial govern- 
ment, and the first stone edifice in the State was begun in this town, soon after 
this appointment. About this time, a serious difficulty suddenly occurred to 
those individuals who had taken lands on the Western Reserve of Connecticut. 
That Eastern power had, it is true, ceded a part of her claim to the General 
Government, and had stipulated for the sale of certain other tracts. At the 
same time, the State had not signed away her jurisdiction over some sections of 
her claim, and those unfortunate people in and about Dayton found themselves 
without any government upon which they might depend in a case of emergency. 
The matter was, accordingly, presented to the Territorial government, which 
interceded with the Eastern State, and, sanctioned by the Assembly at Congress, 
Connecticut relinquished her jurisdiction in 1800. 

Cleveland was an important point, and was growing in the mean time. How- 
ever, it had suffered exceedingly from the ravages of fever and ague. For a 
period of two months, there was not an individual, but a boy thirteen years 
of age, able to procure food for the others. Flour was out of all rational con- 
sideration, and the meal upon which they lived was pounded by hand. In 
1799, Williams and Myatt erected a grist-mill at the falls, near Newbury. 

A startling agitation occurred in 1801, which in these days would cause but a 
ripple in the political sea, but happening during a time when legislative dignity 
and state authority were regarded with reverential awe, it created the most 
intense feeling. Great indignation was openly expressed. 

The Governor and several legislators felt that they had been insulted in 
the performance of their respective duties, at Chillicothe, while the Assembly 
was in session in 1801. No measures being taken by the authorities at the 
capital to protect the Executive, a law was passed removing the seat of govern- 
ment to Cincinnati. 

This circumstance led to a general consideration of the advantages of a 
State government, and a popular desire was expressed for a change in this 
respect. Gov. St. Clair had fallen into disfavor through his failure as a military 
leader and his failures in the Indian campaigns, and from his assuming powers 
which Avere not vested in him, especially the subdivision of counties. He was 
also identified with the Federal party, which was not popular in Ohio. The 
opposition was strong in the Assembly, but was in the minority in the House of 
Representatives. The boundary question was agitated at the same time. The 
intention was to thus effect the limits of Ohio that a State government would 
necessarily have to be postponed. Against this measure, Tiffin, Worthington, 


Langham, Darlington, Massie, Dunlavy and Morrow strenuously objected. After 
considerable discussion, Thomas Worthington obtained leave of absence from 
the session, and journeyed to Washington in behalf of a State government. It 
was obvious that the Territory, under the ordinance, was not entitled to a 
change. Massie suggested the feasibility of appointing a committee to address 
Congress on the subject. This the House refused to pass. 

An effort was then made to take a census, but any action on this subject 
was postponed until the next session. 

During all this ineffectual struggle, Worthington was doing his best in Wash- 
ington, and succeeded so well that on March 4, a report was made to the House 
in favor of the State government. This report was made on a basis that the 
census, in 1800, summed up over 45,000 for Ohio. 

April 30, Congress passed a law carrying into effect the views expressed on 
this subject. A convention met on November 1. Its members were generally 
Jeffersonian in their views. Gov. St. Clair proposed to address them as their 
chief executive magistrate. Several members resolutely opposed this action, 
insisting upon a vote, which, through courtesy and not a sense of right, resulted 
in permitting him to address them. He advised the postponement of the State 
government until the original eastern portion of the State was sufficiently pop- 
ulated to demand this right. Only one, out of thirty-three, voted to sustain 
the Governor in these views. 

The convention agreed to the views of Congress. November 29, the agree- 
ment was ratified and signed, as was the constitution of the State of Ohio. 
The General Assembly was ordered to convene the first Tuesday of March, 1803. 

This was carried into effect. A constitution was framed for the new State, 
adhering to the Ordinance of 1787. The rights and duties of citizens were 
plainly set forth, and general business was transacted. The new State consti- 
tution was signed by : 

Edward Tiffin, President and Representative from Ross County. 

Adams County — Joseph Darlington, Israel Donalson, Thomas Vinker. 

Belmont County — James Caldwell and Elijah Woods. 

Clermont County — Philip Gatch and James Sargent. 

Fairfield County — Henry Abrams and Emanuel Carpenter. 

Hamilton County — John W. Brown, Charles Willing Byrd, Francis Dun- 
lavy, William Goforth, John Gitchel, Jeremiah Morrow, John Paul, John Riley, 
John Smith and John Wilson. 

Jefferson County — Rudolph Blair, George Humphry, John Milligan, Nathan 
Updegraff and Bezaleel Wells. 

Ross County — Michael Baldwin, James Grubb, Nathaniel Massie and F. 

Washington County — Ephraim Cutler, Benjamin Ives Gilman, John Mc- 
Intyre and Rufus Putnam. 

Thomas Scott, Secretary. 


The first Legislature of the State, under the new constitution, created eight 
new counties, viz., Gallia, Scioto, Franklin, Columbiana, Butler, Warren, 
Greene and Montgomery. 

The first State officers were : Michael Baldwin, Speaker of the House ; Na- 
thaniel Massie, President of the Senate ; William Creighton, Secretary of 
State ; Col. Thomas Gibson, Auditor ; William McFarland, Treasurer ; Return 
J. Meigs, Jr., Samuel Huntington and William Sprigg, Judges of the Supreme 
Court ; Francis Dunlavy, Willis Silliman and Calvin Pease, Judges of the Dist- 
rict Court. 

The General Assembly held a second session in December, at which time 
the militia law was revised, also giving aliens equal proprietary rights with native 
citizens. The revenue system was modified and improved. Acts authorizing 
the incorporation of townships were passed, and for the establishment of coun- 
ties. Furthermore, Jacob White, Jeremiah Morrow and William Ludlow were 
authorized to locate a township for collegiate purposes, according to previous 
specified terms of Congress. The Symmes grant and the college specification 
collided materially, but the irregularity of the former was not to create any 
inconvenience for the latter. Mr. Symmes had in good faith marked off this 
township, but circumstances preventing the perfection of his plans, that lapsed 
with the others, and the original township was now entered by settlers. 

Accordingly, thirty-six sections, west of the Great Miami, were selected, 
and are now held by the Miami University. 

Gov. St. Clair, notwithstanding his unpopularity, was re-appointed. 

Ohio was under a system of government which guaranteed the best improve- 
ments ; her Legislature being composed of her best statesmen, and the laws 
passed having the general interest of the people embodied in them. 

A bill was passed, appropriating the net proceeds of the land lying within 
said State, sold by Congress after the 20th day of June, 1802, after deducting 
all expenses incident to the same, to be applied to the laying-out of roads, 
leading from the navigable waters emptying into the Atlantic to the Ohio, to 
the said State, and through the same ; such roads to be laid out under the 
authority of Congress, with the consent of the several States through which the 
road shall pass. In conformity with these provisions, steps were taken, in 1805, 
which resulted in the making of the Cumberland or National road. 

Burr, at this time, began an organization for the ostensible purpose of 
making a settlement on the Wachita, but his party being armed and his plans 
not being frankly disclosed, an investigation proved that his real design was a 
mutinous revolt against Governmental powers, and to gratify his ambition by 
founding his own kingdom in Mexico, and defeating the Spanish. If success 
crowned his efforts, his ultimate victory was to rupture the Union by forcing the 
Western States to withdraw from their allegiance. By gaining an influence 
over the noble but misguided Blcnnerhasset, he established his headquarters on 
his island in the Ohio. The history of Burr's expedition is already well known. 


The final capture by Gov. Tiffin, of ten boats loaded with stores, on the Mus- 
kingum, and four near Marietta, decided the fate of this scheme, and Burr was 
finally arrested and put on trial May 22, 1807. 

The advancement of the settlement of the State was in no manner impeded, 
and towns sprang up, farms were laid out, and all other improvements inaugu- 
rated which tended to a permanent prosperity. 

In 1808, Tecumseh left Greenville to join the Prophet on the banks of the 
Tippecanoe, a tributary of the Upper Wabash, on a tract of land granted herein 
by the Pottawatomies. 

The Indians were virtually by treaty allowed but a small proportion of land 
within the boundaries of the State, and were maintaining peaceful attitudes 
toward the whites, with exceptional border depredations, which were settled by 
mutual understanding. 

Although the United States had gained independence, and was treating with 
England as with other foreign powers, the British persisted in violating the 
national rights of the United States, impressing American seamen into the 
British service, seizing American vessels engaged with France in trade, and 
otherwise violating the rights of an independent nation, at peace with the Brit- 
ish power. 

The mission upon which Henry was sent by the British, to create disturb- 
ance between the States, and thus broken, to weaken the strength of the Gen- 
eral Government, added fuel to the fire, and united indignation cried for war. 

British agents again bargained with the Indians of the Wabash and Maumee 
Valleys, desiring them to inaugurate another war upon the western sections and 
to make a desperate attack upon the settlements south of the lakes. The Brit- 
ish agent at Maiden negotiated in rifles, powder, ball, merchandise, lead, blank- 
ets and shirts. The Indians were inspired again with the hope that the whites 
would be driven back, and that all the country north of the Ohio would again 
revert to them. 

The Canadians in league with the English, gave the savages unlimited 
quantities of whisky, which naturally aroused their fierce natures to acts of 
violence and blood. It is highly probable that the use of liquor was the main 
cause of the deterioration of the best traits of the Indian character, after the 
Revolution. Again, many unscrupulous men upon the frontier did not hesi- 
tate to commit the most merciless crimes against the Indians, such was the 
prejudice against them, and the courts invariably failed to indict them for these 
atrocities. This error on the part of the Americans served to influence the 
savages against them. 

At this time, the seats of justice were distant over a hundred miles each 
from the other, uninhabited tracts frequently extending between them which were 
absolute wildernesses. The routes were in many cases difficult and circuitous. 

As early as 1808, there was a mail communication for the people on the 
Lower Maumee, many days elapsing between the arrivals and departures of 


the same, however. Horace Gunn was the carrier. Benoni Adams brought 
the news from Cleveland to the same point, his trip requiring a fortnight. It 
must be remembered that this journey was mostly made on foot. The Black 
Swamp could not be traversed in any other manner. 

THE WAR OF 1812. 

The war of 1812 can be called a continuation of the Revolution, with all 
justice. Although rumors had reached Ohio, that active preparations were 
being made for general action, no official tidings had been sent to Hull, com- 
mander-in-chief of the Western forces. 

The Secretary of War, instead of sending a special messenger directly to 
Hull, communicated with the post adjacent, depending upon a continuation of 
the news from that point. At the same time, advices were sent the British 
post at Maiden and Detroit. Hull sent out a packet with official papers, stores, 
etc., the day previous to that on which the official intelligence arrived that an 
open rupture existed between the two powers, and this was of course captured. 

The Western forces marched to Detroit and crossed over to Sandwich, pre- 
paratory to attacking Maiden, a post most favorable for the transportation of 
stores, troops, etc. which was therefore considered valuable. 

Peter Minard first gave the news to the settlers of the Maumee. He had 
heard from a Delaware chief, who assured him a general massacre was to take 
place in the valley. Maj. Spafford paid no heed to this "idle fear," until a 
few days thereafter a messenger came to his quarters, reporting a band of fifty 
Pottawatomies on the march to join the hostile tribes near Maiden. They had 
plundered and burned Monclova, and had nearly reached the rapids. 

The Major, with his family and settlers, immediately launched a barge on 
the river and were able to reach old Fort Miami just as the savages reached 
Maumee City. They could plainly witness the flames that devoured their old 
homes. They kept on their way in their miserable craft, until they reached 
Milan, where they learned that the entire country was in danger. 

Although the Indians were defeated in the battle of Tippecanoe in the fall 
of 1811, they plotted vigorously with the English for the invasion of Ohio. 

Gen. William Hull marched from the southwestern part of the State 
directly north, crossing the counties of Champaign, Logan, Hardin, Hancock 
and Wood, establishing military posts along the route and cutting a way 
through the wilderness of the unsettled portions. He crossed the Maumee on 
the 1st of July, and marched to Detroit. 

Hull was evidently actuated in his succeeding disgraceful failures by two 
fears — lack of confidence in the ability of his troops, and the belief that they 
might desert him in action. He proclaimed freedom, and a necessity of sub- 
mitting to the Canadians under existing circumstances. He held out induce- 
ments to the British regulars to desert their cause and essayed to pacify the 
savages, but he accomplished nothing beyond jeopardizing the American cause 


and disgracing his army. His men became restless. Col. Miller and Col. 
Cass were delighted when detailed on scouting expeditions, and did not hesi- 
tate to attack advancing squads of the enemy. At last, an attack was made on 
the Niagara frontier, and Hull speedily abandoned his project and collected his 
forces at Detroit. 

Meantime, Col. Proctor had reached Maiden, and quickly perceiving the 
advantage of a post at that point, whereby he could cut off supplies and starve 
Hull into subjection, he massed his forces about this section, captured Van 
Horn and his two hundred men, and withstood the attack of Miller, although 
he gained nothing by so doing. Again Hull displayed his weakness by recall- 
ing his forces from further molestations. 

Gen. Brock, however, reached Maiden on the 13th of August, 1812, and 
began war preparations. 

Gen. Dearborn placed a force on the Niagara frontier, but an armistice was 
made with the British. Hull dispatched a third party under McArthur, to 
open communications to the Raisin River. 

Gen. Brock appeared at Sandwich and began to erect batteries, which Hull 
would not allow to be molested. The result was, that on the 26th of August 
Detroit was surrendered to the enemy, and not a blow had been struck in its 

By this dastardly act, 1,400 brave men who had not been permitted to 
make a single effort to sustain the American cause, were surrendered to 300 
English regulars, 400 Canadians and their Indian allies. Gen. Hull was, in 
consequence of this series of '"mistakes," accused of treason and cowardice, 
and convicted of the latter. By the middle of August, the British had gained 
the control over most of the Northwestern Territory. 

The appointment of William Henry Harrison to the position of com- 
mander in chief of the Western forces, was most opportune. He speedily 
raised a vigorous army, and advanced by three routes to the foot of the rapids. 

Gen. Harrison commanded the right wing, and marched by the way of Upper 
Sandusky, where he located his depot of supplies. Gen. Tupper commanded 
the center, Fort McArthur, in Hardin County, being his base, while Gen. Win- 
chester marched from Fort Defiance down the Maumee to the foot of the rapids. 

A large force of British and Indians moved up the left bank of the Mau- 
mee toward Fort Wayne, and Gen. Harrison, to intercept them, marched to 
the confluence of the Auglaize with the Maumee. 

Harrison was aware that the enemy would be also hemmed in by Win- 
chester. The weather was rainy, and the prospects were that a most unfortun- 
ate season was to follow the expected engagements. Harrison heard that 
Winchester had reached Fort Defiance, and that the Indians and British were 
retreating down the Maumee. He followed, and marched to Winchester's 
camp, where he arrived in season to quell a mutiny under command of Col. 
Allen, of the Kentucky troops. 


In January, 1813, Winchester had reached the rapids, where he received 
tidings that Frenchtown was menaced and exposed. Without orders, he sent a 
party to the rescue, which defeated the enemy. The weather was intensely 
cold, and the company lay within eighteen miles of Maiden, where the enemy 
was collected in full force, consequently re-enforcements must be dispatched 
immediately or the town again left to its fate. 

Winchester then marched with a force of 259 men, and upon arriving at 
nightfall, insisted upon remaining on open ground, although warned repeatedly 
that this would be a most dangerous experiment. 

In the morning, he was surprised by the enemy, massed directly before 
him, with a battery within three hundred yards of his camp, and a shower of 
bombs, balls and grape-shot falling among his exposed troops, and the yells of 
Indians reminding him of his fatal error. Lewis, who led the party out in the 
beginning and had apprehended the danger, bravely defended himself behind 
garden pickets. Winchester was defeated on the 22d of January, 1813, and 
the Indians were permitted to massacre the prisoners and the settlers. 

Harrison fell back to the foot of the rapids. On the 1st of February, he 
began the construction of Fort Meigs. On the 27th of April, Proctor and 
Tecumseh attacked this fort, and laid siege with the full expectation of success. 
The stipulation was that Gen. Harrison was to be delivered to Tecumseh. 
While the balls and bombs were making havoc with the fort, the Indians were 
climbing trees and pouring a galling fire down upon the troops. Gen. Proctor 
invited Harrison to surrender, which was politely declined, with the assurance 
that the British General would have the opportunity to distinguish himself as a 
soldier before such a proceeding was enacted, 

Gen. Clay was descending the Maumee with 1,200 Kentuckians in flat 
boats. Orders went from Harrison that 800 men should land on the left bank, 
take and spike the British cannon, and then to enter the fort, from which 
soldiers were to issue to assist the re-enforcements. 

Capt. Hamilton was to pilot Gen. Clay to the fort, cutting their way 
through. All succeeded, Col. Dudley taking the batteries and spiking the 
cannon. But his men, too much elated by their success, against orders, and 
against the repeated expostulations of Col. Dudley, insisted on pursuing the 
Indians. Col. Dudley would not desert them. This act proved their ruin. 
By a decoy, they were led into a defile which proved an ambush, and the men 
found themselves surrounded by savages, without means of escape. 

A most frightful massacre began, and every man would have fallen had not 
Tecumseh sternly forbidden the cowardly carnage. One of his principal chiefs 
ignored this order, and the next instant the great warrior buried his hatchet in 
his head. The brave Col. Dudley was, however, tomahawked and scalped. 

There were no immediate signs that the fort would be surrendered, and the 
siege was raised on the 9th of May. It was renewed on the 20th of July, and 
abandoned a few days later. The enemy decided this stronghold was invulnerable. 


On the 1st of August, the enemy proceeded to Fort Stevenson, at Lower 
Sandusky, garrisoned by 150 men under Maj. Croghan. The fort had the 
use of but one piece of cannon. The enemy with Tecumseh's Indians num- 
bered 3,300 strong, with six pieces of cannon. 

Gen. Proctor again tendered the offer to surrender, adding that a refusal 
would only bring about a useless resistance, and a massacre by the Indians. 
The reply was, that before the fort went over to the British, not an American 
would be left to be massacred, as they should hold out to the last man. Proc- 
tor opened fire. The first movement was an assault upon the northwest angle 
of the fort, as if to make a breach and thus carry the works. The command- 
ant strengthened that point by bags of sand, and during the night stealthily 
placing his one cannon in a concealed position, he filled it with slugs. 

The following day, the fire again swept the northwest corner, and, evening 
approaching, a column of 350 men swept up within twenty yards of the walls. 
They were met by the musketry, which had little effect, and the ditch was soon 
filled with men. The next instant the hidden cannon, so placed as to sweep 
the ditch, suddenly began action, and the surprised assailants quickly recoiled, 
and the fort was saved, with the loss of only one man. 

The next morning, the enemy had disappeared, evidently in haste, as guns, 
clothing and stores were left behind. They had lost over one hundred and 
fifty men by this useless attempt. Croghan had previously received orders to 
evacuate the fort from Gen. Harrison, and his determination to hold the position 
merited Harrison's reprimand and remand of commission. Such was the sev- 
erity of military law. However, the rank of Colonel was immediately conferred 
upon him by the President, for his gallantry. The ladies of Chillicothe pre- 
sented him with an elegant testimonial in the shape of a sword. 

It was decided to make a naval warfare effectual in the recovery of the 
Northwestern Territory, and accordingly vessel-building began under Commo- 
dore Perry's supervision. 

The British looked upon this proceeding with derision, fully intending to 
use these boats for their own purpose. They publicly proclaimed their intention. 

By the 1st of August, 1813, Commodore Perry set sail a flotilla, the Law- 
rence and the Niagara, of twenty guns each, with smaller vessels following. 
Some difficulty was encountered in launching the larger vessels, on account of 
the shallowness of the water. 

Perry's first destination was Put-in-Bay, thirty miles from Maiden, where 
the British fleet lay under the guns of the fort. On the 10th of September, 
the British fleet — exceeding the American by ten guns — under Commodore 
Barclay, appeared off Put-in-Bay, distant about ten miles. Perry immediately 
set sail. The wind shifting, the Americans had the advantage. 

Perry hoisted the Union Jack. A general preparation was made for the 
conflict. An ominous silence settled over all as the fleets approached. A 
bugle sounded on the enemy's ship Detroit, and a furious fire was opened upon 


the Lawrence. The frightful and desperate battle that ensued is so familiar 
that it is not necessary for us to repeat its details. It forever remains in his- 
tory as a prominent, desperate struggle that turned the tide most decisively in 
favor of the Americans. Hand to hand, for three hours, this furious struggle 
surged, resulting in a pronounced victory for the Americans. 

Commodore Perry immediately requested parole for his severely wounded 
antagonist, Commodore Barclay. Capt. Elliott was at this engagement highly 
commended by Perry for his bravery. 

Gen. Harrison now made preparations to follow Proctor, and reached Mai- 
den on the 27th of September. 

Proctor had retreated to Sandwich, and thence Harrison followed him, 
overtaking the enemy on the 9th of October, on the bank of the Thames. An 
engagement ensued, which was not particularly marked in its events, but which 
practically terminated the war in the Northwest. 

Tecumseh fell during this battle, and his death disheartened the savages to 
such an extent that they were willing to make terms of peace. Accordingly 
a treaty was concluded on the 22d of July, 1814, with the Wyandots, Dela- 
wares, Shawnees, Senecas and Miamis, the tribes engaged in hostilities. 

Again Ohio was able to turn her attention to the improvements within her 
own boundaries. Weary and disabled though she was, her ambition and 
energy were unimpaired. The struggle had been severe, but a grand reward 
had been won, and peace and independence belonged to these sturdy, earnest, 

In 1815, a town was founded near Fort Meigs, and, in 1816, Gen. John 
E. Hunt and Judge Robert A. Forsythe located at Maumee. 


Up to the year 1817, Ohio had no banking system, and on the 28th of 
January of that year, the United States Bank opened a branch at Cincinnati, 
and yet another during the following October at Chillicothe. These branches 
found a large amount of business to transact, and while being of assistance in 
various ways to the State, also received a fine revenue themselves. The State 
therefore resolved upon a tax levy, and, in 1819, the branches were to pay 
$50,000 each, and the State Auditor was authorized to issue his warrant for 
the collection of the same. 

The bank branches demurred, but the State was decided, and the banks 
accordingly filed a bill in chancery, in the United States Circuit Court, setting 
forth reasons whereby their prayer that Ralph Osborn, State Auditor, should 
be restrained from making such collection, should be seriously considered. 

Osborn being counseled not to appear on the day designated in the" writ, an 
injunction was obtained, with the security given in the shape of bonds from the 
bank, to the amount of $100,000. On the. 14th of September, the bank sent a 
commissioner to Columbus, who served upon the Auditor a copy of the petition 


for the injunction, and a subpoena to make an appearance before the court 
on the first Monday in the following January. Osborn submitted both the 
petition and the injunction to the Secretary of State, with his warrant for col- 
lecting the tax. Legally, the matter was somewhat complicated. 

The Auditor desired the Secretary of State to take legal advice, and if the 
papers did not actually amount to an injunction, to give orders for the execu- 
tion of the warrant. 

The decision was that the papers did not equal a valid injunction. The State 
writ for collection was therefore given over to John L. Harper, with directions 
to enter the banking-house and demand the payment of the tax. In case of a 
refusal, the vault was to be entered and a levy made upon the amount required. 
No violence was to be used, and if force was used to deter the act, the 
same was to be reported to a proper magistrate and an affidavit made to that 

On September 17, Mr. Harper went about his errand, taking with him T. 
Orr and J. MacCollister. After securing access to the vault, a demand was 
made for the payment of the tax. This was promptly refused, and a notice 
given of the granting of the injunction. This was disregarded, and the officer 
seized $98,000 in gold, silver and notes. This was placed in charge of the 
State Treasurer, Mr. H. M. Curry. 

The officers were arrested and imprisoned by the United States Circuit 
Court, and the money returned to the bank. The case was reviewed by 
the Supreme Court, and the measures of the Circuit Court were sustained. The 
State, therefore, submitted. In the mean time, the Legislature had prepared 
and passed a resolution, as follows: 

Resolved, by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, That in respect to the powers of the 
Governments of the several States that compose the American Union, and the powers of the Fed- 
eral Government, this General Assembly do recognize and approve the doctrines asserted by the 
Legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia in their resolutions of November and December, 1798, 
and January, 1800, and do consider their principles have been recognized and adopted by a 
majority of the American people. 

Resolved further, That this General Assembly do assert and will maintain by all legal and 
constitutional means, the rights of States to tax the business and property of any private corpo- 
ration of trade, incorporated by the Congress of the United States, and located to transact its 
corporate business within any State. 

Resolved further, That the bank of the United States is a private corporation of trade, the 
capital and business of which may be legally taxed in any State where they may be found. 

Resolved further, That the General Assembly do protest against the doctrines that the politi- 
cal rights of the separate States that compose the American Union and their powers as sovereign 
States, may be settled and determined in the Supreme Court of the United States, so as to con- 
clude and bind them in cases contrived between individuals, and where they are, no one of them, 
parties direct. 

The bank was thus debarred from the aid of State laws in the collection of 
its dues and in the protection of its rights. An attempt was made to effect a 
change in the Federal constitution, which would take the case out of the 
United States Courts. This, however, proved ineffectual. 


The banking system in Ohio has, by reason of State surveillance, not been 
subjected to those whirlwind speculations and questionable failures which have 
marked many Western States, in the establishment of a firm basis upon which 
a banking law could be sustained, with mutual benefit to the institution and the 


In the first part of 1817, the Legislature considered a resolution relating 
to a canal between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. No action was taken and 
the subject was not again agitated until 1819. Gov. Brown appointed three 
commissioners in 1820, for the purpose of employing an efficient engineer and 
such assistants as he deemed necessary, for the purpose of surveying a practical 
route for this canal. The commissioners were restricted in their actions until 
Congress should accept a proposition in behalf of the State, for a donation and 
sale of the public lands lying upon and near the route of the proposed canal. 
A delay was thus occasioned for two years. 

In 1822, the matter was referred to a committee of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. This committee approved and recommended the employment of the 
engineer. They furthermore added illustrations to prove the feasibility of the 

James Geddes, a skillful engineer of New York, was in due time appointed 
to the position and instructed to make the necessary examinations and sur- 

The surveys were made, and estimates given of the expenses, which docu- 
ments were laid before the Legislature at several sessions. 

In 1825, an act was passed providing for the internal improvement of the 
State by navigable canals. Directly thereafter, the State set vigorously about 
the work of constructing two canals, one leading from the Ohio to Lake Erie, 
by way of the valleys of the Scioto and Muskingum, the other from Cincinnati 
to Dayton. 

The first canal-boat from Cincinnati to Dayton, reached her destination in 
1829, on the 25th of January. This outlet of communication was extended 
to Lake Erie, and was completed in 1845. The largest artificial lake now 
known is on the elevation between the Ohio and the lake, in Mercer County, 
and supplies the St. Mary's feeder of the Miami Canal, about three miles dis- 
tant, eastwardly. This reservoir is about nine miles long, and from two to 
four broad. 

Two walls of earth, from ten to twenty feet high, were formed, on the east 
and west, which united with the elevations north and south, surrounded this 
basin. When the water was admitted, whole farms were submerged, and the 
"neighbors" complained lest this overflow should tempt miasma. So great 
was the excitement, that over one hundred and fifty residents of the county 
united, and with shovels and spades, made a breach in the embankment. 
Many holding prominent positions in the county were engaged in this work, 


and all laid themselves liable to the State laws, which made the despoiling of 
public works a penitentiary offense. 

The matter was taken up by the courts, but a grand jury could not be 
found in Mercer County to find a bill of indictment. 

The officers who had charge of the work, ignored the law requiring the cut- 
ing and saving of the timber on lands appropriated, for canal reservoirs. The 
trees were ruthlessly girdled, and thousands of acres of valuable timber that 
might have been highly desirable in the building of bridges, etc., were 
destroyed. However, an adjustment was finally effected, and the work was 
prosecuted with the entire approbation of the people, who were convinced that 
convenient transportation was to be desired. 


After the Indians relinquished all claims against the lands of those States 
west of the Alleghanies, as they had been obtained by conquest, the United 
States, as a government, owned the soil. When Ohio was admitted into the 
Union, a stipulation was made that the fee simple to all the lands within its 
boundaries, with the exception of those previously sold or granted, should vest 
in the General Government. At the present writing, but few tracts remain 
that can be called " public lands." In this, as in other States, tracts are des- 
ignated by their pioneer signification or the purpose to which they were origi- 
nally devoted. In Ohio, these tracts are known as : 


Congress Lands. 


Symmes' Purchase. 


Maumee Road. 


United States Military. 


Refugee Tract. 


School Lands. 


Virginia Military. 


French Grant. 


College Lands. 


Western Reserve. 


Dohrman's Grant. 


Ministerial Lands. 


Fire Lands. 


Zane's Grant. 


Moravian Lands. 


Ohio Company's Purchase. 


Canal Lands. 


Salt Sections. 


Donation Tract. 


Turnpike Lands. 

The lands sold by the direct officers of the Government, under the direc- 
tion of Congress, according to the laws, are known as Congress lands. They 
are properly surveyed, and laid out in townships six miles square, under the 
direction of the Government, and the expense incurred settled by Congress. 
These townships are subdivided into sections, containing 640 acres. One sec- 
tion is reserved, in every township, for educational purposes, to be utilized in 
any manner approved by the State as being the best to aid the cause for which 
they are assigned. 

The Western Reserve will be remembered as the tract originally belonging to 
Connecticut. It lies in the northeast quarter of the State. A half-million acres 
were donated by the old Eastern State, when her claim was in force, to sufferers 
from fire during the Revolutionary war, which created the name, " fire lands." 
Many settled here whose homes were destroyed by the British during the war. 

It will be remembered, that on account of discoveries by subjects of empires, 
in the New World, the " Old World " kings laid claim to different portions 


of the young continent. At that period, European knowledge of American 
geographical positions and limits was exceedingly meager, which occasioned 
several wars and more discussions. These Old- World sovereigns also assumed 
the authority to sell or present tracts of land to their subjects, in those terri- 
tories they deemed their own. 

King Charles II of England granted to his loyal subjects the colony of 
Connecticut, in 1662, placing with them a charter of right to all lands within 
certain prescribed boundaries. But these " boundaries " frequently conflicted 
with those of others, and sometimes extended to the Pacific Ocean, or " South 
Sea," as it was then termed. Connecticut, by her original charter rights, held 
all lands between the forty -first and forty-second parallels of north latitude, and 
from Providence Plantation on the east, to Pacific Ocean on the west, except- 
ing the New York and Pennsylvania colonies. As late as the establishment of 
the United States as an independent government, those colliding claims fre- 
quently engendered confusion and warm discussion between the nation and 
Connecticut, regarding the original colony claim. This was compromised by 
the national claims being relinquished in regard to the territorial claim in Ohio, 
and Connecticut holding the 3,800,000 acres described as the " Western Reser- 
vation." The Government held the right of jurisdiction. 

In 1796, Congress set aside a certain division of land, to satisfy the claims 
of officers and soldiers of the Revolutionary war. It includes the 2,500,000 
acres between the Greenville treaty line and the Congress and refugee lands, 
and " VII ranges of townships," on the east, and the Scioto River, west. This 
constitutes the " Military Tract." The " Virginia Military Tract " lies between 
the Scioto and Little Miami Rivers, and extends south to the Ohio. 

James I, in his authorized charter to the Virginia colony, in the year 
1609, made rather visionary boundary lines, sweeping over the continent, west 
of the Ohio River, " of the north and south breadth of Virginia." Virginia 
reconciled the matter by relinquishing all her claims northwest of the Ohio 
River, with the exception of a tract for the purpose of donating the same to her 
troops of the Revolution — their claims demanding such a return in some section. 
Unfortunately, this tract was not regularly surveyed, and conflicting "lines " 
have given rise to litigation ever since that stipulation was made. 

The Ohio Company's Purchase has already been described — as has the 
Symmes Purchase. 

The Refugee Tract covers an area of 100,000 acres, extending eastwardly 
from the Scioto River forty-eight miles, in a strip of country four and one-half 
miles broad, north to south. Columbus, the capital of the State, is situated in 
the western portion. This land was donated by Congress to those individuals 
who left the British dominions and rule, during the Revolution, and espoused 
the American cause. 

The French Tract borders on the Ohio River, in the southeastern quarter 
of Scioto County. It includes 24,000 acres, and was ceded to those French 


families that lost their claims at Gallipolis, through invalid titles ; 1,200 acres 
were added, after the above grant of 1795. 

Dohrman's Grant includes a section, six miles square, in the southeastern 
portion of Tuscarawas County. It was granted to Arnold Henry Dohrman, a 
Portuguese merchant, as a token of appreciation of the aid and shelter he ren- 
dered American cruisers and vessels of war, during the Revolution. 

The Moravian Lands were originally grants by the old Continental Con- 
gress, in 1787, and confirmed by the act of the Government Congress, in 1796, 
to the Moravian Brethren, of Bethlehem, Penn., in sacred trust, and for the 
use of those Indians who embraced Christianity and civilization, desiring to live 
and settle thereon. These three tracts include 4,000 acres each, and are situ- 
ated in Tuscarawas County. In 1823, the Indians relinquished their rights to 
the 12,000 acres in this county, for 24,000 acres, in a territory designated by 
the United States, together with an annuity of $400. 

Zane's Tracts included a portion of land on the Muskingum, whereon Zanes- 
ville was built ; another at the crossing of the Hocking, on which Lancaster is 
located ; and yet another on the left bank of the Scioto River, opposite Chilli- 
cothe. These grants were made to Ebenezer Zane, by Congress, in 1796, as a 
reward for opening a road from Wheeling, Va., to Maysville, Ky. In 1802, 
Mr. Zane received three additional tracts, one square mile each, in considera- 
tion of being captured and held a prisoner, during the Revolutionary war, 
when a boy, by thie Indians. He lived with these people most of his life, secur- 
ing many benefits for the Americans. These tracts are located in Champaign 

The Maumee Road Lands extend the length of the road, from the Maumee 
River, at Perrysburg, to the western limits of the Western Reserve, a distance 
of forty-six miles — in a strip two miles wide. This includes about 60,000 
acres. These lands were ceded by the Indians, at the treaty of Brownstown, in 
1808. The original intention of Congress was to mark a highway through this 
strip, but no definite action was taken until 1823, when the land was ceded to 
the State of Ohio, under an obligation that the State make and sustain the pro- 
jected road, within four years after the transfer. 

The Turnpike Lands extended over 31,360 acres along the western side of 
the Columbus & Sandusky Turnpike, in the eastern parts of Seneca, Craw- 
ford and Marion Counties. They were designed for the transportation of mail 
stages, troops and other United States property, free from toll. The grant was 
made in 1827. 

" The Ohio Canal Lands " comprise about 1,000,000 acres, set aside for the 
purpose of canal construction. 

When Ohio was admitted to the Union, a guarantee was given that the State 
should not tax Government lands until they should have been sold for five years. 
That the thirty-sixth part of all territory within the State limits should be de- 
voted to educational purposes, for the" general benefit of the population. In 


order to secure tracts which would prove available, and thus insure returns, 
they were selected in small lots. No. 16 was designated as the sectional portion, 
in each township of Congress lands, the Ohio Company's and Symmes Pur- 
chases, the United States Military Lands, the Connecticut Reserve, and a num- 
ber of quarter townships. These school lands were selected by the Secretary 
of the Treasury. 

The college townships are thirty-six miles square. A section, thirty-six 
miles square, in the center of Jackson County, in the vicinity and containing 
the Scioto Salt Licks, was also reserved by Congress, together with a quarter- 
mile township in Delaware County. This swept over 27,040 acres. In 1824, 
Congress authorized the State to sell these lands. The proceeds were to be 
devoted to literary requirements, such as might be specified by Congress. 


We have heretofore briefly alluded to the canal system of Ohio, which in 
the beginning caused considerable anxiety to settlers directly in the course of 
its survey. The Legislature passed the " Internal Improvement by Navigable 
Canals " act, in 1825, and the work was immediately inaugurated and hastened. 
The " Ohio Canal " extends from the lake to the Ohio, and the " Miami " con- 
nects Cincinnati with Dayton. The latter was completed to Toledo in 1844, a 
length of 493 miles. Its total cost, including reservoir cutting and feeders, was 
$7,500,000. The Ohio Canal was finished in 1833. 

During the construction of these canals, the curiosities which have attracted 
antiquarians and scientists, in the State of Ohio, were found in various places. 
Relics were discovered that must have belonged to a giant race. Nearly 3,000 
graves were found, of the " mound type." 

A third canal was begun in 1836, reaching from Walhonding, in Coshocton 
County, to Roscoe, its length being twenty-five miles, involving an expense of 
$610,000. This was completed in 1842. The Hocking Canal, between Car- 
roll, in Fairfield County, and Athens, in Athens County, a distance of fifty- 
six miles, was also cut, about the same time, at a cost of nearly $1,000,000. 

The Muskingum improvements were also being carried forward. Locks and 
dams were requisite for the perfection of navigation in this water-course, from 
Dresden to Marietta, a distance of ninety-one miles. This added an expense 
of $1,630,000 to the call for improvement appropriations. To the Miami Canal 
was added a feeder, known as the Warren County Canal — extending from 
Franklin to Lebanon, which was not completed, although over $250,000 were 
expended in its construction as far as it went. 

Railway transportation was a subject which engrossed the attention of those in- 
terested in State perpetuity and general prosperity. About the year 1831, the Leg- 
islature received applications for railway charters. The first one granted was the 
" Cincinnati, Sandusky & Cleveland Railroad," on June 5, 1832. The " Sandusky, 
Mansfield & Newark Railroad " obtained a charter in 1836, March 11, followed. 


three days thereafter, by the " Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad." 
The " Little Miami " was begun in 1837. Notwithstanding these chartered 
rights, but 129 miles were completed in 1847, and in operation. In 1878, 
the mileage had increased to 6,264. The valuation of the operating roads 
was estimated the same year, at $76,113,500. Their taxation summed up 

No State in the Union has been more zealous in her educational interests than 
Ohio. Public lands were generously granted by Congress, and the State added 
her affirmation. However, no practical and effectual system was adopted until 

An act was then passed to tax all real property one-half mill per dollar for 
the establishment of schools in each township, and the support of the same. 
An act of 1829, increased the tax to three-fourths of a mill. Trustees of 
townships were instructed to make divisions and locate convenient school dis- 
tricts. Householders were to elect three school directors, a clerk and treasurer 
annually. Privileges and restrictions were enjoined in all cases. The house- 
holders were allowed their discretion, governed accordingly, in imposing taxes 
for the erection of school buildings. The Courts of the Common Pleas 
appointed a committee to examine the qualifications of those individuals mak- 
ing application for the position of teachers. The school extended equal privi- 
leges to all white children. Those of colored parentage were excluded, and no 
tax was levied for school purposes upon colored parents. An amendment has 
admitted the children of colored parents. The system has continued the same. 
with a few amendments. A State Commissioner of Common Schools is elected 
every third year, who has general charge of the interests of public schools. A 
State Board of Examiners, composed of three persons, appointed by the State 
Commissioner, for two years' term, is authorized to issue life certificates of high 
qualifications, to such teachers as it may find to possess the requisite scholarship, 
character, experience and ability. These certificates, signed by the Commis- 
sioner, are valid throughout the State. A County Board of Examiners, of 
three members, is formed in each county. Boards of education, for cities, are 
made up of one or two members from each ward. City Boards of Examiners 
are also appointed. Section 4 of the law of 1873, was amended in 1877. which 
made the territory annexed to an incorporated village, at the option of the 
voters of the village and tributary section, whether it be included with the vil- 
lage as one school district, or left as two school districts. Section 56 of the law was 
amended, in its bearing upon cities of 30,000 to 75,000 inhabitants, by limiting 
to five mills on the dollar of taxable property, the levies in such cities for con- 
tinuing schools, for purchasing sites for schoolhouses, for Leasing, purchasing, 
erecting and furnishing school houses, and for all school expenses. The public 
funds are subject to the discretion of voters, and boards are authorized, under 
instructions, to make the best use of such funds. Taxation is subject to the 
discretion of the State, certain limits being prescribed. 


In 1878, the number of youth of the school age numbered 1,041,963. 
On the rolls, 740,194 names were recorded. In the year 1878, .23,391 teach- 
ers were employed, receiving $4,956,514.46 for their services. 

Ohio not only sustains her public schools on a broad, liberal basis, but she 
encourages educational pursuits in superior universities and colleges throughout 
the State. These institutions are not aided by State funds, but are sustained by 
society influence, added to their self-supporting resources. Ohio also possesses 
a large number of normal schools, academies, seminaries and business colleges. 
These are not entitled to the privileges of the school fund. Scientific, profes- 
sional, theological, legal and medical instructions are in no manner limited in 
their facilities. Industrial and reformatory schools are especially thorough. 
Institutions for the instruction of the deaf and dumb, and blind, and feeble- 
minded, are under the best discipline. 

We may add, many female seminaries have been established which are entirely 
sustained by other than State aid. Ohio has, from its inception, been solid and 
vigorous in whatever tended toward improvement and enlightenment. 

We have also referred to the banking system of this State, as being first 
established on a basis through a contest between the State and the General 
Government. Authorities differ regarding the exact date and location of the 
very first house established in the State for the purpose of transacting banking 
business. It is highly probable that Marietta is more directly associated with 
that event than any other town. There are at present over one hundred and 
sixty-seven national banks, with an aggregate capital of $27,794,468. It also 
has eighteen banks of deposit, incorporated under the State banking laws of 
1845, representing an aggregate capital of $539,904. Twenty-three savings 
banks, incorporated under the State act of 1875, with an aggregate capital of 
$1,277,500. Of private banks it has 192, with an aggregate capital of 
$5,663,898. The State represents in her banking capital over $36,275,770. 
The First National of Cincinnati has a capital stock of over $1,000,000. 
The others fall below that sum, their capital diminishing from 10,000 shares of 
$100 each. The valuation for taxation is $850,000 — Merchant's National of 
Cincinnati — to the valuation of a tax of $5,000 on the First National of 


We must not omit the subject of the State boundaries. Ohio was especially 
the field for most animated discussions, relative not only to State limits but 
county lines and township rights. In 1817, a severe controversy arose, which 
was settled only after violent demonstrations and Government interference. 

In primitive times, the geographical position, extent and surface diversities 
were but meagerly comprehended. In truth, it may be asserted they could not 
have been more at variance with actual facts had they been laid out " hap- 
hazard." The ordinance of 1787 represented Lake Michigan far north of its 
real position, and even as late as 1812, its size and location had not been 


definitely ascertained. During that year, Amos Spafford addressed a clear, com- 
prehensive letter to the Governor of Ohio, on this subject, relative to the 
boundary lines of Ohio. Several lines of survey were laid out as the first 
course, but either Michigan or Ohio expressed disapproval in every case. This 
culminated in 1835, when the party beginning a "permanent" survey began 
at the northwest corner of the State, and was attacked by a force of Michigan 
settlers who sent them away badly routed and beaten. No effort was made to 
return to the work until the State and various parties had weighed the subject, 
and finally the interposition of the Government became necessary. 

A settlement resulted in Ohio being bounded on the north by Lake Erie 
and the State of Michigan, on the east by Pennsylvania and West Virginia, on 
the south by the Ohio River, and on the west by Indiana. 

It is situated between the 38° 25' and 42° north latitude, and 84° 50' 
west longitude from Greenwich, or 3° 30' and 7° 50' west from Washington. 
From north to south, it extends over 210 miles, and. from east to west 220 
miles — comprising 39,964 square miles. 

The State is generally higher than the Ohio River. In the southern 
counties, the surface is greatly diversified by the inequalities produced by the 
excavating power of the Ohio River and its tributaries. The greater portion 
of the State was originally covered with timber, although in the central and 
northwestern sections some prairies were found. The crest or watershed 
between the waters of Lake Erie and those of the Ohio is less elevated than 
in New York or Pennsylvania. Sailing upon the Ohio the country appears 
to be mountainous, bluffs rising to the height of two hundred and fifty to six 
hundred feet above the valleys. Ascending the tributaries of the Ohio, these 
precipitous hills gradually lessen until they are resolved into gentle undulations, 
and toward the sources of the river the land is low and marshy. 

Although Ohio has no inland lakes of importance, she possesses a favorable 
river system, which, aided by her canals, gives her prestige of a convenient 
water transportation. The lake on her northern boundary, and the Ohio 
River on her southern limit, afford most convenient outlets by water to impor- 
tant points. Her means of communication and transportation are superior in 
every respect, and are constantly being increased. 


Adams County was named in honor of John Adams, second President of 
the United States. Gov. St. Clair proclaimed it a county on July 10, 1797. 
The Virginia Military Tract included this section, and the first settlement made 
within its boundaries was in this county in 1790-91, between the Scioto and Little 
Miami, at Manchester, by Gen. Nathaniel Massie. In this town was held the 
first court of the county. 

West Union, the present county seat, was laid out by the Hon. Thomas 
Kirker. It occupies the summit of a high ridge. The surface of this county is 


hilly and broken, and the eastern part is not fertile. It produces corn, wheat, oats 
and pork. Beds of iron are found in the eastern part. Its hills are composed of 
aluminous shale. The barren hills afford a range for cattle and hogs. A sort 
of vagrant class derive a support by collecting stones, hoop-poles and tanners' 
barks from these hills. 

Ashland County is one of the finest agricultural sections. It was formed 
February 26, 1846. Wheat comprises its principal crop, although large quan- 
tities of oats, corn, potatoes, grass and fruit are raised. Ashland is its county 
seat, and was laid out by William Montgomery in 1816. It was called Union- 
town for several years. Daniel Carter raised the first cabin within the county 
limits in 1811. 

Auglaize County was formed in February, 1848, from Allen and Mercer 
Counties. Wapakoneta is its county seat. 

Allen County was formed from the Indian Territory April 1, 1820. Lima 
is its county seat. 

Ashtabula County was formed June 7, 1807, and was organized January 
22, 1811. The surface is level near the lake, while the remainder is undulat- 
ing. The soil is mostly clay. Very little wheat is raised, but considerable 
corn and oats. Butter and cheese are the main marketable productions. This 
was the first county settled on the Western Reserve, and also the earliest in 
Northern Ohio. On the 4th of July, 1796, the first surveying party arrived 
at the mouth of Conneaut Creek. Judge James Kingsbury was the first who 
wintered there with his family. He was the first man to use a sickle in the 
first wheat-field in the Western Reserve. Their child was the first born on the 
Western Reserve, and was starved to death. The first regular settlement was 
at Harpersfield, in 1798. 

Jefferson is the county seat. Ashtabula is pleasantly situated on the river, 
with a fine harbor two and a half miles from the village. 

The first church on the Western Reserve was founded at Austinburg in 

Athens County was formed from Washington March 1, 1805. It produces 
wheat, corn, oats and tobacco. The surface is hilly and broken, with rich bot- 
tom lands between. Coal, iron ore and salt add materially to its commercial 
value. It has the advantage of the canal, as well as other transportation. 
Athens, its county seat, is situated on the Hocking River. The Ohio Uni- 
versity, the first college founded in the State, is located here. We have 
mentioned the ancient mounds found in this county, heretofore. Yellow pine is 
abundant in the lower part of the Hocking Valley. 

Brown County was formed March 1, 1818, from Adams and Clermont. It 
produces wheat, corn, rye, oats and pork. The southern part is prolific in 
grain, while the northern is adapted to grazing purposes. The surface is undu- 
lating, with the exception of the Ohio River hills. Over this county Tecumseh 
once held sway. 


Georgetown is the county seat, and was laid out in 1819. Ripley is the larg- 
est business town in the county. 

Belmont County was announced by Gov. St. Clair September 7, 1801. It 
produces large crops of wheat, oats, corn and tobacco, an annual crop of over 
2,000,000 pounds of the latter being the average. It also trades largely in 
wool and coal. It is a picturesque tract of country, and was one of the 
pioneers in the early settled portions. 

In 1790, Fort Dillie was erected on the west side of the Ohio. Baker's 
Fort was a mile below the mouth of the Captina. Many desperate Indian bat- 
tles were fought within the limits of this county, and the famous Indian scout, 
Lewis Wetzel, roamed over the region. 

St. Clairsville is the county seat, situated on the elevation of land, in a fer- 
tile district. Capt. Kirkwood and Elizabeth Zane, of historic fame, were early 
pioneers here. 

Butler County was formed in 1803, from Hamilton. It is within the blue 
limestone formation, and one of the most fertile sections of Ohio. It produces 
more corn than any other county in the State, besides fine crops of wheat, 
oats and large quantities of pork. Hamilton, the county seat, is situated on the 
Great Miami. Its hydraulic works furnish superior water-power. Rossville, 
on the opposite side of the Miami, is a large mercantile town. 

St. Clair passed through this county on his Indian campaigns in 1791, 
building Fort Hamilton on the Miami. 

Champaign County was formed March 1, 1805, from Greene and Franklin. 
It is drained by Mad River and its tributaries, which furnishes extensive mill 
privileges. Nearly a half is undulating, a quarter rolling, a fifth hilly, and 
5 per cent wet prairie. The soil is fertile, and produces wheat, corn, oats, 
barley, hay, while beef and wool add to the general wealth. Urbana, the 
county seat, was laid out in 1805, by Col. William Ward. He was chief owner 
of the land and donated many lots to the county, under condition that their 
proceeds be devoted to public improvements. Joseph Vance and George 
Fithian were the first settlers. The Methodists built the first church in 1807. 
The main army of Hull concentrated at this point before setting out for Detroit. 
Many Indian councils were called here, and Tecumseh was located for a time 
near Deer Creek. 

Carroll County was formed from Columbiana in 1832-33. It produces 
wheat, oats and corn, and valuable coal and iron. The surface is hilly. Car- 
rollton is its county seat. At Harlem is a celebrated chalybeate spring. 

Clark County was formed March 1, 1817, from Champaign, Madison and 
Greene. Its second settlement was at Kreb's Station, in 1796. It is highly culti- 
vated, well watered and very fertile. The Mad River, Buck and Beaver Creeks 
furnish abundant water-power. It produces principally wheat, corn and oats. 

Tecumseh, the old Indian warrior, was born at the ancient Indian vil- 
lage of Piqua, on the Mad River, on the site of New Boston. Piqua was 


destroyed by Gen. George Rogers Clarke. Skeletons, beads, gun barrels, 
tomahawks, kettles, etc., have been found in the vicinity. 

Springfield, the county seat, is situated on the National road. It has con- 
venient transportation facilities, is handsomely laid out, and is noted for its 
cultured citizens. It is near Mad River, and Buck Creek runs through it. 

Clinton County was formed in 1810. It produces chiefly wheat, oats, 
wool and pork. Its surface is undulating, in some parts hilly, and the soil fer- 
tile. Its streams furnish desirable water-power. The county was settled in 
1798-99. Wilmington is the county seat, and was laid out in 1810. The first 
log house was built by William Hobsin. 

Clermont County was the eighth formed in the Northwest Territory, by 
proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, December 9, 1800. The soil is exceedingly 
rich, and the surface is broken and, near the Ohio, hilly. Wheat, corn, oats, 
hay, potatoes, tobacco, barley, buckwheat and rye form the main crops, while 
beef, pork, flour, hay and whisky constitute its main exports. Its streams 
furnish good water-power. Batavia, its county seat, is situated on the Little 
Miami River, and was laid out in 1820, by George Ely. 

Columbiana County was formed March 25, 1803, from Jefferson and Wash- 
ington. Its soil is very fertile, producing wheat, corn, oats and potatoes. It 
is wealthy in mineral deposits, coal, iron ore, lime and freestone being abun- 
dant. Its water-lime stone is of superior quality. Salt water is found on Yel- 
low and Beaver Creeks. This is also the great wool-producing county of 
the State. It Avas settled in 1797. New Lisbon, its county seat, is well 

The first paper-mill in Ohio was erected in this county, on Little Beaver 
Creek, by John Coulter and John Bever. 

Coshocton County Avas organized April 1, 1811. Its principal products are 
wheat, corn, oats and wool. Hills and valleys alternate along the Muskingum 
River. Abrupt changes are strongly marked — a rich alluvum being overhung 
by a red-bush hill, while directly beside it may be seen the poplar and sugar 
tree. Coal and iron ore add to its general importance, while salt wells have 
proven remunerative. 

Coshocton, the county seat, is built on four wide, natural terraces, at the 
junction of the Tuscarawas with the Walhonding. 

Cuyahoga County was formed June 7, 1807, from Geauga. Near the lake, 
the soil is sandy, while a clayey loam may be found elsewhere. The valleys 
near the streams produce wheat, barley and hay. Fruit is successfully grown, 
and cheese, butter, beef and wool are largely exported. Bog iron is found in 
the western part, and fine grindstone quarries are in operation. The sandstone 
from these quarries is now an important article of commerce. As early as 
1775, there was a French settlement within the boundaries of Cuyahoga. In 
1786, a Moravian missionary came to the present site of Cleveland, and set- 
tled in an abandoned village of the Ottawas. Circumstances prevented a 


permanent settlement, and the British tacitly took possession, even remaining 
upon the lake shores after the Revolution. 

The first permanent settlement was made at Cleveland in 1796. Mr. Job 
V. Stiles and family and Edward Paine passed the first winter there, their log 
cabin standing where the Commercial Bank is now located. Rodolphus 
Edwards and Nathaniel Doane settled here. The town was, in 1813, a depot 
of supplies and a rendezvous for troops engaged in the war. 

Cleveland, the county seat, is situated at the northern termination of the 
Ohio Canal, on the lake shore. In 1814, it was incorporated as a village, and 
in 1836, as a city. Its elevation is about a hundred feet above the lake. It 
is a lovely city, and has one of the best harbors on Lake Erie. 

Ohio City is another important town, nearly opposite Cleveland, on the 
Cuyahoga. It was incorporated in 1836. 

Crawford County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian territory. 
The entire county is adapted to grazing. The soil is generally composed of 
rich vegetable loam, and in some parts the subsoil is clay mixed with lime. 
Rich beds of shell marl have been discovered. It produces wheat, corn, oats, 
clover, timothy seed, wool and cattle. Fine limestone quarries are worked with 

Bucyrus is the county seat, and was laid out February 11, 1822, by Samuel 
Norton and James Kilbourn, original owners of the land. The first settler in 
the town proper was Samuel Norton. A gas well has been dug in Bucyrus, 
on the land of R. W. Musgrove, which burns in a brilliant light when con- 
ducted to the surface by means of pipes. Crawford's Sulphur Springs are 
located nine miles from Bucyrus. The water is impregnated with sulphuretted 
hydrogen. It deposits a reddish-purple sediment. In its nature the water is a 
cathartic, and is diuretic and diaphoretic in its effects. A few rods away is a 
burning spring. The Annapolis Sulphur Spring is clear and has gained consid- 
erable fame by its curative qualities. Opposite Bucyrus is a chalybeate spring 
of tonic qualities. 

There are some beds of peat in the county, the most extensive one being a 
wet prairie called Cranberry Marsh, containing nearly 2,000 acres. 

Darke County was organized in March, 1817, from Miami County. It is 
abundantly timbered with poplar, walnut, blue ash, hickory, beech and sugar 
maple. It yields superior wheat, and is well adapted to grazing. In this 
county occurred the lamentable defeat of St. Clair, and the treaty of Greenville. 

Greenville is the county seat, and was laid out August 10, 1808, by Robert 
Gray and John Dover. In December, 1793, Wayne built Fort Greenville on 
this spot, which covered about the same extent as the present town. 

Delaware County was formed February 10, 1808, from Franklin. It pro- 
duces mainly wheat, corn, oats, pork ami wool. 

Delaware is the county sear, and was laid out in the spring of 1808, by 
Moses Byxbe. The Delaware Spring in the village is of the white sulphur or 


cold hydro-sulphurous nature, valuable for medicinal qualities in cases of bilious 
derangements, dyspepsia, scrofulous affections, etc. 

Defiance County was inaugurated March 4, 1845, from Williams, Henry 
and Paulding. The Maumee, Tiffin and Auglaize flow through it. The Black 
Swamp covers much of its area. 

Defiance, the county seat, is situated on the Maumee. It was laid out in 
1822, by B. Level and H. Phillips. A large Indian settlement occupied its 
s ite in very early times. Wayne arrived here August 8, 1794, captured the 
place, finding about one thousand acres of corn, peach and apple orchards, and 
vegetables of all varieties. Here he built Fort Defiance. 

Erie County was formed in 1838, from Huron and Sandusky. The soil is 
alluvial, and yields large crops of wheat, corn, oats and potatoes. It possesses 
inexhaustable quarries of limestone and freestone. Immense quantities of bog 
iron are also found. The Erie tribe is said to have once occupied the land, and 
were extirpated by the Iroquois. As early as 1754, the French had built set- 
tlements. In 1764, the county was besieged. Pontiac came here with warlike 
demonstrations, but made peace with the whites. Erie was included in the 
"fire lands" of the Western Reserve. 

Sandusky City is the county seat, and was laid out in 1817, then termed 
Portland. At that time it contained two log huts. The town is finely situated, 
and is based upon an inexhaustible quarry of the finest limestone. In the 
"patriot war" with the Canadians, this city was the rendezvous for the 

Franklin County was formed April 30, 1803, from Ross. It contains 
much low wet land, and is better adapted to grazing than agricultural purposes. 
It was in early times occupied by the Wyandot Indians. Its first white set- 
tlement was made in 1797, by Robert Armstrong and others. Franklinton 
was laid out in 1797, by Lucas Sullivan. Worthington was settled by the 
Scioto Company in 1801. Col. Kilbourn, who was interested in the work, 
constructed the first map of Ohio during his explorations, by uniting sectional 

Columbus, the capital of the State of Ohio, is also the county seat of 
Franklin County. After the organization of a State government, the capital 
was "portable" until 1816. In 1810, the sessions were held at Chillicothe, 
in 1811 and 1812 at Zanesville, removing again to Chillicothe, and, in 1816, 
being located at Columbus. The town was laid out during the spring of 1812. 
A penitentiary was erected in 1813, and the State House was built in 1814. 
It was incorporated as "the borough of Columbus," February 10, 1816. The 
city charter was granted March 3, 1834. 

It is beautifully located on the east bank of the Scioto. The Columbus 
Institute is a classical institution. A female and a theological seminary also 
add to its educational advantages. The Ohio Lunatic Asylum is also located 
here — also the Ohio Institution for the Education of the Blind. East of the 


State House is the Ohio Institution for the Education of the Deaf and 

Fairfield County was formed by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, December 
9, 1800. 

The soil is varied, being in some parts exceedingly rich, and in others very 
sterile. It produces principally wheat, corn, rye, oats, buckwheat, barley, 
potatoes and tobacco. 

Lancaster is the county seat, laid out by Ebenezer Zane in 1800. In 1797, 
he opened the road known as "Zane's Trace," from Wheeling to Limestone — 
now Maysville. It passed through Lancaster, at a fording about three hundred 
yards below the present turnpike bridge. Near the turn stands an imposing 
eminance called ' ' Standing Stone. ' ' Parties of pleasure frequently visit this spot. 

Fayette County was formed from Ross and Highland in 1810. Wheat, 
corn, cattle, hogs, sheep and wool comprise its main productions. " The bar- 
rens" are situated in the northeastern part. This tract is covered by a growth 
of grass. 

Washington is its county seat, laid out in 1810. 

Col. Stewart was active in the interests of this section, and his memory is 
sacredly revered. Jesse Milliken was prominent in public affairs. 

Fulton County, bordering on Michigan, was organized in 1850. It is 
drained by Bean Creek and other small affluents of the Maumee River. The 
surface is nearly level, and a large part of it is covered with forests of ash, 
beech, elm, hickory, white oak, black walnut, etc., furnishing excellent timber. 
The soil is fertile. Wheat, corn, oats and hay are the staple products. Wau- 
seon is the county seat. 

Guernsey County was organized in March, 1810. Wool is a staple prod- 
uct, together with beef, horses and swine. It produces wheat, corn and oats. 

Cambridge is the county seat and was laid out in June, 1806. Mr. 
Graham was the first settler on the site of the town, and his was the only 
dwelling between Lancaster and Wheeling. 

The first cannel coal found in the county was discovered near Mill's Creek. 

Greene County was formed May 1, 1803, from Hamilton and Ross. It 
produces wheat, corn, rye, grass-seed, oats, barley, sheep and swine. The 
streams furnish good water-power. There are five limestone quarries, and a 
marble quarry of variegated colors. The Shawnee town was on the Little 
Miami, and was visited by Capt. Thomas Bullit in 1773. When Daniel Boone 
was captured in 1778, he was brought to this town, and escaped the following 
year. Gen. Clarke invaded this county and the Indians reduced the town to ashes 

Xenia, the county seat, was laid off in the forest in 1803, bv Joseph C. 
Vance. The first cabin was erected in April, 1804, by John Marshall. The 
Rev. James Fowler built the first hewed-log cabin. David A. Sanders built 
the first frame house. Nine miles north of the town, on the Little Miami 
River, are the Yellow Springs, which are impregnated with sulphur. 


Geauga County was formed in 1805 from Trumbull. It exports sheep, 
cattle, butter and cheese. It is situated at the head of Chargrine, Cuyahoga and 
a part of Grand Rivers, on high ground, and is subjected to snowstorms more 
frequently than any other part of the Reserve. Its first settlement was made 
in 1798, at Burton. Chardon is fourteen miles from Lake Erie, and is 600 
feet above it. It was laid out as the county seat in 1808. 

Gallia County was formed April 30, 1803, from Washington. Its princi- 
pal crops are wheat, corn, oats and beans. The surface is generally broken. 
Its first settlement was made in 1791, by a French colony, at Gallipolis. This 
colony was sent out under the auspices of the Scioto Company. This town is 
now the county seat. 

Hamilton County was the second established in the Northwestern Territory 
by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, January 2, 1790. Its surface is gen- 
erally rolling. It produces the ordinary farm products, and a great variety 
of fruits and vegetables for the Cincinnati market. Vineyards thrive well 
within its limits, and the manufacture of wine is carried on to a considerable 

This county was the second settled in Ohio, and the first within the Symmes 
purchase. Settlers arrived at the spot now occupied by Cincinnati, and three 
or four log cabins were erected. Gen. Arthur St. Clair arrived here in Janu- 
ary, 1790. The army of Wayne encamped here later, at Fort Washington. 
Mr. Maxwell established in 1793 the Sentinel of the Northwestern Territory, 
the first newspaper printed north of the Ohio River. In 1796, Edward Free- 
man became its proprietor, and changed the name to Freeman s Journal. 
January 11, 1794, two keel-boats sailed from Cincinnati to Pittsburgh, making 
regular trips every four weeks. In 1801, the first sea vessel built at Mari- 
etta came down the Ohio. 

Cincinnati, the county seat, was incorporated January 2, 1802. It was char- 
tered as a city in 1819. The city is beautifully laid out and delightfully situ- 
ated. Its public buildings are elegant and substantial, including the court 
house and many literary and charitable institutions. 

The Cincinnati College was founded in 1819. It stands in the center of 
the city. It is built in Grecian-Doric style, with pilaster fronts and facade of 
Dayton marble. Woodward College is also popular. 

The Catholics have founded the St. Xavier's College. Lane Seminary, a 
theological institution, is at Walnut Hills, two miles from the center of the city. 
It lias over 10,000 volumes in its libraries. No charge is made for tuition. 
Rooms are provided and furnished at $5 per year, and board ranges from 62J 
cents to 90 cents a week. The Cincinnati Law School is connected with Cin- 
cinnati College. The Mechanics' Institute was chartered in 1828, and is in all 
respects well supplied with apparatus. A college for teachers was established in 
1831, its object being to perfect those contemplating entering that profession in 
their studies and system. 


The Cincinnati Orphan Asylum is an elegant building, and has a library 
and well-organized school attached. The Catholics of the city have one male 
and female orphan asylum. The Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum of 
Ohio was incorporated in 1821. 

Cincinnati is a large manufacturing city, and possesses fine water-power 
facilities. It communicates with the world by means of its canal, river, turnpikes, 
and railways. North Bend is another prominent town in this county, having 
been the residence of Gen. William H. Harrison, and the site of his burial 
place. The town was of considerable importance in the early settlement of the 
State. About thirty yards from Harrison's tomb is the grave of Judge 

Hancock County was formed April 1, 1820. It produces wheat, oats, corn, 
pork and maple sugar. The surface is level and its soil is fertile. Blanchard's 
Fork waters the central and southern part of the county. Findlay, the county 
seat, was laid out by ex-Gov. Joseph Vance and Elnathan Corry, in 1821. It 
was relaid in 1829. William Vance settled there in the fall of 1821. At the 
south end of the town, are two gas wells. In the eastern part, is a mineral 
spring, and west of the bridge, is a chalybeate spring. 

Hardin County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian Territory. 
It produces, principally, wheat, corn and swine. A portion of the surface is 
level, and the remainder undulating. Fort McArthur was built on the Scioto 
River, but proved a weak stockade. Kenton is the county seat, situated on the 
Scioto River, 

Harrison County was formed from Jefferson and Tuscarawas January 1, 
1814. The surface is hilly, abounding in coal and limestone. Its soil is clayey. 
It is one of the important wool-growing counties in Ohio. It produces large 
quantities of wheat, corn, oats and hay, besides a considerable number of horses, 
cattle and swine. . 

In April, 1799, Alexander Henderson and family settled in this county, and 
at the same time, Daniel Peterson and his family resided at the forks of Short 
Creek. The early settlers were much annoyed by Indians and wild beasts. 
Cadiz is the county seat, and was laid out in 1803 and 1804, by Messrs. Briggs 
and Beatty. 

Henry County was formed from the old Indian Territory, April 1, 1820. 
Indian corn, oats, potatoes, and maple sugar constitute the main products. 
The county is well supplied with running streams, and the soil is unusually rich. 

The greater portion of this county is covered by the "Black Swamp." 
Throughout this swamp are ridges of limestone, covered with black walnut, red 
elm, butternut and maple. The soil is superior for grain. Fruit thrives and 
all varieties of vegetables are produced in large quantities. Simon Girty, noto- 
rious for his wicked career, resided in this county. Girty led the attack on 
Fort Henry, in September, 1777. He demanded the surrender of the fort, 
and menaced its inmates with an Indian massacre, in case of refusal. The 


action began, but the fort gained the victory. He led a ferocious band of Indi- 
ans, and committed the most fiendish atrocities. 

Napoleon, the county seat, is situated on the Maumee River. 

Highland County was formed in May, 1805, from Ross, Adams and Cler- 
mont. It is a wealthy, productive county. Its wheat commands a high mar- 
ket price. The crops consist of wheat, corn, oats, maple sugar, avooI, swine 
and cattle. Its first settlement began in 1801, at New Market, by Oliver Ross, 
Robert Keeston, George W. Barrere, Bernard Weyer and others. Simon Ken- 
ton made a trace through this county in early times. Hillsboro is the 
county seat, and was laid out in 1807, by David Hays, on the land of Benja- 
min Ellicott. It is situated on the dividing ridge, between the Miami and Sci- 
oto. The Hillsboro Academy was founded in 1827. 

Hocking County was formed March 1, 1818, from Ross, Athens and Fair- 
field. Its principal products are corn, wheat, tobacco and maple sugar. Its 
surface is broken and hilly, but is level and fertile beside the streams. 

The Wyandots once occupied this tract, and built a large town herein. In 
1798, a few white families ventured to settle. Logan is its county seat, and is 
situated on the Hocking River. 

Holmes County was formed from Coshocton, Tuscarawas and Wayne, Janu- 
ary 20, 1824. It produces wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, maple sugar, swine, 
sheep and cattle. The soutliAvestern portion is broken. Thomas Butler was 
the first settler, in 1810. Millersburg is the county seat, and was laid out in 

Huron County was organized in 1815. It produces hay, wheat, corn, oats, 
barley, buckwheat, flaxseed, potatoes, butter, cheese, wool and swine. Nor- 
walk is the county seat. 

Jackson County was organized March, 1816. The country is rich in min- 
erals and abounds in coal and iron ore. The exports are cattle, wool, swine, 
horses, lumber, millstones, tobacco and iron. Jackson, the county seat, was 
laid out in 1817. The old Scioto salt-works were among the first worked in 
Ohio by the whites. Prior to this period, the Indians came some distance to 
this section to make salt. When Daniel Boone was a prisoner, he spent some 
time at these works. 

Jefferson County was proclaimed by Gov. St. Clair July 29, 1797, and 
was the fifth county established in Ohio. It is one of the most important 
manufacturing counties in the State. Its resources in coal are also extended. 
The surface is hilly and the soil fertile, producing wheat, corn and oats. The 
old "Mingo" town was on the present farms of Jeremiah Hallock and Mr- 
Daniel Potter. The troops of Col. Williamson rendezvoused at this point, 
when they set out in their cruel Moravian campaign, and also the troops of 
Col. Crawford, when they started on the campaign against the Sandusky 
Indians. Here Logan, the powerful and manly chief of the Mingo nation, 
once resided. He took no active part in the old French war, which closed in 


1760, except that of a peacemaker. He was a stanch friend of the whites 
until the abominable and unprovoked murder of his father, brother and sister, 
which occurred in 1774, near the Yellow Creek. He then raised the battle 
cry and sought revenge. 

However, Logan was remarkably magnanimous toward prisoners who fell 
into his hands. The year 1793 was the last spent in Indian warfare in Jeffer- 
son County. 

Fort Steuben was erected on the present site of Steuben ville, the county seat, 
in 1789. It was constructed of block-houses, with palisade fences, and was dis- 
mantled during Wayne's campaign. Bezaleel Wells and Hon. James Ross laid 
the town out in 1798. It was incorporated February 14, 1805. It is situated 
upon an elevated plain. In 1814, Messrs. Wells and Dickerson built a woolen 
manufactory, and introduced merino sheep to the county. 

Knox County was formed March 1, 1808, from Fairfield. It is drained by 
the Vernon River. It produces wheat, corn, oats, tobacco, maple sugar, pota- 
toes and wool. Mount Vernon was laid out in 1805. The early settlers found 
two wells on the Vernon River, built of hammered stone, neatly laid, and near 
by was a salt-lick. Their direct origin remains a mystery. Gilman Bryant, 
in 1807, opened the first store in Mount Vernon. The court house was built 
in 1810. The Indians came to Mount Vernon in large numbers for the pur- 
pose of trading in furs and cranberries. Each Saturday, the settlers worked 
on the streets, extracting stumps and improving the highway. The first settler 
north of the place was N. M. Young, who built his cabin in 1803. Mount 
Vernon is now the county seat, beautifully situated on Vernon River. Kenyon 
College is located at Grambier. It is richly endowed with 8,000 acres, and is 
valued at $100,000. This institution was established under the auspices of 
Bishop Chase, in July, 1826, in the center of a 4,000-acre tract belonging to 
Kenyon College. It was chartered as a theological seminary. 

Lucas County is of comparatively recent origin. A large portion is covered 
by the "Black Swamp." It produces corn, wheat, potatoes and oats. This 
county is situated in the Maumee Valley, which was the great arena of histori- 
cal events. The frightful battle of Wayne's campaign, where the Indians found 
the British to be traitors, was fought near Fort Miami, in this county. Maumee 
City, the county seat, was laid out in 1817, as Maumee, by Maj. William Oliver 
and others. It is situated on the Maumee, at the head of navigation. The 
surface is 100 feet above the water level. This town, with Perrysburg, its neighbor, 
is exceedingly picturesque, and was in early times frequented by the Indian-. 
The French had a trading station at this point, in 1680, and in 1794, the Brit- 
ish Fort — Miami — was built. Toledo is on the left bank of the Maumee, and 
covers the site of a stockade fort, known as Fort Industry, erected in 1800. 
An Indian treaty was held here July 4, 1805, by which the Indians relinquished 
all rights to the " fire lands." In 1832, Capt. Samuel Allen gave an impetus 
to the place, and Maj. Stickney also became interested in its advancement. 


Speculation in lots began in 1834. The Wabash & Erie Canal interest arose in 
1836. Mr. Mason and Edward Bissel added their energies to assist the growth 
of the town. It was incorporated as a city in 1836. It was the center of the 
military operations in the " Ohio and Michigan war," known as the "boundary 

The Ordinance of 1787 provided for the division of the Northwestern Terri- 
tory into three or five States. The three southern were to be divided from the 
two northern by a line drawn east and west through the southern point of Lake 
Michigan, extending eastward to the Territorial line in Lake Erie. The consti- 
tution of Ohio adds a provision that if the line should not go so far north as the 
north cape of Maumee Bay, then the northern boundary of Ohio should be a 
line drawn from the southerly part of Lake Michigan to the north cape of the 
Maumee Bay. 

The line of the ordinance was impossible, according to its instructions and 
the geography of the country. 

When Michigan became a Territory, the people living between the " Fulton " 
and '• Harris " lines found it more to their wishes to be attached to Michigan. 
They occupied disputed ground, and were thus beyond the limits of absolute 
law. In 1835, the subject was greatly agitated, and J. Q. Adams made a warm 
speech before Congress against the Ohio claim. The Legislature of Ohio dis- 
cussed the matter, and an act was passed to attach the disputed section to Ohio, 
according to the constitutional decree. An active campaign opened between 
Michigan and Ohio. Gov. Lucas came out with the Ohio troops, in the spring 
of 1835, and Gov. Mason, of Michigan, followed the example. He marched 
into Toledo, robbed melon-patches and chicken-houses, crushed in the front 
door of Maj. Stickney's house, and carried him away prisoner of war. Embas- 
sadors were sent from Washington to negotiate matters — Richard Rush, of Penn- 
sylvania and Col. Howard, of Maryland. At the next session of Congress, the 
matter was settled. Samuel Vinton argued for Ohio, in the House, and Thomas 
Ewing in the Senate. Michigan received an equivalent of the large peninsula 
between Lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior. Ohio received the disputed 
strip, averaging eight miles in width. Manhattan, Waterville and Providence 
are all flourishing towns. 

Lorain County was formed from Huron, Cuyahoga and Medina, on Decem- 
ber 26, 1822. The soil is generally fertile, and the surface level. Wheat, 
grass, oats, corn, rye and potatoes constitute the principal crops. Bog-iron ore 
is found in large quantities. A curious relic has been found in this county, bear- 
ing the date of 1533. Elyria is the county seat, and was laid out in 1817. 
The first settler was Mr. Heman Ely. Oberlin is situated about eight miles 
southwest of Elyria. The Oberlin Collegiate Institute has attained a wide 

Logan County was formed March 1, 1817. The surface is broken and hilly 
near the Mad River, but is generally level. The soil is fertile, producing 


wheat, corn, rye, oats, clover, flax and timothy seed. The Shawnee Indians 
were located here, and built several villages on the Mad River. These towns 
were destroyed in 1786, by a body of Kentuckians, under Gen. Benjamin 
Logan. The whites surprised the towns. However, they returned after 'the 
work of destruction had been completed, and for many years frequented the 
section. On the site of Zanes field was a Wyandot village. By the treaty of 
September 29, 1817, the Senecas and Shawnees held a reservation around 
Lewistown. April 6, 1832, they vacated this right and removed west. Isaac 
Zane was born about the year 1753, and was, while a boy, captured and after- 
ward adopted by the Wyandots. Attaining the age of manhood, he had no 
desire to return to his people. He married a Wyandot woman, who was half 
French. After the treaty of Greenville, he bought 1,800 acres on the site of 
Zanesville, where he lived until the year 1816, when he died, lamented by all 

his friends. 

Logan County was settled about the year 1806. During the war of 1812, 
it was a rendezvous for friendly Indians. Bellefontaine, the county seat, was 
laid out March 18, 1820, on land owned by John Tulles and William Powell. 
Joseph Gordon built a cabin, and Anthony Ballard erected the first frame 


Gen. Simon Kenton is buried at the head of Mad River, five miles from 
Bellefontaine. He died April 29, 1836, aged eighty-one years and twenty-six 
days. This remarkable man came West, to Kentucky, in 1771. He probably 
encountered more thrilling escapes than any other man of his time. In 1778, 
he was captured and suffered extreme cruelties, and was ransomed by the British. 
He soon recovered his robust health, and escaped from Detroit the following 
spring. He settled in Urbana in 1802. He was elected Brigadier General of 
the militia, and in the war of 1812, joined Gen. Harrison's army. In the year 
1820, he removed to Mad River. Gen. Vance and Judge Burnet secured him 
a pension, of $20 per month 

Licking County was formed from Fairfield March 1, 1808. The surface is 
generally level, diversified by slight hills in the eastern portion. The soil is 
fertile, producing wheat, corn, oats and grass. Coal and iron ore of good 
quality add to the wealth of the county. Wool and dairy productions are also 
staples. Newark is the county seat, and is situated at the confluence of the 
three principal branches of the Licking. It was laid out by Gen. William C. 
Schenk, George W. Burnet and John M. Cummings, who owned this military 
section of 4,000 acres, in 1801. In 1802, Samuel Elliott and Samuel Parr 
built hewed-log houses. The picturesque "Narrows of the Licking" are in 
the eastern part of the county, which have elicited general praise from scenic 


Lawrence County was organized March 1, 1816. There are many high 
and abrupt hills in this section, which abound in sand or freestone. It is rich 
in minerals, and the most important section of Ohio for iron manufacture. 


