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Full text of "History of Marshall County, Kansas : its people, industries, and institutions"

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/ 






EMMA E. PORTER. 




HISTORY 



OF 



MARSHALL COUNTY 



KANSAS 



ITS PEOPLE, INDUSTRIES AND INSTITUTIONS 



By 

EMMA E. PORTER 



With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and 
Genealogical Records of Many of the Old Families 



ILLUSTRATED 



1917 ^ 
B. F. BOWEN & COMPANY, Inc. 
Indianapolis, Indiana 



? 







THE HEW •OI'.K 
™Ln LIBRARY 

684084A 

ASTOR, LENOX AhiD 
TILDEN POUtNDATIONS 

R ies3 r 



DEDICATION. 
This work is respectfully dedicated to 

THE PIONEERS, 

long since departed. May the memory of those who laid down their burdens 

by t!ie wayside ever l^e fragrant as the breath of summer 

flowers, for their toils and sacrifices have made 

Marshall County a garden of sun- 

sln'ne and delights. 



PUBLISHERS' PREFACE 



All life and achievement is evolution; present wisdom comes from past 
experience, and present commercial prosi>erity has come only from past exer- 
tion and sacrifice. The deeds and motives of the men who have gone before 
. have been instrumental in shaping the destinies of later communities and 
states. The development of a new country was at once a task and a privi- 
lege. It required great courage, sacrifice and privation. Compare the pres- 
ent conditions of the people of Marshall county, Kansas, with what they were 
sixty years ago. From a trackless wilderness and virgin land, the county has 
come to be a center of prosperity and civilization, with millions of wealth, 
systems of railways, educational and religious institutions, varied industries 
and immense agricultural and dairy interests. Can any thinking person be 
insensible to the fascination of the studv which discloses the aspirations and 
efforts of the early pioneers who so strongly laid the foundation upon which 
has been reared tlie magnificent prosperity of later days? To perpetuate the 
story of these people and to trace and record the social, religious, educational, 
political and industrial progress of the community from its first inception, is 
the function of l.he local historian. A sincere purpose to preserve facts and 
personal memoirs that are deserving of perpetuation, and which unite the 
present to the past, is the motive for the present publication. The publishers 
desire to extend their thanks to those who have so faithfullv labored to this 
end. Thanks are also due to the citizens of Marshall county, for the uniform 
kindness with which they have regarded this undertaking-, and for their many 
services rendered in the gaining of necessary information. 

In placing the "History of Marshall County, Kansas," before the citizens, 
the publishers can conscientiously claim that they have carried out the plan 
as outlined in the prospectus. Every biographical sketch in the work has 
been submitted to the party interested, for correction, and therefore any 
error of fact, if there be any, is solely due to the person for whom the sketch 
was prepared. Confident that our effort to please will fully meet the appro- 
bation of the public, we are, 

Respectfully, 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I— GEOLOGY, ORNITHOLOGY AND FLORA 35 

Natural Resources — Altitude — Drainage — Limestone and Gypsum Deposits — 
Precious Stones — Forestry — Oil Prospects — Farming — Prehistoric Evidences 
— Passing of the Wild Fowl — Exit of the Eagle — Cry of the Whippoorwill 
No Longer Heard — Native Flowers — The Pre-eminent Sunflower — The First 
Dandelion — Wild Flowers Rapidly Disappearing — Goldenrod and the Sweet 
Wild Rose Regarded as Favorite Flowers. 

CHAPTER II— EARLY EXPLORATIONS _«_ 42 

Myths of the Spanish Explorers — "The Seven Cities" — Stories of the Land 
of Cibola — Nuno de Guzman's Expedition After Gold — Expedition of De- 
Narvaez — Francisco Vasquex de Coronado and His Quest into Quivera — 
Line Between Kansas and Nebraska — Pawnee Indians — A Link with the 
Past — Origin of "Kansas" — The Kansa or Kaw Tribe of Indians — Kansas 
Sold to the United States — Spaniards Attempt Invasion — The Grand Village 
des Canzes — Lewis and Clark Expedition — Aboriginals Moved to Reservation 
— The Old Kaw Trail and the Indian Agency. 

CHAPTER III— INDIANS IN MARSHALL COUNTY 49 

In the Days of Coronado — Pawnees and Wichitas^Limitless Hunting 
Grounds — Evidences of Aboriginal Battles — Old War Weapons Found — 
Indian Trail Crossed the Vermillion — Longest Trail in North America — 
Later the Alormon Trail — Route of the Gold Seekers — Immigrant Trains 
Cross the Plains — The Otoe Indians — Depredations of Redskins — Indians 
Abduct Girl — Massacre of the Cassel Party — Panic Among Early Settlers — 
Militia Mustered — Six Victims of Murderous Redskins — Effective Defense 
Made — Aboriginals Driven West. 

CHAPTER IV— SETTLEMENT OF MARSHALL COUNTY 56 

The Pioneer — "Westward Ho!" — A Generation of Heroic Mold — Old Set- 
tlers' Reunion Association — Mrs. Travelute's Recollections — First Missionary 
Among the Indians — New England Aid Company — \^irtue of the Kansas 
Pioneer Homes — Privations and Sacrifices — Loneliness of the Women — Pio- 
neer Farmer's Wife — Homesickness and Regret — Pleasures Offset Privations 
— House-Warmings and Other Social Activities — "Joy-Riding" in Ox- 
Wagons — Reminiscences of Frank J. Alarshall — Territorial Government — 
Indians Become Impatient — Some Facts Not Recorded in History — Some of 
the Earliest Settlers — Pioneers on the Vermillion — J. M. Watson's Remin- 
iscences — Eli Punteney's Recollections — The W^alker Family — The Hutchin- 
sons — Cyclone Visits Pioneers — Pony Express and Overland Stage — Descrip- 
tion of a Pioneer "Ball" — Settlers Share Hardships and Privations — Palmetto 
Town Company — Brief Mention of Early Settlers — Early Opposition to 
Slavery — Some First Events. 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER \— COUNTY AND TOWN ORGANIZATION 98 

Territorial Organization — Annexation of Texas — The Slavery Question — 
Northern Discontent Increased — Prelude to Civil War — Missions Estab- 
lished — Location of Marshall County — Kansas-Nebraska Act — The Many- 
Sided Frank J. Marshall — Dimensions of Marshall County— Marysville Made 
a Postoffice — Gradual Increase in Population — Marysville Created the County 
Seat — Rivals Make Charges of Fraud — County Seat Fight Reopened — Court 
House — Old Stone Jail— County Infirmary — Officials of County — Organiza- 
tion of Townships — General Tax Levy and Valuation Statistics — Township 
Officials. 

CHAPTER VI— CITY OF AIARYSVILLE 115 

Big Blue Crossing in ISSQ— Marshall's Ferry — Marysville Town Company — 
Incorporation of City in 1861 — First Saw Mill — Bridge Erected in 1863 — 
"Rough and Even Desperate Men" — Open Saloons Were Numerous — Noto- 
rious Stopping place on Great Overland Trail — Industries — Excelsior Mills 
and Capt. Perry Hutchinson — Prominent Business Firms — -The Community 
House — Marysville Turnverein— Some Prominent Visitors — Old-Time Theat- 
ricals — Bands — Cemetery — Volunteer Fire Department — Business Life of 
Marysville — Present Business Concerns — Maennerchor — Commercial Club — 
Women's Clubs — Railroad Items. 

CHAPTER VII— CITY OF BLUE RAPIDS 139 

Origin and Development — ^The Genesee Colony — Blue Rapids Town Com- 
pany — Land Taken Rapidly — "Colonial Hall" — First Business House — Indus- 
tries — Waterworks Early Established — -Waterpower Gives Impetus to New 
Town — Directory of 1870 — Further Development — Blue Rapids in 1872 — 
Ladies' Library Association — Business Interests in 1880 — Incorporation — 
Grasshopper Invasion — Some First Events — Postoffice Established in 1859 — 
John AlcPherson's Recollections — Jason Yurann — Fairmount Cemetery — 
Present Business Interests — The Oldest Settler. 

CHAPTER VIII— CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES 155 

Axtell — The St. Joseph Town Company — "Shoestring" Dickinson — Colony 
from Iowa — Progressive Community — Current Business Interests — Barrett — 
The Ohio Town Company — A. G. Barrett's Mill in 1857 — Coming of the 
Railroad — Beattie — Named for Mayor of St. Joseph — Some First Events — 
Current Business Interests — Bigelow — Named for General Bigelow — Lime- 
stone Quarries Opened in 1881 — Bremen — Laid Out by Henry Brennecke 
in 1886 — Destroyed by Fire in 1908 — Garden — Founded on the Garden Farm 
— Four Families in Village — Citj- of Frankfort — Organized in 1867 — First 
City Election in 1875 — Old Nottingham Postoffice — Frankfort's Commercial 
and Industrial Interests — Herkimer — Destroyed by Fire in 1902 and Rebuilt 
— Village of Hull — One General Store — Irving — Organized by lowans in 1859 
— Incorporated in 1871 — Cyclone of 1879 — Business Interests in 1917 — Lillis — 
Marietta — Mina — Oketo — Governed by Women — Palmetto Town Company — 
Schroyer — Summerfield- Vermillion; — Mutual Improvement Club^Girl Band 
— Farm and Home Institute — Vliets — Waterville — Incorporated in 1870 — 
Winifred — County Seat in 1858, Under Name of "Sylvan" — Flag Stations — 
Lost and Abandoned Towns. 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX— FOREIGN ELEMENTS IN MARSHALL COUNTY 209 

Bohemians — John Pecenka — First Homestead Entry — Caravan of Prairie 
Schooners — Danes — John Nelson — Germans--G. H. Hollenberg — Prominent 
in Business Life — Swiss — The Thomans — The Helvetia Society — Samuel 
Forter — Swedes — Peter Froom — Two Swedish Settlements — The Irish — • 
"There's a Bower of Roses by Bendemeer's Stream" — St. Bridget's — Irish 
Creek — First Homesteader — Daniel Donahy — Some Names on the Honor 
Roll. 

CHAPTER X— RAILWAYS OF MARSHALL COUNTY 234 

St. Joseph & Grand Island Railroad — First Rails Laid in 1860 — Railroad 
Improvements — Union Pacific System — St. Joseph & Western Railroad — 
Marysville, Palmetto & Roseport Railroad — Northern Kansas Railroad 
Company — St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad — Central Branch Union 
Pacific Railroad — Atchison & Pike's Peak Railroad Company — Marysville & 
Blue Valley Railroad — Topeka, Onaga & Marysville Branch — Topeka "Cut- 
off" — Public Roads — Ocean-to-Ocean Highway — "The White Way" — Blue 
Valley Interstate Highway — Good-Roads Campaign. 

CHAPTER XI— AGRICULTURE AND STOCK RAISING 243 

"The Plowman Slowly Moves Along the Furrow's Mellow Wake" — Cattle — 
Breeding of Live Stock — Tribute to the Cow — Herd Law — First Herefords — 
Some Early Breeders and Graziers — Shorthorns — Importers of Holsteins — 
Consistent Champion of Angus Cattle — Creameries — Blue Valley Creamery 
Company — Breeds for Dairy Purposes — The Horse — Introduction of High- 
Grade Normans — Percheron — Clydesdale — English Coach — Eflfect of Drought 
of 1894 — Horses Given Away — Auto vs. Horse — Sheep Being Introduced — 
Hogs—Cholera Eradication Station — Poultry — Marshall County Farm Bu- 
reau — 1916 Corn Contest — Farmers' Educational and Co-operative Union — 
Farm Produce Contest — Stock Show and Fair Association — Horse Racing a 
Thing of the Past — Women's Work at County Fair. 

CHAPTER XII— MILITARY HISTORY 261 

"Littlfr Green Tents"— -War of the Rebellion — Letter from a Soldier Boy — 
Seventh Kansas Cavalry — First Soldier Killed — Tribute to Loyalty — Coun- 
ty's Contribution to Union Cause — Raising the Union Flag — County Armed 
Against Indians — Marysville Recruiting Station — Many Minor Skirmishes in 
County — Thirteenth Kansas Infantry — Second Kansas Cavalry — Civil War 
Veterans — War With Spain — Veterans of Spanish-American War — War of 
1917— Marshall County No "Slacker"— "The Flag Goes By." 

CHAPTER XIII— POLITICAL HISTORY 274 

Reminiscences — Edwin C. Manning — State Officials from Marshall County — 
Marshall County Men in Federal Service — Early Elections — First Election 
in Spring of 1855 — Liberal Construction on Law — Only Two Free-State Men 
in County — Voters Come in Droves — Vote on the Lecompton Constitution — 
Endless String of "Repeaters" — Voted St. Louis City Directory — "Free Bal- 
lot and a Fair Count" Meaningless Phrase — Ballot Box Stuffing Extraordi- 
nary — Political Parties — A Populistic Blunder — Marshall County a Judicial 
"No Man's Land" — Kansas Territorial Council — Members of Legislature 
from This County — State Senators from This District. 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER Xl\'— SCHOOLS OF MARSHALL COUNTY 282 

High Educational Standard — First School House in 1859 — School District 
No. 1, Barrett — No Pupils for First School — Private, or "Select" Schools — 
Efforts Toward Higher Education — Wetmore Institute — Deer Creek School 
— Standard Rural School— Some Early Teachers — Early Parochial Schools — 
First School in Cottage Hill — Marysville Public Schools— Blue Rapids 
Schools — First School Conducted in Dwelling House — Irving School Notes 
— Other Town Schools — The Old Log School House — Superintendents of 
Public Instruction — School Teachers of the Current Year — County Board of 
Examiners — Officers of County Teachers' Association — School Boards Asso- 
ciation — School Statistics — Gold Medal Awards — Honor Students and the 
Honor Roll — John McDonald and His "Western School Journal." 

CHAPTER XV— CHURCHES IN MARSHALL COUNTY 300 

First Religious Service Held in Saloon — Methodist Episcopal Church — Or- 
ganizations in Various Towns in County — Presbyterian Churches — Chris- 
tian Churches (Church of Christ) — Baptist Churches — Colored Baptists — 
Episcopal Churches — Lutheran and Evangelical Churches — United Presby- 
terians — Congregationalists — Free Methodist Church — Universalists — Chris- 
tian Scientists — Pentecost Church — Catholic Churches of the County. 

CHAPTER XVI— FRATERNAL ORDERS, SOCIETIES AND CLUBS 348 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Knights of Pythias — Ancient Order of 
United Workmen — Alodern Woodmen of America — Royal Neighbors of 
America — Knights and Ladies of Security — Knights of Honor — Degree of 
Honor — Knights of Columbus — Fraternal Aid Union — Triple Tie Benefit 
Association — Catholic Mutual Benefit Association — Grand Army of the Re- 
public — Woman's Relief Corps — Ladies of the G. A. R. — Sons of Veterans — 
Young Men's Christian Association — Woman's Christian Temperance Union 
— Ancient Free and Accepted Masons — Royal Arch Masons — Knights Tem- 
plar — Order of the Eastern Star. 

CHAPTER XVII— THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 383 

Fragments of Records, Memories and Traditions — Preventive Medicine of 
the Aboriginal — Health from the Waters — The Indian Medicine Man — Pa- 
trons of Nature's Dispensatory — System of Counter-Irritation — Curing the 
Sick — ^Alcove Springs a Health Resort — Amputation Under Difficulties — 
Grandmother's Remedies — Neighbor Helped Neighbor — The First Babies — 
Chills and Fever — First Doctor in County — An "Egyptian's" Remedies, 
"Lopopahirum" and "Hipopalorum" — Quacks of the Other Days — Tribute to 
the Faithful Family Doctor — Penalty for "Fee-Splitting" — Advance of Med- 
ical Science — County Medical Society — Macbeth on Medicine — Physicians of 
Marshall County — Retrospective — "Every Cradle Asks Us Whence and 
Every Coffin Whither." 

CHAPTER XVIII— BENCH AND BAR 398 

Judicial Districts Defined in 1855 — Marshall County in Third District — 
First Territorial Legislature at Pawnee — Third District Bar Organized — 
First Court in Marysville — First Sheriff Shot by Desperado — County Placed 
in Second Judicial District in 1860 — A Celebrated Case — Attorneys of Rec- 



CONTENTS. 

orcl — Twelfth Judicial District Created in 1871 — ^Strong Bar in Those Days 
— Twenty-first Judicial District Created in 1888 — Attorneys of the Present 
Day — Marshall Countj^ Bar Association — Story of First Suit in County^ 
Challenged to a Duel — A "Bar" Story — Jolly Disciples of Blackstone. 

CHAPTER XIX— BANKS AND BANKING 408 

Substantial Assets of County — Twenty-eight Banks — Record of But Three 
Failures — County Ranks Second in State — Early Banking in County — List 
of Present Banks and Officiary of Same — Banker Saves Currency Burned 
to a Crisp. 

CHAPTER XX— MARSHALL COUNTY PRESS 416 

First Kansas Banner Was a Newspaper — True Pioneer Instinct Displayed — 
First Paper in Alarshall County — "The Palmetto Kansan" — Early Newspaper 
Plant Scattered by a Cyclone — Loyalists Destroy Pro-Slavery Paper — News- 
papers That Have Come and Gone — List of Present Newspapers in the 
County — Interesting Sidelights on Old-Time Editors. 

CHAPTER XVI— MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS OF INTEREST 423 

Sidelights on Various Matters of Historic Interests — Young Men's Christian 
Association — Independence Crossing — Alcove Springs — Postoffices in Coun- 
ty — Nomenclature of Towns — Great Prairie Fire — Terrific Cyclone of 1879 — 
Cottage Hill Cemetery — Marshall County and the World's Fair — Grasshop- 
pers — First Homestead Patent Granted — "Tremble" — Tragedies — Dark 
Deeds of Frontier Life — Summary Retribution — Loyal Alan Murdered by 
Traitor — Murdered for His Gold— Horse Thief Hanged — The Pennington 
Murder — Murder of Under-SherifT — Paroled Murderer Holding State Job. 

CHAPTER XXII— SIDELIGHTS ON MARSHALL COUNTY HISTORY 439 

Fremont's Expedition— Mormon Meanderings — The Overland Stage — Some - 
Notable Travelers— The Oketo Cut-off — Bad Feeling Between Oketo and 
Marysville — Alail Service Discontinued— Price of Obstinancy — The Pony 
Express — Early Day Advertising — White Stump Swimming Hole — Story of 
Grandma Keyes — The Old Musician — "Tell Ale the Tales That Were So 
Dear" — Disaster Follows Night of Pleasure — An Improvised Concert— A 
Matter of Life and Death — Obe French — George Guittard — William Alex- 
ander Calderhead — G. H. Hollenberg — L'Envoi — "Tarry a Little; There is 
Something Alore." 



HISTORICAL INDEX 



A 

Abandoned Highway to Wealth 260 

Advertising in Early Days 444 

Afton 208 

Agricultural and Stock Raising 243 

Alcove Springs 385, 462 

Alfalfa Introduced in 1872 248 

Altitude of Marshall County 35 

Ambitious School Plan Failed 174 

Amputation Under Difficulties 386 

Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. 362 
Ancient Order of United Workmen. 352 

Angus Cattle Breeders 246 

A Prideful Institution 121 

Arkaketah, Otoe Indian Chief 179 

Armed Against Indians 53, 266 

Armour 208 

Arrow Heads and Spear Heads 49 

Ash Point 208 

Atchison & Pike's Peak Railroad— 239 
Attorneys of Marshall County--400, 403 

Automobile Fire Apparatus 131 

Automobiles Encourage Better 

Roads 241 

Automobiles in Marshall County — 242 

Automobiles Ruin Village 186 

Auto vs. Horse 251 

Ayersville 205 

Axtell Citizens Bank _.— 408 

Axtell, City of— 

Admirable Location 157 

Business Interests 157 

Cemetery 158 

Chautauqua 156 

Churches 305. 310 

Fire Department 156 

First School 156 

Laid Out in 1872 155 

Miscellaneous 158 

Origin and Development 155 



Axtell, City of — Continued. 

Park 156 

Postoffice 155 

Some First Events 155 

The Deep River Colony 155 

B 

Babies Mixed at Dance 84 

"Bad Alen" Shooting Up the Town. 118 

Balderson Township 112 

Ballot-Box Stuffing Extraordinary- 278 

Bands at the County Seat 125 

Bank Burglars Frustrated 410 

Bank Destroyed by Fire 409 

Bank Notes Saved from Fire 164 

Bank of Frankfort, The 410 

Banks and Banking 408 

Barrett, A. G. 159 

Barrett, Village of 159 

Baptist Churches — 

At Marysville 314 

At Blue Rapids 314 

At Frankfort 315 

At WaterVille 316 

At Winifred 316 

Beattie, Village of — 

Business Interests 161 

Churches 307 

Named for A. Beattie 160 

Postoffice 161 

Some First Events 160 

Stone Quarries 160 

Townsite Platted in 1870 160 

Bench and Bar 398 

Bennett's Station 206 

Big Blue City 206 

Big Blue Crossing 115 

Big Blue River 35 

Bigelow Quarries Exhausted 163 

Bigelow State Bank 410 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Bigelow Township 112 

Bij^elow, \'illage of — 

Business Interests 163 

Churclies 163 

First Resident 163 

First School 162 

Founded in 1881 162 

Stone Quarries 162 

Birds of Marshall County 40 

Blanchville 206 

Blizzard Claims Victim 198 

Blue Rapids, City of — 

Business Development 143 

Business Directory 151 

Cemetery 150 

Churches 302 

Colonial Hall 139 

Directory of 1880 145 

First Business House 140 

First Postmaster 140 

Genesee Colony, The 139 

Grasshoppers 147 

Incorporation 146 

Industries 141 

Library Association 144 

Oldest Settler 154 

Origin and Development 139 

Postoffice 148 

Residents in 1870 142 

Schools 287 

Situation in 1872 143 

Some First Events 147 

Town Company 139 

Waterpower Site 141 

Blue Rapids City Township 112 

Blue Rapids Town Companj- 139 

Blue Rapids Township 112 

Blue Valley Creamery Company 259 

Blue Valley Interstate Highway 242 

Breaks Through Into Dugout 21*3 

"Bob White" Becomes a Rarity '40 

Bohemian Cemetery 215 

Bohemians in Marshall Count}' 209 

Boyakin, Dr. W. F. 88 

Breeding of Live Stock 243 

Bremen State Bank 409 

Bremen, Village of — 

Bank Notes Redeemed 164 

Business Interests 164 

Destroj'ed by Fire 164 



Bremen, Village of — Continued. 

First Events 163 

Laid Out in 1886 163 

Population of 163 

Successful Insurance Company 165 

Brenneke, Henry 163 

Bridge at Schroyer 186 

Brown, C. J. 154 

Brown. J. B. 153 

Brown, Walter P. 154 

"Bryan" Was Rejected 170 

Bucket Brigade Not Effectual 128 

Buffalo Driven to Death 50 

Buffalo Had His Day 40 

Burglars Break from Jail 108 

Business Firms of Marysville 120 

Business Interests at Axtell 157 

Business Interests of Garden 165 

Business Interests of Frankfort 169 

Business Interests of Lillis 177 

Business Interests of Marietta 178 

Business Life of Marysville 131 

Bygones are Now Bj^gones 107 



Calderhead, William Alexander 454 

Garden, Village of 165 

Cashier Siezed Robber's Gun 410 

Catholic Churches — 

St. Joseph's at Lillis 329 

Holy Family at Summerfield 330 

St. Michael's, Axtell 331 

St. Monica's, Waterville 332 

St. Elizabeth's, Irving 333 

St. Malachy's, Beattie 334 

St. Bridget's Parish 335 

Annunciation Parish, Frankfort__ 338 

St. Gregory's, Marysville 340 

St. Wencesclaus 346 

Catholic Mutual Benefit Association 358 

Cats, the Price of 71 

Cattle in Marshall County i_- 243 

Cedar Falls 206 

Celebrated Legal Case 400 

Center of Social Activity --- 121 

Center Township 113 

Central Branch (U. P.) Railroad__- 239 

Challenged to Fight Duel 404 

Charges of Fraudulent Voting Made 104 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Charred Bank Notes Redeemed---- 164 

Chills, A "Cure" for 390 

Cholera Eradication Station—^ 252 

Christian Churches — 

At Bigelow -312 

Balderson ■312 

Beattie 312 

Irving 31- 

Vermillion 313 

Waterville 313 

Churches of Marshall County 300 

Church of Christ (Scientist)--- i21 

Church Twice Destroyed 339 

Cities, Towns and Villages 155 

Citizens State Bank of Blue Rapids 409 

Citizens Bank of Frankfort 411 

Citizens State Bank of Home City- 411 
Citizens State Bank, Marysville __- 413 
Citizens State Bank. Waterville --_ 415 
City and Town Property Valuation 110 

City Hopes Soon Abandoned 173 

City of Axtell 155 

City of Blue Rapids 139 

City of Frankfort 166 

City of Marysville » 115 

City of Oketo 179 

City of Summerfield 187 

City of Waterville 196 

Civil War Period 261 

Civil War Veterans in County 268 

Clothing of the Pioneers 61 

Clear Fork Township 113 

Cleveland Township 113 

Coal Beds in Marshall County 36 

"Colonel Sellers's" Prototype 149 

"Colonial Hall" 139 

Commercial Club at Frankfort 168 

Commercial Club at Marysville 134 

Coming of the Railroad 74 

Community House at Marysville — 121 

Congregational Church 326 

Contribution to Union Cause 265 

Coon, John V. l^'' 

"Copperhead" Society, the 389 

Corn Contest of 1916 254 

Coronado's Coming to Kansas 45 

Cottage Hill 307 

Cottage Hill Cemetery 1 431 

Cottage Hill School District 285 

Cottage Hill Township 113 



Cottonwood Trees former "Mon- 
archs" 36 

County and Township Organization 98 

County Bar Association 403 

County Board of Examiners 296 

County Fairs 2^8 

County Infirmary 109 

County Jail 108 

County Medical Society 394 

County Named for Marshall 101 

County Officials 109 

County Seat Fight Reopened 106 

County's First Court House 107 

County Seat Election 103 

County Seat's Business Life 131 

County's Foreign Elements 209 

County Superintendents of Schools 292 

County Teachers' Association 296 

Court, First Session of 403 

Court House Destroyed by Fire— 108 

Crane, Robert ^} 

Creameries of Marshall County-247. 259 

Cream Separators 248 

Crowds at Old Marysville Ferry— 119 

Customs of the Pioneers 61 

Cyclone Creates Havoc 17:) 

Cyclone of May 30, 1879 429 

Cyclone Scatters Newspaper Plant- 417 

D 

Dairy Interests of County 247 

Dandelion's First Appearance 41 

Danes of Marshall County 216 

Daughters of Rebekah 349 

Deceptive Railroad Survey 197 

Deer Creek School 283 

Defended the Flag 211 

Degree of Honor 356 

Desecration of a Church 107 

Destructive Blaze at Summerfield-- 188 

Dickinson, "Shoestring" 155 

Sidn't Want Postoffice 170 

Disloyal Newspaper "Gutted" 264 

Distributing Point for Seed 200 

Donahy, Daniel 231, 434 

Drilling for Coal and Gas 36 

Drougth of 1894 249 

Duel, Challenge to 404 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



E 

Eagles Now a Rarity 40 

Earliest Settlers Driven Out 52 

Early-Daj- School Building 291 

Early Catholic Missione^s 231 

Early Elections 276 

Early Explorations 42 

Early Foes of Liquor 140 

Early Mill at Barrett 159 

Early Missions Established 99 

Early Residents of Blue Rapids -__ 142 

Early Scarcity of Food 97 

Early Schools Lacked Pupils 282 

Early School Teachers 284 

Early Settlers, Mention of 88 

Early Stock Breeders 245 

Educational 282 

Educational and Co-operative Union 255 

Efficient Fire-Fighting Force 128 

Eggs and Poultry 253 

Elections in Early Days 276 

Elizabeth 206 

Elm Creek 206 

Elm Creek Township 113 

English Sparrow's First Coming — 40 
Enlistments for War with Germany 271 
Episcopal Churches — 

At Marysville 316 

At Irving 317 

At Blue Rapids 318 

Evergreen Cemetery Association — 201 

Evidences of Prehistoric Life 39 

Ewing 208 

Exchange Bank at Marysville 412 

Explorations of Spaniards 42 

F 

Fairland 206 

Fairmont Cemetery 150 

Family Altar in Humble Homes 60 

Farm and Home Institute 193 

Farm Bureau's Good Work 254 

Farmers Band for Mutual Help 255 

Farmers Build Blacksmith Shop — 178 

Farmers Build Bridge 173 

Farmers' Co-operative Movements _ 254 
Farmers' Fire Insurance Company. 165 
Farmers' First "Side Line" 252 



Farmers Give Horses Away 250 

Farmers Help Railroad 171 

Farmers' State Bank, Waterville_-- 415 
Farming, County's Chief Pursuit--- 2)7 

Farming in Marshall County 243 

Farm-Produce Contest 256 

Farm Property Valuation 110 

Farmers' Union Prospering 196 

Ferry Toll Came High 119 

Fiddle Earned Pioneer a Home 91 

Fire Completes Cyclone's Work 174 

Fire Destroyed Village of Herki- 
mer 171 

First Automobile Owner in County 251 

First Baby in Marshall County 387 

First Birth at Blue Rapids 147 

First Bridge Across Blue River 117 

First Cemetery at Marysville 128 

First County Seat 203 

First Court House 107 

First Doctor in County 388 

First Election in County 276 

First Fire Department 128 

First Homesteader 231, 434 

"First Kansas Banner" 416 

First Man at Marysville 117 

First Marshall County Soldier Slain 264 

First Mill in County 159 

First Murder on Kansas Soil 45 

First National Bank of Beattie 409 

First National Bank of Marysville- 412 
First National Bank, Summerfield-- 414 

First Old Settlers Meeting 57 

First Paper in Marysville 416 

First Postoffice in Kansas 101 

First Preaching Services 76 

First Railroad in Kansas 234 

First School House in County 97 

First School in County 282 

First Session of Court 403 

First Standard Rural School 283 

First Steam Saw-Mill 96 

First Train to Marysville 234 

First White Men in Kansas 45 

Flag Bravely Defended 211 

Flag Stations in County -_ 205 

Flames Ravages at Summerfield 188 

Flora of Alarshall County 35. 41 

Foreign Element in County 209 

Forestry 36 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Forter, Samuel 226 

Fortunes from Sale of Liquor 118 

Frankfort, City of — 

Business Interests 168 

Busy Shipping Point 169 

Churches 303 

Commercial Club 168 

Electric Light Plant 168 

Excellent Buildings 167 

Library and Clulis 170 

Origin and Development 166 

Postoffice 166 

Schools 167 

Third City in County 166 

Town Company Organized 166 

Franklin Township 113 

Franks-Fort 206 

Fraternal Aid Union 358 

Fraternal Orders 348 

Fraudulent Voting Alleged 104 

Free Methodist Church 326 

Free-Range Period, The 244 

Free-Staters Overridden 276 

Fremont's Expedition 95, 439 

French Explorers Early on Scene.. 47 

French, Obe ■ 451 

Fresh-water Pearls in County 36 

Froom, Peter 228 

Frozen to Death in Blizzard 198 

Four Lonely Loyalists 265 

Forty Jvliles to a Dance 74 

Founder of Bigelow 162 

Fourth of July, 1862 118 

Fourth Postoffice in County 200 

G 

Gambling, Shooting and Fighting-. 118 

Game of "Horse-Shoe" Popular 185 

Gave Up City Charter 173 

General Marshall's Reminiscences.. 64 

General Tax Levy 110 

"Generation of Heroic Mold" 56 

Genesee Colony, The 139 

Geology, Ornithology and Flora 35 

Germans of Marshall County 221 

Gertrude 206 

Girl Band at Vermillion 193 

Girl Burned at Stake 52 

Goldenrod, Favorite Flower 41 



Gold Medals in Schools 298 

Good Roads Campaign 242 

Gothamborg Settlement 229 

Government by Women 184 

Grain Sacks for Trousers 61 

Grand Army of the Republic , 359 

Grandmother's Remedies 386 

Grand Village des Canzes 47 

Granite Falls 206 

Grasshoppers 60, 147, 155, 219, 432 

Greenwood Cemetery 175 

Guittard, George 452 

Guittard Station 206 

Guittard Township 113 

Gypsum Deposits in County.. 35, 2>7 , 

143, 153 

H 

"Hard Times" for Pioneers 97 

Harnessing the Vermillion 96 

Hawkins, Dr. Robert 362, 383 

Heasleyville 206 

"Help Yourself to Horses" 250 

Helvetia Society, The 225 

Herd Law, The 244 

Hereford Breeders' Association 246 

"Herefordshire of Kansas," The 244 

Herkimer Township 113 

Herkimer, V^illage of — 

Business Interests 171 

Destroyed by Fire 171 

Farmers Help Railroad 171 

First Name Rejected 170 

Laid Out in 1878 170 

Population of 170 

Rises from Ashes 171 

"Raemer Creek" Postoffice 170 

Schools 171 

Some First Events 171 

High Rates of Interest 74 

High Schools of Marshall County.. 294 

Highways of Marshall County 241 

Historians Contention Refuted 180 

Hog Cholera's Ravages 252 

Hogs in Marshall County 252 

Hollenberg, G. H. 221, 455 

Holstein Breeders in Marshall 246 

Homestead, Patent No. 1 231, 434 

Honor Students in County 298 

Horse-Livery Business Vanishes 251 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Horse Racing in the Old Daj'S 258 

Horses in Marshall County 249 

Horse Thief Han^^ed 436 

Hospitality of Pioneers 86 

Hot Winds of 1894 249 

Hull, Village of 172 

Hutchinson, Jennette Barber 79 

I 

Incidents of Early Bar 405 

Incidents of the Old Trail 179 

Incident in "The Virginian" 84 

Incorporation of Blue Rapids 146 

Increase in Population 102 

Independence Crossing 206, 426 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 348 

Indian Agency Building 48 

Indians Abduct and Scourge Girl — 52 

Indians Become Impatient 66 

Indian Burying Grounds Vanish 51 

Indian Depredations 51 

Indian Massacre of 1862 75 

Indian Medicine Men 384 

Indian Removal in 1847 48 

Indian Village Near Winifred 49 

Indian War Weapons 49 

Indians Driven Farther West 55 

Indians in Marshall County 49 

Indians Massacre Small Party 54 

Indians Pursued by Militia 53 

Industries of Blue Rapids 141 

Industries of Marysville 119 

Influx of Settlers 213 

In Honor of Washington Irving 173 

Impetus Given to Axtell 155 

Inman, Jacob 162 

Irish Creek Settlement 231 

Irish in Marshall County 230 

Irishman First Homesteader 231 

lowans Plan Irving Townsite 173 

Irving. Village of — 

Business Interests 176 

Cemetery .-, 175 

Churches 306 

City Hopes Abandoned 174 

Dreadful Work of Cyclone 175 

Early Settlers Discouraged 174 

First Church in County 174 

Incorporated in 1860 173 



Irving, Village of — Continued. 

Named for Washington Irving — 173 

Organized by lowans 173 

Population 175 

Postofiiice 174 

Railroad's Spite Ineffectual 174 

Schools 288 

Telephone Service 175 

Wetmore Institute 174 

J 

Jerome, W. W. 173 

Jetts Town 208 

Johnson. H. M., Reminiscences of 217 

"Joy Riding" in Lumber Wagons 62 

Judicial District 401 

Jury Turns "Jack" for Ve^dict 108 

K 

Kansas Indians Early Settlers 47 

"Kansas" and Its Meaning 46 

Kansas-Nebraska Bill 67, 99 

Kantanyan 208 

Keen Business Sense 179 

Keyes, Grandma, Story of 446 

Killed While Blasting Rock 200 

Killing Out Hog Cholera 252 

Knights and Ladies of Security 355 

Knights of Columbus 357 

Knights of Honor 356 

Knights of Pythias 350 

Knights Templar 378 

L 

LaBelle House, The 141 

Ladies of the G. A. R. 362 

Lagrange 206 

Lanesburg, or Lanes Crossing 206 

Law Liberally Construed 276 

Lawyers of Another Day 108 

Lawyers of Marshall County 398 

L'Envoi 456 

Letter from a Soldier Boy_l 262 

Lewis and Clark Expedition 48 

"Liberal Construction" of Law 276 

Liljerty Meant License Then 118 

Library Association, Blue Rapids — 144 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Life Lost in Prairie Fire 429 

Lillis, Village of 177 

Limestone Quarries 35 

Lincoln Township 113 

Liquor Freely Sold 118 

Liquor Had Early Foes 140 

"Little Green Tents/' a Poem 261 

Local Men in Federal Service 276 

Location of Marshall County 100 

Logan Township ' 113 

Longest Indian Trail in Country — 49 

Lone-Grave Cemetery 186 

Long Time Between Drinks 180 

Lost and Abandoned Towns 205 

Loyalists Destroy Newspaper Plant 

264, 369 

Loyal Man Murdered 435 

Lutheran and Evangelical Churches — 

Cottage Hill and Waterville 319 

Walnut Township 320 

Marysville 320 

Herkimer 322 

Stolzenbach 322 

Walnut Township 323 

Hermansburg 324 

M 

Maennerchor at Marysville 134 

Major Long's Expedition 48 

Manning, Edwin C. 274 

Manning's Home Guards 78 

Many-Sided Marshall 101 

Marietta, Village of 177 

"Marble Falls." a Blasted Hope_197, 206 

Marietta State Bank 413 

Marshall County Created 101 

Marshall County Farm Bureau 253 

Marshall County in War Time 261 

Marshall County No "Slacker" 211 

Marshall County Press 416 

Marshall County's Settlement 56 

Marshall's Claim Discredited 98 

Marshall's Ferry 115 

Marshall, Gen. Frank J. ^-63, 101 

Marshall, Mrs. Mary 69 

Marysville & Blue Valley Railroad- 240 
Marysville, County Seat 103 



Marysville, First Postoffice 102 

Marysville Named for Mrs. Mar- 
shall 70, 101 

Marysville Overshadowed Palmetto 185 

Marysville Public Schools 285 

Marysville Township 113 

Marysville's Greatest "Boom" 116 

Marysville, The County Seat — 

Bands 125 

Business Directory 132 

Cemetery 127 

Churches 301 

Commercial Club 134 

Community House 121 

Fire Department 128 

First Bridge 117 

First Saw-Mill 116 

Incidents of Old Days 118 

Incorporation 115 

Industries 119 

Old Business Firms 120 

Old-Time Theatricals 125 

Railroad Business 137 

Schools 285 

Turnverein 122 

Women's Clubs 134 

Masonic Organizations '362 

Massacre of Small Party 54 

Mastadon Bones Unearthed 39 

Medical Profession, The 383 

Medicine Men Among Indians 384 

Alerchants' State Bank, Waterville__ 415 

Merrimac 206 

Methodist Episcopal Churches — 

At Marysville 301 

At Blue Rapids 302 

At Frankfort 303 

At Axtell 304 

At Waterville , 305 

At Summerfield 305 

At Irving 306 

At Vliets 306 

At Cottage Hill 307 

At Beattie 307 

At Vermillion 307 

Military History of Marshall County 261 

Militia Pursue Indians 53 

Miller, Dr. J. P. ., 117, 388 

Mina, Village of 178 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Miscellaneous Items 423 

Miscellaneous Railroad Items 237 

Missionary Slain by Indians 58 

Missions, Earlj' in Kansas 58 

Modern Woodmen of America 353 

Moore, Z. H. 182 

Morehouse, G. P. 47 

More Soldiers Than Voters 1_ 265 

Mormon Crossing, The 93 

Mormon Meanderings 440 

iMorrall, Dr. Albert 86 

"Mortgage Lifters" 252 

Movement for Better Roads 242 

Murdered for Gold 436 

Murder, First on Kansas Soil 45 

Murder of Under-Sheriff .^ 438 

Murray Township 113 

Mussey, Rev. C. F. 139 

Alutual Improvement Club 192 



Mc 

AlcClosk}', James 87 

McCoy, Thomas 445 

McDonald, John 299 

McPherson, John, Recollections of 

148, 152 

N 

Named for English City 172 

Native Flowers 41 

Nebraska Town Company 203 

Neighborliness of Pioneers 75 

Nelson, John 216 

New Court House in 1891 108 

New Dayton 207 

New England Aid Company 59 

New Jail Not Burglar Proof 108 

Newspapers 416 

New Way to Pay Old Debts 73 

Ninth Kansas Cavalry 266 

Noble Township 113 

Nolan 205 

Nomenclature of Towns 428 

Northern Discontent Grows 98 

Nottingham Postoffice 166, 207 



O 

Ocean-to-Ocean Highway 241 

O'Fallon, Major John 48 

Officials of Marysville 114 

Officials of Townships 112 

Officers of Farmers' Unions 257 

Ohio City 207 

Oil Seekers at Work 36 

Oketo, City of— 

Business Interests 183 

Busy Pioneer Crossing 179 

Contrast with the Present 181 

Early Business Concerns 183 

Good Citizenship the Rule 184 

Incorporation in 1890 184 

Memories of Old Tow'n 179 

Moores First in Business 182 

Population 184 

Prominent Families 183 

Women Control Government 184 

Oketo State Bank 413 

Oketo Township 113 

Old Band at Waterville 202 

Old County Seat, "Sylvan" 203 

Old Ferry at Hull 172 

"Old Glory" Kept Flying 265 

Old Settlers Reunion Association 56 

Old-Time Business Firms 120 

Old-Time Dances 90 

Old-Time Theatricals 125 

Old Town of Oketo 179 

Old Townsite of Wyoming 177 

Old Trails Hints 50 

Old Vermillion City 207 

Once Important Railroad Point 200 

One Official to Four Offices 389, 404 

Only One Free-State Vote in 1857__ 277 

Open Saloons in Plenty 118 

Opposition to Slavery 93 

Order of the Eastern Star 379 

Organization of Townships 110 

Origin of Blue Rapids City 139 

Origin of "Kansas" 46 

Origin of Place Names 428 

Ornithology of Marshall County_35, 40 

Otoe : 207 

Otoe Indian Reservation 50 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Otoe Indians Join Union Troops__ 267 

Overland Emigration 52 

Overland Stage, The 75, 440 

P 

Palmetto Colony, The 184 

Panic Among Early Settlers 53 

Parker, Dr. Charles 174 

Parmelee, Solomon H. 139 

Passing of First Court House 108 

Past and Present Contrasted 102 

Pawnee Indians, the "Quivera" 45 

Pecenka, John 209, 447 

Pennington Murder, The 437 

Pentecost Church 328 

Physicians of Marshall County 394 

Pike's Peak Trail, The 75 

Pioneer Court Scene 404 

Pioneer Doctors Face Difficulties-- 391 

Pioneer Farmer's Wife, The 60 

Pioneer "Free State" Settlement — 159 

Pioneer Girls of the Prairies 74 

Pioneer "House Warming" 61 

Pioneer Pastimes 185 

Pioneer "Pooh-Bah," A 389, 404 

Pioneer Privations 97 

Pioneer Swedish Preachers 229 

Pioneers Held in Remembrance — 57 

Pioneers on the Vermillion 7i. 93 

Plaster Manufacture ^7 

Pleasant Hill 208 

Pleasures of the Pioneers 61 

Plot for Novelist 84 

Political History of County 274 

Pony Express, The 443 

Population Rapidly Grew 102 

Populist PoHtics 279 

Postofhce at Barrett in 1857 159 

Postoffice at Beattie 161 

Postoffice at Blue Rapids 148 

Postoffice of Short Life 170 

Postoffices in Marshall County 427 

Potato-bug Bird Arrives 41 

Poultry in Marshall County 253 

Prairie Chicken Plentiful 219 

Prairie Fire's Ravages * 428 

Prehistoric Evidences 39 

Prelude to Civil War 99 



Presbyterian Churches — 

At Marysville 308 

At Blue Rapids 309 

At Frankfort 310 

At Axtell 310 

At Irving 311 

At Vermillion 311 

Press of Marshall County 416 

Promising School Destroyed 174 

Prophetic Words 274 

Pulilic Highways in Marshall Coun- 
ty 241 

Public Officials 274 

Punteney, Eli (Recollections of)-- 75 
Purebred Cattle Introduced 244 

Q 

Quack Doctors 392 

"Quivera," Now Kansas 45 

R 

"Raemer Creek" Postoffice 170, 207 

Railroad Company's "Spite Work"- 174 

Railroad Improvements 235 

Railroad Item of Current Interest-- 137 
Railroad Survey Deceived Boomers 197 

Railways of Marshall County 234 

Railway Station Twice Destroyed-- 174 

Relic of Coronado's Visit 46 

Red Polled Cattle 247 

Reedsville 207 

Religious Services in Saloon 300 

Religious Services in Saw-Mill — 159 

Relocation of County Seat 103 

Richland Township 114 

Riverside Cemetery Association 202 

Robidoux 208 

Rock Township 114 

Rose Hill Cemetery 158 

Rough and Desperate Men 118 

Routine of Pioneer Living 60 

Rowland, Ed S. 54 

Royal Arch Alasons 378 

Royal Neighbors of America 353 

S 

Sale of the Kaw Country 47 

School Boards Association 296 

School District No. 1 159 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



School Districts and Teachers 292 

School Roll of Honor 298 

Schools of Beattie 291 

Schools of Marshall County 282 

Schools of Sunimcrville 290 

Schools of Waterville 290 

School Statistics 297 

School Superintendents of County. 292 

Schroyer, Philip 186 

Schroj'Cr. Village of — 

Automobiles Kill Business 186 

Bridge Built in 1900 186 

Farmers' Union Elevator 186 

First Events 186 

Laid Out on Schroyer Farm 186 

Only Merchant in Town 186 

Scott, Rev. Thomas 301 

Shakespeare and Doctors 395 

Shocking Fate of Young Girl 52 

Shorthorns Have Checkered Career 246 

Second Kansas Cavalry 267 

Semi-Precious Stones in County 35 

Settled Dispute with Gun 181 

Settlement of Marshall County 56 

Sfettlers Become Discouraged 174 

Seven Cities, The Island of 42 

Seventh Kansas Cavalry 262 

Sheep Being Given a Try-out 251 

Sheriff Shot liy Desperado 399 

Shibley. R. Y. 185 

Shihley & Quarles Mill 117 

Silos in Marshall County 248 

Sidelights on County History 439 

Singing- and Spelling-Schools 61 

Slavery Bitterly Opposed 93 

Smith, "Ji""'/' War Recollections of 262 

Social Center at Alarysville 121 

Societies and Clubs 348 

Sod Houses and Dugouts 59 

Soldiers Outnumber Voters 265 

Some First Events 96 

Some Prominent Visitors 124 

Sons of Veterans 362 

Spanish-American War Times 269 

"Spite Work" Was Ineffectual 174 

Staple Products of the Farm i7 

St. Bridget's Settlement 231 

St. Bridget Township 114 



St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad 237 

St. Joseph & Grand Island Railroad 234 

St. Joseph & Western Railroad 236 

State Bank of Axtell 408 

State Bank of Beattie 408 

State Bank of Blue Rapids 409 

State Bank of Frankfort 410 

State Bank of Herkimer 411 

State Bank of Home City 411 

State Bank of Irving 411 

State Bank of Lillis 411 

State Bank of Vermillion 414 

State Bank of Vliets 415 

State Bank of Winifred 415 

Statistics of Schools 298 

State Representatives 280 

State Officials from This County__ 275 

State Senators 280 

Stock Raising in Marshall County__ 243 

Stock Show and Fair Association.. 258 

Stolzenbach 207 

Stone Quarries at Beattie 160 

Stone Quarries at Bigelow 162 

Stone Quarries at Oketo 182 

Story of County-Seat Election 105 

Spaniards Attempt Invasion 48 

Successful Local Insurance Com- 
pany 1 165 

Suicide of Disappointed Settler 199 

Sullivan 205 

Gummerfield, City of — 

Churches 305 

Early Business Firms 189 

First Events 187 

Great Fire of 1894 188 

Incorporated in 1890 187 

Named for Railroad Man 187 

Organized in 1888 187 

Present Conditions 190 

Town Quickly Rebuilt 188 

Summerfield, Elias 187 

Summerfield State Bank - 414 

Summit 205 

Swede Creek 207 

Swedes in Alarshall County 227 

Swedish Settlements 228 

Swiss in Marshall County 224 

"Sylvan.*' First County Seat 203, 207 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



T 

Taos 208 

Tax Levy of Marshall County 110 

Teachers in County's Schools 292 

Territorial Council 279 

Territorial Government 66 

Territory of Kansas 100 

"The Blue River." a Poem 115 

"The Flag Goes By." a Poem 273 

"TJie Plowman," a Poem 243 

Thiele. Ernest W. 94 

Thirteenth Kansas Infantry 267 

Thoman, Joseph and Frank 224 

Thorne. Mrs. George \V. 71 

Tibbitts. Charles E. 419 

Tide of Immigration Sets In 102 

Toll for Ferriage Fixed 119 

Took Girl's Refusal to Heart 199 

Town Named for Bishop Lillis 177 

Town of Palmetto Short Lived 185 

Town Plan Carefully Laid 173 

Town Valuations 111 

Township Officials 112 

Township Organization 110 

Township Valuations 111 

Towns That Lost Out 205 

Traded Seed Wheat for Whisky___ 200 

Trading Posts Along Trail 100 

T agedies of Marshall County 434 

Travelute. Mrs. Elizabeth 57. 284 

Tree Culture Being Promoted il 

Tribute to German Settlers 222 

Tiil)ute to Irish Settlers 232 

Tribute to the Bohemians 214 

Tribute to Mrs. Forter 02 

Topeka "Cut-off" Railroad 240 

Turnverein at Alarysville 122 

U 

Union Commercial Company 195 

L'nique Juryman 404 

United Presbyterian Church 325 

Universalist Church 327 

Upland 205 

V 

Valuation of Towns 111 

Valuation of Townships 111 



Value of City and Town Property. 110 

Value of Farm Property 110 

Vanished Lane of Yesterday 76 

\'erdict Hinges on Turn of Card 108 

Vermillion River 35 

Vermillion Township 114 

Veterans of Spanish-American War 270 

Vermillion, Village of — 

Business Interests 194 

Cemetery Association 193 

Churches 307 

Electric Lights . 191 

Farm and Home Institute 193 

Girl Band 193 

Laid Out in 1869 190 

Mutual Improvement Club 192 

Population of 190 

Pul)lic Hall and Library 192 

Some First Events 191 

Three Days' Carnival 192 

Veterans of the Civil War 268 

Vicissitudes of Pioneers 74 

Village Destroyed by Cyclone 175 

Village Destroyed by Fire 164 

Village of Barrett 159 

Village of Beattie 160 

Village of Bigelow 162 

Village of Bremen 163 

Village of Garden 165 

Village of Herkimer 170 

Village of Hull 172 

Village of Irving 173 

Village of Lillis 177 

Village of Alarietta 177 

Village of Mina 178 

Village of Schroyer 185 

Village of Vermillion 190 

Village of Vliets 195 

Village of Winifred 203 

Visitors of Prominence 124 

Vliets, Village of — 

Churches 306 

Farmers' Union 196 

Grain Shipments 195 

Population 195 

Schools 195 

Volunteer Fire Department 129 

Volunteers for War With Germany 272 



HISTORICAL INDEX. 



W 

Walker. Isaac ^^ 

Walkersbury 204 

Walnut Township 114 

Walters. Prof. John 13. 225 

War of the Rebellion 261 

War of 1917, The 271 

Washington Irving Honored 173 

Water at Five Cents a Pail 198 

Waterpower at Blue Rapids 141 

Waterpower, Best in State H 

Waterville Township 114 

Waterville, City of — 

Business Interests 202 

Cemeteries 201 

Churches 305 

Early Settler Kills Himself 199 

First Railway Survey Deceives — 197 

Hard Pressed for W'ater 198 

Incorporated in 1870 200 

Named for Old Maine Town 197 

On Banks of Little Blue 196 

Once Leading Railway Point 200 

Outcome of "Marble Falls" 197 

Postoffice 200 

Some Early Events 198 

Village's First Tragedy 198 

Waterworks at Marysville 130 

Watson. John M. 70, li 

Wells 207 

Wells Township 114 

Westella 208 

Wetmore Institute. The 174, 283 

"What Is Noble?" 397 



When Kansas Went Populist 279 

When Marysville Was Notorious.- 118 

"Where the West Begins" :S}> 

Whippoorwill No Longer Heard — 40 

Whisky as a Commodity 118 

White. J. H. 180 

White's Quarry 207 

White Stuinp Swimming Hole 445 

White Way Highway 242 

Wild Fowl Now Fly High 40 

Williams. Emma 70 

Windbreaks of Cottonwoods 36 

Winifred, Village of — 

Nebraska Town Company 203 

Old Site of "Sylvan"' 203 

Original County Seat Site 203 

Population __. 204 

Schools and Business 204 

Winters, John M. 245 

Woman's Relief Corps 360 

Woman's Christian Temperance 

Union 362 

Women Govern City of Oketo 184 

Women's Clubs at Marysville 134 

Women's Work at County Fairs 259 

Woodson 208 

Woolen-Mill at Blue Rapids 143 

"Wyoming." an Early Townsite 177 



Y. M. C. A. Corn-Growing Contest 254 
Young Men's Christian Association 

362, 423 
Yurann. Jason 149 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX 



A 

Alspach, Cornelius W. 589 

Anderson, Herman J. 873 

Armstrong, Lyman H. 985 

B 

Balderson, Charles A. 76S 

Ballard, Corwin 957 

Bancroft, George 639 

Banman, George B. 925 

Beaty, Samuel J. 940 

Belknap, Carl M. 970 

Bennett, Lloyd 942 

Berens, Henry A. 615 

Bergen, Fred G. 457 

Bergmann, Christian 948 

Beveridge, Jacob A., D. D. S 972 

Bommer, Harry 570 

Bommer, William 682 

Bottger, Henry 1026 

Boyd, William S. 642 

Bradley, Rev. Clarence 484 

Brandenburg, Charles W., D. D. S__ 501 

Brodrick, Harry M. 600 

Brodrick, Lynn R. 921 

Brolyer, Edwin D. 977 

Brooks, William H. 714 

Brychta, Jerome M. 681 

Buck, William T. 1017 

Burnett. Peter S. 662 

C 

Cain. Patrick W. 80) 

Cain. Peter S. - 736 

Carlson, August J. 656 

Carney, Eli G. 907 

Carney, John H. 784 

Chaddock, Joseph 911 

Champagne, Peter 606 



Claeys, Constand 702 

Clark, Rezin 552 

Clifton. John, M. D. 904 

Craft. Rufus S., M. D. ' 504 

Crane, Robert 584 

Crome, Fred 664 

Cummings, C. E. 597 

Curtis, Samuel 901 

D 

Davis, John L. 539 

Dean, Aubrey R. 650 

DeLair, David 544 

DeLair, Peter H. 576 

Denlinger, John W. 837 

Denton, James W. 624 

Detweiler, Henry F. . 983 

Dever, Thomas 626 

Dexter, Thomas B. 770 

Dexter, William H. 919 

Dickey, Joseph C. 621 

Dilley, James M. 927 

Dolen, John C. 764 

Drumm. William M. 1002 

Duigenan. Michael J. 555 

Dwerlkotte, Joseph 956 

E 

Ellenbecker, John C 512 

Embleau, Rev. Edward R. 551 

Erickson, Charles 937 

F 

Farrar, Henry H. 853 

Farrar, Thomas J. 905 

Farwell, John D. 895 

Fenwick, George L. 495 

Fisher, Herman R. 616 

Flanagan, James L. 952 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Focks, Michael F. 891 

Follett, Henry C. 604 

Forter, Mrs. Emma E. 912 

Forter. Samuel 912 

Fulton, Edgar R. 511 

Fuhvider. William H. 687 

G 

Gallup, George 756 

Garrison, A. B. 672 

Garrison, Charles L. 599 

Gaston, E. A., D. D. S. 559 

Gaylord, Frank M. 647 

Gernier, Fred 640 

Gibson. Abel W. 858 

Gossin. William T. 810 

Graham, Byron C. 744 

Graham. John G. 861 

Green, Joseph 636 

Greiveldinger, Henry 675 

H 

Hamilton, John L. 824 

Harper, John F. 1005 

Harry, Charles A. 748 

Harry, Thomas 852 

Haslett, Mrs. Melissa 485 

Hawkins, Richard H. 794 

Hedge, Alvah 111 

Heiserman. George 651 

Heiserman, Frederick J. liZ 

Helvering, William J. 572 

Hamler, James A. 491 

Henry, Ira E. 696 

Hermann, Henry 655 

Hermann, Herman 655 

Herring, Benjamin W. 560 

Hessel. Clement T. 554 

Hirt, Andrew 806 

Hohn, Karl 693 

Holtham, William J. 460 

Howell, Lewis R. 743 

Howes, John 614 

Howes, Tliomas : 750 

Hunt, John H. 1013 

Hunt, William B. 960 

Hunter, William. M. D. 668 

Hutchinson, Frank W. 468 

Hutchinson, Capt. Perry 464 



Ilutcliinson, Wallace W. 472 

Hutciiison, .Andrew D. 601 

Huxtal.lc, William C. 543 

I 

Irvin, Ed 583 

J 

Jacohson, I'eter F. : 815 

Johnson, Alfred 930 

Jojinson,, Andrew 893 

Johnson. Herman 1000 

Johnson, Hutchinson 1012 

Johnson. Nels E. 996 

Johnson. William 950 

Johnston, Erskine W. 1004 

Jones. Albert L. 760 

Jones, Arthur T. 741 

Jones, Charles B. 972 

Joseph, Fred R. 612 

Judd, J. L. 974 

K 

Kabriel, Venzel 791 

Kapitan, Rudolph A. 975 

Keck, Sterling 700 

Keefover, James E. 1035 

Keller, Gottfried 847 

Kerschen, Nicholas S. 471 

Kinsley, W. J. 821 

Kirlin. Linden 720 

Kjellberg. Andrew 938 

Koeneke. Ernst 718 

Koeneke, Henry W. 1019 

Koepp, Charles W. 783 

Koppes, Nicholas 753 

Krasny, Joseph 804 

Krug. John H. 658 

Kruse, George A. 706 

Kruse. William 690 

Kr.or.i, Mathias 528 

L 

Lackland, H. W. 923 

Lackland. W. T. 923 

Lamb Family. The 963 

Larkin, Frank 1030 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Larson, Hans P. 846 

La3'ton, George B. 738 

Lewis, John L. 535 

Lewis, Jonathan C. 839 

Lewis, Robert J. 644 

Lewis, Thomas H. 1009 

Lilliljridge, Hiram 885 

Lindeen, Alfred 986 

Lindquist, John A. 874 

Link, John 619 

Lofdahl, John 970 

Lofinck, Capt. William 526 

Ludwick, D. W. 557 

Lynch, Patrick 787 

Mc 

McAtee, William H. 922 

McKee. Edward J. 524 

McKee, John F. 774 

McKee, William L. 909 

M 

Alaitland, Henry 610 

Malicky, Vencel 677 

Malone, Thomas 981 

Manly, Oliver R. 991 

Manly, Ross 1015 

Manninij, Joseph 871 

Marksman, Francis J. 1038 

Meybrimn, Jacob 646 

Miller, George 863 

Moden, J. M. 807 

Moeller, Henry W. 829 

Mohrbacher, George T. 533 

Moore, Ziba H. 632 

Morse, Arthnr D. 932 

Moser, Fred 660 

Myers, Bernard 767 

N 

Nelson, Franz E. 813 

Nelson, Godfrey H. 994 

Nelson, John G. 799 

Nelson, Oscar 788 

Nichols, Clarence E. 876 

Nyqnist, Rev. Gustaf 959 



O 

Obermeyer, Fred 603 

Olson, George L. 590 

Olson, Lars P. 943 

O'Neil, Timothy P. 731 

P 

Pape, Gustav C. 724 

r'arthemer, Jonathan C. 842 

Paul, Samuel F. 498 

Pauley, Roley S. 816 

Pecenka, Anthony C. 865 

Pecenka. John 568 

Peterson, George 623 

Pishny, Ignatz 878 

Poteet, James L. 831 

Potter, William W. 459 

I'ralle, Fred H. 566 

Pul'leine, Percy R. 693 

R 

Rabe, William 630 

Reb, Henry 1010 

Reed, Asher F. 528 

Rice, Guy L. 493 

Rice, Milo M. _. 979 

Riekenberg, William 680 

Ringen, Ed. W. 832 

Robinson, Morley P. 1022 

Robinson, Neil 758 

Rodkey, Clayton 746 

Rueger, John 870 

Runkle. H. 881 

Russell, Oscar T. 666 

Rutti, Jacob 695 

S 

Saathofif, A. B. 678 

Scanlan, Frank A. 653 

Schlax, Benjamin E. 776 

Schmidler, J. G. 562 

Schmidt, Mathias M. 578 

Schulte, Henry 939 

Schumacher, Peter J. ^ 509 

Schwindaman, William 716 

Scott. James M. 584 

Sediv3% Frank 868 

Sedlacek, Joseph A. 834 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX, 



Seematter. John 880 

Shaughncss}', James 848 

Sheldon. Frank D. 582 

Sheldon, Julius J., M. D. 574 

Shroyer, Peter 540 

Shumate. Joseph M. 520 

Skalla, Thomas H. 992 

Smith. John 735 

Smith, John V. 850 

Smith. Robert W. 531 

Smith. Thomas B. 840 

Smith. William E. 796 

Spratt. Charles A. 1034 

Stedman. Samuel W. 728 

Steig. John 712 

Stephens. Dr. L. H. 592 

Stevenson. Lewis M. 954 

Steward, Catherine L. 496 

Stewart. Clark M. 477 

Stewart. James W. 887 

Stewart, William J.. :\I. D. 596 

Strayer. William, M. D. 628 

Stromer. John W. 792 

Strong. James G. 944 

Suggett. John W. 710 

Suggett. Thomas J. 762 

Sullivan. James 899 

Swanson, Oscar A. 819 

T 

Tarvin, Charles H. 1028 

Taton. Rev. Francis H. 480 

Thacher. George I., AI. D. 474 

Thiele, George H. _.___ 722 

Thomann, Frank 536 

Thompson, James A 648 

Thomson, Frank 808 

Tibbetts, Charles C. 634 

Tilley, Samuel W. 934 

Times. The Blue Rapids 634 

Toedter, John P. 594 



Train, F. A. 1040 

Travelute, Andrew J. 488 

Traxler. Henry 883 

V 

Vanamhurg. Jolm D. 827 

Van X'liet. (ieorge 997 

W 

Wagner, John F. 704 

Wagner, Louis J. 1032 

Warnica, Calvin 987 

Warnica, William D. 546 

Waters. Henry C. 618 

Weaver, Henry 779 

Weber, Carl 752 

Wells. James 587 

Wells. Oliver C. 549 

Werner. Frank A. 580 

Westburg, Kasper . 999 

Wilcox. James R. 688 

Willey. Charles L. 727 

Winquist. John A. 1007 

Winter. Burton M. 1024 

Witt. Gustav A. 772 

Wittmuss. Albert 671 

Wohler. Frank T. 856 

Wohler. Ortwin F. 889 

Wood, Orlin P., M. D. 564 

Wuester. Joseph B. 837 

Wullschleger. Jacob 928 

^^'ullschleger. Robert 844 

Y 

Yiinssi. Frank . 522 

^ aussi, Rudolph 951 

Z 

Zarybnicky, Joseph 708 

Zimnierling, Ernst W. 790 

/immerling, Oscar W. H. 1037 



WHERE THE W^EST BEGINS. 

Out where the West begins, 
Out where the hand clasps a Httle stronger, 
Out where the smile dwells a little longer, 

That's where the AVest begins. 
Out where the sun is a little brighter, 
Out where the snow falls a trifle whiter, 
A\^here the bonds of home are a wee bit tighter. 

That's where the West begins. 

Out where the skies are a trifle bluer, 
Out where friendship's a little truer, 

That's where the West begins. 
Out where a fresher breeze is blowing, 
Where there's laughter in every streamlet flowing. 
Where there's more of reaping and less of sowing, 

That's where the West begins. 

Out where the world is in the making, 
Where fewer hearts with despair are aching. 

That's where the West begins. 
Where there's more of singing and less of sighing. 
Where there's more of giving and less of buying, 
Where a man makes friends without half trying, 



That's where the West begins. 



— ^Arthur Chapman. 



(3) 



HISTORICAL 



CHAPTER T. 
Geology, Ornithology and Flora. 

The geolog-ist has drawn an irregular Hne diagonally across the county 
from northeast lo southwest, from near Summerfield. where the altitude is 
one thousand four hundred and fifty feet above sea le\-el. to a point near 
where the Big Blue river leaves the county and where the altitude is about 
one thousand one hundred feet above sea level. He tells us that east of that 
hne the territory is of the Carboniferous and west of the line, is composed 
of the Permian age, an equal di\ision. which has been satisfactory so far to 
all concerned. 

The Big Blue, which carries more water in dry weather than any other 
stream in Kansas, enters the county on the north, eleven miles east of the 
west line and leaves it on the south, twelve miles' east of tlie west line, flow- 
ing through a bottom from one-half to one and one-half miles wide, of the 
richest farming land known. 

The Vermillion rher receives the w^ater from the eastern and south- 
eastern part of the county and pours it into tlie Big Blue, about a mile north 
of the southern line of the county. 

Along the rivers and creeks is found a plentiful supply of limestone for 
building purposes, the quarries at Oketo and Florena on the Big Blue and at 
Beattie on the Vermillion, having shipped stone for many years in thousands 
of carload lots to Nebraska and Missouri. 

An apparently inexhaustible supply of gypsum is found near Blue 
Rapids, where hundreds of thousands of dollars are invested in its manu- 
facture. 

rRECIOUS STONE.S. 

Semi-precious stones, such as agates of all kinds, opals, white sapphire, 
topaz, turquois, quartz crystals and jasper of various kinds, are found in the 



36 AlAK^JiAIJ. COLNTY. KANSAS. 

sandbars of the Big' Blue and its trilnitaries, on llic liiyh hills and the glacial 
drift, in almost e\ er}- part of the county, in small (|uantities. 

Many of these have been j^round and make beautiful jewelry. There 
is. howe\er, not enoueh of anv one kind to market i)rofitablv. Quite a num- 
her of fresh \v;iter pearls have been found in the mussels taken from the 
Big Blue river. 

.V poor grade of coal has been fcjund near Axtell, but not in quantity to 
assure profitable mining. 

The first attempt at drilling for coal or gas was made at Marysville in 
1884, l)ut when salt water was struck at about four hundred feet, operations 
were discontinued. In 1887 a well was sunk near Hutchinson's mill to a 
dei)th of one thousand one hundred and fifty feet, and abandoned in salt 
w^ater. In 190G the Schmidt brothers sunk a well one thousand one hundred 
and fiftv feet near the river bridge at Marysville and abandoned it in salt 
water. Another well was sunk between Axtell and Vermillion to one thou- 
sand three hundred feet, with similar results. 

During the year 1916 thousands of acres of Marshall county land were 
leased bv various oil companies for the ostensible purpose of drilling for oil. 

In Februarv, 19 17, a home organization, strictly mutual, by landowners 
onlv, was perfected with a view to testing the territory to a depth of three 
thousand feet. The officers of this company are, C. A. Hammett, president; 
Alexander Schmidt, secretary ; M. W. Schmidt, treasurer, with directors in 
both Marshall and Washington counties. 

FORESTRY. 

The Cottonwood was the native monarch tree of Kansas for many years. 
It grew plentifully along the rivers, and as the pioneer built his cabin near 
the streams, the cottonwood furnished shade and shelter for himself and the 
small herds lie possessed. The cottonwood, being full of sap withstood the 
drought and prairie fires, and because it made rapid growth, settlers were 
urged to plant the trees for wind-break for orchards and stock. 

Everv farm had its "row" and grove of cotton woods. Sometimes a 
furrow was plowed and twigs stuck in the ground, which would soon show 
sturdy growth. The rapid growth, of the cottonwood was its redeeming 
feature. It lost its foliage early and did not make prime lumber. The cot- 
tonwood tree is gratefully remembered for the protection it gave to the 
pioneer, but it is rapidly being eliminated and replaced by the catalpa, ash, 
mulberry, walnut, box elder and maple. The box elder, maple and willow 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 37 

were close friends of tlie cottonwood, for the reason. that they, too, resisted 
the drought and fire. Native cedar grew in the canyons and draws and 
along the bluffs. 

The catalpa, a deciduous tree, makes a fine shade and produces clusters 
of large, fragrant, white blossoms, which are beautiful and make the tree 
popular. 

.\ great deal of attention is given to tree culture and in most towns 
there are too many trees. The straggling, ill-formed trees are being culled 
and replaced by straight, symmetrical trees of many different \-.arieties. 

FARMING. 

Farming has been and is the great pursuit of the people of the county. 
Of the twenty-three thousand inhabitants, only seven thousand reside in the 
towns. The 1916 reports show that three hundred fifty-three thousand two 
hundred and eighty acres are under cultivation ; two hundred eighteen thou- 
sand three hundred and forty acres in pasture or not under cultivation, and 
eleven tliousand three hundred and eighty-five acres in wild timber. Most 
of the hardwood grows along the creeks and small streams, while the soft 
timber prefers the river bottoms, and the wild cedar inhabits the almost inac- 
cessible bluff's at any point. 

The great staple products of the farm have ever been corn, wheat, oats 
and, for a good many years, alfalfa has been a great factor as food for beast 
and fowl. There is scarcely a product of the soil raised anywhere, which 
cannot be raised profitably in this county. 

THE GYPSUM INDUSTRY. 

Kansas has unlimited quantities of gypsum in a great variety of forms, 
and it is fast becoming one of the greatest resources within the domain of 
the state. There are three gypsum districts and the northern area or dis- 
trict is in Marshall county. 

The Big Blue and Little Blue ri\-ers unite near the town of Blue Rapids 
and furnish at that place the best water power in the state, estimated at one 
thousand five hundred horse-power at low^ water. 

The plaster manufacture is the prominent industry of Blue Rapids, a 
town of one thousand seven hundred inhabitants, where there are three gyp- 
sum mills and a fourth one in prospect. 

In 1 87 1 J. V. Coon of Elyria, Ohio, came to Blue Rapids, burned some 



38 MARSHALL (OUNTV, KANSAS. 

of tlic ,L;yi)suni and carried it hack to Cle\"cland, wlicrc it was proiiDunccd to 
be oi good (|ualit\- and two carloads were ordered at a good price. He 
returned to Hlnc Kapids and he and his .son. Emir J. Cooil in 1872 Imilt 
a frame shed on the east bank of the river, below the town. In an iron 
kettle, which held about tue barrels and which \vas heated by a stove, they 
commenced the manufacture of plaster of Paris. In 1875 they built a stone 
mill on the west side of the river and the water power of the river was used 
for grinding. This mill was operated for twelve years, when the firm dis- 
continued business. 

Hiram and Frank Fowler followed Coon & Son in the plaster business, 
building a single kettle, frame mill at the west end of the bridge over the 
dam. 

In 1892 A. E. Winters formed a company and built the Blue Valley 
mill, constructing a dam across the Little Blue, about one-half mile above its 
junction with the Big Blue. This is the point referred to by early settlers 
as "marble falls," because of the rapids of the river there and the gypsum 
deposit in the west bank of the river, which they thought resembled marble. 

This mill was purchased by the United States Gypsum Company and 
was operated until 1916, when they abandoned and tore down the mill after 
building a new modern steel and concrete mill, just south of town at a cost 
of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. This mill stands on the I. D. 
Yarick ranch where Mr. Yarick had previously opened up a gypsum mine. 

GYPSUM INDUSTRY DEVELOPED. 

Following this, Dr. William Hunter, H. H. Russell. Frank Paul and 
Jesse Axtell, of Blue Rapids, and Dr. W. E. Ham and N. T. Waters, of 
Beattie, built a mill, which was purchased by Mr. Henley, of Law^-ence, for 
the American Cement Plaster Company. This mill has been greatly enlarged 
and is still in operation. 

In 1902 after the sale of the Great Western Plaster Company's mill to 
Henley, Hunter, Russell, Ham and Waters purchased the gypsum deposits 
north of town and built a two-kettle mill which they operated by electric 
powder, naming their corporation the Electric Plaster Company, and install- 
ing an electric-light plant in Blue Rapids. This mill was operated until 
191 2, when Mr. Henley of the American Cement Plaster Company bought a 
controlling interest in it and dismantled it. 

In February, 1906, the Blue Rapids Company, a corporation of Marys- 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS, 39 

ville men, began operating a new mill on the north side of the river, with 
F. W. Hutchinson as manager. It was sold to Henley in December of the 
same year and is now operated as the American cement plaster mill No. 2. 
This mill has been much enlarged by the installation of a plaster-board plant, 
the output of which is a great success as a substitute for laths and plaster in 
buildings. 

Experts declare the Blue Rapids gypsum to be the purest as well as the 
whitest found west of Nova Scotia. The United States Gypsum Company 
and the American Cement Plaster Company purchased mills at Blue Rapids 
in order to get the best possible quality of gypsum from which to make plaster 
of Paris, dental and molding plaster. Most of the plaster for the staff work 
at the Worlds Fair at Chicago and St. Louis was made in Blue Rapids. It 
has been shipped to almost every country in the world, one shipment being 
made to Japan in the fall of 1916. The annual shipment of the product 
of the gypsum mills at Blue Rapids is about two thousand five hundred cars. 
The average car carries forty tons of stucco, which never sells at less than 
eight dollars per ton. 

PREHISTORIC. 

In a sand pit on the east bank of the Big Blue river, half a mile south 
of Marysville, and about twelve feet below the surface, laborers found a 
number of large bones which soon crumbled in the air, and several very large 
teeth which are petrified. 

The largest of these teeth measures eight inches by three and one-half 
inches on the face, the others being a little smaller. Whether these were 
teeth of a mastodon or some other long extinct creature, has not been 
determined, and to what age it belonged, is likewise an enigma. 

Imbedded in our limestone are found almost every species of what had 
been animal, plant and Crustacean life. ' Walnut and cedarwood have been 
found while digging wells at various points, from twenty to forty feet below 
the surface. While digging a well near Eighth and Alston streets in Maiys- 
ville, charcoal and crude pottery were found at a depth of twenty-seven feet. 
Stone axes, hammers and similar crude tools have been and still are being 
found many feet below, as well as on the surface at almost any point in the 
county. 

These stone tools probably contribute the evidence of the connecting link 
between the age which produced the enormous bones and teeth and the age 
which produced the Indian. At least the gap between the large teeth and 



40 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

tlie stone ax is not covered by any other visible evidence, unless it be the 
so-called glacial drift which covers various parts of the county to various 
depths. 

BIRDS. 

Ornithologists tell us that there are over three hundred distinct varieties 
of birds in Kansas, not counting those of the domestic breeds. The earliest 
settlers tell us that when they came here there were many wild turkeys in the 
timber along the streams, but they did not last long after the rifle and shot- 
gun came. Grouse and prairie chickens fairly covered the country for many 
years, and older settlers get a sort of lonesome feeling in the spring mornings 
for the reason that no longer is heard the familiar cackling of the prairie hen 
and the drumming of her mate, which was familiar on all sides from thou- 
sands of happy throats in former days. Alas, the avarice of the hunter has 
reduced the number of this "native," until now there are not a hundred left 
in the county, in spite of the strict game laws. 

The quail, which roamed our fields and woods in thousands, the special 
friend of the farmer, and everybody's pet wild bird, has become so scarce that 
the call of "Bob White" has become a novelty. The innocent quail has fallen 
a prey to the highly civilized white man, as has the magnificent deer, antelope 
and the buffalo. 

EXIT OF THE EAGLE. 

The great American eagle, which was once a daily visitor, has become so 
rare, that now the newspapers print his appearance as an item of news. He 
was not hunted, but he must have noticed what happened to the chicken and 
the quail, and he moved on. We still have hawks, crows and owls. The 
winged scavenger— the buzzard — always was scarce here, but much more so 
of late years. Wild geese and ducks in their flight north or south, formerly 
visited us by the thousand. They come in dozen lots now, and these lots are 
far between, and the migratory crane is seen only a mile high. 

The snipe and curlew, formerly plentiful, have become as scarce as the 
prairie chicken. There are still a few plover, but they seem to have been 
more a bird of the sod than of the field. The cry of the whipoorwill has not 
been heard in this county since 1880, but there are many more song birds 
than formerly, mockingbirds, thrushes, redbirds, robins, orioles, grossbeaks 
and others ; blackbirds, martens, swallows, kingbirds, linnets and larks, wrens 
and humming-birds, all favorites. The blue-jay is not a favorite, nor is the 
English sparrow, which made his first appearance here in the summer of 1878, 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 4 1 

and was first discovered by that genial Irishman, Tom McCoy, who was every- 
body's friend and who made harness, and by Sam Forter, who worked across 
the street from McCoy in a blacksmith shop. They were watched very closely 
for a long time ; there were only two of them when first seen, and they had a 
nest on McCoy's shop, and had things their own way for a while. Their mnl- 
titudinous offspring have become veritable pests. 

During the summer of 191 6 a heretofore unknown bird in this locality 
made its appearance. It looks much like a grossbeak and will become a favor- 
ite above all for the reason that it eats potato-bugs in great number, and it 
is the only bird known that has such an appetite. 

NATIVE FLOWERS. 

Pre-eminent among the wild flowers of the state is the sunflower, which 
is generally accepted as the "state flower." It is a very hardy plant, grows 
rampant and thrives wonderfully in the least favorable weather as well as in 
propitious seasons. In times gone by it covered every spot of uncultivated 
land, with rank growth, along roads and byways and its yellow fac^ greeted 
one everywhere from early summer till frost. In the early days quite a little 
fuel was obtained from the stalk of this wild flower. For some unknown 
reason the sunflower has been much less plentiful in the last five years than 
at any time before. 

The first dandelion made its appearance in this county about the year 
1888. It was quite a favorite while it was in its years of modesty; it is no 
longer a favorite, the horticulturist and the storebox philosopher, the scien- 
tists of the agricultural departments of the various states and the nation and 
the ordinary man with a hoe have exhausted all their wisdom in its suppres- 
sion. 

The native wild flowers are rapidly disappearing. The wild rose, the 
field lily, wild daisy and violet are about the only remaining wild flowers of 
the prairies that are familiar to the boys and girls of today. The old-time 
wild primrose, the yellow poppy, white and purple larkspur, wild parsnip, 
sageflower and asters are very rare. Here and there are to be found a wild 
yucca or soapweed and a cactus, which recall the days when this was supposed 
to be a part of the great American desert. A favorite and familiar native 
flower is the goldenrod, also the sweet wild rose, which is most delicate in 
coloring and fragrance. 



CHAPTER II. 
Early Explorations. 



SPANISH, 



One of the myths in the minds of early Spanish explorers was that of 
"The Seven Cities." 

In 1532 Francisco Pizarro had conquered Pern from the Incas and had 
extorted from the governor an enormous sum of money. Stories of fahul- 
ous wealth, gold and precious stones had so inflamed the Spanish minds, that 
the people accepted as true, various myths regarding the New World. 

Even so experienced an explorer as Ponce De Leon, who had been the 
companion of Columbus on his voyages, became- infatuated with the myth 
of the Fountain of ~^'outh and believed that if he could find the fountain and 
lave in its magic waters, old age would "fall from him like a garment," and 
he would walk again in the strength and vigor of youth. 

The name Cibola and the Seven Cities was given in 1 536-1 540 to sup- 
posed large and powerful cities in the present New Mexico, by Friar Marcos 
de Niza, who had made some excursions from Old Mexico into the North 
country. The good Friar may have heard the word "Cibobe" from the 
nati\e Tehua Indians. According to their traditions it was a place in south- 
ern Colorado, whence their ancestors issued from the interior of the earth. 
Cibobe was the mythical cradle of the tribe. Or he may have heard the 
word from the Zuni Indians. Ciba is the Indian name for rocks and the 
Zuni Indians held a range of mountains in what is now New Mexico. 

MYSTIC NUMBERS. 

The Island of Seven Cities was a fabled island which, in the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries, was supposed to exist in the Atlantic, west of Europe. 
It was said to have been peopled by seven bishops who, with many followers, 
had been driven out of Spain by the Moors. The number seven has been 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 43 

regarded as a mystic number for centuries by disciples of the occult. Severl 
is a result of combining the number three or the triad, with the number four 
or the tetrad. The triad (three) was held sacred as the source of energy 
and intelligence. The tetrad (four) was venerated by the heathen minds. 
It represents a square and exhibits by summation all the digits as far as 
ten — ( i-|-2-|-3-|-4). It marks the seasons, the elements, the four ages of 
man. United with the triad the number seven resulted. Seven marked the 
series of lunar phases. It \\ as the number of the known great planets. We 
have the Seven wonders of the world ; seven days in the week ; the city on 
Seven hills. More than likely, vSpanish students of the mystical originated 
the idea of the Seven Cities of Cibola. The slave Tejo and the "Turk", no 
doubt, heard the tale in idle hours from the Spaniards and sensing the greed 
for gold and plunder in the Spanish mind, enlarged on the "great cities to 
the North where the streets were paved with gold and the door-posts studded 
with precious gems." 

The stories which were told of the land of Cibola and the seven cities, 
are always attributed by historians to Indian slaves or half-breed negroes 
who acted as guides. By some occult means these guides were always able 
to converse with any and all tribes of Indians, encountered during the 
marches in search for the cities. It is evidence of the abnormal state of 
mind created by the desire for gold, when men like Guzman and Mendoza 
were induced to accept as true the word of a menial, in a matter which 
involved danger, hardship and a great outlay of money. 

EXPEDITION ABANDONED. 

In 1530 Nuno de Guzman ^^'as the ruler of New Spain. He had an 
Indian slave, Tejo. v»hose father had been a trader and had gone into the 
"back country," to trade with the inhabitants. Tejo told Guzman that he 
had sometimes gone with his father and that there were some towns there as 
large as the Citv of Mexico. In seven of those towns there were streets 
given over to shops and workers in precious metals. Tejo said it would 
require forty days travel to reach these cities. Guzman decided to go after 
the wealth. He enlisted four hundred Spaniards and twenty thousand 
Indians. His plans were not carried out and this expedition was abandoned. 
This was in 1530. 

Ten years prior to this in 1520, De Narvaez had attempted to subju- 
gate Cortez. the governor, and had suffered defeat. Soon after this he was 
empowered bv Charles V^ of Spain, to govern Florida. On the 15th of 



44 MAKSHATJ, COUNTY, KANSAS. 

April. 15-7, De Xarxaez landed at Tampa liay witli two Imndrcd and sixty 
soldiers and forty horsemen. lie soon bet^an his travels in seareh of gold. 

Volumes have been written about this expedition whieh ended in dis- 
aster, only four escaping- death by the Indians, by st(jrms and star\ation. 
These four were Cabaza de Vaca. the leader of the band; Maldonado, Dor- 
antes, and a negro slave, Estevan. The four had wandered in the wilds of 
Texas and the deserts and mountains of A^ew Mexico for se\'en years. They 
were rescued on the coast of the Gulf of California in April 15, 1537. 
Alendoza was now viceroy of Mexico and he bought Estevan from Dorantes, 
the slave's master. 

The four men related manv stories of their wanderings and of the 
northern countries. These stories recalled, revived and confirmed the stories 
of the trader's son, the Indian Tejo- 

The greed for gold awoke in ]\Iendoza and he decided to send an expe- 
dition North, and Eriar Marcos de Xiza was chosen to head it, as he had 
m^cle. sUo^r.t expeditions North and had been with Pizarro in his plundering 
expedition into Peru. The negro, Estevan, was the guide. The result 
of this expedition was that the Eriar reported that he had been told that 
there were cities to the North, where the people wore cotton clothes and had 
much., gold. It appears from the records, which are meager, that the Eriar 
was, somewhat guarded in his report, but when he mentioned gold — that 
was suf^cient. The wildest rumors were passed from mouth to mouth. It 
was said the door-posts were studded with precious gems. Royal permission 
was sought to explore the country of Cibola. This privilege finally went to 
Mendoza, he selected the post of Compostella on the Pacific Ocean, as the 
point of assembly and appointed Coronado to act as commander of the 
expedition. 

CORONADO. 

The foregoing historical review but serves to lead our attention to the 
one man — of that group of Indians, half-breed negroes and Spaniards, who 
is of interest to the people of Kansas and of Marshall county — Erancisco 
Vascpiez de Coronado. 

Coronado was a Spanish soldier, who came to Mexico, probably with 
Mendoza. He was about forty years old and was governor of Neuva 
Galicia, when Mendoza selected him to command an expedition North in 
search of the land of Cibola and the seven cities. 

On Monday, Eebruary 2^, 1540, Coronado with two hundred and sixty 
horsemen, seventy footmen and several hundred Indians started from Com- 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 45 

postella and marched due north hito the country we know as Arizona. 
There he fought a battle with the Indians and defeated them, and the 
Spaniards took possession of the Zuni villages on July 7, 1540. These 
villaees consisted of mud and stone dwellings, rude, filthv and dark. These 
were the fabled "Seven Cities" of Cibola. 

OUIVERA. 

Coronado wintered on the Rio Grande and during that winter another 
Indian appeared with stories of a land still farther away, called Quivera. 
This Indian was nicknamed the "Turk" and may have been a captive Arkan- 
sas or Ouapaw Indian. His stories of a far-distant and wealthy land was 
sufficient to cause Coronado to again resume his search for wealth, and after 
thirty-five days of travel they came to the country of the Teyas and these 
Indians told them that "Turk" was deceiving them and that Quivera lay to 
the north. Coronado selected thirty of his liravest and boldest men and 
half a dozen foot soldiers, and sending the remainder of the army back to 
Tiguex, on the Rio Grande, he pushed due northward and according to most 
• authorities arrived at the place, which is now Dodge City, on the Arkansas 
river. The first act of Coronado on reaching the Arkansas river was to 
execute "Turk", who had deceived him. This was the first murder on 
Kansas soil of which we have any record. 

LOCATION OF QUIVERA. 

■ Coronado had at last reached Quivera. It is to be regretted that his 
first act in killing the "Turk"" was cruel. Ijut that was the spirit of the times. 
On one point all authors practically agree. Quivera was in what is now 
Kansas. That it lay in the Northeast, which was the land of the Canza 
(Kansas) Indians and which embraced Marshall country, is the opinion of 
Bandalier, who is an accepted authority. 

Coronado spent several weeks in the exploration of Quivera. He says 
in his notes that he reached the fortieth parallel, which is the line between 
Kansas and Nebraska. There is no reason to question this statement. The 
general opinion is that he traveled eastward from \\'^ichita, then took the 
old Indian trail north and followed up the Big Blue river. If so, he traveled 
through where Marshall county is now laid out. 

The Pawnee Indians were of the Quivera tribe. They had villages all 
alone the Big Blue. One of their oldest villages was on the site of Blue 



46 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Springs, Nebraska. In Coronado's time tlicy ranged aliiio'-t to the Missouri 
river, and we may believe tliey roamed to the western limits of the buffalo 
plains. 

.\ LINl-: WITH TFIE PA.ST. 

Late in the year igO(S a rapier was found by Carl John.son, youngest 
son of Julius Johnson, on the hill on North Ninth street, which is the highest 
point in the city of Marysville. This rapier was buried in the ground, hilt 
downward, with only three inches of the point exposed. The exposed por- 
tion w^as verv much corroded, the maker's name was obliterated and the 
hilt is missing. The blade is thirty-three and three-cjuarters inches long, 
and the unexposed portion is in a good state of preservation. 

The surest and perhaps the only sign of the presence of Coronado in 
this county is this weapon. It niay have been used as a marker for a cache, 
or it may have marked a grave. 

The rapier is a fancy sword carried by so-called gentlemen. Among 
those restless Spaniards, pushing ever onward in the search of gold, per- 
haps one met that enemy against whom his sword proved no protection. 
It mav be that his companions bore his body to this eminence overlooking 
the Valley of the Blue, and buried him with military honors; Coronado and 
the rapier are alike silent. Some day, when practical men level and grade 
the street, the grave may tell its secret. 

ORIGIN OF "kANS.\S." 

There has been much discussion as to the origin and meaning of the 
name Kansas. It was variously written by early explorers and we find it : 
Kantha, Kanza, Cansa, Causes, Kau, Kaw and many other forms. Lieu- 
tenant Pike wrote it Kaus. It has been said to mean "sw-ift" and "smoky." 
Air. W. E. Connelly, secretary of the State Historical Society, Topeka, gives 
the meaning of Kansas as "Wind People," or "People of the South Wind." 
Undoubtedly it has some reference to wind. Exactly what this reference 
is, there is little hope of finding out with absolute certainty ; but it is estab- 
lished beyond question that the name means, "Wind People," or "People 
of the South Wind." 

"Superstition is the child of ignorance." The ignorance of the Indian like 
that of all primitive races created superstition. His religion was one of fear 
and his worship that of propitiation. He offered sacrifices to some unknown 
power, of which he lived in av.e. He worshipped a god called WaKanda, 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 47 

and this S3'i'nbol was anything which the Indian did not understand. The 
forces of nature were all evil and unnatural to him. The wind was unnatural, 
and so it was evil. It was WaKanda and had to he propitiated by sacri- 
fices. The Kansa Indians drew out the hearts of their slain enemies and 
offered them as sacrifices to the wind. In time they were called the "people 
who sacrifice to the wind" or "wind people." 

The Kansa or Kaw tribe of Indians lived on Kansas soil for more than 
three hundred years. They called this territory theirs and ranged its plains. 
They built lodges along the Blue river and contested for the hunting ground 
with their enemies, the Pawnees. 

KAN.SAS SOLD TO UNITED STATES. 

In 1846 they sold to the United States government all the north part 
of Kansas and south half of Nebraska. They did not own this land except 
in an hereditary sense, through having lived on it. From this tribe of 
Indians the state derives its name, Kansas. 

Air. G. P. Morehouse, who is the historian of the Kansas Indians, states 
that the Independent Creek town which is referred to by early French writers 
as the "Grand Village des Canzes," seems to have been a Jesuit missionary 
station, located near where the town of Doniphan now stands, as early as 
1727. This fact he bases on French-Canadian records of the Province of 
Ontario, which state -that the name of Canzes, or Kansas, was a well-known 
geographical term to designate a spot on the Missouri river within Kansas, 
where the French government and its official church, nearly two hundred 
years ago. had an important missionary center. "In this document," Mr. 
Morehouse says, "this mission away out in the heart of the continent was 
classed with other important Indian missions such as the Iroquois, Abenaquis 
and Tadousac, and that the same amount per missionary was expended." It 
was "Kansas," a mission charge on the rolls of the Jesuit Fathers, for which 
annual appropriation of money was made as early as 1727. 

This simple line tells us that devout pioneers of that church spent lonely 
hours, far from civilization, on a wild plain in order to instill into the minds 
and hearts of savages that faith in which they themselves so ardently believed. 
No more to bow in silence as the angelus intoned upon the air ; no more at 
eve to hear the convent bell or join with clasped hands the reverent black- 
robed procession. In place of the companionship of the scholar, the brutal 
face of the brave and his stolid squaw confronted the missionary. The 
sword alone is not the symbol of heroism. 



48 MARSHALL COL XT V, KANSAS. 

SPANIARDS ATTEMPT INVASION. 

Early in tlie eigiiteenth centniy tlie Spanish attempted to invade and 
colonize tlie Missouri \alley. 1'lie iM-ench became alarmed and sent men 
to explore the valley and treat w ith the Indians. 

M. de Bouremont liad been commissioned militarv commander of the 
Missouri valley in 1720 and made an expedition into the land of the Kansas 
in T724. He \isited tlie Grand Village des Canzes, and held a celebration 
wliicli lasted two weeks, coiLsisting" of powwows, councils, trading horses or 
merchandise and making presents to the Indians. No doubt, many other 
adventurous traders and hunters spent time with the Kansas Indians, but no 
record is made of them. 

In the summer of 1804 the famous "Lewis and Clark expedition" passed 
tip the Missouri river and traded with the Kansas Indians. In 1818-19 
Alajor Stephen A. Long's exploring expedition visited them. In 18 19 Major 
John O'Fallon was appointed sutler of the post and Indian agent for the 
upper Missouri, and on July 4. 18 19, the nation's birthday was celebrated 
and the Kansas Indians learned their first lesson in patriotism. In 1847 
the Kansas Indians lived in the Kaw Valley, east of Manhattan and that 
same year were moved to a reservation in the Neosho valley, adjoining 
Council Grox'c. And from then on they mo\^ed south and west along what 
became known as the "Old Kaw trail," hunting buffalo. Those hunting 
trips were usually made in the fall. The old Indian agency building still 
stands about four miles from Council Grove. 




OTOE INDIAN COUNCIL. AGENT AND PAYMASTER. 

From left to right: Jesse W. Greist, agent; Arkaketah, chief; Howdy-Howdy; 
Pawnee Cuchee; White-horse; Wahanyi; Joe-John; Toehee; Baptiste DeRoin, inter- 
preter, and Captain Pearman, United State Army paymaster. Chief Arkaketah is the 
man for whom the town of Oketo was named. The picture was taken shortly before 
the removal of the tribe from their reservation in the northern part of Marshall county 
to Oklahoma. 



CHAPTER III. 
Indians in Marshall County. 

In the days of Coronado, the Kansas Indians occupied a strip of terri- 
tory on each side of the Missouri river, from the vicinity of the mouth of 
the Kansas river to Independence creek. That and adjacent land continued 
to be the habitat and hunting- ground of the tribe for more than two 
centuries. 

They hunted west for bultalo going as far west as the RepubHcan river. 
In those days the Pawnees and Wichitas were the strong tribes in the terri- 
tory reaching from the Missouri river to the Rocky Mountains and stretch- 
ing as far north as the Platte. The Pawnees claimed the land as far 
east as the Missr)uri river and regarded the Kansas Indians as intruders and 
made war on theuL Evidences of l^attles have Ijeen found in Marshall 
county. 

Arrow heads and spear heads have been found in large numbers on 
section 7 in Rock township, the former home of Mrs. S. S. Martin. Mrs. 
Martin can recall the Indian village near Winifred, and that Indians from 
all sections of the country gathered there in large numbers to trade and hold 
councils. She remembers one fierce Indian l)attle near there. 

WAR WEAPONS. 

Mr. Otto Wullschleger has a large collection of arrow- and spear-heads 
of many different varieties, which he found on sections 12 and 13. Center 
township. These arrow-heads indicate that a battle was once fought on 
that ground. He has also a number of stone axes found near the old lodge, 
which was located on the Walker farm. 

The Indian trail crossed the Vermillion, near Winifred, and traversed 
Marshall county in a northwesterly direction, crossing the Big Blue, at the 
point where Frank Marshall afterwards established a ferry at Independence 
crossing. This trail is said to ha\-e been the longest Indian trail in North 
America, reaching from the Missouri river to the Pacific coast. 

(4) 



50 .M.\RSII.\I,L COUNTY. KANSAS. 

Mr. George Fddy says tliat an Tndi.an \illa^-e, or lodoc, was located <m 
section jo in W'alnnl township. Many arrow -heads lia\e been fonnd there, 
all of small size, exidently nscd in Imntins;- small L;ame. 

On section 19. ••".Ini C reck towr.shi]), there is a \ery steep cliff, and it 
was the practice of the Indians to stampede the hulTalo over that cliff, then 
kill all the cattle that were injnred by the fall an<l nnable to get away. Mr. 
Eddy found at the foot of this clilT a stone "killing hammer," and some flint 
knives. 

The old Indian trail used by the many different tribes of Indians, and 
by Fremont, became the Mormon trail and the gold seekers" trail to Cali- 
fornia. In |)lace of the single trail of the Indian, the Mormons and other 
immigrants traveled along three parallel roads, covering a width of seventy- 
tixe to one hundred yards. The wagons, whenever possible, were kept nearly 
abreast, so that in case of an attack by the Indians, they could be quickly 
parked, the women and children ])laced in the center and the defense made. 
In a long-drawn-out train on one road this could not have been accomplished 
so readily, so the three-parallel-road method was adopted. Three parallel 
roads are discernible today in such stretches of the trail as have not been 
plowed. 

Stone axes, hammers and different utensils of Indian make have been 
found in all parts of the county. 

OTOE INDIANS. 

The Otoe Indians did not own any of the country in Marshall county 
until after it was ceded by the Kaws. The Otoe Reservation was assigned 
by treaty and it was only accidental that but two miles of it came into 
Kansas. The Otoe and Missouri Indian Reservation was twenty-five miles 
long and ten miles wide. It began at a point on an island near what is now 
Oketo, Marshall county, Kansas, extending about four miles east, ten miles 
north, twenty-five miles west and ten miles south and back to place of begin- 
ning. 

On account of the locators not knowing where the Kansas-Nebraska line 
was, a part of the reservation was in Kansas, through mistake. This reserva- 
tion contained one hundred and sixty thousand acres and by a treaty with the 
government about two-thirds of the west part was sold in 1878. This land 
was appraised by F. M. Barnes, of Otoe agency, William La Gorgue, of 
Gage county, Nebraska, and Captain Baker, of Salina, Kansas. The remain- 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 5 1 

ing one-third was appraised and sold in 1883, the Indians having gone to 
the Indian Territory in 188 1. 

A day school for the Otoe Indians was established in the earlv seventies 
and was discontinued in 1877. when the boarding school was established. This 
school was in full operation until June. 1881, and was not reconvened in the 
fall owing to the Indians having left. The Otoes and Missouris were affili- 
ated tribes for many years and were supposed to be closely related to the 
lowas, Sacs and Foxes, and the Osages, as their languages were practically 
the same. All traces of the burying grounds, of which there were several, 
have di.'^appeared, having been plowed up by the farmers who bought the 
land on wliicli those grounds were located. 

INDIAN DEPREDATIONS. 

Among the oldest settlers in tlie Vermillion valley were the Puntneys, 
John D. Wells, Fred H. Brockmeyer, Daniel M. Leavitt, Elizabeth Witham 
and G. H. Hollenberg. Hollenberg was a German, the founder of Washing- 
ton county, Kansas, and for whom the town of Hollenberg was named. He 
later died while crossing the Atlantic, on his way to visit his old home in 
Germany, and was buried at sea. 

On coming in the year 1855 to the valley of the Vermillion they found 
there Louis Tremble, a Frenchman, who had married a Sioux scjuaw, and 
who had been driven from the Rocky Mountains by an order of General 
Harney, expelling everyone of that nationality. Louis Tremble built a 
puncheon toll-bridge across the Vermillion at the old Mormon or Hollenberg 
crossing. 

Tremble had a neighbor, another Frenchman named Changreau, whose 
wife was also a Sioux. Mrs. Changreau had a sister, a girl about fifteen, who 
lived with them. They had a familv of several small children. 

Roving bands of both Kaws and Sioux traveled up and dow'n the Blue 
river in search of prey. They were enemies and at war with each other. 
The two Frenchmen felt that they Avere in danger, but both were prospering, 
Tremble from his toll-bridge and Changreau from a little farm of about 
twenty acres, which he cultivated with care. This furnished him a living 
and he sold plenty to travelers. 

INDIANS ABDUCT GIRL. 

One day Changreau's house was surrounded by mounted Sioux Indians. 
They soon discovered that Changreau was absent, entered the house and 



:;_' MARSH. \I. I. COINTY. KANSAS. 

pillaged it. TIk- chief seized the youni;' i^irl, all mounted their jxniies and 
rode rapidly a\va\'. Changreau's wife ran to the tield where he was at work 
and told what had happened. He well knew the fate awaiting the young girl 
and appealed tn his neighhors to go with him to her rescue. Sduk' of the 
neiefhhors ioined him and followed the trail until thev feared an ambush, when 
thev decided thev had hest return to the defense of their own families. 

Changreau followed the hand with their helpless prisoner. When night 
fell the lodges were pitched and a brilliant campfire lighted. After a feast, 
the poor girl was led out and bound to a tree. He rode away in the dark- 
ness and from a distant hilltop watched the fire and saw the cruel dance, too 
far awav to hear the prisoner's cry of anguish or the hideous yells of the 
torturing hends. 

In the gray dawn he crept stealthily near enough to know that the young 
girl, bound and helpless, had been scourged to death amidst revels of the war 
dance and orgies of the night. Sick at heart he hastened home and removed 
his family to a place of safety. Tremble also mo^'ed from that localit}-. Iliese 
two men were the earliest settlers on the A'ermillion. 

Some historians state that this murder took place near Council Grove, 
but neighbors of the Changreau's, who are still living, state positively that 
the murder of this young Indian maiden took place near wdiere Irving now 
stands. 

FURTHER MURDERS. 

During the }ear 1857 the overland emigration to California was 
immense. During May and June in that year the trails leading westward 
across Kansas \vere crowded with the trains of emigrants and their herds. 
A party of tw^enty-five men, women and children were crossing the prairie 
taking a short cut to Ft. Kearney. .'\t a point near where Republic City now 
stands, they \vere surprised by a band of Pawnees and robbed, and half the 
men in the party were killed, including the captain. 

The Indians took everything they could carry away and ripped open 
sacks of tiour. spilling the contents on the ground, in order to carry away the 
sacks. The poor people were far from any settlement and were in danger 
of starvation. Two men of the party started east and procured assistance 
in Marshall county. 

In May, 1862, occurred the massacre of the Cassel party in Cloud county. 
This was soon followed by the White Rock massacre, and these were fol- 
lowed by the Indian raids in the Solomon Valley. 

As time went on, roving bands of Indians attacked and robbed emigrants 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 53 

and ranchmen and murdered settlers, until panic reigned. On the loth of 
August, 1864, the citizens of Alary sville were thrown into great excitement. 
Refugees poured into the town with stories of an Indian massacre on the 
Little Blue. TeauLs witli wagons hlled w ith settlers, ranchmen and their 
families arrived, bringing stories of the outrageous torturing of men. women 
and children and asking help in recovering friends who had been captured 
by Indians. 

MILITLA MUSTERED. 

Militia companies were immediately mustered and, after making hasty 
preparations, went in pursuit of the Indians. One company under the com- 
mand of Capt. Frank Schmidt and one in charge of Lieutenant McClosky, 
left JMarysville on August i ith. They were joined by a company from Vermil- 
lion under Capt. lames Kelly and one from Ti^xing under Capt. T. S. X^aile. 
The -\Iarshall count)- troops were under the command of Col. E. C. Manning. 
C(;mpanies were also formed in Xemaha, Riley and Washington counties, 
under command of General Sherry, of Seneca. 

These troops marched over Marshall county to the west and while they 
saw plenty of evidence of Indian warfare and depredations, they met with 
no Indians. However, the presence of armed troops had a wholesome effect 
on the Indians and a cessation of the worst depredations ensued. It was 
several years before the Indians came to believe that they were not the 
owners of the land and that murder and pillage were not justifiable. 

Many of the refugees from the Overland road and from counties west 
remained in Alarshall county for weeks before returning home. 

INDIAN ATTACKS RENEWED. 

Al:out tlie loth of May, i86g, Reuben Winklepleck and son, Alonzo, 
Edward Winklepleck, a nephew, Philip Burke, J. L. M.cChesney, a Air. Cole 
and son. from Michigan, left Waterville with two wagons,, to, go west, look 
at the country and hunt buft'alo. They followed the Republican river to 
beyond the mouth of White Rock creek, in the northwest corner of Republic 
county. They obtained a supply of buffalo meat and were on their way 
home on May 25, when overtaken by Indians, whom they drove away by 
firing at them at long range. McChesney, who was guide for this part}', 
advised crossing the river and making for Scandia, where there was a colony 
house and Avhere the settlers had made some preparations for defense from 
Indian attack. McChesnev feared the Indians would return for a night attack. 



54 MAKSIIAI.L COUNTY. KANSAS. 

The remainder of the party did iiul take the matter so seriously and they 
camped on the west side of the Repuhhcan river. Jiarly on the morning of 
May 26. while they were preparing to break camp, they were attacked by 
Indians and all killed except McChesney, who jumped into the river and 
bv secreting himself in the overhanging l)rush escaped and reached Scandia 
that day. 

SIX VICTIMS. 

Ed S. Rowland, now a resident of Marysville, Kansas, makes the fol- 
lowing statement : 

"On May 10, 1869, I left New York City as a member of the Walker 
colony from that city, which located on land about twenty miles west of 
Scandia. There were sixty people in this colony, some of whom had left 
New York about a month earlier than I did. Concerning this Indian massa- 
cre, I had been out at the colony about a week engaged in putting up shacks 
on homesteads and had helped bury four men, buffalo hunters who had been 
killed by the Indians. A man nained Robert Watson and myself drove into 
Scandia. I put up at the colony house and on Friday afternoon about three 
o'clock, a man who seemed 'all out of sorts' and who afterwards turned out 
to be John McChesney, sat down beside me and asked for something to eat. 
I ordered a meal for him and while waitiiig, McChesney told me that his six 
companions had been killed by the Indians that morning up the river, and 
asked that a party be raised to go and find out what had happened, and to 
bury or recover the bodies of his companions. 

"I reported the above at once to others and by Saturday we had a suffi- 
cient posse to venture forth. We had to have the Fisher boys, who were early 
settlers in that country and who knew Indians and their ways, to act as 
guides. These boys lived about ten miles northwest of Scandia. W'e \\ent 
there first and got them and on Sunday morning we started east to where 
the attack was made. When near the spot we divided into two parties. 
There were twelve or fourteen in the party. \\^e found the two wagons on 
the west side of the Republican river, horses gone, harness cut in pieces, not 
more than a foot long, the barrels of the guns bent elbow shape between the 
spokes of the wheels. The wagons and buffalo meat were unmolested. We 
found all the bodies on the east side of the river, opposite the wagons. The 
bodies were huddled together. Two men had been scalped, one scalp taken, 
the other left beside the dead man. The clothing had all been stripped from 
them and carried away. A pair of shoes only left on the feet of the boy, all 
his other clothing taken. We buried the bodies on the spot where we found 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 55 

them, only a few yards from the river, on that Sunday. I am under the 
impression that this place of burial is nearly opposite the mouth of White 
Rock creek. It looked to us that the hunters had left the teams and wagons 
to search for a good place to cross the river and when they were separated 
from their teams, wagons and guns, the Indians came from ambush and 
massacred them. After the burial we all returned to Scandia." 

Lieut. I. N. Savage, historian of Republic county, in which the Winkle- 
pleck massacre took place, is authority for the statement that the victims 
were buried on section 15, township i, range 5, Republic county. 

As far as the writer has been able to ascertain, this covers the only 
serious depredations by Indians in Alarshall county, or affecting its people. 
The late increased immigration and the effective defense made, finally drove 
the Indians farther west. 



Cil.MTI'I^ IV. 
Settlement of Marshai.i. County. 



THE PIONEER. 

''Onr little systems have their day, 
They have their day and cease to be." 

"Westward ho!" has been the cry of men for ages. The golden west 
has lured men of all times and climes. The story of Caesar and Columbus is 
the story of Washington, of Lewis and Clarke, of John C. Fremont and of 
Kansas. The Indian and Spaniard came and passed away. The French- 
man lingered. The German, Irish, Swede, Dane and Swiss came and con- 
quered. The adventurer from the South wlio came to usurp became a citizen. 
He saw the American pioneer, with his gun and ax and plow, transform the 
desert into fertile fields. Rev. Patrick O'Sullivan says: 'Tt was a grand 
generation of heroic mold, who, amidst hardships, privations and dangers, 
broke the prairies, built homes and brought religion and civilization to Mar- 
shall county." 

Of those who }"et remain, the snow of age has touched the hair and Time 
has slowed the footstep and enfeebled tlie frame. Wdien we meet them we 
are reminded that they made possible the conditions existing today. Lives of 
men and women went int() the making and are a part of the warp and woof 
(jf the beautiful fabric Avhich is the Alarshall county of today. 

"The past will alwa}'s win a glory from its being far." 

OLD SETTLERS REl'NION ASSOCIATION. 

The Marshall County Old Settlers and Pioneers Association was organ- 
ized in i87q. The object was to bring together the old settlers of this and 
adjoining counties and to hold annual reunions, at which old friends might 
meet and bv j^ublic addresses and the telling of early-day trials, teach the 
younger people what it cost to 1)uild a state. A meeting was held in Blue 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 57 

Rapids on June 12, 1879, when \\'illiam Paul, C. E. Tibbetts and T. W. 
Waterson were appointed a committee to prepare a program for the first Old 
Settlers Reunion to be held in Marshall county, September 11-12, 1879. 

At that first reunion the following officers were elected: A. G. Barrett, 
president; D. C. Auld and William Thompson, vice-presidents; Frederick 
Hamilton, treasurer, and J. S. Magill, secretary. Executive committee, Wil- 
liam Paul. Blue Rapids, chairman; Thomas McCoy, Alarysville; W. T. 
Dwinnell, Frankfort: Ro])ert Smith. Irving; J. E. McChessey, Waterville, 
and Judge Madden, of Guittard. On January ist, 19 17, but one of the first 
officers of this association was yet li\-ing — Robert Smith, of Frankfort. 

Since that first meeting at Blue Rapids the association has never failed 
to meet. The last meeting being held in Marysville on September 20 to 2t,, 
1916. 

This Old Settlers Reunion organization has grown to be the "biggest 
thing," in the way of an annual g-athering, held in the county. Although it has 
grown away from the original idea of a gathering of pioneers and has be- 
come the forum of the politician, yet it is an event that gathers a crowd and 
there are still some of the pioneers who are present and are actively inter- 
ested in tlie welfare of the organization. 

The officers for 191 7 are: J. 'M. Watson, president; Howard Reed, 
secretary. 

The following address delivered by Mrs. Andrew J. Travelute at the 
annual Old Settlers" Reunion at Marysville in September, 1916, was greatly 
enjoyed by the many pioneers who were present. 

Mrs. Travelute was formerly Elizabeth Mohrbacher, daughter of Jacob 
Mohrbacher, and one of the first teachers in Marshall county. During this 
address a number of pioneer ladies sat on the platform knitting, spinning 
and sewing as in olden times. Among them were ]\Irs. H. P. Benson, Mrs. 
E. A. Scott, Mrs. Sarah McKee. Mrs. M. Roseberry, Mrs. W'ashburn, Mrs. 
Lieb, Mrs. Bunton and Mrs. Heister. 

Mrs. Travelute's address follows • 

The time has arrived when it becomes the duty of the people of Marshall 
county to perpetuate the names of their early pioneers. 

Those men and women, who in their prime of life, entered the wilds 
of Kansas and tilled the virgin soil have nearly all passed to their graves; 
the number remaining who can relate the incidents is becoming small. The 
frontier is gone and those who reuK^ved it are gone; and those who assisted 
in removing it are going one l)v one. 

Therefore, my friends, one and all. we who are gathered here, let us 



58 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

dedicate the thirty-eighlli annual luiiiy Settlers" Reunion of Marshall county 
to the sacred memorv of those dear ones who braved life's battles here 
on Kansas soil when all was a wilderness. They came with the inspiration 
ui hope and love for their dear ones who are enjoyin<^- the fruits of their 
hard labor, because what those noble pioneers had to suffer, only God and 
the recording angel can disclose. 

During those years, when the white men were traveling through Kan- 
sas, thev were not making settlements here. The country remained in the 
undisputed possession of the Indians : the white men did not want it as yet. 
They looked upon these vast prairies not as a resource, but as so much land 
to be crossed in reaching places further west. 

But changing conditions in the states east of the Mississippi river made 
people begin to look upon Kansas in a different light. The country there 
was becoming thickly settled and people wanted the lands of the Indians. 
As the Indians had all been removed to these western plains, the white man 
could not settle on these reservations without the consent of the Indians. 
According to the treaties, the Indians were promised their land so long as 
grass should grow or w^ater run. But it soon develoj^ed that the white man 
wanted Kansas land. Also, in the year 1854, we find the tribes being trans- 
ferred to the Indian territory, now^ Oklahoma, where the remnants of various 
tribes still remain. 

Although Kansas was not used during those early years to make homes 
for the whites, a few hundred people came here. They were of three differ- 
ent classes: missionaries, soldiers and fur traders. 

FIRST MISSIONARY AMONG INDIANS. 

The attempt to civilize the Indians began in the days of the early 
explorers, but it was on Kansas soil that the first missionary lost his life. 
This man was Father Padillo, a Jesuit, who came with Coronado on his 
journey. Father Padillo became much interested in the Indians, but his 
noble work. was of short duration, for he was soon killed by some of the 

tribes. 

Later, wdien Kansas became a part of the United States, a number of 
missions w^ere established by Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians and Cath- 
olic churches. Kansas remained in the possession of the tribes until the year 
1854, when it was organized into a territory. 

About this time the New England Aid Company was organized. It 
gathered and published information concerning the new country, and under 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 59 

the g-overnment of these companies, newspapers were filled with descriptions 
of the loveliness, the fertility and the future greatness of the territory, and 
people were urged to come to Kansas at once, both to secure the advantages 
of the country and to help in saving it from slavery. They lived in sod 
houses, log cabins and dugouts. 

Arriving w'ith my parents in the small hamlet of ]\tarvsville, in the 
spring of i860, about eight months previous to the time when Kansas was 
admitted to the Union as a state, the people had almost as few comforts of 
life as when they first came to the territory. A few of them had come with 
little ideas of hardships of frontier life, and others had believed such condi- 
tions would last but a short time. Many returned to their Eastern homes 
and to wife's folks, because they lacked the energy to rough it through. But 
the greater body of Kansas pioneers had come with a tw'O-fold purpose : of 
making homes and making a free state. 

PIONEERS SHOULD NOT BE FORGOTTEN. 

The pioneers who followed a trackless west should never be lost sight 
of. They were good, representative men wdiere they came from, and were 
not to be discouraged. 

In looking back fifty-six years, I feel proud of my early associates. 
Most of them are gone ; onlv a few are left to confirm the storv we have to 
tell. Frontier life is always hard, Init it was rendered many times harder 
here in Kansas by years of strife and warfare. 

In these days of the railways, the good roads and the Ford automobiles ; 
of the telegraph and telephone and the rural mail routes, it is difificult to 
realize what life on the Kansas prairies meant in the sixties. The virtue 
of the Kansas pioneer homes has never furnished theme for song 
or story, because it is not so easy to grow sentimental over sod houses or 
log cabins or dugouts, or to romance over slab shacks that were windo\v- 
less lest the prowling savages seek their vantages ; and floorless for want of 
means. 

The privations and sacrifices and the loneliness of pioneer life fell most 
heavilv on the women. Business and necessity brought the men together 
occasionally, but the woman in the isolation of her prairie home often saw 
no friendly face for a month. It was in the home of the pioneer woman 
that the lessons of self-abnegation and self-denial, deprivation and courage 
in the face of hourly danger w^ere learned. The log cabin of Kansas had 
never about it the elements th.at render its photograph in the least picturesque. 



6o .MAKSIIAl.l, roUXTV, KANSAS. 

Bin in\- dear friciul^, 1 can say in truth iliat llic l'uniil\- altar was as cherished 
there as thongli in marlile walls. 

Till-: I'lONEER FAK.MF.r's WIFE. 

While there; comes to my mind so \ividly a true pictnre of the pioneer 
farmer's wife. I shall attempt to outline it to yon for the benefit of the young 
women on the farms of dear, glorious Kansas of today. ]\Iy memory places 
before me a toil-worn woman, standing in front of the dugout, with the sun- 
flowers growing on its sodded roof. She is gazing over the vast expanse 
of prairie that stretches out before her. She is gazing eastward; her vision 
is dimmed, because countless millions of grasshoppers ha\e eclipsed the sim- 
light. 

Her heart is filled with homesickness and regret. She is sadly think- 
ing of her dear father and mother, whose tender embrace her poor, lone- 
.some heart is longing for. and of that dear old home and its sweet comforts, 
and while the hot a\ inds from the south are scorching her hands and face, 
and while baby is asleep in the homemade cradle and there happens to be no 
Indians in sight — she hurriedly takes the w'ater pail and goes down to the 
slough, which is more than a quarter of a mile distant, to bring the water 
wherewith to prepare the meal for her tired husband. 

ThC' sweetness in performing her household duties, and the hope for 
the new home she has come t(j help to build, softens every regret. It is that 
divine virtue called hope which is now depicted in her dear face. Hope and 
courage, the "I will."' is what helped to make Kansas glorious. 

Speaking of the grasshopper — it happened a farmer wanted to borrow- 
bis neighbor's wagon, aiid the box had been taken oft'; so he asked the 
woman of thediouse -where he could find it. She told him she did not know 
where it could be found — like as not the grasshoppers had swallowed it. 
This was in Balderson township. 

■ ■ Although 4he pioneers of Kansas were d-eprived of the various good 
things which we liave to eat, they were more rugged and enjoyed better 
health, with the exception of malarial fever in. some locahties. They lived 
chiefly on corn bread,,butfalo meat or bacon-, sorghuif! molasses, barley coffee, 
wild fruits and on very rare occasions a pumpkin pie, providing the grass- 
hoppers did not eat the vines or the hot winds did not cook them before the 
pumpkins were fit for use. 

Wdrile making mention of the corn bread, I recall the time when some 
of the i)ioneers had no other means of grinding the corn wherewith to make 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 6l 

this bread than an old tin milk pan that leaked too bad for any other use. 
They would use a hammer and nail and punch it full of holes and that left 
the bottom of the pan rough enough that you could take an ear of corn and 
grate it down to the cob. Then the trouble with some people was they did 
not have grease enough in the house to grease the pan to bake it in, to pre- 
vent it sticking to the bottom of the pan. They would have to go to the 
neighbors to borrow their greaser. i\nd, remember, the neighbors did not 
live close enough together so you could have a talk across the fence, and 
there was no telephone to go to and say, "May I come o\'er and borrow your 



ereaser 



?" 



PLEASURES THAT OFFSET PRIVATIONS. 

Although there was privation and hard work, there was also some 
pleasure. There were the literary societies, the singing schools, the spelling- 
schools held in the little log school house. And country dances and the corn 
husking bees. I recall a husking bee when John Shroyer invited the young- 
men and bovs of the neighborhood to come and husk corn during the day 
time and at night they were to bring their best girl or grown sister along 
and enjoy some fun. Now, Mrs. Shroyer had baked some pumpkin pies 
for our refreshment. The house, being a log cabin with one room and a 
fire place, and when company came in pioneer days the furniture had to be 
set out of doors in order to provide room. This was the case here. This 
was the month of November and the weather was very cold, and the mis- 
tress of the house, not knowing what to do with her pies until she wanted 
to serve them, took them to the rail corn crib and placed them on the newly 
husked coni. A few hours afterwards, when she wanted to serve them they 
were frozen so hard it was impossible for her to make use of the knife. 
Onlv for the forethought of our friend, R. Y. Shibley, who is still in our 
midst, v>ho was one of those young men who make all kinds of promises to 
the young ladies. He called for a long-handled shovel, and he placed those 
frosted pies in groups of three or four on it and very patiently held them 
over the fire in the fireplace to thaw them out, then, without removing them 
from the shovel, passed them to the boys and girls. 

The girls vrore calico dresses and some of the young men were dressed 
in their homespun and some in their jeans, while the young swells wore 
"Palm Beach" trousers made of new grain sacks and down on the outside 
seams ^■ou could see these \Aords, stamped in black capital letters: "Amos- 
keag seamless. Patent applied for." 

There comes to my mind the time when my father having built a new 



62 M\RS11.\1.L COUNTY, KANSAS. 

house of considerable size, on his farni soiitli of town, tlic \-oung people of 
AFar\-sville came to surprise us and gixe us w hat they called a house .warm- 
ing. I think there were about eight couples of them. I recall the names of 
some that were jircsent, namely: Mr. and Mrs. Perry Hutchinson. John 
Hornbeck. Henry Devue, John Webber, J£d Lovell, Snowden Transue, J\. Y. 
Shibley and I. B. Davis of tlds city. Among the young ladies 1 recall the 
names of Kate Webber, Hn.ima Webber, Alaggie Smith, Edith Lovell, Belle 
Watcrson and Annie Bendel. My father being a musician, they prevailed 
ujxtn In'm to bring forth his clarionet and ])lay while they danced. Then at 
tlie hour of midnight, my father excused liimself and retired for the night, 
when our friend. 1. B. Davis, who was endowed with a talent for music, 
made good use of the instrument. |)]aying all kinds of airs while the dance 
went on. 

SPELLING SCHOOLS. 

My dear friends, while it is impossible for me to descrilje to you in 
words the sweet charms of those tunes which Mr. Davis produced on my 
father's clarionet, because more than half a cen.tury has passed since the above 
mentioned event took place, 1 will venture to say to you that I am greatly 
surprised to note the automobiles liave been so constructed, after so great 
a lapse of time that at least some of them are able to resound the echo 
thereof. 

^^'hile making mention of the spelling schools in pioneer days, they 
were well patronized by young and old. I recall a time when the teacher 
gave out words of two syllables. There was a young man present from the 
state of Illinois — you all know Illinois claims she has no illiterates — and 
when it came this young man's turn to spell the word "austere," he spelled 
"offsteer." He had been in Kansas long enough to learn to drive oxen. 

