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Full text of "A history of Massachusetts in the Civil War"

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A. HISTORY 



MASSACHUSETTS IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



WILLIAM SCHOULER, 

LATE ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 



BOSTON: 

E. P. DUTTON & CO., PUBLISHERS, 
136 Washington Street. 

1868. 



S/3 
'337 



Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1 868, by 

WILLIAM SCHOULER, 

In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



ISBN 1-58218-001-6 

Reprinted by Digital Scanning, Inc., 1998 

344 Gannett Rd. 

No. Scituate, MA 02066 



CAMBRIDGE: 
STEREOTYPED AND PRINTED BY JOHN WILSON AND SON. 



TO THE HONORABLE 

LEVI LINCOLN, 

OF WORCESTER, 

THE MOST VENERABLE AND DISTINGUISHED LIVING CITIZEN OF MASSACHUSETTS, 

This Volume 

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



UNIV. OF MASS/BOSTON 
Joseph P 'Healey library 



PREFACE 



The original plan of this work would have included a brief 
narrative of each Massachusetts regiment which had served in 
the war, and a sketch of the meetings held in the several cities 
and towns in the Commonwealth to encourage recruiting, and 
to raise money and provide for the families of the soldiers. I 
soon found it was impossible to carry out this plan so as to do 
any thing like justice to the subjects. The mass of papers, 
letters, and reports bearing upon them placed in my hands, 
convinced me that one volume should be devoted exclu- 
sively to the three years' regiments, and one to the cities and 

towns. 

There are several thousand letters in the files of the Gov- 
ernor, Adjutant-General, and Surgeon-General, written from 
the front by officers and enlisted men, which contain information 
both interesting and valuable ; and many more are doubtless in 
the possession of the families of those who served in the war. 
From these and other sources, material can be furnished to 
make an interesting volume ; and it is due to the veteran regi- 
ments that it should be written. 

I have received new and valuable material from nearly every 
city and town in the Commonwealth, showing what was done 
by them in carrying on the war ; and from this could be com- 
piled a work which would reflect the highest honor upon the 
municipalities of this Commonwealth. 

Should the present volume be received with favorable regard 



Vi PREFACE. 

by the people of Massachusetts, it is my purpose to write a 
volume of the same size and style, devoted exclusively to the 
three years' regiments and batteries, to be followed by another, 
devoted to the cities and towns. 

William Schouler. 
Lynn, March 17, 1868. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Massachusetts - Civil Government - Election, 1860 - Legislature - 
President of the Senate -Speaker of the House-State of the 
Country - Farewell Address of Governor Banks - Governor An- 
drew's Inaugural - Their Views of the Crisis - Sketch of Governor 
Andrew - Lieutenant-Governor - Executive Council - Adjutant- 
General- Military Staff- Congressmen - The Volunteer Militia- 
Military Equipment-Early Preparations - Salutes, 8th of January 
- General Order No. 2 - Report of Adjutant-General - General Or- 
der No. 4 -Proceedings of the Legislature - Regular Session - 
Emergency Fund - Loan Credit of State -Delegates to Peace Con- 
vention- South Carolina to Massachusetts-Two thousand Over- 
coats - Order of Inquiry-Letter of Adjutant-General - Letter of 
Colonel Henry Lee, Jr. -Meeting of Officers in Governor's Room - 
Colonel Ritchie sent to Washington-His Letters to the Governor - 
Secretary Seward's Letter -Letter of Colonel Lee - Charter of 
Transports - John M. Forbes, Esq. -Meeting in Faneuil Hall - 
Meeting in Cambridge - Speech of Wendell Phillips, Esq., at New 
Bedford - Remarks -The President calls for Troops-The Eve of 
Battle 



CHAPTER n. 

The Call for Troops -The Marblehead Companies first in Boston -The 
Excitement of the People - Headquarters of Regiments - Four 
Regiments called for - General Butler to command - New Companies 
organized-Liberal Offers of Substantial Aid- Dr. George H. Ly- 
man, Dr. William J. Dale, Medical Service -Action of the Boston 
Bar -The Clergy, Rev. Mr. Cudworth -The Women of the State 
-The Men of the State-Liberal Offers of Service and Money - 
Robert B. Forbes, Coast Guard - Colonel John H. Reed appointed 
Quartermaster - The Personal Staff - Executive Council - Mr. 
Crowninshield appointed to purchase Arms in Europe - An Emer- 



ii CONTENTS. 