Coal is abundant, and white clay exists in the western part suitable for pot- 
tery purposes. Agricultural productions are not extensive. 

The county was settled in 1797 by the Dutch and Irish. The iron region 
extends through the west part of this county. Lawrence County produces a 
superior quality of iron, highly esteemed for castings, and is equal to Scotch 
pig for furnace purposes. Burlington is the county seat. 

Lake County was formed from Geauga and Cuyahoga March 6, 1840. The 
soil is good and the surface rolling. It produces wheat, corn, oats, buckwheat, 
barley, hay and potatoes. Dairy products, cattle and wool are also staples. 
Its fruits — apples, peaches, pears, plums and grapes are highly prized. A* 
early as 1799, a settlement was formed at Mentor. Painesville, the county 
seat, is situated on Grand River, in a beautiful valley. The Painesville Acad- 
emy is a classical institution for the education of both sexes. Near the town 
is the Geauga furnace. Painesville was laid out by Henry Champion in 1805. 
At Fairport, the first warehouse in this section, and probably the first on the 
lake, was built by Abraham Skinner in 1803. This town has a fine harbor, 
and has a light-house and beacon. Kirtlancl, southwest from Painesville, was, 
in 1834, the headquarters of the Mormons. At that time, they numbered 
about three thousand. The old Mormon temple is of rough stone, plastered 
over, colored blue, and marked to imitate regular courses of masonry. As is 
well known, the Mormons derive their name from the book of Mormon, said to 
have been translated from gold plates found in a hill in Palmyra, N. Y. 

Madison County was organized in March, 1810. The surface is generally 
level. It produces grass, corn, oats and cattle — the latter forming a chief 
staple, while wool and pork add to the general wealth. 

Jonathan Alder was much interested in the settlement of the county. He, 
like some other whites, had lived with the Indians many years, and had formed 
a lasting affection for them, and had married a squaw, with whom he became 
dissatisfied, which caused him to desire finding his own family. He suc- 
ceeded in this through the assistance of John Moore. He left his wife and 
joined his people. 

This county was first settled in 1795. Benjamin Springer made a clearing 
and built a cabin. He settled near Alder, and taught him the English lan- 
guage. Mr. Joshua Ewing brought four sheep to this place, and the Indians 
exhibited great astonishment over these strange animals. When the hostilities 
of 1812 began, the British offered inducements to the Indians to join them, and 
they consulted Alder regarding the best policy to adopt. He advised them to 
preserve neutrality until a later period, which they did, and eventually became 
firm friends of the Americans. 

London is the county seat, and was laid out in 1810-11, by Patrick McLene. 

Marion County was organized March 1, 1824. The soil is fertile, and pro- 
duces extensive farm crops. The Delaware Indians once held a reservation 
here, and conceded their claims in 1829, August 3, and removed west of the 


Mississippi. Marion, the county seat> was laid out in 1821, by Eber Baker 
and Alexander Holmes. Gen. Harrison marched through this section during 
his campaign. 

Mahoning County was formed in 1846, from Trumbull and Columbiana. 
The surface is rolling and the soil generally fertile. The finer qualities of wood 
are produced here. Bituminous coal and iron are found in large quantities. 
Col. James Hillman came to the Western Reserve in 1786. The settlement 
of the county went forward. Canfield is the county seat. 

Medina County was formed from the Western Reserve February 12, 1812. 
The surface is rolling and the soil is fertile, producing fine agricultural prod- 
ucts. The first trail made through the county was made by George Poe, 
Joseph H. Larwell and Roswell M. Mason. The first settlement was made 
by Joseph Harris in 1811. He was soon joined by the Burr brothers. Me- 
dina is the county seat. 

Meigs County was formed from Gallia and Athens April 1, 1819. The 
general character of the soil is clayey, producing large quantities of wheat, oats, 
corn, hay and potatoes. Vast quantities of salt are made and exported. Pom- 
eroy, the county seat, is situated under a lofty hill, surrounded by picturesque 
scenery. Mr. Nathaniel Clark was the first settler of the county. He arrived in 
1816. The first coal mine opened in Pomeroy was in 1819, by David Bradshaw. 

Mercer County was formed from the Indian Territory in 1820. The sur- 
face is generally flat, and while covered with forests, inclined to be wet ; but, 
being cleared, it is very fertile, and adapted to producing farm crops. St. 
Clair's Battle was fought on the boundary line between this and Darke County. 
The Hon. Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur made a treaty at St. Mary's with 
the Wyandots, Shawnees and Ottawas, in 1818. The odious Simon Girty lived 
at one time at St. Mary's. Wayne built St. Mary's Fort, on the west bank of 
the river. John Whistler was the last commander of the fort. The largest 
artificial lake in the world, so it is asserted, is formed by the reservoir sup- 
plying the St. Mary's feeder of the Miami Extension Canal. It is about nine 
miles long, and from two to four broad. Celina is the county seat. 

Miami County was formed January 16, 1807, from Montgomery. It abounds 
in excellent limestone, and possesses remarkable water-power facilities. Its agri- 
cultural products rank highly in quality and quantity. John Knoop came into this 
section about the year 1797, and its first settlement began about this time. Troy, 
the county seat, is situated upon the Great Miami. Piqua is another lovely 
town. The Miami River affords delightful scenery at this point. 

Monroe County was formed January 29, 1813, from Belmont, Washington, 
and Guernsey. A portion of its surface is abrupt and hilly. Large quantities 
of tobacco are raised, and much pork is exported. Wheat and corn grow well 
in the western portion. Iron ore and coal abound. The valleys of the streams 
are very narrow, bounded by rough hills. In some places are natural rock 
grottoes.. The first settlement was made in 1799, near the mouth of the Sunfish. 


At this time, wolves were numerous, and caused much alarm. Volney entered 
this county, but was not prepossessed in its favor. One township is settled by 
the Swiss, who are educated and refined. Woodsfield is the county seat. 

Montgomery County was formed from Ross and Hamilton May 1, 1803. 
The soil is fertile, and its agricultural products are most excellent. Quarries of 
grayish-white limestone are found east of the Miami. 

Dayton is the county seat, situated on the Great Miami, at the mouth of Mad 
River. A company was formed in 1788, but Indian wars prevented settlement. 
After Wayne's treaty, in 1795, a new company was formed. It advanced 
rapidly between the years 1812 and 1820. The beginning of the Miami Canal 
renewed its prosperity, in 1827. The first canal-boat from Cincinnati arrived 
at Dayton on the 25th of January, 1829. The first one arrived from Lake 
Erie in June, 1845. Col. Robert Patterson came to Dayton in 1804. At one 
time, he owned Lexington, Ky., and about one third of Cincinnati. 

Morgan County was organized in 1818, March 1. The surface is hilly and 
the soil strong and fertile, producing wheat, corn, oats and tobacco. Pork is a 
prolific product, and considerable salt is made. The first settlement was made 
in 1790, on the Muskingum. McConnelsville is the county seat. Mr. Ayres 
made the first attempt to produce salt, in 1817. This has developed into a 
large industry. 

Morrow County was organized in 1848. It is drained by the Vernon 
River, which rises in it, by the East Branch of the Olontangy or Whetstone 
River, and by Walnut Creek. The surface is undulating, the soil fertile. 
The staple products are corn, wheat, oats, hay, wool and butter. The sugar 
maple abounds in the forests, and sandstone or freestone in the quarries. 
Mount Gilead, the county seat, is situated on the East Branch of the Olen- 
tangy River. 

Muskingum County was formed from Washington and Fairfield. The sur- 
face is rolling or hilly. It produces wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, tobacco, wool 
and pork. Large quantities of bituminous coal are found. Pipe clay, buhr- 
stone or cellular quartz are also in some portions of the State. Salt is made in 
large quantities — the fine being obtained from a stratum of whitish sandstone. 
The Wyandots, Delawares, Senecas and Shawanoese Indians once inhabited this 
section. An Indian town occupied the site of Duncan's Falls. A large Shawan- 
oese town was located near Dresden. 

Zanesville is the county seat, situated opposite the mouth of the Licking. 
It was laid out in 1799, by Mr. Zane and Mr. Mclntire. This is one of the 
principal towns in the State, and is surrounded by charming scenery. 

Noble County, organized in 1851, is drained by Seneca, Duck and Wills 
Creeks. The surface is undulating, and a large part of it is covered with for- 
ests. The soil is fertile. Its staples are corn, tobacco, wheat, hay, oats and 
wool. Among its mineral resources are limestone, coal and petroleum. Near 
Caldwell, the county seat, are found iron ore, coal and salt. 


Ottawa County was formed from Erie, Sandusky and Lucas, March 6, 1840, 
It is mostly within the Black Swamp, and considerable of its land is prairie and 
marsh. It was very thinly settled befere 1830. Extensive plaster beds exist 
on the peninsula, which extends into Lake Erie. It has also large limestone 
quarries, which are extensively worked. The very first trial at arms upon the 
soil of Ohio, during the war of 1812, occurred upon this peninsula. Port Clin- 
ton, the county seat, was laid out in 1827. 

Perry County was formed from Washington, Fairfield and Muskingum, 
March 1, 1817. Fine tobacco is raised in large quantities. Wheat, corn, oats, 
hay, cattle, pork and wool add to the general wealth. This county was first set- 
tled in 1801. First settler was Christian Binckley, who built the first cabin in 
the county, about five miles west of Somerset, near the present county line. 
New Lexington is now the county seat. 

Paulding County was formed from old Indian territory August 1, 1820. 
It produces corn, wheat and oats. Paulding is the county seat. 

Pickaway County was formed from Fairfield, Ross and Franklin, January 
12, 1810. The county has woodland, barren, plain and prairie. The barrens 
were covered by shrub oaks, and when cleared are adapted to the raising of corn 
and oats. The Pickaway plains are three and a half miles west of Circleville, 
and this tract is said to contain the richest land in Ohio. Here, in the olden 
times, burned the great council fires of the red man. Here the allied tribes met 
Gen. Lewis, who fought the battle of Point Pleasant. Dunmore's campaign 
was terminated on these plains. It was at the Chillicothe towns, after Dun- 
more's treaty, that Logan delivered his famous speech. Circleville, the county 
seat, is situated on the Scioto River and the Ohio Canal. It was laid out in 
1810, by Daniel Dresbach. It is situated on the site of ancient fortifications. 

Portage County was formed June 7, 1807, from Trumbull. It is a wealthy, 
thriving section. Over a thousand tons of cheese are annually produced. It 
also produces wheat, corn, oats, barley, buckwheat, rye, butter and wool. 
Ravenna is the county seat, and was originally settled by the Hon. Benjamin 
Tappen in June, 1799. In 1806, an unpleasant difficulty arose between the 
settlers and a camp of Indians in Deerfield, caused by a horse trade between a 
white man and an Indian. David Daniels settled on the site of Palmyra in 1799. 

Pike County was organized in 1815. The surface is generally hilly, which 
abound with freestone, which is exported in large quantities for building pur- 
poses. Rich bottom lands extend along the Scioto and its tributaries. John 
Noland and the three Chenoweth brothers settled on the Pee Pee prairie about 
1796. Piketown, the former county seat, was laid out about 1814. Waverly, 
the present county seat, is situated on the Scioto River. 

Preble County was formed March 1, 1808, from Montgomery and Butler. 
The soil is varied. Excellent water-power facilities are furnished. 

Eaton, the county seat, was laid out in 1806, by William Bruce, who owned 
the land. An overflowing well of strong sulphur water is near the town, while 
directly beside it is a limestone quarry. Holderman's quarry is about two 


miles distant, from which is obtained a beautifully clouded gray stone. Fort St. 
Clair was built near Eaton, in the winter of 1791-92. Gren. Harrison was an En- 
sign at the time, and commanded a guard every other night for three weeks, during 
the building. The severe battle of November 6, 1792, was fought under its very 
guns. Little Turtle, a distinguished chief of the Miamis, roamed over this county 
for a time. He was witty, brave and earnest, and, although engaged in several 
severe contests with the whites, he was inclined toward peace. But when his 
warriors cried for war he led them bravely. 

Putnam County was formed April 1, 1820, from old Indian territory. The 
soil is fertile, its principal productions being wheat, corn, potatoes and oats. 
Large quantities of pork are exported. Kalida, once the county seat, was laid 
out in 1834. Ottawa is the county seat. 

Ross County was formed August 20, 1798, by the proclamation of Gov. St. 
Clair, and was the sixth county formed in the Northwestern Territory. The 
Scioto River and Paint Creek run through it, bordered with fertile lands. 
Much water-power is obtained from the many streams watering it. The main 
crops are wheat, corn and oats. It exports cattle and hogs. 

The Rev. Robert W. Finley, in 1794, addressed a letter of inquiry to Col. 
Nathaniel Massie, as many of his associates had designed settling in the new 
State. This resulted in packing their several effects and setting out. A triv- 
ial Indian encounter was the only interruption they nv-t with on their way. 
After Wayne's treaty, Col. Massie and many of these curly explorers met 
again and formed a settlement — in 1796 — at the mouth of Paint Creek. In 
August of this year, Chillicothe was laid out by Col. Massie, in a dense forest. 
He donated lots to the early settlers. A ferry was established over the Scioto, 
and the opening of Zane's trace assisted the progress of settlement. 

Chillicothe, the county seat, is situated on the Scioto. Its site is thirty 
feet above the river. In 1800, it was the seat of the Northwestern Territorial 
Government. It was incorporated as a city in January, 1802. During the war 
of 1812, the city was a rendezvous for the United States troops. A large num- 
ber of British were at one time guarded here. Adena is a beautiful place, and 
the seat of Gov. Worthington's mansion, which was built in 1806. Near this 
is Fruit Hill, the residence of the late Gen. Mc Arthur, and latterly the home 
of his son-in-law, the Hon. William Allen. Eleven miles from Chillicothe, on 
the road to Portsmouth, is the home of the hermit of the Scioto. 

Richland was organized March 1, 1813. It produces wheat, corn, oats, hay, 
potatoes, rye, hemp and barley. It was settled about 1809, on branches of the 
Mohican. Two block-houses were built in 1812. Mansfield, the county seat, 
is charmingly situated, and was laid out in 1808, by Jacob Newman, James 
Hedges and Joseph II. Larwell. The county was at that period a vast wilder- 
ness, destitute of roads. From this year, the settlement progressed rapidly. 

Sandusky County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian Territory. 
The soil is fertile, and country generally level. It mainly produces corn, wheat, 


oats, potatoes and pork. The Indians were especially delighted with this tract. 
Near Lower Sandusky lived a band of Wyandots, called the Neutral Nation. 
These two cities never failed to render refuge to any who sought their protec- 
tion. They preserved their peacemaking attributes through the Iroquois 
conflicts. Fremont, formerly called Lower Sandusky, the county seat, is 
situated at the head of navigation, on the Sandusky, on the site of the old 
reservation grant to the Indians, at the Greenville treaty council. Fort 
Stephenson was erected in August, 1813, and was gallantly defended by Col. 

Summit County was formed March 3, 1840, from Medina, Portage and 
Stark. The soil is fertile and produces excellent fruit, besides large crops of 
corn, wheat, hay, oats and potatoes. Cheese and butter may be added as 

The first settlement made in the county was at Hudson, in 1800. The old 
Indian portage-path, extending through this county, between the Cuyahoga, and 
Tuscarawas Branch of the Muskingum. This was a part of the ancient boundary 
between the Six Nations and the Western Indians. Akron, the county seat, is 
situated on the portage summit. It was laid out in 1825. In 1811, Paul 
Williams and Amos and Minor Spicer settled in this vicinity. Middlebury was 
laid out in 1818, by Norton & Hart. 

Stark County was formed February 13, 1808. It is a rich agricultural 
county. It has large quantities of mineral coal, iron ore, flocks of the finest 
sheep and great water-power. Limestone and extensive beds of lime-marl exist. 
The manufacture of silk has been extensively carried on. Frederick Post, the 
first Moravian missionary in Ohio, settled here in 1761. 

Canton is the county seat, situated in the forks of the Nimishillen, a tribu- 
tary of the Muskingum. It was laid out in 1806, by Bezaleel Wells, who 
owned the land. Massillon was laid out in March, 1826, by John Duncan. 

Shelby County was formed in 1819, from Miami. The southern portion is 
undulating, arising in some places to hills. Through the north, it is a flat table- 
land. It produces wheat, corn, oats and grass. The first point of English set- 
tlement in Ohio was at the mouth of Laramie's Creek, in this county, as early 
as 1752. Fort Laramie was built in 1794, by Wayne. The first white family 
that settled in this county was that of James Thatcher, in 1804. Sidney, the 
county seat, was laid out in 1819, on the farm of Charles Starrett. 

Seneca County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian territory. 
Its principal products are corn, wheat, grass, oats, potatoes and pork. 

Fort Seneca was built during the war of 1812. The Senecas owned 
40,000 acres of land on the Sandusky River, mostly in Seneca County. 
Thirty thousand acres of this land was granted to them in 1817, at the treaty 
held at the foot of the Maumee Rapids. The remaining 10,000 was granted 
the following year. These Indians ceded this tract, however, to the Govern- 
ment in 1831. It was asserted by an old chief, that this band was the remnant 


of Logan's tribe. Tiffin, the county seat, was laid out by Josiah Hedges in 
the year 1821. 

Scioto County was formed May 1, 1803. It is a good agricultural section, 
besides producing iron ore, coal and freestone. It is said that a French fort 
stood at the mouth of the old Scioto, as early as 1740. In 1785, four families 
settled where Portsmouth now stands. Thomas McDonald built the first cabin in 
the county. The ''French grant" was located in this section — a tract com- 
prising 24,000 acres. The grant was made in March, 1795. Portsmouth, the 
county seat, is located upon the Ohio. 

Trumbull County was formed in 1800. The original Connecticut Western 
Reserve was within its limits. The county is well cultivated and very wealthy. 
Coal is found in its northern portion. We have, in our previous outline, given 
a history of this section, and it is not, therefore, necessary to repeat its details. 
Warren, the county seat, is situated on the Mahoning River. It was laid out 
by Ephraim Quinby in 1801. Mr. Quinby owned the soil. His cabin was built 
here in 1799. In August, 1800, while Mr. McMahon was away from home, 
a party of drunken Indians called at the house, abused the family, struck a 
child a severe blow with a tomahawk and threatened to kill the family. Mrs. 
McMahon could not send tidings which could reach her husband before noon 
the following day. The following Sunday morning, fourteen men and two 
boys armed themselves and went to the Indian camp to settle the difficulty. 
Quinby advanced alone, leaving the remainder in concealment, as he was better 
acquainted with these people, to make inquiries and ascertain their intentions. 
He did not return at once, and the party set out, marched into camp, and found 
Quinby arguing with Capt. George, the chief. Capt. George snatched his 
tomahawk and declared war, rushing forward to kill McMahon. But a bullet 
from the frontierman's gun killed him instantly, while Storey shot " Spotted 
John" at the same time. The Indians then fled. They joined the council at 
Sandusky. Quinby garrisoned his house. Fourteen days thereafter, the 
Indians returned with overtures of peace, which were, that McMahon and 
Storey be taken to Sandusky, tried by Indian laws, and if found guilty, pun- 
ished by them. This could not be done. McMahon was tried by Gen. St. 
Clair, and the matter was settled. The first missionary on the Reserve was the 
Rev. Joseph Badger. 

Tuscarawas County was formed February 15, 1808, from Muskingum. It 
is well cultivated with abundant supplies of coal and iron. 

The first white settlers were Moravian missionaries, their first visits dating 
back to 1761. The first permanent settlement was made in 1798. Miss Mary 
Heckewelder, the daughter of a missionary, was born in this county April 16, 
1781. Fort Laurens was built during the Revolution. It was the scene of a 
fearful carnage. It was established in the fall of 1778, and placed under the 
command of Gen. Mcintosh. New Philadelphia is the county seat, situated on 
the Tuscarawas. It was laid out in 1804 by John Knisely. A German 


colony settled in this county in 1817, driven from their native land by religious 
dictation they could not espouse. They called themselves Separatists. They 
are a simple-minded people, strictly moral and honest. 

Union County was formed from Franklin, Delaware, Logan and Madison in 
1820. It produces corn, grass, wheat, oats, potatoes, butter and cheese. 
Extensive limestone quarries are also valuable. The Ewing brothers made the 
first white settlement in 1798. Col. James Curry, a member of the State Leg- 
islature, was the chief instigator in the progress of this section. He located 
within its limits and remained until his death, which occurred in 1834. Marys- 
ville is the county seat. 

Van Wert County was formed from the old Indian territory April 1, 1820. 
A great deal of timber is within the limits of this county, but the soil is so 
tenacious that water will not sink through it, and crops are poor during wet 
seasons. The main product is corn. Van Wert, the county seat, was founded 
by James W. Riley in 1837. An Indian town had formerly occupied its site. 
Capt. Riley was the first white man who settled in the county, arriving in 1821. 
He founded Willshire in 1822. 

Vinton County was organized in 1 850. It is drained by Raccoon and Salt 
Creeks. The surface is undulating or hilly, and is extensively covered with 
forests in which the oak, buckeye and sugar maple are found. Corn, hay, but- 
ter and wool are staple products. Bituminous coal and iron ore are found. 
McArthur is the county seat. 

Washington County was formed by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair July 27, 
1788, and was the first county founded within the limits of Ohio. The surface 
is broken with extensive tracts of level, fertile land. It was the first county 
settled in the State under the auspices of the Ohio Company. A detachment 
of United States troops, under command of Maj. John Doughty, built Fort 
Harmar in 1785, and it was the first military post established in Ohio by 
Americans, with the exception of Fort Laurens, which was erected in 1778. 
It was occupied by United States troops until 1790, when they were ordered 
to Connecticut. A company under Capt. Haskell remained. In 1785, the 
Directors of the Ohio Company began practical operations, and settlement 
went forward rapidly. Campus Martius, a stockade fort, was completed in 
1791. This formed a sturdy stronghold during the war. During the Indian 
war there was much suffering in the county. Many settlers were killed and 

Marietta is the county seat, and the oldest town in Ohio. Marietta College 
was chartered in 1835. Herman Blannerhassett, whose unfortunate association 
with Aaron Burr proved fatal to himself, was a resident of Marietta in 1796. 
About the year 1798, he began to beautify and improve his island. 

Warren County was formed May 1, 1803, from Hamilton. The soil is 
very fertile, and considerable water-power is furnished by its streams. Mr. 
Bedell made the first settlement in 1795. Lebanon is the county seat. Henry 


Taylor settled in this vicinity in 1796. Union Village is a settlement of 
Shakers. They came here about 1805. 

Wayne County was proclaimed by Gov. St. Clair August 15, 1796, and 
was the third county in the Northwest Territory. The settlement of this sec- 
tion has already been briefly delineated. Wooster is the county seat. It was 
laid out during the fall of 1808, by John Beaver, William Henry and Joseph 
H. Larwell, owners of the land. Its site is 337 feet above Lake Erie. The 
first mill was built by Joseph Stibbs in 1809, on Apple Creek. In 1812, a 
block-house was erected in Wooster. 

Wood County was formed from the old Indian territory in 1820. The soil 
is rich, and large crops are produced. The county is situated within the Mau- 
mee Valley. It was the arena of brilliant military exploits during early times. 

BoAvling Green is the county seat. 

Williams County was formed April 1, 1820, from the old Indian territory. 
Bryan is the county seat. It was laid out in 1840. 

Wyandot County was formed February 3, 1845, from Marion, Harden, 
Hancock and Crawford. The surface is level and the soil is fertile. The 
Wyandot Indians frequented this section. It was the scene of Crawford's 
defeat, in June, 1782, and his fearful death. The treaty of 1817, Hon. Lewis- 
Cass and Hon. Duncan McArthur, United States Commissioners, granted to 
the Indians a reservation twelve miles square, the central point being Fort Ferree. 
The Delaware reserve was ceded to the United States in 1829. The Wyandots 
ceded theirs March 17, 1842. The United States Commissioner was Col. 
John Johnson, who thus made the last Indian treaty in Ohio. Every foot of 
this State was fairly purchased by treaties. The .Wyandots were exceedingly 
brave, and several of their chiefs were men of exalted moral principles. 

Upper Sandusky is the county seat, and was laid out in 1843. Gen. Har- 
rison had built Ferree on this spot during the war of 1812. Gov. Meigs, in 
1813, encamped near the river, with several thousand of the Ohio militia. 

The Indian village of Crane Town was originally called Upper Sandusky. 
The Indians transferred their town, after the death of Tarhe, to Uper Sandusky. 


The Territorial Governors we have already mentioned in the course of our 
brief review of the prominent events of the State of Ohio. After the Terri- 
tory was admitted as a State, in 1802, Edward Tiffin was elected to that position, 
and again received the same honor, in 1804 and 1806. In 1807, circumstances 
led him to resign, and Thomas Kirker, Speaker of the House, acted as Gover- 
nor, until the close of the term. 

Edward Tiffin was born in Carlisle, England, coming to this country in 
1784, at the age of eighteen. He entered the University of Pennsylvania, and 
applied himself to the study of medicine, graduating and beginning his practice 
at the age of twenty, in the State of Virginia. In 1789, he married Mary, 


daughter of Col. Worthington, and sister of Thomas Worthington, who subse- 
quently became Governor of Ohio. In his profession, Gov. Tiffin was highly- 
esteemed, and his public labors were carried forward with a zealous earnestness 
which marked his career as one of usefulness. He settled in Chillicothe, Ohio, 
in 1796, where he died, in 1829. 

Samuel Huntington, the recipient of the honor of second Governor, was 
inaugurated in 1808. He was an American by birth, Norwich, Conn, 
being his native place. He was a diligent student in Yale College, graduating 
in 1785. He removed to Cleveland, Ohio, in 1801. He attained a reputation 
for integrity, ability and rare discretion. As a scholar, he was eminently supe- 
rior. He resided in Cleveland at the time of his death, in 1817. 

Return Jonathan Meigs followed Gov. Huntington. He was born in Mid- 
dletown, Conn., in 1765. He was also a student in Yale College, graduating 
in 1785, with the highest honors. He immediately entered the study of law, 
and was admitted to practice in his twenty-third year. He married Miss Sophia 
Wright, and settled in Marietta, Ohio, in 1788. He took his seat as Gover- 
nor in 1810, and was re-elected in 1812. In 1813, President Madison appointed 
him to the position of Postmaster General, which occasioned his resignation as 
Governor. Othniel Looker, Speaker of the House, acted as Governor during 
the remainder of the term. Mr. Meigs died in 1825, leaving as a memento of 
his usefulness, a revered memory. 

Thomas Worthington, the fourth Governor, was born in Jefferson County, 
Va., in 1769. He gained an education in William and Mary's College. 
In 1788, he located at Chillicothe, and was the first Senator from the new 
State. He was also the first man to erect the first saw-mill in Ohio. He 
served two terms as Senator, from 1803 to 1815, resigning in 1814, to take his 
position as Governor. In 1816, he was re-elected. He was exceedingly active 
in paving the way for the future prosperity of Ohio. His measures were famous 
for practical worth and honesty. Chief Justice Chase designated him as " a 
gentleman of distinguished ability and great influence." He died in 1827. 

Ethan Allen Brown followed Mr. Worthington. His birthplace was on the 
shore of Long Island Sound, in Fairfield County, Conn., July 4, 1766. His 
education was derived under the most judicious instruction of a private tutor. 
In classics, he became proficient. Directly he had reached the required stand- 
ard in general education, he began the study of law, at home. After becoming 
conversant with preliminary requirements, he entered the law office of Alex- 
ander Hamilton, who at that time was a national pride, as a scholar, lawyer and 
statesman. Opportunities coming in his way, which promised a fortune, he 
abandoned the law, and achieved success and a fortune. He then decided to 
return to his study, and was admitted to practice in 1802. Thereafter, he was 
seized with an exploring enthusiasm, and with his cousin as a companion, set 
out upon a horseback tour, following the Indian trails from east to west, through 
Pennsylvania, until they reached Brownsville, on the Monongahela River. Here 


they purchased two flatboats, and fully stocking them with provisions and 
obtaining efficient crews, started for New Orleans. Reaching that city, they 
found they could not dispose of their cargoes to any advantage, and shipped the 
flour to Liverpool, England, taking passage in the same vessel. They succeeded 
in obtaining good prices for their stock, and set sail for America, arriving in Bal- 
timore nine months after first leaving " home," on this adventure. Mr. Brown's 
father decided to secure a large and valuable tract of Western land, as a per- 
manent home, and authorized his son to select and purchase the same for him. 
He found what he desired, near Rising Sun, Ind. After this, he settled in 
Cincinnati, and engaged in the practice of law, speedily achieving prominency 
and distinction. Financially, he was most fortunate. In 1810, he was elected 
Judge of the Supreme Court, which position he filled with honor, until he was 
chosen Governor, in 1818. He was re-elected in 1820. In 1821, he received 
the honor of Senator, and served one term, with the highest distinction, gain- 
ing emolument for himself and the State he represented. In 1830, he was 
appointed Minister to Brazil. He remained there four years, and returning, 
was appointed Commissioner of Public Lands, by President Jackson, holding 
this position two years. At this time, he decided to retire from public life. 
Since he never married, he was much with his relatives, at Rising Sun, Ind., 
during the latter part of his life. His death was sudden and unexpected, occur- 
ring in February, 1852, while attending a Democratic Convention, at Indianap- 
olis, Ind. He was interred near his father, at Rising Sun. 

Jeremiah Morrow, the sixth Governor of Ohio, was born at Gettysburg, 
Penn., in October, 1771. His people were of the " Scotch-Irish " class, and his 
early life .was one of manual labor upon his father's farm. During the winter, 
he had the privilege of a private school. With a view of establishing himself 
and securing a competency, he bade the old home farewell, in 1795, and set out 
for the " Far West." A flatboat carried him to a little cluster of cabins, known 
by the name of Columbia, six miles from Fort Washington — Cincinnati, He 
devoted himself to whatever came in his way, that seemed best and most worthy 
— teaching school, surveying and working on farms between times. Having 
accumulated a small capital, he ascended the Little Miami, as far as Warren 
County, and there purchased an extensive farm, and erected an excellent log 
house. In the spring of 1799, he married Miss Mary Packtrell, of Columbia. 
The young couple set out upon pioneer farming. Gaining popularity as well as 
a desirable property, he was deputized to the Territorial Legislature, which met 
at Chillicothe, at which time measures were inaugurated to call a Constitutional 
Convention, during . the following year, to organize the State of Ohio. Mr. 
Morrow was one of the Delegates to this convention, and steadfastly worked in the 
interests of those who sent him, until its close in 1802. The following year, 
he was elected to the Senate of Ohio, and in June of the same year, he was 
appointed the first Representative to the United States Congress from the new 


Ohio was then entitled to but one Representative in Congress, and could not 
add to that number for ten years thereafter. During these years, Mr. Morrow 
represented the State. In 1813, he was sent to the United States Senate, and 
in 1822, was elected Governor of Ohio, almost unanimously, being re-elected in 
1824. It was during his administration that work was begun on the Ohio 
Canal. Mr. Morrow received the national guest, La Fayette, with an earnest 
and touching emotion, which affected the emotions of the generous Frenchman 
more profoundly than any of the elaborate receptions which paved his way 
through America. On the 4th of July, 1839, Gov. Morrow was appointed to 
lay the corner stone of the new State capitol, at Columbus, and to deliver the 
address on this occasion. Again, in 1840, he was in the House of Representa- 
tives, filling the vacancy caused by the resignation of Hon. Thomas Corwin. 
He was elected for the following term also. He died at his own homestead, in 
Warren County, March 22, 1853. 

Allen Trimble was a native of Augusta County, Va. The date of his birth 
was November 24, 1783. His ancestors were of Scotch-Irish origin, and were 
among the early settlers of Virginia. His father moved to Ohio in 1804, pur- 
chasing a tract of land in Highland County. His cabin was remarkably spa- 
cious, and elicited the admiration of his neighbors. He cleared six acres of 
land for an orchard, and brought the trees on horseback, from Kentucky. Be- 
fore this new home was completed, Allen, then a young man of twenty, took 
possession. This was in the year 1805. Four years thereafter, he occupied 
the position of Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas and Recorder of High- 
land County. He was serving in the latter capacity at the breaking out of the 
war of 1812. Naturally enthusiastic and patriotic, he engaged a competent 
person to perform his civil duties, while he went into active service as Colonel 
of a regiment he had summoned and enlisted. He was always eager to be in 
the front, and led his men with such valor that they were termed soldiers who 
did notTcnow the art of flinching. His commanding General lavished praises 
upon him. In 1816, he was in the State Senate, representing Highland 
County. He occupied the same position for four terms, two years each. In 
1818, he was Speaker of the Senate, over Gen. Robert Lucas. He remained 
in this office until elected to the United States Senate, to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of his brother, Col. William A. Trimble. In October, 1826, he 
was elected the seventh Governor of Ohio, by an astonishing majority. The 
united vote of his three competitors was but one-sixth of the vote polled. Gov. 
Trimble was an earnest Henry Clay Whig. In 1828, he was re-elected, 
although Jackson carried the State the following November. Gov. Trimble 
was married in 1806, to Miss Margaret McDowell. Three years thereafter, 
she died, leaving two children. He was united in marriage to Miss Rachel 
Woodrow, and they lived together sixty years, when he died, at home, in Ilills- 
boro, Highland County, February 3, 1870. His wife survived him but a few 


Duncan Mc Arthur, the eighth Governor of Ohio, was born in Dutchess 
County, N. Y., in 1772. While yet a child, his parents removed to the west- 
ern part of Pennsylvania, where they entered upon the hard life of pioneers. 
While there, young Duncan had the meager advantages of a backwoods school. 
His life was a general routine until his eighteenth year, when he enlisted under 
Gen. Harmer for the Indian campaign. His conduct and bravery won worthy 
laurels, and upon the death of the commander of his company, he was elected 
to that position, although the youngest man in the company. When his days 
of service had expired, he found employment at salt-making in Maysville, Ky., 
until he was engaged as chain-bearer in Gen. Massie's survey of the Scioto 
Valley. At this time, Indian atrocities alarmed the settlers occasionally, and 
his reputation for bravery caused him to be appointed one of the three patrols 
of the Kentucky side of the Ohio, to give the alarm to scattered cabins in case 
of danger. This was during the summer of 1793. Gen. Massie again secured 
his services, this time as assistant surveyor. He was thus engaged for several 
years, during which time he assisted in platting Chillicothe. He purchased a 
large tract of land just north of town, and under his vigorous and practical 
management, it became one of the finest estates of Ohio, which reputation it 
sustains at the present time. He amassed wealth rapidly, his investments 
always being judicious. In 1805, he was elected to the State Legislature. 
He was a Colonel of an Ohio regiment, and accompanied Gen. Hull to Detroit 
in 1813. At Hull's surrender he was a prisoner, but released on parole, 
returned to Ohio in a state of indignation over his commander's stupidity. 
Soon thereafter he was sent to Congress on the Democratic ticket. Soon there- 
after he was released from parole by exchange, and, greatly rejoiced, he 
resigned his seat, entered the army as a Brigadier General under Gen. Harri- 
son, and the following year succeeded him as commander of the Northwestern 
forces. At the termination of the war, he was immediately returned to the 
State Legislature. He occupied State offices until 1822, when he was again 
sent to Congress. Serving one term, he declined re-election. In 1830, he 
was elected Governor of Ohio. When his term expired, he decided to enjoy 
life as a citizen on his farm, " Fruit Hill," and lived there in contentment until 
1840, when he died. 

Robert Lucas was another Virginian, having been born in 1781, in Jeffer- 
son County of that State. While a boy, his father liberated his slaves, moving 
to Chillicothe as one of the early settlers. He procured a proficient tutor for 
his children. Robert became an expert in mathematics and surveying. Before 
he reached his majority, he was employed as surve} r or, earning liberal compen- 
sation. At the age of twenty-three, he was appointed Surveyor of Scioto 
County. At twenty-five, he was Justice of the Peace for Union Township, 
Scioto County. He married Miss Elizabeth BroWn in 1810, who died two 
years thereafter, leaving a young daughter. In 1816, he married Miss Sum- 
ner, The same year he was elected a member of the Ohio Legislature. Tor 


nineteen consecutive years he served in the House or Senate. In 1820 and 
1828, he was chosen one of the Presidential electors of Ohio. In 1832, 
he was Chairman of the National Convention at Baltimore, which nom- 
inated Gen. Jackson as President of the United States. In 1832, he 
became Governor of Ohio, and was re-elected in 1834. He declined a third 
nomination, and was appointed by President Van Buren Territorial Governor 
of Iowa and Superintendent of Indian Affairs. On the 16th of August, 
1838, he reached Burlington, the seat of government. He remained in Iowa 
until his death, in 1853. 

Joseph Vance, the tenth Governor of Ohio, was born in Washington 
County, Penn., March 21, 1781. He was of Scotch-Irish descent, and his 
father emigrated to the new Territory when Joseph was two years of age. He 
located on the southern bank of the Ohio, building a solid block house. This 
formed a stronghold for his neighbors in case of danger. In 1801, this pioneer 
decided to remove north of the Ohio River, and eventually settled in Urbana. 
Joseph had the primitive advantages of the common schools, and became pro- 
ficient in handling those useful implements — the plow, ax and rifle. The first 
money he earned he invested in a yoke of oxen. He obtained several barrels 
of salt, and set out on a speculative tour through the settlements. He traveled 
through a wilderness, over swamps, and surmounted serious difficulties. At 
night he built a huge fire to terrify the wolves and panthers, and laid down to 
sleep beside his oxen, frequently being obliged to stand guard to protect 
them from these ferocious creatures. Occasionally he found a stream so swol- 
len that necessarily he waited hours and even days in the tangled forest, before 
he could cross. He often suffered from hunger, yet he sturdily persevered and 
sold his salt, though a lad of only fifteen years. When he attained his major- 
ity, he married Miss Mary Lemen, of Urbana. At twenty-three, he was 
elected Captain of a rifle company, and frequently led his men to the front to 
fight the Indians prior to the war of 1812. During that year, he and his 
brother piloted Hull's army through the dense forests to Fort Meigs. In 1817, 
with Samuel McCullough and Henry Van Meter, he made a contract to supply 
the Northwestern army with provisions. They drove their cattle and hogs 
many miles, dead weight being transported on sleds and in wagons. He 
engaged in mercantile business at Urbana and Fort Meigs — now Perrysburg. 

While thus employed, he was elected to the Legislature, and there remained 
four years. He then purchased a large tract of land on Blanchard's Fork, 
and laid out the town of Findlay. He was sent to Congress in 1821, and was 
a member of that body for fifteen years. In 1836, he was chosen Governor of 
Ohio. Again he was sent to Congress in 1842. While attending the Consti- 
tutional Convention in 1850, he was stricken with paralysis, and suffered 
extremely until 1852, when he died at his home in Urbana. 

Wilson Shannon was a native of Belmont County, Ohio. He was born 
during 1803. At the age of fifteen, he was sent to the university at Athens, 


where he remained a year,- and then changed to the Transylvania University, 
at Lexington, Ky. He continued his studies two years, then returning home 
and entering upon reading law. lie completed his course at St. Clairsville, 
Belmont County, and was admitted to practice. He was engaged in the courts 
of the county for eight years. In 1832, the Democrats nominated him to Con- 
gress, but he was not elected. He received the position of Prosecuting Attor- 
ney in 1834, in which position his abilities were so marked and brilliant that 
he was elected Governor by a majority of 3,600. He was re-nominated in 
1840, but Tom Corwin won the ticket. Two years thereafter, he was again 
nominated and elected. In 1843, he was appointed Minister to Mexico, by 
President Tyler, and resigned the office of Governor. When Texas was 
admitted as a State, Mexico renounced all diplomatic relations with the United 
States. Mr. Shannon returned home, and resumed the practice of law. He 
was sent to Congress in 1852. President Pierce conferred upon him the posi- 
tion of Territorial Governor of Kansas, which duty he did not perform satis- 
factorily, and was superseded after fourteen months of service. He settled in 
Lecompton, Kan., and there practiced law until his death, which occurred in 

Thomas Corwin, the twelfth Governor of Ohio, was born in Bourbon 
County, Ky., July 29, 1794. His father settled at Lebanon in 1798. The 
country was crude, and advantages meager. When Thomas was seventeen 
years of age, the war of 1812 was inaugurated, and this young man was 
engaged to drive a wagon through the wilderness, loaded with provisions, to 
Gen. Harrison's headquarters. In 1816, he began the study of law, and 
achieved knowledge so rapidly that in 1817 he passed examination and was 
admitted to practice. He was elected Prosecuting Attorney of his county, in 
1818, which position he held until 1830. He was elected to the Legislature of 
Ohio in 1822. Again, in 1829, he was a member of the same body. He was 
sent to Congress in 1830, and continued to be re-elected for the space of ten 
years. He became Governor of Ohio in 1840. In 1845, he was elected to 
the United States Senate, where he remained until called to the cabinet of Mr. 
Fillmore, as Secretary of the Treasury. He was again sent to Congress in 
1858, and re-elected in 1860. He was appointed Minister to Mexico, by Pres- 
ident Lincoln. After his return, he practiced law in Washington, D. C , 
where he died in 1866. 

Mordecai Bartley was born in 1783, in Fayette County, Penn. There he 
remained, on his father's farm, until he was twenty-one years of age. He mar- 
ried Miss Wells in 1804, and removed to Jefferson County, Ohio, where he 
purchased a farm, near Cross Creek. At the opening of the war of 1812, he 
enlisted in a company, and was elected its Captain. He entered the field under 
Harrison. At the close of the war, he removed to Richland County, and opened 
a clearing and set up a cabin, a short distance from Mansfield. He remained 
on his farm twenty years, then removing to Mansfield, entered the mercantile 


business. In 1817, he was elected to the State Senate. He was sent to Con- 
gress in 1823, and served four terms. In 1844, he became Governor of Ohio, 
on the Whig ticket. He declined a re-nomination, preferring to retire to his 
home in Mansfield, where he died in 1870. 

William Bebb, the fourteenth Governor, was from Hamilton County, Ohio. 
He was born in 1804. His early instructions were limited, but thorough. He 
opened a school himself, when he was twenty years of age, at North Bend, 
residing in the house of Gen. Harrison. He remained thus employed a year, 
during which time he married Shuck. He very soon began the study of law, 
continuing his school. He was successful in his undertakings, and many pupils 
were sent him from the best families in Cincinnati. In 1831, he was admitted 
to practice, and opened an office in Hamilton, Butler County, remaining thus 
engaged for fourteen years. In 1845, he was elected Governor of Ohio. In 
1847, he purchased 5,000 acres of land in the Rock River country, 111., and 
removed there three years later. On the inauguration of President Lincoln, he 
was appointed Pension Examiner, at Washington, and remained in that position 
until 1866, when he returned to his Illinois farm. He died at Rockford, 111., 
in 1873. 

Seabury Ford, the fifteenth Governor of Ohio, was born in the year 1802, 
at Cheshire, Conn. His parents settled in Burton Township. He attended 
the common schools, prepared for college at an academy in Burton, and entered 
Yale College, in 1821, graduating in 1825. He then began the study of law, 
in the law office of Samuel W. Phelps, of Painesville, completing his course 
with Judge Hitchcock. He began practice in 1827, in Burton. He married 
Miss Harriet E. Cook, of Burton, in 1828. He was elected by the Whigs to 
the Legislature, in 1835, and served six sessions, during one of which he was 
Speaker of the House. He entered the State Senate in 1841, and there 
remained until 1844, when he was again elected Representative. In 1846, he 
was appointed to the Senate, and in 1848, he became Governor of Ohio. On 
the first Sunday after his retirement, he was stricken with paralysis, from which 
he never recovered. He died at his home in Burton in 1855. 

Reuben Wood, the sixteenth Governor, was a Vermonter. Born in 1792, 
in Middleton, Rutland County, he was a sturdy son of the Green Mountain 
State. He was a thorough scholar, and obtained a classical education in L T pper 
Canada. In 1812, he was drafted by the Canadian authorities to serve against 
the Americans, but being determined not to oppose his own land, he escaped 
one stormy night, accompanied by Bill Johnson, who was afterward an Ameri- 
can spy. In a birchbark canoe they attempted to cross Lake Ontario. A 
heavy storm of wind and rain set in. The night was intensely dark, and they 
were in great danger. They fortunately found refuge on a small island, where 
they were storm-bound three days, suffering from hunger and exposure. They 
reached Sacket's Harbor at last, in a deplorable condition. Here they were 
arrested as spies by the patrol boats of the American fleet. They were prisoners 


four .days, when an uncle of Mr. Wood's, residing not far distant, came to 
their rescue, vouched for their loyalty, and they were released. Mr. Wood 
then went to Woodville, N. Y., where he raised a company, of which he was 
elected Captain. They marched to the northern frontier. The battles of 
Plattsburg and Lake Champlain were fought, the enemy defeated, and the com- 
pany returned to Woodville and was disbanded. 

Young Wood then entered the law office of Gen. Jonas Clark, at Middle- 
bury, Vt. He Avas married in 1816, and two years later, settled in Cleveland, 
Ohio. When he first established himself in the village, he possessed his wife, 
infant daughter and a silver quarter of a dollar. He was elected to the State 
Senate in 1825, and filled the office three consecutive terms. He was appointed 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. He was promoted to the Bench of the 
Supreme Court, serving there fourteen years, the latter portion of the term a.s 
Chief Justice. He was termed the "Cayuga Chief," from his tall form and 
courtly bearing. He was elected Governor in 1850, by a majority of 11,000. 
The new constitution, which went into effect in March, 1851, vacated the office 
of Governor, and he was re-elected by a majority of 26,000. The Democrats 
holding a national convention in Baltimore in 1852, party division caused fifty 
unavailing votes. The Virginia delegation offered the entire vote to Gov. 
Wood, if Ohio would bring him forward. The opposition of one man pre- 
vented this. The offer was accepted by New Hampshire, and Frank Pierce 
became President. Mr. Wood was appointed Consul to Valparaiso, South 
America, and resigned his office of Governor. He resigned his consulship and 
returned to his fine farm near Cleveland, called "Evergreen Place." He 
expected to address a Union meeting on the 5th of October, 1864, but on the 
1st he died, mourned by all who knew him. 

William Medill, the seventeenth Governor, was born in New Castle County, 
Del., in 1801. He was a graduate of Delaware College in 1825. He began 
the study of law under Judge Black, of New Castle, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1832. He removed to Lancaster, Ohio, in 1830. He was elected Rep- 
resentative from Fairfield County in 1835. He was elected to Congress in 
1838, and was re-elected in 1840. He was appointed Assistant Postmaster 
General by President Polk. During the same year, he was appointed Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs. In 1851, he was elected Lieutenant Governor, and, 
in 1853, he became Governor. He occupied the position of First Comptroller 
of the United States Treasury in 1857, under President Buchanan, retaining the 
office until 1861, when he retired from public life. His death occurred in 

Salmon P. Chase was a native of Cornish, N. H. He was born in 1803. 
He entered Dartmouth College in 1822, graduating in 1826. He was there- 
after successful in establishing a classical school in Washington, but finan- 
cially it did not succeed. He continued to teach the sons of Henry Clay, 
William Wirt and S. L. Southard, at the same time reading law 'when not busy 

-£ ^2^^£- 


as tutor. He was admitted to practice in 1829, and opened a law office in Cin- 
cinnati. He succeeded but moderately, and during his leisure hours prepared 
a new edition of the "Statutes of Ohio." He added annotations and a well- 
written sketch of the early history of the State. This was a thorough success, 
and gave the earnest worker popularity and a stepping-stone for the future. 
He was solicitor for the banks of the United States in 1884, and soon there- 
after, for the city banks. He achieved considerable distinction in 1837, in the 
case of a colored woman brought into the State by her master, and escaping 
his possession. He was thus brought out as an Abolitionist, which was further 
sustained by his defense of James G. Birney, who had suffered indictment for 
harboring a fugitive slave. In 1846, associated with William H. Seward, he 
defended Van Zandt before the Supreme Court of the United States. His 
thrilling denunciations and startling conjectures alarmed the slaveholding 
States, and subsequently led to the enactment of the fugitive-slave law of 1850. 
Mr. Chase was a member of the United States Senate in 1849, through the 
coalition of the Democrats and Free-Soilers. In 1855, he was elected Gover- 
nor of Ohio by the opponents of Pierce's administration. He was re-elected 
in 1859. President Lincoln, in 1861, tendered him the position of Secretary 
of the Treasury. To his ability and official management we are indebted for 
the present national bank system. In 1864, he was appointed Chief Justice of 
the United States. He died in the city of New York in 1873, after a useful 

William Dennison was born in Cincinnati in 1815. He gained an educa- 
tion at Miami University, graduating in 1835. He began the study of law in 
the office of the father of George H. Pendleton, and was qualified and admitted 
to the bar in 1840. The same year, he married a daughter of William Neil, 
of Columbus. The Whigs of the Franklin and Delaware District sent him to 
the State Senate, in 1848. He was President of the Exchange Bank in Cin- 
cinnati, in 1852, and was also President of Columbus & Xenia Railway. He was 
elected the nineteenth Governor of Ohio in 1859. By his promptness and 
activity at the beginning of the rebellion, Ohio was placed in the front rank of 
loyalty. At the beginning of Lincoln's second term, he was appointed Post- 
master General, retiring upon the accession of Johnson. He then made his 
home at Columbus. 

David Tod, the twentieth Governor of Ohio, was born at Youngstown, Ohio, 
in 1805. His education was principally obtained through his own exertions. 
He set about the study of law most vigorously, and was admitted to practice in 
1827. He soon acquired popularity through his ability, and consequently was 
financially successful. He purchased the Briar Hill homestead. Under Jack- 
son's administration, he was Postmaster at Warren, and held the position until 
1838, when he was elected State Senator by the Whigs of Trumbull District, by 
the Democrats. In 1844, he retired to Briar Hill, and opened the Briar Hill 
Coal Mines. He was a pioneer in the coal business of Ohio. In the Cleveland 


& Mahoning Railroad, he was largely interested, and was its President, after the 
death of Mr. Perkins. He was nominated, in 1844, for Governor, by the Dem- 
ocrats, but was defeated. In 1847, he went to Brazil as Minister, where he 
resided for four and a half years. The Emperor presented him with a special 
commendation to the President, as a testimonial of his esteem. He was also the 
recipient of an elegant silver tray, as a memorial from the resident citizens of 
Rio Janeiro. He was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention, which 
met at Charleston in 1860. He was Vice President of this Convention. He 
was an earnest advocate for Stephen A. Douglas. When the Southern members 
withdrew, the President, Caleb Cushing, going with them, the convention 
adjourned to Baltimore, when Mr. Tod assumed the chair and Douglas was nom- 
inated. He was an earnest worker in the cause, but not disheartened by its 
defeat. When Fort Sumter was fired upon, he was one of the most vigorous 
prosecutors of the war, not relaxing his active earnestness until its close. He 
donated full uniforms to Company B, of the Nineteenth Regiment, and contrib- 
uted largely to the war fund of his township. Fifty-five thousand majority 
elected him Governor in 1861. His term was burdened with war duties, 
and he carried them so bravely as Governor that the President said of him : 
" Governor Tod of Ohio aids me more and troubles me less than any other Gov- 
ernor." His death occurred at Briar Hill during the year 1868. 

John Brough was a native of Marietta, Ohio. He was born in 1811. The death 
of his father left him in precarious circumstances, which may have been a discipline 
for future usefulness. He entered a printing office, at the age of fourteen, in 
Marietta, and after serving a few months, began his studies in the Ohio Uni- 
versity, setting type mornings and evenings, to earn sufficient for support. He 
occupied the leading position in classes, and at the same time excelled as a 
type-setter. He was also admired for his athletic feats in field amusements. 
He completed his studies and began reading law, which pursuit was interrupted 
by an opportunity to edit a paper in Petersburg, Va. He returned to Marietta 
in 1831, and became editor and proprietor of a leading Democratic newspaper 
— the Washington County Republican. He achieved distinction rapidly, 
and in 1833, sold his interest, for the purpose of entering a more extended field 
of journalism. He purchased the Ohio Eagle, at Lancaster, and as its editor, 
held a deep influence over local and State politics. He occupied the position 
of Clerk of the Ohio Senate, between the years 1835 and 1838, and relinquished his 
paper. He then represented the counties of Fairfield and Hocking in the Leg- 
islature. He was then appointed Auditor of State by the General Assembly, 
in which position he served six years. He then purchased the Phcenix news- 
paper in Cincinnati, changed its name to the Enquirer, placing it in the care 
of his brother, Charles, while he opened a law office in the city. His editorials 
in the Enquirer, and his activity in political affairs, were brilliant and strong. 
He retired from politics in 1848, sold a half-interest in the Enquirer and carried 
on a prosperous business, but was brought forward again by leaders of both 


political parties in 1863, through the Vallandigham contest, and was elected 
Governor the same year, by a majority of 101,099 votes in a total of 471,643. 
He was three times married. His death occurred in 1865 — Charles Anderson 
serving; out his term. 

Jacob Dolson Cox, the twenty-second Governor, was born in 1828, in Mon- 
treal, Canada, where his parents were temporarily. He became a student of 
Oberlin College, Ohio, in 1846, graduating in 1851, and beginning the practice 
of law in Warren in 1852. He was a member of the State Senate in 1859, 
from the Trumbull and Mahoning Districts. He was termed a radical. He 
was a commissioned Brigadier General of Ohio in 1861, and, in 1862, was pro- 
moted to Major General for gallantry in battle. While in the service he was 
nominated for Governor, and took that position in 1865. He was a member of 
Grant's Cabinet as Secretary of the Interior, but resigned. He went to Con- 
gress in 1875, from the Toledo District. His home is in Cincinnati. 

Rutherford B. Hayes, was the nineteenth President of the United States, 
the twenty-third Governor of Ohio, was born at Delaware, Ohio, in 1822. He 
was a graduate of Kenyon College in 1842. He began the study of law, and, 
in 1843, pursued that course in the Cambridge University, graduating in 1845. 
He began his practice at Fremont. He was married to Miss Lucy Webb in 
1852, in Cincinnati. He was Major of the Twenty-third Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry in 1861, and in 1862, was promoted to Colonel on account of bravery 
in the field, and eventually became Major General. In 1864, he was elected to 
Congress, and retired from the service. He remained in Congress two terms, 
and was Governor of Ohio in 1867, being re-elected in 1869. He filled this 
office a third term, being re-elected in 1875. 

Edward F. Noyes was born in Haverhill, Mass., in 1832. While a lad of 
fourteen, he entered the office of the Morning Star, published at Dover, N. H., 
in order to learn the business of printing. At the age of eighteen, he entered 
the academy at Kingston, N. H. He prepared for college, and entered 
Dartmouth in 1853, graduating with high honors in 1857. He had begun the 
study of law, and continued the course in the Cincinnati Law School, and beo-an 
to practice in 1858. He was an enthusiast at the opening of the rebellion and 
was interested in raising the Twentieth Regiment, of which he was made Major. 
He was promoted to Colonel in 1862. At the conflict at Ruff's Mills, in 
Georgia, in 1864, he was so unfortunate as to lose a leg. At the time, amputa- 
tion was necessary, but was unskillfully performed. He was brought to Cincin- 
nati, and the operation was repeated, which nearly cost him his life. He reported 
three months later, to Gen. Hooker for duty, on crutches. He was assigned to 
command of Camp Dennison. He was promoted to the full rank of Brigadier 
General, and while in discharge of his duty at that place, he was elected City 
Solicitor of Cincinnati. He occupied the position until 1871, when he was 
elected Governor, by a majority of 20,000. He went to France in 1877, as 
Minister, appointed by President Hayes. 


William Allen, the twenty-fifth Governor of Ohio, was born in 1807, in 
Chowan County, N. C. While an infant, he was left an orphan, and his sister 
superintended his education. He was placed in a private school in Lynchburg, 
Va., at the age of fourteen. Two years later, he joined his sister and family, 
in Chillicothe, and attended the academy a year, when he entered the law office 
of Edward King, and began a course of study. In his seventeenth year, he 
began practice, and through his talent speedily acquired fame and popu- 
larity. Before he was twenty-five, he was sent to Congress by a strong Whig 
district. He was elected United States Senator in 1837, there remaining 
until 1849. In 1845, he married Effie McArthur, who died soon after the 
birth of their daughter. In 1873, he was elected Governor. His adminis- 
tration gave general satisfaction. He died, at his home at " Fruit Hill," in 

R. M. Bishop, the twenty-sixth Governor of Ohio, was born Novem- 
ber 4, 1812, in Fleming County, Ky. He began the vocation of mer- 
chant, and for several years devoted himself to that business in his native 
State. In 1818, he engaged in the wholesale grocery business, in Cincinnati. 
His three sons became partners, under the firm name of R. M. Bishop & Sons. 
The sales of this house frequently exceeded $5,000,000 per annum. Mr. 
Bishop was a member of the Council of Cincinnati, and in 1859 was its Mayor, 
holding that office until 1861. In 1860, the Legislatures of Indiana and Ten- 
nessee visited Ohio, to counsel each other to stand by the Constitution and the 
flag. At the reception given at Pike's Opera House, Mayor Bishop delivered 
an eloquent address, which elicited admiration and praises. During the same 
year, as Mayor, he received the Prince of Wales in the most cordial manner, a 
national credit as a mark of respect to a distinguished foreign guest. In 1877, 
he was elected Governor of Ohio, by a large majority. 

Charles Foster, the present and twenty-seventh Governor of Ohio, was born 
in Seneca County, Ohio, April 12, 1828. He was educated at the common 
schools and the academy at Norwalk, Ohio. Engaged in mercantile and bank- 
ing business, and never held any public office until he was elected to the Forty- 
second Congress ; was re-elected to the Forty-third Congress, and again to the 
Forty-fourth Congress, as a Republican. In 1879, he was nominated by the 
Republicans and elected Governor of the State; was re-elected in 1881. 

In reviewing these slight sketches of the Governors of this grand Western 
State, one is impressed with the active relationship they have all sustained, with 
credit, with national measures. Their services have been efficient, earnest and 
patriotic, like the State they have represented and led. 


Ohio has furnished a prolific field for antiquarians and those interested in 
scientific explorations, either for their own amusement and knowledge, or for 
the records of " facts and formations."' 


It is well known that the " Mound Builders " had a wide sweep through this 
continent, but absolute facts regarding their era have been most difficult to 
obtain. Numerous theories and suppositions have been advanced, yet they are 
emphatic evidences that they have traced the origin and time of this primeval race. 

However, they have left their works behind them, and no exercise of faith 
is necessary to have confidence in that part of the story. That these works are 
of human origin is self-evident. Temples and military works have been found 
which required a considerable degree of scientific skill on the part of those early 
architects and builders. 

Evidently the Indians had no knowledge of these works of predecessors, 
which differed in all respects from those of the red men. An ancient cemetery 
has been found, covering an area of four acres, which had evidently been laid 
out into lots, from north to south. Nearly 3,000 graves have been discovered, 
containing bones which at some time must have constituted the framework of 
veritable giants, while others are of no unusual size. In 1815, a jaw-bone was 
exhumed, containing an artificial tooth of silver. 

Mounds and fortifications are plentiful in Athens County, some of them 
being of solid stone. One, differing in the quality of stone from the others, is 
supposed to be a dam across the Hocking. Over a thousand pieces of stone 
were used in its construction. Copper rings, bracelets and ornaments are 
numerous. It is also evident that these people possessed the knowledge of 
hardening copper and giving it an edge equal to our steel of to-day. 

In the branch formed by a branch of the Licking River and Raccoon Creek, 
in Licking County, ancient works extend over an area of several miles. Again, 
three miles northwest of this locality, near the road between Newark and Gran- 
ville, another field of these relics may be found. On the summit of a high hill 
is a fortification, formed to represent an alligator. The head and neck includes 
32 feet ; the length of the body is 73 feet ; the tail was 105 feet ; from the termini of 
the fore feet, over the shoulders, the width is 100 feet ; from the termini of 
the hind feet, over the hips, is 92 feet ; its highest point is 7 feet. It is composed 
of clay, which must have been conveyed hither, as it is not similar to the clay 
found in the vicinity. 

Near Miamisburg, Montgomery County, are other specimens. Near the 
village is a mound, equaled in size by very few of these antiquities. It meas- 
ures 800 feet around the base, and rises to a height of sixty-seven feet. Others 
are found in Miami County, while at Circleville, Pickaway County, no traces 

Two forts have been discovered, one forming an exact square, and the other 
describing a circle. The square is flanked by two walls, on all sides, these 
being divided by a deep ditch. The circle has one wall and no ditch. This is 
sixty-nine rods in diameter, its walls being twenty feet high. The square fort 
measures fifty-five rods across, with walls twelve feet high. Twelve gateways 
lead into the square fort, while the circle has but one, which led to the other, at 


the point where the walls of the two came together. Before each of these 
entrances -were mounds of earth, from four to five feet high and nearly forty 
feet in diameter. Evidently these were designed for defenses for the openings, 
in cases of emergency. 

A short distance from Piketon, the turnpike runs, for several hundred feet, 
between two parallel artificial walls of earth, fifteen feet high, and six rods 
apart. In Scioto County, on both sides of the Ohio, are extensive ancient 

" Fort Ancient " is near Lebanon in Warren County. Its direct measure- 
ment is a mile, but in tracing its angles, retreating and salient, its length would 
be nearly six miles. Its site is a level plain, 240 feet above the level of the 
river. The interior wall varies in height to conform with the nature of the 
ground without — ranging from 8 to 10 feet. On the plain it reaches 100 feet. 
This fort has 58 gateways, through one of which the State road runs, passing 
between two mounds 12 feet high. Northeast from these mounds, situated on 
the plain, are two roads, about a rod wide each, made upon an elevation about 
three feet high. They run parallel to each other about a quarter of a mile, 
when they each form a semicircle around a mound, joining in the circle. It is 
probable this was at some time a military defense, or, on the contrary, it may 
have been a general rendezvous for games and high holiday festivities. 

Near Marietta, are the celebrated Muskingum River works, being a half- 
mile from its juncture with the Ohio. They consist of mounds and walls of 
earth in circular and square forms, also tracing direct lines. 

The largest square fort covers an area of 40 acres, and is inclosed by a wall 
of earth, 6 to 10 feet in height, and from 25 to 30 feet at its base. On each 
side are three gateways. The center gateways exceed the others in size, more 
especially on the side toward the Muskingum. From this outlet runs a covered 
means of egress, between two parallel walls of earth, 231 feet distant from each 
other, measuring from the centers. The walls in the interior are 21 feet high 
at the most elevated points, measuring 42 feet at the base, grading on the exte- 
rior to about five feet in heigth. This passage-way is 360 feet in length, lead- 
ing to the low grounds, which, at the period of its construction, probably reached 
the river. 

At the northwest corner, within the inclosure, is a plateau 188 feet long, 
132 feet broad and 9 feet high. Its sides are perpendicular and its surface 
level. At the center of each side is a graded pathway leading to the top, six 
feet wide. Another elevated square is near the south wall, 150x120 feet square, 
and 8 feet high, similar to the other, with the exception of the graded walk. 
Outside and next the wall to ascend to the top, it has central hollow ways, 10 
feet wide, leading 20 feet toward the center, then arising with a gradual slope to 
the top. A third elevated square is situated at the southeast corner, 108x54 
feet square, with ascents at the ends. This is neither as high or as perfect as 
the others. 


Another ancient work is found to the southeast, covering an area of 20 acres 
with a gateway in the center of each side, and others at the corners — each of 
these having the mound defense. 

On the outside of the smaller fort, a mound resembling a sugar loaf was 
formed in the shape of a circle 115 feet in diameter, its height being 30 feet. 
A ditch surrounds it, 15 feet wide and 4 feet deep. These earthworks have 
contributed greatly to the satisfactory results of scientific researches. Their 
builders were evidently composed of large bands that have succumbed to the 
advance of enlightened humanity. The relics found consists of ornaments, 
utensils and implements of war. The bones left in the numerous graves convey 
an idea of a stalwart, vigorous people, and the conquests which swept them away 
from the face of the country must have been fierce and cruel. 

Other mounds and fortifications are found in different parts of the State, of 
which our limited space will not permit a description. 

Many sculptured rocks are found, and others with plainly discernible 
tracery in emblematical designs upon their surface. The rock on which the 
inscriptions occur is the grindstone grit of the Ohio exports — a stratum found 
in Northern Ohio, Arrow-points of flint or chert have been frequently found. 
From all investigations, it is evident that an extensive flint bed existed in Lick- 
ing County, near Newark. The old pits can now be recognized. They 
extended over a hundred acres. They are partially filled with water, and sur- 
rounded by piles of broken and rejected fragments. The flint is a grayish- 
white, with cavities of a brilliant quartz crystal. Evidently these stones were 
chipped into shape and the material sorted on the ground. Only clear, homo- 
genous pieces can be wrought into arrow-heads and spear-points. Flint chips 
extend over many acres of ground in this vicinity. Flint beds are also found 
in Stark and Tuscarawas Counties. In color it varies, being red, white, black 
and mottled. The black is found in Coshocton County. 


Ohio, as a State, is renowned as an agricultural section. Its variety, quality 
and quantity of productions cannot be surpassed by any State in the Union. Its 
commercial importance ranks proudly in the galaxy of opulent and industrious 
States composing this Union. Her natural resources are prolific, and all improve- 
ments which could be instituted by the ingenuity of mankind have been added. 

From a quarter to a third of its area is hilly and broken. About the head- 
waters of the Muskingum and Scioto, and between the Scioto and the two 
Miami Rivers, are wide prairies ; some of them are elevated and dry, with fertile 
soil, although they are frequently termed "barrens." In other parts, they are 
low and marshy, producing coarse, rank grass, which grows to a height of five 
feet in some places. 

The State is most fortunate in timber wealth, having large quantities of 
black walnut, oak of different varieties, maple, hickory, birch, several kinds of 


beech, poplar, sycamore, papaw, several kinds of ash, cherry, whitewood and 

The summers are usually warm, and the winters are mild, considering the 
latitude of the State. Near Lake Erie, the winters are severe, corresponding 
with sections in a line with that locality. Snow falls in sufficient quantities 
in the northern part to afford several weeks of fine sleighing. In the southern 
portion, the snowstorms are not frequent, and the fall rarely remains long on 
the ground. 

The climate is generally healthy, with the exception of small tracts lying 
near the marshes and stagnant waters. 

The Ohio River washes the southern border of the State, and is navigable 
for steamboats of a large size, the entire length of its course. From Pitts- 
burgh to its mouth, measuring it meanderings, it is 908 miles long. Its current 
is gentle, having no falls except at Louisville, Ky., where the descent is twenty- 
two and a half feet in two miles. A canal obviates this obstruction. 

The Muskingum is the largest river that flows entirely within the State. It 
is formed by the junction of the Tuscarawas and Walhonding Rivers, and enters 
the Ohio at Marietta One hundred miles of its length is navigable. 

The Scioto is the second river in magnitude, is about 200 miles long, and 
flows into the Ohio at Portsmouth. It affords navigation 130 miles of its length. 
The Great Miami is a rapid river, in the western part of the State, and is 100 
miles long. The Little Miami is seventy miles in length, and enters the Ohio 
seven miles from Cincinnati. 

The Maumee rises in Indiana, flows through the northwestern part of the 
State, and enters Lake Erie at Maumee Bay. It affords navigation as far as 
Perrysburg, eighteen miles from the lake, and above the rapids, it is again nav- 

The Sandusky rises in the northern part of the State, is eighty miles long, 
and flows into Lake Erie, via Sandusky Bay. 

Lake Erie washes 150 miles of the northern boundary. The State has sev- 
eral fine harbors, the Maumee and Sandusky Bays being the largest. 

We have, in tracing the record of the earlier counties, given the educational inter- 
ests as exemplified by different institutions. We have also given the canal system 
of the State, in previous pages. The Governor is elected every two years, by 
the people. The Senators are chosen biennially, and are apportioned according 
to the male population over twenty-one years of age. The Judges of the 
Supreme and other courts are elected by the joint ballot of the Legislature, for 
the term of seven years. 

During the early settlement of Ohio, perfect social equality existed among the 
settlers. The line of demarkation that was drawn was a separation of the good 
from the bad. Log-rollings and cabin-raisings were mutual affairs. Their 
sport usually consisted of shooting, rowing and hunting. Hunting shirts and 
buckskin pants were in the fashion, while the women dressed in coarse material, 


woven by their own hands. A common American cotton check was con- 
sidered a magnificent addition to one's toilet. In those times, however, the 
material was $1 per yard, instead of the shilling of to-day. But five yards 
was then a large "pattern," instead of the twenty-five of 1880. In cooking 
utensils, the pot, pan and frying-pan constituted an elegant outfit. A few plain 
dishes were added for table use. Stools and benches were the rule, although a 
few wealthy families indulged in splint-bottom chairs. The cabin floors were 
rough, and in many cases the green sward formed the carpet. Goods were very 
expensive, and flour was considered a great luxury. Goods were brought by 
horses and mules from Detroit, or by wagon from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, 
and then down the Ohio. Coarse calicoes were $1 per yard ; tea $2 to $3 per 
pound ; coffee 75 cents ; whisky, from $1 to $2 per gallon, and salt, $5 to $6 
per barrel. In those towns where Indian trade constituted a desirable interest, 
a bottle was set at each end of the counter — a gratuitous offering to their red 


Should we group the rocks of Ohio, according to their lithological characters, 
we should give five distinct divisions. They are marked by difference in appear- 
ance, hardness, color and composition : 

1 — Limestone. 

2 — Black shale. 

3 — Fine-grained sandstone. 

4 — Conglomerate. 

5 — Coal series. 

They are all stratified and sedimentary. They are nearly horizontal. The 
lowest one visible, in a physical as well as a geological sense, is " blue lime- 

The bed of the Ohio River near Cincinnati is 133 feet below the level of 
Lake Erie. The strata incline in all directions from the southwestern angle of 
the State. In Scioto County may be seen the outcropping edges of all these 
rocks. They sink at this point in the direction south 80 J° east ; easterly at the 
rate of 37^ feet per mile. The cliff limestone, the upper stratum of the lime- 
stone deposit, is 600 feet above the river at Cincinnati ; at West Union, in 
Adams County, it is only 350 feet above the same level. 

The finely grained sandstone found on the summit of the hills east of Brush 
Creek and west of the Scioto sinks to the base of the hills, and appears beneath 
the conglomerate, near the Little Scioto. Although the rock formations are the 
same in all parts of the State, in the same order, their thickness, mass and dip, 
are quite different. 

Chillicothe, Reynoldsburg, Mansfield, Newburg, Waverly and Rockville, are 
situated near the western border of the " fine-grained limestone." Its outcrop 
forms a continuous and crooked line from the Ohio River to Lake Erie. In the 
southwest portion of the State is the "blue limestone," occupying a circular 


space from West Union via Dayton, to the State line. The conglomerate is to 
the east of the given towns, bending around from Cuyahoga Falls to Burton, in 
Geauga County, and then eastward into Pennsylvania. Near this outcrop are 
the coal-bearing rocks which occupy the east and southeastern portions of Ohio. 
From Rockville to Chillicothe, the course is north, about 10° east, and nearly 
corresponds with the line of outcrop of the fine-grained sandstone for an equal 
distance. The dip at Rockville, given by Charles Whittlesey, is 80J°, almost 
at a right angle, and at the rate of 37 feet per mile. 

At Chillicothe, the other end of the line, the general dip is south 70° east, 
30 feet to the mile, the line curving eastward and the dip line to the southward. 
This is the universal law. 

The northern boundary of the great coal fields passes through Meadville, in 
Pennsylvania, and turning south arrives at Portage Summit, on the summit of 
the Alleghanies, 2,500 feet above the ocean level. It then plunges rapidly to 
the westward. From the Alleghanies to the southwest, through Pennsylvania, 
Virginia and Tennessee, sweeps this great coal basin. 

Much of the county of Medina is conglomerate upon the surface, but the 
streams, especially the South Branch of the Rocky River, set through this sur- 
face stratum, and reach the fine-grained sandstone. This is the case with 
Rocky, Chagrin, Cuyahoga and Grand Rivers — also Conneaut and Ashtabula 
Creeks. This sandstone and the shale extend up the narrow valleys of these 
streams and their tributaries. Between these strata is a mass of coarse-grained 
sandstone, without pebbles, which furnishes the grindstones for which Ohio is 
noted. In Lorain County, the coarse sandstone grit nearly displaces the fine- 
grained sandstone and red shale, thickening at Elyria to the black shale. South 
of this point, the grindstone grit, red shale and ash-colored shale vary in thick- 
ness. The town of Chillicothe, the village of Newburg, and a point in the west 
line of Crawford County, are all situated on the "black shale." 

Dr. Locke gives the dip, at Montgomery and Miami Counties, at north 14°, 
east, six feet to the mile; at Columbus, Whitelesey gives it, 81° 52' east, 221^ 
feet to the mile. The fine-grained sandstone at Newburg is not over eighty 
feet in thickness ; at Jacktown and Reynoldsburg, 500 ; at Waverly 250 to 
300 feet, and at Brush Creek, Adams County, 343 feet. The black shale is 
251 feet thick at Brush Creek ; at Alum Creek, 250 to 300 feet thick ; in Craw- 
ford County, about 250 feet thick. The conglomerate in Jackson County is 
200 feet thick ; at Cuyahoga Falls, 100 to 120 feet ; at Burton, Geauga County, 
300 feet. The great limestone formation is divided into several numbers. At 
Cincinnati, at the bed of the river, there is : 

1 — A blue limestone and slaty marlite. 

2 — Dun-colored marl and layers of lime rock. 

3 — Blue marl and layers of blue limestone. 

4 — Marl and bands of limestone, with immense numbers of shells at the 


In Adams County, the detailed section is thus : 

1 — Blue limestone and marl. 

2 — Blue marl. 

3 — Flinty limestone. 

4 — Blue marl. 

5 — Cliff limestone. 

The coal-fields of Ohio are composed of alternate beds of coarse-grained 
sandstone, clay shales, layers of ironstone, thin beds of limestone and numer- 
ous strata of coal. The coal region abounds in iron. From Jacktown to Con- 
cord, in Muskingum County, there are eight beds of coal, and seven strata of 
limestone. The distance between these two points is forty-two miles. From 
Freedom, in Portage County, to Poland, in Trumbull County, a distance of 
thirty-five miles, there are five distinct strata. Among them are distributed 
thin beds of limestone, and many beds of iron ore. The greater mass of coal 
and iron measures is composed of sandstone and shale. The beds of sandstone 
are from ten to twenty or eighty feet thick. Of shale, five to fifty feet thick. 
The strata of coal and iron are comparatively thin. A stratum of coal three 
feet thick can be worked to advantage. One four feet thick is called a good 
mine, few of them averaging five. Coal strata are found from six to ten and 
eleven feet. There are four beds of coal, and three of limestone, in Lawrence 
and Scioto Counties. There are also eight beds of ore, and new ones are con- 
stantly being discovered. The ore is from four to twelve inches thick, occasion- 
ally being two feet. The calcareous ore rests upon the second bed of limestone, 
from the bottom, and is very rich. 

The most prominent fossils are trees, plants and stems of the coal-bearing 
rocks, shells and corals and crustacere of the limestone, and the timber, leaves 
and dirt-beds of the "drift" — the earthy covering of the rocks, which varies 
from nothing to 200 feet. Bowlders, or " lost rocks," are strewn over the State. 
They are evidently transported from some remote section, being fragments of 
primitive rock, granite, gneiss and hornblende rock, which do not exist in 
Ohio, nor within 400 miles of the State, in any direction. In the Lake Supe- 
rior region we find similar specimens. 

The superficial deposits of Ohio are arranged into four geological formations : 

1 — The ancient drift, resting upon the rocks of the State. 

2 — The Lake Erie marl and sand deposits. 

3 — The drift occupying the valleys of large streams, such as the Great Miami, 
the Ohio and Scioto. 

4 — The bowlders. 

The ancient drift of Ohio is meager in shell deposits. It is not, therefore, 
decided whether it be of salt-water origin or fresh water. 

It has, at the bottom, blue clay, with gravel-stones of primitive or sedimen- 
tary rocks, containing carbonate of lime. The yellow clay is found second. 
Above that, sand and gravel, less stratified, containing more pebbles of the 


sedimentary rocks, such as limestone and stone, iron ore, coal and shale. The 
lower layer contains logs, trees, leaves, sticks and vines. 

The Lake Erie section, or "Lake Erie deposits," may be classed in the 
following order : 

1 — From the lake level upward, fine, blue, marly sand — forty-five to sixty 

2 — Coarse, gray, water-washed sand — ten to twenty feet. 

3 — Coarse sand and gravel, not well stratified, to surface — twenty to fifty feet. 