In the life of every man and woman who walked on Kansas soil, is a 
lesson that should not be lost on those who follow. Coming generations 
will appreciate the volume \Ahich is at the present time being compiled by 
Mrs. E. E. Forter of this city. It will be cherished by everyone as a sacred 
treasure. Although Marysville was but a small hamlet, with a few small 
stores, it was the only trading point within a distance of twenty-five miles 
and I recall the days when the women came here riding in lumber wagons, 
drawn by oxen, and no spring seats to sit on. While they were jOy-riding 
they would knit a pair of socks for their husbands — busy all the while. 
Industry and economy was the motto in pioneer days. 

My dear friends, you may reasonablly feel that you have been no unim- 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 63 

portant factor in the elevation of Marsliall county to its present position. 
T well remember the historic inscriptions on some of the prairie schooners 
which used to pass through Marysville in the pioneer days. Some read, 
"Pike's Peak or Bust," while others read, "Bound for Kansas, the lieht- 
house of the world." 

You have aided in no small degree in the making- of Kansas one of the 
brightest stars in the great constellation of American states, in her greatness, 
her power and her wealth, and while we are enjoying these great blessings, 
let us ever hold sacred the memory of those noble men and women who 
removed the frontier from the wilds of Kansas. And let us never forget to 
thank Him who doeth all things well that we are [jermitted to call Marshall 
countv our home. 



FRANK J. MARSHALL. 

Frank J. Marshall, whose name the county bears, was born in Lee 
county, Virginia, April 3, 1816. He was educated in the common schools 
and in William and Mary'vS College. In early manhood he went West and 
located in Ray county, Missouri, later moving to Weston, Platte county, 
from which place he joined the forty-niners to go to the California gold 
fields. Upon reaching the Big Blue river, he at once saw the necessity of 
a ferry which he built and operated near the Independence Crossing for 
several years. After Captain Standberry laid out the Ft. Leavenworth and 
Ft. Kearney military road, Marshall followed the new road and established 
a ferry about two hundred yards up stream from where the steel bridge at 
Marysville now stands. 

In 1858-59 gold was discovered in the Pikes Peak and Clear creek 
regions in Colorado and soon after the gold fever affected Marshall. He 
left the county and the town which he had named and again became a pioneer 
in the mining districts of Clear creek and Gilpin counties, Colorado. F. J. 
Marshall built the first house in Marysville and he built the first brick busi- 
ness house in Denver, Colorado. He died on November 25, 1895, after a 
most eventful life, leaving a wife, four sons and a daughter. Mrs. Marshall 
is still li\ing with her daughter in New York City. 

CANDIDATE FOR GOVERNOR. 

In 1857 Gen. F. J. Marshall was the pro-slavery candidate for governor 
and George W. Smith was the candidate of the Free State party. 



64 MARSH. \I, I. COUNTY. K.VNSAS. 

Smith's majority over Marshall was 130. Smith received 6.875 ''^"'^^ 
Marshall, 6.745. In Marshall county. Marshall received ^2 votes and Smith. 
47 votes; total 119. 

The vote on the other territorial officers was exactly alike in each case. 
Governor, secretary, auditor, treasurer, congressman, each received ']2 votes 
as pro-slavery candidates and 47 votes were recorded for the Free State men. 

At this same election a vote was taken on the adoption of the Lecomp- 
ton constitution, "with slavery", or "without slavery", and 232 votes were 
cast and counted for "with slavery", against 41 votes cast for "without 
slaverv." This ^vas in Marshall county, where Marshall himself was a 
candidate for governor and where the vote on territorial officers in no ease 
exceeded 119. 

Marshall never served in any military organization and the title of 
"General" was purely nominal. 

He v.-as well known hy many of the pioneer settlers and was a man of 
strong personality, devoted to his family and scrupulous in his religious 
duties. Mrs. M. A. B. ]\Iartin, who knew the family well, says: "Mr. Mar- 
shall and family always observed the Sabbath. They would read from the 
Bible and then all join in singing hymns." 

Mr. Marshall built a good residence on the spot where Dr. Jennie 
Eddy's office now stands. Mrs. Dan Griswold made her home with them 
for awhile, v.'hen a little girl, and remembers Mrs. Alarshall as a woman of 
great kindness. 

Marshall's reminiscences. 

The following is F. J. Marshall's personal letter written to and read 
by J. S. Magill at the Old Settlers Reunion held at Irving in August, 1895. 
It is given in full in order that the readers of the history may have personal 
knowledge of the views of the man for whom the county is named and for 
the further reason that it tells the story of early days of Marysville. 

To James S. Magill, E.sq., Secretary of the Old Settlers Pioneer Association: 
]My Dear Sir — I have read with pleasure the very kind invitation of 
your committee to be with you on the occasion of the meeting of the Old Set- 
tlers' Pioneer Association of Marshall county, Kansas. Nothing would 
afford me more pleasure than to avail myself of your kind invitation and to 
meet the people of Marshall county, as well as those from other parts of the 
state, and I had made all arrangements to be with them at their coming 
reunion, but at the last moment my failing health forbids me making the 






7^^ J 


^^i^/^SS^^^v^^ 


4^ ^--^ijpi^^ 



GEN. FRANK .MARSHALL. 



MRS. MARY MARSHALL. 





PETER FROOM. 



CON SMITH, 
An Old-Time Stage Driver. 



THS ^^ 
- "BUC 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 65 

long trip and herewith I enclose a short history of my recollections of the 
olden times of Kansas pioneer life. 

In the early settlement of Kansas, it is to be remembered, I established a 
trading post at the government crossing of the Big Blue river on the road 
leading to the great West, over which went all the travel starting from Ft. 
Leavenworth and all other points below old Ft. Kearney on the Missouri 
river to new Ft. Kearney, Ft. Larimer and all the Indian country, Utah, 
Oregon, Washington and the great emigration to California, which meant 
at least five thousand to ten thousand people a day from April to July. Over 
this route went the great pony express enterprise to California, which the 
country now knows partially led to the building of the Union Pacific rail- 
road. Most of the time the river could be forded, but often even for six 
weeks at a time it could not be crossed except by means of the ferry. This 
was one of the greatest overland thoroughfares which the country has ever 
known. | 

SEEKS TO ESTABLISH FERRY. 

I applied to the Indian agent for the privilege of establishing a ferry 
and trading post at the point where Marysville now stands. It was in the 
Indian country, and there was no particular agent having jurisdiction over 
this part of the Indian lands. He informed me that it was the battle-ground 
of the different tribes when at war with each other, hence a dangerous place 
for the establishment of a trading post, as I proposed. 

I then applied to Major Ogden. the quartermaster at Ft. Leavenworth, 
for a contract with the government to put in boats, build ware- and store- 
houses and to supply troops returning from the western forts in the winter 
time, and he protested that on account of its dangerous proximity to the 
ground described such an establishment might not last long without military 
protection. I expressed' myself , however, as willing to arrange for my own 
protection, to which he afterward gave his consent. On securing his per- 
mission, I proceeded at once, bought a piece of artillery, mounted it, loaded 
my own wagons and was on the way to the Big Blue crossing at the point 
referred to within twenty-four hours after my contract with the government. 
This arrangement was universally concurred in by the officers at Ft. Leaven- 
worth. Colonel Sumner, who then commanded the Second dragoons and 
who afterwards commanded a division in the late war, and Lieutenant Stuart, 
who was his quartermaster on expeditions into the Indian country in the 
spring and summer and afterwards known as the rebel. General Stuart, of 

(5) 



66 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

the Black Horse cavalry, on returning late in the fall crossed at this point, 
always required supplies for his soldiers and horses, knew of the facts in 
connection with my enterprise, and I had their hearty co-operation. 

TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHED. 

This undertaking was commenced as early as the year 1852, and led 
two years later to the establishment of a territorial government for Kansas 
and Nebraska, a brief statement of which may not be uninteresting at this 
time. 

In 185 1 the Big Blue river rose to the top of its banks, and perhaps this 
fact had something to do with the facility with which I secured permission 
from the government officers to carry out my plans for establishing a ferry, 
etc. 

Suffice to say that I succeeded in every way, nor did I have the serious 
trouble with the Indians that had been apprehended, they regarding me as 
occupying the same position relatively to them as did the military forces at 
Ft. Kearney. 

All the lands west of the Missouri river at that time, not within the 
boundaries of California, had no name except in a general way as the "Indian 
country," the "Great American desert," or "Nebraska," but there were sparse 
settlements in the mining country now known as the state of Nevada, and in 
the Mormon settlements of what is now known as Utah. 

The next move I made was to bring about the organization of a terri- 
torial government of the "Great American desert," so-called, and it was 
brought about, I might say, somewhat in an accidental way. 

The Pottawatomie Indian agent, Major Whitfield, had started up the 
Missouri river from St. Louis to pay the Indians at the Pottawatomie post 
their annuity, but his boat was detained by running on a sandbar and he 
was delayed several days beyond the pay day. 

A large body of the Pottawatomie Indians were educated Indians, hav- 
ing been educated at St. Mary's Mission on the reservation, and were known 
as Mission Indians, to distinguish them from the prairie Indians. 

INDIANS BECOME IMPATIENT. 

The prairie Indians became impatient by reason of the non-appearance 
of the agent, and in the absence of railway and telegraphic communication 
the authorities could get no information as to the cause, except by means of 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. '^ 67 

the slow mails. A portion of the educated Indians and traders came to me 
and asked what would be the better course to pursue in order to keep the 
prairie Indians quiet until the agent should arrive. It occurred to me that 
it would be interesting, instructive and amusing to call a pow-wow or con- 
vention of the traders and Indians. There were at that time a thousand or 
more curiosity seekers, etc., in the vicinity. I requested Bill Lorton, a half- 
breed educated Indian, always a reliable friend on my travels through the 
Indian country, to notify everyone. He mounted his wild bucking broncho, 
with a cowbell in hand, and spread the news with a great hurrah. Several 
thousand Indians and nearly as many whites came pouring in from all direc- 
tions. I had requested one of the agents from the Indian department to 
explain the object of the convention. He wanted to know what he should 
say. I told him to discuss the question of organizing a territorial govern- 
ment for Nebraska, the prosperous condition of the Indians or anything else 
he could imagine that would give him something to talk about, intending to 
amuse the crowd. 

The fact is that up to that time I did not know what was going to be 
said or done, except that, as before stated, I thought we would get a good 
deal of amusement out of it and allay the restless spirit of the Indians. The 
aeent announced that 1 knew all about the matters to be discussed and called 
upon me to explain the object of the convention. I responded, beginning 
more in fun than in earnest, referring to the then condition of affairs, but 
soon I became serious, and the importance of accomplishing a territorial 
government dawned upon my mind and the more feasible appeared the object, 
and soon the convention became enthusiastic and in earnest. 

The proceedings of that convention resulted in the adoption of a 
memorial to Congress to organize a territorial government for Nebraska 
or the Great American desert. The news of the memorial to Congress was 
communicated to the St. Louis Republican by General Mitchell and the other 
papers of the United States took up the subject, and its discussion resulted 
in the development of great interest, and the Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, of 
the state of Illinois, who was then a member of the United States Senate, 
took up the subject and introduced the Kansas-Nebraska bill. It was soon 
apparent from the discussions which took place in Congress that the Southern 
states would not vote for his bill because it prohibited Southerners from mov- 
ing into the territories with their property, unless the Missouri compromise 
was first repealed, because that law denied the right to carry slaves into the 
territories. This law was repealed as a part of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, 
and the southern members of Congress voted for the measure. It then 



68 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

became popular, and was carried hy an ii\er\vhcliiiin^- majority, and was 
regarded as a most jiisl law under the doctrine of what was known as "squat- 
ter sovereignty." 

SOUTIIKRN STATES FAVOR DOUGLAS. 

This [)ut the Southern states in favor of Mr. Duughis for tiie Tresidency, 
hut it aroused the opposition of the northern Democracy, and Air. Douglas 
found it convenient to drop the southern Democracy and swing of¥ with the 
northern wing, making war on the Democratic administration which endorsed 
the Democratic doctrine of equality between the states. This led to a divi- 
sion of the national Democracy and gave birth to the Republican i>arty, and 
finally resulted in the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency. 

Air. Douglas had argued that Kansas would come in as a free state, 
w'hich it would have done under the Lecompton constitution, but for the 
policy of Horace Greeley and his confreres, wdio prevented it coming in as a 
free state and thus downed Mr. Douglas and the Democratic party. The 
policy of the free state party managers was to withhold a large per cent, of 
the Free State voters and allow- the pro-slavery ticket to be elected and the 
slavery clause to be retained ; for if they had voted their full strength they 
would have elected a Free State member of Congress, and excluded slavery 
from Kansas, and it would have come into the union under that constitution 
as a free state, with free state officers; the agitation w^ould have ceased; 
there w'ould have been no Republican party, no additional slave states, no 
war, and no such great blessing as our national debt of millions. 

So you will see that the conduct of myself, with the co-operation of 
Bill Lorton, the half-breed educated Indian from St. Mary's Mission, back 
in those early days really resulted in the development of a territorial govern- 
ment organizing Kansas and Nebraska, wdiich has been followed by a con-, 
tinual formation of states west of the Missouri river, containing today mil- 
lions of people. This vast region of country being rapidly settled and cap- 
able of supporting many millions of people more than now inhabit it ; rich in 
agricultural resources and mineral wealth it will eventually have the pow-er 
to control the affairs of the nation. It already holds the balance of power, 
and only needs the co-operation of the middle and southern states to wrest 
from the hands of England and other foreign countries the power to control 
the financial policy of this country, as they do at the present time.' This can 
be done, in my opinion, by the remonetization of silver and a change of the 
policy of our financial system. 



MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 69 

SOME FACTS NOT RECORDED IN HISTORY. 

I do not desire to bring political questions into discussion on this occa- 
sion, but I beg leave to say that the history of the country now under con- 
sideration necessarily calls for some facts not recorded in history, which 
Democrats and Republicans alike, as well as the country at large, are inter- 
ested in. 

The present generation is not aware how the Republicans came to be a 
political pafty, nor do the Democrats all know the causes which led to their 
surrendering the government to a new party, which has since been known as 
the Republican party. Only a day or two ago I met a man forty-five years 
of age who said that his great-grandfather was a Republican and he was 
going to stick to that party — silver or no silver. I then informed him that 
I was personally present at the birth of the Republican party, and that my 
great-grandfather was a Democrat, but that I would not vote for that party 
or any other unless it declared for the remonetization of silver at the ratio 
of 16 to I. 

The gold standard advocates nominated both Harrison and Cleveland, 
and it did not matter to them which was elected. The same game may be 
looked for in the next national conventions of the two old parties. 

It is often asked by men of great intelligence, "What is the cause of the 
present deplorable condition of the country?" when a schoolboy can answer 
the question. It is simply this : That the Bank of England forced Wall 
street and Wall street forced every national bank in this country to shut 
down on the people, and lock up the money of the nation, and they have it 
locked U]) yet. And they can perform this operation again and again so long 
as the gold standard men control our finances. 

Very respectfully yours, 

F. J. Marshall. 

Denver, Colorado, July 22, 1895. 

MRS. MARY MARSHALL. 

Mrs. J. M. Watson of Frankfort received a telegram on April 25, 191 7, 
notifying her of the death of her sister. Mrs. Mary Marshall, at Largemont, 
New York, Tuesday, April 24. Interment was made at New Rochelle, New 
York, the following evening. 

Mary R. Williams was born at Richmond, Missouri, December 4, 183 1, 
and at the time of her death was aged eighty-five years, four months and 



yO MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

twenty days. Reaching womanhood, .she was married to the late Gen. Frank 
J. Marshall, of Weston, Missouri. They came to Marshall county among the 
first wdiite settlers of this county. Mr. Marshall established a ferry at Inde- 
pendence Crossing, alwut eight miles south of Marysville, on the Blue river, 
in 1849. Tw^o years later he moved his ferry to Marysville. He was elected 
to the first territorial Legislature and in the organization of the county had 
the county named Marshall and the town named Mary, in honor of his wife. 
Mr. and Mrs. Marshall lived in Marysville until the breaking out of the war, 
when they moved to Colorado. The Marshalls were ardent pro-slavery people, 
but when the southern states seceded from the Union, Mr. Marshall did not 
feel that he could conscientiously fight either against slavery or against the 
Union, and he and his family left Kansas and located in the mountains of 
Colorado. 

Mrs. Marshall, for whom Marysville was named, was an excellent woman, 
of high intelligence and courage and took an active part in the early incidents 
of Marshall county. She was highly respected by all the early settlers and 
by many new^r settlers who have met her on her frequent visits to Marys- 
ville. After the death of her husband she has been living with her children 
in Colorado and New^ York. For the past few years her home has been with 
her daughter, Mrs. Mary McCall, at Largemont, New^ York, wdiere she was 
when death called her. 

EMMA WILLIAMS. 

Emma Williams, a younger sister of Mrs. Marshall, came to Marysville 
to make her home with her sister in 1854. She was married to J. H. 
McDougal. During the war, McDougal served as first lieutenant of Com- 
pany E, Thirteenth Kansas Infantry, under Perry Hutchinson, captain. On 
July 17, 1863, Captain Hutchinson resigned and on December 4, 1863, 
McDougal was promoted captain. McDougal died in Marysville and after 
the close of the war, Mrs. McDougal became the wnfe of John M. Watson. 
Mrs. Watson is one of the oldest pioneer settlers now living. 

J. M. Watson was a native Pennsylvanian, born in 1840. He served in 
the Army of the Potomac, from 1861 to Petersburg, Virginia, in 1865. He 
came West in 1865, walking from the Missouri river to Marshall county. 
Then there w-as not a mile of railroad in Kansas. He took a homestead, 
farmed and freighted on the plains. Later, he served as register of deeds 
of the county. He engaged in the retail lumber business in Frankfort for 
eighteen years and served as postmaster of Frankfort for thirteen years. Mr. 
Watson regards the days spent at the battle of Gettysburg as the incident in 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 7I 

his life most worthy to be recorded in history. Mr. and Mrs. Watson reside 
in Frankfort. 

LETTER FROM MRS. GEORGE W. THORNE. 

Beattie, Kansas, 
February 14, 191 7. 
Dear Mrs. Forter: 

Replying to your request to tell you something of old times : I came 
here from Maryville. Missouri, where I had three months schooling, before 
coming to Kansas with my father, Joseph Totten. There were six children 
in our family. There were no schools to go to here and there were more 
Indians than white people. 

Mrs. Emma Jones, formerly Totten, taught the first school in our dis- 
trict. We had to have three months school taught before we could draw 
any state money. My brother, John Totten, and Frank Lannan went to 
Blue Rapids and paid tuition for three months school. 

Soon after the neighbors got together and organized a district named 
Guittard, and then they had three months more school. But three months 
school was all I ever had. 

Yes, I plowed five acres of ground with an ox team. The boys helped 
plant the corn. We then had to harvest with an ox team. 

In i860 I was married to George W. Thorne and we went on a farm 
whei-e we lived five years. There was only one house between here and 
Marysville and that was a ranch kept for the traveler. 

THE PRICE OF CATS. 

I remember one night I started after my father who had gone on foot 
to Marysville after the doctor and I met him about halfway. My father used 
to go to St. Jo for provisions and once he brought out two cats, for which he 
paid a dollar apiece in St. Jo. 

If we had a calico dress, it was good enough for church or dances. And 
if I wanted a new dress I would go and drop corn for fifteen cents a day 
and earn the money for the dress. 

To obtain the first feather bed I had, I husked corn for fifty cents a day 
for my father and paid him one dollar apiece for the geese to get feathers to 
make the bed. 

When I was married I had a home-made table, three stools and a Cot- 
tonwood bedstead that Mr. Thorne made and I cooked over a fire-place. I 



72 MARSH ALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

dropped ten acres of corn in one day and liad tln-ee cows to milk. I have 
husked more corn tlian half of llie farmers raised last year. 

After we got to raising;' corn to sell, my hushand used to haul it to Ft. 
Kearney, where he sold it for one dollar a bushel and we could only get ten 
or eleven cents a bushel in Marysville. 

We knew nothing of corn shellers and once shelled forty bushels by 
hand. My liusband used to go to St. Jo with an ox team for groceries and 
meat. That was otu" nearest meat market. 

The first wheat we raised was three acres and there came a prairie fire 
and burned it up. When we raised wheat my husband cut it with a cradle 
and I bound it with straw and we threshed it with a flail. We had to take 
it to Table Rock, Nebraska, to mill, which took four or five days and I had 
to stay at home and do the chores. 

There were plentv of Indians around, too, with whiskey to drink. If 
I wanted to go and \-isit a neighbor I would walk four or five miles and stay 
all night and come home the next clay. 

WHien we wanted to write to a friend, we had to go to the hen house, 
get a quill to make a pen and make ink out of maple bark. 

My family consisted of ten girls and one son, George W. Thorne, of 
Beattie. Ten of our children graduated from the Beattie schools. I am 
now seventy-one years old. 

With best wishes, 

Elizabeth Thorne. 

EARLY settler's DEATH. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Thorne died on Tuesday, April 17, 191 7, and was buried 
Thursday afternoon, April 19. .She was seventy-one years, six months and 
nine days old. She had been a resident of Marshall county since 1858. She 
was a daughter of Joseph Totten, one of the pioneers of Marshall county. 
Her husband, George W. Thorne, deceased, was another of the pioneers of 
Marshall county. Mrs. Thorne was a splendid woman, kind, generous, faith- 
ful and true. Her influence in the community was always for the good and 
for the advancement of the things which went for community betterment. 

Mrs. Thorne was present at the pioneers' reunion at Marysville last fall 
and registered on the roll of old settlers. Only a very few enrolled who 
antedated her in residence in Marshall county. The last writing Mrs. Thorne 
did was the foregoing sketch for this History of Marshall County. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 7-3 

PIONEERS ON THE VERMILLION. 
By J. M. Watson. 

Daniel M! Leavitt and Henry, his brother, came here "from the jumping- 
off place," Portland, Maine. Mrs. Leavitt was a school teacher in Iowa. 
Mr. Leavitt met her there, they were married and coming overland by 
ox team located on the Vermillion in the fifties. Their first log cabin is 
standing and at the present time is used for a hen honse. Yes ; she was a 
mother to all us boys. I remember the winter of 1865-66 when she was 
cooking our dinner; likewise her face, over the old fashioned fire-place, when 
\X. H. Smith, James Smith, myself and others, appreciating her kindness, 
"chipped in," and sent to Leavenworth and bought her a cook stove. Say; 
she smiled all o\er when that stove was set up. The neighbors came miles 
to see the new stove. 

Before we had railroads in Marshall county the farmers hauled their 
corn and oats by ox team to Ft. Riley, where they sold their products to the 
government for use of the troops stationed there. The wheat was hauled 
to Wamego, forty miles distant and the wagons came back loaded with 
groceries and lumber. 

NEW WAY TO PAY OLD DEBTS. 

Monev matters in early days. — Well, we had none. I was indebted to 
W. H. Smith, one hundred dollars balance on land purchase; Frank Love 
was owing me one hundred dollars for corn he bought to feed to his sheep; 
A. G. Barrett was owing Love one hundred dollars balance on saw-mill ; John 
D. Wells owed Barrett one hundred dollars for sawing lumber, and W. H. 
Smith was indebted to John D. Wells in the same sum, balance on land deal. 
Thus we paid five hundred dollars of debts and never saw a dollar of the 
money. 

Prairie Fires. — Yes, I had some experience. Lost one horse, cow, hay 
and fencing and was caught m}/self. I lay down and the fire passed over me, 
burning the clothes ofl:' my back. They rolled me in a sack of flour to take 
out the burns, while they sent twenty miles for a doctor and he was not at 
home. I was laid up for three months. 

The early settlers between 1850 and i860 were truly the "Pioneers of 
the Prairies," and the first home-makers. Household utensils were very 
few; split bottom chairs, corded bedsteads (if any), homemade table, iron 



74 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

pot, bake pan and skillet. The skillet or frying pan was called by the Yankee 
a "spider." 

Vicissitudes. — Changes, lots of them ; winds changed ends forty times a 
day. Some years it rained and some years it did not rain. One settler from 
Illinois came and said he was going to "raise broom corn here or raise h — 1" ; 
he died. 

The young folks thought nothing of going forty miles to Manhattan, in 
a lumber wagon drawn by four mules and Jim Vaugn as driver; dance all 
night, "go home by broad daylight in the morning." Marysville, Sheehies, on 
Spring creek in Pottawatomie county, Barretts mills were also dancing points. 
The Greens, "Fes" and "Nick", on the Vermillion, played the fiddle for the 
dances. The Linn boys, Frank and Dave made the music for Marysville. 
The Manhattan orchestra (two violins and a clarionet), piped and sawed 
for the Blue Valley. Happy days. Our wives, the mothers of our children, 
were the "Pioneer girls of the Prairies." Note the change. "We are grow- 
ing old." 

In the fall of 1868 the Central Branch railroad, then known as the Atch- 
ison & Pike's Peak railroad, was completed to Frankfort. Capt. Perry 
Hutchinson freighted from Marysville and shipped the first car of flour. 
J. D. Wells shipped the first car of cattle. John Watson shipped the first car 
of wheat. Our market then was Chicago, Illinois, and train loads of fat 
cattle w^ere soon shipped East by William Kennedy, Clem Hessel, J. D. Wells, 
Charles Butler, Perry Hutchinson and others, from Frankfort. 

Prairie sod was broken up by oxen, two, three and four yokes of oxen 
hitched to a twenty-four-inch breaking plow, and it cost four dollars an acre 
to break the sod, wdiich was about twice as much as the original cost of the 
land. 

High rates of interest. — No limit in early days. I remember in 1875, 
"grasshopper year," Hon. James Smith was then our county treasurer. He 
said there was not money enough in the county to pay the taxes. Robert 
Osborn, Abby and Jacob Mohrbacher paid all county bills in county scrip or 
warrants. "No tax penalty for one year," was the slogan. 

The Shanty. — Yes, the log cabin on the edge of the creek; well do I 
remember it. Dirt floor, door so short that you made a bow to the occupants 
before entering. Genuine hospitality within. "Come in and have a chair" ; 
share our cabin and our meals. You could track the first one up in the morn- 
ing from his bed or cot to the fire place; if in winter his footmark was in 
the snow ; if in summer it was in the dust. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 75 

COMBINING BUSINESS WITH PLEASURE. 

Religious duties. — At Barrett's school house Reverend Burr (do not know 
what creed or denomination, the question was not asked in early days) gave 
out one Sunday evening that "on next Saturday afternoon a business meet- 
ing will be held, and on Sunday, church at the usual hour." Someone 
whispered to him that a horse race was booked for Saturday, on which he 
announced : "Business meeting on Friday evening, horse race on Saturday 
afternoon and church as usual on Sunday." 

Care of the sick. — We all used quinine in pioneer days. The only sick- 
ness was fever and ague. Some "shook", every day; others every other day, 
and some everv third dav. The disease lasted from three months to one 
year. That is what makes so many "standpatters" now. 

When there was a death in the settlement everyone turned out to help. 
A detail was made to dig the grave, a carpenter made the coffin, which was 
taken in a wagon covered with a sheet or blanket and followed to the grave 
by the neighbors, all on horseback. Note the change which fifty years has 
made. Now it is a casket, an automobile hearse, and mourners going and 
coming in automobiles. 



ELI PUNTENEY S RECOLLECTIONS. 

The first school house in Marshall county was built in 1858, by four 
bachelors. It was not very large, fourteen by twenty-four. It was then 
and remains today district No. i. 

The Indians worked great hardships to the settlers in the early years. 
In 1862 the Indians had an understanding with each other and they "struck" 
what was called "The Pike's Peak Trail," for one hundred and fifty miles 
and murdered every man, woman and child that they could find. This was 
a pre-concerted movement and they started about eleven o'clock in the morn- 
ing. The east end of this savage attack was about twenty miles west of 
Marysville, on the Little Blue river. Every house was burned and the occu- 
pants murdered with savage brutality. 

The Overland stage had a house every fifteen miles. The Indians burned 
these houses together with the hay and provisions, and, in fact everything 
that would burn. Troops were raised and went in pursuit and after that 
^^•e had not so much trouble with the red rascals. 



y^ MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Our \]v<{ prcacliiiij^- was in 1S57 at Rarrctts mills. The services were 
held in the saw-nnll. The seats and pnlpit wei'c made of sawn logs. The 
preacher's name was Miles and he nsnally had ahont twenty in attendance. 

Once when the otTering was Ijcing taken c)ne of our best men wanted to 
give something, but his smallest change was a five dollar gold piece. Pres- 
ently a man went up to la\' his olTering on the board and the man with the 
tive dollar gold piece whispered to him as he came back : "Lend me a dime, 
I ha\e nothing smaller than live dollars." "Oh," saifl the man, "you can 
change it at the board, 1 saw some gold and silver there." So the good man 
walked up and laid down his live dollars in gold, but he could only get two 
dollars and tifty cents out cjf what was on the board. Well, the preacher w'as 
well satisfied with the collection. 

Permit me to take a stroll down the vanished lane of yesterday and 
imagine I am with comrades of 1855 to i860. The faces I would see would 
be those of the Barretts, the Leavitts, Dan and Henry; the Aulds, John D. 
Wells and his family ; G. H. Hollenberg and his handsome young bride ; the 
Brockmeyers, Roland, W. S. Blackburn, who afterwards became county 
superintendent of schools, as also did Wells ; the Greggs, the McElroys and 
James Malone, a fine scholar, who became a missionary, and many others of 
the splendid men and women who came to make Kansas a free state. To 
mention all would ])rolong this sketch too much, but if it be true, "To live in 
hearts we leave behind, is not to die," then the Kansas pioneer still lives. 
It has been a long time since Kansas was settled. Yet we look back over 
those years and thank God we had the courage to endure the privations of 
those early days. 

The people of today, rich as the result of those years of toil, danger and 
isolation from the comforts of civilization, look back with admiration and 
wonder at the will power and endurance of the pioneer men and women. 
The stress of the times brought out all the better qualities of heart and mind 
and developed the true spirit of sympathy and kindness. 

In the northern portion of the county some men tried to make an 
entrance for the slave party. But they were not successful. Many returned 
to Missouri and Carolina. Some remained and while we differed politically, 
we never sought redress in violence. But the spirit of freedom was in the 
pure Kansas air and has ever remained. "Ad astra per Aspera" was true 
of those brave pioneers of Marshall county. Many have gone to their 
eternal home, where we shall join them. What a reunion that will be. 



MARSHALL COLfNTY, KANSAS. 77 

THE WALKER FAMILY. 

In 1856 Isaac Walker and family, members of the Ohio colony, settled 
on the land near where Winifred now stands and the old Walker homestead 
called "West Fork," is still maintained by the family. 

The town Winifred was named for Mrs. Isaac Walker and this noble 
pioneer woman deserves a permanent place in Marshall connty history, because 
of the great courage and fortitude with which she endured the hardships of 
pioneer life. 

When Winifred Barrett married Isaac Walker her father gave her as 
a wedding gift a walnut bureau which he himself made for her, and which 
she prized very dearly. When Isaac Walker and his wife decided to come 
to Kansas with the Ohio colony, they first came as far as Iowa where Mrs. 
Walker had an uncle, and as they found it impractical to bring all their 
household goods with them, they stored them with their uncle in Iowa. 
Among other things the bureau was left. But this little woman was not to 
be separated from her household god so easily. In 1858 Mrs. Walker made 
the trip from the west fork of the Vermillion to Birmingham, Iowa, with an 
ox team and wagon to get her treasured bureau, and bring' it to her new home 
in Marshall county. It took her three months to make the trip. She started 
for Iowa about June ist and returned early in September. The oxen and 
their driver were weary-eyed and worn, but her father's precious gift was 
once more in her home. Her son, David B. Walker, still numbers the old 
walnut bureau among his valued possessions. 

SOLDIER SON DIES. 

In the winter of 1S61, Isaac Walker and his eldest son enlisted in Com- 
pany D, Eighth Kansas Infantry and were stationed at Iowa Point on the 
Kansas-Missouri border. While there the son contracted measles and died, 
and the father decided to bring his body home for burial. A kind man 
loaned him a team of ponies and wagon and he started on the long journey, 
over the bleak, barren prairie to bring to that brave mother the lifeless form 
of her eldest born, who had been to him not only a son, but a soldier and 
conu'ade. 

WHien Isaac W^alker reached the site where Vermillion now stands the 
team, broken down from the long- travel and insufficient food, was unable 
to go farther and the weary father stopped, feeling to himself that he could 



yS MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

not proceed farther <>n his sorrowful journey. A settler living near saw the 
distressed group and came to in()uire the cause and to give help. Word was 
sent to the family at West Fork and the younger son, David B., came with 
an ox team and together, father and son hrought the body of the soldier boy 
to l-"rankf()rt, where burial w-as made. 

MOTHER WORKS ON LAND. 

Isaac Walker returned to his regiment and the following winter was 
crippled with a wound in his leg and became an invalid for two years. Dur- 
ing this time the younger son, David, enlisted in Company Ninth Kansas and 
w^ent away to the front. Mrs. Walker was left not only with the care of her 
husband but the responsibility of making the living. Undaunted, she plowed 
the land with her ox team and raised what crops she could. Those who 
recall that frail, delicate woman with gentle face and softly-glowing dark 
eyes are filled with admiration at the great power of endurance and the fer- 
vent patriotism she displayed. Once in reminiscent mood she told the writer, 
''Davy was always a good boy to his mother. When he was at the front he 
always sent me his wages. It was not a great sum, but it seemed a great 
deal in those days, when money was so scarce and hardship so plenty." 

Before going into the volunteer service, David Walker had been one of 
E. C. Manning's "home guards," and had gone on several expeditions after 
marauding Indians. On one of these trips the party had taken refuge at a 
place called Hewitt's ranch on the Big Sandy. They found there an entire 
family had been massacred by Indians the previous night. An old Indian 
trail, which can be traced at the present time, ran near the Walker homestead. 
This was a foot trail, and led to the old Indian village near there and farther 
on to the w^est. Thousands of Indians traveled over this trail, for the Indian 
village was a trading post for many tribes, but principally the Pottowatomie 
and Delaware Indians. 

David Walker became very familiar with the different tribes and could 
distinguish them readily by their garb and tribal emblems. An afternoon 
spent with him when he is in a talking mood, is like reading the pages of 
Fenimore Cooper. He inherited much of the intrepid spirit of his mother 
and is a respected pioneer of Marshall county. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 79 

JENNETTE BARBER HUTCHINSON. 

In the history of a county there are certain names that stand out prom- 
inently and around which a deep interest centers. Such a name is that of 
Jennette Barber, who was mavried at the age of eig^hteen and one-half years 
to Perry Hutchinson. 

Mrs. Hutchinson's parents, Chemplin and Malancy Barber, were pion- 
eers in Herkimer county, New York. They resided near Fredonia, Her 
mother was a very capable woman, a fine housekeeper and with great frugal- 
ity and forethought. They Hved on a farm and her father was one of the 
substantial men of the community. Mrs. Barber was a member of the Pres- 
byterian church and her family was brought up in that church. 

After her betrothal to Perry Hutchinson, the young man desired to pre- 
sent her to his parents and together they made the trip in a buggy. The day 
turned stormy and rained and she she was somewhat tired on their arrival, 
Mr. Hutchinson's mother was a large woman, weighing about two hundred 
pounds. His prospective bride was rather slight and timid. Miss Barber 
naturally wished to know the opinion the young man's parents had of the 
future daughter-in-law and finally Perry confided to her that they thought 
her "rather small." 

After their marriage the young people moved to Iowa, where they 
resided for four years, part of the time on a farm, and part of that time Mr. 
Hutchinson engaged in milling. His partner, not proving satisfactory, he 
returned to the farm. In 1859 they had in sixty acres of corn. On July 3, 
a hard ffost destroyed the corn. They had planted ten acres of cucumbers 
for the purpose of raising the seed for a seed house in Fredonia, New York. 
These escaped with little injury; but the opportunity of obtaining govern- 
ment land interested them and Mr. Hutchinson decided to come west and 
locate a claim and later return for the wife, little son, Frank, and baby 
daughter. 

The young wife took this under advisement. If she remained, it would 
mean hiring help to gather the cucumber seed and boarding them wdiile they 
worked. Her children were small and after some thought she decided to 
accompany her husband in search of a home. When she told him of her 
decision he answered, "You can't stand the hardship," She answered, "I can 
stand whatever you can." With that thrift and clever management which 
have been livelong characteristics of Mrs. Hutchinson, she prepared for the 
journey. The neighbors came in and provision was prepared to last for the 
noonday meals during the entire journey. Chickens were roasted and pre- 



8o MARSHAf.L COUNTY, KANSAS. 

serves made and bread leaked. Xo preparation was made for camping out. 
Tliev stopped at any home that could and would shelter them for the night. 
At noon they had tlieir flinner by the way while the horses were being fed. 

IILTCIIIXSOX FAMILY ARRIVE AT MARSHALL COUNTY. 

Mr. Hutchinson was always fond of good horses and knew how to take 
care of them. Having heard of the good land in Marshall county they 
pushed along and they slept in their wagon for the first and only time on the 
trip w iiliin the borders of Marshall county. After reaching Marysville they 
heard of a man named John Hyatt, who was in search of a man and wife to 
assist him on liis claim. 

Hyatt asked Brumbaugh what he thought of the "Yankee." and Brum- 
baugh gave him a favorable answer, so the young pioneers drove back over 
the trail of the previous day until they came to a log cabin which was to be 
their first dwelling place in the county. 

The cabin had a puncheon floor and plenty of fresh air. The cracks 
were "big enough to throw a cat through," and there was a wide fireplace 
so low that one ccmld look out of doors by glancing up the chimney. One 
storm\- day, Mrs. Hutchinson hung a blanket across in front of the fire place 
to shut out the bitter wind and seated within, near the fire with her two 
children, she made for her eldest son, Frank, his first pair of pants. 

While they lived in the Hyatt cabin, Mr. Hutchinson joined a party of 
buffalo hunters and went west in search of meat. Mrs. Hutchinson stayed 
alone in the cabin on the prairie, with her children. A neighbor coming that 
way invited her to go along and visit another neighbor. On returning 
towards evening they saw that her cabin door was open. This made her 
timid and the neighbor persuaded her to spend the night with her, which she 
did. After a sleepless night she preferred to brave the Indians and 
returned to her own cabin. This was the only time in all those early years 
of loneliness and privatic^n that she ever left her own rooftree by reason of 
being left alone. 

The buffalo hunters did not find game as near as they expected and 
many returned, but Perry went far enough west to obtain a good supply of 
the meat. Much of this Airs. Hutchinson cured and the remainder Perry 
sold along the trail, realizing enough to lay in a supply of groceries from 
St. Joe. It also gave him an opportunity to see the land and he soon selected 
a claim seven miles east of ^^larysville: as there was good timl)er on the land. 



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MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 8l 

he built a substantial log cabin with one room below and a chamber over- 
head. 

Into this first real home Mr. and Mrs. Hutchinson moved on February 
2, i860. That spring a party of men becoming dissatisfied with their 
driver, made Perry a good proposition to drive them to Denver. There 
were eight in the party. Having found someone to stay with his wife, Mr. 
Hutchinson made the trip, leaving in May, returning in August. While 
there he joined with some miners and after a month or so of mining he real- 
ized five hundred dollars, a munificent sum in those days. He immediately 
invested in another mine, which proved a failure. Meanwhile Mrs. Hutchin- 
son had "looked after" matters at home. She sold hay at four cents a 
pound and corn at two dollars a bushel and when her husband returned she 
had more money than he had, lacking a few cents of having fifty dollars. 
The night after his return from Denver, a horse died and she gave him the 
fifty dollars, with which he bought a pony and later traded for another 
horse. 

Mrs. Hutchinson was a good manager and never was without some 
provision. In all those years she really never found her cupboard bare, and 
never turned a weary wayfarer from her cabin door hungry. They had 
a splendid well on their place and this attracted travelers, as good well 
water was scarce. 

CYCLONE VISITS THE PIONEERS. 

One day just as Mrs. Hutchinson had taken her wash from the line 
and laid it on some chairs a cyclone struck the cabin tearing off the roof and 
scattering the shingles far and wide. 

The man and wife who were keeping her company during her hus- 
band's absence, were so badly frightened that they sprang into the bed and 
covered up with the feather tick. Mrs. Hutchinson put little Frank under the 
covers and, outside behind the house, bending over her baby sheltered her 
from the driving hail and rain. The man in the bed fainted, the woman 
screamed and cried, but Mrs. Hutchinson revived the man with camphor 
and quieted the others and directed the re-roofing of her cabin. She was 
bruised and lamed by the storm, but her children were unhurt, so she made 
light of it. 

They lived one year on the farm and then the Barrett Hotel being with- 
out a landlord, friends suggested that they take charge of it. Mr. Hutchin- 
son applied to Barrett for a lease and was refused, because he had not money 
(6) 



82 MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 

for the rent. Somewhat downcast he was met by F. J. Marshall, who, on 
learning the facts, guaranteed the rent and the young people took charge of 
the hotel. 

While they yet lived in their log cabin the pony express passed by their 
door and many of the messengers had cause to remember Mrs. Hutchinson. 
She always had a kind word for them and something special, a slice of ginger- 
bread or "some of her good doughnuts. She remembers them as fine boys, 
many being from the East and college l^red. Billy Bolton was a favorite with 
Mr. and Mrs. Hutchinson and oftimes he would stop a few minutes and sing 
for her. He had a sweet tenor voice and sang with great feeling some old 
favorites, "Annie Laurie," "Sweet Evalina," and the "Old Log Cabin in the 
Lane."' This latter song was a great favorite with General Sherman; 
Clara Louise Kellogg once sang it for him, when encored in a St. Louis 
opera house. 

The pony express and Overland stage stopped at the Barrett house. Mrs. 
Hutchinson w'as a good housekeeper and cook and it soon became a popular 
hostelry. Mrs. Hutchinson managed every detail of the hotel and did much 
of the work herself. In that hotel she entertained many men who afterwards 
became widely known. Albert D. Richardson, Schuyler Colfax, members of 
Congress, Mormon celebrities, Mark Twain and scores of others were guests 
under that roof. The lawyers who practised at the Marshall county bar made 
the Barrett hotel headquarters. John James Ingalls, Albert H. Horton, Nathan 
Price, Bailey Wagener and others always stopped there. 

The parlor of the hotel was the only floor large enough that could be 
used for dances and many a night the people, young and old, gathered there 
for a social evening. Mrs. Hutchinson gave the first socials ever given in the 
county. 

While she was in the hotel it became necessary for a legal residence to 
be established on the claim. Business kept Perry in Marysville and it fell 
to her lot to "live" on the claim. She cooked up food and with her children 
took up her legal residence on the claim, living in a wagon and shed until the 
required time was fulfilled. The cabin was rented to a settler, 

Under the hard work Mrs. Hutchinson's health gave way and the war 
coming on, Mr. Hutchinson was commissioned captain and they gave up 
the hotel, wdiich w\as taken over by J. H. Cottrell and wife. 

THE RAISING. 

The following item appeared in the Blue Valley Union in the issue of 
October 15, 1865: 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 83 

Last Wednesday about forty men, who have willing hearts and helping 
hands assembled at Hutchinson's mill site to raise his flour mill. With a 
hearty good will did they shake that two-story frame together, completing the 
job just as dark came upon them. A good dinner was prepared by the lady 
of the house to which they all did justice. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hutchinson lived near the mill and they kept open house 
for many years. It was not the life of ease for the wife and mother, but she 
bore her own burdens and helped others bear theirs. She turned none away 
empty handed and many a pioneer had cause to remember her with gratitude. 
She cared for her family, husbanded her resources and helped every good 
work of the town. It was through her efforts that the Memorial Presby- 
terian church in Marysville was built. Mrs. Hutchinson had a good bay team, 
was a fearless driver and many times took her team and drove the venerable 
blind preacher, Rev. Charles Parker, to different points in the neighborhood 
where he held religious services. 

Church and Sunday school were held in the old stone school house and 
she taught a Sunday school class and led the singing, assisted by Attorney 
A. Parks and Mrs. Fisher. 

One of the chief amusements of those days was dancing. On one occasion 
Reverend Parker came to Marysville during the week and, as was his custom, 
night found him at the house near the mill. Mr. and Mrs. Hutchinson were 
preparing to attend a dance and the good man volunteered to keep the children. 

While they were absent some belated travelers came along and the min- 
ister took them in and made them comfortable. Mr. and Mrs. Hutchinson 
returned in "the wee sma' hours" and the gentle, white-haired man arose and 
opened the gate for them to drive in. 

In 1867 the three-story stone mill was built on the west side of the 
Blue and before the machinery was installed they decided to have a "mill 
warming". Notice of the night was sent far and wide and scores came, 
bringing well-filled baskets for the midnight refreshments. John Pecenka's 
orchestra furnished the music and to this day that night is recalled by "the 
oldest 'un". 

There had been a double wedding at Frank Marshall's residence the day 
before the dance. Two sisters, Rose and Emma Weber, were the brides. 
Rose married Sam Raines and Emma married John Crump. This bridal 
party attended the big dance. Captain Frank Kister was the head miller and 
master of ceremonies. Such gay young fellows as Ike Davis, Bob Shibley, 
the Barretts, John Watson, the Vaughns, Trospers, Aulds, Dave Walker 
and Cale Osborne were among the guests. 



84 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

THE BABIES MIXED. 

An amusing incident occurred that night which has been perpetuated 
by a popular novelist. A corner had been reserved for babies too young to 
be left at home. Some hay was thrown on the floor and covered with heavy 
blankets and on this bed the babies were put to sleep while the mothers 
danced. 

Dave Walker, Cale Osborne and Andy Travelute decided to have some 
fun ; so unobserved they changed the wrappings of the babies and also their 
places on the bed. The dance being over, mothers took their infants and 
some drove away before the joke was discovered. Such crying of babies 
and screaming of mothers and hustling off wraps until each mother had her 
own again. One young mother of a fine boy, found herself with a tiny girl. 
Finally, as the morning broke, all were adjusted and merrily rolled home- 
ward. Owen Wister in "The Virginian,'' has told the tale. 

Shortly after the new mill was built the big house on the hill was 
erected, which for so many years was the hospitable home of the Hutchin- 
sons. 

Here, as while in modest homes, Mrs. Hutchinson gave personal atten- 
tion to her household duties. She entertained the leading people of the state 
during a period of nearly half a century. Among them were Governors 
Martin, Humphrey, Morrill and Hoch; Noble Prentiss, the well-known news- 
paper writer, and Gower, superintendent of the Grand Island railway. 
Favorites with the Hutchinsons were James Smith, Case Broderick and 
especially Senator Preston B. Plumb, who never failed to visit them when 
in this part of the state. 

With all these duties Mrs. Hutchinson yet found time to visit the sick; 
to arrange benefit balls for yellow fever sufferers ; to prepare the dead for 
burial and to comfort the living. She was always prepared for emergencies 
and rose to them with great courage. In times of business hurry she was 
ready and helpful. She once cooked dinner for forty men on an hour's 
notice. 

Her knowledge of the men employed about the mill gave her a good 
insight to their fitness and she often spoke a kind word in someone's behalf, 
that to this day is gratefully remembered. 

Mrs. Hutchinson devoted her life to her husband's interests. She never 
wearied in well doing. In the early years she boarded the mill people, 
cooked the meals and kept the house. After the big house on the hill was 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 83- 

built, she continued to work and do all she was able, and many times beyond 
the limit of her strength, in order to "help the business." Her family 
increased with time and social duties grew as the years passed. Her husband 
once said of her, "She made me what I am. She never knew when she was 
'licked.' " 

In all those early years of struggle she was the far-sighted partner of 
the firm. Air. Hutchinson's parents on visiting them, found her plenty big 
enough for the job. She numbers her friends in every home in Marshall 
county and the members of her own household "arise up and call her blessed." 
She lived up to the full measure of duty each day and now as she makes her 
home in the city she helped to build, all doors open with pleasure to greet her. 
She will celebrate her eightieth birthday in May, 191 7. 

THE CRANE FAMILY. 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Crane came from Illinois to Kansas reaching the 
Vermillion on October 22, 1869. 

After leaving Illinois, on their way to the West, Mr. and Mrs. Crane 
went to Iowa to visit Mrs. Crane's sister, Mrs. Samuel Parks. The Parks 
family became imbued with the Western spirit and sold out in Iowa and 
came to Kansas with the Cranes. 

There were three children in the Parks family and six in the Crane 
fdmily, Mrs. Gertude Scott, of Marysville, being then a babe six weeks old. 
On the way from Iowa the party was joined by the Frost brothers, Tom 
and Simpson. Tom Frost had a wife and two children ; Simpson Frost was 
a single man. 

Robert Crane, the Parks and Frosts had wagons drawn by horses. 
Other emigrants joined them until there were thirteen teams in the party, 
some being ox teams, among these were Enoch Manning and family. The 
"movers" camped at night and slept in their wagons. 

On the day following their arrival on the Vermillion, the women all 
went to the creek to put out the family washings. The day was fine and the 
clothes were nearly all dried and taken in by night. The next morning a 
Kansas blizzard had arrived. Snow, mingled with sand, driven by a fierce 
wind, dealt cruelly with the newly-arrived settlers. The men in the party 
found a log cabin which had been used for a sheep "bye," but which they 
cleaned out and soon had a roaring fire in the big, friendly fire place. 
Here the women and children were gathered while the men took the best care. 
they could of their horses and cattle. The women heated their irons in front 



86 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

of the "forelog" and ironed the wash and thawed out the clothing that had not 
dried the previous day. As night came on, the bhzzard increased in violence 
and the anxiety about shelter was great. 

It was exactly at this point that "the West began." The neighbors on 
the Vermillion had heard of the new arrivals and finally located them in 
the old log cabin. 

John Life took two families home with him. True, "home" was but a 
ten by twelve-foot cabin, but it would shelter from the storm. 

The Mitchells and Butlers took some. Millet had an unoccupied cabin ; 
the Frosts were housed in it. 

A family across the Vermillion sheltered the Mannings. 

William B. Lewis had six children, but he did not hesitate to take in 
Mr. and Mrs. Crane and their six. 

Elijah Bentley had a house twelve feet square. He took Mr. and Mrs. 
Sam Parks and their three children home with him. So before night fell 
all were safely housed from the storm. 

Those were the days of true hospitality, when every man was a brother, 
w^hen hospitality was open and kindness ruled. 

The prairies w^ere wide and bare of habitation, and so the settlers drew^ 
close together and shared the hardships and privations of pioneer life. They 
forgot the toil and anxiety, when the greeting w-as friendly and the handclasp 
warm. 

DR. ALBERT MORRALL. 

Dr. Albert Morrall of Wamego died at University hospital in Kansas 
City, Sunday, March 4, 1917, and was buried at Wamego, Wednesday, March 
7. He was eighty-seven years, three months and ten days old. He is sur- 
vived by one daughter, Mrs. Fred Darling, of Wamego. Doctor Morrall 
w'as one of the pioneers of Marysville. He arrived here July 8, 1856, along 
wnth R. Y. Shibley, James S. Magill and others, who had formed a company 
to organize a town company. They organized the "Palmetto Town Com- 
pany," and laid out a half section of land in town lots. That half section is 
now the north half of the city of Marysville. Doctor Morrall was the first 
president of the town company. Doctor Morrall w^as also one of the incor- 
porators of Ballard & Morrall's addition to Palmetto, which is now the south- 
east one-fourth of the city of Marysville. Of the original Palmetto Town 
Company, R. Y. Shibley of this city is the only survivor. Doctor Morrall 
and IMr. Shibley were both South Carolinians and left there in the spring of 
1856 to go buffalo hunting. They got as far as Atchison, when they fell 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 8/ 

in with the party coming to Marysville and joined the party. Shibley is still 
here. Morrall left here in 1866 and moved to Wamego. He held property 
interests here for many years and frequently visited here. 

JAMES m'CLOSKY. 

Many men of different nationalities and avocations had traversed the 
land which is now Marshall county prior to 1849, but in that year Francis 
J. Marshall became the first permanent settler. 

Following Marshall, came James Nelson, a Dane, G. H. Hollenberg, a 
German, and James McClosky, a Scotchman. So that from its pioneer days 
until the present this county has been the abiding place of mixed nationalities. 

Of this trio James Nelson and G. H. Hollenberg came from the West, 
both having been sailors and. landing on the California coast, had crossed 
the great desert towards the East. 

McClosky had become familiar with the country from traversing the 
trail, carrying on trade with the Indians. He had worked out from St. 
Louis and was attracted by the fertility and beauty of the Valley of the Blue 
and in 1854 he returned to make a permanent home, bringing with him a 
party of mountaineers. 

It was the intention of the party to settle near the Alcove Springs and 
Independence Crossing, where McClosky had camped on former trips, but 
Marshall having moved his ferry to the upper crossing, McClosky settled 
near it. At that time the small settlements on the Vermillion and Marshall's 
on the Big Blue, were the only permanent settlements in the county. 

SCOT WEDS SQUAW. 

McClosky had a Sioux Indian girl for his wife and in 1857 J. S. Magill, 
a regularly elected justice of the peace, united in marriage James McClosky 
and the Indian maid, Monlawaka. This was the first marriage in Marys- 
ville. 

Mr. and Mrs. McClosky sent their sons to the Iowa Indian Mission 
school in Doniphan county and their daughters to the Highland University, 
giving all their children educational advantages. The eldest son, James, 
was an interpreter for the government at Ft. Laramie, where he was killed 
by a man named William Boyer, who was hanged for the crime. 

Henry, the second son, was interpreter at Ft. Halleck. He was killed 
near Hanover, at Cottonwood Station. Charles, the younger, was acci- 



88. MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

dentally shot by the discharge of a gun while he was attending school in 
Doniphan county. Edna died while at school at Highland, at the age of 
fourteen. Julia married and moved to Nebraska. Monlawaka (Medicine 
Eagle) did not long survive and is .buried in the old Marysville cemetery. 

McClosky was well known to the older citizens of Marysville and served 
as captain of a company to defend the community from Indian depredations. 
He was devoted to his wife and family and never ceased to mourn the loss 
of the gentle Monlawaka. 

W. F. BOYAKIN. 

The name of Doctor Boyakin was for so many years a household word 
in ^Marshall county, that a few lines must be written' in his memory. He 
was born in North Carolina, May 30, 1807, graduated from Mary College, 
Tennessee, in 1826, and studied law with James K. Polk, the thirteenth 
President of the United States. 

Boyakin came to Marshall county in 1868 and resided here until his 
death. On the anniversary of his one hundredth birthday he delivered the 
Decoration Day address in the Turner Hall at Marysville. 

He helped to build the first Methodist church in St. Joseph, Missouri. 
He w^as a graduate in law and medicine and a licensed minister. When he 
was born, Thomas Jefferson was President of the United .States and Aaron 
Burr was being tried for treason. Boyakin lived through the administrations 
of seventeen Presidents and saw many stars added to our flag. He was 
twenty years old when Queen Victoria ascended the throne of England. He 
was a widely-read and greatly-traveled man and possessed a remarkable 
memory. He served the county in many positions, but chiefly as an edu- 
cator. He died on June 5, 1908, at his modest home on Elm creek, where 
he had always lived and where his family still resides. W. A. Calderhead, 
then a member of Congress, delivered the final eulogy. 

r.RIEF MENTION OF EARLY SETTLERS. 

Samuel Smith settled in Noble township in 1855. 

Ambrose, East, Martin and James Shipp, four brothers, settled south of 
the Big Blue river, a short distance from Irving, in 1857. 

Smith Martin built the first log cabin and settled in Center township in 
March, 1857. 

Among the families who have helped largely to make Marshall county 




DR. W. F. BOYAKIN. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 89 

a desirable place in which to live, the McKee family deserves especial men- 
tion. The parents of John, Robert, William G., Frank and Harry McKee 
came to Marshall county from Canada. They were people of culture and 
were members of the Baptist church. They took a deep interest in promot- 
ing education and religious influence and were prominent in all movements 
for good in the life of the coufity. Their sons and daughters are still resi- 
dents of the county and fulfill the highest hopes of their parents in character 
and upright living. E. T. McKee, a leading hardware merchant of Marys- 
ville, his brother, Robert, and Frank, sons of Robert McKee, are men of the 
highest type of Christian influence. 

Another family of the same name, known as the Frankfort McKees, 
were L. V. McKee, a banker of that town ; A. J. McKee, a philanthropist and 
business man, and Samuel McKee, a lawyer, were men of prominence in the 
political and business history of iVTarshall county. While there was nothing 
of the spectacular in the character of the McKee family, their silent but firm 
stand for all that meant progress along educational and moral lines, was 
always a powerful influence. Robert McKee, of Center, L. V., A. J. and S. 
J. McKee, of P>ankfort, are deceased. 

A pioneer of Marshall county, who saw many sides of frontier life, is 
C. W. Blodgett, of Frankfort. The Blodgetts came to Kansas in 1859 ^^"^^ 
settled on the Blue. Their log cabin was built near the Otoe Indian trail. 
Blodgett "teamed" four years on the plains in the employ of the government 
and served as quartermaster at Ft. Laramie and at Ft. Kearney. He helped 
build the Oketo dam. He went to Frankfort when the town started and 
opened a harness-making shop and later went in to the hotel business which 
he still manages. He has been for the past twelve years a rural mail carrier 
and is the oldest man in the county in the service. 

John Brockmeyer, of near Bigelovc. broke the first five acres of ground 
in the county. He turned the ground over with a spade. 

When the first survey of Marshall county was made, there were just five 
pieces of land in cultivation. John Lane, of Blue Rapids, George Guittard, 
of Guittard, John D. Wells and D. C. Auld, of Vermillion, and John Brock- 
meyer, of Elizabeth, were in occupation. 

Among the many men who were identified with Kansas history in pioneer 
days and achieved national reputation was Powell Clayton, who was one of 
the incorporators of the town of Woodson in Marshall county. Clayton 
afterwards was sent as minister to Mexico and also w-as governor of Arkansas. 

Albert D. Richardson, the author of "Beyond the Mississippi," pre- 
empted a claim in ^Marshall county and was an early settler. Richardson 



90 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

was shot in New York City and when W. A. Calderhead was coimty attorney 
he settled the Richardson estate in the probate court. 

Junius Brutus Brown, a noted newspaper correspondent, also entered 
a claim in Marshall county. 

OLD-TIME DANCES. 

The modern reformer, who devotes time and energy to rehabilitating 
the people of today in moral garments of his own style and make, would 
have been ^■ery lonesome in the pioneer days of Marysville. 

The mild excitement following a soft drink at the marble soda water 
fountain, or an evening at the movies, is in marked contrast to early-day 
drinks and amusements. 

The building of the bridge across the Blue river brought the town and 
country settlers more closely together and Marysville enjoyed good business 
activity. . With better business conditions social life became more prominent. 

Those were the days of the old-fashioned dances. Everybody danced 
but the preachers and they did not remain long enough to become inoculated 
with the .germ. 

When the dance was given in a private house the cook stove and any 
other furniture were set out of doors. In the country there were several 
pioneers who were disciples of Nero. At Independence Crossing Theo. 
Hammett and his brothers, Frank and Neil, and George and John Arm- 
strong were the musicians. Undoubtedly Billy and Dave Linn were the first 
fiddlers in the county and lived in Marysville. Dan Clements at Oketo and 
Phil Simmons on Horseshoe and Mose Bennett on Coon creek furnished the 
music. 

MUSIC HATH CHARMS. 

The early colonists on Coon creek were very congenial and in a little 
^'star chamber" proceeding decided that they would select their own neigh- 
bors and when a prospective settler came along unless he suited them, he 
was to be told the land was all taken up. 

One day at a barn raising a man drove up and inquired if there was any 
vacant land. He did not look good to the crowd and was answered in the 
negative. As he turned his team to drive away the cover on the rear end 
of the wagon being up, a violin case was seen swinging from the wagon bows. 
Interest was aroused and the mover was called back. "Do you play the 
fiddle", was asked. Mose acknowledged, that he was master of the art, 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 9I 

whereupon he was" requested to stop and take a claim. Mose furnished music 
for all the neighborhood dances and in later years the name of Hon. Moses 
T. Bennett appears on the list of county superintendents of public instruction. 

The first real orchestra consisted of Theo. Hammett and his brothers, 
Frank and Neil, Sebastian Joerg and A. H. McLaughlin. The Hammett 
brothers played violin and 'cello, Joerg played cornet and McLaughlin had 
an accordion with three registers, which was considered a fine instrument in 
those days. Sebastian Joerg was a brother of John Joerg. This orchestra 
was widely known and was in demand far and wide. Later, it was engaged 
for balls in Hanover and Fairbury. 

The Pecenka orchestra played music of a better sort and was composed 
of two violins, cornet, accordion and 'cello. These musicians were really the 
aristocrats of music. Later, blind Henry Lofinck came and organized an orch- 
estra. Lofinck played the violin, Ernest Lange, second, and Martin Piel, 
'cello. Later, Sam Forter took the 'cello. 

TANGO THEN UNKNOWN. 

Early balls .were given .in Water.son's Hall, and in the late seventies 
Lofinck's orchestra and the Pecenka orchestra furnished the music. The 
popular dances were the firemen's dance, Virginia reel, waltz, polka and 
schottische. The quadrille was the favorite form and our pioneers became 
most proficient in the graceful bow, following the prompter's "salute your 
partner." Then, "circle left, promenade back." Then the dance went on 
with vigor: "First four, right and left; side four, right and left; right and 
left, all." Then, the grand climax, "right and left and swing partners to 
place," and "all promenade." 

A few moments were given for breathing and then the second change 
was called ; for, by some social law, three separate quadrilles were prompted 
or "called," before the dancers "had their money's worth." After the build- 
ing of the Turner Hall, dances became more formal. 

Barks' orchestra, composed of C. F. Barks and his two sons, Herman 
and William, and later by his grandson, William, Sam Forter, Nic Grauer, 
Auldice Hale and Roll Allen, and others whose names are not recalled, 
furnished music of the best class to be obtained. The "Devil's Dream" and 
kindred waltz music was replaced by the "Blue Danube Waltz" and under 
the spell of better music and surroundings the dances became more fonnal. 
Never, even in the very early days, did Marysville have any semblance of the 



92 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

so-called dance hall with its attendant vice. Howev^er informal the dances 
of the pioneer days, they were not unwholesome. 

Many staid grandmothers of today, who look w'ith some misgiving on 
the free comradeship of the modern boy and girl, in those good old days went 
through the graceful figures of the Virginia reel or whirled around the hall 
with a handsome dare-devil, who may have worn a revolver strapped to his 
side and did not hesitate to leave the ball-room for the bar. But w^ith it all 
there was a certain unwritten law that the game must be scjtiare or punish- 
ment would be sure. 

OLD TIMES HAVE CHANGED. 

Who shall arise at this day and offer criticism? Who shall say that 
the men and women of frontier days, who faced the scorching heat of summer 
and the fierce blasts of winter, blazing the way to the fulfiHment of hopes, to 
the wealth and comfort and culture of the Marysville of today, were lacking 
in those qualities of mind and soul that are so essential to a strong, virile 
manhood and to a sweet and tender womanhood? 

]\Iany times at the dance the coat was threadbare, or missing altogether 
and the dress was of calico. The lantern and the moon furnished illumina- 
tion, but hearts beat true to the measures of the music and, as in Brussels 
on that historic night before Waterloo, 

"Soft eyes looked love to eyes which spake again, 
And all w'ent merry as a marriage bell." 

The dance over, they faced the every-day toil and privations with good 
courage, and they shared the common joys and sorrows of those around 
them. The feet that tripped so lightly to "Money Musk," went quickly and 
W'illingly to the help of a sick babe. The strong arm that swung her to the 
"Aurora Waltz," was still stronger at helping some newcomer put up his 
cabin. 

Times have changed. The girl, wdiose grandmother walked miles to a 
"dance," has her flowers and fan and dancing frock and is carefully carried 
to a well-lighted and comfortable hall in an automobile. The two-step. Castle 
w-alk and one-step have superseded the quadrille. Her program is filjed for 
a dozen numbers and then the jjall is over. The old days and the old fiddler 
are no more. 

The footsteps of today walk in smoother paths and along more con- 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 93 

ventional lines, but the hearts are the same, and youth and love and happiness 
are uncharrging as the generations come and go. "All things serve their 
time." 

PIONEERS OF THE VERMILLION VALLEY. 

James AlcClosky, a Scotchman, who was agent for a St. Louis firm of 
fur traders, having passed back and forth through this county since 1839, 
on his trading expeditions, finally came here to settle in 1854, bringing with 
him some other settlers among whom were three Frenchmen — Laroche, 
Changreau and Louis Tremble. These four men had Sioux Indian wives. 

Tremble, Laroche, and Changreau settled on the Vermillion, where 
Tremble built a puncheon toll bridge. At that time the travel west was over 
the Fremont and Mormon trail and Tremble earned a living by charging toll. 
G. H. Hollenberg came soon after and built a small store near the bridge, 
and sold supplies to travelers. 

In 1846-48 the Mormons, under the command of Brigham Young, had 
crossed the Vermillion at this point and it came to be called the "Mormon 
crossing" and the "Hollenberg crossing," and as such has ever since been 
known. During the year 1854 John D. Wells came with his family from 
Kentucky and located on the Vermillion near this crossing. Changreau, 
Laroche and Tremble were driven away by Indians, and Hollenberg after a 
few years removed to Washington county, so that it is generally conceded 
that lohn D. Wells was the first permanent settler on the Vermillion. His 
neighbors were Eli Puntney, D. M. Leavitt and Joseph Langdon came in 
1855 or 1856 and settled near him. 

In 1855 Horace Greeley, S. M. Wood and others, who were ardent 
unionists, made many public speeches in Eastern cities on the subject of 
Kansas and conditions in the territory following the enactment of the infam- 
ous Kansas-Nebraska 1)ill. 

The Herald of Freedom, published at Lawrence by G. W. Brown, and 
the Kansas Free State, published by Josiah Miller and R. G. Elliott, were 
telling the country of the beauties of Kansas scenery, the fertile soil and the 
marvelous future in store for her, if the territory were kept free from the 
blight of slavery. 

OPPOSED TO SLAVERY. 

Josiah Miller, a Carolinian by birth, writing editorials in a room of 
which he said, "It has neither floor, ceiling or window," uncompromisingly 
opposed the introduction of slavery into Kansas, as tending to impoverish 



94 .MARSHA 1,1. COUNTY, KANSAS. 

the soil, to stirie all energy, to paralyze the liaiul of industry and to weaken 
intellectual effort. 

Horace Greeley imbued with the same spirit speaking in Apollion Hall, 
Pittsburgli. Pennsylvania, repeated tiie story of the men who came as pioneers 
to make Kansas a place where civil and religious liberty should reign, and 
urged men to "go West." S. B. Todd was at the meeting and he with fifteen 
others enlisted that very night in the movement to Kansas. Under the 
auspices of the Massachusetts Free State Emigrant Society, they arrived at 
Kansas Citv on April 19, 1856, came West and located in the Valley of the 
Vermillion. 

Some of those who came were, James Wilson and his son, W. H. Wil- 
son ; John Harris and family; Lawrence Kelley and family; James P. Malone 
and family ; James Goldsberry and family ; Mr. Musgrave and family, and 
others. Mrs. Henry Brockmeyer with her three sons, Frederick, Henry and 
Ernest, her son-in-law, Ernest \V. Thiele, and her daughters, Mrs. Ernest 
Thiele and Sophia Brockmeyer. who the following year became the wife of 
G. H. Hollenberg, came to Kansas from New England. 

George H. Thiele, a son of Ernest W. Thiele, writes as follows : 

"My grandfather died in Meriden, Connecticut, in 1854. In the early 
part of 1855 Grandmother Brockmeyer with her sons and daughters and her 
son-in-law, Ernest W. Thiele (my father), came West, and as Kansas was 
much talked about at that time in the East, concluded to come to that terri- 
tory, and arrived at Weston, Missouri, by steamboat from St. Louis, early 
in 1855. They found a great deal of excitement on account of the slavery 
agitation, near the Missouri river, so concluded to go farther west and finally 
located on the Black Vermillion, near where Bigelow is now located. They 
pre-empted a piece of land which all helped to improve and raised what crops 
they could. 

*'My father was the only married man, so they concluded that he should 
have the claim, and turned it over to him. 

'T understand that the town of Elizabeth is located on this claim. I 
was born on this claim on September 14, 1855, ^"*^^ have always understood 
that I was the first white child born in Marshall county. 

"Like all early settlers they built their log cabins near the banks of the 
creek, and all suffered a great deal from chills and ague. This, with the 
hardships incident to their isolated location and distance from the river towns, 
caused them frequently to become discouraged and willing to give up the 
contest of trying to make a home in the wilderness. 

"In 1856 or 1857 my father sold his claim for one hundred dollars cash 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 95 

and a ham. He had to go some ten or fifteen miles to get the ham, and 
came near being killed by coyotes on the way back. 

"My father moved to St. Louis. Missouri, where he made his home and 
raised his family, consisting of three boys and four girls, of whom my sister, 
Sophia, Mrs. Hugo Rohde, of Herkimer, my brother, Ernest W. Thiele, of 
Hanover, and myself are now living. 

"In 1856 my mother's sister, Sophia Brockmeyer, married G. H. HoUen- 
berg, who was then conducting a small store at what was known as 'Hollen- 
. berg's crossing' on the Vermillion, and the next year they moved to \\"ash- 
ington county. Some eight or ten years later they were followed by my 
uncles, Henry, Ernest and Fred. H. Brockmeyer, all of whom settled near 
Hanover. 

"I returned to Kansas in 1877 and have resided at Washington ever 
since. The remainder of our family came to Hanover in 1879." 

A DISTINGUISHED VISITOR. 

John C. Fremont crossed the Big Vermillion, June 20, 1842, on his 
w'ay to the mountains, at some point near where Barrett now stands and 
made the following comment in his note-book : "We crossed at ten a. m., 
the Big Vermillion, which has a rich bottom of about one mile in breadth, 
one-third of which is occupied by timber." 

In the spring of 1855 a colony of sixty members was organized at Cadiz, 
Ohio, with the intention of settling on the Vermillion in a body. They 
selected a tract of land five miles square and as the government surveyors had 
not extended their surveys that far at the time they laid out the tract them- 
selves. 

A. G. Barrett, D. C. Auld, John Roland, J. G. Radcliffe, \\\ S. Black- 
burn and some others settled on the tract in the spring of 1855. They also 
platted Ohio City, on the northw^est quarter of section 31, township 4, range 
9, now owned by A. A. Jones. 

In 1856 the colony was strengthened by the arrival of W. H. Auld, W^ 
P. Gregg, Benjamin McElroy and J. B. Auld, and in 1857 came Leonard 
Cutler, W. T. Drinnell, C. W. Laudenberger, William Morrison, R. S. 
Newell and others. In April, 1858, the Burrell family came out and in 1859 
Peter Trosper and family arrived. 

In 1857 a postoffice was established at Barrett and H. W. Swift was the 
first postmaster. Prior to this settlers got mail at St. Mary's mission and at 
Ft. Riley and at Marysville. 



96 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

SOME FIRST EVENTS. 

Enoch I'lii^h was tlic first blacksmith. He died in 1857. 

D. C. Auld was the first justice of the peace and in 1856 he united in 
marriage Timothy Clark and Judith North at the home of James Smith. In 
1857 Squire Auld united in marriage M. V. Hall and iVnn J. Trosjjer, also, 
Solen Jason and a Miss Wright. 

Each member of the colony paid into a general fund twenty-five dollars 
for every quarter section he wished to secure and agreed that the money 
might be used to purchase a steam saw-mill. A. G. Barrett acted as the pur- 
chasing agent and brought the mill out in the fall of 1857. Later, the mill 
became the property of A. G. Barrett. Several houses were built on the 
Vermillion by Barrett, John Roland and Joseph Langdon. Later, Mr. Bar- 
rett lived in one of those houses. S. B. Todd also built and lived in a log 
house on the west fork of the Vermillion, and is usually considered to have 
been the first settler there. His son. William H. Todd, born on August 13, 
1857, is one of the early native Kansans. Walter Cockerill now lives on 
the Todd place. The farm with the log liouse owned by John Roland was 
bought by A. J. McKee. The locating of the mill and postofifice brought the 
little settlement into prominence and Barrett's mill became widely known by 
pioneers and emigrants all through the West. 

In 1857 Joseph Langdon constructed a dam across the Vermillion, just 
below the mouth of Corndodger creek, and built a saw- and corn-mill, wdiich 
he operated for some years. In 1861 high water cut around the dam and 
left the mill on an island without power to run. But not discouraged, Lang- 
don built a seawall across the new channel and reharnessed the Vermillion. 
This mill was used by the settlers on the lower Vermillion for religious 
ser\ices and all kinds of meetings, political and otherwise. 

Langdon also sold groceries, "hickory" shirts and calico. He kept a 
kind of postoffice for the accommodation of the neighbors, letters w-ere 
brought there for distribution and for dispatch, the carrying service being 
conducted by volunteers who went to the nearest postoffices. He sold the 
mill to Tom Short, an Indiana man, who worked it for some years, but in 
1867 wdien the railroad came it went dowai and is now only a memory. 

The mill w-as located on section 16, Bigelow township, and the land on 
W'hich it stood is now^ owned by Dave Barrett. This is about six miles down 
stream from Barrett's mill. 




f^^^^|pf|:^. 



'^;^> W^ '-fit % '^--hi^^^M^i'^l.' 



4 ■< / '*»'WfTi'' 






,/ 



i//" 



LOG CABIN IN WHICH FIRST MASS WAS CELEBRATED IN 
CLEVELAND TOWNSHIP. 




A MARSHALL COUNTY HOME FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



THE ^y 
pubuc 



I .. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 97 

PIONEER PRIVATIONS. 

Those pioneers of the Valley of the Vermillion experienced very hard 
times in 1857-58-59. Some became discouraged and left, but the majority 
remained. 

There was great scarcity of food ; it was a long distance to St. Joe and 
Atchison, and traveling was slow by ox team and there was l3Ut little money 
with w^hich to make purchases. The atmosphere was charged with uncer- 
tainty. The rebellion was imminent and the lines between North and South 
were being drawn. The north half of the county was a hotbed of pro-slavery, 
Marshall being the spokesman for that element. There was great discour- 
agement among the loyal men who had come to help make Kansas a free 
state. 

In 1859 the first school house in the county was built at Barrett's mill 
and it soon became a community center and the settlers often gathered there 
and in the warm, social, friendly meetings, strength was gathered to bear 
the burdens and privations of the frontier life. 



(7) 



CHAPTER V. 
County and Township Organization. 



TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION. 

It will be noted in Air. Alarshall's letter to Judge Magill, he states that 
the pow-wow was called for the purpose of keeping the Indians orderly until 
the paymaster arrived. 

It seems incredible that a man of Mr. Marshall's ability should have 
believed that a pow-wow of traders and Indians, a motley crowd on the 
banks of the Big Blue river, addressed by himself "more in fun than in 
earnest", was the first step which resulted in the organization into territories 
of what was then known as the great American desert. 

In the light of recorded history prior to 1854 his claim is not borne out. 
Abraham Lincoln sounded the keynote for this territorial organization in a 
great speech in 1834. 

For more than twenty years the question of the extension of the 
"peculiar domestic institution of slavery" into newly-organized territories of 
the United States, had aroused the people of the North to the danger attend- 
ing this result and had concentrated the efforts of the leaders of the South 
to greater activity in furtherance of the doctrine. 

NORTHERN DISCONTENT INCREASED. 

The annexation of Texas brought the embers of Northern discontent 
to a white heat. The bill was approved Alarch 2, 1845, ^^'^^ contained the 
provision that the "said territory shall be admitted to the Union with or 
without slavery as the people of each state asking admission may desire." 
So, for the first time, was embodied into law the doctrine of "squatter 
sovereignty." The Vv'ilmot proviso followed and the question of territorial 
organization became the paramount question of the day. 

The compromise of 1850 only served to widen the chasm between the 
North and South. The greatest talent of the country — Webster, Clay, Cal- 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 99 

hoiin, Benton, Cass, Chase, Hamlin, Hale, Davis, Mason and Stephen A. 
Douglas had debated with great forensic ability the merits and demerits of 
the measure. Finally the measure was enacted into law September 9, 1850, 

It is impossible to express or describe the feeling of alarm this created 
in the North, for it opened a clear way to that idea of popular sovereignty, 
which first, avowed in the Texas bill and made an issue in the compromise 
measure in 1854, became the vital question of the Kansas-Nebraska bill. 

In 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska bill was presented and for four months 
the provisions of the bill w^ere subjects of debate in Congress and- aroused 
the open hostility of the anti-slavery men of the North and the ardent sup- 
port of the then secretly-forming adherents of the Southern confederacy. 

The contest ended Alay 27, 1854, and the bill was signed by President 
Pierce on Alay 30, 1854. 

PRELUDE TO CIVIL WAR. 

The provisions concerning slavery were fraught with deep meaning. 
The l;ill foreshadowed the last victory and final destruction of the slave 
power. It meant civil strife, murder and rapine as the price of freedom in 
Kansas. It meant two million men in arms and half a million sleeping in 
soldiers' graves. 

In the final analysis it gave this country the great Republican party as 
one of its enduring institutions. It made Abraham Lincoln President of 
the United States and it gave ta history a story of the greatest conflict ever 
fought in the interests of human freedom, and a list of generals whose fame 
reached the uttermost parts of the earth. 

And on each recurring 30th of May, thousands of loyal citizens of our 
common country dedicate with flo^^■ers, flags and tears, the graves of those 
who fell as a result of the infamous measure signed on that fateful 30th of 
May, 1854. 

MISSIONS ESTABLISHED. 

Prior to and at the time of its organization as a territory, Kansas was 
iiot devoid of inhabitants. Devout Christian people of different denomina- 
tions had established missions for the education of the Indians and such w^hite 
children as were here. 

Among others were, Shawnee, of the Alethodist Episcopal church, south ;. 
Shawnee mission maintained by the Baptist church : the Friends school ; the 
American Baptist ^[ission. St. Mary's Mission was the nearest to Marys- 

684084A 



lOO MARSHALL CULNTY, KANSAS. 

ville and InUli Mrs. Marshal! a.nd licr sister, Mrs. Watson, attended the school 
at Si. .Mar\'s. There were also the I'.aptist Mission and Labor school; a 
Catholic O-sage Mission at Xeosho. and the Iowa Mission in Doniphan 
county. These schools were all supplied with resident teachers and ministers. 

.\ number of tra.dinL^" po-^ls were stationed alon,i^ the trail. 1die Chouteau 
Post about six miles west of Kansas City: two further alon^; the trail, and 
Uniontown in Shawnee county were the largest. There were fifty houses 
in I'niontown and Indian annuities were paid from there. 

There were two hundred and eighty soldiers stationed at Ft. Leaven- 
worth, an equal number at Ft. Riley and about one hundred and fifty at 
Wahiut creek, and army supply wagons, emigrant trains, bufTalo hunters, 
adventurers, and some men following the star of empire westward, hoping 
in a new and unbroken land to find a permanent abiding place. 

The lure of new fields is always enticing to the restless mind, and so 
the great American desert was peopled with a throng, each filled with hope 
and pressing onward through difficulties to the golden West, 

LOCATION OF MARSHALL COUNTY. 

Marshall county is bounded on the north by Gage and Pawnee counties, 
Nebraska, on the south by Pottawatomie and Riley, on the east by^ Nemaha 
and the west by Washington counties, Kansas. It is the fourth county west 
of the Missouri river in the northern tier. It retains the original dimension, 
thirty miles scpiare, divided into twenty-five congressional and political town- 
ships. 

The Kansas-Nebraska act passed by Congress in 1854 created the terri- 
tories of Kansas and Nebraska out of territory taken from the Utah or Indian 
territory. Andrew H. Reeder was appointed first governor of the territory 
of Kansas, and he ordered an election of delegates to form a territorial Legis- 
lature, and designated "Pawnee," which was a new town built in 1854 by 
ofticers (mostly Free State men) at Ft. Riley, as the seat of government and 
place of meeting, just east of the Ft. Riley military reservation. Congress 
had appropriated twenty-fi\e thousand dollars for a territorial building in 
Kansas, and Governor Reeder had erected at Pawnee the two-story stone 
building, the walls of which are still standing on the south side of the Lhiion 
Pacific railroad tracks. When Jefif Davis, then secretary of war, found that 
the citizens of Pawnee were Free State men, he promptly enlarged the mili- 
tary reservation so as to "take in" Pawnee. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. lOI 

MANY-SIDED MARSHALL. 

Frank J. ^Marshall, a mercliant. ferryman and postmaster at Marysville 
on the Big Blue river, was elected a member of the council of this first terri- 
torial Leg-islatnre. which met pursuant to call (in July 2, 1855, at Pawnee. 
(3n July C), this Legislature adjourned to Shawnee Mission on the extreme 
eastern boundary of the territory, where it had located the seat of govern- 
ment. 

This Legislature passed three acts relative to the establishment of 
counties. 

The first act created and established the boundaries and names of thirty- 
three counties, some of which have since l)een renamed and relocated. Mar- 
shall county was one of the original thirty-three, being named for Frank J. 
Marshall, who also had his home town, Marysville. designated as the county 
seat, and himself created a brigadier-general. 

At this time Marshall was the most western county on the northern tier 
of what is novv' the state of Kansas, but tlie territory of Kansas extended 
west as far as the summit of the Rocky mountains, and that part of the terri- 
tory which lies between the present western boundary of Kansas and the 
summit of the Rocky mountains, was named Arapahoe countv, Kansas terri- 
tory. 

This Legislature attached all of the territory lying west of Marshall 
county and east of Arapahoe county to Marshall county, and by another act 
attached Arapahoe county to Marshall county, for civil and military purposes. 

DIMENSIONS OF MARSHALL COUNTY. 

This gave Marshall county jurisdiction o\er a strip of territory thirty 
miles wide, clear to the western boundary of the present Kansas, and all of 
that part of the present state of Colorado which lies between the state of 
Kansas and the summit of the Rocky mountains. 

Beyond the Rocky mountains was Utah territory ; Colorado was not 
known until Kansas was admitted as a state. 

This enormous Marshall county lasted only until the next Legislature 
made other decrees and confined us to our present lines. 

Li this first Legislature Frank J. Marshall had this county named for 
himself, he had Marysville (which he had named for his wife, Mary Will- 
iams), designated as the county seat and had himself created a brigadier- 
general, showing that he must have been a man of strong influence. 



I02 MARSITALI. COrXTV, KANSAS. 

On \(t\enil)er ii, 1S34. Marys\illc had Itccn made a postoffice with 
l""rank j. Marshall as postnias-tcr. .\iid here he il understood, and the state- 
ment admits of no contradiction, that Marys\ille was the first postoffice estab- 
lished in Kansas. 

\'ol. 7. Kansas Historical Collections, page 442 (footnote) reads as 
follows: "William 11. Smith, president, Kansas State Historical Society, 
emphasizes tlie fact that Marysville was the first postoffice established in Kan- 
sas, the cantonments. Leavenworth and Fort Scott, having been established 
before lines were known and accredited to Platte and Bates counties, Mis- 
souri. Mr. Smith served as postmaster at Marysville from 1868 to 1885." 

In the spring of 1854 there was a general movement towards the new 
territor}' of Kansas. The laws of "scjuatter sovereignty", and "pre-emption", 
attracted men who desired to find homes for their growing families in an 
agricultural region. Horace Greeley's N'civ York Tribune and the New 
England and Ohio papers were filled with glowing accounts of the fertility 
of the soil and wonderful climate of the new territory. 

GRADTAL INCREASE IN POPULATION. 

Soon a tide of emigration set in and the people who came to Kansas in 
1854 and after that date had two strong and steadfast purposes in view — 
the prevention of the extension of sla\ery and the building up of permanent 
homes. Some came alone, others came with the different colonies, but as 
soon as the population became steadfast the state began to improve both 
materially and morally. 

Marshall county recei\ed its share of the strong men and women who 
came with a fixed purpose, and \ery soon their influence was felt. The 
growth, development and prosperity of the county are due solely to the 
. thrift, industry and honesty of the pioneer men and women who endured 
every hardship, e\'en death itself, to build up a law-abiding community. In 
less than ten years the sentiment of the county had changed from the reck- 
less, happy-go-lucky frontier manner to that of earnest effort in building up 
a strong and forceful community. The county has grown in wealth and 
prospered until it now ranks sixth in the state. But its greatest growth has 
been along educational, moral and religious lines, and its greatest wealth 
today is its splendid citizenship. 

It is a far cry from the row of log calkins near the fenw, the bad man 
shooting in the street, the Indian brave with his greasy squaw and filthy 
papoose, to the columns of fine, manly }-oung boys, sons of Marshall county. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. IO3 

marching on March 4, 19 17, under the leadership of Hervey Smith, over 
the old Overland trail to the Community House and Y. M. C. A. rooms, 
there to plan for a still brighter future for our county. 

MARYSVILLE SELECTED AS COUNTY SEAT. 

During the summer of 1871 a movement was started in the south half 
of the county to re-locate the county seat. On October 2, 1871, the county 
commissioners- ordered a special election for that purpose. On October 
9th the following notice was given : 

"It is hereby given that on the 14th day of October, 1871, a special elec- 
tion will be held at the several voting precincts in Marshall county, Kansas, 
for the re-location of the county seat of said county, in accordance with the 
provisions of the foregoing order and general election law. 

"Frank Geraty, 
"Sheriff, Marshall County, Kansas." 

history of the movement. 

From the JVatcrvillc Telegraph, November 17, 1871 : 

"On the 2nd day of October last a petition was presented to the board 
of county commissioners asking for an order for the re-location of the 
county seat. The petition was signed by more than three-fifths of the voters. 

"Some dissatisfaction had often been expressed that the city of Marys- 
ville had no public buildings ; the court room was inadequate and the citi- 
zens of Marysville were said to oppose appropriations for public buildings. 

"Meetings were held at Blue Rapids and Irving at which were present 
representative men from all the townships on the Central Branch railroad. 
At these meetings the movement was agreed upon with unanimity, it being 
clearly the sentiment of all that the balance of population and taxable prop- 
erty of the county being in the southern half, the county seat ought to be 
located at some business point of the Central Branch road. At these meet- 
ings pledges were made by the delegates from every township to go in earn- 
estly for placing the county seat in the south half." 

the result of election. 

The vote on October 14th stood as follows : Waterville, 371 ; Blue 
Rapids, 485; Center, 72; Frankfort, 576; Marysville, 802. 

The two places receiving the highest number of votes were Frankfort 



I04 ^MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 

antl Marysville, and according to the law these towns became the candidates 
at an election which would be held on October 28. 

The proper notice was given and the result of the election on October 
28 was as follows: Marysville, 1631; Frankfort, 1078. 

The JJ'afcrz'illc Telegraph of December i, 1871, has this to say of the 
election : 

"The astounding fraud committed by Marysville is plain and apparent. 
Not a man in the county but knows that four hundred fraudulent votes were 
polled at Marysville last Tuesday. How- much they repeated, we do not 
know. That special trains were run on the St. Jo. & Denver road to bring 
voters from other counties, and from St. Joseph and Nebraska, is asserted 
by persons who were at Marysville that day. At any rate a systematic 
scheme was made and carried out to defraud the will of the people of Mar- 
shall county in the location of the county seat. Will the people of the 
county submit to such a Avholesale plunder of their rights? Will they sub- 
mit to the expenditure of their money in the erection of county buildings 
in a town whose very atmosphere smells of the rottenness of fraud and 
corruption? Wliat say those honest voters of Waterville township and of 
Irving township, who voted for Marysville — their sympathies aroused for 
Marysville, under the impression that she was honest and deserving", and 
their prejudices fanned against Frankfort under false and specious pleas? 
We do not believe that the honest voters of Marshall county will 
submit to the permanent location of the county seat under circumstances 
of so much fraud. ..." 

COUNTY SEAT. 

The county commissioners issued the follow^ing proclamation : 

"Of^ce of County Clerk, 
"Marysville, Dec. 2, 1871. 
"The Board of Commissioners having completed the canvass of the 
votes cast at the election Nov. 28, 1871, made the following certificate and 
proclamation : 

"We do hereby certify that at said election Marysville received One 
Thousand Six Hundred and Thirty-one votes for County Seat, and Frank- 
fort received One Thousand and Seventy-eight votes, for County Seat. 

"And Alarysville is hereby proclaimed the County Seat of Marshall 
County, having received a majority of all the votes cast at said election. 
[Signed] "Jacob Mohrbacher, Chairman, 

"Robert Osborn, Commissioner. 
"Attest: James Smith, County Clerk." 




MAP OF MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. IO5 

MARYSVILLE CHARGED WITH FRAUD. 

The editor of the JVaterville Telegraph, Hon. F. G. Adams, no doubt 
■felt justified in calhng attention to the methods employed to retain the county 
seat at Marysville. It was evident that the fight between Marysville and 
Frankfort would be hot and more a battle of wit than of actual honest 
voting. 

After the election, Alary sville was charged with fraud, and perhaps 
justly so, but the following story is vouched for by Hon. W. H. Smith of 
Marysville, who was one of the strong Marysville men. 

It was firmly fixed in the minds of the contestants that the opposition 
would bear watching and for that reason each of the contestants had com- 
mittees at each voting place in the county to watch and report irregularities. 
J. S. Magill, W. H. Smith and Frank Linn were the committee from Marys- 
ville sent to watch at Frankfort, where they arrived the day before the elec- 
tion in a light wagon with a good team of horses. 

ELECTION BOARD STARTS WORK AT THREE A. M. 

At the suggestion of Magill, all three arose at three o'clock a. m., on 
the morning of election day, to make sure that they should not be caught 
napping. After a short search they discovered a light in a small building 
in the rear of a lumberyard, where they found the election board already at 
work. The clerks were registering names on the poll books, which names 
were read from a prepared list by Frank Love. Noticing that no ballots were 
being deposited, the Marysville committee concluded that the ballots had been 
previously placed in the box and promptly insisted that no more names be 
registered unless a ballot was furnished by an actual voter. After this the 
Marysville committee kept at least one man at these polls during the whole 
time of voting to see that there was no fraud. 

When the counting of votes drew to a close, Linn was ordered to get 
the team and wagon ready for a run to Marysville on short notice. Magill 
and Smith were in the room where the votes were being counted. After the 
list of names on the poll books had been exhausted there remained a great 
number of ballots for which there were no names on the poll books. One 
of the judges, Jacob Weisbach. asked the board what should be done with 
the ballots for which there were no names. W. H. Smith instantly picked 
up the ballots saying 'T will take care of them," hurried from the room and 
with Magill and Linn got into their wagon and made a quick run to Marys- 



I06 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

ville. arriving there in time for l)reakfast with a posse from l^'rankfort in 
pursuit. Magill was a lawyer and on the way home had planned what to do 
with the ballots. They were taken to C. V. Koester, notary public; affidavits 
were made as to the manner in which the ballots were obtained, then bal- 
lots and affidavits were sealed and deposited in the safety vault of the Exchange 
Bank. 

After ]\Iarysville had Ijeen declared the elected county seat by the county 
commissioners, Frankfort attempted to get redress in court, but being unable 
to enter court with "clean hands," her suit was not accepted and Marysville 
has remained the county seat since. 

After the election of 1871, court was held in the Waterson hall until 
1874, when in February of that year a contract was let to George F. Hamil- 
ton by the township of Marysville, for the erection of a new court house. 
The building was a two-story brick, fifty by sixty-five feet, and cost fifteen 
thousand dollars. On the first floor were a large corridor and six offices occu- 
pied Ijy county officials. The upper fioor was occupied by the court room, four 
offices and jury room. This court house served the county until the night of 
December 31, 1890, when it was totally destroyed by what has always been 
believed to have been an incendiarv fire. 

COUNTY SEAT FIGHT REOPENED. 

This fanned the embers of the old county-seat fight and plans were 
made, before the smoke had cleared, at Frankfort and Blue Rapids to unseat 
IMarysville. 

A plan was formed by Blue Rapids to redistrict the county, taking the 
entire northwestern tier of townships and adding them to Washington county. 
Blue Rapids would have been more centrally located and Marysville would 
have been pushed to the extreme western boundary. It was said that the 
ever fertile and resourceful mind of Jason Yurann devised the scheme, but 
however that may be, the plan met with no encouragement in the Legislature 
and died in infancy. 

It is certain there was enough activity in the south half to arouse the 
people of Marysville and the city agreed to build the court house. Fifteen 
thousand dollars was raised by subscription and bonds to the amount of 
twenty-five thousand dollars were voted and the splendid court house which 
now stands on the site of the building destroyed by fire was erected in 1891 
and donated by the city of Marysville to the county of Marshall. 

On Julv 23, 1 89 1, the corner stone was laid with imposing ceremonies, 




Marshall county's first 
1911. At the right of the 
lumber for this building- in 
metto town company. Mr. 
built his fir.st log cabins in 
door from right to left are 



court house, as it appeared just before it wa.s torn down in 
picture stands R. Y. Shibley, who sawed and furnished the 
1860, and who is the last living member of the original Pal- 
Shibley still resides on the exact site where Frank ilarshall 
1852, which constituted the town of Marysville. Men in the 
Guy Rice, owner of the building. Earl Scott and Frank Schu- 
macher, carpenters who tore it down. In front of large window from right to left are 
August Leifheit and Frank Wagner, who once kept saloon in the building. 




Old Bariett Hotel, Marysville, built in 1859 by A. G. Bai'rett and for many years the 
finest and most noted hotel on the Overland stage route. Site now occupied by White 
Brothers' brick block, corner of Eighth and Broadway. 




MARSHALL COUNTY COURT HOUSE, MARYSVILLE. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. IO7 

Hon. Lew Hanback delivered the address. The Masons of Marysville served 
a three-course luncheon to all visitors in Turner hall garden on that day, of 
Avhich more than five hundred people partook. 

All the feuds and animosities created by the county-seat fight belong to 
a past generation. It is doubtful if the location of the county seat brought 
as much prestige to Marysville as its partisans hoped, or that the loss of it 
worked any material hardship to the south half. Certainly, one good gyp- 
sum mill at Blue Rapids repaid the loss and the splendid business city of 
Frankfort has long since forgotten that the "pot used to call the kettle black." 

COUNTY COURT HOUSE. 

Marshall county had no court house prior to August, 1862. County 
officers either carried on the business of their respective offices in their own 
private offices or at some other available place in Marysville. 

In i860 the Southern Methodists built a church on the corner of Fifth 
and Laramie streets on lots 7 and 8, block 43, donated by the Palmetto Town 
Company, R. Y. Shibley furnishing all of the building material from his saw- 
mill. Ser\-ices were held in this church a number of times by itinerant preach- 
ers and for a time a Sunday school was conducted. When the war broke out 
the congregation scattered, leaving no one in charge of the church and no one 
to pay Mr. Shibley for his lumber. 

During the winter of 1861-62 some parties desecrated this church by 
using it for a horse stable. This was too much for Mr. Shibley and he fore- 
closed a lien on the building, hitched a few yoke of cattle to it and hauled 
it to what is now 810 Broadway. 

BRICK BUILDING ERECTED. 

In the summer of 1862 Mr. Shibley sold the building to Marshall county 
for its first real court house. It was used as such until 1874, when Marys- 
ville township presented the county with the new two-story brick building 
located on lots donated by T. W. Waterson on north half of block 13, Bal- 
lard and Morrall's addition to Marysville. 

Even before this time the little frame building proved too small for the 
purpose and court was held in Waterson's new hall after it was built in 1870, 
and some county offices were located at various places in town. 

The little church passed into other hands and was used for a saloon, 
dwelling, butcher shop, shoe shop, barber '^hop. bakerv, Chinese laundry, 



I08 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

millinery store, restaurant, music store, clcanini;- and (lyeini^- shop, gunshop — 
everything imaginable, l)nt for the purpose for which it was built. 

In ihe summer of 191 1 the little "old court house," was torn down to 
make room for C. W. Rice's three-story brick furniture store. Thus passed, 
without ceremony of farewell, one of the first and without question the best 
known of the original buildings in Marysville. Within its walls were heard 
the voices of men who later became prominent in the affairs of state and 
nation. 

Among law-yers who argued cases in that court room were John J. 
Ingalls, Nathan Price, W. W. Guthrie, Albert H. Horton, Alfred G. Otis 
and many others. What mighty arguments were made and legal precedents 
established, "deponent sayeth not," but certain it is that whenever mention 
is made of the courts held in that building to an old settler, he will smile 
and shake his head. One important civil suit was decided by the jury by the 
turning of a "jack," in the game of seven up. All this is now of the past 
and is as "a tale that is told." 

During the nigiit of December 31, 1890, the second court house was 
destroyed by incendiary fire and this time the city of Marysville donated to 
the county commissioners forty thousand dollars, with which to build the 
modern fire-proof structure wdiich stands today. 

THE OLD STONE JAIL. 

The old stone jail located on block 28, Ballard & Morrall's addition, was 
built in 1876 at a cost of five thousand dollars. Following the completion 
ot the nevv court house in 1891. a new jail was built in the same block, within 
a few steps of the court house. It is built of brick, of the most approved 
modern type and was supposed to be escape proof, but on the night of Octo- 
ber I, 191 1, Neil Mulcahy and Dan Carney, who w-ere confined in the jail 
awaiting the order of court to be taken to the Kansas penitentiary to serve 
sentences for burglarizing the banks of \A^aterville and Beattie, sawed their 
way to liberty. The criminals selected an auspicious night for their escape. 
A storm broke over the city on Saturday e^■ening■ and there was a heavy rain 
until after midnight, continuing at intervals throughout the night. Sheriff 
Sullivan made a tour of the jail at two-thirty o'clock Sunday morning and 
found the prisoners in bed. Fn the morning the "birds had flown." Saw'S 
had been provided, with which they cut the rods of the cell. Deputy Sheriff 
Nestor was out of town and an extra guard was on, but the prisoners worked 
silently, and noise being covered by the storm and the guard knew nothing of 
wdiat was going on. 



MARSHALL COJNTY, KANSAS. lOQ 

Mr. Sullivan was succeeded in office by his under-sheriff, Michael Nestor, 
who grew to manhood in this city. He was re-elected to a second term and 
was a most capable and high minded official. 

The present sheriff, H. C. Lathrap, is a citizen of Blue Rapids, where he 
served the public as postmaster for a number of years. The sheriff resides 
in the jail. 

MARSHALL COUNTY INFIRMARY. 

On April 12, 1S95. the county commissioners, J. M. Bradshaw% I. D. 
Yarick and P. Finnegan, let a contract for a county infirmary to Matt Treinen, 
of Marysville. at seven thousand four hundred and seventy-five dollars. John 
Y. Benifer, of Seneca, Kansas, was the architect. The building contains three 
stories, with eleven large rooms, two wide corridors, the full length of the 
building and two spacious rooms in the basement. There are at present six- 
teen inmates. 

F. E. Benson, superintendent, and Mrs. Benson, matron, have charge of 
the institution. Mr. Benson has fine executive ability, combined with a genial 
temperament, and Mrs. Benson is a very efficient woman. 

STATE REPRESEJ-fTATIVES AND COUNTY OFFICIALS. 

The following is the list of representatives and county officials of Mar 
shall county, beginning January i, 1917: 
State senator, F. G. Bergen. 
Representative, thirty-ninth district, S. F. Paul. 
Representative, fortieth district, A. A. Nork. 
County clerk, A. J. Harvey. 
County treasurer, L. N. Cole. 
Res^ister of deeds, Adamantha Newton. 
County attorney, James G. Strong. 
Probate judge, W. ^^^ Potter. 
Sheriff, H. C. Lathrap. 
Coroner, R. C. Guthrie. 
County superintendent, \Y. H. Seaman. 
County surveyor, R. F. Gallup. 
Clerk district court, A. B. Campbell. 
Commissioner, first district, T. P. O'Neill. 
Commissioner, second district, George B. Layton. 
Commissioner, third district, James Kennedy. 



no MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



ASSESSED VALUE OF FARM I'ROIMsRTY, I916. 

I-'arins, ai^i^regate amount assessed $28,866,040 

Land not included in No. i 162,780 

Horses and mules 1,701,780 

Cattle 1.293-331 

Hogs 288,637 

Sheep 7>2i7 



6 
4 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 
10 

1 1 



Poultry '. ." •'." .". "......."..' r. .. . 2,376 

Gram, all kmds .., 1,104,277 

Hay and forage crops. .'.'.''.....""V'. .V." '^•■•''- 57>843 



Machinery and utensils. .... , , ....... . '. 355-573 

Automobiles .' ..... .Tt ..... 302,570 

VALUE OF CITY AND TOWN PROPERTY, I916. 

1 . Real estate -. $ 4,202,000 

2. Personal property, including merchandise in stock 3,823,750 

3. Autos. 1,866 ; motorcycles, 71 : total 1-937 

GENERAL TAX LEVY. 

Per centum of taxes levied in Marshall county for state, county, city, 
village, school and other purposes : 

Marysville City 19-48 Bigelow 6.69 

Blue Rapids City 20.00 Plome 6. 19 

Frankfort City 18.65 Vliets (Noble) 5.94 

Axtell 15-50 Vliets (Vermillion) 7.19 

Beattie i5-50 Bremen . 6.69 

Waterville -. 16.25 Herkimer 5.94 

Summerfield (Richland) 17.16 Irving 12.10 

Summerfield (St. Bridget) .... 19.00 Marietta 5.69 

Oketo 17-30 Mina 7.19 

Vermillion i3-00 Hull 5.94 

— ORGANIZATION OF TOWNSHIPS. 

At a meeting of the county commissioners at Palmetto, Kansas Terri- 
tory, June, 1856, it was decided "that the county of Marshall, for the con- 



MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. Ill 

venience of transacting county business, and the execution of legal processes, 
be divided into two principal townships, by a line beginning at the mouth of 
Elm creek, where it empties into the, Big Blue river, and running thence 
north to the base or meridian line. The section of the county east of said 
line in Marshall county will henceforth be known as Vermillion township 
and that portion of the county lying west of the line in Marshall county to 
be known as Marysville township. 

On November 6, .1858, the county commissioners divided the county 
into four townships, namely: Marysville, Guittard, Blue Rapids and Ver- 
million. What is now known as Washington county was at that time under 
the jurisdiction of Marshall county officials and was termed Washington 
township. From 1869 up to the year 1883, the county was subdivided into 
municipal townships as follows : Waterville, Center, Elm Creek, Rock, 
Franklin, Blue Rapids City, Blue Rapids, Wells, Clear Fork, Logan and 
Noble. 

Later, a redistricting was made and the following now constitute the 
townships of the county with assessed valuation for the year 1916: 

VALUATION OF TOWNS OF MARSHALL COUNTY. 

Axtell . .$ 778,360 

Beattie. ., ^ 321,220 

Blue Rapids 975'300 

Frankfort 1,212,330 

Irving . 281,860 

Marysville 2,335,270 

Oketo ' 181,220 

Summerfield 445,120 

Vermillion 272,840 

Waterville 1,025,230 

Total $7,828,750 

VALUATION OF TOWNSHIPS. 

Balderson $ 1,991,820 

Bigelow 1,380,930 

Blue Rapids 1,187,910 

Blue Rapids City 1,321,580 



112 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Center 

Clear Fork . 
Cleveland . . 
Cottage Hill 
Elm Creek . 
Franklin . . . 
Guittard . . . 
Herkimer . . 
Lincoln . . . . 

Logan 

Marysville . 
Mnrray . . . . 

Noble 

Oketo 

Richland . . . 
Rock 



St. Bridget 
Vermillion 
Walnut . . . 
Waterville . 
Wells 



-536,530 
,176,540 

,255,390 
,575,200 
,331-160 
,096,630 
,487,050 

,949,570 
,309,690 
,991,680 
,955,420 
,503,010 
,483,020 
,917,430 
,935,930 
,386,720 

,143,940 
,439,300 
,618,720 
,251,650 
,380,130 



Total $38,516,950 

Total valuation of the county $51,602,990 



TOWNSHIP OFFICIALS. 



Balderson township — Trustee, ^^^illiam Smith ; treasurer, Carl Linden- 
berg; clerk, C. L. Willey; justices of the peace. C. T. Guise, C. A. Anderson 
constables, G. B. Andrews, Ed DeLair. 

Bigelow township — Trustee, Corwin Ballard : treasurer, ^^^ N. Mills 
clerk, Henry Brockmeyer ; justices of the peace, S. M. Rucker, James W 
Seldon ; constables, L. A. Griffis, Emery Colton. 

Blue Rapids township — Trustee, G. L. Austin : treasurer, J. F. Wells 
clerk, Theron Van Scoter ; justices of the peace. \Y. W. Dedrick, John Smith 
constables, O. R. Forbes, W. S. Webb. 

Blue Rapids City township — Trustee, Neil Robinson ; treasurer, F. W 
Preston; clerk, R. S. Dickey; justices of the peace, Mrs. Charles Burket, E 
F. Dewey; constables, John Searcy, John Scott. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 113 

Center township — Trustee, I. G. Capps; treasurer, Gottfried Keller; 
clerk, Bert Oakley ; justices of the peace, Charles Keller, Harry Smith ; con- 
stables, J. C. Blackney, W. W. Monteith. 

Clear Fork township — Trustee, T. H. McConchie ; treasurer, Peter 
Morrissey; clerk, William H. Ford; justice of the peace, A. D. Smith. 

Cleveland township — Trustee, J. C. Nolan ; treasurer, Paul Junod ; clerk. 
Matt Kennedy; justices of the peace, Frank Stapleton, W. M. Barker; con- 
stables, O. Alexander, A. J. Lally. 

Cottage Hill township — Trustee, Ed Nelson ; treasurer, Henry Webber ; 
clerk, Sanders Larson ; justices of the peace, Ben Pugh, J. W. Tuttle, con- 
stables, Charles Arganbright, Carl Larson. 

Elm Creek township — Trustee, Charles Cook ; treasurer, William 
Ungerer; clerk, Arnold Dwerlkotte; justice of the peace, Joseph Barta; con- 
stables, Ben Rockwell, John Schilling. 

Franklin township — Trustee, Henry Schimmels ; treasurer, Charles 
Noller; clerk, J. C. Lewis; justices of the peace, Robert T- Lewis, R. F. 
Allgeier ; constables, Robert Keller, R. \\\ Lewis. 

Guittard township — Trustee, Harry Jones ; treasurer, JM. \V. McReynolds ; 
clerk, Charles Graham ; justices of the peace, L. Helvern, A. D. .Stosz ; con- 
stables, \\'. H. Hadder, G. A. Newton. 

Herkimer township — Trustee, F. H. Westerman; treasurer, Fred Fried- 
richs ; clerk, Albert Sohl ; justices of the peace, Herman Rippe, William 
Duensing; constables, H. Bartels, Herman Wollenberg. 

Lincoln township — Trustee, Andrew Kjellberg; treasurer, Albert Back- 
man ; clerk. R. W. Temple ; justices of the peace, Charles Kjellberg, W. G. 
Swanson ; constables, John Stine, ^Albert Johnson. 

Logan township — Trustee. J. 1\[. Brychta ; treasurer, Hugo Rohde; 
clerk, George Kruse : justices of the peace, F. Germer, Theodore Lemke : 
constables, William Crome, F. Prell, Sr. 

Marysville township — Trustee, W. J. Kinsley ; treasurer, H. Bornhorst ; 
clerk, H. Koppes ; justices of the peace, George Koppes, John Schmidt. 

Murray township — Trustee, J. FI. Carney; treasurer, John H. Allender; 
clerk, H. F. Detweiler ; justices of the peace, C. H. Baker, D. G. Davis ; con- 
stables, S. M. Huntsinger, Charles Welborn. 

Noble township — Trustee, J. L. Rodgers; treasurer, Andrew Johnson; 
clerk, L. W. Davis ; justices of the peace, W. H. DeWalt, William E. \\'il- 
son ; constables, L. A.' Waxier, C. S. Shafer. 

Oketo township — Trustee. John Howes ; treasurer, Herman Ubben ; 
(8^ 



I 14 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

clerk, Ed Dolen ; justices of the peace, R. A. Dickinson, Frank Ivoot; con- 
stables, T. J. Suggett. Ted White. - 

Ricliland township — Trustee, J- Ct. Graham; treasurer, Gus Oehm ; 
clerk, John i'\ Wagner; justices of the peace, J. W. W^inney; S. C. Dugan ; 
constables, Thomas W^endel, Art Voile. 

Rock township — Trustee, C. H. Stowell ; treasurer, August Larson; 
clerk, Ray S. Pauley ; justices of the peace, George Scholz, O. C. Coin ; con- 
stables. Bill Goin, Joe Kooser. 

St. Bridget township — Trustee, James F. Menehan ; treasurer, J. W. 
Coughlin; clerk, B. L. Detweiler ; justice of the peace, Henry Maitland ; con- 
stable, John Easter. 

Vermillion township — Trustee, Floward Reed ; treasurer, W. H. Snod- 
grass; clerk, D. A. Brodbeck ; justices of the peace, C. A. Blackney, M. J. 
Welsh; constables, J. M. Bishop, G. D. Osborn. 

\\''alnut township — Trustee, Leonard Berger; treasurer, George Hamil- 
ton; clerk, H. P. Hanson; justices of the peace, Martin Holle, E. A. Rowe; 
constables, James Armstrong, John Hanke. 

Waterville township — Trustee, D. O. Parker; treasurer, John Seaton; 
clerk, C. G. Thomas ; justices of the peace, E. A. Adams, R. Smith ; con- 
stables, A. C. W'hiteside, George Casey. 

Wells township — Trustee, W. C. Netz ; treasurer, L. S. Bennett ; clerk, 
J. L. McConchie; justices of the peace, G. W. W^alls, George Miller; con- 
stables. Grant Ewing, Owen Flin. 

City of Marysville — Justices of the peace, Louis H. Eddy, D. P. Arm- 
strong; constables, M. C. Peters, John Brandenburger. 



CHAPTER VI. 

City of AIarysville. 



THE BLUE RIVER. 
By John G. EUenbecker. 

You talk about New Hampshire hills, or dark Wisconsin pines, 
Or Massachusetts's busy mills, or Colorado's mines, 
But I \\ill sing of Kansas, tJie land that's always true, 
For there abides my dear old home upon the bonny Blue. 

Our winter times are just as gay, our springs are just as sweet; 
Our summers truly fine T say, our autumns can't l^ie beat; 
So I will sing of ^\ansas. — I've roamed a little, too — 
Contented with the charming scenes upon the bonny Blue. 

You talk about your cotton yields, then I'll sing of our corn. 
Those treasure-laden forest fields of blue October morn. 
I hear the buskers' bong-bong, through the semi-frost and dew% 
And thus there's music all day long around the bonny Blue. 

You talk of California's wine, I'll sing of our wheat, 
The manna of our genial clime, for all the w^orld to eat. 
There is no use in trying, you ne'er can us outdo, 
In sunn}'" northern Kansas upon the bonny Blue. 



INCORPORATION. ' 

In 1850 the United States government made a survey of the military 
road from Ft. Leavenworth to the Northwest anrl established a crossing 
about one hundred yards north of where the bridge now spans the river, which 
was known as the Big Blue Crossing. 



Il6 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

F. J. Marshal! cstahlished a ferry at that point and for a time the place 
was known as Marshall's Ferry. Business thrived and Marshall brou^^ht his 
wife. -Mary ^Villiams Alarshall, to live here and named the place Marysville 
in her honor. It will be recalled that in his letter to Judge Mag'ill, Marshal! 
says: ''There were live to ten thousand people at this point daily." A 
carefnl research shows that about seventy-five thousand people traversed this 
county and crossed the Blue river either at the lower crossing or at the cross- 
ing here, irom iH^G to 1856. So that it is safe to say Marysville has never 
had an equal number of inhabitants since that time. 

The Marysville Town Company originated in western Missouri, John 
and James Doniphan and F. J. Marshall being the leading men interested. 
The state records show that the Mar}sville Tow-n Company was incorporated 
by the territorial Legislature on August 2y. 1855. The incorporators were 
A. G. W^oodward, Da\id Galispie, John Doniphan, R. T. Gillespie, F. J. 
Marshall, James Donii)han, Robert C. Bishop and M. C. Shrewsbuiy. 
(Statutes, Kan. Terr.. 1855, p. 803.) 

Marysville City was incorporated by the territorial Legislature of 1861. 
"The incorporation of the same lands as were formerly known as towns of 
Marysville, Palmetto, Ballard and Morrall is hereby erected into a citv by 
the name of Marysville City." The act was passed by a two-thirds vote after 
being returned Ijv the governor with his objections thereto, and became a 
law on February 2, i8':)T. A. E. Lovell, Jacob Weisbach and Thomas W. 
W^aterson were appointed inspectors of the first election to be held on the 
first Monday of April, 1861. (Private Laws, Kan. Terr., p. 52.) 

In 1855 ^- ]■ Marshall and Albert G. Woodward were given exclusive 
privilege to establish a ferry across Big Blue river at the crossing of the mili- 
tary road from Leavenworth to Forts Kearney and Laramie, also the cross- 
ing of the Independence and California road across the Big Blue. (Statutes, 
Kan. Terr., 1855, p. 777.) 

FIR.ST SAW-MILL ERECTED. 

The following notice was pu1:)Hshed in the Squatter Soz'crcigu, Atchison. 
March 25. 1856: 

"Grand S hcculation. 

"Mary.sville, Kansas Territory. 
'T hold in my hand an obligation upon the Marysville Town Companv 
obligating the company to donate to the first person that will put up a steam 




BROADWAY, :\IARYSVILLE, IN 1862. 




BROADWAY, MARYSVILLE, LOOKING EAST, 1917. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. II/ 

saw-mill in said town, seven shares in the town, which are worth in value 
each, $200. The putting up of the saw-mill will make them worth $250 
each, making the donations $1,750, which will very nearly pay for the mill. 
Marysville is the best location in Kansas for a steam saw-mill from the 
fact that it is located immediately on Big Blue river, where the timber can 
be rafted to the mill, and the lumber rafted below to supply the great Kansas 
river valley. So you bring on your mill, set it running, and I will give you 
the stock. 

"Signed. F. J. Marshall." 

The above liberal inducement was accepted by Messrs. Shibley and 
Ouarles. who erected a steam saw-mill in the spring of 1857 and operated it 
until 1 86 1, when it was destroyed. 

There is no doubt that the first man who lived on the townsite of 
Palmetto was Dr. J. P. Miller. Pie also had the distinction of being the 
first physician in the city and it is said became very proficient in dressing gun- 
shot wounds. Pie died here in 1862. 

F. J. Marshall kept the first store in Marysville. It was located near 
the ferrv and he sold supplies to the travelers, among other commodities, 
whiskey at eighteen cents a gallon. 

The first hotel was built by A. G. Barrett in 1859. It was called the 
Barrett House. Afterwards the name was changed to the American, then to 
Tremont House. It was the stopping place for a number of years for the 
members of the bar and other celebrities who visited Marysville. Pater it 
was dismantled to make room for the brick building of White Brothers, 
erected in 1896. 

In 1859 Ballard & Morrall opened a drug store in a small building on 
the present site of Waterson's block and in 1870 moved to the site of the 
building now occupied by C. Panglitz. 

BRIDGE ERECTED. 

On November 30, 1863, a meeting was held at the court house by the 
citizens of Marysville and vicinity for the purpose of organizing a company 
to build a bridge across the Blue river. 

A month later stock subscriptions were t?ken at twenty-five dollars each 
for three hundred and twenty-five shares. In April, 1864, the following 
officers were elected: J. Samuels, president; A. E. Povell, treasurer; J. D. 
Brumbaugh, secretary; directors, T. W. Waterson, J. S. Magill; architect, 



Il8 M AKSIIAI.L COUNTY, KANSAS. 

A. G. Jones. This bridge was completed in Xovcml)er, 1864, and served 
until 1S82. when it was rci)lace(l by an iron structure hy Alarysville town- 
ship. 

FOURTH OF JULY, 1 862. 

The first celebration of the h'ourth of July was held at Alarysville, July 
4. 1862. 

About five hundred people gathered in the town and a procession was 
formed and marched to Spring Creek, preceded by a band. 

J. H. ^IcDougal read the Declaration of Independence and Rev. Charles 
E. Parker delivered a stirring address. A fine picnic dinner was served, at 
which R. S. Newell acted as toastmaster and prominent citizens who were 
present responded. The toast, "The Union Forever," was responded to 
v, ith rousing cheers. 

The festivities of the day closed with a ball in the evening. 

NOT "bone dry." 

In 1857 and 1858 many rough and even desperate men harbored in the 
towns of ]\Iarysville and Palmetto. Liberty to them meant license and 
revolvers were handy and brought into action at the least provocation. There 
was no "bone-dry" law in those days and whiskey was sold as a commodity 
in all the stores, besides being retailed from saloons. Liquor in those days 
was as much an article of merchandise as flour or meat. Practically all of 
the men engaged in business in Marysville sold hquor along with other sup- 
plies. Advertisements in the Blue Valley Union of 1864 contain, "Foreign 
and Domestic Liquors for sale." 

Open saloons w-ere plenty and it may be truly said that a number of 
the fortunes which were later achieved by residents of the city had their 
beginning in the profits from sales of liquor. Then it was not an uncommon 
sight to see a would-be "bad man" riding wildly through the streets shooting 
in all directions but the right one, and yelling furiously and defiantly at the 
onlookers. Indian squaws rode astride their scrawny ponies, their little 
beady eyes glancing furtively about, the papooses swaying on their backs', 
from one side to the other, all dirty and repulsive. When it is recalled that 
hundreds of people passed through daily, and that sensational scenes of 
gambling, shooting and fighting were constantly occurring, it is not difiicult 
to believe that Marysville was a "noted," even "notorious" stopping place on 
the o-reat Overland trail. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I I9 

Andreas' history of 1883 says: "When Marshall established a ferry 
at Marysville he did not abandon the ferry at Independence Crossing, but 
continued it for several years, the travel being divided between the two 
points. At the ferry at Marysville teams would gather by the hundreds 
waiting tlieir turn to cross. Some impatient ones would ford the stream at 
considerable risk. The capacity of Marshall's ferry was only three wagons 
at a trip for which he charged five dollars per wagon. In June, 1856, the 
county commissioners fixed the rate of ferriage as follows : For crossing a 
loaded wagon, three dollars ; an empty wagon, one dollar and fifty cents ; 
man and horse, fifty cents : footman, twenty-five cents, and all stock, twenty- 
five cents per head. The board again decreased the rates of ferriage to one 
dollar for crossing a six-horse wagon, and other vehicles in like proportion." 

The Marysville ferry v^^as in operation until the bridge was built in 
1864. This was a wooden truss toll-bridge, costing eight thousand dollars, 
located where the present steel bridge now spans the river. After the bridge 
was built the ferry was dismantled and discarded. 

INDUSTRIES. 

Marysville has always been to some extent a manufacturing city. Before 
the days of prohibition, P. H. Kalenborn owned a brewery on the site now 
occupied by the residence of Mrs. John Tracy. The storage cellar for the 
brewery was under the bank south of where Mrs. Elliott now resides. 

At the foot of the bill west of Airs. Elliott's home, John McChesney 
manufactured coarse pottery, crocks, jugs and jars. 

In close proximity Thomas Cooper had a brick yard. The clay not 
proving of good quality, the pottery plant was abandoned and Cooper moved 
his brick yard near where O. W. French lives. Later he moved it to the 
western part of town near R. Y. Shibley's, in the bottom land. In time he 
sold out and the Clayes Brothers operated the plant. 

The VVakefields owned and operated a brick yard in the north part 
of town for awhile. The brick never proved of first-class quality. At pres- 
ent Marysville is without this industry. 



% 



EXCELSIOR MILLS. 

One of the largest manufacturing industries of Marysville was estab- 
lished in 1864 and known far and wide as the Excelsior Mills. No man in 
northern Kansas was better or more favorably known than genial, whole- 
souled Capt. Perry Flutchinson. 



I20 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

He was a keen, careful Imsiness man and his mill was patronized by 
farmers within a radius of seventy-five miles. Probably no industry added 
more to the rapid growtli and prosperity of the county than the Excelsior 
Mills. 

Captain Hutchinson's death was deeply deplored. His widow and their 
two sons. Frank and Wallace, are citizens of the city he helped to build up. 
Wallace and Frank Hutchinson have lived all their lives in this community. 
Wallace succeeded to his father's business, but owing to ill health was obliged 
to retire from business. Frank conducts a general grocery and supply store 
at the corner of Ninth and Broadway. 

PROMINENT BUSINESS FIRMS. 

Emil G. Draheim arrived in Alarysville October i8, 1874, and was in 
the employ of T. W. Waterson for one year, when he took a position with 
George C. Dargatz. In 1876 he entered into partnership w'ith a Herman 
Dargatz, the firm of Draheim & Dargatz having purchased the store of the 
senior Dargatz. This firm sold out to Arand & Ziegler in 1877, and the 
same year Mr. Draheim bought out Mr. Rommel of the firm of Hohn & 
Rommel. The firm was then Holm & Draheim and so remained until March 
21, 1890. 

On the loth of November, 1890, Mr. Draheim opened the present busi- 
ness house under the name Emil G. Draheim and in February, 191 2, Mr. 
Draheim associated his two sons, Walter E. and Arthur G., as partners and 
the firm name is now E. G. Draheim & Sons. 

The firm conducts a general store and employs four lady clerks in the 
dry goods and three men in the grocery department. Air. Draheim is one 
oi the popular mercliants of Marysville and has always stood for the best 
things in the life of the citv. 