gency Fund of Two Hundred Thousand Dollars-Letter of the 
Governor to Secretary Cameron - General Butler consulted - The 
Route by Annapolis -Narrative of Samuel M. Felton -Mr. Lin- 
coln's Journey to Washington- His Escape from Assassination - 
The Third Regiment - Speech of Ex-Governor Clifford - The 
Fourth Regiment -Address of Governor Andrew-Departure for 
Fortress Monroe - The Sixth Regiment -Departure for Washing- 
ton-Reception in New York and Philadelphia - The Eighth Regi- 
ment - Departore - Speeches of Governor Andrew and General 
Butler - Reception on the Route -Arrival in Philadelphia - The 
Fifth Regiment sails from New York for Annapolis - Major Cook's 
Light Battery ordered to Washington -The Third Battalion of 
Rifles sent forward - The Massachusetts Militia -Arrival of the 
Third Regiment at Fortress Monroe-Attempt to save Norfolk Navy 
Yard -The Fourth Regiment the first to land in Virginia -Fortress 
Monroe -Big Bethel - The Fifth Regiment - Battle of Bull Run 
- The Sixth Regiment - Its March through Baltimore - The Nine- 
teenth of April - First Blood shed -The Eighth Regiment-Lands 
at Annapolis - Saves the Frigate Constitution-Arrives in Wash- 
ington - The Rifle Battalion at Fort McHenry - Cook's Battery at 
Baltimore - End of the Three Months' Service - Conclusion 



CHAPTER ffl. 

The People of the Towns - The Press - The Pulpit - Edward Everett 
-Fletcher Webster offers to raise a Regiment - The Sunday Meet- 
ing in State Street- Mr. Webster's Speech-Meeting in the Music 
Hall - Speech of Wendell Phillips - Meeting in Chester Park 
-Speeches of Edward Everett and Benjamin F. Hallett-Meeting 
under the Washington Elm in Cambridge - Ex-Governor Banks, 
George S. Hillard, and others -Letters received by the Governor - 
Extracts -Reception of the Dead Bodies of the Killed in Baltimore 
-Mr. Crowninshield goes abroad to buy Arms - Ex-Govemor Bout- 
weU sent to Washington - Letter of John M. Forbes to Mr. Felton 
-Letter to General Wool-To Rev. Dr. Stearns - To Robert M. 
Mason - Offer of a Ship Load of Ice -Purchase of the " Cambridge " 
-Provisions sent to Fortress Monroe and Washington - Governor 
to President Lincoln - Attorney-General Foster - The Ladies of 
Cambridge - Call for Three Years' Volunteers -Letter of John M. , 
Forbes -Letters received by the Adjutant-General- Extracts -Let- 
ters from Dr. Luther V. BeU and Richard H. Dana, Jr. - Ex-Govem- 
or Boutwcll arrives at Washington-Letters to the Governor- 
State of Affairs at Washington-Letter from Mr. Foster- Cipher 
Telegram -Judge Hoar at Washington -Letters to the Governor - 
The War Department will accept no more Troops- Charles R. 
Lowell, Jr., Massachusetts Agent at Washington - His Instructions 
-Letter of Governor to Dr. Howe -Appointed to examine the Con- 
dition of the Regiments -His Report - Colonel Prescott -Letters 
of the Governor and General Butler- Slavery 109-161 



CONTENTS. ix 

CHAPTER rV. 

Companies sent to the Forts - Officers appointed to Command - Militia 
Battalions - First Call for Three Years' Troops-Delays at Wash- 
ington - Letter to Montgomery Blair-Letter of Secretary of War 
- General Order No. 12 - Six Regiments allowed - Governor anx- 
ious to send more- Letter of General Walbridge - Governor to 
Senator Wilson - More Delay - Extra Session of the Legislature - 
Address of the Governor - Proceedings of the Legislature-War 
Measures adopted -Debate on Colored Troops -Bills passed by the 
Legislature - Sinking Fund - Government Securities - Pay of 
Troops - Established Camps -Seven Millions of Dollars - State 
Aid to Families of Soldiers - The Six Regiments of Three Years' 
Men - Ten more Regiments called for - Their Organization-Ad- 
ditional Staff Officers appointed - Surgeon-General's Department 
organized - Letter of Governor to Dr. Lyman -Board of Medical 
Examiners - Promotion of the Surgeon-General - Letter of the 
Governor to Colonel Frank E. Howe -New-England Rooms, New 
York -Letter of Colonel Lee to Charles R. Lowell-Letters of the 
Governor to Different Parties - Circular of the Secretary of War- 
Colonel Browne to Colonel Howe - Abstract of Correspondence - 
Colonel Sargent to General Scott - Cobb's Battery-Letter to Colo- 
nel Webster -Letter to the President-Irish Regiments-Flag- 
raising at Bunker-Hill Monument - Speech of Governor Andrew - 
Speech of Colonel Webster - Interesting Ceremonies - Conclusion 162-215 

CHAPTER V. 