Stratum first dissolves in water. It contains carbonate of lime, magnesia, 
iron, alumina, silex, sulphur, and some decomposed leaves, plants and sticks. 
Some pebbles are found. In contact with the water, quicksand is formed. 

The Hickory Plains, at the forks of the Great Miami and White Water, and 
also between Kilgore's Mill and New Richmond, are the results of heavy dilu- 
vial currents. 

In presenting these formations of the State, we have quoted from the experi- 
ence and conclusions of Charles Whittlesey, eminent as a geologist, and who 
was a member of the Ohio Geological Corps. 

Ohio's rank during the war. 

The patriotism of this State has been stanch, unswerving and bold, ever 
since a first settlement laid its corner-stone in the great Western wilder- 
ness. Its decisive measures, its earnest action, its noble constancy, have earned 
the laurels that designate it "a watchword for the nation." In the year 1860, 
Ohio had a population of 2,343,739. Its contribution of soldiers to the great 
conflict that was soon to surge over the land in scarlet terror, was apportioned 
310,000 men. In less than twenty-four hours after the President's proclama- 
tion and call for troops, the Senate had matured and carried a bill through, 
appropriating $1,000,000 for the purpose of placing the State on a war footing. 
The influences of party sentiments were forgotten, and united, the State 
unfurled the flag of patriotism. Before the bombardment of old Fort Sumter 
has fairly ceased its echoes, twenty companies were offered the Governor for 
immediate service. When the surrender was verified, the excitement was 
tumultuous. Militia officers telegraphed their willingness to receive prompt 
orders, all over the State. The President of Kenyon College — President 
Andrews — tendered his services by enlisting in the ranks. Indeed, three 
months before the outbreak of the war, he had expressed his readiness to the 
Governor to engage in service should there be occasion. He was the first citi- 
zen to make this offer. 

The Cleveland Grays, the Rover Guards, the State Fencibles, the Dayton 
Light Guards, the Governor's Guards, the Columbus Videttes and the Guthrie 
Grays — the best drilled and celebrated militia in the State — telegraphed to 
Columbus for orders. Chillicothe, Portsmouth and Circleville offered money 
and troops. Canton, Xenia, Lebanon, Lancaster, Springfield, Cincinnati, 


Dayton, Cleveland, Toledo and other towns urged their assistance upon the State. 
Columbus began to look like a great army field. The troops were stationed 
wherever they could find quarters, and food in sufficient quantities was hard to 
procure. The Governor soon established a camp at Miamiville, convenient to 
Cincinnati. He intended to appoint Irvin McDowell, of the staff of Lieut. 
Gen. Scott, to the leading command, but the friends of Capt. McClellan became 
enthusiastic and appealed to the Governor, who decided to investigate his case. 
Being satisfied, he desired Capt. McClellan to come up to Columbus. But that 
officer was busy and sent Capt. Pope, of the regular army, in his stead. This 
gentleman did not suit Gov. Dennison. The friends of McClellan again set 
forth the high qualities of this officer, and Gov. Dennison sent an earnest 
request for an interview, which was granted, and resulted in the appointment 
of the officer as Major General of the Ohio militia. Directly thereafter, he 
received an invitation to take command of the Pennsylvania troops, but Ohio 
could not spare so valuable a leader. 

For three-years troops were soon called out, and their Generals were to be 
appointed by the President. Gov. Dennison advised at once with the War 
Department at Washington, and McClellan received his appointment as Major 
General in the regular army. 

Cincinnati and Louisville became alarmed lest Kentucky should espouse the 
Confederate cause, and those cities thus be left insecure against the inroads of a 
cruel foe. Four hundred and thirty-six miles of Ohio bordered Slave States. 
Kentucky and West Virginia were to be kept in check, but the Governor pro- 
claimed that not only should the border of Ohio be protected, but even beyond 
that would the State press the enemy. Marietta was garrisoned, and other river 
points rendered impregnable. On the 20th of May, 1861, official dispatches 
affirmed that troops were approaching Wheeling under the proclamation of 
Letcher. Their intention was to route the convention at Wheeling. 

Military orders were instantly given. Col. Steedman and his troops crossed 
at Marietta and crushed the disturbance at Parkersburg — swept into the country 
along the railroad, built bridges, etc. Col. Irvine crossed at Wheeling and 
united with a regiment of loyal Virginians. At the juncture of the two tracks 
at Grafton, the columns met, but the rebels had retreated in mad haste. The 
loyal troops followed, and, at Philippi, fought the first little skirmish of the war. 
The great railway lines were secured, and the Wheeling convention protected, 
and West Virginia partially secured for the Union. 

After preliminary arrangements, McClellan's forces moved in two columns 
upon the enemy at Laurel Hill. One remained in front, under Gen. Morris, 
while the other, under his own command, pushed around to Huttonsville, in 
their rear. Gen. Morris carried his orders through promptly, but McClellan 
was late. Rosecrans was left with McClellan's advance to fight the battle of 
Rich Mountain, unaided. Garnett being alarmed at the defeat of his outpost, 
retreated. McClellan was not in time to intercept him, but Morris continued 


the chase. Steedman overtook the rear-guard of Garnett's army at Carrick's 
Ford, Avhere a sharp skirmish ensued, Garnett himself falling. The scattered 
portions of the rebel army escaped, and West Virginia was again free from 
armed rebels — and was the gift of Ohio through her State militia to the nation 
at the beginning of the war. 

At this period, Gen. McClellan was called to Washington. Gen. Rose- 
crans succeeded him, and the three-years troops left in the field after the dis- 
banding of the three-months men, barely sufficed to hold the country. He 
telegraphed Gov. Dennison to supply him immediately with re-enforcements, the 
request being made on the 8th of August. Already had the Confederate lead- 
ers realized the loss they had sustained in Western Virginia, and had dispatched 
their most valued General, Robert E. Lee, to regain the territory. Rosecrans 
again wrote: "If you, Governor of Indiana and Governor of Michigan, will 
lend your efforts to get me quickly 50,000 men, in addition to my present 
force, I think a blow can be struck which will save fighting the rifled-cannon 
batteries at Manassas. Lee is certainly at Cheat Mountain. Send all troops 
you can to Grafton." Five days thereafter, all the available troops in the 
West were dispatched to Fremont, Mo., and the plans of Rosecrans were 

Heavy re-enforcements had been sent to the column in Kanawha Valley 
under Gen. Cox. . He became alarmed, and telegraphed to Gov. Dennison. 
Rosecrans again appealed to Gov. Dennison, that he might be aided in march- 
ing across the country against Floyd and Wise to Cox's relief, "I want to 
catch Floyd while Cox holds him in front." 

The response was immediate and effective. He was enabled to employ 
twenty-three Ohio regiments in clearing his department from rebels, securing 
the country and guarding the exposed railroads. With this achievement, the 
direct relation of the State administrations with the conduct and methods of 
campaigns terminated. The General Government had settled down to a sys- 
tem. Ohio was busy organizing and equipping regiments, caring for the sick 
and wounded, and sustaining her home strength. 

Gov. Detmison's staff officers were tendered better positions in the national 
service. Camps Dennison and Chase, one at Cincinnati and the other at 
Columbus, were controlled by the United States authorities. A laboratory was 
established at Columbus for the supply of ammunition. During the fall and 
early winter, the Ohio troops suffered in Western Virginia. The people of 
their native State responded with blankets, clothing and other supplies. 

In January, 1862, David A. Tod entered upon the duties of Governor. 
The first feature of his administration was to care for the wounded at home, 
sent from Pittsburg Landing. A regular system was inaugurated to supply 
simes and clothing to the suffering at home and in the field. Agencies were 
established, and the great and good work was found to be most efficacious in 
alleviating the wretchedness consequent upon fearful battles. A. B. Lyman 


had charge of affairs in Cincinnati, and Royal Taylor held the same position 
in Louisville. J. C. Wetmore was stationed at Washington, F. W. Bingham 
at Memphis, Weston Flint at Cairo and St. Louis. Thus the care which Ohio 
extended over her troops at home and in the battle-field, furnished a practical 
example to other States, and was the foundation of that commendable system 
all over the Union. Stonewall Jackson's sudden advent in the valley created 
the greatest consternation lest the safety of the capital be jeopardized, and the 
War Department called for more troops. Gov. Tod immediately issued a 
proclamation, and the people, never shrinking, responded heartily. At Cleve- 
land a large meeting was held, and 250 men enlisted, including 27 out of 32 
students attending the law school. Fire bells rang out the alarm at Zanesville, 
a meeting was convened at 10 in the morning, and by 3 in the afternoon, 300 
men had enlisted. Court was adjourned sine die, and the Judge announced 
that he and the lawyers were about to enter into military ranks. Only three 
unmarried men between the ages of eighteen and twenty-three were left in the 
town of Putnam. Five thousand volunteers reported at Camp Chase within 
two days after the proclamation. 

Again in June, the President called for troops, followed by yet another call. 
Under these calls, Ohio was to raise 74,000 men. The draft system was 
advised to hasten and facilitate filling regiments. It has always been a repul- 
sive measure. To save sections from this proceeding, enormous sums were 
offered to induce men to volunteer, and thus fill the quota. 

Counties, townships, towns and individuals, all made bids and urged the 
rapid enlistment of troops. The result was, that the regiments were filled rap- 
idly, but not in sufficient numbers to prevent the draft. Twenty thousand four 
hundred and twenty-seven men were yet lacking, and the draft was ordered, 
September 15. At the close of the year, Ohio was ahead of her calls. Late 
in the fall, the prospect was disheartening. The peninsula campaign had failed. 
The Army of Northern Virginia had been hurled back nearly to Washington. 
The rebels had invaded Maryland ; Cincinnati and Louisville were threatened, 
and the President had declared his intention to abolish slavery, as a war meas- 
ure. During the first part of 1862, artillery, stores and supplies were carried 
away mysteriously, from the Ohio border ; then little squads ventured over the 
river to plunder more openly, or to burn a bridge or two. The rebel bands 
came swooping down upon isolated supply trains, sending insolent roundabout 
messages regarding their next day's intentions. Then came invasions of our 
lines near Nashville, capture of squads of guards within sight of camp, the seizure 
of Gallatin. After Mitchell had entered Northern Alabama, all manner of depre- 
dations were committed before his very eyes. These were attributed to John 
Morgan's Kentucky cavalry. He and his men, by the middle of 1862, were 
as active and dangerous as Lee or Beauregard and their troops. Morgan was a 
native of Alabama, but had lived in Kentucky since boyhood. His father was 
large slave-owner, who lived in the center of the "Blue Grass Country." His 


life had been one of wild dissipation, adventure and recklessness, although in 
his own family he had the name of being most considerate. The men who fol- 
lowed him were accustomed to a dare-devil life. They formed and independent 
band, and dashed madly into the conflict, wherever and whenever inclination 
prompted. Ohio had just raised troops to send East, to assist in the overthrow 
of Stonewell Jackson. She .had overcome her discouragements over failures, 
for the prospects were brightening. Beauregard had evacuated Corinth ; Mem- 
phis had fallen ; Buell was moving toward Chattanooga ; Mitchell's troops held 
Northern Tennessee and Northern Alabama ; Kentucky was virtually in the 
keeping of the home guards and State military board. And now, here was 
Morgan, creating confusion in Kentucky by his furious raids ! On the 11th of 
July, the little post of Tompkinsville fell. He issued a call for the Kentuckians 
to rise in a body. He marched toward Lexington, and the southern border of 
Ohio was again in danger. Cincinnati was greatly excited. Aid was sent to 
Lexington and home guards were ready for duty. Morgan was not prominent 
for a day or so, but he was not idle. By the 9th of July, he held possession of 
Tompkinsville and Glasgow ; by the 11th, of Lebanon. On the 13th, he 
entered Harraldsburg ; Monday morning he was within fifteen miles of Frank- 
fort. He had marched nearly 400 miles in eight days. Going on, toward 
Lexington, he captured the telegraph operator at Midway, and his messages 
also ! He was now aware of the plans of the Union armies at Lexington, 
Louisville, Cincinnati and Frankfort. In the name of the operator, he sent 
word that Morgan was driving in the pickets at Frankfort ! Now that he 
had thrown his foes off guard, he rested his men a couple of days. He 
decided to let Lexington alone, and swept down on Cynthiana, routing a few 
hundred loyal Kentucky cavalrymen, capturing the gun and 420 prisoners, and 
nearly 300 horses. Then he was off to Paris ; he marched through Winchester, 
Richmond, Crab Orchard and Somerset, and again crossed the Cumberland River. 
He started with 900 men and returned with 1,200, having captured and paroled 
nearly as many, besides destroying all the Government arms and stores in seven- 
teen towns. The excitement continued in Cincinnati. Two regiments were 
hastily formed, for emergencies,- known as Cincinnati Reserves. Morgan's raid 
did not reach the city, but it demonstrated to the rebel forces what might be 
accomplished in the " Blue Grass " region. July and August were passed in 
gloom. Bragg and Buell were both watchful, and Chattanooga had not been 
taken. Lexington was again menaced, a battle fought, and was finally deserted 
because it could not be held. 

Louisville was now in danger. The banks sent their specie away. Railroad 
companies added new guards. 

September 1, Gen. Kirby Smith entered Lexington, and dispatched Heath 
with about six thousand men against Cincinnati and Covington. John Morgan 
joined him. The rebels rushed upon the borders of Ohio. The failure at Rich- 
mond only idded deeper apprehension. Soon Kirby Smith and his regiments 




2/W iyfuy/fi^f^-mi 


occupied a position where only a few unmanned siege guns and the Ohio 
prevented his entrance through Covington into the Queen City. The city was 
fully armed, and Lew. Wallace's arrival to take command inspired all with 
fresh courage. And before the people were hardly aware that danger was so 
near, the city was proclaimed under strict martial law. " Citizens for labor, 
soldiers for battle." 

There was no panic, because the leaders were confident. Back of Newport 
and Covington breastworks, riflepits and redoubts had been hastily thrown up, 
and pickets were thrown out. From Cincinnati to Covington extended a pon- 
ton bridge. Volunteers marched into the city and those already in service 
were sent to the rescue. Strict military law was now modified, and the city 
being secured, some inconsiderate ones expressed themselves as being outraged 
with " much ado about nothing." But Gen. Wallace did not cease his vigilance. 
And Smith's force began to move up. One or two skirmishes ensued. The 
city was again excited. September 11 was one of intense suspense. But 
Smith did not attack in force. He was ordered to join Bragg. On the Mon- 
day following, the citizens of Cincinnati returned to their avocations. In the 
spring of 1863, the State was a trifle discouraged. Her burdens had been 
heavy, and she was weary. Vicksburg was yet in the hands of the enemy. 
Rosecrans had not moved since his victory at Stone River. There had been 
fearful slaughter about Fredericksburg. 

But during July, 1863, Ohio was aroused again by Bragg's command to 
Morgan, to raid Kentucky and capture Louisville. On the 3d of July, he was 
in a position to invade Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky. He continued his depre- 
dations, bewildering the militia with his movements. His avowed intention 
was to burn Indianapolis and " take Cincinnati alive." Morgan's purposes 
were never clear. It was his audacious and sudden dashes, here and there, 
which gave him success. Before Cincinnati was aware, he was at Harrison — 
13th of July. He expected to meet the forces of Burnside and Judah, and to 
cut his way through. His plans here, as everywhere, were indefinable, and he 
succeeded in deceiving everybody. While printers in Cincinnati were settinor 
up " reports " as to his whereabouts, he was actually marching through the sub- 
urbs, near troops enough to devour them, and yet not encountered by a single 
picket ! They fed their horses within sight of Camp Dennison. At 4 
o'clock that day, they were within twenty-eight miles of Cincinnati — having 
marched more than ninety miles in thirty-five hours. 

The greatest chagrin was expressed, that Morgan had so easily eluded the 
great military forces. A sudden dash was made to follow him. There was a 
universal bolting of doors, burying of valuables, hiding of horses, etc., all along 
the route of the mad cavalryman and his 2,000 mounted men. They plundered 
beyond all comparison. They made a principle of it. On the 14th of July, 
he was feeding his horses near Dennison ; he reached the ford at Buffington 
Island on the evening of the 18th ; he had encountered several little skirmishes, 


but he had marched through at his own will, mostly ; all the troops of Kentucky 
had been outwitted. The Indiana forces had been laughed to scorn. The 
50,000 Ohio militia had been as straws in his way. The intrepid band would 
soon be upon friendly soil, leaving a blackened trail behind. But Judah was 
up and marching after him, Hobson followed and Col. Runkle was north of 
him. The local militia in his advance began to impede the way. Near Pome- 
roy, a stand was made. Morgan found militia posted everywhere, but he suc- 
ceeded in running the gantlet, so far as to reach Chester. He should have 
hastened to cross the ford. Fortunately, he paused to breathe his horses and 
secure a guide. The hour and a half thus lost was the first mistake Morgan is 
known to have made in his military career. They reached Portland, and only 
a little earthwork, guarded by about 300 men, stood between him and safety. 
His men were exhausted, and he feared to lead them to a night attack upon a 
position not understood perfectly ; he would not abandon his wagon train, nor 
his wounded ; he would save or lose all. As Morgan was preparing next 
morning, having found the earthworks deserted through the night, Judah came 
up. He repulsed the attack at first, capturing Judah's Adjutant General, and 
ordering him to hold the force on his front in check. He was not able to join 
his own company, until it was in full retreat. Here Lieut. O'Neil, of the Fifth 
Indiana, made an impulsive charge, the lines were reformed, and up the Chester 
road were Hobson's gallant cavalrymen, who had been galloping over three 
States to capture this very Morgan ! And now the tin-clad gunboats steamed 
up and opened fire. The route was complete, but Morgan escaped with 1,200 
men ! Seven hundred men were taken prisoners, among them Morgan's brother, 
Cols. Ward, Duke and Huffman. The prisoners were brought to Cincinnati, 
while the troops went after the fugitive. He was surrounded by dangers ; his 
men were exhausted, hunted down ; skirmishes and thrilling escapes marked a 
series of methods to escape — his wonderful sagacity absolutely brilliant to the 
very last — which was his capture, on the 26th, with 346 prisoners and 
400 horses and arms. It may be added, that after several months of con- 
finement, Morgan and six prisoners escaped, on the 27th of November. Again 
was he free to raid in the " Blue Grass " country. 

John Brough succeeded Gov. Tod January 11, 1864. His first prominent 
work was with the Sanitary Commission. In February, of the same year, the 
President called for more troops. The quota of Ohio was 51,465 men. The 
call of March added 20,995. And in July was a third demand for 50,792. In 
December, the State was ordered to raise 26,027. The critical period of the 
war was evidently approaching. Gov. Brough instituted a reformation in the 
"promotion system " of the Ohio troops. He was, in many cases, severe in his 
measures. He ignored " local great men " and refused distinction as a bribe. 
The consequence was that he had many friends and some enemies. The acute- 
ness of his policy was so strong, and his policy so just, that, after all his severe 
administration, he was second to no statesman in the nation during the struggle. 


Ohio during the war was most active in her relief and aid societies. The most 
noted and extensive organization was the Cincinnati Branch of the United 
States Sanitary Commission. The most efficient organization was the Soldiers' 
Aid Society of Northern Ohio. 

When the happy tidings swept over the land that peace was proclaimed, an 
echo of thanksgiving followed the proclamation. The brave sons of Ohio 
returned to their own soil — those who escaped the carnage. But 'mid the 
rejoicing there was deepest sadness, for a fragment only remained of that brave 
army which had set out sturdily inspired with patriotism. 


George Briton McClellan, the first General appointed in Ohio, was born 
December 3, 1826, in Philadelphia. His father was a physician of high stand- 
ing and Scottish descent. Young George was in school in Philadelphia, and 
entered West Point at the age of sixteen. At the age of twenty, he was a bre- 
vet Second Lieutenant, tracing lines of investment before Vera Cruz, under the 
supervision of Capt. R. E. Lee, First Lieut. P. G. T. Beauregard, Second Lieut. 
G. W. Smith. At the close of the Mexican war, old Col. Totten reported in 
favor of them all to Winfield Scott. He had charge of an exploring expedition 
to the mountains of Oregon and Washington, beginning with the Cascade Range. 
This was one of a series of Pacific Railway explorations. Returning to Wash- 
ington, he was detailed to visit the West Indies and secretly select a coaling sta- 
tion for the LTnited States Navy. He was dispatched by Jefferson Davis, 
Secretary of War, to Europe, with instructions to take full reports of the organ- 
ization of military forces connected with the Crimean war. This work elicited 
entire satisfaction. He returned in January, 1857, resigned as regular army 
officer, and was soon installed as engineer of Illinois Central Railroad. In 1860, 
he was President of the Ohio & Mississippi. He removed to Cincinnati, where 
he was at the opening of the war. 

William Starke Rosecrans was born September 6, 1819, in Delaware County, 
Ohio. His people were from Amsterdam. He was educated at West Point. 
When the war opened, he espoused the cause of the Union with enthusiastic 
zeal, and was appointed by McClellan on his staff as Engineer. June 9, he 
was Chief Engineer of the State under special law. Soon thereafter, he was 
Colonel of the Twenty-third Ohio, and assigned to the command of Camp 
Chase, Columbus. On May 16, his commission was out as Brigadier General 
in the United States Army. This reached him and he was speedily sum- 
moned to active service, under Gen. McClellan. After the battle of Rich Moun- 
tain, he was promoted to the head of the department. 

In April, 1862, he was succeeded by Fremont, and ordered to Wash- 
ington to engage in immediate service for the Secretary of War. About the 
15th of May, he was ordered to Gen. Halleck, before Corinth. He was 
relieved from his command December 9, 1864. 


Ulysses S. Grant, whose history we cannot attempt to give in these pages, 
was born on the banks of the Ohio, at Point Pleasant, Clermont Co., Ohio, 
April 27, 1822. He entered West Point in 1839. 

" That the son of a tanner, poor and unpretending, without influential friends 
until his performance had won them, ill-used to the world and its ways, should 
rise — not suddenly, in the first blind worship of helpless ignorance which made 
any one who understood regimental tactics illustrious in advance for what he 
was going to do, not at all for what he had done — but slowly, grade by grade, 
through all the vicissitudes of constant service and mingled blunders and suc- 
cess, till, at the end of four years' war he stood at the head of our armies, 
crowned by popular acclaim our greatest soldier, is a satisfactory answer to 
criticism and a sufficient vindication of greatness. Success succeeds." 

" We may reason on the man's career ; we may prove that at few stages has 
he shown personal evidence of marked ability ; we may demonstrate his mis- 
takes ; we may swell the praises of his subordinates. But after all, the career 
stands wonderful, unique, worthy of study so long as the nation honors her 
benefactors, or the State cherishes the good fame of the sons who contributed 
most to her honor." 

Lieut. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman was another Ohio contribution to 
the great Union war. He was born at Lancaster February 8, 1820. He 
entered West Point in June, 1836. His " march to the sea " has fully brought 
out the details of his life, since they were rendered interesting to all, and we 
refrain from repeating the well-known story. 

Philip H. Sheridan was born on the 6th of March, 1831, in Somerset, 
Perry Co., Ohio. He entered West Point in 1848. During the war, his 
career was brilliant. His presence meant victory. Troops fighting under his 
command were inspired. Gen. Rosecrans said of him, "He fights, he fights." 
A staff officer once said, "He is an emphatic human syllable." 

Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson was born in Sandusky County, town of 
Clyde, November 14, 1828. 

Maj. Gen. Q. A. Gillmore was born February 28, 1825, at Black River, 
Lorain Co., Ohio. 

Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell was born at Franklinton, Ohio, October 15, 

Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell was born near Marietta on the 23d of March, 
1818. His grandfather on the maternal side was one of the first settlers of 

Maj. Gen. 0. M. Mitchell was a native of Kentucky, but a resident of 
Ohio from the age of four years. 

Maj. Gen. Robert C. Schenck was born October 4, 1809, in Franklin, 
Warren Co., Ohio. 

Maj. Gen. James A. Garfield, was born in Orange, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 
November 19, 1831. 


Maj. Gen. Jacob D. Cox was born in Canada in 1828, and removed to 
Ohio in 1846. 

Maj. Gen. James B. Steedman was born in Pennsylvania July 30, 1818, 
and removed to Toledo in 1861. 

Maj. Gen. David S. Stanley was born in Wayne County, Ohio, June 1, 

Maj. Gen. George Crook was born in Montgomery County, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 8, 1828. 

Maj. Gen. Mortimer D. Leggett was born in New York April 19, 1831, 
and emigrated to Ohio, in 1847. 

Brevet Maj. Gen. John C. Tidball was born in Virginia, but removed while 
a mere lad to Ohio with his parents. 

Brevet Maj. Gen. John W. Fuller was born in England in 1827. He 
removed to Toledo in 1858. 

Brevet Maj. Gen. Manning F. Force was born in Washington, D. C, on 
the 17th of December, 1824. He became a citizen of Cincinnati. 

Brevet Maj. Gen. Henry B. Banning was born in Knox County, Ohio, 
November 10, 1834. 

We add the names of Brevet Maj. Gens. Erastus B. Tyler, Thomas H. 
Ewing, Charles R. Woods, August V. Kautz, Rutherford B. Hayes, Charles 
C. Walcutt, Kenner Garrard, Hugh Ewing, Samuel Beatty, James S. Robinson, 
Joseph W. Keifer, Eli Long, William B. Woods, John W. Sprague, Benjamin 
P. Runkle, August Willich, Charles Griffin, Henry J. Hunt, B. W. Brice. 

Brig. Gens. Robert L. McCook, William H. Lytle, William Leroy 
Smith, C. P. Buckingham, Ferdinand Van Derveer, George P. Este, Joel A. 
Dewey, Benjamin F. Potts, Jacob Ammen, Daniel McCook, J. W. Forsyth, 
Ralph P. Buckland, William H. Powell, John G. Mitchell, Eliakim P. Scam- 
mon, Charles G Harker, J. W. Reilly, Joshua W. Sill, N. C. McLean, Will- 
iam T. H. Brooks, George W. Morgan, John Beatty, William W. Burns, John 
S. Mason, S. S. Carroll, Henry B. Carrington, M. S. Wade, John P. Slough, 
T. K. Smith. 

Brevet Brig. Gens. C. B. Ludlow, Andrew Hickenlooper, B. D. 
Fearing, Henry F. Devol, Israel Garrard, Daniel McCoy, W. P. Richardson, 
G. F. Wiles, Thomas M. Vincent, J. S. Jones, Stephen B. Yeoman, F. W. 
Moore, Thomas F. Wilder, Isaac Sherwood, C. H. Grosvenor, Moses E. 
Walker, R. N. Adams, E. B. Eggleston, I. M. Kirby. 

We find numerous other names of Brevet Brigadier Generals, mostly of late 
appointments, and not exercising commands in accordance with their brevet 
rank, which we omit quoting through lack of space. They are the names of 
men of rare abilities, and in many cases of brilliant achievements. 

In looking over the "War Record of Ohio," we find the State a great 
leader in men of valor and heroic deeds. It was the prolific field of military 


Ohio was draped with the garb of mourning at the close of the war. Her 
human sacrifice in behalf of the nation had been bitter. There were tears and 
heart-aches all over the land. Her ranks were swept by a murderous fire, from 
which they never flinched, and many officers fell. 

Col. John II. Patrick will be remembered as opening the battle of Lookout 
Mountain. He fell mortally Avounded, during the Atlanta campaign, May 
15, 1862, while actively engaged. He was struck by a canister shot, and 
expired half a hour thereafter. 

Col. John T. Toland, in July, 1863, was placed in command of a mounted 
brigade, including his regiment, and was instructed to destroy the Virginia & 
Tennessee Railroad. He reached Wytheville, Va., on the afternoon of the 
18th of July. The rebels were safely intrenched in the house, and poured a 
galling fire into the national troops. Col. Toland was on horseback, at the 
head of his command. A sharpshooter sent a bullet with fatal certainty, and 
he fell on the neck of his horse, but was instantly caught by his Orderly 
Sergeant, who heard the fervent words : " My horse and my sword to my 

Lieut. Col. Barton S. Kyle accompanied his regiment to the battle of Pitts- 
burg Landing. The regiment was forced back, though resisting bravely. 
Lieut. Col. Kyle was at his post of duty, encouraging his men, when he received 
a bullet in his right breast. He survived five hours. 

Col. William G. Jones was engaged in the battle of Chickamauga, June, 
1863. His regiment, the Thirty-sixth Ohio, was included in Turchin's Brigade 
of the Fourteenth Corps. He wrote in his pocket memoranda : " Off to the 
left ; merciful Father, have mercy on me and my regiment, and protect us from 
injury and death " — at 12 o'clock. At 5 that afternoon, he was fatally wounded 
and expired at 7 that same evening, on the battle-field His remains were 
taken by the rebels, but in December, 1863, they were exhumed and interred 
in Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati. 

Col. Fred. C. Jones held command of the Tenth Brigade, in October, 1862, 
marching from Wild Cat, Ky., to Nashville, through a perpetual skirmish, 
During the battle of Stone River, Col. Jones' regiment, the Twenty-fourth, was 
on the front and left of the line. During the afternoon, when the rebel assault 
upon the left became furious, Col. Jones ordered his men to lie down and hold 
fire, which was obeyed. They rose to pour a deadly volley into the rebel ranks, 
and rush forward in a fierce charge. The capture of an entire rebel regiment was 
thus effected, but Col. Jones was shot in the right side. He was carried to the 
rear. " I know it ; I am dying now ; pay no attention to me, but look after 
my wounded men." He survived about ten hours. His remains are buried in 
Spring Grove, Cincinnati. 

Col. Lorin Andrews went with his command to Western Virginia, where 
he succumbed to exposure and severe duty. He was removed to his home, 
Gambier, Ohio, where he died surrounded by friends September 18, 1861. 


Col. Minor Milliken was sent to repel the attacks of the rebels at the rear. 
He led a superb cavalry charge against the enemy, vastly superior in numbers, 
and was cut off with a small portion of his regiment. He disdained to sur- 
render, and ordered his men to cut their way out. A hand-to-hand conflict 
ensued. Col. Milliken, being an expert swordsman, was able to protect himself 
with his saber. While parrying the strokes of his assailant, another shot him. 
The regiment, again charging, recovered his body, stripped of sword, purse and 

Col. George P. Webster, with his regiment, the Ninety-eighth, left Steu- 
benville for Covington, Ky., August 23, 1862, marching from that point to Lex- 
ington and Louisville. He was placed at the command of the Thirty-fourth 
Brigade, Jackson's division, Cooke's corps. He fell in the battle of Perryville, 
and died on the field of battle. 

Col. Leander Stem was appointed Colonel of the One Hundred and First 
Ohio Infantry August 30, 1862. His premonitions that he should fall during 
his first regular engagement proved too true. As the army was advancing on 
Murfreesboro, the engagement of Knob Gap occurred, when Col. Stem's regi- 
ment charged and took a rebel battery, with several prisoners. The army 
closed around Murfreesboro, and on the evening of the 30th, the One Hun- 
dred and First was engaged in demonstrations against the enemy. Next 
morning, the battle of Stone River began in earnest. When Col. Stem's regi- 
ment began to waver, he called out: " Stand by the flag now, for the good 
old State of Ohio ! " and instantly fell, fatally wounded. 

Lieut. Col. Jonas D. Elliott held his position in May, 1863. During the 
summer of 1864, he commanded the left wing of the regiment at Dodsonville, 
Ala.; in September, he was sent after Wheeler, and was ordered into camp at 
Decatur. On the 23d, he was dispatched to Athens, to participate in the attack 
of Gen. Forrest, of the rebels. Col. Elliott was sent out, with 300 men, and 
being surrounded by Gen. Forrest, with vastly superior numbers, a forced resist- 
ance enabled them to sustain their own ground, until a fresh brigade of rebels 
arrived, under Gen. Warren. This officer instructed one of his men to shoot 
Lieut. Col. Elliott, and a moment later he fell. He lingered nineteen days. 

Col. Joseph L. Kirby Smith took command of the Forty-third Ohio Regi- 
ment. He fell at the battle of Corinth, under Rosecrans. 

Lieut. Col. James W. Shane fell, June 27, 1864, in an assault upon the 
enemy's works at Kenesaw. He survived but forty minutes. 

Col. Augustus H. Coleman displayed the abilities of a successful commander. 
He was in the first charge on the bridge across Antietam Creek. He was 
fatally wounded. His last words were inquiries regarding his men. 

Col. J. W. Lowe commanded the Twelfth Ohio, and was ordered to assist 
the Tenth in the battle of Carnifex Ferry. Cheering his men, in the thickest 
of the fight, a rifle ball pierced his forehead, and he foil dead — the first field 
officer from Ohio killed in battle in the war for the Union. 


Lieut. Col. Moses F. Wooster was engaged with his regiment, the One Hun- 
dred and First Ohio, at Perryville. He was mortally wounded on the 31st 
of December, 1862, in the grand effort to stem the tide of defeat at Stone 

The list of staff officers we refrain from giving, through lack of space. 

At the opening of the war, William Dennison was Governor of Ohio. David 
Tod succeeded him. John Brough was the third War Governor. 

Secretary Edwin M. Stanton was one of the most popular war Ministers. 
He was born in Steubenville, Ohio, in 1815 ; he was engaged in the United 
States Circuit Court, in 1860, in a leading law suit, at Cincinnati, known as the 
Manny and McCormick reaper trial ; on the 20th of January, 1862, he was 
appointed Secretary of War by Mr. Lincoln. 

Ex-Secretary Salmon P. Chase's public services in Ohio have already been 
mentioned in these pages. In 1861, he was appointed Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, in Mr. Lincoln's cabinet. 

United States Senator B. F. Wade made his reputation in Ohio. This 
Senator of the State stood at the head of the Committee on the Conduct of the 
War throughout its duration. 

United States Senator John Sherman was a leading member of the Finance 
Committee, during the war. For some time he was its Chairman. 

Jay Cooke was the financial agent of the Government, furnishing money for 
the payment of the troops. He was born in Portland, Huron Co., Ohio. 

In our brief review of the war record of Ohio, we have omitted a vast 
amount of detail information that would prove interesting to our readers. We 
believe we have been accurate in whatever we have given, taking as our authority, 
that accepted "encyclopedia" of Ohio war facts — Whitelaw Reid, who has pub- 
lished a valuable volume on the subject. 


It may be well in glancing over the achievements of Ohio, her momentous 
labors and grand successes, to refer to the Ordinance of 1787, more minutely 
than we have done, in relation to many events, since its inherent principles are 
not only perpetuated in the laws of the entire Northwest, but have since been 
woven into the general Constitution of the United States. It made permanent 
the standard and character of immigration, social culture and political and edu- 
cational institutions. It was thoroughly antislavery and denounced involuntary 
servitude, which was sanctioned in every other State at that time, with the 
exception of Massachusetts. It protected religion and property. As late as 
1862, Gen. William Henry Harrison, Governor of Indiana, called a convention 
for the purpose of considering the slavery question, and the feasibility of intro- 
ducing the system in the new States and Territories being formed. There 
was at this time a spirited contest, and Illinois, Indiana and possibly Ohio, 
barely escaped a decision that a full support should be given its introduction 


into these States. Its adoption was based upon certain specifications and 
limits of time, which upon a deeper consideration was deemed perplexing and 

An animated discussion arose not long since, regarding the correct author, 
ship of this important ordinance, and its chief worker in gaining its sanction 
by Congress. 

Mr. Webster ascribed its authorship to Mathew Dane, of Massachusetts, 
which statement was immediately refuted by Mr. Benton, of Mississippi, who 
laid claim to it as the birthright of Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia. 

It has been almost impossible to obtain accurate reports of the actions of the 
old Continental Congress, from the fact that its meetings were held in secret, 
and any reports either narrated or shown in schedules or lists, were deemed a 
striking lack of trust on the part of the person who furnished the information. 
It was sufficient that its acts and conclusions be proclaimed without any prelude 
or reasoning process. Hence it has been difficult to obtain early Congressional 
documents. But it has been conclusively proven that the great motive power 
in gaining the approbation of the Ordinance of 1787, was neither Dane nor 
Jefferson, but Dr. Cutler. 

He arrived at New York, July 5 of that year, after a journey from Ipswich, 
Mass., in his sulky. He obtained lodgings at the "Plow and Harrow," and 
saw that his good horse was properly cared for and fed at the same place. 
Congress was then in session, and he had come on a mission for the Ohio Com- 
pany, to negotiate their grant and its privileges in the new Territory of Ohio. 
He remained in New York three weeks, constantly engaged in the work vital to 
the interests of the future great State. But he secured the installment of the 
principles deemed the corner-stone of a future powerful State constitution. Mr. 
Poole, Librarian of the Chicago Public Library, searched assiduously for con- 
clusive proof of Dr. Cutler's right to this honor, and in the North American 
Review, Vol. 122, this is emphatically set forth with substantiating proof under 
his signature. 

Other facts have been discussed and proven at a very recent date, relative 
to the State of Ohio, which heretofore have been omitted, and nearly lost from 
the historic thread which unites the present with the past. 

The first settlement of the lands of the Northwest is necessarily surrounded 
with interest. But those were exciting, troublesome times, and a few links 
were passed over lightly. However, the years are not so far removed in the 
past but the line may be traced. 

Mr. Francis W. Miller, of Cincinnati, has supplied some missing chapters. 
The earliest documentary trace extant, regarding the southern settlement at 
Cincinnati, is an agreement of partnership between Denman, Filson and Pat- 
terson, in the fractional section of land to which the city of Cincinnati was 
originally limited. It bears the date August 25, 1788. This was entered on 
the records of Hamilton County, Ohio, October 6, 1803. 


A letter from Jonathan Dayton to the Hon. Judge Syinmes, dated Septem- 
ber 26, 1789, says: "You have been selling your lands, I am told, for two 
shillings specie, the acre. The price at this moment is, and seems to be, and 
undoubtedly is, a good one ; but as much cannot be said of it when you find 
hereafter that in consequence of the rise of certificates, another acre, in another 
payment, may cost you in specie two shillings and sixpence." 

A letter from John C. Symmes to Capt. Dayton, dated April 30, 1790, 
says: "The land in the reserved township is held at much too high a price. 
Not a foot of land beyond the five-acre lots will sell. Five shillings, specie, 
or two dollars in certificates, is the utmost they will bring, and they will rarely 
sell at that." 

This state of affairs was in a large degree brought about by the breaking-up 
of North Bend and a removal of the town to Fort Washington, or Cincinnati, 
later. A search through the old letters and other preserved documents prove 
that North Bend was at one time the beginning of the great city on the Ohio, 
rather than Cincinnati. Judge Symmes wrote, May 18, 1789 : " I have not as 
yet been able to make a decisive choice of a plat for the city, though I have 
found two pieces of ground, both eligible, but not upon the present plan of a 
regular square. It is a question of no little moment and difficulty to deter- 
mine which of these spots is preferable, in point of local situation. I know 
that at first thought men will decide in favor of that on the Ohio, from the 
supposition that the Ohio will command more trade and business than the 
Miami. * * * But if it were built on the Miami, the settlers 
throughout the purchase would find it very convenient." 

Another of the earliest selections of town sites was adjacent to the most 
southerly point of what is now Delhi Township. To this the name of South 
Bend was given. Judge Symmes reports November 4, 1790, of this place, 
over forty framed and hewed-log two-story houses, since the preceding spring. 
Ensign Luce is said to have taken his troops to North Bend, but decided to 
remove to Cincinnati, on account of the object of his affections having settled 
there — the wife of a settler. But this story is refuted by contradictory evi- 
dence from Judge Symmes' letters, which illustrate the fact that the post of 
North Bend was abandoned by Ensign Luce and his men in consequence of a 
panic, caused by Indian attacks. The removal of the troops caused a general 
decline of the town. Again, history and letters from the same eminent Judge, 
assert that Fort Washington was completed and garrisoned by Maj. Doughty 
before the close of that same year, and was begun by him during the summer, 
that Ensign Luce must have still been at his post at the bend at that time. It 
has been, therefore, recently accepted that the traditional "black eyes" and 
the "Indian panic," had nothing to do with the founding of Cincinnati, and 
that the advantages of the position gained the victory. 

Cincinnati has advanced, not only in prosperity and culture, but in national 
signifi ante. Our readers must have observed, in perusing these pages, that 


from this city and the State which it represents, have emanated some of the 
superior intellects which have used their wise faculties and talents, tempered by 
a wise judgment, in behalf of the American Union. 

The originality of the Senecas and Wyandots have been debated at some 
length, while others have called the tribes the same, having two branches. We 
have searched the earlier records and have found an authenticated account of 
these two tribes. 

The Indian tribes of Ohio were originally bold, fierce and stalwart. The 
country watered by the Sandusky and its tributaries was frequented by the 
Wyandot tribe, who came from the north side of the St. Lawrence River. The 
Senecas were blood relatives of this tribe. Both tribes were numbered by the 
thousands. A war originated between them, in this manner: A Wyandot 
chief desired to wed the object of his aifections, who laughed him to scorn, 
because he had taken no scalps, and was no warrior " to speak of." To change 
her opinion, he led out a party, and falling upon a number of Senecas, slaugh- 
tered them mercilessly, that he might hasten to the side of his dusky belle, with 
his trophies. This act inaugurated hostilities, which extended through a century. 
The Wyandots began to fear extermination, and, gathering their entire effects 
the natives escaped to Green Bay, and settled in several villages. But the Sen- 
ecas made up a war party and followed them, killing many Wyandots and burn- 
ing some of their villages. They then returned to Canada. Soon thereafter, 
they secured fire-arms from the French. Again they followed the Wyandots, 
firing their guns into their huts, and frightening them severely. They did not 
succeed as well as they expected. But the third party nearly exterminated the 
villages, because the young warriors were nearly all gone to war with the Foxes. 
The few at home escaping, promised to return with the Senecas, but desired 
two days for preparation. The Wyandots sent word to the two villages left 
undisturbed, and held a consultation. They decided to go as near the Senecas 
as possible, unobserved, and discover their real motive. They found them feast- 
ing on two roasted Wyandots, shouting over their victory. They danced nearly 
all night, and then fell asleep. A little before daylight, the Wyandots fell on 
them, leaving not one to carry back the news. 

The Wyandots then procured guns, and began to grow formidable. They 
set out to return to their own country, and proceeded on their way as far as 
Detroit, where they met a party of Senecas, on the lake. A fierce conflict 
ensued, and the Wyandots beheld the Senecas fall, to the last man, suffering 
fearful carnage themselves. They soon settled in this part of the world, their 
principal village being on the Sandusky. Northwestern Ohio was particularly 
dangerous with new Indian tribes, and the Wyandots were cruelly aggressive. 
The death of their chief, and their total defeat by Harrison, destroyed their 
power forever. 

On the 29th of September, 1817, a treaty was held, at the foot of the rapids 
of the Miami of Lake Erie, between Lewis Cass and Duncan MeArthur, 


Commissioners of the United States, and the sachems, chiefs and warriors of the 
"Wyandot, Seneca, Delaware, Shawnee, Potawattomie, Ottawa and Chippewa 
nations. All their lands in Ohio ivere ceded to the United States forever. 

There was really not a Seneca in the Seneca nation. They were chiefly 
Cayugas, Mohawks, Onondagas, Tuscarawas, Wyandots and Oneidas. But the 
Mingoes were originally Cayugas, and their chief was the celebrated Logan. 
After the murder of his family by the whites, the Mingoes were scattered over 
the territory northwest of the Ohio. 

The notorious Simon Girty was adopted by the Senecas. Girty's name was 
a terror and fiendish horror for many years. He not only led the Indians in 
their atrocities, but he added barbarism to their native wickedness. 


When peace was proclaimed, after the surrender of Gen. Robert E. Lee to 
Gen. U. S. Grant, the volunteer troops disbanded, and a return to home indus- 
tries instituted, Ohio, like many other States, gave direct attention to the inter- 
ests of returned soldiers. The thrift of the State was augmented by a spasmodic, 
and thereafter recognized as a fictitious, demand for products, commercial and 
industrial pursuits redoubled their forces. But the great wave of stagnation 
swept over this fair land — the re-action of a war excitement. Laborers were 
many, but wages were inadequate. Deeper and deeper settled this lethargy — 
called by many " hard times" — until the wheels of commercial life revolved 
slowly, and from the workshops and the factories went up the echoes of priva- 
tion and distress. There was no famine, no fever, no epidemic, it was simply 
exhaustion. In the larger cities there was much suffering. . Idle people loitered 
about, barely seeking employment, the task seeming worse than hopeless. 

During the years 1870, 1871 and 1872, the stringent measures brought 
about by the depressed state of business retarded any material advancement in 
general matters. The years 1873-74 were marked by a preceptible improve- 
ment, and a few factories were established, while larger numbers were employed 
in those already founded. The year 1875 was under the direction of a Demo- 
cratic Legislature. It was marked in many respects by a " reverse motion " in 
many laws and regulations. 

The Legislature which convened in 1876, January 3, was Republican in the 
main. It repealed the " Geghan Law" passed by the preceding body. At 
the time of its adoption, there was the most intense feeling throughout the State, 
the charge being made that it was in the interests of the Catholics. Among 
the general enactments were laws re-organizing the government of the State insti- 
tutions, which the previous Legislature had ordered according to their own belief 
to follow new doctrines. The office of Comptroller of the Treasury was abolished. 
The powers of municipal corporations to levy taxes was limited, and their 
authority to incur debts was limited. Furthermore, this body prohibited any 
municipal appropriations, unless the actual money was in the Treasury to meet 


the same in full. A law was passed for the protection of children under fourteen 
years of age, exhibited in public shows. 

The temperance cause received more vigorous and solid support than was 
ever rendered by the State previously. A common-sense, highly moral and 
exalted platform was formed and supported by many leading men. 

This year witnessed the serious "strikes" among the miners in Stark and 
Wayne Counties. The consequences were painful — distress, riots and distruc- 
tion of property. 

The State Mine Inspector reported 300 coal mines in the State, with only 
twenty-five in operation. Not over 3,000,000 tons of coal were raised during 
the year, owing to the dullness of the times. 

The State charities reported the aggregate number under public care to be 
29,508. The taxation for the maintenance of these classes was one and one 
six-hundredth of a mill on each dollar of taxable property. 

The reports given of the year 1877 indicated a revival of business interests 
and prosperity. The State produced of wheat, 27,306,566 bushels ; rye, 
914,106 bushels; buckwheat, 225,822 bushels; oats, 29,325,611; barley, 
1,629,817 bushels ; corn, 101,884,305 bushels ; timothy, tons of hay, 2,160,334 ; 
clover, tons of hay, 286,265; flax, pounds of fiber, 7,343,294; potatoes, 
10,504,278 bushels; sweet potatoes, 126,354| bushels; tobacco, 24,214,950 
pounds; sorghum, sugar, 7,507^ pounds; syrup, 1,180,255 gallons; maple 
sugar, 1,625,215 pounds; maple syrup, 324,036 gallons; honey, 1,534,902 

The year 1878 was marked by a more vigorous and combined effort of the 
people to entirely overcome the stagnation of business, the influence of the 
lethargy yet combating the awakened interest. This energy was amply rewarded 
in 1879, by a general dawning of the "good times " so ardently desired. New 
enterprises were instituted, manufactories erected, improvements carried on, and 
agriculture was successful. Before the year closed, the State was basking in 
the light of prosperity, and the year 1880 was ushered in when the confidence 
of the people was again a permanent incentive — confidence in the nation, 
their State, each in the other and themselves. The old-time crown of power, 
influence and integrity, which Ohio has earned, is conspicuous in this year of 
1881. The jewels have been reset, and we confidently doubt not that their 
luster will remain undimmed intrusted to so faithful and so earnest a people. 

^j^M^^' ., 




























33ik; ( 















'.." i 















16633" ' 

















Fill ton 





































- 1 






I' ' 




























1 1 



















Van vvert 








































Massachusetts .... 







New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina... 






























1,262,505 1,802 
8u2,o2d l,u*l 

R. R. 





1,542,180 2,581 















Pennsylvania .... 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina- 




West Virginia.... 

Total States .. 


Arizona , 

Colorada , 

Dakota '. 

District of Columbia 



New Mexico . 




Total Territories. 

Aggregate of U. S... 2,915,203 










R. R. 





































British India 


United States — with Alaska 

German Empire 


Austria and Hungary , 



Great Britain and Ireland... 






Sweden and Norway 




Dominion of Canada 









Argentine Confederation.... 






San Salvador 




San Domingo 

Costa Rica 



























































































St. Petersburg (1881) 












Rio de Janiero 










La Paz 





Buenos Ayres (1S81) 


Santiago de Guatemala. 



Port au Prince 

San Salvador 




San i loniingo 

San Jose , 

























[It would be difficult to find a more comprehensive review of the founda- 
tions of our system of laws than is given in the " Preliminary Sketch of the 
History of Ohio," by this distinguished representative of the bench and the 
bar of America. The work is now out of print, and is not easily obtained; 
besides, its great author has passed away; so these extracts are made more 
with a view of preserving old historical literature, than of introducing new; 
furthermore, the masses of the people have never had convenient access to the 
volumes, which, for the most part, have been in the hands of professional men 
only. The publication of the work first brought its compiler before the public, 
and marked the beginning of that career which, during its course, shaped the 
financial system of our country, and ended upon the Supreme Bench of the 

By the ordinance of 1785, Congress had executed in part the great national 
trust confided to it, by providing for the disposal of the public lands for the 
common good, and by prescribing the manner and terms of sale. By that of 
1787, provision was made for successive forms of Territorial government, 
adapted to successive steps of advancement in the settlement of the Western 
country. It comprehended an intelligible system of law on the descent and 
conveyance of real property, and the transfer of personal goods. It also con- 
tained five articles of compact between the original States, and the people and 
States of the Territory, establishing certain great fundamental principles of 
governmental duty and private right, as the basis of all future constitutions and 
legislation, unalterable and indestructible, except by that final and common 
ruin, which, as it has overtaken all former systems of human polity, may yet 
overwhelm our American union. Never, probably, in the history of the world, 
did a measure of legislation so accurately fulfill, and yet so mightily exceed 
the anticipations of the legislators. The ordinance has been well described, as 
having been a pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night, in the settlement and 
government of the Northwestern States. When the settlers went into the 
wilderness, they found the law already there. It was impressed upon the soil 
itself, while it yet bore up nothing but the forest. The purchaser of land 
became, by that act, a party to the compact, and bound by its perpetual cove- 
nants, so far as its conditions did not conflict with the terms of the cessions of 

the States. 


This remarkable instrument was the last gift of the Congress of the old 
confederation to the country, and it was a fit consummation of their glorious 


labors. At the time of its promulgation, the Federal Constitution was under 
discussion in the convention ; and in a few months, upon the organization of 
the new national government, that Congress was dissolved, never again to re-as- 
semble. Some, and indeed most of the principles established by the articles of 
compact are to be found in the plan of 1784, and in the various English and 
American bills of rights. Others, however, and these not the least important, 
are original. Of this number are the clauses in relation to contracts, to slavery 
and to Indians. On the whole, these articles contain what they profess to con- 
tain, the true theory of American liberty. The great principles promulgated 
by it are wholly and purely American. They are indeed the genuine princi- 
ples of freedom, unadulterated by that compromise with circumstances, the 
effects of which are visible in the constitution and history of the Union. 

The first form of civil government, provided by the ordinance, was now 
formally established within the Territory. Under this form, the people had no 
concern in the business of government. The Governor and Judges derived 
their appointments at first from Congress, and after the adoption of the Fed- 
eral Constitution, from the President. The commission of the former officer 
was for the term of three years, unless sooner revoked ; those of the latter 
were during good behavior. It was required that the Governor should reside 
within the Territory, and possess a freehold estate there, in one thousand acres 
of land. He had authority to appoint all officers of militia, below the rank of 
Generals, and all magistrates and civil officers, except the Judges and the 
Secretary of the Territory ; to establish convenient divisions of the whole dis- 
trict for the execution of progress, to lay out those parts to which the Indian 
titles might be extinguished into counties and townships. The Judges, or any 
two of them, constituted a court with common law jurisdiction. It was neces- 
sary that each Judge should possess a freehold estate in the territory of five 
hundred acres. The whole legislative power which, however, extended only to 
the adoption of such laws of the original States as might be suited to the cir- 
cumstances of the country, was vested in the Governor and Judges. The laws 
adopted were to continue in force, unless disapproved by Congress, until re- 
pealed by the Legislature, which was afterward to be organized. It was the 
duty of the Secretary to preserve all acts and laws, public records and executive 
proceedings, and to transmit authentic copies to the Secretary of Congress 
every six months. 

Such was the first government devised for the Northwestern Territory. It 
is obvious that its character, as beneficent or oppressive, depended entirely upon 
the temper and disposition of those who administrated it. All power, legisla- 
tive, judicial and executive, was concentrated in the Governor and Judges, and 
in its exercise they were responsible only to the distant Federal head. The 
expenses of the Government were defrayed in part by the United States, but 
were principally drawn from the pockets of the people in the shape of fees. 


This temporary system, however unfriendly as it seems to liberty, was,, 
perhaps, so established upon sufficient reasons. The Federal Constitution had 
not then been adopted, and there were strong apprehensions that the people of 
the Territory might not be disposed to organize States and apply for admission 
into the Union. It was, therefore, a matter of policy so to frame the Territorial 
system as to create some strong motives to draw them into the Union, as States, 
in due time. 

The first acts of Territorial legislation were passed at Marietta, then the 
only American settlement northwest of the Ohio. The Governor and Judges 
did not strictly confine themselves within the limits of their legislative author- 
ity, as prescribed by the ordinance. When they could not find laws of the 
original States suited to the condition of the country, they supplied the want 
by enactments of their own. The earliest laws, from 1788 to 1795, were all 
thus enacted. The laws of 1788 provided for the organization of the militia; 
for the establishment of inferior courts ; for the punishment of crimes, and for 
the limitations of actions ; prescribed the duties of ministerial officers ; regu- 
lated marriages, and appointed oaths of office. That the Governor and Judges 
in the enactment of these laws, exceeded their authority, without the slightest 
disposition to abuse it, may be inferred from the fact that except two, which 
had been previously repealed, they were all confirmed by the first Territorial 

At this period there was no seat of government, properly called. The 
Governor resided at Cincinnati, but laws were passed whenever they seemed to 
be needed, and promulgated at any place where the Territorial legislators hap- 
pened to be assembled. Before the year of 1795, no laws were, strictly speak- 
ing, adopted. Most of them were framed by the Governor and Judges to 
answer particular public ends; while in the enactmant of others, including all 
the laws of 1792, the Secretary of the Territory discharged, under the author- 
ity of an act of Congress, the functions of the Governor. The earliest laws, 
as has been already stated, were published at Marietta. Of the remainder, a 
few were published at Vincennes, and the rest at Cincinnati. 

In the year 1789, the first Congress passed an act recognizing the binding 
force of the ordinance of 1787, and adapting its provisions to the Federal Con- 
stitution. This act provided that the communications directed in the ordinance 
to be made to Congress or its officers, by the Governor, should thenceforth be 
made to the President, and that the authority to appoint with the consent of 
the Senate, and commission officers, before that time appointed and commis- 
sioned by Congress, should likewise be vested in that officer. It also gave the 
Territorial Secretary the power already mentioned, of acting in certain cases, 
in the place of the Governor. In 1792, Congress passed another act giving to 
the Governor and Judges authority to repeal, at their discretion, the laws by 


them made; and enabling a single Judge of the general court, in the absence 
of his brethren, to hold the terms. 

At this time the Judges appointed by the national Executive constituted the 
Supreme Court of the Territory. They were commissioned during good 
behavior; and their judicial jurisdiction extended over the whole region north- 
west of the Ohio. The court, thus constituted, was fixed at no certain place, 
and its process, civil and criminal, was returnable wheresoever it might be in 
the Territory. Inferior to this court were the County Courts of Common Pleas, 
and the General Quarter Sessions of the Peace. The former consisted of any 
number of Judges, not less than three nor more than seven, and had a general 
common-law jurisdiction, concurrent, in the respective counties, with that of 
the Supreme Court; the latter consisted of a number of Justices for each 
county, to be determined by the Governor, who were required to hold three 
terms in every year, and had a limited criminal jurisdiction. Single Judges of. 
the Common Pleas, and single Justices of the Quarter Sessions, were also 
clothed with certain civil and criminal powers to be exercised out of court. 
Besides these courts, each county had a Judge of Probate, clothed with the 
ordinary jurisdiction of a Probate Court. 

Such was the original constitution of courts and distribution of judicial 
power in the Northwestern Territory. The expenses of the system were de- 
frayed in part by the National Government, and in part by assessments upon 
the counties, but principally by fees, which were payable to every officer con- 
cerned in the administration of justice, from the Judges of the General Court 

In 1795, the Governor and Judges undertook to revise the Territorial lawe, 
and to establish a complete system of statutory jurisprudence, by adoptions 
from the laws of the original States, in strict conformity to the provisions of 
the ordinance. For this purpose they assembled at Cincinnati, in June, and 
continued in session until the latter part of August. The judiciary system un- 
derwent some changes. The General Court was fixed at Cincinnati and Marietta, 
and a Cirfcuit Court was established with power to try, in the several counties, 
issues in fact depending before the superior tribunal, where alone causes could 
be finally decided. Orphans' Courts, too, were established, with jurisdiction 
analogous to but more extensive than that of a Judge of Probate. Laws were 
also adopted to regulate judgments and executions, for limitation of actions, 
for the distribution of intestate estates, and for many other general purposes. 
Finally, as if with a view to create some great reservoir, from which, whatever 
principles and powers had been omitted in the particular acts, might be drawn 
according to the exigency of circumstances, the Governor and Judges adopted 
a law, providing that the common law of England and all general statutes in 
aid of the common law, prior to the fourth year of James I, should be in full 
force within the Territory. The law thus adopted was an act of the Virginia 
Legislature, passed before the Declaration of Independence, when Virginia was 


yet a British colony, and at the time of its adoption had been repealed so far 
as it related to the English statutes. 

The other laws of 1795 were principally derived from the statute book of 
Pennsylvania. The system thus adopted, was not without many imperfections 
and blemishes, but it may be doubted whether any colony, at so early a period 
after its first establishment, ever had one so good. 


And how gratifying is the retrospect, how cheering the prospect which even 
this sketch, brief and partial as it is, presents! On a surface, covered less 
than half a century ago by the trees of the primeval forest, a State has grown 
up from colonial infancy to freedom, independence and strength. But thirty 
years have elapsed since that State, with hardly sixty thousand inhabitants, was 
admitted into the American Union. Of the twenty-four States which form 
that Union, she is now the fourth in respect to population. In other respects, 
her rank is even higher. Already her resources have been adequate, not only 
to the expense of government and instruction, but to the construction of long 
lines of canals. Her enterprise has realized the startling prediction of the 
poet, who, in 1787, when Ohio was yet a wilderness, foretold the future con- 
nection of the Hudson with the Ohio. 

And these results are attributable mainly to her institutions. The spirit of 
the ordinance of 1787 prevades them all. Who can estimate the benefits 
which have flowed from the interdiction by that instrument of slavery and of 
legislative interference with private contracts ? One consequence is, that the 
soil of Ohio bears up none but freemen ; another, that a stern and honorable 
regard to private rights and public morals characterizes her legislation. There 
is hardly a page in the statute book of which her sons need be ashamed. The 
great doctrine of equal rights is everywhere recognized in her constitution and 
her laws. Almost every father of a family in this State has a freehold interest 
in the soil, but this interest is not necessary to entitle him to a voice in the 
concerns of government. Every man may vote; every man is eligible to any 
office. And this unlimited extension of the elective franchise, so far from pro- 
ducing any evil, has ever constituted a safe and sufficient check upon injurious 
legislation. Other causes of her prosperity may be found in her fertile soil, in 
her felicitous position, and especially in her connection with the union of the 
States. All these springs of growth and advancement are permanent, and 
upon a most gratifying prospect of the future. They promise an advance in 
population, wealth, intelligence and moral worth as permanent as the existence 
of the State itself. They promise to the future citizens of Ohio the blessings 
of good government, wise legislation and universal instruction. More than all, 
they are pledges that in all future, as in all past circumstances, Ohio will cleave 
fast to the national constitution and the national Union, and that her growing 
energies will on no occasion, be more willingly or powerfully put forth, than in 
the support and maintenance of both in unimpaired vigor and strength. 

&/i^ 0fa^^ 







MARION COUNTY lies on the broad watershed between the Ohio 
River and Lake Erie, about fifty miles south of the west end of that 
lake. It comprises fifteen townships, of a total of about four hundred 
square miles. The Scioto is the only river in the county, which, of course, 
is comparatively small in this region. It enters the county about the mid- 
dle of the west side, running southeasterly and then southerly, leaving the 
county near the center of the southern border. The Little Scioto enters 
near the middle of the north boundary, and runs southerly to Green Camp, 
where it empties into the Scioto. The Whetstone runs from northeast to 
southwest throughout the eastern border of the county. The waters of the 
Tymochtee and Little Sandusky take thcdr rise in the northwestern portion 
of the county, and find their way to Lake Erie. 


Much of the county is flat, and has a black, prairie soil, especially in 
the townships of Bowling Green, Big Island, Salt Rock, Grand Prairie, 
Scott, Claridon and the western part of Marion. The streams that cross 
these prairie-like tracts are but four to six feet below adjoining level of 
land, and in time of freshet inundate considerable areas. There are, how- 
ever, sudden changes in the character of the surface, even in the midst of 
the prairies. Mounds of the unmodified hard-pan still project above the 
general surface. These have a rolling contour and an ashen, clayey soil. 
They were generally covered with forest, while the prairies are treeless. 
The remaining portions of the county, namely, the townships of Grand, the 
northern portion of Montgomery, Green Camp, Pleasant, Richland, Tully 
and the eastern part of Marion, are on the old drift surface, and have, with 
an undulating or rolling outline, a soil of 'brown or ashen clay, containing 
pebbles and bowlders. 


The geological range of Marion County is from the Niagara to the 
Waverly, being greater than that of any other county in the State, except 
one, as to time. Thus, this county contains, approximately: 

* From the report of N. H. Winchell. 



Waverly sandstone 140 

Huron shale (black slate) 250 

Hamilton limestone 20 

Upper Cornif erous 50 

Lower Corniferous 150 

Oriskany sandstone 20 

Water limestone 100 

Niagara limestone ■ 40 


The Niagara limestone, the lowest in the scale, is found in the north- 
western part of the county, and is followed, toward the east, by the higher 
members in the order above given, the general dip of the whole being in 
that direction. The water lime occupies the most of the townships of Salt 
Rock, Big Island, Green Camp, Montgomery and Prospect, and all of 
Bowling Green. The Lower Corniferous strikes across the western side of 
Grand Prairie and Marion Townships, touching Pleasant and Prospect 
Townships, east of the Scioto River. The Upper Corniferous underlies the 
remainder of Grand Prairie, Marion, Pleasant and Prospect Townships, and 
the western portions of Scott, Claridon, Richland and Waldo. The Hamil- 
ton occupies a narrow belt just on the east of the Upper Corniferous. The 
black slate underlies the eastern portions of Waldo, Richland, Claridon 
and most of Tully Townships. The Waverly is found only in the eastern 
part of Tully. Of these, the Oriskany and the Lower Corniferous have 
not been seen in outcrop in the county, owing to the unbroken mass of 
the drift deposits; and the other formations offer very meager opportuni- 
ties for learning their characters. It is only by tracing their lines of out- 
crop from other counties, where they afford better facilities for observation, 
that their presence and their contents in Marion County can be asserted by 
the geologist. 

The Niagara was examined in the following places in Grand Township, 
southeast quarter of Section 19, where Jeremiah Winslow has burned a 
little quicklime: dip southeast. On the northeast half of Section 19 
a small creek, which flows northeasterly across this section into the Lit- 
tle Tymochtee Creek, lies immediately on the hard, gray Niagara, for the 
distance of over half a mile, on land belonging mostly to S. Hartle (1873). 
Formerly, a great deal of lime was burned from the rock along this creek. 
The dip is to the northeast, but toward the most westerly point of expos- 
ure the surface of the rock presents sudden changes of dip, disappearing 
with a dip west. 

The water lime is seen only in the bed of the Scioto at Prospect. 
At that place, and about two miles farther south, in Delaware County; also 
in the bed of the Scioto, it appears as an even-bedded drab rock, bluish on 
the laminations and blotched throughout with blue and drab. The beds are 
two to four inches thick, but sometimes not more than an inch, and some 
blocks are ten inches thick. The blue and drab colors vary and interchange 
in all shapes and directions, without reference to the bedding, except that 
it is not uncommon to see a drab surface to the depth of one-half inch to 
an inch and a half, with a blue strip through the middle. The surfaces of 
the beds are diversified with mud cracks, and separated by bituminous films. 
The stone is slightly vesiculai', with small cavities, yet, for the most part, 
firm and apparently compact. It is a handsome and useful building ma- 
terial, comparing favorably with the Upper Corniferous for all uses. 

The Upper Corniferous, in Grand Prairie Township, is worked quite 
extensively on the northwest quarter of Section 26, by James Dawson. 


Here the beds dip slightly toward the east; perpendicular exposure, about 
twelve feet, facing the west. In this immediate neighborhood are the fol- 
lowing quarries, also in the Upper Corniferous: Southwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 23, by Adam Coonrod; southwest quarter of Section 23, by Philip 
Khetter; northwest quarter of Section 26, by heirs of Landy Shoots, and 
northeast quarter of Section 27, by Eli Powell. 

At Marion, the Upper Corniferous is extensively wrought by Seas & 
Huberman and by Franklin Swaigler (1873), who have, in adjoining quar- 
ries, an exposure of about twelve feet of perpendicular bedding, dip east. 
Similar beds are also wrought by John Ballantine, Joshua Finch and Na- 
than Powers. On the southwest quarter of Section 10, Marion Township, 
lime is burnt from the Upper Corniferous. On the southeast quarter 
of Section 9, Leonard Reiver has taken out some stone from the Upper 
Corniferous. Four and a half miles south of Marion, in Pleasant Town- 
ship, John Owen burns and ships at Marion considerable quantities of quick- 
lime, and sells building stone on the ground at 50 cents per ton; dip east. 

In Richland Township, the Upper Corniferous appears in the Whet- 
stone, on Sections 30 and 19, and is quarried on the land of Daniel Oborn; 
also on the land of George King, northeast quarter of Section 20. 

In the Hamilton group, in the bed of the Whetstone, about a mile be- 
low the village of Waldo, may be seen a very hard, blue, pyritiferous lime- 
stone, in beds of eight to twelve inches, which is believed to belong to the 
Hamilton, although there is not sufficient exposure within the county to 
determine its horizon. This would furnish a fine building stone, were it 
not for the abundance of pyritic crystals contained in the rock. After a 
few months' exposure to the weather, these will inevitably change to the 
yellow peroxide of iron, the rusty drippings of which present an offense to 
the eye and soil the beauty of any wall. 

The Huron shale is popularly known as the " black slate." At various 
places in the bed and banks of the Whetstone Creek, in the townships of 
Richland, Claridon and Tully, it finds characteristic exposure. It may be 
seen on the northeast quarter of Section 16, Richland Township, where it 
is in thin, brittle sheets, and rises several feet along the bank of the stream. 
It holds large, concretionary masses of a coarse, black limestone. These 
are very hard, and appear arenaceous at the center, with a band of more 
calcareous and crystalline material around the outside. They sometimes ex- 
ceed four feet in diameter. Globular masses of crystalline pyrites are also 
common, often several inches in diameter. The black slate may also be 
seen in Sections 3 and 26 of the same township, and Section 31 of Tully 
Township, on the land of James Brown Lee. In the absence of other stone, 
this slate has been somewhat used for walling wells in the eastern part of 
the county. 

The Waverly sandstone is quarried to a limited extent on the land of J. 
B. Lee, just referred to. It here has a position to the west of observed ex- 
posures of the underlying black slate, and must be an outlier from the more 
extensive beds of the same stone which lie farther east. Other openings 
are met with on Section 36 of the same township, and at Iberia in Morrow 

The drift shows no apparent diminution in Marion County. Since its 
general character differs in no respect from that already described, but few 
points of observation will be noted. At Prospect, the contents of a gravel 
bank were noticed to contain a great many largH fragmnnts from the water 
limestone, so arranged as to indicate not only the agency of water in rapid 


currents, but the direction of its flow. Some of these pieces of limestone 
were as much as two feet across, bat usually not over two inches in thick- 
ness, and but slightly water worn. They lay in the midst of gravel which 
had a stratification dipping rapidly toward the south. The limestone 
fragments also lay with their sides almost invariably upward, but sloping 
with less inclination in the same direction, similar to the arrangement of 
flat stone or other obstructions often seen in the bottom of streams. It 
would seem as if the water, ^precipitated in cascades down the southern 
slope of the glacier, bringing such dislodged portions of the drift as fell 
into the current, sought to arrange the obstructions to its flow so as to offer 
the least resistance. 

On the southwest quarter of Section 36, Salt Rock Township, a well 
seventy feet in depth, through a drift deposits, on the premises of R. W. 
Messenger, furnished no water. About Green Camp, and a mile or two 
we«t, there are unusual numbers of bowlders, some as large as six feet in 
diameter. The country about is rolling, and they seem to have been em- 
braced within the drift. In the southern part of Pleasant and Green 
Camp Townships, especially in the vicinity of Prospect, the upper por- 
tions of the drift are very apt to contain deposits of gravel and sand, with 
frequent bowlders. 

At Waldo, the drift is seen to consist, along the river bank, of twenty- 
five feet hard-pan. Brown color prevails downward about fifteen feet, blue 
below that depth, soon becoming sandy, furnishing water. In other places, 
within half a mile, the top of the drift is gravel and sand, with only a thin 
covering of hard-pan. 


Gravel is found in the southern part of the county, and is extensively 
employed in road-making. Clay, for red pottery and brick, is abundant 
throughout the county. Stone taken from the various quarries in the Up- 
per Corniferous formation, serves for all purposes of building. It may be 
employed in the most massive as well as in all ordinary structures, having 
resistance sufficient to withstand any pressure needed. It is of a light blue 
or gray color, and when arranged properly in a building, with a stone of 
lighter shade, it produces a fine architectural effect. In the city of Marion, 
it is employed in the county jail and numerous stores. Its dark shade pro- 
duces in a building the aesthetic effect of strength, age and solidity, mak- 
ing it specially adapted to Gothic structures. 

The black slate has heretofore been esteemed of little or no economical 
value. It is due, however, to the enterprise of E. H. Gleason, of Defiance, that 
we have the practical demonstration of the eminent hydraulic qualities of 
the black slate in Ohio. Owing to the inflammable, bituminous matter it 
contains, the slate is easily and cheaply burned, to a certain extent supply- 
ing its own fuel. Six to eight hours of red heat expels all volatile matter, 
leaving a lime which is easily reduced to powder. The stone is not selected 
altogether promiscuously from the quarry. It is thought the most compact 
and calcareous courses, which, when burned, are of a grayish or ashy pur- 
ple, afford the best hydraulic cement. The more slaty and highly bitumin- 
ous beds, after burning, are of a light cream color, or white with yellowish 
streaks and spots; yet more than half of the stone burned by Mr. Gleason 
is of the latter quality. The cement has been put to practical test in a 
number of ways at Defiance, and is now being employed in the abutments 
of an iron bridge at that place over the Wabash & Erie Canal, in connec- 
tion with the Oriskany sandstone, quarried in Lucas County. Mr. Gleason 


employs two constant draw-kilns and grinds the lime by steam power. It 
is only necessary to add that in Mario u County the base of the black slate 
strikes across the townships of Scott, Claridon and Richland, and that its 
exposure along the Whetstone affords ample facilities for a similar enter- 


Although no large body of water exists within or near the borders of 
Marion County, it has formerly had a respectable share of this world's 
goods in respect to the number of species and individuals in the animal 
kingdom. It afforded the Indian and the pioneer an abundance of whole- 
some wild meats, and in great variety, as well as an interesting variety of 
useless or mischievous animals. According to the rule the world over, the 
larger animals disappeared first before the advancing tread of human occu- 
pation, and then the next in size, and so on down to the raccoon, opofesum, 
etc., which still exist though in diminishing numbers. The buffalo and 
elk were the largest, and they disappeared on the very first approach of the 
white man, with his deadly rifle and indefatigable hound. 

The common deer, which was abundant in pioneer times, is now very 
scarce in Ohio, being occasionally seen in some of the wildest portions of 
the State. The last one known to be in Marion County was killed as much 
as twenty years ago. 

The panther {Felts concolor) and two species of wild cat (Lynx Cana- 
densis and rufus) used to infest the woods, and render traveling somewhat 
dangerous to the early settler, but the last seen in the county was about 
a third of a century ago. 

The black bear, porcupine and beaver have not been seen here for a still 
longer period. 

Minks, weasels and skunks, once common, are diminishing. Twenty 
to thirty years ago there was a brisk trade here in their furs and other 
peltry, the principal dealers being T. J. Anderson and Michael Dutt, both 
now deceased. This trade thinned out the fur-bearing animals percep- 

Fox and gray squirrels keep up their proportion with the diminishing 
forest. The gray species is the most numerous, among which a black speci- 
men is occasionally met with. Flying squirrels are still here, but as they 
are entirely nocturnal in their travels, they are seldom seen. There are also a 
few ground squirrels. 

Moles, rabbits and bats are, of course, still common. 

No otters have been seen for many years, though they were frequent in 
early days. There are still a good manv muskrats. 

Occasionally there is a gray fox met with, but no red foxes have been 
seen for a long time. 

Wolves, of the large gray or " timber" species, were plentiful in early 
times, and more annoying and mischievous than all other animals together; 
but the last individual of this hateful tribe in Marion County was killed 
about thirty years ago by John D. Guthery. 

Ground hogs, or " woodchucks," were never plentiful, and probably 
so scarce now that seldom one can be found. 

" Wild hogs," or domestic hogs, escaped and running wild, were abun- 
dant in pioneer times. In a few generations these animals became as furi- 


one and dangerous as wolves. They were all killed out by about the year 


Of the 250 species of birds found in Marion County, either constantly 
or occasionally in emigration, the group of singers exceeds in number all 
others, though the really superior musicians among them number but fif- 
teen or twenty. The most numerously represented division, the wood war- 
blers (Tanagridce) are not tine singers. The best songsters of the forest 
belong to the thrush and mocking-bird family. For the sake of conven- 
ience let us take a glance at the feathered creation in Marion County by 

Thrush Family. — The superior singing bird of Marion County is the 
superior singer of all the world, namely, the wood-thrush. It is really more 
entertaining than the famous nightingale of Europe. Its melodious, flute- 
like tones are altogether " too sweet " for description. They are grouped 
into short tunes of eight, ten or twelve notes each, and there are six or 
eight tunes sung by this bird, with intervals of five to six or seven seconds 
between them. Next to this prima donna of the forest are the olive-backed 
(or Swainson's) thrush, Wilson's thrush, the northern mocking-bird (or cat- 
bird), the brown thrush and the robin. These are all migratory birds, 
spending the summer here but the winter in the South. The robin some- 
times remains all winter. The hermit and the olive-backed thrushes are 
more common in the spring and fall. The robin and the cat-bird frequent 
the orchards and gardens, nesting about the door-yards, and prefer these 
places to the woods, probably because of greater security from birds or 
other animals of prey. The brown thrush is found in thickets of hazel- 
brush, briers, etc., which skirt old fences and the edge of woods, and gen- 
erally nests in brush heaps. The remainder of this family is confined to 
the woodland. Their food consists of beetles, grasshoppers, snails, spiders, 
caterpillars, etc., together with small fruits and berries. 

Bluebird Family. — The bluebird is the only representative of this 
family in the county. It is common from spring to fall, nesting in bird- 
houses, fence-posts, decayed trees, and feeds on winged insects, worms, 
grasshoppers, spiders and a scant proportion of berries. 

Kinglets. — The ruby-crowned and the golden- crowned kinglets and the 
blue-gray gnat-catcher are all common during the spring and fall. The 
first- mentioned is frequently found in winter, and the gnat-catcher is abun- 
dant during the summer. These are confined to the woods. The kinglets 
nest in the lake region, but the gnat-catcher nests here, building a wonder- 
ful structure high up on the oaks. It is somewhat purse-shaped, and often 
at the extremity of a bough, so as to sway with the wind, secure from 
enemies. It is placed in a concealed situation, and artistically as well as 
substantially finished. 

Chickadee. — The titmouse, or black-capped chickadee, the only member 
of this family here, feeds upon insects, seeds, berries, crumbs, meat, etc., 
and generally nests in the woods, where it makes its home most of the year, 
but during the winter it is seen near the house, feeding upon sweepings 
from the table. 

Nuthatches. — The white-bellied and the red-bellied nuthatch are com- 
mon, especially the former. These birds are found in woodlands and or- 
chards. Their nests are built in holes in trees. Food — ants, eggs of insects, 
and seeds. 


Brown Creeper. — A common spring, fall and winter resident, and a 
woodland bird, is to be mentioned in this connection. 