The drug store of David von Riesen was established on October 15, 
1897, and has, by the time that this history will get into the hands of the 
subscribers, a career of twenty years. Mr. von Riesen has been a resident 
of the state since 1876, when he landed with his parents from Germany at 
Halstead in Harvey county. From liis report the outlook after opening his 
store was everything but glorious on account of unclean competition. The 
family of Mr. von Riesen is composed of bis wife and five children, the eldest 
a son, Waldemar, has heen in constant connection with the store ever since 
he was eight years old, and lias now for a long time taken care of the active 
part of the business, commercially as well as scientifically. Waldemar was 




BROADWAY, MARYSVILLE. 




EXCELSIOR MILLS, MARYSVILLE. 



MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 121 

at the time he passed the state board of pharmacy examiners less than eighteen 
years old, and was the youngest American licentiate. Besides conducting the 
pharmacy, Mr. ^'on Riesen has been a consistent and patriot citizen, has served 
the city as councilman, and in other capacities. In 1908 the Kansas Pharma- 
ceutical Association honored him for valuable service rendered, with the 
presidency, and for the last six years he has been the active secretary of that 
association. 

THE COMMUNITY HOUSE. 

Marysville has solved the community house problem in a practical man- 
ner. The building, which was first erected under the auspices of the Christian 
church as an athletic hall, soon grew in favor beyond denominational limits 
and owing to the kindness of Alex. Schmidt, the women of Marysville took 
the initiative in making it a community center. At a public meeting called 
for the purpose of putting the project under proper business management, Mrs. 
E. E. Forter presided as chairman and appointed a committee, the members 
of which, George T. Mohrbacher, Erskine Davis and W. D. Holloway, 
formulated a set of rules which have been the basis of management since that 
time. 

The following item appeared in the New York Independent, October 
20, 1916: 

"The town of Marysville, Kansas, has tried out this plan in a practical 
manner, and the Marysville idea deserves careful study. It is especially 
instructive because in tliis case the experiment was first launched under the 
auspices of a church, a wealthy banker furnishing nineteen thousand dollars 
for the erection of the building. Fully equipped and admirably managed, it 
failed as a social center because it was looked upon as a religious enterprise — 
though not at all so intended. After two years of experiment it was turned 
over to the citizens of the town, who established a community house associa- 
tion, non-sectarian, non-partisan, with a managing board of eleven men and 
eleven women, with membership dues ranging from ten dollars a year for 
men and boys to two dollars and fifty cents a year for girls, with trifling fees 
for the pool and skates. Its success was immediate and it has become the 
center of social activity for all ages and all classes. This typical community 
house is located in the central part of town, which is the place where such 
a building should be located. 

"It contains a large reception room, with piano, reading tables and easy 
chairs. Off this is a dormitory where farmers' wives may leave their babies 
while shopping, a bovs' room, a library, a county Y. M. C. A. secretary's 



122 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

room, toilet rooms, and a room for the women's clubs. In tlie basement is a 
white tiled swimming pool, twenty Iw fifty feet, with filtered water; shower 
baths are provided, and in the rear there is a large gymnasium whose floor is 
used also for a skating rink. 

"After eighteen months of trial it has been found that the running 
expenses of such a building averaged one hundred seventy-four dollars and 
twelve cents a month. A hostess and janitor are included in this expense." 

The present officers are : C. M. Chandler, president ; W. W. Hutchin- 
son, vice-president; J. H. Cavanaugh, treasurer; L. R. Broderick, secretary. 

MARYSVILLE TURNVEREIN. 

This branch of the American Gymnastic Union was organized on August 
29, 1874, with the following original membership: P. A. Kalenborn, presi- 
dent ; Romeo B. Werner, vice-president ; August Hohn, secretary ; Nickolas 
Kalenborn, assistant secretary; Fritz Baeuerle, treasurer; Martin Piel, turn- 
wart; Jacob Kuoni, assistant turnwart: Robert Boehme, custodian, and 
]\Iathias Bendel, Franz Weber, John Bohner, John Kempf and Carl Rohde. 
Of these only two are now living, August Hohn, Marysville, and P. A. Kalen- 
born, Tacoma, Washington. 

In the "Annals of Kansas," published by Hon. D. W. Wilder, this state- 
ment appears : 

"To Leavenworth City, the future giant city of the ^^^est, after the terri- 
tory of Kansas was organized, flocked a large German immigration. The 
dark and troublesome border-ruftlan days of 1855-56 drove them from their 
homes, Imt they returned with increased numbers during the year of 1856, 
and endured all the difficulties throughout that year. 

"In the spring of 1857 a few young Germans met and organized the 
Leavenworth Turnverein. As yet it was dangerous in those days to express 
even Free-State sentiments. But the nucleus was formed, around which the 
freedom-loving Germans of Leavenworth could gather. 

"The Americans were not long in feeling the work of this association. 
They are a unit and always ready to defend the right and their cause. 

"We cannot here enumerate the acts of the Leavenworth Turnverein; 
.suffice it to say that no action, political or otherwise, was had in Leavenworth 
county without their power being felt. 

"The time had passed when Free-State men could be driven from the 
polls ; there was always one company ready to protect the ballot box. Kansas 
now ranks the most loyal of all the states, and with pride can the Turners 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 23 

of Leavenworth point to their acts in that struggle which made Kansas what 
it is today. 

''The memorable 'Kickapoo", the cannon which was used to destroy the 
Eldridge House in Lawrence, is a trophy of the Leavenworth Turners and 
is )et in their possession." This cannon is now in the museum of the State 
Historical Society at Topeka. 

GROWTH OF THE GYMNASTIC UNION. 

The American Gymnastic Unirm lias, since its first appearance, in the 
L'nited States in 1842. been pledged to the advocacy of liberty for all regard- 
less of creed or color. Only citizens of the L^nited States, or those who have 
declared their intention, to become such, can l^ecome members of the organ- 
ization. 

A leading object of the Liiion is the teaching of rational physical cul- 
ture in the public schools along with, and parallel to, culture of the mind, 
an object which has been accompli-shed to a great extent. 

With this object in view the ^larysville branch of this organization 
immediately set to work and in 1S75 it established its first turning school in 
the building, 1004 Broadway, then an empt}- store building, now the resi- 
dence of L. H. \\ ban. but at that time owned by Doctor McCall. 

By 1880 this societ}^ had grown to thirty-seven members, who proceeded 
to build the brick "Turner Hall", forty-two by eighty feet, at a cost of ten 
thousand dollars, at the corner of Eighth and Carolina streets. This then 
stately new building was dedicated with considerable ceremony on April 
26, 27, 188 1. 

A trades display pageant was held on one day, in which ever}' business 
house in town vras represented by handsome floats, preceded by a full-rigged 
ship of state, the work of Henry F. Dryer, who in his younger days had 
"sailed before the mast." on all the seas of the globe. 

The evening of this memorable day closed with a very creditable rendi- 
tion of "Queen Esther," under the direction of William Becker, later editor 
of the Marys^'illc Post (German) and of the Democrat (English), and post- 
master of the city. 

From the time of the finishing of this building to the present day, the 
Turnverein has always furnished a well-equipped gymnasium and competent 
teachers free of charge to children and adults. 

In 18S9 a new brick gymnasium, thirty-six by sixty feet, was erected 
and fully equipped, an addition to the original building, at an expense of 



124 MAUSIIALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

twelve thousand dollars, and this oyninasium has ncxcr heen without a com- 
petent director, nor has it ever heen closed for any time other than summer 
vacation. 

The society has spent thousands of dollars for teachers' salaries, hut 
has never charged tuition for tlie prixilege it extended in its school. It has 
sent its classes to all of the district and to many of the national Turnfests or 
field days, where they have always taken high rank in athletics. 

PRESENT OFFICERS. 

At its hest this society had a memhership of more than two hundred 
and fifty. On January ist, 191 7, it had one hundred and twenty-five mem- 
hers with officers as follow : President, Charles F. Woellner ; vice-president, 
August Hohn ; secretary, A. W. Kersten ; assistant secretary, Carl Hanni; 
treasurer, George T. Mohrhacher; Anton Kienlen, financial secretary; Walde- 
mar von Riesen, first turnwart ; Charles Wiedemeyer, second turnwart ; John 
Luther, Jr., custodian, and Hugo A. Hohn, H. Ackermann and August 
Leifheit, trustees. 

The Turners were the pioneers in the field of physical education in the 
United States and have to a great extent accomplished their purposes in 
the firm estahlishment of physical culture in our puhlic schools and the 
Marysville 'j'urnverein was no small factor in fostering the same in its 
sphere of usefulness. 

Hugo Rohde. now a farmer near Herkimer, was the first instructor 
for the Turners at Marysville. Twice a w^eek for several years, he came seven 
miles from his father's homestead to donate his services. 

Paul Witte, now of Home City, a graduate of the Hanover, Germany, 
College of Phvsical Culture, had charge of the school for two vears. 

Samuel Porter, of Alarysville, A\as the instructor for fourteen years. 
At one time during his tutelage a class of thirty ladies attended the school. 

^Ir. Carl Hanni, of Marysville, was for several years the instructor. 
Emil Heuler is in charge of the school at present. August Holm has served 
as president of the Marysville Turn\-erein for a ])eriod of twentv-five years 
and has at all times given freely of his time and energy to the upbuilding of 
the society. 

PROMINENT PERSONS WHO HAVE VISITED MARYSVILLE. 

The citizens of ]\Iarysville have for many years liad the opportunity of 
hearing the best speakers of all political parties who have visited Kansas. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 25 

All the governors for the past forty years have included Marysville in their 
campaign itineraries. 

Hon. \V. J. Bryan and Theodore Roosevelt have addressed our citizens 
here, and state candidates never fail to give Marysville a call. 

The citizens support an eight-day Chautaucjua course. 

In the year 1892 Alary sxille was visited by a detachment of Coxey's 
Army en route to Washington, D. C. Among the "unwashed throng" was 
a youth with deep-set, inquiring eyes, who afterwards became known to the 
people of two continents. His name was Jack London. He died in October, 
1916. 

OLD-TIME THEATRICALS. 

Prior to the erection of Turner Hall, traveling troupes were obliged to 
produce their dramas in the W'aterson Hall. 

In the fall of 1873 a number of people came out from Boston. The 
men were going farther West hunting buffalo and the ladies came to see the 
Western country. They put up in Alarysville at the Tremont House and 
during the week gave the citizens their first real taste of fine dramatic talent. 
With that company was "Cy" Robinson, a son of Yankee Robinson, the 
great circus man, and McDermott, who starred as "Marks," in "Uncle Tom's 
Cabin." 

The plays gixen were standard and the hall was crowded at every per- 
formance. Kendalls from Boston also "made Marysville." After the Tur- 
ner Hall was erected many leading actors looked in on us. John Dillon 
played "The Road to Selzerville," and Louie Lord appeared in "Leah, the 
Forsaken," in that hall. 

Since the erection of the Theater Grand the people of the city have had 
presented many of the leading dramas and traveling artists express surprise 
at finding this bijou theater in a town of this size. Mr. Frank Yaussi, the 
owner and proprietor, is one of the big, public-spirited men of the city, and 
the theater is always under excellent management. 

MARYSVILLE BANDS. 

One of the first men in tlie city to plan for the systematic study of music 
was Capt. W^illiam Lofinck. who is still a resident of Marysville. 

In the summer of 1872 Marysville began putting on metropolitan airs. 
Captain Lofinck at that time owned and operated a saloon in the building 
now occupied by the farm bureau agent. 



126 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

The sunken i;ar(!cn on the east afforded a cool, retired place for practice 
and also was near the saloon. Captain Lofinck agitated the formation of a 
band and tlie ubi(jnitons Pete Peters, editor of the Locomotive, pushed the 
idea and soon the band was an institution. 

William Becker, then of Sabctha, was the leader and made semi- 
monthly visits to Alarysville as band instructor. 

In January, 1873, John D. Walters, who for the past forty years has 
been actively associated with the great Kansas State Agricultural College at 
AFanhattan and who is at present dean of architecture and drawing in the 
college, became the leader of the band. The members were : P. H. Peters, 
William Lofinck, Smiley Waterson, AL W. Samuels, Billy Linn, Billy Cott- 
rell, H. .S. Clark, Sam Ryser, AL J. Duigenan, Henry Kauzman and "Buck" 
Swearengen. The band, which gave open-air concerts in Lofinck's garden, 
was very popular and lived several years. Finally, Walters went to the col- 
lege ; Ryser, Samuels and others left and the band ceased to meet. 

LYON POST HAND. 

In the winter of 1879 Lyon Post band was organized and Captain 
Lofinck W'-as responsible for this band. Eugene Scherer was the leader, but 
pro\-ed a failure. 

MA.RYSVILLE CORNET BAND. 

Tn January, 1880, Sam Foi"ter hunted up the members of the first band, 
found some new talent and B. Price was the leader. 

In the spring of 1881 C. F. Barks and his son, Herman, came to Alarys- 
ville. Both were professional musicians of good class. The Marysville 
Cornet and Lyons Post bands were consolidated, with Herman Barks as 
leader, under the name of Lyon P^ost band, Lyon Post, Grand Army of the 
Republic, having furnished some of the instruments. Herman Barks was 
a strict taskmaster and the band made rapid progress. In 1882 W^illiam 
Barks, brother of Herman, arrived in Alarysville and accepted the leadership 
and from that time the band became known as the Barks Military band. 

The Barks Military band had a long and successful career and its mem- 
bership reached thirty-six in number and its reputation extended beyond local 
limits. It w^as by far the biggest and best band at the Grand Army of the 
Republic encampment at Grand Island, Nebraska, and played in many of the 
larger towns in northern Kansas and southern Nebraska. For three suc- 
cessive years this band was called to Enid, Oklahoma, to play for the "strip 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I27 

opening celebrations." The membership of this band consisted of Wilham 
Barks, leader ; Herman Barks, second leader ; C. F. Barks and William 
Barks, Jr., Sam Forter, president; Arthur Hohn, secretary; N. S. Kerschen, 
treasurer; William Becker, B. Price, H. W. Hagar, J. R. Allen, Auldice Hale, 
William Binding, Nick Grauer, Walter Draheim, E. J. Fehrenkamp, John 
and Frank Moser, Charles Shaw, F. E, and Charles Davis, Henry Wolff, 
Henry Bodenner, Frank Knipp, IF Selz, Scholl Brothers, Thromm Brothers, 
G. Brauchi, Flerbolsheimer Brothers, Theo. Hammett and H. E. Clark. 
Ernst Fange was drum-major. 

In 1900 William and Herman Barks moved to Tacoma, Washington, 
and since then the band has been kr.own as the Marysville cornet band. It 
has had many different leaders and an ever-changing membership. 

MARYSVILLE CEMETERY. 

"The clock beats out the lives of men." 

The Marysville cemetery was incorporated with a capital stock of two 
thousand dollars in September, 1878, by Perry Flutchinson, F. Finn, G. F. 
Hamilton, T. Hughes, J. A. Griffes, W'. H. Smith, J. S. Magill, F. W. Fibby, 
D. P. Clark and C. T. Mann. The ofificers were : President, Perry Hutchin- 
son ; secretary, C. T. xMann ; treasurer. VV. H. Smith. 

In October of that vear a tract of forty acres adjacent to the city was 
purchased and platted. About tifteen hundred dollars were spent on improve- 
ments, the ground was fenced and some trees planted. 

Since that time the grounds have been beautified, wells have been sunk 
and avenues laid out, the principal ones running from the Soldiers monu- 
ment, which stands in the center of the grounds. In 1887 this monument 
was erected to the memory of the soldiers who fell in the Union ranks. On 
May 30, hundreds of people gathered from all parts of the county; Fyon 
Post No. 9 led the procession from Broadway. Hon. W. A. Calderhead 
delivered the address and Edna Calderhead unveiled the monument and placed 
a wreath on the statue, which is a life-size soldier in uniform. 

In 191 2 a committee from the Woman's Relief Corps of Marysville 
solicited money from the general public and raised six hundred dollars with 
which a cement walk was built from the cemetery gate to the city limits. 
Mrs. E. E. Forter was chairman of the committee and managed the work. 
Plans are now under way for erecting a chapel and receiving vault near the 
west gate of the main entrance. 

It is a beautiful spot and while hearts have broken at its portals and 



Ij8 MARSHALL COUNTY. KANSAS. 

hopes have flown as loved ones lia\e l>een laid to rest, yet there is consolation 
in the thought — 

"That notliint( walks with aimless feet, 

That not one life shall l)e destroyed. 

Or cast as rnhbish to the void, 
When God hath made the pile complete." 

The first cemetery in Marysville was located on blocks 39 and 40, 
Palmetto, and was used by the city for a burial place until 1879, when the 
new forty-acre grounds were ready for occupancy. 

The city authorities then ordered the disinterment of the old cemetery 
and for some years the work was carried on until at the present time there 
are but a few graves remaining within the old grounds. The city has 
extended and built up around the old cemetery grounds and this necessitated 
its removal. 

MARYSVILLE VOLUNTEER FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

Since the organization of the first fire department in Marysville, the 
town has been exceptionally fortunate in having a full corps of willing, 
efficient and unselfish men with capable officers, who have at all times and in 
all circumstances responded promptly to every call. It is no exaggeration of 
facts to state that, for thirty years the Marysville volunteer fire department 
has stood at the head of all such organizations in the state as a fire-fighting 
force. 

A feeble attempt at organizing a bucket brigade was made in 1876, but 
failed, after a series of incendiary fires which cleaned out several business 
blocks in the town. The first actual steps taken toward protection against 
fire came on July 9, 1883, when the mayor appointed a committee to confer 
wdth the county commissioners relative to the purchase by the city of two 
Babcock extinguishers, for which the county had no use in its court house. 
The extinguishers subsequently became the property of the city. 

After that date, about once a month, some member of the city council, 
generally John B. Logan, brought up the matter of fire apparatus. Finally, 
a committee of citizens, not members of the council, was appointed to con- 
fer with the chief of the fire department of St. Joseph, Missouri, relative to 
the kind of apparatus w^hich would be the most suitable for Marysville. 

The city records show^ next that on February 4, 1884, the city clerk was 
ordered to pay five hundred and forty dollars for the hook-and-ladder truck 
and rubber buckets just received. 




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MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I29 

FIRST FIRE COMPANY. 

On March 17, 1884, Mayor John A. Broughten made the following 
appointments: Paul A\^itte. fire engineer; Samuel Forter, foreman, hook- 
and-ladder company, and Lapier Williams, Ben Linley, D. N. Kelley, Lewis 
Scott. Walter Scott, Rollin Allen, A. B. Ayers, Christ Moser, Frank Shaffer, 
William Sipple, Hiram Hagar, Fred. Saup, Oliver Wheatley, N. B. Garden, 
.J. W. Potter, Auldice Hale, Sam. A. Harburg, Robert Hohn, O. D. South- 
worth and Martin Kessler, as firemen. The appointments were confirmed by 
the council. 

The city now had a hook-and-ladder truck, two dozen rubber buckets, 
two Babcock extinguishers and twenty-two able-bodied men, who immediately 
went into training by scaling buildings and passing buckets. 

To Sam. A. Harburg, now of Denver, Colorado, then foreman of Gen- 
eral Becker's printing plant, belongs the honor of getting up this first fire 
department of Marysville. This organization held for about two years, 
when dissatisfaction with some of the members of the city council, broke it 
up. 

On August 6, 1888, the city council requested Samuel Forter to present 
a list of names of good men who would volunteer to organize a fire com- 
pany, at the next meeting. On August 13, 1888, Forter presented the fol- 
lowing : 

"Marysville, Kansas, August 13, 1888. 

"To the Hon. Mayor and City Council, of the City of Marysville: 

"We, the undersigned, hereby voluntarily offer our services to the city 
as a fire company, subject to such rules and orders as you may see fit to make. 

"Signed — Sam. Forter, Paul Smith, Will Ecks, Stanis Van Meensel, T. 
D. Grimes, Fr. Schriefer, J. C. Moser, D. N. Kelley, Oliver Ellis, F. P. 
Gatchell, Alf Von Wald, Nick Grauer. W. R. Cottrell, Tom E. McCoy, John 
Luther, R. M. Lehnhardt, Frank Auhl, W. M. Life, H. C. Cottrell, O. H. 
Morse, Beny Campbell, A. J. Mohrbacher, Owsley Lonergan, C. B. Batterson, 
Lee Gilbert." 

The council rejected the names of Will Ecks, Oliver Ellis and W. M. 
Life, for the reason that twenty men and two officers were a sufficient num- 
ber. Mayor Andrew Fluhrer then appointed all of the others as members 
of the fire company, placing at their head Samuel Forter as chief of the 
fire department and Stanis Van Meensel, foreman of the hook-and-ladder 
company, all of which was dulv confirmed bv the council on August 13, 1888. 

(9) 



i30 MARSHALL COUNTY. KANSAS. 

On August 13. 1889, ordinance No. 95 was passed, granting the Marys- 
\ille Water Cdnipau)- a franchise tdr tlic construction and operation of a 
system of waterworks. On February 14, 1890, the plant was completed and 
the "water was turned on" for the first time in the presence of thousands 
of people, and the city council accepted the waterworks as satisfactory. 

FIRE COMPANY INCREASED. 

Prior to this the fire department had been enlarged to forty members 
divided into one hook-and-ladder company and two hose companies of twelve 
men and a foreman for each, who. witli the chief, made forty men. Stanis 
\'an Meensel remained foreman of the hook-and-ladder company and P. J. 
Hindmarsh and C. H. Cottrell were selected as foreman of the hose com- 
panies. 

Some time Ijefore the opening of the waterworks, the city had purchased 
two hand hose carts with five hundred feet of hose for each. 

Thus fully equipped for business, the Marysville fire department has 
never let a fire get away from them from that day to this and our fire losses 
have been by far the lowest of any city in Kansas, as shown by the statistics 
in the ofiice of the state fire marshal. 

For more than twenty years the fire department has taken active part 
in the state firemen's tournaments, many times winning championship troph- 
ies and also establishing records which have not been broken. It is little 
wonder then, that some of its members should be honored by the State Fire- 
men's Association with high office. Sam. Forter was twice elected president 
of the state association and served as chairman of the legislative committee 
for the National Firemen's Association during the fifty-sixth Congress. 

George T. Alohrbacher, for the last ten years, chief of this department, 
served as secretary of the state association for five years; he was then elected 
treasurer, which office he has held for three years and is still holding. He 
has been chairman of the legislative committee for the last four years and as 
such has succeeded in getting much beneficial legislation for fire protection 
for the state. His name is familiar to all the prominent insurance men and 
firemen in the United States, because of his activity in the matter of fire 
protection. 

RESUME. 

Paul W'itte was fire engineer from March 17, 1884, to the summer of 
1885. There was no organization from that time to August 13, 1888. Sam. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I3I 

Forter was chief of the Marysville vokmteer fire department from August 13, 
1888, to November i, 1899. Charles Shaw, chief, from March 29, 1900, 
to June, 1901. Stanis Van Meensel, assistant chief, acting chief, June, 1901, 
to March 31, 1902. J. C. Moser, chief, from March 31, 1902, to March 26, 
1906, when he refused re-election. George T. Mohrbacher elected chief on 
March 26, 1906, still serving in same capacity on April i, 1917. . 

Of the members of the original Marysville volunteer fire department of 
1884, J. C. Moser and Sam Forter are still residing in Marysville. and still 
runninsr with "the machine" when the alarm sounds. 

On April i, 191 7, this fire department consisted of one hook-and-ladder 
and two hose companies. The hook-and-ladder truck and one hose cart are 
kept for ready service at headquarters in the city building, and the other hose 
cart at station "A", corner of Tenth and Alston streets. 

The officers of the department on April i, 191 7, are George T. Mohr- 
bacher. chief and president; Albert Kersten, assistant chief and foreman, 
hook-and-ladder truck ; Pete Smith, foreman, hose company No. i ; Jack 
Parks, foreman, hose company No. 2 ; Frank Olson, secretary and Alex. 
Campbell, treasurer. 

As this history is being written, the city is arranging to fully equip its 
fire department with modern automobile apparatus. 

BUSINESS LIFE OF MARYSVILLE. 

It may be truly said of Marysville that it has never had a boom. Its 
progress along business lines has been a steady healthy growth. In the 
history of the business life of the town changes have taken place, but there 
have been few failures. 

In many instances the business established by the father is now carried 
on by the sons. This is true of Ilohn & Sons, Draheim & Sons, the Exchange 
Bank and a number of others. The Kansas Store is the old Tracy & Com- 
pany, now carried on by Mr. Tracy's brother-in-law and nephew. In this 
respect Marysville has the marked characteristic of the New England towns. 

Among the succeessful business men (^f the town are: E. D. Brolyer, 
who conducts a plumbing business; G. L. Rice, owner of a furniture store; 
H. R. Fisher, considered the finest florist in this section of the state; N. S. 
Kerschen, manager of the Farmers Union Elevator, has always been promin- 
ent in public affairs and has represented the county in the Legislature. 

Dr. T. A. Beveridge. a leading dentist, is a Marshall county product, 
and his father, Jacob Beveridge, of Home City, is one of the best known men 



i3- .MAK^llAl.I. (OlX'l-V, KANSAS. 

in i]:c Northern tier. Tic i> a Iialf-limther of former Senator Beveridge, 
of Indiana, and like liis relative, has a taste for political life. He served dnr- 
ing- the war and is an active business man today. Doctor l^ieveridge, his 
son. who has lately conic to A!arys\-i]lc. is of the same sterling tvpe and is 
winning a place in th.e life of the cit\'. 

Air. and Mrs C AI. Stewart arc pioneers of the county and their daugh- 
ter is the wife of Clarence Rice. sn])crintendent of the schools of Kansas 
City, Kansas. 

Alarysville r.as its quota of women in business and one who has made a 
success of her work is A[iss Ora Lamb. This very energetic woman has by 
her own e'^forts as ster.ograjdier, solicitor and law clerk acquired a competence. 
Her familiar figure on the streets of A/Jarysville. quietly pursuing her busi- 
ness, is proof that a \\"on"ian may succeed even under difficulties. 

Henry Schulte is one of the best know'n men in and around Alarysville. 
A loyal citizen and generous friend and kind neighbor he is esteemed for his 
sterling qualities. 

In a brief history it is impossible to mention all the names deserving 
some token of regard at the hands of the historian. Alany men and women 
have helped to make the county anrl its cities the tine business centers and 
pleasant homes of today. Among others are the Farrar and Cone families, 
the old-time family of Tarvins, the Alosers. Kuonis and Obermeyers, the 
Russells and the Vanamburgs, Jacob Rutti, the Travelutes and Bensons, the 
Alohrbachers, Hohns, Dargat.^, the Hutchinsons and the Haw^kinses and 
scores of others who have always been an inspiration to the growth and 
upbuilding of the county. As long as Alarshall county remains these and 
other names will have a foremost place in the memory of its people. 

PRESENT BUSINESS CONCERNS. 

The largest garage in the city is that of C. F. Travelute and Son. which 
is an up-to-date structure with a capacity for parking seventy-five cars. This 
garage has twenty-one thousand feet of floor space. 

G. L. Fenwick owns the second largest garage and is well equipped for 
handling cars. 

John Cooper and Roy Robinett each have garages and attract a fair 
share of business, as do Thompson Brothers. 

Several repair shops are operated in the city ; notably, George Hoffman, 
C. W. Baker and Kersten & Sons do repairing in connection with a w^agon- 
making shop. Roy Roljinett and F. W. Heinke also repair cars. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 133 

W. D. Godsey, Peterson and ^york, and Leon Rnggles are decorators 
ind painters. 

J. M. Goodnight, superintendent telephone system. 

Frank Graham, restaurant. 

R. C. Guthrie, undertaker. 

Hartwich Lumber Company. 

James Henry, Hotel Lorraine. 

Campbell House Hotel. 

L. D. Leroy, Pacific Hotel. 

F. W. Hutchinson, grocery. 

Seth Barrett, artificial ice plant. 

Mrs. Agnes Joerg, boarding house. 

A. C. King, livery. 

R. N. King & Son, harness shop. 

C. Langlitz, tailoring establishment. 

Laundry, H. A. Thompson. 

Millinery, Matilda Lorke. 

General store, George Love & Co. 

E. O. Weber, lumber yard. 

Thompson Brothers, Coal, Produce and Poultry Company. 

E. J. McKee, hardware. 
Moore Brothers, meat market. 
Broihier & Moser, meat market. 

O. J. Morse & Company, real estate. 
Marshall County Ncivs, George T. Smith. 
Adz'ocatc-Dciiiocraf. H. M. & L. R. Broderick. 

F. N. Newton, plumbing and heating. 
Otoe Club, an exclusive men's club. 

J. W. T. & Clyde Potter, barber shop. 

B. Price, hardware. 

Anton Smith, shoe repair shop. 

W. S. Staley. standard oil agent. 

Temple & Son, city bakery. 

Cafe, John Grauer. 

White Brothers, groceries. 

H. F. Whitten, planing mill. 

Con Welton, jewelry store. 

Luedders & Company, men's clothing. 

A. L. Goodman, candy kitchen. 



1^4 MARSHALL COLNTY. KANSAS. 

THE MARYSVILLE MAENNERCHOR. 

For many years Marysville was a musical center. When railroad trans- 
portation was so limited that "ood musical companies ditl not book the city, 
the music-!o\int;- ];co])le i;a\c home-talent concerts and o])eras very success- 
fully. 

The original meml)ers of the Alaennerchor were August Hohn, G. 
Pfitzenmeyer. Martin Piel. Jacob Kuoni. Emil and Sam Forter, Jacob Ryser 
and some others whose natnes are not recalled. William Becker was the 
conductor. 

Two permanent musical societies have always existed in the city. The 
Alaennerchor, which was organized in 1876 and the Helvetia Chorus, organ- 
ized in 1883. Although the members do not meet as regularly as of old, 
these organizations are still active. 

Many of the original members have answered the final summons and 
others have taken their places. August Hohn. Sam and Emil Forter are 
still living. 

Many instructors have come and gone in Marysville during those years, 
but the music-loving Germans and Swiss have kept alive the desire for good 
music and now the curriculum of the public school carries musical instruction. 

MARYSVILLE COMMERCIAL CLUB. 

The membership of this club includes every business man of the city and 
the club motto is, 'T will do my part." W. W. Redmond is president and 
Hugo A. Hohn is the secretary. 

Since the first of January, 1917, the club has raised fifteen thousand 
dollars with which to purchase a new depot site and this building will be 
erected in the course of the coming vear. 

The good roads committee of the Club is active in promoting this work 
in the county and the Civic Improvement Committee takes care that the streets 
and alleys are ke])t in perfect order and also that undesirable citizens are 
prevented from having a permanent abode except in the county jail. 

women's clubs. ' 

In the spring of 1900 the Round Table Reading Circle of Marysville 
was organized by Mrs. E. E. Forter, at her residence. There were ten mem- 
bers. The first ofificers of the club were : Mrs. E. E. Forter, president ; 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 35 

Miss Ida Bates, secretary. Members, Mrs. Emily A. Scott, Mrs. Teresa 
Sampson, Mrs. Carolyn Elliott, Mrs. Stella R. Miller, Miss Ella Kahoa, Mrs. 
Allie Boyd Rogers and Mrs. Eusebia Thompson. 

The club is for literary study and during the seventeen years of its 
existence has numbered about two hundred members. A year book with 
program of study is published each year and meetings are held fortnightly. 
The club owns a fine library of seven hundred volumes, which is kept in the 
Communitv House. The membership is limited to thirty-five. Mrs. Forter 
is the acting president and a member of the library board. 

THE GRANDMOTHERS CLUB. 

The name of this club indicates its membership. The club originated 
with Mrs. Adam Mohr, many years ago, and is composed of German ladies. 
Meetings are held everv two weeks on Thursday afternoon and quite con- 
trary to what might be supposed, they are very entertaining and up-to-date, 
serving refreshments and discussing current events as well as the latest thing 
in fancy work in which these ladies excel. 

NEEDLE CRAFT CLUB, 

A club in which fine needle work is done and taught. Mrs. Ora Smith 
is the president. 

THE MARY JANES CLUB. 

The membership of this club is composed entirely of young ladies. The 
meetings are spent in doing needle work, and partaking of light refreshments 
served bv the hostess. Mrs. William Temple is president. 

THE IDLERS. 

A purelv social club, of which Mrs. C. F. Pusch is the president. Meet- 
ings are held semi-monthly and a three-course luncheon is served. The 
membership is limited to ten. 

THE PRISCILLA CLUB. 

This is a needle work and fancy work club among the young matrons 
of the city. Fine needlework is done, books are discussed and also the work 
of the parent, teachers' association and current events. Membership is lim- 
ited to twenty. Matilda Kraemer is president. 



136 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



ERIKA CLUB. 

'I'his chil) is an organization coniined to the young ladies of the German 
chureh. Church work is discussed and light refreshments served. Aliss 
Emma Kersten is the president. 

THE MANUFACTURE OF CIGARS. 

Henry AA'iedemeyer came to Marysville in 1878 and, deciding to locate 
here permanently, established a business in 1882. He was successful from 
the lirst and in a few years opened a second factory. Mr. Wiedemeyer 
employed ci number of people and has amassed a competence. His son, 
Joseph, is the traveling representative of the house arid the son, Charles, 
is the business manager. 

Ernest Wiedrich came to Alarysville in June, 1884, and for three years 
was in the employ of Mr. Pusch. He then became a manufacturer, and in 
1892 established the factory Vvhich he conducted successfully until 191 6, when 
he sold out to Specht & Ranksch. Mr. Wiedrich after a short interval has 
again opened a factory and may continue to make Marysville his home. 

Others who are manufacturers of cigars are Fred Kahlke, Charley 
Woellner, Charles Bohner, AVilliam Ranksch and Joseph Kysela. 

There are at present writing seven cigar factories in the city. 

pusch's cigar factory. 

Charles F. Pusch was born in Marienburg, West . Prussia, October 16, 
1 85 1. In that city his father was the owner of a large cigar and tobacco 
factory. Mr. Pusch came to America on October 20, 1868, and lived in 
New York Citv until June i, 1872, when he came to Marysville and estab- 
lished his business. He first started the manufacture of cigars in the build- 
ing now occupied by J. Allen, which stood on the corner of Eighth street and 
Broadway, where M. Barlow's store is located. 

In 1876 he erected a new frame cigar store and factory on the present 
site of Temple's bakery. This building was destroyed by fire in 1885 and 
Mr. Pusch built a new shop on the corner of Tenth street and Broadway. 
This building was moved one lot east to make room for the three-story brick 
building erected in 1892, which, for many years was the largest cigar factory 
in Kansas. Mr. Pusch has carried as many as one hundred and five employees 
on his pay-roll at one time. 




INTERIOR MASONIC HALL, MARYSVILLE. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I37 

The maximum number of cigars made in one year was four and one- 
half millions. The average number is three million per year. The aggregate 
amount paid for labor in round figures is one million one hundred and ninety 
thousand dollars. At times as high as thirty-seven thousand dollars has been 
paid in a single year. 

The Pusch factory has for a number of years been the largest industry 
in the city of Marysville and has furnished employment to- hundreds of people 
and contributed to the maintenance of thousands. It has always been an 
"open shop" and its doors have never been closed since it opened for business. 
The present number of employees is thirty-five. 

Pusch & Sons have recently opened a branch factory in Kansas City, 
Missouri, directly opposite the Savoy Hotel. 

Charles F. Pusch has been honored by the citizens of Marysville, having 
been elected four consecutive terms as mayor of the city. As a director on 
the St. Joseph & Grand Island railroad, he has been able to further the inter- 
ests of the city and to bring about the splendid business prospects that are at 
this date opening up for the coming years in the establishment of freight and 
passenger divisions at this point by the Union Pacific railroad system. 

During his years of service as mayor, Mr. Pusch has brought Marys- 
ville to the front rank as the prettiest county seat in Kansas. Broadway is 
a wide,- well-macadamized street, with a white way of eighteen lights to a 
block, for a distance of nine blocks. An electric light is placed on each 
street corner of the city. The city has a complete sewage system, both storm 
and sanitar}^ 

Streets have been graded, cement walks laid, unsightly trees removed, 
many "crooked paths made straight," and the city given a neat, up-to-date 
appearance. 

During Mayor Pusch's administration the splendid new high school 
building was completed and the city park purchased and improved. Mr. 
Pusch gave to the city the same efficient management which proved success- 
ful in his own business, and the result of his attention is manifest along all 
lines of civic improvement. 

RAILROAD ITEM. 

During the fiscal year 1015-16, 504 cars of freight were shipped from 
Marysville on the St. Joseph & Grand Island railroad and 441 cars were 
shipped into the city. The tonnage carried was .35,381,993 pounds. Dur- 
ing the same period 19,123 passengers left Marysville and 19,506 arrived 
here. The sum of $40,517.68 was paid for tickets. 



1^8 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



The Union Pacific roads carry a very similar amount of freig'ht and 
an equal number of passengers, so that Marysville is a railroad center of 
no small proportions. 

Marysville has ten passenger trains daily and eight freight trains, which 
also carry ])assengers. Sixteen freight trains carry no passengers. Twelve 
men are re((uired to handle the business at the depot. 

DANCE PROGRAM USED IN MARYSVILLE IN 1 863. 

"CotiUion Party. — The pleasure of yourself & lady are respectfully so- 
licited to attend a cotillion party to be given at the Court House in the Town 
of Marysville on Friday eve the 12 inst commencing at 8 o clock P. M. 

"Managers. — J. S. Magill. John Hughes, Lsaac Davis, William Linn, 
L. M. Parmeter. J. D. Brumbaugh. Perry Hutchinson, Charles F. Koester, 
Robert Shibley and A. G. Edwards. 

"Floor managers. — Peter Peters & A. E. Parks." 

Of those who gave this party fifty-four years ago, only two are living — 
Isaac B. Davis and R. Y. Shibley. 



CHAPTER YH. 
City of Blue Rapids. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT. 

As a result of correspondence between W^ \V. Jerome, of Irving, Kan- 
sas, and Rev. C. F. Alussey. then pastor of the largest Presbyterian church 
of Batavia, New York, and Solomon H. Parmelee, of Leroy, New York, the 
idea of a Genesee colonv was first suggested l^y Mr. Jerome. A meeting to 
consider a plan for the colony was held in Star Hall, Leroy, New York, in 
the spring of 1869. attended by aliout twenty-five people. An agreement to 
go to Kansas together, was signed by four men. Rev. Charles F. Mussey, 
Solomon H. Parmelee, C. J. Brown and Taylor Holbrook. Charles F. 
Mussey was chosen president ; S. H. Parmelee, treasurer, and C. J. Brown, 
secretary. 

These gentlemen held the offices of the Genesee colony until the location 
in Kansas was made, and the organization became the Blue Rapids Town 
Company. Many meetings were held during the summer of 1869 until the 
number of signers reached fifty. 

S. H. Parmelee was sent to Kansas to select a site. After three weeks 
he returned with the report that the selection was too important to be left to 
one person. A commission of three was sent, consisting of C. F. Mussey, 
John B. Brown and H. J. Bovee. This commission made choice of the 
present site of the city of Blue Rapids. The location was made on January 
I, 1870. 

LAND TAKEN RAPIDLY. 

In less than sixty days many thousand acres of land had been purchased, 
the titles gathered, the Blue Rapids Town Company organized and a town- 
site surveyed. Members of the colony began to arrive by March i, 1870. 

"Colonial Hall" was built as a temporary home for the colonists and 
was so used for nearly a year. The dining room was used for a church, 
school and general meeting place. The hall was located west of where 
Coulter's drug store and Brown Brother's hardware store now stand. It 



140 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

was used tor school ])iiri)oses for district No. 3 for two years and later was 
nio\-C(l to the ri\er and was there used in lurn hy the \\'oo]en-niill store of 
Cook & Chandler, the lUiell Manufacturing- Company, and later hy the Swan- 
son Brothers as an implement factory. 

During- the days of its use as a colony home, Taylor Holl;)rook was the 
manager. John McPherson succeeded liini as manager. Idie hrst death 
in the hall was Nellie E. McPherson, the manager's only daughter, on Sep- 
tember 21, 1870. After forty-two years of service the old building was dis- 
mantled, and lives only in the memory of those who were sheltered beneath 
its roof. 

The Gejiesee colony embodied in its charter and in e\'ery transfer of 
l)roperty, a clause prohibiting the sale of spirituous liquors as a beverage. 
In case of a violation of this clause, the pniperty would revert to the school 
cHstrict. The supreme court of Kansas, in an action, sustained the clause. 
No open saloon has ever existed in Blue Rapids. 

Blue Rapids was platted after the fashion of many eastern cities, with 
a public S(|uare or park in the center of the business portion, the principal 
business houses being Ijuilt on the four sides. The park is four hundred 
feet scjuare, and has a large number of shade trees. During the summer 
many cultivated plants add to its attractiveness. 

FIRST BUSINESS HOUSE. 

The first business house erected on the public square was a general store 
by S. H. Parmelee, and the second by Yates Douglass on the south 
side, and followed by Guy R. Brown and McBride on the north side. 

The first residence was built by J. B. Waynant ; the second by Rev. 
Charles Mussey. In the erection of this home every available man in town 
took a hand, as the family of Reverend Mussey were at Atchison, awaiting 
a home. S. H. Parmelee was the first postmaster and J<>hn McPherson 
made the first section of letter boxes which were used, until Thomas Marcy 
was appointed postmaster ; he put in an entire new set of fixtures. 

Among the farmers who settled in the vicinity of Blue Rapids before 
the town was incorporated, were Andy Scott and family ; Judge William 
Thompson and family ; Peter Stout and family ; Frederick Hamilton and 
family (said to be descendants of Alexander Hamilton) ; Jackson Taylor, 
the town oracle. Near Irving were W. W. Jerome, S. H. Warren, St. Clair 
Guthrie and M. Conley. Conley was at one time associated \\ith Thomas A. 
Edison. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I4I 

Blue Rapids grew and improved rapidly. The present State Bank was 
erected by D. Fairbanks, completed in the fall of 1870, opened as a private 
bank in 1871 by Olmstead, Freeland & Company,, and later purchased by 
G. B. Stocks & Son. The Town Company offered five lots to any party 
who would erect a hotel. John R. AlcPherson, C. Y. Reed and H. S. Hal- 
burt accepted the offer and built a hotel, three stories, containing- twentv- 
one rooms, and named it "The LaBelle House," after a lake in Wisconsin. 
At the opening of the hotel a large number of invited guests were present, 
amonp- others C. F. Koester, Frank Schmidt and fames Sniith, of Marvsville. 

INDUSTRIES. . 

One reason for selecting the location of Blue Rapids, was the fact of 
there being a power site in the Big Blue river at that point, on which C. E. 
Olmstead constructed a dam which was to furnish one thousand five hundred 
horse power, and which cost thirty thousand dollars; After the completion 
of the dam, a stone fiour-mill, fifty-four by ninety-five feet, three stories 
high, with a cai)acity of three hundred barrels daily. Was erected at a cost 
of thirty-five thousand dollars, by C. E. Olmstead. Later, the mill was sold 
to LJpham & Sons and remodeled into a roller process, at an expense of 
fifty thousand dollars. The Olmstead mill was completed and ground the 
first grist for a customer from Cla}- Center, Kansas, October 26, 1871. 

G. and J. Green, of Bentonport, Iowa, put in operation a paper mill in 
1874. Print and wrapping paper were manufactured. The mill was closed 
on account of financial difficulties on Fel^ruary 20, 1877, and John McPher- 
son was appointed assignee to adjust the estate of G. and J. Green. 

In 1 87 1 vSamuel Craft operated a steam saw-mill near Blue River, manu- 
facturing hardwood and cottonwood lumber. 

The foundrv and machine shops of Price Brothers were built west of 
the river in 1877. 

The season of 1870 was very dry. No vegetables were raised and water 
was hauled from springs, daily. A well was sunk on the west side of the 
scjuare to a depth of two hundred and twenty-five feet without finding water. 
This discouraged the colonists at the time, but later water was found at 
from thirtv to seventy feet below the surface. Because of the failure to find 
water, C. E. Olmstead put in the Holly system of waterworks from the river 
to the public square, for fire protection and general purposes. Four-inch 
mains were laid and a Holly pump installed in the flour-mill, attached to a 
special wheel. 



142 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



In the early spring of 1872 the citizens subscribed for a cut-stone basin 
in the park, in which C. E. Ohiistead furnished, and put in phice, a fine 
fountain, which is still in use. 



RESrDPINTS IN BLUE RAPIDS, 187O. 



Rev. C. F. Mussey and family. 

J. H. Brown and family. 

C. J. Brown. 

H. S. Halburt and family. 

S. H. Parmelee and family. 

Howard Parmelee and family. 

Taylor Holbrook. 

Flagler Passage. 

Dr. R. S. Craft and family. 

Samuel Craft and family. • 

Yates Douglass. 

Augustus Borck. 

N. Zell. 

Joseph Grimm. 

A. W. Stevens. 

Capt. A. D. Gaston. 

C. B. Mathews. 

H. V. Mathews. 

E. D. Wheeler. 

Fred J. Jacob. 

J. B. Waynant and family. 

Charles E. Tibbetts and family. 

N. Halsted and family. 

L. W. Darling and family. 

C. E. Olmsted 

J. L. Freeland and family. 

Guy R. Brown and family. 

H. \y. Jackson and family. 

J. T. Smith and family. 

William Ekins and family. 

William Brown. 

On December 31, 1870, there were 
in Blue Rapids. 



Samuel Hill and family. 
J. H. Fowler and family. 
Jackson Taylor and family. 
A. W. Kimball and family. 
John McPherson and family. 

C. Y. Reed and family. 
J. S. Fisher and family. 

D. Fairbanks and family. 
A. J. Bovee and family. 
Charles True and family. 
Thomas Oakley. 

James Allerdice. 

W. D. McPherson. 

J. C. Harland. 

D. B. Taylor and family. 

H. Van Dusen and family. 

D. Minium and family. 

C. B. Stone. 

J. W. Davis and family. 

H. Armstrong and family. 

W. E. Brown and family. 

George S. Smythe and family. 

Dr. R. A. Wells and family. 

J. S. Stanley. 

J. L. Herrick. 

William Burr. 

Doctor Ream. 

George Kempton and family. 

J. E. Ball and family. 

James Hunt and family. 

J. C. Frissell and family. 

about two hundred and fifty people 



MARSHALL COTNTY, KANSAS. I43 

FURTPIER DEVELOPMENT. 

On September 21, 1871, Judge John V. Coon arrived from Elyria, Ohio, 
with recruits for the colony. 

In April, 1872, Taylor Holbrook built a twenty-foot raceway for power 
purposes of manufacture, especially of gypsum cement. 

J. V. Coon & Son began the erection of a three-story stone building, at 
a cost of twelve thousand dollars. 

These gentlemen were the pioneer manufacturers of gypsum into cement 
and land plaster at Blue Rapids. Their mill, on the west side of Blue river, 
was run night and day to fill orders. 

The Baptist church and school house at Blue Rapids were the first build- 
ings finished with the plaster made by Coon & Son. 

The mill was run with a capacity of eighty barrels of plaster of Paris 
a day, until 1S87, when the interior was destroyed by fire. The mill was 
rebuilt and put in operation again. 

In May, 1887, work began on Fowler Brothers gypsum mill, twenty- 
four by sixty feet. The business was known as the Blue Rapids Plaster 
Company. On August 20, that year, the first kettle of plaster was taken 
off and on the 21st plaster was shipped from the mill. The business was 
prosperous and grew steadily, but litigation over a patent finally caused the 
sale of the mill to the United States Gypsum Company of Chicago. 

In March, 1892, the Blue Valley Plaster Company was organized and 
built a mill on the Stocks farm. A. E. Winter was president and Arthur 
English, secretary, of the new company. 

This mill is still in operation under other ownership and is named the 
United States Gypsum Company. 

BLUE RAPIDS, 1 872. 

On January 25, 1872, W. D. Cook and I. S. Chandler, of the Wathena 
woolen mills, agreed with the Blue Rapids Town Company to bring their 
machinery to Blue Rapids. The woolen mill was completed in October and 
work begun in all departments. In tlie fall of 1877 the mill was purchased 
by the Buell Manufacturing Company of St. Joseph, Missouri. In 1879 it 
was totally destroyed by fire. It was immediately rebuilt and remodeled 
and filled with the latest improvements. 

On March 28, 1882, VVillard N. Buell committed suicide at Plattsmouth, 



144 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Nebraska. This was a great l)l(nv to tlic mill at Blue Rapids. The business 
was diverted to the mill at St. Joseph and in the same year the woolen mill 
was closed. 

LADIES LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. 

Fortunate, indeed, is the city that has for one of its first institutions a 
public library. The women of the colony coming to Blue Rapids from the 
East decided to have a library as one of the needs of the new city (and from 
that day to this, for more than forty years) the women have maintained the 
library, and have kept it up to the same high standard with which it began 
many years ago. 

They are proud of their organization for many reasons herein given. 
The association has a life membership in the state temperance union and a 
portrait of Frances AV'illard adorns the walls of the building; also a portrait 
of Andrew Carnegie and many other friends of the library. The building 
is named Olmstead Hall, in memory of Carlos E. Olmstead, one of its first 
benefactors. It is a substantial two-story stone structure, completed in 1877. 

The ladies of Blue Rapids who were interested in the establishment of 
a library met in the parlors of the LaBelle House on April 30, 1874. The 
association formed then, met again on May 27, and a permanent organiza- 
tion was created, and on June 2^, the library was opened to the public, in 
the store of D. W. Hinman. The oflicers were : President, Mrs. E. C. 
Ball; vice-president, Mrs. S. Wright; recording secretary, Mrs. P. J. Sweet- 
land; corresponding secretary, Mrs. M. E. Reed; treasurer, Mrs. C. F. Roedel ; 
directors, Mesdames H. Armstrong. J. S. Dawes, J. D. Davis, C. B. Hall, 
\\\ H. Good\yin, C. F. Alussey, John McPherson. G. B. Stocks and A. W. 
Stephens. 

In the following December the Town Company presented to the library 
association one of the few remaining three hundred dollar lots on the public 
square. On February 4, 1875, C. E. Olmstead offered to give two hundred 
and fifty dollars toward the erection of a library building, if the ladies would 
raise a like amount. The result was that work was begun on the building 
on the 18th day of that month and in 1877 the ladies were holding meetings 
on the ground floor room of their own building, while the second floor was 
rented to St. Mark's church for church purposes. 





! I ! 






1^ 



"'""aiifUr- 














GYPSUM MANUFACTORY, BLUE RAPIDS. 




RIVER BRIDGE AT BLUE RAPIDS. 



! PUBLIC L 



r ^^ -; V"' B» .^ J JH»^ i: ' . ■ r 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I45 

LIBRARY CHARTER OBTAINED. 

C. J. Brown and C. E. Tibbetts procured a charter, and many books 
were contributed by Eastern friends. So through the years these faithful 
women have kept their hbrary open to the pubhc. 

In June, 1899, tlieir liearts were gladdened by the news that through 
the solicitation of Air. Jno. McPherson, Andrew Carnegie had donated five 
hundred dollars to the association for the purchase of books. Later, Mr. 
Carnegie presented his portrait to them, which is framed and hangs upon 
the library wall. 

Some of the valued members are now at rest in the cemetery on the 
hillside, some are in distant lands, some are still faithful members of the 
board of managers, to whom the younger generation look with gratitude. 
Their records have been faithfully kept, the library has been maintained as 
an honored institution. These ladies made a good fight and they have their 
reward in the gratitude and admiration of their townspeople. 

The present oflicers are : President, Mrs. L. S. D. Smith ; vice-presi- 
dent, Mrs. C. E. Tibbetts ; recording secretary, Mrs. R. S. Fillmore, corre- 
sponding secretary, Mrs. C. K. Stephens; treasurer, Mrs. J. N. Wanamaker; 
librarian, Mrs. E. Heathman. and a board of managers of fifteen, includ- 
ing the above-named officers. 

BUSINESS INTERESTS^ 1880. 

At the close of the year 1880, the following represented the business of 
Blue Rapids : J. L. Freeman, banker ; Buell Manufacturing Company, woolen 
mill; J. S. Wright & Company, flour mill; J. W. Bliss & Company, paper 
mill ; J. V. Coon & Son, plaster mill : J. B. Waynant, foundation for mill ; 
Price Brothers, foundry and machine shop; Loben & Sweetland, general 
merchandise; C. W. Farrington, general merchandise; J. L. & C. A. Free- 
land, general merchandise : Buell & Company, mill store ; Hill & Alorton, 
hardware; R. S. Craft, druggist; G. B Stocks, lumber and grain; M. C. 
Holman, furniture; William Coulter, druggist; J. C. McArthur & Com- 
pany, harness; I. D. Yarrick, meat market; Festus Cooley, dry goods; Mrs. 
A. M. Cole, milliner and dressmaker; Mesdames McAllister & Chandler, 
milHners; H. W. Chapman, bakery; George Beester, restaurant; William 
Elkins, tailor; Spencer & Doten, livery; Sharp Brothers, livery; John S. 
Fisher, boots and shoes; Eli H. Wilson, boots and shoes; James Shaff. art 
(10) 



146 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

gallery; H. D. Calkins, Ice comi)anv and nursery; J. S. Dawes, market 
gardener; McPherson & Reed, LaBelle house; Fairchild's south side hotel; 
\\'. II. II. I'>ecman. lawyer: 11 W. Chapman, lawyer; E. W. \\'a}-nant, law- 
yer: J. \'. (!v E. j. Coon, lawyers: R. S. Craft & J. G. Crawford, physicians; 
L. G. Canfield, dentist; T. F. Hall, insurance; J. L. Freeland & John McPher- 
son, loan and insurance; A. J. Loomis, postmaster; S. H. Holbrook, railroad 
station agent; George L. Nichols, jeweller; J. W. Murrell, billiard hall; T. J. 
Hall, justice of the peace; H. W. Chapman, justice of the peace: James Aller- 
dice, D. Minium, G. Fitzgerald, C. J. Stanley, M. T. Specs, A. Seager, Adolph 
Johnson, carpenters and buildiers; Anderson Brothers, N. F. Axelson, stone 
masons ; S. M. Swan, George Peckard, painters ; William Burr, blacksmith ; 
Charles Minium, trucking: Thomas Bothwell, S. \V. Richey, plasterers; M. 
Patterson, J. G. Reynolds, loan agents; T. J. Hall, barber; S. S. Fitzgerald, 
Howard Edinborough, wagonmakers; M. Nickelson, city milk depot; E. S. 
Pearsoll, cooper shop. 

INCORPORATED. 

On February 8, 1872, Blue Rapids was incorporated as a city of the 
third class. The first city officials were : Alayor, C. E. Olmstead ; police 
judge, A. E. Sweetland; councilmen, J. E. Ball, A. W. Stevens, John McPher- 
son, H. Armstrong, D. Minium ; assessor, J. B. Waynant ; justice of the peace, 
A. Armstrong. 

Hiram \\^oodard brought from Elyria, Ohio, the first thoroughbred 
whitefaced cattle to stock his farm northeast of Blue Rapids. Among suc- 
cessful breeders in Blue Rapids \vere Isaac D. Yarick, A. Borck, Charles Dren- 
nan, W. B. Hunt, Judge W. H. Goodwin, Miss Lou Goodwin, Clayton Rod- 
key. John L. Rodkey, F. W. Preston & Son, Walter Morgan, E. R. Morgan 
and J. M. Winter. 

Blue Rapids had in operation the first telephone in Marshall county. 
Professor Stewart gave an entertainment in March, 1878, in Fitzgerald's 
hall. \A'ire was stretched from Fitzgerald's hall to the office of G. B. Stocks, 
on Alain street. Alusic, singing and talking were distinctly heard by the 
audience in the hall. 

The Blue Rapids Town Company, on account of the large outlay for 
public improvements, which was immediately followed by business depres- 
sion, became involved in debt and in the winter of 1879-80 sold the whole 
of its property to Randall Stetson, of Elyria, Ohio, who was then repre- 
sented by J. V. Coon, and then followed the process of adjusting the com- 
pany's debts. 



MARSHALL COUNTY. KANSAS. I47 



GRASSHOPPERS ILWOC. 



Bine Rapids and the colony enterprise, like every other town in Kansas, 
was crippled by the disasters of grasshoppers and dronght Because of the 
dry, hot summer and failures of crops, business w-as retarded and enterprise 
delayed. Resources were running low and the people were becoming dis- 
heartened. But soon their courage returned and as time passed, new build- 
ings were erected and some business changes took place. 

A. E. Benedict bui'-t a residence: John Lawson and Westein built homes 
on Union street; a Methodist church was built on Genesee street; C. E. Bige- 
low put in a stock of fancy groceries ; A. E. Benedict, J. Sawdye & Com- 
pany opened a hardware store ; William Burr succeeded Burr & McConnell ; 
J. H. Fowler and Air. St. John opened meat markets; Misses Holman 
opened a dressmaking shop; J. A. \\'illiams and Air. Witt were the village 
blacksmiths. 

In June. 1874, the Blue A^alley hotel was destroyed by fire. 

SOAIE FIRST EVENTS. 

R. A. Wells was the first doctor in Blue Rapids. 

Miss Lottie Holt and Rev. J. Williams were the first couple married, 
the ceremony being performed in \"ermillion by Rev. E. H. Chapin. The 
first death was that of Alary, the wife of H. S. Halburt, during the summer of 

1870. The first birth was that of a child to Air. Van Dusen, a member of 
the town company. 

The first school in the vicinity of Blue Rapids, taught by Lucy A. 
Palmer, began in November. 1861, with twenty-five pupils. It was kept in 
a private dwelling, one-half mile west of the present town site. 

Alisses Knowdton and Stew-art opened the first millinery store in Blue 
Rapids, December 18, 187 1. 

The population of the city at the close of 1871 was four hundred and 
eis^htv. Twentv-seven business firms were established. 

On Alav 13, 1872, J. A. Loban and A. E. Sweetland entered into a part- 
nership as dealers in general merchandise under the firm name of Loban & 
Sweetland. Their business relations extended over fifteen years, until Air. 
Loban's death. Air. Sweetland continued the business another fifteen years. 

Judge W. H. Goodwin, of Xashville, Tennessee, erected a building in 

1871, the front room of which lie used for a law office. The second story w-as 



148 M ARSHAIX COUNTY, KANSAS. 

finished as a hall and for some time the Congregational church held services 
in it. 

In 1 87 1 G. Fitzgerald. J. A. Loban and Noble and Perkins erected a 
building with a seventy-five foot front by sixty feet deep, two stories, for a 
general store. 

T. H. Morris was engaged in the lumber and general merchandise 
business. 

T. G. ^ilorris and I. E. Ball were music and furniture dealers. 

The Arlington House was opened in the winter of 1882 by W. Coulter, 
Jr., who was its manager. The building, a two-story brick, was erected in 
1873 hy W. Coulter, Sr., at a cost of seven thousand dollars. In 1881 it 
■was fitted up and used as a hotel under the name of the Fairchild House, 
managed by C. R. Fairchild, former proprietor of the Tremont House, Marys- 
ville. 

BLUE RAPIDS POSTOFFICE. 

A postoffice was established a short distance from what is now Blue 
Rapids, in 1859. with William Thompson as the first postmaster. Air. 
Thompson remained in office three years and was succeeded in 1862 by D. 
Palmer. In 1865 Emma Lee received the appointment. She held the office 
six months, when she resigned in favor of S. Craft, who after a short period 
turned the office over to John Weber. 

During Weber's term the office was discontinued in 1869. When the 
Genesee colony came out and located a townsite and commenced improve- 
ments, the postoffice was re-established in the spring of 1870, with H. S. 
Parmalee as postmaster. 

Mr. Parmalee was succeeded in 1875 by C. E. Tibbetts, then editor of 
the Blue Rapids Times. In December, 1876, A. J. Loomis was appointed 
and remained until 1883. In July. 1872. the office w^as made a money- 
order office and W. H. Goodwin sent money order No. i. 

The following have served as postmaster since 1883: Judge W'illiam 
Thompson. Thomas Marcy. C. Coulter, John McPherson, H. C. Lathrop, 
and Clarence Coulter, the present incumbent. 

WHEN BLUE RAPIDS WAS IN MAKING. 

John McPherson, former historian of Blue Rapids, waiting in 1890. said: 
"During the tw^enty years of the colony settlement a large sum of money has 
been expended in the way of pioneer manufacturing, resulting largely in dis- 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I49 

aster and failure. In, these years Blue Rapids has had in successful operation 
two flour mills, one woolen mill, one paper mill, two plaster mills, foundry and 
machine shop and the Cook Anchor & Cable Company, all located and operated 
by water powder on the Blue river. All of these and, later, Swanson's Flying- 
Swede Factory and the cereal mill, either failed, sold out, or were washed 
out by floods and the river cutting- a new channel in -Mav, 1903. below the 
old dam, which is still intact. The power has in a measure been restored 
by a fill across the new channel. The walls of the Olmstead Brothers mill 
is the only building now^ standing, and in it is located the electric lighting 
plant operated by water power. The Anderson flour mill on the west side, 
was dismantled and rebuilt by P. Anderson & Company, at the Central Branch 
railroad tracks, and the plaster mills are established at the gypsum quarries. 
In fact every interest at one time in a flourishing condition at the river has 
disappeared. Only the Olmstead mill wall, the bridge and the original dam 
remain." 

JASON YURANN. 

Among the men who came to Blue Rapids to make it a city. Jason 
Yurann was one who believed it the most promising site in the state for a 
city with great industrial possibilities. His dreams did not come true, and 
many of his schemes failed. He has become as fully known to the people 
of the state and county as "Colonel Sellers" is known to lovers of Alark 
Twain. 

Yurann has always in season and out of season, through evil or good 
report, been a loyal worker for Blue Rapids. A man of excellent education, 
and wide knowledge of affairs, he perhaps, in his prime, knew more prominent 
men of affairs than any man in the county. He is a member of the bar, and 
while many of his plans have failed and he has suffered the disappointment 
of his fondest hopes, yet it can truthfully be said of him that he has always 
ardently believed in Blue Rapids and her future and has spent a fortune in 
trying to build up the town. He- is now old, feeble and limited in this 
world's goods, but the history of Blue Rapids would not be complete with- 
out recognition of what he has done in her interests. 

The plans of the founders of Blue Rapids, to make it the leading city 
in this part of the state, have not as yet been realized, but its industries have 
developed beyond that of ^any other town in the county. There are four 
gypsum mills in active operation and its water power furnishes electric 
power for several towns, among them being Marysville. It has splendid 



150 MAUSII.M.L COUNTY, KANSAS. 

cluirdies. ch'antar.qua. school^ and citizcnshi]), r.nd is one of the prettiest resi- 
dence towns in northern Kansas. 

The census enumerator for kjiT) re])orts the ])opulation as one thousand 
six linnch'cd and seventy-three. 

FAIRMONT CEMETERY. 

On the j6th day of June, 1879, the Blue Rapids Cemetery Association 
was organized with the following officers : President, Festus Cooley ; vice- 
president, W. A. Barrett ; secretary, M. C. Holman ; treasurer. Dr. C. A. 
Freeland. The capital stock was secured by the sale of one thousand shares 
at ten dollars each. 

Block No. 4, of ten acres, in the northeast part of the city, was purchased 
and a charter was obtained from the state on August 13, 1879. Thus was 
secured to the city of Blue Rapids a most beautiful spot for use as a ceme- 
tery. Sloping gradually in every direction, it commands a charming view of 
the valley of the Blue river, for a distance of several miles, with Irving in 
the distance. The whole plat is surrounded with a hedge, which is kept 
trimmed, and selected elm and maple trees shade the avenues. Two iron 
gates — one for vthicle'^ and one for pedestrians — afford entrance to the silent 
city, 

"Where the beautiful grasses, low and sweet. 
Grow in the middle of every street."' 

Common report accords this cemetery the reputation of being one of the 
most beautiful and well-kept cemeteries in Marshall county. Nearly thirty 
soldiers of the Civil War. members of Robert Hale Post No. 328, including 
their devoted commander, Capt. Martin Morton, who died on January 7, 
1916, are buried here. 

NAME CHANGED. 

In the year 1907 the name of the cemetery was changed to Fairmont, by 
the expressed wish of Capt. John McPherson. 

The board of directors, December 20, 1916, consisted of A. E. Sw^eetland, 
]Jr. R. S. Fillmore, John McPherson. Livy B. Tibbetts and A. A. Marvin. 
The officers of the association, chosen from the board of directors, are : A. E. 
Sweetland, president and manager; John McPherson, vice-president; Dr. R. 
S. Fillmore, treasurer; Livy B. Tibbetts, secretary, and George Flower, super- 
intendent. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I5I 

Tavo names stand out prominently in connection with the organization : 
John McPherson and Festus Cooley. Mr. McPherson, as prime mover, and 
earnestly and actively engaged in every step of its early history; Festus Cooley, 
its first president, to whose generous support in no little degree is the present 
splendid condition due. Mr. Cooley was the first of that first board of direc- 
tors to be laid to rest in the spot he so earnestly helped to make beautiful, 
September 2, 1891, his wife having preceded him on January 25, 1890. 

James D. Field followed him on January 2, 1903. Dr. C. A. Freeland 
died and was buried at Kansas City, Kansas, some thirty years ago. W. A. 
Barrett removed to his former home in Ohio, many years since. M. C. 
Holman has been living in Topeka, Kansas, for over thirty years. 

Of the original paid-up subscribers to stock, five are living here; five 
living elsewhere ; twenty-three are buried here ; ten are buried elsewhere. 

The board of directors and ofi^.cers of the association receive no com- 
pensation. 

ELTSINESS INTERESTS, I917. 

Flack & Barraclough, general merchandise. 
C. W. Granger, general merchandise. 
Moore Brothers, groceries and meats. 
Allerdice & Ouinn, groceries and meats. • 

• ■ Mrs. A. Barraclough, variety store. 
Frank Marvin, variety store. 
Brown & Company, hardware. 

Union Hardware Company, John Skalla, proprietor. 
Coulter Drug Company. 
Reder Drug Company. 
L. G. Trombla, jeweler and optometrist. 
A. A. Marvin, jeweler and optometrist. 
Miss Irene Stuart, millinerv. 
Miss May Faulkner, millinery. 
James Ryan, furniture and undertaking. 
Commercial Hotel, James Searcy, proprietor. 
Albion Hotel, Walter E. Hill, proprietor. 
Moser Brothers, gents furnishings. • 

J. E. Rodkey, garage. 

G. Van Valkenberg, garage and auto dealer. 
Mrs. H. Scott, restaurant. 



152 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Midway Cafe. 

A. J. Brice, pool hall. 

Mrs. Hamilton, restaurant. 

S. J. Olds, blacksmith. 

C. \y. Tempero. livery barn. 

Train Lumber Company. 

Burgner-Bowman Lumber Company. 

C. D. Smith, lawyer. 

W. W. Reed, physician. 

C. AIcFarland, physician. 

R. S. Fillmore, physician. 

S. W. Gilson, dentist. 

J. B. Scott, barber. 

W. H. Pheiffer, barber. 

O. Hellman, picture show house. 

Marshall Power and Light Company. 

Blue Rapids Telephone Company. 

JOHN m'pherson. 

A histoiy of Blue Rapids and of Marshall county would be incomplete 
without mention of a man who has served his country as a gallant soldier, 
his state as a trusted official, and his county as a patriotic and loyal citizen, 
for half a century. 

Capt. John McPherson left home a private and served four years as a 
I'nion soldier. He was promoted captain for gallant and meritorious ser- 
vice on the field of battle. He was in many a hard-fought battle of the 
great war and marched with Sherman to the sea. 

Age has come ujjon him. l)ut has not diminished his love for his adopted 
country (he was born in Scotland), nor his faith in her glorious future. 
His cheerful smile and corrlial hand-clasp make him always a welcome guest 
at any gathering, public or private; while his ripened judgment and noble- 
ness of heart and niind endear him to a host of friends. 

Captain McPherson has two children, J. E. McPherson, of Kansas City, 
and Mrs. Claude Guthrie, of Marysville. He spends his summers- with his 
children and his v.inters in California. Mrs. McPherson died several years 
ago. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 53 

JOHN V. COON. 

John V. Coon was born in Phelps, New York, March 30, 1822. He 
was of German descent and was a loyal friend to people of his lineage. He 
was educated at Hobarts College, Xew York. In 1842 he was married to 
Charlotte M. Miller. Their marriage was a very happy one. His aged 
widow still survives him. Judge and Mrs. Coon were the parents of one 
son, Emir J. Coon, who died many years ago. 

In 1844 J- V. Coon and his young bride moved to Elyria, Ohio, where 
in his chosen profession, the law, he gained prominence and wealth. The 
panic of 1873 swept much of the wealth away and he again turned his foot- 
steps westward, locating in Blue Rapids. He discovered the presence of 
gypsum among the ledges, near there, and he and his son, Emir, built the 
first mill west of the Alississippi river for the manufacture of plaster of Paris 
from gypsum. To John V. Coon and Emir J. Coon, ^Marshall county owes 
the origin of the largest single manufacturing industry within its borders 
today. Those two men exemplified the highest types of manhood. They 
were able, cultured, broadminded and generous, ever looking forward to 
the growth and development of the county and the state, along educational, 
political and religious lines. On Xovember 6, 1894, Judge Coon was elected 
county attorney of ^Marshall county. On January 4, 1895, he was buried. 
The sympathies of a very large circle of friends were extended to the sur- 
viving members of his family. Mrs. John V. Coon, his widow, aged ninety- 
six years, and the widow^ of her son. Emir J. Coon, reside with Hon. James 
G. Strong, county attorney, and his wife, Fanny, who is a daughter of Emir 
J. Coon. 

J. B. BROWN. 

J. B. Brown was one of the three commissioners sent to Kansas to 
select the location for the colony. He was one of the strong, forceful men 
of the colonv and his counsel was sought during many troublous times. He 
was always liopeful and optimistic during the darkest hours. He believed 
ardently in the future of Blue Rapids and was an honored and respected 
citizen of the town and of ^Marshall county. He died on March 11, 1885, 
and his death was felt as a personal loss to all those who knew him. His 
good name stands as a monument to his kindred and friends. 



154 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

THE OLDEST SETTLER. 

C. J. Brown is the oldest settler now residing in Blue Rapids. Mr. 
Brown was a member of the original town company and an active supporter 
of its enterprises. In April, 1872, he assumed charge of the real-estate busi- 
ness of Olmstead, Freehand & Company. In 1874 he was elected to the 
state Legislature, and in 1876, to the state Senate. He w^as later elected 
clerk of the supreme court, which position he filled for many years. He was 
married on September 10, 1881, to Mrs. Julia Greer, of Topeka. 

Mr. Browai has been one of the foremost citizens of Marshall county, 
since he became a resident and has been prominently identified with every 
forward movement along political, social and religious lines. His long 
service with the supreme court gave him a wide circle of friends over the 
state and his advice on public matters is sought by the most prominent people 
of the state. He is genial and courteous, resolute and courageous in all 
matters and is universally respected. 

■ WALTER p. BROWN. 

The story of Marshall county boys who have made good, would make 
a very long and interesting chapter, and that chapter would certainly include 
the name of Hon. Walter P. Brown, of Blue Rapids. Born in Genesee 
county. New York, in 1862, he was nine years old when he came to Marshall 
county with his parents in 1871. He was educated in public schools of Blue 
Rapids and had business training in the wholesale hardware store of Blish, 
Mize & Silliman, in Atchison. 

In 1889, after eight years of work for the Atchison firm, in almost every 
department of that great establishment. \A'alter Brow'n started the Brown 
Brothers hardware firm in Blue Rapids and, now at the close of twenty- 
seven years, he is still at the head of the business project, which he has suc- 
cessfully conducted from the start. 

In 1908, Mr. Brown w^as elected to the state Senate and served the four-. 
year term with great credit to his district and to himself. In his own com- 
munity and in the county, he is a recognized leader for the things that are 
w^orth W'hile. 



CHAPTER VUl. 
Cities, Towns and Villages. 



AXTELL. 



Axtell is situated in the eastern part of Marshall county, in Murray 
township, one mile from the Nemaha county line. It is located on the 
St. Joseph & Grand Island and Wyandotte & Northwestern railroads. It is 
eighty-nine miles west of St. Joseph, Missouri, and twenty-four miles east 
of Marysville. 

The townsite of Axtell was surveyed in January, 1872, by the St. 
Joseph Town Company. The first building was erected by "Shoe-string" 
W. H. Dickinson, early in 1872, and used by him as a store for one year, 
when he was succeeded by R. F. White. 

During the same year the railroad company built a depot and side track ; 
the Axtell postoffice was established and R. F. White was appointed post- 
master. On August 2, 1880, this was made a money-order office and Thomas 
Hynes sent the first money order. 

The first birth was that of a son to W. H. Dickinson, early in 1872, 
and the first death in town was George W. Earl, Axtell's first blacksmith, 
who died in 1874 and was buried at Seneca, Kansas. 

No marriage is recorded prior to 1879. 

The Wyandotte & Northwestern railroad was built into Axtell in 1889. 

In 1847 the county was visited by drought and grasshoppers and new 
towns did not prosper. In 1879 there were but four families in Axtell. 

During the fall of 1879 and winter of 1880 a colony of twenty fami- 
lies came from Deep River, Iowa. Among these colonies were Reuben, 
Joseph, Harry, John and Lewis Wasser, J. H. Seaman, J. and A. E. Axtell, 
J. Johnson and others. The addition of these people gave Axtell a forward 
impetus and it is now one of the thriving business towns of the county. 



iqO MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS, 



THE FIRST SCHOOL. 



School district No. 56 was organized in 1872. The school was kept in a 
house owned by A. Watkins and the first school taught by John Watkins. 
The school was then located one mile east of the present town. 

In 1872-73 a frame school house, twenty by thirty feet, was built in 
the town at a cost of seven hundred and fifty dollars. Miss Jennie Newlands 
taught this school for three terms. In 1880 the Catholic church bought the 
school house, for church purposes, and a new school house was built at a 
cost of two thousand dollars. A. M. Billingsley was the first teacher. In 
19 1 2 the old building was enlarged by the addition of two rooms, and in 
19 14 a two-story brick addition was made to the school. It is now one of 
the Barnes high schools of the county, with a course of study which includes 
manual training, domestic science and normal training. Lecture courses have 
been given since 1908. C. I. Smith, the superintendent of the city schools, 
manages the lecture course. 

In 19 10 Stephen Stout presented the city of Axtell with a beautiful 
park, which is used for all public out-door entertainments. The park has a 
fine baseball diamond and a good home team. 

The Chautauqua courses are held in the park annually, and Axtell has 
one .of the best chautauqua programs in the county. 

In 1908 the Axtell granite and marble works were established by 
William Werner, who learned his trade as a marble cutter in Germany. 

One of the potent factors in the growth of Axtell was the establish- 
ment of Gaylord's department store. This is an up-to-date general merchan- 
dise store, employing ten clerks and handling an immense stock of goods. 

Axtell has a well-organized and fully-equipped fire department, with 
E. S. Alexander as fire chief. 

In 1909 A. J. Ingram started the Axtell Produce Company, a large 
concern, doing a wholesale tgg, butter, poultry and feed business. Labbe 
Brothers conduct an up-to-date moving picture show. Two modern garages 
are under construction by I. W. Kerr and Joseph Severin. 

AXTELL PROGRESSIVE. 

• In the forty-five years of its existence Axtell has reached fourth place 
in the county in population and business importance, having passed a num- 
ber of the older towns. 



a 
a 

XSl 

m 

XJl 

m 

H 
O 

O 

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MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 157 

Axtell has seven hundred and eighteen inhabitants. It stands one thou- 
sand four hundred feet above sea level, affording a beautiful view of the 
surrounding county for many miles, in all directions. Summerfield is the 
only town in the county which has a higher altitude. 

Axtell has an abundance of shade trees, well-kept streets and cement 
walks to all parts of town. 

All branches of business are well represented by proprietors who are 
abreast of the times; stores and shops that would do credit to a town much 
larger. 

One of the leading industries is the Axtell telephone exchange, of which 
A. W. Rundle is president and D. O'Neil. manager. This company operates 
two hundred and twenty-one city phones and twenty-seven rural lines. 

BUSINESS INTERESTS,, IQI/. 

Hardware — Thomas Keegan, John Lichty. 

General merchandise — Gaylord's Department Store. 

Cash Mercantile Company — O'Neil & Ager, managers. 

Merchandise — Waymire Brothers. 

Restaurant and bakery — Jacob Roth f elder. 

Restaurant — Pierson and Barnes. 

Gent's furnishings — William Johnson. 

Billiards and pool — George Branson. 

Photographer — F. B. Strathman. 

Axtell Produce Company — J. A. Ingram. 

Farmers Union Produce Company — Ed Bergman, manager. 

Elevators — D. C. O'Neil, Harold Connett, Farmers Union. 

Implements — Farmers Union. 

Implements — D. C. O'Neil. 

Lumber, lime and coal — Robe & Brawner. 

Boyd Lumljer Company — Jos. Medlack, manager. 

Garages- — T. W. Kerr. 

Garages — Labbe Brothers. 

Hotel — Commercial House, Charles Ross, proprietor. 

Drugs — J. R. Sidwell. 

Jewelry — L. W. Sterling. 

Blacksmiths — Ernest Mack, Jeff Davis. 

Auto repair shop — D. Pierce. 

Furniture — T. M. Keegan, R. W. Motes. 



iqS MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS; 

Harness, shoes and repairing — John Msher. 
Undertaking— D. C. O'Xeil, R. W. ^lotes. 
Barbers — Everet Alexander, Frank Wright. 
Planing mill — O. A. Ivers. 
Electric theater — Labbe Brothers. 
Clothes cleaners — Herbert Scott, W. ^I. Johnson. 
Newspaper — Axtell Standard, Frank A. Werner. 
Marble yard — William Werner. 
Dentist — Audley Gaston. 
Physicians — D. Piper, C. M. Newman. 

Veterinary surgeons — Doctor Pijjer and Dr. P. J. Cavanaugh. 
Axtell Telephone Exchange — A. W. Rundle, president; D. C. O'Neil, 
manager. 

CEMETERY. 

Rose Hill cemetery, Axtell, is located one-half mile west of the town. 
This cemetery is well cared for and beautifully kept by the Axtell Cemetery 
Association, of which Mrs. N. H. Cone is president. The ladies have paid 
for having a cement walk laid to the grounds, by. giving dinners, bazaars 
and other entertainments. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Ed E. Hanna is the present postmaster of Axtell, and there are three 
rural mail routes from the postoffice. 

The best residences in the town are those of A. L. Simpson, Charles 
Phillips, Airs. Martha Farrar and Airs. Euphemia Strayer. 

The best business blocks are those of D. C. O'Neil, Daniel Aleara, S. S. 
Simpson, I. W. Kerr, Joseph Severin, and Gaylord's department store. 

Many men and women of Atxell are worthy of special mention in the 
history of the town and it would be a pleasure to record something of their 
worth to the to\\n and the county. 

Among others who have helped make Axtell the splendid little city of 
today, Dr. William Strayer, George Delaney, the Cones, Michael Murray, the 
H. K. Sharpe family, the Earrars, the Thomases, the Sitlers, Frank Gaylord 
and the Axtells may be mentioned. Many of them are gone from the town, 
some sleep in Rose Hill cemetery, but they are not forgotten by their towns- 
people. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 59 

BARRETT. 

One of the earliest settlements made in the county was that at Barrett, 
or as it was then known, Barrett's Mill. 

A. G. Barrett, in 1857, carrying out an agreement with the Ohio Town 
Company, set up and operated a saw-mill, and the same year he put in a 
grist-mill. This mill was brought from Leavenworth to Barrett by ox 
team. The grist-mill was the only one in the county and deserved to be 
called the leading industry. 

A postoffice was established in 1857 and H. W. Swift was appointed 
postmaster. 

School district No. i was organized in 1858 and a small school house, 
fourteen by twenty-four, was built. The material and work were donated. 
Religious services were tirst held in the saw-mill, which was lighted by 
lanterns. After the school house was built, services were held in it by 
"circuit riders." 

A small store furnished some necessary supplies to the settlers. With 
a school house, saw- and grist-mill, and a postoffice, Barrett's Mill became an 
important place. It was a little settlement of kindly, hospitable pioneers, 
and a gathering point fur people from all parts of the county. 

In 1869 A. G. Barrett deeded one-half of the townsite — forty acres — • 
to the Central Branch Union Pacific Railroad Company, the company agree- 
ing to erect a de])Ot and Ijuild a side track. One thousand two hundred dol- 
lars was donated by neighboring farmers to have Barrett named as a sta- 
tion. That same fall a new school house, costing three thousand dollars, was 
built. It was the largest one-teacher school house in the county. Some new 
buildings were erected, but the town never grew greatly in importance. 
Many of the early-day settlers have long since gone to their reward and the 
advent of the railroads diverted trade to the larger towns of the county. 

The one store in the town is now kept by William Montgomery. The 
old mill has been partially dismantled, only the frame work remaining. Mrs. 
Phoebe Van Vleit, a daughter of A. G. Barrett, lives there on the old place, 
and Mrs. Cy. Barrett, a daughter-in-law, is also a resident. A few years 
ago a Fourth of July celebration was held at Barrett and many old settlers 
visited the place which, during the years from 1856 to the breaking out 
of the war, was the most prominent "free state" settlement west of the 
border counties. The names of Barrett, Leavitt, Auld, Osborne, Wells and 
Smith will always be historic names in Marshall county. 



l60 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

BEATTIE. 

Beattie is located on the St. Joseph & Grand Island railroad one hun- 
dred miles west of St. Joseph. The townsite was platted in June, 1870, by 
the Northern Kansas Land Company of St. Joseph, Missouri, on land 
owned hy James Fitzpatrick and J. T. Watkins. The townsite comprised 
one hundred and sixty acres and the name Beattie was given in honor of A. 
Beattie, then mayor of St. Joseph, Missouri. 

H. M. Newton, James McElroy, R. Shields and J. J. Sheldon were the 
first to settle in the town. 

One reason for locating the town was the stone quarries. The stone 
from the quarries was for many years the finest in Kansas or Nebraska 
for building purposes. They are now partially abandoned. 

Prior to 1865 Hugh Hamilton, H. C. Smith, Eli Goldsberry, E. Cain, 
J. Totten, G. Thorne, James Fitzgerald, P. Jones and some others settled 
near what is now Beattie. Joseph Totten came to Marshall county in 1858 
and settled on a farm three miles north of Beattie. His daughter, Elizabeth 
Totten, was married to George Thorne in i860. 

George W. Thorne had the distinction of being the only man who voted 
for Abraham Lincoln in i860 in Guittard township. Mrs. Thorne is still 
living and attended the old settlers reunion in Marysville, September, 19 16. 

SOME FIRST EVENTS. 

John Watkins erected the tirst building in Beattie. 

Li the spring of 1871 a depot was moved to Beattie from El wood, Doni- 
phan county, and that same summer J. J. Sheldon moved a house on the 
townsite and lived in it. 

Li the spring of 1872 A. J. and L. Brunswick opened the first store. 
The first hotel was built by a man named Putcamp in the year 1873, and 
named the Sherman House. 

The first marriage was that of S. M. and Charles Keiper, who married 
daughters of Carl Scholtz. J. J. Sheldon performed the cereniony. 

The first birth was that of Beattie, a son of H. M. Newton, named in 
honor of the town. 

A child of Mrs. Mahoney died in 1873, which was the first death in the 
town. 

In 1873 Brunswig & Baer put up a steam elevator, twenty- four by 
sixty by thirty feet, at a cost of two thousand dollars. In 1880-81 the elevator 



I 




OPERA HOUSE AT BEATTIE. 




STANDARD SCHOOL, DEER CREEK. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. l6l 

was remodeled at an expense of four thousand dollars, to give a capacity of 
fifteen thousand bushels. This elevator had a corn-sheller attachment with a 
capacity of five thousand bushels per clay. A. J. Brunswig is still owner of 
the elevator, and P. A. Willis, is manager. 

The Farmers Co-operative Association also own an elevator in Beattie, 
of which Patrick Reilly is the manager. 

During the summer of 1881 the Beattie cornet band with ten pieces, 
was organized, W. F. Beckett, leader. He was succeeded by F. Smith. Beat- 
tie has not had a brass band for some years. 

POSTOFFICE. 

The postofiice at Beattie was established in 1881 and J. J. Sheldon was 
the first postmaster. He was succeded by A. J. Patterson, A. J. Brunswig, 
H. C. Smith, F. W. Hutchinson, J. C. Reed, T. C. Menehan, John O'Neil, 
Elizabeth O'Neil, S. L. Wilson, Mrs. Mary Wilson, Roy Wilson, M. A. 
Tucker and W. E. Ham. 

The present postmistress. Miss Alma Helvering, is a sister of Hon. G. 
T. Helvering the present member of Congress from the fifth congressional 
district of Kansas. 

BUSINESS INTERESTS IN BEATTIE, JANUARY, I917. 

Drugs— W. B. & M. Hawk. 
Pharmacy — M. W. McReynolds,' proprietor. 
Banks — First National. Beattie State. 
Hardware — E. C. Potter. 

Hardware and implements — W. E. Bachoritch. 
Grain, coal and implements — D. C. O'Neil. 

General Merchandise — Olson IMercantile Company, George and Robert 
Olson, owners. 

Beattie Mercantile Company — James T. McMahon, manager. 
Lumber and coal yard — Peter McMahon. 
Implements— D. C. O'Neil, W. E. Bachoritch, L. E. Helvern. 
Grocery and meat market — Burnside and Falk. 
Shoe repair shop — A. D. Stoz. 
Restaurant and bakery — O. Krotzinger. 
Bakerv — George Giles. 
(11') 



l62 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Hotel— Mrs. M. B. \\\iters. 

Dentist — Dr. J. E. Eden. 

Garage — C. F. Earhart. 

Printing office — The Bcattic Eagle; Fred Reed, publisher and owner. 

Physicians — Dr. W. E. Ham, C. F. McFarland and E. H. Gist. 

Produce market and feed store — M. McMahon. 

Photo studio — Charles Lenington. 

Gents' furnishings — George Schneider. 

Blacksmith shops — M. C. Giles, F. A\\ \Veis, Bishop Barber. 

Beattie Electric Light Company, David Hockman, owner, furnishes 
Beattie and Home City with light and power. 

The Farmers Mutual Telephone Company operate one hundred and five 
telephones in town and has fourteen country lines. 



BTGELOW. 



Bigelow is a sm.all village in Bigelow township, on the central branch 
of the Missouri Pacific railroad, between Barrett and Irving, named for Gen- 
eral Bigelow, an official of the Missouri Pacific Railroad. 

In 1 88 1 Jacol) Inman opened v.ork in the fine limestone quarries. A 
few houses were built and in order to provide homes for those who operated 
the quarries, Inman platted forty acres of liis farm into town lots and sold 
the lots at a nominal price, on condition that the purchaser of one lot, on 
putting up a house, should receive free of charge an adjoining lot. This 
was known as Inman's Addition. Corner lots were reserved by the owner. 
Alany men took advantage of the offer and secured homes. Some of the 
original settlers li\e on the property thus acquired. In 1883 a school house 
containing two rooms was liuilt from the native limestone. The first teacher 
was Thomas Colliers and only one room was used. The next year E. 
Carrico taught the grammar grade and a Miss Tweedy, the primary. Since 
that time two teachers have been regularly employed. The present teachers 
are Robert Shope and Eva Johnson ; enrollment, forty. 

In 1884 Christ church was built. Jacob Inman and DeWitt Grift'es 
were the men who were foremost in the eft'ort and they contributed largely 
to the cost of the building. In memory of their faithful work and gifts, 
the doors of this church are never closed on the Lord's day and services 
are held at all times possible. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 63 

In 1894 Mrs. T. \V. Mead agitated the question of building the First 
Alethodist church, and it was largely through her efforts that the fine build- 
ing, of limestone taken, from the quarries, now is enjoyed by members of 
that faith as a church home. The church is thirty by forty feet in dimen- 
sions, and is a building of which the citizens of the town are justly proud. 

H. A. Carpenter built and lived in the first house in Bigelow. John 
W'atters was the first blacksmith. 

The quarries have been exhausted and many of the old settlers have 
gone to tlieir rest, Init Bigelow has grown and at present has the following- 
business houses: J. W. Seldon, general store; J. P. Canaday, general store; 
J. E. Chitty, president, State Bank; C. O. Musser, lumber and coal dealer; 
Griffee Chitty, grain and stock buyer; .A. J. Turley, blacksmith; Mrs. James 
Milgate & Son, hotel. 

A. J. Harvey, a prominent young man of Bigelow, was elected county 
clerk of Marshall county, November 7, 191 6. 



TOWN OF BREMEN. 

Bremen is located on the St. Joseph & Grand Island railroad, nine miles 
northwest of Alarysville and one mile from the Washington county line, in 
the center of as rich a farming community as there is in the county. The 
latest census gives it a population of one hundred. In 1886 Henry Brenneke 
laid out the town and built tlie first house on the southeast corner of his farm, 
adjoining the railroad. He named the new tov.n after a seaport in Ger- 
many, near which he was born. The same year he erected a store building 
in which he carried on a general mercantile business and was appointed post- 
master. For a time. Otto Peicker was his partner in the store, but Mr. 
Brenneke carried on an extensive live stock and grain business on his own 
account. 

Carl Schultz built a blacksmith shop in 1888, which he has been con- 
ducting continuously ever since. In 1890 Joseph Sedlacek built a hardware 
store with a spacious hall in the second story. Charles Fischer started a 
restaurant and lodging house soon after, and Louis Pralle built a store for 
seiieral merchandise. William Raemer, from Herkimer,, opened a lumber 
yard, which he later sold to the Dursee brothers, and which was still later 
owned and conducted by Gus. Dursee until his death. 

In August, 1907, the State Bank of Bremen was organized and did a 



t64 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

flourishing" business in the l)U''kling formerly occupied by Mr. Fischer, who 
had dieib 

During tlie night of ^larch 17, igo8. the little town was entirely wiped 
out by lire causing a loss of more tlian twenty thousand dollars. But undis- 
n:ayed l:y this calan.ity, the good people proceeded at once to rebuild in a 
more substantial manner an.d soon a much better town was erected. 

largf: sum in bank notes oestroved. 

'ilie f()ll(j\\ing incident growing out of this fire is well worth recording" 
in this history. On the close of business the day before the fire, the banker 
placed all of the paper currency, several thousand dollars, in the little wooden 
box where it was always kept, and placed it in the safe wdiich was burglar 
proof, but did not prove to be fire proof. When the safe was opened it was 
found that the wooden box containing the paper money had burned to ashes, 
but that the currency, though burned to charcoal, was still intact and not 
e\'en broken. 

William H. Smith, of Marysville, who was a stockholder in the bank, 
carefully jjacked this charcoal in cotton and in a leather satchel, which never 
left his hand until he placed it on a table at the treasury department in Wash- 
ington, D. C, where the chief of the redemption division turned it over to 
Mrs. Brown for identification. After working on this little pile of charcoal 
for four days, Mrs. Brown reported that every bill could be redeemed except- 
ing one fi\ e-dollar lank note, on which neither the number nor the name of 
the bank was discernible. Needless to say that when Mr. Smith left Wash- 
ington with the lot of brand new treasury notes, which were given him for 
the charcoal, whicli he carried all the way to Washington so gingerly, lest it 
might go to pieces, he was a very happy man. 

BUSINESS INTERESTS. 

The following are the business interests represented in Bremen in 1917: 
Postoffice, fourth class, money order office with two rural routes, John 
Sedlacek, postmaster. 

Sedlacek & Son, hardware, furniture and auto supplies. 
Rengstorf Brothers, hardware, implements and autos. 
Prell Merchandise Company, general merchandise. 
Bremen State Bank, F. H. Pralle, cashier. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 165 

Elevator, Fred. Crome. 

Blacksmith, Carl Schiiltz. 

Lumber yard, Airs. Diirsee & Son. 

Hotel, Fred. Prell, proprietor. 

Telephone exchange, Hanover and Odell, Nebraska connection. 

Bremen Farmers Mutual Insurance Company, William Rabe, president; 
F. H. Fralle, secretary, and F. W. Stohs, treasurer. 

The latter company was organized on March 26, 1888, at which time 
a few German farmers associated themselves for mutual protection against 
fire losses. From this \ery humble beginning the organization has grown 
to be one of the biggest and most reliable mutual insurance concerns in the 
state, v.'ith agents in thirteen counties, insuring farm property against fire, 
lightning and tornado accidents. On Deceml)er 31, 1916. the company had 
one thousand five hundred and forty-one members and carried three millifrn 
two hundred sixty-eight thousand eight hundred and fifty-two dollars in 
risks. 



TOWN OF GARDEN. 

Carden is a busy little town, located on the Union Pacific & Grand 
Island railway, four miles east of Marysville. It was founded about fifteen 
years ago on the farm of Mrs. Ottilia Carden. now Mrs. Peter Dugdale. 
Tiie town was named Carden in her honor. 

The first building in town was the elevator erected by J. E. Andrews. 

Ed. Crevier next built a store and a blacksmith shop. A few years later 
Andrews took possession of the store and a Mr. Thomas, the blacksmith 
shop. Later, J. E. Andrews sold the store to T. J. Menzel, who conducted 
it up to three years ago, when C. A. Taylor bought it and is still the owner. 

The postoftice has been established fourteen years and fifteen families 
are served with mail. The office does about seven hundred dollars worth 
of business a year. 

Carden has twenty-five daily trains and ships from two to three hun- 
dred cars of grain and stock each year. 

There are four families living in the town. There is no church, but 
a fine school, with Mabel Tays, of Marysville, in charge. 



1 66 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



CITY OF FRANKFORT. 

Frankfort is the third city in size in Marshall county and is located 
eighty-seven miles west of Atchison an.d twenty-three miles south of Marys- 
ville. 

In 1867 the F'rankfort Town Company was organized in Marys\-ille 
with the following members : F. Schmidt, C. F. Koester, J. S. Alagill, John 
AlcCoy, P. H. Peters, John Bollinger, Perry Hutchinson, R. S. Newell and 
James E. Smith. In August, the same year, the company purchased section 
16, township 4, range 9, and laid out a townsite, which they named Frank- 
fort. In consideration of receiving a depot and a side track, the town com- 
pany ga^•e the Central Branch Railroad Company one-half the townsite. 
The railroad reached Frankfort in 1867 and that fall a depot was built. The 
first houses in Frankfort \\ere built by Frank Schmidt, J. S. Magill and R. 
S. Xewell. O. C. Horr built and operated the first store in 1867. In 1868 
seven dwellings were built and two business houses were erected, which were 
owned by Jacob A\'eisbach and O. C. Horr. In 1869 fifty-four substantial 
buildings were erected and one of the best hotels in the country was built 
and opened to the public. The town made rapid progress and from that day 
to this has been a splendid business center. The residence portion of the city 
was for man}' years far in advance of any town in the county and the sub- 
stantial farmers of the Valley of the Vermillion ga\-e the town strong 
patronage. 

ORGANIZATION. 

Frankfort was organized as a city of the third class on July 24, 1875. 
The first city election was held on August 10, 1875. R. S. New'ell was 
elected mayor. The first city officials were : R. S. Newell, mayor ; E. Brady, 
I. C. Legere. J. Marksman, W. Schmicker and F. B. Taylor, Sr., councilmen; 
J. Gano, police judge: S. B. Todd, city clerk: S. D. AIcKee, treasurer: G. D. 
Osborne, marshal. 

A postoftice had been established two miles southeast of the present 
townsite of Frankfort, and was called Nottingham. D. C. Auld was the 
first postmaster : he was succeeded by O. C. Horr. The postofifice was moved 
to town and the name changed to Frankfort. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 67 

SCHOOLS. 

School district Xo. 35 was organized in ]\Iarch, 1869, at the home of 
O. C. Horr. At the first election held, W. Trosper was elected director; 
J. Weisbach, treasurer, and R. S. Newell, clerk. 

In the spring of 1870 bonds to the amount of one thousand six hundred 
dollars were issued and a frame school building, twenty-four by forty feet, 
was erected. This building was used until 1880, when it was sold and used 
for a private residence. During this same year a new edifice built of lime- 
stone was completed at a cost of four thousand dollars. In 1884 an addi- 
tion was made to the main building and it was used for primary purposes. 
Since then many impro\-ements have been made and Frankfort now has a 
well-equipped school, with a full high school course and a splendid corps 
of teachers. R. S. Hazard is the present superintendent, with seven high 
school teachers and six grade teachers. 

The high school includes college preparatory, general and commercial 
course, domestic science and art, and a course in agriculture. 

The present board of education is: Dr. M. A. Brawley, director; J. M. 
Rhodes, treasurer; George B. Heleker, clerk. G. B. Heleker, the clerk of 
the board, is a practical educator, having served as superintendent of the 
Marysville and Hanover schools for several years. He is at present engaged 
in the mercantile business in Frankfort and always takes a deep interest in 
the schools. 

BUILDINGS. 

One of the finest buildings in Frankfort is the garage recently built by 
James Kennedy, present county commissioner. Mr. Kennedy is a son of 
William Kennedy, one of the early settlers on Irish creek. The garage was 
opened in December, 191 5, and is one of the best in the state. It is open 
day and night; trained mechanics are employed and an extensive business is 
done. In connection with the garage, which is modern in every particular, 
is a well-furnished rest room, with Catherine Ryan in charge. Aliss Ryan 
is a daughter of J. FI. Ryan, one of the early settlers. 

An art studio is conducted by C. E. Koentz, who is a son of Dr. J. P. 
Koentz, a pioneer Kansan. 

Tlie Crevier elevator is owned by AA'illiam Crevier and managed by 
George Gano. An extensive business is done. 

C. J. Haskett owns and operates the elevator built in 1901 by William 
Perkins. It ships four hundred thousand bushels of grain annually. 



l68 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT PLANT. 

Frank Dwindell owns and manages the light plant which is one of the 
best industries of the town. 

J. C. iMason, who is a brother of the poet. Walt Mason, of Emporia, is 
a resident of Frankfort and a big property owner. Mr. Mason travels for 
Hawk Brothers, of Goshen. Indiana, but maintains business interests in 
Frankfort and has been a resident of that city since 1882. 

William Raemer, a former resident of Herkimer and a member of the 
state Legislature some years ago, is now a resident of Frankfort. He is 
engaged in conducting a modern garage and automobile business. 

D. C. Brodbeck is one of the influential citizens of Frankfort and has 
been a member of the city council for years and is always interested in public 
affairs. 

Dr. V/illiam M. Green is one of the practising physicians of the city and, 
with Dr. J. L. Brady, has a large practice. Doctor Brady has served as 
vice-president of the Marshall County Medical Society and served as coroner 
in 1916. 

C. W. Brandenburg is one of the leading Democrats of both county and 
state. Fie is a dentist by profession. His wife is the present postmistress 
of Frankfort. 

COMMERCIAL CLUB. 

Frankfort has a live commercial club of one hundred members. The 
meetings are held in a large room in the Mason block. This room is also 
used by the Frankfort band for a practice room. Another room of the same 
block is used for the ladies library. 

HOTELS. 

The Savoy Hotel, which was built by Doctor Bailey in 1869-70, is now 
managed by Mrs. A. J. Lewis and continues to be a favorite stopping place 
for the older residents of the county and surrounding territory. 

The Blodgett House is owned by Charles W. Blodgett, and is the family 
hotel of Frankfort. The host is a genial and kindly pioneer. 

BUSINESS FIRMS OF FRANKFORT, I917. 

Robert G. Nichols, jeweler and optometrist. 
David W. Shearer, furniture and undertaker. 




;T^r*i^:»;..:i . ^-^ 


-■'"^'''^'t.n. 




mm^^m 



CITY PARK, FRANKFORT. 




BUSINESS SECTION, FRANKFORT. 



I PUBLIC I 



Tii 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 169 

Dalton, Dalton & Adams, bakery and groceries. 

Radcliffe, harness maker. 

L. V. B. Taylor, drugs. 

Scholz, general store. 

C. H. Curtis, hardware. 

\\\ J. Gregg, attorney-at-law. 

H. \\\ Freed, men's furnishings. 

P. E. Boniface, bakery. 

Howard Reed, county agent for Studebaker autos. 

F. W. Sylvester, lunch room. 
Etta \V. Chamberlin, millinery. 

J. R. Wasser, manager, Farmers Union Produce Company. 

W. F. AIcKeon, Kansas cash store. 

W. H. Hardman, tailor. 

L. E. Luckens, jeweler and optometrist. 

T. B. Bolton, variety store. 

W. C. Brown, clothing store. 

R. vS. McGhie & Company, hardware. 

Gregory & Stevens, dry goods. 

Brawley & Son, physicians. 

J. J. Drummond, physician. 

\V. H. Barrett, meat market. 

Anderson & Smith, laundries. 

Candy kitchen, W. H. Scott. 

Pantatorium, R. H. Stever. 

G. W. Fundis, implements. 
F. V. Rankin, drugs. 

P. Al. Rathbun, Central Lumber Company. 

George H. Coons, Searle & Chapin Lumber Company. 

The building of the Topeka-'AIarysville branch of the Union Pacitic rail- 
road gave Franfort a new railroad. It also opened easy communication with 
the county seat and with the north generally. The new depot is a neat, 
modern structure. 

The number of cars shipped from the Union Pacific station for the year 
ending ist of January, 191 7. is as follows: 

Hogs, 86 cars; cattle, 62 cars; horses and mules, 8 cars; sheep, 12 cars; 
wheat, 12 cars; corn, 21 cars; emigrants, 10 cars; hay, 12 cars. 



170 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



THE STUDY CLUB. 



The Ladies Literary Study Club of Frankfort was organized twenty- 
five years ago, its first president being Mrs. McGillivary, wife of the Pres- 
byterian minister, who was the resident pastor of that church. The mem- 
bers donated five dollars each for the purchase of books for the library and 
secured many books from friends. The liljrary has grown and is well patron- 
ized. The city council donates the use of a room and shelves for the books. 

The membership of the club is thirty and the present officers are: 
President, Mrs. A. P. Hampton; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. L. V. McKee. 
The meetings are held every two weeks. 

Other clubs in the vicinity of Frankfort are: West Fork Mutual 
Improvement Club, Country Club, Sunshine Club, Jayhawkers Club, Mothers 
Club. 



TOWN OF HERKIMER. 

Herkimer is a town of one hundred and thirty inhabitants, located on 
the St. Joseph & Grand Island railroad on Raemer creek, five miles north- 
west of Marysville. The first white men to select claims for homes near 
where Herkimer is located, were the Friederichs brothers and H. Lenker, 
who settled on Horshoe creek in 1858; Henry Heppermann and George 
Goelitz came in 1859 and settled on what became Raemer creek. They were 
followed in i860 by Fred Philip and William Raemer; I. and N. Holloway, 
James Bartlow, Thomas Koeneke and others. When the war broke out in 
1 86 1, George Goelitz went back to St. Louis, Missouri, to "fight mit Siegel," 
returning to Marysville after the war. 

In 1878, Adam Keller, who owned land adjoining the railroad, laid out 
a town and named it "Bryan" in honor of Billy Bryan, a very popular pas- 
senger conductor on the railroad. The postofiice department refused a 
postoffice by that name and so Mr. Keller named the office and the new 
town "Herkimer," after his old home town in the state of New York. As 
early as 1874, a Mr. Funk was sworn in postmaster of "Raemer Creek" at 
the home of Fred Raemer, at which time a few letters were mailed and the 
stamps canceled by writing the name of the office and the date across them, 
just for the novelty of the thing, and tliat was all that this office ever did. 
Funk was a shoemaker and he was promised the postoffice provided he 
would build and operate a shoeshop and start a town; but when he learned 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I7I 

what the duties of a postmaster involved, he disappeared, leaving the locality 
minus a shoeshop, a postoffice and postmaster. 

The first postmaster at Herkimer was Adam Keller, succeeded by V. W. 
Emmert, Dr. R. L. Tayes, Christ. Huber, R. L. Tayes, Henry Dursee and 
Albert Stengelmeier, the present incumbent. 

In 1879 the neighboring farmers contributed a lot of work for a side- 
track, doing the scraping and leveling, and in 1880 a depot was built, with 
Charley Tobias as agent. 

SOME FIRST EVENTS. 

The first residence on the townsite was built by Adam Keller; the first 
business house — a general store — by Wesley Ulsh in 1880; H. Amelunxen 
built a double one-story frame store on the east side, soon after. John 
Huber built a hardware store and tinshop, and Aug. Fisher a blacksmith 
shop on the west side. In 1881 V. W. Emmert started a lumber yard, and 
erected a warehouse for handling grain. Dr. R. L. Tayes built a drug store 
and office in 1883; Herman Engel was the first harness maker in town, he 
came in 1884. About that time Charles and Anton Huber erected a two- 
story double frame store, the second story being used for theatre and public 
gatherings. A steam-grain elevator was moved from Hanover to Herkimer 
in 1889 by W. H. Koeneke, Hon. William Raemer joining him in the grain 
business in 1892. The German Evangelical church was built in 1890 at a 
cost of two thousand five hundred dollars. The German Lutheran church 
was built in 1892, costing (including parsonage and parochial school house) 
about five thousand dollars. 

On April 26, 1902, a fire destroyed every business building in town 
except the elevator and Doctor Tayes' drug store, causing a loss exceeding 
forty thousand dollars, and to this day the town has not fully recovered. 

Business firms represented in Herkimer on January i, 191 7, are Herki- 
mer State Bank, G. J. Hoerath, president ; H. W. Koeneke, cashier ; general 
mercliandise, George J. Hoerath ; hardware and postoffice, Albert Stengel- 
meier; garage and automobile, J. H. Krug; barber shop, Fred Woellner; 
shoe shop, George Burger; implements, Nick Miller; blacksmith, Christ 
Peterson : meat market, Henry Schierkolk ; restaurant, Mrs. John Prell ; 
drug store, R. L. Tayes ; lumber yard, Ernest Koeneke ; electric light plant 
and pool hall, John Krug; grain elevator. Farmers Union. 

Herkimer has alwavs maintained an excellent school. From a one- 



lyZ ArARSTTAT.I^ COUNTY, KANSAS. 

teacher school with intermediate grades, it has grown to a two-teacher school, 
carrying pupils through the preparatory high school work. The comfortable 
building is thoroughly e(|uii)pe(l and trained teachers emjjloyed. 



VILLAGE OF HULL. 

Hiis little village, located on the Union Pacific raitway, six miles north 
of Marysville, is named for a great manufacturing city in England. 

It was laid out on section 3, township 2, range 7, by John Nesbitt, on 
the above-described land, which originally was the Paddy Donovan home- 
stead. Donovan came here in i860 and was a well-known character in the 
north half of the county. Pie sold his land to John Nesbitt, who induced 
the railway company to put in a switch in 1884. Nesbitt sold the land to 
Perry Plutchinson, who later sold it to H. P. Benson. S. C. McCarter built 
the first residence in Hull and John King erected the first store. R. G. Will- 
iams built the second store in 1886 and H. P. Benson having been appointed 
postmaster and R. G. Williams, deputy, the postoffice was kept in William's 
store. Benson served as postmaster until 1895, when H. C. Small was 
appointed. The railway station was built in 1898. William Schwindamann 
is the present station agent. 

In 1867 a log school house was built on the original Paddy Donovan 
farm. Ruth Bigham was the first teacher. There were ten pupils in attend- 
ance. Once a week William Burroughs walked from Marysville and taught 
singing by the old do, re, mi method. Literary societies were held and once 
in awhile, a spelling bee. 

There were five resident families. There was no bridge and a ferry 
was used for crossing the Blue river. 

The first elevator was built in 1891 by David Daikers and operated by 
him until 1894, when he sold out to the Nebraska Elevator Company, which 
built a much larger elevator, which they own now. The foreman is John 
Wassenberg. 

C. H. Travelute and wife were among the first settlers of Marshall 
county. They lived in Hull from 1889 until their death in 1899. 

Among other early settlers were Charles Emery, who lived in a log 
cabin for many years. He was badly injured by the falling of a platform 
in Frank Schmidt's grove, while attending a centennial celebration on July 
4, 1876, and later died from injuries received then. Peter Blodgett, Frank 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 73 

Bntterfiekl, \\'ilHam Helms. Finla_y McDojiald, were other early settlers, 
who homesteaded near the present site of Hull. 

In 1 89 1 Hull having become a logical shipping point for the surround- 
ing country, the commissioners were petitioned to build a bridge over the 
Blue ri\-er, which they refused to do. The farmers were obliged to ferry 
their grain across the river from tlie farms on the west. So three energetic 
men united their efforts, donated lijjerally, and secured donations from others, 
for a bridge fund. These three men were Andrew J. Travelute, H. P. Ben- 
son and Grant Williams. A. J. Travelute collected the money ; H. P. Ben- 
son donated all the stone ; Grant ^^'illiams gave tools, nails, spikes and like 
necessary material. One stone mason was hired, all other labor being 
donated bv farmers. The east approach to the bridge was finished during 
the fall of 1 89 1. Through the efforts of Hamilton Auld, a county commis- 
sioner, tl:e west approach was built and bridge completed the following year. 
Frederick Heitcamp operated a general store at that time. 

The town is well situated, has always been a good marketing point for 
grain and .'■tock. John Wassenberg owns the only general store at present 
in Hull. 



TOWN OF IRVING. 

In August, 1859, ten citizens of Lyon city, Iowa, agreed to organize 
a town on government land in the West. Of this number, three were law- 
yers, two merchants, two doctors, one teacher, one preacher, one hotel keeper. 

The plan of the new town was carefully drawn and after several ballot- 
ings the name Irving, in honor of Washington Irving, was agreed upon. 
W. W. Jerome was elected agent to go west and locate, on land, the city 
of Irving, which city, located on paper, he carefully carried with him. 
Gen. S. C. Pomeroy, afterwards United States senator from Kansas, who 
was then a land agent, personally conducted Mr. Jerome, in his own con- 
veyance, drawn 1)y a team of mules, over the valleys of Blue and Kansas 
rivers. Jerome finally decided to recommend the present site of Irving, and 
in December, 185Q. ten of the founders left Lyons and proceeded by rail to 
St. Joseph, Missouri, and thence b}' team to Irving. 

The first house was built of hewn logs, nineteen by twenty-four feet, 
and was used as a hotel. A frame building was next completed, the luml^er 
having been hauled from Atchison. 

In February, i860, by act of the Territorial Legislature, W. W. Jerome, 



174 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

C. E. Gaylord. j. II. Mint, ]. T. Wilson, 1.. A. l-Jlis, M. 1). Aljbott. W. S. 
Robinson. C. Raymond, jocl Parker. C. Al. Ciftnnl, T. H. Baker, B. W. 
Powers and S. H. Warren were created a corporate body for the villag"e 
of Irving. 

The snminer of 1860 was very dry and liot, and many settlers became 
discouraged. In Inly of that year a severe storm did great damage to the 
town, blowing down houses, unroofing others, and some of the colonists 
returned to Iowa. Others moved to different locations, but the majority 
remained and pushed bravely forward in the work of building homes. 

It was through the inhuence of Doctor Parker that the Wetmore Insti- 
tute was built in 1861. It w^as a normal training school for young ladies. 
It was named in honor of A. R. Wetmore, of New York, who lent financial 
assistance to the building. Dr. Charles Parker had charge of the school. 
Rev. J. L. Cha])man, Professor Creegan and the Misses Blakely were some 
of the instructors, all highly educated and accomplished teachers. The 
school was as well patronized as could be in a district so scant in population. 
The principal drawback to its success seems to have been the absence of 
young girls to receive instruction. The cyclone of 1879 destroyed a por- 
tion of the building, and in 1880 it was entirely destroyed by fire. It has 
ne^'er been rebuilt. l:)ut to the people of Irving belongs the credit of having 
the first permanent church and the first institution for higher education in 
Marshall county. 

INCORPORATED AS A CITY. 

Irving was incorporated as a city of the third class in 1871, George' 
C. Crov, ther being elected as the first mayor. The first city election is all 
that was ever carried out by Irving as a city. The officers elected did not 
c|ualify, the charter was surrendered and Irving remained a village. 

In the fall of 1867 the railroad, under the name of the Central Branch 
of the Cnion Pacific was completed to Irving. The railroad company refused 
to build a depot in Irving, unless a deed to half the town was made to if. 
This was refused and the company located the depot one and one-half miles 
southeast of the city. Senator Pomeroy exerted his influence and had the 
deoot moved to Irving. It soon burned and a new one was built. Lightning 
struck it and it also burned. Irving now has its third depot. 

In 1886 the Lincoln and Manhattan branch of the L^nion Pacific rail- 
road was completed, giving Irving a north and south railroad. 

The postofiice at Irving was established in i860, with W. D. Abbott', 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 75 

postmaster. His successors were as follow : S. H, Warren, H. E. Smith, 
S. H. Warren, John Thompson, Thomas Gaylord, E. W. Stephens, Florence 
McMillan, Herbert Haylor, Hugh Thomson and F. R. Koutz. Irving 
became a money order office in 1872. and the first order was sent by Levi 
Chase, August 5, that year. 

The census enumerator for 191 6 reported the population as three hun- 
dred and fifty-nine. . 

W. W. Jerome, who selected the site of Irving, afterwards attended 
the organization, at LeRoy, New York, of the Genesee town colony and 
became one of its members and a director, never dreaming that this colony 
would locate within five miles of Irving and become the present Blue Rapids 
citv. The close proximity of Blue Rapids, and its first years of prosperity, 
drew settlers from Irving and was in a measure responsible for the slow 
growth of the latter town. Jerome was later elected county attorney of 
Marshall county. 

GREENWOOD . CEMETERY. 

On June 28, 1876, at a formal meeting of citizens, J. S. Warden reported 
that Enoch S. Hunt had offered the present cemetery grounds for three hun- 
dred dollars. The offer was accepted. On July 8, a charter was granted 
by the state and the following officers were elected : President, Charles 
Preston; vice-president, Thaddeus Day; secretary, C. E. Gaylord ; treasurer, 
James S. Warden ; superintendent, J. S. W'illiams. The foregoing officers 
with Levi Chase and Collins Smith constituted a board of directors. The 
cemeterv is under careful supervision and is beautified and kept sacred as the 
last earthly resting place of those who are called away. 

CYCLONE. 

On May 30, 1879, Irving was visited by one of the worst cyclones ever 
recorded. The storm aproached the town from the west and when it had 
passed beyond the limits of Irving, that pleasant and thriving village was 
left a mass of ruin, death and desolation. The tow^n was in time partially 
rebuilt, but never fully recovered from the diaster. 

TELEPHONE SERVICE. 

The Irving Telephone Company w^as organized on February 28, 1904. 
The officers of the company were J. F. Hoyt, president; Joseph Miksovsky, 



176 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

secretary; R. Kapitan, treasurer. This company absorbed the Czech Com- 
pany, whose hnes operated west of Irving and the Hawkinson Brothers 
Telephone Company, with Hnes east of Blue river, and a switch in Irving, 
managed by Mrs. Nettie Huffmier. 

At the present time the Irving Telephone Company owns the system 
at Irving and Cleburn and connects with Blue Rapids, Frankfort, Bigelow and 
Fostoria. The present officers of tlie company are J. F. Hoyt, ^^resident ; J. 
Pishney, Jr., vice-president; M. T. Sheaffer, secretary, and M. Filley, treas- 
urer. The capital stock is twenty thousand dollars, and is all owned by 
the members of the company, who are farmers. 

BUSINESS LIST^ ^9^7- 

The following is the list of business houses of Irving in January, 1917: 

General merchandise — Peterson & Son, Frank Thompson, R. A. Hol- 
lenberg. 

Furniture store and grocery — Hugh Thomson. 

Farmers elevator — J. C. Shepard, manager. 

Undertaker and harness shop — E. F. Blazier. 

Livery stable — Piper & Webb. 

Foundry — Frank Oswalt. 

Meat market— O. S. Boyd. 

Restaurant — Mrs. D. Walker. 

General produce, cream and poultry business — Mrs. C. J. Murphy, Fred 
Prebble. 

Printing office — B. W. Forbes, proprietor. 

Physicians — Robert Leith, John C. Phillebourn. 

Decorator — Maynard Sabin. 

Hotels— Mrs. M. E. Lees, Mrs. Belle Blaney. 

Barber shop — Arthur Alleman & G. Duffy. 

Hardware — W. T. Blaney. 

Garage — E. W. Dexter. 

Insurance — Irving State Bank, W. W. Dedrick. 

Shoe shop — E. O. Paxton, L. S. Ward. 

Lumber — Irving Lumber Company, Brice Durham, manager. 

Carpenter shop — George Edwards. 

Carpenters — G. Edwards, S. B. Strader, J. N. Smith. 

Photograph gallery — Ellen Stiles. 

Electric theater — Fred J. Piper, manager. 




CITY HALL, IRVING. GIFT OF MRS. C. X. PALMER. 




KMGHTS OF PYTHIAS HALL AT IRVING. 



TH^ 



i. J~ 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 77 

VILLAGE OF LILLIS. 

The pretty little village of Lillis on tlie Topeka-Marysville "cut off", 
was chartered on October 29, 1906. 

The to\\ n was named in honor of Rt. Rev. Bishop T. F. Lillis, of Kan- 
sas City. 

Tlie townsite was platted on the land of Ed. \\'alsh, on the former site 
of Wyoming. The first house was erected by Patrick Brannan and the first 
store building by the Lillis Townsite Company and managed by E. C. 
McKeon. 

Lillis has a fine two-teacher school, fully equipped and furnished. Rosa 
Haynes, who teaches the priiuary room, has thirty-three pupils. Leo. J. 
Alackey has the grades, with an enrollment of twenty-four pupils. A lively 
interest is taken in the school 1a' the patrons and residents of the town. 

The large elevator is owned and operated by Barrett & Walker. 

The two leading stores are owned, respectively, by C. W. Granger and 
T. J. Smith. 

Searle & Chapin, of Lincoln. Nebraska, own the lumber yard, which is 
managed by W. T. Plartman. 

The bank is located in a fine brick building erected in 1910. 

H. Thomas is the village blacksmith. 

Vida Alexander is the very efi'icient and obliging postmistress. 



MARIETTA. 



This thriving little village, which was named for ]\Irs. ^Marietta Alann. 
is located on the Lincoln & ^Manhattan branch of the Union Pacific railway, 
nine miles north of Marysville. 

Li 1888 the Union Pacific railway being unable to buy land for side 
tracks at Oketo. located the tracks one and one-half miles south of Oketo. 
Angus McLeod, T. J. ]Mann and Jacob Lawson platted forty acres of land 
for town lots. Side tracks were laid and a depot built. McLeod Brothers 
put up an elevator and for several years did a big business buying and ship- 
ping grain. Stockyards were built and James Buchanan carried on an exten- 
sive business in shipping cattle. 

In 1 88 1 a postoffice was established, with C. T. Mann as postmaster. 
(12) 



178 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Tlie postoffice was condiiclc(i in the depot and later was moved to the store 
of Charles I'ritcliard. The first general store was started in 1892 by Charles 
Pritchard, ^\■ho was succeeded by W. G. Hunter, who was followed by U. 
S. Ricard. Ricard being succeeded l)y the Bull Brothers. 

In i88q the Peavy Elevator Company built a grain elevator, which was 
purchased by the b'armers Elevator Company in 19 10, the same company 
having bought the AIcLeod Brothers elevator in 1899. ^^^^^^ bridge across 
the Blue river was built in 1892. 

In 1909 the Marietta .State Bank was organized with B. R. Bull as 
president and W. S. Kirby as cashier. The United Evangelical church was 
built in 1 90 1, with Rev. Charles Taylor as pastor. There is no school in 
the town. 

Cottrell Brothers put in a lumber yard in 1914. 

The business firms at present are: General store, S. W. Bull; hard- 
w-are, V. A. Bull ; lumber yard, Cottrell Brothers ; meat market, barber shop, 
elevator company. 



TOWN OF MINA. 

The little town of Mina is a trading point between Axtell and Summer- 
field, on the Kansas City & Northw^estern railroad. It was laid out for a 
town in 1889 ^^Y ^^' • G. Wooley and Newman Erb. It was named for 
"Mina," wife of J. R. Sittler, who bought grain and had a w^arehouse at 
"Sittler's siding" in the fall of 1888, and who built the grain elevator in 
1889, and which still stands. This elevator is now owned by the W. R. 
Connell estate. 

A railroad depot was built in 1889 with L. D. Rouse, who had charge 
of the grain elevator, as agent. In 1890 A. C. Axtell erected a store build- 
ing and Mr. Rouse quit the railroad and started in the general merchandise 
business in the new building. Miss Maggie Ibert was next made telegraph 
operator for one year, .\fter the expiration of the year the railroad com- 
pany had no agent at Alina until December 19, 1916, when James E. Stirrat 
was appointed. 

L. D. Rouse erected the first residence in Mina just north of the store. 
This house is now ovvued by D. G. Davis, of Axtell. Kansas. 

The first inhabitants of Mina were three in number, L. D. Rouse, his 
wife and son. In January, 1917. the inhabitants of Mina numbered thirteen. 

A blacksmith shop was built by farmers in 1894 with Albert Craig in 
charoe as blacksmith. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 79 

CHURCH ERECTED. 