Wren Family. — The Carolina wren is a very rare straggler from the 
South. The house wren is common locally. The winter wren is a common 
spring and fall visitor, often remaining during the open winters. The 
long-billed marsh wren is a common summer resident of the marshes, build- 
ing a large, globular nest of coarse sand-grass, suspended to reeds or flag 
stems. The short-billed marsh wren is a common summer resident, gen- 
erally found on low meadow lands. The wrens feed on insects only. 

Lark Family. — The horned lark is a winter resident, but sometimes 
breeds here. It frequents barren and gravelly fields, feeding on seeds and 
insects. When the ground is covered with snow, they may be seen feeding 
upon the droppings of stock about the farm. 

The Titlark is an abundant migrant in late fall and early spring, fre- 
quenting the same localities and subsisting on the same food as the pre- 
ceding. There are sometimes large flocks of this species of bird. 

Warblers. — These are numerous. The black and white creeper is a com- 
mon summer resident, nesting on the ground, generally beside a fallen log. 
The blue yellow-backed warbler, a rare migratory bird, is sometimes found 
in the tree-tops of the wild forest. The blue-winged yellow warbler is rare. 
The blue golden- winged warbler is common in spring and fall. The Nash- 
ville and Tennessee warblers are very common. The orange-crowned war- 
bler is rare. The yellow, the black-throated green, the black-throated blue, 
the blue, the yellow-rumped, the Blackburnian, the black poll, the yellow red 
poll, and the chestnut-sided warblers are all common —some of them abundant; 
all migrants. The bay-breasted, the Cape May, the prairie, the yellow- 
throated and Kirtland's warblers are rare. The golden- crowned thrush 
(Sciurus aiiricapillus) is a common summer resident, frequenting low, open 
woods. The water thrush (S. ncevius) is rare, but breeds here. The large 
billed water thrush is common in swampy timber lands. The Connecticut 
warbler is rare, but may become common. It is a fine songster. The Mary- 
land yellow-throat is found occasionally. The black capped fly-catching 
warbler is common during the spring and autumn. Canada fly-catching 
warbler, common. Red start, very common. 

Tanagers. — The scarlet tanager is common, and the summer red bird 
(sometimes kept in cages) rare, accidentally straying from the South. 

Swallow Family. — The barn, cliff or eave, white-bellied, and the bank or 
sand swallows are common. The purple martin, formerly common, is being 
driven out by the English sparrow. The swallows feed exclusively upon 
winged insects. 

Wax-wings. — The Carolina wax-wing or cherry bird is a common resi- 
dent, breeding in August and September, and feeding on the cultivated 

Vireos. — There are a half-dozen species of these in this section of the 
country, inhabiting woodlands, some of them common, some of them rare. 

Shrikes or Butcher Birds. — The great Northern shrike is rare; the logger- 
head shrike, two varieties, is common. These form a small but interesting 
family of bold and spirited birds, quarrelsome among themselves. They 
form a kind of connecting link between insect-eating birds and birds of 
prey. Their food consists of large insects, mice and small birds and 
snakes. They are noted for impaling their prey on thorns or sharp twigs 
and leaving it there — for what purpose is not yet known. 


Finch and Sparrow Family. — Numerous. Pine grosbeak, an occasional 
winter visitor. Purple finch, a common migrant. White- winged and red 
crossbills, rare winter visitors. Red-poll linnet, an irregular winter visitor. 
Pine linnet, a rare winter visitor from the North. Goldfinch, or yellow 
bird, common and well-known; has the appearance of a canary. Snow 
bunting, a common but irregular winter visitor. Lapland long-spur, a com- 
mon winter visitor. Savannah sparrow, a common migrant. Bay- winged 
bunting, very common from spring to fall. Yellow- winged, Henslow's and 
Lincoln's sparrows, rare summer residents. Swamp and song sparrows, 
common, the latter abundant all the warm season. Snow-bird, common in 
winter. Mountain sparrow, common in winter. Chipping and field spar- 
rows, common in summer. White-throated and white-crowned sparrows, 
common migrants. English sparrow, abundant in the towns, driving out 
our native snng-birds; another imported nuisance from Europe, as bad as 
the Canada thistle and about as easy to get rid of as house-flies! Fox 
sparrow, a very common spring and fall visitor. Black-throated bunting, 
growing common. Rose-breasted grosbeak, a common summer resident; 
breeds along the water-courses in low trees and shrubs. Indigo bird, abun- 
dant in summer, frequenting low woodlands overrun with briers. Towhee 
bunting or chewink, abundant. 

Birds of this family feed entirely upon seeds, except during the breed- 
ing season. Those which are residents all the year and those which are 
summer residents only, subsist during the breeding season and feed their 
young almost exclusively upon insects. At other times, their food consists 
of the seeds of grass and weeds. The rose-breasted grosbeak is the only 
bird known to feed on the potato bug, and the white-crowned sparrow feeds 
on the grape-vine flea-beetle. The common yellow bird, or goldfinch, pre- 
fers the seeds of the thistle and lettuce. The fox sparrow and chewink 
scratch the ground for hibernating insect and snails. The crossbills feed 
on the seeds in pine cones, and the English sparrow feeds on the seeds con- 
tained in the droppings of animals. 

Blackbird Family. — Bobolink, common and well-known; a fine and 
cheerful songster. Cow-bird, or cow blackbird, a summer visitor, fre- 
quenting old pasture land and the edge of woods. Like the European 
cuckoo, it builds no nest, but lays its eggs in the nests of smaller birds, 
such as warblers, vireos and sparrows. Red-winged blackbird, abundant 
in summer. Meadow lark, well-known. Orchard and Baltimore orioles 
are very common. Rusty blackbird, or grackle, is common for a week or 
two in the spring. Crow blackbird, common and well-known. 

With, the exception of one or two species, this family is decidedly gre- 
garious. Insects and the grains constitute their food. The cow-bird de- 
stroys the eggs and young of other birds. The orioles feed largely on hairy 
caterpillars and also on some of the small fruits, green peas, etc. 

Crow Family. — Raven, was common, but now rare. Common crow, 
well-known, emigrate southward during the coldest weather. Blue jay, 
the gayest plumaged and harshest voiced bird of the American forests. 
Birds of this family are omnivorous. 

Fly-catcher Family. — The king-bird is abundant in summer, frequent- 
ing orchards and the edge of the woods. Great crested fly-catcher, abun- 
dant in the forest; uses snake skins as a part of its nest material. Pewee, 
or Phoebe bird, common. "Wood pewee, a common bird of the orchard and 
woodland. Least fly-catcher, common, summer. Yellow-bellied fly-catcher, 
a common migrant, but rare summer resident. 


The king-bird and pewee frequent open places; the others of this fam- 
ily dwell in the forest. They all subsist upon winged insects. 

Goatsucker Family. — "Whippoorwill and night-hawk, well-known and 
common. These birds are nocturnal in their habits and feed upon 

The Chimney Swallow is the only member of the family Cypselidce that is 
found in this latitude. It is sometimes seen in large flocks, roosting in un- 
used chimneys, barns and hollow trees. 

Humming-bird Family. — The ruby-throated is the only species found 
here. It feeds upon insects, which it captures within flowers. 

King-fisher Family. — The belted king fisher is a common summer resi- 
dent in suitable localities. It feeds upon small fish. 

Cuckoo Family.— The black-billed species is common; has been called 
"rain crow." The yellow-billed cuckoo is not common. Omnivorous. 

Woodpecker Family. — There are half a dozen species of woodpecker 
found in this locality, all common, viz., the hairy, downy, yellow-bellied, 
red-bellied, red-headed and golden- winged. Omnivorous. 

Owl Family. — The great horned, the mottled, the screech, the long- 
eared and the short- eared are abundant. The barn owl is a rare straggler 
from the South. Possibly one or two other species may occasionally be 
found here. 

Hau-k Family. — The marsh hawk, the sharp-shinned, Cooper's, the spar- 
row, the red-tailed, the red -shouldered, the broad-winged, the rough-legged 
or black, and the fish hawks are all common. The white-tailed kite, the 
goshawk, the pigeon hawk, Swainson's hawk and the bald eagle are more 

The Turkey Buzzard, belonging to a distinct family, is rare. 

Pigeon Family. — The wild pigeon, an abundant migrant, sometimes 
breeds here. The Carolina dove, a common resident here most of the year, 
is common. 

The Wild Turkey, once abundant, but now rare, is the only member of 
its family native to this region. 

Grouse Family. — Prairie chicken, once occasional, none now. Ruffed 
grouse, or partridge, occasional. Quail, common. 

Plover Family. — The golden plover, the killdeer and the semi-palmated 
are common about unfrequented ponds. The black-bellied plover is rare, 
if ever seen at all. 

Sandpiper Family. — The most common species of this family are the 
semi-palmated, least, pectoral, red-breasted, Willst, solitary, spotted and 
upland sandpipers, the snipe and the woodcock. Less common are the 
buff-breasted and red-backed sandpipers, long-billed curlew and perhaps 
occasionally two or three other unimportant species. 

Heron Family. — The green and night herons, the bittern and the least 
bittern are common residents. The great blue heron is a common migrant 
and the great white heron a rare summer visitor. 

Cranes. — The whooping and sand-hill cranes are sometimes seen in mi- 

Rail Family. — The Virginia and Carolina rails and the coot are often 
seen in the vicinity of the streams and in the margin of ponds; the clapper, 
king, yellow and black rails, very rarely; the Florida gallinule, occasional. 

Duck Family. — The common species are the mallard, black, big black- 
head, little black-head, ring-necked, red-head (or pochard), golden-eye, 
butter-ball, ruddy and fish (goosander) ducks, the brant and Canada geese, 


widgeon, golden-winged and blue-winged teal and the hooded merganser. 
Rarely are seen the pintail, gadwall, shoveler, wood duck, canvas-back 
duck, long-tailed duck and red-breasted merganser. All the duck family 
are migratory. 

Gull Family.— About ten species may rarely be seen in passing. 

Loon. — One species sometimes strays into this locality from the North. 

Grebes. — The horned and the pied-billed grebes are occasional. One 
or two other species very rare. 


As there are no lakes or large streams in Marion County, the number 
and variety of fishes are limited, especially in these days of mill-dams and 
city sewage. There are nine mill-dams on the Scioto above Columbus, 
and two below. 

Stickleback Family. — This furnishes the chief game fish, as bass and 
sun-fish. The local names of these fish are so various that we scarcely know 
how to refer tu them; but we may venture to name the black bass, the green 
or Oswego bass, the big black sun-fish or rock bass, goggle-eye, and the two 
common sun-fish, all of which have materially diminished within the last 
five years. 

Perch Family. — There are no perch, or "jack salmon," in the county. 
They were once common throughout the State, but now are only to be found 
occasionally in some of the most favored places. They are among the fin- 
est fishes, and ought to be cultivated. The salmon sometimes attains a 
weight oE forty pounds. 

Pike Family. — The larger pike, sometimes called "grass pike," used 
to be met with, especially in draining off the marshes. The pickerel was 
also native here, but none are to be found at the present day. Nor have 
gar pike ("gars") existed here since the age of mill-dams came in. 

Sucker Family. — To this family belong the buffalo (rare), red horse 
(occasional) and the white sucker (also occasional). Black suckers and 
mullets still thrive in some parts of Ohio, but not here. 

Catfish Family. — Fish of this family are still common, but are small, 
weighing only a pound or two. We can scarcely name the species in En- 
glish. Perhaps we may say the channel, or mud cattish, the blue and the 
yellow, the bull-head and one or two other small species are found in Mar- 
ion County. The yellow are the most common. 

Minor Sorts. — Besides the above, there are several varieties of chubs, 
silver-sides, and large numbers of other species, denominated minnows, 
which are found in the smallest spring branches as well as the larger 

Fish planting has not yet been introduced into this county. 


Ohio is notable for the number of species of Tortoises found within its 
limits. In this respect it exceeds the number in Europe several times. 
The snapping and soft-shelled turtles are at home here, and the box or land 
tortoise, or terrapin, is now very rare. Nearly all the species are esteemed 
as food, and the snapper is sold in the city markets. Not so large speci- 
mens are found now as formerly. 

Of the twenty-three species of Snakes that have existed in this State, 
and probably in this county, several of the largest have been about exter- 
minated. Only two of them are venomous, namely, the copperhead, and 




the niassasauger. Very few of these are to be found at the present day. 
The smaller species are useful animals, like toads, in destroying mice, moles 
and other vermin, and are preserved by intelligent farmers on this ac- 

Of Lizards there are very few in this section. Those creatures which 
resemble them are innocent salamanders, and are really as useful as toads 
in the destruction of flies and other insects. There are eighteen species of 
these animals in Ohio. The largest attains a length of eight inches, and 
is black, with large, irregular yellow spots. Another large species is en- 
tirely yellow; another, of a brilliant Vermillion, haunts cold springs. The 
second in size is the "mud alligator," or "water dog," a frequent annoy- 
ance to fishermen. Still another Species has external gills, for respiration 
in water, thus resembling pollywogs. 

Of Frogs there are five species, and of toads five. Four are tree toads. 
One species of frog is subterranean, excavating its burrows backward with 
its hind feet, which are shovel- formed. It comes to the surface to breed, 
after thunder-showers in April, in the evening, when it is easily recognized 
by its loud, discordant notes. 


A Wolf Story — John R. Knapp relates the following, as having oc- 
curred in Big Island Township in early day: 

Sam Britton, an eccentric young man, who was not afraid of anything 
or anybody, used to lend a hand in the sugar-making season and make 
himself generally useful, and sometimes, when he took it into his head, ob- 
noxious. On one occasion, a dark and rainy night, he became irritated by 
something that occurred and bade the boys good-bye, saying that he was 
going home, when, in fact, his intention was to visit a neighboring sugar 
•camp. He had not trudged his way through the darkness long, before a 
pack of wolves took after him, and he was obliged to drop in at an old, de- 
serted cabin, at onu end of which was a shelf about thirty inches wide, and 
some eight or ten feet from the ground. Sam lost no time in securing this 
place of refuge, for he had hardly got into his quarters before the whole 
cabin floor was crowded with wolves, some howling, some snapping their 
teeth and others jumping up for their prey. When Sam looked down on 
those " varmints, " he saw their eyes glistening in the darkness like balls of 
lire, and had serious fears of becoming food for the beasts; but as he had 
about eight inches to " count on," he hugged the cabin wall so close as to 
make him sweat. 

All night long the wolves kept up their revelry, seemingly taking their 
turns in jumping at him. It was fortunate for him that the shelf was so 
high from the floor, or he would have been a " gone Sammy, sure !" As 
daylight approached, his tormentors left him — greatly to his relief. On 
examining the front part of the shelf, it was found that at least two inches 
of it had been torn off in pieces by the wolves, in their desperate efforts to 
capture their prey. 

Sam returned to the camp he had left in such high dudgeon the previous 
night, a wiser boy, and relished a square meal of fat pork and corn bread. 

As late as May, 1861, $72.25 was offered for each wolf killed in Grand 
Prairie Township, and $15 for each whelp. 

An Escaped Leopard. — During the year 1875, there appeared in the 
woods of Grand Township, this county, and Marseilles Township, Wyandot 
County, a furious animal, taken to be a panther or huge Canada lynx. The 



citizens were frightened, and some depredations upon domestic animals in 
the vicinity were attributed to this ferocious beast. Ominous accounts were 
given of it from time to time, by those who professed to have obtained 
more or less clear sights of the creature until November, 1877, when it at- 
tacked a number of men in Union County and wounded' them severely. 
Several contests were had with him from time to time, and yet it was not 
settled by the public what the animal was. Some thought it was a lioness. 
Tho people were greatly alarmed, while they knew the " critter" was still 
alive and roaming at large. 

On Saturday, December 1, 1877, a man named Burnison, an engineer 
of the Chicago, Cincinnati, Columbus & Indianapolis Railroad, was out 
hunting birds about two miles from New* Bloomington, this county, when 
he came across the beast beside a log. He was in a position ready for a 
spring, and waving his tail from side to side preparatory to the leap. Mr. 
Burnison, knowing that his shot-gun was no defense against the monster, 
raised it toward Lim and walked backward, facing him; but the leopard 
did not follow. Mr. B. hastened back to New Bloomington, and raised the 
alarm for assistance. At once Ed Kessler and Samuel Johnson ai'med them- 
selves, went out and found the animal. Kessler tired first, with his heavy 
rifle, but did not wound him severely. Johnson then fired, with but little 
better effect. The beast then attacked Johnson, striking him down and 
tearing the side of his face and neck pretty badly. Kessler then struck 
the animal across the back with his gun, crippling the animal and breaking 
the stook from the barrel of his gun. He seized the barrel, and a man 
named Moore attacked the leopard with an ax, pounding it upon the head, 
and the two together, after a desperate fight, succeeded in killing the 

The dead leopard, a beautiful animal, was then brought to Marion, and 
exhibited in the city hall at 10 cents a head, and hundreds went to see it. 
It was found to measure seven feet in length and weigh 128 pounds. It 
was a male, and doubtless had escaped from a traveling menagerie. 

Before the close of the month (December, 1877), a tiger or similar ani- 
mal was observed in the woods near New Bloomington. 


In respect to the climate, Marion County is situated near the northern 
side of what might be termed the " mud belt," the central part being the 
Ohio River; that is, the winters seldom keep the ground constantly frozen, 
and from November to April there is a continual strife between the cold 
zone of the north and the warm zone of the south, as to which shall have the 
mastery. From May to October the average temperature of the atmos- 
phere is delightful. 

From 1865 to 1871, a period of nearly 3even years, the average spring 
temperature, as observed by Harry True, was 48.4°; summer, 71.1°; au- 
tumn, 53.5°; winter, 27.2°; the year, 50.1°. This is about two degrees 
warmer than at Cleveland, and two to five degrees cooler than at Cincin- 

The principal storms and frosts that have done damage to property and 
life in this county are as follows: In 1825 occurred the famous hurricanes 
in Bowling Green and Scott Townships, sweeping the ground in places so 
that it could b« immediately cultivated. A full account is given in the his- 
tory of those townships. In June, 1835, a severe frost killed the growing 
wheat and even the young leaves on the oaks of the forest, making them 


appear as if lire had gone through thera. Also, this year a heavy wind did 
considerable damage. In 1842, a wind carried light timbers through the 
air, and overthrew many light structures. In 1847, a damaging frost oc- 
curred out of season. About 1848, a high wind did some damage at Mar- 
ion, blowing down the gable of the Presbyterian Cburch, carrying the roof 
away, etc., and doing other mischief in the vicinity. In 1855, there was 
frost every' month in the year. August 18, this year, it injured the corn 
and killed the buckwheat. Sunday morning, June 4, 1859, a frost occurred 
which considerably damaged all the crops, though utterly destroying none 
except the tender garden vegetables and fruits. 

The wettest seasons have been 1844, 1855 and 1S83. Several other sea- 
sons, it has been too wet in May and June to permit the crops to have a 
good start. 

The prevailing wind, or upper current of the atmosphere, in this part of 
Ohio, is from the southwest, which comes circling round from the Gulf of 
Mexico, loaded with moisture. In the summer time, when a cold body of 
air sets in from the northern section of the Rocky Mountains, this moisture 
is condensed at the point of contact, and rain results. This is the cause of 
all the rain we have here. This same body of cooler air continues to move 
along until its front portion has passed along to the east or southeast, and 
thus we always have our clearing oft with a western or northwestern cooler 
breeze. In winter, the process is precisely the same, only the product is 
snow instead of rain. In the nature of the case, the ground current has 
more or less to take an opposite direction, as all wind is really a rolling or 
whirling motion of the air, and we see the rain or snow precipitated upon 
the ground and objects thereon with a western movement, striking the east 
side of houses, etc. 

Hail storms and hurricanes seldom occur in Marion County. 

From 1864 to 1871, the depth of rain, including the snow as melted, 
was an average, for the spring months, of 10.5 inches; summer, 11.2 inches; 
autumn, 8.8; winter, 8.2 inches; for the year, 38.7 inches. At the village 
of Marion, it was 40 inches; at Cincinnati, 46, and along the shore of 
Lake Erie, 32 to 34 inches. 





" The mighty oak, proud monarch of the wood, 
Upon this land in stately grandeur stood: 
Throughout the wilds did mortal panthers prowl, 
And oft was heard the wolf's terrific howl. 
But all these savage beasts have passed away, 
And the wild Indians, too, where are they? 
They 've disappeared, or to the West have gone, 
Like night's dark shades before the rising dawn. 
Can we forget that brave and hardy band, 
Who made their homes first in this Western land? 
Their names should be enrolled on history's page, 
To be preserved by each succeeding age. 
They were the fathers of the mighty West, 
Whose victory of labor stands confessed; 
Before them fell the forest of the plain, 
And peace and plenty followed in the train." 

EVIDENCE of the occupation of this region before the appearance of 
the red man and the white race is to be found in almost every part 
of the county, as well as throughout the northwest generally. In remov- 
ing the gravel bluffs, which are numerous and deep, for the construction 
and repair of roads, and in excavating cellars, hundreds of human skele- 
tons, some of them of giant form, with fine specimens of ancient pottery 
and other curious relics, have been found. A citizen of Marion estimates 
that there were about as many human skeletons in the knolls of Marion 
County as there are white inhabitants at present! These sand and gravel 
bluffs appear in almost every part of the county, resembling small islands, 
and covered by timber — mostly young oak. Many stone axes, fleshers, spear 
heads and arrow points of flint, stone beads and pick-shaped implements, 
including perforated tubes and flat, neatly polished plates of a greenish- 
gray species of slate, have been plowed up by farmers along the Olentangy 
(Whetstone) and the Scioto. The earthworks, such as intrenchments and 
mounds, probably owing to the level nature of the surface and the fact that 
the gravel knolls were utilized by the early occupants as burial sites and 
places of observation, are not numerous. It seems quite clear that the first 
race must have been somewhat advanced in the art of self-defense and ag- 
riculture, and resided in villages, as is attested by the relics still found in 
their original position. 

Prof. Alexander Winchell, of the Michigan State University, however, 
holds the opinion that all the works of the so-called "Mound-Builders" and 
racfis superior to the present red man were done by the ancestors of the 
present Indians, who were more inventive and enterprising than their de- 
scendants are, like the peoples around the Mediterranean. "While the stone 
axes hammers, mortars and finer relics, made of the beautiful grayish var- 
iegated slate found scattered all over Northern Ohio, have been attributed 
to the mechanism and genius of the "Mound-Builders," there is a suspi- 


cion that they were really the work of the Eries, for the modern Sioux, the 
Chippewa and some of the Hudson Bay tribes make stone axes, pipes and 
ornamental implements fully a* beautiful and as highly finished as those 
found in Ohio. 

On pages 174 to 177 of this volume, reference is made to the works of 
"Indians," " Mound-Builders," etc., which can be traced in great numbers 
throughout the State of Ohio, and in Marion County a respectable share of 
these mounds and relics of antiquity are found. Thousands of these relics 
have been collected by resident parties, some of the principal of which de- 
serve particular mention. 

f. c. kuehrmund's collection. 

Probably the best collection of American antiquities in Marion County 
is made by the industrious hands of Mr. Ferdinand C. Buehrmund, of the 
village of Marion. His specimens are all numbered and catalogued, and 
indeed, scientifically arranged, and he can give the friendly visitor consid- 
erable information concerning them — probably all that is known — besides 
many of the theories of antiquarians. 

Nos. 1 to 35. — Arrowheads found in the different parts of Marion Coun- 
ty, most of them about the junction of the east and west forks of the Whet- 
stone Biver, near some ancient mounds east of the village of Caledonia. 

Nos. 36 to 43. — Spear heads found mostly in the same locality as the arrow- 
heads above spoken of. 

These articles are generally made from flint or flint-like stone, in size 
from a half inch in length to five or six inches. But some of them are 
made even from quartzose rock, sandstone, etc. It is yet a mystery how 
these little implements were manufactured. They appear as if they were 
formed by the chipping off of pieces — an accomplishment unattainable by 
the white man of the present day. 

No. 44. — A remarkable spear head found in Schuylkill County, Penn., by 
Jack Kade. 

No. 45. — Amulet or charm, from a garden near Upper Sandusky, Ohio. 

No 46. — Spoon-like chisel or scraper, found near the ancient earth- 
works east of Caledonia. 

No. 47. — Pipe bowl, said to be found seventy feet below the surface in 
a mound in AVood County, Ohio. 

Nos. 48 to 51. — Implements and ornaments found east of Caledonia. One 
of these was probably used for rubbing or dressing hides, and seems to be 
the product of more modern times. 

Nos. 52 and 53. — Implements found near the Whetstone Biver in the 
neighborhood of Caledonia. From the peculiar manner in which they are 
pierced, one might suppose that they were used for tools for some mechan- 
ical operation, as smoothing a surface, etc. ; or they may have been worn 
around the neck or otherwise as ornaments. How strikingly is this an il- 
lustration of the Spencerian law of differentiation of function! At first, sim- 
ple and homogeneous in structure, and multifarious and indefinite in use, 
and afterward more and more heterogeneous in structure, specialized in 
function and limited and definite in use. 

No. 54. — Bing and wampum bead found in a grave in Ontario County, 
N. Y., a hieroglyphic on the ring. 

No. 55. — Ball of war club, found about four miles from Marion, near 
the Scioto Biver, by Squire Freeman. It has been suggested that the In- 
dians used this article as a weight or sinker for their Ashing nets, but this 


is improbable. More likely it was used for striking or pounding, as we do 
with a maul or beetle, a handle being secured to it around the groove by 
means of thongs. 

Nos. 56 to 00. — Stone wedges, or possibly battle axes, mostly from near 
Caledonia. These may have been used for domestic or mechanical pur- 
poses; but from the fact that they are mostly found in localities where ar- 
row heads, spear heads and battle-axes are abundant, and which localities 
may therefore be considered as ancient battle-fields, it may be inferred 
that they are primitive and very ancient battle-axes — that they were per- 
haps the first effort of a people to produce such a weapon; and that, in the 
course of time, as the arts of these ancient people advanced, they produced 
a more ax- like weapon. 

No. 61. — Same as the preceding, but found near Marion. It has lain in 
the ground so long that a calcareous incrustation has formed upon its sur- 

No. 62. — Fragment similar to the foregoing. It is doubtful whether 
the hand of man or the action of water has produced its peculiar shape. 

No. 63. — Miniature battle-ax, probably, and found in the garden of S. 
Devore, Caledonia, Ohio. 

No. 64. — Battle-ax found east of Caledonia. 

No. 65. — Fragment of a battle-ax of a very fine finish, found on the 
farm of John Fields, between Caledonia and Claridon. The material is 
similar to the celebrated Minnesota pipe stone. 

No. 66. — A small battle-ax from near Caledonia; has been much or 
badly used. 

No. 67. — A splendid specimen of battle-ax, weighing seven pounds 
two ounces, from the farm of Jonathan Miles, about two miles in a south- 
westerly direction from the ancient mound east of Caledonia. From the 
vast number of war implements in that locality, it is inferable that a bat- 
tle was once fought there by the "Mound-Builders," where one party was de- 
feated and precipitately put to flight. These implements are so heavy that 
not many of them could be carried away in haste. 

No. 68. — Spear head, a fine specimen, from the vicinity of Ostrander, Del- 
aware County, Ohio. 

No. 69.— A fine battle- ax, discovered in 1845, one and one-half miles 
northeast of Caledonia, by Noah Lee. 

No. 70. — Stone tube, found by Noah Lee at the above place. Suppose d 
to have been used by the American ancients as a spyglass. 

No. 71. — Stone hammer from Montgomery Township. 

No. 72. — Celt, from Big Island Township, near the Little Scioto. 

No. 73. — Fragment. 

Nos. 74 to 78. — Arrow-heads from last named locality. 

No. 79. — Celt, or incipient battle ax. 

No. 80. — Fragment of battle- ax from near Cardington, Ohio. 

Nos. 81 and 82. — Celts from the vicinity of La Rue. 

Nos. 84 to 97. — Arrow-heads from various parts of the county. 

No. 98. — A fine celt from Pleasant Township. 

No. 99. — Stone auger or gimlet from two miles south of Marion; rare 
and valuable. 

No. 100. — Flint hachet from Pleasant Township; rare and valuable. 

No. 101. — Specimen of ancient pottery from a gravel bank southwest of 
Marion. This is a fragment of a large pot which when found contained a 
human skull. It was accidentally broken by the digger's pick. 


No. 102. — Stone hammer and pestle. 

Nos. 103 to 109. — Arrow-beads; one very petite. 

No. 110. — Celt, flat, or slightly concave on one side, a rare feature, as 
all others found are wodge-sbaped, both faces being convex. 

No. 111. — Indian tomahawk, modern. 

No. 112. — Iron arrow- head, modern. 

No. 113. — Arrows, modern, from the Indians in the West. 

No. 114. — Spear-head, found in the village of Marion. 

No. 115. — Celt, from near Cardington, 

Nos. 116 to 119. — Fragments of ornaments or emblems, from near Car- 

Nos. 120 to 167. — Arrow-heads, celts, fragments, etc., from various 
parts of Marion County. 

No. 168. — Stone tube with a flat exterior. 

No. 169. — Limestone arrowhead. 

No. 170.— Flint knife. 

Nos. 171 to 174. — Fragments. 

Mr. Ruehrmund has also interesting geological and numismatic collec- 
tions. Many of the fossils are from various portions of Marion County. 



Dr. J. W. Devore, near Claridon, has an interesting cabinet of Indian 
curiosities and relics, among them a large Indian skeleton. 

Dr. H. A. True (deceased), of Marion, formerly had a large and fine 
•collection in this line, but it was destroyed by the tire which consumed the 
Masonic Block in 1877. Among his specimens was a magnificent earthen 
bowl, holding about a quart, found upon the farm of Dr. Bowdish, five 
miles west of town. In form it was between a pitcher and a rude jug, and 
it had a round bottom. Upon it were engraved rude characters, which some 
have thought were hieroglyphics, but were probably only decorative. 

Harry True, son of the preceding, has commenced another collection of 
archaeological specimens, as well as geological and numismatic. 

On the farm of J. J. Myers, two miles south of Marion, there were 
found, in digging a cellar, bears' teeth and claws and skulls, and bones of 
large size, but no implements. 

In some parts of the county, many arrow-heads, javelins and axes have 
been found, and some badges of a semi-lunar form, with a hole drilled 
through the middle, which were probably carried around on a pole. 

About 1846, a stone hatchet was dug up in a well at a depth of twenty- 
six feet on the premises of James Hipsher, in the northeastern part of this 
county, and was, at least until recently, in the possession of Hunter & Hip- 
sher, dry goods merchants, Caledonia. This, and similar discoveries else- 
where in the country, constitute an unsolved puzzle among the antiquarians. 


It is a matter of speculation whether the ancient Eries first succeeded 
the so-called Mound Builders. The Indian tradition is that the Eries were 
a very numerous and powerful people, and according to the Jesuit fathers, 
resided in intrenched or stockaded villages called "castles." They were 
evidently far in advance of the modern red man in the art of self-defense 
and in the cultivation of the soil. They inhabited a large part of Northern 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, and gave name to the beautiful lake on the north 
of the State. They must have been numerous along the great streams, es- 


pecially upon the rich alluvial bottoms and valleys, as the sites of their 
ancient villages and remnants of stockaded intrenchments fully attest. 
They finally fell before the powerful confederacy of the Five Nations or 
Iroquois, about the year 1C55. The whole nation seems to have been ex- 
terminated or incorporated with their conquerors. 


The date of the arrival of the Wyandots and Ottawas in Ohio cannot be 
fixed with entire certainty, but is supposed to have been some time between 
1700 and 1725. After the fall of the Eries in 1655, the Iroquois made a 
raid upon those nations then residing in the vicinity of Lake Huron. 
After a severe struggle, the Iroquois compelled tbe Wyandots and Ottawas 
to seek an asylum among the friendly nations of the upper lakes, where 
they are supposed to have remained about seventy or eighty years, and then 
gradually returned to the vicinity of what is now Detroit, Mich., and subse- 
quently passed around the head of Lake Erie and took possession of the 
greater part of Northern and Central Ohio. During the colonial period, 
they often came in contact with the border settlers of Pennsylvania and 
Virginia. The seat of the Hurons or Wyandots was upon the Sandusky 
Plains and along that stream. They sold their reservation adjoining Mar- 
ion County and were removed to the Indian Territory, southwest of Mis- 
souri, in 1842-43. From 1820 to the time of their removal, Marion was 
visited thousands of times by the chiefs and leading hunters of the Wyan- 
dot nation for the purpose of disposing of peltry and furs in exchange for 
tobacco, ammunition, clothing, and other articles of prime necessity. The 
pioneers of Marion County speak very kindly of the Wyandots as a people, 
and give them a high character for integrity, fidelity and intelligence. 
Among them are favorably remembered Crane, Sunimundewat, Roanyennes, 
the Walkers, Garretts, Armstrongs, the chief and others. 

A remnant of the Delawares, or Lenni Lenapes, had a reservation on 
the north side of Marion, three miles square. The Lenapes or Delawares 
immigrated from the region of Philadelphia, Penn.,to the Wyoming Valley, 
and thence to the Tuscarawas, Ohio, some time before the Revolutionary 
war. In 1781, the Moravian converts, including Heckawelda and other 
missionary teachers, were forcibly compelled by the elder Capt. Pipe and 
Half-King to abandon their homes on the Tuscarawas and remove to the 
Sandusky region, soon after which a large number returned together and 
removed their corn crops, when they were surprised by Williamson and his 
rangers, captured and murdered in cold blood. 


The Wyandot tribes of Indians have marked the early history of Ohio 
with many bloody pages. More brave than many of their kindred, vindic- 
tive and revengeful, the mighty Huron waged war upon the early whites 
and carried to captivity so many persons that special expeditions were nec- 
essary for their recovery. Novel, story and song have all united in em- 
balming the Huron in the pages of history, legend and vei>e. To them, 
with the Delawares, we are indebted for that awful scene of savage barbar- 
ity enacted upon the border lines of our own county, and the events in part 
embracing our territorial area, that after the lapse of a hundred years yet 
brings to the eye of the reader a tear and makes the blood recede and chill — 
the burning and torture of Col. William Crawford in the campaign 
against Sandusky. Col. Crawford was a relative of George Crawford, of the 


Independent; he was a brave officer of the Revolutionary war, and an es- 
pecial favorite and friend of Washington, whose companion and associate 
he had been in the pursuits both of war and of peace. Equal in age and 
of similar tastes, both had served under Braddock, the ill-fated commander 
of 1755. They were in company at Fort Duquesne and were heroes of the 
Revolutionary war. Crawford was the trusted agent of AVashington, and 
served him in that capacity. In the spring of 1782, the Indians and the 
whites adjacent to the frontier settlements of the Ohio Valley were mu- 
tually exasperated by the series of massacres and reprisals that had charac- 
terized the preceding years. It was therefore considered to be essential to 
the safety of the settlements that the spirit of the Ohio Indian should be 
broken, and especially the Wyaudots of the Sandusky plains. In May, 1782, 
an expeditionary force for the purpose of destroying the Wyandot villages was 
called together near the present site of Steubenville, and 500 men — volun- 
teers — formed a mounted battalion, eager to meet the Huron in his 
home, and satisfy a love of adventure that at the time was prevalent. Col. 
Crawford, noted for his knowledge of Indian warfare, was by a narrow ma- 
jority vote selected as the leader of the expedition. The force rapidly 
moved west on the trails, and early in June arrived near the Wyandot 
villages. On the fourth of that month, at a place three miles north of the 
present site of Tipper Sandusky, called to this day " battle island," the In- 
dians in force attacked and defeated the troops under Crawford. By acci- 
dent, the leader was captured, and with Dr. Knight, his companion, con- 
ducted to the Indian villages. Capt. Pipe, chief of the Delawares, and 
his tribe received Crawford as their prize. He was doomed to die, and at 
a point on the Tymochtee Creek, the site of a Delaware town, this brave 
spirit suffered death in the most terrible form. He was tortured to death 
at the stake. The history of the burning is told by Dr. Knight in a few 
words that depict the horror of the martyrdom in all its terrible details. 
Crawford was taken to the stake, a post fifteen feet high, stripped naked, 
and by thongs around the wrists, he was fastened to the post in such a 
manner as to permit freedom of movement in a circle about the post to the 
extent of the length of the thong until it wrapped about it a few times. 
His hands were behind his back. He was beaten with sticks and fists; 
blank charges of powder were fired into every portion of his body; embers 
were thrown over him. He walked, half roasted, on a bed of coals that 
cooled under his tread; he was made blind; a squaw tore off the scalp lock 
from his head, and upon the bare and bloody spot live embers were placed. 
For hours this victim of savage hate suffered, and when death came, a 
happy release, thu body was thrown upon the fire and consumed ! Thus 
miserably perished one of the bravest men that the border warfare of our 
early history produced. The Delawares executed Crawford by right of 
capture, a Delaware having had that no mean honor, as it was considered 
among the tribes. 


Adam Poe, Simon Kenton and others of the border heroes considered 
the Wyandot tribe to be the most brave, warlike and intelligent of the In- 
dians of the Ohio region. Marion County pioneers formed many lasting 
friendships with the Indians of both the Wyandots and Delawares, who 
continued to reside upon their reservation many years after the peace of 
1814. As late as 1817, by a treaty concluded by Lewis Cass and Duncan 
McArthur, the Wyandots were granted a reservation twelve miles square, 
the southern border being but four miles north of Marion Countv. The 


Delawares received at the same time a tract ten miles square adjoining and 
south of the Wyandot reserve. The Delawares in 1829, and the Wyandots 
in 1842, ceded their lands and reluctantly removed to the West. Marion 
was a favorite trading point with the descendants of this warlike race, and 
the stores of the town in the days of 1824 to 1840 were frequented by 
" braves," in whose veins ran the blood of Cooper's heroic Huron, now en- 
gaged in practicing the arts of peace, beating down prices of sugar and 
whisky and endeavoring to raise the standard value of skins or a deer sad- 
dle. Many anecdotes of interest relative to the Indians of this tribe, in 
their association with our pioneers, are related in these pages under appro- 
priate chapters. 

The Wyandots formerly occupied the region of the Scioto and were al- 
ways attached to the country. They gave the name of the river, calling it 
in their native tongue " Sci-ou-to." In all the treaty negotiations for the 
cession of the lands on the Scioto and including Marion County, these In- 
dians were treated with. The various expeditions against the Indians 
of the Northwest Territory under Wilkinson, Harmar, St. Clair, Crawford and 
others— seemed fruitless of results, save loss of life and immense expendi- 


It was not until Gen. Wayne, known as "Mad Anthony," of Stony Point 
fame, defeated the confederated tribes under the lead of Blue Jacket, at the 
battle of "Fallen Timbers," on the Maumee,in 1794, that peace was assured 
the settlements. The power of the tribes was broken at Greenville. On 
the 3d of August, 1795, twelve chiefs signed the famous treaty that es- 
tablished the line on the southern boundary of a portion of Marion County 
and known as the "Greenville Treaty Line." The Wyandot, Delaware 
and Shawnee chiefs signed this treaty. By thn operation of this agree- 
ment, the entire country south of the treaty line was ceded to the Govern- 
ment, and all the tribes of Ohio passed into the confines north of the line, 
while to the operations of Wayne the settlers are indebted for the peace 
that followed. The region north of the line was, to some extent, retarded 
in its development. Subsequent treaties were necessary, and a long series 
of negotiations were requisite to secure the extinguishment of the title to our 
lands, that the terms of this treaty firmly established with the Indians, as 
firm as it protected the residents south of its limitations. As this famous 
document was of so much moment in the early settlement of Marion County 
in its influence and relation to the history of its settlement, we append the 
article thereof that formed the boundary rights and the restrictive clauses. 
It reads as follows: " The general boundary line between the lands of 
the United States and the lands of the said Indian tribes shall begin at the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga River and run thence up the same to the Portage 
between that and the Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum; thence down 
the branch to the crossing place above Fort Laurens ; thence westerly to a fork 
of that branch of the Great Miami River running into the Ohio, at or near 
which fork stood Loromie's store, and where commenced the portage between 
the Miami of the Ohio and St. Marys River, which is a branch of the Miami 
which runs into Lake Erie; thence, a westerly course to Fort Recovery, 
which stands on the branch of the Wabash; thence southerly in a direct line 
to the Ohio, so as to intersect that river opposite the mouth of the Kentucky 
or Cuttawa River." 

Ind.ians were yet quite numerous in this locality when the early settlers 
first came. Capt. Hiram Knowles says that he has frequently seen more 


than 100 of these dusky inhabitants of the forest camped on the place now 
owned by Mrs. Kennedy, near what is called the " Willow Swamp." He 
also remembers distinctly of seeing the noted Indian, Tom Lyons. Often 
Lyons had been at the house of Mr. Knowles' father and there partaken of 
the hospitality of the kind old gentleman. Tom Lyons for a time lived in 
the eastern portion of Claridon Township, and it is said he had arrived at 
the advanced age of one hundred and thirty years. 

His squaw is reputed to have been one of the finest looking squaws of 
the great Wyandot tribe, being, in fact, a queen of beauty among them. 
Lyons was very proud of her, and kept her dressed in the height of Indian 
fashion, and did not compel her to perform menial labor, as is the custom 
among the Indians. Lyons was a strong, powerful man, and had boasted 
of having killed ninety-nine white men, and desired to take the life of 
another to make the even 100 before he was called thither to the happy 
hunting grounds. But Samuel Spurgeon, who, in common with many 
other white men of his acquaintance, did not enjoy such boasting, met him 
alone one day in the woods and offered Lyons an opportunity to make him 
the hundredth victim, bat Lyons failing in his aim, Spurgeon shot light 
ning through him and left his body lying in the forest to be devoured by 
the wild animals. 


Capt. George Beckley used to say that his father's family arrived in 
November, 1821, and having located in the vicinity of the ancient trail, 
leading from Sandusky to Owl Creek, was visited by hundreds of Wyandots 
.and Delawares annually during tho hunting season. His father having re- 
sided in Dauphin County, Penn. , and being able to converse fluently in the Ger- 
man language, was soon visited by Tom Lyons, the old Delaware, and a warm 
friendship sprang up between them. Tom spoke German, and was pleased 
to meet another Dutchman. The interview is thus related by Capt. Beck- 

" Early on the morning, after our arrival at our new home, I took my 
rifle and started to view the surroundings along the Indian trail. I had 
gone but a short way (where Uriah Hipsher's field now is) until 1 found 
plenty of shell-bark hickory trees, and the ground under them well be- 
strewed with nuts. I sat my gun against a tree and commenced gathering 
the nuts. Just imagine my surprise when the first object I beheld on look- 
ing up was an Indian standing between myself and my gun; and I had 
heard and read so many terrible narratives of savage atrocities, that it made 
my blood curdle. But to my great joy he extended to me his hand, which 
I grasped with the usual salutations. He spoke good English, wore a pair 
of blue broadcloth leggins with red listing about an inch wide on the out- 
side of each, and tied with garters; a neat blanket wrapped around him, 
secured with a belt, and his head dress was a small red shawl folded and 
tied around his head with the corners hanging down his back, leaving the 
crown of his head uncovered, and a neat pair of buckskin moccasins on his 
feet. I afterward learned that his name was Ditta Wawney. I shouldered 
my gun and returned with him to the cabin, he continuing on his way 
toward Owl Creek. 

" But a day or two after that we espied another, an old Indian, riding 
around a large oak tree near the cabin, who was very attentively looking at 
the top of this tree, saying there had been honey bees in that tree. He 
came to the house, dismounted, took his saddle, blankets, and other lading 


off, and hobbled his pony by tying his fore legs together so near that he 
could not step more than a few inches at a step. We invited him into the 
new cabin, but I suppose he would have walked right in if he had not been 
invited. He was a great talker; could speak English or German. He said 
he was a hundred and sixty-five years old. Be that as it may, he was an 
old man and had seen sights. He soon discovered that my father was a 
German. He accordingly asked where he hailed from. My father said 
from Pennsylvania. ' Oh, me all over Pennsylvania, Susquehanna, La- 
vatarra, Schuylkill, Lehigh and Delaware Rivers.' Then my father told 
him he was from Lebanon, formerly Lancaster County. Then our guest men- 
tioned the names of several of the small villages, as Reading, Cootstown, Harris- 
burg, and even the names of several of the early settlers of that locality 
with whom my father was well acquainted. He had much to say about 
"Wyoming. He said, ' Me fought hard at Wyomee.' He had much tojsay 
about Gen. Wayne. He said his father was* a chief of the Delaware na- 
tion; that his father, the chief, sent him with some other Indians to Gen. 
Wayne's headquarters: ' Gen. Wayne asked what my name is; me say me 
got no white man name; then Gen. Wayne says I give you a name; I call 
you Thomas Lyons; and that is the way I got my name. Gen. Wayne 
give a coat — a nice coat; a General's coat — Oh, very good man, Gen. 
Wayne, very good man! very good man! ' He afterward often visited the 
old Dutchman, as he called him. 

" A few anecdotes about our venerable hero. Tom Lyons, might be in- 
teresting to some of your young readers. He was a notable personage all 
over this part of the State at that time, both among the palefaces and In- 
dians. He had his friends and his enemies, and the way he made many 
enemies was in relating incidents of the wars through which he had passed. He 
once told Joseph Riley of his valor in some of the massacres on the Del- 
aware River. Then said Mr. Riley to him, ' Did you know Tom Quick on 
the Delaware River?' Evidently the old Indian was offended when he 
was asked that question, as he sat mute and motionless as a statue, and 
there the conversation ended. 

" This Tom Quick had several relatives killed by the Indians, for which 
his vengeance never slumbered, and when he had grown up to manhood he 
took the warpath after them, and woe be to the Indian when Tom was 
fairly on his track. He was about an equal to the Wetsels and Poes on 
the Ohio River. 

" At other times when he related his war stories, as old heroes are apt 
to do, he would bring down upon himself the ire and indignation of those 
who heard him. They would in return mete out to him rough words. 
Then he would tell them how the women and children would cry (mimick- 
ing them) when they were in the act of slaughtering them. These were 
current reports about him, and were generally believed to be true, but he 
never talked in that way at our house; perhaps because we never gave him 
any offense. He, with his son George Lyons and Jerry Killback, was en- 
camped one winter for a few weeks east of Whetstone, on the land now 
owned by Jacob Slagle. The old man was very sick. After he was able to 
walk over to Mr. Parcel's, he went there occasionally. He told them he 
had been very sick, very sick — no devil come yet.' 

" The question has often been asked, 'What became of old Tom Lyons?' 
It has been asserted that he died a natural death at Pipestown, on the 
Delaware reservation. Again it has been stated that he was shot by some 
white hunter because he exhibited a string containing ninety-nine human 


tongues! The better belief is that old Tom was shot in his wigwam, near 
Fort Ball, by two hunters from Delaware County, whose nam^s were well 
known to old citizens of Marion. He is believed to have been over one 
hundred years old at his death, which occurred about 1824. Poor old Tom 
left many friends in Ashland County. 

"Capt. Pipe, Jr.. formerly lived at Greentown, and is believed to have 
been the son of old Capt. Pipe, who burned poor Col. William Crawford in 
1782 on the Tymochtee. He was not so well known to the people of Mar- 
ion. He occasionally called w T ith his people to trade with the early mer- 
chants. He was a small, rather spare man, and taciturn in disposition. 
Upon the authority of William Walker, we are enabled to state that he 
never married. He removed West with his people and died on their reser- 
vation in 1839 or 1840. Among his own people he was reputed to be a great 
'medicineman.' Keuben Drake, who lived in Grand Prairie Township, 
had two children bitten by a rattlesnake, one of whom died. Having heard 
of Capt. Pipe's' reputation as a 'medicine man,' he sent for him to come 
and cure the other child. Pipe is said to have been somewhat under the 
influence of bad whisky at the time, and refused at first to go; but being 
strongly urged, finally visited the cabin of Mr. Drake. Upon his arrival 
he looked at the child, which was in great pain, exclaiming, ' great pain, 
very sick. ' He then stated he could not do nothing for half an hour, and laid 
down by the cradle and snored soundly for some time, then arose and called 
for milk, which was furnished, when he pounded some roots, which he had 
brought with him, and poured the milk over them and gave the child a 
portion to drink, and applied a lot more in the nature of a poultice, to the 
place bitten, and rocked the child some time in its cradle, when it fell into 
a slumber and soon began to sweat freely; and upon seeing this effect of 
his remedy, the Captain said, 'It get well;' and the child was out of danger 
in a short space of time! " 

Capt. Beckley continues: " We were visited by quite a number of Del- 
awares and Wyandots. from Pipetown and Upper Sandusky. They usually 
passed by this place going from their towns on their reservations to Kill- 
buck Creek in Wayne County, and other parts of their old hunting grounds. 
A few of their name3 were: Jonacake. Standstone, Dowdee, Moonice. 
White Eyes, etc. When they came to a white man's cabin, they expected 
to receive the hospitality of its inmates; if they did not, they were 
much offended. They would say, ' Very bad man, very bad man.' They 
would never accept a bed to sleep upon; all we had to do was to have a 
good back stick on and a few extra pieces of wood, especially in cold weather, 
for them to put on the tire when needed. They usually carry their blank- 
ets, and would spread them on the floor before the fire and give us no 
further trouble; and they would often leave us a saddle of venison or some 
other commodity that they had to spare. We have seen as many as twenty 
or thirty in a caravan pass by here, with their hunting material and equi- 
page packed on their ponies, all in single tile, on their old Sandusky and 
Pipetown trail 

"At one timpi a party of them were encamped over on Shaw Creek, 
where one of their squaws died; her friends, wishing to take her home for 
burial, took the corpse, laid it on a gentle pony, with her head hanging 
down on one side and her feet on the other, tied her securely to the pack 
saddle, and in that way carried her to the place of burial. 

" If we would meet a half-dozen or more of them together, it was seldom 
that we could induce more than one of them to sav one word in English. 


One of them would do all the talking or interpret for the others. Why 
they did so I could not say. Tommy Vanhorn once related an amusing in- 
cident. He had been imbibing a little, and on his way home met one of 
those Indians who could not utter one word of English, but used the pan- 
tomimic language instead — that of gestures or motions. But it so happened 
that, while they were thus conveying their thoughts to each other, Tommy 
stepped around to windward of the red man or the red man got to lee- 
ward of Tommy, and his olfactories not being at fault, inhaled the odor of 
Tommy's breath. He straightened up, looked Tommy square in the face, 
and lo! Mr. Indian's colloquial powers were now complete, saying in as 
good English as Lord Mansheld ever could have uttered: ' Where you get 
whisky ? ' " 

In point of notoriety, Billy Dowdee was nearly equal to Tom Lyons. 
Capt. Beckley relates the following occurrence as given by Benjamin Shar- 
rock, now well advanced in years, and formerly a citizen of Marion 

"About the year 1821 or 1822, there were several Indians who fre- 
quently camped and hunted on the waters of the West and Middle Forks of 
the Whetstone, to wit: Capt. Dowdee, his son Tom, and Capt. Dowdee' s 
son-in-law, Nickels (the bad Indian), the subject of this narrative. He was 
regarded as a dangerous man among his own companions. He had become 
embittered against Benjamin Sharrock, his brother, Everard Sharrock, and 
Jacob Statelei*, who, with his three sons, Andrew, James and John (the 
two latter were twin brothers), lived in a cabin on or near the land now 
owned by George Diegle, Esq., in Tully Township. The Dowdees had fre- 
quently shared the hospitalities of our cabin and we regarded them as peace- 
able and well disposed citizens. 

"Mr. Sharrock, in relating his difficulty with this bad Indian, says: 
' This Indian, Nickels, had been skulking around and watching my house, 
trying to get a chance to shoot me. I have seeci him dodge from tree to 
tree when trying to get a shot at me. He also made threats of killing my 
stock. About this time, he and the two Dowdees were encamped on the 
boundary north of where Iberia now is. Mr. Catrell, my brother and my- 
self held a consultation, whereupon we resolved that this state of things 
should no longer be tolerated, and the next morning was the time agreed 
upon to bring this matter to the test. They were to be at my house fully 
armed for any emergency. They Avere promptly on time, and as Catrell 
had llo gun, he took my tomahawk, sheath knife, etc. 

' In this plight, we went directly to their camp, called Tom Dowdee out 
and ordered him to take those coon skins out of ' them ' frames. (They 
are stretched in frames to dry and keep tbem in shape.) We next went to 
the tent of Tom's father, old Capt. Dowdee, told him how Nickels had 
been watching my house, and that he threatened to kill me and my stock. 
I told him to call Nickels out, but he would not leave his hut. We told 
them we would not endure such treatment any longer, and that we had 
come to settle it right then and there, and were ready to fight it out. Tbe 
Dowdees seemed to be peaceably inclined, and as Nickels did not show 
himself, the matter was dropped for a short time. Some time after this, 
as 1 was returning from Wooster, where I had been to enter a piece of land, 
I saw quite a number of moccasin tracks in the snow near Hosford's. I 
thought there would be trouble, as it appeared from the tracks that there 
were about thirty persons, and by the way they had tumbled about, con- 
cluded that thev were on a big drunk. I followed their tracks from Hosford's 


down the road leading to our cabin. They had not proceeded far before 
they left their tracks in the snow somewhat besprinkled with blood. I 
afterward learned that Tom Dowdee had stabbed another Indian, indicting 
two dangerous wounds. They were camped north of my house on the laud 
now owned by James Dunlap. The excitement among the settlers now 
became intense, and soon a number of us repaired to their camp, but we had 
not been there long before Tom Dowdee rushed upon me and grasped me 
by the collar, perhaps intending to retaliate for the visit we had made to 
their camp a few days before. I was not slow in returning the compliment 
by taking him by the throat; and my arms being the longest, I could easily 
hold him at bay. At this moment we saw an Indian boy loading a gun. I 
told Dowdee several times to let me alone, but he still persisted in lighting 
me. I then attempted to give him a severe thrust with my gun barrel; he 
sprang and grasped the gun which the boy had just loaded, when several of 
the quaws also grasped it to prevent him from shooting me. All this 
time I kept my rifle up with a steady aim upon the Indian, ready to tire 
before he should be able to tire at me. At this crisis Joel Loverick inter- 
fered and the Indians allowed him to take possession of the gun, so the 
quarrel was then settled without bloodshed. But what grieves me to this 
day is that Bashford and Loverick both knew that my rifle was not primed 
all the time I was aiming it at the Indian, and they did not tell me. The 
next day I was out in the woods with my gun, and came upon Dowdee be- 
fore he discovered me. He had no gun with him, and he begged and im- 
plored me not to kill him, promising over and over that if I would not he 
would never molest me, but would be my fast friend as long as he lived. 
I gladly agreed to his proposal, and to his credit be it said, I never saw 
him after that time but that he met me with the kindest greetings. 

"About the same time some of the Indians told Stateler, ' Nickels, bad 
Indian, by and by he go to Stony Creek, before he go he say he kill State- 
ler and two Sharrocks, and we 'fraid that big tight. We want white man 
to kill Nickels, then Indians say Nickels gone to Stony Creek.' 

" We never saw Nickels after about that time, but did not know at what 
moment he would come down upon us. I often asked the Indians whether 
they knew where Nickels was, and they usually replied that he had gone 
to Stony Creek. We had often seen a gun in the settlement, first owned by 
one, then by another, that I believed was Nickels' gun. Jake Stateler 
often stayed with us several weeks at a time, and many times when we 
spoke about those Indians, Jake would say, ' Nickels will never do you any 
hann,' but made no further disclosures until a long while after; when the 
subject again came up, he said: 

' Ben, Nickels will never hurt you nor your brother.' 

' How do you know, Uncle Jake ? ' 

' I know very well how I know, IT nc le Ben.' 

" ' Did you never know what became of Nickels ? ' 
' No, Jake, I never knew what became of him any more than what the 
Indians told me, that he had gone to Stony Creek.' 

" 'I thought my boys had told you long ago, as they always thought so 
much of you. I will then tell you how I know what became of Nickels. After 
he was about ready to start for Stony Creek he had only one more job to 
do before he could leave Pipetown, and that was to kill Stateler and you 
and your brother, if possible. No sooner had Nickels left Pipetown than 
the Indians sent another Indian by a different roitte to give us notice of his 
coming, and of his intentions, desiring us to kill him and they would say 


he bad gone to Stony Creek. The messenger arrived in time and departed. 
I loaded my rifle, put it in good order and went up to Coss' cabin to watch 
tbe Pipetown trail, on which I expected him to come. I did not wait long 
before I saw him coming, and stepping behind a tree, closely watched his 
movements. After he had come within easy range of my rifle, he stopped 
and commenced looking all around, which enabled me to take a steady aim 
at him; I fired, he sprang several! feet from the ground with a terrific 
scream and fell dead, and that was the last of "Bad Indian." We took his 
gun, shot-pouch, tomahawk, butcher-knife, etc., and laid them by a log, 
and buried him under the roots of a large tree that had been blown down 
near the foot of the bluff bank of the "Whetstone, nearly opposite the old 
Coss cabin. Now, Uncle Ben, that is the reason why I know Nickels will 
never do you or me or your brother any harm. ' " 

Capt. Pipe, Jr., had a squaw called his daughter, perhaps adopted. 
He and Silas Armstrong were half-chiefs, in lieu of the chief of Greentown, 
Thomas Armstrong, then dead. These Indians were generally harmless, 
and ranged over the south part of the county in pursuit of deer and other 

Solomon Jonacake, the husband of Sally Williams, was well known to 
the pioneers of Marion. He lived at Pipetown, and had formerly resided 
at Greentown, Ashland County. He was a well developed, good natured, 
friendly hunter, and often visited the settlers in Marion, Bichland and 
Ashland Counties, while encamped in those regions. It was customary for 
Sally and the children to accompany him on his hunting excursions. He 
usually constructed a neat bark wigwam to protect his squaw and children 
from the storms and exposures of the forest, while he ranged the woods in 
search of game. He sometimes exchanged venison for side pork with the 
pioneers, and frequently met parties who had a curiosity to see Sally, who 
was a quarter-blood, and his children. Sally was regarded as a very apt 
housekeeper, and preferred, as far as possible, to imitate the whites. Her 
mother was a Castleman, captured in girlhood, upon the banks of the Ohio, 
in the eastern part of the State, some time after the close of the Bevolution. 
Jonacake went West with his people, where his family grew up, and three 
of his grandsons volunteered and served in the company of Capt. Duff, in 
an Indian company enlisted near Wyandotte, Kan., during the war of 
the rebellion. 

By a treaty concluded at Little Sandusky, August 3, 1829, John Mc- 
Elvain being United States Commissioner, the Dfilawares ceded their reser- 
vation in Marion, Crawford and Wyandot Counties to the United States for 
§3,000, and were conducted, as is believed, by Joseph Chaffee, to a new 
reservation in what is now the State of Kansas. Their journey was across 
Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri to their new home, where most of the 
old people have since gone to the happy land of the Great Spirit. 

Holmes' Meadow, near Marion, constituted the dancing hall of the Wy- 
audots. In 1830, the tribe came down, men and women, all dressed in 
native costume, on ponies, and rode up to the door of every house and re- 
ceived a donation. They then repaired to the meadow and held high car- 
nival until next day, much to the consternation of the white residents, es- 
pecially to one or two doctors, who had obtained a dead Indian for dissec- 
tion arid hid him in the brush, where he was " dissected " by the hogs! 


It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of the 
forest slowly retiring from the home of their childhood, that contained not 




only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also many endearing scenes, 
to which their memories would ever recur as sunny spots along their 
pathway through the wilderness. They felt that they were bidding fare- 
well to the hills, valleys and streams of their infancy, the more excitiDg 
hunting grounds of their advanced youth, as well as the stern and bloody 
battle-fields where they had contended in riper manhood, on which they 
had received wounds and where many of their friends and loved relatives 
had fallen, covered with gore and glory. All these they were leaving be- 
hind them to be desecrated by the plowshare of the white man. As they 
cast mournful glances back toward these loved scenes that were rapidly 
fading in the distance, tears fell from the cheeks of the downcast warrior, 
old men trembled, matrons wept, the swarthy maiden's cheek turned pale, 
and sighs and half-suppressed sobs escaped from the motlev groups as they 
passed along the road, some on foot, some on horseback, and others in 
wagons, sad as a funeral procession. Several of the aged warriors were 
seen to cast glances toward the sky, as if imploring aid from the spirits of 
their departed heroes, who were looking down upon them from the clouds, 
or from the Great Spirit, who would ultimately redress the wrongs of the 
red man, whose broken bow had fallen from his hand and whose sad heart 
was bleeding within him. Ever and anon one of the party would start out 
into the brush and break back to their old encampments, to linger in loneli- 
ness, and therefore still greater sadness, around the scenes of former days. 


Adieu to the graves where my fathers now rest! 
For I must be going afar to the West. 
I've sold my possessions; my heart's filled with woe 
To think I must lose them. Alas! I must go. 

Adieu, ye tall oaks, in whose pleasant green shade 
In childhood I rambled, in innocence played! 
My dog and my hatchet, my arrows and bow, 
Are still in remembrance. Alas! I must go. 

Adieu, ye loved scenes, which bind me like chains! 
While on my gay pony, I chased o'er the plains 
The deer and the turkey I'd tracked in the snow. 
But now I must leave them. Alas! I must go. 

Adieu to the trails, which for many a year 
I have traveled to spy out the turkey and deer! 
The hills, trees and flowers, that pleased me so, 
I must leave now forever. Alas! I must go. 

Sandusky, Tymochtee and Broken Sword streams, 
Never more shall I see you, except in my dreams. 
Adieu to the marshes, where the cranberries grow; 
O'er the great Mississippi, alas! I must go. 

Adieu! dear white friends, who first taught me to pray, 
And worship my Maker and Savior each day. 
Pray for the poor native, whose eyes overflow 
With tears at our parting. Alas! I must go. 


As the Indians of whom we have 1 been J speaking roamed all 'over this 
part of the country, it is necessary to give here a passing notice concern- 
ing the pioneer white settlers of Ohio, as a kind of connecting link between 



Indian history and that of the settlement of Marion County by the whites. 
Years before a white settler had located in Ohio, the French traders and 
travelers had a route across the State which passed up the Sandusky River 
from Lake Erie to the mouth of the Little Sandusky; thence a short dis- 
tance up that stream to a portage to the upper waters of the Little Scioto 
— the portage being about four miles long — and after reaching the latter 
stream, canoes could easily float down it. The French used the route in 
traveling from Canada to the Mississippi. Even before La Salle saw this 
region, the Northern Indians used this same water route when proceeding 
on their war incursions into the territory of the Southern tribes. 

In correspondence between W. Jackson, Assistant Secretary of War, and 
Gen. William Irvine in the fall of 1783, mention is made of settlements 
which had been made and were making between the Muskingum and Wa- 
bash, and Irvine was apprehensive of the renewal of war between those set- 
tlers and the Indians. Congress obtained knowledge of the condition of 
affairs, and issued the following proclamation: 

By the United States in Congress Assembled. A Proclamation: 

Whereas, By the ninth of the articles of confederation, it is among other things 
declared that "the United States in Congress assembled have the sole and exclusive 
right and power of regulating the trade, and managing all affairs with the Indians not 
members of any of the States; provided, that the legislative right of any State within 
its own limits be not infringed or violated." And Whereas, It is essential to the wel- 
fare and interest of the United States, as well as necessary for the maintenance of har- 
mony and friendship with the Indians, not members of any of the States, that all cause 
of quarrel and complaint between them and the United States, or any of them, should 
be removed and prevented; therefore, the United States, in Congress assembled, have 
thought proper to issue their proclamation, and they do hereby prohibit and forbid all 
persons from making settlements on lands inhabited or. claimed by Indians without the 
limits or jurisdiction of any particular State, and from purchasing or receiving any gift 
or cession of such lands or claims, without the express authority and directions of the 
United States in Congress assembled; and it is moreover declared that every such pur- 
chase or settlement, gift or cession, not having the authority aforesaid, is null and void, 
and that no right or title will accrue in Congress. 

Done in Congress, at Princeton, this twenty-second day of September, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, and of our sovereignty and 
independence the eighth. 

Elias Boudinot, President. 
Charles Thomson, Secretary. 

No attention was paid to this proclamation, and settlers poured into the 
forbidden country so rapidly that the Government found it necessary to 
drive them out. On the 24th of January, 1785, the Commissioners of In- 
dian affairs instructed Lieut. Col. Josiah Harmar, of the First American 
Regiment, to employ sru;h force as he might deem necessary " in driving off 
persons attempting to settle on the lands of the United States." Ensign 
John Armstrong was detailed with a force of twenty men and lifteen days' 
provisions to perform the task of driving off all within 150 miles of Fort 
Mcintosh, located at the mouth of the Beaver River, in Pennsylvania. 
Armstrong dispossessed settlers at points on the Ohio as far down as Wheel- 
ing, or a point opposite that place, and in his report to Col. Harmar ap- 
pears the following: 

"As the following information through you to the honorable the Con- 
gress may be of some service, I trust you will not be displeased therewith. 
It is the opinion of many sensible men (with whom I conversed on my re- 
turn from Wheeling) that if the honorable the Congress do not fall on 
some speedy method to prevent people from settling on the lands of the 
United States west of the Ohio, that country will sown be inhabited by a 
banditti, whose factions are a disgrace to human nature. You will in a 


few days receive an address from the magistracy of Ohio County, through 
which most of those people pass, many of whom are flying from justice. 
I have, sir, taken some pains to distribute copies of your instructions with 
those from the honorable the Commissioners for Indian Affairs, into almost 
every settlement west of the Ohio, and had them posted up at most public 
places on the east side of the river, in the neighborhood through which 
those people pass. Notwithstanding they have seen and read those in- 
structions, they are moving to the unsettled countries by forties and fifties. 
From the best information I could receive, there are at the falls of Hock- 
hocking upward of 800 families; at the Muskingum a number equal. At 
Moravian Town there are several families, and more than 1,500 on the 
Rivers Miami and Scioto. From Wheeling to that place, there is scarcely 
one bottom on the river but has one or more families living thereon. In 
consequence of the advertisement by John Emerson, I am assured meetings 
will be held at the times thereiu mentioned. That at Merlons' or Hag- 
lin's town, mentioned in my report of yesterday, the inhabitants had come 
to a resolution to comply with the requisition of the advertisement." 

This advertisement was as follows, as given in Mr. Butterheld's work, 
Washington Irving correspondence, in the shape of a foot-note: 

March 12, 1785. 

Notice is hereby given to the inhabitants of the west side of the Ohio River, that 
there is to be an election for the choosing of members of the convention for framing a 
constitution for the governing of the inhabitants, the election to be held on the 10th 
day of April next ensuing, viz.: One election to be held at the mouth of the Miami 
River, and one; to be held at the mouth of the Scioto River, and one on the Muskingum 
River, and one at the dwelling house of Jonas Menzons, the members to be chosen to 
meet at the mouth of the Scioto on the 20th day of the same month. 

I do certify, that all mankind, agreeable to every constitution formed in America, 
have an undoubted right to pass into every vacant country, and there to form their con- 
stitution, and that from the confederation of the whole United States Congress is not 
empowered to forbid them, neither is Congress empowered from that confederation to 
make any sale of the uninhabited lands to pay the public debts, which is to be by a tax 
levied and lifted [collected] by authority of the Legislature of each State. 

John Emerson. 

Various orders were issued by Col. Harrnar, and a Congressional Com- 
mittee approved his conduct; also authorizing him to remove his troops 
from Fort Mcintosh and post them at some point at or near the Ohio, be- 
tween the Muskingum and the Great Miami, " which he shall conceive 
most advisable for further carrying into effect the before-mentioned orders, " 
and appropriating $600 for the purpose of transporting the troops and 
their baggage. Under this order Fort Harrnar was constructed at the 
mouth of the Muski ngum. 

Gen. Richard Butler, in passing down the river, at the commencement 
of October, to hold a treaty with the Indians at the mouth of the Miami 
River, found settlements at intervals from the mouth of Yellow Creek 
nearly to the mouth of the Great Kanawha, and did what he could to warn 
the settlers off, even giving orders to one of the officers of the army who 
was to descend to the Muskingum, " to pull down every house on his way," 
some of which had been recently torn down, having been rebuilt by the 
determined men of the border. Whether all of the settlers were driven 
out or not is not known, but it is certain that no constitution for governing 
the inhabitants was framed at that day, and the scheme for a new State on 
the northwest side of the Ohio was not carried out until seventeen years 



Tbe first settlers of Marion County upon the territory as at present de- 
fined were those located south of the treaty line in portions of Waldo and 
Prospect Townships. The Brudiges, the Drakes, the Wyatts, of Waldo 
Township, aad Ephraim Markley, Evan Evans, and others, of Prospect 
Township, as will be noted by reference to the township histories in these 
pages, located at dates from 1805 to 1814, near by, and, in some instances, 
in contact with the treaty line. 

The early settlement of Delaware County was secured by the work of 
1792, and a wave of immigration flowed into the county, beating strong 
against the imaginary line that seemed as a Chinese wall, impregnable to 
assault, for more than fifteen years. Noting the long period of time from 
1804, when many locations had been made in Delaware, to 1819, the year 
that the Government offered for sale the lands north of the line, Marion 
County was retarded in settlement for a period of at least ten years by the 
operations of tbe treaty indicated; but of course, in common with all, ben- 
efited ultimately by Wayne's victory, as war brought peace. Up to 1812, 
but few attempts were made to invade the country thus still reserved, ex- 
cept as the restless hunters and traders sought the fine game reserves of 
the plains for " meat" or peltries. The bee hunters, a venturesome, vaga- 
bondish set, who preferred to " line " a " bee-tree " to any other pursuit, 
brought back rich treasures of sweets that the wild bees had stored in the 
woods along the border of the plains beyond the line of settlement. Their 
trail came in from the eastward from Knox, or up the valley of the Scioto 
from Delaware. 

The war of 1812 led to a large acquaintance with our county. Several 
trails or " war roads," so called, led directly through Marion County — 
military roads for the transportation of supplies to the armies of the North- 
west, operating along the lakes, and to the chain of forts and block-houses 
that protected this base of supplies. The most clearly defined war road led 
up through the valley of the Scioto, to a point in Pleasant Township, to 
lands entered by G. H. Griswold in a fractional section called Rocky Point. 
From thence the road bore away from the river and crossed the Little 
Scioto at or near what is now known as the Rayl Bridge in the Congress 
land district of Green Camp; thence the route was northward toward Little 
Sandusky. This road, worn deep by the heavy trains and wash of rain- 
falls, remains to-day in many places, distinctly defined in the remaining 
wooded districts through which it passes. A common camping or halting 
point was formed at Rocky Point, where during low water a fine spring 
gushed forth, affording pure water, while game was very plentiful in the 
magnificent forests, the vestiges of which are to this day a source of 
admiration to all who study forestry and who can realize the immensity of 
the wood product of this section of Ohio. 

Teaming over the war road in the Government employ was a source of 
revenue readily taken advantage of by the settlers of the lower counties. 
Hence it was that many residents of Fairfield, Franklin, Delaware, and 
other more southern districts became accpiainted with the resources of this 
region. Among these teamsters were G. H. Griswold, of Worthington, 
Benjamin Morris and others. Mr. Griswold was a man of sagacity, and he 
became captivated by the beauty of the valley and " second bottom " lands 
near Rocky Point. The river, sweeping in. comes through arches of over- 
hanging maples; the immense walnuts, cherry, oak, and other hard woods 
that attained here their finest development, the plentiful game supplies, the 


springs and "rims" all seemed to bim to make up an ideal tract. As a re- 
sult of his inspection, be secured the first tract of land entered in Delaware 
District and Entry No. 1 within the confines of Marion County north of 
the treaty line was this fractional section at Rocky Point. 

During this period, detachments of troops frequently passed through 
these borders; and larger bodies after the fashion of the times, considered 
and styled " armies," left the impress of their campaign marches and biv- 
ouacs upon the early traditions. An encampment of troops under Gen. Green, 
at Rocky Point, gave rise to the name of " Green's Camp, " now become 
Green Camp Township. That Gen. Harrison marched northward, halting 
on the hill south of Marion, is a well-known fact, made historical by the 
episode so frequently called up, known as " .Jacob's Well. " 

Nathaniel Wyatt and Nathaniel Brundige were probably the first set- 
ters of what is now Waldo Township, Marion County, though at the time 
their settlement was in Franklin County, afterward Delaware. It was in 
Marlborough Township, which mostly was thrown into Marion County on 
the formation of Morrow County in 1848. They felled the first tree and built 
the first log cabin in the spring of 1806.1 Ruth Wyatt, born in 1807, was 
the first white child born here, and William Brundige, born in 1808, was 
the first white male born in the county. It is, however, not determinable 
who was the first white child born within the first limits of Marion County 
after its organization. The first pioneer in what was at first Marion Coun- 
ty was probably Ebenuzer Roseberry. from New Orleans, who settled in 
Grand Prairie Township in- 1812. 

Among the first settlers of Marion County may be mentioned John Will- 
iamson, Jotham Clark and William Irwin, At what was called " Clyde," 
were the Packarts and Plotners, all in Tully Township. In Scott were the 
Hipshers, Lees. Larabees, Millers, Latimbres, Hills. Johnsons and Kerrs. 
In Grand Prairie were the Caldwells, Swinertons, John Claggett, and John 
Page. Salt Rock had Enoch Clark, Richard Hopkins, Hugh V. Smith, 
Col. W. W. Concklin, John Green, the Martins, the Thomsons, the 
Rhoadses, McElvoys and Gillespies. Grand had Seaburn. the Stevensons. 
Neal Sworden, Merriman and the Terrys. In Montgomery Township were 
William LaRue, McMurray, Johnsons, Carters, Virdens, Cranmers and Al- 
bert Bryant. In Big Island Township were the Joneses, Norton s, Brittons, 
Bradys, Alcotts, Messengers, Robert Hopkins, Woods and Smith Frame. 
In Marion Township were the Bakers. Berrys, Holmes, Tiptons, Fickles, 
Hillman, Barks, Hinton, Busby, Fish, Bennett and Bar tram. In Claridon 
were Clarks, Douces, Hinds. Gloyds, Hornbys, Wildbahms, Thews and 
Miles. In Richland Township were Jacobys, Osborns, Warlines, Emerys, 
Waddels and Kings. In Pleasant were the Idlemans, Boyds, Wyatts, 
Joneses, Drakes, WilHamses, Davids. Goodings, Farnam. Freeman and 
Courts. In Green Camp were the Markleys, Jenkins, Walkers, Sullivans. 
Essex, Porters, Johnsons, Logues and Shaws. 

At tbis time there were no townships named Bowling Green, Prospect 
or Waldo in this county. 

Capt. William S. Drake settled in Franklin County (now Marion) on 
what was known as the " Daniel Stockman farm," a half mile south of Waldo. 
In 1813. the family moved upon the farm a mile north of Waldo. His 
military experience in the war of 1812 is alluded to in the war chapter, 
and a further sketch of him is given in the history of Waldo Township. 

Eber and George Baker. Benjamin Davis, Alexander Berry, James 
Bower and others settled at Marion, 1820 to 1823. (See history of Marion 
village.) (For a sketch of Eber Baker, see political chapter.) 


Rev. George W. Baker was the eldest son of Eber Baker, the founder 
of Marion, and was born in Litchtield, Me., October 22, 1803. He was 
married to Louisa D. Davis January 6, 1825. Soon after his marriage, he 
and wife professed religion and joined the Free-Will Baptist Church". In 
about five years, he entered upon the ministry. His opportunities for ac- 
quiring an education were limited, notwithstanding which, he was remark- 
ably successful. He was a successful pastor of churches, and not less so as 
an evangelist, 3,000 or more having professed religion under his labors. 
He was noted for his honesty, his simplicity of manners and for his ardent 
faith and devotion to the good of his fellow-men. He died in Marion Oc- 
tober 11, 1881. He had six children, Rev. Oscar E. Baker, of Marion; 
Allen D. and Eber S., of Lincoln, Neb.; Mrs. J. C. Johnston, of Marion; 
Mrs. O. C. Smith, of Toledo; and Mrs. William Clark, of Van Wert, who 
died several years ago. 

Rev. Oscar E. Baker, son of Rev. George W. Baker, was born in Mar- 
ion, Ohio, January 9, 1826. He entered the ministry of the Free-Will 
Baptist Church at the age of eighteen years. He was married to Miss Jane, 
daughter of Esquire Samuel Powell, of Marion, in the year 1850, and to 
Mrs. Augusta Wilson in the year 1870. He has labored chiefly as pastor 
of churches and mostly in Ohio. Lived in Iowa some fifteen years; devoted 
there a part of the time to the building of an institution of learning. He 
returned to Marion, his nativo place, in April, 1881, to care for his aged 
parents, and in answer to h call to the pastorate of the Free-Will Baptist 
Church of this city. 

" Deacon " John Ballantine was born in Rensselaer County, N. Y. , and 
came to Columbus, Ohio, in 1818, and to Marion in the fall of 1820, set- 
tling two aud a half miles north of what is now Marion, on Limestone 
Ridge, where he continued to reside about thirty-eight years. He then 
purchased another farm, two miles east of the former one, where he re- 
mained until 1864, when he located in his last residence in the northeast 
part of the city, on what is known as the old Copeland place. For awhile 
he kept a store about a mile north of town in company with his brother 
Ebenezer. He and his brother Ebenezer came down the Allegheny and 
Ohio Rivers to Wheeling, Va. , in a skiff from Olean, and thence in one of 
Richard M. Johnston's old coaches from Wheeling to Lancaster, Ohio, and 
footed it to Columbus. His father had been a Revolutionary soldier and 
owned 300 acres of beech land in the county of Delaware, which he and 
his brother expected to improve; but when they reflected upon the labor, 
concluded to try the plains of Marion instead. He was one of the first 
members of the Presbyterian Church of Marion, and most of the time was 
a Ruling Elder. He was quiet and unobtrusive, but did much to improve 
the town. Was three times married. January 15, 1879, he died of apo- 
plexy occasioned by climbing over a fence at the stockyards of the Alton 
& Great Western Railroad, at Marion. He was in his eighty-first year. 

Calvin Barnett came to Marion in the spring of 1820, resided here all 
his life and died a few years ago, very poor. 

Nathan Peters, who was born at Manchester, Baltimore Co., Md. , June 
20, 1799, came to Lancaster, Fairfield County, Ohio, in 1812, and to Marion 
in April, 1826, and died September 22, 1881. He married Miss Alice Wil- 
son in January, L825, near Lancaster. She was born in December, 1798, 
and died October 14, 1838. Their children were Harvey, deceased; Char- 
lotte, wife of Alonzo Baker; Pauline, wife of S. A. Hummer; and Jane, 
deceased. For his second wife he married Mrs. Mary C. Russell, and 


their children were Mary E., wife of William M. Camp; Irene, wife of S. 
T. Boerbower; aud Alice L., wife of James Williams. Mr. Peters himself 
belonged to a family of great longevity. His brothers and sisters, eleven 
in number, were living last year, aged from sixty-three to eighty-five years. 
Mr. Peters was a cabinet-maker by trade, following that trade until 1838. 
For two terms he was County Commissioner. His late residence he built 
in 1856. He was known to almost every resident of Marion; was a quiet, 
unobtrusive man, but one of very decided opinions, thinking for himself 
and acting upon his own convictions of right; was a charitable man, and 
yet his charity was bestowed quietly, as such acts should be; was an indus- 
trious, economical man, accumulating by his own exertions a large property, 
so that he was abundantly able to spend his last days in the quiet of his 
home, free from care for his earthly comfort. In his early life he was a 
friend of the oppressed and down-trodden slave, and adhered to his opin- 
ions, and for years he had the gi-atification of seeing the slaves free and the 
reproach of slavery removed from our nation. 

Capt. Elisha Hardy was born in Essex County, N. J. , July 4, 1795, and 
died May 13, 1877. He was a prominent citizen of Marion from the time 
of his arrival here in 1828. He followed mercantile business and accumu- 
lated considerable wealth, but he lost the most of this through the weak- 
ness of " friends. " At his death he left a widow, but no children. 

John Clark came from the State of Delaware to Ohio about 1803, and to 
Marion County in 1831, settling upon a farm west of Marion. He died 
about 18G2, a wealthy man. His sons are W. E. Clark, now a Constable in 
Marion; R. M. , in Indiana; Riley P., in Iowa; and John, who died about 
six years ago. 

Elijah Bowdish, a resident of Marion County for forty-five years, died 
November 28, 1873, in the eighty-fifth year of his age. 

Dr. Alson Norton was a pioneer of Big Island and died an aged man. 

Maj. William La Rue, one of the most prominent pioneers and enterpris- 
ing citizens of Marion County, is noticed more at length in the history of 
Montgomery Township. 

For sketches of Messrs. Eber Baker, George H. Busby, Hezekiah Gor- 
ton, etc., see close of political chapter. 

William Garberson, who settled on what is now known as 1 the Ludwig 
farm near Caledonia, in 1823, was born in Westmoreland County, Penn., 
December 20, 1797, and died June 25, 1880. He was an exemplary mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church for nearly sixty years, industrious, 
honest and social, and a man of good taste, keeping his residence and farm 
in line trim. He was an admirer and keeper of very fine stock, especially 
in the lines of horses and poultry. Of novel and rare breeds he had many, 
and took great pleasure in exhibiting them. During his life, he met with 
several accidents with a team of spirited horses, crippling him somewhat 
aod causing much suffering. 

Newton Messenger was born in Litchfield County, Conn. , December 7, 
1804; came to Washington County, Ohio, in 1812, and thence to Marion 
County in 1831. December 11, 1831, he married Patience Bigford, and 
of their eleven children, ten survived him, and of forty-two grandchildren, 
thirty-seven survived. He resided upon the same farm fifty years and 
three months. He died March IS, 1S82, a member of the Christian 
Church. He had also been County Commissioner, Land Appraiser and 
Justice of the Peace for thirty-six years. 

Col. Everett Messenger was born iu Connecticut August 1, 1811, came 


with his parents to Marietta, Ohio, and from there to Marion County in 
L825 or 1826, where his pai'ents settled, in Big Island Township. Here 
he lived the rest of his life. He dealt largely in live stock, and became 
one of its most honored and wealthy citizens. He represented this county 
in the Legislature from 1864 to 1806, rendering good service. He was 
prominent in agricultural matters and was President of the Marion County 
Agricultural Society for several terms. He died in January, 1880. 

William Thew, one of the most prominent pioneers of Claridon Town- 
ship, was born in Lincolnshire, England, April 1, 1791, and immigrated to 
America in 1823, coming to Claridon with a number of other English fam- 
ilies, all of whom became industrious and thrifty farmers and useful citi- 
zens. Mr. Thew, in particular, was a model farmer, a discreet counselor 
and a charitable Christian philanthropist. He and his estimable lady for 
years kept an asylum for the helpless and needy, and sometimes their 
house seemed more like a hospital than a private farmer's dwelling. Mrs. 
Thew died some fifteen years ago, or more, and Mr. Thew died in July, 
1883, in his ninety-third year. 

Robert Kerr was also among the early settlers, and although of very 
limited education, became the largest landholder and wealthiest citizen of 
the county. A very complete sketch of Mr. Kerr will be found among the 
biographies of Scott Township. 

The first church organized within what was the limits of Marion County 
from the time it was named to 1848, was the Methodist Episcopal so- 
ciety at Judge Jacob Idleman's, about April 20, 1820, with the following 
members: Jacob Idleman and wife and Christian Staley and family — 
eight in all. The minister was a local preacher named Stewart, residing 
at Radnor. In 1822, Rev. Bacon became the preacher in charge, then 
Revs. Roe, Erastus Felton, etc. 

The next church was the Free-Wiil Baptist, in 1821. Elder Dudley 
settled in what was known as Southwick's neighborhood, Big Island Town- 
ship, and in the winter of 1821-22, organized a church there, with the fol- 
lowing members: Elder Dudley and wife, L. Southwick and wife, Mrs. A. 
Wheeler, F. Wheeler and wife, P. Wheeler and wife, John Bates, Sr., and 
wife, John Bates, Jr., and wife, Dexter Bates, Mrs. J. E. James, Robert 
Hopkins and wife, Col. H. Gorton and wife, Asa Davis and wife, and prob- 
ably a few others. 

The first church edifice in Marion Village was erected by the Method- 
ists. These people increased so rapidly in numerical strength that they 
soon had to erect another building for a house of worship. They accord- 
ingly put up another building, which they have also outgrown. That 
building is now a part of the Huber machine works. Both these churches 
were built of stone. 

The next church building was of brick and was erected by the Presby- 
terians, where their present church stands, in 1828. It was very plain, but 
the seats had backs, an advantage which the first Methodist Church did not 
have. It was subsequently partially blown down by a hurricane. The 
first Presbyterian Church in the county was organized at Marion in 
1827, by Revs. A. Jenks and H. Van Deman, one of whom preached every 
four weeks alternately, until some time in 1828, when Rev. Barbour, a 
missionary, became pastor. Among the first members were Adam Unca- 
pher and wife, William Bain and wife. John Ballantine and wife, Mrs. 
Samuel Bowdish, Joseph Boyd and wife, Samuel AYaddel and wife, D. 
Oborn and wife, Joseph Oborn and wife, Mrs. Gruber, Mrs. J. P. Smith, 
Mrs. Edward Kennedy and Mrs. Crosby. 



Licenses for marriage were issued by the Clerk of the Court of Common 
Pleas from the organization of the county until after the adoption of the 
constitution of 1851, when this duty was transferred to the office of the 
Judge of Probate. The first Clerk commenced to number the licenses on 
the record, but on reaching No. 106, September 7, 1826, he dropped the 
practice. The numbering was not again resumed until May 1, 1855, when 
it was commenced with 1, by George Snyder, Probate Judge. A new vol- 
ume was then opened, containing forms of affidavit of applicant for license 
and of certificate of return. The numbering then ran until it reached 
1,238, December 17, 1S67, at the close of the sixth volume of the records. 
Volume VII commences with No. 1 again, and closes with 1,008, in October, 
1873, since which time until ,tho present year, the numbering was omitted. 
The number of licenses issued from December 6. 1873, to December 6, 
1882, a period of nine years, was 1,750, being an average of about 193 per 


May 7. — Seldon Field and Lydia Kethum (Ketchum?) 

May 15. — Joshua Bearss and Susannah Wade. 

May 16. — David Allen and Polly Hazelet. 

May 22. — Seth Allen aud Eve Cline. 

June 5. — James Ford and Elizabeth McElvane. 

June 5. — Sylvester Gooding and Eliza Love. 

June 12.— Barnett. Falttery and Nancy Aye. 

June 29. — William Penny and Elizabeth Salmon. 

June 13. — James Stewart and Elizabeth Steen. 

June 7. — Alanson Packard and Nancy Fickle. 

July 7. — John Parcle (Parcel?) and Mercy Manly. 

July 21. — John McGown and Susannah Showers-. 

September 4 — George M. Fickell and Margaret Beckloy. 

September — . — Peter Long and Hiley Darland. 

September 7. — Joseph Stewart and Jane Steen. 

October 18.— John Sidner and Polly Delly. 

October 30. — David Baughman and Elizabeth Neal. 

November 8. — Luke A. Hamman and Mary Ann Jones. 

November 18. — Henry Milizer and Elizabeth Berry. 

December 3. — Henry Hinkle and Susannah Wine. 

December 16. — Henry Miller and Magdalena Wolf. 

December 22. — Martin Dickens and Elizabeth Stealy. 

December 22. — John Jones and Rhoda Barr. 

December 28.— Isaac Longwell and Sarah Winslow. 

December 28. — Zachariah Barrett and Hannah Darling. 

December 29. — Kobert Rice and Eliza Ann Caldwell. 

December 29. — Joseph Leonard and Nancy Longwell. 

January 5. — George W. Baker and Louisa Davis. 
January 10. — Charles Merriman and Susan Carey. 
January 10. — Joseph Peirce and Mary Carey. 
January 16. — Andrew Ridgley and Rebecca Hattan. 
January 19. — Simeon Smith and Louisa Gleason. 
January 22.— Jesse Foust and Mary Lowder. 
January 30. — Benjamin Meeker and Susan Smith. 


February 5. — Israel Clark, Jr., and Laurie Bearss. 

February 10. — Isaac Wood and Hannah Baker. 

February 15. — Henry Barns and Abigail Felly. 

February 19. — Conrad Deel and Elizabeth llawles. 

February 24. — Andrew Stroub and Priseilla Crawford. 

February 26. — Jacob Butt and Mary Mutchler. 

February 26. — George Garret and Nancy Walker. 

March 9. — Antony Comines and Rachel Rodgers. 

March 10. — Asa Howard and Polly Garver. 

March 11. — Abraham Brown and Fronica Coon. 

March 11. — John Croy and Peggy Mclntyre. 

March 25. — Isaac Fickle and Eliza Tipton. 

March 26. — Joseph Winslow and Phebe Smith. 

March 29. — Joseph Harper and Mary Copperstone. 

April 5. — Hugh McCrackin and Martha Moore. 

April 5. — Joseph McCamb and Rebecca Kimble. 

April 5. — Joseph Whiterd and Clarinda Beedle. 

April 9. — Jacob Shafer and Mary Ann Smith. 

April 9. — Dexter Baker and Sarah Kimble. 

April 12. — James Ranney and Sally Vesey. 

April 28. — Eli Odell and Asenath Parcher. 

A.pril 29. — Phineas Packard and Elizabeth Fickle. 

April — . — Joel Lee and Jane Parker. 

May 3. — William D. Parcel and Harriet Humphrey. 

May 16. — John Kline and Sally Thorn. 

May 20. — Jonathan James and Elizabeth Lust. 

June 7. — George Tiper and Laura Gleason. 

June 8. — Jonathan Soult and Eve Tockhover. (These were married as 
John Stull and Eve James!) 

June 22. — James Hughey and Ann Maria Brake. 

July 16. — John Winslow and Elizabeth Long. 

July 16. — Moses E. Messenger and Rachel Jury. 

August 8. — Elihu Baud and Polly Ketchum. 

September 3. — Dawd Kellogg and Amelia Eaton. 

September 12. — William M. Baker and Elizabeth B. Tompkins. 

September 14. — Horace Pratt and Esther Bucklin. 

September 21. — Samuel C. Straw and Catharine Stealy. 

September 29. — Thomas Bounds and Sophia Berry. 

September 29. — George Lock and Anna Morland. 

October 15. — Samuel Wilkins and Mclntyre. 

October 24. — Samuel Holmes and Eliza W. Concklin. 

November 1. — Samuel Hazlett and Zila Spurgeon. 

November 5. — E. H. Crosby and Elizabeth Washburn. 

November 20.— Abraham Sims and Susan Bain. 

November 24. — Michael Alspach and Molly Heimote. 

November 28. — Isaac H. Fickle and Nancy Young. 

November 29. —David Tipton and Sally Kent. 

November 29. — Jesse Foos and Rachel Blackman. 

December 9. — John Depue and Eliza Court. 

December 19. — John Walters and Lilian Ridgley. 

December 29. — James Darland and Eunice Daud. 

Alanson Packard, a Justice of the Peace, was on one occasion somewhat 
poetical, as he entered upon the record the following: " Marriage license 
was granted to Norton B. Royce and Eunice M. Dexter, March 14, 1832. 


"I certify — that is to say, 
This present March, the 18th day, 
Eunice Dexter, Norton Royce, 
As did your license authorize — 
An awkward, ungainly, long-legged pair- 
By me in marriage joined were. 
By sages wise, it has heen said 
That matches all ahove are made. 
If so. these oues in heaven have been: 
God knows they'll never go again." 


The first deed recorded in this county conveys land. March 9, 1821, in 
Township 5, Range 14 (Big Island), from Samuel and Lydia Jones, "of the 
county of Marion," to William Foster. 


The first will on record in the Recorder's office of Marion County is 
dated and worded as follows, which, for comparison with modern phraseology, 
is given here: 

I, Samuel Ferrel (in the name of God, amen!), being of sound mind and memory, 
and calling to mind the certainty of death and the uncertainty of life, do, constitute 
and appoint this my last will and testament, revoking all other wills, deeds or testa- 
ments made by me. 

And in the first place, I do will and bequeath my soul to God, who gave it, and 
my body to dust, from whence it came, in hope of a glorious resurrection. 

And in the second place, I do will and bequeath unto my beloved mother, Martha 
Ferrel, all my money and goods, to be at her disposal as the said Martha may think 
proper, excepting so much\is will defray all my funeral expenses; also contracts and 
agreements, as it relates to the real estate, to stand firm and sure as they have hereto- 
fore been made and mutually agreed to by her, the said Martha Ferrel, and myself. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal this nineteenth day of 
August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-five. 

Samuel Ferrel. [l. s.] 
In presence of us: 

Benjamin Jeffrey. 

Jonathan Smith. 

It appears on record that Mr. Ferrel died shortly afterward and that 
his widow had the above will admitted to Probate May 29, 1826. There 
being no executor named in the will, she was appointed administratrix, 
James Nail and William Moore being accepted as her securities. The re- 
corded wills following the above are signed by Abraham Berry, Simon A. 
Couch, Israel Clark, etc. 

For comparison with the quaint introduction to the wills of olden time 
notice the following language as used at the present day: "In the name of 
the benevolent Father of All. 

" I, W H , of lawful age and sound mind, do make and 

declare the following to be my last will and testament: 

" First, that at my death I be buried in a Christian-like manner and that 
all my just debts be fully paid, etc." 




SCARCELY any but poor people take to the frontier, going thither, gen- 
erally, with the hope of having a home of their own, and ultimately a 
competence for themselves and their families They are, therefore, a hard- 
working people, and their mode of life being actually more healthful than in 
the subsequent age of effeminating luxury, they were a sturdy people. The 
white settlers in this part of Ohio were mainly from Pennsylvania, Virgin- 
ia, New York, Kentucky, etc. , in the order here named as to numbers, and 
each class, of course, brought along with them something of the manners 
and customs of the State whence they emigrated. But, mingling together, 
they became more homogeneous, like America herself as compared with the 
rest of the world. They came hither in wagons, drawn by horses, mules 
or oxen, bringing their families, and often all their possessions with them. 
Sometimes, however, the head of the family would come first and select his 
land, and return for his family, and in a number of cases they became 
homesick after a year or two of residence in the wilds of the (then) West, 
and would go hack to their old homes in the East, or endeavor to do so; 
but in a year or two more, their old homes became less attractive than ever r 
and they would try the West the second time, then to remain. 

An observing person would have noticed great difference in the manners 
of the settlers from different regions of country. The New Englander had 
his peculiarities, but they were not in the least like those of the Pennsyl- 
vanian, and either was unlike the Virginian, the Carolinian or the Kentuck- 
ian. An occasional New Yorker found a home in this county, and he, too, 
possessed the traits of the State from which he had emigrated. The cus- 
toms of the fathers were handed down to their sons, and it is quite easy, 
even at the present time, if possessed of a thorough knowledge of the man- 
ners of the people of the various States here represented, to determine 
whence the inhabitants derive their lineage. The county of Marion, how- 
ever, is more cosmopolitan than most of its southern neighbors, and the 
blending of the different classes has resulted in a general community of 
which any State might be proud. Here is a thrifty and enterprising popu- 
lation, inhabiting a region rapidly developing into one of the best in the 
great State of Ohio. 

In some of the surrounding counties, it was customary among the pio- 
neers, upon their arrival, to construct three-sided, sloping-roofed shanties, 
which they called " camps." In front of the fourth side, which was open 
to the weather, a huge fire of logs was kept burning, and these primitive 
structures were occupied until the regularly built log cabin was ready for 
occupancy. In Marion County, however, it is stated that very few of these 
" camps " were ever built, the settlers preparing the log houses for perma- 
nent occupation at the very start, and thus saving considerable labor. If 
help was plenty, it was easy to build a cabin in a day. The shingles, or 
"clapboards," four fe«t long, were split out on the ground, and the roof, 
held firmly in place by weight poles, could, without much extra labor, be 


put on the same day. It sometimes occurred that a family moved into its 
cabin before the puncheon floor was laid, or the door hung, but this was 
in case of extreme weather, when some place of shelter was indispensable. 

A person writing, about 1846-47, of early days in Delaware County, re- 
corded the following items, which are as applicable to pioneer times in 
Marion County: 

" I learn from the old pioneers, that during the early period of the 
county the people were in a condition of complete social equality; no aris- 
tocratic distinctions were thought of in society, and the first line of de- 
markation drawn was to separate the very bad from the general mass. 
Their parties were for raisings and log-rollings, and, the labor being fin- 
ished, their sports usually were shooting and gymnastic exercises with the 
men, and convivial amusements among the women; no punctilious formality 
nor ignoble aping the fashions of licentious Paris marred their assemblies, 
but all were happy and enjoyed themselves in seeing others do so. The rich 
and the poor dressed alike — thw men generally wearing hunting shirts and 
buckskin paats, and the women attired in coarse fabrics produced by their 
own hands. Such was their common and holiday dress, and if a fair dam- 
sel wished a superb dress for her bridal day, her highest aspiration was to 
obtain a common American cotton check. The latter, which now sells for 
a shilling a yard, then cost $1, and five yards was deemed an ample pat- 
tern; silks, satins and fancy goods, that now inflate oar vanity and deplete 
our purses, were not then even dreamed of. The cabins were furnished in 
the same style of simplicity; the bedstead was home-made, and often con- 
sisted of forked sticks driven into the ground, with cross poles to support 
the clapboards or the cord. One pot, kettle and frying-pan were the only 
articles considered indispensable, though some included the tea-kettle; a 
few plates and dishes upon a shelf in one corner was as satisfactory as is 
now a cupboard fall of china, and their food relished well from a puncheon 
table. Some of the wealthiest families had a few split bottom chairs, but 
as a general thing stools and benches answered the place of lounges and 
sofas; and at first the green sward or smoothly leveled earth served the 
double purpose of floor and carpet. Whisky toddy was considered luxury 
enough for any party. The woods furnished an abundance of fancy meats, 
and corn pone supplied the place of every variety of pastry. 


After arriving and selecting a suitable location, the first thing to do 
was to build a log cabin, a description of which should be embalmed in 
print, as it will prove interesting to future generations as well as the pres- 

Trees of uniform size were chosen and cut into logs of the desired 
length, generally fourteen to sixteen feet, and hauled to the spot selected 
for the future dwelling. If a h«wed-log house was desired, as was occa- 
sionally the case with those who were a little "fore-handed, " the logs would 
be hewed on two opposite sides, either boforo or after hauling. On an ap- 
pointed day, the few neighbors who were available would assemble, and 
have a "house-raising." Each end of every log was "saddled," and 
notched so that they would lie as close down as possible. The nest day, 
the proprietor would proceed to " chink and daub " the cabin, to keep out 
the rain, wind and cold. To chink it was to drive small blocks of wood 
into the crevices or openings between the logs, and to daub it was to fill 
in clay mortar on both sides, making the walls airtight. The house had 


to be re-daubed every fall, as the rains of the intervening time would wash 
out a great part of the mortar. The usual height of the house, from floor 
to loft, was six to seven feet, The gables were formed by shortening the 
logs gradually at each end of the building. On the topmost of these was 
laid the ridge-pole, the other logs for the roof having been laid parallel 
with the sides of the house and two and a half feet apart as the gables 
were raised. On those logs or poles were laid the clapboards, " rived" for 
the purpose with a " f row. " The f row was simply an iron blade fixed to 
its handle at a right angle, and this was driven into bolts of nicely split- 
ting oak with a raallet. These clapboards were laid on shingling style, 
two and a half feet to the weather, and held to their place by weight poles 
instead of nails, the poles being laid opposite and above the supporting 
poles, and kept in their places by sticks of wood called " knees." There 
would not be a nail, or a screw, or any other thing metallic, in the whole 

The chimney to the Western pioneer's cabin was made by leaving in 
the original building a large open place in one wall, or by cutting one after 
the wall was up, and by building on the outside, from the ground up, a 
stone or "raud and stick " chimney. For the first few feet, it was usual to 
lay up some irregular stones, held to their place by a slab wall locked 
around them and covered interiorly with mud. The remainder of the 
chimney was made with sticks laid up cob-house or rail-pen fashion, and 
these filled and plastered inside and outside with clay mortar. The fire- 
place thus made was often large enough to receive firewood six or eight feet 
long. Sometimes this wood, especially the "back log," would be nearly 
as large as a saw log, and a horse would be employed to "snake" or "tow" 
it into the house. The more rapidly the pioneer could burn up the wood 
in his vicinity, the sooner he had his little farm cleared and ready for cul- 

For a window, a section about two feet long was cut out of one of the 
wall logs and the aperture closed sometimes with glass, but generally with 
greased paper, or even, in rare instances, with thin deer skin greased. A 
doorway was cut through one of the walls, if a saw was to be had; other- 
wise, the door would be left by using shortened logs in raising the building. 
The door was made by fastening clapboards to cross-pieces with wooden 
pins, and was hung upon wooden hinges. A. wooden latch then finished 
the door. To this a leather string was attached, and ran through a hole 
above, one end hanging down on the outside. For security at night, the 
latch- string was drawn in. but during the day, the "latch-string was always 
hanging out," for the convenience of callers and as a sign of welcome. 

Sometimes the bare ground was used for a floor, but generally a floor was 
made of puncheons or slabs, laid upon sleepers. Puncheons were what 
might be termed rude plank, such as could be made with the maul and 
wedge, ax and broad-ax. There was no occasion for having the floor tight- 
ly laid, as the walls rested solidly on the ground and kept the interior warm 
during cold weather. Small articles, however, would sometimes drop 
through, and a puncheon would have to be raised in order to recover 

The " loft," or garret, was sometimes wanting: but when a few boards 
could be obtained, they were laid upon joists overhead, and thus a sort of 
storage and sleeping room formed next the roof, where one could lie and 
hear the rain patter upon the clapboard roof close to his ears. 

In the interior, over the fire-place, would be a shelf, called the " mantel 


shelf," on which stood the candlestick or lamp, some cooking utensils or 
table ware, the old clock and some miscellaneous articles. In the fire-place 
would be the crane, sometimes of iron, sometimes of wood. On it the pots 
were hung, for cooking. Over the door, in forked cleats or rude brackets, 
hung the rifle and powder-horn. In one corner stood the beds, the larger 
one for the parents and baby, and under it the trundle bed for the rest of 
the children. In another stood the old-fashioned spinning-wheel, with a 
smaller one by its side, that is, the " jenny," for spinning flax. In another 
corner stood the only table, a heavy one. In the remaining corner was a 
rude cupboard, containing the table ware, which consisted of a few cups 
and saucers and blue-edged plates, standing singly on their edges against 
the back, to make the display of table furniture more conspicuous; while 
around the room were scattered a few splint-bottomed or Windsor chairs, 
and two or three stools. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a kind and true-hearted people. 
They were strangers to mock- modesty, and the traveler, seeking accommo- 
dations for the night, or desirous of spending a few days in the community, 
if willing to accept the rude offering, was always welcome, although how 
they were disposed of the reader might not easily imagine, , for, as de- 
scribed, a single room, about fifteen feet square, was made to answer for 
kitchen, dining-room, sitting-room, bedroom and parlor, and many fami- 
lies consisted of six or eight members. 


The bed was very often made by fixing a post in the floor about six feet 
from one wall and four feet from the adjoining wall, to serve as a bed-post, 
while rails extended from it to the walls. Stiff clapboards formed the bed 
bottom, on which was placed a large feather tick and the other bedding. 
Guests were given this bed, while the family disposed of themselves in an- 
other corner of the room, or in the " loft." 


To witness the processes of cookery in those days would alike surprise 
and amuse those who have grown up since cooking-stoves and ranges came 
into use. Kettles and pots were hung over the large fire, suspended with 
pot-hooks, iron or wooden, on the crane, or on poles, one end of which 
would rest upon a chair. The long-handled frying-pan was used for cook- 
ing meat and baking pancakes, called also "flapjacks" and "batter cakes." 
It was either held over the fire by hand or set down on coals drawn out 
upon the hearth. For baking bread, the best article was a cast-iron spider 
or Dutch skillet. The "bake kettle," or Dutch oven, was like it, but 
deeper, in which were baked those large corn " pones" made light with 
buttermilk and saleratus. These skillets and ovens had covers, and both 
over and underneath was placed a bed of live coals, which was renewed oc- 
casionally. Bread, however, was sometimes baked in the hot ashes under- 
neath the fire, and sometimes upon a board tipped up in front of the fire. 
Corn bread, baked in the last mentioned manner, was the true "hoe-cake," 
this name being derived from the primary negro method of using a hoe for 
the purpose. " Johnny cake," corrupted from " journey cake," is the name 
of any simply prepared corn bread. 

Potatoes, both Irish and sweet, and even squashes and pumpkins, were 
also often baked in the ashes. This methed of baking, indeed, although 
somewhat troublesome, produced a more palatable and apparantly more 


wholesome ai'ticle than any other method, either ancient or modern. Tur- 
keys and spare-ribs were sometimes roasted before the fire, suspended by a 
string, a dish being placed underneath to catch the drippings, which would 
make a nice gravy. 

Hominy and samp were very much used. These dishes were prepared 
from pounded corn; but the so-called " hominy" was generally hulled corn. 
This was boiled corn from which the hull or bran had been eaten off by 
boiling lye; hence sometimes called " lye hominy." A popular method of 
making hominy and samp, and sometimes corn-meal itself, was to cut out 
or burn a large hole in the top of a huge stump, in the shape of a mortar, 
and pound the corn in this with a maul or beetle suspended on the end of 
a spring pole, like a well-sweep or a modern apparatus for boring artesian 
wells by nand. When the samp was sufficiently pounded, it was taklh out, 
the bran floated off and the delicious grain boiled like rice. 

The chief articles of diet were corn bread, hominy, venison and other 
wild game, pork, honey, beans, potatoes, pumpkin (dried pumpkin for more 
than half the year), and some garden " truck." a portion of the year. 
Wheat bread, tea, coffee and preserves were luxuries not to be indulged in 
except on special occasions, as when visitors were present. 

Well water was generally drawn up with what in called a " sweep," 
which was a long, heavy pole, hinged in a fork at the top of a tall post, and a 
rope or chain attached at the end over the well, with the bucket. Water 
could be drawn more rapidly with this simple apparatus than with the 
windlass or any modern pump. 

women's wokk. 

Besides cooking, in the manner just described, the women had many 
other arduous duties to perform, one of the chief of which was spinning, 
and often weaving also. The " big wheel " was used for spinning yarn, 
and the " little wheel " for spinning flax. These stringed instruments fur- 
nished the principal music of the family, and remarkable was the skill with 
which our mothers and grandmothers manipulated them. In spite of 
wolves, the settlers succeeded in raising some sheep, and often made all 
the cloth used in the family, except a little cotton goods for sheets and un- 
derclothing, and occasionally a little calico for a fancy dress. Wool was 
carded and made into rolls by hand cards, and the rolls were spun on the 
"big wheel." We still occasionally find, in the houses of old settlers, a 
wheel of the kind, sometimes used for spinning or twisting cotlon yarn. 
A common article woven on the pioneer loom was linsey, or linsey-woolsey, 
the " chain " or " warp " being linen, and " filling " or " woof " woolen. 
This cloth was used for dresses for the women and girls. " Jeans " were 
woven for men's clothing. Straw hats for the men and straw bonnets for 
the women were plaited and sewed by hand. In a very few years, how- 
ever, " store clothes " began to be purchased, very rarely at first, on account 
of their relative expensiveness. 

These home fabrics were dyed with walnut bark, indigo, copperas, etc., 
and striped or checkered work was produced by first dying portions of the 
yarn their respective colors before it was put into the loom. 


The Methodists were generally first on the ground in pioneer settle- 
ments, and at that early day were more demonstrative in their devotions 
than at the present time. Pulpit oratory was also more full of action, and 


fraught with soaring flights, while the grammatical dress was thought of 
but little. Family worship, especially among the pioneer Methodists and 
"United Brethren, partook of the zealous fervency of their more public de- 
votions. We had then a most emphatic American edition of that pious old 
Scotch practice so eloquently described in Burns' " Cotter's Saturday 

"The cheerfu' supper done, wi' serious face 
They round the ingle formed a circle wide; 
The sire turns o'er wi' patriarchal grace, 

The big ha' Bible, once his father's pride. 
His bonnet rev'rently is laid aside, 

His lyart hafferts wearing thin and bare, 
Those strains that ance did sweet in Zion glide, 
He wales a portion wi' judicious care, 
And 'Let us worship God,' he says, wi' solemn air. 

"They chant their artless notes in simple guise; 

They tune their hearts— by far the noblest aim; 
Perhaps 'Dundee's' wild warbling measures rise, 

Or plaintive 'Martyrs,' worthy of the name; 
Or noble 'Elgin' beats the heavenward flame, 

The sweetest far of Scotia's hallowed lays. 
Compared wi' these, Italian trills are. tame; 

The tickled ear no heartfelt raptures raise; 

Nae unison hae they wi' our Creator's praise. 

"The priest-like father reads the sacred page — 

How Abraham was the friend of God on high, etc. 

"Then kneeling down, to Heaven's Eternal King 
The saint, the father and the husband prays; 

Hope 'springs exulting on triumphant wing,' 
That thus they a' shall meet in future days; 

There ever bask in uncreated rays, 

No more to sigh or shed the bitter tear, 

Together hymning their Creator's praise, 
In such society, yet still more dear. 
While circling time moves round in an eternal sphere." 

The familiar tunes of pioneer worship were mostly in the minor key, and 
very pensive and solemnly inspiring, in striking contrast with the worldly 
sound of nearly all modern church music. As they are named in tho old 
" Missouri Harmony " (who has seenthis music book within the last thirty 
years?), the characteristic standard tunes were such as Bourbon, Consola- 
tion, China, Canaan, Conquering Soldier, Condescension, Devotion, Davis, 
Fiducia, Funeral Thought, Florida, Golden Hill, Ganges, Greenfields, 
Greenville, Idumea, Imandra, Kentucky, Lenox, Leander, Mear. New Or- 
leans, Northfield, New Salem, New Durham, Olney, Primrose, Pisgah, 
Pleyel's Hymn, Rockbridge, Rockingham, Reflection, Supplication, Salva- 
tion, St. Thomas, Salem, Tender Thought, Windham, etc., besides a great 
number known only by the first lines of the words, as " O, how happy are 
they," " Come, thou fount of every blessing," " O, for a glance of heavenly 
day," " Jesus, my all, to heaven is gone," etc. 

Once or twice a day — in the morning, just before or after breakfast, and 
in the evening just before retiring to rest — the head of the family would 
call to order, read a chapter in the Bible, announce the hymn and time by 
commencing to sing, when others would join, then he would deliver a most 
fervent prayer. If a pious guest was present, he would be called upon to 
take the lead in the religious exercises; and if, in thobe days, a person who 
prayed either in the family or in public, did not pray as if it were his very 
last on earth, his piety was thought to be defective. 


Members of other orthodox denominations also had their family prayers,, 
in which, however, the phraseology was somewhat different from that of the 
Methodists, and the voice kept low and calm. 


The traveler always found a welcome at the pioneer's cabin. It was 
never " full. " Although there might be already a guest for every punch- 
eon, still there was " room for one more." If the stranger was in search of 
land, he was doubly welcome, and bis host would volunteer to sbow him all 
the first-rate claims in " this 'ere neck of the woods," going with him for 
days, showing the corners and advantages of every " Congress tract " or 
unclaimed section within a dozen miles. To his neighbors, the pioneer 
was equally liberal. If a deer was killed, the choicest bits were sent to 
them — a half-dozen miles away, perhaps. When a "shoat" was butchered, 
the neighbors were also kindly remembered. If a new-comer came in too 
late for "cropping," the neighbors would supply his table with the same 
luxuries they themselves enjoyed, and in as liberal quantity, until a new 
crop could be raised. Often the neighbors would also cut and hew logs, 
and haul them to the place of the new-comer's future residence, concluding 
the jubilee task with a grand house-raising. The first night after com- 
pleting the cabin, they would have a " house warming " and a dance, as a 
sort of dedication. The very next day, the new-comer was about as wealthy 
as the oldest settlers. 

An instance of primitive hospitality will be in place here. A traveling 
Methodist preacher arrived in a distant neighborhood to fill an appoint- 
ment. The house where services were to be held did not belong to a church 
member — but no matter for that. Boards were raked up from all quarters, 
with which to make temporary seats, one of the neighbors volunteering to 
lead off in the work, while the man of the bouse, with the faithful rifle on 
his shoulder, sallied forth to the woods in quest of meat; for this was truly a 
" ground-hog case " —the preacher coming and no meat in the house. He 
did not rest until he found his game, which this time was a deer. Return- 
ing, he sent a boy out after it, with directions on what " pint " to find it. 
After services, which had been listened to with rapt attention, the host said 
to his wife, " Old woman, I reckon this 'ere preacher is poorty hungry, 
an' you must git 'im a bite to eat." "What shall I git 'm?" asked the 
wife, who had not seen the deer; " thar's nothin' in the house to eat." 
" Why, look thar," said he, "thar's a deer, and thar's plenty o' corn in the 
field. You git some corn an' grate it, while I skin the deer an' we'll have 
a good supper for him." And they well succeeded. Good bread, from 
new corn, grated, and venison steak are as palatable as any entree in the 


Commercial transactions were generally carried on without money, that 
is, by exchanges of commodities, called " barter " in the books. In this 
system, sometimes, considerable ingenuity was displayed. When commod- 
ities were not even in value, credit was given. But for taxes and postage 
neither the barter nor the credit dodge would answer, and often letters were 
suffered to remain a long time in the post office for want of the 25 cents in 
money demanded by the Government. With all this high price on postage, 
by the way, the letter had not been brought several hundred miles in a day 
or two, as now-a-days, and delivered within a mile or two of the person ad- 
dressed; but it had been weeks on the route, and delivered, probably, at a 
post office five, ten or twenty miles distant. 


Peltries came nearer being money than anything else, as it came, in 
some sections, to be the custom to estimate values in peltries; such an arti- 
cle was worth so many peltries. Even some tax collectors and postmasters 
were known to take peltries and exchange them for the money required by 
the Government. Now and then, a farmer would load a flat-boat with pel- 
tries, tallow, honey, beeswax and perhaps a little grain and a few hundred 
clapboards, and float down the rivers into the Ohio and thence to New Or- 
leans, where he would exchange his produce for staple groceries and cash. 
This was, in some places, the principal means of bringing money into the 
country. Betimes, there appeared at the steamboat landings " commission 
and forwarding merchants," as "middle men," to carry on the business 
through steam navigation, and thus money became more plentiful and in- 
deed more needed. The Winter's accumulations would be shipped in large 
quantities in the Spring, and manufactured goods would come back in re- 
turn. Orders on the store were abundant, and served as a kind of local 
money. When a day's work was done by a working man, his employer 
would ask, " Well, what store do you want your order on?" The answer 
being given, the order was drawn, which was nearly always honored. 

When the first settlers came into the wilderness, they generally 
supposed that their hard struggle would be principally over after the first 
year; but, alas! they often looked for "easier times next year" for many 
years before realizing them; and then they came in so gradually and ob- 
scurely as to be almost imperceptible. The sturdy frontiersmen thus 
learned to bear hardships like soldiers on duty. The less heroic would sell 
out cheap, return to their old homes East and spread reports of the hard- 
ships and privations on the frontier, while the sterner class would remain 
and also take advantage of these partially improved lands thus abandoned, 
and in time become wealthy. 

At one time, tea retailed at $2 to $3 a pound; coffee, 75 cents; salt, 
from $5 to $6 a bushel of fifty pounds; the coarsest calico. $1 a yard, and 
whisky, $1 to $2 a gallon, and all this at a time, too, when the poor pio- 
neers had no money to buy with, except the little they sometimes obtained 
for peltries. 

About 1837, a farmer would haul his wheat to Sandusky City, over 
swampy roads, requiring six to eight days to make the trip, and sell his 
grain for 60 cents a bushel. On returning, they brought out merchandise, 
at the rate of 50 cents a hundred weight. 

Flour, for some time, could not be obtained nearer than Zanesville or 
Chillicothe. Store goods were very high, and none but the most common 
kinds were brought here, and had to be packed on horses or mules from 
Detroit, or wagoned from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, thence floated down 
the Ohio River to the mouth of the Scioto, and then packed or hauled up. 
The freight was enormous, often costing $4 a ton. 

Bread, the " staff of life," was the most difficult of all to procure, as 
there were no mills in the country to grind the grain. The use of stump 
mortars and graters already referred to, were tedious and tiresome proc- 
esses. A grater was a semi-cylindrical piece of thickly perforated tin, 
fastened upon a board, and operated upon as is a nutmeg grater. The corn 
was taken in the ear, and grated before it got dry and hard. By and by a 
horse grist mill was put up here and there, and then water grist mills along 
the principal streams; but all these together could not keep pace with the 


demands of the l-apidly growing settlements. When there was water 
enough to run the mills, the roads were too muddy and small streams too 
high for teaming and taking the grain to the mills. Horse mills were too 
slow, and thus the community had to plod their weary way along until 
steam flouring mills were introduced. 


The implements used by the first farmers in this State would, in this 
age of improvement, be great curiosities. The plow was of the wooden 
mold-board, bar-share pattern, difficult to describe. The reapers were the 
sickle and the cradle. Harrows with wooden teeth, were simply brush 
heaps dragged over the ground. Hoes were almost as heavy as grubbing 
hoes. Threshing machines were flails, or the grain was trodden out by 
horses or oxen. A sheet or quilt, with a stout person at each end to swing 
it simultaneously, sometimes constituted the fanning mill; or sometimes 
the grain and chaff would be dipped up with a pail, held aloft and slowly 
poured out, while the wind was blowing. Handbreaks were used for break- 
ing flax and hemp. 


Hogs were always dressed before they were taken to market. Some 
bright winter morning the farmer would call in his " neighbors to help 
" kill hogs;" large kettles of water were heated; a sled or two, covered 
with boards, was the platform on which the hogs were cleaned. Against it 
was leaned up the hogshead or barrel in which the scalding was done; a 
quilt being thrown over the top, to retain the heat. From the crotch of a 
tree near by, a projecting pole was rigged, ■ to hold the animals for devis- 
ceration, trimming and thorough cleaning. When everything was ar- 
ranged, the best shot of the company loaded his rifle, and the work of kill- 
ing commenced. It was considered a disgrace to make a hog squeal by bad 
shooting or butchering. A "shoulder stick," which was to be avoided, was 
the running of the point of the butcher knife into the shoulder instead of 
the gullet. As each hog fell, the " sticker " mounted him, and plunged 
the knife into his throat. After bleeding a few minutes, and all signs of 
motion ceased, two men would catch him by the hind legs, draw him up to 
the scalding tub, which had just been tilled with boiling-hot water, with a 
shovelful of good greenwood ashes thrown in. In this the carcass was 
plunged and moved around a minute or two, or until the hair would slip 
off easily, then placed ontbe platform, where the cleaners would pitch upon 
it with all their might, with knives or any other sharp-edged article, until 
all the hair was cleaned off. Then it was hung up, by a " gambrell, " upon 
the pole above described, where the work of cleaning would be finished. 

The next day, those hogs which were selected for domestic use were 
cut up, the lard " tried " out by the women, and the surplus hogs were 
taken to market while the weather was cold, if possible. The merchant at 
the steamboat landing had a pork house, in which he stored his stock until 
it was shipped in the spring. In this, the pork-packing was done, giving 
employment to a number of hands during the winter. Allowing for +he 
difference of currency and manner of marketing, the price of pork in those 
days was not so high as at present. Now, while calico and muslin are 8 
and 10 cents a yard, and pork 2 to 4 cents a pound, and wheat $1 a bushel, 
then the cottons were 25 cents a yard, while pork was only 1 to 2 cents a 
pound and wheat 25 cents a bushel. In other words, a bushel of wheat, 
now-a-days, buys as much cotton goods as ten bushels would then. 



When the earliest pioneer reached this Western wilderness, game was 
his principal meat, until he had conquered a farm from the forest or prairie. 
As the country filled up with inhabitants, game grew correspondingly 
scarce, and by 1840-50, he who would live by his rifle would have had but 
a precarious subsistence had it not been for " wild hogs." These animals 
— the descendants of those left by home-sick emigrants who had returned 
East — multiplied and thrived in a wild state, their subsistence being chiefly 
acorns, nuts, sedge stalks and flesh of carcasses ^and small vermin. The 
second and third immigration to the country found these wild hogs an un- 
failing source of meat supply for a number of years. In some sections of 
the West, they became altogether too numerous for comfort, and the citi- 
zens met, organized and adopted measures for their extermination. 



This wild recreation was a peculiar one, and many a backwoodsman 
gloried in excelling in this art. He would carefully watch a bee as it filled 
itself with the sweet product of some flower or leaf -bud, and notice particu- 
larly the direction taken by it as it struck a " bee line " for its home, which, 
when found, would be generally bigh up in the hollow of a tree. The tree 
would be marked, and in September a party would go and cut down the 
tree and capture the honey as quickly as they could before it wasted away. 
Several gallons would thus be often taken from a single tree, and, by a very 
little work, and pleasant at that, the early settlers could keep themselves 
in honey the year round. When the honey was a year old or less, it would 
turn white and granulate, yet be as good and healthful as when fresh. This 
was by some called " candied " honey. In some districts, the resorts of 
bees would be so plentiful that all the available hollow trees would be oc- 
cupied, and many colonies of bees would be found at work in crevices in 
the rock and holes in the ground, and some honey has been taken from 
such places. 


One of the greatest obstacles to the early settlement and prosperity of 
the West was the ague, " fever and ague," or "chills and fever," as it was 
variously termed. In the fall, almost everybody was afflicted with it. It 
was no respecter of persons. Everybody looked pale and sallow, as though 
he were frost-bitten. It was not contagious, but derived from impure water 
and malaria, such as is abundant in a new, timbered country. The impuri- 
ties from them, combined with those which came from bad dietetics, 
engorged the liver and deranged the wbole vital machinery. By and by 
the shock would come, and come in the form of a shake, followed by a 
fever. These would be regular, on certain hours every alternate day — 
sometimes every day or every third day. When you had the chill, you 
couldn't get warm, and when you had the fever you couldn't get cool. It 
was exceedingly awkward in this respect, indeed it was! Nor would it stop 
for any sort of contingency; not even a wedding in the family would stop 
it. It was tyrannical. When the appointed time came around, everything 
else had to be stopped to attend to its demands. It didn't have even any 
Sundays or holidays. 

After the fever went down, you still didn't feel much better. You felt 
as though you had gone through some sort of collision, or threshing ma- 
chine, or jarring machine and came out, not killed, but you sometimes wish 


you bad been. You feit weak, as though you bad run too far after some- 
thing and tben didn't catch it. You felt languid, stupid and sore, and was 
down in the mouth and heel, and partially raveled out. Your back was out 
of fix, your bead ached and your appetite was crazy. Your eyes had too 
much white in them; your ears, especially after taking quinine, had too 
much roar in them, and your whole body and soul were entirely woe-be- 
gone, disconsolate, sad, poor and good-for-nothing. You didn't think 
much of yourself, and didn't believe that other people did either; and you 
didn't care. You didn't make up your mind to commit suicide, but some- 
times wished some accident would happen to knock either the malady or 
yourself out of existence. You imagined that even the dogs looked at you 
with a kind of self-complacency. You felt that even the sun had a sickly 
shine about it. 

About this time, you came to the conclusion that you would not accept 
the whole State of Ohio as a gift; and if you had the strength and means, 
you picked up Hannah and the baby and your traps and went back " yan- 
der to Ole Virginny," " Pennsylvany," "Maryland," or the " Jarseys." 
You didn't sing, but you felt, the following: 

"And to-day the swallows flitting 
Round my cabin see me sitting 
Moodily within the sunshine, 
Just inside my silent door. 

Waiting for the 'ager,' seeming 
Like a man forever dreaming; 
And the sunlight on me streaming 
Throws no shadow on the floor; 
For I'm too thin and sallow 
To make shadows on the floor — 
Nary shadow any more!" 

The above is not a mere picture of the imagination. It is simply re- 
counting, in quaint phrase, what actually occurred in thousands of cases. 
Whole families would sometimes be sick at one time, and not one member 
scarcely able to wait upon another. Labor or exercise always aggravated 
the malady, and it took Gen. Laziness a long time to thrash the enemy out. 
And those were the days for swallowing all sorts of " roots and yarbs," 
and whisky, etc., with a faint hope of relief. And finally, when the case 
wore out, the last remedy taken got the credit of the cure. 


The primitive \r>g schoolhouse was erected in every neighborhood as 
soon as there were a dozen children to attend school. The general archi- 
tecture of this original academy of the wilderness was the same as that, 
already described for the cabin; the difference being that the furniture of 
the schoolhouse coDsisted exclusively of benches for seats and a desk fas- 
tened to the wall on two sides of the room, behind the principal row of 
benches, on which the pupils did their writing and laid articles not used 
for the time being. These writing desks were simply rough slabs, resting 
upon pins driven inclined into the wall, and they extended nearly the 
whole length and width of the building. The fire-place averaged larger 
than those in dwellings. 

Imagine such a house, with the children seated around, the teacher on 
one end of a bench or in a chair, with no desk, and you have a view of 
the whole scene. The "schoolmaster" has just called "Books! books!" 


at the door, and the scholars have just run in, almost out of breath from 
vigorous play, taken their seats and are, for the moment, hurriedly " saying 
over their lessons " in a loud whisper, preparatory to recitation. While 
they are thus engaged, the teacher is, perhaps, sharpening a few quill pens 
for the pupils, for no other kind of writing pen had been thought of as yet. 
In a few minutes, he calls up an urchin to say his A B C's. The little boy 
stands beside the teacher, perhaps leaning against him. The teacher, with 
his pen-knife (urchin wishes he owned such a knife), points to the first 
letter, and asks what it is. The little fellow remains silent, for he does not 
know what to say. "A," says the teacher; "A," echoes the urchin. Teacher 
then points to the next, when the same programme is carried out, and so 
on, with three or four letters a day, and day after day until the " boy has 
got all his A B C's by heart." At the conclusion of these exercises, the 
teacher bids the " Major " to go to his seat and study his letters, and when 
he comes to a letter he doesn't know to come to him and he will tell him. 
Accordingly, ho returns to his sp>at, looks on his book a little while, and 
then goes trudging across the floor to the master, pointing to a letter out- 
side of his lesson, and holds it up awkwardy in front of the teacher's face. 
He is told that that letter is not in his lesson, and he needn't study it now, 
and he trudges, smilingly as he catches the eye of some one, back to his seat 
again; but why he smiled he has no definite idea. 

To present wearing the books out at the lower corner, every pupil was 
expected to keep a " thumb -paper " under his thumb as he held the book 
in his hand, which was then the custom, there being no desks in front of 
the scholars. Even then the books were soiled and worn through at this 
place in a few weeks, so that a part of many lessons were gone. Conse- 
quently, the request was often made, ''Master, may I borrow Jimmy's book, 
to git my lesson in? Mine hain't in my book; it's tore out." It was also 
customary to use book pointers, to point out the letters or words in study 
as well as in recitation. The black stem of the maiden-hair fern was a fav- 
orite material from which pointers were made. 

The a-b, ab, scholars through with, perhaps the second or third reader 
class would be called up, who would stand in a row in front of the teacher, 
"toeing the mark," which was actually a chalk or charcoal mark, or a crack, 
and, commencing at one end of the class, one would read the first "verse," 
the next the second, and so on round and round, Sunday school fashion, 
taking the paragraphs in the order they occur. Whenever a pupil hesi- 
tated at a word, the teacher would pronounce it for him. And this was all 
there was of the reading exercise. 

Those studying arithmetic were but little classified, and they were, 
therefore, generally called forward singly and interviewed, or the teacher 
would visit them at their seats. A lesson, comprising several " sums," 
would be given for the next day to those in classes, while others would 
press forward without any regard to quantity. Whenever the learner came 
to a " sum he couldn't do," he would go to the teacher with it — unless he 
was a drone — and the teacher would do it for him. 

In geography, no wall maps were used, no drawing required, and the 
studying and recitation comprised only the " getting-by- heart" names and 
places. The recitation proceeded iike this: " Where is Norfolk?" "In 
the southeastern part of Virginia." " What bay between Maryland and Vir- 
ginia?" "Chesapeake." "What is the capital of Pennsylvania?" Har- 
risburg." " Where does the Susquehannah River rise?" " In New York." 

When the hour for writing arrived, the time was announced by the mas- 


ter, and every pupil learning the art would throw his feet over and around 
under the writing desk, facing the greased paper or glass window, and pro- 
ceed to "follow copy," which was invariably set by the teacher at his lei- 
sure moments, not by rule, but by as nice a stroke of the pen as he could 
make. Blue ink and blue paper were both common, and a "blue time" the 
learner often had of it. 

About half past 10 o'clock, the master would announce, " School may 
go out," which meant "little play-time," in the children's parlance, called 
in modern times "recess " or "intermission." Sometimes the boys and 
girls were allowed to have this intermission separately. Between play 
times, the request, " Master, may I go out?" was often iterated, to the an- 
noyance of the teacher and the disturbance of the school. 

At about half-past 11 o'clock, or a little later, the teacher would an- 
nounce, " Scholars may now get their spelling lessons," and then, in pros- 
pect of " big play time " being near at hand, they would, with the charac- 
teristic loud whisper, " say over" to themselves the lesson a given number 
of times. " Master, I've said my lesson over four times," would sometimes 
be heard. A few minutes before 12, the " little spelling class " would re- 
cite, aud then the " big spelling class." The latter would comprise the 
larger scholars and the greater part of the school. They would stand in a 
row, toeing the mark in the midst of the floor, or standing with their backs 
against an unoccupied portion of the wall. One end of the class was the 
"head," the other the " foot," and when the pupil spelled a missed word 
correctly he would " go up," " turning down" all those who had missed it. 
The recitation done, the class would number, the head pupil numbering as 
at the foot, where he or she would take station next time, to have another op- 
portunity of turning them all down. Before taking their seats, the teacher 
would say, " School's dismissed," which was the signal for every child 
rushing for his dinner, and enjoying the " big play-time." The same pro- 
gramme would also be followed on closing school in the afternoon. 

"Past the Pictures." This phrase had its origin in the practice of pio- 
neer schools which used Webster's Elementary Spelling Book, toward the 
back part of which were a few reading lessons illustrated with pictures — 
as the mastiff, the stag, the squirrel, the boy stealing apples, the partial 
lawyers, the milk-maid's daydream, and poor Tray. Succeeding this illus- 
trated portion of the book were a few more spelling exercises, of a peculiar 
kind; and when a scholar succeeded in reaching these he was said to be 
"past the pictures," and was looked up to as being smarter and more 
learned than most other youths expected to be. Hence the application of 
this phrase came to be extended to other affairs in life, especially where 
scholarship was involved. 


These were held at night, at the schoolhouse, when a general frolic was 
had, and sometimes mischief was done by the "rowdies." On assembling 
for the spelling match, two youths would volunteer as "captains," to 
" choose sides " and have a contest. Various methods Avere adopted, even 
in the same neighborhood, for conducting this exciting exercise. Some- 
times " tally " would be kept; at other times a system of cross-spelling 
would be followed, commencing at the head or at the foot, or they would 
spell straight round, or have a " word-catcher" appointed for each side, or 
would "turndown," etc. After an hour's contest, an intermission was 
had, which was indeed a lively time for conversation. After recess, the 


practice was to have a regular spelling down, sometimes the sides chosen at 
the first taking their places so as to carry on a sort of double contest, and 
sometimes taking all the assembly promiscuously. The audience dismissed, 
the next thing was to "go home," very often by a round-about way, 
"a-sleighing with the girls," which, with many, was the most interesting part 
of the evening's performance. 

The singing school was of later introduction, but afforded equal advan- 
tage for a jubilee. These occasions were looked forward to with great an- 
ticipation, even by the older folks. 


In pioneer times, when Indian alarms were frequent, it was customary 
for the frontiersman to take his rifle to the field with him and keep it near 
by. Often they would also carry a butcher knife, tomahawk and pistol 
about their persons. A stick would be set up near the gun, so that it could 
readily be found in case of emergency. It must bave been painful to work 
in such suspense, taking some noise to be an Indian alarm several times 
every day, in one instance for two long years without interruption. Many 
an exciting experience is related by old settlers in connection with this 
tedious, cumbersome process of opening up and cultivating their farms. 

Not honey bees, but quilting bees, husking bees, apple parings, log 
rollings and house raisings, etc., were jolly occasions, when a great deal of 
work was done, and often a deal of whisky drank, too. In cornhuskings, 
the women often took part. In the evening of such days, a grand supper 
would be served, and after the older and more sedate had left, the remain- 
der would indulge in an old-fashioned dance. 

Saturday afternoons were generally holidays for those who lived at or 
near villages, the most public cross-roads, etc., when they would assemble 
to witness the militia drill, drink whisky, do mischief, and have a general 


Ohio is a grand State; taking it all in all, it is one of the two or three 
greatest in the Union. Beneath her fertile soil is coal enough to sup- 
ply the State for many generations; her harvests are bountiful; she has 
a medium climate; is conveniently situated in the nation and with refer- 
ence to the large markets. But for her present standing, she owes much to 
the sturdy pioneers whose unremitting toil is referred to in these pages. 
How great the transformation they have wrought, and amid what troubles! 

And now, how natural to turn our mental vision back to the log-cabin 
days of half a century ago, and contrast those rude dwellings with the ele- 
gant mansion of to-day. Before us stands the old log cabin. Let us enter. 
Instinctively the head is uncovered, in token of reverence to this relic of 
ancestral beginnings and early struggles. To the left is the deep, wide 
fire-place, in whose commodious space a group of children may sit by the 
fire, and up through the chimney count the stars, while ghostly stories of 
witches and giants, and still more thrilling stories of Indians and wild 
beasts, are whisperingly told and shudderingly heard. On the great crane 
hang the old lea-kettle and the great iron pot. The huge shovel and tongs 
stand sentinel in either corner, while the great andirons patiently wait for 
the huge back-log. Over the fire-place hangs the trusty rifle. At the right 


stands the spinning wheel, while in the further end of the room the loom 
looms up with a dignity peculiarly its own. Strings of drying apple and 
poles of (hying pumpkin are overhead. Opposite the door stands the great 
walnut table; by its sido the dresser, whose pewter plates and shining delf 
catch and reflect the fire's flame as shields of armies do the sunshine. From 
the corner of its shelves coyly peep out the relics of former china. In a 
curtained corner of the room is "mother's bed," aud under it the trundle 
bed, while near them a ladder indicates the loft where the older children 
sleep. Toward another corner is "mother's workstand," upon which lies 
the Bible, evidently much used, and its family record, telling of parents 
and friends a long way off; and telling, too, of children 

"Scattered like roses in bloom, 
Some at the bridal and some at the tomb." 

Hur spectacles, as if but just used, are inserted between the leaves of the 
Bible, and tell of her purpose to return to its comforts when cares permit 
and duty is done. A stool, a bench well notched and whirled and carved, 
and a few old chairs complete the furniture of the room; and all stand on 
a coarse but well- scoured floor. 

Let us, for a moment, watch the city visitors to this humble cabin. 
The city bride, innocent but thoughtless and ignorant of labor and care, 
asks her city-bred husband, "Pray, what savages set this up?" Honestly 
confessing his ignorance, he replies that he does not know. But see the 
pair on whom age sits " frosty but kindly." First, as they enter, they 
give a rapid glance about the cabin home, and then a mutual glance of eye 
to eye. Why do tears start and fill their eyes? Why do their lips quiver? 
There are many who know why; but who. that has not learned in'the school 
of experience the full meaning of all these symbols of trials and privation, 
of loneliness and danger, can comprehend the story that they tell to the 
pioneer? Within tbis chinked and mud- daubed cabin we read the first 
pagres of our history; and as we retire through its low doorway and note 
the heavy, battened door, its wooden hinges and its welcoming latch-string, 
is it strange that the scenes without should seem but a a Arabian Night's 
dream ? But the cabin and the palace, standing side by side in vivid con- 
trast, tell the story of this people's progress. They are a history and a 
prophecy in one. 




ON the 12th day of October, 1821, my father, John Beckley, with my 
mother and eight children, of whom I was the eldest (not yet seven- 
teen years old), after a weary drive of twenty-five days, via Circleville, from 
Northumberland County, Penn., arrived at Wyatt's Tavern, the last brick 
house on .that road in Northwestern Ohio, a half-mile above Norton and 
about two miles south of the Greenville treaty line. Here had been Fort 
Morrow, of the war of 1812. Mr. Wyatt very kindly tendered us the use 
of one of the block-houses of the fort as a shelter until we could select a 
lot of land and build a cabin. The next morning found us in our tempo- 
rary home, without a bedstead, table, chair or any furniture; but in contrast 
with these privations, we were visited by many kind neighbors, who bade 
us welcome to our new home that was to be. Mr. Wyatt advised my father 
to go up the Whetstone, where his son Daniel lived (the town of Caledo- 
nia is on part of the land he owned), and where Thomas Van Horn, his son-in- 
law, had a cabin, about where Mr. Koch's barn now stands. Accordingly, 
he mounted his horse and wended his way through an almost trackless wil- 
derness to Wyatt's, and then and there he made his first meal on corn bread; 
but it was not the last one, I assure you. 

Meanwhile, we discovered what kind of society we were to have " up 
Whetstone." Here came a half-dozen or more Wyandot Indians, going 
into the white settlements on a trading expedition. They had their ponies 
loaded with divers articles of merchandise, suchas cranberries, honey, splint 
baskets, wooden butter ladles, moccasins, etc., for which they took in ex- 
change sickataw (salt), koosh-koosh (pork), na-hah (meal), Hour, or almost 
anything in the shape of clothing or implements. They were very curious 
arid friendly, shaking hands with every one, and saying, " How-a-muttera." 
We took it for granted that these were no bad or profane words, as they 
seemed to feel pleasant and happy. 

After enjoying the hospitality of Messrs. Wyatt and Van Horn, they 
settled the point that my father should enter the lot now owned by T. A. 
Anderson, where Philip Huff now lives. Jeremiah Coldern and Isaiah 
Mattix were employed to build a cabin, which was soon completed accord- 
ing to agreement. Then came Wyatt and Van Horn with another team, 
and assisted us to our new home. There being no roads then, we came on 
the old Sandusky road five miles, to where the old Rupp farm now is; then 
we did not see another house until we came to Tommy Van Horn's. We 
crossed Grave Creek near the old Kinnear farm; crossed Grape Run near 
where Mr. Fetter now lives; thence came direct for T. Van Horn's; thence 
we had the Upper Sandusky and Owl Creek Endian trail direct for our 
cabin — for it stood en the trail. 

Now for a description of that memorable pioneer cabin. It was com- 
posed of round logs, eighteen feet long, slightly scutched down on the in- 


side; a door and two six-pane windows cnt ont and checked up; the floors 
were made of puncheons, split out of lugs, the lower one roughly hewn, 
the upper one not hewn; an outside chimney, without a stone or brick in 
it, all made of mud and wood. We brought sash and glass from Delaware 
for the windows, and two ash boards from Norton, of which we made a door 
and table. Then we cut down a walnut tree, and cut and split out timber 
for bedsteads, chairs, frames and any other furniture we might choose to 
make. Now came to tug of war — a well to dig, and wall, without stone or 
brick. So we had to dig it square and wall it with timber, and that spoils 
the water terribly; but it must be endured for the present. 

In less than a month after our arrival, there were seven more families 
on Section 36 — three of the Parcell and four of the Packard families. 

About that time, Daniel Worline had settled at the mouth of Grave 
Creek; Amasa Gleason where George Retlerer now lives; Mr. Herrington 
on the Plotner farm, below the Claridon Township line; old Mr. Stuart, 
with several of his sons' families, a mile below Claridon; James Lambert near 
Claridon; Messrs. Dickson, Joseph Hornby and Robert Boulton above Clari- 
don; Jacob and Henry Aye where Mrs. James Douce now lives; Mr. Gloyd and 
Mi*. Gaylord on Muskrat Run, near ihe Nesbit Schoolhouse; Joseph Riley and 
John Roberts on the lauds now owned by T. W. Roberts. The next were old 
Mr. Allen, and Seth, John and Hiram on the John Thew lot, and Henry Parcell 
near where the Thew bridge is now. Mr. Parcell was a representative man in 
our settlement, and will have to bear a conspicuous part in our narrative. He 
soon after removed up near the mouth of Muddy Run. He had already 
built several cabins in the settlement. He had a widespread notoriety for 
bis frequent removals. He once removed to Knox County, and in a year or 
two came back to the old farm again. He would not remove his well, but 
he knew a better way. and that was to dig and wall up another one. An- 
other good trait he had was never to do things by halves, but always to 
make finished jobs. At one time, when he had removed his habitation to 
another part of the farm, he had a young orchard, which was beginning to 
bear, and, not being willing to leave it behind, he dug the trees up, cut the 
tops off and gave them a new location. His boys said that the old gentle- 
man sometimes had in call in the aid of his inventive genius as a substitute 
for a removal, and that was to change the beds, and make all other alter- 
ations'he could in the cabin "to make things look new." 

Reader, you will please pardon us for allowing our boat to be driven so 
far to leeward by this little side-wind, but here we again resume our course 
up the Olentangy. The next house up was that of Nathan Clark, another 
conspicuous man in our settlement, and next, Daniel Wyatt and Tommie 
Van Horn, before alluded to. We also had a few settlei's on the Middle 
Fork of Whetstone, as Jacob Rice, who yet resides where he first pitched 
his tent, without e'er a removal excepting from the old houses into the new 
ones, ever and anon drinking water from that clear and beautiful spring fhat 
still flows as freely as ever. A little below him lived Messrs. Arnold and 
Gordon, on the lot now owned by John A. Weber, and next above him 
lived Comfort Olds, where Harvey Coen now lives. He subsequently built 
a treadmill and still-house, made two removals, built a horse-mill each time 
and a still-house at one time, and lastly went to Pulaski County, Ind., built 
a water mill on the Tippecanoe River, and from thence "passed over to the 
other side." The next, last and uppermost man on that branch, that I know 
of. was old Benjamin Sharrock, where he yet lives, a mile above where Iberia 
is now. This about ends the' catalogue of settlers living on these waters 
(that we now call to mind) who were here in the autumn of 1821. 


Our localities were not then described by political geography, with 
towns and villages, as they now are. They were then called "settlements." 
Ours was usually known as " Muddy Run settlement;" then "Beadle's set- 
ment," named after old David Beadle, where Bucyrus is now; then 
" Hosford's " or " Loverick's settlement," where Galion now is; "Sharrock's 
settlement," where old Benjamin Sharrock yet lives, about a mile above 
Iberia; " Harding's settlement," near Blooming Grove; " Mosier's," or 
the "Quaker settlement," above Cardington; "Norton settlement," at 
Norton, which was our nearest post office, and that or Mansfield was the 
nearest post office to Beadle's settlement; the next in order was the " Rad- 
nor settlement," below Middletown, and lastly " Kirby's " or " Welsh's set- 
tlement," in Grand Prairie Township, on the Indian trail from Owl Creek 
to Upper Sandusky, through where Caledonia now is. This Indian trail 
was all the road we had anywhere through this region, yet all through the 
winter and early spring emigrants were alighting down for settlement like 
Colorados on a potato patch. We must have roads from one settlement 
to the other, and more especially east and south to the old settlements, for 
flour and corn-meal. As for meat, milk, butter and vegetables, our settle- 
ments were soon self-sustaining. The modus operandi we will endeavor to 
give further on. 

Our method of locating and opening roads was very simple. No peti- 
tions, no County Commissioners, no Viewers, no Surveyor and no thirty 
days' notice. But one or two professional hunters, who had chased the deer, 
the turkey and the raccoon all over and over the proposed route for said 
road, would take an ax or two and start on a clear day, when they could be 
guided by the sun — for they had no compass — and take their course over the 
highest and driest ground, marking the trees as they proceeded, avoiding 
swamps and other obstructions as much as possible, and cutting and remov- 
ing the underbrush as they go. Now you have a road ready for horsemen 
and footmen. After this, the first man who fell under the dire necessity of 
going through with a team — which usually was a young pair of steers, not 
very well "broke," made fast to the tongue of a two-wheeled wagon — took 
one or two men (the more the better) with axes, to remove small trees, 
bushes, logs cr other obstructions; and once through, onr teamstex's usually 
had the courage to think they could return by the same road. 

Bridges over streams of water, or causeways over mud-holes between 
here and Mosier's mill, or the " big road," where Waldo now is, were 
wholly unknown for many months after our arrival here. We had but one 
remedy for that evil, and that was. when any one started out for the Owl 
Creek settlement, or down toward Columbus or Lancaster, the usual places 
to procure flour or meal, especially in a wet time, he must not forget his 
ax; and when he saw a bad-looking mud hole, especially with a few poles 
lying in it, that was to him conclusive evidence that they had been used by 
some misguided teamster for the purpose of lifting his wheels out of the 
mixd. The cautious driver now stops his ox-team, which is usually a very 
easy thing to do; he scans the woods for a new route; he seizes his ax, and 
vigorously betakes himself to opening another track around the mud-hole. 
He goes back to his wagon, takes up his whip, says " Gee, Buck," and is 
past the mud hole, not knowing, or wishing to know, how soon he may see 
the next one. 

Another feature of those pioneer roads through the beech woods was that 
the wagon seemed to be continually jolting over the high roots near the 
trees; indeed, in some places, where there was much beech timber, it would 
seem as if their roots were nearly all above ground. 


In the autumn or early spring of 1821, Col. James Kilbourn, of Worth - 
ington, a gentleman well-known by the pioneers of Northern Ohio as a land 
surveyor, a writer of poetry and a ballad singer, came up the Olentangy to 
a point a few miles east of the center of Marion County, laid out a town in 
the woods, near the west bank of the above-named river, in Canaan Town- 
ship, as it was then called, naming this village "Claridon," not forgetting 
to compose a beautiful song about " Sweet Claridon," wherein the charm- 
ing and enchanting beauties of nature were most eloquently and vividly 
described. Several settlers were living near this point, as it was expected 
that the county seat must be located not many miles " from this very spot," 
among whom were Amos Earl, Joseph Hornby, Joshua B. Bearse, James 
Lambert and others; and the prospect of the county seat soon attracted im- 
migrants to this new village. A commodious hotel was soon erected. It was 
a long cabin, with one or two log partitions, and doorways sawed out 
and checked up. They were usually made of round Jogs; then, after they 
were up, the bark, and sometimes a little of the wood on the inside of the 
wall, scutched off with a broad-ax. In a few instances, we have known 
them to hew the outside in the same way. But whether this cabin was 
hewn on the outside we do not remember. George Shippy was the enter- 
prising host of this pioneer hotel, and simultaneously came Ansel Matoon, 
a blacksmith, from Worthington; Mr. Broman, a cabinet-maker, and be- 
fore a twelvemonth passed he had received several orders for coffins. And 
here, also, came Mr. Norton, a tanner, who commenced a thriving busi- 
ness; but the good man, in a few short months, had to succumb to the pale 

In the succeeding spring, a committee was sent from headquarters to 
select a site for our county seat. Jeremiah McLand (McLene?), at that 
time a prominent man in our State Government, was one of that committee. 
After viewing the localities claimed by the different parties to be the most 
suitable, they set their post on the Sandusky road, near " Jacob's Well," 
as it was then called. We heard some say it was at a place where there 
was " neither wood, water nor chips. " Then, in consequence of the coun- 
ty seat going to Marion, and the frightful sickness and death during the 
two autumns of 1822 and 1823, the village of Claridon was nearly depopu- 

At about the same time, Col. Kilbourn laid out the town of Bucyrus; 
he made another song, and could sing it on all proper occasions. 

In the spring of 1821, our branch of Whetstone overflowed its banks 
several times, and I do not think there was a bridge over that stream from 
its source to its confluence with the Scioto. After the waters had subsided, 
the settlers resolved that a bridge must be built over the Olentangy. 
Henry Parcell was understood to be the architect aud engineer in chief of 
this great enterprise. Accordingly, at the next cabin-raising (of which we 
usually had several every week), due notice was given of the time and 
place, and all bands were to be on the ground early, some with their teams 
(oxen, of course) and log chain, others with axes, mauls and iron wedges. 
shovels and hoes. Now mind, no allowances were made for delinquencies, 
other than absolute necessities. "Uncle Henry." as he was familiarly 
called, was on hand betimes, with all his available force, his four elder 
sons, John, Dan, Jim and Henry, and two sons-in-law, Nathan and Martin. 
The Packard connection came up in about equal force. There were old 
Joshua, an old soldier of the Revolution, Bruce Alanson, Phin. Resh, J. 
Gearson, Sol Wilkinson, Alonzo and Con Bacon. These were the Parcell 


and Packard tribes. Some were detailed with shovels and hoes, leveling 
the foundations for the abutments, others chopping the logs for same, and 
right here were the oxen looking at the logs, and ready to drag them up as 
soon as they were chopped off. Then there were other men ready to fit 
and build both abutments without delay, and yet other parties were at work 
with their mauls and wedges, splitting the puncheons to be laid down as 
soon as the timbers should be placed on the abutments, and before night 
we had a bridge over the Olentangy that withstood that turbulent stream 
for many long years. 

A brief outline of the way we made use of our time during the first win- 
ter we passed in our new homes in the then far West: As you will readily 
understand, very few could bring any household furniture with them, es- 
pecially when a family of from four to eight or ten members came four or 
five hundred miles on a wagon drawn by a yoke of oxen or span of horses, 
much of the way over a very bad road; and many of our immigrants came- 
here just in that way. The first thing to do was to drive your team near 
a large, fallen tree, near where the cabin was to be built. Now all is in 
motion; a temporary shelter is quickly constructed; logs must be cut to 
build the cabin; some of the neighbors (in some places several miles dis- 
tant) come to see the new-comers, and, if desired, might on the morrow be 
seen, some with axes, a cross-cut saw and a frow, coming, and before the 
sun is down a large tree has been cut, sawed and riven into clapboards — 
enough for the roof. Notice having been circulated, in a day or two the 
cabin is raised and the roof put on, always on the same day, and we often 
finished the task by 2 or 3 o'clock, and played a few games at townball 
afterward; next the puncheons were to be split and hewn for the fioors, 
then a wooden foundation for the chimney, well lined with mud and 
topped out with sticks and mud; next in order they were to be chinked and 
daubed. Daubed was an appropriate name for that exercise. After the mud 
was well mixed for the jambs, back wall, chimney and wall — that for the 
chimney and walls was usually put on by sleight of hands — for the walls a 
large double -handful of this mud would be taken up by the " mud smith," 
thrown into the aperture among the chinking, and then nicely and smoothly 
troweled on. Doors, tables and cupboards were mostly made of clapboards, 
nicely split and shaved, as we had several draw-knives in the settlement, 
and but very few glass windows; but we had a substitute, and that well 
smeared with oil. Here permit us to relate an incident: One day we 
heard Aunt Susy Parcell bemoaning the loss of their pet sheep. Yet, after 
all, she said, " she could hardly see where it was more of a loss than a 
gain to them; the wool," said she, " will make several pairs of stockings, 
the hide we converted into a window, and we saved a large cake of tallow; 
so, you see, we will have stockings, we have a window, to keep the wind 
from blowing in and give us light by day, and the candles will give us 
light by night." Thus verifying the proverb that a sheep never dies in 
debt to its owner. 

Our cabin is up and our goods stowed away as best we could, and 
for the night our beds must be spread on the floor. Now we must go to 
work and make our furniture. For bedsteads, we had several styles; but 
the most primitive and simple kind was that with but one post, on this 
wise: .First, bore a hole in the wall, about the height you wish for yoiu* 
bed, about four feet from the corner; bore another hole into the other wall, 
about six feet from the same corner. Now take a stick of wood, of any 
desirable size, round, square or of any shape, for your post; bore two holes, 


at right angles, about the height of those in the walls; get two poles, one 
four and a half and the other six and a half feet long, drive the end of one 
into each wall, and the other ends into your post. Now fasten two more 
poles near the walls, or lay clapboards on the front rail, and the other end 
on the logs in the wall, and your bedstead is complete. Of course we had 
chairs, tables, bedsteads and other furniture of many patterns, fashions and 
styles — all made of green lumber — some of round poles, others would split 
them out of large trees and dress them out. And tools were not easily ob- 
tained. Perhaps A had an inch auger, B had a saw, C had some nails, 
etc. , and all must lend and borrow more or less. A large portion of the 
men followed hunting, many of whom would enjoy their evenings at dress- 
ing deer skins. It took two buckskins to make a pair of pants, and two 
fawn skins to make a pair for a boy. We saw two little girls who wore 
dresses made of fawn skins. They were of a purple color, were neatly 
made and looked well. They both grew up to be ladies of respectability. 
The eldest has long since passed over to tho other side: the younger sister 
yet resides in this county, but whether she remembers her nice little fawn- 
skin dress I could not say, but I do think if she could remember how tidy 
they looked, she would feel proud of this memorial of those days of h«r 

But in connection with dressing deer skins, we had all the hickory-nuts, 
hazel-nuts, walnuts and butternuts that we could dispose of. Hogs kept 
fat all the winter on the mast, of which there was an abundance for several 
successive seasons. When the^ soft-shelled hickory-nuts were plenty, the 
deer would chiefly subsist on them. 

Not only were wild game and bees plenty here, but hogs also. No mat- 
ter how tame they were when brought here, as soon as the mast began to 
fall they would stray off and become wild by being constantly frightened 
and harassed by men who were hunting their pigs. Every person having 
cattle or pigs had his peculiar ear-mark recorded by the Township Clerk. 
To-day you have a dozen or more tine, fat hogs, which have been about 
home every day of their lives, to-morrow they don't come, and you nover 
hear of them again. 