Through llie efforts of Aliss Emma Detweiler a church fund was" started 
in 1894, wliich resulted in the erection of a l3uilding. which was dedicated 
and paid for on June i(), 1895, with a membership of sixty-eight. The last 
seven hundred dollars was raised (ju dedication day. This is the only church 
in Alina, and is of the Christian denomination. Evangelist O. E. Cook was 
its first pastor and he was followed by Reverend Beach. In January, 191 7, 
this churcli had a thriving Sunday school with forty pupils; Peter Godbout 
is superintendent. 

The school house was built in 1898; May Stevenson (now Mrs. J. Man- 
ford Hall), of Hoxie, Kansas, taught the first two terms. The present 
teacher is Miss Velma Winney. 

The postoffice. of the fourth class, was estalli-htd in 1889; L. D. Rouse 

was first postmaster, followed l)y Miss Maggie Ibert, Wilmot, 

Peter Olston, Gustave Siegenhagen, D. G. Davis, A. R. Walker, \A'illiam 
H. McAtee. and the present ])ostmistress. Miss Mable McKibben. =* 

Mina excels many a much larger town in its sliipping of grain and stock. 
Tt has only one store of g-eneral merchandise, and it is operated by the Farm- 
ers union, with B. C. Graham as overseer; Tames Stirrat, manaper, and Miss 
Ruth Graham, clerk. 



THE OLD TOWN OF OKETO. 

Oketo is one of the oldest points to claim settlement in the county. Dur- 
ing the ATormon exodus and early rush for Western gold-fields, many travel- 
ers took a short cut from a point which afterwards became Robidoux Station, 
and which was a mile north of wdiat became Guittard Station, to this crossing. 

There were hunters, trappers and Indians along the Blue river in those 
days and this crossing was favorably located for winter quarters, having the 
advantage of being on a trail where the hunters could sell game and hides. 

In 1857 ]■ ^^- White settled on what became section 13, Oketo town- 
ship. By this time other "squatters" had come in and William Bond, Val 
Poor and others had taken land and some attempts at permanent settlement 
made. This Oketo was located about a mile south of the present Oketo and 
was named after an Otoe Indian chief, Arkaketah. 

In the early sixties J. H. Whitehead came to the ford, built a store, 
barn and residence, if the very humble place may be given so dignified a term. 



l8o MARSHA LI, COUNTY, KANSAS. 

These l)iiil(lin^s were on tlie east side of ilic Blue. The nearest postoffice 
<tn the east was (hiittard Station mid on the soutli, ATarysville. \n 1862 Ben 
Hohaday decided to construct the Oketo "cut-off" on the Overland stage line 
and employed George Guittard to do the work. The road heing opened, 
W'hiteliead was put in charge of the station and also managed the ferry which 
I lolladay had I)nilt. With WHiitehead was associated Henry Bivins. 

Two saloons were in operation, one on the east side and one on the west 
side of tlie Blue. Keen husiness sense was evidenced in this arrangement as 
the same parties owned hoth. C)u the east side twenty cents was charged for 
'a drink of whiskey and on the west twenty-five cents was the toll. Going 
east, ])assengers could soon ohtain refreshment, hut westward the stations 
were farther apart and there was a consequent lapse of time hetween drinks. 

The little settlement with its hig harn, hlacksmith sho]) and store, was 
attractixe and scores of Indians congregated there to harter, quench their 
thirst with "tarantula juice." and watch for the Overland stage. 

IIISTOI'.IANS' CONTENTION I-iEiaTTED. 

Although some historians claim that the Oketo cut-off, which became 
(|uite noted, was discontinued hy Holladay after four months. Mrs. Lee 
I lolladay. who was Mrs. Whitehead until his death, declares positively that 
Ilolladav did not discontinue the use of this cut-off until the Overland staefe 
uas iinally fli.scontinued l)y reason of the Iniilding of the Union Pacific rail- 
road in t866. Thi< statement is borne out by Mr. h^rank Thomann, of Sum- 
merfield, and by other (<ld settlers along the stage route. 

In the fall of 1864 Whitehead sold out to y\sa Simpson and in the sum- 
mer of 1865 die barn was burned. The store and dwelling had also been 
set on hre, but were saved by the stage boys. 

There being no barn on the east side Holladay moved the station to the 
west side of the river to the f.'irm of William Bond, which is now owned by 
Teter Champagne. 

With the passing of the stage, the big barn, the store and the ferry, the 
original Oketo declined as a business point and is now so much of the pa.st, 
that all which rec;dl.^ it to memory is the reminiscent tale of an old settler. 

Mrs. Whitehead, who later became the wife of T. L. Holladay, recalls 
the foregoing and the hi.storian is indebted to her for the facts. 

The only other resident of old Oketo is J. H. White, who came to Mar- 
shall county in 1859, located on v.hat became section 13, Oketo township, 
built a little shanty on the very spot where he now has a comfortable frame 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. l8l 

dwelling. White is a Canadian by birth and rnmor says he was well able to 
defend his rights among the somewhat turbulent population of those days. 
Once, while in I.on Cottrell's drug store in Marysville, William Bond 
attacked him and White whipped out his gun and shot him. The woimd did 
not prove fatal but in a later fray with another man, the bullet is said to 
have hit the mark. 

White was for many years the mail carrier between Oketo and Marys- 
ville, and while enough undersized to prevent his enlistment in the army, White 
made his daily trips along the Blue unmolested. 

White has parted with his original homestead of one hundred and sixty 
acres with the exception of forty acres on which he resides. He will reach 
his eighty-first birthday on July 7, 1917. He is totally blind and is cared 
for by a devoted granddaughter. 

* 

OKETO OF TODAY. 

The present Oketo is located ten miles north of Marysville on the Blue 
Valley branch of the Union Pacific railroad and is in sharp contrast with the 
old settlement on the river bank. 

This fine little city is located on the hill and has well-kept streets, clean, 
up-to-date business houses, a substantial bank, three grain elevators, flour- 
mill, lumber yard, implement stores, harness shop, blacksmith shop, barber 
shop, drug store, hotel and a wideawake newspaper. Better than these, 
Oketo owns a fine electric light plant, with arc lights on all business corners 
and has a well-graded school and competent teachers, a well-attended Meth- 
odist church, a high-class citizenship and a full city government of women. 

The clean little town wMth substantial, even pretentious homes and well- 
kept lawns, situated on a hill commanding a wide view of the surrounding- 
country, challenges the admiration of the visitor. 

In t866 Tr\ing Chapman built a dam across the Blue and put up a flour- 
mill. The discontinuance of the old Oketo postoffice left the entire stretch 
of country between Liberty, Nebraska, and Marysville without mail and with- 
out any general store. 

Z. H. Moore was then a resident of Barneston, and as soon as possible 
after the building of the Chapman mill he came to Oketo and established a 
store. He later built a house and brought his family there permanently. At 
that time Chapman kept the postoffice in the mill. 



lg2 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

.SETTI>EME?-rT INCREASED. 

Tlie in-in of Moore & Esterbrook opened the fine stone f[uarries and this 
in(histrv soon (Hverted settlement to that point. This industry was a vaki- 
able one to the ^erowing town. The qnahty of the stone was unsurpassed 
and found a ready market in Lincohi, Beatrice. Grand Island and other towns 
of Kansas and Nebraska. A large number of men were employed in the 
quarries. 

Like manv other deposits of building stone in the county, while it w^as 
of fine quality, there was not a large quantity and the quarries are not now in 
operation. 

A number of the best business houses of Oketo and also some dwellings 
are built of the native stone. The bank building, postoflice and city hall are 
built of this stone and retain the original fineness of quality and add much 
to the attractiveness of the town. 

The Moores were the first business men who located in Oketo. They 
were engaged in the mercantile business, opened up the stone quarries, were 
active in the aft'airs of the town and soon became prominent in the county. 
1^. B. Moore served as county commissioner and represented the county in 
the Legislature. He ser\-ed his country in a Pennsylvania regiment during 
the Civil War. 

Tt may be truly said that Z. H. Moore numbered the majority of the 
citizens of the county among his friends throughout a long and useful life, 
and his death was deeply deplored. A man of upright character, gentle man- 
ners and of deep religious conviction, he attracted the better class of people 
and he and his wife held an enviable place in the estimation of the county. 
Mrs. Moore is the type of woman who inspires the esteem of all who know 
her. She has been lovingly called the "Mother of Oketo," because of her 
great kindness and gracious hospitality. The citizens of the town testified 
to their appreciation of her worth by electing her mayor of the city in April, 
1917. The Aioores are Quakers in religious faith. Two sons, Edgar and 
Howard, are voung, promising business men of Oketo. R. B. Moore is at 
present a resident of Topeka. 

EARLY BUSINESS MEN. 

Amone the older business men of Oketo will be recalled : Wilson and 
Ivuhlman, who operated one of the quarries : Joseph Guittard, who built the 
laree .stone house to the left of the road as Oketo is entered from the south. 




STORE AND RESIDENCE OF Z. H. MOORE, ERECTED 1876, FIRST BUILDINGS ON 

PRESENT SITE OF OKETO. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 83 

Guittard was associated with the Chapmans in the mill. Irving Chapman 
was one of the original men of the town and operated the mill, which after- 
wards became the property of his brother, Chauncy Chapman, who moved 
to Oketo from Hanover. Chauncy Chapman was a familiar figure in public 
affairs in the county until his death. 

The mill is now the property of the Oketo Milling Company, which 
also owns one of the elevators. E. H. Moore is the manager of both these 
concerns, of which the Moores are the owners. 

Of the two other elevators, W. W. White is manager of the Farmers 
Union Elevator and V. L. Root, of the Nebraska Elevator. 

Among other day business men of Oketo will be recalled : Allen and 
Farrant, groceries ; Norman and V\ ill Brooks, meat market : Hedge and 
Eychaner, lumber ; E. H. P>ach, harness and saddlery ; Bartlett and Hedge, 
general merchandise; E. D. Woodman & Son, general merchandise; John W. 
Kelley. furniture ; Brown Brothers, druggists ; Gearhart Steinbach, shoe- 
maker ; E. E. Brooks, barber ; Stowell and Benson, livery ; Dunnick & Dun- 
nick, farm implements ; J. W. Chambers, physician ; Henry Thomas, black- 
smith ; Anderson & Company, millers. This firm was Peter Anderson and 
Chauncy Chapman. 

Of these former business men, Frank Allen now lives in Topeka ; Hedge 
is still in Oketo; E. E. W^oodman is a prominent farmer in the south half, 
while the father is dead. Francis Benson is now superintendent of the county 
infirmary; Henry Thomas lives in Lillis and the Browns are in California; 
good old Doctor Chambers is no more, and with him rests John Kelley. 

PROMINKNT FAMILIES. 

Prominent and well-known families of Oketo are the DeLairs. The 
DeLair families are residents of the town who have done much to build up 
and foster the welfare of its citizens. 

J. P. DeLair owns the large general merchandise store opposite the 
bank and employs two clerks to assist in the business. The stock invoices 
between six and ten thousand dollars annually. 

William DeEair was for many years the well-known and popular miller 
at the Excelsior mills. 

The Farmers Co-operative Mercantile Association carries on a general 
store, which is run on a cash basis. O. E. Hardesty is the manager, assisted 
by Ted White, George Blackman, Ellen Schafer and Cynthia Brubaker. 

Miss Olive Waters is the very efficient postmistress. George Williams 



1 84 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS, 

runs the blacksmith shop. Morgan Hedge & Son are engaged in the himber 
and coal trade. Clement DeLair, a son of Susan DeLair, conducts a furniture 
store. Ray Eley handles hardware and implements and sells automobiles. 
Cecil Shandony runs a restaurant. Carl Naaf has a garage, and Fred 
Schafer, a butcher shop. A\'ill Farrant is engaged in the harness business, 
and Clarence Long has a neat barber shop. Edgar Hardenbrook is the 
druggist. He was formerly the police judge and was succeeded by his wife 
in the April election. R. F. Montgomeiy is editor and proprietor of the 
Okcto Eagle. Rev. Frank Jackson is the resident pastor of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. The present population of Oketo is two hundred and 
sixty-nine. The present resident physician is O. P. Wood, M. D. 

Among those who, living in and around the city, have contributed largely 
to its prosperity are : Peter Champagn, William E. Smith, Thomas and John 
Howes, Araminta Dolan, J. G. Schmidler, Vancel Malecky, Joseph Zara- 
borickey, T. J. and J. Suggett and Thomas Devers. 

It may be added that when the old Oketo was abandoned, the postoffice 
was removed to the present town. 

Old Oketo was somewhat a rendevouz for the flotsam and jetsam of the 
age. The present city of Oketo is ample evidence of the fact that good farm- 
ers and legitimate business industries will soon be followed by schools and 
churches and wholesome moral influence. 

Oketo of today is the result of conscientious effort on the part of good 
men and women, to build homes and create a pleasant community center in 
which to live. 

GOVERNMENT BY WOMEN. 

The election of April, 1917, resulted in the following city ticket being 
elected: Alayor, Mrs. Z. H. Moore; clerk, Mrs. O. P. Wood; police judge, 
Mrs. Hardenbrook : city council, Mrs. F. L. Root, jMrs. E. H. Moore, Mrs. 
\A\ W. White, ^Irs. O. E. Hardesty and Airs. W. W. Ely. 

The present city of Oketo was incorporated in 1890 with three hundred 
and six inhabitants. The first officers were : F. B. Tatman, mayor ; E. 
Burke, police judge; council, M. C. Brainard, W. J. Dunnuck, J. H. Moore, 
Ray Eley, F. AI. Schafer, C. ^I. DeLair and E. Hedge. 



THE PALMETTO COLONY. 



In the spring of 1856 the Palmetto Town Company was organized in 
Atchison with eighty-four members, nearly all Southerners. They were 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 85 

mostly young men who had come into the territory in the interests of the 
South. Thirty-five members came out from Atchison and arrived at 
Palmetto on July 8, 1856, among whom may be mentioned, J. S. Magill, J. 
P. Aliller, O. D. Prentis, Albert Morall, W. B. Jenkins, J. R. Alston, John 
Vanderhorst, A. S. Vaught and R. Y. Shibley. Of this colony only one, 
R. Y. Shiblev, now resides in Marvsville and nearlv all are dead. 

- ml 

The colony filed upon and laid out a townsite, for which Shibley, who 
was then a boy, paid. Shibley had left his home in South Carolina in search 
of adventure and the stirring scenes of the territory appealed to him. He 
had a monthly allowance from relatives. This was known to the others in 
the party, who induced him to pay for the pre-emption and it was entered in 
the land office on September 25, as the town of Palmetto. 

The progress of the new town was slow. Finances were at a low ebb 
and Shibley's allowance soon disappeared, when levied on by the thirstv mem- 
bers of the Palmetto Company. 

PIONEER PASTIMES. 

In 1856 Doctor ]\liller built a log cabin on the claim, this being the only 
improvement made during the year. Wagons furnished shelter for all, and 
the time was spent in bartering with the Indians, talking with emigrants and 
assuaging a constant and ever-increasing thirst. The game of quoits, or as 
it was then called, "pitching horse-shoe," furnished amusement for the many 
idle hours with which these pioneers were amply endowed. 

About this time F. J. ^Marshall, John and James Doniphan, who had 
formed a company and were incorporated on August 27, 1855, bought up 
one hundred shares of the Palmetto Company's stock, which gave them a 
controlling interest. 

The Alarshall-Doniphan Company then had an addition of three hun- 
dred and twenty acres laid off, on the north half of section 33, township 2, 
range 7. The northwest one-quarter was Alarysville addition to the town 
of Palmetto, and the northeast one-quarter was Ballard & Morrall's addition 
to the city of Alany^sville. (Morrall was one of the Palmetto Company.) 
This scheme and the then powerful influence of Marshall soon made Alarys- 
ville the leading portion of this tract. 

SCHROYER. 

The village of Schroyer, on the Lincoln and ^Manhattan branch of the 
Union Pacific railroad, is located near the Big Blue river, six miles south of 



l86 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Marvsville. ll was laid out by Philip Schroyer on his farm in 1896, the 
same year the railroad was built. 

Edward Dargatz erected the llrst general merchandise store and resi- 
dence and was then appointed postmaster. 

A Mr. LaRue followed with a blacksmith shop and G. B. Stocks, of Blue 
Rapids, built a shed and cribs and bought grain. 

Mr. Dargatz succeeded Stocks. He sold to Hammett Brothers, who 
built and operated an elevator, and bought and shipped grain and live stock 
for many years. They sold out to the Farmers Union, which is conducting 
the elevator at present. 

Krause Brothers succeeded Dargatz in the mercantile business and they 
were succeeded by Gottlieb Ziegler, who sold to A. Ham. 

Joseph Barta built a store on the bottom near the depot in 1889 and he 
is now- the only merchant in the town. He has a stock of general merchan- 
dise, hardware and farm implements and has been the postmaster for four- 
teen years. 

BRIDGE BUILT. 

In I goo a steel bridge costing three thousand dollars was built across 
the river, the county paying two thousand dollars toward it and the balance 
was donated by the neighboring farmers and the business men of the town. 
Peter Schroyer was the financial surety to the county for the amount neces- 
sary above what the county furnished. 

With the bridge came new business. Stores, butcher shop, barber shop, 
implement store and a new blacksmith shop, pool hall and restaurant w^ere 
opened up, and later a Methodist church and school house were built, and for 
a number of years Schroyer remained quite an important trading point. 

Then the automobile came and with it disaster to the small town. At one 
time Schroyer had a population of one hundred and twenty-five. At present 
there are Joe Barta's store and postoffice, Farmers Union elevator, Methodist 
church and school house and the depot, while the population has diminished 
to a total of forty-one souls. 

Schroyer is still a good grain market, handling about one hundred cars 
annually. The town was named Schro^^er in honor of the well-known pio- 
neer family of that nanie, and many of the family still live near it. 

LONE GRAVE CEMETERY. 

This ground, on the highest point in the surrounding country, was laid 
out, a stone wall built, and cedars and other shrubbery planted to beautify 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. " 1 8/ 

it, by Philip Schroyer, who intended it as a family burying ground for the 
Schroyer family. 

There is but one gTa\'e within the walls, that of an infant. The de- 
ceased members^of the Schroyer family have been interred in the Marysville 
cemetery. Mr. Schroyer is still living, making his home in Oklahoma. This 
is indeed a lone grave cemetery. 



SUMMERFIELD CITY. 

Summerheld is located in the northeast part of Marshall county, partly 
in St. Bridget and Richland townships. The Missouri Pacific railroad runs 
through the city ; this branch is commonly known as the Kansas City & 
Northwestern. The Kansas-Nebraska state line bounds the city limits on 
the north. 

The town was named in honor of Elias Summerfield, who was at that 
time superintendent of the railroad, ^vhich was completed to Virginia, Neb- 
raska, its preseht terminal. The date on which the first train came into the 
town was near the first of the year 1889.. 

In the year i8S8 the Summerfield Townsite Company was formed and 
purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land, located in St. Bridget town- 
ship, from John Smiley and eighty acres from Capt. C. F. McCulloch. On 
this land the original town was laid out. Two additions have been made 
to the original plat. One known as Smiley's Addition and the other as 
Joseph's Addition, and this land, comprising about sixty-seven acres, was 
purchased from W. H. Joseph in Richland township, which joins St. Bridget 
township on the west. •: 

INCORPORATED. - 

]n the spring of 1S90 the town was incorporated and the following 
officers were elected : Mayor, R. G. Cunningham ; clerk, J. M. Kendall ; city 
council, I. Jay Nichols, H. E. Adams, C. J. O'Neil, D. Swartout and E. M. 
Miller. E. H. Rundle was appointed marshal. The population of the town 
at the time of incorporation was about one hundred persons. 

The first firm of grain buyers were Davis & Gilchrist, from Seneca; 
George Hibbard was their manager. 

The first elevator for grain v>as built for O'Xcil Brothers, who also 
owned and operated a hardware and implement store. The second ele- 



1 88 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

vator was l)nilt in 1S03, for the Brunswig Elevator Company, Frank Tho- 
mann, nianai^er. A tliird elcxator was l)nilt in 1893, known as the Farm- 
ers Elevator. .Vtter some time the latter organization disbanded. 

Among those who early located in Summerficld were Dr. J. 11. Mur- 
phy and Dr. William Johnston. 

The first carpenters were David Wilson, George Van Allen, James 
Monroe and Webster Brothers. 

The first draymen were Charles Travelute, George Curtis and a col- 
ored man named John Nelson. 

The first postmaster was Capt. James Hemphill. 

The first child born in the town was a son to Mr. and Mrs. Frank 
Heard. The baby was named Summerficld in honor of the town. 

FIR.ST NEWSPAPER. 

The first newspaper was published by Edward and Flarry Felt, sons of 
Hon. A. J. Felt, of Seneca, former lieutenant-governor of Kansas. The 
office was in the second story of the I. Jay Nichols building, and the pro- 
prietors shared'the floor with a hardware and implement dealer. The name 
of the paper was the Summerficld Sun, and it was a bright, newsy sheet. 
The first story of the building was used as a livery barn and feed stable. It 
was totally destroyed by fire in 1892. The paper is now published by C. E. 
Jones. 

A. A. Gearhart built a livery barn on the same site and a few years 
later it v\'as burned and Mr. Gearhart lost a number of horses in the fire. 
Later, the present livery barn was built on the same site. 

A great fire occurred on June 29, 1894, when almost the entire busi- 
ness portion of the city was redu.ced to ashes. The fire started in the store 
building owned by H. H. Lowrey, wliich was situated on the corner now 
occupied by the Berens store, and destroyed every store building north to 
the J. FI. Moore stone structure, then in process of building, now occupied 
by R. W. Nelson. 

The following is a list of the stores burned: H. H. Lowrey, general 
merchandise; R. W. Hemphill, A-ariety and book store; WTiester & Tho- 
mann, drugs; Frank Thomann. hardware; J. H. Moore & Sons,- general 
merchandise. The loss was near one hundred thousand dollars. 

The ruins had harrlly quit smoking when preparations were begun for 
larger and more substantial buildings. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 89 

EARLY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES. 

Many buildino's were in course of construction before train service 
began. The building material was hauled from Beattie and Axtell, as 
were groceries and provisions. 

The first store building was erected by Heard & McGinty. E. J. 
Smiley and J. J. McClennan ran a grocery store in the basement of the old 
Smiley house now owned by A. B. Garrison. 

An auction sale of town lots was held in February, 1889; William 
Speak, of Axtell, was the auctioneer. 

Among early business firms were the following: 

Cunningham & Mohrbacher, general mercantile business and harvest- 
ing machinery. 

Smiley & Lock conducted a large mercantile establishment. 

H. H. Lourey & Company, dry goods, groceries and furnishing goods. 

J. H. Moore & Son, general merchandise. 

Swartout, Smith & Son. general merchandise. 

Suniinciiicld Sun, weekly; editor, Ed Felt. 

Wuester & Thomann, pharmacists. 

J. H. Murphy, druggist. 

F. Baringer, groceries. 

Welsh & Brady, general merchandise. 

C. J. & J. C. O'Neil, department stores. 

Flemine & Adams, lumber; successors to Russell & Schutt. 

E. M. Miller, lumber. 

]\lisses Moriarly & Creevan. millinery and dressmaking. 

Mrs. Annie E. Sidvvell, milliner. 

Mohrbacher Brothers, photographers. 

G. C. Moore, restaurant. 
W. A. Huston, restaurant. 

August Eisenbach. bakery and diningroom. 

Weston «&: Shadle, hardware. 

Myers & Miller, meat market. 

J. J. Nichols, hardware and livery. 

Charles Usher, livery barn. 

C. W. Washington, John Martin, barbers. 

W. H. Smith, variety store. 

T. Hutton, blacksmith. 



IQO :^r AKsTTALL COTNTY, KANSAS. 

Henry Maitland. real estate, justice n\ peace and n')tar\- public. 

William Johnson. pli\sician. 

Jacob Hoftinan. billiard parlor. 

Burnett House, hotel. 

Al. \\ . Terry, lawyer. 

William Kennemur. paperhanger. 

PRESENT-DAY CONDITIONS. 

The amount of business transacted in Summertield is a surprise to 
those not familiar with the town. In 1916 the elevators handled abnut t\vo 
hundred thousand bushels of grain. The deposits in the State Bank of 
Summerfield duringi9i6 amounted to two hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars. This makes it the third in line of deposits among the twenty-seven 
banks of Marshall county. 

Wdiile not a dairy center, fifteen thousand dollars worth of cream was 
sold during the past year. There are forty business houses in the town and 
all are prosperous. 

Summerfield has five miles of sidewalk, well-graded streets, a splendid 
park, manv fine residences and three churches, with good congregations. 
Fifty automobiles are owned in the town. This pretty little city more than 
justifies its reputation as being one of the most prosperous and active busi- 
ness centers of northern Kansas. The people of Marshall countv on No- 
vember 7, 1916, elected one of its leading citizens, Hon. F. G. Bergen, to 
represent them in the Legislature, as state senator. 



TOWN OF VERMILLION. 

Vermillion is a pleasant little town of about four hlindred inhabitants, 
situated in the S(Uitheastern part of Marshall county on the Central Branch 
railroad. It is one hundred and seventeen miles from Kansas Citv, ninety 
miles from St. Joseph and seventy miles west of Atchison. 

The town was laid out in the fall of 1869 by G. R. Kelley, Theo. Collier 
and the railroad company. The original townsite, consisting of tAvo hun- 
dred and forty acres, was owned as follows : Railroad company, fortv acres ; 
G. R. Kellev, one hundred and sixtv acres; Theo. Collier, fortv acres. Col- 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I9I 

Her and Kelley gave one-half of their interests to the raih-oad company, 
which' laid out the town, built a depot and side track. 

The first building erected on the townsite was built by W. H. Dickinson 
in the spring of 1870 and used as a store. Soon after a large building was 
erected by Robert Shields for a store. In 1872 this building was used as a 
hotel and managed by a Mr. Bryon until 1875. 

The first Ijirth was that of Frank, a son of Theo. Collier in August, 
1870. The first marriage ceremony took place in 1875, the contracting 
parties being Anderson Duffy and Eva Burt, who are still living in Ver- 
million. The first death was that of George Collier in the spring of 1870. 
The first postoffice was established in 1870, with Theo. Collier as postmaster. 
J. L. Rogers is postmaster, January, 191 7. 

EARLY SETTLERS AND EARLY EVENTS. 

Among the settlers who located in the vicinity of Vermillion prior to 
i860 were j. Knapp, E. Lewis, W. Warren, Major Beattie, I. Blades, J. 
KenW'Orthv, S. Osgood and Samuel Smith. 

In the summer of 1874, G. W. Duffy built an elevator with a capacity of 
three thousand bushels, and operated it until 1878. At present this elevator 
is operated by Watson brothers. 

In i8q5 Ed Horth built an elevator. After changing ovvners a number 
of times, it is now owned by T. J. Smith. 

The depot was built in the fall of 1869. Theo. Collier was the first 
agent, followed by S. Arnold. 

Samuel C. Calderhead, a brother of the historian, was the first tele- 
grapher; also the first agent who kept a double-entry system of books. The 
present operator is I. N. Moore. 

The telephone system was organized by P. H. Hvbskmann and H. D. 
Williams. The first connection was made in 1901. The plant was sold to 
J. O. Puntney in 1907. 

In 1895 three acetylene lights were placed on posts in different parts 
of the business section of town. A year later two gasoline lamps were added, 
to be followed by lanterns placed near dangerous crossings and bridges. 

In the spring of 1914 Forrest Warren, editor of the Vermillion Times, 
began ag-itating the subject of electric lights for the town. As a result of 
the untiring efforts of Warren, Mayor Hybskmann and the city council, bonds 
to the amount of seven thousand dollars were voted to build a transmission 
line from Frankfort to Vermillion. The completion of this line was cele- 



192 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

brated on August 13 and 14. 19 14, 1)y a three-days carnival, at which Hon. 
W. A. Calderhead. of Marysville; Hon. Sheffield Ingalls. of Atchison; Ed 
Howe, the well-knoAvn editor, also of Atchison, and many other prominent 
speakers made addresses. The largest crowd ever gathered in this part of 
the county was in attendance. 

The city erected a public hall for its use, a room in which was set apart 
and donated to the Alutual Improvement Club for a library room. 

SCHOOLS. 

School district No. 12 was organized in 1864. with only three families 
in the district. The school house was built Ijy the United Brethren and used 
In' them for religious services. Martha Lewis, R. ^liddleton, W. Spear and 
Mrs. J. X. Acker were among the first teachers. 

During this time the district was divided and this school building was 
moved to one mile west of town. 

In 1872 a new frame building, twenty-four by forty-four feet, was 
erected at a cost of two thousand dollars. The first teacher in the new build- 
ing was L. B. Holmes. Additions were made to this building until 1903-4, 
when the original building was moved onto an adjacent lot and a fine brick 
building, modern in e\erv way, was erected and at the present time is under 
the Barnes liigh school law. Prof. C. Kraemer is principal. Fifty-eight 
pupils are enrolled in the high school. 

THE ML'TUAL IMPROVEMENT CLUB. 

The Mutual Improvement Club, of Vermillion, is one of the most useful 
societies of the town. It was organized in 1903 at the home of Mrs. Carrie 
Arnold, with eight members. The objects of the club are the betterment 
of local social conditions and mutual mental improvement. 

A public library was soon opened and is maintained by a fee of one 
dollar, paid by each member, by public entertainments and by donations of 
books and cash by the general public. 

The members have been very diligent in keeping up the number and 
quality of the books and now have one thousand four hundred volumes, 
which have been carefully selected. The library is safely housed in a fire- 
proof room in the city hall, which is furnished free of rent by the city. The 
club has thirty members. A neat year book is issued annually and the club 
and library are considered strong educational factors in the community. The 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. IQ3 

names of the past presidents follow: Ella Acker, Viva McWilliams, Rose 
Cook, Carrie Arnold, Anna Dewalt, Lena Granger, Lena McLeod, Lucy May 
Curtis, Rose Clifton, Mary Buckles, Margaret Warren, Allie B. Rogers. 
Mrs. Rogers is the present president of the club. 

CEMETERY ASSOCIATION. 

The Vermillion Cemetery Association was organized on March 31, 1887. 
The cemetery is about one mile west of town, is beautifully located and kept 
in perfect order. The present officials are: W. H. Dewalt, president; C. S. 
Schafer, secretary ; William Acker, treasurer, and G. W. Duffy, C. L. Shafer, 
trustees. 

THE VERMILLION "gIRL BAND." 

This band was organized on April 11, 1914, with nineteen members. 
The first officers were : President, Mrs. Carrie Davis ; vice-president, Ethel 
Leonard ; secretary. Merle Schafer ; treasurer, Lenora Granger. 

Instrumentation. — -Grace Buckles, Ethel Tompkins. Merle Schafer, Nina 
Warren, Laura Duffy, cornet players ; Mabel Warren, Beatrice Clifton, Fern 
Hybskmann, Louise Schuyler, Mrs. Lee Davis, altos; Mildred Mesmer, Lois 
Meredith, tenors ; Lenora Granger, baritone ; Mrs. Arthur Cooke, Edna 
Buckles, Stella Curtis, trombones; Mabel Schrair, bass drum; Hazel Havens, 
snare drum. 

This band played at the Farm and Home In.stitute meetings, at a Fourth 
of July picnic at Lillis, and accompanied Mr. Henry J. Allen in his campaign 
for governor through Marshall county. The band receives manv compli- 
ments on its membership and musical ability. 

FARM AND HOME INSTITUTE. 



An organization of more than local importance is the Farm and Home 
Listitute, which is held annuallv in Vermillion. The first org^anization was 
formed in IQ12, with W. F. Robinson, president and William Acker, secre- 
tary. 

The first Listitute was held in January, 191 3, and was a one-day meet- 
ing. The second Institute was held on November 24 and 25, .1913. The 
attendance was larger and a woman's department, as well as grain, vege- 
table, fruit and educational departments, was added. At this meeting 
Samuel Stewart was elected president and H. C. Schafer, secretary. 

(13) 



194 MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 

In 19 1 4 the Institute was held December 2 and 3 and in 1915 on Octo- 
ber 20-21. By this lime the organization was well on its feet. Splendid 
programs were arranged, the display of products attractive and about four 
thousand people attended. 

The 19 1 6 Institute attracted the attention of the state papers. The 
meeting was held on October 24-25-26, and in spite of the dry season a fine 
display of farm products was made. The agricultural exhibits were corn, 
wheat, oats and rye : and some fine fruit was also shown. The exhibit of 
live stock was very fine and the poultr}' exhibit better than that of the county 
fair, in variety and number. The domestic department was well represented 
and very creditable. The fine display of needlework received much praise. 

A corps of instructors and judges were present from the State Agricul- 
tural College and many fine features were added. Lectures on farm, school 
and home subjects were given by experts and great credit is due the little 
city of Vermillion and her people for their progressive efforts along home 
improvement lines. 

The following are the officers for 191 7: President, E. E. Woodman; 
secretary-treasurer/H. S. FHshop: vice-presidents, Andrew Kjellberg, C. R. 
Wallace, L. W. Davis, Everett Nelson, Sam Stewart and E. Schubert. 

PRESENT BU.SINESS HOUSES OF VERMILLION. 

Hardware and farm implements, T. F. Smith. 

General merchandise. Granger & Son. 

Meat market and grocery store, Ijames & Twidwell. 

Meat market and groceries, Nash & Sons. 

Harness shop and men's shoe store, Glen Grable. 

Restaurant and hotel. Fount Tate. 

Restaurant and hotel, George Duffy. 

Furniture and undertaking, Mrs. Richards. 

Drug store, Walter Sams. 

Garage, Anton Lobbe. 

Thoroughbred poultry, j. L. Rogers. 

Lumber, Andrew Johnson. 

Wagon-making and repairing, F. M. Andrews. 

Garage, Robert Perlett. 

Barber, W. B. Malcolm. 

Millinery store, Cooke & Ellis. 

Cream station, Milo Tate, manager. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I95 



Elevator, Watson Brothers. 

Elevator, T. F. Smith. 

Hardware store, Charles Schafer. 

Postmaster, Everett Nelson. 

Acker garage, William Acker, proprietor. 



VLIETS. 

Vliets, Noble township, is one of the busy little villages of Marshall 
county. It is located on the Central Branch railroad between Vermillion 
and Frankfort, and has a population of about one hundred fifty. It was 
founded in 1889 and platted and laid out on the Van Vleit farm and named 
for that family. 

The East elevator, now owned and operated by W. T. Buck, was built 
and operated in 1889 by the Union Commercial Company, an organization 
of Swedes from the Swedish settlement, who sold the business in 1893 to 
L'evan Brothers, of Leavenworth, who after four years sold the business to 
W. T. Buck. Mr. Buck owns and operates another elevator in Vliets known 
as the Buck elevator. This elevator was built and operated by McEuon & 
Root for twelve years, when it was sold to the Baker, Crowell Grain Com- 
pany, of Atchison, and by that company was sold to H. A. Schoenecker, 
who sold it to W. T. Buck in 19 10. The annual shipments average one hun- 
dred fifty thousand bushels of grain. 

SCHOOL. 

The school was organized and built in 1899 through the efl'orts of Major 
Beatty, T. A. Buck and others at a cost of two thousand six hundred dollars. 
The first principal was C. M. Belknap. The building contains two rooms, 
in which four grades are taught and one year high school. The present 
principal is Ross Griffiths; assistant, ^^laude Arnold. Professor Griffiths 
has taught the school for four vears. 

The postmistress is Mrs. Anna M. Brophy. wife of Ed Brophy, the 
assistant. Mrs. Brophy has served since 1914. 

The local telephone system is owned by the State Bank of Vliets and 
is managed by Mrs. A. G. ]\Iiller, who has been a resident of Vliets for 
twenty-five years. 



1()6 MARSHALL CULXTY, KANSAS. 

The large general niercliandisc store of j. M. Owen, opened for busi- 
ness June. 1914. Mr. Owen has lived near there for thirty-live years. He 
was formerly engaged in farming. 

The Farmers I'nion Co-operati\T Business Association was organized 
in April. igi5. and opened business on September 15, 1915, with a capital 
stock of ten thousand dollars, and a paid-uj) capital of three thousand eight 
hundred twenty dollars. A plant was built at a cost of five thousand dollars ; 
which included an elevator, coal house, corn crib, office and full equipment 
of machinery with \\hich to operate. H. B. Johnson, the manager, is a son 
of J. B. Johnson, who came to Kansas in 1870. and in 1880 settled on a 
farm in the Swedish settlement section of Murray township, now Lincoln 
tcnvnship. M. F. Bullock is the assistant manager. 

The membership is one hundred eighteen with the following officers : 
J. A. Johnson, president; H. A. Haskins. secretary and treasurer; directors, 
S. R. Wallace, William Johnson, Alva Reust, C. H. Stoll. W. R. Glasgow. 
The company handles grain, flour, cream, eggs, poultry and salt. 

Dating from September 15. 1915. to September 15, 1916. the business 
done was one hundred thirty thousand dollars; from September 15, 1916. 
to January i, 1917, the business was fifty-seven thousand dollars. The first 
year the shipment of grain was one hundred twenty thousand. bushels. From 
April, 19 16. to January, 191 7, sixteen thousand pounds of butter- fat, two 
thousand three hundred seventy dollars worth of eggs, and three thousand 
two hundred dollars worth of poultry, were shipped. 

The first store opened in Vleits is owned and managed bv William 
Herda. who has been a resident of ]\Iarshall county for thirtv years and 
formerly engaged in farming. The stock is general merchandise. 

The Pelican restaurant is owned and managed by F. L. Rochefort, since 
October 9. 1914. ^Ir. Rochefort is a registered optician. A barber shop is 
conducted in the same building. 



WATERVILLE. 

Waterville. in the township of the same name, is located in the south- 
western part of Marshall county, on the Missouri Pacific railway, one hun- 
dred miles west of Atchison and fifteen miles southwest of Marysville. The 
city is built on a low plateau, sloping gently northward to the Little Blue 
river. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I97 

The original charter for th.e raih'oad, west from Atchison, was ob- 
tained under the name of the Atchison & Pikes Peak Railroad, which 
name was changed by an act of the Legislature in 1867. to the Central 
Branch of the Union Pacific Railroad. In the spring of 1867 the company 
commenced building the road with O. B. Gunn as civil engineer. 

Judge Lewis, the father of Mrs. E. A. Berry of Waterville, expecting 
that the railroad would follow the Little Blue river to Ft. Kearney, the 
then (jljjective point of the Central Branch laid out a town on the Little 
Blue river, one and one-half miles east of what is now Waterville, on his 
own land, and named the town "Marble Falls." Judge William Thompson 
and R. S. Xewell each put up store buildings there, and when the railroad 
failed to touch ^Marble Falls, 'Slv. Xewell moved his cottonwood grocer) 
store to \\'aterville. where it now stands serving as the central office for the 
telephone company. 

WATERVILLE PLATTED. 

The plan of the railroad company was to locate a town just one hun- 
dred miles west of Atchison, and after reach.ing Irving, Engineer Gunn ran 
his survey directly west from Irving up Game Fork creek to a point on 
sections 18 and ig in Cottage Hill township, where he located a town and 
named it Merrimac. While this deceptive survey was being made, G. H. 
Hollenberg, of Hanover, Kansas, purchased of Mrs. Hennea King the land 
on which the city of \\'aterville is located. The purchase was made on 
August 29, 1867. This accomplished, 'Sir. Gunn started from tr\ing and 
located the railroad to this point and laid out and platted the town of 
Waterville in February, 1868. 

3.[r. R. Osborne, superintendent of the railroad, named this tow^n Wat- 
er\ille after his home town in ]\Iaine. Air. Osborne had pre\-ious]}- pur- 
chased the land from G. H. Hollenberg and recorded the deed on March 
4. 1868. The town was incorporated as a villag;e on July 30. 1870, with 
August Frahm as its first president. Later, it became a city of the third 
class, which it is at the present date. 

The only settlers of the year 1868 now living in \\'aterville, are Mrs. 
Auo'ust Frahm and Hon. Edward A. Berrv. Mr. Berrv, after working on 
a farm for three vears returned to !Maine, his old home state, took a course 
of law, returned to Waterville, where he has been in the practice of law ever 
since. 



IQS MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

FIRST SETTLERS. 

The first settlers on llie Little IMue river and on Coon creek', near 
where W'aterville is loeated. were: Stearnes Ostrander, early in the si)ring- 
of 1857. He was followed during- the same year by Ival])h Ostrander. 11. 
Brown. R. Drown. T. Palmer and P. Dollar, in the spring of 1858 the 
little eolony was strengthened by the arrival of Airs. A. Davis, IP Dramer. 
W. Dickinson. John Hughes. William Hawkinsmith, William Pearson and 
AP T. Burnett. They settled on Coon creek. During the same year Ste- 
phen Aloore settled on the Little Blue river. 

In the year 1859. J. L. McChesney. P. Cassey and others arrixed and 
took up claims. In 1859 William Pearson built a combination saw and 
grist-mill on the Little Dlue river, at a place called Cedar Falls, which is 
about two miles above ^^'aterville. northwest. 

The first tragedy wdiich visited the little colony was the death of Ste- 
phen Moore. A number of men had been at Marysville, the day being 
bitterly cold, by night turning into a blizzard. On their return the party 
became separated and Moore did not reach home. The next morning a 
search was made and he was found sitting upright against a tree near the 
mouth of Fawn creek, frozen to death. 

FIRST HOTEL. 

Mr. and Mrs. August Frahm arrived at Waterville at the completion of 
the railroad and erected the first building in town, a stone hotel, called the 
"Bay State House," in the early spring of 1868. Mr. Frahm shipped the 
first carload of lumber to \\^ater^•ille and the freight on it was eighty-five 
dollars. 

Henry Agle built the "Eagle Hotel" in the fall of 1868. Other build- 
ines erected in, or moved to. the town in 1868 were: A frame store build- 
ing. erected by R. vS. AlcCubbin. of Atchison. Kansas; R. S. Newell moved 
his store from Marble Falls and Joseph Samuels moved a store building 
from A[arvs\-ille. j. C. Peters built a store and dwelling combined. George 
Hutt erected a small building, now^ standing on the corner by the town 
pump. Mr. Vowers. a homesteader, two miles west, supplied the people of 
Waterville with good water from his spring on Coon creek at five cents a 
pail, until the town well was bored in 1870. Mike Niggley built a one-story 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. I99 

saloon, eighteen by twenty feet, in which he started operations with one keg 
of beer and one gallon of whiskey. Roy Sholes opened a hardware store 
and tinner's shop, where Ed Adam's barber shop now stands. He sold out 
in 1869 to J. Miord, who enlarged the building and stock. 

In 1869 J. D. Flannery built and operated a general merchandise store. 
Heineke & Cowgill built a furniture store. Frank Glasser erected general 
merchandise store, building it himself. John Mullender and J. C. Dickey 
each built and operated a blacksmith shop. W. C. Johnson and William 
Haskel opened a lumber office. A. M. Pickett built a photograph gallery 
and A. Simie, a drug store: J. D. Farwell and J. Miexell, each, a hardware 
store; W. W. Smith and W. P. Mudgett, a law office; A. D. Willson and 
Mr. McKinnon, a real-estate office; John Wilson, a livery. 

The first birth, October 6, 1869, was that of a son born to Mr. and 
Mrs. J. C. Peters. 

In 1868 John Dunljar and a Miss Hurd w-ere married by C. F. Thorn- 
dyke, justice of the peace. 

Those who came in 1869 and still reside in Waterville are: J. D. 
Farwell and wife; Horace Jones and wife; J. B. Livers and wafe; Mrs. J. 
C. Dickey, Major Scott and J. D. Flannery. 

A LOVE TRAGEDY. 

The second tragic death in the community was that of a German, who 
homesteaded an eighty-acre tract, one mile south of town. He bought tools 
to work it and in the latter part of March, 1869, he got a letter from Ger- 
many from his fiancee, who refused to come to America. He took his 
scythe out to his homestead, mowed and bound several bundles of tall grass, 
made a bed, laid some bundles lengthwise at his side, then co\ered himself 
with the hav and shot himself in tlie head. When found, the pistol still in 
his hand and the letter in his pocket, was all that was known of hiuL Wat- 
erville not having any cemetery, this German was brought to town and 
buried on the prairie, until an association was formed and incorporated in 
March 1870, v.hen the association purchased a forty-acre tract one and 
one-half miles north of town, and the German's body was removed to the 
cemetery. 

The first natural death in the town was that of Mrs. James Hurd, in 
August, 1869. 



200 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



DISTRIBUTION OF WHEAT SEED. 

In 1869, \Vaterville, being iIk^ most western railroad station in north- 
ern Kansas, became the distributing point for government aid. which con- 
sisted of wheat and corn for seed. Clothing and food-stuffs were furnished 
by private contributions. Settlers came from as far west as Norton and 
Rooks counties to receive this aid. The railroads hauled this free of charge. 
A day was set for the distriljution and the people arrived on time. Some 
boxes and parcels were addressed to private parties directly, and these were 
delivered to them. Others came, received their allotment of wheat and 
corn, given expressly for seeding purposes, took it to the Cedar Falls mills 
and had it ground. Some traded their seed for whiskey, so that some re- 
turned with a A\agon full of wheat, and others were ''full," l)ut their wagons 
were empty. The allotment to each homesteader was ten bushels of wheat 
and two bushels of corn. Marshall county received none of this aid, being 
able to take care of herself. 

Waterville being the terminal of the Central Branch railroad from 
1868 to 1876, was the most important railroad point in northern Kansas. 
All immigrants and freight destined for western counties left the cars at 
Waterville and were transported by wagons and otherwise, to points of 
destination. 

INCORPORATED. 

\Vaterville was incorporated as a village in 1870. The first president 
of the village board was August Frahm. In April, 1871, Waterville became 
a city of the third class. 

The following is the official roster of the city: Mayor, 1871 to 1875, 
James P. Burtis; 1876, F. ?^Iills; 1877, S. S. Altschul; 1878, N. B. Thomp- 
son; 1879, J- P- Bi-"'tis; 1879-1882, J. W. Sharrard. 

The present city officers of Waterville are as follow : J. H. Nelson, 
mayor; H. C. Strohm. clerk; L. A. Palmer, treasurer; Clay Whiteside, Frank 
Fitzgerald. Will Flook, George K. Hall, Philip Thomas, councilmen ; H. C. 
Strohm, police judge; I. A. Larson, policeman. 

POSTOFFICE. 

The Waterville postoffice was established in 1868, with George Flutt as 
postmaster, making four in the county. In 1869 H. C. Phillips was ap- 
pointed and there were several up to 1880, when J. C. Dickey received the 




HIGH SCHOOL, SU.MMERFIELD. 



* 



•1^:% 




HIGH SCHOOL, WATERVILLE. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 20I 

appointment and sei-\-ed until 1884., when George Titcomb was appointed 
and served until 1888; M. Delaney, 1888 until 1893; J- D. Flannery, 1893 
to 1897. Then M. Delaney was re-appointed and served from 1897 to 1913, 
giving entire satisfaction. In all he served the people twenty years. In 
191 3 C. C. Holbrook Avas appointed and is making a good postmaster. In 
1878 it became a presidential office. 

In 1868 the Bay State Hotel, built by August Frahm, was leased to 
W. W. Smith and later to F. G. Adams, for one year. This hotel was soon 
purchased by Mills & Hinman and named the Lick House. Mrs. Brown 
ha\-ing purchased the Hinman interest, the ownership became Mills & Brown 
for two years, when ]\lills bought nut ^Irs. Brown and ran the house until 
1878 when at Mrs. Mills" death it was leased to W. H. Truesdale, who 
managed it until 1880, when W. W. Smith again leased it. The Bay State 
or Lick House stood idle for a number of years, when the city of Water- 
ville bought it and erected a fine city hall, fifty by one hundred feet, on the 
ground, with a bancpiet room, council room, police-judge, office, and a theater 
accommodation. 

^FAXUFACTURES. 

In 1873 p. ]\I. Howard built the Riverside mills located on the Little 
Blue river, one half mile from town. It was a stone building, four stories, 
with five run of burrs. Aloore & Greenman purchased an interest, and in 
1875 Howard sold his interest to E. F. Durant. In 1876 the mill owners 
becoming financially embarrassed, the mill was shut down. In 1880 Mr. 
Moore again bought it and ran it about two years, when it burned down. 
Moore moved on a farm and was killed while blasting rock in a well he 
was digging. 

EVERGREEN CEMETERY. 

The Evergreen Cemetery Association of Waterville was incorporated 
in 3klarch, 1870. and purchased forty acres of land, one and one-half miles 
north of the city, from A\\ C. ]^IcCurdy, for four hundred dollars. The 
officers of the temporary organization were: President, W. C. McCurdy; 
secretary, AI. McKinnon ; treasurer. \V. L. Johnson; trustees, J. D. Far- 
well, G. W. Hutt. W. L. Johnson, David Ward and O. D. Wilson. A 
charter was obtained in 1870 and a permanent organization formed on June 
25. 1870. The first officers were: President, G. W. Hutt; secretary, A. J. 
wSimis ; treasurer. G. D. Bowlney. The northeast ten acres of the forty was 
laid out into lots. In 1894 the thirty acres was sold to M. E. Moore and 
in 191 1 the remaining unsold lots were sold to W. E. Fitzgerald. 



202 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

RIVERSIDE CEMETERY. 

In April. 1884, the ]\iver<ide Cemetery Association was organized and 
purchased of George Bancroft the land south of the Little Blue river, close 
to the citw the present site of our cemetery, with five hundred dollars cap- 
ital stock. The first officers were : President, W. W. Smith ; secretary, 
Dr. D. W. Humfreville: vice-president, J. C. Dickey; treasurer, James A. 
Thompson. The present officers are : President, J. R. Edwards ; vice- 
president. Dr. Harry Humfreville; secretary, H. E. Wilson; treasurer, M. 
Delaney ; executive committee, F. P. Thorne, H. Jones, Ed Copeland. 

This association has adopted a plan to obtain an endowment fund, 
which will enable e\-ery lot owner by depositing witli the secretary a sum 
not less than twenty-five dollars to recei\'e a certificate guaranteeing that the 
deposit will be kept permanently at interest, and the interest only shall be 
used for the upkeep of the depositor's lot. The association now has one 
thousand dollars in the endowment fund. 

BAND. 

Waterville cornet band was organized in 1872 by Prof. John D. W^alters, 
with eleven members. It was disbanded in 1876, and re-organized in 1879 by 
C. F. Stanley, who was succeeded as leader in 1882, by J. F. Kohler. This 
once leading band in the county is now disbanded. 

BUSINESS INTERESTS. 

Blacksmith shops — John Rozine and Kiefer Brothers. 
Telephone system — A. F. Geyer. 
Drug store — Rummel Drug Company. 
Moving picture show — I. L. Miller. 
Shoe repairing — George Pendleton and Charles Ross. 
Hotel — L. E. Weaver. 

Waterville Library — Owned by Shakespearian Club. 
Livery and auto — John Moody. • 

Warehouse and elevator — H. C. and A. C. Whiteside, Farmers E^levator. 
Lumber dealers — Waterville Lumber and Coal Company, S. P. Solt 
Lumber Company. 

Banks — ^Merchants State Bank, Farmers State Bank, Citizens State Bank. 
Barber shops — John Finley and Gordon Brothers. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 203 

Jewelry and repair — J- Turner. 

Fkimber and tinsho]) — -Vug. Norquist. 

Physicians — Dr. Harry Humfreyille. Dr. G. I. Thacher. 

Garage — Verne Henderson. 

Farm machinery — W^'ll Flook. W'ilham 'SI. Thompson. 

Produce house — W. F. Fuhon. 

General merchandise — IF Hohnsteadt & Son. William McKelyy & 
Company. 

Groceries — John Parson, A. \l. Baker, G. \\\ Jones, J. Schofield. 

Feed store — J. Schofield. 

Hard\yare and furniture — Scott & Thomas, Adams & Parker. 

Meat market — R. Sommers & Son. 

Restaurant and bakery — F. B. Fdgerton, Joe Pischnez. 

Notion store and repair shop — Eli Peterson. 

The census enumerator for 1916 reports the population of Wateryille 
as six hundred eleyen. 



WINIFRED. 

The town of \Mnifred located on the southwest cjuarter of section 24 
and the northwest cjuarter of section 25, township 3, south, range 8, east, 
was founded in 1907 and platted and laid out by Gottfried Keller, on his 
farm. It is on the Topeka and Marysyille branch of the F^nion Pacific rail- 
Avay, eleyen miles southwest of Alarysyille. 

The present site of A\'inifred was made the county seat of Alarshall 
county in 1858 by the Territorial Legislature, and was named Sylyan. A 
body of men representing the Nebraska Town Company came to Sylyan 
at that time with twenty-four oxen and wagons loaded with lumber to build 
the town ; they also brought some mercantile goods which they sold in a 
tent. No buildings were erected, howeyer. as the county seat was changed 
to AIarys\'ille through the direct influence of F. J. Marshall and the crowd 
of men who followed liis bidding. 

After Sylyan was abandoned as the county seat, the Nebraska Town 
Company left their lumber on the ground and departed. The lumber was 
at once confiscated. No direct charge is made as to who took it. but as a 
certain self-styled county seat was badly in need of lumber, that useful 
buildinsf material may haye found its way there. Among those who settled 
on the Vermillion in 1856 were Fsaac Walker and family, who settled on 



204 ^rARSHALI. COUNTY, KANSAS. 

ihe land adioinini^- where W initred now stands and llie old lionieslead called 
"West l"^>rk'" i^ stili mainlained In' the family. The town is named W'alk- 
ersburg", after Isaac W'rdker and the postotfice is named Winifred after Airs. 
Isaac Walker. Mr. and .Mrs. Daxid 15. Walker reside in Winifred, being 
among" the first residents and helped to ]a\' otit the townsite. 

The ])resent town of Winifred has a |)optilation of about se\-enty-five 
people, and has a large farming ccjmnumity surrounding it. 

SCHOOL OPENED. 

The school house ^\■as built and opened in ic^t i at a cost of twenty-five 
hundred dollars. It has two rooms, the first graded from the primary de- 
partment to fifth grade, and the second graded from sixth grade to second- 
year high school course. The first teachers were Mrs. Trosper and Miss 
W'aymire. The present teachers are Aliss Waymire, principal, and Miss 
Rose Seematter, assistant. The enrollment is thirty-two. 

BU.SINESS INTERESTS. 

Mr. S. C. M. Smith, the present postmaster, erected the first store in 
Winifrefl with a capital of three hundred dollars, and the business has so 
increased that his capital in\-ested is three thousand dollars. The stock con- 
sists of general merchandise and the business is thriving. 

The Winifred State Bank is a sound institution and well patronized. 

A hardware store is owned by F. K. Barrett, with stock valued at four 
thousand dollars and an average business of eighteen thousand dollars 
annually. 

Two elevators carrv on an extensive business. One, owned bv Isaac 
Walker and V . K. Barrett, called the Winifred Grain Company, shipped in 
the year 1916 one hundred thousand bushels of corn and one hundred and 
fifty thousand bushels of wheat to Kansas City and to various points in Iowa. 

The Farmers Union Elevator, managed by J. Tilley, does practically 
the same amount of business. 

A garage, also owned by F. K. Barrett, carries the Oakland car and 
sold in 1 9 16, eleven cars, at from eight hundred and forty dollars -to one 
thousand five hundred dollars, each. 

The general merchandise store owned by A. F. Yaussi is managed by 
Arthur Stauff, who is also a stockholder. This store opened in April, 1916, 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 205 

with a capital of seven thousand dollars, and by January i, 1917, had 
increased to eight thousand dollars. 

B. W. Solt has a neat barbgr shop and opened business in 191 1. His 
business averages one thousand dollars yearly. 

A restaurant owned by the Farmers Union, managed" by A. and R. 
Crevier, opened business on July 15, 1916. To January i, 1917, the busi- 
ness netted six hundred dollars. 

The Foster Lumber Company, of Kansas City, Ijegan business in 1909 
with a capital of ten thousand dollars. The average yearly business amounts 
to fifteen thousand dollars. R. E. Grutzmacher is manager. 

M. R. Dickinson is the station agent, and has been in charge of the 
station since it was established. He reports the following business for 1915: 
Corn, 47 carloads ; wheat, 25 carloads ; oats, i carload ; live stock, 30 car- 
loads ; walnut logs, 2 carloads; emigrants. 2 carloads. 1916: Corn, 74 
carloads: wheat, 36 carloads; live stock, 19 carloads. 

FLAG STATIONS IN COUNTY. 

Nolan. — Topeka branch. Union Pacific railroad, located on southeast 
quarter, section 34, Cleveland township. 

Sullivan. — Topeka branch. Union Pacific railroad, located on northeast 
quarter, section 36, Vermillion township. 

Summit. — St. Joseph K^ Grand Island railroad, located on northwest 
quarter, section 7, Murray township. 

Upland. — Junction St. Joseph & Grand Island and Topeka branch Union 
Pacific railroad, located on the northeast quarter, section 6, Center township. 

LOST AND ABANDONED TOWNS OF MARSHALL COUNTY. 

Horace Greeley said: 'Tt takes three log houses to make a city in Kan- 
sas, but they begin calling it a city as soon as they have staked out the lots." 
But "three log houses" were enough in those days to make much history. 

This list of names of towns now lost or abandoned, tells a story of plans 
that came to naught and hopes that were unfulfilled. Most of the towns 
now live only in the archives of the State Historical Society, while the pro- 
moters, like the towns, are buried and in many instances forgotten. The list 
follows : 

Ayersville, a village or feed station in 1855. twenty miles south of the 
Nebraska line on the Little Blue, probably Cedar Falls. 



^06 MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 

Bennetts Station, a ])ostc)ffice in 1S59, probably at tbe home of Moses 
Bennett on L'oon crock, where he kejjt a feed and supply station. 

Blanch vi lie. postoltice named fcjr Horatio Blanchard, postmaster and 
early settler, on northeast corner section 22, Walnut township. 

Big Blue Gity, chartered in 1858; can find no trace of it. 

Cedar Falls, two and one-half miles northwest of Waterville on Little 
Blue. In 1858, William Pearsoll built a combination grist- and saw-mill 
at Cedar Falls, later acquired by Rufus R. Edwards, of Marysville. There 
is nothing left of this mill. 

Elm Creek, a postoftlce located on south Elm creek at the home of John 
Means, postmaster, an early settler. 

Elizabeth, one mile northeast of Bigelow, feed and supply station near 
Inmans quarries. 

Fairland ; unable to locate it. 

Franks-Fort, is now Frankfort, named for Frank Schmidt, of Marys- 
ville, one of the founders of the town. 

Gertrude, founded January 2, 1861, vacated, 1864, was located one mile 
northwest of Marysville on the hilltop, west of the mill; it consisted of a 
sniall frame house; its owner sold '"necessaries" to the emigrants. 

Granite Falls, established on Little Blue near mouth of Fawn creek on 
section 24, Waterville townsliip ; later also known as Marble Falls. , 

Guittard Station, a postoffice established in 1861 and taken up in 1901 
by a rural route. XaA'ier Guittard was its postmaster for forty consecutive 
years. This was the most noted stage station on the Ben Holladay Overland 
stage line l)etween the Alissouri river and Denver, Colorado. 

Fleasleyville, a stage station in Center township, named for Jerry Heas- 
ley, a stage driver and early-day "character." 

Lidependence Crossing, a trading post six miles south of Alarysville in 
1848, located at the point where General Fremont forded the Big Blue in 
1842, and where the Mormons crossed in later years. Still known as the 
"Independence crossing," though no longer a ford. 

Lagrange, a postoffice located on section 21, Clearfork township. 

Lanesburg, or Lanes crossing, was on the Big Blue between Irving and 
Blue Rapids. 

Marble Falls, established in 1867 by Judge Lewis, father of Mrs. E. A. 
Berr\-, of \\"aterville. 'When the railroad located Waterville, the buildings 
were m.oved from ^Marljle Falls to W^aterville. 

Merrimac, located southeast of Irving in 1858 and abandoned in 1864; 
was at the present location of the Merrimac school house. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 207 

jMerrimac, platted in 1S67, ten miles west of Irving. 

Nottingham, second postoffice established in county, located on the 
homestead of D. C. Auld, section 2t,, Vermillion township, in 1857; moved 
to Franlcfort in 1S6S. 

Xew Dayton, located northeast of Barrett ; it never lived. 

Ohio City was located in 1855 on the c|uarter section joining Barrett on 
the southwest. 

Otoe, a stage station on the Oketo cutoff in the Otoe Indian reserve. 

Palmetto is the north half of Marysville. Incorporated in 1857. 

Raemer Creek, a very short-lived postoffice, now Herkimer; it was 
named for the Raemer Brothers, the early permanent settlers. 

Reedsville, a postoffice in Center township named for Allen Reed, post- 
master, keeper of a store and prominent settler. 

Stolzenbach, a postoffice located on section i. Balderson township, at 
the home of Peter Merklinghaus. 

Sylvan, located in 1858, abandoned in i860. Andreas' history states: 
''As early as 1859 efforts were made to move the county seat from Marys- 
ville to Syl\'an a new town located on section 25, township 3, range 8 ( now- 
Center township. ) The prime mover in this affair was T. S. Vaile, a mem- 
ber of the Free State Territorial Legislature from Alarshall county. Marys- 
ville at that time was reputed a pro-slavery town, and Vaile had an act passed 
removing the county seat to Sylvan. The only official business transacted 
at the new county seat was the canvassing of the vote of 1859. There being- 
no house at Sylvan, the county commissioners, J. D. Brumbaugh, George G. 
Pierce and S. Ostrander held their session in the house of George D. Swear- 
ingen. a mile distant. In 1859, Marysville was again made the county seat 
by a vote of the 'people'." For fifty years the name of Sylvan was but a 
meniorv until 1909, when the I^nion Pacific railroad was extended from 
Topeka to Marysville. and on the site selected for Sylvan now- stands the 
thriving little town of Winifred. 

Swede Creek was located one mile north of Cottage Hill in Cottagehill 
township. 

Vermillion City, located in 1859 near where the Vermillion creek empties 
into the Big Blue river, abandoned in 1859. 

A\'ells, named for John D. Wells, the earliest permanent settler in the 
county. It was a postoffice in Wells township, and John D. W^ells was the 
postmaster. 

White's Ouarrv was located on a branch of Spring creek ; it was a stone 



208 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

quarry nsetl !)}• llic railroad in tlic early seventies; it had a few tents and a 
shack, located southwest of i lonie City. 

.'\sh Point, a stag-e station on the Overland trail hetween Seneca and 
Guittard station, a few miles north of where Axtell now stands. 

Afton — Ten miles southwest of Marysville. 

Armour — Near Summerfield. 

Ewing — Three miles west of Vermillion ; named for Ewing family. 

Jelt's Town — Near Guittard. 

Kantanyan — Probahly where California trail left Marshall county. 

Pleasant Hill — Same as Swede creek. 

Westella — Seven miles north of Beattie. 
■ Woodson — -Same as Jett's towm. 

Taos, where Salem church now stands. W. F. Robinson was postmas- 
ter. 

Robidoux, old station, section 19, range 9, township 2. 



^^^^^^^HP^^^^^^V^ "'^ ^^^B^^l^^^l^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l 


^^p^l 


1 W;"^ ' 




Ijy ^^ 













MR. AND MRS. JOHN PECENKA, SR. 

First Bohemian Settlers in 

Marshall County. 




BOHEMIAN CEMETERY. 



CHAPTER IX. 
Foreign Element in Marshall County. 



BOHEMIANS. 

Far across the Atlantic ocean where the kingdoms, empires and repubhcs 
of Europe are now at war, John Pecenka was born, June 14, 1825, in the 
village Ridky, near Litomysl, district of Chrudim, in the southeastern part 
of Bohemia. 

Pecenka was of rural parentage, but of a cultured family. His brother, 
Josef, was educated for the Catholic priesthood and another brother, Vaclav, 
held a degree as Professor of Sciences and Doctor of Law. John Pecenka 
was a miller by trade and a musician by nature. Every moment not occupied 
by business, was devoted to the study of music, v/hich was his greatest 
delight. He operated a small grist-mill, propelled by overshot w^ater power 
and ground the golden grain for his neighbors. After the day's toil he 
dexterously wielded his bow in church, hall and opera. He had three sisters, 
who, after some years of schooling, married neighboring peasants. 

Jan, as written in the Cesky tongue, married at eighteen years, Katrina 
Kasper. To this union was born on April 21, 1847, John, and two years 
later, Anna, who died in infancv. 

Shortly after this the mother and wife died and Jan married a second 
time, choosing for his bride, Anna Flidbborn, born on October 31, 1830, in 
the village of Osyk, in Chrudim, near Litomysl. This lady was of Swobodnik 
parentage. The Swobodniks enjoyed peculiar privileges, being exempt from 
taxation on real estate and were full citizens. To this union were born in 
Bohemia, Joseph, Francis A., Anna, Vaclav and Katherina. The young 
parents felt the responsibilty of their growing family and knowing their sons 
would be claimed for military duty, they decided to come to America. 

They with some other families left Bohemia in the month of August, 
1 86 1, leaving from Janovicek, via Prague, Dresden and Leipsic to Bremen, 
where thev took passage to America. In Bremen a sad event occurred. 

(14) 



2IO MARSHALL COIXTY, KANSAS. 

Katlieiina nine nuniihs dd. :-ickcned ami died and as the ship was aljuut to 
sail ihey were compelled Id lea\e llie body with the undertaking authorities 
for burial. 

\\'ith sad and beax}' hearts they embarked and after eight w^eeks of 
rough sailing the little colony arri\ed in New York City late in October 
and proceeded b\' rail via Philadelphia and Pittsburgh to Chicago, Illinois, 
arriving there on November i, 1861. Here they spent a few w^eks and Jan 
Pecenka visited his sister, x\nna Dosedel, and her husband, Vaclav Dosedel, 
who had preceded him six months, bringing with them his son, John. At 
the time of their arri\'al the War of the Rebellion was raging. Funds w^ere 
low and the men of the party looked for work. Jan Pecenka was tendered 
the leadership of a military band, but declined. Bohemian friends in Chicago 
advised the colonists that eastern Iowa was opening for settlement and the 
next move was to the counties of Linn and Johnson, near Shueyville, Iowa. 

They found no government land, but some bought, and others rented, 
land on shares. Winter w'as spent working at odd jobs. Jan, being a 
musician, found employment teaching vocal and instrumental music and made 
a living for his wife and family of four children. On one occasion having 
played for a ball at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, he carried a sack of flour on his 
shoulders for eight miles, holding his vioHn case carefully and plowing 
through snow three feet deep, while the stonn raged with fury. But the 
little ones had to be fed and he braved the storm. 

At that time wages were very meager and the country undeveloped. 
Two weekly papers, Slovau Amcriky a Ccsky Casopis, published in Iowa 
City, and' Slavic, published in Racine, Wisconsin, gave the news that 
Bohemian colony clubs were being formed to promote the interests of 
Bohemians and that a convention would be held in Chicago, Illinois, soon. 
John Pecenka and a Air. Bures were sent to this convention as delegates to 
accjuire definite information relative to settling on government land. Very 
little good resulted from this convention. The colony remained in Iowa for 
eight years and established a permanent colony there. But the desire to 
own their homes prevailing, and the homestead law having been enacted, 
those settlers paid heed to the advice of Horace Greeley, "Go West, and grow 
up with the country." 

John Pecenka took out naturalization papers on February 23, 1869, at 
Marion, Linn county, Iowa ; rigged up two prairie schooners each drawn 
by a team of horses and a yoke of oxen and, in company with Matthias Mozis, 
who had a like equipment, led a caravan across the prairies, plains and 
swamps of Iowa into the eastern part of Kansas. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 211 

FLAG INCIDENT IN 1 869. 

On this journey while ]Dassing through Oregon City, Missouri, on the 
Fourth of July, an incident occurred worth relating. 

In honor of the day the wagons were decorated with the national colors ; 
citizens of the town ol)jected to this and demanded of the leader, Pecenka, 
that the American flag he hauled down. The leader refused to remove the 
flags from the wagons, lea])ed into his prairie schooner, took down his double- 
barreled shotgun and laid it across his knees and commanded "Buck" and 
"Bright" to proceed. Thev did ; other teams followed, and the performance 
was over. Our "show me" friends on the eastern border were not success- 
ful in their attempt on Uncle Sam's colors and the flag w^as defended by the 
Bohemians. The next day the party crossed the Missouri at White Cloud 
and landed on Kansas soil on July 5, 1869. 

Bleeding Kansas had been pictured to these people in the most horrible 
manner, as the home of the grasshopper, chinch bug, perpetual and hot wdnds, 
drought and the like, so that these homeseekers were almost persuaded to 
believe these fallacious stories. But they were hopeful, persevering and 
trusted in Providence that the "promised land" would be realized to them in 
a different way, and would bestow on them happiness, prosperity and con- 
tentment. 

On scanning the beautiful landscape, the undulating prairies, bedecked 
with tall blue stem, and luxuriant verdure waving with the gentle swell of 
the breeze, every nodding flow^er beckoning to these pioneers and whispering, 
"Welcome, thou weary travelers, abide with us and make a home on this, 
God's footstool." 

FUTURE GOVERNOR WELCOMES BOHEMIANS. 

That evening brought the party to the small town of Morrill, on the 
Grand Island railroad and filled with hapi^ness e\en unto tears, this little 
band manifested their joy with merry-making, music and dancing, as there 
^\■ere fourteen in the party. 

The landlord of the farm paid a visit to these strangers and invited them 
to his house to play for his wife. A few choice selections were rendered and 
the visitors were royally treated. After taking the party through the new 
residence in construction, he invited them to locate in that vicinity. ]\Iany 
inducements and favorable propositions were offered these prospective set- 
tlers, as he had large tracts of land and would have sold to them on the best 



212 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

possible term^^. lUil ilie jjarty were iinaljle to l)n}- and tliey were seeking free 
government land homesteads "homeseds," in (he nali\e tongue. 

The offer of the kind and generous man was not accepted. After 
twenty-five years of toil, developing the plains of Marshall county, there 
came to the city of Marysville a candidate campaigning the state for the 
position of state executive. After the speech, with a hearty handshake, the 
men who camped at his dooryard met the future governor of J<!ansas, Hon. 
E. N. Morrill.' 

BOHEMIANS ARRIVE IN MARSHALL COUNTY. 

The caravan reached the little city of Irving in time to help friends who 
had preceded them to harvest and the party had their first experience in the 
harvest fields of Marshall county on the Black Vermillion. /\fter receiving 
reliable information that Congress had given all odd numbered sections to 
the Central Branch, Alissouri Pacific railroad, and after building a log cabin 
for the editor of an Irving paper, the party moved north, coming to Marys- 
ville, where, while there was no railroad, there was a good grist-mill on the 
west bank of the Blue river. In Marysville, Samuels kept a grocery, Frank 
Schmidt, a dry-goods store and Charles Koester clerked for him; Brum- 
baugh and Magill were lawyers, and David Wolf kept a saloon. They 
traveled west over the California trail into now Logan township and located 
on the preesnt site. 

FIRST HOMESTEAD ENTRY. 

The first homestead entry of government land ever made from this part 
of Marshall county, in the Junction City land office, by a Bohemian-Amer- 
ican, was made Ijy John Pecenka on August 13, 1869, on the southeast c|uarter 
of section 30, township 2, range 6 east, containing one hundred and sixty 
acres. His son, John, made entry on the southwest quarter of section 30, 
township 2, south of range 6 east, containing one hundred and sixty acres. 
This land bordered on Washington county on the west. 

"AA'e started in a strange land among strangers, but hope kept our cour- 
age up and we went right on building a new home in the wilderness." Mr. 
Pecenka, with the help of the family, made a dugout in the side of a hill, 
about fourteen by sixteen feet, and set native uprights or crotches for beams 
or pole support, upon which were laid split rails for rafters, covered with 
slough grass, this in turn being covered with a layer of virgin sod, making a 
warm and comfortable shelter. This was their first habitation on the hillside. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 213 

AN UNREHEARSED SCENE. 

It had a door and two small windows on the south side and one side of 
the roof was level with the surrounding ground, making it easily accessible 
from that side. What might have been expected, happened. In most cases 
the first settlers made the tracks, both foot and wagon road, and one of these 
paths led right in front of the door across Walnut creek. One night a friend 
and neighbor, ]\Iike Casey, a benighted traveler, going home from Marys- 
ville, got off the track and drove on to the roof of the dugout. The horses 
began to fall through the roof, the children screamed, some lamented, others 
cursed, some thought the devil was trying to crawl through the roof. After 
the catastrophe, with some apologies, the wrong was righted and Casey pro- 
ceeded on the right trail and all sat and felt that while not injured, they were 
badly scared. 

John Pecenka procured a breaking plow and broke about six acres of 
prairie for sowing down to spring wheat. The colony was strengthened from 
time to time by the addition of other settlers. Albret Kaprel, a veteran 
soldier of Bohemia, and Frantisek Kerhat came from Irving and, later, Jan 
V^avruska came direct from Bohemia. On Alarch ii, 1871, the first child of 
Bohemian parents was born in this part of the county, Anna Vavruska, now 
living in Nebraska. 

There are two distinct Bohemian settlements in Marshall county. One 
is located west of ]\Iarysville and south of Bremen, in Logan and \\^alnut 
townships, and the other south of W'aterville and Blue Rapids and southwest 
of Irving, chielly on the Game Fork creek. 

Although Bohemians are found in almost every township, they are most 
numerous in the above mentioned localities. 

FURTHER INFLUX OF SETTLERS. 

On June 5, 187c, a large caravan of prairie schooners arrived from 
Cedar Rapids. Among the settlers were Jiri Zabokstsky and a large family. 
He bought a relinquishment from Asa Parks, of Alarysville. \A'ith him came 
Josef Houder and a family of eighteen children. Vaclav Dosedel and wife 
came from Racine, Wisconsin. Dosedel and John Pecenka were brothers-in- 
law. John Brychta came from Cedar Rapids. Josef Stehlik came direct 
from Bohemia; he was a tailor and piu'sued his trade until his death. Josef 
Cejp bought out the claim of McChesney. Vaclav Kutis came from St. 
Louis. In i86g a colony of sixty-five homesteaded near Hanover. 



214 MARSH. \l.l. COUNTY, KANSAS. 

In June. \^J4. \'aclav Cejp and f;;niily came direct fmni Pjohcmia. He 
bought out the claim of 1 )an Stuckey. julm linchla and ("ej|) were hmthers- 
in-law. On Xoveniher 7, 1874, Josef Swoboda came from the sable pineries 
of Racine, \\"isconsin. He bought out the claim of Michael Ouigley. Later 
on, came Josef Sedlacek from the \illage of Sedliste, Bohemia. ])riniaril\- for 
the purpose of scrutinizing the country. He came, he saw and was conquered, 
went back with a favorable report and returned with a large family, bringing 
many other families witli him. 

Late in the autumn of 1873 came Jrm Alexa and a large family from 
Minden. Micliigan, and with lum came Air. and AL's. Tuka, his wife's par- 
ents. In autumn came Marie Pacha (also written Pejsa). a widow with a 
large family of marriageable sons and daughters, from Minden, Michigan. 
They settled in Logan township. 

Frank Sedlacek, the eldest son of Josef Sedlacek, married and settled in 
Marysville township, buying out the farm of George Bachoritch. In 1876 
and 1877 Josef Bruna and Josef A. Sedlacek came direct from Bohemia and 
settled in Walnut township. A\ ith tb.em came Frank Holota, w'ife and chil- 
dren, locating in Logan township, and Maty Hlous settled in AA'alnut. 

POSSESS QUALITIES MAKING FOR SUCCESS. 

The history of the Bohemians in Alarshall county resembles in many 
respects that of other first settlers. They came for the purpose of acquiring 
homes of their own. \\^hile not wealthy, they possessed hope, endurance, 
perseverance and industry in unlimited quantities. All of these qualities 
were essential for the success of the first settlers and have brought them 
wealth, happiness and contentment. Some of the pioneers came from the 
respective states of their mother country and settled a short time in the East 
before mo\'ing West, while others came to Kansas direct from Bohemia or 
Moravia. 

One of the first acts of an alien Bohemian is to take out his naturaliza- 
tion papers. The Bohemians speak with pride of their newlv-adopted 
country. Naturall}-, they think well of the mother country — and who does 
not of his native land? — but they realize the great advantages and beneficent 
laws of the United States and speak of it as "our new, beloved country." 

The Bohemian people are industrious, upright and frugal, possessing the 
utmost integrity of character and are scrupulous in all their dealings. Thev 
take great pride in enjoying their religious and political freedom. Thev 
make good, loyal, law-abiding American citizens and have contributed largelv 
to the political and social development of the county. Bohemians, like all 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 21^ 

Other nationalities, like to congregate together and speak their sentiments in 
their nati^'e langnage. But they are not clannish ; on the contrary they are 
pretty good mixers. There are various societies, lodges, corporations and 
clubs in Alarshall count}- and Bohemians may be found in all. Religiously, 
thev are largely Catholic, although not exclusively so. 

FRATERNAL ORGANIZATION. 

The organization known as the Bohemian Roman Catholic First Central 
Union of the United States had its origin in St. Louis, Missouri, in August, 
1877. It is a fraternal order securing to its members sick benefits as well 
as life insurance. The object of this order is to foster the practice of religious 
duties and to promote Catholic interests, also to unite Bohemian Catholic 
societies in works of charity and benevolence. Also, to cultivate and perpetu- 
ate the mother tongue and many other good objects of social, moral and 
spiritual life. 

There are three hundred and one local unions in the United States with 
a membership of seven thousand. The local lodge located in Hanover, Kan- 
sas, is called Spolek Sv. A^aclava cis 23. This union had at one time thirty 
members. At present there are eleven male and three female members. The 
president is John Pecenka, of Bremen; secretary, Frank Jedlicka, Washing- 
ton ; treasurer, A. Pejsa, Hanover. 

THE BOHEMIAN CEMETERY. 

Following the Pikes Peak Ocean to Ocean Highway, west from ^larys- 
ville, to where it joins the county line of Washington county, the traveler 
comes upon this quiet little cemetery by the side of the road. 

There are not many graves within the enclosure, but an inspection shows 
that many of those sleeping there came from Bohemia, far away in the heart 
of Europe,, leaving the rule of monarchy, to become citizens of this republic 
and pioneers of Marshall county. 

They made homes in A\hat was then the Great American Desert, far 
removed from the estates of their ancestors and scenes of their childhood 
days and shared the hardships of their adopted country with her native-horn 
children. No grave is neglected or forgotten in this quiet little cemetery, 
with its velvet grass and whispering pines. The inscription over the arch- 
way causes the thoughtful passer by to pause and reflect: 

"Byli Jsme Co Vy Ste; Co ^ly Jsme Vy Budete." 
"We were what vou are: what we are you will be." 



2l6 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Two pioneers of Alarshall county who rest here are John Pecenka, born 
June i-i, iS_'5; ched on November ij, 1902, and Anna Pecenka, his wife, 
born on October 31, 1830; died on January 5, 1897. 

Here also sleep Wesley and Anna Dosedel, Mathias Swoboda and wife, 
and Jan Machal, who saw ninety summers and winters. 

Jan Alexa served eight years in the Austrian army and took part in the 
revolution of Alayence in 1848. On Christmas Day last lie met the Conqueror 
and was laid to rest beside his loved ones. And here sleeps Joseph Koles, 
born on October 26, 1848. He fought with the boys in blue in 1862, for 
liberty and the flag. 

DANES OF MARSHALL COUNTY. 

Undoubtedly, the first Dane who settled in Marshall county was a Cali- 
fornia gold-miner — a "forty-niner" — John Nelson. He was probably the 
only pioneer in the county who came from the West. He settled on Upper 
Spring creek in 1855. Two years later he went to Denmark and on his 
return brought his mother, a brother. Soren Johnson, and a widowed sister, 
Elnora Johnson, and her two children, James and Dorothea. The party 
traveled from St. Joseph in a wagon; M4-. Nelson's aged mother died on^ 
the way and was buried near Seneca. Kansas. 

Air. Nelson again lived on his farm until 1874 when lie left for Placer- 
ville, California, and remained there. In 19 12 he fell ill and the niece whom 
he had brought from Denmark, now Mrs. Dr. E. L. Wilson, Sr., went to 
California cared for him and at his death brought the remains here and made 
interment in the Marysville cemetery. His nephew, James Johnson, farmed 
Nelson's land for many years until he. too, left for the West and settled in 
Arizona. 

No other Danes settled around them, but a small settlement sprang up 
in Walnut township, centering around five pioneers who cam.e in 1869. They 
were J. I'. Lund, H. M. Johnson, N. H. White, Chr. Johnson and N. P. 
Christiansen, all well-known citizens of the county. Christiansen is the only 
one of the five now living. 

Enough settlers soon came to that section' to organize and build a church, 
which for some years was served by Danish-speaking ministers, but when 
the influx from the older country slackened and the ranks of the old settlers 
were thinned by death, the congregation discarded the mother tongue and 
adopted the English language. These Danes and their descendants are 



MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 217 

recognized as industrious, frugal and loyal citizens. They have won places 
of dignity in the public affairs of the county and are always law-abiding 
and upright citizens. 

REMINISCENCES. 

The following reminiscences of H. M. Johnson, as told in the history 
of "Danske i Amerika," form an interesting narrative. He writes: 

The reason wliv T. P. Lund and T came to Kansas was a rumor about 
a Dane named Hanson, wlio had selected a site for a colony somewhere near 
Irving. This plan was ne\'er realized. I had previously enrolled in the 
Scandinavian colony, organized in Chicago, which had in that spring (1869) 
platted the town of Scandia in Republic county. I lost my membership fee 
of twenty dollars, which I paid into that fund. We came then to Irving by 
rail ; the St. Joe and Denver railroad had not then entered the county. I 
was not married, but Lund had a family and we rented a small shanty. We 
needed fuel and through this need received an invitation to pioneer life by 
a literal baptism — an immersion in the Blue river. Friendly neighbors told 
us we could take all the wood we wanted at the river, free, and we l^ought 
a yoke of oxen and a wagon (which we had to have any way). Neither! 
of us had any experience with this kind of "horses," but we managed to 
get them hitched up and headed for the river. It was a hot day in June 
and we both rode in the wagon, — who should walk when they had a wagon 
of their own — but when the oxen came in sight of the water, they struck 
out in a wild run and would not mind the least what we said (perhaps they 
did not understand Danish). We could not get off the wagon, they went 
so fast. The oxen plumped right down into the river and then we got out. 
The water lifted the wagon 1)ed off and we capsized. \\'ith great exertion 
we got the hind wheels to the land. The oxen brought the front gear, but 
the box went with the current, and a new box cost us fifteen dollars. 

TWO "real" horses. 

We had several undesirable baths that summer, but they were happily 
not so costly as this one, but more disagreeable. 

Soon after our wood expedition we, with two Swedes, went on a twenty- 
five-mile trip to look at land. We had to cross a creek that was swollen by 
rain and were taken across in some kind of boat by a man who lived some- 
where in the neighborhood. By the time we returned, he had got tired of 
waiting and we did not know where to look for him. The boat was there. 



2l8 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

but we did not know any more nhont a 1)<)at llian we did abont oxen, and 
the consequence was we i^ot across ab\e but soaking- wet, and had to camp 
over night, without anything to eat. in a little old. abandoned mill, where we 
had left the team when we went across. We were traveling in style this 
time — had a hired rig. consisting of an old spring wagon and two real horses. 
One of the horses would not pull loads, so we had to get off and walk up 
hill ; but down hill nothing but an upset could have stopped us. 

When we ffnally got back to Irving one of these horse-beasts was the 
cause of my not, literally speaking, taking land. It kicked me when we 
unhitched, on one leg, so I was not able to walk for several days, and I had 
to leave it to others, who went on the expedition to select land on Upper 
Walnut creek, to pick the quarter for me that became my homestead for so 
many years. 

I filed on the southeast quarter of section 4, to\vnship 3, range 6, east, 
and Lund filed on the adjoining west f|uarter, and we became quite busy 
about making a temporary shelter. This was only an excavation into a 
ravine bank, with a thatched roof of slough grass, but it was "home." and 
when we got ready to move into it. we went to Irving, loaded our worldly 
movables — they were not many — to take them to the claim and get straight- 
ened up some, before Lund's housekeeper came with his children (Mrs. Lund 
died at Irving, leaving a babe). The girl, who had accornpanied them from 
the old country, volunteered to remain and care for the little baby and keep 
house for us while we were getting things in some kind of shape. 

There had been heavy rains and the river w^as high and there were no 
wagon bridges over the rivers, except at Alarysville, wdiere there was a gov- 
ernment bridge, but to get to it, we had first to cross the river. Irving being 
on the west side. We were ready to postpone the trip until a friend of ours, 
P. S. Lundgren, got a bright idea. 

PRIMITIVE LOCOMOTION. 

He was a shoemaker and h.ad put up his shingle as such in Irving. He 
proposed that we should buy four planks, which we had good use for any- 
how, and drive to the railroad "bridge; then by laying the planks on the ties 
and by carrying them forward, two could push the wagon o\'er and one 
could guide the oxen from the bridge with ropes and let them swim over. 
And. to show his good will, he would go along and help us across. The 
plan was a capital one and it worked — but it must have been by the "angels 
p'uardin^ the innocents." None of us knew we liad no right to do this. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 219 

or knew at what hours trains were expected, but it gave us a shock when 
a train thundered Iw just as we got the wagon safely across and down the 
embankment. 

Lundgren went l)ack to town and we set out for our claims. Our travel- 
ing on the railroad had not, in this case, hurried matters any, and darkness 
overtook us in conjunction with a thunder shower, so we could not see our 
guide post — a long pole with a rag on it, set up at the southeast corner of 
my claim. The shower vas heavy and we liad to unhitch the oxen and seek 
.'^belter un.der the wagon, but we got wet through. After the shower was 
over we soon discovered we had lost the faint wagon trail and became more 
and more l:ewdldered. so we concluded it best to unhitch again and await 
daylight. 

We were chillefl in uur wet clothes, so we took them off and wrune 
them *as dry as we could and did the same to a woollen blanket, we luckilv 
had along, and, after dividing a pint of wdiiskey, we rolled up in the blanket 
as tight as we could. I shall always lielieve here was a case wdiere whiskey 
was a blessing. I think it sa^•ed me from a congestive chill or pneumonia. 
We had bought it to counteract "snake bites" and for a handy house medi- 
cine, as we were not well enough off to indulge a taste for liquor. 

\\''hen morning broke I went to look for the oxen which had straved 
during the riight and on topping a raise of ground made the discovery that, 
we were within a scant mile of our dugout. 

AN ERRATIC MUSKET. 

All settlers of the same vintage as ours, remember the lean years that 
followed — drought and grasshoppers — Init we lived through it. Idie larger 
game had gone further west beyond the Republican river, where parties 
sometimes would go to get buffalo meat and hides, provided their own were 
not left out there. Of a party of seven who wTnt out from Waterville, only 
one returned, six having Iieen killed by Indians. 

The country swarmed with prairie chickens and Lund shot several from 
the house door, and could have shot many more if we had owned a reliable 
gun. We had bought an old musket in order to show we were armed and 
not f:t the mercy of marauders, but we could never Ije sure the hammer 
would wait for us to pull the trigger and when it did, that it would hit the 
percussion cap with sufficient force. 

Lurd's t'\\o little boys proved to be Ijetter gamesters than their father, 
as thev learned to set traps, and I have known them to catch as many as 



220 MAKSllALI. COUNTY, KANSAS. 

six at one setting;'. W'c liacl prairie chicl<eiis fried, boiled and stewed and 
lost our appetite for tbeni. 

We then took the breasts and saked and smoked them, and in that way- 
secured a splencbd meat for our cold lunches. Such would now be a 
"delicatessen." but is not the onl_\' tbino- that is missed from pioneer life. 
Trust and contentment abode with us then more than ever since. 

PREFERRED EXILE TO ARMS. 

We undoubtedly had more trials than the majority of new settlers 
because we were pioneers in a two-fold sense, in short, "greenhorns," as all 
emigrants were then called. Lund and I Ijoth came from the Duchy of 
Schleswig, which the Prussians and Austrians wrested from Denmark in 
1864. I had the choice in 1866 of joining the Prussian colors or going into 
exile. I chose the latter and went oxer into Denmark and worked there on 
well-regulated farms until 1868, \xhen 1 came to Chicago, where Lund joined 
me the year after, when we then went to Kansas to start an agrarian life 
from the grass roots, with a very meager stock of knowledge to draw on. 

I had picked u]) some English and we could both speak some German, 
so we got along fairly well in regard to language. 

Several Germans came out later from Illinois and all were neighbors in 
"those days. We had reason to think we had found the choicest spot on 
earth. The grass (blue stem) grew thick and tall and there were any num- 
ber of ponds of crystal clear water, which we supposed to be from springs, 
l^ut afterwards learned v/ere only bufi'alo wallows that would go dry, which 
they did the following year. Then in order to get a little hay we had to 
hunt for spots of grass long enough to mov/. 

We cam.e too late in the season to raise any kind of crop and I went 
up to the Otoe reservation and bought a load of potatoes and cabbage. On 
the way back I got lost again, of course, when it became dark and had to 
stop and unhitch and then my trouble commenced in earnest. The Indians 
had burned the grass and my oxen were hungry and smelled the cabbage. 
I o-ave them the smallest heads and that onlv made them more insistent, and 
I hr.d to walk guard around my wagon all night to save my cabbage. Xever 
has ccfTee tasted so delicious as it did that morning when I reached' home 



agam. 



r» tJA 4 I wJW/ 




G. H. HOLLENBERG. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 221 

THE GERMANS OF MARSHALL COUNTY. 

In the early fifties, when Kansas was in a stage of formation, Germans 
in the Eastern states took a srreat interest in the contest as to whether Kansas 
and Nebraska slionld be slave or free. 

Democracy in 1848 led many Germans from the Fatherland to America 
and their attention turned to Kansas as the battle-ground where freedom 
must prevail. 

Some German newspapers were estal^lished very early in Kansas. The 
Kansas Zcitung, issued in Atchison in 1857, bore boldly on the front page 
the title: "An organ for free speech, free soil and free men." 

During the past fifty years more than sixty German newspapers have 
been published in Kansas. The Kansas Staats Zcitung was published in 
Marys ville in 1879 to 1881. 

The federal census discloses that there has not been a county in the state 
since 1880 but contains German citizens. The first German citizen to locate 
in Marshall county was G. H. Hollenberg. He was followed by the Koppes, 
Raemer, Friedrichs and other families; Frank Schmidt and C. F. Koester 
also were among the pioneers. Settlements were made in Herkimer and in 
Herkimer township ; on Horse Shoe creek and on Mission and Spring creeks. 
Also along the Blue rivers from Marietta to Walnut creek and a number set- 
tled in Marysville township. 

In manv families there was a fierce struggle for the very necessities of 
life and the older children had small chance for schooling. But even in the 
most strenuous times the Germans never lost their taste for music and art 
and appreciated keenly the need of education for their children. They were 
strangers in a strange land and had to exert every effort to maintain a 
standard of equality with the native-born and the English-speaking people of 
America. 

The necessity of proper religious training for the young children soon 
led to the erection of churches and maintaining the schools in connection with 
them. With a family to provide for and the expense of carrying on the 
farm, they vet gave of the scant store to keep alive their mother tongue and 
to train their children in the faith of their fathers. As the years have passed 
tlie enrollment of children of German descent in all the schools has grown, 
the number of graduates lias increased and the ranks of our teachers have 
been augmented and strengthened by the addition of those of German-speak- 
ing parents. Many children of parents who came directly to Marshall county 



222 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

from German)', li:i\e l)ecn proiiiiiicni among onr educators. The generation 
of today is, of course, American. 

PROMINENT IN BUSINESS LIFE. 

Germans ha\e l)ecn prominent in the business Hfe of tlie county. They 
have engaged in mercantile pursuits and hanking and are to be found in all 
business occupations. 

The Germans w lio came to Marshall county were actuated by a desire 
to obtain land and to make homes. The well-watered, well-timbered county 
with its fine soil offered them the opportunity. The desire to own his own 
home is strong in the German. The farmer toiled early and late to acquire 
his own land, and if he borrowed money it was to buy more land. The build- 
ings he erected were substantial and more for endurance than for show. As 
times grew easier more comfort, and cA-en elegance, was added to the home 
and surroundings. Their long residence on the farms has demonstrated their 
success as farmers. 

The political status in Kansas suited the Germans. Here they were 
free to select that political party ^^•hich most nearly represented their views, 
and while th.ey have not clamored for political recognition. ^Marshall county 
has been ably represented by Germans in both branches of the Legislature. 
J. Weisbach. Frank Schmidt, G. H. Hollenberg, ^^"illiam Raemer, F. H. 
Pralle and John Knoni have Ijeen members of that body and Hon. F. G. 
Bergen is th.e present state senator from the county. 

\\'hen tlie new country was in the making, the Germans who came to 
Alarshall county helped \evy materially in laying the foundations for the 
splendid county of today. 

The German farmer possessed attril)utes that made him peculiarly 
adapted to pioneer life. Honesty, industry, patience, love of children and 
respect for his elders, were virtues characteristic of the German. 

The pioneer German shared fully in the labor and struggle which was 
necessary in liuilding up the various interests of the county and it is not too 
much to say that much of the advancement in all lines of progress — educa- 
tional and religious as ^^ell as in material prosperity — has been due to the 
steadfast character of the Germans who constitute a large part of its citizen- 
ship. 

There was never an}- spirit of re\-olution or anarchy among the Germans 
of Marshall county. They are peaceable, law-abiding and, in the main, 
religious. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 223 

During the \\^ar ot the RebelHon they demonstrated beyond a doubt 
their unswerving- loyalty to the United States. Some Germans from the 
county served in the \\'ar with Spain and some are at present in the regular 
army. 

It is a truth well worth considering that a man who is disloyal to his 
native land vrill lack in loyalty to the land of his adoption. The lines of 
lineage of many of our citizens reach far across the sea, but the flag which 
has protected them for many years and which casts its folds over their homes 
and firesides, v.ill receive their allegiance whenever endangered. 

PROMINENT GERMAN AND SWaSS FAMILIES. 

Rudolph and Frank Yaussi, brothers, prominent farmers and business 
men of the county, take an actixe interest in furthering all eflr'orts for better 
community life. They are earnest advocates of education and are Lutheran 
in religious faith. Rudolph still lives on the farm, but Frank long ago became 
a resident of Alarysville. He erected the fine theatre corner of Sixth and 
Broadway, with store rooms beneath, and conducts a general clothing and 
men's furnishing establishment. He is also a stock owner in the Citizen's 
Bank of Alarysville and the Winifred State Bank, of which latter bank his 
son, Albert, is cashier, and his daughter, Florence, is clerk. Mr. and Airs. 
Rudolph and Frank Yaussi are musical and hospitable and the homes of each 
are centers of attraction for young and old. 

Nicholas Koppes is a native-born resident of the county. His father 
served his country during the War of the Rebellion. He was a pioneer of 
the county and "Nick," as he is called by his friends, followed the plow when 
he was so small that the father had to place extra handles on the plow to 
make them low enough so the bra^•e little plowman could reach them. He 
has broad acres of land today and is numbered among the substantial men 
of the county. 

^^'illiam Schwindaman numbers a large circle of friends and was for 
years the trustee of Marysville township. He manages the elevator at Hull 
and he and his wife are well known and greatlv liked. 

I. Dwerlkotte was one of the prosperous farmers who came direct from 
the farm to take charge of the Citizens State Bank. He is a man of tine 
presence and keen business acumen and is one of the representative men of 
the city. His brother, F. A. Dwerlkotte, manages one of the best farms in 
the vicinity of Alarysville and is one of the men who progresses with the 
times. 



224 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

AUG. HOHN & SONS. 

In March, 1876, Aug. Hohn, in partnersliip with Nicholas Kalenborn, 
began his business career in Marysville in a small frame building located on 
the lot where Herman Ackerman's jewelry store now stands, the firm n.ame 
at that time being Hohn & Kalenborn. 

In the fall of the same year Kalenborn's interest was purchased by a 
Mr. Rommel and the firm continued the business under the name of Hohn 
& Rommel, until Rommel's interest was acquired by E. G. Draheim in 1877, 
changing the title of the firm to Hohn & Draheim. The new firm later pur- 
chased the lot \\here the First National Bank now stands and built what was 
then termed a modern store building. In 1891 Mr. Draheim's interest was 
bought by Mr. Hohn, who conducted the business under the name of Aug. 
Hohn until Alay, 1895, when Arthur Hohn, a son, was made a member of 
the firm and the style of the firm was changed to Aug. Hohn & Son. I'he 
firm continued the business under this name until January, 1900, when George 
T. Mohrbacher was made a member of the firm and the name changed to 
Aug. Hohn & Sons (Mr. Mohrbacher being a son-in-law of Mr. Aug. Hohn.) 
In 1901 the firm secured their present location in which they have continued 
their business up to the present time. 

The business career of Mr. Aug. Hohn, the senior member of the firm, 
with forty-one years of active business to his credit is worthy of notice and 
is a splendid example of what thrift, honesty and square dealing will accom- 
plish. 

THE SWISS IN MARSHALL COUNTY. 

Song and story have told of the love of the Swiss for his mountain 
home, yet many have left their mother country to find more remunerative 
returns for their labors in other places. Having been trained in industry and 
frugality, he has not looked for easy or favored positions and for that reason 
most of those who came to the United States to make homes have succeeded. 

The first natives of Switzerland, the Alpine republic, to take up their 
abode in Marshall county were Joseph and Frank Thoman and their sister, 
Mrs. George Guittard, who settled on the Vermillion north of the present 
Beattie in 1856. \\'hile they came here from Alsace in France, the-Thomans 
came from the canton of Basel in Switzerland, which borders on Alsace, and 
where Thoman is an old and well-known name. After the War of the 
Rebellion others came. H. Frauhiger settled on Mountain creek in 1866, 



MARSHALL COUNTY. KANSAS. 225 

a few came to Waterville In 1868 with the new railroad. The Kiionis, 
Waelle, Bohner, Rnffner and Ryser came in 1870-71. During this decade 
many others followed to make homes near Marysville. 

THE HELVETIA SOCIETY. 

On December 29, 1883, the Helvetia Society of Marysville, was called 
into life by vSamuel Forter. Following is a list of the first officers and mem- 
bers of this organization: President, David Waelle, from Graubuenden; 
secretary, Emil Forter, from St. Gallen ; treasurer, Jacob Begert, from Bern ; 
director of singing, Samuel Forter, of St. Gallen. Members — Caspar 
Stauffacher, Jacob Kuoni, John Bohner, Christ Ruffner, John D. Walters, 
Rudolph and Gottlieb Blaser. Jacob and John Seematter, Adolph and Gott- 
fried Braeuchi, Jacob and Robert WuUschleger, Jacob and Gottlieb Ruetti, 
Fritz Zybach, John Bangerter. Fritz Moeri. 

Of the first officers, Emil Forter is now living in Denver, Colorado, 
and Samuel Forter in Marysville. David Waelle has been called to rest after 
a long and useful life, and Jacob Begert, one of nature's noblemen met with 
a fatal accident years ago and the community lost a real man. 

For a few years this society had as many as sixty-five members; it had 
a male chorus of sixteen, which took part in many of the state saengerfests, 
always ranking high and winning many prizes. By January, 191 7, its mem- 
bership had decreased to thirty, Ijut the male chorus is still working. During 
its existence this society has paid over two thousand dollars in sick benefits to 
its members. 

Prof. John D. Walters, M. Sc, is without doubt the most widely known 
member of this society. He was the first leader of the first brass band in 
Marshall countv. For forty consecutive years he has been a member of 
the faculty of the Kansas State Agricultural College, where he is now the 
dean of the department of architecture and drawing. He has been the 
senior member of the faculty since 1897. For years he has taken much 
interest in the American Educational Association. His lectures on agri- 
cultural college work have been heard all over Kansas and in many other 
states. His text books on free hand and industrial drawing have been 
adopted by a great many schools and colleges in the West. He has been an 
active educator for more consecutive years than any other man in Kansas, 
and thousands of graduates of the Kansas State Agricultural College laud 
the conscientious work of Professor Walters. 

(15) 



226 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

TITK ForXDKR OF THE SOCIETY. 

Samuel I-'oiier. the founder of the society followed the business of 
blacksmithin,!,'- from iJ^// to igoo. During- these years he donated much 
time and eneroy in other directions. He organized the first real fire 
department in Marysville and seryed as its chief until 1900; was president 
of the Kansas State Firemens Association in 1898 at Chicago; was president 
of the band for eighteen years, directed the singing for the Turner and 
Swiss societies, taught physical culture for the Turner society for fourteen 
years and took an actiye part in a great many theatricals and concerts and 
lodge functions. In the fall of 1899 Congressman Calderhead took him out 
of his blacksmith shop and made him his priyate secretary, which place he 
filled satisfactorily for four years, during which he seryed as assistant clerk 
for the postoffice and postroads committee ; also for the committee on bank- 
ing and currency in the House of Representatives. In 1904 Eugene F. Ware, 
United States commissioner of pensions, appointed him a "special examiner 
in the field," and for seyen years he was engaged in pension work in the states 
of Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Colorado and parts of Missouri and Kan- 
sas. From April i, 191 1, to March 15, 1915. he seryed as postmaster at 
Marysville, when he was succeeded by a Democrat. 

John H. Kuoni, son of Mathias Kuoni, has served the county as a mem- 
ber of the Legislature, township trustee and in other capacities always with 
credit to himself and benefit to his constituents. 

Charles Keller has been trustee and treasurer of Franklin towuiship, 
wdiere he has extensive farming interests for many years. His brother, 
Gottfried Keller, laid out the town of Walkersburg. now Winifred, on a part 
of his half section farm. 

Jacob and John Seematter are both successful farmers, owning enough 
land to give each of their numerous sons a good farm. 

Jacob and Robert Wullschleger followed the business of carpenters and 
builders for many years ; then they took to the farm, where they have been 
amply rewarded for their industry and good management. 

Rudolph and Frank ^^aussi have been prominent members of the Hel- 
vetia society. Their sketch will be found elsewhere in this book. 

Carl Haenni was teacher of physical culture for the Turner society for 
eleven years and for fifteen years he has directed the Swiss singers and the 
Maennerchor. 

John Thierstein has been president of the Helvetia verein for a long 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 227 

period. His steady hand has guided its welfare as successfully as it has 
guided the work on his big farm near Marysville. 

The treasury has been in charge of Gottfried Braeuchi for twenty years, 
it could not Ije in better hands. Plenty of work and absolute integrity have 
made him a general favorite, along with President Thierstein. If this Swiss 
.society ever ceases singing it will be because the clarion tenor of Thierstein 
and the "aelpler jodel" of Braeuchi. have been stilled. Jacob Ruetti is like- 
wise an old and honored m.ember. ]\Iany years of hard work on his farm 
have made it possible for him to come to town in the back seat of his auto. 

In years gone this society made a practice of observing the Swiss 
national independence, or holiday, in appropriate manner, the wives of mem- 
l^ers outdoing each other in the preparation of the banquet of Swiss dishes. 
.\rd to this day the gr.ests at these tables recall those old "gruetlifests" as 
'he m.ost pleasant times of^their life. It was the Swiss women who made 
those gatherings the success they were, and to their industry and frugality 
belongs a great deal of the credit for the success on the farm or in the busi- 
ness undertakings of their husbands. 

The present officers of the society are: John Thierstein, president; Jacob 
Wullschleger. vice-president ; Carl Haenni, secretary ; Gottfried Braeuchi, 
treasurer ; Frank Yaussi, trustee. 

SWEDES. 

The story of the Swedes in Marshall county is very much like the story 
of other pioneers in Kansas. They came to America prompted by the desire 
of getting homes of their own. Some came directly from Sweden; others 
stayed a short time in the East before coming to Kansas. Their material 
resources were rather limited. They did not possess much money or property 
of any kind ; but the real assets and values they commanded were ambition, 
industry and perseverance. These qualities have brought to the Swedes 
both wealth and happiness. Religiously, the Swedes adhere to the Lutheran 
faith. There are two Swedish Lutheran churches in the county and one 
Swedish Mission church, which in doctrine and polity differs a little from the 
Lutheran church. 

The Swedes believe in giving their children religious training as well 
as secular education. Religious instruction is systematically given in the 
parish summer school and in the confirmation classes. While they patronize 
public schools and state institutions of learning, the church also maintains 
educational institutions. 



2J8 M AKSllAl.L COL'X IN', KAXSAS. 

SWEDES LOYAL CITIZENS. 

.Vlthough tlie Swedes ha\'e deemed it necessary to use the Swedish 
language during tlie transition periful in their reh'gious work, and ahhough 
they may have a desire to maintain their distinct national and religious ideals, 
they are not really clannish and they do not want to isolate themselves from 
others. On the contrary, the Swedes are loyal Americans. ' 

One of the very first things a Sw'ede thinks of, after arri\ing in this 
country, is to take out his first jKipers, and as soon as the law^ permits, he 
becomes a naturalized citizen. They speak with pride and enthusiasm of 
America as "our country.'' 

The Swedes have contributed a number of school teachers and public 
officials to the county. Many of them have filled offices and positions of 
trust, both in the county and in the various townships and cities, and at the 
present time one of their sons, Hon. A. A. Nork, represents the county in 
the state Legislature. The Swedes of Marshall county are industrious, frugal 
and law-abiding citizens, possessing the utmost integrity of character and, by 
reason of these facts, have contributed largely to the prosperity and develop- 
ment of the county and their influence for good wall be felt more and more 
in times to come. 

SWEDISH SETTLEMENTS OF MARSHALL COUNTY. 

There are two Swedish settlements in Marshall county. One betw^een 
Axtell and Frankfort in Lincoln, Rock and Noble towmships, and another 
south of \\^aler\-ille in Cottage Hill township. 

The first Swedish settler in Marshall county was Peter Froom. He 
was born in Ockelbo, Sweden, 1825, and came to America in 1855. He 
lived a few years in Knox county, Illinois, and arrived in Marshall county 
in 1858. He settled on a homestead on the \vest fork. Rock township. He 
was married 1875 to Netta S. Anderson; he died in 1894. 

John Bloomberg and his son, Gustaf Bloomberg, came from Hinsdale, 
Illinois, and settled on a farm nine mJles northeast of Frankfort, February, 
1870. In the beginning of the same year a meeting w^as held in Chicago to 
consider the founding of a Swedish colony in Kansas. It was decided to send 
a delegation of three to Marshall county to select the location and make 
investigations. The delegation arri^•ed here in April, 1870, and selected land 
in the southern part of Murray township. They also selected a site for a 
town, which should be called Gothamborg. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 229 

About twenty-four Swedes and a few Norwegians bought land; but 
the plans regarding the "Gothamborg settlement" never materialized. Only 
two of the original parties arrived here, namely, Klaus A. Johnson and 
Christian Iverson. Klaus A. Johnson came to Frankfort, September ii, 
1870. 

About the same time a company of Swedes at Keokuk, Iowa, planned 
to come to Kansas. Three men were sent to make investigations regarding 
homesteads in Kansas ; one of the three was J. Hurtie. As a result of their 
report the following decided to make Kansas their home : Fred Johnson, 
John Poison, S. P. Ericson, J. Hurtie and family; J. Bjork and family. This 
party of ten homeseekers arrived in Frankfort, Marshall county, May 17, 
1870. They hied on claims and made homes on the prairie in section 4, 
Lincoln township, (then part of Murray township). 

Other Swedes who came in 1870 are John Johnson, August Lann, 
John Soderquist, Klaus Anderson, J. A. Nork, Peter Johnson, Andrew 
Person, and Gustaf Bromberg. The Swedish population of Marshall county, 
both foreign and native-born, numbered nearly one thousand on January i, 
1917. 

One of the greatest events of Marshall county is the Swedish picnic, 
which is held annually in Lincoln township and given under the auspices of 
the Salem Lutheran church. On several occasions the picnic has been attended 
by as many as three thousand people. 

In July, 19 1 6, Governor Arthur Capper attended the picnic, and delivered 
a patriotic address. 

SALEM CHURCH. 

The first religious services held in the new colony, were conducted by 
Rev. S. P. A. Lindahl, who was the synod missionary stationed at Mariadahl, 
Pottawattomie county. The first meeting was held in the Nork home in 1871. 
The first Christmas service was held at the home of J. Hurtie, in 1872, 
Mr. Hurtie officiating as pastor. 

N. G. Bergenskold came to the colony in August, 1873. He held meet- 
ings in the Farrar school house, served communion and baptized children. 
He became resident pastor, each family agreeing to pay him ten dollars per 
year, whicli aggregated the princely sum of one hundred dollars. He 
remained one year and was succeeded by Reverend Seleen, who organized 
the Salem congregation with the following charter members : N. Peter- 
son, Klaus Anderson, K. A. Johnson, J. A. Nork, J. A. Bjork, J. Blom- 
berg. C. Blomberg, Nils Winquist, S. P. Erickson, John Poison, Fred Johnson, 
Olaf Backman, Erick Englund, P. M. Nelson, Christian Iverson, John Soder- 



230 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

quist. Severin W'inquist. Sunic ut these men had fuinihes, so the congrega- 
tion was organized with forty-two charter members. 

The Augustan synod's constitution for church government was adopted 
and following officers were elected : Deacons, J. A. Nork, C. Iverson and Klaus 
Anderson; trustees, John Soderquist, Nils Peterson and G. Blomberg. Rev- 
erend Seleen was installed as pastor of the congregation at a salary of one 
hundred dollars per year, in consideration of which he was to give them 
six services a year and more, if possible. 

In 1876 Reverend Seleen resigned and in 1877 was succeeded l)y Rev. 
Hakan Olson, who ministered to the congregation once each month. In the 
course of time Reverend Olson recommended a young minister. Rev. P. J. 
Sanden, w-ho came six months for two hundred dollars. Under his faithful 
pastorate the church prospered and he became resident pastor and served until 
1887. '^t tliat time there were one hundred and fifteen communicants and 
the total Swede population was two hundred and forty. The church was 
built in 1883. 

Rev. F. A. Bonander became pastor on July 15, 1888 and served until 
November 3, 1901. Rev. A. S. Segenhammer of Galveston, Texas, became 
pastor on July 5, 1902, and served until September, 19 12. The present pastor, 
Rev. Gustaf Nyquist, commenced his work as assistant to Reverend Segen- 
hammer and succeeded him on February i, 19 12. The property held by 
the congregation is worth about fifteen thousand dollars. 

During forty years existence, up to the year 19 14, the Salem congregation 
had received three hundred and forty-six members ; confirmed three hundred 
and eighty-two, baptized five hundred and fifty-five children. During the 
same period three hundred and fifty-nine persons have been dismissed or 
died. The church, at the beginning of 191 7, had three hundred and eighty- 
three communicant members, and a total membership, counting children, of 
five hundred and tliirt_\-five. 

THE IRLSH IN AIARSIIALL COUNTY. 

There's a bower of roses by Bendemeer's stream, 

And the nightingale sings round it all the day long; 
In the time of my childhood 'tv^■as like a sweet dream, - 

To sit bv the roses and hear the bird's sons:. 
That bower and its music I ne\er forget, 

But oft when alone in the bloom of the year, 
I think — is the nightingale singing tliere yet? 

Are t!ie roses still l^riHit bv the calm Bendemeer? 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 23 1 

No ; the roses soon withered that hung o'er the wave, 

But some blossoms were gathered, while freshly they shone. 
And a dew was distilled from the flowers, that gave 

All the fragrance of summer, when summer was gone. 
Thus memory draws from delight, ere it dies. 

An essence that breathes of it many a year ; 
Thus bright to my soul, as 'twas then to my eyes. 

Is that bower on the banks of the calm Bendemeer. 

In the early history of Marshall county two distinct localities were set- 
tled by the Irish people, St. Bridget, in the northeast and Irish creek, in the 
southeast. 

The settlements in each case were made along the streams where the 
timber was good and easily obtainable for the cabins. The first settlers in 
St. Bridget were Phillip Coffey, Owen Reilly, Elizabeth Hoffman and Eli 
Tripp in 1857. The following year came John Coughlin, Alichael Shaugh- 
nessy, Peter Lynch, John Smith, Alichael Murray, Patrick Hughes, Thomas 
Loob and Michael Maddigan. 

From that date until 1861 the little colony was increased by the famdies 
of Patrick McGrath. James Carroll, John Gossin, Sylvester Creevan, John 
Clark and Bernard Gallagher. 

IRISHMAN FIRST HOMESTEADER. 

On Irish creek the first settler was Daniel Donahy, who took up the first 
homestead under the United States laws and received patent No. i from the 
government. From 1857 to 1861 the following families settled on the creek. 
David. Jerry and Dennis Donahy, John Doud, William, Thomas, John and 
Daniel Nolan, Thomas and Edward 3*IcNieve, Patrick, Ned, Mike and 
Hubert Burke, the Greggs. Kennedys, Harringtons, Grimes and Hendeshans. 

The families were all of a sturdy type of pioneers and while the hard- 
ships they endured were almost more than flesh and blood could stand, yet 
they had the indomitable spirit of the race and a faith which never failed 
them even in the darkest hours. 

Soon the cheering visits of the ever welcome priests helped the dark 
days to pass and inspired them with hope for better times. Very soon the 
faithful adherents of the Catholic church gave of their scant stores to build 
humble church homes, where they might meet and ^^•orship the God of their 
forefathers. 



232 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Those weekly meetings were the occasions of great happiness to a people 
who, l)v nature, are full of brotherly love and human sympathy. There they 
eagerly inquired after the health and welfare of neighbors and sent the kind 
wishes of warm hearts to absent ones. 

News from that loved h'tlle isle — the emerald gem set in the silver sea — 
was exchanged and mutual messages sent. N'o story is so full of human 
interest as that of the pioneer. The palace is a tribute to the architect and 
the builder; but the log cabin appeals to the heart, for that rude dwelling 
sheltered men and women who had the courage to endure and the strength 
to overcome. It would be difficult to describe the hardships of those early 
years. Of actual suffering and want there was some; but, perhaps, the 
greatest suffering was never known. 

VISIONS OF THE OLD COUNTRY HAUNT THE MEMORY. 

To those early Irish people the thought of separation from the home and 
scenes of childhood, was fraught with such depths of anguish as only the 
loving, tender Irish heart can know. 

How many times the brave parents sat beside the cabin door, while the 
little ones slept witliin, and felt within their hearts the utter loneliness of life. 
Memories of the happ)^ childhood home, the dear old parents far away, 
would fill their hearts. 

But the true hearts kept them brave and they lived to see cattle fatten- 
ing upon the green pastures and golden grain waving in the fields. Wealth 
and comfort have come to those who toiled, and loved, and hoped. Many, 
many have long since crossed the river and are resting on the other shore. 

Perhaps no people who came to Marshall county were better fitted for 
the life of the pioneer. Living as their forefathers had, on an island, battling 
ever with the wild forces of nature, the sea and the storm were to them a 
force to he overcome. 

So those descendants of a courageous race gave royal battle to the 
blizzard, the drought and the pestilence, and wrested from the virgin prairie 
its hidden wealth. 

In the history of our county few years have passed that Irishmen have 
not served in some oflicial capacity. They have been especially prominent 
on the Ijoard of county commissioners and have guided the affairs of the 
countv with intelligence, care and integrity. 

The names of Gossin, Alurray, Shaughnessy, Manly, O'Neill and Sullivan 
adorn the roll of splendid pioneers and citizens of the county. 



MARSHALL COTNTY, KANSAS. 233 

It is clitficnlt for one in wliose veins flows the blood of a noble Irish 
ancestry to write in guarded tones of a race which unites the ardent, emo- 
tional, affectionate temperament, quick to resent an injustice, ever ready with 
forgiveness, with the highly religious qualities of soul, and the forceful, pro- 
gressive character. 

It may be truly said that to the Irish in ^larshall county we owe much 
of our material development and fine intellectual attainments. 



CHAPTER X. 
Railways of Marshall County. 



ST. JOSEPH AND GRAND ISLAND RAILROAD. 

On Alarch 20, i860, an item appeared in the Kansas paper that was of 
great importance to the people of Marshall county : 

"Iron arrives in Kansas, and track laying begins on the Elwood and 
Marysville railroad. This is the first railroad iron laid down on Kansas soil." 

On April 28, i860, the following appeared in the Ehvood Free Press: 

"On Monday last, April 23, the directors of the Elwood & Marysville 
Railroad placed on their track the locomotive 'Albany,' an engine which 
has been used from Boston to the Missouri, as railroads have successively 
stretched their length toward the setting sun. 

"On Tuesday several cars were brought across the river and a large 
concourse of people gathered to celebrate the actual opening of the first 
section of the great Pacific road. Col. M. Jeff. Thompson, president of the 
Elwood & Marysville road; Willard P. Hall, president of the St. Joseph & 
Topeka road ; Gov. Robert M. Stewart, of Missouri, and others addressed the 
crowd on the great topic of the day." 

On July 19, of the same year, a great celebration was again held at 
Elwood on the completion of the road to Wathena — the first railroad in the 
territory of Kansas. 

On January 20, 1871, the first train on the Grand Island railroad reached 
Marysville. This line of railway extends through Murray, Guittard, Frank- 
lin, Center, Elm Creek, Marysville and Logan townships, and the stations 
are Axtell, Beattie, Home, Garden, Marysville, Herkimer and Bremen. Thirty- 
seven miles of this road traverse the county. 

For many years the St. Joseph & Grand Island railroad was the main 
highway from Marysville to the river and west to Grand Island, Nebraska, 
where connection was made with main lines East and West. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 235 

All shipping was carried on over this road until the Lincoln-Manhattan 
branch of the Union Pacific road was built, giving Marysville a north and 
south road, and later the Marysville and Menoken "cut-off to Topeka was 
built, thus putting Marysville on a trans-continental line. 

MARYSVILLE MAYOR FOR PROGRESS. 

Perhaps the most important item of news to the citizens of Marysville 
that has appeared for many years was the notice that Charles F. Pusch, 
mayor of Marysville, had been elected a director in the St. Joseph & Grand 
Island railroad. Since that day Mr. Pusch has worked diligently for better 
railroad conditions in Marysville and owing to his efforts the hope of Marys- 
ville people that their city might be made a division point, has at last been 
fulfilled. 

The Grand Island road is now under the management of the Union 
Pacific system, that system holding ninety per cent of the stock. 

The Union Pacific Company will buy practically all the land from the 
city limits north to the river, a tract of sixty-eight acres; all town lots 
between Seventh street and the railroad, to be used for freight and passenger 
division terminals. Icing plants and feed yards will also be built. 

The appropriation to be expended on these improvements in 191 7 is 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars and a like amount in 1918. It is 
anticipated that the Grand Island machine shops now located in St. Joseph, 
Missouri, will be brought to Marysville. The following interesting clipping 
is from the Marshall County News of March 23, 191 7: 

THE RAILROAD IMPROVEMENTS. 

After the nomination of Mayor Pusch he thanked the delegates for this 
unanimous nomination to a fourth term as mayor. In speaking of the 
railroad improvements, he told how he had worked long years for the loca- 
tion of division terminal facilities, new depot, etc., and thanked the people 
for their confidence and support during all this time. He was glad to be 
able to report now that the contracts with the railroad company had been 
practicallv completed and that the work would proceed this year. He read 
a letter just received from E. E. Calvin, president of the Union Pacific 
Railroad Company, which reads as follows : 



236 MARSHALr. COUNTY, KANSAS. 

"Union Pacific System. 

Omaha, March 20, 191 7. 
"]^Ir. Charles !•". I'uscli. mayor, City of Marysville, 
"]\larysville, Kansas. 

"Dear Sir: 

"This will acknowledge and thank yon for your favor of ]\larch 19th 
concerning matters at Marysville. 

"I have directed that the options running to the Union Pacific Railroad 
Company be exercised at once and will advise you when this is done so that 
the ordinances may then be promptly passed. 

"Further consideration has been given the special provision to be included 
in the deeds covering land to be conveyed to us for passenger station and 
I submit herewith a clause which I Ijelieve will be satisfactory to you and 
afford such protection to the railroad company as it is felt we should h:ive 
and which I am certain you w^ant us to have : 

" Tt is understood that as a part of this consideration for this convey- 
ance, the grantee herein, Union Pacific Railroad Company, agrees to erect 
upon the premises hereby granted, a passenger depot and appurtenant facili- 
ties ; the grantee, the Union Pacific Railroad Company, will also erect in the 
vicinity of ]Marysville. Kansas, as soon as the land is available, a round house 
and such other terminal facilities as may be necessary for the handling of the 
business of the railroad company at that point.' 

"If the above provision is acceptable to you, will you kindly have deeds 
prepared in accordance therewith and submit them to us. 

"You understand, of course, that we will undertake the construction of 
the round house and appurtenant facilities this year, and as Cjuickly as prac- 
ticable after we obtain possession of the necessary land under the proposed 
condemnation proceedings, with wdiich you are familiar. 

"Yours very truly, 

"E. E. Calvin." 

' The mayor said the clause to be inserted in the deeds had been accepted 
and that the deeds were being prepared by E. R. Fulton and would be imme- 
diately signed up and returned to the company. 