This compelled parties who had lost their hogs to offer a large premium 
for their recovery, and that was no less than one-half, which was freely 
given. This tine prospect for gain brought numbers of hog-hunters into 
the field, but, strange to tell, quite a large number of those benevolent pig- 
hunters either forgot or were otherwise prevented from returning to the 
owners their half, but quietly and carefully salted them all down, asking 
no questions. 

We will now bring to your view another scene, contrasting joy wifeb sor- 
row, hope with despair and disappointment. Every family was here in the 
wild woods on their first trial to raise food for future support. No one had 
so much as a potato patch until he cleared a field in the green woods; and 
it was a hard task to get from three to five acres of ground ready for the 
plow in proper season for our spring crops. All the trees over eighteen 
inches in diameter were usually left standing, and deadened by chopping a 
girdle through the bark and sapwood of each tree. 

After our corn-field, of four or five acres (and but few had more than 
that), was cleared, the plowing was commenced among the trees, stumps 
and roots, and with such plows! all with wooden mold-boards. Many farm- 
ers made their own plows, for the very good reason that there was not a 
mechanic of that kind within twenty milos of here that we knew of. As 


\yL^^tACy I Irth^&W 


the corn is planted, here are all sorts of birds and squirrels, black squir- 
rels, gray squirrels, red squirrels and ground squirrels, digging after it; but 
fortunately potatoes, beans and other vegetables were not molested. As 
soon as the corn began to have ears, all these pests came down, and many 
fields were nearly or totally consumed by them, excepting what was con- 
sumed by the families before the grain was ripe. We continued shooting 
them until there was no more ammunition to be had either in Delaware or 
Mansfield, our nearest stores; then Daniel Parcell and I attacked them in 
Indian style, with bows and arrows, and succeeded tolerably well even in 
that way. Our whole population was compelled to depend upon the old 
settlements for their breadstuff's for another year at least, and but few hav- 
ing either money or means to buy with, left no other way but for the most 
able-bodied member of the household to go where he could obtain grain for 
work, and in this way procure bread for his family. 

This scarcity of grain was another cause of our hogs straying off and 
becoming wild. There was no corn to winter them on, consequently they 
must go to the woods and procure their own subsistence, and when we 
wanted a piece of pork we had to seek, but were not always sure to find, 
but when we did find them they were usually fat enough to kill at any time 
of the year. 

Our cattle usually came through the winter on wild hay in tolerable con- 
dition, if it was well put up, and we gave them plenty of it. 

Next year, our prospects began to look much brighter. We had now 
more than double the acreage of cleared lands, and most of the last year's 
corn-fields had been sown to wheat, which looked promising for a bountiful 
harvest. Our good people determined on making an attempt at curtailing 
the ravages of the squirrels on our incoming crops, and for this purpose a 
squirrel hunt was proposed, and a committee appointed to make the neces- 
sary arrangement. A subscription paper was circulated, and each one sub- 
scribed as many bushels of corn as he thought proper, to be paid the next 
fall; then the prizes were arranged accordingly. The man who produced 
the largest number of squirrel scalps took the highest prize, and so on, the 
hunting to continue two days. On the afternoon of the second day, the scalps 
were to be counted and the several prizes awarded. It also came to pass 
that this committee, or some other committee, had provided a full supply 
of whisky, maple sugar and eggs; whereupon another committee was ap- 
pointed to mix, mingle and commingle those three ingredients into a fluid 
which they called egg-nog. It was a time long to be romembei'ed; and it 
has often been said that there was but one man who left that place sober, 
and that was Daniel Parcell, who had never been known to take a dram. 

This summer brought us our first wheat harvest, and it did not come 
before it was needed, as flour and corn meal had become scarce. We cut 
some sheaves, threshed them, winnowed the chaff out, boiled the wheat 
and ate it with milk. We lived on that kind of food while we cut and 
stacked nearly all of our first crop. Now, as soon as the wheat was dry 
enough to grind, there were other things to bo learned. The first was to 
make a threshing-floor. This was done by shoveling off the surface of the 
ground, throwing some water on, and tramping it down as smooth as possi- 
ble. Some would thresh it out with flails, others would yoke up one or two 
yoke of oxen, chain them together and have them tramp it out. Now the 
threshing was completed, the wheat with the chaff heaped up, and the floor 
swept, but no fanning mill, perhaps, within twenty miles of us. Here 
was another dilemma; but the inventive genius of man ao-ain came to our 


aid. AVith a heavy linen sheet, one man at each side rolls his side in about 
a quarter or half a yard; now they observe which way the wind blows, take 
their positions accordingly and commence flapping the winnowing-sheet 
rapidly, prodiicing a strong current of air near the ground, while the third 
man, with a scoop or some other vessel, scatters the wheat and chaff before 
this winnowing-sheet, blowing the chaff out, and doing it tolerably well, 
too. But napping the sheet is very fatiguing work, often producing blis- 
ters on the fingers in a few moments. After the wheat was cleaned, the 
next thing to be done was to yoke the oxen, hitch to a cart or pair of 
wheels, load up and start for Mount Vernon, to mill; and there would be 
plenty of our good neighbors impatiently awaiting our return in order to 
borrow some flour. 

After the death of Mr. Norton, the tanner, at Claridon, the settlers 
were much in aeed of a tanner, as leather was a cash article, and no stores, 
as yet, nearer than Mansfield and Delaware, until Mr. A. Holmes brought 
a few goods to Marion, and E. B. & Charles Merriman commenced with a 
small shop in Bucyrus. Most of their goods were then brought from Pitts- 
burg on wagons, and after a two-horse wagon-load of goods, wares and 
merchandise were piled up and exposed to the view of customers, it was a 
rare sight. But not many years after it sometimes so happened that a five 
or six horse team would be driven up to the door of a store-room in Marion 
or Bucyrus, which had been laden at Baltimore or Philadelphia and brought 
all the way over rivers, mountains and valleys without change, right fresh 
from headquarters, in less than four weeks, " cheaper than the cheapest!" 
(No middle men in the case.) Sole leather, 37 1 cents per pound; bar iron, 
11 cents; nails, 12£ cents; muslins and prints, 25 to 37| cents a yard, etc. 

The pioneers of Marion County did not suffer from chills and fevers 
alone; but another form of disease, more to be dreaded than the fevers, was 
that fearful scourge, the milk-sickness, which was most fatal in the rich 
valleys of the Cuquaw and Grave Creeks, where there were but few fami- 
lies which did not experience more or less of the fearful effects of this ter- 
rible disease, either on man or beast. But few of the people being ac- 
quainted with its effects, its cure or preventive, and having but few physi- 
cians (and at first none, that I remember of), and when the first ones came 
here they were mostly unacquainted with it, a large per cent of these cases 
proved fatal. Some parents would go or send to Mount Vernon, Delaware, 
Mansfield, Columbus or Lancaster, and provide a supply of jalap, calomel, 
" tartar mattix," etc., and doctor their families and neighbors; others wqnld 
boil a kettleful of butternut bark and make up a batch of butternut pills, 
or dig up a quantity of blue flag, Culver, May-apple or blood-root, pulver- 
ize and swallow them, or take them in pills or decoction, just as might suit 
the fancy of the giver or receiver. But this state of things did not long 
continue. We soon bad plenty of doctors traversing the highways and by- 
ways, so much that any one who wished to be doctored could be so treated 
to his heart's content. 

The next year, 1824, Dr. Lee, from Mount Vernon, came to our relief. 
He brought his family, and resided in the Vanhorn cabin before mentioned. 
-n,rom that time on we were not unusually afflicted with sickness. 

About this time, Amariah and John Thorp built a saw mill, about four 
miles above where Caledonia now is, and still further up the stream another 
vvas put in operation by Mr. Eberhart, and several others were built on the 
Middle Fork by Jacob Rice, William Shafer, Benjamin Masters, John Mc- 
Kinstry, Benjamin Sharrock and others. All the above-named mills were 


driven by water-power, and consequently there was not enough water in 
those streams to keep them in operation duriDg more than half the year, 
thereby causing our enterprising fellow-citizens to erect another class of 
flouring mills, to be propelled by horse-power. Of these there were two kinds ; 
one was by hitching four horses to the arms of the master wheel, similar 
to the horse-powers used at the present day; the other kind was by the 
tread-wheel. The first mills of this kind we remember of were Adams', be- 
low Bucyrus, Snyder's and Adrian's, northwest of where Galion now is, 
and in a few years thei'e were plenty of them throughout the "region round 
about;" and usually, when we took a grist to one of them, and it was 
ground and the toll taken out, it transpired that there was not much left 
for the poor customer to take home, and that not Superfine XXX; but that 
was better than the hominy-block or the hand mill. 

In the autumn of 1S23 or 1824, our good old sires conceived the idea of in- 
augurating an English school. The site of the " schoolhouse " was in Mr. 
Charles Larrabee's field, about ten rods southwest of where Mr. Sullivan S. 
Place's house now stands. 

The next move was a day appointed to commence the structure. The 
logs were twenty-four feet long. The foundation was laid the first day and 
several rounds of logs notched down, and in a few days we had the model 
schoolhouse for all the "region round about. " It was composed of round lops, 
but the logs on the inside were slightly hewn down with a broad- ax. The 
floors were of puncheons, split out of logs and hewn, leaving a fire-place in 
the center of the room, with a chimney in the shape of an inverted funnel over 
it. The upper floor was made of the same kind of plank as the lower one, 
the only difference being that the joints in the upper flour were filled and 
besmeared with mud, making the room very warm and comfortable. 

We had three windows, two of paper and one of glass. They were ar- 
ranged in this wise: On the east and west sides a lug was cut out of the 
wall, and small sticks of wood set in about ten inches apart, and paper 
pasted to the logs and to those sticks, serving in the place of window-sash. 
The paper was then well smeared with raccoon's oil, through which the 
light would penetrate mu ch better than without the oil. Then we had a six- 
pane window in the north side, tilled with glass. Next in order was our 
school furniture. For this we cut a straight grained linden, about two feet 
in diameter and near the length of the room, split it into four planks and 
hewed one face on each; the two widest ones, resting on large pins driven 
into the wall, served as desks, and the other two we made into long benches 
to sit upon. Other seats were made in the same way, with never a piece to 
rest our backs against. 

Now, it may not be amiss to give a list of th9 householders in this school 
district, namely, Henry Parcell, Josiah B. Packard, Jason Gleason, John 
Humphrey, Solomon S. Wilkinson, William Shaffer, Samuel Spurdion, 
Noah Lee, John Lindsay, Adam Hipsher, John Beckley, James Larrabee, 
Joseph W. Larrabee, William Van Buskirk, John Lee (Beech), William 
Garberson, Daniel Wyatt, Nathan Clark, Jacob Rice and Benjamin Bell. 

I believe I had the honor of teaching the first school in the little village 
of Letimberville. A list of the householders of this district may be of in- 
terest, for comparison with the present settlers, to wit: Henry Parcell, 
Peter Weyand, Christian Long, James McCauley. James Young, John Foos, 
Jesse Foos, Samuel J. Hill, Seth Knowles, Job McCumber, Peter Spyher, 
Joseph Lykins, Thomas Monnett, Martin McGowen, John Reeder, Thomas 
F. Johnston, Constant Bowen, Charles Wilson, Mrs. Smith, Jackson Dow- 


ling, John Vanworst, Daniel Hipsher and William Quay. Charles Wilson 
kept a store and tavern; Jackson and David Dowling, carpenters; Alexan- 
der Kirkpatrick, blacksmith; Thomas M. Smith, shoe-maker, etc. 

I taught school at Judge Idleman's cross-roads in the winters of 1829, 
1830 and 1831, at $10 per month and "board around." The School Com- 
mittee urged the propriety of having their school taught at low wages in 
consideration of being promptly paid on the last day of the term. That 
promise was kept to the letter. At that time there was but a small portion 
of the tuition fund raised by taxation — about from one-third to one-half — 
and the balance was to be paid by the householder according to the number 
of days each one sent; and verily, on the afternoon of the la^t day of the 
term, after notice had been given, those householders presented themselves 
at the Captain's office, and paid each one his apportionment. The names 
of the householders, that I remember of, were Jacob ldleman, William 
Pontius, Philip Felter, Jacob Kepnor, John James, Jr., Abraham Hardin, 
George Rupp, Joseph Boyd, James Johnson, John Myers, William David, 
Cyrus Biown, Mrs. Carpenter, John Jones, Sr., and Hiram Wilcox. 

We also had other experiences on the banks of this Olentangy River. 
One was on a contract with William Smith, above King's mill, for a three- 
year-old colt which he valued at $30, for which I agreed to clear seven acres 
of bottom land, namely, to grub it, as it was termed, and chop all the trees 
up to eighteen inches in diameter, chop all the old logs, all linn trees of 
all sizes, trim and chop the same, as all the balance of the logs, about four- 
teen feet long, suitable to roll up in heaps for burning; also to burn the 
brush, thus to make it ready for rolling. I was terribly deceived in the 
amount of labor it would take to clear away those linn trees, and there 
were many of them on the seven acres. 

We also had the pleasure of clearing several other fields, further up the 
creek, on Section 16, one the farm now owned by Mr. George Retterer, then 
owned by John Gilson, also for Aunt Amelia Rogers, Amasa Gleason, Jo- 
siah Williams, Daniel Gilson and others. All cleared much after the same 
style as that for Billy Smith, excepting "all the linn." But we could 
afford to be a little more charitable toward him, as he was very pious — 
much more so than those chaps above him were. 

Once upon a time, I was down the Whetstone on secular business, when 
at nightfall I applied at Mr. George Retterer's for lodging, which was read- 
ily complied with, and in the morning, after a sumptuous breakfast, I ten- 
dered him the needful for his hospitality, which was promptly refused, say- 
ing he would take no pay from the man who cleared the first trees from the 
land upon which he was then raising his bread. Long live George Ret 
terer, and may his shadow never grow less! 

At an early period of our history, Mr. William Shaffer, then living on 
the farm now owned by Mr. Samuel Hill, in Scott Township, conceived the 
idea of erecting a mill, to be driven by horse-power, but before it was com- 
pleted he sold his lands to Geoi'ge Hosham*, and bought the land now 
owned by Mr. John Pittman,on the Middle Fork of the Whetstone Creek, where 
he soon had a small grist mill in operation, and subsequently a small dis- 
tillery was thereunto annexed, thereby enabling his customers to mitigate 
both hunger and thirst. He afterward sold to Jacob Kistler. He next 
built a saw mill on Thorn Run, afterward known as Bockoven's mill. Mr. 
Kistler sold his mill and still to Abraham Krisoly; the next owner was 
David Rettick, and lastly it came into possession of Jacob Rice. About 
this time, Hiram Morse, the next neighbor above the mill, commenced a 


prosecution against Mr. Rice for damages, resulting in a vexatious and 
protracted law-suit, and the mill was abandoned. 

About the time this mill was built, Messrs. Apt and Strawman, formerly 
from Switzerland, settled on Thorn Run, and were soon afterward joined by 
Messrs. Glathart and Glause. also from Switzerland. 

About 1828, came Elder John Parcell, from Knox County, who failed 
not to make his mark in the advancement of our community. He was a 
master mechanic at the carpenter and joiner business, and had been a Baptist 
minister. From him several of us learned how to construct frame buildings. 
His method was first to make his mortises and tenons, bore the pin-holes 
through the mortises, put his frame together, mark his draw bore on the 
tenons, take them out far enough to bore them through, then put them to- 
gether and tack them with hook pins. Square your work by the 6, 8 and 10 
problem in order to scribe his braces, then his work was laid out. But 
about that time we heard several reports of a Yankee, down East some- 
where, who could frame a building without trying any of his work until 
he was ready to put it up, and it would all come together complete. But 
our carpenters would believe no such thing, until they saw some crazy 
Yankee demonstrate the problem, when they had to " gove him up. " 

About 1830, Mr. Parcell bought theeigbty-acre lot of Manning Richard- 
son, and forty acres of Daniel Wyatt, on which the original town plat of 
Caledonia was laid out a year or two after this time. He commenced erect- 
ing a frame house for a store room on the Boh am lot, and after the house 
was finished Mr. L. Van Buskirk joined with him as a partner, or assistant, 
but think he was a partner. They obtained their stock of goods of Daniel 
S. Norton, of Mount Vernon. This little store, small though it was, saved 
us many a weary trip to Bucyrus or Marion. 

Soon after the store was in operation, Mr. Parcell commenced building 
a saw mill, succeeded by a grist mill, where F. Fisher's mill now is. He 
also contemplated the laying out of a town plat there, whereupon several 
cabins were built on the contemplated town site, but the town was not legal - 
ly laid out and recorded until after Mr. Parcell had sold the tract of land 
from the center of Marion street north to the half- section line to W. S. 
Farrington and C. H. Weed, and the south part to Richard Wilson and G. 
P. Cherry. Thes6 gentlemen had the town plat surveyed by Samuel Holmes, 
named it Caledonia and recorded it on the 11th day of April, 1834 

Mr. Farrington brought a stock of goods here in the spring of 1833, and 
occupied the old store room until he built a new one on the corner now oc- 
cupied by H. Hunter. About the same time, Messrs. House and L. Van Bus- 
kirk opened as a new firm on the east side of the street. Isaac Cherry 
built the house now occupied by J. R. Riley: Josiah Boyce built a hotel at 
Cross' corner; Samuel Littlefield had a chair factory on the bank of the 
creek, but soon afterward died, and was succeeded io the business by Garry 
Clark, who had his turning lathe driven by dogs on a tread-wheel. Among 
the other pioneer mechanics were John W. Dexter and Robert McBride, 
shoe-makers; Joseph and Charles Wooley, blacksmiths, and G. P. Cherry, 
tanner and currier. 

Waldo, Iberia and Letimberville were all inaiigurated at about the 
same time. Waldo being situated on the west bank of Whetstone, on the 
old Columbus & Lower Sandusky road, where the Columbus & Sandusky 
Turnpike separates from this old road, in a rich and fertile district of coun- 
try, was then thought to be a favorable site for a thriving country village, 
about midway between Delaware and Marion, and perhaps would have been 


if there never had been a railroad built; but all points cannot expect to be 
especially favored by those institutions. 

There existed about that time, round about Letimbarvilli, a few speci- 
mens of the genus homo that were a caution to all honest men. They 
seemed to be properly organized and drilled for any task. It was not un- 
usual for a fat hog, a heifer, bee-hive or any other kind of " goods and 
chattels" to mysteriously disappear and never more be heard from. One 
instance: William Quay, after he had butchered his winter's meat made 
a large quantity of sausage (for a large family), and hung them up in an 
outhouse to dry. On the next morning, Mrs. Quay went into the old 
house to get a nice mess of sausage for breakfast, when lo! to her horror 
and to the horror of the whole family, not an ounce of sausage was to be 
found, and never was heard of until Harvey Larrabee obtained the particu- 
lars of the whole transaction from one of the members of this organized 
gang of marauders in Texas. Such cases were transpiring in the neighbor- 
hood monthly or weekly, without any case ever having been detected that 
we remember of. 

The Columbus & Sandusky Turnpike was made by a company, and or- 
ganized by a few speculators in and about Columbus, who obtained a char- 
ter and a grant of every alternate section or tier of sections where it went 
through Government lands. It was obtained about the year 182S. Col. 
James Kilbourn was one of the master spirits in this great enterprise for 
the benefit of the growing West. George Ulsh lives on a tier of turnpike 
lands; next in order was where Joshua Sechel lives; next, where Capt. 
Knowles and the Walton farm is; next, Thomas F. Johnston's and Henry 
Johnston's. These alternate tiers, through this county, were usually sev- 
eral miles wide — wide enough to make up for losses where the Government 
lands had been bought. The whole distance from Columbus to Sandusky 
by this road was about one hundred and six miles. By the terms of this 
charter, said l-oad was to be made of "good and substantial material," well 
drained and kept in good repair. But instead, it was made of only such 
material as could be plowed and scraped in, composed of sods, muck and 
clay. I do not remember of seeing even one wagon-ioad of stone or gravel 
that had been hauled on it from one end to the other; yet this company, 
after having received all these Government lands, had the bold hardihood 
to put up toll-gates and collect the same rates of toll for traveling on their 
" clay pike," " mud pike," or whatever they might call it, as was charged 
on good ones. You may imagine what kind of a road it was in a wet sea- 
son. We have often known teamsters to be compelled to call upon their 
neighbors to bring their teams and help them haul their wagons out of 
mud-holes near the toll-gates, where they were compelled to pay toll before 
they were allowed to go through. This grievance having been endured a 
dozen or more years, we had petitions printed and circulated from one end 
of this road to the other, which were signed by nearly every man to whom 
they were presented, and were sent to the care of George Sharp, of Dela- 
ware, Representative in the Legislature from this district, who had the 
matter investigated, which disclosed the fact that the Columbus & San- 
dusky Turnpike Company had perpetrated a gigantic fraud upon the good 
people all along the vicinity of this road. About this time, the teamsters 
began to demolish the toll-gates, whereupon the company promptly insti- 
tuted legal proceedings against the offenders, but they were signally van- 
quished, and down went all the toll gates; and that was about the last we 
ever head of that turnpike company. 


In 1847 or 1848, tbo Mad River Railroad, connecting Sandusky City 
with Cincinnati, was put in operation. Next in order was the Cleveland, 
Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad, completed in 1851, and the Bellefontaine 
& Indiana Railway in 1853. 

Lands soon advanced from $8 to $40 per acre; horses from $00 to $150 
per head, with other farm products in about the same proportion. On the 
contrary, commodities of importation, such as iron, cottons, sugar, salt, 
etc., became cheaper, thus proving a decided benefit to the farmer. 

This unprecedented advance in the value of property stimulated our en- 
terprising people to construct public roads, bridges, expensive public build- 
ings and private improvements of all sorts. 

The first reaper I ever saw was near Bucyrus, in A.. D. 1848. It was a 
rude looking apology, compared with those now in use. About the same 
time, the first corn-planters and wheat drills were invented. Our farmers 
were very tardy in purchasing wheat drills when they were first introduced, 
until offers were made to let any farmer have a drill for the difference of a 
crop sown by drill or broadcast on twenty-five acres. The difference, in 
several instances, was so great, in favor of the drill, as to be about double 
the common price of them. Almost simultaneously came the corn plows, 
single and double, with many other improvements for the benefit of the 
farmers. So it was in every branch of mechanical and manufacturing in- 

In our first remembrance, there was no such thing known as a shoe 
closed up with pegs. Then, after they came into use, every shoe-maker had 
to learn to whittle his pegs out with his shoe-knife; but not many months 
after that, Mr. Yankee had his machine in operation for making pegs. He 
was able to measure any size of his pegs out to his customers by tbe bush 
el, which produced an entire revolution in that branch of business. 

So it was with common farm implements. When Mr. Farmer wanted a 
new ax, a hammer, a draw-knife, a chisel, a fork of any kind, or a hoe, all 
he had to do was to go to the nearest blacksmith shop and have them made. 
Our young men cannot imagine what clumsy kind of tools their " grand- 
dads " had to work with. The vast improvement that has been made in the 
mode and manner of manufacturing iron from the ore to a cambric needle, 
a razor, ship anchor, or the most gigantic steam engine is almost incompre- 
hensible! Go into whatever department you may choose, and you will see 
one man with a horse or two and a simple machine of some kind, perform 
with ease the amount of labor which would have required ten men half a 
century ago. 


"I moved into Marion Township in the fall of 1823. I first lived in a 
cabin built by Marcus Briggs, in the northwest corner of the township, 
on a farm since owned by Southwicks. I rented that farm and a part of the 
farm belonging to Elder Dudley, raised a crop and wintered there. 

" In the spring of 1825, I moved to my present residence in Montgom- 
ery Township, then known as Grand Township, the voting place for which 
was at Marseilles, then called ' Burlington.' I chopped off five acres of 
timber land that spring, trimmed and burned the brush, and planted corn 
among the logs as they lay, and raised a very good crop. There was no 
road, and to get here I had to cut one through the woods, for about four 
miles. It was quite an undertaking then to go to mill. I used to go over 
my road, cut through the woods from here to Scott Town, then along the 
county road between Montgomery and Grand Townships, to the old Belle- 


fontaine road in Hardin County, then down to West Liberty, in Logan 
County. We generally spent three or four days on the trip. The nearest 
mill was at Claridon, where I sometimes went,; and afterward we occasion- 
ally patronized Caleb Johnson's horse mill in Big Island. 

" Game was plenty in the Scioto bottoms as long ago as 1825-26. One 
night, I shot five deer by caudle- light, and got back home by 11 o'clock. 
This was done from a canoe. ' Jerked venison' was a very common food in 
those days; was very good then, and I should even like to try some now. 
At another time, I stood in the nettles as high as my head, and shot eleven 
turkeys as fast as I could load and shoot. They kept screaming, 'Quit! 
quit! ' but I kept on all the same. Coons were so plenty as to be a nui- 
sance. They were very troublesome about corn-fields, and, of course, were 
fat. I caught and tried out enough, one season, to make twenty-one gallons 
of oil, which I sold for 50 cents a gallon, to Sears, in Big Island, and with 
a part of the proceeds bought a tremendous pair of andirons — the first we 
had. One day in February— I don't remember the year — I went out with 
my dog and caught thirteen coons. When I got home, a fur dealer was at 
my house to stay over night. Next morning I sold him the thirteen coons 
for $13, and was very well satisfied with my day's work. 

" In a new country, as this was then, every man's house and services 
were at the call of his neighbors. My house was, of necessity, a stopping 
place for all that passed that way, and the common charge, if any was made, 
was 50 cents for keeping a man and horse over night. 

" The Scioto then was bridged by only an occasional ' drift,' and the 
ferriage was done by a canoe. I had a large one, and whenever a man ap- 
peared on either bank and 'halloed,' I left my work and ferried him over. 
If he had a horse, we made it swim beside the canoe; if a wagon, we either 
took it over in pieces or ran it astride the canoe and paddled it all over at 
once. For this, we sometimes got a ' Thank you, sir,' and sometimes not. 

" The first settlers of the county were Joshua Cope and Jacob Croy. 
Cope settled in Big Island Township, on the old Messenger farm, and Croy 
on the site of the Pleasant Hill Church, in the same township. 

" Many incidents of pioneer life, often ludicrous, sometimes serious, 
happened during our long residence here; but being rather of a personal 
than public character, we omit them for the present." 


" My father, Capt. William S. Drake, came to Marlboro, now Waldo 
Township, Marion County, in the year 1807, and entered 160 acres of land 
at $2.50 per acre, paying one-third down and the balance in one and two 
year payments. He and his sou, Uriah, cleared a small patch the first 
year, and put in a crop of corn, pumpkins and potatoes. He then returned 
to New York for his family, leaving Uriah to cultivate the crop. He re- 
turned in 1808, with a family consisting of his wife and seven children. 
They traveled the entire distance in an old rickety two-horse wagon, 
drawn by two poor plugs of horses. The amount of cash left on their ar- 
rival was 25 cents! 

" The Indians were very numerous at that time, and inclined to be hostile 
to the white settlers. This hostility was fostered by British spies and 
traders, until war was finally declared in 1812. Apprehending hostilities, 
Gov. Meigs appointed William S. Drake Indian Agent for the following 
tribes: Delawares, Wyandots, Pottawatomies and Senecas, then residing 
in the northwest part of Ohio. He made his headquarters at what was 


then known as ' Negro town, ' now in Wyandot County. As soon as war 
was declared, the Indians became very uneasy. They were uncertain about 
what to do. The Canadians were using all their arts to induce them to 
join the British, while Gov. Meigs desired to have them remain neutral or 
join the forces of the United States. The Governor ordered Capt. Drake to 
remove the Indians to a place called Zanesfield, in what is now Logan 
County This occurred in 1811. The Indians met him in council, con- 
cerning the matter, and sat in deep consultation about forty hours without 
leaving their seats. They finally agreed to go, and in two hours were on 
their way. They numbered about six hundi'ed. They remained at Zanes- 
field a few months, but becoming dissatisfied, returned to Upper Sandusky. 
A chief by the name of Zarhe, or Crane, seemed to have great influence 
among the Wyandots. He was regarded as being friendly to the United 
States. After their return, the Governor appointed two Commissioners — 
Solomon Smith and Moses Bixby, of Delaware — to meet the head-chiefs at 
Upper Sandusky, to obtain a grant for a new road from Lower Sandusky to 
the old Greenville boundary line, in the southern part of Marion County. 
The chiefs granted the request, and the road was to be sixty feet wide. 
The Governor then appointed three Commissioners, Bell, Bair and Van 
Clief, to run and open the road. The chain-carriers and blazers were Capt. 
William S. Drake, Maj. John Bush and Jacob Foos. This road passed 
through what is now Marion Village, and was known as the ' war road.' " 
[Described elsewhere.] 


" April 1, 1820, I left Fairfield County, to find a home in Sandusky 
Plains, where land was said to be cheap. On the third or fourth day, I ar- 
rived at D. Drake's, on the boundary line. The first familv I found on the 
road was Jacob Idleman, tented at Slab Camp, and he was- alone, putting 
up a small cabin. Next was Van Horn; then David Tipton; Alex Berry, 
just south of where Marion now stands; James Murray, just south of the 
fork of the road a mile north of Marion; Hugh O'Harra, just north of that 
fork; Daniel Fickle, south of Rocky Fork; Mr. Caldwell; Mr. Swinnerton, 
who had just arrived where the family (January, 1878) now lives; Mr. 
Hackathorn; Jacob Coon; Vedersforth, just south of where Little Sandusky 
now is; Mr. Armstrong, opposite where T. Reber now lives, then the block- 
house at Upper Sandusky. Here James Whittaker kept a tavern, with 
plenty of Indians all around. I stayed here two days, and found that I 
had passed through the New Purchase — the land here was a reservation. 
I then returned to Caldwell's, who was erecting a blacksmith shop as I 
went up. I worked for him one month and then returned to Fairfield, to 
wait for the land sale in August. 

" In the spring of 1820, the New Purchase was one township, attached to 
Delaware County. 

" The first election was held at the house of James Murray, a mile north 
of where Marion now stands. He and David Tipton were the two Justices 
of the Peace. Daniel Fickle, John Green and James Lambert were the 
Trustees. At this election we gave forty- eight votes. 

"At the land sale, in August, at Delaware, I bought the eighty acres of land 
on which Van Horn's cabin stoud in October. I built my blacksmith shop, and 
took up my residence with Van Horn. Shortly afterward, he moved away, 
and in January, February and March the first school was taught in the 
cabin he had built. Fifteen scholars attended. 

"In 1821, Big Rock Township was divided into three, four or five town- 


ships. I fell in Pleasant Township, then comprising the present Richland, 
Pleasant and Green Camp Townships. The first election was held at D. 
Worien's for one Justice of the Peace. There being no candidates, I selected 
\V. Crawford, and he selected me, and thus there was a tie. The Clerk of 
Delaware County cast lots, and drew for Crawford. He mai-ried the first 
couple that I knew of.* The bridegroom was to make him 200 rails for 
saying the ceremony; but two or three weeks afterward the young man said 
he charged too much, and he might undo it. (This was probably the same 
chap who afterward ' ran away owin 1 more than he could pay.') 

" In the fall of 1821, David Tipton sold out and moved away, and the 
next spring Squire Crawford resigned. John Staley and I were elected Jus- 
tices in their place. 

" The first death that I know of was that of a Mr. Klinger, who had 
moved upon the marsh between Beerbower's and Staley's in the cold, wet 
spring of 1821, when no planting could be done until June. He ran out 
of money and provisions, and thinking we would all starve he drowned him- 
self in the river, leaving a wife and five or six children. 

" The first religious society formed on the New Purchase was started by 
Christian Saylery (Staley?) and Jacob Idleman, who also had come in the 
spring of 1820, the former settling on the Whetstone and the latter on the 
race at State Camp. Their meetings were held from house to house, and 
by fall the society numbered thirty or forty members. 

" Our first minister was a Welshman named Stewart, I think, from Rad- 
nor, a local preacher. He was with us frequently until the fall of 1821, 
when he died. James Murray was our first regular minister, arriving in 
the fall of 1821. He organized us into a society, remaining but a few 
months, when he attended conference, and was sent to the Delaware Cir- 
cuit. Andrew Kinnear, I think, came in the spring of 1822. 

" In 1825, I moved to Marion, where the first minister I heard was Mr. 
Bradford, a Baptist. After preaching one day at Eber Baker's residence, 
he wished to know how many professors of religion were present. Only 
two arose. 

" In the spring of 1826, the first Sunday school in the county was organ- 
ized by a Presbyterian minister. We raised $40 for a library. It was a 
union school, and was kept for some time in the brick schoolhouse. 

" The first religious society formed in Marion was the Methodist, com- 
prising Henry Peters, Mr. Hillman, John Ashbaugh and Benjamin Will- 
iams, with their families, and Thomas Anderson and wife." 


" My great-grandfather, George Morris, was a Scotchman by birth. He, 
with other children, was kidnaped and brought to America about 1680, 
and settled in New Jersey, where he is believed to have left, at his death, 
a large family. My grandfather, Anthony Morris, had a family of four- 
teen children, the most of whom lived to mature age. He died in 1804 — 
the year I was born. Some of his brothers emigrated South, perhaps to 
Virginia or North Carolina. My parents, Joseph and Rachel Morris, had 
twelve children, eleven of whom lived to the ago of men and women. At 
present, only four are left. My parents removed with their family from 
New Jersey to Ohio in 1821, settling in Columbiana County, then compar- 
atively new, building their cabin in the woods, amid bears, deer and wolves. 
My father died a few years afterward. 

* Orrin (Owen ?) Moore and Zubie (Azubau ?) Wiicox. 


" In 1828, I married Jane Warrington, and in 1837, we moved with our 
little family of three children to Richland Township, this county, settling 
upon the land where we now reside, which was entered at Bucyrus three 
years before, at $1.25 per acre. We have now seven children — one in Iowa, 
two in Tennessee and the rest near home. 

" Our means of support whilst clearing the farm were limited, but wild 
game was plentiful, especially turkeys and deer. I remember to have 
trapped, in rail pens, twenty- six turkeys in one winter, a portion of which 
we salted and dried; this the Indians called 'jerk.' These advantages, to- 
gether with the liberal kindness of our few neighbors, made our situation 
quite comfortable. One evening, these lines came up in my mind with pe- 
culiar force: 

• " We are here on Marion soil, 

Far from our kind relations; 
The hope of rest makes light our toil 
And lessens some privations. 

" On another evening, a German man, of respectable appearance, came to 
me as I was chopping wood, having heard the sound of the ax. He was 
lost, and had wandered in the twilight of the evening, hunting some trail 
by which he might find his way home. Not being acquainted with each 
other's language, we were unable to converse. We entertained him at our 
house over night, making use of signs for language. After breakfast next 
morning, I learned from him what neighborhood he was from, and I went 
home with him. He has ever since been my neighbor, and a first-class 
Christian one, too. He died recently, aged about ninety years, leaving an 
aged, noble Christian woman. As an agent, I sold him the 160- acre tract 
which is now a fine farm in the possession of his son Frederick. 

" One evening, on the way to a neighbor's, by a dim moonlight I discov- 
ered some wild animal in the path before me, which I determined to kill. 
It turned upon me before I knew what it was, and before I was fully pre- 
pared to meet it. I seized a club, and then noticed that I had a porcupine 
to contend with. I killed it, but afterward suffered considerably from the 
quills it thrust into my ankles, over my shoe-tops. Porcupines were com- 
mon in those days, but they mostly perished during the cold winter of 

" As money was scarce when we settled here, and we needed groceries, 
iron, leather, etc., we exchanged field ashes at 5 cents a bushel for the 
necessaries, which was a great convenience. 

" When we first arrived here, we temporarily lived in an abandoned cabin 
until we could build our own, and thus we had for our nearest neighbors' a 
family whose acquaintance we dreaded. We had been cautioned to avoid 
them under all circumstances. In a few days, the dreaded man brought 
us a pitcher of new milk, saying that he had noticed we had small children 
and no cow. A day or two afterward, he brought a plate of nice fish. For 
twenty-five years afterward — until their death — this family proved kind 

" In the absence of doctors — for whom, indeed, we had but little need 
— we used lobelia and white ash and white walnut bark, the two latter as 

" Hugh Alexander, an elderly man, who followed making shingles and 
resided with a friend near the West Fork of the Whetstone, was missed one 
spell of cold weather, and I do not remember that any search was made for 
him. Two or three years afterward, his rifle and some of his bones were 



found within a half-mile of my house. He had probably frozen to death. 
He was an invalid, on account of having once frozen his feet. 

Since 1843, I have followed the nursery business, in which I have been 
greatly encouraged by kind individuals in Marion, Upper Sandusky, Marys - 
ville and elsewhere, recommending me. And here I desire, also, to say 
that our township, Richland, is up with the best in respect to farms, roads, 
schools, character of the people, etc., and our County Infirmary, now un- 
der the Superintendence of Daniel Lawrence and wife, is in the care of 
those whose excellence of management cannot be over-estimated. 




IT is interesting to trace the line of descent of the county of Marion. 
By careful research it is ascertained that the territory now included 
within its boundary lines formed portions of a number of different counties 
before it was finally set off as Marion. The first two counties organized in 
the Northwest Territory were in that portion now forming the State of 
Ohio. Washington County, erected by proclamation of Gov. Arthur St. 
Clair, July 27, 1788, included all that portion east of a line passing from 
the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, up that stream to the portage between 
it and the Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum; thence across the portage 
and down the Tuscarawas to the site of old Fort Laurens, at the north 
boundary of what is now Tuscarawas County; thence west on a line iden- 
tical with the subsequent Greenville treaty line to the Scioto River, and 
down that stream to the Ohio. It is thus seen that the county of Washing- 
ton as originally formed included about half of the present State of Ohio. 
Hamilton County was nest organized by the same authority, and included 
the region between the Miamis as far north as a line drawn due east from 
the Standing Stone Fork of the Great Miami to the Little Miami; this was 
January 2, 1790. There is nothing to show that its limits were ever ex- 
tended to the eastward, yet in the description of Wayne County, as formed 
by proclamatioD of Gov. St. Clair, August 15, 1796, it would seem that 
Hamilton had been extended to the Scioto; if so. it included what is now 
Marion County, and from that date (1790) should begin the existence of 
an organized county of which Marion formed a part. Wayne County, or- 
ganized at the date above given, undoubtedly included Marion, as the de- 
scription will show: Beginning at the month of Cuyahoga River upon 
Lake Erie, and with the said river to the portage between it and the Tus 
carawas branch of the Muskingum; thence down the said branch to the 
forks at the crossing place above Fort Laurens; thence by a west line to 
the east boundary of Hamilton County, which is a due north line from the 
lower Shawnee (Shawanese) Town upon the Scioto River. This town was 
a short distance below what is now Circlevillo. Pickaway Co., Ohio. A 
due north line from that point would pass through the eastern part of Mar- 
ion County. Thence it ran west-northerly to the south part of the portage 
between the Miamis of Ohio and the St. Mary's Rivers; thence by a line 
also west-northerly to the southwestern part of the portage between the 
Wabash and Miamis of Lake Erie, where Fort Wayne now stands; thence 
by a line west-northerly to the south part of Lake Michigan; thence along 
the western shores of the same to the northwest part thereof, including 
lands upon the streams emptying into said lake; thence by a due north line 
to the territorial boundary in Lake Superior, and with the said boundary 
through Lakes Huron, St. Clair and Erie, to the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
River, the place of beginning. This was the most extensive county formed 
in the Northwest Territory. After the treaty of Greenville, the limits of 
Hamilton County were extended westward to the boundary line designated 


by that treaty, which extended from Fort Recovery, in what is now Mercer 
County, Ohio, directly to the Ohio River, at a point opposite the mouth of 
the Kentucky River. * The seat of justice for Washington County was at 
Marietta; for Hamilton County at Cincinnati; and for Wayne County at 
Detroit, and these conditions remain uuchanged to the present, except in 
the extent of territory in each county. 

March 30, 1803, Franklin County was formed as follows, including 
Marion: "Beo-inning on the western boundary of the twentieth range of 
townships east of the Scioto River at the corner of sections numbered 24 
and 25 in the ninth township of the twenty-first range surveyed by John 
Matthews; thence west until it intersects the eastern boundary line of 
Greene County; thence north with said line until it intersects the State 
line; thence 'eastwardly with the said line to the northwest corner of 
Fairfield County: thence with the western boundary line of Fairfield to the 
place of beginning." The county of Fairfield at that time extended north 
to the State line. February 20, 1805, the western boundary line was proba- 
bly touched by the following description of Champaign County: "Begin- 
ning where the range line between the eighth and ninth ranges, between 
the Great and Little Miami, intersects the eastern boundary of the county 
of Montgomery; thence east to the eastern boundary of the county of 
Greene, and to continue six miles in the county of Franklin; thence north 
to the State line; thence west with said line until it intersects the said 
eastern boundary of the county of Montgomery; thence to the place of be- 

Delaware County was formed February 10, 1808, and embraced the 
whole of Marion. It was bounded thus: "Beginning at the southeast cor- 
ner of Township No. 3, in the 16th range of the United States military 
district; thence west with the line between the second and third tier of 
townships, to the Scioto River, and continued west to the east boundary of 
Champaign County: thence with the said boundary north to the Indian 
boundary line; thence eastwardly with said line to the point where the 
north and south line between the 15th and 16th ranges of the said United 
States military district intersects the same; thence south with the said last- 
mentioned line to the place of beginning." By an act of February 17, 
1809, all that part of Franklin County lying north of Delaware was at- 
tached to the latter. 


Marion County at first contained, in addition to its present territory, the 
townships of Cardington, Gilead, Canaan, Morven and Washington, in what 
is now Morrow County, and two miles more along the north side; but it did 
not extend south of the Greenville treaty line. The territory out of which 
this county was at first carved had been purchased from the Indians in 1820. 
In 1822, Eber Baker laid out his town plat, naming it "Marion," after the 
celebrated Revolutionary General, Francis Marion. Soon afterward the 
prospective county in which it was located was also called "Marion," and 
the Legislature of 1822-23 " set off " the county, under that name, appoint- 
ing three Associate Judges, whose duty it should be to appoint the first 
officers. They appointed George H. Busby, Clerk, temporarily; but the 
next fall, 1823, each Judge having a candidate of his own for the office, 
they submitted the question to a vote of the people. The people recom- 
mended Mr. Busby, and he was accordingly appointed Clerk and Recorder 
for seven years. 



The first Commissioners elected in this county were Matthew Merritt, 
Amos C. Wilson and Enoch B. Merriman, and they held their first session 
June 7, 1824, the Auditor being Col. Hezekiah Gorton. The principal 
business of this session, as well as of most of their meetings for many 
years afterward, was the location arid improvement of roads. 

On the first day, Grand and Salt Rock Townships were organized and 
named. Green Camp whs first mentioned by name on the Commissioners' 
record June 8, 1824, and on this day also Morven Township, now in Mor- 
row County, was named, and Pleasant and Richland Townships were or- 
ganized. June 9, the Commissioners decided that the rate of tax levies 
should be to the full extent of the law. This day also Reuben Smith was 
appointed Treasurer, and his fees were fixed at 3 per cent. The Commis- 
sioners also divided the county into four collection districts, as follows: 
1, Green Camp, Pleasant, Richland and Morven Townships, Henry 
Peters, Collector; 2, Scott, Washington, Claridon and Canaan, James Lam- 
bert, Collector; 3, Big Island, Salt Rock, Centre (now Marion) and Grand 
Prairie, Benjamin Hillman, Collector; 4, Bucyrus, Sandusky and Whet- 
stone (then attached to Marion County for certain purposes), Charles Mer- 
riman, Collector. These collectors were allowed 8 per cent for collecting. 

For some reason not given, the Commissioners adjourned at the con- 
clusion of their first day's labors, to meet the next morning " at sunrise. " 

This session also ordered a jail to be built — the first in the county. 

They had a special sessioQ July 5. 1824 (present, Merritt and Wil- 
son), when they ordered built the brick "schoolhouse" on West street, to be 
used also as a court house and meeting house. They ordered $30 from the 
county treasury to be applied on it, while the citizens were expected to 
defray the rest of the expense by subscription. They appointed Eber 
Baker, Dr. George Miller and Adam Uncapher a committee to superintend 
its erection. At this session, Benjamin Hillman was appointed Collector 
of land tax. 

The Commissioners, John Page, Amos Wilson and Enoch B. Merriman, 
met again Monday, December 6, 1824, and appointed Benjamin Davis 
Keeper of the County Weights and Measui'es; ordered surveys of roads, etc., 
and cast lots next day for length of term for each Commissioner, resulting 
in giving Page three years, Wilson two and Merriman one. 

At the next session, March 7, 1825 (Page, Wilsou and Zachariah Welch), 
Big Island and Liberty Townships were organized — the latter now in Craw- 
ford County. 

At the session June 6 to 8, 1825, Pitt Township, now in Wj'andot 
County, was organized. The first settlement was made with the County 
Treasurer, finding everything right. A bounty of $1 per head was offered 
for all wolves killed within the next six months. William Crawford was 
appointed Collector of chattel and State taxes, and Adam Uncapher Treas- 
urer. The Board of Equalization first met October 15, 1825. consisting of 
John Page, Zachariah Welch, Amos Wilson, Andr w Kinnear and Heze- 
kiah Gorton. 

At the session commencing December 6, 1825, the Commissioners were 
John Page, Amos Wilson and Zalmon Rouse. The Auditor was ordered to 
apply to the court for the public papers and donations belonging to Marion 
County. Some time during this year, they fixed the salary of the Prosecut- 
ing Attorney at $40 for the year, and that of the Clerk and Sheriff each at 


January 25, 182G, a house for the jailer was ordered to be built, of hewed 
logs, 22x14. and two stories high, according to a plan on record. The con- 
tract for building was taken by Adam Uncapher, for the sum of $168. 

At the June session in 1826 — John Page, Amos Wilson and Hugh V. 
Smith, Commissioners — William Crawford was appointed Tax Collector, 
and a settlement was made with the Treasurer, and accounts found correct. 

The first duplicate of the county will illustrate the wonderful changes 
that have taken place in fifty years. Even as late as 1827, the total tax 
levies were but $2,703.80. James Taylor was the heaviest tax-payer, pay- 
ing upon more than 10,000 acres of land. His tax was $155.84, a truly 
enormous amount in those days. The town lots now occupied by the Ma- 
sonic Block, Kerr House and prominent business houses of Marion were 
valued at froin $5 to $15, exclusive of buildings. The valuation of real 
and personal property in the corporation at present is $2,178,917, which is 
very low, there being nearly three time3 that amount here. 

In 1829, two tiers of sections were stricken from the east side of Tully 
Township and attached to Washington Township, then in Marion County. 

The townships in 1811 were seventeen in number, namely: Marion, 
Grand, Washington, Gilead, Canaan, Richland, Green Camp, Pleasant, 
Tully, Big Island, Grand Prairie, Bowling Green, Morven. Claridon, Mont- 
gomery, Scott and Salt Rock. 

February 3, 1845, the General Assembly erected Wyandot County and 
altered the boundaries of Crawford County. The act took off a strip from 
the north side of Marion County two miles wide, three miles wide off 
Grand Township, and attached it to the counties north to preserve their 
constitutional area. Thus the northern tier of townships are only four 
miles in extent north and south — Grand Township only three miles. 
March 3, following, these fragmentary townships were ordered re-organ- 
ized under their old names. 

In 1848, Morrow County on the east was formed by act of the Legisla- 
ture, and Washington, Cannan and Morven Townships were taken from 
Marion County, and to maintain the dignity of the latter, Prospect and 
AValdo Townships — that portion south of the treaty line — were added from 
Delaware County. 

Changes in the dimensions of the townships, not affecting the boundary 
line of the county, are omitted here, as they are given in the respective 
township histories in this volume. 


Marion County is in the Ninth Congressional District, with Knox, Mor- 
row, Delaware, Union and Hardin Counties; in the Thirteenth Senatorial 
District, with Hardin, Logan and Union Counties: and in Subdivision No. 
2 of the Tenth Judicial District, with Crawford and Wyandot Counties. 


The county of Marion, though named and defined by boundaries as 
early as 1822-23, was not organized until March 1, 1824. There was a 
sharp conflict for the county seat between Marion (the owners of the site), 
the owners of land two miles north, where Isaac B. Mouser has since re- 
sided, Big Island, Claridon and a paper town called Bellevuron, five miles 
east of Marion, where the Mount Vernon road crossed the Columbus & San- 
dusky Turnpike. Byron Kilbourn, non-resident, was the proprietor. Only 
a log cabin was there. The Commissioners appointed by the State to make 

Marion County Court House, 



a selection were feasted and favored by the citizens in the respective locali- 
ties. All the sites were examined, and the award was given in favor of 
Eber Baker, probably on account of the ease with which water could be ob- 
tained on his land. This decision has resulted in giving Marion its present 
advantage over all competing points. The land two miles north of Marion 
and Bellevuron are now good farms; Big Island has never grown beyond 
its initial point; Claridon remains as the original nucleus, while the rail- 
road has brought up other towns in the county to considerable importance, 
but all to pay tribute to Marion. Even the capitals of neighboring coun- 
ties are falling behind in respect to railroad facilities, which at the present 
day constitute an important element of prosperity. 


The Commissioners' first sessions were somewhat itinerant, being held 
sometimes at one store, and sometimes another, or at the old brick school- 
house on West street. But in June, 1828, the Commissioners took steps 
to provide for themselves and the other county officers a suitable and per- 
manent place for meeting and holding their offices. To this end the fol- 
lowing order was made by them and entered upon their journal of June 6, 
1828: " Ordered there be built a building on the lot in the town of Marion 
which lies between the lots where Adam ITncapher and Daniel Musser now 
reside, for the use and benefit of the county; and that said building be built 
of brick, twenty-feet in front and sixteen in the rear, with a partition through 
the center and a 'fire-place at each end, two doors in front, two windows in 
front and two in the rear, with twenty lights each. " 

This building was completed during that year, and was occupied by the 
county officers until the brick court house was erected. It was located on 
the lot where the store building formerly owned by Martin Miller now 
stands, just north of the Kerr House, and was not removed until a dozen 
or fifteen years ago. 

In the meantime the courts were held in the old brick schoolhouse 
on North West street, where it still stands, the property of John O'Ragan. 

The lot upon which the court house was built was deeded to the county 
as follows: 

Eber Baker, Deed to Marion County: Know all men by these presents: That we, 
Eber Baker and Lydia Baker, of the county of Marion and State of Ohio, for and in 
consideration of one hundred dollars, to us in hand paid by John Page, Henry UsUck 
and Washington W. Concklin, Commissioners of the county aforesaid, the receipt 
whereof we do hereby acknowledge, have released and quit-claimed, and by these pres- 
ents do release and quit-claim unto the said John Page, Henry Ustick and Washington 
W. Concklin, Commissioners aforesaid, and their successors in office, to and for the 
proper use and behoof of the citizens of the county of Marion aforesaid, forever, all 
our right, title, claim, interest and estate which we now have, both at law and in equity, 
as well in possession as in expectancy of, in and to all that certain lot of land situated 
in the town of Marion, as designated on the town plat of said town of Marion, as 
recorded in the Recorder's office of said county as public grounds, with all the appur- 
tenances thereunto belonging. 

In witness whereof we have herewith set our hands and seals this 6th day of 
June, 1829. Eber Baker, [l. s.J 

Lydia Baker, [l. s.j 
Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of — 

George Hollow a v, 

James H. Godman. 

June 9, 1831, while John Page, Henry Ustick and John C. Bates were 
Commissioners, the initiatory steps toward building the court house on the 
above mentioned lot were taken. On thjeir journal of that date is the fol- 
lowing entry: 



" Ordered that the building of a court house on the public grounds in 
the town of Marion be sold to the lowest bidder on Thursday, the 21st day 
of July next; and that notice of the same be given for three weeks in the 
Ohio State Journal and the Ohio Monitor, papers printed in the town of 
Columbus, and the Cleveland Herald, printed at Cleveland." 

July 21, 1831, the contract for the building of the court house was let to 
Solomon Zeller, for the sum of $5, 779, which appears from an eutry on 
the journal of that date. The building was to be completed by September 
3, 1833. Mr. Zeller was to be paid as follows: $1,000 in hand, $500 
by the first Monday in December, 1831; $1,000 by the first Monday of 
June, 1832; $1,000 as soon as the walls of said court house were finished 
ready for the roof, and the remainder of said sum, $2,279, as soon as the 
whole work was completed. 

Before any of the above steps were taken, the Legislature had, on January 
7, 1831, passed an act authorizing the Commissioners of Marion County to 
borrow money, in any sum not exceeding $6,000, on such terms as they 
should deem advisable, for the purpose of erecting a court house. Accord- 
ingly, at a special meeting of the Commissioners, August 4, 1831, soon 
after the contract had bean let, Sanford S. Bennett and Elisha Hardy, who 
were then engaged in mercantile business here, under the firm name of 
Bennett & Hardy, were duly authorized by the Commissioners to negotiate 
the loan on behalf of the county at any rate of interest not exceeding 6 per 
cent. By the 7th of October following, these gentlemen had secured the 
money of John Ferguson, of New York, and on that day the Commission- 
ers executed six bonds of $1,000 each, pledging the faith of the county for 
their payment at any time after ten years from that date and within twenty 
years, with interest at 6 per cent, payable semi-annually. The work went 
forward and the structure was completed with but little change from the 
original plans. September 3, 1833, found the building finished, except the 
hanging of the window shutters, completing the cupola and placing the 
lightning rods. The house was accepted and the contractor paid off ac- 
cording to agreement. The county was so young at that time that the 
task of building the court house at $5,779 was as great a burden to the tax- 
payers as one costing $228,000 would be now. 

The second court house was built of brick, was 36x56 feet in dimen- 
sions, besides a large portico in front; was two stories high, and, according 
to the usual plan, had the court room and the principal offices below. It 
was a good building for its day, but long before it was abandoned the peo- 
ple had outgrown it. It was indeed not only too small, but was consid- 
erably out of repair in 1882, when it was condemned, and the next year 
torn away to give place to a new edifice soon to be erected. The 
court house yard was at first surrounded with eight- cornered posts, about 
ten inches in diameter and eight feet apart, sunk in the ground twenty 
inches and being above ground four feet, with a two-inch hole one foot from 
the top, through which was run a chain about the size of a trace chain. 
" Whirligig " gates (turn-stiles) were at each corner except the northeast. 
This fence was after some years supplanted with a nice wooden panel fence 
on a stone foundation, and this in turn by an iron fence. 

February 3, 1883, closed the last term of court held in the old court 
house, which had served almost half a century. Its walls had many a time 
echoed the voice of Thurman, Pendleton, Ward, Sherman, Lawrence, and 
many other eminent men, speakers of all classes, as well as lawyers. As 
the old residents passed through those abandoned chambers before they 


were torn down, what feelings must have arisen in their bosoms, clinging 
to the memories of a, by-gone age! What associations must have lingered 
in their minds with an indescribable charm, swarming around a multitude 
of scenes and experiences! 


For several years past a new building has been needed for the safer and 
more convenient keeping of the records and for more room in which to 
hold court, as well as various other meetings and the respective offices. 
Accordingly, during the year 1882, a movement was set on foot toward the 
erection of 'the desired structure upon the old site. 

The commission for selecting a plan for the new court house consisted 
of the County Commissoners, Samuel Mahaffey, C. H. Cromer and George 
Retterer, with Judge J. N. Matthews, of the Probate Court, Clerk John H. 
Thomas, Sheriff John V. Harrison and Amos H. Kling, appointee of the 
Common Pleas Court. These men had the power of appointing the archi- 
tect. They visited court houses in other parts of the State and Indiana, 
and thoroughly posted themselves on plans. Considering both design and 
cost, they decided that the court house at Napoleon — Gibbs and Stine, of 
Toledo, architects — more nearly approximated the needs of Marion County 
than any other. Those architects were accordingly selected for this work. 

The plan adopted contemplates a fire-proof structure of buff sandstone, 
90x110 feet, three stories, including basement, which shows above ground, 
with the cornice standing well above the Kerr House and a belfry towering 
to the height of 140 feet above the pavement. Commodious offices, a 
superb court room and all the modern appendages of heat, light and ven- 
tilation are comprehended in the plan. The cost of the building is to be 
$100,000, and the tax to raise that amount will not exceed 1 mill on the 
dollar for the next decade. 

Bids for the contract were advertised for, and in March the contract for 
building was let to Leffler & Bland, of Marion, who immediately com- 
menced work by removing the old court house. About when they had ac- 
complished this they were obliged to suspend operations, on account of the 
claims of one E. W. Mitchell, of Jackson, Ohio, who was a lower bidder, 
but whose bid was rejected by the County Commissioners for what they 
considered good cause. Mitchell appealed to the Supreme Court and was 
awarded the contract, but up to date, September 1, 1883, has done no 


A jail became a necessity in spite of the good character of the first in- 
habitants of the village and county, and Eber Baker was once more called 
upon for aid. He built the jail on the same lot now used for that purpose. 
The following is the entry in the Commissioner's journal, to wit: 

Thursday, June 10, 1824. 
Resoloed, That there be erected on Lot No. 10, in the town of Marion. Marion 
Co., Ohio, a log jail, after the following plan, to wit : The logs 16x14 feet. Two sto- 
ries high, seven feet between floors, of square timber laid close together. The 
walls in the lower story sixteen inches thick, in the upper story twelve inches thick; 
two windows in the lower story opposite each other, one foot high, two feet wide, 
with strong iron grates set perpendicular in the center of the logs not more than three 
inches from each other; two windows in the upper story eighteen inches square; with 
iron grates set in the same mauner as in the lower story. The sills halved together 
and sunk six inches in the ground. The lower floor laid with hewed timber a foot 
thick, with shoulders in the sills two inches. The middle floor laid with hewed tim- 
ber a foot thick in a rabbet of five inches; the third floor laid as the first. The wall 


plates and girders framed together on the upper floor. The roof put on with rafters 
and lap shingles, the gable ends studded and weather-boarded. One door in each 
story made double of oak plank one and a half inch thick, lined with sheet-iron in the 
middle, two feet in width, sufficiently ironed and spiked, with a good substantial lock 
on each, the lower door barred also with a strong bar of iron, and a padlock. The 
cracks pointed with lime and sand, the corners handsomely cut down, a pair of 
Millers' stairs on the outside to the upper door, the whole to be finished and completed 
in a handsome, workmanlike manner. 

This building cost the county nothing. Eber Baker built it at his own 
expense, and presented it to the county. In 1842, it was torn away and a 
new stone jail was built upon the same site, two stories high, and was con- 
sidered a good prison for a long time, but it finally began to prove insecure, for 
prisoners got to picking their way through the solid (?) wall underneath 
the windows and escaping. 

The present beautiful jail building and Sheriff's residence was erected 
in 1878 at a cost of about $28,000. It contains sixteen cells in two tiers, 
besides two for females, over the kitchen. The whole structure is two 
stories high, besides basement and garret, and is architecturally well pro- 


The paupers of the county were taken care of by the respective town- 
ships until about 1850-55, when an infirmary was established a mile and a 
half north of Marion. It comprised a plat of ground and several log 
structures, which were made to serve uutil about 1809, when the latter were 
burned down. Whereupon the County Commissioners set to work to have 
an institution more worthy of the times, purchasing 130 acres of ground 
on the Mount Vernon road, two and a half miles from the center of the 
town of Marion. Since that time eight acres more have been added. On 
this ground a spacious brick house has been erected, two stories high be- 
sides attic, and in dimensions not far from 80x150 feet. Besides, there is 
a frame house about 35x35, and a pest house for small -pox cases. 

For the last eight or nine years, this institution has been very nearly 
self-supporting, and will be more nearly so hereafter. Only about $3,000 
a year has been appropriated for deficiency. The old place north of town 
was sold February 0, 1871, to W. D. Whipps, for $9,120. 

The following have been Directors of the Infirmary since 1856, each 
being elected at the date given below to serve three years: 

George A. Uncapher, 1857; Henry Ham, 1859; Joseph Court, 1860; 
Michael A. Metz, 1867; James L. Bell, 1868; John B. Andrew, 1869; 
David Kerr, 1870: George Betterer, 1871; Jonathan Bell, 1872; George 
Betterer, 1873; H. Dickhaut, 1871; Jonathan Bell, 1875; George Betterer, 
1876; John O'Bagau, 1877; Joseph Mason, 1878; J. P. Uncapher, 1879; 
John O'Kagan, 1880; Joseph Mason 1881; and J. P. Uncapher, 1882. 
The last three mentioned are the present incumbents. 


A large wall map, sis feet by eight, of Hardin and Marion Counties, Ohio, 
was drawn up and published in L869, at $10 per copy, by C. O. Titus, of 
Philadelphia. It is drawn on a scale of one and one-fourth inches to the 
mile. The map of Marion County proper occupies about two feet square, 
and that of Hardin about the same, while the remaining space is filled 
with town plats, business directories and miscellaneous information. A 
small map of Marion County was published as early as 1852, at $1. 




In 1878, Messrs. Harrison, Sutton & Haro, of Philadelphia, com- 
piled and published a valuable atlas of Marion County of 128 pages, 13x16 
inches, giving a map of the county, of each township, village and the city 
of Marion, of the State of Ohio, railroad map of the United States, litho- 
graphic views of residences and farms, census, the rnilitaiw roll of honor, 
and much historical matter. The price of the atlas was $10. 



Big Island... 
Claridon — 
Cochran ton 

De Cliff 

Green Camp 

Gurley , 

Kirk patrick 

La Hue 

Marion — 







<J be 




4.0 5.0 

1.7 3.7 

6.7 5.6 

3.0! 3.0 


3.7 9.0 

5.0 1.7 

9.7 5.0 


8.7| 5. 

9.5! 7.0 






4.2 7. 

8.9 6. 

3.8 7. 
13.0 9. 
13.3 9. 


6 9. 
1 5. 

3; 6. 

5 6. 
6, 5. 

* I I 

5 a 

2 8.5: 
3.4 ! 
7 21.0 
81 6.7, 












3.5 9.2 

19.0 5.4 









5.0 — 


Agosta, old name New Bloomington. 

Caledonia, once called Van Buskirk; this is also the post office for Clar- 

Cochranton, name of the post office at Scott Town, ten miles northwest 
of Marion. 

De Cliff, ten miles west of Marion. 

Green Camp, old name Berwick. 

Gurley, at Gurley Station, seven miles west of Marion. 

Kirkpatrick, old name Letimberville. 

La Rue, fifteen miles west of Marion. 

Longville, at Bryan's Station. 

Marion, the county seat. 

Martel, old name Three Locusts. 

Morral, about ten miles northwest of Marion. 

Owen, at Owen's Station, six miles southerly from Marion. 

Prospect, old name Middletown. 

Waldo, about ten miles south by southeast from Marion. 

Wheaton is an old name for Claridon. There is no post office either 
here or at Big Island. 

Beech is the name of a cross-roads one mile from the east line of the 
county, on the route from Claridon to Cardington. At this point there are 
a church (" Salem "), a saw mill, blacksmith shop, schoolhouse, etc. 



Pan-town, alias Holinesville. is the old name of a point near the center 
of Bowling Green Township. 

Centerville is a point on the New York, Pacific & Ohio Railroad, in the 
extreme northwestern corner of Prospect Township. 

Winnemac is the name of the old town plat on the opposite side of the 
river from La Rue. 

Sr.lem and Stumptown are old names of other local points. 




MARION COUNTY may be said to have been Whig until about 1855, 
and Democratic since that time. That year it was divided between 
Democratic and Know-Nothing. 

From 1801 to 1828, the politics of the country generally were Federal 
and Republican; from 1828 to 1834, Democratic and National Republican; 
1834 to 1855, Democratic and Whig; 1855 to the present time, Democratic 
and Republican. During all these periods, the people have been either 
for the " Administration " (current Presidential) or against it; during the 
second and third periods the Administration party were " Jackson Demo- 
crats," opposed to a national bank, and in favor of " free trade;" and dur- 
ing the present period the Administration party are opposed to State sover- 
eignty and sundry other issues growing out of the slave question and the 
last war. 

The table of election returns in this chapter gives the political complex- 
ion of this county more definitely than can otherwise be done; but it will 
be of some advantage to the studious reader to take into consideration some- 
thing of the current general history of the country, and the exact meaning 
of some of the side issues submitted from time to time in the form of con- 
stitutional amendments, railroad and school questions, third-part}' issues, 
personal matters, etc. 

The method of nominating candidates for office is a subject of interest 
and importance. Previous to 1828, candidates were generally placed be- 
fore the people without the intervention of a party caucus, a political con- 
vention or a primary election. After the establishment of a newspaper in 
the respective localities, the candidates usually announced themselves, or 
were announced by their friends, by a card in the paper for several weeks 
prior to the election. Sometimes there were seven or eight candidates for 
a single office, but usually only two or three. The personal popularity of 
the candidate and his fitness for the office were of more importance than his 
views on national questions. 

In 1833, there were many cripples, as well as others, in the race for 
Treasurer. There was Richard Wilson, who could laugh longer, louder 
and more natural than any of his competitors. There was James Clark, 
whose forefinger on his right hand was just the thing to hook into the but- 
ton-bole of the dear people, when he took them to one side to lay his claims 
before them. Next, Mr. Jeffreys, hobbling along on two sticks as spry as 
a lame cricket, and seeming to say by his looks, " Gentlemen, my claims 
(infirmities) are apparent." Next, Mr. Vincent, who had the most outland- 
ish way of walking or getting around. To see these candidates hob-nob- 
bing the people at general musters, or at court, or on any public occasion, 
was really ludicrous. A short time before election, Mr. Clark withdrew 
his name, closing bis published card with the words, " Go it, ye cripples!" 
Wilson was elected. 

In 1828, party lines were very closely drawn between the Adams 


and the Jackson men, and rallying committees were appointed in some 
places for the purpose of drawing out the full vote at the election for 
President. At that time, and for many succeeding years, one of the most 
hotly contested questions at issue was which was the old Republican party. 
Both parties claimed to bo the original Jeffersonian Republicans. " Fed- 
eralist," the name of the party to which Washington and Hamilton belonged, 
had long before become a term .of reproach. Nominations began to be 
made by Whigs at mass meetings about 1830, the issue being Jackson and 
anti -Jackson. A few primary elections were held — a custom introduced by 
the Whigs. These elections were held like general or legal elections, with 
Judges, Clerks, poll-books, tally-sheets and returns to a County Central 

The first national political convention in the United States, for the 
nomination of candidates for President and Vice President, was held by the 
National Republican party at Baltimore December 12, 1831. At the next 
Presidential election, in 1832, the county of Marion gave Andrew Jackson 
a majority of 206— in a total vote of 1,236 — an exception to the general cur- 
rent of politics in the early history of the county. In 1836, the county gave 
two "Whig votes to one Democratic; but their opponent, Martin Van Buren, was 
elected President, and by 1840 the Whig element arose all over the country 
with such an ebullition as had never before been witnessed in America, if, 
indeed, it has been seen even since that time. 


During the eight years of Jackson's administration and the four years 
of Van Buren's, the veins and arteries of the Government, as is the case 
generally when a party has been too long in power, had become more or 
less corrupted. Many of those who were the collectors and custodians of 
the public moneys had become defaulters — among the number, Price and 
Swartwout — and the whole of them denominated as " Spoilsmen and Leg- 
Treasurers," as mentioned in the song below. Add to this the belief which 
was chronic in the minds of many officials, incumbents and oracles, that 
the party had the right of succession to the Government, and were so solid- 
ly seated in the affections of the people that no human power could dis- 
place them, and we have the key that inaugurated the furor of that memor- 
able year. Their grievances aroused and combined all the latent opposing 
forces in the country, and in their arousing they assumed a spirit of ear- 
nestness that foreboded victory from the very start. 

It may be interseting, especially to the older class of readers, to recall 
to their memory a few of the facts and incidents connected with the never- 
to-be-forgotten " Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign of 1840," when 
the Presidential contest was between Martin Van Buren, the then Demo- 
cratic incumbent of the office, and Gen. William Henry Harrison, who was 
the candidate of the W'hig party. That was a campaign which no one who 
passed through it will ever forget. It was a year noted for its large meet- 
ings and its endless hurrahs. The campaign began early in the year, and 
was kept up with unceasing energy till the day of the Presidential election. 
Many people did very little else, for a period of seven or eight months, 
than attend the mass meetings and hurrah "for Tippecanoe and Tyler, too.'* 
The devices to be hauled about in processions were almost endless, and as 
diversified as the ingenuity of man could make them, for effect upon the 
masses. The Whigs were confident of victory. They felt it in their bones, 
as they expressed it, and hence labored with increasing energy and zeal. 


The very atmosphere seemed to be full of victory for them. The Democrats 
were correspondingly dispirited, and felt more than half whipped for the 
six months preceding the election. People went in wagons, carriages, on 
horseback and on foot, to attend all the large gatherings within a radius of 
fifty miles or more, stopping for neither rains nor mud. It was nothing 
unusual to hear of crowds estimated at from 50,000 to 100,000 persons, and 
even more. Women engaged in the contest as enthusiastically as the men. 

Thomas Corwin, the most powerful orator of his day, was elected Gov- 
ernor of the State that year, and contributed no small share in getting up 
the excitement of that memorable campaign and the victory which followed. 
The country at that time was full of brilliant orators, but Corwin was more 
than the peer of them all. He visited all, or nearly all, of the counties in 
the State, and his meetings were made the occasion of a general rally, not 
only for his county, but for all the surrounding counties. He could carry 
his crowd to any point of enthusiasm desired, and could come as near say- 
ing what he desired to say, as any man living. He often made his audience 
laugh and weep in the same eloquent strain. No man, since his day, has 
been able to draw as many hearty cheers from an audience as he did. 

The campaign received its force largely from the remarkable Whig 
State Convention held in the city of Columbus on the 22d day of February 
of that year. It was a mass convention, and every county in the State was 
represented by hundreds of delegates. The city, small then, was fairly 
overwhelmed with delegates. It was out of the question to obtain lodging 
apartments at hotels and boarding houses, and many private houses were 
thrown open and people lay down to rest at night wherever they could find 
a vacant spot. V. W. Smith, who was one of the Ohio State Journal staff 
of writers, gave a brilliant description of that grand outpouring, which 
no pen has ever equaled since. It would be interesting to reproduce it 
here, were it relevant to the design of this work. 

The contest of that year was known also as " The Song Campaign." 
Nearly every Whig could sing, and about every tenth one turned poet, 
which multiplied songs by the thousand, taking in every phase of principle 
in issue between the two parties. These had their effect in producing the 
results which followed. 

It may not be inappropriate to the design of this work to give a short 
paragraph upon the origin of this song campaign, which became general all 
over the country preceding the Presidential election. The first impulse to 
it, so far as can be ascertained, was given by Otway Curry, a citizen of 
Marysville, Ohio. He was a poet of national fame, and wrote, in February, 
1840, what soon became known all over the country as the " Log Cabin 
Song." This was published in slips and circulated at the 22d of February 
convention, and was sung there with marvelous effect by the 5/oung Whigs. 
Almost every delegate carried one of these songs home with him, and in less 
than a week it was reverberating from every hillside and through every 
valley in the State. It was set to the tune "Highland Laddie," and 
commenced : 

Oh, where, tell me where, was your Buckeye Cabin made? 
Oh, where, tell me where, was 3-0111- Buckeye Cabin made? 
'Twas built among the merry boys who wield the plow and spade, 
Where the Log Cabins stand in the bonuie Buckeye shade. 

Oh, what, tell me what, is to be your cabin's fate? 
Oh, what, tell me what, is to be your cabin's fate? 
We'll wheel it to the Capital, and place it there elate, 
As a token and a sign of the bonnie Buckeye State. 


The idea of the log cabin as a political element in the contest was first 
suggested by a scurrilous article, published in a newspaper in the interest 
of the party supporting Mr. Van Buren for re-election to the Presidency. 
The author of said article had visited North Bend, the home of Gen. Harri- 
son, soon after the nomination of the latter as a Presidential candidate, was 
cordially received and hospitably entertained by him in his humble 
home. In giving an account of this visit to some newspaper, he spoke dis- 
paragingly of Harrison's abilities, and stated, among other things, that he 
lived in a log cabin and drank hard cider, affirming that he had no ambition 
to occupy the position to which he had been nominated, nor abilities to dis- 
charge the duties thereof, and concluded by asserting that if the people of the 
country would furnish him with a sufficient supply of dry crackers and hard 
cider, he would be contented to live in his log cabin home during the remain- 
der of the time allotted to him on earth. This article was soon published in 
all or nearly all of the newspapers opposing the election of Gen. Harrison. 
This aroused his friends, and the newspapers in his interest published 
the article, with bitter editorial comments relating to its tone and spirit. 
The people were reminded of the days when they dwelt in log cabins, were 
taught in log schoolhouses and worshiped their Creator in the same rude 
structures; hence, the log cabin was soon brought into the campaign as 
an element of strength, and as such served its purpose and has become 

Hard cider became as celebrated during this campaign as the log cabin. 
It was used as a remedy for all sorts of ills. A kind of " tea," made of strong, 
hard cider, with a pepper pod sliced into it, was a dose to make rheuma- 
tism beat a retreat; willow bark and the heart of iron wood, pickled in cider, 
was good for fever and ague. Wild cherry bark and cider was a "warming" 
tonic, etc. Some of the good old pioneers were opposed to " drunkness," 
produced by whisky, and thought "moderation in all things" should be 
the motto of every man; yet many of these same men would drink " moder- 
ately " of hard cider so often during the day, that when night came they 
hardly knew whether they were moderate drinkers or otherwise. During 
the Presidential campaign of 1840, it was made an emblem of Whiggism, and 
was accordnigly celebrated in the following campaign song, set to the tune 
of "Rosin the Bow:" 

Come ye who, whatever betide her, 

To Freedom have sworn to be true; 
Prime up in a mug of hard cider, 

And drink to old Tippecanoe.* 

On tap I've a pipe of as good, sir, 

As man from the faucet e'er drew; 
No poison to thicken your blood, sir, 

But liquor as pure as the dew. 

No foreign potation I puff, sir; 

In freedom the apple-tree grew, 
And its juice is exactly the stuff, sir, 

To quaff to old Tippecanoe. 

Let Vanf sport his coach and outriders, 

In liveries flaunting and gay, 
And sneer at log cabins and cider: 

But woe for the reckoning day! 

* Gen. Harrison, the hero of the hattle of Tippecanoe, 
f Martin Van Buren. 


During the canvass of 1840, Gen. Harrison visited Marion. At this 
time, one Dr. Robinson was Quartermaster here of the Marion County 
Militia, and George Rowe, General. These men had the custody of what 
arms were in the possession of the militia, namely, an old six-pounder iron 
cannon and a few flint-lock muskets. These were deposited in Dr. Robin- 
son's barn, which, consequently, was called the " arsenal." During the 
night before Harrison's arrival, this "arsenal" was broken open, and the 
cannon hauled off and secreted. Just at daylight, the gun squad, consist- 
ing of Orren Patten, E.G. Spelinan, Charles Smith, Dr. H. A. True, R. Spal- 
ding, W. L. Kendrick, James Butler and J. S. Reed, drew the gun to a 
vacant lot near Mr. Wallace's, on Main street, where they proceeded to 
" wake up the babies " for miles around, pointing the cannon north, 
south, east and west. The gunner was J. S. Reed. 

Upon the occasion of Dr. Duncan's defeat, the same gun squad and Cap- 
tain took the aforesaid six-pounder to the ground now occupied by the Epis- 
copal Church, where it was fired until it became foul and the vent clogged. 
Sod and mortar were used for filling, and some of the by-standers amused 
themselves in standing some distance in front of the cannon and catching the 
sods. By-and-by the gun burst, wounding one or two. William O. Bar- 
nett, who fired the gun this time, had his leg broken and was otherwise in- 
jured. Ed Shrively, after ward called "King Soogan," was thrown forward 
a great distance by one of the Hying pieces. 

The 'campaign of 1844 was characterized by " Hurrah for Polk and 
Dallas!" and "Hurrah for Clay and Erelinghuysen! " The "Liberty" 
party, called by others the " Abolition " party, began at this time to loom 
up like a small cloud in the horizon, feeling strong and heroic (" fool- 
hardy ") enough to nominate a candidate for President of the Onited States. 
They chose James G. Birney, of Michigan, for their standard-bearer, but 
he was scarcely heard of in most sections of the Union. The only issue rec- 
ognized by the masses was that between Jackson Democracy and Henry 
Clay Whiggism. 