ST. JOSEPH and western RAILROAD COMPANY. 

This road was incorporated by special act of the Territorial Legislature 
of 1857, as the Marysville, Palmetto & Roseport Railroad Company. Under 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 237 

the law of 1862, the name was changed to St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad 
Company. The western division was built under the charter of the Northern 
Kansas Railroad Company, and the general railroad law of Nebraska: incor- 
porated January 17, 1868. 

By an act of the Legislature of 1866, the Northern Kansas Railroad 
Company was granted a portion of the five hundred thousand acres of land 
granted to the state by the act of Congress of 1841. By an act of Congress 
of July 2T^, 1 856, the St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad Company received 
a grant of lands to aid in its construction. 

On September 18, 1867, articles of consoHdation were filed with the 
secretary of state, consolidating the Northern Kansas Railroad Companv and 
the St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad Company, under the name of the latter 
company. 

On April i, 1877, articles of consolidation were filed, consolidating the 
St. Joseph & Pacific Railroad Company, incorporated August i, 1876, (a com- 
pany organized by the purchasers upon foreclosure of the St. Joseph & Den- 
ver City Railroad Company for the purpose of constructing or purchasing 
and operating that portion of the St. Joseph & Denver City railroad between 
Elwood and Marysvillej and the Kansas & Nebraska Railroad Company, 
incorporated August i, 1876. (a company organized by the purchasers upon 
foreclosure of the St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad Company for the pur- 
pose of constructing or purchasing and operating that portion of the St. 
Joseph & Denver City Railroad Company west of Marysville), the company 
thus formed to be known as the St. Joseph & Western Railroad Company. 
In 1879 the road came under the control of the Union Pacific Railway Com- 
pany, which owns $1,536,200 of the stock of the company; $1,274,569, St. 
Joseph & Pacific Railroad bonds: $1,076,361.40. Kansas & Nebraska Rail- 
road bonds, and $113,000, receiver's certificates: operated as the St. Joseph 
& Western Division of the Union Pacific Railway, but all accounts are kept 
separately. The road extends, from St. Joseph, Missouri, to state line of 
Nebraska, a distance of one hundred thirty-eight miles ; thence to Grand 
Island, Nebraska. 

MISCELLANEOUS RAILROAD ITEMS. 

January 7, 1870 — Another short survey of the St. Joseph & Denver 
City railroad is being made. 

April 22, 1870 (Friday morning) — A Marysville item says: "The 
surveying party of the St. Joseph & Denver City railroad returned from 



238 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Kearney last Tuesday (19), havino^ completed the survey of that road. 
They are to commence the work of locating eastward from this point. 

May, 1870 — Contract let for building the St. Joseph & Denver City rail- 
road to Marysville. The work to be completed ready for laying the iron 
by November i. The road is now completed some five or six miles west of 
Hiawatha, in Brown county. 

June 17, 1870 — The St. Joseph & Denver City railroad is now running 
as far as Hamlin, ten miles west of Hiawatha. It is to be finished as far 
as the Big Blue — one hundred and twenty-five miles west of St. Joe — by 
November i, 1870. 

December 9, 1870 — A general interest is felt by the people of the 
county respecting the St. Joe & Denver City railroad bonds. The county 
commissioners have not as yet decided whether to issue them or not. The 
bonds were voted years ago, the object being to secure a leading line of 
railroad through the county. Since that time another railroad has Ijeen 
built without the aid of the county, proving that the county need not have 
ofifered any bounty in order to secure a road. It is a question whether lapse 
of time or an act of the railroad company itself, has not worked a forfeiture. 

January 13. 1871 — The MaryrciUc Loconwtiz'c, the official organ of 
Marshall county, states Mr. Jacob Mohrbacher, was elected chairman of the 
county board for the ensuing year at its first meeting; and in relation to 
the bond question gives the following facts : On Tuesday the board issued 
to the St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad Com^Dany fifty thousand dollars 
worth of bonds and turned them over to Dudley M. Steele, the president of 
the company; and fifty thousand dollars more of bonds will be turned over 
to them in a few days. Fifty thousand dollars in stock in said road has been 
turned over to the county treasurer, and the other fifty thousand will be 
turned over upon the delivery of the remainder of the bonds to the president 
of the railroad company. 

January 13, 1871 — From the Locomotive we learn that the St. Joseph & 
Denver City Railroad have located their depot in Marysville on what is known 
as the Ballard and Morrall's addition, about one-quarter of a mile from the 
business center of the town. The material for the building is already framed, 
and the work on the switch is now rapidly going forward. 

March 31, 1871 — The St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad Company has 
a grant (land) which attaches to a two-mile strip along the west line of the 
county. 

September 5, 1873 — The St. Joseph & Denver City railroad officers 
resign and a committee is appointed to make an investigation into the affairs 
of the company. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 239 

The Central Branch (now Missouri Pacific) enters Marshall county 
from the east and extends through Noble, Vermillion, Bigelow, Blue Rapids, 
Blue Rapids City and Waterville townships. Stations on the road are Ver- 
million, Vliets, Frankfort, Barrett, Bigelow, Irving, Blue Rapids and Water- 
ville. There are thirty-five miles of this road in the county now under the 
management of the Missouri Pacific system. 

From the first annual report of the Kansas board of railroad commis- 
sioners, giving the report of the Central Branch Union Pacific railroad for 
the year ending June 30, 1883, the following statement is taken: 

The Atchison & Pike's Peak Railroad Company was incorporated by 
special act of the Legislature of 1859. (Laws of 1859, page 62.) The act 
of incorporation conferred upon the Atchison & Pike's Peak railway the 
powers and condition of the act incorporating the Atchison & Fort Riley 
Railroad Company, incorporated in 1857. (Laws of 1857, page 198.) This 
road received a grant of land by act of Congress, of 187,608 acres, and also 
bonds to the amount of $16,000 per mile for 100 miles, by the terms of which 
five per cent of the net earnings of this part of the road is paid to the gov- 
ernment. Construction of the road was commenced in 1864, and opened 
from Atchison to Waterville on January 20, 1868. Its name was changed 
to Central Branch Union Pacific Railway on November 20, 1866. 

July 12, 1867 — Road completed nearly to Black Vermillion. 

November 14, 1867 — The seventy-ninth mile of track completed today. 
"The passenger cars will probably run to the new town of Frankfort on 
Tuesdav, November 30, the present terminus, seventy-eight and one-half miles 
west of Atchison. 

December 27, 1867 — Correspondence in the Atchison Weekly Free Press 
says : "Railroad projects are getting as common as pretty babies. 
There is a company to build up the Big Blue to — nobody knows where. 
One to build down the Blue to Manhattan, and one to build a road which is 
to cover both the others. . . . Track laying is proceeding rapidly and 
should the weather hold good for five days the iron will be down. Too 
much credit cannot be accorded Mr. Broder for the energy he has displayed 
in pushing the work. A less competent man under the same circumstances, 
would have been far behind. He is a man in a thousand." 

January 17, 1868 — ^A special train under charge of J. S. Pierce, con- 
ductor, conveyed the government railroad commissioners, Gen. N. B. Buford, 
Gen. Frank P. Blair and Dr. William N. White to Waterville, the terminus of 
the one hundred miles. An engine house, depot and turn-table are being- 
constructed. Col. William Osborn, superintendent of the road, and a small 



240 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

» 

part\- of Atchison citizens accompanied the party. The ride was a pleasant 
one and was made at good speed. A heavy snow storm set in during the 
progress of the inspection, and the return trip to Atchison was through the 
storm all the way. On reaching Atchison the party stopped at the Massasoit 
house and enjoyed its hospitalities. 

November 23, 1863 — The first rail laid on the Atchison & Pike's Peak, 
or Central Branch railroad. 

February 15, 1867 — ^The Atchison & Pike's Peak railroad, or Central 
Branch, forty miles, receives six hundred and forty thousand dollars in gov- 
ernment bonds. 

December 29, 1867 — The last rail laid on the one hundred miles of road. 

January 20, 1868 — The Atchison & Pike's Peak railroad reaches Water- 
ville. It receives sixteen thousands dollars per mile in bonds, and one hun- 
dred eighty-seven thousand six hundred eight acres of land from the gov- 
ernmient. 

Waterville remained the terminal of the Central Branch railroad until 
1876, when it was extended to Downs. 

In 1S79 the Marysville and Blue Valley railroad was built along the 
Big Blue river from Marysville to Beatrice, Nebraska. The towns on this 
road in ^Marshall county were ^^larysville, Hull, ^Marietta and Oketo. 

In 1886 the Manhattan and Blue Valley railroad was built, followdng 
the Blue river from Alarysville to Alanhattan, Kansas. The towns along 
this line in Marshall county are Marysville, Schroyer, Blue Rapids and Irv- 
ing, v/ith a siding for the stone quarries at Florena. These two branches 
later became the Lincoln & Manhattan Branch of the Union Pacific railroad, 
connecting the Union Pacific main lines of Kansas and Nebraska at Man- 
hattan, Kansas and Valley, Nebraska. 

The Topeka, Onaga & Marys^'ille Branch of the Union Pacific railroad, 
known as the Topeka "cut-off", eighty-two miles long, running as indicated, 
from Topeka to Marysville, was opened for trafiic in 19 10. It was built 
for the purpose of shortening the Union Pacific line between Cheyenne, 
Wyoming and Kansas City, Missouri, for trans-continental freight and 
passenger service. The track is well ballasted and laid wnth the heaviest 
steel rails. 

This road now practically runs from Kansas City, Missouri, to the west 
coast, using the Union Pacific main line tracks in Kansas from Kansas City 
to Topeka, then the "cut-oft"' to Marysville, then the St. Jo and Grand Island 
to Hastings, Nebraska, from Hastings over the Hastings-Gibbon "cut-ofif", 
to Gibbon, Nebraska, where it connects with the Union Pacific main line in 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 24I 

Nebraska, thus making it the shortest route from Kansas City to the West 
and Northwest coast, by a great many miles. The towns on this road in 
Marshall county are Marysville, Winifred, Frankfort and Lillis. 

MARSHALL COUNTY PUBLIC ROADS. 

The roads in ]Marshall county have always been fairly good. The 
natural drainage of the county conduces to this condition, and in the days 
prior to establishment of section lines, the settlers made cross-country roads, 
selecting the best trail possible leading to creek crossings. Little attention 
was paid to the upkeep of these prairie lanes of travel. When townships 
were organized and officers elected, roads were regularly worked and repaired. 

The coming of the automobile inaugurated a great improvement in 
public roads. Rough places and hills were blasted and worked down, ap- 
proaches to bridges built and culverts repaired. 

Tlie countv commissioners lend every aid possible under the law. The 
county has three hundred miles of improved county roads which are regu- 
larly dragged and kept in excellent condition. Every spring before the 
ground becomes too hard, the roads are thoroughly gone over with a grader, 
ditches are cleaned out. ruts and holes filled, shoulders on the side of the 
road are planed off, grades are improved and, in fact, everything done to 
make an ideal road. Bridges and culverts are marked with side shields, 
solidlv built to a height of three feet, so that there is no possibility of driv- 
ing off', and these shields are painted white and are plainly discernible at 
all times. 

OCEAN TO OCEAN HIGHWAY. 

In 191 3 the Rock Island highway was laid out in the county. This 
was the first inter-state highway in the county. The name has been changed 
and it is now called the Pikes Peak Ocean to Ocean Highway, extending 
from New York to San Francisco. 

This road enters Marshall county at Axtell and leaves at the Bohemian 
cemetery, on the west line of the county. There are thirty-four miles of 
this road in the county and it is plainly marked and kept in splendid condi- 
tion. It touches the cities of Axtell, Beattie, Home and Marysville. 

The Ocean to Ocean Highway Association met in St. Joseph, Missouri, 
early in 191 /, to make plans for further improvement and extension of the 
road. Delegates from ^Marysville who attended were C. F. Pusch and S. 
C. Schmidt. 
(16) 



24- MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Tlic White Way is an inter-state highway, running through the south- 
ern part of the county. This road extends from Atchison to Beloit, al)0ut 
thirtv-five miles Ijeing in Marshall county. It touches Vermillion, Frank- 
fort, Blue Rapids and Waterville. This road joins the Golden Belt road 
and runs into Denver. 

The Blue \'allcy inter-state highway is a continuation of the Sioux City, 
Omaha and Lincoln route. It enters Marshall county eleven miles north of 
^vlarysville and follows the river to Blue Rapids, where it crosses the river 
and touches Irving; crosses the river to the east side again and runs to 
Manhattan. There are thirty-seven miles of this road in the county. 

Marshall county has steel markers at all important corners of county 
roads, indicating the direction and number of miles to points near and far. 

Two thousand two hundred automobiles are now owned in Marshall 
county, and the travel o\er the different roads and highways can scarcely 
be estimated. Almost every make of car is represented. 

Pawnee county, Nebraska, and Marshall county have joined interests 
and big plans are under way for the big two-day Good Roads campaign. 
Ten miles of road, leading into the city from the east, on the state line, are 
to be "made over" and put in passable condition. This will be the biggest 
piece of good roads improvement pulled off in northeastern Kansas and 
southeastern Nebraska. 

Dr. L. R. Stevens, mayor of Summerfield, is president of the Good 
Roads Association. 



CHAPTER XI. 
Agriculture and Stock Raising. 



THE PLOWMAN. 
By John G. Ellenbecker. 

The plowman slowly moves along the fnrrow's mellow wake, 
^lade 1)y that glistening shield his good steeds sway. 

He well has learned the gait the feet of toil must take. 
So as to last with strength and song throughout the day. 

Round by round his plow glides through the sod. 

Till lo, the mat of grass and weeds is turned to blackened mold. 
This is the mete reward for every faithful clod; 

This is the rest so well deserved for yield so manifold. 

But manv, as they pass him l)y in stately motor car. 

Rejoice that they're not in his place, but never dream, 
That his path leads through roses and just as lucky star ; 

That he is granted heavenly might that they have never seen. 

And who,, can sound this subtle cult of his magic, master hand, 
Wdio simply plows and sows and reaps and learns nature's arts ; 

And who in turn has made of her a servant, faithful, grand. 
For all mankind and filled with wealth the world's busy marts. 

He is in truth the alchemist the ancients sought in vain ; 

'Tis he who makes the desert yield a harvest manifold ; 
'Tis he who loads with flower and fruit the boundless plain : 

'Tis he who turns the brownest earth into the yellowest gold. 



CATTLE. 



The breeding of live stock, next to general farming, is the greatest 
industry in Marshall county, and these two lines of business are so closely 



244 MARSllALl. COUNTY, KANSAS. 

allied that it is almost impossible to draw a definite line between the two. The 
lirst settlers brought their cattle and other stock with them and from then 
up to the present time the breeding of stock has played a very important p:irt in 
the development of the county. 

Col. F. M. Wood pays this tribute to the cow : 

"It was the cow that made it possible for man to change the great Ameri- 
can desert into a land of prosperous homes. When she came, the buffalo 
disappeared, the Indian tepee gave way to the church, school house and 
home, and where once wild wolves howled, today children prattle, grass 
grows, flowers bloom and birds sing." 

The development of the live-stock industry in Marshall county may 
be divided into three eras. First, the free range; second, the free range, 
with a herder, and third, the era of fences. When the first settlers came to 
this county they settled along the streams, where there was a good supply 
of water and timber, which furnished them with fuel and offered some 
protection from the cold winter winds that swept across the then unbroken 
prairies. The small bands of cattle that each owned were then branded and 
allowed to roam at will to feed and multiply unrestricted. Each fall they 
were gathered together and each man picked out the stock that he owned, 
marked his season's increase and drove awav to market all that were fit. 

THE HERD LAW. 

With the coming of the homesteader, a rapid change began to take 
place and, as more and more fields were broken out and planted, these 
semi-wild cattle became a nuisance and many a bitter feud sprang up 
between the cattle men and the homesteader. This resulted in the passing 
of the herd law, which recjuired each man to keep a herder with his cattle 
and that the cattle should be confined at night. This condition prevailed 
until the advent of the barbed wire, wdiich marked one of the most radical 
changes in the history of the cattle industry. As fast as men could work, 
their lands were fenced and the cattle no longer allowed to roam at will. 
It w'as at this time that purebred cattle were introduced into the county 
and systematic efforts were made t(^. improve the quality as well as to increase 
the numbers. 

Most of the leading lireeds of live stock are found in the county, but the 
breed that has been most important and has undergone the most development, 
has been the Hereford. Marshall county has often been termed the Here^ 
fordshire of Kansas. There is hardly a herd of cattle in the county, except 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 245 

the pure-breds of the other breeds, that does not show the indelible stamp 
of the Hereford strain. Marshall county at one time had more pure-bred 
Hereford cattle than any other county in Kansas and probably than any other 
like area in the world. 

THE FIRST HEREFORDS. 

Marshall county was the home of the late Walter M. Morgan, who was 
the first man to develop a Hereford herd in the state, although one of his 
neighbors, Hiram Woodard, had been handling a few head before this time 
and was the first man to bring Here fords to Marshall county. Walter M. 
Morgan was born and reared in Herefordshire, England, and it is not surpris- 
ing that he should have been an ardent advocate of the breed. When a young 
man he came to Ohio, where he embarked in the Hereford cattle trade. His 
father-in-law, Thomas Aston, made the third importation of Hereford cattle 
to America in the year 1852. Mr. Morgan came to Marshall county in 1872, 
bringing with him some of the descendants of the Aston importation as the 
foundation stock of one of the greatest industries that has ever been carried 
on in this county. He maintained his herd until 1901, when he retired, 
selling his herd to his son-in-law, F. W. Preston, who continued in Morgan's 
footsteps. The county is largely indebted to the latter for the permanent 
establishment and development of Hereford cattle. He brought such bulls 
as "Duke of Edinburg," "Blue Rapids," "Imp. Belmont," "Edmond," "Fancy 
Lad," "Conductor," "Sir Robert," tlie great "Silver Lord" and many others. 
He al:o imported the cow "Curley," which was one of the most consistent 
prize winners of her time. 

Among the early breeders Vvas John M. Winters, who started in the busi- 
ness in 1876, getting his foundation stock from Hiram Woodard. This herd 
is still being maintained and is the property of his son, B. M. Winters. 
Another of the early champions of the breed was Charles Scholz, who several 
years ago sold his herd to C. A. Stannard. The Brennan Brothers' herd was 
another that was established in the late seventies from the old Woodard 
stock. 

Judge W. H. Goodwin established a herd about 1887 and maintained a 
high standard of excellence. After his death in 1897 his daughter. Miss 
Lou Goodwin, bought a large number of the best producers in the herd and 
continued to breed high-class cattle. The foundation stock for a number 
of later herds came from Miss Goodwin's stock. Other breeders, who have 
been prominent in the Hereford history, are L. W. Libby, G. W. Parrish, 



246 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

'E. ]\I. AIcAtee. William T. Tanl. T. A. Greenman, F. A. Stocks, William 
Bommer, William Acker, Cottrell Brothers, A. B. Bird, Luther Whiting, 
G. S. T'jnmert. Charles Strange, W. A. Gilson, S. W. Tilley, J. M. Williams, 
Woodman & Son, Ira A. Whiting, C. H. Styles & Company, 1. D. Yarick, 
W. IMorgan, E. W^ Ringen, J. L. Rodkey, C. Rodkey, W. B Hunt, A. Borck, 
James Hunt, J. F. Sedlacek, James Shaughnessy, J. Pecenka and many 
others. At the present time some of these herds have been dispersed, but 
others are being improved and extended. 

The Marshall County Hereford Breeders Association was organized 
about sixteen years ago and held their first sale in 1902 at Blue Rapids. At 
one time there were fifty members in the association and their holdings aggre- 
gated two thousand five hundred head. In recent years no sales have been 
held and the association has almost been lost sight of; but with the increased 
demand for high grade cattle, it will probably be reorganized. The splendid 
showing of pure-bred cattle at the Marshall County Fair in October, 19 16, 
showed, by the number of exhibitors of Herefords, that interest was being 
renewed. 

SHORTHORNS. 

The Shorthorn has had a more checkered career in Marshall county, 
and at the present time there are very few herds of pure-bred cattle of this 
breed, although there are some small herds starting up. As near as can be 
ascertained the iirst pure-bred Shorthorns were brought to the count v by a 
Mr. Harbaugh, of Waterville. This was in 1871-72. About the same date 
Thompson Smith, of Oketo, and a Air. Tennison, of Frankfort, also haid 
herds of Shorthorns. 

The most prominent importers of thoroughbred Hplsteins in the county 
are the Lackland Brothers, of Axtell. 

The most consistent champion of Angus cattle in the county is Charles 
Butler, who has been breeding and feeding the Angus breed for a number of 
years. E. A. Berry, of Waterville, and George Hall were also breeders of 
Angus cattle. George Stephenson, of Waterville, brought the Angus to its 
highest state of development in the county. He raised fancy cattle on his 
farm near Waterville and maintained a show herd that won many premiums. 
There are comparatively few of the Angus cattle here at the present time. 

The Galloway is another breed that has not been popular here. The 
only herds of which there is any knowledge, are owned by Dr. E. L. Willson, 
Sr,, and John Stauffacher. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 247 

The Auld Brothers, of Frankfort, are making a specialty of the Red 
Polled cattle and are developing a fine herd. They are placing quite a num- 
ber of sires in other herds throughout the county. 

CREAMERIES. 

Until 1884 every farmer's wife kept her own creamery and dairy. 
Butter was sold in Marysville at ten cents a pound and less, with a slight 
raise in price during the holiday season. 

In the spring of 1884 Arand & Ziegler, of Marysville, built the first 
creamery in Marshall county. They invested about three thousand dollars 
in grounds, building and equipment, located about a quarter of a mile west 
of the Blue river bridge, at the foot of the hill. A well was drilled for 
artesian water, but at a depth of three hundred and twenty-five feet salt 
water was found and the "artesian" well abandoned. This was before 
the day of the cream separator, and the firm kept five men with teams, 
gathering cream from the farmers. 

William Maldoon, now a farmer near Marysville, was the butter-maker. 
For two years this creamery turned out an excellent grade of butter, but 
the fact that there was no market for the produce nearer than New York, 
made the business unprofitable and it was discontinued in 1886. The build- 
ings and grounds are now owned by Jacob Grauer. 

The creamery business then slept until May 5, 1894, when the Blue 
Valley Creamery Company was organized at Marysville by Walker Broth- 
ers, of Wichita, Kansas. A special building was erected, the best up-to- 
date equipment installed and the business prospered from the begin- 
ning. The first year of the operation of the creamery, the company bought 
1,909,483 pounds of milk, for which it paid $11,458.57. By 1895 creamery 
butter became a factor in the markets of the country and set the price for 
farm butter. The price of all butter has been consistently maintained and 
increased from that date to the present. 

Notwithstanding that Marshall county is pre-eminently an agricultural 
county, with practically no other industries, the facts are that the people of 
the cities of the county have been obliged to use about as much condensed 
milk, the output of factories of New York and Illinois, as they have of native 
cow's milk, during the past five years, and have had to pay as high as forty 
cents a pound for creamery butter during the holiday season of 19 16. A 
large proportion of the butter consumed has to be imported. 



248 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

The Blue Valley Creamery Company operated here until July 29, 1901. 
The Walker Brothers had in the meantime estahlished a branch of the Blue 
Valley Creamery in St. Joseph, Missouri, and in 1901 removed to that city 
and consolidated the concern. 

There is no creamery in the county now, but several dairies are in opera- 
tion. There are one thousand four hundred and twenty-nine cream sepa- 
rators in the county, and cream to the value of ninety-seven thousand two 
hundred and twenty-six dollars was sold to creameries for the year ending 
March i, 19 16. Six hundred and fifty pounds of cheese was made and sold in 
the county, by individual cheese-makers, there being no cheese factory in the 
county. During the same period, three hundred and eighty-two thousand 
nine hundred and one pounds of butter-fat have been shipped out of the 
county and sold. 

BREEDS FOR DAIRY PURPOSES. 

The dairy breeds that are the most popular are the Holsteins and 
Jerseys. Lackland Brothers, W. O. Morrill, F. E. Austin, Mr. Arnold and 
others champion the Holsteins, while the Jerseys are preferred by C. Thomas, 
R. O. McKee, George Hall. Joseph Krasney and others. Alfred Sanderson 
is the only man in the county who is specializing in Guernseys. 

Several years ago large numbers of cattle were fed for the markets. 
Among the large feeders were Perry Hutchinson, Patrick Finegan, Charles 
Scholz, William Cassidy, Charles Butler, and John Cottrell. Butler and Cot- 
trell are still in the business. 

One predominant factor in the promotion of the animal industry in the 
county has been alfalfa, ever since its introduction. The man who raises 
alfalfa, not only makes two blades grow where but one grew before, but 
he grows ten, and everyone, green or dry, is a stick of meat and fat for 
horse, cow or hog. 

To Bernard Nauman, of Frankfort, belongs the credit of having brought 
the first alfalfa seed to this county about 1872. It was many years getting 
under cultivation, but once fairly started it became the favorite it deserves 
to be, and no farmer can "keep house," without it now. 

The silo has become a strong ally of alfalfa for dairy and fattening 
purposes. It furnishes "canned" green feed of excellent quality to all kinds of 
stock at all seasons of the year. Fifty-eight of these feed preserves were 
reported in use for the year ending March 31, 19 16, in the county, and in 
January, 191 7, the number had been nearly doubled. 




CHESTER ROWE. BOY PRIZE WINNER IN COUNTY CONTEST, WITH SILVER CUP. 
Calf prize and exhibit of cona. He also won first state prize at the Kansas State 

Agricultural College. 




Y. M. C. A. EXHIBIT AT MARSHALL COUNTY FAIR. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 249 

THE HORSE. 

- With the coming of the German settlers on Horse Shoe creek, among 
whom were the Friedrichs, Raemers, Koenekes, Schottes and Westermans, 
came the knowledge of good draft and general utility horses. Those men 
were from the north of Germany, where the splendid breeds of horses for 
cavalry and for heavy draft use were well known and appreciated. Those 
German farmers had no desire for racing stock and they at that time and 
for many years, continued to raise the best draft horses in the county. 

The desire for fast horses, wdiich usually attends frontier life, was 
present for some years in the county and was in a small measure indulged 
in by H. H. Lourey, J. Gano, Dave Barrett and Charles Hill, of Frankfort; 
Perry Hutchinson, Dr. G. A. Seaman, Dr. E. L. Willson, Sr., A. G. Shepard, 
and in later years, H. E. Wiedemeyer, of Marysville, were patrons of the turf. 
A racing association and track were maintained at Frankfort and Marysville 
for many years, but the men who once kept fancy horses are no longer living 
and few of the men of today evince the sporting spirit of the "race-horse man." 
The Marshall County Fair and Stock Show may again attract races and revive 
the old spirit. L. W. Libby was a lover of good horses and at one time had 
one hundred and twenty-five head of the Sangaree breed, which he raised 
for market, but the decline in the price of horses during the years 1894 to 
1898 resulted disastrously for Mr. Libby. 

HIGH-GRADE HORSES INTRODUCED. 

About 1876 Henry Bull 1:)rought a high-grade Norman horse to Marys- 
ville and in 1883 Degnan & Degen brought two imported French Norman 
horses. To Dr. E. L. Willson, Sr., belongs the credit of having done more 
for the improvement of the horse in the county than to any other number of 
men. From 1882 to 1886 he imported seventy-two Percheron, Clydesdale 
and English Coach thoroughbred stallions from Canada and Scotland, and 
to this day when a good stepper is seen, it is almost sure to be a descendant 
of Doctor Willson's "Sangaree" or "Karatas," although Doctor Willson 
retired from active horse business many years ago. 

Horse raising was quite an industry up to 1894, by which time the 
county was full of very good horses of all kinds. The year 1894 will never 
be forgotten by all who lived in the county, as the year of the hottest winds 
ever experienced, killing not only the corn and hay, but all the fruit and 
denuding even the forest trees of foliage, so that by September the trees 



250 M ARSTI AT.T. COl'XTY, KANSAS. 

were as bare as in the winter. There was no feed nearer than St. Joseph 
or Kansas Cit)', Missouri, where owin^- to its scarcity- tlie price was prohibi- 
tive. Many horses were given away for lack of feed to support them. 

I. B. Davis bought a good team of mules, wagon and harness on the 
streets of Marys\'ille for sixty-seven dollars. During that winter horse buy- 
ers from Eastern markets scoured the county. One man from Omaha bought 
two carloads at one time in Alarysville. not one of the horses weighing less than 
fourteen hundred pounds and without blemish, at an average of forty-five dol- 
lars per head. This buyer told the writer that it was the finest lot of horses 
he had bought in many years. That fall ( 1894) it was reported in Marys- 
ville that there was a sign on the gate of a pasture, which contained a lot 
of cattle and horses, just across the state line in Gage county, Nebraska, bearing 
these words: "Help yourself to horses, but don't let the cattle out." 

In February, 1896, Robert Halter, of St. Gall, Switzerland, came to 
Marysville to purchase a cargo of horses. The best horses had been sold 
by this time. John Degnan drove him to the country to make purchases. 
On Horse Shoe creek, two big fine horses were shown and Halter told Deg- 
nan to "go a hundred dollars apiece on them." Degnan ofifered the owner 
eighty-five for the two, which caused the Swiss to run behind the barn, expect- 
ing the owner of the horses to resent the "insult" by opening fire. Hearing 
no shots he returned to find that Degnan had bought both horses for eighty- 
five dollars. 

In the fall of 1894 Halter had been told to come to Kansas and buy 
horses, but when he got as far west as Ohio, he was informed that there 
was nothing in Kansas but ponies and that people lived in dug-outs, so he 
bought his cargo of undoubtedly western horses in the Eastern markets at 
Eastern prices and returned to Europe. Needless to say, that when Halter 
obtained an introduction to Kansas horses and prices in 1896 he was a wiser 
but poorer man. At such prices ruling horse raising was anything but profit- 
able to Marshall county farmers. 

The recovery of the industry was slow and the introduction of the 
automobile did not encourage it any. However, many good sires were con- 
stantly being brought in and while recovery and development have been slow, 
it has been in the right direction. The county is still behind other sections 
of the country in the production of good horses. The raising of thoroughbred 
horses for breeding purposes has not been pursued in this county to anv 
extent. August Wempe, of Erankfort, is breeding Percherons. but has only 
a small number at present. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 25 1 

AUTO VS. HORSE. 

In July, 19 1 2, G. Philip Schmidt, of Marysville, because the first owner 
of an automobile in the county — a one-cylinder Oldsmoljile. On January t, 
191 7, there were at least two thousand automobiles in the county, one 
thousand nine hundred and fifty- four of them being licensed machines, or 
one machine to every ten and one-half inhabitants. In 1900 there were from 
two to four livery stables in each town, supporting from two to ten teams 
each. Now the horse livery and the livery horse are practically extinct, the 
auto having displaced them. 

During the past four years the tractor engine has begun to displace the 
horse on t'ne farm, principally at the plow. 

There is still plenty of room for the good farm and draft horse, but the 
roadster and saddler have become too slow for present-day conditions. The 
farmer of today living three miles from town can. go to town in his auto, 
transact business and return in less time than it took his "dad" to yoke "Buck 
and Jerry." 

Since the outbreak of the European war, many horses have been pur- 
chased in this county for shipment to Europe and the previous market price 
has been enhanced about twenty-five per cent. 

SHEEP. 

Sheep have never played a very important part in the system of agricul- 
ture in Marshall county. Dr. J. G. Crawford had rather an extensive sheep 
ranch in Center township from 1872 till 1878. but no wide-spread sheep 
industry has been carried on in the county. Sheep, in limited numbers, have 
been fed for n:arket in \'arious places, but as a money-making product of the 
farm t]:;ey have not ranked with either hogs or cattle. Some of the farmers 
in tl:e county who feed out some sheep yearly are Hawk Brothers, William 
Wuester, Henry Farrar, J. Farrar and Jesse Craik. 

The following shows the number of sheep listed in the county for the 
past four years: 1913, 285: 1914, 391; 1915, 366; 1916, 1,450. 

Since the foregoing report was rendered, Francis Benson, Ross Kinney, 
Fred Reinders, William Jones and -Vnton Feldhausen have invested in sheep 
and will give the business a try-out. At the present time there are over 
two thousand head of sheep in the county. 



MARSHALL CorXTV, KANSAS. 



HOGS. 



The raising of hogs was one of tlie first side Hnes that the farmer took 
uj) in connection wiili other farm activities in .Marshall county. Tlie first 
pure-hred hog'S in the count}- were tlie Berkshires, Poland Chinas and Chester 
Whites. J. D. Farwell. of W'aterville. is credited witli liringing the first 
Che.-ter Whites to the county. It cannot he determined wlio introduced the 
other breeds. Charles Scholz. of Snipe Creek, introduced the Duroc-Jersey 
breed. 

During the first three decades of Marshall county history the hog was 
the "mortgage lifter." Early-day farmers raised hogs more for the purposes 
of market and consumption, than for pedigree. The state agricultural 
reports show that Marshall county was a big hog-producing county of the 
state. 

Durino- the last thirty years hog cholera has increased and has caused 
losses to farmers running into thousands of dollars. During the yeir end- 
ing ATarch i. 1013, the reports show that 30,296 hogs were raised in the 
county. Of this numl:)er 5.588 died of disease. For the year ending March 
I, 1914, 32,844 hogs were raised, and 6,394 died of disease. In 1915, 41,904 
hogs were raised and 6,071 died of disease. This aggregated a loss to Mar- 
shall county farmers of oyer $200,000. In 1916 the number was 40,919 
hogs, and 1,325 died. Of this latter number 813 died of cholera. 

CHOLERA ERADICATION STATION. 

In July, 1Q14, the Bureau of Animal Industry of the United States 
Department of Agriculture established a hog cholera eradication station in 
Marshall county, with headquarters at Marysyille, with an expert yeterinarian 
and a corps of assistants. The entire expense of maintaining this station is 
lorne by the Federal goyernment. 

The bureau made a thorough inyestigation of hog diseases prevalent 
in the county and immediately instituted vigorous warfare on such diseases. 
A decrease is shown by the last report in the, total death rate, and a very 
marked decrease in the death by cholera. 

L. R. Smith, D. V. S., who has been in charge of the station 
since September, 191 5. states that for the past fifteen months there 
has been practically no loss in the county from hog cholera and that 
during forty days he did not recei^'e a call in the county. Hearty co-opera- 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 253 

tion between the farmer and bureau will result, it is hoped, in a permanent 
eradication of the disease and a consequent gain to the producer. 

A large percentage of the hogs now raised in the county are registered 
or are eligible to registration. Some of the farmers who have been exten- 
sive breeders of thoroughbred hogs are, Thompson Brothers, Ben Bell, A. 
B. Garrison, A. B. Swank and J. M. Nielson. 

The following breeders exhibited thoroughbred hogs at the Marshall 
County Stock Show at Blue Rapids in 1916: J. A. Carlson, George IJoney- 
cutt, Howell Brothers, J. O. Honeycutt. Ed. Erwin, Herman Anderson and 
F. B. ^^'empe. 

POULTRY. 

There is not a town in the county which has not one or more dealers 
in poultry and eggs, and the "helpful hen" is not to be despised as an assist- 
ant money maker, by any means. 

Official reports show the value of eggs and poultry sold in the county for 
the period ending March i of the following years to be — 1913 — $209,099; 
1914 — $203,557; 1915— $231,312 ; 1916 — $239,242, an annual average of 
$221,605. These results do not take into account the eggs and poultry con- 
sumed at home. 

Of th.e many breeds of chickens, the Rhode Island Red and the Barred 
Plymouth Rock are the most numerous; after these, almost every known 
breed is well represented and enthusiastically supported. The county has 
manv men and women who specialize in thoroughbred chickens, and who sell 
a great number of eggs for hatching purposes at fancy prices, ranging from 
fifty cents to six dollars a setting of fifteen. 

While the hen has not gone out of business entirely as a hatcher, never- 
theless, her process is too slow for this age of speed mania, and for that 
reason the incubator, which hatches from one to several hundred chicks at 
one time or setting, is universally used. 



MARSHALL COUNTY FARM BUREAU. 



The Marshall County Farm Bureau was organized in the spring of 
1916. Marshall was the sixteenth county in Kansas to perfect an organiza- 
tion. F. B. \\'illiams was elected county agent and began his work on June 
21, 1916. 



254 MARSIIAI.I. C(H'XTV. KANSAS. 

Tlie Imrean is a co-operative educational organization of the farmers 
of the county to promote better farming-. 1)ctter st(K-k raising and l)etter farm 
and rural honie conditions. In e\ery counly in ilic state there is a \'ast 
amount of ])ractical knowledge that can be used to assist in solving the agri- 
cultural problems of the present day. If this knowledge can be organized 
and placed in a readily available form, it will be the most valuable informa- 
tion that can be secured from any source. Such practical information is the 
hrst essential in successful farming. Every farmer will admit that it is 
necessary to keep well informed also upon so-called "scientitic farming," 
which is merely the application of tlie best known principles of agriculture 
to every-day farm operations. 

A farm bureau giving continuous attention to agriculture, will help to 
organize available information and to keep all concerned well informed. 
The farm bureau is financed by the government, the state, the county and by 
the individual members. The ser^-ices of the county agent are free. He is 
furnished with an automobile and will respond at any time to the call of the 
farmers of the county requiring his assistance. The county agent is not an 
"adviser," but is a man with an agricultural education and practical experi- 
ence, working under the direction of the farm bureau, to improve agricul- 
tural conditions. 

METHODS OF WORK. 

The farm bureau conducts its Avork by means of demonstrations and 
den^onstration meetings, publications, through committees and by personal 
visits of the agent. Some of the projects carried on are variety tests, seed 
selection, testing insect coi:trol and orchard work ; drainage, planning farm 
building's, live-stock impro\-ement, cow testing, boys' and girls' clubs, and 
anything that the bureau deems advisable. The farm bureau working in the 
United States has been an unqualified success. There are now one thou- 
sand two hundred and fortv agents at work, and the good being accomplished 
is far greater th.an was originally anticipated. 



CORN CONTEST, IQ16. 

First honors in the Y. 3,1. C. A. acre-growing corn contest were won 
by Chester Rowe, of Marvsville. .\s winner of the contest he received a 
siher loving-cup, offered l)v R. S. Pauley, of Beattie, and a Holstein calf, 



MARSHALL COUXTY, KANSAS. 255 

offered by Lackland Brothers, of Axtell. The cup will be held one year and 
then passed on to the winner of next year's contest. 

Maynard Reb, of Blue Rapids, won second honors; Jay Hendel, of Blue 
Ra]:)ids. tliird, ar.d Harold Wager, of Irving, fourth. Maynard Reb received 
the Poland China gift, offered by A. B. Garrison & Son, of Summerfield. 

The content will be continued in IQT7. The Lackland Brothers have 
been so well pleased with the interest shown that they have again offered a 
Holstein calf to the winner. P. T. Burk, of Alarysville, has also oft'ered a 
se\-enty-live d'lllar silo for the first prize. 

farmers' educational axd co-operative union. 

In the year 1912 a number of the farmers of Marshall county, believing 
that they could better their condition by some method of farm marketing, 
began to discuss the question of organization and co-operation. Some wanted 
to organize the county by itself, others favored joining the Grange, but the 
final decision was to unite with the Kansas branch of the Farmers' Educational 
and Co-operative Union of America. 

The first local in the county was organized by Mr. McAuliffe, of Salina, 
president of the state union, in January, 1913, at the school house in district 
No. 75, two and one-half miles south of Vermillion. Later a local was organ- 
ized at the Lamb school house in district No. 134, two miles west of Ver- 
million, and during the next few months a number of locals were organized 
in diff'erent parts of the county. 

On ]\Iay 24, 19 13, the several locals of the county met at the court house 
in Marysville to perfect a county organization, in order, that by co-operative 
effort in the county, they might better accomplish the ends they were striving 
for. McAuliffe, of Salina, was present and assisted in the organization. 

A constitution and by-laws were adopted and officers elected as follows : 
President, N. S. Kerschen, of Marysville ; vice-president, John Frost, of Blue 
Rapids; secretary-treasurer, A. F. Johnson, of Vliets; county organizer, W. 
G. Swanson, Vleits ; conductor, Clarence Steel, Vermillion ; doorkeeper, Roger 
Pichney, Waterville. 

Farmers' wives and daughters are eligible to membership in the organiza- 
tion and have taken a very active part, not only in the social and educational 
features, but have assisted materially in the business enterprises. 



256 IMAUSrrAT.I. COUXTY. KANSAS. 

ENTERPRISE SUCCESSFUL. 

As the organization liad to grow and learn at the same time, the members 
worked along step by step. At first they clubbed together to ship their grain 
and live stock, and buy their supplies in carload lots, and found by so doing 
they could save considerable money. 

By the end of the first year they found it would be necessary to employ 
men to take care of their shipments, and in 19 14 the county was divided into 
four sections with the following men elected by each section, to take care of 
this work: L. H. Van Valkenburg, of Blue Rapids; E. W. Bergman, Axtell; 
Charles R. Wallace, Vleits, and J. H. Schulte. Home City. 

From this humble start in 19 13 the organization has continued to increase 
its membership and enlarge its business activities, until, in January, 19 17, its 
membership is 1,855, with fourteen business associations, consisting of thir- 
teen elevators, one store and fifteen produce stations, located as follows : Blue 
Rapids, Marysville, Schroyer, Waterville, Irving, Winifred, Axtell, Summer- 
field, Vliets, Oketo, Beattie, Home City, Herkimer, and a store at Mina. 

These business enterprises have a paid-up capital of over $75,000, and the 
business transacted in 19 16 aggregated $800,000. 

The directors of the business associations are chosen from among the 
farmers and nearly all the managers are farmers. Every association has been 
a financial success — sufficient evidence that the Union w^ill make better farms, 
better homes, better towns, and place the business of farming in the front 
rank of the great industries of the world. 

FARM PRODUCE CONTEST. 

At the county fair held at Blue Rapids in October, 19 16, five locals 
entered a contest for the best display of farm products. Lamb Local No. 779, 
of V'liets, won first prize with a display of two hundred and fifty products, 
grown on the farm of Charles R. Wallace, near Vliets, besides a number of 
products from other farms in Lamb local, among which were the best ten 
ears of white corn shown at the fair, grown by E. Schubert, of Vermillion. 
The other locals contesting were Blue Valley Local No. 781, which took 
second prize in the general exhibit, also a number of blue ribbons. Cottage 
Hill No. 801 won third prize with a splendid exhibit. Cooley Local No. 807 
won fourth prize with a very creditable exhibit. 

The county union now consists of forty local unions, with a membership 
of 510 women and 1,345 men, making a total of 1,855 members. 




HORSES EXHIBITED AT MARSHALL COUNTY FAIR. 



The West 3o years ago. 



A0\- Co^vvc^V^ v7o7 b^ U H.V^^X'^^'t'^'^ 




THE WEST THIRTY YEARS AGO. 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF MARYSVILLE. 




ORIGINAL BLUE VALLEY CREAMERY. 



XL": 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 257 

Meetings of the county union are held quarterly at the following points : 
Marysville, in January ; Beattie, in Alay ; Frankfort, in July, and at Blue Rap- 
ids, in October. 

In January, 191 5, the following officers were elected: President, W. T. 
Gossin, of Axtell; vice-president, John T. Ellenbecker, Marysville; secretary- 
treasurer, Charles R. Wallace, Vliets. At that time the organization was 
chartered. 

In January, 191 6, the following officers were chosen : President, William 
T. Gossin, of Axtell; vice-president. John Frost, of Blue Rapids; secretary- 
treasurer, Charles R. Wallace, of Vliets. 

The officers for 1917 are: President, Ralph H. Hawkins, of Marysville; 
vice-president, A. D. Fitch, of Frankfort; secretary-treasurer, Charles R. 
Wallace, of Vliets. 

NUMBER OF LOCALS AND SECRETARIES, I917. 

No. 859 — Roy Christy, Axtell. No. 781 — Charles Musil, Blue Rapids. 
No. 776 — L. W. Davis, Vermillion. No. 779 — J. A. Johnson, Vliets. No. 
780 — Neil Swanson, Vliets. No. 782 — A. W. Bennett, Waterville. No. 796 
— Charles A. Schulz, Marysville. No. 797 — James McNew, Marysville. No. 
801 — Charles Stenson, Waterville. No. 807 — C. H. Palmer, Blue Rapids. 
No. 809— M. T. Bigham, Frankfort. No. 822— R. D. Blair, Blue Rapids. 
No. 838— E. C. Talbot, Marysville. No. 841— H. A. Waters, Marysville. No. 
834 — R. S. Hawkins, Marysville. No. 854 — O. C. Severns, Marysville. No. 
857 — Fred W. Koepp, Home. No. 858 — Anton Nieberding, Marysville. No. 
808 — Stephen Navricek, Irving. No. 924 — H. C. Lucas, Frankfort. No. 
948 — R. F. Carver, Frankfort. No. 951 — Phil Smith, Frankfort. No. 961 — 
William T. Gossin, Axtell. No. 964 — Willis Conable, Axtell. No. 967 — 
H. H. Feldhausen, Frankfort. No. 968 — Charles Wuester, Beattie. No. 971 
- — V. C. Miller, Summerfield. No. 990 — H. A. Wanamaker, Blue Rapids. 
No. 997 — Dan Bachoritch, Oketo. No. 998 — George E. Raymond, Bigelow. 
No. 1002 — Irwin Otto, Marysville. No. 1005 — A. H. Seaman, Axtell. No. 
185 1 — Otto J. Wullschleger, Winifred. No. 1071 — Sidney Johnson, Frank- 
fort. No. 1 122 — H. F. Bergman, Vermillion. No. 1232 — Charles Schroeder, 
Home. No. 1238 — Emil Hohn, Marysville. No. 1259 — N. G. Schmidt, 
Marysville. No. 1288 — J. C. Shepard, Irving. No. 1349 — Harvey Smith, 
Home. 

(17) 



258 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

MARSHALL COUNTY STOCK SHOW AND FAIR ASSOCL\TION. 

The Marshall County Stock and Fair Association, located at Blue Rapids, 
was chartered in March, 1916, and its capital stock fixed at $10,000, divided 
into 1,000 shares of $10 each. For the purpose of interesting as many as 
possible in this matter, it was determined not to sell more than one share to 
any one person. 

The following first board of directors was elected at the first stockholders' 
meeting held at Blue Rapids, June 21st, 1916: E. R. Fulton, William Acker, 
S. W. Tilley, W. J. Gerard, J. W. Stewart, Niel Robinson, A. B. Garrison, 
John Cottrell, A. R. Dean, Frank W. Lann, C. E. Nichols, C. B. Mayer, G. D. 
Curry, Ernest Herm.ann and R. J. Wells. The organization was completed 
by the election of Neil Robinson, president ; J. W. Stewart, first vice-president ; 
A. B. Garrison, second vice-president; W. J. Gerard, treasurer, and C. J. 
Brown, secretary. Executive committee : W. J. Gerard, A. R. Dean, Neil 
Robinson, C. B. Mayer and G. D. Curry. 

The city of Blue Rapids gave to the association, for a term of years, the 
use of its Riverside park, for stock show and fair purposes, and in this beau- 
tiful park the first fair was held October 10 to 13, 1916. 

The result of the first year's work of this county stock show and fair is, 
in brief, as follows : Several fine permanent buildings on the grounds, a very 
successful fair held, every obligation paid, a ten per cent, dividend paid on the 
seven hundred and twenty-five shares of stock sold, and eight hundred dollars 
surplus in the treasury for the future work. 

FAIR AROUSES INTEREST. 

This was a splendid awakening of the county fair spirit, which did so 
much for the agricultural interests from the time the first fair was held at 
Marysville in 1873, ^P to ten years ago, when it died out. During most of 
those years race horses were kept in training on the tracks of Marysville and 
Frankfort, practically all the year round. The fair was the one great occa- 
sion of the year, attended by everybody with his whole family. The stock was 
worth seeing, as well as the exhibits of grain, but the great attraction was the 
races between some of the best and fastest horses in the country, some of 
which were owned at home. Capt. Perry Hutchinson, Doctor Willson, Doctor 
Scamon, Neil Robinson, H. E. Wiedemeyer and others from Marysville ; H. 
H. Lourey, J. Gano, the Osborn brothers and others from Frankfort, all had 
good track horses, some with national reputations. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 259 

As the old settler and the old cavalry soldier passed away, the real lover 
of the horse passed, and the great American game, baseball, took the eye and 
money of the people. Bicycle and automobile races are much more interesting 
now than horse races ; as the faces change, so do the tastes. However, the 
live stock and farm product show at Blue Rapids in October, 19 16, was a 
decided success. 

LADIES FIGURE FAVORABLY. 

The display made by the ladies of the county is worthy of especial com- 
ment. Pantry stores of all kinds, bread, cake, preserves, pickles, jellies and a 
great variety of canned fruit, were evidence of the interest taken by the women 
of the county in the fair. In the fine arts display, Airs. J. G. Strong took first 
prize for a landscape in oil, and Mrs. Carrie Hunter, first prize for an animal 
in oil. The exhibits in water color, china painting, crayon and pastel, photog- 
raphy and pencil drawing, were very fine. 

The exhibit which was of most pleasure to the visiting ladies was the 
wonderful display of handmade laces, tatting, embroidery, pieced silk quilts, 
appliqued quilts, knitted bedspreads, point lace, drawn work, and home-made 
rugs. The drawn work, which was the object of attention by all, was done 
by Mrs. Moden, of Waterville, who has passed her eightieth birthday. It is 
quite evident that the deft fingers of .Kansas women have not lost their cun- 
ning in fancy work and sewing. 

BLUE VALLEY CREAMERY COMPANY. 

The original Blue Valley Creamery Company was organized on May 5, 
1894, by Walker Brothers, of Wichita, Kansas, assisted by a number of pub- 
lic-spirited citizens of Marysville. 

A creamery was built and butter making began on September i, 1894. 
So successful was the business that the Walkers soon sought larger fields and 
abandoned the business in Marysville. Today, giant plants of the Blue Valley 
Creamery Company are established in nearly all the large cities of the United 
States and in some foreign countries. 

Twenty years from the time the Walker Brothers began making butter 
in Marysville the company had become the largest creamery product manu- 
factory in the world. 

Until 191 5 the stone iniilding was used by F. W. Heinke, as a machine 
shop. Since then it has been left to ruin and decay. In summer, birds nest 



260 .MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

amo:ig" the wild vines, which clnnil)er o\-er its roof and the snnllowcrs which 
£;TOW rank arour.d its walls. In wimcr it hccomes a hiding [)lace for rodents. 
J'at. sleek h.or.^es t^nce drew wagons to its entrance, from which were 
unloaded gallons of rich cream that were turned into butter as golden as the 
dollars that were swelling the l)ank account of Walker Brothers. Now, 
abandoned and slnmned. it is the \ery symbol of neglect. The boy on his 
way to the White Stuni]:) swimming hole, pauses long enough to hurl a stone 
at its shattered windows. It stands in solitude and no one remembers that 
it placed men on the highway to wealth, save the historian. 



CHAPTER XII. 
Military History, 



LITTLE GRFEN TENTS. 

From "Walt Mason, His Book," published by Basse & Hopkins, Xew York. Copyrighted. 

The little green tents where the soldiers sleep. 
And the sunbeams play and the women weep, 

Are covered with flowers today. 
And between the tents walk the weary few, 
Who were vouno- and stalwart in sixtv-two, 

When they ^vent to the war away. 

Tlie little o:reen tents are built of sod. 
They are not long and the}- are not broad, 

But the soldiers have lots of room. ' 

And the sod is part of the land they saved, 
When the flag- of the enemy darkly waved, 

The symbol of dole and doom. 

The little green tent is a thing divine. 
The little green tent is a countrv's shrine. 

AA'liere patriots kneel and pray. 
And the i:)ra^'e men left, so old, so few. 
Were young and stalwart in sixty-two. 

When thev went to the war awav. 



MARSHALL COL'XTY IX THE WAR OF THE REBELLION. 

During the War of the Rebellion. Marysville being on the main overland 
road between the Missouri river and the mountains, was made a recruiting 
point at which companies were enlisted, the men coming from all directions. 



262 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Tlie first soldiers to enlist from this county, however, were six boys from 
the Vermillion : Janies Smith, Bob Henderson, John D. Wilson, Oliver S. 
Leslie. John Burke and F. C. Brooks. The first Marshall county man to 
give his life for the Union in actual war was Bob Henderson. 

The following letter by James Smith to his brother, tells a story of the 
early days of the war much better than anyone else can. It will be remem- 
bered that after the war "Jim Smith'' served this county as representative, 
count}' clerk, county treasurer, secretary of state for six years and private 
secretary to Gov. John A. jNIartin and Gov. Lyman U. Humphry, and 
quartermaster-general for four years. He died at Topeka on May 28, 1914. 
Smith's letter follows : 

A\'. H. — Before answering your letter of long ago I was anxious to have 
a talk with "Boots", alias Elihu Holcomb, who knew more than I did about 
the Little Blue fight. 1 have not been able to get to see him, but the follow- 
ing are facts that I gleaned from Holcomb long ago. 

On the evening of November 10. 1861, about 8 o'clock, Companies A, 
B and H. Seventh Kansas Cavalrv, under command of Lieut.-Col. D. R. 
Anthony marched out of Kansas City. On that march Bob Henderson rode 
side by side with "Boots" and during tlie night they became well acquainted 
and Bob's conversation made a lasting impression on Holcomb. Bob, calm 
and cool in anticipation of a fight, but at the same time expressed his firm 
belief that he would be killed in the first fight and in this belief he went into 
the fight early on the morning of the nth of November. 

Of the engagement 1 copy the following from the second volume of the 
adjutant-general's report : 

"The first engagement in which the regiment was represented was fought 
on the nth of November, 1861, by companies A, B and H, under command 
of Lieut. Col. D. R. Anthony, with a rebel force outnumbering his four to 
one under command of the notorious Col. Up Hays. The rebels were driven 
from their camp but occupied a strong position just beyond amongst the 
rocks and trees on the hills along the Little Blue river. After a desperate 
fight and being unable to dislodge the enemy from his natural strong position. 
Colonel Anthony ordered the camp destroyed and having captured all of the 
horses of the command Colonel Anthony with his force retired from the field. 
In this skirmish companies A, B and H had nine killed and thirty-two 
wounded." 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 263 

FIRST SOLDIER KILLED IN FIRST ENGAGEMENT. 

I understood (I had not yet recovered from typhoid fever and was not 
in the fight) that Bob was the first soldier killed in that first engagement of 
the Seventh Kansas. 

His body was brought back in a wagon (we had no ambulance yet) to 
Kansas City and received a soldier's burial. It was taken up and removed 
to Pennsylvania. His bloody cavalry jacket, his testament, which, rollicking 
boy as he was. he read daily, his violin, and other belongings were sent to 
his mother. For some particulars about these see Uncle Dan Auld. 

The village of Barrett was intensely loyal in 1861. The Barretts, the 
Leavitts, Blackburn, Puntney, Todd, and the Wells, although Kentuckians, 
honest old Henry Rebb, O. C. Allen, Uncle Tommy Edgar, Dan C. Auld, 
Soren Jensen, all the Wilsons, Uncle Isaac Clark, Bob Smith, Johnny Burke, 
Leslie, Brooks, Poster, Ephraim Lewis and scores of others of like loyalty 
made up the Vermillion Valley. The news of the firing on Sumter was 
received by us just as it was received by loyal men everywhere, but I think 
none of us thought for a moment that there would be a four-year war. I 
know we boys believed tliat the government would crush treason at one fell 
blow, and not until the news of the defeat at Bull Run, which reached us 
through Thedrow S. Vaile, did we have any idea that our services would be 
needed. 

Then I think without meetings or preconcerted plannings, a few of us 
determined to enlist. There were six of us, to-wit : Bob Henderson, 
John D. Wilson, Oliver S. Leslie, John Burke. F. C. Brooks and myself. I 
think the first time we were all together before leaving for Leavenworth was 
at a camp meeting up East Fork. I remember that one afternoon divine 
services were dispensed with and Union services substituted. The night 
before we left we all attended church at the little old school house at Barrett 
and a Campbellite minister, Giddings by name, discoursed patriotism and 
at the conclusion of his sermon offered a most fervent prayer for the boys 
and then requested us to stand up while each one of the audience filed by and 
bade us farewell. Bob Henderson and I went home with our girls from the 
meeting and walked back four miles and slept our last sleep together in Mar- 
shall county. Next morning we met over at the mill where everybody had 
gathered to bid the first soldiers from Marshall county "God speed." If you 
see Jennie Love she can tell you all about the parting. We were all liked 
fairly well but everybody, men, women and children, actually loved Bob Hen- 
derson and in your address you cannot say too much of the noble qualities 
of the soldier bov for whom Henderson Post was named. 



264 MARSH A LI. COUNT V, KANSAS. 

TKIBUT1-: TO LOYALTY OF VEK.MILLION. 

It may not liave any special bearins:^. but 1 cannot forbear to refer again 
to the loyalty of the V'ermillion. In the winter and spring before the com- 
mencement of hostilities, we all felt outraged at Pete Peters' paper at Marys- 
ville which was disloyal. We had several meetings to discuss the advisa- 
bility of going u\) and demolishing the "shebang." The meetings were held 
at A. G. Barrett's. The Barretts were there, Puntney, Blackburn, Todd, 
Bob Smith, Bob Henderson, Brooks, myself and others I do not now think 
of. We finally concluded that we would take care of the south half and 
leave the north half to the tender mercies of such patriots as Perry Hutchin- 
son. Tom Bowen afterwards came to the rescue of the loyal men of Marys- 
ville and gutted the obnoxious paper. 

W^hen we got to Leavenworth we enlisted in Company A, which was 
officered from top to bottom and needed just our number to fill it to the 
maximum. I think you can say that we were the first to enlist from Marshall 
county. And that Bob Henderson was the first Marshall county soldier to 
be killed and the first one in his regiment to be killed. As far as patriotic 
meetings were concerned, they occurred wherever and whenever two or three 
were gathered together. But the one w^iich left the most vivid impression 
on my mind was the one at the school house before we left when the gray- 
haired Campbellite minister preached a farewell sermon to us and for. us. 
You might call the next morning when we marched away a meeting too, 
with saw logs for seats at th.e old mill. Since that morning I have had some 
triumphs and have received honors at the hands of Marshall county people, 
but never felt as solemnly proud and grateful as on that morning when we 
bade farewell to the people of Barrett. The warm hand-shake, the tearful 
eye, and the tremulous "God bless you," told us that we would be ahvays 
during our career as soldiers, held in affectionate remembrance by these good 
people. Bob Henderson and I often talked of that good-bye and wondered 
how in a short year it was possible to become so attached to those people. 

But I am getting prolix and away from the subject. Possibly you can 
sift something out of this which will help you out. I believe, however, you 
could g"et more interesting things from A. G. Barrett or Mrs. Barrett or 
Jennie Love. 

As to the battle of Little Blue, if you see Leslie you could get something. 

Yours, 

James Smith. 



MARSHALL. COUNTY, KANSAS. 265 

A 

county's contribution to the union cause. 

In i860 the population of the county was two thousand two hundred 
and seventy-five, the number of men of voting age did not exceed four hun- 
dred, yet in absence of definite data it is safe to say that the county furnished 
more soldiers to the "Union" rhan it had voters, besides a few for the con- 
federacy. 

In addition to several hundred privates and minor ofiicers. the county 
furnished Col. Thomas E. Bowen, Capt. Perry Hutchinson, Capt. Frank 
Kister, Capt. Mel. Lewis, Capt. W. S. Blackburn, Capt. James H. McDougal, 
Capt. Rev. M. D. Tenny, Lieutenants John D. Wells, David E. Ballard, S. 
B. Todd. James E. Love, Levi Hensel, W. W. Griffin, Dan C. Auld, John 
N. Cline, Nathan Slosson and others. So far as is known Capt. Mel. Lewis, 
of the soldiers home in California, is the only survivor of this list. 

Colonel E. C. Manning was federal census enumerator in i860 and 
gives the population of Marshall county at that time as two thousand two 
hundred and eighty. 

Manning says: ''On the last day of July, i860, a tornado came down 
the Blue Valley doing much damage and tore the printing office asunder. 
General Marshall who owned the printing plant said he was glad of it as he 
would rather see the outfit in the bottom of the Blue river than see Repub- 
lican sentiments printed on his type. 

"After Lincoln's inauguration I was appointed postmaster at Marys- 
ville, the city then containing but four settlers who did not sympathize with 
the South. To assure passengers that they were in a loyal region, I pro- 
posed soon after Sumter was fired upon to erect a pole near the pul3lic well 
in the main street and unfurl our country's flag to the loyal Kansas breeze. 
Amos Park, Lee Holloway, Cale Hulburt, Tim Conner and Rug Bulis agreed 
to join me in the enterprise. Several young, hot-blooded Southerners threat- 
ened with bodily harm any person who should attempt to raise a 'Union 
flag', as it was called then. 

raising t?[e union flag. 

"I sent two of the men to the woods dov/n the river with a team bor- 
rowed fron.i Peter Gift, a loyal Scotch blacksmith, for the purpose of getting 
a suitable pole, while two others dug a hole for the pole and I borrowed a 
flag from Abner G. Barrett who kept a hotel by the roadside opposite the 
well. We raised the flag before sundown, silentlv and with as little demon- 



266 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

stration as j^roper, while six of the hostile enemy watched onr proceedings. 
We learned they intended cutting down the flag during the night. To 
prevent this the halyards were carried to the second story of the hotel win- 
dow and two armed men, I.ee Holloway and Tim Conner, stood guard at 
the window for a few nights until the enemy became reconciled to the sight. 
Man\- a home-bound passenger expressed his pleasure at seeing his country's 
flag wave a greeting at that frontier town." 

ARMED AGAINST INDIANS. 

Marshall county during the war was in some measure a border county 
and was therefore drawn into the naitional conflict, Ixit the first armed defense 
made by the citizens of the county v.-as against Indians. Companies were 
recruited under the command of Capt. Frank Schmidt and Capt. James 
McClosky. A company from the Vermillion settlement under Capt. James 
Kelley and one from Irving under Capt. T. S. Vaile. These troops w^ere 
placed under the command of Col. E. C. Manning and w^ere reinforced by 
companies from Nemaha, Riley and Washington counties, under command 
of General Sherry, of Seneca, Kansas. They were furnished arms and 
ammunition by the government, but were not enlisted in the service of the 
United States. 

Many minor skirmishes took place in Marshall county and the settlers 
suffered greatly from systematic pilfering and stealing by the Indians. Sev- 
eral outrageous massacres took place in Cloud, Washington and Republic 
counties and these troops were organized and equipped for protection to the 
settlers and for the purpose of convincing the predatory bands of Indians 
that armed defense would be made in case of attack. The troops w^ent out 
twice to render assistance to western counties. 

Thousands of Indians hunted, camped and traded in Marshall county 
but, singularly, few^ tragedies occurred. 

Andreas states in his history that a large proportion of the troops 
enlisted from Marshall county in the \\'ar of the Rebellion, were from Marys- 
ville and Vermillion townships. 

Marysville w^as made the recruiting station for Marshall and Washing- 
ton counties. There were about four hundred and fifty voters in Marshall 
county at that time, yet the county is credited with having sent four hundred 
men to the Union army prior to 1865. ^^ ^^^^^ Y^^^ (1865) the county w^as 
called upon for thirty-one additional men, who were furnished. 

Company K, Ninth Kansas Cavalry, was organized at Marysville in the 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 267 

summer of 1862 by Capt. Thomas M. Bowen, later United States senator 
from Colorado. Under his command as captain and J. D. Wells as first 
lieutenant, the company consisting of eighty men, was ordered to join the 
regiment at Leavenworth. This regiment served principally in Missouri and 
Arkansas and participated in all the important engagements that took place 
on the Arkansas river. 

After serving with distinction Company K was mustered out of service 
at Duval's Bluff. Arkansas, and discharged at Ft. Leavenworth in July, 1865. 
This company suffered severely during its service, only about one-third of 
the soldiers returning. 

COMPANY G, THIRTEENTH KANSAS INFANTRY. 

This company under command of W. S. Blackburn, captain, Thomas 
Hensel, first lieutenant, was recruited at Maiysville in August, 1862. Ver- 
million township furnished most of the men for this company. The com- 
pany joined the regiment at Atchison and their first engagement took place 
at Cane Hill, Arkansas, and was followed by an engagement at Van Buren, 
Arkansas. 

The company w-as discharged at Ft. Leavenworth on July 9, 1865. 
Only about half of the soldiers returned. 

COMPANY E, THIRTEENTH KANSAS INFANTRY. 

This company was recruited at Marys ville during the summer of 1862, 
under command of Capt. Perry Hutchinson. 

Marysville furnished twenty-seven men to this company, the remainder 
coming from various points in the county. This company was stationed at 
Marysville until September 8, 1862, when Captain Hutchinson received orders 
to transport his men to Ft. Scott. 

The company of Otoe Indians under command of Capt. D. W. Williams 
accompanied Company E, and the entire command numbered over three hun- 
dred men. This company served with distinction in Missouri and Arkansas, 
and like the other companies suffered great losses in men. 

COMPANY H, SECOND KANSAS CAVALRY. 

This company was mustered into service at Kickapoo, in Doniphan 
county in the spring of 1862. under command of Capt. A. Gunther and was 
composed entirely of recruits from Marshall and Washington counties. 



268 MARSHALL COUNTY. KANSAS. 

After serving with distinction throu.^iitmt the war it was nmstered out of 
service Afarch 18, 1865, at l.ittle Rock, Arkansas. 

Larire numbers of men from Marshall conntv enlisted in others Kan- 
sas regiments. The Second. Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh 
Kansas .Regiments, had men from Marshall county in their ranks. 

Marshall conntv furnished her full share of troops to the Union army 
and the regiments in wlu'ch thev were enlisted served with bravery and dis- 
tinction during the war. 

T. L. Holloway is the only surviving member of Company H, Second 
Kansas Cavalry, now residing in Marshall county and Lieut. William Mercer, 
of the same company, resides in Washington county. These men, so far as 
known are the only survivors of the gallant company. 

During the days of recruiting and mustering in soldiers for the war, 
what is now Marysville city park was the rendezvous. 

The Old Settlers Reunion was held in the park in September, 191 6, and 
at the same time a reunion of Com]:)any K, N^inth Kansas, w'as held on the 
same ground where fifty-five years ago as "boys" they enlisted and went 
away to the front. But five members were present. Tliey were : J. E. 
Wood, of Boise, Idaho; E. H. Pralle, of Hollenberg, Kansas; J. M. Harper, 
of Stockdale, Kansas; G. A. Storms, of Powhattan, Kansas; C. M. Murdock, 
of \\'vmore, Nebraska. J. E. Wood was elected president pro tem and C. 
AI. Alurdock, secretary pro tem. 

The roll of the survivino- memljers was called and letters were read from 
many of them. ^lany old army incidents were related and a good social 
visit was enjoyed by this little band of survivors. At the regular business 
meeting, E. H. Pralle, of Hollenberg, was elected president ; Pollard Carna- 
han, of ^lanhattan, vice-president, and C. M. Murdock, secretary-treasurer. 

CIVIL WAR VETERANS. 

The following is a list of soldiers now residing in Marshall county, 
who served in the War of the Rebellion : 

Axtell. — G. L. Barnes, T. H. Scott, T. C. Casterline, J. R. Livingston, 
J. F. Sharpe, D. J. O'Connell, S. J. Sharpe, Sidney Sharpe. 

Bigelow. — Andrew^ AL Colton, Andrew J. Zerbe, John M. Rimhart, 
Nathan Midcalf, Samuel M. Rucker. 

Barrett. — Simon T. Massie. 

Beattie. — William H. Brooke, John H. Crabb, James L. Giles, William 



MARSHALL COL'NTY, KANSAS. 269 

Helvering-. Orin Kingman, William Lord, Jacob V. Schleigh, James R. Wil- 
cox, Alilo A. Tucker, Mark Eichelberger, David Heisse, William A. Willis. 

Blue Rapids.— David J. Huffman, James Warriner, Stout Shearer, 
James O. Wheeler, Isaiah \\^a1ker, William Worthington. Hugh Thorman, 
Francis M. Thomas. John X. Snodgrass, Arthur H. Xeal, John McPherson, 
Henry J. Lane, William Hardin, Abel W. Gibson, \\'illiam H. Francis, 
Samuel A. Craft, Andrew Chambers, Isam Burnett, Albert W. Beacham, 
Peter S. Burnett, 

Frankfort. — Jonathan Bishop, James W. Campbell, W^ S. Dingman, 
John L. Davis, E. R. Fairchild, Charles Edinborough, Isaac Gordon, Charley 
Howe, B. F. Hersh, Augustus P. Hampton, Charles H. Keyes, Samuel 
McConchie, George N. Morse, .Samuel Morehouse, Patrick Montgomery, 
Jacob North. Caleb Osborne, AV'illiam Phifer. Henry Reynolds. Thomas J. 
Snodgrass, Elias Schreiner. William Skillin, M. K. Thomas, L. V. B. Taylor. 
Luther Whiting, John ]\[. Watson. M. A. Brawley, J. Bigham, M. A. Barrett. 
Thomas Bisbirg. 

Vermillion. — T. aI. Andrews. J. S. Myers, Joel Barkes, John T. Holston, 
W. H. DeWalt, A. A. Nauman, J. H. Taneir, F. E. \\^ilkins, J. P. Duck- 
v,-orth, C. Bergmann. 

Vliets. — Henry Bottger. Tiniothy Gibson, James McKitrick, John W. 
Reed, A. J. Waxier. 

Marysville. — Lee D. Holla^^ay. Samuel Butler, J. A. Broughton, J. B. 
Logan. W. H. Smith. Alvin Arand. Elijah Bentley, Adolph Cumro, St. Clair 
Guthrie, J. O. Ackles. J. L. Bayles, Samuel Johnson, T. C. Randolph, A. J. 
Travelute. J. H. Crabb, E. B. Scott, Josiah Zellars, Peter Dugdale, Philip 
Phillippi, Joseph Manning, William Lofinck, D. B. Knight, Michael Barlo.w, 
George Winkler, E. B. Gatchell. J. F. Hanna. 

Oketo. — Peter Champaign, Valentine Draher, Allen Robinson. 

Summerfield. — John M. Graham, Sterling Keck, E. S. Wagner, Henry D. 
Maitland. Alexander Hart. George Finlayson. Chauncey F. Ream, George 
W. Small. W. A. Graham. 

Waterville. — H. C. Follett, Jos Van Allen, R. Smith. J. Jones, J. Scott, 
S. Wheeler. M. Scott. 

WAR WITH SPAIN. 

Though ]\larshall county had a company of men drilling in every town 
and village, even before war was declared, ready and willing to join the 
ranks, it was allowed ouly a minor part of Company M, of the Twenty- 
second Regiment, Riley county furnishing all of the commissioned officers 
and a majority of the, men to the Spanish-American W^ar, 1898. 



2/0 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Governor Leedy ordered the counties of Riley and Marshall to recruit 
the "one company allowed" at Blue Rapids on May 2nd, 1898. Enough 
aspirants appeared to make several companies and it has always been the 
opinion of the Marshall county boys, that the examining surgeon. Doctor 
Wharton, and recruiting officer and colonel of the Twenty-second Regiment, 
H. C. Lindsay, had given us unfair treatment. Therefore, some of the boys 
went to other counties to join and others went home to continue drilling for 
a possible future call for more troops. 

Three men, Henry E. Clark and Lambert Steinmetz, of Marysville, and 
Fred K. Barrett, of Barrett, joined the Twentieth Kansas and served in the 
Philippines with the late General Funston. 

Dr. Fred W. Turner, of Marysville, served as assistant surgeon with 
rank of captain, and VVillard Calkins, of Axtell, as a private in the Twenty- 
first Regiment. 

The following forty-six men served in the Twenty-second Regiment : 

]\[arysville. — John S. Schlax, Rudolph A. Moser, Dana W. Julian, Gott- 
frey Riesen, Albert Ross. Arthur Fink. 

Waterville. — Bert R. Lane, Ira B. Longbon, Otto A. Olson, Roy J. 
Stevenson, Fletcher Van Allen, limothy Welch, George G. Thedick, Frank 
Van Allen, Thomas B. Armstrong, Roy K. Beecher, William H. Brown, 
Charles C. Funk, Alfred M. Wilder, Gustav H. Yungeberg, John Summers, 
William H. Treaster. 

Oketo. — Richard Cosgrove, Ben Dolen. 

Frankfort. — Robert E. Trosper, Jr., Maurice E. Jilson. 

Axtell.- — Basil F. West, James O. Miller, Charles F. Iseli, John T. West. 

Beattie. — Martin Goin, Steven Matson, Henry C. Smith, Eugene L 
Totten, Frank D. Walbridge, Frank M. Wilson, Guy T. Helvering. 

Blue Rapids. — William Drennen, David L. Reed, Lewis H. Staples, 
Walter Barrett. 

Herkimer. — George P. Feil, Fred J. Feil. 

Irving. — William Puett. 

Bremen. — Herman F. Brenneke. 

Home City. — James H. Blocker. 

During this same period the following Marysville men served : Wilson 
Bently, in the Fifth United States Coast Artillery; Walter W. Libby, in 
Company FI, Thirty-second United States Volunteers in the Philippines ; 
Rudolph Knuchel, in Company L, Twentieth United States Infantry in the 
Philippines ; Henry J. Kysela, in Company G, Fourteenth United States 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 27 1 

Infantry in the Philippines and China, wounded in action at Pekin, August 
15, 1900; died at Tin Tsin, September 5, 1900; Herbert G. Horr, in Com- 
pany K, Twenty-second United States Infantiy in the PhiHppines, died at 
Manila. November 28, 1900, of fever. The bodies of both of those boys 
were brought home and buried in the Marysville cemetery. 

It would be impossible in a brief history to tell the full story of Mar- 
shall county soldiers in active duty. Their story is that of the soldiers of 
those eventful years. Th-ey served their country with sublime courage, 
magnificent enthusiasm and splendid discipline. The battles in which they 
engaged stand out prominently in history. Many of the boys "sleep the 
sleep that knows no waking", but men who fought nobly and gallantly and 
died heroically, will never be forgotten. 

THE WAR OF 191 7. 

As the liistory of Marshall county goes to press, the United States is 
engaged in war with Germany. Preparations are going on all over the 
country and public meetings are being held in every town to. inspire the 
people with a feeling of patriotism. 

Marysville has done herself proud in response to the nation's need for 
soldiers to participate in the w(^rld war and defend the nation's honor in this 
great conflict. Fifty young men of this city and immediate vicinity have 
answered the call. 

Frederick Allen and Louis McAllister, who joined the National Guards 
at Lawrence, Kansas, secured five recruits for Battery B. Artillery 
at Lawrence. Duke Brown,' who had joined the National Guards at Man- 
hattan, accompanied by Sergeant O. W. Reed of Company I, First Kansas 
Infantry, made a canvass of the city and talked over the proposition with 
many young men and by evening had secured a dozen or two recruits. C. R. 
Keller, second lieutenant of the company arrived and relieved Sergeant Reed. 
The enlistments continued to come in. When Lieutenant Keller and Brown 
returned to Manhattan they had secured a total of thirty-nine recruits. 

Twenty-five recruits went to Manhattan to take the physical examina- 
tion and all but one of them, William Throm, passed. 

Roscoe Aleredith enlisted in the hospital corps and left Lillis on Friday, 
April 6, 191 7, to answer his country's call. 



272 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



MARVSNII.LKS VOLUNTEER ROSTER. 

In Battery B. Artillery. Xalional Guards, Lawrence: l^^X'clcrick Allen, 
Louis McAllister, medical corps ; John Leroy, John O. Johnson, Byron Clarke, 
Joseph Schramm, Don O'Neil and Edward Cooper. 

In Company I, First Kansas Infantry, Manhattan: Duke Brown. Ray- 
mond L. Smith, William Lowe, Carl Goshorn, Earl Shirkey, Byron Afan- 
rose. P. F. \Vymore, Thomas Parrish, Archie Dexter, Bernard W. Harrison, 
Meh'in J. Scott, Charles E. Reinders. Harold Freeby, Lawrence Meier, Wil- 
bur Fordyce, Edward Frankenpohl, W. W. Hayes, Charles O. Smith, 
Maurice Jones, Myles Holloway, Otis E. Chapman, Percy D. Bartley, Paul 
Mitschler, Virgil Lockard, William Maluy, Dewey F. Lunday, Wallace 
Wakefield and Cyrus J. Nester. 

Edward J. Farrell, John F. Unger. Hugo E. Tangeman, Emil W. Lang- 
ner and Ralph E. Tangeman, all of Home City. 

Charles A. Taylor, of Schroyer. 

J. R. Larson, Colchester, Illinois. 

In the navy : Selmar R.eed and George Cottrell. 

In the engineer corps : Kale Thomson, S. Parkhurst Moyer, Byron 
Lathrap, Wilbur Watson. Virgil Russell, Flovd Zeek and Everett Dorcas. 

Applicants to the officers' training camp at Fort Riley : Emil Carlson, 
assistant cashier of the Citizens State bank; Carl White, instructor in the 
Marysville high school ; Dr. Chester A. Brooks, optometrist, and Herbert 
V. Pusch. 

At the outset there was much red tape procedure to be gone through in 
the matter of acceptance of applications to the training camp which caused 
great dela} , Ijut this was swept away by an order from the Central department 
at Chicago. 

Herbert Pusch, who had military training at Shattuck College, Faribault, 
Minnesota, was commissioned a first lieutenant in the United States army 
and joined his command at Fort Riley on May 12. 

E. M. Carlson received orders to report at Manhattan to take his pre- 
liminary examination. He passed the examination and his application was 
accepted. 

Miss May Ruggles joined a unit in the Red Cross branch of the 
service. This branch of the service will probably be the first to be called 
out. She has been holding the position of assistant night superintendent of 
the Presbyterian hospital in Chicago. 

This total roster of fifty IMarysville young folks who have volunteered 
to serve the nation in various departments speaks well of their patriotism 
and shows to the world that Marshall county is no slacker when the occasion 
demands service. 




GUITTARD BROTHERS AND JOSEPH THOMAN. 




WEST VIEW OF GUITTARD STATION. 



' TKE NT 






MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 273 

THE FLAG GOES BY. 
By Henry Holcombe Bennett. 

Hats off! 
Along the street there comes 
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums, 
A flash of color beneath the sky; 

Hats off! 
The flag is passing by! 

Blue and crimson and white it shines, 
Over the steel-tipped, ordered lines. 

Hats off! , , 

The colors before us fly; 
But more than the flag is passing by. 

Sea fights, land fights, grim and great, 
Fought to make and to save the state ; 
Weary marches and sinking ships; 
Cheers of victory on dying lips ; 

Days of plenty and years of peace ; 
March of a strong land's swift increase; 
Equal justice, right and law, 
Stately honor and reverent awe ; 

Sign of a nation, great and strong 
To ward her people from foreign wrong; 
Pride and glory and honor — all 
Live in the colors to stand or fall. 

Hats off! 
Along the street there comes 
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums; 
And loyal hearts are beating high ; 

Hats off! 
The flag is passing by. 



(18) 



CHAPTER XIII. 
Political History. 



REMINISCENCES. 

In 1864 Edwin C. Manning published a weekly paper in Marysville 
called the Big Blue Union. The name of the paper indicated Mr. Manning's 
politics. Also at the time he was "Colonel" E. C. Manning, commanding 
Seventeenth Regiment Kansas State Militia. 

Colonel Manning carried the name of Abraham Lincoln for President at 
the head of his editorial page, Andrew Johnson for Vice-President and Sam- 
uel J. Crawford for governor of Kansas. 

Crawford was Colonel of the Second Kansas Colored Volunteers and 
was elected governor that fall. He was the father of Mrs. Arthur Capper, 
wife of the present governor of Kansas. J. D. Brumbaugh, a son-in-law of 
T. W. Waterson, of Marysville, w^as a candidate for attorney-general. Col- 
onel Manning was himself a candidate for state senator from ^Marshall, Riley, 
Washington and Republic counties, and John D. Wells was a candidate for 
representative from Marshall. Harrison Foster was the candidate for probate 
judge, and Alexander Campbell for clerk of the district court. Moses T. 
Bennett was the candidate for superintendent of schools, and W. W. Jerome, 
for county attorney. 

The address of the Republican state central committee to the people of 
Kansas was printed in full in ^Manning's paper of October 14, 1864, and 
one paragraph is sufficient to tell the story of the times : 

"This great conflict, inaugurated upon our soil, has under the provi- 
dence of Almighty God, been transferred to the national arena, and today 
in council and on the battlefield, the purpose of Kansas is the purpose of the 
nation. If the nation, lives — if from the trial of blood she emerges into one 
indivisible unity, wnth freedom secured to all — then indeed, this conflict will 
not have been in vain, and the vast expenditure of life and treasure useless; 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. - 275 

but the future of Kansas will be secured with the future of our common 
country." 

These were prophetic words and we of this later day enjoy their full 
fruition. 

STATE OFFICIALS. 

Thomas W. Waterson, Marysville, was made bank commissioner on Feb- 
ruary 20, 1857. 

Waterson's son-in-law, J. D. Brumbaugh, was elected attorney-general 
in 1864 and served one term. 

James Smith, of Marysville, served as secretary of state from January, 
1879, to January, 1885; was private secretary to Governor Martin and 
Governor Humphrey, eight years; quartermaster-general, from 1901 to 1905. 

Channing J. Brown, Blue Rapids, was clerk of the supreme court from 
1879 to 1897. 

William Becker, Marysville, served as brigadier-general from 1883 to 
1885. 

Charles F. Koester, Marysville, served as commissioner for the revision 
of tax laws in the year 1872, and in 1876 was commissioner to the Centennial 
Exposition at Philadelphia. 

D. E. Ballard, Marysville, was quartermaster-general in 1865 and in 
1867 was on the commission to settle Price raid claims. 

BOARD OF REGENTS, STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

E. C. Manning, Marysville, 1868 to 1870. 

Charles A. Bates, Marysville, from February, 1874, to April, 1874. 

WilHam Hunter, Blue Rapids, from 1900 to 1903. 

Lapier Williams, Marysville, served as superintendent of the school for 
the blind, from 1892 to 1893 ^^'^^^ from 1899 to 1906. 

xAugust Hohn, Marysville, was a member of the state board of charities, 
from 1883 to 1885, and T. F. Rhodes, Frankfort, served from 1889 to 1893. 

G. H. Hollenberg served as emigration agent, Hanover, Germany, from 
1873 to 1874. 

W. H. Smith, Marysville, served as president of the State Historical 
Society in 1902 and as secretary of the state board of railroad commissioners, 
from 1 90 1 to 1903, and on the John Brown park commission, 1909. 

John Severance, of Axtell, served on the commission to establish the 
state industrial reformatory at Hutchinson, 1885 to 1889. 



2.~(y MAKSIIATJ. COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Ed M. 'riirner, Mans\illc, served on the li\e slock s;initar}' commission, 
1893 to 1896. 

Jacob Weisbach. 1"" rank fort, servetl on the ccjmmission to assess raihT)ad 
property in 1871. 

Perry Hutchinson. Alarysville, on the same commission in 1873. 

Dr. T. I. Hatfield, Marysville, served as president of the state board of 
dental examiners, 1895 to 1903. 

'\\ . S. Glass, Marysville, served on the state tax commission, 1907 to 191 1. 

MARSHALL COUNTY MEN IN FEDERAL SERVICE. 

'jMarshall county has furnished a number of men for the service of the 
government. Frederick A. Stocks, chief clerk of the treasury department, 
served from 1889 to 1893. ^^i'- Stocks was from Blue Rapids and after his 
return from Washington, D. C, was elected state senator from Marshall 
county. He engaged in banking in Blue Rapids and died in that city. 

Frederick J. Bates, a native Marysville boy, now holds a position as 
examiner of customs and is regarded as the government's leading sugar expert. 

Samuel Porter served as a special examiner in the bureau of pensions, 
resigning to accept the position of postmaster of Marysville. 

James G. Shibley now holds the position of chief of the insecticide 
division, department of agriculture. 

Earl J. Butterfield, from the vicinity of Oketo, is now superintendent 
of plant industry, department of agriculture. 

Russell A. Oakley, of Center township, agrostologist, department of 
agriculture. 

Roland A. McKee, scientific assistant, plant industry, department of 
agriculture. 

EARLY ELECTIONS. 

The first election was held in Marysville on March 31, 1855. The right 
to vote had been conferred by the Kansas-Nebraska act upon every inhabi- 
tant, otherwise qualified, who should be an actual resident. No period of 
time was recjuired. A liberal construction was put on the law, and an organ- 
ized band of men came to Marysville with wagons, horses^ tents, camping 
equipment and provisions. 

No opposition was offered them, as there were only two Free-State men 
in the county. John D. Wells and G. H. Hollenberg. Marshall was elected 
delegate to the Territorial Legislature. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 2/7 

In October, 1857, at an election of the Territorial Legislature, James 
White cast the only Free-State vote in the county. Andreas' "History of 
Kansas" says: "At Marysville, on the Overland trail, a little colony of 
Southerners had congregated, ostensibly for the purpose of building up the 
town, but in reality to work in the interest of the pro-slavery party. Mar- 
shall operated his ferry under a charter from the Territorial Legislature, 
which allowed him to charge the gold seekers and all other Western pilgrims 
the sum of hve dollars per wagon for crossing the river. There were per- 
haps some half-dozen log cabins on the river bank near where R. Y. Shibley's 
residence now stands. 

"This was Marysville, the county seat of Marshall county and the home 
of the candidate for governor of Kansas. 

VOTING BY "ballot." 

"On December 21, 1857, a vote was taken in one of the upper rooms 
of one of the log cabins. The polls were opened for the vote on the adoption 
of the Lecompton constitution, 'with slavery' or 'without slavery.' A soap 
box was placed on the head of a whiskey barrel as a receptacle for the ballots. 
As soon as this was filled, another box was to be substituted. A narrow 
staircase led to a hole in the ceiling through which the voter would thrust 
his hand, holding a ticket, and yell out his name or any name he happened 
to think of at the time. 

"He would then descend to make room for the next voter, imbibe all 
the 'red eye' he could, conjure up a new name and await his opportunity to 
vote again. 

"Old Shanghai, or 'Shang,' as he was called, was a character from Sum- 
ner, Atchison county, who came out with 'the gang,' to run the election. 
'Shang' was pretty well 'corned' before the day had passed and, becoming 
excited, sprang upon a whiskey barrel and offered to bet one hundred dollars 
that he had voted more times than anyone present. 

"His challenge was accepted and upon investigation it was found that 
another member of the crowd had exceeded 'Shang.' This enterprising citi- 
zen had in his possession a St. Louis directory and was voting right through 
the 'A's.' 

"According to the census, one hundred thirteen illegal votes were cast 
on that day. It was some years before it was possible to convince the voters 
that a 'free ballot and a fair count' meant that a man had but one vote, which 
was to be counted but once." 



2^8 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



'"some voting." 



In January and February, 1855, a census of Marshall county was taken 
by B. H. Twombley. His returns showed : Males, 33 ; females, 3 ; voters, 
24; minors, 5; natives of United States, 30; foreign born, 6. 

On IMarch 30, 1855, an election was held for the purpose of electing 
one representative and one member of the territorial council. At this election 
F. J. Marshall received three hundred twenty-eight votes for representative 
and John Donaldson received three hundred twenty-eight votes for member 
of the council. Needless to say, these votes were pro-slavery, and with a 
voting population only twenty-four in the county, this was "some voting." 

Marshall served at Pawnee at the first meeting of the Territorial Legis- 
lature, and Donaldson served in the council. Donaldson resigning, Marshall 
was appointed to serve in the council. 

POLITICAL PARTIES. 

The two great parties. Republican and Democratic, have always had 
strong adherents in Marshall county. But the electors have always mani- 
fested a spirit of independence. The Greenback, Populist and Progressive 
parties have had supporters, and have been able at times to elect members 
of their respective political faith to office. In the campaign of 1916 party 
lines were closely drawn and the victory at the polls went to the Republican 
party. 

Marshall was one of the few counties in Kansas which gave Hughes a 
majority for President. T. P. O'Neill, county commissioner for the First 
district, is the only representative of the Democratic party holding an elective 
county office. He was elected at a prior election. 

Among the stanch Democrats in the county in days past, will be remem- 
bered, H. H. Lourey, Cal. T. Mann, J. S. Magill, John A. Broughton, R. Y. 
Shibley, A. G. Barrett, D. C. Auld, M. L. Duncan. George S. Emmert, A. J. 
Travelute, W. E. Lee, Stephen Stout and T. W. Waterson. 

, The more active members of the party in recent years are : C. W. 
Brandenburg, Andrew Shearer, W. W. Redmond, O. P. Rosenkranz, J. D. 
Flannery, \V. H. Dexter, W, D. Patterson, William Bommer, P. J. Schu- 
macher, G. H. Nelson, George Van Vliet, Clarence Coulter, Ed Hanna, Lu 
Helvern, M. M. Schmitt, Frank Thomann, M. M. Haskins, H. M. Brod- 
erick, L. R. Broderick, John Kramer, the Doctors Wilson, James Sullivan 
and Michael Nestor. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 2/9 

I 

The standard-bearer of the Democratic party in the county is Hon. G. T. 
Helvering, the present member of Congress from the Fifth congressional 
district of Kansas. Mr. Helvering grew to manhood in the town of Beattie 
where his parents now reside. He is a graduate of the Beattie schools and 
also of the University of Kansas. He finished a course in law at Ann Arbor 
and was elected county attorney of this county serving two terms. He de- 
feated R. R. Rees, a Progressive, for Congress and is now serving his third 
term. 

Mr. Helvering is a man of fine appearance and pleasing personality and 
soon won distinction in Congress and is at present a member of the ways 
and means committee. His wife is a daughter of C. F. Koester, a prominent 
pioneer of the county. ]\Irs. Helvering, who is an estimable woman, is a 
member of the round table reading circle. Mr. and Mrs. Helvering have 
a large circle of friends in Marshall county. 

POPULIST POLITICS. 

In the year 1892 Kansas went populist in politics and elections and the 
Legislature of 1903 passed an omnibus bill repealing a number of Kansas 
laws. Among the number was the act creating the twenty-first judicial dis- 
trict. As Marshall, Riley and Clay counties comprised this district, the conse- 
quence was that Marshall county was "no man's land," judicially. 

Doubts were expressed as to the validity of legal transactions and a 
newspaper discussion took place between Richard Hawkins, a member of the 
Marshall county bar, and Ed. Hutchinson. 

Finally the supreme court came to the rescue and put the district once 
more into the "stern hands of the law." 

One of the old settlers of the county who will be remembered by many 
friends, was \\'. T. Pulleine, wdio served as probate judge for five terms. 
Judge Pulleine was of English birth and came to Marshall county in 1870, 
settled on a homestead near Home City, where he resided until 1895, when 
he came to Marysville, making this city his home until his death in September, 
1911. 

KANSAS TERRITORIAL COUNCIL. 

1855 — John Donaldson. 1858 — Andrew J. Mead. 

1857 — Francis J. Marshall, to fill va- 1859 — Andrew J. IMead. 

cancy caused by resignation i860 — Luther R. Palmer. 

of John Donaldson. 1861 — Luther R. Palmer. 
1857 — Special — Andrew J. Mead. 



28o 



MARSHALL COUNTY. KANSAS. 



MEMBERS OF KANSAS LEGISLATURE. 



855 — Francis J. Marshall. 

856— J. P. Aliller. 

857 — W. H. Jenkins. 

858— T. P. .AliUer. 

859 — T. S. \\iile. 

860— J. S. Alagill. 

861 — George G. Pierce. 

861— D. C. Auld. 

862 — Harrison Foster. 

863 — J. Weisbach. 

864 — J. D. Brumbaugh. 

865— John D. Wells. 

866 — James Smith. 

867— J. D. W^ells. 

868— A. G. Patrick. 

869— W. H. Smith. 

870— J. D. Wells. 

871— W H. Smith. 

872 — Alvinza Jeffers. 

873 — I. C. Legere. 

874 — Allen Reed. 

875 — C. J. Brown. 

876 — J. D. Brumbaugh. 

877 — John Lockwood and W. W. 

Smith. 
SyS—W. W. Smith. 
879— L. P. Hamilton. • - 

880— W. \V. Smith. 
S81— George W. Kelley. 



1882— S. W. Hazen. 

1883— J. D. Wells. 

1884— W. S. Glass. 

1885 — ^James Billingsley, T. F. 
Rhodes. 

1887— \\\ S. Glass, T. F. Rhodes. 

1889 — Wellington Doty, Fred A. 
Stocks. 

189 1 — Wellington Doty, Marion Pat- 
terson. 

1893 — William Raemer, Jr. 

1895 — William Raemer, Jr. 

1897 — Richard B. Moore. 

1898 — Special session, Richard B. 
Moore. 

1890— M. M. Haskin. Richard B. 
Moore. 

1 90 1 — L. V. McKee, Fred Pralle. 

1903 — L. V. :\IcKee, Fred Pralle. 

1905 — J- ^^- Rhodes, Fred Pralle. 

1907— J- M. Rhodes, E. L. Willson. 

1908 — Special session, J. M. Rhodes, 
E. L. Willson. 

1909 — J. M. Rhodes, John Kuoni. 

191 1 — Andrew Shearer, E. L. Will- 
son, Sr. 

191 3 — J. J. Tilley, N. S. Kerschen. 

1915— S. F. Paul, M. M. Schmidt. 



Since 1885 Marshall has had two representatives in the lower house. 
excepting the years 1893, 1895, 1897 and 1898. 



STATE SENATORS. 



1861-62 — Samuel Lappin. 
1863-64— T. H. Baker. 
1865-66— E. C. Manning. 



1867-68— J. M Harvey. 
1869-70 — A. A. Carnahan. 
1871-72 — Philip Rockfeller. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 281 

1873-74 — Frank Schmidt. 1897-99 — Fred A. Stocks. 

1877-80 — C. J. Brown. 1901-07 — E. R. Fulton. 

1881-84 — Perry Hutchinson. 1909-11 — W. P. Brown. 

1885-87— W. W. Smith. 1913-15— R. S. Pauley. 

1889-91 — E. A. Berry. 191 7 — F. G. Bergen. 
1893-95 — James Shearer. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
Schools of Marshall County. 

Kansans are justly ])roiKl of their common schools, as well as of the state 
institutions of learning, and of the excellence of the teachers. Marshall 
county has no state institutions for higher education, but the high schools 
of the towns, as well as the rural and parochial schools, maintain a standard 
which is not surpassed in the state. The presence of substantial school houses 
in the districts and the fine high school buildings in the towns, tell the story 
of progress along educational lines. But it is the duty of the historian to 
hark back to early days and early teachers, and to recall the ditScult path of 
the teacher of more than sixty years ago. 

Up to 1859 there was not a school house in Marshall county, and to four 
men, then bachelors, belongs the credit of putting up the first school house in 
the county. These young pioneers were Eli Puntney, D. M. Leavitt, A. M. 
Bell and Henry Ret, of Barrett, Vermillion township. 

FIRST SCHOOL DISTRICT. 

School district No. i, Barrett, was the first legally organized district in 
Marshall county. This was in 1859, and the school house built by the boys 
was fourteen by twenty-four feet. The lumber was given by A. G. Barrett 
and the work was donated. Andreas states that John Crawford was the first 
teacher, but Eli Puntney, the only survivor of the building committee, asserts 
that there was no real school held for two years and gives a good and valid 
reason: "Bless you, there were no children." Mr. Puntney says that W. S. 
Blackburn was the first teacher in 1860-61. As the records show that Mr. 
Blackburn was the county superintendent during those years, it is evident his 
duties were not pressing, as at that time there were but two organized school 
districts in the county. 

The cause of education was not entirely neglected, since a number of 
private, or "select" schools were kept. Miss Jennie Robb taught a select 
school in Marysville in a frame house, which stood on the site of the old 
"Sullivan House." Miss Kate Weber also had a small private school. These 
schools were continued until 1861, when district No. 4 was legally organized, 
and a small frame school house was erected at a cost of seven hundred dollars. 
A. S. Newell and P. O. Robins were among the first teachers. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 283 

Schools were taught in the various settlements in the county, wherever 
there were children. Rev. Samuel Walker, a Methodist minister, taught 
school in 1858, in a cabin at the mouth of Fawn creek. In 1859 Lucy Thomp- 
son Palmer taught a small school near where Blue Rapids now stands ; Emma 
Thompson taught in a house on the Little Blue near where the gypsum mill 
now stands, and continued this school in 1864-65. Fanny Jeffers taught in a 
log cabin at the mouth of Coon creek in 1861. Mrs. Whitmore, Mrs. Choate 
and E. A. Berry were teachers before the railroad was built. These were all 
private schools, not supported by state or county. There was no W'aterville 
before 1868 and no Blue Rapids before 1870. 

EFFORT TOWARD HIGHER EDUCATION. 

One of the great plans of the people of Irving was an institution of higher 
education, and the Wetmore Institute, a seminary for girls, was built to give 
the girls of the county the advantages enjoyed by their sisters in the East. 
Trained and accomplished teachers from Eastern colleges were brought to 
Irving. As there w^ere but few girls in the county, and those who lived here 
then scarcely possessed "two calico dresses each," the institute was not over- 
crowded ; there was plenty of room and fresh air. But boundless admiration 
must be bestowed on the men and women of Irving, who, amid the keenest 
hardship incident to pioneer life, yet gave freely to the cause pi higher educa- 
tion. Three of the early county superintendents were from Irving — W. S. 
Blackburn, J. L. Chapman and A. Jeffers. 

DEER CREEK SCHOOL. 

Deer Creek school, which is located five and one-half miles north of 
Marysville, was approved by Prof. J. A. Shoemaker, state rural school inspec- 
tor, as a standard rural school, and enjoys the" distinction of being the first 
and only such school in Marshall county. 

On Saturday, January 13, 19 17, the patrons of the school invited more 
than one hundred guests to participate in the celebration of the standardization 
of the school. A splendid musical program was given and Mrs. C. A. Fannen, 
the sweet singer of Marysville, rendered several solos. A dinner such as the 
good cooks of Deer creek know how to prepare, was served in the basement 
of the building. After the dinner, Mrs. A. J. Travelute (formerly Elizabeth 
Mohrbacher), who taught the first school in district No. 24, dedicated the new 
school house and gave an historical address, which was of county- wide 



284. MARSHALL COUNTY. KANSAS. 



'-t 



interest. Airs. Travehite said : "Fifty-six years ago there were few evidences 
of civilization in ATarshall county. The sod house, the dugout, and the log 
houses were few and far between. Education stood on the threshold of 
Kansas, looking eagerly for the means wherewith to enter the open door of 
opportunity. 

"One of these log houses stood on the bank of Horse Shoe creek, on the 
southeast corner of a homestead belonging to James Bartlow. During the 
year this log cabin was fitted up for a school house. Lee Holloway, James 
Bartlow and Thomas Marshall formed the school board of district No. 24, 
and they employed Elizabeth Mohrbacher, daughter of Jacob Mohrbacher, to 
teach the school at a salary of thirty-five dollars a month, which was a princely 
salary in those days. The number of pupils was fifteen. 

"District No. 24 then comprised all of Herkimer township, half of Logan 
and that part of Marysville township which extends to the west of the 
Blue river. 

"Miss Mohrbacher was succeeded Ijy Mary Travelute, Elizabeth Suggett, 
Anna Tyres, Charles Laycock. and Adda Fitzpatrick. In 1872 district No. 24 
was divided into three districts, namely Horse Shoe, Blue Valley and Deer 
Creek, the latter becoming district No. 58, now the standard school of the 
county. 

"The log school house soon became too small and a frame house was 
bought from Jeff Watson for one hundred dollars. This served until 1882, 
when a fine school house was built, which for thirty- four years was the pride 
of the country side, and which was used for church and all other public 
functions. The builders were John Truax, Henry Bodenner and Cash Stone. 
The building, when finished, cost over two thousand dollars. 

"In the fall of 1883 the first school was taught in the new building by 
.\. R. Barbour. Dr. W. F. Boyakin was then county superintendent of 
instruction. On July 31, 19 16, this building was destroyed by fire during 
an electrical storm. The fine building of today is erected on the old site." 

SOME EARLY TEACHERS. 

Many of the early teachers of Marshall county taught school in the Deer 
creek district. Among them were T. G. Butler, Charles Pritchard and C. F. 
Travelute. Mr. Travelute and his brother's wife, Mrs. A. J. Travelute 
(formerly Elizabeth Mohrbacher) were present at the celebration. 

The history of the evolution of Deer creek is but the history of the 
public schools of the county. As soon as times were easier the first thought 



MARSHALL COUNTY, .KANSAS. 285 

was better schools and better teachers. In the years between 1859 and 1870, 
much of the teaching \yas done in private homes. In the CathoHc settlement 
the faithful priests gave what instruction they could to the young people and 
children. 

In the German settlements the ministers gave instruction in the catechism 
and German language. The ministers of all denominations lent a hand in the 
cause of education. 

Rev. J. L. Chapman, Revs. Charles and Luke Holmes and Dr. W. F. 
Boyakin were all men of exceptional ability and their faith in Kansas was as 
fixed as the stars that looked. down upon her prairies, and her future was as 
bright as her glorious sunsets. Time has justified their ideals and while they 
sleep beneath her sod, her children remember them and chronicle their good 
deeds. 

Among the teachers who were prominent in the county were T. C. 
Randolph, now city clerk of Marysville; Sybil Broughton, who became the 
wife of C. F. Koester; W. R. Brown, now teaching the fourth generation, 
near Summerfield; Thomas Hynes, of St. Bridget; Ella Sheridan Acker and 
William Acker, now of Vermillion; George Heleker and wife; Georgia 
Patterson Heleker. A. M. Billingsly, Mell Chaffee, Ruth Bigham, the Dunlap 
sisters and Maggie IMcDonakl of Waterville, who is still in her chosen 
profession. 

FIRST SCHOOL IN COTTAGE HILL. 

Cottage Hill district No. 31 was organized in the winter of 1870-71. 
with Frank Leach as director ; James Nash, clerk, and Jackson Thomas, treas- 
urer. Sarah McKelvey taught the first school in the winter following. H. 
Jones and John Dolen built the school house. The present members of the 
school board are: Mr. Pischnez, director; E. F. Roepke, clerk, and Henry 
Webber, treasurer. The new school house was built in igi6 at a cost of 
three thousand five hundred dollars, including furnace and modern up-to-date 
furniture ; the basement is cemented and used as a play room, gymnasium and 
for town meetings. It is twenty-six by thirty-six, with an addition ten by 
thirty, for hall and work room. It is to be paid for by direct taxation in three 
years, commencing in 1915- 

PUBLIC SCHOOL. MARYSVILLE. 

In the year 1861 district No. 4. Marysville, was legally organized, and 
a small frame 1:,uilding was put up at the northwest corner of Seventh and 



286 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Center streets. In 1806 the block on which the school now stands was pur- 
chased from Air. and Mrs. Perry Hutchinson and from Samuel Raines for 
the sum of seventy-eight dollars and forty cents and the stone building, com- 
monly known as "the old stone building," was erected at a cost of eight thou- 
sand dollars. This building was thirty-live by seventy feet, two stories high, 
with two rooms on the ground floor and a large assembly room and recitation 
room on the upper floor. 

The assembly and recitation room on the second floor, which was one 
large room, was also used by the Methodist church and by the Masonic lodge. 
In this room I. B. Davis and R. Y. Shibley were initiated into the mysteries 
of Ma.sonry in 1870. 

In the year 1880 a brick building was erected, forty by sixty feet, costing 
twelve thousand dollars, and in i8g2 an addition was built on the north of 
it of exactly the same dimensions. Later a frame building was put up in 
the second ward, consisting of two rooms in which are taught pupils of the 
first and second grades, who live in that part of the city. Still later, an out- 
lying school was built. This did not prove satisfactory and now these pupils 
living in the outlying portions of the district are taken to and from school 
in an automobile. 

From iSgi to 1902. the modern normal school was held in the old stone 
building, conducted by John G. Ellenbecker. The stone building in its day 
was one of the best in this portion of the state ; two hundred and sixty-three 
graduates left it with diplomas. Some of them have achieved distinction and 
won places of prominence. 

Like all the old landmarks, after it had served its day and generation, 
it was dismantled to make room for the splendid high school, wdiich now 
adorns the same site and which gathers within its walls many sons and daugh- 
ters of parents who obtained their education within the w^alls of the "old stone 
building." 

MARYSVILLE HIGH SCHOOL. 

The city of Marysville in 19 16 completed a high school building at a 
cost of sixty thousand dollars, which is modern and complete in every detail. 

This school offers superior advantages to students as its graduates are 
admitted to any college or university in the United States, without examina- 
tion. 

One of the strong features is a completely equipped commercial depart- 
ment, giving thorough business training. 

Graduates from the normal course receive a two-years certificate from 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 287 

the state board of education. All the college preparatory subjects are taught 
and entrance credits given. 

Tuition is free to anyone living in the county who has completed the 
common school course. 

Marysville has one hundred thousand dollars invested in grounds, build- 
ings and equipment. Nineteen teachers are employed. 

The enrollment is as follows: High school, i6o; grades, 365; total, 
525; parochial school, 100; grand total, 625. 

Average daily attendance in high school, 155; in grades, 351 ; total, 506. 

The school has gained thirty-five per cent in enrollment in four years. 

BLUE RAPIDS SCHOOLS. 

The people of Blue Rapids have always realized the importance of a 
good school in the development of the city. Blue Rapids was the first town 
in Marshall county to establish a standard four-year course for its high school. 
At the present time it is the only school in Marshall county that maintains a 
department for beginners below the first grade. 

The use of two l)uildings thus separating the grades and the high school, 
is of distinct advantage to both. The citizens of Blue Rapids were sufficiently 
far-sighted to provide ample space for playgrounds. 

Blue Rapids high school has always been active in county contests, both 
of an athletic and literary nature. For a number of years her track team has 
been among the best in the county and her students have taken a number 
of prizes in oration and declamation. 

The high school offers courses in domestic science, agriculture, normal 
training and commerce, as well as the regular academic courses. 

An active parent teacher association, whose membership includes the 
representative men and women of the town, attest to the interest of the com- 
munity in the schools. J. H. Houston is the superintendent and, with a 
splendid corps of teachers, the school is one of the ranking schools of the 
state. 

THE FIRST SCHOOL. 

In November, 1861, the first school in the vicinity of Blue Rapids was 
taught by Lucy A. Palmer in a private dwelling one-half mile west of the 
present town. There were twenty-five pupils in the school. The teachers fol- 
lowing were : Emma Thompson, Rev. P. Duncan, Harriet Whitmore, Emma 
Cooley, A. Smith and Rev. Charles Holmes. 



288 \IAKS11ALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

The first school taught in likie Rapids was in the old Colonial hall and 
Rev. Charles Holmes was the teacher, in the summer of 1870. He was suc- 
ceeded the following year by Charles Palmer. A. Griffin and C. M. Bridges 
succeeded I'almer. 

Blue Rapids district No. 3 was organized and in 1873 a two-story 
brick building thirty by fifty feet, was erected at a cost of eight thousand 
dollars. 

C. M. Brydges, who was the first teacher in the new building, was suc- 
ceeded by E. Philbrock, W. B. Dimon, H. H. Halleck and J. W. Quay. 
Owing to the increased numbers a new building, twenty by thirty feet, was 
put up near the first, and in later years a fine new building adequate to the 
needs of the town was erected. The school is modern in every detail and 
is second to Marysville in size. The curriculum meets the requirements 
imposed for entrance to state institutions. 

IRVING SCHOOL NOTES SINCE 187O. 

From available records, and other information, the following sketches 
are compiled. The organization of district No. 2 and what was done for 
a school building before 1870, seem to be uncertain. It is supposed, how- 
ever, that school was held in a church building situated about one and one- 
half blocks south of the present postoffice site in Irving. This now is the 
residence property of Mrs. Julia \\'ells. The old church in question stood 
on the rear of these premises and the bell which now- rings in the tower of 
the frame school building once rang in the tower of the old church. In 1870 
a stone school building was erected at the same site as the present building. 
It contained two rooms and had but one teacher until 1873. Since the two 
rooms, were situated one above the other, Mr. Jeffers, the first teacher, must 
have had no use for the room abox'e. In 1873, however, according to the 
recollection of one of the pupils, who began school that year, another teacher 
was added to the teaching force. Miss Williams. It is uncertain whether 
there were any assistants before this year or not. 

Then for a period of ten years there is no certainty as to the names of 
teachers and superintendents, knowing only the names of some men wdio 
acted as principals during that period. They are given in the order they 
served: A. Jeffers, 1870: Mr. Reese, 1873; H. C. Robinson, and Mr. Tay- 
lor and Mr. Coleman served until 1883. Mr. Coleman served during the 
years beginning in 1882 and 1883. In 1884, Augusta Carlson who taught 
for thirty consecutive years, began her third term of teaching (her first in 




Bob-White. 
American Badger. 
Canadian Beaver. 

Raccoon. 



Prairie Chicken. 

Deer. 

Red Fox, with Prairie Chiclten. 

Gray (Timber) Wolf, with Cubs. 



WILD ANIMALS AND BIRDS OF THE NORTHWEST. 



A O •>-' 



<L~- 



-I /■ .:■ ; f 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 289 

the Irving school) under G. W. Carrico. She received thirty dollars per 
month. In the preceding year Miss Minnie Ish taught the primary room. 

The size of the first stone buildings was about thirty feet wide and forty 
feet long. This was blown down by a cyclone in 1879 and replaced by a 
frame structure, similar in size and" shape. The new building of that day 
was constructed by a contractor, Frank Edwards, at a contract price of 
eight hundred dollars and so well built that it still stands as a part of the 
present building. The small sum, eight hundred dollars, received by the con- 
tractor according to his figures, as reported by our pioneer citizen, J. L. Judd, 
netted him ten dollars per day profit. A passing comment ofl:'ered was that 
the price of lumber then was not in line with present prices. 

The total number of pupils enrolled in the school in 1884 was seventy- 
four; in 1895, one hundred and twenty; in 1905, one hundred and seventy- 
six; in 19 r 5, one hundred and sixty-four. The school building was enlarged 
in 1 89 1 by adding to the then existing frame structure four rooms and an 
entrance. This is being added to in 191 7 by placing a brick structure on 
the north of the entire frame structure. The building has always borne an 
artistic appearance though it seems to have been put together in pieces. 

The first increase in the number of teachers has been mentioned. In 
1889, besides Augusta Carlson, there was employed another to assist in the 
grades, Melissa B. Smith. The next increase came in 1892, when four 
teachers, including the superintendent, were employed. 

The vear 1894 witnessed the first graduating exercises in the Irving 
high school. In that year there were nine graduates which formed the 
charter membership of one of the most loyal alumnae associations in Kansas. 
Each year has added its c[uota until now, in 191 7, there is a total number of 
graduates from the school of one hundred and sixty-two. 

From the organization of the district until the present, the people of 
Irving have kept abreast with the times in providing the best for their chil- 
dren in the way of education. In 19 13 play-ground apparatus was installed 
for the smaller children; 1914 a basket ball court was constructed; in 1915 
tennis courts were made and proved a popular pastime and recreation with 
the intermediate and high school pupils; and in 1916 a football court was 
laid out. Since the beginning of the contests in oratory, declamation and 
track work in Marsliall county, the Irving school has come in for its share 
of the honors. The school has been accredited with the state university for 
several years and pupils have made splended records at that institution and 
other institutions of this state and in other states. 

(19) 



290 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

A few items indicate the increase in total expenditure for the district. 
In 1876 the tax money collected for district No. 2 was $2,989.88; in 1886, 
$3,830.59; in 1896, $2,989.88; 191^1, $3,588.75. In the earlier times the 
annual tax levy ranged from 17 to 25 mills. The valuation of the district 
has ranged from $100,864 in 1904 to $909,674 in 191 5. 

WATERVILLE SCHOOLS. 

The first school was taught by Miss F. Hartwell, now Mrs. H. Jones, 
in a building known as the Lutheran church. A frame school house was 
built in 1869-70, G. B. Vroom being the first teacher. Mr. Griffin taught 
the school in 1872. In the same year a new limestone school building, forty 
by fifty feet, two stories with basement, was erected. It had four rooms 
and cost twelve thousand dollars. This building was at that time the best 
in that part of the country. Mr. J. Potter was the first principal. Follow- 
ing him was G. W. Winans, who afterwards was elected state superintend- 
ent. In 1 9 10 an eight-room brick school house was built at a cost of twenty 
thousand dollars, and the old stone school house has been fitted up for do- 
mestic science, manual training and gymnasium purposes. 

The Waterville high school is one of the Barnes high schools in the 
county, and its graduates enter the state institutions on their high school 
diplomas. Mr. O. B. Vernon is the superintendent. 

The early settlers on the Little Blue river and on Coon creek believed 
in schooling for their children. Rev. Samuel A. Walker, a Methodist min- 
ister, taught school in 1858, in a cabin at the mouth of Fawn creek. 

Mrs, Lucy Thompson Palmer taught a small school near where Blue 
Rapids now stands, in 1859. Emma Thompson taught in a house on the 
Little Blue river near where the gypsum mill stands, in 1859, also in 1864 
and 1865.- Fanny Jeffers taught in a log cabin at the mouth of Coon creek 
in i86t. Mrs. Whitmore, Mrs. Choate and Hon. E. A. Berry were teachers 
before the railroad came. These were all private schools, not supported by 
state or county. There was no Waterville before 1868 and no Blue Rapids 
before 1870. 

SUMMERFIELD SCHOOLS. 

The first school house in Summerfield was a frame building erected 
in 1889. In 1892 an addition was built on and the school then contained 
two rooms. J. M. Kendall was the first principal and Mrs. George Shadle, 
the primary teacher. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 29I 

This school was destroyed by fire in 1904, and in 1905 a new modern 
brick and stone bnilding was erected at a cost of twelve thousand dollars. 
At that time there were one hundred seventy-one pupils in attendance. 

In 1910 a high school course was added to the course of study, and in 
191 5 an addition was made to the building at a cost of six thousand five 
hundred dollars. The total cost of building and addition, with heat and 
thorough equipment; aggregated over twenty thousand dollars. Tt is one 
of the Barnes high schools of the county and has an attendance of one 
hundred sixty-four pupils. 

Mr. John J. Fowler is the superintendent, assisted by a corps of eight 
teachers. The board of education consists of Henry Maitland, F. G. Bergen 
and S. C. Dugan. Mr. Maitland has been clerk of the board since the 
school first started. 

BEATTIE SCHOOLS. 

In 1868 school district No. 29 was organized and a log school house 
costing five hundred dollars was built at Beattie. Charles Pritchard was the 
first teacher and he was succeeded by Misses C. J. Sheldon, Ruth Barrett, 
Mary Hamilton and H. P. Buck. In 187 1 a new stOne school house, twenty- 
eight by forty-eight feet, was erected at a cost of seven thousand dollars. 
C. Mattleson taught the first term in the new building and was succeeded by 
T. M. Blair, Rev. E. Barber, F. W. Parsons, Mrs. F. W. Parsons, L. F. 
Fuller, Florence Patterson, Ida Newton, Albert L. Perry, and Georgiana 
Patterson. 

Since that time the building has been enlarged to meet the needs of 
the city and now has an accredited high school under the Barnes high school 
law, with John Menehan as superintendent and a corps of seven assistant 
teachers. The building is modern and thoroughly equipped. 

BUILDING AN EARLY-DAY SCHOOL HOUSE. 

Reminiscences of pioneer days bring to mind many old pictures, the log 
school house among them. The writer recalls one in particular of which 
mention may be made. 

About the year 1868, while Blue Valley was still a part of the Horse- 
shoe school district, no attempt whatever had been made to build a school 
house, because there w^ere no funds for that purpose. There were twelve or 
fourteen sturdy pioneers, who manifested a spirit of co-operation and achieve- 



292 MARSH \l. I. COUNTY. KANSAS. 

mcnt l>y constructing one of those log school houses on the northeast corner 
of section 2^ in Oketo township. 

Those men took up the task of furnisliing logs with which t(j Ijuild tlie 
school house. Xearlv all of them were prairie farmers and ha\'ing no tim- 
her thev were compelled to haul the logs from the Otoe Indian reservation. 
Sorghum molasses heing the only medium of exchange then, they would 
swap a gallon of molasses for a couple of logs, with the Indian, each farmer 
furnishing two logs. The roof was made of native shingles, the seats w^ere 
made of rough cottonwood boards and the desks were made of slabs, which 
were laid on pins driven into the walls. Elizabeth Aliddlemiss has the honor 
of havine tauefht the Hrst term in tliis, the Blue \^allev school house. 

Those who helped build this school house were: William Cockerill, 
Frank Butterfield, Oliver Furman, Robert Cottrell, A. J. Travelute, Thomas 
Howes, Ben Tiering. Peter Champaign. James Coats, R. E. Benson, G. R. 
Fulton, Peter McNulty, Sr.. Henry Spielmann and Tim Downing. 

One cannot think of the early days of Marshall county, without becom- 
ing enthusiastic upon educational matters as they existed in pioneer days, 
because the Kansas pioneer home and the prairie school house were typical 
of Kansas, as were the white schooners of the trackless plains, who brought 
those men and women who longed to deliver the new territory from bondage 
and to write across its map — "free". 

SUPERINTENDENTS OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

1859, John D. Wells; i860, W. S. Blackburn; 1861-1862, W. W. 
Jerome; 1863-1864, T. H. Baker; 1865-1866, Moses T. Bennett;- 1867-1868, 
Rev. J. L. Chapman; 1869-1872, C. S. Balton; 1873-1876, A. Jefifers; 1877- 
1878, G. W. Winans; 1879-1882, W. F. Boyakin; 1883-1884, Samuel Renoe; 
1884-1885, J. J. Sproul; 1885-1889, J. W. Quay; 1889-1891, W^illiam Acker; 
1891-1893, V. H. Biddison; 1893-1897, Lewis Scott; 1897-1901, M. W. 
Street; 1901, interim, J. G. Ellenbecker; 1901-1905, George K. Thompson; 
1905-1909, Otis Berry; 1909-1913, C. E. Drumm; 1913-1915, P. N. Schmitt; 
1915-1917, W. H. Seaman. 

SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND TEACHERS, I916-I7. 

Following is a list of districts, names of schools and names of teachers 
in Marshall county, in the order mentioned : 

I — Barrett, Keturah Prebble. 5 — Osborn, Anna Shedden. 6 — Gallup, 



MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 293 

Elnora Wanamaker. 7 — Antioch, Francis Guffee. 8 — Elm Creek, Kittie 
Hunt. 9 — Bine River, Minnie Wassenburg. 10 — Life, Sara Price. 11 — 
Fairview, Lou Olson. 13 — Beaty, Minnie Froom. 14 — Borphy, Dollie 
Turley. 15 — Merrimac, Manilla Grimes. 16 — Walker, Nina Carver. 18 — 
La Grange, Effie Wilson. 19 — O'Neill, Josephine Thorne. 21 — Hermans- 
burg, Evangeline Church. 23 — New Salem, Helen Detweiler. 24 — Hollo- 
way, Celia Severns. 25 — McDonald, Orel Severns. 26 — Snodgrass, no 
school; pupils sent to Frankfort city schools. 27 — Fairview, Vera Peacock. 
28 — Flint Hill, Merle Gerard. 30 — Garrison, Celia Smith. 31 — Cottage Hill, 
Geneva Nichols. 32 — Valley View, Caroline Massie. 33 — Campbell, Ella 
Nester. 34 — Auld, Grace McKee. 36 — Blue Valley, Ellen Yaussi. 37 — 
Game Fork, Albina Musil. 38 — Pleasant Valley, Grace Filley. 39 — Sun- 
flower, Lessie DeVault. 40 — Reedsville, Vivian Thompson. 41 — Snipe 
Creek, Minnie ]\IcKibben. 43— Grimes, Otis Crevier. 44 — Excelsior, Zella 
Burton. 45 — Allison, Agnes Rutti. 46 — Garden, Mabel Tays. 47 — Pleasant 
Hill, Ella Moden. 48 — Mt. Pleasant, Ethel Zeller. 49— Pleasant Valley, 
Blanche Houston. 50 — Little Timber, Grace Radebaugh. 51 — Lincoln, 
Minnie Severin. 52 — St. Bridget, Sr. M. Pauline, O. S. B. 53 — Plunkett, 
Lizzie Smith. 54 — Stillwater, Bertha Tyler. 55 — Prairie Ridge, Nella Fen- 
ner. 57 — Elliott, Thomas Warders. 58 — Deer Creek, Florence Schwinda- 
mann. 59 — Pleasant Ridge, Charlotte Waters. 60 — Bremen, Ore McMahon. 
61 — McLeod, Anna Krause. 62 — Dow, Marie Schulte. 64 — Fawn Creek, 
Lena Hendel. 65 — Reserville, Alice Alackey. . 66 — Brown, Fea Raymond. 
67 — -Blanchville, William Griffee. 68 — Pecenka, Julia Peterson. 69 — 
Eighteen, Zilpha Anderson. 70 — Farrar, Ethel Tompkins. 71 — Bluhm, Iva 
Rowe. 'J2 — Scriber, Verna Martin. 73 — Bain, May McMahon. 74 — Ander- 
son, Mary Black. 75 — Seventy-five, Elizabeth Elliott, 'jd — Seventy-six, 
Laura Harper, ^y — Prospect Hill, Lenore George. 78 — Grand View, Irene 
Godbout. 80 — Brown, Francis Butler. 81 — Summit, Elsie Johnson. 82 — 
Pleasant Prairie, Nora Stosz. 83— Cunningham, Margaret Klein. 84 — Koch, 
Ruby Wikoff. 85— Victory, Mildred Winquist. 86— Star, Bertha Fulton. 
87 — Larkin, Ella Voile. 89 — Fairiew, Lola Baker. 90 — Woodbine, W. R. 
Brown. 91 — Pleasant Prairie, Bertha Schulte. 92 — Keystone, Minnie Lar- 
son. 93 — Mt. Hope, Marie Zeller. 94 — Hopewell, Cornelia Fitch. 95 — • 
Thomas, Howard Jester. 96 — Green Valley, Myra McMahon. 97 — Wilson, 
Marie Sedivy. 98 — Reust. Helen Sedivy. 99 — Harmony, Julia Rudeen. 
100 — Pleasant View, Millie Derby. loi — Flag, Mrs. Jennie Campbell. 102 — 
Victory, Georgia Goin. 103 — Patterson, Helen Bright. 104 — Hardman, 
Ethyle Harry. 105 — Brooks, Pauline Wuester. 106 — Burnside, Ella Davies. 



294 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. ^ 

107 — Orr, Anna Cain. 108 — Balderson, Sophia Giirtler. 109 — Fairmount, 
Luella Linnabary. no — Prairie View, Gladys Jester, in — Brush College, 
Stephana Bond. 112 — Thomas, Gladys Sharpe. 113 — Barklow, Alta Dough- 
erty. 114 — Sunrise, Leota Dolen. 116 — Peril, Mary Van Verth. 117 — West 
Point, Lela Doering. 118 — Stony Point, Bernice Livingstone. 119 — Lily 
Creek, Tresa Juenemann. 120 — Liberty, Lyla Roepke. 121 — Pauley, Eldon 
Weller. 122 — Brammer, Gertrude Whiteside. 123 — Bommer, John Brand- 
enburger, Jr. 124 — Prairie Center, Dora Tucker. 125 — Pleasant Hill, Min- 
nie Burks. 126 — Pleasant Ridge, Myrtle Millick. 127 — Crane, Willa Wat- 
kins. 128 — Schroyer, Esther Vering. 129 — Fairfield, Mary Warders. 130 — 
Midway, Netta Hafner. 131 — Mt. Hope, Blanche Sharpe. 132 — Sunnyside, 
Ruth Willey. 133 — Triumph, Helene Thompson. 134 — Lamb, Edna 
Buckles. 135 — Riggert, LeNora Rombeck. 136 — Hatten, Julia Wendel. 138 
— O'Brien, Ralph Bair. 139 — Enterprise, Grace Sandborn. 140 — Mina, 
Velma Winney. 141 — Scully, Netta Vogel. 142 — Cedar Ridge, Norma 
Tyler. Jt. i — Windy Ridge, Sadie Gosper. Jt. 2 — Spring Valley, Ralph Har- 
per. Jt. 7 — Swede Creek, Paulina Osner. 

TWO-TEACHER SCHOOLS. 

22 — Lillis, Leo JMackey and Rosa Hayes. 42 — Home, George- Marshall 
and Marie Keller. 63 — Herkimer, Alma Mollinger and Grace Thomas. 79— 
Vliets, Ross Griffis and Maude Arnold. 88 — Winifred, Lottie Waymire and 
Rosa Seematter. 1 1 5 — Bigelow, Robert Shope and Eva Johnson. 

■ * 

BARNES HIGH SCHOOLS. 
DISTRICT NO. 2 IRVING. 

O. W. Kunz, superintendent; F. J. Wood, principal; Frances Lomuller, 
high school ; Emma Hadorn, sixth, seventh and eighth ; Eva ^^'ebb, fourth and 
fifth; Irene Stone, first, second and third. 

DISTRICT NO. 3 BLUE RAPIDS. 

J. H. Houston, superintendent; Harriet Landers, principal; R. B. Am- 
brose, high school ; Edith Folz, high school ; Grace Ulrich, high school ; R. E. 
Carlson, eighth; Elsie Schmidler, seventh; Floretta Dailey, sixth; Edna Bald- 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 295 

win, fifth; Hazel Rucker, fourth; Nettie Crissman, third; Esther Axe, sec- 
ond; Bertha Waters, first; Mrs. S. E. S. Vawter, primary; Rexford -Clarke, 
seventh; Adah Lerhr, music. 

DISTRICT NO. 12 VERMILLION. 

C. Kraemer, superintendent ; Ruth Thomas, principal ; Hulda Froom, high 
school; Blanche Woodward, seventh and eighth; Maude Smith, fourth, fifth 
and sixth; Mabel Woodward, first, second and third. 

DISTRICT NO. 137 SUMMERFIELD. 

J. J. Fowler, superintendent; Ethel Henry, principal; Edith Arnold, high 
school; Ethel Kissack, seventh and eighth; Emma Craven, fifth and sixth; 
Carrie Hughes, third and fourth ; Maude Samuelson, first and second ; Ross 
Campbell. 

DISTRICT NO. 29 BEATTIE. 

John Menehan, superintendent ; Florence Totten, principal ; Iowa Jones, 
high school; Viola Malm, high school; Will Stosz, seventh and eighth; La 
Verne Conger, fifth and sixth; Martha Calhoun, third and fourth; Bessie 
Thorne, primary. 

DISTRICT NO. 56 AXTELL. 

C. I. Smith, superintendent; F. Chilcott, principal; J. J. Bollin, high 
school; Florence Hudson, high school; Margaret Russell, high school; Edna 
M. Danner, district school; Minnie E. Mack, eighth grade; Myrtle Temple, 
sixth and seventh; Mary McKnight, fourth and fifth; Mary O'Neil, second and 
third ; Anna C. Olson, primary. 

DISTRICT NO. 4 MARYSVILLE. 

C. O. Smith, superintendent ; Etta Beavers, high school ; F. M. Unruh, 
high school; Ethel Mallonee, high school; Beulah Jevons, high school; Hazel 
Richards, high school ; Carl White, high school ; Dorothy Waite, high school ; 
Neva Kissell, music ; Clara Froom, eighth ; Nina Kirkwood, seventh ; Mildred 
Kirkwood, sixth; Veda Smith, fifth; Maude Thomas, fourth; Anna Schmitt, 
third; Mabel Montgomery, second; Mildred Paxton, primary; Mabel Newman, 
first and second (ward). 



296 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



DISTRICT NO. 17 — WATERVILLE. 

C. B. Vernon, superintendent; Jesse Seaton, principal; Martha Sellards, 
high school; Helen Coolidge, high school; ]\Iabel Lamereaux, eighth grade; 
Mabel Nider, sixth and seventh; Ivan Xichols, fourth and fifth; Ruth Rice, 
second and third; Margaret McDonald, primary. 

DISTRICT NO. 20 OKETO. 

p. X. Schmitt, superintendent ; Frank Menehan, principal ; Dorothy 
Waters, seventh and eighth; Minna Scott, fourth, fifth and sixth; ]\Iildred 
Briggs, first, second and third. 

DISTRICT NO. 35 FRANKFORT. 

R. L. Hazzard, superintendent; Duncan McRuer, principal; John Cannon, 
high school; Bessie Curry, high school; Maud Lourey, high school; Georgia 
Hoffman, high school; Katherine Zook, high school; Esther Zeininger, dis- 
trict school; Howard Heleker, seventh and eighth; Winifred Shearer, sixth; 
Bess Shafer, fifth; Eva Lathrop, third and fourth; Hazel Haskin, second; 
Verna Smith, first. 

COUNTY BOARD OF EXAMINERS. 

Aliss Harriet Landers, Blue Rapids ; C. Kraemer, Vermillion ; W. H. 
Seaman, Marysville. Regular examinations are held on the last Saturday of 
October, the last Saturday of January and last Saturday of June, together 
with the Friday preceding each such Saturday. 

OFFICERS OF THE COUNTY TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 

President, Harriet Landers, Blue Rapids ; vice-president, R. L. Hazzard, 
Frankfort; secretary, Etta Beavers, Marysville; treasurer, W. H. Seaman, 
Marysville. The executive committee consists of the officers of the asso- 
ciation. 

OFFICERS OF THE SCHOOL BOARDS' ASSOCIATION. 

President, Frank Lann, Axtell; vice-president, E. O. Webber, Marys- 
ville; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. P. C. McCall, Irving. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 297 

SUMMARY. 

*School census 6,973 

Enrollment 5>i62 

Average daily attendance 4,060 

Teachers employed : 

One teacher schools 131 

Two teacher schools 89 

Marysville 18 238 

Average salary per month : 
Male teachers — 

High school $111.80 

Grade 68.00 

Rural 49.66 

Female teachers — 

High school 73-00 

Grade 54-Oo 

Rural 47-00 

Number school districts : 

Rural 126 

*High school and graded 16 142 

Number parochial schools 6 

^Valuation $51,604,720.00 

*Value of school property 402,125.00 

Amount Barnes high school fund, 1916-17 25,794.00 

^Amount paid teachers 112,532.00 

*Total cost of maintaining schools 228,086.17 

Enrollment in high schools, 1915-16 693 

High school graduates, 1916 109 

Total number of high school graduates to date i)i85 

Common school graduates, 1916 162 

Volumes in school libraries 16,585 

^Including Marysville. 



298 ^fAUSTTAl.I. COUNTY, KANSAS. 

GOLD MEDAL AWARDS. 

Twelve years ago, Marshall county inaugurated a plan of offering, as an 
incentive to better attendance upon our |)ul)lic schools, a gold medal as an 
award for seven years' perfect attendance. For the school year 191 5- 16, 
thirtv-three medals were presented. The following named pupils received 
medals : 

Walter Goin, Beattie ; Ruby Graham, Beattie ; Walter Gurtler, Beattie ; 
Glen Swanson, Waterville; Carl Steenson, Waterville; Florence Godfreson, 
Waterville; Walter Stewart, Waterville; Marcellus Leslie, Frankfort; Esther 
Caldwell. Frankfort; Wanita Fowler, Frankfort; Argie Logan, Frankfort; 
Eva Myers, Frankfort; Anna B. Holt, Home; Frederick Dexter, Home; Clar- 
ence Genschoreck, Home; Lawrence Genschoreck, Home; Ella Genschoreck, 
Home; Freda Dettke, Home; Myrtle Fincham, Home; Rosa Seematter, Home; 
Elnora W^anamaker, Blue Rapids; Creta Swanson, Blue Rapids; Wallace 
Koppes, Garden; Marie Krai, Vliets; Victor Hoerath, Herkimer; Clarence 
Remmers, Herkimer ; Iner Poison, Vermillion ; Edla Poison, Vermillion ; Grace 
Buckles, Vermillion ; Elva Morrill, Summerfield ; Jakie Wagner, Summerfield ; 
Ravmond McLarnen, Summerfield ; \^erne Franks. Irving. 

HONOR STUDENTS OF MARSHALL COUNTY. 

Jennie Rea Dilworth, Summerfield, common school valedictorian ; Ed}1;he 
Gould, Irving, high school spelling ; Esther Ross, Axtell, high school declama- 
tion; Earl Frost, Blue Rapids, high school oration. 

ROLL OF HONOR. 

Of the 5,162 pupils attending school in the county, 684 have been neither 
absent nor tardy during the year 19 15- 16. The county roll of honor for that 
school year shows the number of pupils and the number of consecutive years 
of their attendance as follows: 331, one year; 156, two years; 121, three 
years; 113, four years; 80, five years; 46, six years; 30, seven years. 

Vesta Bickle, Mabel Smith, Myrtle Smith, Thomas Warders, Lucille 
Whan, of district No. 4, Marysville; Clara Brock, of No. 56, Axtell; Albert 
Poggeman and Howard Moore, of No. 137, Summerfield; Esther Mapes, of 
No. 48, Mount Pleasant, Waterville — eight years each. 

Lily Shepard and Jessie Summers, of No. 2, Irving; Anna Saville, of 
No. 3, Blue Rapids; Elsa Schwartz, of No. 4. Marysville; Jennie Bell, of No. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 299 

36, Marysville; Marie Cecile Plunkett, of No. 53, Summerfield — nine years 
each. 

Lillian Cottrell, of No. 2, Irving, and Bruno Schwartz, of No. 4, Marys-, 
ville — ten years each. 

Sidney Osborn, of No. 35, Frankfort, has the honor of having attended 
school for thirteen consecutive years, without missing a single day or being 
tardy. 

JOHN MACDONALD. 

It would be ingratitude on the part of the historian not to speak of the 
good work done by John MacDonald, for the schools and teachers of Marshall 
county. He came to the teachers' meetings and county institutes and brought 
hopeful and cheering messages to the overworked and underpaid teachers of 
early public school work in the county. His Western School Journal w-as 
an education to the young teacher, dealing as it did, with all the perplexing 
problems of pedagogy. A winged pilot has borne him across the bar, but 
those who felt the inspiration of his presence and profited by his wise counsel, 
have not forgotten him. 

Marco Morrow has paid the following tribute to his memory : 
"Across the dark but peaceful chasm which death has interposed between 
us and the soul of John MacDonald, we waft a fond farewell. Scotchman, 
American, Kansan; educator, editor, linguist, writer and teacher — you were 
more than all that; you were a friend of man; you were beloved by your 
fellows beyond most men. We shall miss your genial humor, your sparkling 
wit, your kind spirit, and your sterling common sense. No man in Kansas 
journalism was ever more universally respected; no memory will be more 
greatlv revered. Farewell, John; w^e know that all is w^ell with you.'' 



CHAPTER XV. 
Churches ix ATarshall County. 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCHES. 

Ill tlie (lays of the settlement of Marysville, churches did not thrive to 
any great extent. An early historian puts it very nicely : "The population 
was in some measure of a transitory nature and society was much subject to 
the intluence incident to a constant tide of emigration and travel." 

To this statement may be added the fact that a large proportion of the 
population were engaged in holding conversations similar to one which, accord- 
ing to tradition, once took place between the governors of North and South 
Carolina. 

It has been hinted by some that the first church erected in the city, was 
because certain citizens of other portions of the county declared it a "burning 
shame" that they were ol^liged to transact business in a town so devoid of 
morality as to neglect to provide a house of worship. And that because of 
this complaint subscriptions were taken and a church erected. 

Tradition has it that the first religious services held in Marysville, were 
in a saloon, in the summer of 1857. There is sufficient evidence that at least 
the saloon was here. The Methodist church, South, had a small church 
liouse and the first sermon preached in it was by the Rev. Mr. Millice, of that 
denomination. In 1859 R^^. Mr. Robbins, of the same church, held services 
in Ballard & Morrall's drug store. 

In the summer of i860 two ministers of the same church, Reverends 
King and Duncan, held revival meetings lasting two weeks in the Barrett 
House. When the war broke out this organization disbanded, but church 
services were held whenexer an itinerant minister came this way and these 
services were always w^ell attended. 

The Marshalls were religious people and there were at all times some 
people in the town v^ho kept alive the religious faith. 

The priests soon searched out their flocks and held mass and gradually 
the desire for churches and regular services grew. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. ^OI 



MARYSVILLE. 



An organization of the Methodist church, North, was perfected in 1866 
by Reverend Woodbnrn of Manhattan, with five members, three of whom 
were Mrs. L. J. Swearengen and I.. Keefover and wife. Meetings were 
held in the old court house, also in the old frame school house. Among the 
early preachers were Reverends Tennent. Tenney and Taylor. The mem- 
bership was small and became discouraged. 

At the annual conference held in Leavenworth in the spring of 1879, 
Rev. A. J. Coe was appointed to the Marysville circuit, which included Marys- 
ville. Oketo and Deer Creek. The class at Marysville was then composed of 
Thomas Hughes and wife, Mrs. Swearengen, Bates, Cooper and Linley, and 
Miss Hattie Linley. 

The presiding elder instructed Coe to come to Maiysville and build a 
church. This seemed almost a forlorn hope to Mr. and Mrs. Coe and they 
were told by the church that it was an impossibility. Tom Hughes, then the 
editor of the Nezvs, gave the only encouragement. Reverend Coe began his 
services in Waterson's Hall and preached to a small congregation. He 
talked of a new church and by hard work raised nine hundred dollars and 
started to build. It was uphill work, but finally the church was completed 
and on the day of dedication the entire amount was raised. A hearty revival 
was held that winter and some fifty accessions were made to the church. 
After the congregation had a home the church prospered. 

"When the new bank, which afterwards grew^ into the First National 
Bank, was first established, a young man by the name of Colin Southerland 
was assistant cashier. He was a member of the Methodist church and 
induced a brother banker in Osceola, Iowa, to present the little church with a 
bell. This banker's name was Ziegler and a few years ago he was living 
in Los Angeles. Many able ministers served this church, among others. 
Rev. Thomas Scott, a man of great courage and forcefulness, a "poet and a 
scholar." No pulpit in Marysville has ever been filled by an abler man. He 
sleeps in the MarysAille cemetery. 

On October 31. Tgo2, Rev. W. C. Hanson came to ^Marysville from 
Robinson. He was a splendid business man and a good pastor. A new 
building was needed. He finished the present fine church home now occu- 
pied by the Methodists. 

The monev was raised by ])opular subscription and the building cost six 
thousand five hundred dollars. It is forty-four by seventy-three feet, with a 



302 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



basement uiulcr the entire building'. The auibti iriuni is forty by forty, and 
there are two large Sunda\- school rooms. The church w ill seat two hundred 
and seventv-tive people. There are three stained-glass windows, which add 
greatly to the appearance of the building. 

The ])resent pastor is Rev. .\. J\. Williams and the church membership is 
one hundred and seventy. 

There is a large Sunday school, numbering one hundred and thirty 
pupils, with eighteen teachers. E. F. Boxall is superintendent; F. M. Unruh, 
assistant superintendent ; Adamantha Newton, secretary-treasurer. Other 
au.xiliary societies are the Epworth League and Ladies Aid. 

BLUE RAPIDS. 

A partial organization of the Methodist church was perfected in the 
winter of 1870-71, by Rev. M. D. Tenney, with sixteen members. Occa- 
sional services were held during the year, in different halls, until 1876, when 
a church was built of native limestone, at a cost of two thousand two hun- 
dred dollars. This church was built under the pastorate of Rev. E. W. 
Van Deventer. In 1889 a parsonage was built. 

Rev. Thomas Scott, of Marysville, served this charge during the years 
igoo-oi. In 1905, Rev. J. C. Wilson came to the church and remained for six 
years. He rebuilt and enlarged the church at a cost of six thousand dollars. 
This church was dedicated on December 19, 1909, by Bishop W. A. Ouayle, 
assisted by District Superintendent W. C. Hanson. 

Since that time the parsonage and church have been re-decorated, electric 
lights installed and other improvements made. The membership of the 
church has grown from sixteen charter members to two hundred and twenty- 
five. 

The present of^cials are : Trustees : H. F. Kaump, Clyde Rodkey, 
M. P. Robinson, John Frost and Charles Palmer; stewards, J. L. Rodkey, 
F. E. Austin, E. U. Bright, John Blair, Mrs. Susan Bendel and H. F. 
Kaump. Present pastor, F. A. Whittlesey. 

Sunday school superintendent, J. H. Houston ; secretary, Florence 
Bright; treasurer, H. F. Kaump; librarian, Mrs. J. L. Moorhead; pianist, 
Blanche Houston; class leader, Mrs. A. A. Austin. Membership, two hun- 
dred. Woman's Missionary Society has eighteen members ; Epworth League, 
twenty-eight; Ladies Aid Society, twenty-five. The church and Sunday 
school are prospering. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 3O3 

FRANKFORT. 

On September 24, 1869, Rev. S. M. Hopkins, of New York, arrived in 
Frankfort. The city consisted of thirteen residences and stores. Consent 
was obtained from the railroad company to hold meetings in the depot. A 
class of thirteen was organized, consisting of Mrs. S. M. Hopkins, Jessie 
L. Hopkins, J. S. Kelley and wife, and others. Doctor Clutter acting as 
superintendent, a Sunday school was gathered from among people living 
in the vicinity and religious services held every Sunday. Late in the winter 
meetings were moved into the school house and in March, 1870, Reverend 
Hopkins was appointed pastor. During the year Rev. G. W. Gault and 
Reverend Lairey assisted in the work. .\ large section of country was 
included in the work of that pastorate. About one hundred dollars was 
raised for furnishing a library for the Sunday school. This was the first 
public library of which there is any record in the county. 

In 1871 a promise of two lots was secured; eight hundred dollars was 
subscribed and foundation was laid for a new church. In March, 1871, 
Reverend Gray was appointed to the charge at Frankfort and Centralia, 
with a residence in Centralia. 

Rev. Charles Parker, of Irving, came to Frankfort and organized a 
Union church, including Presbyterian and other denominations, and the 
idea of building a Methodist church for a time was abandoned. From that 
time until 1876 the preaching was done by the following pastors, alternating 
with laymen : Rev. ^\^illiam Kni])e, Nichols, Price, A. J. McKee and 
Spencer. In 1877 Reverend Hopkins retired and Reverend Zimmerman 
was installed. He set to work to build a church, raised money to pay for a 
lot and withdrew his charge from the Union meetings and established a 
Methodist organization and Sunday school in Brady's hall. 

A building committee was appointed, and in ^larch, 1878, a new pastor, 
Reverend C H. Koester, was installed. At a called meeting two hundred 
and fiftv dollars was subscribed for a church edifice. This was augmented 
the next morning by one hundred and fifty dollars. As a result of a peti- 
tion the railroad company presented a lot to the members, and on this lot 
a parsonage was built. Mr. A. J. McKee gave the use of a room over his 
building, then known as the First National Bank building, for the use of 
the congregation. The Sunday school grew rapidly and soon this hall 
became too small. The church accepted an ofl:er from the Presbyterians of 
the use of their church in the afternoon. In March, 1880, Rev. E. H. Bailiff 



304 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

commenced his pastorate in the Prcsln tcrian chnrcli, and a.^ain agitated the 
question of building. Mr. A. J. McKee donated the lots on which the pres- 
ent church now stands. The new churcli limine was dedicated in 1881 and 
completed in 1887. In 1884 a storm and cyclone damaged the building so 
that it had to be replastered and painted and new windows put in. In 1890 
the church building and parsonage were worth about four thousand '■five 
hundred dollars. 

The building w^as destroyed for the second time by a cyclone and the 
present structure erected in 1896. Valuable iin])n)vements have since been 
made and the ]iroperty is nnw \alued at ten thousand dollars. The present 
church has eight rooms — auditorium, three lecture rooms and four rooms 
in the basement. The present membership is four hundred. The Sunday 
school membership is three hundred. The ladies aid and missionary socie- 
ties, adjuncts of the church, and the Senior and Junior Epworth Leagues 
are prominent factors in the life of the church. The present pastor is Rev. 
L. R. South. 

AXTELL. 

The officials of the Methodist Episcopal church at Axtell are : Bishop, W. 
O. Shepherd; district superintendent, S. L. Buckner; pastor, P. B. Knepp; 
president official board, J. G. Sitler ; Sunday school superintendent, W. S. 
McKnight; superintendent primary department, Mrs. George T. Whitcraft; 
superintendent home department. Miss Janie Keegan; superintendent cradle 
roll department, Mrs. F. M. Wolf; trustees — C. H. Baker, A. E. Gaston, 
George W. Reed, Charles Phillips and W. F. Rabe; stewards, J. G. Sitler, C. 
H. Baker, George W. Reed, G. W. Keller, E. H. Harrison, Carl G. Newton, 
George T. Whitcraft, Miss Lou Brawner, Miss Janie Keegan ; class leader, 
Lee Davis; president, Ladies' Aid Society, Mrs. W. F. Rabe; president, Ep- 
worth League, Miss Florence Sitler; superintendent, Junior League, Mrs. 
P. B. Knepp. 

The present membership is two hundred and seventy-seven. All the 
departments of the church are in a healthy condition. The average attendance 
at Sunday school during 19 16 was one hundred and thirty-six. There are 
forty-five members in the home department, and thirty on the cradle roll. 
During the same time the Epworth League had an average attendance of 
forty. 

The church property consists of a frame church building valued at eight 
thousand five hundred dollars and a frame parsonage valued at three thou- 
sand five hundred dollars. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 305 

WATERVILLE. 

Services were held by Methodists of Waterville as early as 1868, when 
the depot was used as a meeting house. 

In the winter of 1868 Rev. M. D. Tenney organized a church with nine 
members, among whom were J. D. Farwell, W. J. Johnson, M. T. Bennett, 
J. \\^ Pierce, and their wives. For the first years meetings were held in 
the depot grain house, railroad coaches and school house. In the summer 
of 1 87 1 a church edifice thirty-six by seventy feet was erected at a cost of 
six thousand dollars. Rev. M. Spencer was the pastor until 1873, when he 
was succeeded by Revs. J. M. Sullivan, former Gov. N. Green. R. Wake, 
W. R. Kister and Rev. S. Brooks, when the congregation had grown to 
sixty-five members. The present membership is two hundred twenty-six. 
The pastor is Rev. E. M. Paddleford. The trustees are, C. A. Palmer, 
William McKelvy, Frank Thorne, Henry Honstead, William Fitzgerald, 
P. S. Vickery, and William Mapes. The stewards are, L. A. Palmer, dis- 
trict steward; Myrtle McKelvy, recording secretary and treasurer; William 
Fitzgerald, J. D. Farwell, Mrs. P. T. Vickery, Mrs. Eli Peterson. Miss 
Effie Bair, Miss Hannah Anderson, Samuel Anderson and P. T. Vickery. 

This church is in a united and flourishing condition. The ladies aid 
society donates two hundred dollars toward the running expenses of the church. 
The missionary society raises four hundred dollars for home and foreign 
missions, and the Sunday school pledges fifty dollars to the same work, and 
last year gave sixty-one dollars and sixty-four cents. 

The Sunday school has a membership of one hundred and eighty-five. 
Gene Gorder is superintendent, Mildred Bartlow, secretary, and Anna Nider, 
librarian, with J. D. Farwell, secretary, over all the work. Olive Wilson has 
charge of the infant class, which numbers forty-two. Both international and 
graded lessons are used. Twenty-eight dollars per month is required to 
furnish the school with supplies. 

SUMMERF^ELD. 

This church was organized in Summerfield by Rev. A. E. Chadwick, 

and chartered in 1889. ^^^^ ^''st trustees were: John A. Sipe, John L. 

Magaw, Charles Sipe, Charles Ester, James Beecham. There were thirty 

members at the time of organization. The congregation is united, and the 

(20) 



306 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

church prosperous. The parsonage and church property are valued at a1)OUt 
five thousand dollars. 

The present officials are: Trusteees, E. TT. T.ocke, J. T. Briggs, Charles 
Tarr. Edw. AIcKee. John Winney. J. IT. Russell. Tl. E. Abert, W. \V. E. 
Packard, and R. G Shue ; stewards, Charles I'ackard, Mrs. Charles Tarr, 
Airs. W. E. (ilick. Airs. C. H. Roper and R. G. Sluie. Rtv. J. M. ATcGuJre 
is the pastor. 

There are one hundred tliirty-fivc members in the Sunday school ; J. T. 
Briggs. su])erintendent. The Epworth League has a membership of thirty, 
the Junior League, nineteen. 

IRVING. 

The Alethodist Episcopal church of Trxing was organized in 1867 by 
Reverend Devaul. That same year work on a church edifice was begun, 
but was abandoned for lack of funds, and in 1871 a stone building was pur- 
chased. Later, as the church grew, services were held in the Presbyterian 
church. Some of the early pastors were : AL D. Tenney, T. B. Grey, B. 
F. Smith, W. H. L'^nderwood, E. W. Vandeventer, S. A. Green, G. W. 
Aliller, S. L. Hunter and C. S. Freark. The church has prospered. In 
1882 a parsonage of six rooms was built and in 1884 the present church 
was erected. The present membership is sixty-eight. The membership of 
the Sunday school is one hundred one. F. E. Barber is the present pastor. 

VLEITS. 

The first services of the Alethodist Episcopal faith in AHeits were held 
by Rev. Aierrill G. Hamm, who conducted the meeting in the school house 
south of town. At that time there were about a dozen members of the Aleth- 
odist church. He remained about one year and increased the membership 
to fifty. In Alarch of 1899 he was followed by Reverend Payne and dur- 
ing his pastorate the church was built. The church was completed in 1900 
at a cost of two thousand one hundred fifteen dollars. 

There is a Sunday school in connection with the church and has a mem- 
bership of nearly one hundred. Aliss Floy Smith is superintendent. The 
present church officials are: C. R. Vv'allace, C. E. Foltz and George Con- 
nett, trustees; C. E. Foltz. S. B. Heisy, C. R. Wallace and Aierrill Bullock, 
stewards. Both church and Sundav school are well attended. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 307 

COTTAGE HILL. 

The Cottage Hill Alethodist church was organized in 1872, and a church 
and parsonage were built in 1884. Their first pastor was Rev. Charles 
Minear. The officers were James Clark, Reuben Hartman, John Nichols, 
Reuben Fuller (all deceased), and Frank Leah, now living at Grand Junction, 
Colorado. This church was organized with twenty-two members. At that 
time it was the only church in Cottage Hill, and the attendance at both church 
and Sunday school was much larger than now, for Cottage Hill now has three 
churches within a half mile of each other. 

Rev. W. H. Buckner is the present pastor, with thirty-four members and 
about sixty attendants. The official board is John Sisco, G. Roepke, William 
Roepke, Herman Anderson, John Leppard and Clarence E. Nichols. The 
Sunday school superintendent is Henry Pretz, with thirty-eight members. It 
is a live church and Sunday school. 

BEATTIE. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Beattie was organized in the spring 
of 1876 by Rev. A. J. Coe, with seven members. They were, Mr. and Mrs. 
T. C. Byrum and Phoebe Byrum, Mary Sheldon, Elizabeth Sweet, Julia 
Brown and Mrs. A. J. Coe. 

In 1 88 1 a church was built, costing one thousand four hundred dol- 
lars. The church has prospered and in January, 19 17, had a membership 
of one hundred thirty-five. There is an excellent Sunday school in con- 
nection and the usual ladies aid and missionary societies, which do their 
share toward making the church a factor in the community. The value of 
church and parsonage is near five thousand dollars. The present pastor is 
Rev. F. E. Hurrell. 

VERMILLION. 

The Methodist Episcopal church was organized in the depot in 1871 by 
Rev. T. B. Gray, with twelve members. Later, services were held in the 
school house. In 1874 a church was erected at a cost of about one thousand 
five hundred dollars. 

In IQ02 under the pastorate of Reverend Spencer, this structure Avas dis- 
mantled, and a fine new building erected. In 1914 the church was fitted 
with electric lights and heating plant. Previous to this, in 1906-07, a new 
parsonage was built at a cost of two thousand two hundred dollars. Rev. 
Homer Wroten was the first to occupy it. There is a Sunday school attached. 



3o8 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES. 

IMemorial Presbyterian church at Marysville was organized on October 
i6, 1870, by Rev. Charles Parker, the noted bhnd preacher of Irving, Kansas. 

The original records of this church written by Edward Hutchinson, read 
as follows : 

"This was in tlie year rendered memorable in the history of American 
Presbyterianism by the union of the old school and new school branches of 
the Presbyterian church at the United Assembly meeting at Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania. Meantime, the old and new school synods of Kansas united and 
held their first session at Topeka. July 12, 1870, with Rev. Joseph G. Reaser, 
moderator, and Rev. John L. Chapman, stated clerk. Also, the old school 
presbytery of Highland and the new school presbytery of Smoky Hill, were 
united wholly or in part, occupying substantially the same territory of each 
of the old presbyteries, under the name of the presbytery of Highland." 

Very fittingly, then, under such historical auspices this church appropri- 
ated to itself the name of the Memorial Presbyterian church of Marysville. 

The following were the first members of the church : Mrs. Amanda 
Parker, Charles Pritchard, Edward Hutchinson, Mrs. Eliza Morrill, Mrs. 
Annie S. Fisher, Mr. and Mrs. Peter A. Reed. Peter A. Reed and Edward 
Hutchinson were ordained ruling elders. E. Hutchinson was elected clerk, 
which office he held until 1879. First trustees were: P. A. Reed, Ed^^•ard 
Hutchinson, James S. Magill and J. A. Broughton. Rev. A. H. Lilly, a 
non-resident pastor, supplied the pulpit from the spring to the fall of 1871. 

The corner stone for the new church was laid on June 8, 1872, by the 
Masons and Odd Fellows, no m.inister of the Gospel being present. The 
church was dedicated on September 18, 1874. 

The first regular pastor was Rev. E. G. Fish, who remained six months. 

The first members to be admitted on profession of faith were Alexander 
Campbell and Isabella, his wife. 

On April 14. 1872, Rev. Frank E. Sheldon began his pastorate and it 
was largely through his efforts that the church was built. The services at 
that time were held in an upper room of the new stone school building, 
which was erected in 1866. Title to the present site of the church was pro- 
cured in February, 1871, and contract for its erection was let on April 10, 
1872. 

Mr. and Mrs. Perry Hutchinson, Rufus Edwards, T. ^^^ W^aterson, 
Frank Schmidt and C. F. Koester, although not members of the church, 




PRESBYTERIAN MEMORIAL CHURCH AND PARSONAGE, MARYSVILLE. 






I 






MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 309 

contributed largely to its erection and maintenance. Of those who assisted 
in the building of the church, only Mrs. Perry Hutchinson, for many years 
a member, and John A. Broughton are now living in Marysville, and many 
have entered into rest. 

At the present date the church has no pastor. The present officers are: 
Elders, B. Price, J . F. Ilanna, A. B. Campbell, E. R. Fulton ; trustees, S. C. 
Schmidt, William Kraemer, J. M. Goodnight, Arthur Hohn, A. A. Good- 
man and E. R. Fulton. The Sunday school has an enrollment of one hun- 
dred and sixteen. Superintendent, Stella R. Gallup ; assistant, James Good- 
night ; secretary, Arthur Mohrbacher ; treasurer, L. H. Eddy ; chorister, 
Grace Fannen ; organist, Mabel Montgomery. 

The Woman's Missionary Society and the Westminster Circle are 
important cliurch societies. There is also a very strong social circle of the 
ladies of the church and others, which contributes very substantially to the 
financial support of the church. The church owns a neat parsonage adjoin- 
ing it on the south. Mr. Reuben Bull, who died September 30, 1916, was 
an elder of the church for fourteen years. 

BLUE RAPIDS. 

The First Presbyterian church of Blue Rapids was organized on May 
I, 1870, by Rev. C. F. Mussey, with twenty -three members. Meetings 
were held in public halls until 1874, when a church was erected at a cost of 
four thousand dollars. The church has grown and prospered and now has 
a membership of one hundred and forty- four; seventy-six of this number 
having been added to the church under the pastorate of Rev. S. B. Lucas. 

The present officials are: W. E. Axtell, C. A. Watkins, G. B. Layton, 
S. F. Paul, George S. Emmert, Marshall Arnott, E. J.. Brown, Will Lock- 
ard, Ed Nevins, Ed Kennedy, F. O. Waynant, John Rodocker, L. B. Tibbetts 
and W. E. Axtell. The church property is valued at about nine thousand 
dollars. Mrs. E. J. Brown is the choir leader and Mrs. A. A. Marvin, 
pianist. 

The Sunday school officers are : J. W. Nevins, superintendent ; G. 

B. Layton, assistant; secretary, Clarence McKee; treasurer, John Skalla; 

C. C. Tibbetts, librarian. Enrollment, one hundred and thirty-four. There 
are thirteen classes, with as many teachers. The Christian Endeavor Society 
has a membership of fifteen. The Knights of St. Paul has a membership 
.of twenty-three. The Social Union has forty members. The Woman's 



•^10 MARSHALL COUXTY, KANSAS. 

Missionary Society has a good membership and holds monthly meetings. 
Mrs. L. B. Tibbetts, president. 

This is one of the strong Presbyterian churches of the county and 
is thoroughly organized in every department. 

FRANKFORT. 

The Presbyterian church at Frankfort was organized in 1871 with the 
following members : I. Greenman and wife, S. B. Todd and wife, Airs. Mary 
Strong, Miss I. Greenman and F. M. Fleming. Rev. Timothy Hill was 
the pastor. 

The school house was used as a place of worship for three years. In 
1874 work was commenced on a church edifice which was finished and dedi- 
cated on December 2, 1877. This building was a stone structure, thirty- 
two by forty-five feet, and cost three thousand six hundred dollars. At 
that date the membership was fifty-three and a Sunday school of one hun- 
dred and ten members. 

In May, 1904, a new and larger building was dedicated. During the 
period from its organization to the present, fourteen ministers have served 
the church, including the present pastor. Rev. G. M. West. The present 
membership is one hundred and eighty-seven. The enrollment of Sunday 
school is one hundred and sixty-eight. G. H. Coon is Sunday school superin- 
tendent. Howard Heleker is president of the Christian Endeavor Society, 
which numbers twenty-eight. Mrs. John Davis is president of the Ladies 
Aid Society with twenty-eight members. Emma Leavitt is president of the 
Missionary Society with nineteen members. 

AXTELL. 

The First Presbyterian church of Axtell was organized in April, 1879, by 
Rev. John M. Brown. The church has had gradual growth until it now 
has a membership of one hundred and seventy members, the highest in its 
history. There have been eleven pastors including the Rev. J. L. Under- 
wood, the present pastor. 

The comfortable church edifice, seating over three hundred, together 
with the manse property, has a valuation of nine thousand dollars. 

The session is composed of the pastor and the following laymen : Charles 
I. Smith, clerk ; Edgar White, J. W. Fisher, John U. Payne, H. F. Detweiler, 
John Lichty, Ed Warner and Delbert Hanna. The Sunday school has a 



MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 3II 

membership of two hundred with a men's Bible class of over forty mem- 
bers, of which J. W. Fisher is the president. Edgar White is superintendent 
of the school and C. I. Smith is assistant. 

IRVING. 

On October 26, 1862, the First Presbyterian church of Irving was organ- 
ized by Rev. Charles Parker. The first members were : A. Goer, C. A. 
Freeland and wife; C. E. Gaylord and wife; Mrs. A. Parker, Mrs. J. L. 
Freeland and Mrs. W. \\'. Jerome. In 1869 a church was erected, forty- 
two by fifty-two feet, at a cost of five thousand dollars. This church was 
destroyed by a cyclone in 1879. ^^"^ the devoted members put up a frame 
building the same year, forty-two by fifty-two feet, at a cost of three thou- 
sand five hundred dollars. Rev. Charles Parker was the first pastor and 
other pastors of those days were ; Revs. J. L. Chapman, Sheldon, G. F. 
Chap^n. I. R. Brown, J. Wilson, I. B. Smith and J. A. Grififes. Rev. Will- 
iam Carnine, of \^ermillion, is the present pastor. 

VERMILLION. 

The first religious services Vvcre held in a box-car and later in 1871 in 
the depot at Vermillion. Rev. Charles Parker of Irving, a Presbyterian 
minister, held the services. 

The Presbyterian church of Vermillion was organized in 1872 by Rev. 
Edward Cooper, of Atchison, with nine charter members. The meetings 
were held in the school house, which was lighted by lanterns. Of the nine 
charter members but one is now living, Mrs. Ellsworth, of Boulder, Colorado. 

The church disbanded a few years later owing to lack of funds, but was 
reorganized on February 9, 1879, by Rev. Timothy Hill, D. D., with thirteen 
members the greater numlier of whom are now living, but widely scattered. 
Rev. I. B. Smith was the first resident pastor. 

During the thirty-four years of its existence, seventeen pastors have 
come and gone. Rev. W. W. Carnine, who is the present pastor, is the 
eighteenth to serve the church. 

The church building was purchased in 1879 from the people of the 
Church of God, who had disbanded, and it has been remodeled into the 
present fine structure. In January, 191 6, electric lights succeeded the acety- 
lene plant. Tlie present membership is one hundred and sixty-three. A 
manse costing about one thousand five hundred dollars, was built in 1902. 
Reverend Tweed was the first pastor to occupy it. 



312 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

CHRJSTL\N CHURCHES (CHURCH OF CHRTST). 

The first permanent organization of the Church of Christ was effected by 
W. B. Irvin, who came to Marshall county, March 20, 1869, and located on 
the Black Vermillion, near the Merrimac school house. A young minister of 
the Christian faith, named Alonzo Burr, was then preaching in this part of the 
state, and occasionally held services at the Antioch school house in district 
No. 7. 

Through the influence of Elder Grifiith, W. B. Irvin and others, this 
nucleus became a permanent body, meeting regularly and maintaining a Sunday 
school. They were served by Elder Pardee Butler, of Atchison, widely noted 
for his fearless denunciation of slavery and the methods adopted in public 
affairs by its adherents. R. L. Downing and John Bain also preached regularly 
to this congregation. Later, the Antioch congregation was merged into the 
Bigelow congregation and the church at Bigelow was erected. Elders Bain 
and Downing had been preaching at different points in the county to unor- 
ganized congregations of the Christian faith. The church, which is now 
Balderson church, was one of those congregations and was visited at inter- 
vals by these ministers. 

Doctor Burnham, a familiar figure on the streets of Marysville in those 
days, was one of the old-fashioned type of exhorters from the Blue Hills of 
Kentucky and preached for the people of all denominations at North Elm 
creek. In summer-time these services were held out of doors and the creek 
served as the baptismal font. People from within driving distance came to 
hear Doctor Burnham exhort, and his meetings were popular with the settlers. 
As a result, a church organization was effected and a church built, known as 
the Balderson, or North Elm creek church. 

Elder Bain visited his church people at Beattie and services were held in 
the hotel parlor and later in the stone school house. Organizations were per- 
fected in Beattie, Waterville, Frankfort, Irving, Blue Rapids and later in 
Vermillion and Marysville. The Frankfort church was destroyed by a storm 
in 1896 and has never been rebuilt. Services are sometimes held there by 
Elder Ballou, of Vermillion. 

The Christian church now has seven organizations in Marshall county. 
Houses of worship are owned in Marysville, Beattie, Balderson. Irving, 
Bigelow, Vermillion and Waterville. The property is valued at thirty-five 
thousand dollars. Too much cannot be said in praise of the pioneer pastors, 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 3I3 

Downing, Bain and others, who gave money, time and earnest devotion to 
the cause of the church, often giving free ministrations to the different 
churches in the county, and bring'ing the consolations of rehgion to the pio- 
neer famihes of that period. 

IRVING. 

The Christian church (Disciples) was organized in Irving in 1892 by 
Elder H. E. Ballon with ninety-two charter members. Prominent among 
the members were \V. B. Irvin. James Murphy, Caruthers Johnson, E. F. 
Blazier, Airs. E. M. Peterson, Mrs. Hines. Mrs. Hollenberg, Mrs. Arnold, 
William Eenwick, J. S. Myers, and others. Their latest pastor was I. N. 
Myers. Under his pastorate aljout forty were enrolled in the Sunday school. 
A short revival under II. E. Ballon, resulted in an accession of four members 
to tlie church. The total membersliip is now forty-six. Three successful 
ministers have gone out from this little church : C. W. Cooper, of Bonner 
Springs: I. N. Myers, of Nebraska, and L. W. Myers, state evangelist, of 
Nebraska. The church is free of debt and owns the building, which is worth 
about three thousand dollars. 

VERMILLION. 

The Christian church at \'ermillion was organized in 1893 by Rev. R. 
L. Downing. The organization was perfected in the Presbyterian church, 
in which their services were held for one year. 

The first resident pastor was Reverend Rose. The membership was 
•twelve. In 1902 a neat parsonage was built. E'nder the present pastor, 
Rev. H. Ballon, the church has been remodeled, enlarged and equipped with 
electric lights and steam heat. This is a fine church with a devoted mem- 
bership. A well-attended Sunday school is conducted as an auxiliary to the 
church work. 

WATERVILLE. 

The Christian church at Waterville has never had a regular pastor for 
any length of time. Rev. James Scott, a resident pastor, preached part of 
the time when able, but for the last three years there have been no services 
held in the church, and the membership scattered or joined the other churches 
in town. 



314 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

BAPTIST CHURCHES. 

The I'"irst Baptist churcli of Marysvillc was organized in the year 1883, 
in the <>1<1 court house, under the leadershij) of Rev. George Brown. The 
menibershi{) consisted of Mr. and Mrs. R. X. King. Mr. and Mrs. H. S. 
Morse. Carrie Morse and Mrs. J". T. Hatfield. 

The Lutheran church officials ofi^ered the use of their church for evening 
service and for a long time the few devoted members worshipped in the Ger- 
man Lutheran church. The decision to erect a church home was reached and 
the money for the site was given 1)y the church at W'aterville in remembrance 
of the family of Robert Campbell, \\ho had been members of the church at 
that place. The site was purchased from the Presbyterian church at a cost 
of five hundred dollars. In 1889 the foundation was begun and the corner 
stone was laid by the Masons. 

As w'as the case with every church building erected in Marysville, the 
money was raised by subscription among the citizens of the town. In this 
manner four thousand five hundred dollars was raised and the ladies of the 
church donated three hundred and fifty dollars for the furniture. Rev. W. 
D. E^lwell was the pastor. The church was dedicated in October, 1890. 

Rev. F. Barr Brown is the present pastor. The church has the usual 
auxiliary societies. The Sunday school numbers fifty. Mr. E. J. Mclvee 
is the superintendent and is a devoted and energetic church worker. 

BLUE RAPIDS. 

On Sunday, December i, 1872, Rev. G. Gates, a general missionary of 
the Baptist church, organized the Blue Rapids Baptist church with twenty- 
three members. The charter was signed on January 27, 1873. The first 
trustees were: C. G. Beach, C. O. Roice, G. Fitzgerald, R. M. Bridges, C. 
B. Hoit, William Fitzgerald. 

Rev. \V. A. Briggs, of Homer, New York. l)ecame resident pastor April, 
1873. The town company offered the lot and a church was completed and 
dedicated on December 4, 1873. This was the first church edifice erected 
in Blue Rapids and cost one thousand eight hundred dollars. 

A new church was built in 19 11, when Rev. J. P. Henderson w^as pastor, 
and dedicated March 3, 1912. Rev. Frank E. Gray was the resident pastor 
in 1912 and presided at the dedicatory services. The church is fifty-six by 
sixty feet. The auditorium is forty by forty feet. The lecture, or Sunday 
school, room is twenty by twenty-five feet, and there are three small rooms, 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 315 

ten feet square, for class room and pastor's study. The total cost was ten 
thousand dollars. 

There are seven memorial windows in the' auditorium with the fol- 
lowing inscriptions : 

Mrs. M. A. Avis, February 7, 191 1. 

P. S. Burnett and wife, M. F. Burnett. 

Rev. W. A. Briggs, first pastor. 

Mr. O. A. Cole and Mr. and Mrs. H. Weekly. 

Thomas Hunt, ]\Iarch i, 1910. 

H. Burnett and wife, M. S. Burnett. 

Bible Class, 191 1. 

At the present time Rev. George H. Clark, Jr., is pastor and I. F. Fitz- 
gerald, M. A. Brooks, Charles Ostrander, John Avis and Harry L. Hunt, the 
deacons; I. F. Fitzgerald, R. S. Fillmore, J. B. Pope, A. H. Avis and 
Charles Ostrander, trustees. The Sunday school under the superintendency of 
A. H. Avis has an enrollment of one hundred and eighty-four. The church 
membership is one hundred and thirty-seven. 

SECOND BAPTIST CHURCH ( COLORED). 

An organization was formed in 1902 and until 1905 the members met in 
private houses. In 1904 Rev. J. B. Overstreet and his family moved to 
Blue Rapids. Through his efforts, assisted by some members of the congre- 
gation, a lot was secured and in 1905 a church was built at a cost of five 
hundred dollars. Many friends of the church contributed liberally and 
the congregation soon had their own church home. The census of 1905 
showed the colored population of the city to be forty-five, the majority being 
church members. They soon had a flourishing Sunday school of twenty- 
five members. The church has a membership of thirty, is free from debt, 
is lighted by electricity. Prominent members of the church are Charles 
Burnett, Frank Haines, Isaiah W^alker, Edith Burdett, Frank Francis. The 
church officials are : Elders. Isiah Walker, Charles Burdette ; deacons, 
Frank Francis, Stout Miller; pastor, J. B. Overstreet. 

FRANKFORT. 

The Baptist church (colored) of Frankfort was organized in 1886. the 
pastor being Rev. J. H. Moran. The first ofiicers were : P. M. Hickman. Greene 
Hocker and Thomas White. The building A\as erected in 1887 and the Sun- 



3l6 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

(lav school organized with a membershi]) of ten. P. M. Hickman was super- 
intendent. Thev had no pastor at that date. The present officers are W. 
11. .McAh'ster, \\ Montgomery, Perry Taylor and J. B. Price. The present 
membership is tliirty; Sunday school, ten. The superintendent of Sunday 
school is George Cloud. 

WATERVILLE. 

Waterville Baptist church was organized in the fall of 1873 by Rev. 
W. A. Briggs of Blue Rapids, with fifteen members. A brick edifice thirty- 
two by forty-two feet, was completed in iS<// at a cost of one thousand five 
hundred dollars. Rev. W. A. Briggs officiated until 1880, since which time 
the church has had no regular pastor. When the Baptist church was built 
in .A[arvsville the society sold the \\''aterville Baptist church to the Christian 
church society for fi\e hundred dollars and put that amount in the Baptist 
church at Marysville. 

WINIFRED. 

Winifred Baptist church was dedicated on September 3, 191 1. It was 
organized by Rev. John A. Riney, a missionary of the Blue Valley associa- 
tion. The first pastor was Rev. Henry F. Bueker, of Plymouth, Illinois. 
Mrs. Edith Dexter was the first clerk; Paris Houston and Joseph Griffee, 
the first deacons; T. B. Dexter, D. O. Dexter and Joseph Griffee, first trus- 
tees. The present officers are : C. Rakestraw- , Joseph Griffee, Andrew 
Patzka, elders; D. O. Dexter, Joseph Griffee, Paris Houston, deacons. 

The Rev. Wallace Carpenter, who was ordained on November 26, 191 2, 
closed his pastoral duties on December 31, 1916. The present church has 
seventy members. The Sunday school has a membership of one hundred ; 
Young People's Society, twenty-five. A Ladies Missionary Society is con- 
nected v, ith tlie church. A fine parsonage has recently been added to the 
churcli property. 



EPISCOPAL CHURCHES. 

The story of St. Paul's Episcpal church, Marysville, is an interesting 
one. Tw'enty-eight years have passed and the little brick church on the hill 
is still ministering to her children in the name of the Lord. These were 
years fraught with joy and thankfulness, while at worship within her sacred 
walls. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 317 

On November 24, 1887, Rev. Joseph Wayne, of Burlington, Kansas, 
held services in Marysville, and on February i, 1888, the following officials 
were elected: Wardens. F. W. White, J. S. Magill ; vestrymen. C. H. 
Shaffer, R. E. Moser, Frank Thompson. 

On April 5. 1888, the site of the present church was purchased; on 
September ii, the corner stone was laid and on Advent Sunday, the same 
year, St. Paul's was opened for worship. One year had passed since Rev- 
erend Wayne had visited Mar}^sville and much had been accomplished in 
the Master's vineyard. 

The next resident rector was Rev. Percy B. Eversden, who remained 
until November, 1899. Rev. A. Randall, of Hiawatha, came frequently and 
on the TOth of June, 1901, Rev. H. C. Attwater was appointed to serve 
Washington. Irving, Blue Rapids, and Marysville. He remained about one 
year. 

During the next four years Archdeacon Crawford visited the parish 
occasionally, for the celebration of the Eucharist. Rev. David Curran 
officiated in 1906-07. He was succeeded by Rev. P. B. Peabody. of St. 
Marks, Blue Rapids, until the arrival of B. E. Chapman, who remained until 
1909. Rev. L. G. Fourier served the parish for one year. 

Dr. H. E. Toothaker ministered to St. Paul's as catechist and deacon 
for three years, residing at Washington. W. L. Gibson, as lay reader, and 
L. P. Thatcher, served until December 19, 1914, when Louis T. Hardin was 
appointed and entered upon the duties of catechist. He is still serving the 
parish as deacon in charge. 

During all these years Mr. F. W. White has served the church as warden 
and lias rendered devoted service to the parish. Nearly all the charter mem- 
bers have fallen asleep; a few remain, whose desire it is to glorify the Son 
of Man. 

Services are maintained on two Sundays in each month and Sundav 
school is held each Sunday morning. 

Present officials : Louis T. Hardin, deacon ; warden, \\\ ^^^ Hutchin- 
son ; vestrymen. Dr. F. V>\ Clark, Guy A. Pulleine and Carl W. Belknap. 

IRVING. 

The Episcopal church was organized in 1867 by Rev. Charles Holmes. 
For some time meetings were held in tlie school house. The membership 
was small and the meetings irregular and the church declined, but in 1874 
it was reorganized by Bishop Vail and Reverend Holmes installed as pastor. 



3l8 MARSHAL). COUNTY, KANSAS. 

[ii the fall of iSjc) a small rluircli liDiiie was erccterl at a cost of one thou- 
sand two hundiXMl dollars. Rqy. George Turner served as rector in 1S83. 
The church is now in charge of Rev. Louis Harding, of Marysville. 

BLUE RAPIDS. 

Articles of association were adopted by the parish of St. JMark, Blue 
Rapids, i*klarch i, 1871, to form a congregation of the Episcopal church. 

The charter members were : Frank Hall, John McPherson, C. Y. Reed, 
Jane Reed, Eva Reed, E. A. McPherson, Luke P. Holmes, Walter R. Webb, 
M. S. Holmes, Charles Holmes, Matilda Webb, N. A. Stone, John W. Grif- 
fith, C. E. Olmstead, E. H. Comstock, Charles O. Clark and Emma Griffith. 

The first meeting was held in Colonial hall, March 5, 1871. The first 
ofTficials were: Charles Holmes, parish clerk; X. A. Stone, senior warden; 
Charles Holmes, junior warden; C. E. Olmstead, John McPherson, John 
W. Griffith, vestrymen. 

At the annual parish meeting held on Easter Monday, April i, 1872, 
the follcjwing officers were elected : A. E. Sweetland, senior warden ; Frank 
Hall, junior warden; E. H. Comstock, C. E. Olmstead, John McPherson, 
vestrymen. All annual elections since then have been held on the same day. 

During the years 1871-74 Bishop A^ail. the pioneer Episcopal bishop of 
Kansas, confirmed a number of candidates. These were the last confirma- 
tions held in Blue Rapids for a number of years. 

Lacking a church building the church meml^ers became scattered and 
some affiliated whh f)ther churches. Some removed to other localities and 
death claimed his toll. In 1883 three families of the Episcopal faith located 
in Blue Rapids, bringing a membership of nine to the church. These families 
were the Deaths, the Russells and Chaneys. Rev. Joseph Wayne, rector at 
Marysville, gathered the scattered members together and on May 20, 1888, 
services were resumed. On Easter morning regular services were held in 
the Congregati<jnal church by Bishop Thomas. The following day the annual 
election was held and the officials elected were : John McPherson, senior 
warden; J. A. Death, junior warden; Henry Harland, John Mulendez and 
Dr. Harry Humfreville, \estrymen. 

On June 15, 1901, Rev. H. C. Attwater assumed the pastorate of St. 
Marks. Lender his ministry the church grew and prospered. A church home 
was secured in Olmstead hall and furnished appropriately. Soon after this, 
through the efforts of Mrs. Alary J. Martin, a becjuest of five hundred dollars 
was made St. Marks by Miss S. E. Maurice, of New York, and later the 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. - 319 

Congregational church echfice was purchased and a permanent church home 
secured. The church has heen greatly improved, furnished with marble 
baptismal font, choir, stalls, lectern, prayer desk and hymn board. The 
lectern is a gift from the St. Agnes guild, in memory of Mrs. John McPher- 
son, long a loved member of the church. The altar vases were given by the 
Sunday school, in honor of Paul Wanamaker, who died August 13, 19 13. 

Early in 1901 Mr. and ]\Irs. C. J. Brown and Miss Florence Greer, 
(Mrs. Brown's daughter), moved from Topeka to Blue Rapids, and became 
faithful workers in St. !\Iark. Miss Greer was especially active among the 
young people and her beautiful life was an example to -all. Her death 
occurred on August 22, 19 15. 

In 1908 a fine rectory was built and first occupied by Rev. P. B. Pea- 
body, who was rector of St. Mark for nine years. Reverend Peabody left 
the charge at Blue Rapids to assume the pastorate of St. James church. 
Independence. Iowa. The present rector of St. Mark is the Rev. W. E. 
Rambo, of Brownsville, Pennsylvania. He became resident rector in Decem- 
ber, 1916. The church is prospering and has a devoted membership. 



LLTHERAN AND EVANGELICAL CHURCHES. 

The English Lutheran church of Cottage Hill township was organized 
in 1879-80. The first pastor was Rev. D. Harbaugh. The first officials were 
Charles Dietelbach, L. R. Kistler, deacons; C. R. Kistler and F. J. Faulkner, 
elders. 

Previous to this time Rev. F. R. Scherer and Rev. D. Harbaugh, both 
ministers of the English Lutheran church, preached in school houses in both 
Alarshall and Washington counties. 

After the building of the Keystone school house in district No. 92, 
preaching was held alternately in that school house and Pleasant Hill. In 
1882-83 Rev. J. A. Lowe was installed as pastor and, largely through his 
efforts, the Waterville church was built in 1884. Reverend Sponseller suc- 
ceeded Reverend Lowe, and he planned and had the present church under 
construction in 1891. 

Rev. I. B. Heisey followed Reverend Sponseller and under his charge 
the church was completed in 1892. The cost of the church was two thousand 
dollars. Reverend Heisey was well known as a pioneer citizen of the county. 
He was the well beloved pastor of the Waterville and Cottage Hill churches 



320 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

for twenty-one years. He tonk a well-earned rest in Illinois for some 
years and at present lives in Chapman, Kansas. 

The present pastor of the church is Rev. Clark Powell, who has just been 
installed. The present number of members is twenty-three. The present 
church officials are: Elders, D. C. Smith, M. M. Rice; deacons, George 
Rodecker, Andrew Hirt; trustees, Charles Stinson and Roy Rodecker. 

There is a Sunday school in connection with the church, with forty mem- 
bers. Superintendent, Charles Stenson; secretary. Myrtle Smith; treasurer, 
I\Irs. Sarah Kistler. 

ENGLISH LUTHERAN CHURCH, WALNUT TOWNSHIP. 

The now existing church has its origin from the Scandinavians who 
settled in the western part of the county in the early seventies. The congre- 
gation was first organized as the Skandinaviske Evangeliske Lutherske 
Menighed, in Marshall county on 25th of March, 1874, with N. C. Brun, of 
Doniphan county, Kansas, as pastor and Jens T. Lund, H. M. Johnson and 
P. S. Lundgren as trustees, and Mart .Scott as secretary. This congregation 
was not able to build a church at once and services were held in settlers' 
homes and school houses until 1880, when a building w-as erected on a plot 
of two acres of ground in the southeast corner of northw-est cjuarter of 
section 5, township 3, range 6, of which the south acre is set apart as a 
cemetery. 

P^or three years the church had a resident pastor, but usually was served 
by pastors from other Scandinavian settlements. 

In 1898 the charter w-as surrendered to the present organization, with 
Rev. L B. Heisy, of Waterville, as pastor, and since then it has been a part 
of the Waterville Lutheran pastorate. 

GERMAN EVANGELICAL CHURCH, MARYSVILLE. 

This church was organized in 1868 by Rev. A. Bathe, with a good 
membership. Services were held in a frame building until 1876, when the 
present edifice was dedicated. The corner stone was laid in 1874 and a 
stone structure erected at a cost of three thousand dollars. The church still 
stands as erected, but has been remodeled slightly and a gallery for the choir 
added. In connection with the church a parochial school is maintained, where 
the young are instructed in the catechism and also in the German language. 

Rev. A. Bathe was succeeded in 1870 by Rev. W. Goegel, who was sue- 



I •■" .. 





GERMAN EVANGELICAL CHURCH, MARYSVILLE. 



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MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 32 1 

ceeded by Reverend Haas, in 1872. Rev. H. Barkman assumed charge 
in July, 1876, and remained until October, 1895. His successor was Rev. 
W. Schaefer, who resigned in 1900, when Rev. L. Reinert was elected, who 
held the charge for nearly fourteen years, when the present incumbent, Rev. 
C. Bechtold, accepted the call of the congregation. 

This congregation consists of about two hundred souls all told, in 
thirty-five families, with sixty adult individual members. 

This "little German church on the corner," is one of the institutions of 
Marysville, which has shown the great quality of endurance, amidst all 
adversity. It has never in all these years been without a pastor and the 
church bell has never failed, on each succeeding Sabbath morn, as the years 
have come and gone, to call to the house of God a devoted congregation of 
worshippers. 

Of the thirty-three original members of this congregation, the only ones 
now living are August Hohn and wife, and Christ Kracht and wife, of 
Marysville, and Fred Gerlinger, of West Allis, Wisconsin. 

The present board of trustees are : Julius Plegge. Louis Sievert, Edward 
B. Menzel and John Peeks. 

SWEDISH LUTHERAN. 

The Swedish Lutheran Gloria Dei church of Cottage Hill, was organized 
on September 28, 1871. Rev. S. P. A. Lindahl perfected the organization. 
The first officers were : Deacons, N. P. Nelson, P. Hull and P. Blumcjuist ; 
trustees, Henry Nelson, John Olson and J. E. Nelson; secretary, L. Ljoblom. 

For two years the congregation was served by visiting ministers and the 
services were held in the Harbaugh school house. Rev. J. Veleen was the 
first regular pastor. He was succeeded by H. Olson. 

On January 5, 1878, a location was secured and the present church was 
completed in 1886. 

In 1894 a parsonage was built and Rev. B. S. Nystrom was the first 
pastor to live in it. He was succeeded by Rev. L. Ulden and Rev. N. J. 
Sture, who were succeeded by the present pastor. 

The early membership was about one hundred and forty. In 19 12 the 
membership was one hundred and twenty. The church is active in maintain- 
ing a Sunday school, in which the Swedish language is taught. 

There is a Luther League and Ladies' Aid Society in connection with 
the church. The value of the church property is six thousand five hundred 
(21) 



322 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

dollars. The present officials of the cluirch arc: Pastor, M. J. Loniier; 
deacons, A. D. Moden, G. T. Nelson and Alfred Lindcjuist; trustees, Frank 
Moden, Oscar Nelson and C. A. Peterson. Oscar Nelson is church treasurer 
and Mrs. j\I. J. Lonner, organist. The church owns a beautiful and well- 
kept cemetery, adjoining the church property. 

EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN ZION CHURCH. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Zion church at Herkimer was erected in 
1892 at a cost of two thousand two hunch'cd dollars, with a membership 
of twelve. The names of the first officials were : J. H. Brockmeyer, presi- 
dent; William Thiele and E. Hormann, elders; W. H. Koeneke, treasurer; 
C. Kulper, secretary. Later a parsonage was built at a cost of two thousand 
five hundred dollars and a school at a cost of two thousand two hundred dol- 
lars. There are about twenty-five pupils attending the school. German is 
taught, religious training given and all English branches are taught as in 
the public schools. The minister is also the teacher. 

The present membership of the church is twenty-five communicants and 
about two hundred attendants. The following are the present officers : H. 
Thiele, president ; William Thiele, William Fink and Theodore Schotte, 
elders; E. Hormann, treasurer; William Kruse, secretary. 

The first pastor was H. Wein. The present pastor, H. C. Marting. 

GERMAN EVANGELICAL CHURCH, STOLZENBACH. 

This church was organized in 1869 by Rev. A. Bathe, then the resi- 
dent pastor at Marysville. First services were held in the Otoe Indian mis- 
sion house, which stood on section i, Baldwin township. 

The mission house was a three-story concrete building, one hundred by 
fifty feet, and was erected by an Eastern church society, at the time the 
Indians were located on that reservation, for whatever use the Indian agent 
might make of it. In 1873 a hurricane tore the top story off this building, 
and after that it continued in operation as a two-story affair and was still 
used by this congregation for a meeting house. Later, the Merklinghaus 
school house, located on the same section, was used until 1879, when a church 
building was erected on the northeast corner of section 12, Balderson town- 
ship. Up to 1892 this church was under the pastorage of Marysville, since 
then it has been combined with a church of the same denomination at Herki- 
mer. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. ' 323 

Pastors serving this church were: Rev. A. Bathe, to 1870; Rev. W. 
Gogel, to 1872; Reverend Haas, to 1876; Rev. H. H. Barkman, to 1892; 
Reverend Vogt, to 1895; Reverend Bohnstengel. to 1895: Reverend Huebsch- 
mann, to 1901 ; Reverend Koch, to 1903; H. Grosse, to 1906; G. H. Schwake 
and Ad. Rahn, 191 1 to 1914. 

The pastor in charge of this congregation at present is Rev. E. Berg- 
strasser. The present membership is fifteen families, numbering seventy-one 
souls. 

The mission house referred to above, was built by an Eastern church 
missionary society. The missionary in charge gathered up a couple of dozen 
papooses and tried to teach them to read and write and do kindergarten work ; 
then the parents of the children ifisisted upon getting pay for the use of 
their children, and the work had to be dropped, and the building was used 
for a sort of community hall. 

GERMAN EVANGELICAL IMMANUEL CHURCH, HERKIMER. ; 

This church is an offspring of the church of the same denomination at 
Marysville, and was organized in 1890. Distance and growth of population 
in the surrounding country seemed to justify the separation. 

Rev. E. Vogt had charge of this congregation from 1892 to 1897; Rev. 
H. Huebschmann, to 1901 ; Rev. Chr. Koch, to 1902 ; H. Grosse, to 1908; Rev. 
U. B. Slupianek, to 1912; Rev. L. Birnstengel, to present date. 

The church edifice was erected in 1893 at a cost of one thousand dol- 
lars, and the re'cords for 191 5 show a congregation of one hundred and ten 
adults, consisting of thirty-nine families, making one hundred and sixty- 
three souls in all. 

EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN TRINITY CONGREGATION ( GERMAN), WALNUT 

TOWNSHIP. 

This congregation was first organized in 1886. The membership included 
nearly all the German families residing in the vicinity. ]\Ieetings were held 
in the Danish church. The congregation was served by neighboring pastors, 
namely, Revs. G. Polack, Frese, Hoyer, and Wein. 

In 1906 the congregation was reorganized, the present property purchased 
and a good church built. The first resident pastor was Rev. J. Rabold, who 
served the congregation until February, 191 1, when he accepted a call to 



3^4 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

western Kansas. During the summer of that year the new pastor, Rev. W. 
Cook, was installed. 

The memhership at present is as follows : Number of souls, one hundred 
eightv-five ; communicants, ninety-eight ; voting members, thirty-one. 

The present board of elders are Herman Scheil>e, Martin Holle, and Her- 
man ]\ringe; R. Frohberg, chairman; H. Stohs, secretary; A. Pronske, treas- 
urer. 

A cemetery near the church is the object of care on the part of the church, 
and is in perfect order. Many of the good men and women who helped build 
and maintain the church sleep in peace and quiet within that inclosure. 

AT KERMANSBURG. 

Three and one-half miles northeast of Bremen, on an eminence named 
Hermansburg, which commands a fine ^•iew of the country for miles in each 
direction, stands the German Evangelical Lutheran Immanuel church, known 
to the people of Marshall county and adjoining counties as the Hermans- 
burg church. 

This church was erected in 1870 by an organization, which was per- 
fected in the year 1868, with twelve members. 

The trustees of the first organization were : Friedrich Westermann, 
Louis Knees, Henry Meyer, Thomas Koeneke, John Bandich, secretary. 

The early pastors who served this congregation were : Jonas Matthias, 
Leonhard Pfiffer, Gustav W. Polack and Friedrich Pennekamp. 

Rev. Gustav Polack was a widely known pastor of the German Luth- 
eran Evangelical faith. He was originally from Illinois; came to Cape 
Girardeau, ^lissouri, thence to Marshall county. He served as pastor of the 
Hermansburg church from 1879 until his death in 1898. During the early 
years his pastorate extended as far north as Lanham and as far south as 
Herkimer. He established German Lutheran churches at Afton and Herki- 
mer in Marshall county ; at Palmer, Linn and Strawberry in Washington 
county; at Bern in Nemaha county, and at Onaga and Duluth in Potta- 
watomie county. Because of this the influence of the Hermansburg church, 
being the central power, extended beyond the limits of the county. Reverend 
Polack closed his ministry with the church in 1898. He was buried on the 
day he had chosen to deliver his farewell sermon. 

The church has prospered and now has a membership of eighty-eight, 
w4th a Sunday school of one hundred. There are two parochial schools in 



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MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 325 

connection witli the church. One of the scliool buildings is on property 
adjoining the church, the other is three and one-half miles south and east 
of the church. The common branches, extending as far as the eighth grade, 
are taught and, in addition, special instruction in the German language and 
in religious training is given. There are seventy-seven children enrolled in 
the two schools and two teachers are employed. Dwellings are furnished 
the teachers free of charge and salaries amounting to one thousand and fifty 
dollars annually, are paid. The cost of the two school buildings exceeded 
three thousand dollars. 

The church owns forty-five acres of land, on part of which is located 
a well-kept cemetery. The present pastor of the church is Otto Menke, and 
the present officials are: Fred Friedrichs, John Rengstorf, Fred Holle; 
William Rabe. treasurer, and E. A. G. Mueller, secretary. 



UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The first United Presbyterian church in Marshall county was organ- 
ized May 20. 1883, by Rev. Marion ]\Iorrison, D. D., with Capt. C. F. Mc- 
Culloch, A. B. W'eede and S. ^i. Pressly as ruling elders. The location of 
this congregation was in the vicinity of the present city of Summerfield. 
There were twenty-three charter members as follow : Mr. and Airs. C. F. 
McCulloch, Mr. and Mrs. John S. Smiley, Mr. and Airs. Thomas Brown, 
Mr. and Mrs. \\'. I). Gordon, Air. and Airs. A. B. Weede, Air. and Airs. S. 
AI. Pressly, Air. and Airs. Andrew Nash, Air. and Airs. A. D. Hutchison, 
Air. and Mrs. J. L. Brown, E. J. Smiley, ^\^ A. Smiley, Aliss Carrie E. 
McCulloch, Aliss Fannie Smiley and \V. R. Brown. 

For about six years the congregation worshipped in the school house 
in district 90, with Reverend Alorrison, Rev. J. H. Alontgomery and others 
as supplies, but when Summerfield was started a church building at a cost 
of about two thousand five hundred dollars was built and Rev. A\\ T. W'ar- 
nock called as pastor in 1891. Rev. C. H. Alitchell succeeded Reverend 
Warnock as pastor in 1894 and eight years later Dr. J. C. Calhoun became 
pastor and continued for twelve years when the present pastor, Re\'. W. L. 
Torrence, took charge. 

The congregation now has one hundred ninety members and the Sab- 
bath school numbers more than two hundred. The church building has 



326 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

been etilaro;ed and a commodious parsonage has l>cen erected since the 
organization. 

Eleven of tlie charter members are yet living-, seven of whom reside 
within the bounds and continue as members of this cluirch. 



CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

On January 12, 1872, the following persons, who were of the Congrega- 
tional polity and faith, perfected a church organization in Blue Rapids: 
James Cooley, Charles E. Tibbetts, J. D. Field, F. G. Morris, J. E. Ball, 
John Palmer, J. C. Friselle, Lewis Phelps, John A. Smith, William Ekins 
and James A. Dawes. Of these men, James Cooley and Charles E. Tib- 
betts had been in the county since 1866, and William Ekins and James A. 
Dawes came later. 

The first pastor was Rev. Arthur Smith. He died early in his minis- 
terial work. In 1879 came Rev. E. Skinner, of English birth, and during 
his ministry a church was erected and dedicated in October, 1882. Reverend 
Skinner died in 1901. Members moved away and the church 
declined. In 190.^ the church property was leased to the Episcopal people 
and later sold to them. In 19 10 the church formally disbanded. This 
church amply justified its existence by the part it took, for more -than 
three decades, in the religious and social life of Blue Rapids. Among 
those who went out from under its guidance is Rev. Frank L. Macy, for 
many years a successful Congregational minister, now residing at Mil- 
ford, Kansas ; Rev. Harry E. Vincent, a Congregationalist pastor, of New 
York state; Charles W. Elkins, of California, a Sunday school worker of 
national reputation. Among the prominent pastors w'ho served the church 
may be noted Rev. Vernon H. Deming, of New England, and Rev. Wil- 
liam M. Brown, president of Tillotson College, Texas. 



FREE METHODIST CHURCH. 



The Free Alethodist church of Frankfort, Kansas, was organized on 
May 24, 1907. The first members were: Rev. Charles H. South worth, 
Wesley Long. Christian Reust, Samuel McDonald and Edgar Long. The 
first trustees were : Christian Reust, Samuel McDonald, Samuel A. Reust, 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 327 

Samuel Retist, Samuel Koch, E. S. Slifer and AVesley Long-. Stewards : 
Joseph Reust, Tabitha Packard, Mary A. Alleman. Class leader, Wesley 
Long; treasurer, S. A. Reust; secretary, Tabitha Packard. Membership of 
the church, twenty-nine. Superintendent of Sunday school, E. S. Slifer; 
membership of Sunday school, thirty. First pastor, C. S. Huston. The 
church was built in T910. The present pastor is J. A. Chaney. 



UNIVERSALIST CHURCH, 

In July, 1880, Rev. Mr. Rhodes, of Seneca, organized a church of the 
Universalist faith at Vermillion, with forty members. Services were held by 
Reverend Rhodes in the school house and in an upper room of a store building, 
for some time, when the organization finally disbanded, many placing their 
membership in other denominations. 



CHRISTIAN SCIENCE CHURCH. 

On the corner of Fourteenth street and Broadway in Marysville, stands 
this little church, built and dedicated to the service of Christian Science, in 
the spring of 1893. 

It is said that this is the second church building ever dedicated to the 
cause of Christian Science in the world. 

Christian Science was first introduced into this county by Mrs. Lillie 
B. Shepard in the year 1887. ^^^ 1891 a Christian Science society was 
formed by a few families meeting in a hall. 

In 1892 a Sunday school was organized with a goodly attendance. In 
1893 3. charter for a church was procured under the name of First Church 
of Christ, Scientist. There were fourteen charter members. 

In 1903 the reading rooms connected with this church were established 
in a commodious suite of rooms in the White building. 

There is regular Sunday service and Sunday school and Wednesday 
evening testimonial meetings are maintained by this organization. 

BLUE RAPIDS. 

This society was organized in Alay, 19 12. Services are held every 
Sunday morning in the Odd Fellows hall. 



7.28 MARSHAL!. COUNTY, KANSAS. 



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PENTECOST CHURCH. 

The Pentecost cluircli at Blue Rapids was organized on August 6, 1907, 
by W. C. Craig, then bishop of the general Pentecost church, with twenty- 
three members. Officers were elected as follow : Elders, C. A. Bartell and 
E. J. McAtee; deacon, R. A. McAtee; deaconess, Ollic W'adley; treasurer, 
Delia McAtee; recorder, W. E. Ellis; trustees. T. M. Guy, E. A. Wadley, 
C. A. Bartell, L. E. Payne and Zelina Westlake. Pastor, E. J. McAtee. 

A Bible school was organized with forty scholars. Officers and teach- 
ers as follow: Superintendent, .\. E. \\'adley ; assistant superintendent, Iva 
Cox; secretary, D. L. Reed; treasurer, R. A. McAtee; teachers, R. A. McAtee, 
W. E. Ellis. Ollie Wadley and Carrie McAtee. 

At the time of organization the congregation owned a building on 
]\Iain street, purchased from the Christian church, in which services were 
held until a new church was built and dedicated on December 20, 1912. In 
January, 191 7, there were only fifteen members. 

The present officers are as follow : Elders, E. J. McAtee, R. A. McAtee ; 
deacon, Albert Warner ; deaconess, Rebecca Mosher ; treasurer, E. J. McAtee ; 
recorder, Mrs. S. Burton; trustees, Albert Warner, Charles Mosher and 
R. A. McAtee. Pastor, E. J. McAtee. 

The Bible school consists of twenty-three scholars. Superintendent, 
E. J. McAtee; secretary, Maude Burton; teachers. D. L. Reed. E. J. McAtee 
and Mrs. S. Burton. 



CATHOLIC CHURCHES. 

In a log cabin the first mass was celebrated in the Irish settlement in 
Cleveland township. The cabin was built in 1866 and at that time was 
considered a palatial residence. It became the property of W. P. and Cath- 
erine Gregg in 1867 and from that time until 1872, when a church was 
erected, Catholic services were held monthly in this house. The old log 
cabin, w^hich became each month a tabernacle to the Most High, and which 
was always a hospitable home for the pioneer priest, has long since been 
abandoned as a residence but is still standing, one of the very few remain- 
ing log cabins in the county. It is the property of Hon. W. J. Gregg, of 
Frankfort, a son of the pioneer, and to ]\Ir. Gregg the editor is indebted for 
the accompanying picture. 



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ST. GREGORYS SCHOOL, MARYSVILLE. 




THE FIRST CATHOLIC CHURCH AT MARYSVILLE. 




ST. MALACHY'S CHURCH AND PARISH HOUSE, MARYSVILLE. 




FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST, MARYSVILLE. 
The second church of this denomination to be built in the world. 



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MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 329 

ST. Joseph's church. 

A great tide of emigration from Eastern states and from European 
countries, swept over Kansas between the years 1854 and 1865, when the 
country was opened by the United States government to settlers. 

The new settlers represented different nationalities and different creeds. 
The two localities where Catholics settled in early days and founded colonies 
were Irish creek in the southeast and St. Bridget in the northeast of the 
county. 

The settlers who came between the years 185 7- 1860 were Daniel, Jerry 
and Dennis Donahy, John Doud. William Thomas, John and Daniel Nolan, 
Thomas and Edward McNieve, Patrick, Ned, Mike and Herbert Burk, the 
Greggs, William Kennedy, Harrington, Grimes and William Handeshan. 
The pioneer settler ■ was followed by the pioneer priest. 

The Jesuit Fathers of St. Mary's and the Benedictine Fathers from 
Atchison would travel over the prairies of Kansas and visit the early settlers, 
and have mass in private houses and dug-outs. 

FIRST PASTOR. 

In 1865 Father William Fitzgerald made his home among the settlers 
of Irish creek. The Gregg family donated a strip of land along the creek 
for church purposes. The location was in the northeast quarter of section 
20, Cleveland township. Here they found plenty of timber to l)uild the 
church, and shade and shelter for the teams in summer and winter. 

The first church, a structure twenty-eight by fifty feet, was built mostly 
out of native lumber and dedicated to St. Joseph. Some years later an addi- 
tion was put to this church. With the erection of the church came the building 
of a parish house for the priest. 

Some of the successors of Father Fitzgerald were Fathers Daily, Hud- 
son, Butler, Weikmann, Meile, Stack, John Ward, now bishop of Leaven- 
worth ; Fathers Meehan, Jennings and Michel. 

The Rev. Father Fitzgerald procured a ten-acre tract of land one-half 
mile away from the church for a cemetery. It had always been the desire 
of many to have the church and house near the cemetery. In 1902 Father 
William Michel built a new parish house, and hall and bought two acres 
of ground opposite the cemetery. On this piece of land he built the parish 
house, a beautiful brick veneer structure. 

In 1904 the church was moved from the creek to the new site. A year 



330 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

after Father Patrick O'Sullivan succeeded Father Michel as pastor of Irish 
creek. During this time a new railroad was built from Topeka to Marysville 
and a new town was laid out one mile east of the church. The town was 
called Lillis. in honor of the bishop of the diocese, Rt. Rev. Francis 
Lillis, D. D. 1'he question then arose to move St. Joseph's church to the 
town of Lillis. The congregation was divided on the matter and it was 
finally decided by vote, in presence of Rt. Rev. Bishop Ward, to leave the 
church at the old place opposite the cemetery. 

In 19 ID Rev. Father Fitzgerald succeeded Father O'SulHvan. The 
Rt. Rev. Bishop had given orders to build a new church and Father Fitz- 
gerald set to work to take up subscriptions and get the plans for the new 
building. A rock church was decided on, fifty by one hundred and ten feet, 
Roman in style. The rocks were quarried three miles west of the church 
and the basement and foundations were finished in the summer of 1912. 
In the fall of 19 12 the corner stone was laid by Bishop Ward. A few months 
later on account of a defective flue the brick veneer house burned down and 
was replaced with a stone structure in harmony with the new church. The 
new church was finished and dedicated on May 10, 19 16, by Bishop Ward, 
in presence of a large concourse of people from far and near, and assisted by 
twenty-two priests of the diocese. 

St. Joseph's church stands as a monument which speaks to future gen- 
erations of the faith and devotion of the priest and the people who built it. 
The cost of the church and house was thirty thousand dollars. One hundred 
families belong to St. Joseph's church, one mile west of the small town of 
Lillis in Marshall county. 

SUMMERFIELD PARISH. 

The Catholic church known as the Church of the Holy Family, in Sum- 
merfield, was built in the same year that the town was built — 1889. Father 
John Hurley, pastor of St. Bridget church, from which the Summerfield 
church was attended, was the first pastor and he it was who built the church. 
He attended the parish until his removal from St. Bridget about the year 
1895. Rev. Patrick O'Sullivan succeeded him as pastor of St. Bridget and 
also attended the Summerfield parish until the year 1907, when Rev. Clar- 
ence Bradley was appointed as the first permanent pastor. He attended' the 
parish for almost two years, during which time he built the parish house. 
Rev. M. T. Hoffman succeeded Father Bradley until the year 191 5. In the 
fall of 191 5 Rev. E. R. Embleau was appointed pastor and is the present 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 33 1 

pastor. During his time he has purchased ground for a Cathohc cemetery, 
for, until up to this time, Summerfield people had been using the cemetery 
in St. Bridget to bury their dead. The Summerfield parish consists of fifty 
families. Plans are being made now to build a new church to correspond 
to the means of the people. 

ST. Michael's church^ axtell. 

St. Michael's congregation was organized by Rev. Timothy Duber, O. 
S. B., and the church was built in 1883. Up to this time the scattered Catho- 
lics in and around Axtell attended service at St. Bridget, six miles north. 
From 1884 to 1886 Father Martin, O. S. B., and Father Rettle, O. S. B., 
attended to the flock. 

In the year 1890 Father Hurley built the parochial residence and moved 
the church to a new site in the northeast part of town. In 1891 Father 
Bononcini built a small parochial school and procured a bell. In 1894, not 
having sufficient children, the parochial school was abandoned. From 1894 
to 1898 Father Shields, Father Hiawalka and Father O' Sullivan had charge 
of Axtell. Father J. N. Burk was appointed pastor of Axtell in 1898 and 
remained for five years until in 1903, when Father Taton, the present pastor, 
took charge of affairs. 

The first church ground was donated by Michael Murray in block 2, 
east of Barnes Hall. In 1890 the lots were sold and the church moved to 
a new site purchased from Mrs. Catherine Murray. It was during this time 
that A. P. Cetmer caused some religious disturbance among the citizens of 
Axtell. 

In 1 90 1 Rev. M. Burk began arrangements for the erection of a new 
church and in June of the same year purchased block 13 for a new church 
site. The foundation for the new church was laid in the spring of 1903 
and the corner stone was laid by Rt. Rev. Bishop Lillis in May, 1904. 
Before the foundations were completed. Father Burk was removed. Father 
Taton, after some changes in the plans, finished the beautiful St. Michael's 
church in 1905. In 1909 Father Taton started the erection of a new parish 
house, which is the pride of the town. In 19 13 the foundations were laid 
for a parochial school. The contract for the school and hall was let in the 
spring of 191 7. 

The parish has seventy families and is in good condition financially 
and spiritually. The Catholic cemetery dates back to the year 1886. 



33-' 



MARSHALL COIXTY, KANSAS. 



ST. MONICA S, WATERVILLE. 



The first setllcr in rind near Waterville came to that locality in 1856, 
twelve years or more hefore the railroad was built and the town laid out. 
The first pioneers, who were Catholics and located in that vicinity, w^ere 
the Casey, Oliver and Smith families, wdio came in 1858. The nearest 
Catholic church was at Atchison, one hundred miles away. 

A few years later, the pioneer priests followed the pioneer settler. Irish 
creek and St. Bridget received pastors and the neighboring towns and adjoin- 
ing counties were attended from there. It was not until 1866 or 1867 that 
Father Fitzgerald, of Irish creek, visited the settlement in the southwestern 
part of the county and celel:)rated the first mass at the Casey home, a mile 
east of the present Waterville. 

After the railroad came in 1868, services were held once a month in 
the Sexton house, w^hich was occupied l)y Mr. Brady. In 1870, Father 
Pichler, of Hanover, attended Waterville for a time. Later, Waterville was 
annexed to Frankfort, Greenleaf, Parsons creek and Kimeo. Fathers Weik- 
mann, Hoffman and Groeters said mass on weekdays for many years. 
The services were held at the John Ready home west of town. From 1896 
to 1898 no regular services were held. The chalice, vestments, candle- 
sticks, etc.. were kept at the Ready residence. 

In June, 1903, during the high water in the Little Blue river, a pretended 
Dominican priest, or brother, arrived in Waterville, and stayed a few days 
at the home of Mrs. Ready. On leaving', he asked Mrs. Ready for the mis- 
sion articles, and she having full confidence in his being a priest, let him 
have them. This supposed Dominican w-as never heard of again, and thus 
every vestige of the earliest missionary life at Waterville disappeared. 

On February 10, 1908, a meeting was called by Rev. August Redeker, 
of Marysville, to consider the proposition of erecting a church. At this 
meeting there were present : Isidor Schmieder, R. Ready, Henry Mentgen, 
George Casey, Joseph and Phil. Tommer, John Stengelmeier, James Real, 
Mrs. Kiefer and Mr. and Mrs. George Swanson. Three hundred and seventy- 
five dollars was subscribed and three building lots were bought. 

On August 3, 1908, mass w^as celebrated at the George Casey home, and 
a meeting was held for the consideration of plans for the new church. About 
forty members were present at this meeting, a subscription list was headed 
by Isidore Schmieder with five hundred dollars, and one thousand six hun- 
dred and sevent\-fi\e dollars was subscriljed at this meeting. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 333 



CHURCH ERECTED. 



The plans of Architect Wilson Hunt, of Kansas City, Missouri, for a 
frame structure, thirty-five by seventy-five feet, were adopted ; the contract 
for the foundation was let to George Casey for four hundred and twenty- 
eight dollars, for the framework to Orin Ivers, of Axtell, for three thousand 
one hundred dollars. The building was completed in 1909, and on August 
1st of that year Rev. P"rancis Elast was appointed the first parish priest 
for Waterville and missions, who soon raised money enough to build a parish 
house, which was completed in the fall of 1909. 

The church and parish house were not dedicated until May 2, 191 1, by 
the Rt. Rev. John Ward. The church was given the name of St. Monica. 
Monica was the name of the mother of Isidore Schmieder, whose generosity 
made it possible to build the church. Next to Mr. Schmieder, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Gleason deserves special recognition for her untiring efforts in behalf 
of this church. 

In Septeml>er, 19 12, Father Elast was succeeded by Father M. O'Leary, 
who was followed in July, 1913, by Father David Hall, and in April, 191 5, 
Father Hall was succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. P. Mclnerney. 

ST. ELIZABETH^S, IRVING. 

The Catholic congregation at Irving is the youngest of all the Catholic 
congregations in the county. When the Catholic church in Waterville was 
being built in 1909, the Rt. Rev. Thomas Lillis requested the Rev. A. 
Redeker, of Marysville, to organize or build or buy a church at Irving and 
unite the Catholics at Springside in Pottawatomie county and those near 
Irving. The time for this work did not arrive until 19 12. 

On August 28th, 19 1 2, Rev. August Redeker conducted services at 
the Bohemian settlement, eight miles southwest of Irving, in place of Rev. 
F. Elast, their regular pastor. Rev. A. Redeker spoke to the members of 
St. Wenceslaus parish about moving the church to Irving or to build a new 
church at that place. Two weeks later he conducted the services again and 
a vote was taken by the members upon the cjuestion; it was voted not to 
move St. Wenceslaus church. Thereupon, the plan to build a new church 
at Irving was taken up. Two lots were generously donated by the late 
James Denton and two lots by a lady at Irving. The lots selected were 
those on Main street, one block from the business section. The subscription 



334 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

list was headed by Herman Fegner, with five hundred dollars, and more 
than two thousand four hundred dollars was subscribed in a short time. 

At a meeting in the residence of John Forest, it was decided to adopt 
the Waterville church plan with some modifications, and Herman Fegner, 
Tohn Forest, and Mr. Wacek were appointed a committee. In October 
and November, 191 2, the members hauled the sand gratis from the river 
and dug the basement and built the foundation of the new church. In the 
meantime. Father M. O'Leary had been appointed pastor and took charge 
of the building of the church. 

CHURCH BUILT. 

The church was to be a frame structure, thirty-six by seventy-five feet, 
and the contract was let to Mr. Skillen, of Frankfort, Kansas. The church 
was built in the winter and spring of 191 3. 

On Thursday, June 5, 191 3, in the presence of a large gathering of 
people, the Rt. Rev. Bishop Ward, D. D., assisted by a dozen priests, dedi- 
cated the church to the service of God. The church was given the name of 
St. Elizabeth, in compliment to H. Fegner's mother, whose name was Eliza- 
beth. This privilege was granted him because of his being the largest donor 
to the new church. The congregation consists of twenty-five families, 
attended regularly from Waterville. 

In the fall of 1913, Father O'Leary was succeeded by Rev. David Hall. 
In April, 1916, Father Patrick Mclnerney took charge of the congregation, 
paid off the debt and put the congregation on a solid financial basis. 

ST. malachy's, beattie. 

* 

In the pioneer days the Catholics who lived in and near Beattie attended 
services at St. Bridget and Irish creek in this county. In the year 1879, 
Father William Fitzgerald, pastor at Irish creek, organized the Beattie con- 
gregation. At that time the following Catholics lived in or near Beattie; 
Mrs. A. Wuster, P. Smith, Nicholas Orr, P. O'Niel, D. R. Cottrell, J. O'Neil, 
P. Pitsch, P. Finnigan, J. Gardner, Thomas Koenig, Thomas McMahon, 
James McDonald, James Fitzgerald, P. AIcMahon, John Kraemer, G. Koch, 
Mr. Renger, R. Cosgrove and O. Heandley. 

In 1879 a ten-acre tract of land was bought for a cemetery, north of 
Beattie. The next year Father William Fitzgerald, with the aid of the 
above mentioned persons and their families, began the erection of St. Alal- 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 335 

achy's church. The lots on which the church was erected were donated by 
Mr. and Mrs. James Fitzgerald, the brother of Father William Fitzgerald. 
The building cost about three thousand dollars. Before the church was com- 
pleted, Father Fitzgerald died on November 29, 1881. Father Bernard 
Hudson completed the church and took charge of the congregation for a 
short time after the death of Father Fitzgerald. Father Daily succeeded 
Father Hudson in 1882 and had charge of the congregation until 1883, 
when Beattie was attached to Marysville and Father M. A. Meile took 
hold of affairs. In September, 1885, Father Meile, on account of ill 
health, resigned, and Father John Hartman succeeded him. From August 
14, 1886, until 1895, Rev. M. J. Schmickler attended Beattie twice a month 
from Marysville. In Septemljer, 1895. Beattie was attached to Axtell, as a 
mission in charge of Father F. S. Hawelka until January, 1898, when Beat- 
tie was attended by Father P. R. O'Sullivan, of St. Bridget, for several 
months. 

From May, 1898, until 1903, Father M. Burk, of Axtell, had charge of 
the congregation. In August, 1903, Father Francis Taton began the erec- 
tion of the parish house and upon its completion Beattie was given its first 
resident pastor, Father M. J. Galvin, October 12, 1907. August 4, 1910, 
Father Galvin was succeeded by Father J. J. Ryan, who was compelled to 
leave on account of ill health and was followed by Father H. A. McDevitt, 
March 13, 1914. He labored as pastor of Beattie until March 8, 1916, when 
the present pastor, Father Theol. P. Schwam, took charge. 

ST. BRIDGET CHURCH AND PARISH. 

The first settlement of St. Bridget parish was made in 1857, when 
Philip Coffey, Owen Reilly, Elizabeth Hoffman, Eli Tripp and Jacob Straub 
headed westward in search of homes, and like all early settlers, the one 
thing most necessary was timber to build their dwellings, shelter for stock 
and for fuel. Hence, the first settlements are found in the timbered sections 
of the county. 

In 1858 the following persons and their families settled in St. Bridget: 
John Coughlin, Michael Shaughnessy, Peter Lynch, John Smith, Michael 
Murray, Patrick Hughes, Thomas Loob, Michael Maddigan. Between 1858 
and 1 86 1 came Patrick McGrath, James Carroll, John Gossin. Sylvester 
Creevan, John Clark and Bernard Gallagher and formed the nucleus around 
which gathered the present Catholic community. 



336 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

The hardships endured by these pioneers were many and severe, but 
the truly charitable spirit and the indissoluble bond of brotherhood had so 
united them in their efforts, that the burden of one was the burden of all 
and no sacrifice was too great in their efforts to alleviate the suft'ering of 
a neighbor in sickness or distress. 

FIRST MASS. 

The one great hope of this Irish colony had not as yet been realized. 
They had no church and no priest to preach to them the gospel of truth, 
so firmly planted in their minds and hearts in the land of their birth. But 
their hopes were brightened when in May, 1859, Father Edmond, a mission- 
ary, said the first mass in St. Bridget in the home of John Coughlin, and 
it is generally believed that was the first time the holy sacrifice of the mass 
was offered up in Marshall county. 

As each new settler arrived, the homes of those who came before were 
thrown open and he and his family were invited to share their humble abode 
imtil such time as he could provide a shelter, which was done by the neigh- 
bors gathering together, cutting and hauling the logs and helping build the 
house. Another family, another home, was added to the little colony, and 
as one old settler remarked, "How the people of St. Bridget should love 
each other for the kindness of those days." 

In 1862 the first church organization was affected under the direction 
of Father John, O. S. B., who made his home at St. Benedict, and visited 
the parish from time to time. A charter was taken out with the following 
charter members : John Gossin, John Clark, Peter Lynch, Michael Maddi- 
gan, Michael Murray, William P. Madden and James Carroll. A log 
church was built, but before it was completed it was burned, supposed to 
have been done by incendiaries. 

FIRST FRAME CHURCH. 

In 1863-64 the first frame church was built on the site where the ceme- 
tery now is, but afterwards moved to where the present church stands. This 
building also served as a school house for many years. The first resident 
priests in St. Bridget were : Father William Fitgerald and Father Fogerty. 
During their stay, from 1865 to 1869, they built a parish house, which was 
destroyed by fire in 1869. 

From 1869 to 1871 the parish was attended by missionaries. In 1871 



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ST. BRIDGET CATHOLIC CHURCH. 




INTERIOR OF ST. BRIDGET CATHOLIC CHURCH. 




INTERIOR OF ST. GREGORY'S CATHOLIC CHURCH. 



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ST. GREGORY'S CATHOLIC CHURCH, MARYSVILLE. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 33/ 

Father Stiitberth, O. S. B., from Atchison, became resident priest and began 
the erection of the stone church, thirty by sixty feet, which was completed 
in 1875. Patrick Hughes donated the stone used in the church, each mem- 
ber hauHng one cord; Philhp Coffey donated the plastering, James Carroll 
and John Stohl did the mason work. 

In 1876 and 1877 the parish was attended by Fathers Eugene, Theo- 
docis and Boniface. In 1877 Father Timothy took charge of the 
parish, remained until 1883 and during his stay erected a twelve-room 
parish house at a cost of three thousand dollars, which is now used for a 
sisters' house. Too much could not be said in praise of this pious, zealous 
man, who was ever striving for the moral and social uplift of his parish. 
Brother Lambert served as his housekeeper and spent much of his time in 
the care of the grounds, which he converted into a veritable flower garden. 
From 1883 to 1884 Father William Bettele was in charge and in August, 
1884, Rev. John Hurley took charge, remaining until February, 1896, a 
period of twelve years. Then came Father Patrick R. O'Sullivan, in 1896, 
and remained until 1908. 

BRICK BUILDING ERECTED. 

Father O' Sullivan was an earnest and faithful worker. By his efforts 
he succeeded in building the present handsome brick church, fifty by one 
hundred feet, at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars, the pride of the 
parish and a monument to the self-sacrificing pioneers of St. Bridget. 

Before the church was cjuite complete Father O'Sullivan was moved 
to Lillis and Rev. P. R. McNamara was sent to take up the work where 
Father O'Sullivan left off, which he did by plastering the church, installing 
beautiful stained glass windows and interior furnishings. The new church 
was dedicated by Rt. Rev. Bishop Lillis, September 3, 1909. Father 
McNamara remained until 19 10, when Father Geinetz was appointed, serv- 
ing one year. In 191 1 Father McManus was appointed and during his 
stay he established the sisters' school in St. Bridget, which is giving the 
children the advantage of a two-teacher school, also the opportunity of a 
musical education, which is not easily obtained in a rural community. 

In 1913 Rev. Michael O'Leary took charge, serving until 1916. Dur- 
ing his stay in St. Bridget he erected a modern parish house at a cost of 
four thousand dollars. In 19 16 Father Murphy took charge and is now the 
resident priest. 

(22) 



^T^H MARSH. \I.[. COUNTY, KANSAS. 

This sketch of St. Bridi^et woiikl be incomplete \vith<iut mention of 
that patriotic Irishman, Thomas Hynes, who came to St. iiridi^et a^)out 
1865. Mr. Hynes was a graduate of St. Benedict College, Atchison, and 
served as teacher in our schools for several years. He was foremost in 
everv public enterprise and had charge of the mail route in this section of 
the country for several years. About 1877 ^^^ moved to Axtell and engaged 
in the drug business. 

]\Iichael Murray, one of the charter members of the church, conducted 
a general store in St. Bridget from 1865 to 1877, when he moved to Axtell 
to continue the business there. Murray township was named for Michael 
Murray. 

One of the pioneers w^orthy of mention is Michael Maddigan, who 
before his death wdlled one hundred and sixty acres of land to St. Bridget 
parish, to be used for the benefit of the church. 

ANNUNCIATION PARISH, FRANKFORT. 

The history of Annunciation parish dates back to the early days of 
1880, when the first humble church was erected by Rev. Father William 
Fitzgerald, then resident pastor of St. Joseph's church on Irish creek. The 
parish then numbered about seventeen families. The church was attended 
by the priests from St. Joseph's church up to the year 1888, when Rev. 
Father P. Kloss was placed in charge of the Frankfort parish. In the year 
1889, Father Kloss erected a parish house, but in the year 1890 the Frank- 
fort and Irish creek parishes w-ere again united, the priest residing at Frank- 
fort. 

The priests who have had charge of the parish at various times are the 
following : Fathers William Fitzgerald, Bernard Hudson, J. Daly, A. M. 
Meile, William Stack, John Begley, John Ward (now bishop), P. Kloss, 
T. Butler, Sylvester Meehan, A. W. Jennings, William Michel, F. Kulicek, 
Francis Orr and C. A. Bradley. 

In the year 1900, Rev. Father Michel being pastor, the first church 
building w'as disposed of, and a larger church erected on a site east of the 
original location. The corner stone of this building was laid on Sunday, 
July 15, 1900, by the pastor. Father Michel. The church committeemen 
then in office were Matt Peril, Thomas Ryan, James Gregg and Daniel Sulli- 
van. The building committee was William Gregg and C. T. Hessel. The 
estimated cost of this second church was three thousand six hundred and 
fifty-four dollars. The parish then numbered about forty families. Rev. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 339 

Father Francis Ktilicek was appointed rector of Annunciation parish in the 
year 1902, and while in charge, also tended the Bohemian mission church, 
seven miles south of Irving. 

FIRE DESTROYS CHURCH. 

On November 4th. 1905, the church erected in 1900 was destroyed by 
fire, together with all equipment and furniture, not even the Blessed Sacra- 
ment being saved. The parish house built in 1889 was also destroyed in 
this same fire. Father Kulicek was then transferred to Kansas City, Kansas, 
and Father Michel was instructed by the bishop to erect another church 
and residence, while services were to be conducted by a Benedictine Father, 
from Atchison, for the time being. The contract price of the new church 
was four thousand three hundred dollars, and the amount for the residence 
was two thousand six hundred and seventy dollars. The four thousand three 
hundred dollars did not include the foundation of the church, which was to 
be a duplicate of the one built in 1900. The corner stone of this third church 
was laid on the 30th of March, 1906, by Rev. William Michel, and on the 
building committee were C. T. Hessel, William Gregg, Michael Griffin and 
John A'Hern. Alfred Meier, of St. Joseph, Missouri, was the architect in 
charge and Joseph Trompeter, of Effingham, Kansas, had the contract for 
all work. Immediately upon completion of the two buildings, which was 
about September, 19CJ6, Rev. Francis ]M. Orr was appointed by Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Lillis. as pastor of the parish. 

CHURCH AGAIN DESTROYED. 

, At 7:30 o'clock, on the evening of Sunday, May 3, 1908, the church 
was struck by lightning, and church and residence were burned to the ground 
— a complete loss. Disaster and misfortune had blighted the hopes of the 
brave, good people of the parish for the second time within two years, but 
far, indeed, from destroying them. Plans were immediately prepared, and 
funds raised to rebuild better and safer and more beautiful than ever. The 
buildings were to cost eleven thousand dollars with an additional cost of 
from four to five thousand dollars to complete them in every respect. The 
corner stone of this fourth church was laid in August, 1908, Rev. Father 
Orr presiding at the ceremony. The church committee at this time was 
James Gregg, Jeremiah O'Leary and James Kennedy, and the building com- 
mittee consisted of the rector. Father Orr, William Gregg and Henry Ken- 



340 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

nedy. The construction work progressed without interruption, and on the 
morning of February 22. 1909, the beautiful church was solemnly dedicated 
by Rt. Rev. Thomas F. Lillis, bishop of the diocese. 

The present edifice is a magnificent ])uilding of clearest white lime- 
stone, designed in the Roman style of architecture, with slate roof, orna- 
mental stained glass windows and stately bell tower. The interior and its 
appointments are complete, rich and tasteful, yet withal, calculated to inspire 
religious fervor and devotion. In every respect the church stands a model 
of beauty and strength, and reflects greatest credit on both the builder. 
Father Orr, and the noble, generous-hearted parishioners, who sacrificed 
much to insure its completion. 

Father Orr continued in charge of the parish until June, 191 1, when he 
was appointed as pastor of St. Peter's parish in Kansas City, Kansas. Rev. 
Father C. A. Bradley was then appointed by Rt. Rev. Bishop Ward, as 
pastor, and entered ujwn his duties on the last Sunday of June, 191 1. Since 
that time various improvements have been made, most important of which 
was the frescoing of the church during the summer of 1912. The base- 
ment of the church has also been fitted up into an assembly room. Despite 
the fact that many of the early pioneer members of the parish have passed 
away, and the parish roster contains a changed order of names, its strength 
and vigor have increased, and the membership now numbers seventy-five 
families. There is no debt or incumbrance on the property or buildings.. 

ST. Gregory's parish^ marysville. 

The two localities where Catholics settled in early days and formed 
colonies were Irish creek in the southeast and St. Bridget in the northeast 
of the county. However, there were Catholic families located in every 
township in the county. Some of the first Catholic families who came in 
early days, and located within the present limits of St. Gregory's parish 
were: Nic Koppes, Jacob Morbacher, Sr., with thirteen children; Patrick 
Haynes, John Reiter, Thomas McCoy, Louis and Frank Hanke, John Joerg, 
Sr., John Kirch, ]\Iathias Schmitt. James Grey, Peter Koppes, Joseph Ellen- 
becker and others. 

The first Catholic priest that held divine service among the scattered 
Catholics around Marysville, was Rev. Father Thomas Bartel, O: S. B. His 
presence was hailed with joy by the handful of Catholics. Father Bartel 
was succeeded bv Rev. Theodore Heinemann, of St. Mary's, Kansas, in 1862. 

During the Civil ^^'ar many men joined the army, the farms were 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 34I 

neglected, crops failed and business was poor. The good priest made his 
appearance about every two or three months. In 1863 and 1864 service was 
conducted several times by Father Jones, of St. Mary's, Kansas. Father 
Suitbert De Marteau, of Atchison, had charge of Marysville in 1865. From 
1865-67, Marysville was regularly visited by Fathers Fitzgerald and Fogarty, 
both being stationed at St. Bridget and Irish creek in Marshall county. 

GATHERING THE FLOCK. 

In 1867 Rev. Father Riemele took charge of this locality and services 
were conducted more frequently. Traveling on horseback from St. Mary's, 
the good priest would halt at every pioneer's cabin door to ask if any Catho- 
lic lived there. If he found any, he would tell them when and where mass 
would be said the next morning. Sometimes, Catholics living fifteen miles 
away would be notified and summoned to come to service. For nine or ten 
years the Jacob Mohrbacher home, south of Marysville, was the resting 
place of the poor priest in the days of pioneer life, and mass was generally 
celebrated there. Rev. Father Riemele was again succeeded by Father Suit- 
bert, who attended this mission from St. Bridget for more than two years, 
until 1874. Father Suitbert tried hard to build a church and had several 
meetings to bring the Catholics together, but failed. He collected some 
money in 1871 and 1872, but when the farmers even charged for hauling 
rock, he felt disappointed and dropped the undertaking. The "salary" of 
the priest in those days consisted of the few nickels that were thrown into 
the collection box; many a time the amount did not reach the sum of fifty 
cents. 

EFFORTS TO ERECT CHURCH. 

Services were now held in the town of Marysville in a vacant carpenter 
shop, at the west end of Broadway. Rev. A. M. Weikmann was next in 
charge of the place. He was stationed at Parsons creek, now Palmer, 
Washington county. He made an attempt to build a church and laid a part 
of the foundation, when he was succeeded by Rev. John Pichler, of Hanover, 
in 1875. During Father Weikmann's time, a mission was given by Father 
Timothy Luber and Father Peter Kassens, at the close of which a class 
of ten received their first holy communion. The mission lasted four days — 
the first day at the public school house, the three following days over Wat- 
terson's store. 

Perry Hutchison offered to give three acres of ground on the west 



342 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

side of the river near the mill for the building- of a Catholic church, Ijut 
the offer was not accepted. Had a church been built there and the postoffice 
removed to the west side, the town of Marysville might be today on the 
west bank of the Big BUie. Mr. Schmidt and Charles F. Koester gave a 
block of ground east of the present standpipe to the Catholics for the loca- 
tion of a church. The location, however, did not suit the membership, as 
it was too far out of town. The foundation was started but never finished, 
and a more suitable location was picked out by the consultors. About eighty 
dollars had been spent on the foundation, when the idea to build a church 
there was given up. 

The place chosen for the new church was block 36 in Ballard's & Mor,- 
rall's Addition, in the town of Marysville. Father Pichler now set to work 
and built a neat little brick church, twenty- four by fifty feet, on the new 
site. The building was never plastered inside, and was used only a few years 
for services. The altar pf the church was made out of a dry goods box. No 
pews were set up in the church and the farmers used to bring their chairs 
along to church service. On account of the steep bank of Spring creek, 
nearby, many were dissatisfied with this location. As the building and lots 
could be sold at an advantage, the property was disposed of and another site, 
near the present depot, where the Hartwick lumber yard now stands, was 
selected by Father Pichler. A new frame church was erected on these lots 
in the year 1877-78. Here services were conducted until 1886, when the 
building and lots were sold. 

From 1870 to 1880 the number of Catholic families increased greatly. 
The newcomers, however, were poor, and drought, hot winds and the grass- 
hoppers in 1874 were calamities that befell them and gave the state a bad 
name. "Ad Astra per Aspera" is the Kansas motto, and those settlers who 
went through the hardships and stayed on their farms are today wealthy. 

On December i, 1883, Rev. John Pichler was followed by Father Meile, 
who became the first resident pastor of St. Gregory's congregation. A 
house was rented for the pastor near the church. Father Meile stayed until 
the end of August, 1885. He was a noble priest, loved by all the Catholics 
and non-Catholics of Marysville. Being a convert to the Catholic church, he 
knew how to handle both classes. He occupied his time in instructing the 
children and looking after the spiritual welfare of the flock. The church 
being again too small to accommodate the growing congregation, the build- 
ing of a new church was again considered. Many were of the opinion that 
the present location was not a suitable place for the new church. The com- 




FATHER MEILE, 
First Resident Priest at Marysville. 



■'-Lie lIBHARti 



\ 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 343 

mittee, consisting of Jacob Ring, W. Dougherty, Nic Schmitt, Jacob Mohr- 
bacher and John Tracy, headed by Father Meile, selected the present beauti- 
ful site. 

NEW CHURCH COMMENCED. 

On the 30th of August, 1885, Rev. Father Meile gave place to Father 
Hartmann, during whose administration the foundation of the present church 
was laid, but not quite completed. On November 16. 1885, Father Hart- 
mann held the first Catholic fair in Marysville ; proceeds, one thousand five 
hundred and twelve dollars, of which one thousand two hundred and forty- 
six was net. The account books of Father Hartmann, on August 15, 1886, 
show a cash balance on hand of six hundred and eight dollars and four 
cents; notes from pew rent, thirty-seven dollars and fifty cents; notes from 
new church building, seven hundred and fifty-six dollars and seventy-four 
cents; in all, one thousand four hundred and two dollars and twenty-eight 
cents. This statement was signed by the pastor and the following committee- 
men : Jacob Mohrbacher, Nic Koppes, Jacob Ring. The records of baptism 
go back to December 23, 1883. Previous records are found at Atchison, 
St. Mary's, St. Bridget. Irish creek and Hanover. 

On August 15, 1886, Father F. J. Hartmann was replaced by Rev. M. 
J. Schmickler, who completed the foundation of the new church. The 
corner stone was laid by Rt. Rev. Bishop Fink on October 9, 1886. The 
great ambition of Father Schmickler was to see the church completed and 
to erect a building that would be a credit to himself and to the good people 
of Marysville. The dimensions of the church are fifty by one hundred feet, 
with a ten- foot projection of the tower. The foundation and basement of 
the church cost four thousand nine hundred dollars. As the crops failed 
for several years, the church could not be built as soon as the pastor would 
have liked, but, in the meantime, money was collected and fairs were held, 
so that on January i, 1892, about four thousand dollars was on hand. From 
the sale of the old church, near the depot, one thousand eight hundred dol- 
lars were realized. With this money, together with a new subscription, 
the church could be brought under roof and almost free of debt. From 
the year 1892-93, eight thousand forty-eight dollars and sixty cents were 
expended for the new church. W. Dougherty got the contract for all the 
brick work for three thousand nine hundred and twenty-nine dollars; M. 
Treinen. the. carpenter work for three thousand eight hundred dollars. The 
church was, however, not completed until the year 1894. The contract to 



344 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

plaster it was given to J. F. Webb at one thousand and twenty-five dollars; 
the finishing carpenter work, to M. Treinen at three hundred and thirty-six 
dollars. 

CHURCH DEDICATED. 

All these years divine services were held in the basement of the church. 
There was as yet no furniture in the church, no pews, no altars, no com- 
munion railing. Mr. Bauhaus, of Leavenworth, agreed to furnish pews, 
altars and railing for the sum of one thousand four hundred dollars, excluding 
the statue of St. Gregory, which cost eighty-five dollars; St. James, sixty- 
eight dollars ; St. Barbara, sixty-eight dollars. The two vestment cases in 
the sacristy cost sixty dollars. Many beautiful vestments, albs, candlesticks, 
etc., were then bought. The day of the dedication, for which the pastor and 
people had so earnestly longed, at last came. October 24, 1898, was a gala 
day for Marysville, and for St. Gregory's parish especially — one that will 
long be remembered by the young and the old who took part. The Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Fink, of Leavenworth, dedicated the church and administered the 
sacrament of confirmation. Rev. John Hurley, of St. Bridget, delivered 
the dedication sermon in English, and Rev. W. Schellberg of Hanover, in 
German, whereupon the Rt. Rev. Bishop congratulated the pastor and 
the people upon the completion of the beautiful church. The following 
assisted at the ceremonies: Rev. W. Schellberg, Rev. J. Hurley. Reverend 
Schwamm, Reverend Groener, Reverend Grootaers, Reverend Kamp, Rev- 
erend Leidecker and Reverend Cihal. At two o'clock p. m., some one hundred 
persons were confirmed by the bishop, after which the day's festivities closed, 
with vespers and benediction. A special train from Hanover and Seneca 
conveyed many visitors to the dedication services. More than four hundred 
and fifty people came from Hanover. 

THE SKY FOR A ROOF. 

In early days the lodging place of the priest was generally some pio- 
neer's cabin, but he was often obliged to sleep outside, with nothing but the 
canopy above him. Conditions became better the more the country was 
settled. The first resident priest. Father Meile, had rented a house near 
the church ; afterward he lived in the old stone house south of the present 
parsonage, which was torn down in July, 1906. Father Hartmann and 
Father Schmickler also lived in the same quarters in the old stone house on 
the hill. When the basement was built in 1886, Father Schmickler reserved 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 345 

two rooms in the southwest part of the church, where he hved until the year 
1898. In the year 1891 he bought the south half of block loi, on which the 
parsonage now stands, together with the old stone house, for the sum of 
one thousand four hundred and twenty dollars. On March 6, 1895, Mr. 
Michael Kimmish died, leaving to the church about four thousand dollars. 
It was no more than right that the pastor who had completed the church, 
should now consider the erection of a new parsonage. Hence, plans were 
drawn up by Mr. Grant, of Beatrice, Nebraska, and the contract was let 
in the spring of 1898. The brick and stone work was awarded to W. Dough- 
erty for one thousand three hundred and seventy-five dollars. Hayward 
& Ivers, of Axtell, agreed to complete the building, including all the material, 
for two thousand one hundred and forty-five dolars. The beautiful Catho- 
lic parsonage is one of the finest dwellings in the city of Marysville, a 
credit to the town and to the Catholic people. 

In May, 1903. Rev. Aug. Redeker succeeded Father Schmickler. A debt 
of two thousand four hundred and fifty-four dollars resting on the church 
was paid off. The same year he procured three sisters from Atchison to 
teach the parochial school. 

In 1904 three new bells were bought for the church and blessed by 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Fink on February 28th. On August 8, 1905, the first 
ground was broken for the foundation of a new parochial school and society 
hall. The school house was built at a cost of nine thousand dollars all 
complete. It was dedicated by Rt. Rev. Bishop Lillis, October 20, 1906. 
The sidewalks to the west were laid in 1895, but those to the southeast and 
north not until 1913. In 191 1 lightning had struck the tower and it was 
decided to finish the spire of the church, which was done in that year. At 
present a new addition to the church is talked of and will be finished during 
the year 191 7. 

The congregation is out of debt and has a membership of one hundred 
and twenty-five families, and all the usual auxiliary societies. 

ST, Gregory's aid society. 

St. Gregory's Aid Society was founded on April 9, 1893, by Father 
Sclimickler. Tlie membership at the present time is fifty. It is an organ- 
ization of men of the church and i^ slightly beneficiary. The present officers 
are: President, Ferd. Viering; \'ice-president, Flenry Bramlage ; financial 
■secretary, Frank xVIeier; treasurer, B W^assenberg : recording secretary, James 
Barlow. 



346. MARPIIALI. COl'XTY, KANSAS. 



CATHOLIC MUTUAL BENEFIT SOCIETY. 



This is a tratenia] insurance society, and St. Gregory's liranch. Xo. 18, 
was instituted im October 13, iS^jB. The ])rcscnt officers are: President, 
l'\ \'ierin<4 ; linancial secrotarw J. luirlow ; rccorchng- secretary, Frank Meier; 
treasurer, 15. \\'assenl)cr_u : trustees, J. Dwerlkotte, Clement Voet and John 



Armstrong. 



ALTAR SOCIETY. 



This society was organized on Alarch 10, 1884, by Father Meile, with 
a membership of forty-two ladies. The present officers are: President, 
Mrs. James Barlow; vice-president, Mrs. Frank Nieberding; secretary, Mrs. 
Jnlm Cooper: treasurer, Mrs. John Cavanaugh. 

YOUNG LADIES SODALITY. 

This society was organized by Rev. Father Redeker, December 8, 1903. 
The present officers are: President, Nora Reiter; secretary, Helene Klein; 
treasurer. Minnie Wassenberg: sacristan. Romona Meier. 

ST. WENCESLAUS CHURCH. 

Eight miles southwest of Irving, on the Riley county line, stands a neat 
little church dedicated to St. Wenceslaus, the great Bohemian saint. The 
congregation was organized and a frame church, twenty by thirty feet, 
erected by Father Klaus in the year 1884. Father Klaus was at that time 
stationed at Frankfort. The church grounds and cemetery, on the south- 
east corner of section 32 in Blue Rapids township, consisting of two acres, 
^vere donated by the Frank Forst family. 

The early Catholic settlers of this section were the Katopish. Forst, 
Osner, Smutny, Duchek, Zeleny. Nedvid, Kropacek, Karek, Kratochvil, 
Nerad and Hnat families. 

For a number of years the congregation was attended by the following 
priests : Reverends Klaus. Dragoon, Chial, Kulizek, and Father Alphons, 
O. S. B.. from Atchison. 

In the spring of 1906 Father Kulizek, who was stationed at Frankfort, 
built a new church to replace the old one. which had become too small. The 
church was dedicated on September 28, 1906, by Father Kulizek. In August, 
1909, the Rt. Rev. Bishop sent Father Francis Elast to Waterville, with the 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. " 347 

St. \A'enceslaus congregation as a mission. In 19 lo a church bell was pro- 
cured and blessed by the pastor. Father Elast was followed by Father 
O'Leary, Father Hall and the present pastor. Father Thomas Mclnerney. 
The congregation is regularly attended once a month from Waterville 
and, although small, has a substantial growth. 

VERMILLION. 

A Catholic church was built about 1870 and sei"vices held once a month 
for about one year, Rev. Father Rutler having charge. Later, the building 
was sold to F. W. Watson, the members transferring their membership to 
Axtell, Coal creek and Lillis, where there were prosperous church organiza- 
tions. 



CHAPTER XVI. 
Fraternal Orders, Societies and Clubs. 



INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS. 

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Blue Rapids, was organized 
October lo, 1893, with the following charter members: William H. Hill, 
noble grand ; J. B. ^Miller, vice-grand ; D. O. Munger, secretary, and H. R. 
Aleyer, Z. T. Trumb.o, J. E. Mcintosh, D. F. Casey, W. L. Griffith, M. F. 
Davis, J. H. Siebert, G. AI. West. G. H. Heathman, H. G. Fowler, W. H. 
Hewitt and J. H. McRae. 

The officers for 191 7 are: C. N. Badger, noble grand; B. Shaw, vice- 
orand ; Harrv Craft, secretarv-treasurer. 

Pawnee Lodge No. 108, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Waterville, 
was instituted October 15, 1873, with the following members: S. M. Wil- 
hite, George Bancroft, F. Damour, J. W. Sharrard, R. Smith, A. H. Snyder. 
First officers: A. L. Johnson, noble grand; George Bancroft, vice-grand;- J. 
W. Sharrard, secretary, and F. F. Damour, treasurer. Present officers : L. 
A. Larson, noble grand ; A. D. Henderson, vice-grand ; H. C. Wilson, secre- 
tary, and J. R. Edwards, treasurer. Present membership, one hundred and 
twenty-one. Lodge meets every Monday evening in Fraternity Hall. 

Joseph Van Allen, a charter member of this lodge, has the extraordinary 
distinction of holding the honorable veteran jewel of the order, which repre- 
sents fifty years of continuous membership. He was initiated into Odd Fel- 
lowship on November 9, 1866, at Burlington, New Jersey. Mr. Van Allen 
is a veteran of the War of the Rebellion. 

Vermillion Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized 
in 1897, with the following charter members: W. P. Mesmer, Matt. McAtee, 
Ernest Hill, Herbert Williams, W. S. Domer, David Bislan and the Steven- 
son brothers. Dr. John Clifton located in Vermillion in 1899 ^^^ gave much 
time and eft'ort to strengthen the lodge, but. finally, for lack of funds the 
charter was surrendered in IQ06. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 349 

Axtell Lodge No. 221, meets every Monday in the Odd Fellows hall. 
H. C. Barnes, noble grand ; Frank A. Werner, recording secretary. 

Odd Fellows Lodge No. no, Frankfort, was organized on October 14, 
1874. The charter members and officers were: F. B. Taylor, Sr., George 
F. Poor, Henry Sleigh, T. H. Gibson, Granville Sleigh, J. L. Davis and 
J. R. Voorhees. The officers for 1917 are: J. J. Brooks, noble grand; 
James Chandler, vice grand ; Charles Kelley, secretary. 