During this campaign, after the political cauldron got fairly to boiling, 
each party in Marion must raise a pole, believing that the longest pole 
would knock off the persimmons, that is, get the most votes. The Demo- 
crats first hoisted a hickory about a hundred feet high, and on it raised a 
flag, upon which was emblazoned in large letters, " Polk, Dallas, Tod and 
Victory." The Whigs followed by raising an ash pole, some twenty feet 
higher than the hickory, with Henry Clay and Frelinghuysen as their stand- 

The Democracy, determined not to be outdone, immediately set about 
raising a still higher pole — at least fifty feet higher — but after getting it 
up about one-third the way, it broke. The " Coons," as the Clay Whigs 
were then nicknamed, of course shouted for joy, while the Democrats 
stamped with rage. Some of them flew around in a very excited manner. 
They counseled together and determined to send to Columbus for a regular 
ship carpenter, with blocks, tackle, rope and all the necessary appurte- 
nances for raising a pole 225 ft. high in ship-mast style. The ship carpen- 
ter engaged was James Newcomer, who in due time arrived with tackle ap- 
parently enough to raise the Great Eastern, The blood of the Democracy 
was up, and nothing short of a Providential interference could prevent 
them from accomplishing their purpose. 


The heaviest piece for the pole was cut on the farm of George Rupp. of 
Pleasant Township. It was twenty-eight inches in diameter at the larger 
end, and tapered up beautifully for eighty feet. There were three splices, 
fixed with the best iron bands. It required several days to get everything 
in readiness, and of course it was noised all over the country that the tall- 
est pole in the United States was soon to be raised at Marion. A " good- 
sized " procession left town for " Uncle George's " farm to get the pole. 
Mr. Rupp had the large piece mounted upon his broad-tired wagon, to 
which were attached eight magnificent horses, duly caparisoned with flags 
and the old-fashioned hand-bells. The band and a few carriages led the 
way, and the procession, in wagons and on horseback, made the grand 
entree into town with more pomp and display than Sells' circus company 
could now imitate. 

When the timbers duly arrived in town and were unloaded in front of 
the court house, things " looked like business." A hole, about eight feet 
deep, was dug, at the bottom of which a frame of cross-sills was placed, to 
retain the huge shaft. The day on which this monster pole was erected 
was as pleasant as one could wish, and a larger crowd had assembled than 
had ever before come together in Marion. The pole was properly adjusted, 
according to the design of the superintendent, and when all was ready up 
it went, majestically enough, without an accident. An appropriate flag was 
run up to within about twenty-five feet of the top, and the excited and anx- 
ious hearts of the Democracy began to beat with an inexpressible joy of 

There is no doubt that this pole victory aided to bring about a poll vic- 
tory for the Democrats at the ensuing election, so far as the county was 
concerned, and they also won in the national contest; but " Tod and Vic- 
tory " was not theirs in the State election. On the night of the jubilee in 
November, a huge box, with sides composed of windows, was well lighted 
up within by sperm candles, and hoisted up 200 feet on this mighty flag 
staff — a grand spectacle; but an accident happening in the procession be- 
low, the li ne was precipitately cut, and down came the " lantern " with an 
awful crash. 

The pole stood until some days after the Presidential election, when it 
was thought best to cut it down, lest it be blown down some time when it 
would do damage. As soon as the pole lay prostrate on Main street, every 
devotee went for pieces of it for relics, and before sundown it was " clean 
gone!" Samuel Saiter took a goodly portion of the best part of the stick to 
his cabinet shop, and manufactured it into neat canes. 

The vote on Governor this fall was very close, there being 1,433 in the 
county for Mordecai Bartley, Whig, and 1,415 for David Tod, Democrat; 
and for President, a month afterward, it gave James K. Polk, Democrat, 
seventy- four majority. 

The next year, 1845, the Whig majority on Representative to the Legis- 
lature was 264, in a total vote of 2,342. 

The year 1848 was characterized by the race between Zachary Taylor, 
Whig, Lewis Cass, Democrat, and Martin Van Buren, " Free Soil." The 
siege was not so exciting as it had been in 1844, and far less so than in 

In the campaign of 1852, the nation changed politics, electing Pierce, 
Democrat, to the Presidency, over Scott, Whig, and Hale, Free Soil. This 
county, correspondingly, was Democratic, by 308 majority, in a total vote 
of 2,270. The Free Soil vote was only 78. 


By the year 1854, the anti -slavery sentiment of the people had become 
so strong as to force a re-organization of the parties on a new issue. The 
anti-slavery party this year assumed the name of " Republican," while the 
party opposed rallied under the old " Democratic" organization. Two 
years afterward, Marion County actually gave a majority for the anti-slavery 
party, namely, 1,378 for Fremont and 1,285 for Buchanan. 

This brings the record up to the war, which is in the memory of most of 
those now living, and very little need be said by way of explanation. The 
two principal points are, that during the latter part of the war, and for a 
year or two afterward, a so-called " Union " party organized and made 
nominations for office, but it was of course understood that a " Union " vic- 
tory at the polls would have been a Republican victory; and likewise a 
"Liberal Republican" party was organized in 1872, headed by Horace 
Greeley, which, if victory crowned their efforts, would have been construed 
as a Democratic victory, [n both these third-party movements, the motives 
were probably noble and sincere; and although, like the other " third " 
parties, as granger, prohibition, etc., they did not nominally win the battle, 
they really did influence legislation, both State and national. 

In 1859, the question was submitted to the people, whether the constitu- 
tion should require the sessions of the Legislature to be annual. Some 
thought that annual sessions would be more economical as well as prompt, 
and some thought they would be less so. The vote gave only 410 in favor 
of the proposed measure, and 2,319 against it. 

May 14, 1874, there were four constitutional propositions submitted to 
the people of the State, namely, a new constitution, minority repi-esenta- 
tion, allowing railroad aid and licensing the sale of intoxicating liquors — 
all of which were voted down by the citizens of Marion County. 


As in almost or quite every county, the e'lection returns and early rec- 
ords of Marion County are somewhat imperfect. Many of the election 
clerks in an early day were too illiterate to make out returns in an intelligible 
shape One returned his "pool" books, and another his "boll" books! 

The reader should remember that the figures in election returns are 
often no test of the popularity of the respective candidates or parties. A 
man may be put forward by his friends against his wili; he may withdraw 
a few days before election, and the people not generally know the fact; 
false stories may be circulated about a candidate; and sometimes, even, a 
man may be voted for, to some extent, who neither put himself forward or 
was put forward by his friends. 

The oldest election returns on file in the office of the Clerk of the Court 
are dated in 1824. First, on the 11th of May, Green Camp Township gave 
Samuel Fish seventeen votes for Justice of the Peace, and Joseph Boyd 
eleven votes for the same office. The certificate of election is signed by 
William Holmes and William Hoddy, Judges of election — the latter a 
Justice. George H. Busby was County Clerk. 

On the loth day of May, Sandusky Township voted for two Justices, as 
follows: Matthias Markley, 22; Ichabod Smith, 32; Westell Ridgeloy, 
17; Michael Brown, 4. The first two were declared elected, the returns 
and certificate being signed by William Holmes, Judge, and John Stealy. 
Justice of the Peace. 

June 26, Claridon Township elected Benjamin Bell a Jiastice of the 
Peace by twenty-one votes, against fourteen for John Roberts; Grand 



Township, William Cochran, by twelve votes, no opposition; Washington 
Township, Henry Lemon by thirteen votes, against three for James Neil; 
and Richland, Joseph Oborn by eleven votes, against ten for William W. 
Smith and five for Thomas Rogers. 

October 12, 1824, Richland Township elected Thomas Rogers a Justice 
by eleven votes, no opposition; and Bucyrus Township elected Conrad Roth 
a Justice by twenty-six votes to twenty-two for Michael Bedle. David 
Tipton, Justice of the Peace, was a Judge at both these elections. 

On the 21st of this month, Morven Township elected Isaac Blazer to the 
office of Justice of the Peace by eleven votes to five for James Thomson 
and two scattering. David Tipton and Zachariah Welsh, Justice of the 
Peace, were Judges on this occasion. 

ELECTION MAY 3, 1824. 

Sheriff— George Shippy, 36; Henry Peters, 84; Benjamin Hillman, 
262; John Ballentine, 22. Hillman's majority, 178. 

County Commissioners— William Wyatt, 26; Alexander Berry, Jr., 69; 
John Page 102; David Tipton, 47; E. B. Merriman, 247; William Coch- 
ran, 122; Eber BaW, 53; Amos C. Wilson. 157. Merriman, Wilson and 
Cochran were elected. 

County Auditor — Jacob Keptum, 47; Hezekiah Gorton, 275; Matthew 
Merritt, 209; William Hoddy, 19. Gorton's majority, 66. 

Coroner — Richard Hopkins, 25; Josiah Robertson, 23; Charles Stuart, 
108. Stuart's majority, 83. 




Green Camp. . 


Grand Prairie 








Salt Rock 

Big Island 



Majority for Trimble 








w a 
















Congressman— Anni s Parrish, 279; William Wilson, 90. Parrish's ma- 
jority, 189. 

Senator— David H. Beardsly, 224; James Kooker, 122; Joseph Eaton, 
15. Beardsly's majority, 102. 

Representative— Jer Everett, 153; William C. Clerk, 27; George 
Miller, 140. Everett's majority, 7. 

County Commissioners— E. B. Merriman, 297; Amos C. Wilson, 256; 
Matthew Merrit, 109; John Pago, 226; Richard Hopkins, 130. 

Sheriff— Benjamin Hillman, 373. No opposition. 


County Auditor — Hezekiah Gorton, 334; C. Roth, 33. Gorton's major- 
ity, 301. 

County Clerk— George H. Busby. 222; William M. Holmes, 146; Gid- 
eon Messenger, 15. Busby's majority, 76. 

Coroner — Alson Norton, 374. No opposition. 


Representative — George Miller, 63; Eber Baker, 96; Josiah Hedges, 
304; Jer Everett, 50. Hedges' majority, 208. 

County Commissioners — Talman Rausse, 294; Zach Welsh, 32; Hugh 
P. Smith, 132; Solomon Rausse, 30; John Croly, 3; Matthew Merrit, 10. 


Governor — Allen Trimble, 434; Alex Campbell, 7: Benjamin Tap- 
pan, 3. 

Congressman — James Kilbourn, 123; Lyne Starling, 262; Daniel S. 
Norton, 77. Starling's majority, 139. 

Senator — James Kooker, 277; Charles Carpenter, 40; Edward Mason, 
59; Westell Hastings, 74. Kooker's majority, 203. 

Representative — Benjamin Hillman, 420; Josiah Hedges, 48. Hill- 
man's majority, 372. 

County Commissioners — W. W. Concklin, 158; Hugh V. Smith, 102; 
John Stealy, 58; Daniel Oborn, 50; Van Creasup, 27; James Jenkins, 230; 
Alanson Packard, 42; Isaac Bunker, 27; Benjamin Bell, 75; Matthew 
Merritt, 64. 

County Auditor — Hezekiah Gorton, 459. No opposition. 

Sheriff — Elisha H. Crosby, 294; Henry Peters, 176. Crosby's major- 
ity, 118. 

Coroner — D. D. Tompkins, 289; William Cochran, 132. Tompkins' 
majority, 157. 


Representative — Eber Baker, 218; Josiah Hedges, 83; Andrew Kinnear, 
9. Baker's majority, 135. 


Congressman — Lyne Starling, 329; Daniel S. Norton, 68; William Stans- 
bury, 119. Starling's majority, 210. 

Representative — Eber Baker, 116; W. W. Concklin, 107; Josiah 
Hedges, 118; Samuel M. Lockwood, 42; Samuel Treat, 85; George Poe, 22. 
Hedges' majority, 2. 

Sheriff — John O'Harra, 199; Daniel D. Tompkins, 219; Harrison Kelly, 
84. Tompkins' majority, 20. 

County Commissioners — John Page, 273; David Tipton, 107; Chris. 
Brady. 57; Benjamin Bell, 46; John Ashbaugh, 27; Henry Ustick, 281; 
Peter Van Houten, 49. 

County Treasurer — Adam Uncapher, 265; Alvin C. Priest, 26; T. J. 
Anderson, 44; David Jenkins, 169; Daniel Musser, 27. Uncapher' s ma- 
jority, 96. 

Coroner — David Baughman, 96; Amos S. Capron, 140; William Cronk, 
33; John Murphy, 15; John B. Salmon, 107; John Flewwellan, 38. 
Capron's majority. 33. 

Assessor — William Crawford, 233; Samuel Holmes, 71; J. Baker, 67; 
Andrew Kinnear, 127. Crawford's majority, 106. 



Governor — Allen Trimble, 271; John W. Campbell, 214. Trimble's ma- 
jority, 57. 

Congressman— Isaac Minor, 223; William Stansbury, 259. Stansbury's 
majority, 36. 

Senator — Charles Carpenter, 224; James W. Crawford, 249. Crawford's 
majority, 25. 

Representative — John Carv, 204; Henry St. John, 194. Cary's major- 
ity, 70. 

County Auditor — Hezekiah Gorton, 384. No opposition. 

County Commissioner — John Jackson, 104; Henry Ustick, 299. Ustick's 
majority, 195. 

Coroner — John O'Harra, 162; Henry Peters, 202; John Flewwellan, 45. 
Peters 1 majority, 40. 

October 31, 1828, the county gave Andrew Jackson a majority of 60 
for President. 


Representative — Jacob Idleman, 313; Robert Hopkins, Jackson, 330. 
Hopkins' majority, 17. 

Commissioners — VV. W. Concklin. 200; Thomas J. Anderson, 87; John 
AY addle, 98; John C. Bates, 244. 

Sheriff— D. D. Tompkins, 308; Samuel Calvert, 241; David Epler, 14. 
Tompkins' majority, 67. 

Treasurer — Sbubael Knapp, 87; Adam Uncapher, 278; David Jenkins, 
377. Jenkins' majority, 99. 

Assessor — William Crawford, 516; John M. Anderson, 128. Crawford's 
majority, 388. 


Governor — Duncan McArthur, National Republican, 262; Robert Lucas, 
Democrat, 321. Lucas' majority, 59. 

Congressman— William Stansbury, Whig, 293; Nathaniel McLean, 
Democrat, 379. McLean's majority, 86. 

Senator — Robert Hopkins, Democrat, 619; Charles Carpenter, Whig, 
229; James Kooken, 38. Hopkins' majority, 390. 

Representative — John Nimmons, Democrat, 318; Eber Baker, Whig, 
145; John Cary, Whig, 214. Nimmons' majority, 104. 

County Commissioner — John Page, Whig, 338; John Waddle, Demo- 
crat, 59; John Vanmeter, Democrat, 261. Page's majority, 77. 

County Auditor — Hezekiah Gorton, Whig, 375; John E. Davidson, 
Democrat, 314. Gorton's majority, 41. 

Coroner — David Epler, Democrat, 348; Henry Peters, Whig, 299. 
Eplers' majority, 49. 


Representative — Robert Hopkins, Democrat, 237; Henry Ustick, Whig, 
177; Samuel Calvert, Democrat, 114; E. W. H. Read, Whig, 240; Ozias 
Bowen, Whig, 88; William Brown, Whig, 101. Read's majority, 3. 

County Commissioner — John Jackson, 89; John Waddle, Democrat, 54; 
Titus King, Whig, 392; Aaron Hatch, Whig, 101; L. Van Buskirk, Demo- 
crat, 150; R. H. Randall, 105; Charles Webster, 58. King's majority, 

Sheriff —Cyrus B. Mann, Democrat, 254; David Epler, Democrat, 116; 
William M. Holmes, Whig, 320; John Wick, 238; John K. Van Fleet, 
Democrat, 25. Holmes' majority, 66. 

| | | 

Proposed Court House. 



County Treasurer — David Jenkins, 568; Adam Uncapher, Democrat, 
385. Jenkins' majority, 183. 

Recorder- Joel D. Butler, Whicr, 150; John Bartram, Democrat, 274; 
George H. Busby, Democrat, 523. Busby's majority, 249. 

Assessor — T. J. Anderson, Whig, 90; William Crawford, Democrat, 
583; Joseph Boyd, Sr., Whig, 22; John Depue, Whig, 75; Thomas Jeff- 
ries. Democrat, 139; John Williamson, 32. Crawford's majority, 444. 

Coroner — John M. Anderson, 68; Jared Bartram, Whig, 84; John Bend- 
ing, 657; John B. Salmon, 99. Bonding's majority, 558. 


Governor— Robert Lucas, Democrat, 712; Darius Lyman, Anti -Masonic, 
351, Lucas' majority, 361. 

Congressman — Jer McLeDe, Democrat, 602; Orris Parish, 223; Joseph 
Olds, 222. McLene's majority, 379. 

Senator — S. S. Bennett, Whig, 554; James W. Crawford, Democrat, 
408; Charles Carpenter, 89. Bennett's majority, 146. 

Representative -Peter Huber, Whig, 277; John Campbell, 79; Samuel 
Calvert, Democrat, 509; John Carey, Whig, ISO. Calvert's majority, 232. 

County Auditor — John E. Davidson, Democrat, 668; D. D. Tompkins, 
Whig, 373. Davids' majority, 295. 

County Commissioner — Daniel Swigart. Jr., Whig, 177; David Tipton, 
Democrat, 46; John Stealy, Whig, 87; William Cochran, Democrat, 107; 
John C. Bates, 108; Abed Rennick, 75; L. Van Buskirk, 447. 


President — Andrew Jackson, Democrat, 721; Henry Clay. Whig, 515; 
William Wirt, Anti-Masonic, 2. Jackson's majority, 206. 


Representative — John Wick, 113; L. Van Buskirk, 417; Samuel Cal- 
vert, 355; David Terry, Whig, 176: Joseph McCutchen, Democrat, 50. Van 
Buskirk's majority, 62. 

Treasurer — Christian Musser, Democrat, 237; Michael Vincent, Whig, 
111; Richard Wilson, Democrat, 281; James Clarke, Democrat, 118; Will- 
iam Crawford, Democrat, 259; E. S. Booth, 59; Peleg Mosher, 48. Wil- 
son's majority, 22. 

Prosecuting Attorney — James H. Godman, Whig, 956; Ozias Bowen, 
Whig, 142. Godman's majority, 814. 

Sheriff— Cyrus B. Mann, 764; William M. Holmes, Whig, 255. Mann's 
majority, 509. 

Commissioners — Daniel Swigart, Jr., 251: David Tipton, 2 years, 78; 
William McCrea, Democrat, 77; William Cochran, Democrat, 89; T. H. 
Miller, 2 years, Democrat, 395; T. H. Miller, 1 year, 310; Isaac Blazer, 
275; Amos C. Wilson, Whig, 489. 

Assessor — Alfred Randall, 59; John Depue, 112; Aaron Hatch, Whig, 
286; Thomas Jeffrey, Democrat, 290; John Uncapher, 295; John Boyles, 
52. Uncapher's majority, 5. 

Coroner— Noah Kiinple, 632; Benjamin Kine, 435. Kimple's majority, 


Governor — Robert Lucas, Democrat, 660; James Findlay, Whig, 347. 
Lucas' majority, 313. 


Congressman — Jer. McLene, 601; Joseph Olds, Whig, 400. McLene's 
majority, 201. 

Senator — Robert Hopkins, Democrat, 650; -John Cary, Whig, 337. 
Hopkins' majority, 313. 

Representative — John Campbell, 428; Hezekiah Gorton, 536. Gorton's 
majority, 108. 

County Commissioner — John Page, 113; James Lambert, Whig, 212; 
John Search, 46; Isaac Blazer, 586. 

Recorder — George H. Busby, 505; David Epler, 485. Busby's major- 
ity, 20. 

Surveyor — Samuel Holmes, 312; William Brown, 172; Hugh McClure, 
150; William Dowling, 365. Dowling's majority, 53. 


Representative — James H. God'nan, 597; James McCutchen, 195; S. B. 
Jackson, 26; Benjamin Sharrock, 89. Godman's majority, 402. 

Sheriff — Cyrus B. Mann, 923. No opposition. 

County Treasurer — Richard Wilson, Democrat, 914. No opposition. 

County Commissioner — Daniel Swigart, Jr. ; 165; Thomas H. Miller, 
542; James Dunlap, 38; Robert Jeffrey, 155. Miller's majority, 377. 

Assessor — Allen McNeal, 84; John Uncapher, 446; G. B. Rigdon, 74; 
Aaron Hatch, 255. Uncapher's majority, 362. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Ozias Bowen, Whig, 486; George Rowe, Demo- 
crat, 402. Bo wen's majority, 84. 

Coroner — Benjamin Kime, 745; Daniel Clark, 119. Kime's majority, 


Governor — Joseph Vance, Whig, ; Eli Baldwin, Democrat, . 

Congressman — Samson Mason, Whig, 613; John Shelby, Democrat, 313. 
Mason's majority, 300. 

Senator — Hezekiah Gorton, 584; Robert Hopkins, 334. Gorton's ma- 
jority, 250. 

Representative— John Carey, 565; Otway Curry, Whig, 598; Nicholas 
Hathaway, Whig, 325; Joseph McCutchen, 310. Curry's majority, 33. 


Representative— Otway Curry, 763; Josiah Scott, 678; Stephen Fowler, 
Democrat, 740; John Campbell, 663. Carry's majority, 23. 

Treasurer— Richard Wilson, Democrat, 892; John Roy, 548. Wilson's 
majority, 354. 

Recorder — Curtis Allen, Whig, 565; Peter Beerbower, Democrat, 877. 
Beerbower's majority, 312. 

Sheriff— David Epler, 687; Joseph Durfee, Whig, 744. Durfee's major- 
ity, 57. 

County Commissioners — John Shunk, three years, Whig, 743; T. F. 
Johnston, one year, 627; Robert Maxwell, three years, 80; George Beckley, 
one year, Democrat, 693; William Dowling, three years, Whig, 576; Robert 
Quay, one year, Democrat, 44. Shunk' s majority, 663. Beckley's major- 
ity, 66. 

Assessor — John Uncapher, 374; Benjamin Bell, Democrat, 115; John 
Brady, Democrat, 165; L. R. Carpenter, Whig, 581. Carpenter's major- 
ity, 207. 


Prosecuting Attorney — Almeron Wheat, Whig, 703; George Kowe, 
Democrat, 672. Wheat's majority, 31. 

Surveyor — Hugh McClure, 544; Thomas Sharp, 144; Samuel Holmes, 
Whig, 698. Holmes' majority, 151. 

Coroner — Benjamin Scoville, 674; James Jones, 725. Jones' majority, 


Governor — Wilson Shannon, Democrat, 934; Joseph Vance, Whig, 936. 
Vance's majority, 2. 

Congressman — Joseph Ridgway, Whig, 928; John McElvain, Democrat, 
937. Ridgway's maioiity. 9. 

Senator— John Carey, Whig, 929; B. F. Allen, Democrat, 933. Allen's 
7najority, 4. 

Representative — Stephen Fowler, Democrat, 930; John Campbell, 844; 
Abel Rennick, Whig, 999. Rennick's majority, 39. 

Auditor — W. W. Concklin, Whig, 806; Lawrence Van Buskirk, Demo- 
crat, 491; CyruB B. Mann, Independent, 553. Concklin's majority, 253. 

County Commissioners — Nathan Peters, Democrat, 816; William Brown, 
Whig, 773; John Parcell, Democrat, 109. 


Representative — Guy C. Worth, Democrat, 508; Silas G. Strong, 492; 
William C. Lawrence, 711; James H. Godman, Whig, 685. Lawrence's 
majority, 205. 

Sheriff— David Epler, 788; Joseph Durfee, 929. Durfee's majority, 

Treasurer — Richard Wilson, 1,350; Henry Peters. 362. Wilson's ma- 
jority, 988. 

County Commissioners — William Taylor, Whig, 761; David Miller, 
Democrat, 940. Miller's majority, 179. 

Assessor — John Uncapher, Democrat, 1,024; L. P. Carpenter, 616; 
John Wilkinson, 56. Uncapher's majority, 408. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Cooper K. Watson, Whig, 754; Samuel Kelly, 
898. Kelly's majority, 144. 

Coroner — James Jones, Democrat, 1,556. No opposition. 


Governor — Thomas Corwin, Whig, 1,321; Wilson Shannon, Democrat, 
1,201. Corwin's majority, 120. 

Congressman — Joseph Ridgway, Sr. , Whig, 1,321; H. N. Hedges, Sr., 
1,199. Ridgway's majority, 122. 

Senator — Benjamin F. Allen, Whig, 1,190; James H. Godman, Whig, 
1,321. Godman's majority, 131. 

Representatives — Emery Moore, Whig, 1,315;* Josiah Scott, Whig, 
1,312;* George Beckley, Democrat, 1,210; John Campbell, Democrat, 

County Auditor — L. Van Buskirk, Democrat, 1,192; W. W. Concklin, 
Whig, 1,305. Concklin's majority, 113. 

Recorder — Robert King, Whig, 1,287; Peter Beerbower, Democrat, 
1,223. King's majority, 64. 

County Commissioner — William Shunk, Whig, 1,291; Charles Russell, 
Democrat, 1,206. Saunk's majority. 85. 


Surveyor — John H. Parcell, Democrat, 1,184; Samuel Holmes, Whig, 
1,335. Holmes' majority, 151. 


Representative — James Griffith, 892; George W. Sharp, 919; William 
Dovvling, Democrat, 668; Moses H. Kirby, Whig, 912; Alexander Camp- 
bell, 857; Thomas W. Powell, Whig, 980. Powell's majority, 68. 

County Commissioner — Nathan Peters, Democrat, 1,033; Amos C. Wil- 
son, Whig, 667. Peters' majority, 366. 

Prosecuting Attorney — George Rowe, Democrat, 932; Elias G. Spel- 
man, Whig, 796. Rowe's majority, 136. 

Sheriff — David Epler, Democrat, 1,005; James McKinstry, Whig, 818. 
Epler's majority, 187. 

Treasurer — Richard Wilson, Democrat, 1,202; Peter Doty, Whig, 751. 
Wilson's majority, 451. 

Surveyor — William L. Uleyate, Whig, 1,074; William Brown, AVhig, 
706. Uleyate' s majority, 368. 

Coroner — Strother Hord, Democrat, 864; Olney R. Stone, Whig, 910. 
Stone's majority, 46. 


Governor — -Thomas Corwin, Whig, 1,257; Wilson Shannon, Democrat, 
1,208; Leicester King, Free Soil, 36. Corwiu's majority, 49. 

Senator — T. W. Powell. Whig, 1,253; James McCutche'n, Democrat, 
1,209. Powell's majority, 44. 

Representatives— Titus King. Whig, 1,281; George W. Leith, 1,246; 
Isaac E. James, Democrat, 1,185; George W. Sharp, Democrat, 1,202. 
King's majority, 35. 

County Auditor — W. W. Coneklin, Whig, 1,230; Peter Beerbower, Demo- 
crat, 1,261. Beerbower's majority, 31. 

County Commissioner — Hugh V. Smith. Whig, 1,268; Wil liam Larue 
Democrat, 1,114. 


Congressman — James Weldon, 471; Jacob Brinkerhoff, Democrat, 1,106; 
William W. Irwin, 328. Brinkerhoff's majority, 635. 

Representative — S. T. Cunard, Democrat, 1,085; Samuel Kelly, Demo- 
crat, 1,145; John Carey, Whig, 934; William Smart, Whig, 953. Kelly's 
majority, 60. 

Sheriff— James M. Briggs; Whig, 912; David Epl«r, Democrat, 1,220. 
Epler's majority, 308. 

Prosecuting Attorney — John E. Davids, Whig, 991; William Bobbins, 
Democrat. 1,102. Robbins' majority, 111. 

Recorder — Robert King, Whig, 993; Henry Hain, Democrat, 1,109. 
Hain's majority, 116. 

Surveyor — William Brown, Whig, 1,096; Simeon C. Starr, Democrat, 
983. Brown's majority, 113. 

County Treasurer — Peter Doty, Whig, 751; Richard Wilson, Democrat, 
1,403. Wilson's majority, 652. 

County Commissioner — Richard House, Whig, 1,055; Michael Jacoby, 
Democrat, 973. House's majority, 82. 

Coroner — Olney R. Stone, Whig, 931; Strother R. Hord, Democrat, 
1,123. Hord's majority, 192. 



Governor — David Tod, Democrat, 1,415; Mordecai Bart ley, Whig, 
1,438; Leicester King, Free Soil, 86. Bartley's majority, 18. 

Congressman — Jacob Brinkerboff, Democrat, 1,416; William McLaugh- 
lin, Independent, 1,431. McLaughlin's majority, 15. , 

Senator — Hiram F. Randolph, Democrat, 1,440; Thomas W. Powell, 
Whig, 1,414. Randolph's majority, 20. 

Representative — William Hanna, Democrat, 1,435; James B. Shaw, 
Whig, 1,429. Hanna's majority, 6. 

County Auditor — Peter Beerbower, Democrat, 1,444, John Merrill, 
Whig, 1,424. Beerbower's majority, 20. 

County Commissioner — John Uncapher, Democrat, 1,428; Isaac Mouser, 
Whig, 1,415. Uncapher' s majority, 13. 


President— James K. Polk, Democrat, ; Henry, Clay, Whig, . 


Representative — George H. Busby, Democrat, 1,039; James B. Sbaw, 
Whig, 1,303; Allen McNeal, Free Soil, 57. Shaw's majority, 264. 

Sheriff— Strother Hord, Democrat, 1,095; John Shunk, Whig, 1,138. 
Shunk's majority, 43 

County Treasurer — Richard Wilson, Democrat, 1,428; Walter Braden, 
Whig, 92. Wilson's majority, 1,336. 

County Commissioner — Thomas Parr, Democrat, 1,049; Hugh V. Smith, 
Whig, 1,053; Alfred Breece, Free Soiler, 80. 

Prosecuting Attorney — William Robbins, Democrat, 996; James H. 
Godman, Whig, 1,154. Godman's majority, 158. 

Coroner — George A. Uncapher, Democrat, 1,101; James Coffy, Whig, 
1,024. Uncapher's majority, 77. 

Subscription of $100,000 to the Bellefontaine & Indiana Railroad — 
For, 1,540; against, 423. Majority for, 1,117. 


Governor— David 'Tod, Democrat, 1.120; W T illiam Bebb, Whig, 991; 
Samuel Lewis, Free Soil, 99. Tod's majority, 129. 

Congressman — John K. Miller, Democrat, 1,151; Columbus Delano, 
Whig, 989; Allen McNeal, Free Soil, 85. Miller's majority, 162. 

Senator — Francis Howe, 1,112; Samuel Kelly, 1,184; James Peaseley, 
75. Kelly's majority, 72. 

Representative — T. B. JFisher, Whig, 1,104; George M. Clark, Demo- 
crat, 1,194; James A. Barnes, Free Soil, 72. Clark's majority, 90. 

County Auditor — Peter Beerbower, Democrat, 1,136; Orren Patten, 
Whig, 1,019. Beerbower's majority, 17. 

County Commissioner — William Hanna, Democrat, 1,153; Joel Myers, 
Whig, 986; Richard Hammond, Free Soil, 66. 

Recorder — Henry Hain, Democrat, 1,109; Curtis Allen, Whig, 1,001; 
Nathan Taber, Free Soil, 79. Hain's majority, 8. 

Surveyor — Isaac S. Young, Democrat, 1,072; William Brown, Whig, 
1,067; Thomas Sharp, Free Soil, 76. Young's majority, 5. 


Representative — Albert Mc Wright, Democrat, 1,210; James M. Briggs, 
Whig, 1,018. Mc Wright's majority, 192. 


County Treasurer — William H. Wallace, Whig, 914; Richard Wilson, 
Democrat, 1,232. Wilson's majority, 298. 

Sheriff— David Epler, Democrat, 1,160; John Shunk, Whig, 952. 
Epler's majority, 208. 

County Commissioner — John Uncapher, 'Democrat, 1,160; John Ault, 
Whig, SOI; Archibald Brownlee, Free Soil, 58. Uncapher's majority, 

Prosecuting Attorney — William Bobbins, Democrat, 1,083; James H. 
Godman, Whig. 991. Robbins' majority, 92. 

Coroner— Henry Parcell, Democrat, 1,076; James Coffey, Whig, 900; 
Asa Mosher, Free Soil, 102. Parcell's majority. 176. 


Governor — Seabury Ford, Whig, 1,302; John B. Weller, Democrat, 
1,460. Weller's majority, 158. 

Representative — John Cassel, Democrat, 1,353; Josiah S. Copeland, 
Whig, 1,248. Cassel' s majority, 105. 

Congressman— Jacob Brinkerhoff, Democrat, 1,229; John M. Miller, 
Whig, 1,346. Miller's majority, 117. 

County Auditor — William H. Wallace, Whig, 949; L. Van Buskirk, 
Democrat, 1,055. Van Buskirk's majority, 106. 

County Commissioner — William Thew, Whig, 872; Lewis Topliff, 
Whig, 1,024; Hiram Knowles, Democrat, 1,032; George Court, Democrat, 

Surveyor — Amos C. Wilson, Whig, 648; Elijah Diz, Democrat, 879; 
Hugh W. Ross, Independent, 454. Dix's majority, 231. 

Coroner — Christian Martin, Democrat, 892; James Rainey, Whig, 
1,065; Rainey's majority, 173. 


President— Lewis Cass, Democrat, 1,072; Zacbary Taylor, Whig, 869; 
M. Van Buren, Free Soil. 66. Cass' majority, 203. 


Senator — W T illiam Lawrence, Whig, 1,086; William Thomas, Democrat, 
1,165. Thomas' majority, 79. 

Representative — J. S. Copeland, Whig, 1,064; J. R, Knapp, Jr., 
Democrat, 1,286. Knapp's majority, 222. 

Sheriff— David Epler, 1,218. No opposition. 

County Treasurer— Richard Patten, Whig, 671; Richard Wilson, Demo- 
crat, 1,112. Wilson's majority, 441. 

Prosecuting Attorney— Peleg BuDker, Whig, 761; John Bartram, 
Democrat, 1,000. Bartram's majority, 239. 

County Commissioner — Isaac Halderman, Whig, 796; Thomas Parr, 
Democrat, 918. 

Recorder — Charles Irmer, Democrat, 671; Henry Hain, Democrat, 
1,078. Hain's majority, 407. 

Convention— For, 1,610; against, 184. Majority for, 1,426. 


Senatorial Delegate to Convention — Otway Curry, 1,096; William Gell- 
er, 1,243. Geller's majority, 147. 


Representative Delegate to Convention — Richard Wilson, 1,386; C. S. 
Hamilton,* 1,029. Wilson's majority, 633. 

June 17, 1850, the State adopted the new constitution by 125,564 votes, 
againt 102,976 in opposition; and at the same time gave 104,255 votes for 
license and 113,239 against it. In this contest, Marion County gave 945 
votes for the constitution, 725 against it; and 1,054 in favor of license and 
545 against it. 


Governor — Reuben Wood, Democrat, 929; William Johnston, Whig, 
731; Edward Smith, Free Soil, 64. Wood's majority, 198. 

Congressman — George H. Busby, Democrat, 886; Thomas H. Ford, 
Whig, 703. Busby's majority, 183. 

Representative — Joseph Bain, Democrat, 884; Philander B. Cole, Whig, 
757. Bain's majority, 127. 

County Auditor — Peter Beerbower, Democrat, 867; Ebenezer Peters, 
Whig, 901. Peters' majority, 34. 

County Commissioner — John Uncapher, Democrat, 883; Samuel L. 
Johnson, Whig, 890. Johnson's majority, 7. 

Coroner — James Chard, Democrat, 928; Levi Irey, Whig, 837. Chard's 
majority, 91. 


Governor — Samuel F. Vinton, Whig, 850; Reuben Wood, Democrat, 
1,127. Wood's majority, 277. 

Senator — John J. Williams. Whig, 736: Richard Wilson, Democrat, 
1,226. Wilson's majority, 490. 

Common Pleas Judge — William Lawrence, Whig, 887; B. F. Metcalf, 
Democrat, 1,090. Metcalf s majority, 203. 

Representative — Joseph Bryant, Whig, 832; Joseph W. Larabee, 
Democrat, 1,093. Larabee's majority, 161. 

Probate Judge — George Snyder, Democrat, 1,153. 

County Clerk — Robert F. Gray, Democrat, 758; J. R. Knapp, Jr., 
Democrat, 1,111. Knapp's majority, 353. 

County Treasurer — Alexander Sharp, Democrat, 1,204. 

Sheriff — Robert King, 917; Simeon C. Starr, 1,028. Starr's majority, 

Prosecuting Attorney- -John E. Davids, Whig, 777; S. H. Bartram, 
Democrat, 966. Bartram's majority, 189. 

County Commissioner — Philip Hubbard, Whig, 871; Martin Barnhart, 
Democrat, 1,099. Barnhart's majority, 228. 

Surveyor — J. Cunningham, Whig, 850; Elijah Dix, Democrat, 849; 
Hugh W. Ross, Independent, 247. Cunningham's majority, 1. 


Supreme Judge — William B. Caldwell, Democrat, 1,143; Daniel A. 
Haynes, Whig, 853. Caldwell's majority, 290. 

Congressman — Fred W. Green, Democrat, 1,187. No opposition. 

County Auditor — Henry Hain, Democrat, 1,064; Ebenezer Peters, W^hig, 
894; Joel D. Butler, Free Soil, 22. Hain's majority, 170. 

Recorder — James H. Barker, Democrat, 1,058, George R. Stanton, 
Whig, 923. Barker's majority, 135. 

County Commissioner — Smith Frame. Democrat, 1,423. No opposi- 

♦Elected by aid of Union County. 


Coroner — James Chard, Democrat, 1,104; Samuel Powell, Whig, 871. 
Chard's majority, 233. 


President— Franklin Pierce, Democrat, 1,250; Winh'eld Scott, Whig, 
942; John P. Hale, Abolitionist, 78. Pierce's majority, 308. 


Governor— William Medill, Democrat, 1,044; Nelson Barrere, Whig, 
594; Samuel Lewis, Free Soil, 354. Medill's majority, 450. 

Senator — George H. Busby, Democrat, 1,120; William Lawrence, Whig, 
741. Busby's majority, 385. 

Representative — John Bartram, Democrat, 779; Ebenezer Peters, Inde- 
pendent, 885; Robert Hopkins, Free Soil, 150. Peters' majority, 100. 

County Treasurer— Alex Sharp, Democrat, 1,215; Moses M. Hubbard, 
Whig, 038. Sharp's majority, 577. 

Sheriff — S. C. Starr, Democrat, 971; S. A. Griswold, Independent, 870. 
Starr's majority, 95. 

Prosecuting Attorney — J. F. Hume, Democrat, 1,312. No opposition. 

County (Jommissioner — John Naylor, Democrat, 1,035; S. L. Johnson, 
Independent, 795. Naylor's majority, 240. 

Surveyor — Hugh W. Ross, Democrat, 120. No opposition. * 


Supreme Judge — Shepard F. Norris, Democrat, 007; Joseph R. Swan, 
Whig, 1,043, Swan's majority, 370. 

Congressman — Josiah S. Plants, Democrat, 050; C. K. Watson, 1,041. 
Watson's majority, 391. 

Probate Judge — George H. Busby, Democrat, 583; George Snyder, 
Democrat, 1,111. Snyder's majority, 528. 

Clerk of the Court— J. R. Knapp, Jr., Democrat, 003; J. R. Garberson, 
Whig, 1,047. Garberson' s majority, 384. 

County Auditor — Richard Wilson, Democrat, 732; S. A. Griswold, 
Whig, 903. Griswold's majority, 231. 

County Commissioner — John Rosencrans, Democrat, 098; M. Barnhart, 
Whig, 953. Barnhart's majority, 255. 

Coroner — Elijah K. Corbin, Democrat, 028; J. S. Gosshorn, Whig, 
1,051. Gosshorn's majority, 423. 


Governor— Salmon P. Chase, Whig, 1,220; William Medill, Democrat, 
1,108; Allen Trimble, Free Soil, 16. Chase's majority, 52. 

Senator — C. S. Hamilton, Whig, 1,246; A. S. Ramsey, Democrat. 1,173. 
Hamilton's majority, 73. 

Representative— John F. Hume, American, 1,213; George Beckley, 
Democrat, 1,196. Hume's majority, 17. 

County Treasurer — Isaac Uncapher, Whig, 1,191; A. D. Matthews, 
Democrat, 1,220. Matthews' majority, 29. 

Sheriff— John Reed, Whig, 1,207; John D. Guthery, Democrat, 1,206. 
Reed's majority, 1. 

Recorder — John C. Berry, Whig, 1,194; James H. Barker, Democrat, 
1,226. Barker's majority, 32. 

Prosecuting Attorney— J. H. Anderson, Whig, 1,210; E. H. Hull, Demo- 
crat, 1,179. Anderson's majority, 37. ., 


County Commissioner — Newton Messenger, Whig, 1,214; Smith Frame, 
Democrat, 1,191. Messenger's majority, 23. 


Judge of Supreme Court, full term — Ruf us P. Ranney, Democrat, 1,226; 
Josiah Scott, Republican, 1,359. Scott's majority, 133. 

Judge of Supreme Court, to fill vacancy — C. W. Searle, Democrat, 
1,229; Ozias Bowen, Republican, 1,318. Bowen's majority, 89. 

Common Pleas Judge — Ben. F. Metcalf, Democrat, 1,241; William 
Lawrence, Republican, 1,341. Lawrence's majority, 100. 

Congressman — L. W. Hall, Democrat, 1,229; Cooper K. Watson, Re 
publican, 1,342. Watson's majority, 1.13. 

County Auditor — Alex Sharp. Democrat, 1,229; S. A. Griswold, Repub- 
lican, 1,355. Griswold' s majority, 126. 

County Commissioner — J. C. Lee, Democrat, 1,222; William E. Clark, 
Republican, 1,358. 

Poor-House Directors — Abraham Cox, Republican, 1,350; Abel Martin, 
Republican, 1,354; William Conkright, Republican, 1,363; John Rosen - 
crans, Democrat, 1,220; J. J. Wottring, Democrat, 1,210; Isaac P. Guth- 
ery, Democrat, 1,240. 

The first three were elected. 

Surveyor — George Beckley, Democrat, 1,226; Hugh W. Ross, Repub- 
lican, 1,280. Ross' majority, 54. 

Coroner — Charles White, Jr., Democrat, 1,217; P. K. Francis, Repub- 
lican, 1,359. Francis' majority, 132. 

Bank Charter— For, 1,606; against, 579. Majority for, 1,027. 


President — James Buchanan, Democrat, 1,285; John C. Fremont, Re- 
publican, 1,378; Millard Fillmore, American, 5. Fremont's majority, 93. 


Governor — Salmon P. Chase, Republican, 1,335; Henry B. Payne, 
Democrat, 1,312. Chase's majority, 23. 

Senator — C. H. Gatch, Republican, 1,341; Joseph Newell, Democrat, 
1,307. Gatch's majority, 34. 

Representative— Joshua Copeland, Republican, 1,293; Richard Wilson, 
Democrat, 1,351. Wilson's majority, 58. 

County Treasurer — James F. Mounts, Republican, 1,278; A. D. Mat- 
thews, Democrat, 1,361. Matthew's majority, 83. 

Sheriff — William B. Lewis, Republican, 1,336; John D. Guthery, 
Democrat, 1,307. Lewis' majority, 29. 

County Clerk— John R. Garberson, Republican, 1,348; W. E. Scofield, 
Democrat, 1,296. Garberson's majority, 52. 

Probate Judge — George Snyder, Republican, 1,336; Harry Hain, Demo- 
crat, 1,301. Snyder's majority, 35. 

County Commissioner — Jacob J. Idleman, Republican, 1,328; Charles 
Owen, Democrat, 1,316. Idleinan's majority, 12. 

Prosecuting Attorney — James H. Auderson, Republican, 1,289; A. Os- 
borne, Democrat, 1,310. Osborne's majority, 51. 

Infirmary Director — Abraham Cox, Republican, 1,319; George A. Unca- 
pher, Democrat. 1,323. Uncapher's majority, 4. 



Supreme Judge — "William V. Peck, Republican, 1,330; Thomas W. 
Bartley, Democrat, 1,251. Peck's majority, 79. 

Congressman — John Carey, Republican, 1,371; L. W. Hall, Democrat, 
1,200. Carey's majority, 171. 

County Auditor — L. F. Raichley, Republican, 1,314; George H. Busby, 
Democrat, 1,236. Raichley 's majority, 78. 

Recorder — N. C. Mitchell, Republican, 1,305; Philip Dombaugh, 
Democrat, 1,267. Mitchell's majority, 38. 

County Commissioner — Noah Gillespie, Republican, 1,295; William R. 
Morris, Democrat, 1,260. Gillespie's majority, 35. 

Infirmary Director— Jacob R. Neff, Republican, 1,338; Lewis Gunn, 
Democrat, 1,231. Nell's majority, 107. 

Coroner — William B. Davis, Republican, 1,311; Albert H. Brown, 
Democrat, 1,230. Davis' majority, 81. 


Governor — Rufus P. Ranney, Democrat, 1,391; William Dennison, 
Republican, 1,338. Ranney' s majority, 53. 

Senator — S. G. Hoge, Democrat, 1,316; T. B. Fisher, Republican, 
1,349. Fisher's majority, 3. 

Representative — Richard Wilson, Democrat, 1,341; John A. Carter, 
Republican, 1,363. Carter's majority, 22. 

County Treasurer — John King, Democrat, 1,396; James Powell, Re- 
publican, 1,306. King's majority, 90. 

Sheriff — David Epler, Democrat, 1,320; William Lewis, Republican, 
1,315. Epler' s majority. 5. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Addison Osborne, Democrat, 1,361; J. H. An- 
derson, Republican, 1,237. Osborne's majority, 124. 

County Commissioner — Thomas Harvey, Democrat, 1,419; E. Messen- 
ger, Republican, 1,269. Harvey's majority, 141. 

Surveyor — E. Trumbo, Democrat, 1,414; John Cunningham, Republi- 
can, 1,276. Trumbo's majority, 138. 

Iniirmary Director — Henry Hain, Democrat, 1,377; William Conkright, 
Republican, 1,329. Hain's majority, 48. 

Coroner — George Hineman, Democrat, 1,325; Little, Republican, 

1,365. Little's majority, 40. 

Annual Session of the Legislature — For, 410; against, 2,319. Majority 
against, 1,909. 


Supreme Judge — Thomas J. S. Smith, Democrat, 1,635; Jacob Brink- 
erhoff, Republican, 1,478. Smith's majority, 157. 

Congressman — Warren P. Noble, Democrat, 1,614; John Carey, Repub- 
lican, 1,508. Noble's majority, 106. 

County Auditor — William'Crickett, Democrat, 1,615; L. F. Raichley, 
Republican, 1,487. Crickett's majority, 128. 

County Clerk— Philip Dombaugh, Democrat, 1,640; J. W. C. Bryant, 
Republican, 1.470. Dombaugh' s majority, 170. 

Probate Judge— George Gray, Democrat, 1,619; Isaac N. Shepherd, 
Republican, 1,489. Gray's majority, 130. 

County Commissioner — John Rosencrans, Democrat, 1,623; Archibald 
Riddle, Republican, 1,485. Rosencrans' majority, 138. 


Infirmary Director — Joseph Court, Democrat, 1,660; Addison Tavenner. 
Republican, 1,480. Court's majority, 180. 


President — A. Lincoln, Republican; S A. Douglas, Democrat; J. C. 
Breckenridge, Democrat; John Bell, American. 


Governor — David Tod, Republican, 1,616; Hugh J. Jewett, Democrat, 
1,479. Tod's majority, 137. 

Common Pleas Judge — William Lawrence, Republican, 1,614; James 
Kernan, Democrat, 1,481. Lawrence's majority, 133. 

State Senator — Johu Hood, Republican, 1,622; A. Osborne, Democrat, 
1,466. Hood's majority, 156. 

Representative — John Barfcram, 1,598; A. D. Matthews, Democrat, 
1,486. Bartram's majority, 112. 

County Treasurer — A. D. Woolley, Republican, 1,602; John King, 
Democrat, 1,486. Woolley's majority, 116. 

Sheriff — William F. Harvey, Republican, 1,624; David Epler, Demo- 
crat, 1,449. Harvey's majority, 175. 

Recorder — H M. Ault, Republican, 1,620: T. H. Hodder, Democrat, 
1,440. Ault's majority, 180. 

Prosecuting Attorney— Ozias Bowen, Republican, 1,604; H. T. Van 
Fleet, Democrat, 1,465. Bowen's majority, 139. 

County Commissioner — Jacob F. Martin, Republican, 1, 606; Eben 
Lewis, Democrat, 1,483. Martin's majority, 123. 

Infirmary Director — Silas Idleman, Republican, 1,615; Job n Barnhart, 
Democrat, 1,478. Idleman's majority, 137. 

Coroner — Peter W. Lee, Republican; E. K. Corbin, Democrat. 


Judge of Supreme Court — Rufus P. Ranney, Democrat, 1,481; Thomas 
Backus, Union, 1,098. Ranney's majority, 383. 

Congressman — James H. Godman, Union, 1,102; William Johnston, 
Democrat, 1,472. Johnston's majority, 370. 

Auditor — William Cricket, Democrat, 1,483; L. F. Raichley, Republi- 
can, 1,070. Cricket's majority, 413. 

County Commissioner — William R. Morris, Democrat, 1,488 ; 

Thew, Republican, 1,080. Morris' majority, 403. 

Surveyor — E. Trombo, Democrat, 1,474; John Cunningham, Republi- 
can, 1,088. Trombo's majority, 386. 

Infirmary Director — Henry Hain, Democrat, 1,46S; Anderson, 

Republican, 1,103. Hain's majority, 365. 


Governor — John Brough, Republican, 1,719; C. L. Vallandigham, 
Democrat, 1,655. Brough's majority, 64. 

Senator — William H. West, Republican, 1,676; Henry T. Van Fleet, 
Democrat, 1,657. West's majority, 19. 

Representative — Everett Messenger, Republican, 1,670; Peyton Hord, 
Democrat, 1,646. Messenger's majority, 24. 

Probate Judge— Georg9 Snyder, Republican, 1,655; George Gray, 
Democrat, 1,670. Gray's majority, 15. 


Clerk of the Court — P. Dombaugh, Democrat, 1,650; Jacob R. Harsh- 
berger. Republican, 1,(314. Dombaugh' s majority. 36. 

County Treasurer — Isaac Young, Democrat, 1,682; Andrew D. Woolley, 
Republican, 1,648. Young's majority, 34. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Ozias Bowen, Republican, 1,638; N. M. Run- 
yan, Democrat, 1,656. Runyan's majority, 18 

Sheriff— William B. Lewis, Republican, 1,661; Samuel Berry, Demo- 
crat, 1,659. Lewis' majority, 2. 

County Commissioner — William Thew, Republican, 1,645; Ro3en- 

cranse, Democrat, 1,658. Rosencranse's majority. 13. 

Infirmary Director — Jacob Kreis, Republican, 1,604; Court, Demo 

crat, 1.672. Court's majority, 68. 

Coroner — James C. Rhodes, Republican, 1,651; Allen, Democrat, 

1,664. Allen's majority, 13. 


Secretary of State — W. W. Armstrong, Democrat, 387; William H. 
Smith, Union. 

Congressman — William Johnston, Democrat; James R. Hubbell, Union. 

County Auditor — William Cricket, Democrat; John R. Knapp, Jr., 

Recorder — George B. Merchant, Democrat; Hiram M. Ault, Union. 

County Commissioner — William E. Clark, Democrat; John G. Roads, 

Infirmary Director — Smith Frame, Democrat; Robert Hopkins, Jr., 


President — A. Lincoln, Republican. 387; G. B. McClellan, Democrat, 


Governor — George W. Morgan, Democrat, 1,657; Jacob D. Cox, Union, 
1,460. Morgan's majority, 197. 

Common Pleas Judge — Hugh Thompson, Democrat, 1,655; Conk- 

lin, Union, 1,449. Thompson's majority, 206. 

Senator — Alex. S. Ramsey, Democrat, 1,656; Philander B. Cole, Union 
1,463. Ramsey's majority, 193. 

Representative — John Rosencrans, Democrat, 1,639; Everett Messenger, 
Union, 1,476. Rosencrans' majority, 163. 

Sheriff — Samuel H. Berry, Democrat, 1,642; Levi Bair, Union, 1,452. 
Berry's majority, 190. 

Treasurer — Isaac Young, Democrat, 1,655; Joseph E. Crow, Union, 
1,465. Young's majority, 190. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Noah M. Runyan, Democrat, 1,624; William Z. 
Davis, Union, 1,463. Runyan's majority, 161. 

County Commissioner — Samuel Waddel, Democrat, 1,639; Hannibal 
Irey, Union, 1,482. Waddel' s majority, ]57. 

Infirmary Director — A. P. Johnson. Democrat, 1,652; William W. Conk- 
right, 1,468. Johnson's majority, 184. 

Surveyor — George Beckley, Democrat, 1,659; John Cunningham, 1,454. 
Beckley's majority, 205. 

Coroner — B. F. Allen, Democrat, 1,956; Charles Clendenen, 1,459. 
Allen's majority, 197. 



Secretary of State — Benjamin Le Fever, Democrat, 1,679; William H. 
Smith, Union, 1,523. Le Fever's majority, 156. 

Congressman — William P. Beid, Democrat, 1,676; C. S. Hamilton, Un- 
ion, 1,523. Reid's majority, 153. 

County Auditor — Richard Wilson, Democrat, 1,686; John R. Garber- 
son, Union, 1,502. Wilson's majority, 184. 

Common Pleas Judge — Jacob S. Concklin. 

Probate Judge — George H. Busby, Democrat, 1,662: Robert Hopkins, 
1,528. Busby's majority, 134. 

Clerk of the Court — Philip Dombaugh, Democrat, 1,671; Robert 
King, 1,517. Dombaugh' s majority, 154. 

County Commissioner — Isaac F. Guthary, Democrat, 1,651; John Rayl, 
1,522. Guthery's majority, 129. 

Infirmary Director — John B. Andrew, Democrat, 1,681; John Brun- 
dage, 1,519. Andrew's majority, 162. 


Governor — R. B. Hayes, Republican, 1,377; A. G. Thurman, Democrat, 
1,953. Thurman's majority, 576. 

Senator — Luther Smith, Democrat; Solomon Kraner. 

Representative — Joshua Copeland, Republican, 1,371; Peyton Hord, 
Democrat, 1,922. Hord's majority, 551. 

County Treasurer —George Diegle, Democrat, 1,841; Robert Hopkins, 
Republican, 1,465. Diegle's majority, 376. 

Recorder — Benjamin F. Stahl, Democrat, 1,817; S. S. Beerbower, Re- 
publican, 1,482. Stahl's majority, 335. 

Sheriff — H. H. Cunningham, Democrat, 1,822; Thomas Pi erson, Repub- 
lican, 1,464. Cunningham's majority, 358. 

Prosecuting Attorney — H. T. Van Fleet, Democrat, 1,818; Ozias Bowen, 
Republican. 1,455. Van Fleet's majority, 363. 

County Commissioner — Robert Hill, Democrat, 1,942; M. McKinstry, 
Republioan, 1,372. Hill's majority, 570. 

Infirmary Director — Michael A. Metz, Democrat, 1,951; John Brun- 
dige, Republican, 1,373. Metz' majority, 578. 

Coroner — Daniel Bader, Democrat, 1,945; S. P. Williams, Republican, 
1,383. Bader's majority, 562. 

Negro Suffrage — For, 1,160; against 2,046. Majority against, 886. 


Common Pleas Judge — James Pillars, 1,520; C. K. Watson, 989; Pill- 
ars' majority, 531. 


Secretary of State — Thomas Hubbard, Democrat, 1,941; Isaac R. Sher- 
wood, Republican, 1,457. Hubbard's majority, 484, 

Congressman — John H. Benson, Democrat, 1,943; John Beatty, Repub- 
lican, 1,452. Benson's majority, 491. 

County Auditor— Richard Wilson, Democrat, 1,951; E. Peters, Repub- 
lican, 1,412. Wilson's majority, 539. 

County Commissioner — Joseph Court, Democrat, 1,917; R. G. Boyd, 
Republican, 1,468. Court's majority, 449. 

Surveyor — Emanuel Trombo, Democrat, 1,916; J. Cunningham, 1,453- 
Trombo's majority, 463. 


Infirmary Director — James L. Bell, Democrat, 1,936; William Thew, 
1,458. Bell's majority, 478. 


President — U. S. Grant, Republican, 1,548; H. Seymour, Democrat, 
1,936. Seymour's majority, 388. 


Governor — K. B. Hayes, Republican, 1,393; George H. Pendleton, 
Democrat, 1,877. Pendleton's majority, 484. 

Senator — A. S. Piatt, Democrat, 1,882; John Bartram, Republican, 
1,369. Piatt's majority, 513. 

Representative — James W. Devore, Republican, 1,799; Benjamin F. 
Allen, Democrat, 1,386. Devore's majority, 413. 

Clerk of the Court— Philip Dombaugh, Republican, 1,877; Thomas H. 
Hodder, Democrat, 1,257. Dombaugh's majority, 620. 

Probate Judge— J. R. Garberson, Republican, 1,636; Theo A. Cross, 
Democrat, 1,496. Garberson' s major ty, 140. 

Prosecuting Attorney— Caleb H. Norris, Republican, 1,753; Henry T. 
Van Fleet, Democrat, 1,396. Norris' majority, 357. 

Sheriff— H. H. Cunningham, Democrat, 1,684; John Kishler, Republican, 
1,532. Cunningham's majority, 152. 

Treasurer— George Diegle, Democrat, 1,843; Andrew D. Bretz, Repub- 
lican, 1,396. Diegle's majority, 447. 

County Commissioner— Isaac F. Guthery, Democrat, 1,741; John Bain, 
Republican, 1,444. Guthery's majority, 297 

Infirmary Director— John B. Andrew, Democrat, 1,831; Jacob R. Neff, 
Republican, 1,424. Andrew's majority, 407. 

Coroner— Michael Jacoby, Jr., Democrat, 1,843; M. L. Carpenter, Re- 
publican, 1 385. Jacoby's majority, 458. 


Secretary of State— William Heisley, Democrat, 1,594; Isaac R. Sher- 
wood, Republican, 1,221. Heisley's majority, 373. 

Congressman— J. R. Hubbell, Democrat, 1,576; John Beatty, Repub- 
lican, 1,212. Hubbell's majority, 364. 

County Auditor— Allen McNeal, 1,215. 

Recorder— B. F. Stahl, Democrat, 1,488; Charles P. Cooper, Repub- 
lican, 1,314. Stahl's majority, 174. 

County Commissioner— Robert Hill, Democrat, 1,564; J. Q. Rhoads, 
Republican, 1,232. Hill's majority, 332. 

Surveyor— Elijah Dix, Democrat, 1,495; J. Cunninghaui, Republican, 
1,215. Dix's majority, 280. 

Infirmary Director— David Kerr, Dftinocrat, 1,562; J. Lykins, Republi- 
can, 1,215. Kerr's majority, 347. 

Continuing the Infirmary*— For, 1,900; against, 538. Majority for, 


Governor— Edward F. Noyes, Republican, 1,306; George W. McCook, 
Democrat, 1,879. McCook's majority, 573. 

Common Pleas Judge— A. M. Jackson, Democrat; Mott, Democrat. 

* The government of the Infirmary had been accused of corruption. 


Representative — Richard Lawrence, Republican ; Robert Hill, Democrat. 

County Auditor -Hiram M. Ault, Republican; Samuel E. Hain, Demo- 

County Treasurer— James Auld, Jr., Republican; A. D. Matthews, 

Sheriff- Frank M. Scribner, Republican; John H. Weaver, Democrat. 

County Commissioner — Newton Messenger, Republican; Joseph Court, 

Prosecuting Attorney — W. Z. Davis, Republican; Caleb H. Norris, 

Infirmary Director — J. T. Merchant, Democrat; Hartman Dickout, 

Infirmary Director, to fill vacancy — Luke Lenox, Republican; George 
Retterer, Democrat. 

Corouer — James Coffey, Republican; A. H. Freeman, Democrat. 

Constitutional Convention* — For, 706; against, 0. Majority for, 706. 


Secretary of State — Aquila Wiley, Democratic and Liberal Republican. 
1,980; Allen T. Wikoff, Republican, 1,488. Wiley's majority, 492. 

Congressman — George W. Morgan, Democrat and Liberal, 1,995; James 
W. Robinson, Republican, 1,489. Morgan's majority, 506. 

Common Pleas Judge — James Pillars, Democrat, 1,955. No opposi- 

Probate Judge — Robert Hopkins, Democrat and Liberal, 1,838; J. R. 
Garberson, Republican, 1,621. Hopkins' majority, 217. 

Commissioner, long term — James M. Harvey, Democrat and Liberal, 
1,961; Valentine Fehl, Republican, 1,491. Harvey's majority, 470. 

Commissioner, short term — Jacob A. Schaaf, Democrat and Liberal, 
1,838; Luke Lennox, Republican, 1,487. Schaaf's majority, 351. 

Clerk of the Court — Philip Dombaugh, Democrat and Liberal, 1,968; 
Alex C. McNutt, Republican, 1,457. Dombaugh's majority, 511. 

Infirmary Directory — Jonathan Bell, Democrat and Liberal, 1,865; Silas 
Idleman, Republican, 1,416. Bell's majority, 449. 


Governor — William Allen, Democrat, 1,901; Edward F. Noyes, Repub- 
lican, 1,240; Gideon T. Stewart, Prohibition, 77. Allen's majority, 661. 

Senator — M. C. Lawrence, Democrat, 1,399; Horace Park, Republican, 
1,255; Amos Miller, Prohibition, 72. Lawrence's majority, 144. 

Representative — Robert Hill, Democrat, 1,759; Joshua Copeland, Re- 
publican, 1,309; Barnhart Taylor, Pohibition, 95. Hill's majority, 450. 

Prosecuting Attorney — C. H. Norris, Democrat, 1,932; Thomas C. 
Bowen, Republican, 1,199. Norris' majority, 743. 

Sheriff — John H. Weaver, Democrat, 1,801; Joshua Berry, Republican, 
1,323; John Cocherl, Prohibition, 69. Weaver's majority, 478. 

County Auditor — Samuel E. Hain, Democrat, 1,954; David N. Kem- 
per, Republican, 1,152; William T. Owens, Prohibition, 79. Hain's ma- 
jority, 802. 

Treasurer — A. D. Matthews, Democrat, 2,084; Valentine Fehl, Repub- 
lican, 1,052; Lewis Guud, Prohibition, 71. Matthews' majority, 1,032. 

*Forafull re-coastruction of the Constitution of the State. 


Recorder — Dallas Day, Democrat, 1,698; C. P. Cooper, Republican, 
1,432; V. Lawrence, Prohibition, 70. Day's majority, 206. 

County Commissioner — Samuel C. Dodds, Democrat, 1,907; John W, 
Boyd, Republican, 1,227; G. W. Miller, Prohibition, 75. 

Surveyor — G. B. Christian, Democrat, 1,826; J. Cunningham, Repub- 
lican, 1,238. Christian's majority, 58 S. 

Infirmary Director — George Retterer, Democrat, 1,904; Addison Tav- 
enw, Republican, 1.239; Jacob Free, Prohibition, 70. Retterer's majority, 

Coroner — John Jones, Democrat, 1,907; R. W. Smith, Republican, 
1,234: AYilliam Broklesby, Prohibition, 76. Jones' majority, 673. 


Secretary of State— William Bell, Democrat, 1,719; Allen T. Wikoff, 
Republican, 1,145. Bell's majority. 574. 

Congressman — E. T. Poppleton, Democrat, 1,702; J. W. Robinson, Re- 
publican, 1,169. Poppleton's majority, 523. 

County Commissioner — Jacob A. Schaaf, Domocrat, 1,729; C. H. Pretty- 
man, Republican, 1,102; Charles Owen, 38. Schaaf s majority, 627, 

Common Pleas Judge — Thomas Beer, Democrat, 1,719; Josiah Scott, 
Republican, 1,151. Beer's majority, 568. 

Infirmary Director— J. A. Mouser; William P. Thew, Republican, 
1,125; Hartman Dichout, Democrat, 1,716. Dichout's majority, 591. 


Governor — William Allen, Democrat, 2,306; Rutherford B. Hayes, Re- 
publican, 1,534; Jay Odell, Prohibition, 48. Allen's majority, 772. 

Representative — John D. Guthery, Democrat, 2,295; John R. Garber- 
son, Republican, 1,516: J. A. Mouser, Prohibition, 46. Guthery's major- 
ity, 779. 

Coroner— Calvin P. Gailey, Democrat, 2,345; Joseph Oborn, Repub- 
lican, 1,479; W. W. Haley, Prohibition, 49. Gailey' s majority, 866. 

Clerk of the Court — Amaziah H. Hord, Democrat, 2,164; F. C. Ruehr- 
mund, Republican, 1.654; U. K. Guthery, Prohibition, 53. Hord's major- 
ity, 510. 

Probate Judge — Robert Hopkins, Democrat, 2,348; C. M. Stockwell, 
Republican, 1,462; Lewis Gunn, Prohibition, 54. Hopkins' majority, 

Prosecuting Attorney— Caleb H. Norris, Democrat, 2,347; J. F. McNeal, 
Republican, 1,474. Norris' majority, 873. 

Sheriff — Silas A. Guthrie, Democrat, 2,297; Charles L. Patten, Repub- 
lican, 1,505; J. L. Wilson, Prohibition, 48. Guthrie's majority, 792. 

County Auditor — James L. Bell, Democrat, 2,140; James H. Leonard, 
Republican, 1,641; W. T. Owen, Prohibition, 54. Bell's majority, 499. 

County Treasurer — Peter Beerbower, Democrat, 2,316; Silas Idleman, 
Republican, 1,484; George Lawrence, Prohibition, 49. Beerbower's ma- 
jority, 832. 

County Commissioner — James M. Harvey, Democrat, 2,226; William 
Brocklesby, Jr., Republican, 1,545; Charles Owen, Prohibition, 50. Har- 
vey's majority, 681. 

Infirmary Director — Jonathan Bell, Democrat, 2,272; Everett Messen- 
ger, Republican, 1,553; G. W. Miller, Prohibition, 58. Bell's majority, 




Secretary of State — William Bell, Jr., Democrat, 2,467; Miltun Barnes, 
Republican, 1,788; E. S. Chapman, Prohibition, 26. Bell's majority, 679. 

Congressman— Early F. Poppleton, Democrat, 2,461; John S. Jones, 
Republican, 1,795; Levi S. Benson, Prohibition, 22. Poppleton's major- 
ity, 666. 

Judge of the Common Pleas Court — Thomas Beer, 2,459. 

Recorder — Dallas Day, Democrat, 2,540; Charles A. Shields, Repub- 
lican, 1,693; B. F. Waples, Prohibition, 32. Day's majority, 847. 

County Commissioner — Hiram Knowles, Democrat, 2,368; Robert W. 
Watkins, Republican, 1,839; George Lawrence, Prohibition, 33. Knowles' 
majority, 529. 

Surveyor — George Beckloy, Democrat, 2,476; Wiliiam J. Idleman, Re- 
publican, 1,757; T. M. Mouser, Prohibition, 30; John Cunningham, 7. 
Beckley's majority, 719. 

Infirmary Director — George Retterer, Democrat, 2,450; William B. 
Patten, Republican, 1,773; T. T. Rathel, Prohibition, 29. Retterer's ma- 
jority, 677. 


Governor — William H. West, Republican, 1,534; Richard M. Bishop, 
Democrat, 2,252; Henry A. Thompson, Prohibition, 49. Bishop's majoritv, 

Senator — Hylas Sabine, Republican, 1,504; John J. Hopkins, Demo- 
crat, 2,328; J. R. Smith, Prohibition, 4. Hopkins' majority, S24. 

Representative — John Bain, Republican, 1,539; John D. Guthery, 
Democrat, 2,248; F. M. Stone, Prohibition, 36. Guthery's majority, 709. 

Judge of the Common Pleas Court — Jacob F. Burket, Republican, 
1,542; Henry H. Dodge, Democrat, 2,273. Dodge's majority, 731. 

Prosecuting Attorney — J. N. Abston, Republican, 1,736; B. G. Young, 
Democrat, 1,964. Abston's majority, 22S. 

Sheriff — S. N. Titus, Republican, 1,477; Silas A. Guthrie, Democrat, 
2,325; George Miller, -Prohibition, 40. Guthrie's majority, 848. 

County Auditor — Thomas R. Shinn, Republican, 1,491; James L. Bell, 
Democrat, 2,284; W. T. Owens, Prohibition, 39. Bell's majority, 793. 

Co an ty Treasurer — Silas Idleman, Republican, 1,475; Peter Beerbower, 
Democrat, 2,290; Samuel Wootz, Prohibition, 38. Beerbower's majority, 

County Commissioner — James Morrow, Republican, 1,558; Jacob A. 
Schaaf, Democrat, 2,183; George Lawrence, Prohibition, 42. Schaaf's 
majority, 625. 

Infirmary Director — John Q. Roads, Republican, 1,614; John O'Regan, 
Democrat, 2,105; Lewis Gunn, Prohibition, 1 43. O'Regau's majority, 

Coroner — William S. Drake, Republican, 1,502; Calvin P. Gailey, 
Democrat, 2,287; J. A. Mouser, Prohibition, 45. Gailey's majority, 785. 


Secretary of State — Milton Barnes, Republican, 1,770: David R. 
Paige, Democrat, 2,196; J. N. Robinson, 46; Andrew Roy, 61. Paige's 
majority, 426. 

Congressman- - Ebenezer B. Finley, Democrat, 2,130; Charles Foster, 
Republican, 1,850; M. Deal, 34; O. C. Brown, 59. Finley's majority, 



Clerk of the Court — Amaziah H. Hord, Democrat, 2,260; Samuel H. 
Gast, Republican, 1,716; Smith Woodcock, 53. Hord's majority, 544. 

Probate Judge — John N. Matthews, Democrat, 2,163; F. C. Ruehr- 
mund, Republican, 1,832; G. W. Miller, 46. Matthews' majority, 331. 

Couuty Commissioner — Samuel Mehaffey, Democrat, 1,908; John J. 
Hane, Republican, 2,114; Lewis Gunu, Prohibition, 29. Hane's majority, 
206. , 

Surveyor — Isaac Young, Democrat, 2,265; Francis M. Bain, Republican, 
1,762; F. M. Bain, Prohibition, 36. Young's majority, 503. 

Infirmary Director — Joseph Mason, |Democrat, 2,001; Jacob F. Sifritt, 
Republican, 1,888; W. AY. Haley, Prohibition, 52. Mason's majority, 113. 

Coroner — John M. Christian, Democrat, 2,246; W. B. Marshall, Re- 
publican, 1,743; F. M. Stone, Prohibition, 46. Christian's majority, 503. 


Governor — Charles Foster, Republican, 2,032; Thomas Ewing, Demo- 
crat, 2,778. G. T. Stewart, 39; A. S. Piatt, 41. Ewing's majority, 746. 

Senator — Luther M. Strong, Republican, 2,033; William S. Goodlove, 
Democrat, 2,784. Goodlove's majority, 751. 

Representative — S. D. Bates, Republican, 2,030; J. J. Hopkins. Demo- 
crat, 2,802; J. A. Mouser, Prohibition. 32. Hopkins' majority, 772. 

Prosecuting Attorney — J. C. Johnston, Republican, 1,895; B. G. Young, 
Democrat, 2.633; J. N. Abston, Prohibition, 285. Young's majority, 738. 

Sheriff — Jacob Young, Republican, 2,166; J. V. Harrison, Democrat, 
2,638; Lewis Gunn, Prohibition, 40. Harrison's majority, 472. 

County Treasurer— D. B. Krause, Republican, 2,171; Julius Strelitz, 
Democrat, 2,610; John Riley, Prohibition, 33. Strelitz' s majority, 439. 

Recorder — Milton Morral, Jr., Republican, 2,055; Solomon H. Rupp, 
Democrat, 2,755; William Haley, Prohibition, 44. Rupp's majority, 700. 

County Commissioner — Jacob F. Apt, Republican, 2,138; Samuel Me- 
haffey, Democrat, 2,682; F. M. Bain, Prohibition, 42. Mehaffey's major- 
ity, 544. 

Infirmary Director — Jacob F. Sifritt, Republican, 2,061; J. P. Unca- 
pher, Democrat, 2,697; Smith Woodcock, Prohibition, 44. Uncapher's 
majority, 636. 

Constitutional Amendment, prohibiting license of saloons — For, 3,016; 
against, 1,278. Majority for, 1,738. 

Constitutional Amendment, relative to the Executive Department — For, 
3,011; against, 1,262. Majority for, 1,749. 

Constitutional Amendment, relating to the judiciary — For, 3,478; 
against, 795. Majority for, 2,683. 

Constitutional Amendment, relating to the election of township officers 
—For, 3,499; against, 899. Majority for, 2,600. 


Secretary of State — Charles Townsend, Republican, 2,153; William 
Lang, Democrat, 2,924; Charles A. Lloyd, 7; William H. Doan, Prohibi- 
tion, 25. Lang's majority, 771. 

Congressman — James S. Robinson, Republican, 2,102; Caleb H. Norris, 
Democrat, 2,972; J. A. Mouser, Prohibition, 16. Norris' majority, 870. 

County Auditor — David H. Clifton, Republican, 2,305; Charles Hahn, 
Democrat, 2,757; Daniel Uncapher, Prohibition, 30. Hahn's majority, 


County Commissioner — Watt Watkins, Republican, 2,341; C. H. 
Cromer, Democrat, 2,724; R. G. Boyd, Prohibition, 27. Cromer's major - 
ity, 383. 

Infirmary Director — Michael Zachman, Republican, 2,258; John 
O'Regan, Democrat, 2,770; Joseph Rubens, Prohibition, 25. O'Reo-an's 
majority. 512. 

Coroner— Oliver W. Weeks, Republican, 2,290; John M. Christian, 
Democrat, 2,770; G. W. Crawford, Prohibition, 21. Christian's maioritv 
480. " 


Governor — Charles Foster, Republican, 1,862; J. W. Bookwaiter, Demo- 
crat, 2,589; Abraham Ludlow, Prohibition, 198. Bookwaiter' s maioritv 
727. : ' 

Senator — Luther M. Strong, Republican, 1,86 7; Robert Hill, Democrat, 
2,578. Hill's majority, 711. 

Repi'esentative — Jacob Houser, Republican, 1,942; John F. Hopkins, 
Democrat, 2,494: Justice A. Mouser, Republican, 159. Hopkins' majority 

Judge of the Common Pleas Court — Thomas Beer, Democrat, • 

Luther M. Strong, Republican, . 

County Treasurer — Jacob F. Martin, Republican, 1,802; Julius Strelitz, 
Democrat, 2,629; Wesley Pugh, Prohibition, 186. Strelitz's majority, 827. 

Probate Judge — Thomas R. Smith, Republican, 1,749; John N. Mat- 
thews, Democrat, 2,710; Robert G. Boyd, Prohibition, 169. Matthews' 
majority, 961. 

Sheriff — C. B. Merchant, Republican, 1,833; J. V. Harrison, Democrat, 
2,620; Lewis Gunn, Prohibition, 164. Harrison's majority, 787. 

Clerk of Courts — Thomas L. Leonard, Republican, 1,766; John H. 
Thomas, Democrat, 2.650; P. R. Snowden, Prohibition, 181. Thomas' ma- 
jority, 884. 

Prosecuting Attorney — John F. McNeal, Republican, 2,176; Stephen A 
Court, Democrat, 2,290. Court's majority, 14. 

County Commissioner — Wilson Imbody, Republican, 2,087; George Ret - 
terer, Democrat, [2,297; Samuel Bolander, Prohibition, 160. Retterer's 
majority, 210. 

Infirmary Director — J. R. D. Morris, Republican, 1,862; Joseph 
Mason, Democrat, 2,574; Coi'nelius Coon, Prohibition, 193. Mason's ma- 
jority, 712. 

Surveyor — W. S. Cunningham, Republican, 1,915; Samuel Bell, Demo- 
crat, 2,552; John H. Bouser (or Houser), Prohibition, 158. Bell's major- 
ity, 537. 


Secretary of State — Charles Townsend, Republican, 1,783; James F. 
Newman, Democrat. 2,532; Ferd Schumacher, Prohibition, 143. New- 
man's majority, 749. 

Congressman — James S. Robinson, Republican, 1,800; Thomas E. 
Powell, Democrat, 2,512; W. Boner, Prohibition, 12S. Powell's majoritv 

Recorder — J. W. Hubbert, Republican, 1,733; S. H. Rupp, Democrat, 
2,572; Robert T. Patten, Prohibition, 142. Rupp's majority, 839. 

Infirmary Director — William Brocklesby, Republican, 1,791; J. P. TJn- 
capher, Democrat, 2,507; A. T. Morrow, Prohibition, 155. Uncapher's 
majority, 716. 



County Commissioner — Francis M. Wood, Republican, 1,879; Samuel 

Mahaffey, Democrat, 2,541; Wood, Prohibition, 182. Mahaffey's 

majority, 602. 

Coroner — B. W. Davis, Republican, 1,707; A. B. McMurray, Democrat, 
2,540; Justice A. Mouser, Prohibition, 144. McMurray' s majority, 773. 