Oketo Lodge No. 344, Lidependent Order of Odd Fellows was organ- 
ized on July 6, 1888. The charter members .w^ere : Samuel Bentley, noble 
grand ; F. W. Bartlett, secretary ; Dell Stowell, vice-grand ; D. B. Knight, 
treasurer, and R. B. Brewer, N. Brooks, H. P. Benson and R. T. Baldwin. 

The membership at the present time is forty. The present officers are : 
Walter Howes, noble grand ; James Ebright, vice-grand ; T. J. Suggett. treas- 
urer; W. B. Shafer, Jr., secretary. 

Otoe Lodge No. 8^, Independent Order of Odd Fellows was instituted 
at Alarysville under dispensation on February 14. 1872. A charter was 
granted on October 8, 1872, with the following members : J. Doniphan, 
noble grand ; W. H. Richardson, vice-grand ; J. A. Broughton ; P. H. Peters, 
financial secretary; G. D. Swearengen, treasurer; F. F. Thompson, J. S. 
Magill, J. Donahue. 

This organization, which was prosperous for a number of years, at the 
present time has a membership of fourteen. Present officers: Johii II. 
Throm, noble grand ; J. B. Logan, secretary ; E. G. Draheim, treasurer. 

REBEKAHS. 

Blue Rapids Rebekah Lodge No. 337, was instituted on Deceml)er 29. 
1897, with thirty-two charter members. 

The first officers were : Noble grand, Laura B. Fouler ; vice-grand, 
Adell G. Plehn ; secretary, Ella L Heathman ; treasurer, Lottie Brown ; con- 
ductor, Nellie Thompson ; warden, ]^Iinnie Hill ; inside guardian, Allie Aller- 
dice; outside guardian, J. H. McRae; chaplain, Nettie Coulter; right sup- 
porter to noble grand, Florence Ulsh; left supporter to noble grand, 
Rachel Siebert ; organist, Mildred Edinborough ; right supporter to vice- 
grand, Jessie AUerdice ; left supporter to \-ice-grand, Nellie Boling. 

The present officers are: Noble grand, Julia C. Hewitt; secretary and 
treasurer, Ella Heathman ; vice-grand, Molly Scott. 

The membership at January, 1917. was fifteen. 



>v^ 



O MARSriAI.L COUNTY. KANSAS. 



The Kehekahs at I'ranklort were organized December 27, ^f><)'/. The 
ortieers were: Ophelia Bh'ss, noble grand; Rmma Poor, vice-grand; Jennie 
Piatt, secretary; Allie McAlinimyv, treasnrer; Minnie Parks, conductress; 
P)elle Pefler. warden. The otlicers for kjij are: Mary Warnica, noble grand; 
lulith A[yers, vice grand; Adah bladd, secretary; Minnie Cook, treasurer; 
Ella \\'ray, conductress; June Bliss, warden. The present membership is 
fifty-six. 

Axtell Lodge No. 144. meets tirst and third Tuesday in the Odd Fellows 
hall. Myrtle Rush. mAAe grand; Rowena Livingston, secretary. 

KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS. 

Blue \'alley Lodge No. 182, Knights of Pythias, at Marysville, was 
instituted March 4, 18S9. on the evening of the day that Benjamin Harrison 
was inaugurated President of the United States. .Sam Kimble, deputy grand 
chancellor, of Manhattan, Kansas, was the instituting officer and he was ably 
assisted by members of Knights of Pythias lodges from his own and other 
towns in this ^■icinity. 

The membership of the new- lodge comprised William Barks, past 
chancellor; E. L. Aliller. chancellor commander; E. D. White, vice-chancellor; 
Robert Campbell, prelate; A. M. Billingsley, keeper of records and seal; 
John B. Logan, master of finance; E. G. Draheim, master of exchecjuer; 
Erank A. Arand, master at arms; G. Philip Schmidt, inner guard; Nickolas 
Grauer, outer guard; L. W. Libby, .Andrew Eluhrer and Dr. J. K. Julian, 
trustees. The others were Herman Selz, Clark M. Stewart, Samuel Eorter, 
John Lonergan. Henry E. Wiedemeyer, Max Schreiber, John Luedders, A. 
J. Becht, E. B. Gatchell, Ed. E. Tracy. G. Messall, E. J. Eehrenkamp, Robert 
J. Jordan, W. T. Ecks and Charles D. Schmidt. 

Of these, E. D. White. Erank A. Arand, Clark M. Stewart, Samuel 
Eorter. Llenry E. Wiedemeyer, John B. Logan, John Luedders, E. G. Dra- 
heim. Xickolas Grauer, and G. Philip Schmidt are still members of this same 
lodge. The others liave either moved away or have passed to the great 
beyond. 

The present membership of this lodge is thirty-five with the following 
officers: Chancellor commander. O. A. Smith; vice-chancellor, J. AA^ Rus- 
sell; prelate. William Kraemer ; keeper of records and seal, J. A. C. Luedders; 
master of finance, John B. Logan; master of exchequer, E. G. Drahenn ; 
master at amis, George T. Mohrbacher ; master of work, E. J. Olson ; inner 
guard, W. E. Draheim ; outer guard, E. D. White. 



MARSHALL COL'NTY, KANSAS. 35 1 

Solitaire Lodge No. 245, Knights of Pythias, at Blue Rapids, was organ- 
ized February 25, 1907, with twenty-one charter members. 

The present officers are : Fred L. Stauffer, chancellor commander ; A. 
A. Marvin, vice commander ; C. W. Moser, prelate ; W. J. Burr, master of 
work ; G. A. Johnson, keeper of records and seal and master of finance ; 
C. E. Cummings, master of exchequer; Seward H. Wohlferal, master 
at arms: R. L. Blaker, inner guard; A. J. Brice, outer guard. 

Meetings are held on second and fourth Thursdays of each month. 

Welcome Lodge No. 112. Knights of Pythias, was organized at Cen- 
tralia, Kansas, August -14, 1884, Joseph L. Rogers being the only charter 
member from Vermillion. This order continued in Centralia until January, 
1887, when it was removed to Vermillion, \\ith Joseph L. Rogers as chancellor 
commander. The meetings were held upstairs in a building owned by Mr. 
Duffy. Later, this order furnished the hall, \vhich was one of the best 
ecjuipped in tiie state. Lack of interest caused them to surrender the charter 
in iQof). Joseph L. Rogers and Marion Duffy hold membership in Sapphire 
lodge at L'ving. F. W. Arnold and Marcus Leonard transferred to the 
Axtell lodge. 

Sapphire Lodge No. 158, Knights of Pythias, was instituted in Irving 
in November, i8qi, with the following charter members: A. J. Carlson, 
Theo. Gaylord, G. H. Giles. J. M. McCoy, L'a Sabins, S. J. Skoch, P. L. 
Preston, R. S. Weeks, H. C. Lathrop, J. S. Waterson, C. L. Meyers, R. H. 
Swanson, R. A. Harvey, J. J. Kropacek, C. S. Otis, A. H. Reed, W. M. 
McCoy. Hugh Thompson, Edwin Reddington. Harry Baird, J. W. John- 
son. L. C. Trustan and Charles Proctor. The lodge has been organized 
for twentv-five years and has always been able to discharge its duties to 
grand lodge, thanks to the untiring efforts of A. J. Carlson and Hugh Thom- 
son. 

Li February, 19 13, Mrs. C. M. Palmer built and gave to Sapphire lodge 
the beautiful Castle Hall, which is the pride of the members and the town 
of Irving. The hall is a two-story building, with the reading room, audi- 
torium, kitchen and dining room on the first floor; the second floor has the 
large and handsome lodge room, bedrooms and property room. Adjoining 
the building is a beautiful park, also the gift of Mrs. Palmer. The building 
has its own light plant, from which the park and building are lighted. Mrs. 
Palmer was personally acquainted with J. H. Rathbone, the founder of the 
order of Knights of Pythias. 



35- iMAKSllALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Sapphire lodge has a membership (^f eighty, and in 191 7 Carl E. Peter- 
son holds the office of grand inner guard of the grand domain of Kansas. The 
present officers are as follow: David Donahue, chancellor commander; R. J. 
Denton, vice commander; Theo. Gaylord, prelate; Fred Kautz, keeper of 
records and seal and master of finance; B. W. Forbes, master of exchequer; 
D. C. Cooper, master at arms; J. W. Elliott, inside guard; G. W. Duffy, 
outside guard; H. Huffmeir, master of work. 

ANCIENT ORDER UNITED WORKMEN. 

This lodge was organized on September 15, 1880, at Alarysville, with 
sixteen charter members. The first officers were : A. E. Parks, past master 
workman; J. B. Logan, master w'orkman ; J. Brown, financier; C. W. Thomp- 
son, outer watchman: \\\ S. Glass, overseer; W. B. Scamman, recorder: C. 
H. Goelitzer, receiver. AIemi>ers : H. E. Wiedemeyer, M. S. Shepard, J. F. 
Renoe and E. G. Draheim. The present officers are : Past master work- 
man. John H. Smith; master workman. W. G. Bickell ; foreman, W. D. 
Hover; overseer, G. C. Butler; recorder. John B. Logan; financier, C. F. 
Reinders; treasurer, E. G. Draheim; guide, Alf. Ellis; inner watchman, Hy. 
Stauf: outer watchman, Jos. Schmalz; medical examiner, W. D. Patterson, 
]\I. D. ; representative, G. C. Butler ; alternate, C. F. Reinders. 

Lodge No. 33, Frankfort, was organized on April 12, 1880. The 
charter members were : W. H. Clutter, P. C. Garvin, H. H. Lourey,' J. L. 
Davis, T. W. Waddick, G. C. Brownell, W. H. Auld, J. R. Voorhees, 
George O. Coffin, W. T. Dwinnell. The officers for 1917 are: G. D. 
Curry, master workman; A. B. Scadden, foreman; W. D. Auld, recorder; 
T. W. Snodgrass, financier; W. J. Gregg, receiver; O. P. Rosencrans, guard; 
A. Farrant, inner workman : Frank Auld, outer workman ; ]\L A. Brawley, 
medical examiner. 

Waterville Lodge No. 57, Ancient Order of United Workmen, was 
chartered on September 6, 1880, with the following members and first officers: 
G. S. Hall, past master workman; H. E. Parmenter, master workman; H. 
Humfreville, financier; C. F. Scouten, overseer; A. Kunz, recorder; F. 
Gaver, foreman; F. H. Bancroft, receiver; W. R. Wilson, guide; T. Dockerty, 
inner watchman ; F. Pieral, outer watchman. Present officers : G. W. Casey, 
master W'Orkman; H. C. Willson, recorder; J. R. Edwards, financier. Pres- 
ent membership, forty-one. Lodge meets second and fourth Saturdays of 
each month, in Fraternity Hall. 







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MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 353 

Axtell Lodge No. 202, meets first, third and fifth Saturday in Odd 
Fellows hall. D. L. Funk, master workman; W. M. Moore, recorder. 

'MODERN WOODMEN OF AMERICA. 

Blue Rapids Camp No. 944, Modern Woodmen of America, was organ- 
ized in the spring of 1889, although the official charter was not issued until 
October i, 1889. The first officers were: William Allerdice, venerable con- 
sul; W. J. McNab, worthy advisor; J. O. Buell, banker; George M. Garrison, 
clerk ; Horace Beardsley, escort ; W. Y. Brown, watchman ; S. Y. Richey, 
sentry; Doctors Fillmore and Hunter, local physicians; J. B. Vincent, A. 
D. Hoag and C. D. Richard, managers. The following other charter mem- 
bers are still living and are members of this camp : John Avis, C. L. Gar- 
rison, C. K. McHarg, G. L. Nichols and Jason Yurann. 

The present officers of the camp are: E. F. Dewey, venerable consul; J. 
D. Sieh, worthy advisor; S. W. Gilson, banker; L. B. Tibbetts, clerk; E. E. 
Oswalt, watchman; Thomas Reedy, sentry; David Irvine, escort; Byron 
Weeks, C. N. Rodgers and H. C. Lathrap, trustees ; A. L. Loban, past consul. 

The charter members and officers of the Modern Woodmen lodge of 
Frankfort were : J. L. Waterson, consul ; Glen A. Smith, worthy advisor ; 
George F. Poor, banker; J. A. Weston, clerk; D. H. Wood, escort; M. W. 
Taylor, watchman; M. A. Brawley, physician. The officers for 1917 are: 
J. H. Rand, consul; James Welsh, worthy advisor; T. W. Snodgrass, 
banker; C. W. Blodgett, clerk; R. C. Mackey, escort; M. A. Brawley, Sr., 
physician; Mike Ferris, watchman; Eugene Gough, sentry. 

Prairie Grove Camp No. 1497, meets second and fourth Friday in 
T. O. O. F. hall, Axtell. C. J. Manley, venerable consul ; James Rush, clerk. 

ROYAL NEIGHBORS OF AMERICA. 

Nightingale Camp No. 498, Royal Neighbors of America, at Marysville, 
was chartered January 19, 1897, "^vith twenty members. The following officers 
were elected: Oracle, Mrs. Kate Hatfield; vice-oracle, Mrs. Mary Funck; 
recorder, Mamie Libby ; receiver, Minerva Seely ; chancellor, Hattie E. Lynde ; 
marshal, Mrs. Mary Stewart; physician, Dr. W. R. Breeding; inner sentinel, 
Mrs. Carrie Fleischman; managers, Mrs. Martha Simmons, May Hartmaii 
and Helena Samter ; past oracle, Martha Simmons. 

(23) 



354 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

The present officers are: Mrs. Ella White, oracle; Mrs. Minnie 
Wendele, vice-oracle; Mrs. Emma \\^ecker, chancellor; Mrs. Gertrude Scott, 
recorder; ■Mrs. Mary von Riesen, receiver; Mrs. Bertha Reber, marshal; Mrs. 
Lizzie Liichtman, inner sentinel ; Mrs. Annie Zentz, outer sentinel ; Mrs. 
Getta ]\Iorris and Mrs. Carrie Fleischman, managers. 

Oketo Lodge of the Royal Neighbors was organized on December 9, 
189G. in the Moore Hall, with twenty members. The first officers were: 
Oracle, ^Irs. Fanny B. Stein; vice oracle, Mrs. Laura Balderson ; chancellor, 
Mrs. Triplett ; marshal, Mrs. Alice Chambers ; recorder, Mrs. Belle Long ; 
receiver, Mrs. Lizzie Hedge; inner sentinel, Mrs. Mary Bach; outer sentinel, 
Mrs. Etta Chambers; managers, Mrs. Allen, Miss Mae Esterbrook, Ira B. 
Hedge. 

The present officers are: Oracle, Mrs. Amanda Root; vice oracle, Mrs. 
Cynthia Brubaker ; chancellor, Mrs. Lavina Moore ; marshal, Mrs. Hettie 
Elliott; recorder, Mrs. Belle Long; inner sentinel, Mrs. Emma Munson; 
outer sentinel, Mrs. Eythel Cowell ; physician. Dr. Wood ; managers, Mrs. 
Hattie Eley, Mrs. Lavina Watson and Mrs. Eliza Joseph. The present 
membership is thirty-nine. 

There is a thriving camp of the Royal Neighbors at Vermillion, with the 
following officers : Oracle, Mrs. Ida Duffy ; vice-oracle, Tressie Hybskman ; 
past oracle, Mrs. J. O. Puntney; recorder, Mrs. Edith Leonard; receiver, 
Tinnie Malcolm : chancellor, Mrs. Augusta Gruby ; marshal, Mrs. P-each 
Duffy ; inner sentinel, Mrs. O. O. Steckles ; outer sentinel, Mrs. C. E. Ijames. 

Fern Camp No. 540, Royal Neighbors, Blue Rapids, was instituted on 
February 17, 1895, with thirty-five charter members. 

The first officers were : Oracle, Elnora Gilson ; vice-oracle, Nettie 
Coulter; recorder, Ella I. Heathman ; receiver, Emma Benedict; chancellor, 
Jeannie W. Yarrick; marshal, Annie Watkins; assistant marshal Julia C. 
Hewitt; physicians, Drs. Elnora Gilson and R. S. Fillmore; inner sentinel, 
Ada L. Fillmore; outer sentinel, Martha McRae; past oracle, Nettie W. 
Barlow. 

The present officers are : Oracle. Nettie Coulter ; vice-oracle, Sudah 
Woolley ; past oracle, Zella Rogers ; recorder, Mary Patterson ; receiver, Daisy 
Baraclough; chancellor, Annie Watkins; marshal, Lucy Murrell ; physician. 
Doctor Fillmore; managers, Ella Heathman, Daisy Roache, Nina Baldwin. 

At January, 191 7, the number of members was thirty-nine. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 355 

Winifred Royal Neighbor Camp was organized November i, 191 2. 
Charter members : Margaret Adams, Inez Barrett, Anna M. Carver, Mar- 
garet A. Twidwell, Cora L. Dierking, Margaret Feldhausen, Josephine 
Griffee, Ella Alartin, Cora L. Mathews, Sarah Patzka, Maud Rakestraw, 
Bertha Rakestraw, Maud Smith, Minnie Carver, Bertha Flinn, Lois G. Tilley, 
Ada Tilley, Emma Tilley, Sarah Snow, Annette Walker, Jennie Williams, 
Anna Twidwell. 

First of Officers : Oracle, Miss Cora Mathews ; vice-oracle, Mrs. Anna 
Twidwell; past oracle, Mrs. Margaret Feldhausen; chancellor, Mrs. Emma 
Tilley; recorder. Bertha Rakestraw; marshal, Inez Barrett; assistant mar- 
shal, Lois Tilley; inner sentinel, Maud Rakestraw; outside sentinel, Cora 
Dierking. 

Officers 1917: Oracle, Ella Martin; vice-oracle, Ora Nelms; past 
oracle, Clara Waymire ; chancellor, Sarah Snow ; recorder, Lena Denlinger ; 
receiver, Maud Smith ; marshal, Minnie Carver ; assistant marshal, Ida 
Tangeman; inner sentinel, Jennie Jurk; outer sentinel, Anna Stromer; 
managers. Marguerite Adams, Ella R. Solt and Inez Barrett ; physicians, 
Doctors Brawley, Brady and Shumway. The camp has thirty-two bene- 
ficiary members and six social members. 

Concord Camp No. 1088, Royal Neighbors of America, was instituted 
on August 2, 1898, by Mrs. McDavis. The charter was granted on August 
15, 1898. 

The first officers were : Oracle, Leona Kern ; vice-oracle, Emma 
McMichaels ; recorder, Effie Arnold ; receiver, Ida Duffy ; chancellor, Maggie 
Bullard; marshal, Edith Leonard; inner sentinel, Celia Bailey; outer sentinel, 
Mary Card ; manager, Hattie Thompkins ; physician, H. L. Bullard. 

Aleetings are held in Masonic Hall every second and fourth Tuesdays 
of each m.onth. This is a very popular beneficiary order and always has a 
good live membership. 

Valentine Camp No. 843, meets first and third Friday in Odd Fellows 
hall, Axtell. Katherine McCleary, oracle; Lucinda Allen, secretary. 

KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF SECURITY. 

Blue Rapids Council No. 66, Knights and Ladies of Security, was 
organized on February 20, 1894, at Blue Rapids. 

The charter officers were : President, James Allerdice ; vice-president, 



356 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

]\Irs. Jennie Yarick; second vice-president, ]\Irs. Belle Hamilton; prelate, 
William R. Lewis; secretary, Mrs. Ella Hunt; financier, C. A. Axtel; treas- 
urer. I. D. ^'arick ; guard, John L. Hamiltnn ; sentinel, Horace S. Beardsley; 
trustees, .A. W. Aniotl. George Gallup and M. Patterson. 

The present officers are: President, H. V. Austin; vice-president, Jen- 
nie M. Loban; second vice-president, Guy S. Kidd; prelate, Alta M. Lock- 
ard ; financier, Gertrude Kelly ; secretary, Da. H. Cox ; conductor, Faye Cox ; 
sentinel, Mary Seeley; guard, Carl Strand. Present membership, two hun- 
dred and twenty-eight. 

The order of Kniglits and Ladies of Security was organized at Ver- 
million in 1893, witli Dr. Leonidas Pampel as the first president. The 
organization was snjall, but owing to the strong efforts of Doctor Pampel 
and \\\ H. De W'alt. it grew from a membership of seven to a present mem- 
bership of one hundred and fifteen. 

IMcReynolds Council No. 152 was organized at Beattie in September, 
1894, with twenty-five charter members. In January, 191 7, the member- 
ship was two hundred and three. The president is John Chidester ; secretary, 
Margaret E. Willis. 

Axtell Council No. 230 meets every second and fourth Tuesday in 
L O. O. F. hall. Harriet Hurlbut, president; Lou Brawner, secretary. 

KNIGHTS OF HONOR. 

The Knights of Honor was organized at Vermillion on September 13, 
1892, with J. L. Mathers, commander; G. W. Kelley. recorder and W. S. 
Domer, treasurer. There were fifteen members in the organization, which 
later disbanded and took membership elsewhere. 

DEGREE OF HONOR. 

Garden Lodge No. 21, Degree of Honor, was organized on March 5, 
1886, with the following officers: Miss Belle Throm, lady of honor; Mrs. 
R. D. Gerow, chief of honor; Mrs. M. S. Shepard, chief of ceremonies; J. 
B. Logan, recorder; G. H. Goelitzer, financier; E. G. Draheim, receiver; Mrs. 
Gus Luhrs, usher ; George Reber, inside watch ; William Henry, outside watch. 

The present officers are : Effie Henry, chief of ceremonies ; Dora Dra- 
heim, chief of honor; Anna Leifheit, lady of honor; John Logan, recorder; 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 357 

Emil Draheim, receiver-treasurer; Delia Faulkner, past chief of honor; Mary 
Schramm, usher ; Caroline Reinders, outside watch ; Alary E. Cudney, inside 
watch. 

KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS. 

Marysville Council 1777, Knights of Columbus, is an organization of 
Catholic men whose object is to promote Catholic education and charity, to 
furnish aid to families of deceased members through its insurance depart- 
ment : to promote patriotism by proper observation of national patriotic days 
and anniversaries, and to support and encourage every movement which tends 
to better citizenship. 

Mai*ysville council was organized on February 7, 1914, by James Bar- 
low with fifty charter members. The first officers were : Grand knight, 
James Barlow; deputy grand knight, Joseph Dwerlkottee; financial secretary, 
J. H. Cavanaugh ; treasurer, M. J. Treinen, Jr. ; recording secretary, Joseph 
Schulte; warden, Ferdinand Wassenberg; chancellor, John Tracy; advocate, 
P. G. Wadham ; inner guard, J. F. Martin ; outer guard, August Wassen- 
berg; trustees, D. J. Donahy, M. Barlow, Jr., and A. J. Travelute. 

The present officers are : Grand Knight, J. Dwerlkottee ; deputy grand 
knight, John Sampson ; financial secretary, J. H. Cavanaugh ; treasurer, M. 
J. Treinen. Jr. ; chancellor, Franke Scholte ; lecturer, Joseph Schulte ; warden, 
Nic. Reiter ; inner guard, George Cooper; outer guard, J. Barlow; past grand 
knight. James Barlow ; trustees, ^V. J. Travelute, John Armstrong and D. J. 
Donahy. 

Fitzgerald Council No. 1144, Lillis. This was the first council organized 
in Marshall county. The present officers are : James Morrissey, grand 
knight ; James A. Keating, deputy grand knight ; J. P. Redmond, financial 
accretary; T. J. Smith, treasurer; George Heft'ern, recorder; Mike Lally, 
warden ; P. J. Dougherty, chancellor ; J. W. Hayes, inner guard ; James Mc- 
Garry, outer guard ; Rev. Fl. Fitzgerald, chaplain ; trustees, Matt Kennedy, 
George McCarty and Edward Brown. 

Lillis Co'uncil No. 1163, Axtell. Frank A. Scanlan, grand knight; D 
F. Meara, financial secretary. 

The present officers of Annunciation Council No. 1383 of Frankfort 
are as follows: H. I. Lierz, grand knight; R. H. Mackey, deputy grand 
knight ; W. J. Gregg, financial secretary ; William Alelcher, recording secre- 
tary ; James Kennedy, chancellor ; J. H. Ryan, warden ; Rev. C. A. Bradley, 
lecturer and chaplain ; William Ahern, inner guard ; John Ahern, outer guard. 



358 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

FRATERNAL AID UNION. 

The Fraternal Aid Union at Frankfort was organized in Septeml>er, 1896. 
The memhers were : George H. Ferguson, Robert S. McGhie, Annette 
Taylor, W. W. Taylor, Rodenna WilHams, James M. Lane, T. Brodt, Frank 
D. Bhss, Thomas C. Horr, Clemens T. Hessell, Matt McKeon, Adelia C. 
Taylor, William J. Granger, Cora E. Granger, Fred A. Garvin, Edward 
C. Healey. The present officers are: W. H. Snodgrass, president; P. J. 
Spillman, past president ; F. D. Bliss, vice-president ; G. R. Carver, secre- 
tary; Rodenna Williams, chaplain; Kate Snodgrass, guide; Jeannette Loury, 
outer guard; Frank Rundel, treasurer; R. S. McGhie, steward. 

BENEFIT ASSOCIATION. 

The Triple Tie Benefit Association, of Blue Rapids (now known as 
Fraternal Aid Union No. 759) was instituted on April 11, 1897, with forty- 
one charter members. 

The first officers were : President, Fred A. Stocks ; vice-president, Mrs. 
Frances Strong ; past president, Z. T. Trumbo ; secretary, George Coulter ; 
conductor, Julia M. Cheney; treasurer, E. A. Garrison; chaplain, Horace 
Beardsley ; inner sentinel, Ira Jewell ; guard, A. B. Wagor ; physician. Doc- 
tor Plehn. 

The present officers are : President, Carrie E. Haskell ; vice-president, 
Verona Lower; past president, Ella Grabhorn; secretary, Ella L Heathman; 
treasurer, E. F. Dewey; chaplain, Sarah A. Burr; guide, Jennie Jackson; 
captain, Jno. Scott; inner guard, Mary Scott; outer guard, E. Ervin. 

At January, 191 7. the membership stood at ninety-six. 

CATHOLIC MUTUAL BENEFIT ASSOCIATION. 

Meets every fourth Wednesday in the Odd Fellows hall, Axtell. M. L. 
Griffin, president; John Murray, secretary. 

Other organizations at Irving are the Farmers Union, with H. L. Stiles, 
president; J. M. Layton, vice-president; J. C. Shepard, secretary. 

■ Fraternal Union — A. J. Pifer, president; Grace Smith, secretary. 

Knights and Ladies of Security — N. W. Sabin, president; W. W. Ded- 
rick, financier; H. McMillan, secretary; F. Thompson, first vice-president; 
J. C. Shepard, second vice-president. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 359 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Theron Van Scoter, noble grand; 
John Bromwell, vice-grand; B. W. Forbes, secretary; J. F. Dawkins, treas- 
urer. 

GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. 

Robert Hale Post Xo. 328, Grand Army of the Republic, Avas organized 
at Blue Rapids, June 18, 1884, with twenty-one charter members. 

The post was named in honor of Robert Hale, the first soldier who fell 
in line of battle from Blue Rapids township. Robert Hale was killed at 
the battle of Chickamauga. 

The following were charter members: F. M. Riddle, William Sharp, 
Anderson Moore, James W^inter, John McPherson. M. McQuinney, John 
Brown, D. Fairbanks. B. F. Adams, M. B. Cole, J. E. Grover, J. F. Lane. 
Thomas E. Marcy, A. \V. Kimball, G. Shermer, James Allerdice, William 
H. Strange, David Bear. J. O. Wheeler and M. Patterson. 

The present members of the post are : A. W. Beacham, post com- 
mander: Tvan Burnett, senior vice-commander; A. H. Neal, junior vice- 
commander ; Peter Burnett, quartermaster : Dr. F. M. Thomas, adjutant ; 
Frank Francis, officer of the day ; W^illiam Kerber. officer of the guard : Will- 
iam Strange. A. W. Gibson, James Warriner, J. O. Wheeler, John McPherson. 

Chase Post No. 10 1, Grand Army of the Republic, at Beattie, was 
organized July 28, 1882, with the following charter members and officers: 
Dr. J. J. Sheldon, post commander; J. Johnson, senior vice-commander; H. 
H. Helverin, junior vice-commander; William Schiller, quartermaster; H. C. 
vSmith. surgeon; John Crabb, chaplain: J. V. Schleigh, officer of the day; 
W. C. Thompson, officer of the guard: S. Willis, adjutant; N. V. Culover, 
quartermaster sergeant; M. A. Tucker, sergeant major. 

The present members are : J. R. Wilcox, post commander ; M. A. 
Tucker, senior vice-commander: O. Kingman, junior vice-commander; W. 
S. Willis, adjutant; W. J. Helvering, quartermaster; D. Hine, A. Robinson, 
John Crabb and William Lord. The post meets regularly and observes with 
care the ceremonies of Memorial and Decoration Day and, though its ranks 
are thinning, the graves of their comrades who have gone before are carefully 
decorated each succeeding 30th of May. 

Henderson Post, Grand Army of the Republic, Frankfort, was organized 
on April 26, 1882. The charter members were: P. C. Garvin, H. M. Pidco, 
L. V. B. Taylor, T. J. Snodgrass. C. B. Haslett. S. B. Todd. Joseph Wallace, 



360 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

J. W. Brown, George H. Francis, T. D. Alagatagan, Ben Coflland. H. G. 
Trosper, Joseph Miller. O. S. Leslie, j. ]. Calnan, A. J. AIcKee, M. Hoh- 
man. H. M. Wade, Thomas McKinley, W. 1\ luans, J. W. Watson, \V. H. 
Snodgrass and M. Bowers. 

The following are the officers for the year 1917: M. K. Thomas, com- 
mander; D. B. W'alker. senior vice-commander; Thomas Bisbing, junior vice- 
commander; George R. Carver, adjutant; Jacob North, quartermaster; P. 
Duckworth, officer of the day ; Thomas J. Farrar, chaplain ; Pat. Mont- 
gomery, guard. 

Axtell Post No. 253, Grand Army of the Republic, was chartered on 
July 10, 1883. 

The following w^ere the charter members ; W. M. Lucas, John M. 
Brown, T. C. Casterline. John Gordon, T. H. Scott, H. C. Layton, J. S. 
Wood ; C. C. McKinley, J. P. Minard, G. A. Ely, Jesse Axtell, G. L. Barnes, 
J. R. Ash, Levi Burden, George Sharp, W. R. Lewas and J. R. Curtis : Three 
comrades of the Grand Army of the Republic, were instrumental in having 
the post organized: T. H. Scott, George Ely and Rev. J. M. Brown. Many 
of the charter' members have joined the hosts on "the other shore." Thomas 
H. Scott and William Allender are members of the post. The duties of 
Memorial and Decoration Day are carefully observed, and a few years ago 
the post erected a cannon in the cemetery in memory of deceased comrades. 

A post of the Grand Army of the Republic was organized in Vermillion 
in June, 1883. The first commander was J. W. Kinney. The meetings 
were held in Presbyterian church and later in the William Zink building. 
But few- of the veterans still live in Vermillion. Decoration Day is observed 
with appropriate exercises. 

woman's relief corps. 

Robert Hale Corps No. 172 w^as organized at Blue Rapids on February 
28, 1888, with the following charter members: Emma McPherson, Annette 
Riddle. Louise Benedict. Lucy Stiffler, Mary Bivins, Emeline Axtell, Christen 
Axelson, Mary McOuinney, Sarah Jewell. Ida Axtell, Albertine Myres, 
Laura Towell, Mahala Cox, Elizabeth Fairbanks, Mary E. Marcy and Delia 
Riddle. 

The officers for 1917 are: President, Carrie Haskell; senior vice- 
president, Amelia Thorrman ; junior vice-president, Louisa Craft ; treasurer, 



MARSHALL COUXTY, KANSAS. 361 

Annice B. Tibl^etts ; chaplain, Mahala Cox ; conductor. Alice Gibson ; guard, 
Sarah Warriner ; secretary, Ella Grabhorn. 

The membership at January, IQT7, was seventeen. 

The Henderson Woman's Relief Corps, at Frankfort, was organized on 
April 10, 1891, with twenty-four charter members as follow: Lou Smith, 
Laura Grow, Amanda Horr, Nettie Walker, Winifred Holtham, Rebecca 
McConchie, Olive Ewart, Jennie Gurner, Jennie Thomas, Olive Boyer, Nancy 
McMinimy, Mattie Shaw, Nettie Taylor, Alsetta Collins, Lucy Campbell, 
Melissa A. Haslett, Anna Brawley, L. G. Dover, Cherry Peters, Alida Shu- 
mate, Sarah Ileadington, Loraine Pickett, ?klattie Goodnight, Winifred 
Walker. The first officers were : President. Lou Smith ; senior vice-presi- 
dent, Laura Grow; junior vice-president, Winifred Holtham; secretary, 
Mattie Goodnight; treasurer, Nettie Walker, chaplain, Alida Shumate; con- 
ductor. Cherry E. Peters ; guard, Rebecca McConchie ; assistant conductor, 
Amanda Horr; assistant guard, x-\lsetta Collins. 

The present officers are: President, Ophelia M. Bliss; senior vice-presi- 
dent, Mrs. S. R. Rciyniond: junior vice-president, G. A. Coxley ; treasurer, 
Jennie Thomas ; conductor, Hester Davis ; press correspondent, June J. Bliss ; 
assistant conductor, Anna Radcliffe ; assistant guard, E. A. McElrov ; chap- 
lain, Elizabeth Whiting; secretar}', Emma Morse; patriotic instructor, Mary 
Scholtz; color bearers: No. i, Jennie Brodbeck; No. 2, Hannah Taylor; 
No. 3, Margaret Hopkins; No. 4, Etta McKee. 

It is worthy of note that Ophelia Bliss served this corps as president 
from 1895 to 1898 and from 191 j to 1917. and is the present president. 
Emma L. Morse served as secretary from 1909 and has been re-appointed 
for the year 191 7. 

The Axtell Woman's Relief Corps No. 206, was organized on May 3, 
19 10, by Cora M. Deputy, department president, Woman's Relief Corps, 
with the following charter members : Ivy Farrar, Nettie M. Scott, 
Lillian Farrar, Maggie Saff, Permelia Scott, Martha Farrar, Martha Gaston, 
Margaret Stout, Belle Pierce, Stella Harrison, Lena Phillips, Eugenia Ream, 
Lila Egan, Carrie Brawner, Emma Nork, Euphemia Strayer, Ella L. Scott, 
Ida AI. Kerr, Lizzie Yauslin, Mamie Rabe, Harriett Hurlburt, Ida Nork, 
Minnie Bird, Rose Martin, Florence Simpson. 

The present officers are : President, Nettie Scott ; senior vice-president, 
Lucindia Allen; chaplain, Martha Farrar; treasurer, Lila Manley; secre- 
tary, Stella Harrison; conductor, Bessie Harrison. 



362 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

LADIES OF THE GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. 

Allison Circle, Ladies of the G. A. R., at Vermillion, was organ- 
ized on January 18, 1902. and named in honor of F. W. Allison, who was 
a member of the post at that time. Miss Gertrude Harris was the first presi- 
dent. 

SONS OF VETERANS. 

Vermillion Camp No. 64, Sons of Veterans, was organized on June 19, 
1886, with eighteen charter members — James \X. Jellison, captain. This 
camp had the distinction of having the first uniformed camp in the state. 
It was a live organization until 1895, ^vhen it ceased to exist. 

The Ladies Aid Auxiliary to the Sons of Veterans was organized about 
1890 and existed for a year. The first president was Mrs. A. D. Crooks; 
vice-president, Carrie Arnold : secretary, Anna Calnan ; treasurer, Mrs. Ruby. 

YOUNG men's CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

The Young J\Ien's Christian Association at V^ermillion was organized in 
1914. Dr. F. B. Sheldon l^eing the first president; Virgil Nash, vice-president; 
Virgil Russell, secretary; Howard Bowsers, treasurer. 

woman's CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union at Vermillion was organ- 
ized in April, 1914, Mrs. Joseph Lockwood Rogers being the first president: 
Lillian Weeks, secretary, and Amy Nauman, treasurer. 

Mrs. Anna De Walt, of Vermillion, was county president of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union during 191 5. 

ANCIENT FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS IN MARSHALL COUNTY. 

By Dr. Robert Hawkins. 

When the permanent white settlers in what is now Marshall county, 
gathered on the banks of. the Big Blue river, about twelve miles south of the 
Nebraska line, around Frank Marshall's ferry and his little trading store, 
they found that they had many topics which to them were important and 
upon which they could not always agree. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 363 

All through the fifties the gathering storm which in the sixties broke 
into the War of the Rebellion, cast the shadow of its clouds over this little 
group of the advance guard of the growing civilization. 

Here we had the pro- and anti-slaver ; here the strong follower of Jefifer- 
son and his "States Rights" belief, was neighbor to his opponent; here all 
shades of religious belief and church formalities, from the ardent follower 
of the leader at Rome to the most fanatic "protestor," associated with the 
atheist. 

After the War of the Rebellion the young hot-headed Northern soldier, 
heated by the fires of victory and the gray-haired farmer, with his large 
familv of boys and his well-developed bump of conservatism, came with the 
floating adventurer to find a home among the Southern members of the 
Palmetto Town Site Company. 

In the late sixties and early seventies, hundreds of foreigners flocked 
here from Canada and northern Europe. This mixture was to be remolded 
from a common melting pot into modern Americanism. 

NUCLEUS OF MASONIC FRATERNITY. 

The centers around which clustered the sacred and time-honored ties of 
families, clans, customs, and institutions of all foreign peoples and countries 
must be forgotten. When one by one we each, of our own free will and 
accord, appeared before the district court and asked for admission into this 
amalgamation, that we might share on terms of equality with our new neigh- 
bor the advantages of this newly-cemented union, we. who were of foreign 
birth, turned our backs upon our former homes and pledged our support 
to a common cause here. We entered into a solemn covenant to support and 
defend all that is symbolically represented by the stars and colors of the 
national flag. Among this motley throng we find a few master Masons. 

A few more had taken claims and were farmers in the southeast part 
of the county. Those men all soon became acquainted and bound together 
by the teachings which they had received concerning the basic principles of 
the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. If the individual is 
found worthy, each in his own way becomes an influence in the molding of 
the growing county, by directing "tlie sacred longings that arise which this 
world never satisfies." 

They knew that modern Freemasonry is one of the many helps designed 
to guide the earnest traveler on his journey in search of that which will 



364 MARSHALL COl-NTV. KANSAS. 

satisfy. They also knew that nio'leni Freemasonry is fonnded on those 
basic principles wliich tend to make good men to l)e better citizens and better 
neighbors. 

BA.SIC PRINCIPLES OF MASONRY. 

These few scattered master Masons, who came from all points of the 
compass and from many nationalities, saw in Masonry a fraternal organ- 
ization formed along the lines of onr national Declaration of Independence. 
In fact they knew that many, very many of the makers of our nation were 
^lasons, and that AJasonic phraseology and thought were largely used in 
that historic document. "Masonry unites men of every country, sect and 
opinion and conciliates true friendship among those who might otherwise 
have remained at a perpetual distance, and heart and hand join in promot- 
ing each other's welfare and rejoicing in each other's prosperity." Every 
candidate is required to be a believer in a Supreme Being, to have a desire 
for knowledge and a sincere wish to be serviceable to his fellow men. And 
he is informed that Masonry consists of a course of moral instruction ; that 
it is not a religion, but is closely interwoven with it. He is admonished to 
be true to his government and just to his country, not to palliate or aggravate 
the offenses of others, but "in decisions on every trespass he should judge 
with candor, admonish with friendship, reprehend with justice." 

Although modern Freemasonry, in its present mode of organization, 
dates back scarcely two hundred years ago, it was then an outgrowth 'of 
what had been developing for many hundreds of years. Kilwinning lodge 
in Scotland has an unbroken line of the secretaries' records back into the 
fourteenth century, when it was a trade union associated with the priests 
of the church. 

In Gould's History of Freemasonry, pul)lished in 1904, is found this 
statement : 

"In the famous old Scotch Lodge of Kilwinning all the Kings of Scot- 
land have l)een Grand Master Masons without interruption from the days of 
Fergus, who reigned there more than three thousand years ago." 

All the old charges required of every Mason a faithful support of the 
church. The symbolic teachings and direct admonitions today in all lodges, 
direct the Masonic student to seek a closer knowledge of his relationship to 
his Maker and his own destiny. 

That the reader may better understand what Masonry is today it will 
be well to know that it is for good reasons represented by a secret organ- 
ization. Outsiders may be divided into three classes — its friends, who have 
a favorable opinion ; a second class, which neither knows nor cares anything 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 365 

about it, and its enemies, who know nothing about its truths and ha^■e been 
misinformed about its mission. 

Masonry is a progressive science, in search of knowledge and a higher 
fjuaHfication in its votaries. 

MASONRY DEFINED. 

That the reader may gain a clear conception of what Masonry is and 
why it was organized in Marshall county, it is well to know that the basic 
principles of its teachings are as old as human intelligence. That among 
other things, it has always stood for the freedom of the oppressed as expressed 
in the Magna Charta of England and the Declaration of Independence of 
the American colonies and has met with opponents and enemies wherever 
the oppressor is found. Thinking man has, through all the ages of the past 
repeatedly asked of his intelligent neighbor, "From whence came you and 
whither are }ou traveling." There has usually been an answer, but it has 
not usually been entirely to the satisfaction of the thinking inquirer. The 
practical, active history-making Roman of two and three thousand years 
ago, was not entirely satisfied with the teachings of the priests and the 
services of the vestal virgins in the temples of the national gods. In their 
conquests they adopted all that they found and considered w^orthy in the 
provinces, and erected temples for the services of the gods of the provinces. 
In all this they were in search of that which had been lost, and were supply- 
ing a substitute. 

ANCIENT HISTORY IN RELATION TO MASONRY. 

"/// Jioc sigiio riiiccs', "In this sign, concjuer", Constantine, in despera- 
tion, placed on his war banner with the Christian cross and won the battle 
of the Milvian Bridge near Rome and changed the future history of Europe, 
thus making the Christian cross another symbolic substitute for that which 
was lost. The old philosophers among the ancient Athenians, in an attempt 
to answer this same question, erected temples to all the known gods, but not 
being satisfied they built one more and dedicated it to the unknown god. 

The ancient EgN^ptians applied to their kind, affectionate, home-loving 
Osiris and Isis ; the Scandinavian turned to his fierce Thor and his associates. 
Awav back in the dim mists and uncertainties of old Babylon and on the 
banks of the Ganges, in the mountain recesses and caves of northern India, 
and over in old, sleepy China, the same questions were asked and answered 



366 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

with the same unsatisfied result. IMoses, born of a slave woman but reared 
in the luxury of royalty and versed in all the learning of the old Egyptians, 
gave to his people an answer to these same questions in the history and 
promises given to their ancestors. 

In this system of an explanation and in its continuation as we have it 
in the great light of Masonry, the dream of Jacob at the foot of the ladder, 
the faith of Abraham on Mount Moriah and the substituted thousands of 
sacrifices of Solomon, were fulfilled in the carpenter-builder's son and a new 
world power had a lowly start again. Once more a new impetus was given 
to the search for that which w^as lost. The Master Teacher from the hills, 
after serving His Apprentice and Fellow Craft time as an operative builder, 
became a Speculative Master Builder. His followers continued His teach- 
ings and propagated them by His methods for more than three hundred years. 

Constantine in his efforts to gain supremacy in the crumbling Empire 
of Rome, placed the sacred emblem on his war banners and victory followed 
victory. Constantine established himself and endowed the Christian church, 
which grew in worldly power as the empire crumbled. As the church grew 
it lost its originality and Europe was racked and torn by the semi-religious 
and political w-ars for more than a thousand years. When the church and 
the sword were united the old order, "Simon Peter, put up thy sword," was 
forgotten. 

Freemasonry, as we have had it for the last two hundred years, has 
come down to us through all the vicissitudes of time as common ground on 
which all the warring factions may unite on the level, if they but under- 
stand its symbols. 

MASONRY IN KANSAS. 

For this reason a little band of Masons found what they needed — com- 
mon orround on which thev could meet on the level after the war of the 
sixties. Masonry was first promulgated on the North American continent 
among the very early English colonies. The most worshipful grand master 
of the ^klasons granted dispensation for several lodges in Kansas before it 
was a state, and the grand lodge of Kansas was organized by representatives 
from three of those lodges in Leavenw'orth on March 17, 1856. Twelve 
vears later the grand master granted a dispensation on March 28, 1868, and 
a lodo-e was ors^anized in tlie farmhouse of A. G. Barrett in the southeast 
part of Alarshall county, near where Barrett station is now located. The 
members continued to meet in the little farmhouse all summer. New mem- 
bers were accepted and many visitors w^ere entertained from all parts of the 
county, state and nation. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 367 

WOMAN LEARNS SOMETHING OF MASONRY. 

On account of the limited house conveniences the tyler was outwitted by 
a woman's curiosity, and Mrs. Barrett became well schooled in the monitor 
and ritual. In the fall of the same year the lodge moved to Frankfort and 
for a time held their communications in one end of the new railroad depot. 
The lodge furniture and equipment consisted of such pieces of freight as 
could be conveniently utilized. It was a common thing to have more visitors 
than members. 

As the company usually came from distant points, and in some cases 
it required all night and most of two days to make the round trip, it was 
necessary that the lodge be opened in the "knife-and-fork" degree. The 
morning following such occasion, it was the common experience of the dray- 
man to deliver boxes of groceries that were light weight. 

At first the master used a carpenter's clawhammer for a gavel and one 
of the wardens used his pocket knife, while the other had a big spike. Elijah 
Bentley, a visiting brother from Marysville, hired a carpenter to make a full 
set of working tools, which he presented to the lodge. 

On account of unmasonic conduct, committed by a few of the members, 
this, Marshall county's first Masonic lodge, was deserted by the better ele- 
ment and the charter was forfeited. 

In 1877 a new lodge was organized under a new charter with the same 
old name and number and Frankfort Lodge No. 97 became, and has ever 
since remained, one of the prosperous and honored lodges of the county. 

The first master of the old lodge was A. G. Barrett and the first master 
of the present lodge was S. B. Todd, with F. J. Snodgrass, senior warden ; 
E. Bradv, junior warden; S. J. McKee, treasurer; W. L. Sanders, secretary; 
P. C. Carver, senior deacon; Joseph Whitley, junior deacon; H. B. Massie, 
tyler. 

The present officers are: A. Anderson, worshipful master; H. W. 
Scheld, senior warden ; W. T. .Scholtz, junior warden ; J. M. Bishop, treas- 
urer ; D. A. Brodbeck, secretary; Leonard Twidwell, senior deacon; Charles 
L. Andrews, junior deacon ; J. V. Hartshorn, senior steward ; Joseph Clima, 
junior steward; W. W. Barrett, tyler. 

The total membership of this lodge on December 31, 191 6, was eighty- 
one. 



368 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS, 

SUTTON LODGE NO. 85, WATERVILLE. 

The early records of SuUoii lutlge appear tcj he rather defective, and 
the exact date of its origin is uncertain. One statement says "Sutton Lodge 
No. 85, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, was instituted June i, 1870, 
and chartered 1870." 

A historical pamphlet puhlished in 1892 says. "On No\'ember 3, 1869, 
Right Worshipful John H. Brown, most worshipful grand master of the 
grand lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Kansas, granted a 
dispensation to Brothers Edward A. Berry, Harry C. Whistler and John D. 
Wilson as Sutton Lodge U. D. at Waterville, Kansas." 

The records of the grand secretary are stored at the present time, on 
account of the erection of a new office building, at Topeka and proofs as 
to the correct date are not now available. 

Upon this point depends the proof as to where the first permanent lodge 
was established in Marshall county. 

In the records of the secretary of Marysville Lodge No. 91, date of 
March 22, 1870, nine a. m., is this statement: "Dispensation being received, 
a call was made by me to assemble the lodge, viz : Harmony Lodge U. D. 
at their hall on Tuesday evening the tw'enty-second day of March at seven 
o'clock p. m., Peter H. Peters, W. M." 

On the next page are the minutes of the secretary dated March 22, 1870, 
telling how the lodge was organized. 

On the grand lodge records will depend the proof as to wdiich of these 
two lodges has the honor of being the first permanent lodge in the county. 

The first lodge was the old Frankfort lodge, but its charter was revoked. 

The historical statement that gives November 3. 1869. 'is the date of the 
dispensation for Sutton lodge with E. A. Berry. H. C. Whistler and J. D. 
Wilson, makes no mention of any meeting, under dispensation. The record 
states that the lodge was instituted June i, 1870, with the following officers: 
E. A. Berry, worthy master; W. C. Johnson, senior warden; W. P. Mudgett, 
junior warden; F. Spaulding, treasurer; G. B. Vrooni, secretary; F. Leach, 
senior deacon ; J. D. Farwell. junior deacon. 

A charter was granted to Sutton Lodge No. 85 at Waterville, October 
20, 1870. Since that time the lodge has been in a very satisfactory condi- 
tion. Peace and harmon}- have always prevailed and the work has pros- 
pered, the worthy have not been neglected nor has the w^ork of the helping 
hand been advertised. The present membership is seventy-seven. The 




THE I^ST OVERLAND STAGE COACH TO PASS THROUGH MARYSVILLE IN 1866. 



MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 369 

present officers are: O. H. Rommell, worthy master; M. I. Parker, senior 
warden; C. W. Edwards, junior warden; M. Delaney, treasurer; H. C. 
Willson, secretary; G. I. Thatcher, senior deacon; L. D. Argonbright, junior 
deacon; R. E. Berner, senior steward; M. Brammer, junior steward, C. M. 
Sawin, tyler. 

MARYSVILLE LODGE NO. 9I, MARYSVILLE. 

To establish a lodge of master Masons in the home of A. G. Barrett 
in the F>ankfort district after the close of the war, or in Waterville after 
the new railroad made that town its western terminal, was easy, because 
neither of these places had widely diverging ambitions nor warring factions. 
At Marysville the conditions were vastly different. In the early fifties, 
Frank Marshall's ferry landing marked the extreme frontier and last trad- 
ing post of civilization. At times the camp ground was thronged with a 
motley gathering of a thousand people. 

It would not be well to go into the early history of some of these men, 
or inquire why they were here, perhaps some of them had no homes where 
they could stay. Sveral companies of soldiers had been recruited here for 
the Northern army. The members of the old Palmetto Town Company were 
Southern supporters. The very fact that Marysville had been the hotbed 
of strife and hatred and warring faction, was the reason why the influences 
of the teachings of Masonry and its levelling of differences, were here most 
needed. 

During the earlier period of the war the people of Marysville held and 
expressed very radical differences of opinion as to the cause involved. Peter 
H. Peters, who edited and printed a very radical and outspoken pro-slavery 
paper, had his press smashed and type scattered in the street by Union sol- 
diers. An organization of the INIethodist church. South, supported the gos- 
pel of secession and slavery. It failed of financial support and one of its 
members who had furnished all the material for the church building, R. Y. 
Shibley, sold it to the county for a court house. Northern church mem- 
bers came and preached the faith of the North, and even after the close of 
the war, these differences of opinion had not been eliminated. 

Were half the power that fills the world with terror. 
Were half the wealth bestowed on camps and courts, 

Given to redeem the human mind from error. 
There were no need of arsenals nor forts. 

(24) 



^70 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Speculati\c Ancient Im'cc and Accepted Alasunry has lor its object the 
redeeming of the human mind from error. Masons are in search of truth and 
strive to bar from their meml)ershii) the c|uarrelhng, fault-finding dissenter. 
The dissenter may be all right. i)rovided he does not impose his peculiarities 
on his neighbors, but is broadly charitable and will grant to others that free- 
dom of individuality which he himself enjoys. 

PETERS BECOMES A MASON. 

As soon as the Barrett brethren had received their dispensation, the 
Alarysville master Masons were frec[uent visitors and a few young men 
from Marysville became members at Barrett. One day a master Mason 
returning from Colorado met several strangers here and they all became 
friends at once and arranged to visit the Frankfort lodge. Peter H. Peters, 
who had resumed and renamed his paper, seeing this familiarity among 
strangers, inc[uired the cause. At once he found that he had a favorable 
opinion of the institution, a desire for knowledge and a sincere wish to be 
of service to his fellow men. In due time and form he w^as made a Mason ; 
passed on to the workman's degree and then elevated to the honored place 
of a master Mason. So thoroughly was Brother Peters impressed wdth the 
nature and object of Masonry that he hired an additional foreman to man- 
age his business in Marysville, while he went to Frankfort for a month to 
study the work and meaning of the lodge. 

Peters and a few others applied to the grand master for a dispensation 
and received it. There is no record of this dispensation in the Marysville 
lodge. Under date of March 22, 1870, nine a. m., there is a statement that 
a dispensation had been received and a call for the brethren to assemble, 
and on the next page under date of March 22, 1870, are the secretary's 
minutes of the first meeting and organization of the lodge under the name 
of Harmony Lodge U. D. with nine members. The officers were : Peter 
H. Peters, worthy master ; Perry Hutchinson, senior w^arden ; Absalom Jester, 
junior warden; James S. Magill, secretary; Thomas McCoy, treasurer; 
Elijah Bentley, senior deacon; David Wolf, junior deacon; J. j\I. Carter, 
tyler, and Brother Joseph Samuels as the only member not an officer. 

At this first meeting there were tw'o visitors — both members of Frank- 
fort Lodge No. 67 — Alonzo Cottrell, a druggist in Marysville, and C. S. 
Bolton, county superintendent of public instruction. At this communica- 
tion four applications for degrees were received. Just four days later, March 
26, 1870, their second communication was held and they voted on the four 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 37 1 

applications and elected and initiated three of the applicants; Dr. A. G. 
Edwards was the first. 

The first few communications were held over D. Wolf's grocery store 
on the south side of Broadway, where the White Brothers building now 
stands, but they soon moved out of this building because intoxicating liquors 
were being sold in the store below. The second floor of Bendel's hall, a 
new building on the north side of Broadway, was rented, but after a few 
months the first floor of this building was fitted up for a saloon and again 
the lodge moved out and used the upper floor of the old stone school house 
on the hill, where they remained until the east half of the Koester block 
was built. They occupied the upper part of this until the three-story building 
on the west was finished, when they moved to the third floor, and it has 
been the home of the lodge ever since. 

MASONS OPPOSED TO LIQUOR TRAFFIC. 

Here was the first jjublic positive step taken in the county in the cause 
of prohibition, in the cause of freeing the oppressed victims of John Barley- 
corn. Harmony lodge moved out because Masonic law would not permit a 
lodge to convene in such close proximity to the liquor traffic. Here was an 
example of the basic principles on which the institution has always stood. 
Its mission is to assist the erring, but to do it in such a tender manner that 
it will elevate and not humiliate. These nine men who assembled in Har- 
mony lodge may not have been perfect models themselves, but Masonic law 
would not permit the lodge with all that it represents to be so desecrated. 
These nine men had lived in and around Marysville for some time and 
they knew of the w^arring factions among them; they came from several 
nationalities. Here were found the late Northern soldier and the strong 
Southerner; Jews and Gentiles, Democrats and Republicans, Catholics and 
Protestants, so they called their organization Harmony lodge. 

RESOLUTION PROHIBITING TOBACCO. 

In the vear 1893 Marysville lodge passed a resolution prohibiting smok- 
ing in the lodge room. This, we believe, was the first positive stand taken 
in the county to check the use of tobacco. 

This resolution did not simply provide for the control during the time 
the lodge w^as open, but at all times. Masonry teaches the control of the 



372 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

passions ; charity concerning the interests of others, and that we are not 
to impose on others our personaHties which may be unpleasant to them. 

In 1870 Marysville lodge took a stand against the liquor traffic. In 
fact. Masonry has always been a leader in the uplift of humanity and in 
the suppression of everything that lowers its standard. 

The lodge continued to work under a dispen.sation until the fall meet- 
ing of the grand lodge. October 20, 1870, when a charter was granted and 
on November 3, 1870, at a stated communication, Deputy Grand Master 
E. D. Hillyer informed the lodge that a charter had been granted and the 
name changed to Marysville Lodge No. 91. The following officers were 
elected under the charter, and were installed by the deputy grand master : 
P.. H. Peters, worshipful master; P. Hutchinson, senior warden; Joseph 
Samuels, junior warden; A. J. Edwards, treasurer; J. S. Magill, secretary; 
E. Bentley, senior deacon; D. Wolf, junior deacon; G. Borgman, senior 
steward; R. Y. Shibley, junior steward; I. B. Davis, tyler. 

The new lodge under the charter started with the original nine mem- 
bers and seven new master Masons, who had been raised by the lodge under 
dispensation : A. G. Edwards. J. Borgman, F. Garrety, E. Hanka, J. Lock- 
wood, I. B. Davis, R. Y. Shibley. Besides these sixteen master Masons, 
the lodge had se^■eral entered apprentices and fellowcraft members. The 
lodge continued to grow in membership and proficiency, rejecting many 
applications for membership and expelling others, because they were be- 
lieved to be defective timber, or not properly prepared for the temple. ■ 

DRILL WORK A FEATURE. 

Marysville is one of the few lodges in the state, and the only one in 
the county, where the craft has been drilled for the dramatized form of work 
in the third degree. During the years when the work was in the hands of 
three custodians for the state, Marysville lodge frequently held a school of 
instruction under the supervision of one of the board. Since the grand lec- 
turer plan has been adopted by the grand lodge, Marysville lodge still con- 
tinues to hold a school of instruction frequently. A lecturer has several 
times been employed to instruct the craft and lecture on semi-Masonic topics. 
For several years the annual district meeting has been held at Marysville 
and the rest of the county, not in this district, has always been invited. 

During the last twenty years a tendency to study has grown up among 
Masons, and for some time Marysville lodge has had a question box, which 
has furnished much instruction as well as amusement. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 373 

The lodge has several Masonic histories, encyclopedias, periodicals, and 
other works on Masonry and this study course is, to some of the craft, the 
best part of Masonry. 

On December 31, 1916, Marysville lodge had one hundred and twenty- 
three master Masons. The first master and founder of the lodge, Peter H. 
Peters, served five years in the oriental chair. In 1906 his son, Magill C. 
Peters, was chosen as the master. 

ROSTER OF OFFICERS OF MARYSVILLE LODGE NO. 9I. 

In the following list the name of the worshipful master appears first; 
next, that of senior warden, junior warden, treasurer and secretary, in order 
given throughout, from 1870 to 191 7: 

1870 — P. H. Peters, P. Hutchinson, Absalom Jester, Thomas McCoy, 
J. S. Magill. 

1870 — P. H. Peters, P. Hutchinson, J. Samuels, A. G. Edwards, J. S. 
Magill. 

1871 — P. H. Peters, P. Hutchinson, E. Bentley, A. G. Edwards, J. S. 
Magill. 

1872 — P. H. Peters, A. G. Edwards, I. B. Davis, James Smith, C. F. 
Koester. 

1873 — P. H. Peters, A. G. Edwards, F. F. Thompson, C. F. Koester, 
Joseph Samuels. 

1874 — F. F. Thompson, C. F. Koester, I. B. Davis, H. S. Clark, E. 
Hutchinson. 

1875 — P- H. Peters, A. G. Edwards, J. R. Voorhees, H. S. Clark, E. 
Hutchinson. 

1876 — F. F. Thompson, A. G. Edwards, I. B. Davis, H. S. Clark, M. 
Balgue. 

1877 — A. G. Edwards, E. Hutchinson, M. Balgue. H. S. Clark, J. S. 
Magill. 

1878 — E. Hutchinson, C. F. Koester, A. Hohn, H. S. Clark, J. B. 
Winkler. 

1879 — E. Hutchinson, F. F. Thompson, A. Hohn, H. S. Clark, J. B. 
Vv'inkler. 

1880— E. Hutchinson. A. Hohn, D. Wolf, H. S. Clark, J. B. Winkler. 

1881— I. B. Davis, G. B. Bullock, F. J. Pierce, H. S. Clark. J. ^lerk- 
linghaus. 



374 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

1882— rC. F. Koester, F. F. Thompson, C. T. Mann, IF S. Clark, J. M. 
Patterson. 

i'883 — F. F. Thompson, W. B. Scamon, C. B. Wilson, H. S. Clark, C. 
H. Lemon. 

1884 — F. F. Thompson, J. !\IcCoy, J. Lonergan, H. S. Clark, J. AL 
Patterson. 

1885 — F. F. Thompson, A. Hohn, J. Lonergan, H. S. Clark, E. R. Ful- 
ton. 

1886 — F. F. Thompson, J. Lonergan, J. A. Davis, H. S. Clark, E. R. 
Fulton, 

1887— C. B. Wilson, C. Brown, E. R. Fulton, H. S. Clark, H. Selz. 

1888— C. Brown, E. R. Fulton, C. D. Schmidt, M. Barlow, George 
Thomas. 

1889— E. R. Fulton, C. D. Schmidt, C. H. Shafer, ^L Barlow, C. A. 
Barber. 

1890— E. R. Fulton, C. D. Schmidt. C. H. Shafer, M. Barlow, C. A. 
Barber. 

1891— C. D. Schmidt, C. H. Shafer, F. Powell, M. Barlow, Alex. 
Schmidt. 

1892— C. D. Schmidt. C. H. Shafer, F. Powell, M. Barlow, Alex. 
Schmidt. 

1893 — P- Powell, J. Lonergan, Alex. Schmidt, M. Barlow, George 
Thomas. 

1894— C. D. Schmidt, E. A. Bittel. John Otto, M. Barlow, F. V. Shaw. 

1895 — E. R. Fulton, J. ^Montgomery, C. A. Hammett, M. Barlow, F. 
V. Shaw.- 

1896 — J. Montgomery, C. A. Hammett, J. I. Schloss, M. Barlow, F. 
V. Shaw. 

1897— C. B. AA^ilson, J. L Schloss, W. Lonergan, M. Barlow. F. V. 
Shaw. 

1898 — J. L Schloss, W. Lonergan, C. H. Davis, M. Barlow, F. V. 
Shaw. 

1899 — ]. L Schloss, \y. Lonergan, C. H. Davis, AL Barlow, F. V. 
Shaw. 

I90C^C. H. Davis, F. G. Powell, Alex. Schmidt. M. Barlow. F. V. 
Shaw. 

1901 — F. G. Powell, Alex. Schmidt, Arthur Hohn, M. Barlow, F. V. 
Shaw. 



MARSHALL COUNTY. KANSAS. 3/5 

1902 — C. A. Hammett, Arthur Hohn, R. W. Hemphill, yi. Barlow, F. 
v. Shaw. 

1903 — Arthur Hohn, I. B. Davis, S. C. Schmidt, 'M. Barlow, J. [Mont- 
gomery. 

1904 — L. E. Davis, S. C. Schmidt, E. A. Hohn, A. G. Shepard, F. V. 
Shaw. 

1905 — S. C. Schmidt, AI. C. Peters, L. H. Hammett, A. G. Shepard, 

F. V. Shaw, 

1906 — M. C. Peters, R. Hawkins, E. L. AliHer, A. G. Shepard, F. V. 
Shaw. 

1907 — R. Hawkins. J. AI. Ross, H. F. AVhitten, A. G. Shepard, F. V. 
Shaw. 

1908— J. Ai. Ross, H. F. W'hitten, L. H. Eddy, A. G. Shepard, M. W. 
-Sanderson. 

1909— H. F. \\^hitten, L. H. Eddy, H. W. Hoyer, A. G. Shepard, C. H. 
Davis. 

1910 — H. W. Hoyer, W. E. Cottrell, J. E. Andrews, A. G. Shepard, 
L. E. Davis. 

191 1 — R. Hawkins, R. L. Parker, R. C. Guthrie, A. G. Shepard, L. E. 
Davis. 

I9I2^R. L. Parker, R. C. Guthrie, \Mlliam Kraemer, A. G. Shepard, 
L. E. Davis. 

191 3 — R. C. Guthrie, William Kraemer, G. Mohrbacher, A. G. Shep- 
ard, L. E. Davis. 

1 9 14 — William Kraemer, G. Mohrbacher, ^^^ R. Breeding, A. G. Shep- 
ard, L. E. Davis. 

19 1 5 — G. Mohrbacher, \\'. R. Breeding, H. R. Fisher, E. R. Fulton, 
L. E. Davis. 

191 5 — G. Mohrbacher, W. R. Breeding, H. R. Fisher, E. R. Fulton, L. 
E. Davis. 

1916 — W. R. Breeding, H. R. Fisher, L. R. Broderick, E. R. Fulton, 

G. T. Mohrbacher. . 

19 1 7 — H. R. Fisher, L. R. Broderick, J. E. Andrews, E. R. Fulton, G. 
T. Mohrbacher. 

AXTELL LODGE NO. 234. 

Axtell lodge was chartered on February 19, 1885, with D. \\'. Acker, 
worshipful master: C. B. Thummel, senior warden; C. D. Russell, junior war- 
den ; P. S. Wheeler, secretary ; C. Anderson, treasurer. 



3/6 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Since its organization the lodge has been popular and has met with suc- 
cess in all its undertakings. Schools of instruction have been held and lec- 
tures given for the benefit of the craft. Many of its members have been 
men of prominence in the affairs of the community, county and state. The 
present membership is one hundred and five, the second largest Masonic 
lodge in the county. 

The present elective officers are : W. J. McKnight, worshipful master ; 
J. A. Ingram, senior warden; J..Medlack, junior warden; G. T. Whitscraft, 
secretary; E. Mack, treasurer. 

OKETO LODGE NO 25. 

Oketo lodge was granted a charter on February 15, 1893, ^^i^^ had a 
membership of forty-three on December 31, 1916. The present master is 
Rav Elev, and the secretarv is Henrv C. Waters. 

During the year 19 16 the lodge initiated three new members, lost two 
by death and one withdrew on demit. 

VERMILLION LODGE NO. 32O. 

Vermillion lodge was organized and worked for about a year under a 
dispensation, and was chartered on February 20, 1889. First officers: 
George W. Kelley, worthy master ; B. F. Johnson, senior warden ; R. L. 
McBride, junior warden; N. B. Hall, secretary; H. E. Turner, treasurer; 
W. S. Domer, senior deacon ; G. W. Warren, junior deacon; S. A. Hall, 
tyler, and John L. Mathers, W. S. Stowell, A. V. Thomas, Daniel Fuget, 
R. V. Coulter, J. F. Bensley, J. S. Dodson, Leonard Coulter, John VanVliet, 
members. The first regular communication was held in the old school house. 
The order has now sixty members and is in a prosperous condition. 

The present officers of Vermillion lodge are : A. E. Wormer, worthy 
master; \\\ M. Steele, senior warden; H. W. Bowers, junior warden; 
H. C. Schafer, treasurer; J. H. Johnson, secretary; T. F. Smith, senior dea- 
con; A. D. Lobbe, junior deacon. 

SUMMERFIELD LODGE NO. 354. 

Upon petition of twenty-seven master Masons a dispensation was granted 
on June 5, 1895, and on June 21. Summerfield lodge was organized U. D. 
with the following officers and members : W^illiam F. Rittershouse, worthy 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 377 

master; John E. Mann, senior warden; Frank Thomann, junior warden; 
Henry D. Maitland. secretary; James H. Bonon, treasurer; Robert W. Hemp- 
hill, senior deacon; Jacob Hoffman, junior deacon; Fred R. Joseph, senior 
steward; James McCaughey, junior steward; Charles S. Evans, tyler, and 
John A. Gallant, WilHam Johnston, William A. Fleming, Alonzo O. Ger- 
hart, Benjamin W. Smith, Frank P. Glick, George S. Smith, Peter Appleby, 
John L. Magaw, James Hemphill, members. 

A charter was issued on February 19, 1896, and the lodge was organ- 
ized on March 4, 1896, at which time D. Walker, deputy grand master, 
installed the following officers : Frederick Rittershouse, worshipful master ; 
John E. Mann, senior warden ; Frank Thomann, junior warden ; James Bonon, 
treasurer ; Henry Maitland, secretary ; R. W. Hemphill, senior deacon ; Jacob 
Hoffman, junior deacon; Fred R. Joseph, senior steward; J. G. McCaughey, 
junior steward ; E. V. Allen, chaplain ; C. S. Evans, tyler. Since the date 
of organization to December 31, 191 6, fifty-five brethren have been raised 
to the sublime degree of master Masons. The number of master Masons 
in the lodge on December 31, 1916, was thirty-seven. Lodge furniture and 
parapliernalia are valued at three hundred dollars. Regular communications 
are held on first and third Saturday of each month. 

The present officers are : P^rederick G. Bergen, worshipful master ; 
Leonard H. Stephens, senior warden ; Roy Connard. junior warden ; William 
Johnston, treasurer; Henry D. Maitland, secretary; John H. Small, senior 
deacon, Gideon E. Glick, junior deacon; John G. Graham, senior steward; 
George Transue, junior steward ; Louis Poggerman, tyler. 

BLUE RAPIDS LODGE NO. 1 69. 

Blue Rapids lodge was instituted on October i8, 1876, with the fol- 
lowing charter members and officers : A. J. Brown, worshipful master ; C. W. 
Farrington, senior warden; S. Hill, junior warden; W. Burr, treasurer; 
D. W. Hinman, secretary; members, N. Halstead, C. Holman, L A. Chand- 
ler, A. X. Taylor, D. Minium, J. P. Peck and R. S. Craft. 

The present officers are : S. L. Stauffer, worshipful master; F. G. Moser, 
senior warden; W. W. Kendall, junior warden; F. O. Waynant, treasurer; 
S. W. Gilson, secretary; C. D. Smith, senior deacon; L. B. Tibbetts, junior 
deacon ; C. W. Closer, senior steward ; F. AL Layton, junior steward ;. John 
Higgins, tyler. Past masters : A. J. Brown, C. W. Farrington, D. A. Peoples, 
W. Burr, W. T. Ross, J. O. Buell. M. X. Cox, A. E. Winter, C. L. Garrison. 
J. H. Wanamaker, L H. Dean, E. D. White, S. W. Gilson, C. \\\ Moser, 



378 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

C. D. Sniilli. F. A. Estes and C. A. Ho(lj»-es. Regular meetings are held 
in iheir own hall on first and third Alonday evenings of each month. 

MARV.SVrLLE CHAPTER NO. 29. 

The first meeting of the chapter was held under dispensation July 6, 1875. 
The otihcers appointed at the first meeting were : William P. iMudgett, high 
priest; N. P. Hotchkiss, king; Fillmore L. Dow, scribe; Robert Campbell, 
captain of the host; R. L. Weeks, princi])al sojourner; F. L. Dow, Sr.. treas- 
urer ; T. C. Powell, secretary ; W. : A. Thurston, royal arch captain ; Francis 
Baird, master of third veil; George R. Kelly, master of second veil; F. J. 
Faulkner, master first veil; B. W. Curtis, guard. 

A charter was granted on October 20, 1875, and the first meeting under 
the charter was held on November 16, 1875. T"'""^ following officers were 
installed : W. P. Mudgett, high priest ; W. P. Hotchkiss, king ; F. L. Dow, 
scribe ; F. F. Dow, treasurer ; Charles F. Koester, secretary ; J. F. Voorhees, 
captain of the host ; Cal. T. Mann, principal sojourner ; L C. Legere, royal 
arch captain; George E. Kelly, master of third veil; F. J. Faulkner, master of 
second veil; W. F. Boyakin, master of first veil; John Lockwood, guard. 
Members present, P. H. Peters, John Means. 

The officers for 1917 are; W. W. Potter, high priest; H. H. Fisher, 
king; Arthur Hohn, scribe; E. R. Fulton, treasurer; George T. Mohrbacher, 
secretary ; !>. R. Broderick, captain of host ; Louis T. Hardin, principal 
sojourner; S. C. Schmidt, royal arch captain; Stewart Clarke, master of third 
veil ; Z. M. Nellans, master of second veil ; E. M. Carlson, master of first 
veil ; A. B. Campbell, sentinel. Present membership, eightv-nine. 

CORINTHIAN COMMANDERY NO. 40. 

Letters of dispensation were granted on July 17, 1893, to the following; 
Edward Hutchinson, Fred Powell, August Hohn, Frank G. Powell, Charles 
B. Wilson, Edgar Ross Fulton, Charles F. Koester, Charles D. Schmidt, 
Amos W. Kirkwood, Simeon J. Gillis, John B. Simminger, Omar Powell, 
Edward B. Fox, Harry J. Diffenbaugh, Thomas B. Fredendall, William 
Jacobs, Marion Hawk, William E. Haur, G. A. Seaman, A. J. Brunswig, Cal. 
T. Mann and Daniel Spence. 

A charter was granted on May 8, 1894. and at the first meeting held 
under the charter the following knights were installed : Edward Hutchinson, 
eminent commander ; August Hohn, generalissimo ; Charles D. Schmidt, cap- 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 379 

tain general ; Fred Powell, prelate ; Edg-ar Ross Fulton, senior warden ; Charles 
B. Wilson, jnnior warden: Charles F. Koester, treasurer; Frank G. Powell, 
recorder; Andrew M. Fluhrer, standard bearer: John Lonergan, sword bearer; 
Elijah Rentley, sentinel. Members : Isaac B. Davis, Chauncy S. Chapman, 
Stewart Clarke, T. L Hatfield, R. B. Moore, Robert Campbell; Emmett A. 
Bittell, J. Norton Abbott, V. ]. J\anlkner, G. A. Seaman, Lewis E. Helvern, 
Perry Hutchinson, Arthur J. Whitmore, August Jaedicke, Jr., Frederick 
Ehrke, August Soller, Herman O. Jaenicke, Joseph G. Lowe, Theo. H. 
Parrish, Henry M. Mueller, James Madison HoweU and William James Burr. 
Present officers are : W. W. Potter, eminent commander ; Emil A. Hohn, 
generalissimo; Sylvester C. Schmidt, captain general: Amos W. Kirkwood, 
treasurer (deceased); Ale.x. B. Campbell, recorder; Al. G. Garber, 
senior w^arden ; Stewart Clarke, junior warden ; Arthur Hohn, prelate ; Charles 
U. Barrett, standard bearer; Zoa. M. Nellan, sword bearer; Glen T. Ligalsbe, 
warder; Herman R. Fisher, sentinel. Present membership, eighty. 

ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR. 

The Order of the Eastern Star as it now exists, is of recent origin and 
is distinctl}- an American institution. Many attempts in Europe as well 
as America had been made by Masons to provide a means wdiereby women 
relatives could prove themselves such. 

About the year 1850 Robert Morris, a master Mason, and afterwards 
grand master of Kentucky Masons, formulated a system and taught it to 
many master masons and their wives. The system grew and expanded ; 
headquarters were established in New York and during the w-ar and on into 
the seventies, organizers traveled over the Eastern and Middle states, estab- 
lishing local chapters. A few were organized in eastern Kansas. There is 
a rumor that one was formed in Marysville, but no positive proof has been 
found. 

In 1867 delegates from fifteen of the local chapters in IMichigan met and 
formed a grand chapter for their state. This is the first and oldest grand 
chapter in the world organized by representation. Other states soon followed 
and, in 1876, Kansas organized a grand chapter of the Order of the Eastern 
Star. 

In the first book of the secretary's record of Hilda Chapter No. 164, 
Marysville, under date of July 17, 1894, is a statement that Mrs. P. W. 
Hutchinson, Mrs. M. S. Goodwin, Mrs. Mary Kirkwood, Mrs. Haddie Davis, 
Mrs. Viola Shaw, Mrs. Mary Campbell, Mrs. Kate Hatfield, Mrs. Delia Bit- 



380 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

tell, -Miss Lillian Edwards, Edward Hutchinson. G. Goodwin. A. W. Kirk- 
wood, F. V. Shaw, T. I. Hatfield. Jacob Schloss, I. B. Davis, Robert Campbell, 

E. A. Bittell. Charles H. Schmidt, and Edgar Ross Enlton signed and sent a 
petition to John E. Postlethwaite, grand patron of the order of Eastern Star 
of Kansas, asking for a dispensation. 

It is further stated that a favorable reply had been received with blanks 
and instructions, and that on motion, Robert Campbell was elected chairman, 

F. \'. Shaw, secretary; Mrs. l\ \V. Hutchinson, worthy matron, and R. 
Cami)l)ell, worthy patron; Mrs. Haddie Davis, associate matron. The blanks 
were filled out as instructed and with a check for ten dollars, returned to 
the grand patron and the meeting adjourned after resolving that Miss Hilda 
Marquardt, of Hanover chapter, be requested to come and organize the new 
chapter, and that she be commissioned by the grand chapter for that purpose, 
and also that the chapter be named Hilda, in her honor. 

The dispensation was under date of July 28, 1894, and the records show 
that Hilda Chapter No. 164 was duly organized and the following officers 
installed under the grand chapter of the Order of Eastern Star of Kansas : 
Mrs. P. W. Hutchinson, worthy matron ; R. Campbell, worthy patron ; Had- 
die Davis, associate matron; E. R. Fulton, secretary; F. V. Shaw, treasurer; 
Mary Campbell, conductress ; Delia Bittell, associate conductress ; Mrs. G. 
Goodwin, chaplain ; Miss Lillian Edwards, Adah ; Mary Kirkwood, Ruth ; 
Viola A. Shaw, Esther; M. S. Goodwin, Martha; Kate Hatfield, Electa; 
J. J. Schloss, warder; T. L Hatfield, sentinel. Four petitions for degrees 
were received at this meeting. The date of the charter is May 16, 1895. 

The present officers are : Alice Hohn, worthy matron ; R. C. Guthrie, 
w^orthy patron ; Matilda Kraemer, associate matron ; Kate Broihier, treasurer ; 
Mildred Kirkwood, secretary; Blanche Potter, conductress, Elizabeth Davis, 
associate conductress; Nettie Breeding, chaplain; Julia Hohn, marshal; 
Minna Mohrbacher, organist; Martha Guthrie, Adah; Mary Ew^art, Ruth; 
Hallie Willson, Esther ; Margaret Douglass, Martha ; Hyacinthe Koester, 
Electa; Lulu Faulkner, warder; Walter Breeding, sentinel. On January i, 
191 7, the chapter had a membership of one hundred and.ninety-eight. Stated 
meetings are held first and third Friday evenings of each month. 

« 

Elnora Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, was instituted at Blue 
Rapids, February 6. 1896, In' Elnora Gilson, with the following charter mem- 
bers: Elnora F. L. Gilson, A. E. Winter, Ella B. Wilcox. Kittie E. Winter, 
Jessie A. Cheney, Julia C. Hewitt. Cora Hall, Ella Heathman. Julia M. 
Chenev, Phoebe Hawk, Wash Hawk. Ida ^^IcNab, W. A. Gilson, E. Russell 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 38 1 

Clieney, Sadie L. Wanamaker, Jennie E. Stearns, Luella M. Trnmbo, J. T. 
Trumbo, J. Grace Morgan and Edith Nevins. 

The first officers were : Ehiora Gilson, worthy matron ; A. E. \\'inter, 
worthy patron : Ella B. Wilcox, associate matron ; Sadie L. Wanamaker, 
secretary ; Jessie Cheney, conductress ; Kittie Winter, treasurer ; Julia C. 
Hewitt, associate conductress ; Jack T. Trumbo, chaplain ; Cora Hall, Adah ; 
Ella L Heathman. Ruth; Jennie Stearns, Esther; Ella Trumbo, Martha; 
Julia Cheney, Electa ; Wash Hawk, sentinel ; Grace Morgan, marshal ; Ida 
McNab, organist ; Phoebe Hawk, warder. 

The present officers are: Eva Sandborn. worthy matron; H. H. Fen- 
ton, worthy patron ; Jessie Fenton, associate matron ; Ella Heathman, secre- 
tary ; Julia C. Hewitt, treasurer ; Sarah A. Burr, chaplain ; Leula Estes, con- 
ductress ; Geneva Stauffer, associate conductress; Pearl Van Valkenburgh. 
warder; Cora Hall, organist; D. S. W. Gilson, sentinel; Bessie Trombla, 
marshal; Iva Ryan, Adah; Sudah \\'oolley, Ruth; Harriet Axtell. Martha; 
Elizabeth Headrick, Electa. 

The membership of the chapter at January, 19 17. was eightv-two. 

Palace Chapter No. 174, Eastern Star, was organized in the Masonic 
hall, Frankfort, June 19, 1895. The first officers were: Winifred Holtam, 
worthv matron ; Walter H. Lewis, worthy patron ; Ella Lane, assistant 
matron; Marion Whittaker, conductress; Addie M. Brandenburg, associate 
conductress; Emma Lewis, treasurer; R. E. Trosper, secretary; Nettie Tay- 
lar, chaplain ; Amanda Horr, Adah ; Hattie Busby, Ruth ; A. C. Brawley, 
Esther; K. E. Trosper, Martha; Annie E. Souders, Electa; Mary E. Bliss, 
warder; Albert Busby, sentinel. The following are the officers for 1917: 
Tempie S. Bishop, worthy matron; William Campbell, worthy patron; Emma 
Lindsey, assistant matron ; Caroline Anderson, secretary ; Mary Scholz, 
treasurer ; Mary Warnica, conductress ; Nealie Scholz, associate conduc- 
tress ; Aldean Haskett, chaplain ; Sadie Scholz, marshal ; Ella Lane, organist ; 
Marie Wasser, Adah; Haskel Haskin, Ruth; Dora Olson, Esther; PhyUis 
Rankin, Martha; Winifred Shearer, Electa; Jennie Campbell, warder; Wal- 
ter Scholz, sentinel. 

Cordelia Chapter No. 247. Order of the Eastern Star, at \^ermillion, was 
instituted in April, 1901. by Grand Worthy Matron Cordelia Bittell, with 
eighteen charter members. The first officers were : Lucy A\'oodman, 
worthy matron ; G. W. Warren, worthy patron ; Elizabeth Hall, associate 



382 MARSHALL COIN T^, KANSAS. 

matron: Anna I)c Wall, secretary; Carrie Arnold, treasurer; Clarissa Weeks, 
conductress; ]Mao;iiie Warren, conductress. 

Tile past worthy matrons are as follow: Lucy Woodman, Clarissa 
Weeks, Phoebe Havens, .Margaret Warren, Ida Duffy, Laura Woodman, 
Allie B. Rogers, Rose Clifton. Carrie Arnold, Aima DeWalt and Tressie 
Hybskman. Miss A.my Nauman is the present worthy matron. 

Angerona Chapter Xo. 205, meets every first and third Wednesday in 
Masonic hall, Axtell. Morence Simpson, worthy matron; Euphemia Strayer, 
secretary. 

* 

The foregoing are all of the lodges of Speculative Ancient Craft Masonry 
in Marshall countv consisting of three degrees ; Entered apprentice, fellow- 
craft and master Mason, representing the three stages of human life — youth, 
manhood and old age, with all its joys and pleasures, responsibilities, rewards 
and disappointments, and pointing to its final destiny. The object lessons 
here displaved by types, emblems and allegorical figures point out the whole 
duty of man and constitute the three foundation steps from which the three 
expansions of Masonry as practiced in America are erected. These three 
expansions are : The Order of the Eastern Star, the York Rite and the 
Scottish Rite. Membership in any one of these three can only be obtained 
and maintained through and by the qualifications in the first three steps. 
The work of these three branches is entirely independent of each other, but 
like college work, compared with our public schools, so may these be com- 
pared with the lodge work. A proper training in the lodge is necessary before 
the branches can be fully understood. 

This chapter contains the names of all the organized bodies of Masons 
in Marshall county. There are many master Masons in the county who are 
members of local organizations and who hold membership elsewhere in the 
council. Scottish Rite and Shrine. A complete list of the Order of the East- 
ern Star is also given. 



CHAPTER XVH. 
The Medicvl Profession. 

By Dr. Robert Hawkins. 

''Backward, turn backward, oh. Time in vour flieht. 
And make me a chikl again just for tonight." 

In ahno.'it all topics of general importance, and long years of general 
development, it is impossible to know positively the details of origin. Med- 
ical' history in Alar.shall county is no exception. 

-As it is impossible to thoroughly understand the adult man without at 
least some knowledge of the child, so it is advisable to go back into the child- 
hood period of medical history to understand the present and be of benefit 
to the future. 

Let us then together turn l)ack the pages of time in this period of hurry- 
ing fligiit and endeavor to learn something of early conditions. At once we 
find ourselves confronted with only fragments of records, memories and tra- 
ditions. 

All that we know of early conditions among the Indians who frequented 
this part of the great American desert, is what we can learn and deduce from 
habits, customs and traditions existing at the time the white man first invaded 
his domain, coupled with his later mode of life. Standing on this broad 
platform we have reason to believe that the Indian as he roamed over and 
cam])ed in the country, practiced a system of preventive medicine that in 
some respects was, in its results, superior to our methods of today. He had 
a smaller percentage of defectixe and undesirable adults than we have at the 
present time. His manner of living and his standard of ethics did not pro- 
duce that ever-increasing and ever-varying host of drones and swarms of 
vultures that we now harbor by our methods and feed from the earnings of 
our workers. 

HEALTH FROINI THE WATERS. 

The early trappers and hunters, the advance guard sent out by Brigham 
A^oung to spy out a modern promised land for Modern Day saints, and the 
explorers. Pike and Fremont, probably all were directed to the invigorating 



384 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

waters and licalthful siirronndini^s of Alcove Springs. There thev found 
conditions fa\(»rahle for hnildin<,^ iij) man and l)east after tlie lon|n; (lri\-e from 
the Missouri ri\cr. and la)- up a reserve supply of energy for the long weary 
journc)' to the mountains. 

Here was a summer he.alth resort open for all. Here, clear pure spring 
water was flowing from the rocks and .Xaron's rod had not l)cen required; 
here was found a variety of food more \aried than the manna of old and 
easy to gather, as represented by the catfish in the river, the quail in the 
underbrush, tlie wild turkey in the trees, the antelope, rabbit and 1)uffalo up 
the draw, or out over the hills. And here was abundance of grass for the 
horses and ox teams. Here was an opportunity for preventive medicine in 
a life of open-air freedom surrounded with })lenty. 

TflE INDIAN MEDICINE MAN. 

Alcoxe Springs has the reputation of having been the summer camping 
ground of the nomad Indian. Here the Indian medicine man had for many 
generations sent his patients to camp on the hills and to breathe" the clear, 
pure and invigorating air of Kansas breezes, or recline under the leafy 
branches of big spreading elms or bask in the warm sunshine out in the open, 
while his fevered brow was cooled l)y the gentle Kansas south winds. I 
doubt not but that many a convalescent Indian patient was aided by a channel 
cat-fish from the waters of the Blue river near Alcove Springs. 

\\niile the Indian, in his summer hunting trips camping here, was a fre- 
quent patron of Nature's dispensatory, and many a functional and pathological 
abnormality was warded off or aborted, yet, like the labors of the modern 
followers of Aesculapius, the prognosis was sometimes unfavorable and the 
Indian medicine man was called in the case. His methods usually consisted 
in spectacular demonstrations and barbaric endeavors to drive away the evil 
spirit. 

We are told by early observers of Indian customs that the old-time 
medicine man practiced a system of counter-irritation somewhat similar to 
the mustard plaster of our grandmothers. 

I remember in my boyhood days of seeing a picture in a history of 
primitive Indian customs and conditions that illustrated the similarity. 
.\ccording to that early-day observer it would be a frequent picture to see 
the Indian medicine man, after his fantastic demonstration had failed to drive 
aw^ay the bad spirit that had taken possession of the poor Indian with a head- 
ache, practice more heroic methods. 







BELOW THE DAM, MARYS VI LLE. 



^.:^\^ 




'"M^ 



ALCOVE SPRINGS. 
E. E. Forter, below, and John Schilling, above. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 385 

Come with me, in your imag-ination, and let ns stand on one of the bluffs 
overlooking that beautiful landscape garden surrounding Alcove Springs in 
its original grandeur, just before the late summer sun had ceased to cast the 
long shadows of evening, but is still lighting up hill and valley and giving 
a luster to the autumn foliage. 

Focus your field glass and take a careful survey of the entire field. Up 
the valley, just across the bend of the draw, the herd of ponies is feeding on 
the fresh growth of grass that has sprung up since the recent fall rains, under 
the spreading trees that the white man has not yet cut down, the men are 
gathered in a small group discussing the exploits of the day and making plans 
for the morrow. Some of the women are getting supper while others are 
curing the fresh buffalo and antelope meat by cutting it into strips to dry in 
the smoke of a slow fire, kindled from dead twigs and buffalo chips. 

CURING THE SICK. 

The special part of the picture in which we are interested is down the 
valley and almost hidden by a clump of underbrush. Here we see a young 
Indian naked to the waist seated on a half decayed log that some cyclone had 
twisted from that deformed, bushy-topped cottonwood, his head grasped 
tightly with both hands, the face is cast down from our view, the elbows are 
supported on the knees and the entire body is as motionless and apparently 
as devoid of feeling' as the old log under him. 

The medicine man has apparently exhausted all ordinary methods to 
cure the headache ; his drum has been set aside ; his buffalo head mask rests 
on the end of the log and now he is applying a live fire brand to the sick 
man's bare back. Here is counter-irritation with a vengeance, and who can 
say it will not divert the mind of the patient away from his headache. 

When the gold seekers of the 1S49 I'^^^h and the emigrant train of the 
forties and fifties came rolling in from Independence, Missouri, they crossed 
the Big Blue river at Alcove Springs and called it Independence Crossing. 
Fremont, in 1842, crossed here and, recognizing this as a health resort, 
camped here for some weeks. In 184Q, when the Mormons first began their 
exodus to the West in large numbers, they camped here and it became an 
annual summer hospital for their sick and dying. A large number of graves 
were located here and scattered over the adjacent hills. No organized bury- 
ing plot was arranged nor permanent markers erected, and nothing now 
remains to show the last resting place of many an emigrant. Westward bound, 
who here received the call to which all must respon.l. Here mothers lost 
^25) 



386 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

their babes and children lost their mothers. The survivors must pass on with 
the current of humanity, leaving- on the hillside all that was visil)le of the 
dear departed. 

This evidence of the frailty of humanity w(juld indeed l)e dark and' 
gloomy were it not for the symbolic meaning of the evergreen on the bluff 
close by. "From the voiceless lips of the unreplying dead there comes no 
word ; but in the night of death, hope sees a star and listening love can hear 
the rustle of a wing." 

AMPUTATION UNDER DIFFICULTIES. 

The story is told by early historians that among those emigrants passing 
through Marshall county was a company of Missouri farm boys with ox 
teams. One of their number broke his leg shortly after leaving the Missouri 
border. It w^as a compound fracture and soon became infected, not only 
with pus but also with the larvae of the flies. By the time they reached 
Alcove Springs his comrades decided that the boy's life was in immediate 
danger. A consultation resulted in the decision that the leg must come off 
in order to give him the last hope. Not one of them had ever seen such an 
operation ; they must be their own doctors, and, worse, they had no modern 
operating equipment, no antiseptic and no anesthetic. They were farm boys 
from IMissouri and knew no such word as fail. 

With a lariat rope for a tourniciuet and one of their hunting knives and 
a handsaw, the leg was soon removed above the infected injury. With a 
pair of common pincers they tried to find the severed arteries but could not. 
They heated the king bolt from one of the wagons and seared the entire face 
of the flaps and sewed it up with a waxed end such as had been provided for 
repairing their shoes. 

The story as I have heard it declares that the patient made a good stump 
and became one of the settlers on the coast. Here was emergency surgery, 
with thorough sterilization of the field of operation. 

gr.a.ndmother's remedies. 

Up to this time there was no local doctor settled in the county. There 
w^as no county organization. The floating, moving, ever-passing hosts were 
thrown on their own resources. 

With the coming of the actual settlers, who stayed here with the idea 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 38/ 

of making this a permanent home, all was changed. The good housewife 
came with grandmother's ideas of catnip and boneset tea and a supply of 
roots, dried barks and herbs, and the spring time dosing followed. 

"When they see the tender grasses, 

And the fragrant lilacs bud, ; 

Kate takes sulphur and molasses, 

For to purify her blood." 

From the time Frank Marshall started his ferry boat across the Blue 
river and on to i860 and the starting of actual hostilities in the war, many 
families had formed several settlements in different parts of the county. 
There was a struggle for existence and none but the stoutest survived. Many 
a homesick young girl found herself a housewife with the house unbuilt, long- 
ing for the supporting hand and cheering sympathy of mother or the heavy 
step and hope-giving voice of the old family doctor back "in the states." 
Those were trying days. In times of sickness neighbor helped neighbor. 
What little medicine had been brought from home was usually shared with 
the ailing. The open-air methods of living; the absence of modern luxuries 
and the fact that but few delicate persons came, all helped to keep the standard 
of health high and the death rate low. 

THE FIRST BABIES. 

The first known white ba])y born in the county was George W. Thiele 
on September 14, 1855, about one and one-half miles east of the present town 
of Bigelow. llie ancestry came from Germany and first settled in old Con- 
necticut. Later, they came to the free home life of "Sunny Kansas." George 
W. Thiele was born in the log cabin home on the free one hundred and sixty 
acres then farmed by the family. He is now a prominent business man of 
Washington, Kansas. 

The second baby, of which we can find any record, is William H. Todd, 
born on August 13, 1856. The last heard of him, he was in Colorado. 

The third baby was a girl, Sarah P. Martin, born on September 3, 1857, 
in the log cabin farm home six miles southeast of where the town of Beattie 
is now located. The family came from Indiana, where an elder brother, 
George, had been born two and one-half years prior. This little girl, now a 
grandmother, Mrs. William Crane, lives just west of the Marysville bridge 
and attends daily to the household duties of her own home. She tells me 



388 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

that at tlie time of her birth there was neither door nor window in the log 
cabin, but simply a blanket hung o\er the opening in the log wall for a door- 
way and the cracks between the logs stopped with clinnks of wood and daubed 
up with mud. Mrs. Martin's sister, Mrs. Life, li\ing on an adjacent farm 
officiated as nurse. 

In all three of these cases the general conditions were similar. Mrs. 
Crane tells me that when she was three years old she and her father, Mr. 
Martin, had chills and fever all summer imtil they were nearly exhausted. 
This was the prevailing ailment of the early settler. After using all the home 
remedies and exhausting the small supply of quinine in the neighborhood, 
the mother took them in a farm wagon with an ox team sixty miles north 
into Nebraska, where they heard there was a doctor. This one hundred and 
twenty miles round trip with an ox team, camping on the high prairie and liv- 
ing in the open with winter coming on, was the last supreme effort of the 
despairing wife and mother to cure what she believed to be dying patients. 
They made the round trip, saw the doctor, got their medicine and made a 
recovery. The combination of conditions produced the desired result. The 
patients were removed from the vicinity of the creek and mosquitos, the sum- 
mer season was past and they lived on the high prairie for several weeks. 

While it is but reasonable to suppose that other white babies were born 
here prior to these three, yet it remains a fact that the Old Settlers' Associa- 
tion has failed to find any. 

The first doctor known to come to the county to locate, was Dr. J. P. 
IMiller. who came in 1856. During that summer a number of young- men 
came from Atchison and from different points in the south for the purpose 
of starting a town. They were all pro-slavery party men and they came to 
Marshall's ferry and organized the town of Palmetto, supposedly under ter- 
ritorial laws. 

How near they complied with the legal requirements, is best answered 
in the general statement which is made on page 914 of A. T. Andreas' "His- 
tory of Kansas", 18S3: 

"The first election in Alarshall county was on March 31, 1855. Every 
inhabitant, who should be an actual resident, was a qualified voter. The 
pro-slavery party put the most liberal construction on the law. At the elec- 
tion on October 5, 1857, only one Free-state vote was counted in the county." 
That vote was given by James E. White. 

Dr. J. P. >\Iiller was one of this group of pro-slavery party men, who 
came for the purpose of making Kansas a slave state. 

They were not of the home-making kind, like the settlers in other parts 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 389 

of the county. In the border-turmoil days, just before the war, there was 
httle opportunity for Doctor Miller to become a family physician. His 
patients for a few years were the floating and emigrant kind. Might made 
right and the arguments concerning differences were often settled with the 
gun. The doctor had a wide and varied experience along this line. Under 
the pro-slavery methods of conducting politics, it was an anti-election decision 
that all important positions should be taken by their members. 

ONE OFFICIAL TO FOUR OFFICES. 

Doctor Miller was elected to the pro-slavery Legislature and served the 
party well. Later, he was elected to several local county offices, and held 
them all at the same time being, respectively, sheriff, clerk of the court, justice 
of the peace and coroner. His endeavors to manipulate [X)litical matters 
apparently occupied most of his time. As a doctor he was independent of 
the drug stores, because there were none in the county. In answering calls 
among the scattered settlers, he went on horseback and his saddlebags stock 
was chiefly quinine, calomel, opium and a poor grade of Missouri whiskey. 

One of his contemporary settlers informs us that Miller was a fine 
example of the southern gentleman of the early frontier type; that he was a 
heavy user of the last-named article in his saddlebag supply, but that the 
Missouri article did not agree with him and he died before he reached his full 
measure of usefulness. 

Before the opening of national hostilities in the War of Secession, a 
bitter contest was raging in eastern Kansas. Marshall county, as one of the 
extreme frontier points, on a direct route to the mountains and the coast and 
occupied by extreme representatives of both factions, was a history-making 
communitv, where individual freedom and an advance in modern civilization 
was striving to overthrow slavery. 

During this period of uncertainty, distrust and strife among the poli- 
ticians, we find but few doctors, several druggists and no mention of the 
dentist until after the close of the war. 

After the admission of Kansas into the union as a free state, the pre- 
ponderance of pro-slavery advocates rapidly declined and almost disappeared 
among the doctors. 



THE "copperhead'" SOCIETY. 



In 1864 we find the business card of Dr. John Hall, of Marysville, in a 
newspaper of that date. In a book on early history in Kansas, now in the 



390 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

library of the Historical Association in Toepka, E. C. Manning gives an 
account of conditions in Marshall county in 1864. Manning states that he 
was publishing a pa])cr in which he said many things against the pro-slavery 
party and the "Copperheads." 

A secret "Copperhead" society existed here, of which this Doctor Hall 
was a member. It was decided at one of their meetings that Manning must 
be put out of the way and Ijy lot it became the business of Doctor Hall to 
do it. A friend of Manning's, who was let into the plot, told Manning and 
the next morning Manning hunted up the doctor and informed him that he 
knew all about it and that he would give him twenty-four hours in 
which to leave the country. Doctor Hall disappeared at once. 

We find an advertisement in a local paper, dated 1864, of a drug store 
owned by Doctor Edwards and a man named Horr. 

This Doctor Edwards was an elder brother of the Dr. A. G. Edwards, 
who located in Marysville after the war. This local advertisement states 
that a full assortment of liquors and wines was constantly carried in stock. 
While several saloons were running in Marysville at the time, this drug store 
and druggist, who should be the assistant of the doctor, were working in 
harmony with the saloon-keeper and the bartender. This liquor business of 
the druggist, along w^ith the saloon keeper, continued until the prohibition 
laws placed the liquor business all in the hands of the druggist, intending 
that he should be the handmaid of the doctor, but so many ex-bartenders 
became druggists, that the doctors quit the drug store and of late years 'nearly 
all doctors in the county dispense for themselves. 

Before, during and for some years after the war, there was no legal 
standard of qualification in regard to the doctors. The business, in a com- 
mercial way, was open to all. Very few were graduates of any medical 
school. But few had even what would now be considered a common-school 
preparation. 

A "cure" for chills. 

The following story is told of one young fellow who, like many others 
in the early day, took up a claim on a creek bottom. He came from "Egypt," 
in southern Illinois and his mother having learned that quinine was ma.de 
from willow bark, fed him on willow-bark tea to cure the chills.. It always 
worked when taken late in the fall after the malaria season was over. He 
used these fundamental principles, but, with business tact, he manufactured 
a more elegant article. 

In the first place he kept the secret to himself. He was not married. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 391 

He trimmed the rough bark from a willow tree and then scraped the inner 
bark into a pulp by using a hoe or a corn knife, being careful to scrape down- 
ward. The tea made from this, flavored, colored and preserved with elder 
berries and whiskey, seldom failed to cure the chills, if taken early and con- 
tinued until late in the fall. Occasionally, there was a stubborn case and for 
them he scraped the bark from below upward and made it strong by using 
more "aqua fortalis," boiling it longer and adding a little wild turnip root 
to give it a sharp twang. 

This combination never failed, if the conditions were favorable. The 
first, he called "Hipopalorum," and the second, a strong medicine, he 
called "Lopopahirum." At one dollar per half gallon for the first and two 
for the second, the young doctor had a nice little income. 

After the close of the war a great change came over the country in 
many ways. The army was scattered and the boys who were mustered out 
flocked to the West to take up homesteads. Many young doctors who had 
served under the flag located in Marshall county. 

Among them were A. G. Edwards, of Marysville; Patterson, of Beattie; 
Paul Garven, of Frankfort; D. W. Humfreville, of Waterville, and several 
others. Those men were of a sterling type of manhood that the county had 
never before possessed. This class of young men had responded to the call 
of the Union in the hour of distress. Some of them had enlisted in the ranks 
and had been promoted to service in the medical corps. They had dropped 
a school course half completed, they turned away from promising futures 
and answered a call for help in a cause for right. 

A NEW ERA. 

This class of doctors gave their best efforts to the distressed on both 
sides of the conflict. When in the late sixties they came to Marshall county, 
with the rush of home-seeking settlers, it was but natural they would find a 
place in the new homes and hearts of the people. As those new homes 
swelled the population of the trading posts into towns and transformed the 
prairies into farms, the doctor was taken into the consultation with the par- 
ents as no other person could be. The babies, as they grew up, learned to 
look upon the doctor as their friend and staff in times of trouble and as one 
who rejoiced with them in their prosperity. 

Through the storms of Avinter, the deep mud of spring and the burning 
hot winds of the long, dry summer, the doctor could always be depended upon 
in times of sickness and accidents. No road was too long or too bad, no 



39- MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

night was too dark or too stormy, no creek too deep or dangerous to ford, 
to deter the doctor from going to the call for help. 

The merchant might refuse a sack of Hour or the druggist refuse medi- 
cine, until the poor and needy secured an order from the county, but the 
doctor was always the friend of the deserving. 

From out of the darkness and out of the wild, 
Came a voice: I'm alone with my dying child, 
Oh winds, bear a message ; tell some one to come ; 
In God's mercy send help to our sad, stricken home. 
The wild storm was raging, the snow drifted high, 
Was't the wind or an angel brought the doctor that cry. 
So out in the darkness and out in the wild, 
He brought hope to that mother and help to her child. 

Associated with these grand army doctors, who grew old as they became 
engrafted into the hearts and homes of the people, we find a great assort- 
ment of humanity attempting, succeeding or pretending to follow in their 
footsteps. For more than thirty years after the close of the war, our county 
Avas robbed by a class of impostors who came as itinerant doctors to prey 
upon the weakened, chronic, incurable, or the loving sympathy of the friends, 
as well as upon the poor, deluded mind that dwelt upon some real or imaginary 
functional abnormality, and secured a depraved pleasure in the thought of 
chronic individualism. Those criminal impostors sometimes had an advance 
agent to round up the victim. Others had a tent and a show to draw the 
crowd. A third class put up at hotels, but all were alike in one respect: 
They secured a contract, in the form of a note, which they sold to a broker 
and then departed to find new fields for conquest. 

A second class embraced a large number of would-be doctors, who 
possessed neither the natural or acquired ability. They remained a short 
time and disappeared. A third class came better prepared and as time 
advanced and population increased, this third class of doctors increased both 
in numbers and proficiency. 

As the nation, the state and the county developed, so the individuality 
of the medical profession developed in the standard of qualification. In the 
early days there was no established minimum of qualifications. It was in 
the early eighties that the first effort was made to raise the standard through 
a state board, but without avail. About ten years later the present law was 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 393 

passed by the state Legislature. As this law first went into effect the doctors 
were divided into three classes. 

First, those who were graduates of reputable schools of medicine; second, 
those who would pass a creditable examination before a state board and, 
third, those who were not eligible for either first or second grade, but who 
had been continually engaged in the practice of medicine for the ten years 
last past. 

CONDITIONS TO OBTAIN PERMIT. 

Later, the law was changed, and as it now stands an applicant for a 
state permit must be a graduate of a recognized medical school and then must 
pass a satisfactory examination before a state board. The certificate of the 
state board must be recorded in the ofiice of the county clerk, where the doc- 
tor resides. 

As the state board was to be the judge of what constituted an acceptable 
school, it became necessary to establish a degree of proficiency for standard 
schools. Up to a few years ago the medical diploma in America was a joke 
in the opinion of the rest of the world. 

In the report of the United States commissioner of education for the 
year ending June 30, 1915, we find the statement that the number of medical 
schools in America was one hundred and sixty-two, about one-half the total 
number in the world. In 1904 there were five thousand seven hundred and 
forty-seven graduates from these medical institutions. As the commercially- 
run schools are being put out of business, the number of graduates has rapidly 
decreased. Many of these schools were private, carried on in the interests 
of commercialism. The only entrance qualification was to be able to pay the 
fee. The post-graduate qualification was the ability to call one of the pro- 
fessors in consultation, or send an endless stream of patients to the hospital. 
This led to the infamous practice of robbing the patient and dividing the fee. 
The state of Kansas, ever in the front ranks protecting the interest of the 
oppressed, declared such fee-splitting a crime and established a penalty. 

By co-operating with other state boards, the qualifications of both doc- 
tors and schools were raised. This resulted in weeding out the commercially- 
run schools. Today, nearly all the medical schools in America are the med- 
ical departments of standard universities. The total number of new gradu- 
ates turned out each year, in the last ten years, has been only about one-half 
the number of former decades, but the proficiency has averaged much higher, 
and is increasing every year. 



394 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

ADVANCE OF .MKlJlCAL SCIENCE. 

The researches of such men as Pasteur and the many who have come 
after him. have completely revolutionized the science of medicine. In the 
past fifty }-ears greater progress has heen made than during- all preceding 
ages. The old, empirical methods are abandoned in the light of the micro- 
scope, test tube and the post-mortem revelation. 

The research labaratories have opened up new fields; have broadened 
our view-point; deepened our vision; turned the search-light into the closed 
recesses and the X-ray through what was opaque, giving us a clearer compre- 
hension of the relationship between cause and result. The field of bacteri- 
ology is a new world of life and death, in which we have found the solution 
of many former mysteries. Along this line our anti-serums and their uses 
are Ijeing developed. The relationship of organic or inorganic chemistry to 
biology, has as yet been but lightly touched. 

The subject of preventive medicine as required in modern times and 
under modern conditions and in the light of modern knowledge, has just 
begun to be recognized. This will include the broad subject of nutrition, 
growth, repair, energy, waste and decay, and the differences between the 
uses of the fats, the carbo-hydrates and the proteins from the animal and the 
vegetable kingdoms. 

On these varying changes and broadening of human knowledge, the 
doctors of Marshall county have not l^een idle. New men fresh from the 
standard medical schools and strengthened by preparatory training, have from 
year to year been added to the ranks as recruits. Many of the older men, 
who are still active in the work, have either returned to their alma mater 
or taken regular post-graduate work and are active students today as of old, 
pushing onward, traveling in search of "light, more light." 

COUNTY MEDICAL .SOCIETY. 

The first County Medical Society was organized in 1879 with ten mem- 
bers and many of the young doctors who, twelve years before, had been 
mustered out of the army, were active in this movement. New members 
have been added from year to year and at present the county organization is 
in affiliation with the State and American Associations. 

At present the profession is represented by thirty-three doctors in twelve 
towns. In Oketo — Doctor Wood. In Marysville — Doctors McAllister, 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 395 

Breeding, Edington Eddy, Hausman, Hawkins, Patterson, Rooney, Von 
Wald and the Wilsons, father and son. Home City — Doctor John Shumway. 
Beattie — Doctors Ham, Gist and Mathews. Axtell — Doctor Piper and New- 
man. Summerfield — Doctors Dodds, Stewart and Johnson. Waterville — 
Doctors Humfreville and Thatcher. Blue Rapids — Doctors Fillmore, Reed 
and McFarland. Irving — Doctors Leith and Phillebawm. Frankfort — 
Doctors Brawley, Sr., and Brawley, Jr. and Brady. Vermillion — Dr. John 
Clifton. Lillis — Doctor Holliday. 

Thirty-three doctors in Marshall county, with a total population of 
twenty-two thousand, gives us an average per capita of a number that would 
indeed tax the ability of the physicians, if it were not for the many modifying 
conditions. Here we have a population composed almost entirely of the 
so-called middle classes, the workers, the thinkers and the planners. These 
people are living under the very best social and economic hygiene. There 
are some drug stores, where we have good reason to believe the clerks and 
proprietors are violating state laws by counter prescribing. Those who are 
guilty are acting the part of a dispensing physician, without possessing the 
state regulation as such. 

The National and State Druggists' Association have been trying for 
years to force the doctors to send all patients to the druggist with prescrip- 
tions, and prevent the doctors from dispensing their own drugs to the patient 
direct. Many of the drug jobbers and manufacturers have refused to sell 
direct to dispensing physicians. 

It has for years been a common practice among druggists to refill physi- 
cians' prescriptions for any and all who requested it, and even they them- 
selves prescribe for customers. The druggist, who should be the co-worker 
of the doctor, is often his most bitter enemy. Today, practically all physi- 
cians in the county are dispensing direct to patients. 

MACBETH ON MEDICINE. 

There is another reason why all patients do not come to the doctors. 
In all times, past and present, it has been a well-known fact that, under favor- 
able conditions, the human system tends to right a wrong within itself. One 
of the favorable conditions is a contented mind. This is often produced by 
the confidence that something is being or has been done for them. On this 
principle, a great many systems of drugless treatment have been devised and 
thrust upon the confiding public. The underlying truth of this was well 
understood by Shakespeare, when he causes Macbeth to enquire of the doctor : 



396 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Macbeth: Mow does yonr patient, doctor? 

Doctor: Not so sick, my lord, 
As she is troubled with thick-coming fancies, 
That keep her from her rest. 

Macbeth : Cure of that. 
Canst thou not minister to a mind diseased, 
Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow, 
Raze out the written troubles of the brain 
And with some sweet oblivious antidote, 
Cleanse the stuff'd bosom of that perilous stuff 
Which weighs upon the heart. 

Doctor: Therein the patient 
Must minister to himself. 

All through the journey of human life the true doctor is constantly 
brought face to face with every problem that confronts mankind. The very 
problem of life itself he is often asked to explain. Ei'cry cradle asks us 
ichcucc and every coffin, ivJiither? 

Y.xtry member of the community calls upon him in the hour of trouble, 
leans upon him in the time of weakness, and draws aside the curtain disclos- 
ing the family skeleton in the closet, or the secret, hidden wealth. 

Xo man l^ecomes so endeared to the family as the old family doctor. 

"Unskilful he to fawn, or seek for power, 
By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour ; 
Far other aims his heart had learned to prize. 
More bent to raise the wretched, than to rise." 

It w^as not for seltish, commercial reasons that the old-time doctor made 
the long drives on stormy nights to relieve some sufferer in the settler's 
lonely dugout. There is something so noble, so precious, so enjoyable that 
money cannot purchase it, when the doctor rejoices with the young parents 
over their new-found treasure. 

In after years when the mother counsels with the doctor on a well-bal- 
anced ration and the entire process of constructive and destructive metabolism, 
the doctor enjoys a part ownership in the development of a new American 
citizen. 

RETROSPECTIVE. 

When in his declining years the doctor sees his babies take their places 
and play their parts on the world's stage in the drama of human life, there 
is a pride and a satisfaction that words cannot express and the careless can- 
not understand. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 397 

When you see the modern physician walk down the cement sidewalk 
with his neat little black case, or you see him go rapidly past you in his modern 
motor car over one of our well dragged country roads, at a speed far exceed- 
ing the legal rate, don't think he is out for a pleasure or a crazy speed drive. 
He may be going to the home of wealth and luxury, to relieve the victim of 
an afternoon tea party or a last night's banquet. 

It may be to the home of privation and sorrow, or to the injured bread- 
winner in some laborer's cottage with the rent unpaid. It matters not to the 
doctor, so long as it is a call from one who is suffering. He goes as cheer- 
fully, as willingly and as hurriedly to one as to the other. I know of no 
one of all the world's workers, who comes nearer than the honest, conscien- 
tious, self-sacrificing member of the medical profession to the poet's ideal, 
when he wrote : 

"What is noble? That which places, 

Truth in its enfranchised will. 
Leaving steps like angel traces, 

That mankind may follow still : 
Ever striving, ever seeking. 

Some improvement yet to plan ; 
To assist our fellow-being. 

And like man, to feel for man." 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
Bench and Bar of Marshall County. 

On February 26, 1855, A. H. Reeder, territorial governor of Kansas, 
issued a proclamation defining the judicial districts of the territory and assign- 
ing judges to them. 

The third district included the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh and 
twelfth election districts. Big Blue Crossing was the tenth election district 
and Marysville, the eleventh. Marshall C(^unty was then in the third judicial 
district, Kansas territory. 

President Pierce had commissioned Saunders W. Johnston as an associ- 
ate justice on Tune 24, 1854, and the third judicial district was assigned to 
him. Courts were to be held at Pawnee. 

It is well to recall some political history in connection with the fact that 
court was to be held at Pawnee. Governor Reeder, like many other citizens, 
liad become interested in various schemes for the organization of embryo 
cities. 

What more natural than to think that the future capital of the state 
would be located near the center. Pawnee was the logical site of the future 
capital : so the Pawnee l^^wn Company was formed. Congress had appro- 
priated twenty-five thousand dollars for the erection of a suitable building in 
which the territorial Legislatures might meet. 

That building v,as erected by the Pawnee Town Company, of which 
Governor Reeder was a passive, if not an active, member. The executive 
offices were established at Pawnee and the first territorial Legislature con- 
vened there. True, it did not last long; but for a time, at least for four 
days, it was in the same judicial district as Marshall county. On July 2, 
1855, the same day on which the first territorial Legislature met at Pawnee, 
Saunders W. Johnston organized the third district bar, at Pawnee. One 
man from Marshall county was present at that meeting — Frank J. Marshall. 

1:1 is honor, Saunders W. Johnston, never visited this county. On Sep- 
tember I, 1855, not quite three months later, he resigned his office and Jere- 
miah D. Burrell was appointed and on September 13 was commissioned and 
assigned to the third district. Two years later he held the first court in 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 399 

Marysville, probably in one of F. J. Aiarshall's log houses. His one act was 
to "swear in" D. C. Auld, as justice of the peace. 

In the fall of 1855 the voting strength of Marshall county being about 
sixty, it was decided that a xouiity organization, was needed and .the. county 
was duly organized, the necessary business proceedings taking place, as usual, 
in a log cabin on the banks of the Blue. 

SHERIFF SHOT. 

The duties of the county officials were not very arduous. Alexander 
Clarke, the first sheriff, had his official career ended very suddenly by being 
shot by a desperado, whom he was attempting to arrest. 

A county warrant was issued on December 15, 1856, by James McClosky 
in favor of Henry Adams and H. L,. Kirk, of Atchison, for services rendered 
in laying out a road from Atchison to Marysville. 

Tins was the first county warrant issued in Marshall county. The first 
regularly organized district court convened in Marysville in March, 1857. 
Judge Burrel, of the United States district court, presided and James 
McClosky acted as clerk. .\s no cases appeared on the docket and no grand 
jury called, it looked as if the court would have to adjourn without trans- 
acting any business, when a "case of conscience" came up. D. C. Auld, an 
abolitionist, had been appointed justice of the peace for the Vermillion dis- 
trict. The territorial laws, as passed by a pro-slavery Legislature, recjuired 
that all officials should take an "iron-clad oath" to support the United States 
fugitive slave law. This law was antagonistic to Mr. Auld's principles and 
he refused to take the oath. McClosky appealed to Judge Burrel to qualify 
]\rr. Auld without requiring the oatii and Judge Burrel wrote out a Pennsvl- 
vania oath and administered it to Auld, who qualified, served out his term 
and felt free to assist any fugitive slave who, in his flight for freedom, hap- 
pened to pass his way. 

COUNTY RE-DISTRICTED. 

In i860 a re-districting was made and Marshall county was then put in 
the second judicial district and Rush Elmore, associate justice of the supreme 
court, was assigned as judge. Elmore was from Alabama and was com- 
missioned an associate justice of the territory of Kansas by Franklin Pierce, 
President, on the same day on which Andrew H. Reeder was commissioned 
territorial governor — June 29. 185.4. There is no record that Judge Elmore 
ever presided over a court in Marshall county. 



400 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

The second jn(Hci;il district was now composed of the counties of 
Atchison, Doniphan, Brown. Nemaha, Washington and Marshall counties. 
Judge Rush Ehnorc was succeeded l)y Hon. Alhert L. Lee, who Hved at 
Ehnore. l^oniplian county, and who served from January 29, 1861, the day 
on which Kansas hecamc a state, until October 31, 1861. Jndge Lee died 
in New York City on December 31, 1907. 

The next judge 'was Albert H. Horton, who was born in Orange county, 
New York, March 12, 1837, and was educated at Ann Arbor University. 
He was admitted to the practice of law in the supreme court of New York 
in 1859 '^"^1 came to Kansas in i860, locating at Atchison. Li 1861 he was 
elected city attcorney of Atchison and the same year was appointed judge of 
the second judicial district l)y Gov. Charles l^obinson, and held that office by 
election until j866, when he resigned. In 1876 he was appointed chief 
justice of the supreme court of the state by Governor Osborne, and the fol- 
lowing year was elected to the same office, in which capacity he served seven- 
teen years, when he resigned. He was subsequently re-elected supreme court 
justice and died while serving in that office September 2, 1900. 

A CELEBRATED CASE. 

Horton was succeeded as judge of the second judicial district by Hon. 
St. Clair Graham on May 11, 1866, who served until January 11, 1869. 
Judge Graham was on the bench when the celebrated Regis Liosel land con- 
test was tried in the Nemaha county court, in which John J. Ligalls repre- 
sented claimants to thirty-eight thousand one hundred and eleven acres of 
land in the counties of Nemaha, Marshall and Pottawatomie. 

It was one of the celebrated cases of the day and formed the basis for 
Ingalls' most charming story of "Regis Liosel, 1799-1804," to be found in 
the Ingalls' book of writings. The litigation grew out of a French land 
grant, which subsecjuently was confirmed by an act of Congress in 1858. 

The attorneys of record at the bar were: John W. Ballinger, county 
attorney; J. E. Clardy, J. D. Brumbaugh, W. C. Dunton and W. W. Jerome. 

1861-66. — Hon. Albert Horton, district judge; Byron Sherry, county 
attorney (appointed from Atchison county). Attorneys: R. M. Bratney, 
J. F. Babbett, H. C. Hawkins. E. J. Jenkins, United States district attorney, 
appeared on the April term of court in 1865 and W. W. Jerome was the 
county attorney. 

1866-68. — Hon. R. St. Clair Graham, district judge; W. W. Jerome, 
countv attornev. The bar remained the same. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 4OI 

1868-71. — Hon. Nathan Price, district judge; M. C. White, county 
attorney. During- the October term, 1869, Asa E. Park and W. Pitt Mudgett 
were admitted to the l^ar. Attorneys of note were Metcalf and Waggener 
and John J. Ingahs, of Atchison. 

In 1868 Hon. Nathan Price, of Troy, was elected judge and served 
until 1872, when he resigned. Judge Price was a man of strong, forceful 
personality, impressing all who came in touch with him with that indefinable 
quality called magnetism. Plis decisions were seldom reversed. 

TWELFTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT. 

The twelfth judicial district was created by the Legislature of 1871 and 
consisted of Marshall, Washington, Republic, Mitchell, Clay, Cloud, Smith, 
Osborn, Phillips and Norton counties. 

The terms of court in Marshall county were to be held on the second 
Monday of April and the second Monday of October. 

Andrew S. Wilson of Washington was judge of the twelfth district 
from March 16, 1871, to October 20, 1884, when he was succeeded by Joseph 
G. Lowe, of ^Vashington, who held the oifice from October 20 to November 
10, 1884, when he was succeeded by A. A. Carnahan, of Concordia, who 
held the position from November 11, 1884, to January, 1885. He was suc- 
ceeded by Edward Hutchinson, of Marysville, who served from January, 
1885, to January, 1889. 

Lowe and Carnahan were appointed by Gov. George W. Click. 

1871-84. — Hon. A. S. V/ilson, district judge; M. C. White, county 
attorney, 1871-73. 

1873. — Edward Hutchinson, county attorney. 

1875. — F. M. Love, county attorney. 

1879. — John A. Broughton, county attorney. 

1883. — E. A. Berry, county attorney. 

Members of the bar during these years were : W. H. H. Ereeman, W. 
W. Smith, John Y. Coon, E. L. Begun, Theodore H. Polack, George C. 
Brownell, G. E. Scoville, \\^ S. Glass, W. A. Calderhead, C. H. Lemmon, 
J. D. Gregg, W. J. Gregg, Cal. T. Mann, Jos. Patterson, J. S. Magill, John 
McCoy and H. K. Sharpe. 

This was without doubt the strongest bar in the history of Marshall 

county. E. A. Berry served many years as county attorney. W. W. Smith 

acted as private secretary for Senator Charles Curtis for many years. E. 

Hutchinson became the district judge. W. A. Calderhead was elected to 

(26) 



402 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Congress and ser\ed fourteen years. Of this bar, Love, Coon, Begun, Sco- 
ville. J. D. Gregg, Mann. Patterson, Glass and T.cmmon have appeared before 
a higher judge. 

Mr. Berry, Mr. Broughton and Mr. Calderhead are no longer in active 
practice. Smith, Brownell and Hutchinson are not residents of the county. 
Mr. Polack and Mr. W. J. Gregg are the only active lawyers left of that bar. 

TWENTY-FIR.ST JUDICIAL DISTRICT. 

In 1888 the district was again changed and the twenty-first judicial dis- 
trict created, composed of Marshall, Clay and Riley counties. 

Judge Robert F]. Spilman, of Riley county, was elected judge, to suc- 
ceed Judge Hutchinson. 

Judge R. B. Spilman was the most popular judge who ever graced this 
bench. He had the judicial temperament in a high degree and was greatly 
respected by the bar of the district. He continued judge until his death in 
1899. 

Hon. W. S. Glass, of Marysville, was appointed to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Judge Spilman and served imtil 1902. 

At the annual election, Hon. Sam Kimble, of Manhattan, was elected 
judge and continued in office until 191 5, serving as judge of the twenty-first 
judicial district for twelve years. He was succeeded by Hon. Frederick 
Smith, the present judge. Judge .Smith is a native of Manhattan and is 
the third judge from that city to preside over the tri-county bar. 

1888. — Hon. Edward Hutchinson, district judge; E. A. Berry, county 
attorney. S. D. McKee admitted. The bar remained much the same. 

1889-99. — Hon. R. B. Spilman, district judge; W. A. Calderhead, 
county attorney, 1889-91; E. Hutchinson, county attorney, 1895-96; E. A. 
Berry, county attorney, 1896-97. 

On February 8, 1895, J. G. Strong, of Blue Rapids, was admitted to the 
bar and one week later his father, J. G. Strong, Sr., was admitted. W. W. 
Redmond was an attorney of practice in 1889, and is still a member of the 
Marshall county bar. 

October 15, 1899, Hon. W. S. Glass was appointed to fill a vacancy 
caused by the death of Judge R. B. Spilman. 

At the election of 1902, Hon. Sam Kimble, of Manhattan, was elected 
judge and continued in office until January i, 19 15, serving for twelve years. 

County attorney — Guy T. Helvering, 1907-11; James Van Vleet, 191 1- 
13; Charles H. Davis, 1913-17. 

191 5, — Hon. Fred R. Smith, district judge. 

191 7. — Hon. J. G. Strong, county attorney. 



MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 403 



ATTORNEYS. 



The dates on which many of the attorneys were admitted to practice at 
the Marshall county har are not of record, but such as it has been possible to 
ascertain are given. ■< 

E. L. Begun, admitted, 1S71. 

W. A. Calderhead, admitted, December 10, 1879. 

W. S. Glass, admitted, December 11, 1879. 

Charles H. Lemmon, admitted, December 14, 1879. 

Omar Powell, admitted, March 15, 1880. 

A. C. Pepper, admitted, December 8, 1879. 

Giles E. Scoville, admitted, March 17, 1873. 

J. W. Searles. 

E. W. Waynant. 

Guy T. Helvering, admitted, 1906. 

Robert L. Helvering, admitted, 1909. 

MARSHALL COUNTY BAR ASSOCIATION. 

In May, 1884, the first Bar Association of Marshall county, w^as organ- 
ized at the court house in Marysville. The membership consisted of J. S. 
Magill, John McCoy. J. A. Broughton, W. A. Calderhead, E. A. Berry, A. 
E. Park, W. J. Gregg, H. K. Sharpe, G. E. Scoville. Cal T. Mann, S. D. 
McKee and E. Hutchinson. At this meeting, E. Hutchinson was elected 
president ; W. J. Gregg, secretary, and J. A. Broughton, treasurer. 

The present officers are: W. J. Gregg, president; R. L. Helvering, 
secretary, and W. W. Redmond, treasurer. The regular meetings are held 
on the first day of court each new year. 

FIRST SESSION OF COURT IN MARSHALL COUNTY. 

In 1855 a few log houses on the slight eminence, w'here R. Y. Shibley's 
house now stands, constituted the city of Marysville. 

One log house near where the ward school is located, the home of J. P. 
Miller, was all there was of Palmetto. 

One day this community \vas interested to learn that court would be held 
in one of the log cabins on the river bank and would be presided over by 
Judge Buce, from South Carolina. 

Suit had been brought by Frank J. Marshall against W. M. F. McGraw, 



404 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

of Maryland. McGraw had a contract with the United States government 
for carrying mail monthly to Salt Lake City. Marshall had instituted suit 
against ]\IcGra\v for the keeping and feeding of some eighty mules for a 
period of two years, for which McGraw had not paid. McGraw had been 
notified to appear in court and the momentous day arrived. 

A UNIQUE JURYMAN. 

"Bob" Shibley, measuring six feet two in height and about the size of 
a clothes line in width, aged seventeen years, was one of the six jurymen. 
A store box served for the judge's bench and another box furnished him a 
seat. The six jurymen were seated on boxes, the judge was in his place, 
when amidst a great commotion, yelling and rattling, the mail stage drove 
up. McGraw was on the seat with the driver, while a man known in plains- 
men's parlance as a "whacker." ran along side the four mules doing exactly 
what his name indicates. 

J. P. Miller, who will be recalled as one of the original Palmetto Town 
Company, was officiating in as many roles as the celebrated Pooh-Bah of 
Gilbert and Sullivan's "Mikado." 

He was sheriff, clerk of the court, register of deeds, and in fact in any 
other office that might be thrust upon him. He was a tall thin man and, 
with much dignity, he advanced to the door of the cabin and ordered McGraw 
into court. 

McGraw and his two men had two revolvers in their belts and -things 
looked like immediate war, as they came into the cabin. 

The judge was attired in a suit of clothes which showed wear and lack 
of cleaning and pressing, but what attracted young Bob's attention was his 
coat. This article was a bright blue in color and fit his honor "like the 
feathers on a bird." This dazzling garment caught the eye of the young 
juror and interested him more than the legal proceedings. 

CHALLENGE TO A DUEL. 

The judge opened court : "Mr. McGraw you are summoned to appear 
here as defendant in a suit brought by F. J. Marshall for recovery of money. 
Have you anything to say?" 

"Yes, sir," roared McGraw. "I refuse to recognize this court. You 
are all Frank Marshall's hirelings and I will have nothing to do with you." 

The effect of this retort on Judge Buce cannot be described. He thrust 



. MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 405 

his hands into the box before him and brought forth two revlovers. One 
he held by the barrel presenting the handle to McGraw and demanding with 
language more forceful than elegant that he take the revolver and defend 
himself, for he (Buce) proposed to defend the honor of the court. In other 
words a duel was imminent. 

McGraw, who was a large, portly man, backed around the room, fol- 
lowed by the small but wrathy South Carolinian, pouring out oaths and threats 
in quick succession. Finally reaching the door, McGraw made his escape 
and with his drivers left judge and jury to finish the trial. 

TALE OF A COAT MINUS A TAIL. 

During the altercation between Buce and McGraw, "Bob", who feared 
there would be blood shed, backed into a corner of the cabin and made him- 
self as flat as possible against the wall. The thing which impressed itself 
most vividly on his mind was the coat of his honor the judge. This gar- 
ment had previous]}- attracted the attention of the boy juror, but when the 
integrity of the court was questioned and Buce sprang from the judicial 
bench, the astounding fact ^^as revealed that one coat tail was missing. 

The coat was of the "spike tail"' variety and the spectacle of the judge 
in pursuit of McGraw with rage and oaths, threatening vengeance with one 
"claw" of the "hammer" missing, was too much for "Bob," and to this day 
when he recalls it, he roars with laughter. 

After McGraw's departure the perspiring judge again opened court. 
Miller presented tiie case for the plaintiff, and the jury was sent out into the 
yard to deliberate on the verdict. Having agreed they came into court and 
in response to the question, "Gentlemen, are you agreed?" the foreman 
answered that damages to the amount of eight thousand dollars had been 
awarded to F. J. Marshall. A board of appraisers was sent to the pasture, 
enough mules were selected to satisfy the judgment, and such report was 
made by Sheriff Miller. Court was adjourned and Judge Buce, with his blue 
coat minus one section, departed. That night, Frank Marshall's partner. 
Woodward, started with the mules for Iowa. 

BAR STORY. 

In the days that Nathan Price served as judge, the lawyers from Atchison 
made the trip in the Overland stage. 

Many amusing incidents of those days were told by those who "practised 



406 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

at the bar" in more than one sense. Frank A. Root, in "The Overland 
Trail/' tells this story: 

On the Overland route during staging days, a good story is told on Uncle 
John O'Laughlin, who was postmaster in the early days of Kansas, at a ranch 
between Seneca and Guittards, called Ash Point. 

O'Laughlin kept a small stock of goods in connection with the postoffice, 
and over the door of his building was a prominent sign which read, "Uncle 
John's Store." His goods consisted of such articles as are usually needed by 
people crossing the plains and some of the staples required to supply the 
wants of the neighboring ranchmen. 

One of the principals kept in stock and sold over the counter by Uncle 
John, was whiskey. • In the early days some of the travelers spoke of the 
place as an oasis on the prairies. 

While the war was in progress, Congress passed a stringent revenue law 
and a tax was immediately imposed on all ardent spirits. 

Instead of selling by the drink, it became necessary for the dealers to dis- 
pose of the stuff in original packages only. 

One day it happened that Judge Nathan Price and a number of lawyers 
were on their way to Marysville, by stage, to attend court. Price was then 
judge of the second judicial district. 

On reaching I^ncle John's store and having heard the old man kept 
"something good to take,"' the jolly disciples of Blackstone suddenly became 
"awful thirsty." While the stage stopped for a few minutes to change the 
mail, the lawyers crawled out of the coach, and, single file, followed the judge 
into the postoffice. 

After politely passing the time of day the judge inquired of Uncle John 
if he kept anything "good to take." Being answered in the affirmative, he 
ordered "eye opener cocktails" for the crowd. 

"I would like to accommodate you, but I can't sell it by the drink", said 
the old man ; "since Congress has passed this infernal revenue law, I can 
dispose of it only in original packages." 

"Original packages be " roared the judge, "by the great horn 

spoon we must have something to drink, if we have to buy your entire outfit, 
or a barrel. What do you want for your place? What will a barrel of the 
stuff cost? or, perhaps you have some smaller packages." 

With a broad smile on his face. Uncle John reached down under the 
counter and brought forth a quart bottle of genuine "Old Kentucky Bourbon" 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 407 

and for a few minutes following, those thirsty lawyers were happy, prac- 
tising at the old man's bar. 

These are all matters of the past now. Ash Point is no longer a stopping 
place. The old stage coach has been replaced by the railroad. The pro- 
hibitory laws have driven out the bar and the liquor, and Nathan Price and 
his associates sleep with their fathers. The court remains, untouched by 
time. . . 



CHAPTER XIX. 
Banks and Banking in Marshall County. 

One of the most substantial assets of Marshall county is its banks. It is 
not too much to say that there is not a county in the state witli a stronger 
group of banks, or one in which the Ijanks enjoy in greater degree the con- 
tidence of patrons. 

There are twenty-eight banks in the county, officered by representative 
business men, and these banks demonstrate what business acumen and honest 
administration may attain. 

The banking history of the county shows but three failures. The 
Hodges bank at Irving, the Warden bank at Frankfort, and the Baer bank 
of Beattie. It is said that no depositor lost a dollar by these failures. 

Under wise and conservative management Marshall county banks are 
transacting an extensive business and have gained recognition by the solid 
financial institutions of thi^- and other states. 

It is said the stability and character of a state may be judged by the 
standing of its banks. Marshall county ranks second in the state in num- 
ber and the reports of its twent3'-eight banks show a steady and secure 
financial growth. 

AXTELL banks. 

Axtell Citizen's Bank was organized in 1886; P. J. Curtler, president; 
Alex. Gillespie, vice-president ; George W. Reed, cashier ; John Byrne, assist- 
ant cashier. Capital. $25,000; deposits, 1916, $94,000. 

The State Bank of Axtell was organized in 1890. George W. Williams, 
president ; O. V. Lohmuller, cashier ; J. R. Thomas, assistant cashier. Capital 
$15,000; deposits, $143,000. 

AT BEATTIE, 

The State Bank of Beattie was organized in 1905; C. E. Lohmuller, 
president ; O. V. Lohmuller, cashier ; J. R. Thomas, assistant cashier. Capital 
stock, $12,000; deposits, $80,000. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. . 409 

FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF BEATTIE. 

The First National Bank of Beattie was organized on July ii, 1914, 
and commenced business on August 26, 1914, with the following officers: 
Albert P. Simpson, president ; Samuel S. Simpson, vice-president ; Robert O. 
Grouse, cashier; directors, R. S. Pauley, Marion Hawk, W. B. Plawk, Albert 
P. Simpson, Samuel S. Simpson and Robert O. Grouse. The present officers 
are the same with the addition of J. D. Burnside, Jr., as assistant cashier. 

AT BLUE RAPIDS. 

Banking at Blue Rapids was commenced on May 15, 1871, by G. E. 
Olmstead, Henry B. Olmstead and J. L. Freeland, under the name of "Bank 
of Blue Rapids." It was sold in 1884 to G. B. and Fred A. Stocks, they con- 
tinuing same name until the organization of the State Bank of Blue Rapids 
on August 5, 1 891. 

The capital of bank is $20,000, and present- officers are : F. O. Way- 
nant, president; E. W. Waynant, vice-president; W. J. Burr, cashier and F. 
L. Stauffer, assistant cashier. 

CITIZENS STATE BANK. BLUE RAPIDS. 

The charter for the Gitizens State Bank was granted on September 22, 
1904. The building was completed and opened up for business on February 
8, 1905, with G. S. Gummings. president, and G. E. Gummings, cashier. 
Gapital stock, $15,000. 

The statement on January i 191 7, showed: Gapital stock. $15,000; 
surplus and undivided profits, $5,000; deposits, $200,000; loans and dis- 
counts, $150,000. The officers are: M. A. Thompson, president; Livy B. 
Tibbetts, vice-president; G. E. Gummings, cashier; Dan H. Gox, assistant 
cashier. 

BREMEN STATE BANK. 

The Bremen State Bank was organized August 5, 1907. The first 
officers were: W. Rabe, president; F. W. Stohs, vice-president; Fred H. 
Pralle, cashier. 

On March 17, 1908, the bank was destroyed by fire. $4,000 on deposit 
in the burglar-proof safe was badly charred. W. H. Smith, of Marysville, 



4IO MARSFtALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

a director in the hank, took the money to Washington, D. C, where it was 
all redeemed with the exception of one five dollar hill. 

Between the dates March 17, 1908, and Septemher i, 1908, the hank 
did husiness in a hox car and dnring- that time deposits increased $40,000. 

The hank now has a capital stock of $10,000; surplus profits, $7,240.82; 
deposits, $144,601.91 ; loans and discounts, $98,567.94. 

BIGELOW^ STATE BANK. ■ 

The Bigelow State Bank was organized on August 7, 1907, with a 
capital stock of $12,000. The following were the officers: J. E. Chitty, 
president; L. H. Armstrong, vice-president, and A. H. Bruhaker, cashier, 
Avith the following directors, J. E. Chitty, L. H. x^rmstrong, P. E. Laughlin, 
Charles F. Pusch, \V. H. Smith, A. H. Bruhaker, P. L. Rasmussen and 
Charles E. Fea. 

There was an attempted holdup of the hank on Decemher 23, 1909. 
A. H. Bruhaker, the cashier, still has the gun which he took away from the 
rohber who attempted the holdup. 

The present officers are: L. H. Armstrong, president; P. L. Rasmussen, 
vice-president; N. A. Bruhaker, cashier, and Lula E.. Bruhaker, assistant 
■cashier. 

The hank now has a capital stock of $12,000; surplus and profits, 
.$4,691.36; deposits, $70,228.20, being a state depository. 

AT FRANKFORT. 

The Bank of Frankfort was started by L. V. McKee and Charles 
Dougherty as a private bank. May r, 1886, with a capital of $10,000. The 
first officers were: Frfsident. Charles Dougherty; cashier, L. V. McKee; 
assistant cashier, J. W. Lobley. 

On January 17, 1889, it was organized as a state bank with a capital 
of $50,000, of which $35,000 was paid up. It was chartered and opened 
for business on May i, 1889, under the name of the State Bank of Frank- 
fort, with Charles Dougherty, president ; L. V. McKee, cashier ; J. W. Lobley, 
assistant cashier. • 

On January i, 1914, I-. V. McKee, owing to ill health, retired from the 
bank, selling his interest to J. W. Eobley and B. Nauman. 

The present officers are : President, B. Naunian ; vice-president, P. R. 
Wolfe; vice-president, VV. C. Brown; cashier. L. W. Lobley. The capital 
stock is $35,000; surplus funds, $17,500. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 4II 



CITIZENS BANK, FRANKFORT. 

The Citizens Bank of Frankfort has been in successful operation since its 
estabhshment in i8gi. Its present officers are T. F. Rhodes, president; A. 
P. Hampton, vice-president; Isaac H. Munro, vice-president; H. Kennedy, 
cashier; T. VV. Snodgrass and T. T. Rhodes, assistant: cashiers, and T. F. 
Rhodes, A. P. Hampton, Isaac H. Munro, H. Kennedy, W. J. Gregg, James 
M. Rhodes and F. H. Lourey, directors. 

The bank report for December ii, 191 6, shows: Capital stock, $30,060; 
surplus fund, $15,000; undivided profits, $21,368.60, and deposits, $197,719.96. 

CITIZENS STATE B.\NK, HOME CITY. 

The Citizens State Bank of Home city was organized in 1907, with a 
capital of $10,000; deposits, $105,000. Officials: President, E. W. Zim- 
merling ; vice-president, C. W. Kneisteadt ; cashier, P. R. Pulleine ; assistant 
cashier, William Eckstein. The foregoing with S. C. Schmidt, of Marys- 
ville, constitute the board of directors. 

STATE BANK, HOME CITY. 

The State Bank of Flome city was organized in 1904 by J. B. Wuester, 
with a capital of $15,000; deposits at last call were nearly $170,000. 

Officials : J. B. Wuester, president ; A. R. Wuester, vice-president ; J. 
B. Wuester, cashier; S. C. Harry, assistant cashier. The foregoing names 
with C. R. Harry comprise the directors. 

AT IRVING. 

The State Bank of Irving was organized in 1899, with John Cottrell, 
president; A. E. Hawkinson, vice-president; J. E. Pretz, cashier; Grace 
Smith, assistant cashier. Capital stock, $12,000; deposits, $85,000. 

■ " - • 

AT HERKIMER. . 

The vState Bank of Herkimer was organized in 19 10, with George J. 
Hoerath. president; J. Bluhm, vice-president; H. W. Koeneke, cashier. 
Capital stock, $10,000; deposits, $49,000. 

STATE bank/ LILLIS. 

The State Bank of Lillis was promoted by T. F. Rhodes and organized 
by Pat Donahue on the loth day of December, 1909. The bank opened for 



412 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS, 

business soon after Xcw Year, 1910, with 1 'at I)()naluie as cashier. The first 
directors were: T. \\ Rhodes. James ] larrington, James A. Keating', James 
Al. Rht)iles. M \'. Dorcas, J. B. Lohmuller and F. P. Bowen. 

.\ iter one year of etiicient service, Mr. Donahue resigned the cashiership 
and Mr. E. V. Dorcas was chosen in his stead. Mr. Dorcas remained in 
tlie bank fi\e years, putting it on a good financial basis by his excellent busi- 
ness dealings. 

Tn January, icjiG, the local farmers bought the controlling interest from 
Mr. T. V. Rhodes. Mr. Dorcas asked to be relieved of the cashiership and 
the new organization chose J. P. Redmond as cashier. 

The bank is capitalized at $15,000. In its last official statement, that 
of December 11, 1916, it had accrued a surplus of $2,000, and undivided 
profits of over $2,000. 

This iiank is housed in a modern brick bank building, with modern 
equipments, which g'we promise to bring this new institution up to a standard 
that is second to none in Marshall county. 

FIRST NATIONAL BANK, MARYSVILLE. 

The First National Bank of Marysville, was organized in August, 1882. 
The first officers were : M. S. Smalley, president ; Perry Hutchinson, vice- 
president ; F. R. Fulton, cashier, and x\ugust Hohn and S. A. Fulton, direct- 
ors. On May i, 1885, S. A. Fulton was elected president, and assumed 
active charge of the business. He died on April 26, 1893, and Perry Hutch- 
inson was elected president and August Hohn, vice-president. Perry Hutch- 
inson (lied on December 29, 19 14, and E. R. Fulton was elected president 
and H. A. Hohn, cashier and E. A. Hohn, assistant cashier. The board of 
directors consists of August Flohn, J. E. Andrews, W. W. Hutchinson, H. 
A. Hohn and E. R. Fulton. 

The last oflicial statement, March 5, 1917, shows capital, $75,000; sur- 
plus, $44,509.78; deposits, $805,628.69; loans, $516,035.59, and cash and 
exchange, $322,988.31, with total resources, $1,000,138.47. This bank is a 
United States depositary.' 

EXCHANGE BANK, MARYSVILLE. 

The Exchange Bank of Schmidt & Koester was established by Frank 
Schmidt and Charles F. Koester in 1870 and was incorporated under the 
Kansas state banking law in 1891 with a capital of $75,000.00. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 4I3 

The business is now carried on by their sons, the capital stock remain- 
inp; in the Schmidt and Koester famihes. 

The bank has always enjoyed a steady growth and has deposits of over 
$575,000, with- its capital the same and has surplus and profits of over $25,000. 
Its officers and directors are as follow : President, Alex Schmidt ; vice- 
president, Charles J. D. Koester; cashier, S. C. Schmidt; assistant cashiers, 
G. P. Schmidt and W. M. Schmidt. 

CITIZENS STATE BANK, MARYSVILLE. 

The Citizens State Bank of Marysville was organized early in the year 
of 1907 and opened for business on March 4, that year, with a capital of 
$30,000. At the first stockholders' meeting the following directors were 
elected: W. H. Smith, P. E. Laughlin, G. S. Hovey, Frank Schulte, W. S. 
Tinsman, J. D. Robertson and Thomas G. Hutt, and the directors then chose 
the following officers: W. H. Smith, president; G. S. Hovey, vice-president; 
P. E. Laughlin, cashier and Joseph Dwerlkotte, assistant cashier. 

Mr. Laughlin resigned the cashiership of the bank in 191 2 and Mr. 
Dwerlkotte succeeded him in that capacity, which office he still holds. 

The bank has made a steady growth ever since its organization and the 
last official statement on March 15, 1917, showed surplus and undivided 
profits amounting to $7,500, and deposits of $270,000. The present officers 
of the bank are as follow : P. E. Laughlin. president ; Charles F. Pusch, vice- 
president ; Joseph Dwerlkotte, cashier, and E. M. Carlson, assistant cashier. 

MARIETTA STATE BANK. 

The Marietta State Bank was chartered on May 24, 1909, as a state 
bank. At the time of organization the officers were : B. R. Bull, president ; 
Fred Obermeyer, vice-president, and W. L. Kirby, cashier. At the present 
time the officers are : B. R. Bull, president ; Fred Obermeyer, vice-president, 
and J. G. Schmidler, cashier. 

The bank now has a capital stock of $10,000, with thirty-one stock- 
holders; no stock changed hands in the past three years. 

OKETO STATE BANK. 

The Oketo State Bank was organized as a private bank on October 7, 
1889, by Z. H. Moore, with a capital of $5,000, Z. H. Moore retaining the 



414- MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

complete ownersliip luiiil 1809, vvhen he converted it into a state bank with 
a capital of $10,000. At iliis lime Mr. Moore was the cashier and asso- 
ciated witii liim as (hrectors were P. J. Eychaner, Frank L. Root, C. D. 
W hite and .\. II. i:rul)akcr. 

This bank has endeavored to build up a strong surplus to give to its 
customers better accommodations and to make more funds available during the 
lean-crop years. At the present time it has a surplus of $25,000, making the 
capital and surplus $35,000. 

The organizer and founder, Z. H. Moore, was actively connected with 
the bank until his death on September 19, 1916, at which time he was presi- 
dent. 

The directors of the bank at this time are : P. J. Eychaner, L. G. 
Moore, M. B. Moore, E. H. Moore and J. H. Moore. The officers are: 
L. G. Moore, president ; P. J. Eychaner, vice-president ; J. H. Moore, cashier ; 
Henry C. Waters, Jr., assistant cashier. 

SUMMERFIELD STATE BANK. 

This bank was organized in 1889 ^^ the Summerfield State Bank, which 
is the name at the present date. The officers at that time were, president, 
Frank Thomann ; C. G. Scrafford, cashier. The present officials are: 
President, W. F. Orr; vice-presidents, George Craven, Andrew Nestor; 
cashier, F. G. Bergen; assistant cashier, James Hamler. 

The bank is well patronized by a fine class of depositors and business 
men of the city and surrounding community and is third in line of deposits 
of the twenty-eight banks in Marshall county. 

FIR.ST NATIONAL BANK OF SUMMERFIELD. 

The First National Bank of Summerfield, was chartered on April 6, 
[917. The officials are: H. A. Berens, president; J. H. Russell, vice-presi- 
dent ; William Scott, vice-]3resident ; J. P. Murray, cashier. The capital stock 
is $25,000, with a surplus of $2,500. 

AT VERMILLION. 

The State Bank of Vermillion was organized in 1891. A. W. Slater, 
president; William Acker, vice-president; P. H. Hybskman, cashier; E. W. 
Hybskman, assistant cashier. Capital stock, $20,000; deposits, $70,000. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 415 

AT VLIETS. 

The State Bank of Vliets was organized in 1898, with a capital stock 
of $10,000. The first president was W. F. Robinson, and the cashier was 
George F. Walker. 

The bank retains its original name and is capitalized at the same stock. 
The present president is W. T. Buck and the cashier is R. F. Glick. 

CITIZENS STATE BANK, WATERVILLE. 

The Citizens State Bank of Waterville, was established in 1906 by Dr. 
D. W. Humfreville, with a $10,000 capital. It now has $7,000 surplus, and 
deposits have grown to $175,000. The bank is a member of both the State 
and National Bankers Associations. 

The present officers are : Dr. D. W. Humfreville, president ; J. D. 
Flannery and M. Delaney, vice-presidents ; J. W. Thompson, cashier, and G. 
T. Arganbright and B. R. Talbot, assistant cashiers. 

MERCHANTS STATE BANK, WATERVILLE. 

This l^ank began business under name of the Merchants Bank in 1882, 
with Thorne & Thomas, partners. It was incorporated as the Merchants 
State Bank in 1905, Chester Thomas, president; F. P. Thorne, cashier. At 
present, F. P. Tliorne is president and W. P. McKelvy, cashier. 

FARMERS STATE BANK, WATERVILLE. 

The Farmers State Bank of Waterville was organized in 1880, with 
J. H. Nelson, president; L. A. Palmer, cashier. Capital stock, $10,000; 
deposits, $50,000. 

STATE BANK OF WINIFRED. 

The State Bank of Winifred was chartered on September 23, 1909, 
with a capital stock of $20,000. 

The first officers were : President, D. B. Walker ; vice-president, M. R. 
Dickinson ; cashier, A. B. Walker ; clerk, Albert F. Yaussi. 

The bank has made a steady growth and enjoys the patronage of the 
community. Mr. A. F. Yaussi is the present cashier and Miss Florence 
Yaussi, the clerk. 



CHAPTER XX. 
Marshall County Press. 

Captain Henry King says : "The first Kansas banner was a newspaper. 
It made its advent under an elm tree on the townsite of Leavenworth, Sep- 
tember 15, 1854. There was not yet a house to be seen nor any definite sign 
of civiHzation. It was named the Leavenivorth Herald; was pro-slavery in 
sentiment, and the name of the editor was Rives Pollard. One thing may be 
said of it — the true pioneer instinct appeared in its first issue, for it proposed 
to lead and not to follow. This paper soon had companionship, for a goodly 
crop of newspapers soon sprung up in the territory." 

The establishment of the rural daily mail service has worked some hard- 
ship to the country editor, since the metropolitan dailies may be delivered at 
the door at little more expense than the price of the local paper. But a feeling 
of neighborliness causes people to read the home news, and Marshall county 
newspapers are fairly well supported. 

THE PALMETTO KANSAN. 

The first newspaper printed in Marshall county was called the Palfnetto 
Kansan, and was published December, 1857, in a log cabin, on the site where 
R. Y. Shibley's residence now stands. This cabin was supposed to be within 
the limits of Palmetto, but was not, neither was it within the limits of Marys- 
ville. The Palmetto Town Company owned the office and J. E. Clardy was the 
editor. It was a pro-slavery organ and survived seven months, which was 
about as long as the original Palmetto Town Company was active. In 1858 
one Childers tried to resuscitate the paper under the name of the Marysville 
Democrat, but it was again short-lived. 

THE DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM. 

The next paper published in Marysville was the Democratic- Platform. 
P. H. Peters, R. S. Newell and E. C. Manning were editors and proprietors. 
It was published as a Democratic paper a short time, when Manning became 
sole proprietor and made it Republican. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 417 

The building in which this paper was pubHshed was destroyed by a cyclone 
and the material scattered. Peters gathered up what could be found and 
resumed the publication of the paper, made it Democratic and issued it until 
the war broke out in 1861. 

In 1 86 1 G. D. Swearingen founded the Blue Valley Union, a Republican 
paper, issued until 1863, when E. C. Manning purchased it and continued the 
publication until 1866, when he removed press and material to Manhattan. 

In 1862 P. H. Peters established the Constitutional Gazetteer, an ardent 
pro-slavery paper, and the editorials being offensive to the citizens and soldiers, 
a squad of them destroyed the office and type and the press was carried down 
the river, where some parts are still in existence in an old lime-kiln. Peters 
was conducted to the guard house at Leavenworth, but after a few days' 
confinement, was released. 

In 1864 Peters again returned to Marysville and with his father-in-law, 
J. S. Magill, and F. W. Baker, established The Enterprise. This paper was 
independent in politics, with strong Democratic tendencies, but later Peters 
became the sole owner and the paper was rather non-partisan. It was sold 
to George Crowther, of Irving, who removed the establishment to Irving. 

THE LOCOMOTIVE. 

In the fall of 1869 The Locomotive was established by P. H. Peters, 
who issued it as an independent paper until 1876, when Thomas Hughes 
purchased the paper and changed the name to the Marshall County News 
and the politics to Republican. The name and politics have remained un- 
changed since that date. In January, 1881, Thomas Hughes sold the paper 
to C. E. Tibbetts and George T. Smith, and in 1882 Mr. Smith became the 
proprietor and is the present owner. 

From June i, 1909, until January i, 19 13, Mr. Smith published the 
Marysville Daily News. This bright, newsy little sheet deserved better sup- 
port than it received. 

THE ADVOCATE-DEMOCRAT. 

The Advocate-Democrat is a continuation and combination of the fol- 
lowing papers : Marysznlle Democrat, William Becker, editor and publisher, 
first issue October 5, 1882: the Bugle Call, a Grand Army publication, 
founded in 1885 by P. D. Hartman; name changed in 1886 to the True 
Republican; name changed in 1890 to the Peoples' Advocate, with Clark 
and Runneals as editors and publishers. 

(27) 



4l8 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

A stock company for a number of years published the Peoples' Advocate, 
which was later Ijought by C. A. Hammett. Clark, after disposing of the 
Peoples' Advocate, associated with William l^xks and started the Marshall 
County Devi^crat, which they later sold to J. S. Magill. 

In the spring of 1898 S. E. Ruede bought the Peoples' Advocate and two 
months later he bought the MarsJiall County Democrat from J. S. Magill 
and consolidated them under the name of the Advocate-Democrat. For 
a few months Asa Smith, of Osborne, was in partnership with him. 

On December 2, 1899, Ruede formed a partnership with H. M. Brode- 
rick, who, in the spring of 1901, bought Mr. Ruede's interest. On March i, 
191 3, Mr. Broderick took into partnership with him his son, Lynn R. Brode- 
rick, the firm name now being H. M. & L. R. Broderick. The Advocate- 
Democrat is the leading Democratic paper in the county. 

AXTELL NEWSPAPERS. 

In 1882 W. W. Brooks started the Axtell Visitor, as a Republican 
organ. Within the year he sold it to L. C. McCarn. It later suspended 
publication. 

The next paper, the Axtell Anchor, was started in 1883 by Thomas 
Haynes, president ; T. E. Cone, secretary ; N. H. Cone, manager, with Milton 
Singry as editor. The paper was Democratic in politics. Albert Nash suc- 
ceeded Singry in 1886. Two years later the paper was sold to James Ross 
and Thomas Nye. In 1895 Watson Staines became owner, publishing the 
same for a number of years, when the management passed to Ed. H. Sehy 
and the paper became Republican in politics. 

The next paper was The Standard, started in 1898 by John G. Nelson, 
who sold it to J. A. Keegan in 1900; the paper was Democratic. Keegan 
sold to Ernest Werner in July, 1908. Frank A. Werner, brother of Ernest 
Werner, came in August and bought TJie Anchor, In September, 1908, 
both papers were made into one. The AncJior plant was sold to L. E. Busen- 
bark and became later the Home ■ City Tribune. The Standard was pub- 
lished for four years by Werner Brothers, the Standard Publishing Com- 
pany, and in 1912 the present owner, publisher and editor, Frank A. Werner, 
became sole owner. The paper is independent in politics; enjoys a good 
patronage and has a healthy circulation. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 4IC) 

THE BLUE RAPIDS TIMES. ^"^ ' ^ 

Many men and women have helped to make Bkie Rapids the splendid 
town it is. Among those who deserve mention is Mr. C. E. Tibbitts. An 
event of more than passing interest in colony affairs was the publication of 
the Blue Rapids Times, by W. P. Campbell, of Waterville, Kansas, and C. E. 
Tibbitts, late principal of the Wetmore Institute at Irving. The first num- 
ber was published on July 9, 1871. The same date the interest of W. P. 
Campbell was purchased by Frank Hall, son of Theo. Hall, a member of the 
Blue Rapids Town Company. 

The following August, Tibbitts purchased the interest of Frank Hall, 
and associated with him as editor, B. W. Curtis, of Atchison. The paper 
was ably edited and was Republican in politics. After forty-five years the 
paper continues to be one of the strong country newspapers of the state, and 
still adheres to the same poHtical faith. 

In 1875 K- ^- Brice, of Oberlin, Ohio, became a partner of Mr. Tibbitts. 
Mr. Brice was a fine man and endeared himself to the citizens of Blue Rapids. 
In 1878 he became sole proprietor of the paper. In 1879 Mr. Tibbitts, who 
was engaged in the real estate business, issued the first number of the 
Kansas Pilot in the interest of his business. In 1881 Mr. Tibbitts purchased 
the Marshall County Ncms, which he sold the following year to George T. 
Smith, the present editor. 

Charles E. Tibbitts served his country as first lieutenant in the Thir- 
teenth Regiment, Connecticut Infantry, three years in the War of the Rebel- 
lion. He graduated from Oberlin College after the war. He came to 
Kansas, located at Irving, coming to Blue Rapids in the early years of its 
settlement, where he continued to reside until his death. He was a member 
of Robert Hale Post, Grand Army of the Republic. In 1875 h^ was appointed 
postmaster of Blue Rapids. He took an important part in all public aft'airs, 
was widely known and respected. He sleeps in Fairmont cemetery, over- 
looking the home he loved so well. 

The Blue Rapids Times is now ably edited by his son, C. C. Tibbitts. 

THE BEATTIE EAGLE. 

The Beattie Eagle is a continuation of the North Star, founded in 1884 
by A. J. Tucker; the name was changed in 1885 to The Star, with W. W. 
Brooks as editor. In 189 1 the name was again changed to Williauison's 
Beattie Eagle, which was shortened in 1894 to Beattie Eagle; in 1902 it 



420 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

absorbed the Bcattie Palladium, founded in 1898 by J. M. Kendall. The 
Bcattic Eagle is a Republican paper; Mr. F. W. Reed is its present editor. 

The Frankfort Index was founded by Warren and Hartman in 1905. 
It is now owned by F. H. Hartman. Miss June J. Bliss is the editor in 
charge. The Index is issued daily and weekly and is independent in politics. 

The Home City Journal was established in 1908 by L. E. Busenbark, 
and was published weekly. Busenbark was succeeded by Harley R. Row, 
who was succeeded by the present editor, Richard Lewis. The paper is still 
a weekly and is non-partisan in politics. 

The Irznng Leader was founded in 1836 by J. R. Leonard. It is pub- 
lished weekly and is independent in politics; the present owner and editor is 
Mr. Bert Forbes. 

The Oketo Eagle was founded in 1908 by J. A. Church. The manage- 
ment and politics of the paper have changed many times and the paper has 
suspended publication at intervals. It is at present under the ownership of 
R. F. Montgomery, is issued weekly and independent in politics. 

The Summer field Sun was established in 1889 by Fabrick and Felt. 
This has always been a live paper under excellent management. Mr. G. W. 
Willis and H. P. Wadham, of Marysville, once owned and published the 
paper. This firm purchased the paper from Fred Fleming in April 1903, and 
published it until 1904, when the firm became Willis & Son. In 191 1 W. R. 
Brown purchased the paper and was succeeded by Jones, the present pub- 
lisher. The paper is independent in politics. 

W^ATERVILLE TELEGRAPH. 

The Waterznlle Telegraph deserves more than passing notice because of 
the character of the men who were associated in its publication. The paper 
was established by Frank A. Root and the first number was issued in 1870. 
Prior to this, Root had been an overland stage driver for Ben Holliday, and 
after that career became a well-known newspaper man In Kansas. In later 
years he published the "Overland Stage to California," a most valuable 
addition to Kansas literature. 

In 1 87 1 West Wilkinson, of Seneca, became a partner with Root. 
Wilkinson afterward published the Seneca Courier and later Root went to 
Seneca and for a time became a business partner in that paper. On January 
I, 1 87 1, F. G. Adams and W. P. Campbell bought the Telegraph. Adams 
afterward moved to Topeka and became state librarian and held that posi- 
tion until his death. 



MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS, 42 1 

RAPID CHANGES IN OWNERSHIP. 

The Telegraph changed hands so rapidly that its readers scarcely had 
learned the name of the new owner before another had taken his place. In 
1872 Thomas Hughes bought the paper. It was then Adams & Hughes. 
Hughes then bought the Marshall County News, later sold out his interests 
in both papers and moved to Albuquerque, New Mexico, where he became a 
prominent newspaper man and served as mayor of that city. W. P. Camp- 
bell bought the paper from Hughes & Adams, and later the paper was sold 
to J. E. Reece & Company. 

Campbell moved to Oklahoma in 1878, published a paper and later was 
made state librarian which position he now holds. Reece & Company changed 
the name of the paper to the Blue Valley Telegraph and its politics to Demo- 
cratic. In September, 1879, C. F. Stanley bought the paper and restored 
the former name and politics. 

In 1880 H. C. Willson bought the paper and is its present publisher. 
It is Republican in politics and Mr. Willson has made it a strong paper in 
this part of the state; and for the first time in its career, although always 
ably edited, it is now a success financially, 

NEWSPAPERS OF VERMILLION. 

But little is known about the early papers of Vermillion, as no files 
were kept. From what can be learned the first printing plant in the town 
was brought by G. W. Keely, one of the earliest settlers. 

The first paper of which any record is found was Kind Words, a little 
religious monthly published by Rev. I. B. Smith, and printed at Frankfort. 
There were several newspaper ventures after that, but none of them lasted 
very long, until in May, 1891, The Record was launched by F. W. Arnold, 
continued it until 1896, when it was sold to Roy Wilson, of Beattie. The 
name was changed to The Oiul and was continued for a few months, when 
it ceased and the plant was moved to Beattie. 

The Monitor was the next paper. It was published by J. W. Mahafifey 
and others in 1896 and continued for about three years. 

The Harris Brothers began the publication of The Times in April, 1900, 
and it ran about two years. 

Forrest Warren then published The Enterprise, which continued for 
a period of two years. In December, 1904, H. L. Huff moved a plant from 
Netawaka to Vermillion and started the present paper. The Times, which 



422 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

he edited until November, 19 13, when he transferred the paper to Forrest 
Warren, who continued the paper for nearly a year, when F. W. Arnold 
became the owner and proprietor, in October, 19 14. Mr. Arnold is now the 
editor, and the politics of the newsy little Times is Republican. 

In 1903 Rev. M. L. Laybourne, a Presbyterian minister, living in Ver- 
million, published the Little Presbyterian, a religious monthly. 

The Marshall County School Journal is a monthly publication, issued 
in the interest of the schools by the county superintendents. 

Marshall's Manhood is a religious quarterly, published by Hervey F. 
Smith, county secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association. 



/ fp 




Y. M. C. A. BOYS ON A "HIKE" AT TWIN :\IOUNDS, NEAR BIGELOW. 




SCENE AT MARSHALL COUNTY Y. M. C. A. CAMP. 



CHAPTER XXI. 
Miscellaneous Items of Interest. 



YOUNG men's christian ASSOCIATION. 

In November, 1910, a group of men familiar with the work of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, decided that they would have the influ- 
ence of that organization in Marshall county. They knew that they could 
not erect a big building in every town, but they also knew that it is not 
buildings and paraphernalia that make men, but leadership of the right sort. 
A committee of fifteen prominent men of the county was elected to super- 
vise the work, a county secretary was employed, boys' clubs were organized 
with a competent leader over each group, and for six years the principles of 
association work — development of mind, body and spirit — have been applied 
to the boy life of the county. 

C. J. Brown was elected the first chairman of the county committee, 
a position which he has held ever since. A. D. Holloway was elected 
county secretary and for four years directed the work of the association, 
being 'Succeeded in November, 1914, by Hervey F. Srriith, the present secre- 
tary. 

The county work, as the rural work of the Young Men's Christian 
Association is called, is organized in five counties in Kansas. It is the 
newest phase of Christian association work, but is growing rapidly. It is 
the one organization that binds together men and boys of all churches and 
beliefs in a definite, concerted efi^ort. The maximum of results is secured 
with the minimum of expense, because the basis of the work is volunteer 
leadership. One employed officer — the county secretary — gives his entire 
time to the work. All his assistants are volunteer laborers. The business 
of the secretary is to "find, enlist and train leaders," who will assume respon- 
sibilitv in the work with bovs. 



424 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

FUNDAMENTALS OF THE WORK. 

The activities of the county work are many and varied. There are 
county conferences, when social and rehgioiis proljlenis are discussed and 
decisions are made for Christian living, one or more college gospel teams 
are brought into the county for a week's stay during the winter ; there are 
"Father and Son" banquets, and among the prominent men who have been 
brought into the county to address these meetings are Gov. Arthur Capper, 
ex-Governor George H. Hodges, President Henry J. Waters, A. E. RoJDerts 
and Dr. John Brown, of New York. There are athletic contests, hikes and 
camps. Clubs are organized in the high schools with the motto, "clean 
speech, clean sport, clean habits." All these and many other things find 
their way, naturally, into the program of the association. 

Marshall county is a rural county ; of the twenty-three towns of the 
county, none have a population over two thousand five hundred, and any 
program which did not place emphasis upon a better rural life and better 
agricultural conditions, would be incomplete. Farm institutes for boys, stock- 
judging contest, corn-growing contests and farm trips have centered the 
attention of the boys upon the farm and because of this work during the 
past six years upwards of a hundred young people are attending the State 
Agricultural College. During the past summer, forty Marshall county lads, 
under the direction of the Young Men's Christian Association, have been 
enrolled in an acre contest — each boy planting, tending and harvesting an 
acre of corn. Accurate records are kept of every transaction so that a boy 
knows at the end of the season just what profit he has from his acre. As a 
part of the contest each boy is to select and exhibit a sample of ten ears at 
the fair or institute, and it is not uncommon for the boys to win over the 
men in this competition. 

CRITICAL TIME IN A YOUNG MAN's LIFE. 

Every year many young men leave the country to attend school or to 
"seek their fortune" in the city. It is one of the critical times in a young 
man's life, this leaving of home for the first time, and the Young Men's 
Christian Association has a system of following these young men and help- 
ing them in this time of crisis. In Marshall county are sixteen "correspond- 
ing members," who report to the office of the state Young Aden's Christian 
Association the names of these who are leaving home, word is sent on ahead, 



MARSHALL COUNTY,, KANSAS. 425 

and when the young man arrives in a strange city, he is welcomed by the 
association and helped to find the right kind of friends. 

Every normal boy has an intense desire to "camp but." To meet this 
need the association holds each summer a week's camp where boys can have 
an outing at a minimum expense and under Christian leadership. Eighty- 
two boys and leaders last summer attended Camp Edwards, near Irving, 
which was held under the joint direction of the associations of Marshall and 
Washington counties. 

The most important work of the association is done through boys' 
groups, or clubs, as they are called. These meet regularly during the winter 
months. The activities- include Bible study, practical talks by business and 
professional men, athletics, debates, first aid instruction, etc. It is in these 
groups, meeting week after week, under competent leadership, that character 
is wrought into the lives of boys and ideals are found, which make for 
future manhood of the highest type. 

To maintain the Young Men's Christian Association in the county 
recjuires a budget of two thousand dollars a year. This is raised by sub- 
scription in a short-term canvass once a year. During the past year seven 
hundred men and women contributed to this fund in amounts varying from 
one dollar to one hundred dollars. Thus, a wide territory is covered and a 
large number of boys and men are reached with character-building activities, 
at a very small cost. 

SCOPE OF secretary's DUTIES. 

No minister in the county lias such a fruitful parish as has the county 
secretary ; no superintendent of schools is responsible for so many boys ; no 
business man needs to be a shrewder student of human nature than this 
secretary, who meets daily from five to fifty men and boys. His task is to 
find, enlist and train leaders, who will assume responsibility for boys' clubs. 
He has no wages to ofi:'er them, except hard work ; no influence to hold them 
to the task, except the power of his own personality and the satisfaction 
which comes from seeing timid, uncouth boys grow into stalwart men. 

The plan is to have in each community a supervisory board of inter- 
ested men, a high .school Young Men's Christian Association, and one or 
more groups of younger boys. Eventually, the association will reach out 
into the open country and every boy in the county will have an opportunity 
to join a group of his own age. 

The secretary has recently purchased an automobile, the upkeep of 



426 MARSUAl.L COUNTY, KANSAS. 

which is takeli care of by the county coniniittee, and with tliis he is able to 
cover the entire county quickly and economically, and can keep in close touch 
with each i^roup and with every phase of the work. 

The committee which supervises the work consists of the following men : 
J)r. E. A. Gaston, George W. Reed, W. T. Lackland, Axtell ; Dr. E. H. 
Gist. Beattie; C. J. Brow^n, E. H. Kennedy, J. E. Ryan, C. C. Tibbetts, Blue 
Rapids; J. W. Lobley, George B. Heleker, J. Sidney Johnson, Frankfort; 
M. M. Schmidt, W. H. Dexter, Home City; A. J. Carlson, B. K. Durland, 
Irving; Arthur Hohn, A. Goodman, W. W. Potter, Marysville ; O. E. 
Hardesty, Oketo; J. T. Briggs, VV. F. Orr, Summerfield; W. E. Stewart, 
Vermillion ; John Seaton, Waterville. 

INDEPENDENCE CROSSING. 

This crossing or ford was f.or..maiiy. y^ars, a w^l^kiiown poiat on the 
overland trail from Independence, Missouri, to various points West and 
Northw-est. This old crossing on the Big Blue river was located on what 
is now' section 31, Elm Creek township, just a short distance from the mouth 
of the little creek that flow^s from Alcove Springs into the river. There is 
a "rifile" in the river and with a small amount of work on the approaches 
of the banks, a crossing could still be made. It can be forded by cattle or 
horses at the present time in ordinary stage of w^ater. 

Marshall's ferry was about half a mile up stream from this crossing. 
This was an old trail and crossing used by the Indians and fur traders. As 
early as the year 1839 James McClosky came out from St. Louis with seven 
wagons loaded with Indian goods and escorted by twelve mounted men, 
passed over this trail. These goods had been purchased of Bernard Pratt in 
St. Louis and were the trading property of Bibile & Adams. McClosky 
was a clerk in the employ of Pratt, to look after his interests and make 
returns. McClosky made several trips across the country and finally came 
to this county to live. 

ALCOVE SPRINGS. 

These springs are situated east of the old Independence Crossing in a 
small steep canyon. The bed of the canyon is of hard limestone and afforded 
an excellent place for a camp fire. The grassy plateau sloping towards the 
river was a favorite camping spot. 

Here, for many years extending fronr 1839 to i860, travelers camped. 
The cool spring w^as knov^-n from New York to San Francisco. John 




ox YOKE USED IN FREIGHTING BETWEEN MARSHALL COUNTY AND .MISSOURI 
RIVER POINTS. PROPERTY OF FRED COTTRELL, OF IRVING. 




INDEPENDENCE CROSSING, LOOKING DOWN STREAM. (Crosses mark ford.) 



rtvr 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 427 

Denton, a young man accompanying the Donner party, gave the spring its 
name from the overlianging rock, which is at least twelve feet higher than 
the spring, and which presents the appearance of an alcove. Denton carved 
the name on the rock and the letters are still distinct. It is a favorite camp- 
ing place and full of historic interest. Many visitors to the Worlds Fair in 
Chicago in 1893, were attracted by the beautiful oil painting of Alcove 
Springs, the work of Miss Mamie Schroyer, of Marysville, which was exhib- 
ited in the Kansas building. 

POSTOFFICES IN MARSHALL COUNTY. 

Rural 

Name. Routes. Class. Salary. 

Axtell 3 3 $1,500 I.M.O. P.S. 

Barrett 4 ■ M.O 

Beattie 2 4 

Bigelow I 4 

Blue Rapids ... 3 3 1,600 I.M.O. P.S 

Bremen 2 4 

Carden 4 

Frankfort 6 3 1,600 I.M.O. P.S 

Herkimer i 4 

Home 2 4 

Hull 4 

Irving 3 4 

Lillis 4 

Marietta 4 

Marysville 6 2 2,100 I.M.O. P.S 

Mina 4 

Oketo I 4 

Schroyer 4 

Summerfield ... 3 3 

Vermillion 4 4 

Vliets I 4 

Waterville 3 3 i-400 I.M.O. P.S 

Winifred 4 

Total 41 

I.M.O. — International money order office 

M.O. — Money order office. 

P.S. — Postal savings office. 





M.O 




M.O 


1,600 


I.M.O 




M.O 


1,600 


I.M.O 




M.O 




M.O 




M.O 




M.O 




M.O 


2,100 


I.M.O 




M.O 




M.O 




M.O 


1,100 


I.M.O 




I.AI.O 




I.M.O 


1.400 


I.M.O 




M.O 



428 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

ORIGIN OF PLACE NAMES IN MARSHALL COUNTY. 

Axtell — Named for Dr. Jesse Axtell, an official of the St. Jo & Grand 
Island Railroad. 

Beattie — Named for A. Beattie, mayor of St. Jo, Missouri, in 1870. 

Blue Rapids — Named for rapids in Big Blue river, at that ix)int. 

Barrett — Named for A. G. Barrett, a pioneer. 

Bigelow — Named for General Bigelow, an official of the Missouri Pa- 
cific Railway, who selected the townsite. 

Bremen — Named for a seaport in Germany, 

Garden — Named for Mrs. Garden, on whose land the townsite was platted. 

Frankfort — Named for Frank Schmidt, of Marysville, owner of the 
townsite. 

Herkimer — Named by O. Keller, who laid out the town. 

Hull — Named for a city in England. 

Home — Named by G. W. Van Camp, who platted the townsite. 

Irving — Named for Washington Irving. 

Lillis — Named for Bishop Thomas Lillis, of Kansas City. 

Marysville — Named for Mary, wife of F. J. Marshall, for whom the 
county was named. 

Marietta — Named for Mrs. Marietta Mann. 

Oketo — Named for an Indian chief, Arkatetah, the name being shortened 
by the settlers to Oketo. 

Schroyer — Named for a well-known pioneer family. 

Summerfield — Named for Elias Summerfield, an official of the Missouri 
Pacific Railroad. 

Vermillion — No record. 

\''liets — Named for the Van Vleit family, on whose farm the town is 
located. 

Waterville — Named by R. Osborne, superintendent of the Central Branch, 
Union Pacific Railroad, in honor of his home town, Waterville, Maine. 

W^inifred — Named for the wife of Isaac Walker, a pioneer. 

GREAT PRAIRIE FIRE. 

The historian is indebted to Mr. Grant Ewing for an account of a great 
prairie fire that swept across Marshall county on November 17, 1873. ^ 
terrific wind came up from the northwest on the morning of the 17th, and 
drove before it a terrible fire, which was supposed to have started on the 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 429 

Otoe reservation near Oketo. It extended across Marshall county in a strip 
eight to ten miles wide and burned as far south as the Kaw. The wind being 
from the northwest, kept the fire out of the Blue Valley, but it raged madly 
on the divide in Wells township and swept across the Vermillion and onward 
to the Kaw. The back fire in places came as far" as the east side of the Blue 
river. 

Among the prairie settlers who lost heavily were the Sabins, the Ewings 
and William Walls. A young boy, 'Wooter by name, lost his life in this 
fire. He had accompanied some neighbors to Marysville and they were 
returning home with flour and provisions for themselves and neighboring 
families, when the fire came raging towards them. They hastily searched 
their pockets for matches with which to start a back fire but did not succeed 
in getting a fire started and exhausted the supply of matches. Finally, one 
man found just a half of a match and with this he burned off a small patch 
and drove the teams on it. The boy, about eleven years old, they put in the 
center of a wagon-load of flour and covered him with blankets. They 
unhitched the ox teams and then the men made a dash through the flames, 
which by this time were close upon them. The boy, frightened by the mad 
roar of the flames, threwr off the blankets and was enveloped in the fire. 
The men on returning, carried him to the house of John D. Wells, where he 
died in a few hours. The oxen were so badly burned that they had to be 
killed. They were the property of Wells. 

Mr. Ewing says he remembers the fire well, as his mother carried her 
children out to the middle of a four-acre field of green wheat and threw 
blankets over them for protection. The heat of the flames drove rabbits, 
coyotes and deer on to the same green field, all too badly frightened to harm 
one another or to fear human beings. 

TERRIFIC CYCLONE. 

Friday, May 30, 1879, is a day and date that will be remembered as 
long as a living witness of the tragedy which took place remains to recall the 
terrible events about to be narrated. 

The morning, in the southern portion of the county, was bright and 
clear, but during the afternoon clouds appeared and a lowering temperature 
was noticeable. There were lightning flashes and peals of thunder, and 
between five and six o'clock the storm broke in terrific fury. The first indi- 
-eation of danger was from an approaching funnel-shaped cloud to the south- 
west. At Blue Rapids, the gypsum mill of J. V. Coon & Son had the roof 



430 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

torn off. and the ro(«f of tlic 1)i,t;- W'ri.^lit Honrin^- mill was raised, Init left in 
position. Tlic west portion of the roof of the woolen mill was carried away 
and the flood beat in on the machinery. Fortunately, no lives were lost and 
■Bine- -Rapids suffered slijuhtly in comparison with the beautiful little city of 

Irving. 

C. E. Tibbetts. who was then publishing- the Blue Ral^i(L<; Times, issued 
an extra giving the following details : 

"The situation at Irving beggars description. The storm first passed 
over the townsite west of the railroad, destroying the residences of John 
Gallup, Mr. Armstrong and John Thompson. It laid in ruins, more or less 
complete, Charles Preston's place, the Parker house, Wetmore Institute, John 
Freeland's stone house, and one formerly owned by him ; Buckout's new stone 
residence, J. S.. Walkers fine residence, Leddy's:, Sabin's, Jefifer's and Guthrie's 
home? ; then swung back over the track, struck into a branch current of the 
cyclone, and swept through the main part of the town towards the river. 
Some twenty minutes after the rain had commenced falling, a brisk shower 
of hail set in, driven bv a northerly wind. There was a short cessation of 
the storm and then commenced falling hailstones of monstrous size weighing 
several ounces and measuring six to eight inches in circumference. 

KILLED AND INJURED. 

"The number of those instantly killed in Irving, including four from 
Game fork neighborhood southwest of town, is thirteen. They are as fol- 
low' : Mr. Keeny, sewing machine agent and his wnfe, and his father, wdio 
w-as visiting Mr. Keeny. A Swede girl in the employ of the Jacob Sabin 
family ; Miss Emma Sheldon, Mrs. W. J. Williams, Mrs. Noark, Mrs. George 
Martin. 'Mrs. Buckmaster and four children. 

'The injured were: Mrs. William Bates and five children; Mrs. Snider 
and daughter, Jacob Sabin, wife and son, Eber Sheldon and wife, the Keeney 
boys, Foster, son of a Randolph lumberman, Wright Helleker, Mr. Seaton, a 
railroad man. both arms broken ; Mr. Johnson, James McCoy and wife, Mrs. 
John Gallup and four children, Mr. Buckmaster and child; George Martin's 
two children, John Case's tw'o children, Haney Wilson and two children, 
Mrs. John Thompson and two children, Lee Hunt, wife and three children, 
Samuel Clark, W. J. Williams and Mrs. Rickel. Scarcely a house was left 
standing in Irving and few families escaped without some injured one. 

"Thirty-four homes and business houses were entirely destroyed, the loss 
exceeding .$5.o-,ooo. Wagon bridges were blown into the river, loss $15,000. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 43 1 

Churches, schools, elevator, bridges, business houses and dwellings were 
totally destroyed and many were entirely blown away. 

"The storm seemed to have gathered south of Blue Rapids, sweeping 
down the Gam€ Fork Valley, killing- two people and wrecking farm-buildings^ 
The same storm struck the west fork of the Vermillion, killing five persons 
and seriously injuring ten others, and destroyed a large amount of property. 
Part of the storm passed up the Big Blue river, wrecking a new farm house 
belonging to James Schroyer. The storm crossed the river at that point. 

"On the Corn Dodger creek several buildings were destroyed and Milo 
Weeks was dangerously injured. 

"Those killed in Frankfort were : Mr. and Mrs. James Downs, John 
Howe, Mrs. Henry Johnson and a man named Grove. The damage to prop- 
erty was very great." 

As soon as the storm ceased sufficiently to make it possible, relief^parties 
went to Irving. A train of nurses and physicians was hurried out from 
Atchison and tlie night was spent searching foi bodies and members of fam- 
ilies over the prairies and among the wrecked buildings. The night was 
dark and the rain fell continuously. The morning broke upon a scene never 
to be forgotten by those who witnessed it. 

A detailed account of the storm ^nd incidents connected with it, may be 
found in the puljlic library in Blue Rapids, but mention will be made of some 
of the peculiar incidents. Some of the killed were found entirely divested of 
clothing, a gold watch was found hanging by its chain, in a tree half a mile 
awav. Chickens were entirely devoid of feathers, except a frill around the 
neck ; spokes blown out of a wagon wheel leaving the hub and rim intact ; 
wheat and oat straws driven into telegraph poles ; house scattered over lot, 
the stove standing on the kitchen floor uninjured and the fire burning. 

On June ist a sad procession followed the victims of that fearful eve 
to the secluded cemetery. Sylvan Shade, where they sleep today. Irving 
remembers theni on each succeeding ariniversary with floral tributes and 
appropriate ceremonies. On that tragic day were shattered and scattered 
many hopes for that growing city. Perhaps the future may unfold a brighter 
page in her history. 

COTTAGE HILL CEMETERY. 

Cottage Hill Cemetery Association was chartered in February, 1891. 
The charter members were P. T. Vickery, James Clark, C. G. Thomas, John 
L. Nichols, Samuel Lamereaux, M. H. Gilbert, John Sisco, John Paul, Jackson 



432 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS, 

Thomas, Margaret McDonald, Sylvester Hartman, Charles Powel, L. R. 
Kistler, George R. Kistler, Joseph Green, A. M. Sherwood, Reuben Fuller, 
C. J. Nugent, Robert Dockerty, Otto F. Hohn, John Swanson and Ben Lam- 
€reaux. The officers were : President, John Paul ; secretary, M. H. Gilbert ; 
treasurer, John Sisco. This cemetery being in such a prominent part of 
Cottage Hill, the entire township is interested in it. and they pride themselves 
on the beautifying and upkeep of the grounds. It is the best kept and prettiest 
cemetery in any country place in Marshall county. 

The present board are: C. G. Thomas, president; Roger Pischney, secre- 
tary; John Sisco, treasurer; executive committee, Herman Anderson, Frank 
Paul, M. M. Rice. These officers have an endowment fund of more than 
twelve hundred dollars, drawing interest. The interest is used to keep the 
cemetery in excellent condition. 

MARSHALL COUNTY AND THE WORLDS FAIR. 

Marshall county was represented at the World's Columbian Exposition 
at Chicago in 1893. 

Entries were made in the agricultural department by George Binder, of 
Waterville, wheat; William Kossow, Marysville, oats ; F. ]VI. Spangler, 
millet. 

Awards were made to W. W. Eddy, for best winter wheat ; Gotlieb 
Adam, best red winter wheat: J. L. Johnson, best hard winter wheat; A. 
Anderson, best hard winter wheat; J. B. Hammett, Schroyer, best yellow 
car corn. 

Mrs. Josie Furman exhibited an oil painting of Perry Hutchinson's mill. 
Miss Mamie Schroyer exhibited an oil painting of Alcove Springs. The 
ladies of Irving exhibited a rug, which was afterwards sent to the old ladies' 
rest at Leavenworth. 

GRASSHOPPERS. 

The year 1874 was one of severe drought and the prevailing wind was 
from the southwest. On Sunday, August 27,, the wind changed to the north 
and with it came myriads of grasshoppers. They were so plentiful that they 
created a haze in the atmosphere. They literally devoured every green thing, 
except peach leaves. It is impossible to describe the numbers, or to tell the 
•damages Corn, tomatoes, beets, onions, wheat — every living thing was 
stripped, and then they began on board and- picket fences and on hoe and 
rake handles. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 433 

The marks could be plainly seen for years afterward. The sides of 
buildings were literally covered with them. West of Marysville, the train 
had to pull up a steep grade and the hoppers frequently were so thick on the 
track that it was impossible to proceed until the track was sanded. Every 
possible device for their destruction was employed, but to no avail. Finally, 
a scourge broke out among them and they perished from the effects of the 
sting. The few which escaped this enemy disappeared. • 

People were greatly depressed, not only on account of losses, but be- 
cause of dread of a reappearance of the plague. But they have never reap- 
peared in such numbers as in that terrible grasshopper year. 

It makes one shudder to picture anything so terrible, so appalling and so 
pathetic. It is almost impossible for the human mind to realize the awful 
devastation of crops and vegetation that befell the states of Kansas and 
Nebraska that year. 

The settlers were greatly amazed as, looking into the blue depths of 
the cloudless sky, in the direction of the blazing sun, they saw that the air 
was full of living organisms. 

It was the invasion of the locust or grasshopper. At first, one here 
and there would alight ; but in a short time, the host was so great as to cover 
all the fields and outnumber the people, millions to one. There was a bounti- 
ful prospect that year and the undesirable hosts lit on the corn fields riddling 
them in a few hours and as the ears were in the milk stage, the loss was 
very apparent. 

Gardens and orchards went just as fast as the cornfields. The first set- 
tlers used to cultivate "homestead tobacco" and the prospect had been very 
good with its long and broadly streaming leaves — even that went just as 
fast. Onions, beets and carrots were devoured to the roots. The forest 
trees were defoliated in a few days. And what was the result of this great 
calamity which visited this unfortunate state. In the autumn of 1874 there 
was a continual tide of "prairie schooners," returning from the West, pour- 
ing through the highways and byways out of the desolated country, going 
East. 

When asked, "Whither bound," the answer invariably was, "Going 
back to old Missouri" ; "To old Mizzoo", or "Back to God's country." Some 
even had written on their wagon covers, "Busted; back to Missouri." And 
thev certainly looked as though they were busted — this stream of humanity 
pouring over what is now tlie ocean to ocean highway. Their outfits were 
(28) 



434 MARSHALL COUNTY. KANSAS. 

ragg;e(l and fnrldrn and ihc\' ihcmscKes looked anxious and forsaken. Many 
of theni were (juartered and fed free of charge, owing to their needy circum- 
stances. 

FIRST HOMESTEAD PATENT GRANTED. 

Marshall county has the distinction of having heen the home of the 
man who held the first homestead patent ever granted. This man was Daniel 
Donah3^ The land which he homesteaded is in Pottawatomie county, but 
only a half mile south of the Alarshall county line, being the southwest cjuar- 
ter of section 2, township 6, range 9. Mr. Donahy also owned the quarter 
just north of this homestead and a section just north of that in Mar- 
shall county. As soon as he had proved up on his homestead he moved into 
Marshall county, where he continued to reside until his death. The land then 
passed into the hands of his eldest son, Daniel Donahy, who still owns all of it. 

Hettie Magill, daughter of Judge Magill, one of the original members 
of the Palmetto Town Company, was the first wdiite child born on the town- 
site of Palmetto. This lady is now Mrs.^ Daniel Kelley, of Kansas City, 
Kansas. 

"tremble." 

"Whereas, Lewis Twombly has at his own expense and at a cost of 
about $1,000, erected a good and sufficient bridge across the Vermillion 
branch of the Big Blue ri^•er at the crossing of the Independence and Cali- 
fornia road, it was enacted that Lewis Twombly should have exclusive right 
to the benefits and profits of toll for a period of five years." (Statutes, Kan. 
Terr., 1855, p. 771.) 

The name of Lewis Twombly is spelled by F. G. Adams as Tremble, 
and in "Marshall County Clippings" (Vol. 3. p. 27) as Tromley. His ford 
was said to be located at the Elizabeth crossing of the Vermillion, between 
Langdon's mill and Barrett's mill. 

TRAGEDIES. 

Many dark deeds of frontier life are hidden from the historian by the 
lapse of time. Violence was common, and for some crimes, retribution did 
not always wait for "the strong arm of the law." 

Horse stealing was a crime, which it was tacitly understood would be 
summarily dealt with and a certain elm tree that stood near the northeast 
corner of the city park, south of O. W. French's house, Marysville, was 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 435 

the gallows upon which more than one guilty wretch paid the penalty of 
his crime. 

The first record of the action of "J^^^ge Lynch" is reported in the Big 
Blue Union of October 15, 1864. E. C. Manning, the editor, published the 
following : 

"a LOYAL MAN MURDERED BY A TRAITOR. 

"^SUMMARY RETRIBUTION. 

"a WARNING. 

"It is our painful duty as journalists to record the assassination of a 
most worthy citizen, and the execution of his murderer. 

"Last Saturday evening the citizens of our town were startled by the 
report of a pistol shot, and on investigation found a loyal, peaceable, law- 
abiding citizen weltering in his blood, in front of our court house, while in 
the grasp of the officers was his murderer, defiant still, though knowing the 
penalty of his crime. 

"During the day a man named Goisney was observed to be trying to pro- 
voke a cjuarrel. He was avoided as he was known to be quarrelsome. 
There had been a political meeting during the afternoon and Goisney was 
heard to threaten to shoot any man who would not vote for McClellan. Later 
in the evening he attempted to get into the court house, where there was to 
have been a dance, when Henry Agle, who is the constable of the township, 
took hold of Goisney and told him to keep quiet and that he could not go 
into the court house. 

"A scuffle ensued during which Goisney drew a revolver and, just at 
this juncture, Mr. Patrick Casey came up for the purpose of helping Henry 
Agle, who had called for help, wiien Goisney pointing his pistol at Agle 
and firing, exclaimed, 'Take that.' Casey fell dead, the ball having entered 
his neck under the left ear, passing out on the opposite side. Mr. Casey 
died instantly without uttering a word or sound. The murderer was imme- 
diately carried to jail and ironed. During the night the guard was awak- 
ened by a large crowd of men who took the prisoner and hanged him upon 
a tree near town. The next morning the body was taken down, a coroner's 
inquest held and the body was carried out to the prairie and buried. 

"On Monday the remains of poor Casey were buried with military 
honors. A large concourse of citizens attended to pay the last tribute of 
respect to a good man, a worthy citizen, a faithful friend and an affectionate 
husband and father. Patrick Casey had been a soldier and served as ser- 



436 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

geant; had avowed patriotic and loyal principles, and f<»r this he met his 
deatli at the hands of a disloyal traitor." 

MURDERED FOR HIS GOLD. 

During the year i860 a train of soldiers, emigrants, and gold seekers 
was returning from the West. The party camped on the grounds of the 
present city park. In the evening a number of the men came up town to a 
saloon, which was kept on the spot where White Brothers' store is now 
located. They drank heavily and one man in the company a German, dis- 
played a pouch of gold. Later, the German was seen to leave the saloon with 
a man who seemed sober. Nothing was thought of the matter at the time. 

During the forenoon of the following day some hunters came into the 
same saloon and reported the finding of the body of a man in the creek. 
There had been a light fall of snow during the night and the footsteps of the 
two men were traced to the spot on Spring creek, where the body of the man 
had been found. The body was quickly identified by a number of men who 
had seen him in the saloon displaying his gold. 

The train was followed, stopped and the men in charge informed of 
the murder. The German had not been missed from the party, but suspicion 
fell on the man who left the saloon with him on the previous night. A search 
was made and the man was found concealed in one of the wagons. The 
entire train returned to Marysville. A short trial was held without judge 
or jury and the only witnesses were the lifeless body and the confessed mur- 
derer. 

A short consultation, a trip to the elm tree on Spring creek, two graves, 
one on the prairie and one in the cemetery on the hill, and the train moved 
eastward. 

The gold, a watch and a letter giving name and address were sent to 
the dead man's people. 

That night the w^iole matter was thoroughly discussed in the saloon and 
it was unanimously decided that justice had been done. 

HORSE THIEF HANGED. 

The following story was told the writer by a prominent pioneer : "There 
was a gang of horse thieves operating through Marysville and some good 
horses had been stolen. One night I lost a fine mare and the next day a 
crowd of us started in search. Wt found the thief with mv mare and 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 437 

another southeast of Waterville, hiding in the brush on a creek. We put 
the fellow on a lead horse, tied his hands and started for Marysville. It 
was just coming day when we reached Spring creek and the thief began to 
, quarrel because we refused to untie his hands. He was told to keep still, 
whereupon he kicked the horse viciously. We were tired of him any way, 
and one of the men had a long rope halter, and we left him hanging to the 
elm tree." 

Later the tree was cut down, but that fact did not prevent the meting 
out of swift puni-shment to the criminal. 

The passing of the years, the civilizing influences of the school, the pulpit 
and the press had awakened the sense of allowing legal processes to govern 
criminal action, when a dastardly murder aroused the people of the city, and 
this time the new bridge over Spring creek became the means of sending a 
guilty man out of the world. 

THE PENNINGTON MURDER. 

Mr. and Mrs. Pennington lived alone on a farm in Wells township and 
found it necessary to keep a hired man. They employed a stranger who 
proved very helpful to them on the farm. He had been in their employ about 
two weeks when, one day, a neighbor going to the Pennington home, dis- 
covered the murdered bodies of both these good people. The crime was 
traced to the hired hand, he was apprehended in Nebraska and brought to 
Marysville and confined in the old jail. 

He was brought to trial, found guilty and, while awaiting sentence, a 
body of masked men went to the jail about midnight and took the murderer 
to Spring creek bridge and hanged him. 

Dastardly as was the crime, and with no doubt of the man's guilt, yet 
the manner of his death was felt to be a lingering remnant of barbarism. 
It was the opinion of all that "Judge Lynch" had had his time and that 
thereafter the law would be respected. 

It was the passing of the old frontier spirit and the dawning of a better 
way. Since that time law and order have prevailed in a larger measure and 
every man is allowed his "day in court." 

THE MURDER OF UNDER-SHERIFF BATTERSON. 

In April, 1898, bold burglaries were committed in Vermillion and Blue 
Rapids. The members of a gang, James S. Dalton, Ed Royal and Tom 
Taylor were apprehended and placed in the old jail at Marysville. Charley 



438 . MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Batterson was under-sheriff for Sheriff Huff, and in order to keep close guard 
over the prisoners, had a cot placed in the corridor and slept there. 

The prisoners managed to loosen the rivets in the clasp of the door 
between the cell room and the sheriff's office, also to reduce the heads of 
the staple wdiich held the padlock to Dalton's cell, so that the staple could be 
pushed out and thus release the door. A city election had been held that day 
and Batterson had been down town to get election returns. Coming home a 
little late he lay down on the cot and fell asleep. Dalton had wrenched an 
iron slat from tjie cot in his cell, and as the door was loose he soon opened it, 
and also the door to the corridor, and with the slat beat Batterson into insen- 
sibility. He then took the keys of the jail opened the doors of the cell in 
w^hich Taylor and Royal were and opened the outer door and all escaped. 
Batterson lived a few days, but never regained consciousness. 

Dalton enlisted under an assumed name in the United States army and 
went to the Philippines. St. Claire Guthrie, Sr., w'as elected sheriff of Mar- 
shall county and determined to bring Dalton to justice. He learned that 
Dalton's mother lived in Indiana and knew that sooner or later she w^ould 
have a letter from her son. Detectives were put on guard. 

During Dalton's absence he did not write to his mother, but on returning 
to San Antonio, Texas, he wrote to her and the letter was intercepted by the 
authorities. After four years of freedom, in 1902, Dalton was again incar- 
cerated in the cell from which he escaped. 

He was tried and sentenced for life to Lansing. Under the wardenship 
of W. H. Haskell, Dalton was made clerk in the "Bertillon" room and soon 
became very expert. Gov. W. R. Stubbs paroled him and made him Bertillon 
clerk at Hutchinson state reformatory. 

So the man who brutally murdered Charley Batterson, is now a salaried 
state official, on parole from the Kansas state penitentiary. 



CHAPTER XXII. 
Sidelights on Marshall County History. 



FREMONT S EXPEDITION. 

Gen. John C. Fremont in his report of the expedition of 1842, says : 
"I had collected at St. Louis, Missouri, twenty-one men, principally Creoles 
and Canadian voyageurs, who had become familiar with prairie life in the 
service of the fur companies in the Indian country. 

"Mr. Charles Preuss, a native of Germany, was my assistant in the 
topographical part of the survey. L. Maxwell, of Kaskaskia, had been 
engaged as hunter, and Christopher Carson, more familiarly known as Kit 
Carson, guide. In addition to these, Henry Brant, son of Colonel J. B. 
Brant, of St. Louis, a young man nineteen years of age, and Randolph, a 
lively boy of twelve, son of Hon. Thomas H. Benton, accompanied me." 

On June 19, 1842, Fremont writes: "Longitude 96 degrees, 14'- 
49"; latitude 39 degrees, 3o'-4o''. (Near the southeast corner of county.) 

"The morning of the 20th was fine with a southerly breeze and a bright 
sky ; and at seven o'clock we were on the march. The country today was 
rather more broken, rising still, and covered everywhere with siliceous lime- 
stone, particularly on the summits where they were small, and thickly strewn 
as pebbles on the shore of the sea. We crossed at ten a. m., the Big Ver- 
million, which has a rich bottom of about a mile in breadth, one-third of 
which is occupied bv timber. Making our usual halt at noon, after a day's 
march of twenty-four miles, we reached the Big Blue, and encamped on the 
uplands on the western side, near a small creek, where was a fine, large spring 
of very cold water. This is a clear and handsome stream, about one hun- 
dred and twenty feet wide, running with a rapid current through a ^vell- 
timbered valley. Today, antelope were seen running over the hills, and at 
evening Carson brought us a fine deer. Longitude of the camp 96 degrees — 
32'-35''; latitude 39 degrees — 45'-35"; thermometer at sunset 75 degrees." 

The commonly accepted statement that General Fremont camped for 



440 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

days at Alcove Springs and that he lost some soldiers there by death from 
cholera, is not borne out by the published report made by Fremont to the 
war department. 

This report also states that he did not lose any men by death on 
the trip. The men who accompanied him were not enlisted men in the 
service of the government, but were hired for the trip, except the two l)oys 
who accompanied him for love of adventure. The spring was on the old 
Schroyer home farm and is still a living spring. 

MORMON MEANDERINGS. 

One of the great movements in the West was the exodus of the Mor- 
mons in 1846 from east of the Missouri river to Great Salt Lake. Thou- 
sands of those exiled "saints" crossed at the Independence Crossing and in 
time the name "Mormon Crossing", was applied to it. 

For more than two years these people traveled this trail under all sorts 
of conditions. By ox team, wagon team, on foot and on horseback; some 
with all their worldly belongings heaped in wheel-barrows and pushcarts; 
others with bundles on their backs, all with eager, even anxious faces turned 
towards "the promised land". This vast concourse of people, not less than 
seventy-five thousand, entered what is now Marshall county, near the soutli- 
east corner of the county, traveled in a northwestern direction, and near 
where Barrett is now located, crossed the Vermillion and followed the trail 
to the crossing on the Big Blue, as seen by the picture. 

When the river was swollen, the travellers camped on its banks until 
the water subsided. Hundreds of wagons and people were sometimes gath- 
ered there and about Alcove Springs, where there was always a plentiful 
supply of pure cold water. It was a motley crowd, hastening from the fer- 
tile Valley of the Blue westward to the great American desert. 

The ill-fated Donner party followed this trail in 1846 and left a lonely 
grave on the hillside, a silent testimony of the hardships of pioneer life. 

So the great mass of restless humanity surged westward. The Indian 
trader, the gold seeker, the adventurer and the explorer as well as those 
seeking homes, all "hit the trail", and crossed the Big Blue river in what 
afterwards became Marshall county. 

THE OVERLAND STAGE. 

The exodus of the Mormons and the discovery of gold in California, 
necessitated the establishment of a mail route across the countrv. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 44 1 

The first contract was let to Samuel H. Woodson, of Independence, 
Missouri, which was an old point and which soon became very prominent 
(luring the days of the Overland mail. 

In T859 up to June 30th, there were no less than six different routes for 
carrying the mail to and from California. The route which traversed Mar- 
shall county was known as the Central-Overland-California line. The fare 
across the continent was one hundred dollars in gold. 

At that time Marysville, one hundred miles west of the Missouri river, 
was almost at the outskirts of civilization and was the last town of conse- 
(juence on the Overland route between Atchison and Denver. 

SOME NOTABLE TRAVELLERS. 

Among the men who traversed Marshall county by the Overland stage, 
and crossed the Big Blue at Marysville, were Ben Holladay, the owner of 
the stage line ; Albert D. Richardson, war correspondent for the A^eiv York 
Tribune; Schuyler Colfax, Colonel Thomas Knox, who had gone around 
the world for the Nczv York Herald; Mark Twain, Gen. P. E. Connor, 
United States commandant at Great Salt Lake; Richard J. Hinton, Bayard 
Taylor, Bishop E. S. Janes, of the Methodist Episcopal church ; Fargo, 
Cheney and Barney, great express men ; Jim Bridger, famous scout ; Russell, 
Majors and Waddell, noted transportation men; Artemus Ward, scores of 
army officers and scouts ; senators and representatives from the great West ; 
delegates to Congress from tlie western territories ; prominent Mormon lead- 
ers from Utah, and hundreds of others. The trail across the state was worn 
"as smooth and hard as a floor", according to an old military man who 
traveled it. 

THE OKETO CUT-OFF. 

.Some dift'erences existing between Holladay and the town of Marys- 
ville, a cut-off of thirty-five miles, was talked of by the stage authorities, to 
run northwesternly from Guittard's via Oketo across the Otoe Indian reserva- 
tion, leaving Marysville to the south. 

To forestall this a new road was laid out from Marysville to Seneca, 
leaving Guittard's a few miles to the north. It was hoped to induce the 
freighters to travel this road but the plan did not succeed. 

All these plans and schemes only served to augment the existing ill will 
and, finally, Holladay opened up the road and about the middle of October, 



442 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

1862. the Overland sta.i^e began traveling- the Oketo cut-off. Before this 
change Marysville had a tri-weekly mail. For a month afterward the people 
were without mail. 

MAIL SERVICE DISCONTINUED. 

Finally; a man was engaged to carry a tri-weekly mail, from Guittard. 
Later, that was cut to a semi-weekly and again to once a month. A vigor- 
ous remonstrance was sent in, and then the mail was discontinued. This 
was unbearable and in time the mail service was restored and a carrier 
delivered mail regularly. 

There was bad feeling between Oketo and Marysville. One stormy 
night the ferry was cut loose from its moorings wliich was a serious damage 
to the stage company. But it was not the end of the trouble. Crossings 
were torn up. ditches dug and some shooting affrays took place. Holladay 
had placed J. H. V/hitehead in charge of the Oketo station, and although 
some historians state that the Oketo cut-off (which had become quite famous), 
was discontinued by Holladay after four months, Mrs. Lee Holloway, who 
was formerly Mrs. J. IL Whitehead, declares positively that Holladay did 
not discontinue tlie use of this cut-off until the Overland stage was finally 
abandoned by reason of the building of the railroad to Grand Island, Nebraska. 

Certain it is that the matter culminated, because one dark and stormy 
night the stage with a United States general as a passenger, was plunged 
into a ditch and the offfcer given a shaking up. 

When he was told of the bad feeling and depredations, he at once wrote 
to the commanding officer at Ft. Leavenworth and had troops sent out to 
protect the Overland mail line. In a few days a detachment of the Third 
Wisconsin Cavalr\^ arrived at Marysville and peace was restored and in time 
the stages again drove through Marysville. 

Many old frontiersmen and freighters declared that the route through 
Marysville was the better. It was an old-established military highway across 
the plains to Salt Lake City and California, and was one of the most important 
stage and wagon roads in the country. 

THE PRICE OF OBSTINACY. 

The establishment of the cut-off had cost. Holladay at least fifty thou- 
sand dollars and the people of Marysville were caused some losses. Both 
parties at last learned the value of forbearance. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 443 

There was much rejoicing among- the stage employees and the citizens 
of the town, when the old Concord coach again dashed into town and pulled 
up in front of the Barrett hotel. 

A pioneer stage driver of the Overland stage was Con Smith, who 
resided for many years near Irving. Smith once drove from Boonville to 
Tipton, Missouri. Later, he drove on the Butterfield stage line from Ft. 
Smith, Arkansas, to Sherman, Texas. 

In 1 86 1 he came to St. Joseph and drove for Holladay. His drive was 
from Guittard's Station to Hollenherg. the first station west of Marysville. 
In 1862 he enlisted in Company H, Seventh Kansas and served until 1865, 
when he again entered the employ of Holladay and drove until he finally 
"threw down the lines'' and began farming. A man of sterling integrity 
and great physical courage, he was a w-ell-respected citizen of this county. 



THE PONY EXPRESS. 

■ V 

This was a frontier enterprise of great public importance. The power 
behind the throne was the well-known western overland freighter, William 
H. Russell, of Leavenworth. The route from St. Joseph, Missouri, struck 
the old military road at Kennekuk, forty-four miles out, thence it ran in a 
northwesterly direction and touched Marshall county at Guittard Station 
and Marysville. The first courier of the pony express left the Missouri 
river, April 3, at three p. m., and reached Salt Lake Cit}^ on the evening of 
April 9. 

Johnnie Frey, mounted on a swift little black pony, was the carrier. 
At the same moment he left St. Joe, Harry Roff left Sacramento on a snow- 
white steed and the courier arrived in Salt Lake City on April 7. These 
two boys, neither of whom weighed over one hundred and thirty-five pounds, 
were heralds of tlie great development and civilization which followed. 

Russell had two hundred ponies and hundreds of small, fleet horses. 
They were distributed along the line from nine to fifteen miles apart. Each 
rider was required to ride three animals in succession, covering three stages. 
The riders were selected on account of light weight, few weighing over one 
hundred and thirty-five pounds. The saddle, bridle and leather pouch used 
for the mail were strong and durable, weighing altogether only thirteen 
• pounds. The most important news transmitted by the pony express from 
St. Joe early in 1861 was that the air was filled with rumors of war. In 



444 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

the early sixties some letters were sent at a cost of twenty-seven dollars and 
sixty cents postage. 

Of the eighty daring riders employed on the line at times, forty were 
in. the saddle going east .and. forty ..goijog. west. Aai average of two hundred 
miles was covered every twenty-four hours. The couriers were splendid 
types of young men of great courage and power of endurance. They 
endeared themselves greatly to the settlers along the routes, who welcomed 
the sight of their coming, and watched them depart with a silent prayer for 
their safety. 



EARLY-DAY ADVERTISING. 

The following advertisement copied from the Big Blue Union of Octo- 
ber 15, !86_i, indicates one way the pioneer might have passed away an other- 
wise dull hour. 

"The Lone Star Billiard .Saloon. — Keep cool, gentlemen. Take some- 
thing like a julep, punch, cobbler, sangaree, cocktail, smash, or lager, in ice, 
through a straw, or any other way while you enjoy yourselves at the famous 
military game of billiards." 

The proprietor evidently did not care to engage in the "famous military 
game'' then being played, with the life of the nation at stake. 

An advertisement in the same issue of the paper is, to say the least, unique. 

"American Hotel, Marysville, Kansas. — I have lately purchased thie 
property known as Barrett's Hotel, in this place, and shall endeavor to keep 
a first-class hotel. Hay, corn and oats plenty. J. H. Cottrell, Proprietor." 

In the same paper, J. W'iesbach advertises : Dry goods, groceries, boots 
and shoes, liquors and tinware and says : "Cash paid for hides, wool and 
furs." 

T. W. W'aterson advertises an immense stock of dry goods, groceries, 
drugs, medicine^, foreign and domestic liquors. 

A. E. Lovell notifies his customers that he has a "full supply of choice 
family groceries, including tobacco and candles." In the dry-goods depart- 
ment he advertises : "Monkey jackets, hoop skirts, balmorals, nubias, 
wamunses, etc." Fashions have changed somewhat in the half century that 
has passed. 

It is worthy of chronicle that two parties advertising in the paper do 
not offer intoxicating liquors for sale. 



■>**. ,. 



■J ■ i^ — - ■•^*^' 







THE OLD WHITE STUMP SWIMMING POOL. 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 445 

Mrs. Sarah Foster advertises "millinery done in the latest style and on 
the shortest order." 

Gustav Staitss announces to the citizens of the community that he has 
opened a blacksmith sho]) on Broadway and that "he is prepared to do all 
kinds of work in his line on reasonable terms and at the shortest notice ; and 
hopes by strict attention to business to merit the confidence and patronage 
of the public." 

The Big Blue Union also carries the advertisement of a man who spent 
the remainder of his days in Marysville and was the friend of all who came 
to know him, 

"Thomas McCoy, boot and shoemaker. — Come along and bring your 
feet, I can fit them ; don't care if they are as uneven as a tomato, or so ugly 
as to make their owner blush. N. B. — I will also repair harness." 

In time McCoy became the largest harness dealer in the city. His 
unique advertisement appeared in the Marysville papers for a period of 
twenty-five years, as follows : 

A good broth of a boy is Thomas McCoy, 

He lives in Marysville, Kan., 
And those who want tools for horses and mules, 

Should call on him quick as they can. 

He has saddles and bridles, and collars and whips. 

All made with new-fangled invention. 
His goods are all made with an eye to the trade, 

And to please is his honest intention. 

So come in and buy, of this clever McCoy, 

And ne'er doubt but your visit will pay. 
You'll remember the place, 'tis so easy to trace, 

At the west end and south side of Broadway. 



WH'ITE STUMP SWIMMING HOLE. 



The accompan} ing view will recall i)leasant memories to the mind of 
every man under forty years of age, who lived in Alarysville for any length of 
time in boyhood days. 

To this shady retreat on Spring creek may be charged countless cases 



446 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

of tniancv. liours of maternal anxiety and "oceans of fun" for the Ijoys, who 
during- all of th()^-e years have promptly and cheerfillly responded to the sign 
of "two fingers." 

The amphihians in the water are William A. Calderhead, Jr., now man- 
ager of a hig cattle ranch in Mexico; Arthur Johnson, well known in Rock 
Island railr()a<l circles, and Butler Shepard, who was recently on the Mexican 
border with the late General Funston. The boy on the bank must remain 
incognito. Suffice it to say he has boys of his own large enough to recognize 
the sign of the "two fingers." 

STORY OF GRANDMA KEYES. 

On April 14. 1846, the Douner party left Spring-field, Illinois, on their 
journey to California. James F. Reed was the originator of the party, and 
the Donner brothers, George and Jacob, joined him. 

Mrs. Reed's mother, Sarah Keyes, was an invalid, seventy-five years 
old. but as Mrs. Reed was her only daughter she refused to be parted from 
her and although her sons, Gersham and James W. Keyes, tried to persuade 
her to remain with them, she accompanied the party. 

Everything possible was planned to make her comfortable for the long 
journey and she improved in health every day until the party reached the 
Big Blue ri\-er. at the Old Independence crossing, where they found the 
river so swollen that they could not cross and were obliged to lie by and 
make some rafts. As soon as they stopped traveling. Grandma Keyes began 
to fail in health and on the 19th day of May she died. 

Her granddaughter, Virginia (Keyes) Murphy, w-riting in the Century 
Magazine, July, 1891, gives this account: 

"It seemed hard to bury grandma in the wilderness and travel on and 
we were afraid the Indians would destroy her grave, but death here, before 
cur troubles began was providential, and nowhere on the wdiole road could 
we have found so beautiful a resting place. By this time many emigrants 
had joined our company and all turned out to assist at the funeral. 

"A coftin was hewn out of a cotton wood tree and John Denton, a young 
man from Springfield, found a large, gray stone on which he carved in deep 
letters the name. 'Sarah Keyes, born in Virginia,' giving her age and date 
of her birth. 

"She was buried under the shade of an oak, the slab being placed at 
the foot of the grave, on which were planted wild flowers of the prairie. A 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 44/ 

minister in onr party. Rev. A. J. Cornwall, tried to speak words of comfort 
as we stood about this lonely grave." 

This grave and the slab are on the hill side near Alcove Springs and have 
been visited by many people who have not forgotten the story of the death 
of Grandma Keyes nor of the ill-fated Donner party. That party, which 
left Springfield on that beautiful April morning, suffered to the extreme of 
human endurance, only a small number surviving and reaching California. 
Among the survivors were James F. Reed and wife, and their four children, 
Virginia, Patty, James and Thomas. Their last hours of real happiness on 
the trip were buried in that lonely grave near the Blue river. 

• A few^ years ago the granddaughters, Virginia and Patty, wrote to Peter 
Schroyer making inquiry concerning the grave and were assured that it had 
never been molested. It is hoped that steps will be taken to give this grave 
proper marking, so that the dead left with us shall not be forgotten. 

THE OLD MUSICIAN. 

"Tell me the tales that to me were so dear, • 

Long, long ago ; long, long ago ; 
Sing me the songs I delighted to hear, 

Long, long ago; long, long ago." 

From 1869 to 1880 the music best known and most in demand was the 
Pecenka Orchestra. When this orchestra first became known to the dancing 
folks in and around Marysville, the orchestra contained Ijut two instruments. 
John Pecenka, Sr., played a violin and his son John played an accordion. 
This old-time instrument has passed beyond the memory of many people, 
while the younger generation knows nothing of it; but in those good old 
days it was the musical instrument of the settler's cabin, and the accordion 
player was classed as a musician and had his place in the orchestral ranks. 

Later, as the children of the family advanced in years they took their 
places beside the father and the orchestra instrumentation was : Leader and 
first violin, John Pecenka, Sr. ; cornet, John Pecenka, Jr. ; clarionet, Milos A. 
Pecenka ; viola, Anton C. Pecenka ; second violin, Joseph Sedlacek ; accordion, 
Joseph A. Sedlacek. 

This was the group of Bohemian musicians known as the Pecenka 
Orchestra and, while the members were all musicians of rank, the central 
figure was the leader with his rich-toned violin. 

To the many gay dancers who listened to its strains, it meant only the 



448 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

waltz, schottische or ([uaclrille. to which restless feet beat broken time and 
plunged waveringly from one tune to another, giving no thought to com]:)Oser 
or interpreter. But to the old musician it meant the day when he was old 
enough to draw the bow or finger the strings. It meant his first trembling 
attempts at the melodies of Dvorak. Smetena and, in later years, the stately 
modes and chants of St. Gregory. It meant the liome of his youth and early 
manhood, with its lares and penates. It meant his native land, with its 
legend of hill and vale, from which he had parted, never more to breathe its 
flower-laden air or press with gentle footstep the sacred soil, where slept his 
ancestors. 

DLSASTER FOLLOWS NIGTIT OF PLEASURE. 

One ni^^ht the orchestra had been playing for a dance in Waterson's 
hall in Marysville, and the night had worn almost till morn, when the strains 
of "Home, Sweet Home." gave notice of the final waltz and Pecenka with his 
violin -left- the hall. The night was dark and stormy and rain was falling. 
Pecenka placed the violin carefully \\rapped in a grain sack in the back part 
of the wagon and covered it wnth loose hay. Pecenka with his son, John, 
were about to start on their homeward drive, when John discovered he had 
left his music rack in the hall and returned for it. During his absence the 
father tied the team and stepped into the stairway out of the rain. The 
team, restless from the cold and the late hour, broke loose and ran down the 
street. Someone, who recognized the "gray and bay" team, jumped into 
the back of the wagon and stopped the runaways and tied them at the foot 
of Broadway. Pecenka's first thought was of his violin and he soon came 
to the team and hastily reached for the sack under the hay. Alas, it rattled 
like bones and the hallowed wood was stilled. 

The friend who had intercepted the runaway team, had stepped on his 
instrument and crushed the plate and sides into splinters. The heart of 
Pecenka was pierced with anguish and tears fell from his eyes. His precious 
violin, dear to him as a child, was ruined. Across the sea in his childhood 
home, in sunny, music-loving Bohemia, he had taken his first lesson from a 
master musician on that beloved instrument. On the voyage he had charmed 
the passengers on the steamer with its sweet strains and had solaced his 
family and friends during the lonely, dangerous hours of the eight weeks 
voyage. In Chicago he made it speak to men and women of his own nativity 
in the music of the homes they had left beyond the sea. In low'a it had helped 
to earn maintenance for the growing family. On the prairies of Kansas, 
the first night in the state, he had played for a future governor while the 






'.".•■V' ' 



LONE GRAVE CEMETERY. 




i^': - ■ ■■ ■■■■':■■,■ 4^v:t]8%i-i ,:. .- ' ^ 'ir¥^{**^, 



^* 



i :: 






GRAVE OF GRANDMA SARAH KEYES. 



%u . u'r . 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 449 

children danced with happiness on the grass. And now maimed and crushed, 
it lay at his feet. 

With Ijroken heart Pecenka gathered together the fragments of his idol. 
One ray of hope illumined his despair and as day broke over the eastern hills 
he rapped at the door of his friend, Fred Baeuerle, the cabinet-maker. 
Baeuerle had fingers that worked magic in wood. Perhaps he could repair 
the violin. 

PECENKA HIMSELF AGAIN. 

A few weeks later a group of men were gathered in Matthias Bendel's 
saloon when Pecenka entered with his violin in the sack, under his arm. He 
dropped into a chair and with trembling fingers untied the strings and took 
out the instrument. Slowly he raised it, lovingly rested it against his face 
and, with a gentle stroke, he brought the bow across the strings. The tone 
came back sweet and true as of old. 

Strong men were in the group, but none felt ashamed of the tears that 
moistened their ey€s as the old musician w'ept. Some one handed him a 
foaming glass and soon, his composure returned, he rendered with skilful 
touch the sweet strains of the "Divci Rozmar" (The Maiden's Waltz.) 
Then came other favorites — "The Dnesni" (Of This Day) waltz and the 
vivacious polonaise. Occasionally, while Pecenka resined his bow, the group 
partook of refreshments and the musician was not forgotten. 

It was Saturday afternoon and as was usual everybody had come to 
town. Bendel's saloon was the favorite haunt of a number of congenial 
souls and among those gathered there that afternoon were : Fritz Baeuerle, 
the Schwabian cabinet-maker, who had restored the instrument ; John Kempf, 
the village blacksmith ; a soldier from Schwabia ; Tom McCoy, the jolly 
harness-maker from old Frin ; Joe Kelley, of the same nativity ; Louis Wyl, 
a French soldier ; Henry Schell, a farmer, musician and a Union soldier ; 
Anton Huber, a Badenese revolutionist of 1848; George Wohlwend, a soldier 
of the Swiss Sonderbund War ; James McClosky, a Scotchman and pioneer ; 
Robert Boehme, a homesteader, highly educated, of the aristocracy of Silesia ; 
George Bachoritch, a Hungarian soldier, also a Union soldier; Romeo B. 
Werner, an Austrian nobleman, artist and inventor, and Christ Ruffner, a 
Swiss, six feet, four, basso, dugout homesteader, renowned for strength. 

Some were seated on rude chairs, some leaned against the wall, others 
stood at the bar with foot on rail and glass in hand. Here comrades and 
citizens, men from different lands and of various speech, paid tribute to 
music, the universal language of mankind. 

(29) 



450 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

AN IMPROVISED CONCERT. 

W'itli a gladness of licart, born of tlic restoration of his loved violin 
after weeks of anxietv. filled with thankfulness that he was in a land chosen 
for its rich oi)i)ortnnities. its beneficent laws, and for the highest develop- 
ment of individual life, here surrounded by congenial friends, his bow 
involuntarily brought forth the strains of "America". 

There was a stir in the room, a coming closer together, a clinking of 
glasses and then, "Ciod Save the Queen," sang the Irishman. "Heil dir im 
Siegerkranz," was the song of the German. "Rufst du mein Vaterland," 
rang out the voice of the Swiss, while all joined, brokenly and stumblingly, 
but none the less fervently, in the words : 

Our father's God, to Thee, 
Author of Liberty, 

To Thee w^e sing. 
Long may our land be bright. 
With Freedom's holy light. 
Protect us by Thy might. 

Great God, our King. 

Who can tell what magic played upon the heartstrings of these men, as 
the music enraptured their very souls and bathed them in its harmonies, as 
the moonlight bathes the rough mountain crag and makes it radiant. The 
room became a picture. By that law w'hich sets men in the same frame of 
mind as the artist, the poet and the musician, the dingy, narrow room with 
its low ceiling became to McCoy and Kelley, the hawthorn-scented lanes of 
the Emerald Isle, and they heard afar a sweet voice singing, "Come back 
to Erin, Mavourneen, mavourneen." Wyl and Schell were in France, and 
again marching in cjuick time to the inspiring strains of the "Marsellaise." 
Ruffner and Wohlw^end heard the cry of the yodeler from the mountain top 
and, from the valley below, the unconquerable spirit of Liberty resounded 
in the Kureihen. 

The mood of the musician changed, the bow' swept the strings with mar- 
tial fervor and the strains of "Die A\"acht am Rhein," resounded through 
the room. There were men in that gathering who had served in the Prus- 
sian army and they were again on the battlefield. The din of musketry, the 
roar of cannon, the moans of the dying were in their ears. They sang tlie 
old war-song as they had often voiced it in deadly warfare. As the words 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 45 1 

died awav they scarce dared look at one another, so full of emotion were all. 
The day had worn to eve and when the glasses clinked for the last time, 
memory, libation and music had worked its spell. The dim, ancestral knowl- 
edge in men dominated the minds and hearts of all. The old mysticism of 
the Rhine with its legends and lore was over them, as the fascinating tones 
of "The Lorelei" pervaded the air. Softly and tenderly they sang, 

'Teh weiss nicht was soil es bedeuten, 
Dass ich so traurig bin ; 
Ein Maerchen aus aiten Zeiten, 

Das kommt mir nicht aus dem Sinn." 

Slowly the group dispersed, going silently from that cheap room, which 
for the time being had in imagination, been transformed into scenes of other 
lands and other climes. The sun was setting in a blaze of glory as the old 
musician turned his footsteps toward his homestead in the golden west. 

A MATTER OF LIFE AND DEATH. 

A local paper, published in 1890, carried the following story: 
"A Kansas City drummer received a shock at Blue Rapids recently. 
When he jumped into the bus at the Union Pacific depot he trilled a 
merry little song as he looked on the other passengers. Tt seems to me I've 
met you before,' he said to the man opposite. 'Isn't your name Eaton?' 'No, 
sir, my name is Life.' 'Ha, ha! where's Death?' 'Here, sir, answered the 
man at his right. My name is Death.' 'Gad, Life and Death!' was his 
astonished exclamation. 'And here is the Coffin,' quietly remarked his left- 
hand neighbor. 'My name is Coffin.' 'My goodness, let me off, I'd rather 
walk than ride in such company.' The bus passengers waited in front of 
the hotel until the express wagon came; sure enough there he was humming 
his little song. He was informed he had finished his ride with the express 
man named Sexton, and in tlie wagon generally used as a hearse. He was 
so overcome he went to bed." 

The truth of the tale is vouched for. All the persons whose names are 
mentioned, lived in Blue Rapids at one time. 

O. W. FRENCH. 

Obe French, who was born in Canada in 1844, began blacksmithing in 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, at the age of sixteen. He came to Marysville in 



452 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Febnian-, 1S71, wliore for forty-six consecutive years he has conducted a 
blacksniitli shop. Man}- others have come and o()ne Ijut "Olie" stayed "on 
the job". There was no mule too \icious for him to shoe; no day too long 
for him to refuse to sharpen the farmer's plow or repair machinery. All of 
his work bore evidence of the hand and skill of the master and most of this 
was done before the gas engine or electric motor made the trip hammer pos- 
sible. 

O. W. French, has stood at the anvil more years than any other man in 
the county, if not in the state. His familiar face going to and from his work 
daily for nearh' half a century has been an object lesson in industry to the 
generations of boys who knew him. He served the city as councilman for 
many years with the same absolute honesty and efficiency wUiich characterized 
his own business. A written history of Marysville for the last forty-six 
years, without making mention of "Obe" French, the blacksmith, would be 
incomplete. 

"Toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing, 

Onward through life he goes. 
Each morning sees some task begun. 

Each evening sees it close. 
Something accomplished, something done. 

Has earned a night's repose." 

GEORGE GUITTARD. 

For many years in the history of Marshall county, there were three well- 
known points: Frank Marshall's at Marysville. Barrett's, of Barrett Mills, 
and Guittard Station. 

Guittard Station was the first stopping place in the county for the Over- 
land stage, and it was a favorite stopping place on the rc)ute. The host was 
genial and hospitable and an air of gentility pervaded the home life. 

George Guittard was born in Bellemagna, Upper Alsace, France, in 
1800. The Guittards were an old French family and heads of the family 
had served as magistrates for years, one of the name being a member of the 
Chamber of Deputies in Napoleon's time. Another came to America with 
LaFayette and served during the Revolutionary War. George Guittard 
came to the United States in 1833 ^""^1 ^^'ith him came his mother, his wife, 
Magdelena. nee Thomann, and their four sons, George, Jr., Francis, Joseph 
and Xavier; also Mrs. Guittard's brother, Thomann and family and their 



MARSHALL COUNTY,, KANSAS. 453 

aged parents. They were one hundred and three days on the ocean, suffered 
much hardship and food went scarce. They landed in Baltimore, wdiere Mr. 
Guittard's mother died from the effects of the voyage, as did also Francis, a 
young son. Mr. Guittard found employment in factories in Philadelphia, 
New York and Newark, and finally started a factory of his own. 

ATTRACTED TO THE WEST. 

The story of land in the new territory in the West, attracted him and in 
1857 they came to St. Joseph by rail and boat. They purchased an ox team 
and wagon and coming to Marshall county settled on section 4, township 2, 
range 9. on June 4, 1857. 

A tent served for a dwelling place until a log house was built. The 
Guittards and Thomann families suffered the privations incident to pioneer 
life. Settlements were few and far between, and the members of the family 
spoke mainly the French language. 

Roving bands of Indians often molested them and stole from the scanty 
store. But they were of the sterling French type and by thrift and good 
management they soon prospered. The father and sons each took up land, 
making a section in all. 

In 1858 a road was opened up from Ash Point in Nemaha county to 
Marysville, cutting off about fifteen miles of the old military road that ran 
by Robidoux station, which was situated at the crossing of the main fork of 
the Black VermilHon. This turned the travel toward Guittard's, and soon 
the place was named Guittard Station and became a landmark in the territory 
and throughout the country. 

When Ben Holladay assumed control of the Overland stage line, George 
Guittard was one of his most trusted agents and many times received from 
Holladay substantial tokens of his esteem. 

ACTIVE IN COUNTY ORGANIZATION. 

In early organization of the county Mr. Guittard took an active part in 
advancing the public interest. He assisted when the county was organized 
into townships and Guittard township was named in honor of her first and 
best citizen. Mr. Guittard was one of the early county commissioners. He 
was a man of refined and gentle, but forceful, character and upright in all 
ways. He lived to be "of old age and full of honor". He died on March 
5, 1 88 1, and his devoted wife followed him on June 6, 1892. They are 



454 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

buried in ihc cemetery at Beattie, where a haiulsonic monument has been 
erected over tlie resting- place of these two worthy pioneers by their son, 
Xavier. CJn the mcmument is inscribed a short and fitting- history of their 
eventful lives. 

All of Mr. Ciuittard's family were born in France. Francis died in 
Philadelphia; George, Jr., is buried in the same lot with his parents. At last 
accounts, Joseph was living in St. Louis ; Xavier, in St. Joseph. Xavier 
Guittard was the oldest continuous postmaster in the state, having served 
from 1 86 1 to 1901, when the office was taken up by a rural mail route. 

W. A. CALDERHEAD, OF MARYSVILLE. 

William Alexander Calderhead was born in Perry county, Ohio, the 
eldest son of Rev. E. B. Calderhead and Martha Boyd Wallace. He attended 
Franklin College, New Athens, Ohio, at the age of sixteen and when eighteen 
years old, in 1862, he enlisted in Company H, One Hundred and Twenty-sixth 
Ohio Infantry. He was discharged on June 27, 1865. 

Calderhead was admitted to the bar in 1875 and in 1879 came to Marys- 
ville, where he has since resided. He was elected county attorney in 1888, 
serving two years and was for several years clerk of the board of education. 
He was elected to the Fifty-fourth Congress by the electors of the fifth 
congressional district of Kansas in the year 1894. In 1896 he was defeated 
for election, because of his unwavering stand for the gold standard, being 
the only member of Congress from Kansas who held for sound money. 

In 1898 he was again elected and continued to serve the district through 
the Fifty-sixth. Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth, Sixtieth and Sixty- 
first Congresses. Mr. Calderhead was for many years a member of the 
committee on invalid pensions and assisted largely in the beneficient pension 
legislation which the veterans now enjoy. He was a member of the ways 
and means committee which gave the country the Payne-Aldrich Tariff 
bill. He has always been a sound-money, protective-tariff Republican. A 
man of earnest conviction, a brilliant lawyer, with great political sagacity, 
Mr. Calderhead has hosts of friends who enjoy his fine presence and great 
personal charm. 

Marshall county is his home, and he loves the county and her people, who 
have so many times demonstrated their faith in him, and devotion to his 
interests. 



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HON. W. A. CALDERHEAD. 






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MARSHALL COUNTY^ KANSAS. 455 

G. H. HOLLENBERG. 

G. Henry HoUenberg- was born in the province of Hanover, Germany, 
December 19, 1823. In 1849 the discovery of .gold in Cahfornia induced 
him to sail for this country. He lived three years in California accumulating 
some money, then sailed for Australia. He was successful in mining ven- 
tures there and with sixty-five others went to Peru, South America. He 
suffered great hardships in crossing a branch of the Amazon river and the 
Andes mountains, and in fighting Indians. The adventure not proving suc- 
cessful, Mr. HoUenberg went to New York, via the Isthmus of Panama. 

In 1854 he came to Marshall county and settled on the Black Vermillion, 
near what is now the town of Bigelow. There he kept a general store at the 
ford of the old Independence and California trail, and did a thriving busi- 
ness besides carrying on farming. On May 15, 1858, he was married to 
Sophia Brockmeyer and that same year moved to Washing-ton county and 
established Cottonwood ranch, which became a stopping point for the Over- 
and stag'e. Later he assisted largely in the development of Washington 
county and in founding the city of Hanover, which was named for his 
native city, and the town of HoUenberg, which bore his name. In politics 
he was a stanch Republican and in 1857 cast one of the two free-state votes 
which were cast in Marshall county. 

Mr. HoUenberg was a member of the Lutheran church, a man of 
sterling integrity of character, of great kindness, public-spirited and gen- 
erous. He served three terms as a member of the Kansas Legislature and 
several terms as county commissioner. 

In 1874 he was appointed emigrant consul and sailed for Hanover on 
the steamer "Bolivia" from New York on July i, 1874. He was taken 
with a severe hemorrhage of the lungs and lived but four hours. He was 
buried at sea on the following day, the captain reading the burial service. 
He left a large estate. 

Mrs. HoUenberg later married Judge William Kalhoefer, of Hanover, 
Kansas. Mr. Ernest Thiele. of Hanover, and George W. Thiele, of Wash- 
ington, Kansas, are nephews of Mr. and Mrs. HoUenberg. 

George W. Thiele was the first white child born in Marshall county, 
and close friendships have always existed between the HoUenberg, Brock- 
meyer and Thiele families and people of Marshall county. 



456 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 



l'envoi. 



"The old order cliangeth, yielding place to new, 
And God fulfills Himself in many ways." 

History must be written and read with the thought that the mind of 
one is the mind of all. It is not to Ije regarded as a "shallow tale," hut as 
the record of the moti\-es and deeds of men and women. 

The story of human life is quick with interest. The same hopes and 
fears, ambitions and longings dwell within the hearts of all. Sorrow is a 
common heritage. 

"Never morn wore to eve but some heart did break." 

Marshall county, within its circumscribed limits, holds the pregnant 
story of humanity. On its soil have been enacted scenes of courage and 
comfort, of fortitude and faith, of life and death. The evolution of the 
county from prairie and plain to field and farm has been worthy of a people 
who have so marvelously stood the test of efficiency and virtue. 



The historian and the playwright differ. \\'hen the actors have spoken 
their final lines, the curtain falls, the lights are dimmed, the play is over. 

But the historian — when the last page is written and the book about to 
close, may cry, with fair Portia, 

"Tarry a little : There is something more." 





MPvS. F. M_ BERGEN 



BIOGRAPHICAL 



FRED G. BERGEN. 

Fred G. Bergen, one of the well-known and successful business men of 
vSummerfield, Marshall county, and the efificient cashier of the State Bank of 
that place, was born in Galesburg, Illinois, on June 13, 1865, the son of 
George L and Maria S. (Field) Bergen. 

The bank of which Mr. Bergen is the cashier, was organized in 1889 
with a capital stock of twenty-five thousand dollars. The organizers were 
John Gilchrist, R. M. Schriver, C. J. Schriver and Andrew J. Felt, since 
which time the personnel of the stockholders has been changed. The bank 
has been well managed and has met with much success and is today the third 
largest bank in Marshall county. With a capital stock of twenty-five thou- 
sand dollars and a surplus of fifteen thousand dollars, the institution is recog- 
nized as one of the strong banks of this section of the state and one in which 
the people have great confidence, which is demonstrated by the fact that there 
is now over three hundred thousand dollars on deposit. The present officers 
are : President, William F. Orr ; vice-president, George Craven ; second vice- 
president, Andrew Nestor ; cashier, Fred G. Bergen, and assistant cashier, 
James A. Hamler. The bank owns its own banking house, which was erected 
in 1889 and is one of the substantial structures of the city. 

George L Bergen was born in 1827 and died in 1869; his wife, Maria 
S. (Field) Bergen, was born in 1824 and died in 1866. Mr. Bergen was a 
successful manufacturer of army boots and the inventor of the famous 
Brown's corn planter. He was a friend of Abraham Lincoln and it was 
Lincoln who joined in marriage his sister and A. L. Scoville. Maria S. 
(Field) Bergen was a member of the Field family, of which Marshall Field 
and Cyrus W. Field were representatives. 

His parents having died when he was but a child, Fred G. Bergen was 
reared by James Compton, of Augusta, Illinois. He remained with the 



458 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 

CtJmpton family until he was nineteen years of age and received the advan- 
tages of a good common- and high-school education. In 1884, at the age of 
nineteen }Tars, he came to Seneca, Kansas, and engaged in the study of law 
with C. C. K. vScoville. lie continued his law studies for two years. He 
and ?kfr. Scoville later engaged in the lianking Inisiness. For fifteen years, 
Mr. Bergen was connected with the Scoville State Bank, when in 1900 he 
cnme to Summerfield as cashier of the State Bank of Summerfield. In addi- 
tion to his interests in the bank he is the owner of two hundred acres of land 
in Marshall county. He is identified with the Republican party and has ever 
taken much interest in local afTairs and is a man of much influence in that 
party's councils. On November 7, 1916, he was elected to represent his dis- 
trict in the state Senate, bv a majority of over one thousand six hundred. 
Wdiile he was yet a resident of the state of Illinois, he was captain of Com- 
pany I, Seventh Regiment, Illinois National Guards, at Galesburg. Owing 
to an accident he was unal)le to contraue service. During the Spanish- 
American War he raised and drilled a company for Governor Leedy in 1898. 
Since locating at Summerfield he has served as a member of Governor Bailey's 
staff. For live years he served as treasurer of the Kansas State Banker's 
Association and was one of the organizers, and is now vice-president of his 
congressional district of the Banker's Association. 

Fraternally, IMr. Bergen is a member of the Ancient Free and Accepted 
Masons and is a member of the Summerfield Chapter No. 354. He is also 
a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows 
and the Modern Woodmen of America. He is active in the Sons of the 
American Revolution, his paternal and maternal grandparents having served 
in the Revolutionary War. Both Mr. and Mrs. Bergen are active members 
of the United Presbyterian church, and Mr. Bergen has been a teacher in the 
Sunday school for over ten years; has served as- superintendent for three 
years and for two years has been president of the County Sunday School 
Association. He gives his best efforts to the work that he undertakes, and 
with his commanding personality he meets with much success, both in organ- 
ization and the accomplishment of results. Few men of the county have 
assumed greater responsibilities for the development of the moral, social 
and financial conditions of the district, than has Mr. Bergen. 

On August 5, 1889, Fred G. Bergen was united in marriage to May 
Matthews, the daughter of Mortimer M. Matthews, one of the early pioneers 
of Seneca and for forty-live years surveyor of Nemaha county, Kansas. 
Mrs. Bergen is a graduate of the Seneca high school and is a woman of 
considerable culture. Like her husband, she takes much interest in the 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 459 

religious, social and educational development of the city and district, she has 
always been devoted to the interests of her family, and with Mr. Bergen is 
held in the highest regard and esteem. They are prominent in the social 
life of Snmmerfield and consider it a pleasure to entertain their neighbors 
and friends. They are the parents of three children, Fredrica G., Mary J. 
and George I. Fredrica G. is a graduate of the Seneca high school and the 
State Normal at Fmporia and has had a year in Northwestern University. 
She is now a teacher in the primary department of the Topeka, Kansas, 
schools. Mary J. is a member of the junior class of the Summerfield high 
school and George is also an attendant in the schools of their home city. 



WTLLIAM W. POTTER. 



The Hon. William W. Potter, judge of probate for Marshall county and 
one of the best-known residents of Mai-ysville, the county seat, is a native 
of the state of Illinois, but has been a resident of Kansas and of Marhsall 
county since he was fourteen years of age and has consequently been a wit- 
ness to and a participant in the development of this county almost since the 
days of the pioneers. He was born on a farm near the city of Olney, in 
Richland county, Illinois, March 4, 1S71, a son of Benjamin F. and Rebecca 
(Neal) Potter, natives, respectively, of Kentucky and Indiana, who came 
to Kansas in the early days of the settlement of this part of the state and 
settled on a farm in the vicinity of Beattie, in this county, where Benjamin 
F. Potter spent the rest of his life, his death occurring on February 27, 1907, 
and where his widow is still living. 

In 1885 Benjamin F. Potter came into Kansas with his family. He 
established his home in Guittard township and it was not long until he came 
to be recognized as one of the progressive and substantial farmers of that 
part of the county. Fle and his wife were the parents of nine children, of 
whom the subject of this biographical sketch was the seventh in order of 
birth, the others being as follow: John F., a farmer, living near Frankfort, 
this county: Nancy J., wife of David H. Beaver, of Home City; Kate, wife 
of J. G. Braxton, a farmer, living in the neighborhood of Frankfort : Thomas 
A., a farmer, of Blue Mound; Mary M., of Beattie: Emma, wife of Oscar 
Halsel, of Frankfort ; Lucy, now deceased, was the wife of Daniel S. Thomas, 
of Grand Junction, Colorado, and Dr. Harry E. Potter, of Fairbury, 
Nebraska. 



460 MARSTTAIJ. COUNTY, KANSAS. 

William \\'. Potter was about fourteen years of age when he came to 
Marshall county with his jjarents in icS85 and his schooHng was completed 
in the district school in the neighlxniiood of his new home and in the high 
school at Marysville. Shortly after leaving school he became employed in 
the drug store of E. L. Miller at Marysville and was thus engaged during 
the years 1890-92. after wliich he accepted a clerkship in the general store of 
Arand & Son. In the spring of 1893 he accepted a position as a traveling 
salesman for a photographers' supply house and was thus engaged for ten 
years, at the end of which time he took over the management of the home 
farm for his father and was thus engaged during the years 1903-08. In 
January. 1908, he became associated with the Bank of Beattie and was thus 
engaged at the time of his election, in the fall of 1910, to the position of 
judge gf probate for Marshall county. Judge Potter entered upon the duties 
of his important office in January, 191 1, and so satisfactorily has he dis- 
charged the duties of that office that he was re-elected in the successive elec- 
tions of 191 2- 14-16 and is now serving his fourth term as jndge of probate. 
Judge Potter is a member of the Masonic fraternity and his wife is a mem- 
ber of the local chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star. 

On January 9, 1908, Judge W. W. Potter was united in marriage to 
Blanche Burnside, who was born in this county, daughter of Thomas and 
Jane (Ruddy) Burnside, natives, respectively, of Ireland and of the Dominion 
of Canada, who settled in this county, becoming pioneers of the Beattie neigh- 
borhood, Mrs. Potter having received her schooling in the Beattie high school. 
Judge and Airs. Potter ha^'e a very pleasant home at Marysville and take a 
proper ])art in the general social activities of the city. 



WILLIAM JAMES HOLTHAM. 

In the memorial annals of Marshall county there are few names held in 
better remembrance than those of the late William J. Holtham, the first rail- 
way station agent and postmaster at Frankfort and for many years a well- 
known merchant of that city, and his father-in-law, the late Albert G. Bar- 
rett, one of Marshall coimty's very first settlers, founder of the town of Bar- 
rett and for many years the real outstanding figure in the history of this 
county, his activities in the way of promoting the various interests of the 
county in pioneer days having made him a participant in pretty much every 
serious mo\-ement that marked that development in the days when the plains 



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 46 1 

were being claimed to civilization. Mr. Floltham's widow, a daughter of 
Mr. Barrett, is still lix'ing at Frankfort, which city she has seen grow from 
a mere railway station on the bleak plain, to its present substantial state. 
She has been a resident of Marshall county from the days of her childhood 
and has thus been a witness to the wonderful development that has been made 
here during the past generation ; a development to which she has contributed 
her part, ex'er helpful in the promotion of all movements having to do with 
the advancement of the common welfare and the extension of the social and 
cultural life of the comhiunity of which she has been a member since ]:>ioneer 
days. 

William James Holtham was a native of England, born in the citv of 
London on September 5, 1848, and was but two years of age when his par- 
ents, William and Caroline Rosamond Holtham. came to America and pro- 
ceeded on out to Indiana, locating at E\'anston, in Spencer county, in the 
southern part of that state, not far from the Ohio river, whence thev i)res- 
ently came farther West and located at Atchison, this state, where the elder 
William Hr)ltham, who was a trained brickmason, became an active building 
contractor. It was thus that \\ illiam J. Holtham was reared and educated 
at Atchison. He early became attracted to the telegraph key and became an 
expert telegraph operator, at seventeen years of age drawing one hundred 
and seventy-five dollars a month, and was one of the first of the operators 
of the Western Union Telegraph Company to be sent across the plains to 
Denver. During that period of his career as an operator, Mr. Holtham had 
many thrilling experiences and while accompanying the construction crew of 
the W'estern Union while the line was being constructed west to Denver, not 
infrecjuently was compelled to tap the line to report evidences of Indian out- 
rages discovered along the way. He was a sort of a protege of Charles 
Stebbins, the magnate of the W^estern Union Company at that time, and when 
the railway came through this county in 1868 he was made agent of the rail- 
way company and telegraph operator at the new station of Frankfort. At 
the same time he opened a general merchandise store at Frankfort, with the 
firm name of Holtham & Nelson, and was made the first postmaster of the 
new town. In 1870 his store was destroyed by fire and he shortly afterward 
decided to go to the coast. Fie was married in that year and for a time after 
the destruction of his store he engaged in farming in the vicinity of Frank- 
fort, but presently he and his bride went to California, where he was engaged 
in railway service until 1882, in which year he returned to Frankfort and 
the next year, 1883, engaged in business there and was thus engaged until 
his retirement on account of ill health, from active business in 191 4, a sue- 



J.62 AfARS