The following tables of representatives and officers of Marion County 
are compiled for convenience of reference: 



William Wilson 1823-29 

William Stanbery 18 ?? -3 2 

Jeremiah McLene 1833-37 

Samson Mason 1837-39 

Joseph Ridgway 1839-43 

Jacob Brinkerhoff 1843-47 

John K. -Miller 1847-51 

George H. Busby 1851-53 

Frederick W. Green 1853-55 

Cooper K. Watson 1855-57 

Lawrence W. Hall 1857-59 

NAMES. years. 

John Carey 1859-61 

Warren P. Noble 1861-65 

James R. Hubbell 1865-67 

Cornelius S. Hamilton 1807 — 

John Beatty 1868-73 

James W. Robinson 1873-75 

Early F. Poppleton 1875-77 

John S. Jones 1877-79 

EbenezerB. Finley 1879-81 

James S. Robinson 1881-85 



I teiiiy Brown 1822-23 

.lames Kooken 1823-24 

I). II. Beardsley 1824-26 

James Kooken 1826-28 

Charles Carpenter 1828-32 

James W. Crawford 1832-34 

Robert Hopkins 1834-36 

Hezekiah Gorton 1836-38 

Benjamin F. Allen 1838-40 

James II. Godman 1840-42 

Joseph McCutcheon 1842-44 

Thomas W. Powell 1844-46 

.lames Eaton 1846-48 

William Lawrence 1848-52 

JohD .1. Williams 1852-54 


William Lawrence 1854-56 

Cornelius Hamilton 1856-58 

C. H. Gatch 1858-60 

T. B. Fisher 1860-62 

John Hood 1862-64 

William H. West 1864-66 

P. B. Cole 1866-68 

Solomon Kraner 1868-70 

John Bartram 1870-72 

Isaac S. Gardner 1872-74 

M. C. Lawrence 1874-76 

W. W. Beattv 1876-78 

Hylas Sabine". 1878-80 

Luther M. Strong 1880-84 



Elias Murray 1821-22 

Leonard 11. Cowles 1822-24 

Jeremiah Everett 1824-25 

Josiah Hedges 1825-26 

Eber Baker* 1826-27 

Samuel M. Lockwood 1827-28 

John Carey 1828-29 

Robert Hopkins 1829-80 

John Niramon 1830-31 

William Brown 1831-32 

John Campbell 1832-33 

Joseph McCutcheon 1833-34 

John Campbell 1834-35 

James H. Godman L835-36 

( >tway Curry 1836-38 

John Carey. 1836-37 

Stephen Fowler 1837-39 

John Campbell 1838-39 

Guy C. Worth 1830-40 

James H. Godman 1839-40 

Emery Moore 1840^11 

Josiah Scott 1840-41 

James Griffith 1841-42 

NAMES. years. 

George W. Sharp 1841-43 

Thomas Powell 1841-42 

Isaac E. James 1842-43 

John Carey 184:J-44 

William Smart 1843-44 

.lames B. Shaw 1844-46 

Timothy B. Fisher 1846-47 

Albert Mc Wright 1847-48 

Josiah S. Copeland 1848 50 

Philander B. Cole L850-51 

Joseph W. Larrabee 1852-54 

Ebenezer Peters 1854-56 

John F. Hume 1856-58 

Richard Wilson 1858-60 

John A. Carter 1860-62 

John Bartram 1862-64 

Everett Messenger 1864-66 

John Rosencranse 1866-68 

Peyton Bord 1868-70 

James W. Devore 1870-72 

Robert Hill 1872-76 

John D. Guthery 1876-80 

J. J. Hopkins 1880-84 

* J. Hillman was elected, but died before the Legislature convened. 




Hezekiah Gorton 1824-32 S. A. Griswold 1 85 I -58 

John E. Davidson 1832-36 L. F. Raichley 1858-60 

James H. Godman 1836-38 William Cricket 1860-66 

W. W. Concklin 1838-42 Richard Wilson 1866-71 

Peter Beerbower 1842-48 Samuel E. Hain 1871-75 

Lawrence Van Buskirk 1848-50 J. L. Bell 1875-80 

Ebenezer Peters 1850-52 C. Hahn 1880 — 

Henry Hain 1852-54 


NAMES. years. NAMES. years. 

Reuben Smith 1824-25 A. D. Woolley 1861-63 

Adam Uncapher 1825-29 Isaac Young 1863-67 

David Jenkins 1829-33 George Diegle 1867-71 

Richard Wilson 1833-51 A. D. Matthews 1871-75 

Alexander Sharp 1851-55 Peter Beerbower 1875-79 

A. D. Matthews 1855-59 Julius Strelitz 1879 — 

John King 1859-61 



George H. Busby 1824-37 H. M. Ault 1862-65 

Peter Beerbower 1837-40 George B. Merchant 1865-68 

Robert King 1840-43 Benjamin F. Stahl 1868-74 

Henry Hain 1843-53 Dallas Day 1874-80 

James H. Barker 1853-59 Solomon H. Rupp 1880 — 

Nelson C. Mitchell 1859-62 


NAMES. years. NAMES. years. 

George H. Busby 1824-44 Philip Dombaugh 1861-76 

William L. Kendrick 1844-52 Amaziah H. Hord 1876-81 

John R. Knapp, Jr 1852-55 John H. Thomas 1881 — 

John R. Garberson 1855-60 


NAMES. years. NAMES. years. 

Samuel Holmes 1824-34 Emanuel Trumbo 1859-65 

William Dowling 1834-37 George Beckley 1865-68 

Samuel Holmes 1837-41 Emanuel Trumbo 1868-70 

William Uleyate 1841-43 Elijah Dix 1870-73 

William Brown 1843-46 George B. Christian 1873-76 

Isaac S. Young 1846-51 George Beckley 1876-78 

John Cunningham 1851-53 Isaac S. Young 1878-81 

Hugh W. Ross 1853-59 Samuel Bell 1881 — 


NAMES. years. NAMES. years. 

George Snyder 1851-60 J. R, Garberson 1869-78 

George Grav 1860-67 John N. Matthews 1878 — 

George H. Busby l«67-69 


NAMES. years. NAMES. years. 

Milo D. Pettibone 1824-25 William Robbins 1847-49 

Thomas Backus 1825-26 John Bartram 1849-51 

Charles L. Boalt 1826-27 S. H. Bartram 1851-53 

Joseph Swan 1827-30 John F. Hume 1853-55 

Ozias Bowen 1830-33 J. H. Anderson 1855-67 

J. H. Godman 1833-35 A. Osborne 1857-61 

Ozias Bowen 1835-37 Ozias Bowen 1861-63 

Almeron Wheat 1837-39 Noah M. Kunvan 1863-67 

Samuel Kelly 1839-41 H. T. Van Fleet 1867 69 

George Rowe 1841-43 Caleb H. Norris 1869-77 

William Robbins 1843-45 B. G. Young 1877-81 

J. H. Godman 1845-17 Stephen A. Court 1881 — 


NAMES. YKAK-. NAMES. years. 

Benjamin Billman 1824-26 John Rood 1855-57 

ElishaH Crosby 1826-27 W.B.Lewis 1857-59 

Daniel D. Tompkins 1827-31 David Epler 1859-61 

William II. Holmes 1831-33 William F. Harvey* 

Cvrus B. Mann 1S33-37 William B. Lewis 1863-65 

Joseph Durfee L837-4I Samuel H. Berry L865 -<".; 

David Killer 1841-45 Henry H. Cunningham 1867-71 

John Shunk 1845-47 John H. Weaver 1871-75 

David Epler 1847-51 Silas A. Guthery 1875-79 

Simeon C. Starr 1851-55 J. V. Harrison ' 1879 

NAMES. years. NAMES. years. 

Charles Stuart 1824 — J. S. Goshoru 1854-56 

Alson Norton 1824-26 P. K. Francis 1856-58 

D. I >. Tompkins 1826-27 William B. Davis 1858-59 

Amos S. Capron 1827-28 Benjamin Little 1859-61 

Henry Peters 1828-30 E. K. Corbin 1861-63 

David Epler 1830-31 B. F. Allen 1863-67 

JohnBending 1831-33 Daniel Bader 1867-69 

Noah Kimble 1833-35 Michael Jacoby, Jr 1869-71 

Benjamin Kime 1835-37 A. H. Freeman 1871-73 

James Jones 1837-41 James Coffy 

Olnev R. Stone 1841-43 John Jones 1873-75 

Strother R. Hord 1843-45 C. P. Gailey 1875-78 

Henry Parcel] 1847-48 John M. Christian 1878-82 

.lame's (hard 1851-54 A. B. McMurray 1882 — 

For a list of the Infirmary Directors, see chapter on the organic history 
of the county, section on the Infirmary. 


The first Justice of the Peace commissioned in Marion County was 
probably William Crawford in Pleasant Township in 1822. 

In Big Island Township, Joshua Cope, July 5,' 1824. The next was 
Isaac E. James for the same township, January 29, 1827, who resigned 
February 25, 1830. Also Robert Hopkins, April 19, 1830; John Flewell- 
ing, May 14, 1830; Portius Wheeler, October 26, 1831. 

In Center Township, now Marion, William Hoddy and Alexander 
Berry, April 15, 1822; David Tipton, June 26, 1824; Benjamin Davis, 
May 30, 1825; Benjamin Williams, April 24, 1828; John Bartram, March 
3, 1831. 

In Claridon Township, Samuel Bell, July 12, 1824; John Z. Sharp, 
May 18, 1825; John Roberts, July 9, 1827; Joseph Kennedy. April 30, 

Grand Prairie Township, Zachariah Welch, July 12, 1824; John Page, 
May 30, 1825; Daniel Swigert, July 9, 1827; William F. Hance, October 
22, 1827; John Kirby, October 22, 1830. 

Green Camp Township, Samuel Fish, May 31. 1824; Alexander Jink- 
ins, March 14, 1825; Asa Freeman, March 14, 1825; David A. Town, 
March 18, 1826; Samuel Powell, March 3, 1831. 

Grand Township, William Cochran, July 14, 1S24; Jonathan Johnson. 
April 23, 1827; Garrett Fitzgerald. January 9, 1827; Alfred Randall, 
June 3, 1828; Abel Rennick, April 30, 1831. 

Pleasant Township, William Crawford, 1822; Henry Peters, August 3, 
1824; William Wyatt, December 18, 1824; Jacob Kepner, October 24, 
1825; Joseph Boyd, April 24, 1828; Daniel Hane, October 26, 1831. 

* Died before qualified. 


Richland Township, Joseph Oborn, July 12, 1824; Thomas Rodgers, 
November 8, 1824; Daniel Oborn, March 18, 1826; Michael Ashbauo-h' 
October 22, 1827; Alonzo D. Monroe, October 29, 1830. 

Scott Township, Alanson Packard, January 27, 1825; Jacob Shaffer, 
April 26, 1828; William Van Buskirk, July 30, 1829; Henry Pard April 
30, 1831. 

Salt Rock Township, John Green June 20, 1824; Hugh V. Smith, 
July 8,1824; George King. April 25. 1827; Stephen Fowler, Mav 4, 

Tully Township, John Jameson, June 9, 1828; Alanson Packard, June 
9, 1828. 

Montgomery Township had no Justice of the Peace until William 
Cochran was commissioned, April 16, 1834. William H Davis was coin- 
missioDed October 27, 1835. 

Bowling Green had no Justice of the Peace until April 11, 1839, when 
Joseph Guthery took the office. 

Waldo and Prospect Townships were attached to Marion County afc a 
far later date. 


The following are personal sketches of the more prominent representa- 
tives and county officers: 

Hon. Eber Baker, the founder of Marion, was a native of the State of 
Maine; he was born at Litchfield Corners, that State, April 27, 1780. 
His paternal ancestry is traced back to 1635, when Francis Baker came 
over from Great St. Albans, Herefordshire, England, in the " Planter," at 
the age of twenty- four, and settled in Yarmouth, Mass. June 29, 1802, Mr. 
Eber Baker married Lydia Smith. At the opening of the war of 1812, he 
enlisted in the army; but his regiment being assigned to guard and camp 
duty, he found it impossible to acommodate his active temperament to such 
inactive, monotonous life, and accordingly employed a substitute, and with 
his family left his native State for Wheeling, Va. About a year afterward, 
1814, he moved to Newark, Ohio, and in 182], he came to where Marion 
now stands, bought, the land and the next year laid out the town, naming 
it for Gen. Francis Marion, of Revolutionary fame. In his plat for the 
town, he appropriated four lots for church houses, one for each of four differ- 
ent denominations; five lots for court house and jail, and several acres for 
a cemetery. This ground is still a cemetery and is situated just north of 
the New York, Pennsylvania & Ohio depot. He built a log jail at a cost of 
$400, and presented it to the county. When the Protestant Episcopal 
Church was ready to avail itself of a lot, Mr. Baker bought a lot at 8620, 
and presented it to the church, besides $1,000 in money toward the erection 
of the building. To Mr. and Mrs. Baker were born five children before 
leaving the State of Maine, and one in Newark, Ohio. Mrs. Baker died 
June 24, 1843, lamented by all who knew her, especially by the poor and 
less fortunate, who always found sympathy in her large, generous heart. 
Mr. Baker was married a second time to Mrs. Susan Wilson, at this date 
still living, amiable, pious and possessed of fair health and unimpaired in- 
tellect. Mr. Baker was public spirited, liberal in contributing to the var- 
ious town enterprises, material, moral and religious, and was, during most 
of his life, with his second wife, a member, with her, of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. He was Representative to the State Legislature in 


1826-27. He died October 6, 1804. His family consisted of Kev. George 
W.j Charles, Elizabeth B. (who married Alvin C. Priest), Lincoln, Mehit- 
able C. (who married Richard Sargent), and Lydia (who married Judge 
Ozias Bowen). A sketch of George W. appears in the church history of 
the town of Marion. 

Capt. George Beckley, deceased, was born in Dauphin County, Penn., 
November 29, 1804, about se^en miles east of Harrisburg. In 1812. his 
father. John Beckley. removed to Northumberland County, Penn., where 
he suffered severely fro-m the financial troubles of 1S17 to 1820, and thence, 
in 1821, he moved to what is now Marion County, about one mile northwest 
of where Caledonia now is, where he bought eighty acres of land. In 
1835, r he emigrated with all his large family, except George, to Cass Coun- 
ty, Ind. The latter married Eliza, daughter <^f Thomas H. Miller, and 
raised a family of three sons and one daughter, residing on the old home- 
stead the remainder of his long life. As a scholar. Mr. Beckley was self- 
taught, but he spent over fifty years of his life as a school teacher. He was 
also County Commissioner and Surveyor. Was probably the best posted 
man in the county on pioneer reminiscences, many of which he published in 
the Caledonia Argus in 1S75. About 1847-48, he was elected Captain 
of a militia company, whence his title. From 1849 to 1852, he was in Cali- 
fornia, prospecting for the precious metal; in 1854, he was in California 
again, and afterward traveled through Centi-al and South America, chiefly 
bent on prospecting and mining speculations. After his return, he once 
more left for the great AY est, and reached Pike's Peak, where he erected a 
quartz crushing or similar apparatus, which was exchanged for a large 
tract of land in Indiana. This was considered one of his most fortunate 
speculations. He was accidentally killed in May, 1878, by a locomotive 
running over him, and deeply did the community mourn his loss. 

George H. Busby, more widely known as " Maj. Busby," a title gained 
from services with the militia during the war of 1812, was born in North- 
umberland County, Penn. He was of Irish descent, his father having em- 
igrated from Ireland toward the close of the century previous. The family 
were residents of Fairfield County for many years, and there numerous 
descendants still reside. Maj. Busby sought to improve his fortunes by 
becoming a pioneer of the then new district of Marion County, Ohio, in 
1822. He was a citizen, therefore, of Marion County at its organization, 
and of Marion Village when by its selection as county seat, the then mead- 
ows and forests, almost unbroken in that locality, were staked as a town. 
Maj. Busby engaged actively in trade, and by his energy and push laid the 
foundation of a handsome fortune, that was far more speedily destroyed by 
the unfortunate tendency that characterized our fathers of "going bail." 

The character of Maj. Busby was strongly marked by traits that se- 
cured to him all through life the confidence and esteem of his fellowmen 
to a marked degree. The Delaware and Wyandot Indians, from the poor- 
est brave to the head chief, were his fast friends, and their trading confi- 
dence in the Major was strong. Maj. Busby was the first Recorder of Mar- 
ion County, and the record he made, Vol. I, fell into decay during his life 
and was transcribed by his grandson, George Busby Christian, fifty years 
after. Maj. Busby was made the recipient of many tokens of esteem. He 
held the official positions of Recorder. Clerk, Clerk of the Supreme Court. 
Judge of the Probate Court, and in 1S54, after a memorable struggle, was 
nominated as Representative to Congress, to which body he was chosen. 
At this writing. 1883, Maj. Busby stands alone, as the only citizen of 


Marion County who has sat in the halls of Congress, and during a period of 
sixty years. All positions of trust were to him sacred, and no stain, no spot 
or blemish has ever, in the faintest degree, marred his fair fame. He 
sought to be an honest man, and on his tomb the simple epitaph, " God's 
noblest work, an honest man," tells with truthful eloquence the story of his 
life. He aided greatly to make the place of his home the pleasant village 
that it is, and his brick residence near the public square was for many years 
the seat of a generous hospitality, as well as a center of domestic happiness. 

He was twice married, his first wife being Elizabeth Welch, his second 
Eliza Kennedy. Hannah, wife of William L. Kendrick, and after widow- 
hood, wife of Rev. James M. Heller; and Paulina, wife of Dr. J. M. 
Christian, were children of his first union. The children of his second 
marriage were Eliza Jane, wife of T. P. Wallace; Clarinda. wife of Dr. I. 
S. Sweeney; Lucretia, wife of Henry B. Durfee; Susan, wife of S. E. 
De Wolfe; and Evaline, who died in infancy. Of this large family, Paulina 
and Susan have been called away. Maj. Busby died in 1869; he rests in 
Marion Cemetery, amid the scenes of his active, long and useful life, his 
memory revered by a large and numerous body of descendants, and a still 
larger number of warm friends. 

Col. Hezekiah Gorton, first Auditor of Marion County, 1824 to 1832, 
was born in Montgomery County, N. Y., December 2, 1793. In 1818, he 
located in Franklinton, across the river from Columbus, Ohio. In 1821, he 
came to Big Island, this county, where some thought at the time that the 
county seat would be located. In 1824, he was appointed County Auditor, 
soon after which he removed his residence to Marion. In 1836, he was 
elected to the State Senate, where he served his constituents for two years 
with ability and credit. In 1874, he went to Colorado, to live with his 
youngest daughter, Mrs. J. J. Boyd, returning in 1875 to remain nearly 
two years among his friends in Marion. He went again to Colorado in the 
latter part of the year 1876, remained there until his death, which oc- 
curred at Loveland, June 2, 1882, when he was eighty-eight and one-haif 
years of age. 

Col. Gorton was one of the first grain and wool buyers in Marion Coun- 
ty, and as a business man was earnest and enterprising. When the firm of 
which he was a member became insolvent (unexpectedly to him), he turned 
over all his property to the creditois, leaving himself homeless. The 
Colonel was a Free-Will Baptist all his adult life, and died a Deacon in that 
church. His life as a citizen was an exemplary one. 

In June, 1816, he married Miss A. Capron, who died in Marion some 
years since. At his death he left four daughters and two sons. 

Hon. William Brown, Representative in the Legislature in 1831-32 
and County Surveyor 1843 to 1846, was said to be the best Surveyor the 
County of Marion ever had. He was a man of great energy, marked char- 
acteristics, strict integrity, outspoken and plain. In his years he kept 
even pace with the present century, having been born in 1800, in Provi- 
dence. R.I. His father, Commodore Brown, left for the high seas when 
he (William) was quite young, and the latter went around from place to 
place as a chore boy until 1812, when he went aboard a man of war and 
acted as a powder carrier for the gunners in the war with Great Britain, 
participating in several engagements. He afterward returned to Provi- 
dence and learned the shoe-maker's trade, being bound by indenture to his 
uncle. He had no schooling, and, although he afterward developed 
into so great a mathematician, at the age of eighteen he could not even 


perform a simple example in addition. Here in this genius was a striking 
example of an unpolished diamond. 

At this time young William began to exhibit that sternness of character 
•which proved to be the foundation of his future success. He worked out- 
side of regular business hours for a little money, with which to buy books, 
and then devoted his evenings and spare moments to study, mathematics 
becoming his favorite. In these he was assisted by a Catholic priest, who 
took considerable interest in bim. 

We digress here to relate an interesting little incident: While our in- 
dustrious young hero was working away at the shoe-maker's bench, some of 
the idle boys of the neighborhood were disposed to play mischievous little 
tricks upon him. One night between 10 and 11 o'clock, one of these 
gamins blacked himself up, and, going to the window of William's shop, 
pressed his face up against the glass and held it in that ghostly position 
until he attracted the young shoe-maker's attention. The latter struck the 
hateful image so suddenly with his hammer that he wounded him severely, 
scarring him for life. 

At the age of twenty-one, Mr. Brown went up into Sussex County and 
taught school, and there married Miss Margaret Moore. Next, he, with five 
or six other families, immigrated West, settling at the Wyandot Mission, a 
few miles north of Marion. Being religious and having studied theology 
some, Mr. B. was stationed as a missionary teacher for the Indians at this 
point. Sundays he preached here and at other points in the vicinity. 
Thpn for a time he was Professor of Mathematics in a university, and 
studied surveying and civil engineering. A canal being proposed from 
Marion to Wyandot, Mr. Brown undertook the survey of the level. Hav- 
ing no factory-made instruments, he made a level roughly out of a piece of 
wood, with vials affixed, partly filled with water, and the other necessary 
fixtures. Then, with volunteer aid, as rodsmen. etc., he proceeded with 
his task. About midway between Wyandot and Marion, he encountered a 
squad of equipped surveyors at work on the route for the Chicago. Cincin- 
nati, Columbus & Indianapolis Railroad, who laughed with contempt at his 
rude appliances and " foolish" undertaking; but, on a challenge for a test, in 
a survey of some miles, Mr. Brown came out within six inches of the point 
made by the great " scientific " party. Mr. Brown was soon afterward em- 
ployed "as. railroad surveyor at |2;500 and $3,500 a year, the latter salary 
on the Mad River route, now the Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western. 
Many were the interesting experiences of Mr. Brown with the Indians, and 
as surveyor, etc., as his having been once captured by tbe Seneca Indians 
and robbed, his having to sleep in a hollow tree, etc., overnight, but space 
forbids their enumeration here. 

Mr. Brown's residence in Marion was from about 1830 to a short time be- 
fore the war of the rebellion, and his official career here has already been re- 
ferred to. He moved from Marion to Springfield, where he was County 
Surveyor from 1868 to 1872, City Surveyor, City Marshal three terms, etc., 
and spent the remainder of his days. He died in 1877, after having passed two 
years in apparent unconsciousness from a stroke of cerebral paralysis. 
Having been a " high " Mason, he was buried under Masonic honors, at- 
tended by a throng of mourning citizens. His first wife died comparatively 
young and was buried in Wyandot. For his second wife he married a 
daughter of Milton Pixley, of Marion, who also is now dead. Mr. Brown 
at one time had considerable property, but by taking a Government con- 
tract for surveying in Kansas he lost all. He used to remark in his latter 


days that if he could only recover enough to pay his debts he would be sat- 
isfied. His children are Minerva, who married Mr. Rundle and died in 
Marion, of cholera, in 1854. She was a poetess of considerable merit; 
Bellona, now Mrs. James Havens, of La Fayette, Ind., also a poetess, of 
whom further mention is made in another chapter; John D., who was liv- 
ing in New York City two years ago; and George W., a resident of Spring- 
field, engaged in a large agricultural establishment. 

Richard Wilson was born in Watsontown, Northumberland County, 
Penn., November 14, 1804. He came to Marion in the fall of 1828, and 
for some time worked at his trade of chair-maker, and part of the time 
clerked in a store. For a short time he was a resident of Big Island, but 
except that interval he was a resident of Marion from his first arrival here 
until his death. He was Treasurer of the county from 1833 to 1851, Rep- 
resentative to the Legislature in 1858 and 1859, County Auditor from 
1866 to 1871, Assessor of Marion Township a number of terms, etc., and 
in every public capacity he gave entire satisfaction. He was of a courteous 
and gentlemanly disposition; he was also liberal, and would have done 
much more than he did had he not lost his money in the Atlantic & Great 
Western Railroad. He built the track from Galion to Bellefontaine. He 
also paid taxes for many poor men in the county while he was Treasurer; 
probably no man was sold out for taxes while Mr. Wilson was Treasurer. 

Mr. Wilson married Miss Sophronia Parrish, and of their children two 
daughters are now living, in Marion, one a wife of F. R. Saiter; one 
daughter in Wyandot County; one son was killed in the army; another son 
— Byron — has been in the United States Navy ever since he was twelve 
years old; and Cass, a prominent Freemason, resides in Marion. 

Mr. Wilson died February 11, 1882, about seventy-seven and one-quar- 
ter years of age, and was buried according to his request, under the charge 
of the " Blue Lodge," escorted by the Knights Templar; he was a Sir 
Knight. The funeral was very largely attended. 

Josiah Snell Copeland, deceased, was born in 1793, a son of Elijah and 
Irene (Howard) Copeland, of Massachusetts and of Puritan descant. One 
of their ancestors, John Alden. came to America in the Mayflower. Mr. 
Copeland was married in 1818, to Catharine L. Guild, and in 1826 came 
to Zanesville, Ohio, and resided there till he came to Marion in 1844. 
Here he purchased 320 acres, all of which is now included in Baliantine's 
Addition to Marion; it was then called " Copeland's Woods." In these 
woods was held the first county fair of Marion County, originated by him. 
He represented Marion and Union Counties in the State Legislature in 
1848 and 1850, as a Whig; was a Republican after the organization of 
that party. He was an active man in political affairs, being frequently a 
delegate to the State Conventions; was Internal Revenue Assessor, 1865 
to 1870; in Julv of the latter vear he died. His wife died in March, 

Of their eight children, th^se six are living: Guild, Earl P., Howard, 
Catharine L. (wife of H. C. Godman), Elijah and Arthur C. 

Cyrus B. Mann, deceased, came to Marion in 1828, from Delaware 
County, where he had located with his parents in 1814, being formerly 
from Chenango County, N. Y. , where he was born in 1804. He was Sher- 
iff of Marion County from 1833 to 1837, and afterward he kept the Ameri- 
can House, where the Kerr House now stands, for about eighteen or nine- 
teen years, then the United States House, which was burned down, the 



Central House on Main street, near the railroad, until his death, which took 
place February 20, 1881. and he was buried in the Marion Cemetery. 

Mr. Mann 'married Martha Musser, of Delaware County, this State, 
and they had four sons and five daughters, as follows: Caznau Gideon, 
now in Crestline: William Howard, who died in the army during the last 
war: George T., now in the car works at Terre Haute, Ind.; Charles Henry, 
now in Portland Ind. : Henrietta, in Marion; Anne, who married Mr. 
Braman and lives in Owatonna. Minn. ; Isabel, at home in Marion; Eve- 
line, now the wife of Mr. Biggerstalf, also in Marion; and Clara, at home. 

William Bain, elected Sheriff in 1825, was a partner of the firm of O. 
& S. Crosley & Co., of Columbus, who had established a branch store in 
Marion, in charge of Elisha Crosby. A few days after he was elected he 
fell dead in the store, apparently from heart disease. He was born in Dun- 
dee, Scotland, and immigrated to this country in 1812, settling in Bhode 
Island, where he engaged in the manufacture of hemp bagging; then the 
same business in Paris, Ky., then near Columbus, Ohio, in the same busi- 
ness again, where he sold out for an interest in the Crosby store at Marion. 
He was a Presbyterian, Whig and Abolitionist. He was rather a peculiar 
man, gruff in his manners, often to his best friends, yet liberal, sometimes 
to excess. His likes and dislikes were very strong, and subject to intensity 
by his varying humor. 





AHISTOKY of Marion County without a record of the Bench and Bar 
would be like the play of Hamlet with Hamlet omitted from the cast. 
The part played by law in the organization of human society is that of an ever- 
acting force, a force essential to its very existence, and upon which human 
happiness and well-being are unceasingly dependent. Without law man- 
kind would long ere this have perished, as no organization is possible with- 
out it. Upon tne wise interpretation as well as the judicious framing of 
the laws, the well-being of a community is established as upon a rock-like 
foundation, whence it naturally flows as a consequence that the history of 
those upon whom this duty devolves must form no unimportant portion of 
a work of this character. The whole superstructure of law is founded upon 
a few principles of natural justice, and, therefore, at its base, in its 
essential principles, " in its inmost bosom's core," law is the exponent of 
right, and truth and justice; and, notwithstanding the efforts of the 
cunning and unscrupulous, it will still be found that on the whole law is 
on the side of right, and the popular prejudice against lawyers has its 
basis chiefly in ignorance of the true nature of a lawyer's functions, which 
are, to see that every one has the benefit of the privileges accorded him by 
the laws of the land, and that the forms of law are rigidly preserved, as 
upon their strict enforcement of these the stability of society depends. 

As the business of the lawyer is to deal with the daily affairs of men, 
and as these are becoming more and more complex and artificial, it is clear 
that where so many complex interests and counter -interests are to be pro- 
tected and adjusted, to the Judge and the advocate are presented problems 
that require the deepest research and the most trained intellects. As 
change follows change in modern society, without intermission, it is also 
evident that the laws and institutions of the past will not answer the re- 
quirements of the present. The blue laws of Connecticut would burst from 
the limbs of the modern Samson like the cords from the hero of old, and 
the gigantic Afrites that Aladdin saw from bis lamp could not be re- 
turned to their narrow prison house. The discoveries in the arts and sci- 
ences, the invention of new labor-saving contrivances, the enlargement of 
industrial pursuits, the unprecedented development of commerce, the 
founding of new communities into cities and States, require that the science 
of law sbould advance pari passu, in order to subserve the wants and pro- 
vide for the necessities of these new conditions. The true lawyer is the 
man of the hour, and upon his ability and integrity society is largely de- 
pendent. One of the profession has wisely said: 

" In the American State the great and good lawyer must always be 
prominent, for he is one of the forces which move and control society. 
Public confidence has generally been reposed in the legal profession. It 
has ever been the defender of popular rights, the champion of freedom 


regulated by law, the firm support of good government. In times of dan- 
ger it has stood like a rock and beaten the mad passions of the hour and 
firmly resisted tumult and faction. No political preferment, no mere place 
can add to the power or increase the honor which belongs to the pure and 
educated lawyer. The fame of Mansfield, and Marshall and Story can 
never die. ' Time's iron feet can print no ruin trace' upon their character. 
Their learning and luminous expositions of our jurisprudence will always 
light our pathway. * * * Lord Bacon has said, ' Every man is a 
debtor to his profession:' and assuredly this is true of every lawyer. If 
worthy, it gives him an honorable character and high position. The lawyer 
should prize and honor his profession. He should value its past renown 
and cherish the memory of great men, whose gigantic shadows walk by us 
still. He should love it for the intrinsic worth and innate glory of the 
fundamental truths which adorn it. " 

The paucity of material at the service of the historian as to those who 
have exerted so important an influence upon the county's welfare and 
progress, is indeed a matter of surprise. We, however, present our read- 
ers with that which the corroding hand of time has left untouched. The 
greater portion of the story might, however, be unlocked to him who would 
patiently study the strata of society, as the geologist studies the stony 
records of the earth's past history. 

Before entering upon the specific portion of our story, we can truth- 
fully premise that the Bench and Bar of Marion County has ever been dis- 
tinguished, and has ever stood prominently forward in comparison with the 
profession in the sister counties of the grand commonwealth of Ohio. Mar- 
ion has had names connected with her bar which have adorned the pages 
of our country's history, names of soldiers who did not shrink from taking 
up the sword in defense of their country; names that have adorned the 
halls of legislation of the State; names that have adorned men not merely 
of learning and culture, superadded to native ability, but which also have 
united with these gifts and graces the proud title of honest men, the 
noblest work of God. 


The earliest judicial government for the territory now constituting 
Ohio was vested in a general court composed of three Judges, provided by 
the ordinance of 1787. The first Judges were Samuel Holden Parsons, 
James Mitchell Varnum and John Cleves Symmes, the latter being ap- 
pointed in place of John Armstrong, who declined to serve. They were to 
adopt only such portions of the laws of the original States as were deemed 
suitable to the condition and wants of the people, and were not empowered 
to enact new laws. In the autumn of 1787, the Governor and Judges Var- 
num and Parsons met at Marietta and began the duty of legislating for 
the Territory, continuing in session until December. Contrary to the pro- 
visions of the ordinance, they enacted a number of laws on different sub- 
jects and submitted them to Congress, as required That body, however, 
did not approve them from their manifest illegality under the terms of the 
ordinance After the assembling of Congress in 1789, under the new con- 
stitution, the appointments made under the articles of confederation being 
deemed to have expired, the following new Judges were appointed for the 
Northwest Territory: Samuel Holden Parsons, John Cleves Symmes and 
William Barton. The latter declined to serve and George Turner was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy. Judge Parsons soon afterward died, and in 
March, 1790, Rufus Putnam was appointed to fill the vacancy caused by his 


death. Putnam resigned in 1796, to enable him to accept the office of Sur- 
veyor General, and Joseph Gilman, of Point Harmar, was chosen to till the 
vacancy. Judge Turner left the Territory in the spring of 1796. and dur- 
ing his absence resigned his seat on the bench, which was filled by the ap- 
pointment of Return Jonathan Meigs, in February, 1798. The Judges 
then in commission continued to hold their 'seats until the adoption of a 
State Constitution. 

Between 1790 and 1795, numerous acts were passed which did not re- 
ceive the sanction of Congress, as they were enacted rather than adopted, 
and finally in the summer of 1795, at a legislative session held at Cincin- 
nati . a code of laws was adopted from the statutes of the original States, 
which superseded the chief part of those previously enacted, that had 
remained in force in the Territory, regardless of their doubtful constitu- 
tionality. This code of laws as adopted was printed at Cincinnati in 
1795, by William Maxwell, and became known aa the Maxwell Code; that 
was the first job of printing executed in the Northwestern Territory. But 
very little change was made therefrom until the first session of the General 
Assembly, held under the secoud grade of government, September 16, 1799. 

" The ordinance and the compact. " says Judge Burnet, " which was the 
constitution of the Territory, contained but little specific legislation. It 
prescribed the rule of descents; the mode of transferring real estate, by 
deed of lease and release, and of devising or bequeathing it by will. It 
regulated the right of dower and authorized the transfer of personal prop- 
erty by delivery; saving always to the French and Canadian inhabitants, 
and other settlers who had before professed themselves citizens of Virginia, 
their laws and customs then in force among them, relative to the descent 
and conveyance of property. In addition to these provisions, the compact 
ordained that no person demeaning himself in a peaceable manner should 
be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious opinions. It 
also secured to the inhabitants forever the benefits of the writ, of habeas 
corpus, of trial by jury, of a proportionate representation of the people in 
the Legislature, and of judicial proceedings, according to the course of the 
Common Law." 

The courts of Common Law in the Territory assumed chancery powers 
as a necessity, as there was no tribunal in said Territory vested with such 
powers. Several necessary laws were passed at the first session of the Ter- 
ritorial Legislature at Cincinnati, but matters regarding courts and their 
powers were not satisfactorily settled until the adoption of the first State 
Constitution in 1802. The General Court provided for by the ordinance of 
1787 consisted, as before stated, of three Judges, " appointed by the Pres- 
ident with the advice and consent o f ' the Senate, each of whom received a 
salary of $800 from the Treasury of the United states, It was the highest 
judicial tribunal in the Territory, and was vested with original and appel- 
late jurisdiction in all civil and criminal cases, and of capital cases; and 
on questions of divorce and alimony its jurisdiction was exclusive. It was, 
however, a common law court, merely without chancery powers, and it was 
the court of dernier ressort. It had power to revise and reverse the de- 
cisions of all other tribunals in the Territory, yet its own proceedings 
could not be reversed or set aside, even by the Supreme Court of the 
United States. It was held at Cincinnati in March, at Marietta in October, 
at Detroit and in the western counties at such time in each year as the 
Judges saw proper to designate. " 


The travels of the Judges and members of the bar in those early years, 
to and from the places of holding courts— Cincinnati, Marietta and Detroit 
— were attended with difficulties of the most serious nature. The distances 
were always great, settlements were scarce and the way was rough. Their 
journeys were made on horseback, and it was exceedingly necessary that 
the horses they rode should be good swimmers, for it was in the days be- 
fore bridges had been thought of, and only the best fording places along 
the numerous streams were sought out by the tired travelers. Judge Bur- 
net, who knew from experience all the trials of the times, wrote of thetn as 
follows : 

" The journeys of the court and bar to those remote places through a 
country in its primitive state, were unavoidably attended with fatigue and 
exposure. They generally traveled with five or six in company, and with 
a pack-horse to transport such necessaries as their own horses could not 
conveniently carry, because no dependence could be placed on obtaining 
supplies on the route; although they frequently passed through Indian 
camps and villages, it was not safe to rely on them for assistance. Oc- 
casionally small quantities of corn could be purchased for horse feed, but 
oven that relief was precarious and not to be relied on. In consequence of 
the unimproved condition of the country, the routes followed by travelers 
were neessarily circuitous and their progress slow. In passing from one 
county seat to another, they were generally from six to eight and sometimes 
ten days in the wilderness, and, at all seasons of the year, were compelled 
to swim every water-course in their way which was too deep to be forded; 
the country being wholly destitute of bridges and ferries, travelers had, 
therefore, to rely on their horses as the only substitute for those conven- 
iences. That fact made it common, when purchasing a horse, to ask if he 
were a good swimmer, which was considered one of the most valuable qual- 
ities of a saddle horse. " 

Lynch law was liable to be adopted by the men of the border settlements, 
and one or two instances of its execution in the form of public whippings, 
are known to have occurred: but in August, 1788, a law was published in 
Marietta, Pstablishing a " General Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace, 
and County Courts of Common Pleas," and these superseded the Lynch 
code before it had been in operation a year. Mr. McMillan was appointed 
the Presiding Judge of those courts in the county of Hamilton. 

The first Constitution of the State of Ohio, adopted November 29, 1802, 
contained in its third article, the following provisions for the judicial gov- 
ernment of the State: 

Section 1. The judicial power of this State, both as to matters of law 
and equity, shall be vested in a Supreme Court, in Courts of Common 
Pleas for each county, in Justices of the Peace, and in such other courts 
as the Legislature may from time to time establish. 

Sec. 2. The Supreme Court shall consist of three Judges, any two of 
whom shall be a quorum. They shall have original and appellate jurisdic- 
tion, both in common law and chancery, in such cases as shall be directed 
bylaw; Provided, That nothing herein contained shall prevent the Gen- 
eral Assembly from adding another Judge to the Supreme Court after the 
term of five years, in which case the Judges may divide the State into two cir- 
cuits, within which any two of the Judges may hold a court. 

Sec 3. The several Courts of Common Pleas shall consist of a Presi- 
dent and Associate Judges. The State shall be divided, by law, into three 
circuits; there shall be appointed in each circuit a President of the Courts, 

Judge 0. Bowen 


who, during his continuance in office shall reside therein. There shall be 
appointed in each county not more than three nor less than two Associate 
Judges, who, during tbeir continuance in office, shall reside therein. The 
President and Associate Judges in their respective counties, any three of 
whom shall be a quorum, shall compose the Court of Common Pleas, which 
court shall have common law and chancery jurisdiction in all such cases as 
shall be directed by law; Provided, That nothing herein contained shall 
be construed to prevent the Legislature from increasing the number of cir- 
cuits and Presidents after the term of five years. 

Sec. 4. The Judges of the Supreme Court and Courts of Common 
Pleas shall have complete criminal jurisdiction, in such cases and in such 
manner as may be pointed out by law. 

Sec 5. The Court of Common Pleas in each county shall have juris- 
diction of all probate and testamentary matters, granting administration, 
the appointment of guardians and such other cases as shall be prescribed 
by law. 

Sec C. The Judges of the Court of Common Pleas shall, within their 
respective counties, have the same powers with the Judges of the Supreme 
Court, to issue writs of certiorari to the Justices of the Peace, and to cause 
their proceedings to be brought before them, and the like right and justice 
to be done. 

Sec 7. The Judges of the Supreme Court shall, by virtue of their 
offices, be conservators of the peace throughout the State. The Presidents 
of the Courts of Common Pleas shall, by virtue of their offices, be conser- 
vators of the peace in their respective circuits; and the Judges of the Court 
of Common Pleas shall, by virtue of their offices, be conservators of the 
peace in their respective counties. 

Sec 8. The Judges of the Supreme Courts, the Presidents and the 
Associate Judges of the Courts of Common Pleas,, shall be appointed by a 
joint ballot of both Houses of the General Assembly, and shall hold their 
offices for the term of seven years, if so long they behave well. The Judges 
of the Supreme Court and the Presidents of the Courts of Common Pleas 
shall, at stated times, receive for their services an adequate compensation, 
to be fixed by law, which shall not be diminished during their continuance 
in office; but they shall receive no fees or perquisites of office, nor hold 
any other office of profit or trust under the authority of this State or the 
United States. 

Sec 9. Each court shall appoint its own Clerk for the term of seven 
years; but no person shall be appointed Clerk, except pro tempore, who 
shall not produce to the court appointing him a certificate from the major- 
ity of the Judges of the Supreme Court that they judge him to be well 
qualified to execute the duties of the office of clerk to any court of the same 
dignity with that for which he offers himself. They shall be removable for 
breach of good behavior, at any time, by the Judges of the respective 

Sec 10. The Supreme Court shall be held once a year in each county, 
and the Courts of Common Pleas shall be holden in each county at such 
times and places as shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec 11. A competent number of Justices of the Peace shall be elected 
by the qualified electors in each township in the several counties, and shall 
continue in office three years, whose powers and duties shall, from time to 
time, be regulated and defined by law. 

Sec 12. The style of all processes shall be " The State of Ohio; " all 



prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the 
State of Ohio, and all indictments shall conclude against the peace and 
dignity of the same. 

The new Constitution of Ohio, adopted June 17, 1851, made considera- 
ble changes in the courts, and Article 4, providing for judicial matters in 
the State, is as follows: 

Sec. 1. The judicial power of the State shall be vested in a Supreme 
Court, in District Courts, Courts of Common Pleas, Courts of Probate. 
Justices of the Peace, and in such other courts, inferior to the Supreme 
Court, as the General Assembly may from time to time establish. 

Sec 2. The Supreme Court shall consist of five Judges, a majority of 
whom shall bw necessary to form a quorum or pronounce a decision. It 
shall have original jurisdiction in quo warranto, mandamus, habeas corpus 
and procedendo, and such appellate jurisdiction as may be provided by 
law. It shall hold at least one term in each year at the seat of govern- 
ment, and such other terms at the seat of government or elsewhere as may 
be provided by law. The Judges of the Supreme Court shall be elected 
by the electors of the State at large. 

Sec. 3. The State shall be divided into nine Common Pleas Districts, 
of which the county of Hamilton shall constitute one, of compact territory 
and bounded by county lines; and each of said districts, consisting of three 
or more counties, shall be subdivided into three parts of compact territory, 
bounded by county lines, and as nearly equal in population as practicable, 
in each of which one Judge of Common Pleas for said district, and resid- 
ing therein, shall be elected by the electors of said subdivision. Courts of 
Common Pleas shall be held by one or more of these Judges in every county 
in the district as often as may be provided by law; and more than one 
court or sitting thereof may be held at the same time in each district. 

Sec 4. The jurisdiction of the Courts of Common Pleas, and of the 
Judges thereof, shall be fixed by law. 

Sec 5. District Courts shall be composed of the Judges of the Courts of 
Common Pleas of the respective districts, and one of the Judges of the 
Supreme Court, any three of whom shall be a quorum, and shall be held in each 
county therein at least once in each year; but if it shall be found inexpedi- 
ent to hold such court annually in each county of any district, the General 
Assembly may, for such district, provide that said court shall be holden 
at three annual sessions therein, in not less than three places; Provided, 
That the General Assembly may, by law, authorize the Judges of each dis- 
trict to fix the times of holding the courts therein. 

Sec 6. The District Court shall have like original jurisdiction with 
the Supreme Court, and such appellate jurisdiction as may be provided by 

Sec 7. There shall be established in each county a Probate Court, 
which shall be a court of record, open at all times, and holden by one 
Judge, elected by the voters of the county, who shall hold his office for the 
term of three years, and shall receive such compensation, payable out of 
the county treasury, or by fees, or both, as shall be provided by law. 

Sec 8. The Probate Court shall have jurisdiction in probate and tes- 
tamentary matters, the appointment of administrators and guardians, the 
settlement of the accounts of executors, administrators and guardians, and 
such jurisdiction in habeas corpus, the issuing of marriage licenses, and for 
the sale of land by executors, administrators and guardians, and such other 
jurisdiction in any county or counties as may be provided by law. 


Sec. 9. A competent number of Justices of the Peace shall be elected 
by the electors in each township in the several counties. Tbeir term of 
office shall be three years, and their powers and duties shall be regulated 
by law. 

Sec 10. All Judges other than those provided for in the constitution, 
shall be elected by the electors of the judicial district for which they mav 
be created, but not for a longer term of office than live years. 

Sec 11. The Judges of the Supreme Court shall, immediately after 
the first election under this constitution, be classified by lot, so that one 
shall hold for the term of one year, one for two years, one for three years, 
one for four years and one for five years; and at all subsequent elections, 
the term of each of said Judges shall be for five years. 

Sec 12. The Judges of the Courts of Common Pleas shall, while in 
office, reside in the district for which they are elected; and their term of 
office shall be for five years. 

Sec 13. In case the office of any Judge shall become vacant, before 
the expiration of the regular term for which he was elected, the vacancy 
shall be filled by appointment by the Governor, until a successor is 
elected and qualified; and such successor shall be elected for the unexpired 
term at the first annual election that occurs more than thirty days after 
the vacancy shall have happened. 

Sec 14 The Judges of the Supreme Court and of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas shall, at stated times, receive for their services such compensa- 
tion as may be provided by law, which shall not be diminished or increased 
during their term of office; but they shall receive no fees or perquisites, 
nor hold any other office of profit or trust under the authority of this State 
or the United States. All votes for either of them, for any elective office, 
except a judicial office, under the authority of this State, given by the 
General Assembly, or the people, shall be void. 

Sec 15. The General Assembly may increase or diminish the number 
of the Judges of the Supreme Court, the number of the districts of the 
Court of Common Pleas, the number of Judges in any district, chano-e the 
districts or the subdivisions thereof, or establish other courts, whenever two- 
thirds of the members elected to each House shall concur therein; but no 
chaDge, addition or diminution shall vacate the office of any Judge. 

Sec 16. There shall be elected in each county, by the electoi-s there- 
of, one Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, who shall hold his office for 
the term of three years, and until his successor shall be elected and quali- 
fied. He shall, by virtue of his office, be clerk of all other courts of rec- 
ord held therein; but the General Assembly may provide by law for the 
election of a Clerk, with a like term of office, for each or any other of the 
courts of record, and may authorize the Judge of the Probate Court to per- 
form the duties of Clerk for his court, under such regulations as may be 
directed by law. Clerks of courts shall be removable for such cause and in 
such manner as shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec 17. Judges may be removed from office by concurrent resolution 
of both Houses of the General Assembly, if two-thirds of the members 
elected to each House concur therein; but no such removal shall bo made 
except upon complaint, the substance of which shall be entered upon the 
journal, nor until the party charged shall have had notice thereof and an 
opportunity to be heard. 

Sec. 18. The several Judges of the Supreme Court of the Common 
Pleas and of such other courts as may be created, shall, respectively, have 


and exercise such power and jurisdiction, at chambers or otherwise, as may 
be directed by law. 

Sec 19. The General Assembly may establish Courts of Conciliation, 
and prescribe their powers and duties; but such courts shall not render final 
judgment in any case, except upon submission by the parties, of the mat- 
ter in dispute, and their agreement to abide such judgment. 

Sec. 20. The style of all process shall be, " The State of Ohio: " all 
prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the 
State of Ohio, and all indictments shall conclude, " against the peace and 
dignity of the State of Ohio.'" 


The first session of this eourt, hold at Marion, was a special term, com- 
mencing May 7, 1824, by the Associate Judges, William Holmes, Jacob 
Idloman and David H. Beardsley, who appointed George H. Busby Clerk 
of the Court, pro tern.; but differing as to who should be appointed, each 
Judo-e having a candidate of his own, they agreed to consult the wishes of 
the people by taking the popular vote. Accordingly, the following entry 
was made upon their journal: " Ordered that the Clerk of the Court of 
Common Pleas of said county be elected at tho next October election, and 
that William M. Holmes, Gideon J. Messenger and George H Busby be 
considered as candidates for said office." At the election, the people chose 
Mr. Busby, and he was accordingly appointed for a term of seven years. 

Another special term of the court was held June 9, 1824, by the Asso- 
ciate Judges, at which session administration and apportioning Justices of 
the Peace for the different townships were the principal business. 

The hrst regular term of the Court of Common Pleas of Marion Coun- 
ty commenced September 23, 1824, Hon. Ebenezer Lane, President Judge, 
and the above mentioned Associate Judges. Benjamin Hillman was Sher- 
iff. The appointments of Busby for Clerk and of Pettibone for Prose- 
cuting Attorney were continued. The venire for the first grand jury was 
<j uashed on motion of the Prosecutor. The Sheriff summoned a Grand 
Jury as follows, the first in the county: Benjamin Salmon, Foreman; James 
Jenkins, Nathan Clark, William Wyatt, David Town, Samuel Jones, David 
Tipton, -John Green, Hugh O'Harra, Samuel Kniseley, Alvin Priest, Levi Ham- 
mond, Daniel MeMichael, William Caldwell and Isaac Darling. No mid- 
dle names are mentioned in the above list, although some of the men had 
two given names. At this term several licenses to keep tavern were issued, 
at $7 to $10. Enoch B. Merriman and Jam9s Bailie obtained license to 
keep store in Bucyrus for one year, at $15 each. J. H & William 
Holmes and George Will obtained license for the same fee to keep store in 
Marion one year. 

The first case on the docket of Marion County is " the State vs. Eber 
Baker." The following is the indictment and record of the case: 

Slate of Ohio, Marion County, Court of Common Pleas of the term of September, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-four. 

.Marion County, 88. The Grand Jurors of the State of Ohio, impaneled and 
sworn, to inquire of crimes and offences committed within the body of Marion County, 
in the name and by the authority of the State; of Ohio aforesaid, upon their oaths 
present, that Eber Baker, late of the county of Marion aforesaid, on the 15th day of 
September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-four, with 
force and arms at Center Township, in the county of M uion aforesaid, and within the 
jurisdiction of this court, did sell spirituous liquors by less quantity than one quart, to 
wit : One pint of whisky to one David A. Town, to be drunk at the place where sold, 


to wit, at the house of said Eber Baker, in said township, without being duly authorized, 
contrary to the form of statute in such case made and provided, and against the peace 
and dignity of the State of Ohio. 

M. D. Pettibone, Prosecuting Attorney. 
State op Ohio. ) 

vs. >- Indictment for selling Spirituous Liquors. 

Eber Baker. ) 

This day came the prosecutor in behalf of the State, and the defendant being 
arraigned pleaded guilty to the indictment. 

Whereupon, it is considered by the court that he pay a fine of one dollar, together 
with the costs of prosecution, taxed to dollars and cents. 

Samuel Bailie, at this term, was the first foreigner who filed his decla- 
ration of intention to become a citizen of the United States in this county. 
Samuel Holmes was appointed County Surveyor for five years. George H. 
Busby was appointed Recorder, pro tern. Court continued but one day. 

A special term was held November 27, 1824, by the Associate Judges, 
William Holrnes. Jacob Idleman and Benjamin Salmon. Special terms 
were also held December 7 and 13 following, and at the last date Mr. Busby 
was appointed Recorder for seven years, as before mentioned. Special 
terms were held several times during the ensuing winter and spring, to at- 
tend to habeas corjms and administration. 

The first civil cases appearing on the docket as disposed of were at the 
April term, 1825. The first entries are of the cases of John Luck vs. Sam- 
uel Holmes and George A. Gaylord vs. William Caldwell, both of which were 
dismissed. The first civil case tried before a jury was that of Westell 
Ridgeley vs. Isaac Dorland, for slander. The plaintiff claimed $500, and 
got $75. May for plaintiff and Harkness for defendant. The following 
persons composed this first petit jury in Marion County: William Car- 
penter, George Fickle, George McElvain, Zebediah Hide, Alexander Frazer, 
George Poe, Amos Clark, James Scott, John Maxfield, Reuben Smith, 
Peter Beabout and George Luke. 

Two petit larceny cases were tried at this term, both defendants found 
guilty and sentenced to imprisonment in the county jail, one for seven days 
and the other for twenty days. 

Slander cases were somewhat numerous in these early times, consider- 
ing the small number of cases on the docket; but the court and jury had a 
habit then of going right through a case and it was soon ended. 

The court allowed Edson Harkness $5 in each of the larceny cases above 
mentioned, for defending, and the Clerk and Sheriff were allowed the mu- 
nificent sum of $35 each as an annual salary for the term of seven years. 
At this term, the grand jury presented seven indictments- — two for selling 
spirituous liquors and five for larceny. 

Two Wyandot Indians were brought before William Holmes at a special 
term September 1, 1825, on some complaint, but were discharged. Their 
peculiar names were Half John Frost, alias Dannubee,and General Washing- 
ton, alias Nundundee. 

This year, 1825, the Prosecuting Attorney, Milo D. Pettibone, was al- 
lowed a salax-y of $40 a year, to be paid him " in just proportions by the 
County Treasurer, at the close of each term of court/' At the May term in 
1826, Charles L. Boalt was appointed Prosecuting Attorney of Marion 
County, and Alson Norton was Associate Judge in place of Enoch B. Mer- 
riman. The court allowed Boalt, Prosecuting Attorney, the sum of $80 
for prosecuting at the two terms of court held in the county, one-half at 
the end of each term. 

In that early day criminal cases were proportionally as numerous as at 


the present period of the county's history. In 1825, there was one in- 
dictment for forgery, one for perjury and one for horse-stealing; but neither 
of these eases was over tried. Habeas corpus cases were common at special 
terms of the court, and generally the prisoners were set free. 

The first minister's name on the records as of one authorized to solem- 
nize marriages is that of Rev. Nehemiah Story, of the Regular Baptist 
Church, November 13, 1826. 

The first newspaper named in the records is the Delaware Patron, in 
May, 1826. 

At the November term, 182(3, the salary of the Sheriff was fixed at $50 
a year, payable one half at each term of the court. The Clerk of the court 
was also allowed a salary of $50 a year payable likewise. James K. Corey 
was allowed $15 for services as special prosecutor at this term. At the 
May term, 1827, Joseph Swan was appointed Prosecuting Attorney of Mar- 
ion County, aud at the November term following, he was allowed $80 a 
year. At the end of the third day's proceedings of this term, in the jour- 
nal entries, occur the words, " Judge Lane left the bench," in his own 

The attorneys named on the docket during the first three years were J. 
M. May, E. Harkness, O. Parrish, M. D. Pettibone. Charles L. Boalt, P. 
B. Wilcox, S. Banta and Mr. Latimer. Most of these were non-residents. 
The name of Godman and Bowen first appear on the docket in the case of 
Thomas McNeal vs. Bowdish and Town, in May, 1829. They were attor- 
neys for Town. These gentlemen at once took a prominent position, as 
they had one side of almost every case, while C. L. Boalt had the other. 

In 1830, they did business separately, and in nearly every case Bowen 
and Godman were arrayed on opposite sides. 

Following are personal sketches of the Judges whose jurisdiction in- 
cluded Marion County: 

John Adair McDowell, the first President Judge of the Common Pleas 
District, which included the territory afterward made Marion County, was 
the son of Samuel and Ann (Irvin) McDowell, and was born near Harrods- 
burg, Ky. , May 2(3, 1780. He studied law, and in the war of 1812 served 
with distinction on the staff of Gov. Shelby. November 9, 1809, he mar- 
ried Lucy Todd Starling, youngest daughter of Col. William Starling, and 
at the solicitation of his brother-in-law, Lucas Sullivant, removed with his 
wife to Franklinton, Franklin Co., Ohio, late in 1815 or early in 1816, and 
there became a prominent and successful lawyer. In 1819, he was ap- 
pointed by the court as Prosecuting Attorney for the county of Franklin. 
He was a member of the lower branch of the Legislature in 1818-19, and 
in 1820 was elected President Judge of his judicial district. He is remem- 
bered as a man of fine personal appearance, was possessed of great natural 
talent and was popular. He died September 20, 1823, leaving two chil- 
dren. The vacancy on the bench caused by his death was tilled by the ap- 
pointment by Gov. Morrow of Gustavus Swan, whose jurisdiction, how- 
ever, did not include Marion County. 

Ebenezer Lane, according to the records, held the first courts of Marion 
County up to 1829. He resided at Norwalk, and the lack of conveniences 
for travel then existing made it a long and tiresome journey for him to 
come to Marion. He was a gentleman and lawyer of high character and 
ability. His finely and closely written signature on the old court records 
gives evidence of modesty and of an even and unruffled nature. He was 
afterward elevated to the Supreme bench of the State, and while occupying 


that position be became noted for the brevity of his written opinions. They 
were o-iven in a few words, but explained his position admirably. After his 
term as Supreme Judge expired, he became noted as a railroad lawyer. He 
was in all respects a model man and an honor to his district and State. 

David Hio-gins was Common Pleas Judge from 1829 to 1837. He also 
lived at Norwalk. He was a fair lawyer and an honest and good Judge, 
but quick and nervous. He lost his leg by amputation, having badly 
broken it by being thrown from a buggy, as he was going down a hill near 
Delaware. He afterward went to Washington, D. C, where he became a 
Clerk in one of the departments, and finally died in that city. 

The Common Pleas records of Marion County are signed by David Hig- 
gins from 1829 to February 13, 1837, where the entry is made by the 
Clerk, " Records not complete after this date; " and no Judge's name ap- 
pears thenceforward for a number of years. 

Frederick Grimke, of Chillicothe, held this position. Judge Grimke 
was a tall, slim, pleasant looking man, and had a fine legal education. He 
was distinguished more for his excellent knowledge of the law than for his 
practical application of it, but was possessed of very good ability in the 
latter connection. He was subsequently elevated to the Supreme bench of 
the State. 

Hon. Ozias Bowen,* who passed from earth September 26, 1871, was one 
of the giants of the Marion bar. Born July 23, 1805, in Oneida County, 
N. Y., among the Catskill Mountains, not much is known of his early ca- 
reer, but sufficient has been preserved to establish that he was reared amid 
a community, outspoken, heroic, high-principled, and these early surround- 
ings gave a permanent basis for his moral character. When a youth of 
eighteen, he came West to Ashtabula County, Ohio, where he studied law 
and was admitted to the bar, and where he also published a weekly paper. 
In 1828, he came to Marion, and after teaching school and keeping store, 
he resumed the practice of the law, rising to the positions of Prosecuting 
Attorney and Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, which position he 
held with credit to himself and benefit to the community for fourteen years, 
his circuit extending at one time as far as Lake Erie. A seat on the bench 
of the Supreme Court of Ohio was also awarded to him. In whatever 
tended to advance the welfare of the people, Judge Bowen took a deep in- 
terest; education found him its warm advocate; all churches alike shared 
his bounty, although the Presbyterian community claimed him as its 
especial member; the cause of the slave found in Judge Bowen an ardent 
advocate, and his associations were ever with the Republican party. He 
was the friend and coadjutor of such men as Salmon P. Chase, Columbus 
Delano and the like. His fine residence in the southern part of the village 
of Marion attested that his labors had met with their due pecuniary reward. 
In physique, Judge Bowen was five feet and eleven inches in height, while 
his weight was 195 pounds, thus attesting that a vigorous body is ever the 
basis of a vigorous mind. 

Judge Bowen's profession and the practice of it made him a prominent 
and noticeable character, not only in the town and county where he lived, 
but througout the State, and to him, as a lawyer, more attention should be 
given in this biography than to any other phase of his character. 

He was a leading lawyer, eminent and successful, the peer of any with 
whom he came in contact professionally. He was not a fluent or eloquent 
speaker, and brought to his aid none of the graces or tricks of voice ur ac- 

*Thia biography of Judge Bowen was kindly contributed by .1. F. McNeal, Esq. 


tion of the trained elocutionist. As art advocate, he was reasonable, logi- 
cal, plain, fair, direct and powerful, and although he could not sway or 
control a court or jury by bursts of eloquence, yet he had immense influ- 
ence as a shrewd, argumentative reasoner. He was a good judge of men 
and character, and had what has always been the element or secret of suc- 
cess in every department of man's work — a vast amount of good, solid com- 
mon sense. 

In his practice, he was fair, bold, fearless and dignified, always com- 
manding and securing the attention and respect of the court. 

He was exceedingly careful in giving advice and counseling in litigation, 
always desiring to avoid and keep out of bad cases; but when he had deter- 
mined to go en he entered upon the work of the preparation and trial of 
his cases with the determination to succeed, and no client could ever 
charge him with neglect or want of zeal. His many years of practice and 
his long experience as a Judge made hicu exceedingly familiar with 
the law and especially rules of court and of practice. Yet even in his later 
years, he never went into court, in even the smallest of cases, without a 
brief, both of facts and of law. With good natural qualifications and long 
experience, he put no especial dependence in either, but did depend on 
the results of special preparation and labor in every case. His secret of 
success was indomitable energy and unremitting .labor. He kept a com- 
mon-place book, in which were noted the results of bis investigations, and 
always ready and at hand; he had a brief when any subject came before 
him a second time. Every trial in which he was engaged found him with 
full and especially prepared brief, and every one was tried with a view of 
taking it to a higher court. If he did not secure on tbe first trial what he 
thought he ought to have, and his cases will sbow that even where he was 
beaten below, he was most likely to be successful in the end. He was a 
bold, hard fighter, and like every strong, uncompromising character, made 
some enemies, but the profession will always recognize him as one of the 
strongest men at the bar in Northern Ohio, in his day. His thoroughness 
was remarkable and bis attention to details equally so. His students will 
always remember one direction which he gave as to the conduct of trials, 
viz., "never omit to make every point in your case, no matter how trifling 
or small it may seem to you, for although it may look trifling, yet it may 
be the decisivo point in the mind of the court or jury to which you are try- 
ing the case." This notice of Judge Bowen's professional character and 
career would not be complete if we failed to note one beautiful trait in that 
character, and that is his uniform kindness and courtesy to the young men 
of his profession. All who were so fortunate as to practice with him will 
remember this. No young man ever appealed to him for professional as- 
sistance in vain, when he was free and could give it. He gave the benefit 
of his experience and counsel willingly and joyfully, and always had a kind 
and eucouraging word to those who felt the embarrassment of inexperience. 
Tbe young lawyers who were about him remember him gratefully. To do 
the life and professional character of Judge Bowen justice we cannot, 
probably, better sum up the whole matter than by saying, " He was a great 

Benjamin F. Metcalf, the first Judge of Common Pleas for this district 
under the new constitution, lived the most of the time during his term of 
office at Lima, Allen Connty, although his home when elected was at Del- 
phos, on the line between Allen and Van Wert. He was originally a tailor 
in Champaign County. It is thought that he was admitted to the bar at 


Sidney, Shelby Cd., Ohio, and he is kuown to have practiced law at that 
point before his -election to the bench. Considering his limited opportu- 
nities, he was a good lawyer and splendid Judge. What he lacked in 
schooling he made up in common sense. He had a large brain ; was 
shrewd; a man of strict integrity and socially popular, being jolly and 
humorous, but strong drink got the mastery of him occasionally. He died 
at Lima soon after the last war. 

William Lawrence, Judge of Common Pleas from 1856 to 1865, and 
the successor of Judge Metcalf. resided at Bellefontaine, Logan County. 
He was a well-read lawyer, possessed remarkable industry and energy and 
was a satisfactory Judge. Morally, he was religious and without blemish. 
He was always pleasant and affable, and was popular both with the people 
and the bar. He was brought up in Jefferson County, thi; State. At the 
opening of a court in May, 1861, when the people were excited about the 
war, he ordered the Sheriff to raise the national flag over th^ cupola of the 
court house in Marion, which order the Sheriff refused to obey. The latter 
was therefore brought into court and fined for contempt. He then hoisted 
the flag according to the original order. In 1S62, Judge Lawrence went 
to the front with a regiment, of which he was Colonel. AVhile in the serv- 
ice, his salary as Judge continued, which he drew and distributed to the 
school districts throughout his circuit. In the fall of 1864, he was elected 
to a seat in Congress, and resigned his position upon the bench to enter 
upon his new round of duties. Near the close of the term of President 
Hayes, he was appointed First Comptroller of the United States Treasury, 
which position he now occupies. Upon the resignation of his Judgeship, 
the vacancy thereby occurring was tilled by the election of 

Jacob S. Conklin, of Sidney, Ohio, who was possessed of good ability, 
but had not been as long in practice as Judge Lawrence. As a man, he 
was honest and conscientious. His habits are, to some extent, unfavorably 
commented upon. He is now located at Sidney in the practice of his pro- 
fession. In the fall of 1882, he was a candidate for Congress on the Re- 
publican ticket, but was defeated by Benjamin LeFevre. He was a fine 
lawyer and an honest Judge. He was succeeded by — 

Abner M. Jackson in 1871, who, while in office and a resident of 
Bucyrus, resigned. He moved to Cleveland and afterward to Colorado. 
To fill out his unexpired term, the Governor appointed the present incum- 
bent — 

Thomas Beer, also a resident of Bucyrus, who was born in Wayne County, 
Ohio, September 7, 1832. He became a pupil of the Vermilion Institute, 
at Hayesville, Ashland County, and in 1848 began teaching school. He 
chose law as a profession, and commenced its study with John C. Tidball, 
at Coshocton, in 1851, teaching school in the meantime to defray expenses; 
remained with him until 1853. From 1S54 to 1858, he was Postmaster at 
Alliance, Ohio, and in the latter year he became editor cf the Stark County 
Democrat, at Canton. Ohio, and in 1862 editor of the Crawford County 
Forum. Was admitted to the bar in 1862, and began practice at Bucyrus, 
Ohio. In 1863, he was elected to the House of Representatives on the 
Democratic ticket, and re-nlected, holding the position up to and including 
the session of 1866-67. Was a member of the Constitutional Convention 
in 1S73; appointed Judge of the Common Pleas Court for the Fourth Sub- 
division of the Third Judicial District of Ohio, August 15, 1S74, then com- 
prising the counties of Wood, Hancock, Seneca, Wyandot, Crawford and 
Marion. In October, 1874. he was elected to fill the unexpired term of 


Judge Jackson, who had resigned; in 1876, was re-elected to the full term 
of five years; and in 1881 he was again re-elected, to serve until February 
9, 1887. As a practitioner, Judge Beer was fair and honorable. On the 
Bench he is not rapid in his decisions, but takes time to fortify himself 
with precedents, which practice leads the people to regard him as a careful, 
impartial and just Judge. 

Marion County is now in the Second Subdivision of the Tenth District of 
the State of Ohio. 


William Holmes, one of the original proprietors of the town plat of 
Marion, was an Associate Judge for a time. He left here some time pre- 
vious to 1840 and went West, where he died many years ago. 

Isaac E. James, of Big Island, was one of the earliest Associate Judges. 

Jacob Idleman was an Associate Judge as early as 1819. Before him 
was tried the first case in the Common Pleas Court. (See history of Pleas- 
ant Township.) 

Sandford S. Bennett, although he had no love of litigation, or any- 
thing in connection therewith, and never sought office, was, notwithstand- 
ing, honored with that of Associate Judge from 1832 to 1835. Born in 
Berkshire County, Mass., January 9, 1791, Judge Bennett survived, hale 
and vigorous, until November 29, 1881, when he was cut down suddenly by 
heart disease. In his family Bible, written in his own hand, are these 
words: " Oh, how wonderful that I, the first-born of my father's family of 
ten children, should be left to record the death of each and all of them !" 
Reared at Burlington, Vt., amid the stirring scenes of the war of 1812, he 
came to Berkshire, Delaware Co., Ohio, in January, 1816; was Sheriff of 
that county and there married Almira Stoughton, of Hartford, Conn., who 
survives him. residing with their only child, Eleanora, wife of Dr. T. B. 
Fisher. Judge Bennett was successful in business, accumulating consid- 
erable wealth and erecting the large business block known by his name. 
He was a consistent member of the Protestant Episcopal Church from 1853 
to his death 

Genrge Gray was born in Essex County, Del., May 18, 1806. His 
father, Frazier Gray, was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. George 
worked on a farm with his father until he was seventeen years of age, 
when he went to learn the carpenter and joi tier's trade. Three years after- 
ward, he married Miss Jane Barr, February 13, 1827; then he worked two 
years in a ship yard near home. Then, in 1829, he came to Ohio in com- 
pany with his brother, Rev. David Gray, arriving at Zanesville May 20, 
where the latter stopped. George came on to Salt Rock Township, this 
county, where he worked at his trade for awhile, as mechanics were very 
much needed at the time. In 1835, he was elected by the Legislature as 
Associate Judge of Marion County, and served seven years with fidelity. 
He served two terms as Probate Judge of Marion County, from 1860 to 
1866, and was elected Mayor of the city of Marion, which office he soon 
afterward resigned. He was elected Justice of the Peace for Montgomery 
Township, and in 1858 was appointed Postmaster at Cochranton (Scott- 
Town). Finally, he was elected Jiistice of the Peace for Grand Township. 
He died at his old residence in Scott- Town, December 29, 1880, one of the 
oldest membei-s of Marion Lodge, No. 70, A. F. & A. M. He left five chil- 
dren. His wife died twelve years previously. 

Thomas J. Anderson was Associate Judge with Hon. Ozias Bowen for 
five or six years. He was a hatter by trade, a resident of Marion for many 


years, growing up with the place from its infancy, but not accumulating 
much property. He moved to Missouri, where he died and was buried, 
about 1875. He was a very active man, positive in his manner and of strict 

Judge John Bartram was born June 12, 1804, in Redding, Fairfield 
Co., Conn., and came to Marion County, Ohio, November 20, 1827. 
Just previously, September 2 5, 1827, he married Miss Jane Hopkins, in 
Pickaway Township, Pickaway County, Ohio. He began office as Town- 
ship Clerk in Marion in 1831; was elected Justice of the Peace in 1832, 
and re-elected in 1835 and 1838; was appointed Postmaster by Postmaster 
General McLean in 1833, and resigned in 1835 on account of ill health. 
He served as Assistant Auditor from 1835 to 1838. He was again ap- 
pointed Postmaster in 1838, and served until 1841. He next served as 
Commissioner to fill a vacancy one year, and was made Fund Commissioner 
of Marion County. He said the United States lost nothing by the trans- 
actions of this countv, for every dollar was paid back when needed. Mr. 
Bartram was Associate Judge from 1840 to 1847, following the dry goods 
trade from 1840 to 1846. He then reviewed his legal studies and was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He was Prosecuting Attorney three years; was Repre- 
sentative in the State Legislature, 1860-61, and Senator, 1870-71; was a 
Republican politically. He died November 17, 1879, leaving a widow and 
a son, Samuel H., an attorney at law, both in Marion. September 25, 
1877, Judge Bartram's golden wedding was celebrated, when a magnifi- 
cent gold-headed cane was presented to him by the Marion bar, Col. John 
J. Williams being the spokesman for the bar. It was a genuine surprise 
present. On the head of the cane was engraved " Presented to Hon. J. 
Bartram by the members of the bar of Marion, September 25, 1877." 

Judge John Merrill was born December 28, 1814, in Delaware County, 
N. Y., came with his parents to Ross County, Ohio, when five years of age. 
Having there lost his father when about eight years of age, he came w r ith 
his mother to Marion, in the fall of 1829, and began his trade of tailor. 
In 1835, he commenced the business of custom tailor, in which he was con- 
tinuously engaged until the spring of 1879. He was three times married. 
His first marriage was with Sarah Havens, April 16, 1834. By this mar- 
riage there were six children, four of whom reached majority, and three 
survived him. Losing by death the mother of these, January 14, 1849, 
in July following he was united by marriage with Miss Leah Turney, and 
by this union there were three children. She died in September, 1875, 
and in the summer following he was married to her sister, Mrs. Rachel 
Adams, who survives him. Mr. Merrill was for seven years an Associate 
Judge of Marion Common Pleas, and filled this position with dignity and 
honor. In May, 1852, he was elected to the Board of Education and served 
continuously until May, 1866. He was elected to the Village Council for 
several terms, viz.. a term of one year each in 1854, 1858, 1861, 1866, 1867 
and terms of two years in 1868 and 1877. He died May 14, 1879, at the 
age of sixty-five. 

This is probably the place to give an account of a remarkable fugitive 
slave case, that came up before Judge Boweu and United States Commis- 
sioner Bartram. The negro's name was 


In 1839 occurred a riot in Marion between slavery and anti- slavery 
partisans, which not only made a lasting impression upon the minds of 


the citizens, but fixed in tkem more strongly than ever the old party preju- 
dices upon the most serious question that ever vexed American politics. 
Marion was a depot on the "underground railroad." "Bill Anderson" 
was the name of a negro who took up his abode in Marion about a year 
previously. He was as black as any negro, weighed not less than 200 
pounds, and. to use a phrase common in those days, was a very " likely 
nigger." By his good behavior and willingness to work at a fair price, 
he had gained the good' will of the people. With the " boys," he stood at 
the top notch, in consequence of his ability to sing the old melodies of the 
plantation and finger the banjo to perfection. While William was thus 
enjoying the " fat and hominy " of the land, what should disturb his peace 
and quiet but the appearance of a brace of " Virginians " named McClana- 
han and Goshorn, and one or two other men, claiming that said "Billy" was 
the property of one Mitchell, who had previously bought him of one Anderson. 
The "darkey" was, accordingly, by legal process, stowed away in one of the 
cells of the old white oak jail to await a requisition frorn his native State. 
Considerable sympathy was manifested for him, and he was not to be de- 
livered over to the agent of Mitchell without a trial. The day came for the 
agent to prove " property," etc., and after a hearing, Judge Bowen decided 
that under the statutes of Ohio the prisoner could not be delivered to 
Mitchell's agent, as he had failed to show that he at any time had pos- 
session of him. Bill was thereupon released from custody. 

This started a whirlwind. Without process, the Virginians seized Bill 
by the arms and started for the office of Judge John Bartram, then United 
States Commissioner, before whom it was proposed to try the case under 
the laws of the United States. Main street had just been macadamizd with 
stone fresh from the quarry, and while Bill was on the way to Judge Bart- 
ram's, anti-slavery men began to pelt the Southerners freely with the stones. 
The captors, however, succeeded in reaching the Judge's office with their 
prize, where occurred a scene of confusion and excitement beyond descrip- 
tion. The Judge stood in his office door and endeavored to disperse or 
quiet the mob so that the trial could proceed, while the Southerners flour- 
ished bowie knives and pistols, and loud talking of every kind shattered 
the very air. At this juncture, some half a dozen men broke open the 
"arsenal," seized each an old United States flint lock musket, rushed into 
the crowd and demanded entrance into the Cominissionei*'s office, which 
was refused. One Elias G. Spelman, a law student, with his musket firmly 
grasped and the bayonet fixed, made a charge upon Judge Bartram, which 
probably would have been fatal had not Rodney Spaulding successfully in- 
terfered by knocking the gun to one side, which entered the wall of the 
building about four inches. This climacteric performance, of course, di- 
rected all eyes to the spot, at which opportunity Billy made good his es- 
cape through a back door that some one had opened. Goshorn and others 
followed, and in a minute or two Goshorn threw a bowie knife at him, 
striking him in the small of the back, but rebounding without injury. 
Billy ran all the faster, and soon hid himself in a shock of corn in a field 
where John Dumble once made brick, but which ground is now occupied 
by a railroad. William S. Hutchison sagaciously sounded the shock with 
his foot, saying, " Keep dark, Billy." 

When Goshorn threw the bowie, s Elliott Davidson knocked him down 
with a brickbat, which of course ended the race, for the crowd centered 
there to witness the bleeding w T ounds of Goshorn. Billy then saw his op- 
portunity to " clear " the country, which he did most effectually, as he got 


on the underground railroad for Canada and went through on the " light- 
ning express." 

During the fracas, a " boss " printer, small in stature and correspond- 
ingly zealous for the right, when the cry of " To arms " was given, seized 
two of those venerable old flint-locks and started for the field of action, 
dragging them along by their muzzles. Maj. Busby told him not to make 
a fool of himself, when the obedient little printer-editor deliberately 
" stacked arms " against the north end of Byerly's hotel and rested from 
further hostilities. 

The court issued a bench warrant and caused the arrest of the rioters, 
who were marched off to jail and locked up. where they spent a few hours in 
discussing the merits of some good brandy and sugar kindly furnished 
them. They were released on bail till next morning, when the Virginians 
were fined $50 ea