Death of Governor Andrew - The Great Loss-Mission of Mr. Crown- 
inshield to Europe - The Purchase of Arms - Colonel Lucius B. 
Marsh - Vote of Thanks by the Council- The Policy of the Gov- 
ernor in making Military Appointments -Letter to General Butler in 
Regard to our Soldiers -Neglect of Officers-Letter to Colonel 
Couch, of the Seventh - Sends Two Thousand Muskets to Wheeling, 
Va. - General Lander - Governor Stevens, of Oregon - General 
Sherman comes to Boston to confer with the Governor - The War 
Department and Appointments - Governor makes an Address to the 
People - Mission to Washington - Writes to Governor Curtin, of 
Pennsylvania - Blockade-runners at Halifax - Governor saves the 
Life of a Private Soldier -His Letter to Patrick Donahoe -Reli- 
gious Toleration - To the Editor of the Boston Post - Massachusetts 
Companies in New- York Regiments - General Sherman's Command 
-Liberality of the People - Battle' of Ball's Bluff - The Massachu- 
setts Dead -A Noble Letter - Exchange of Prisoners - Governor's 
Letter to President Lincoln - Scheme to invade Texas - Suggests 
that Congress offer Bounties - Controversy about making Massachu- 
setts Soldiers catch Fugitive Slaves -Letter to General McClellan- 
Another Letter to the President, about Exchange of Prisoners - Our 
Men in Richmond Jail - San Francisco sends Two Thousand Dollars 
for Soldiers' Families - The Maryland Legislature-Liberal Action 



X CONTENTS. 

- The Republican State Convention - Interesting Debate -Demo- 
cratic Convention - Thanksgiving Proclamation - Thanksgiving in 
the Massachusetts Camps-Major 'Wilder Dwight - The Second 
Regiment at Harper's Ferry-Full Account of the Controversy be- 
tween Governor Andrew and Major-General Butler about recruiting 
and raising Regiments in Massachusetts 216-282 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Campaign of 1862-Meeting of the Legislature - Ex-Governor 
Clifford elected President of the Senate - His Speech-Alexander H. 
Bullock elected Speaker of the House - Speech of Mr. Bullock - 
Of Caleb Gushing -Proceedings of the Legislature -Abstracts of 
Military Laws passed - Massachusetts Prisoners in Richmond - 
Clothing sent - Letter from Adjutant Pierson-Expedition of Gen- 
eral Bumside - Capture of Roanoke Island - Massachusetts Troops 
first to land -Care of the Sick and Wounded -Dr. Hitchcock sent 
on- The Wounded in New York- Colonel Frank E. Howe- 
Establishment of the New-England Rooms - Care of the Sick and 
Wounded - The Army of the Potomac - The Wounded at WilUams- 
burg-Letters of Colonel Howe-Every Assistance given-The 
Agencies of the State for the Care of the Men - The Office in Wash- 
ington - Colonel Gardiner Tufts, Mrs. Jennie L. Thomas, Robert C. 
Corson, William Robinson, appointed Agents-Visits of the Adju- 
tant-General, Colonel Ritchie, and Colonel John Q. Adams, to the 
Front - Report to the Governor - The Appearance of Washington 
-Reports of Edward S. Rand and Dr. Bowditch - First Massachu- 
setts Cavalry at Hilton Head - Our Troops in North Carolina - Ap- 
pointment of Allotment Commissioners -Their Valuable Services 
-Letters of the Governor-Rule for making Appointments - Illegal 
Recruiting - Colonel Dudley - Thirtieth Regiment - Captured 
Rebel Flags-Death and Burial of General Lander-Letters of Gov- 
ernor to Secretary of War- Secretary of the Navy- To the Presi- 
dent on Various Subjects -Letter to General Bumside-Secretary 
Chase -The Retreat of General Banks - Great Excitement - Troops 
sent forward-Militia called out-The Position of our Regiments - 
The War in Earnest 283-337 



CHAPTER Vn. 

Recruiting for the New Regiments - The Position of the Armies in the 
Field - Letters from the Adjutant-General to Different Persons - 
Establishment of Camps -Departure of New Regiments-Recruits 
for Old Regiments - Letter to Secretary Seward - Suggestions 
adopted -Foreign Recruits -Letter to General Couch -Deserters 
-Want of Mustering Officers -Letter from General Hooker - Our 
Sick and Wounded-Letter to General McClellan - General Fitz- 
John Porter - Call for Nineteen Thousand Soldiers for Nine Months 
-Appointment of Major Rogers -Preparing for a Draft-Militia 



CONTENTS. xi 

Volunteers -Letter to the President- Great Activity in Recruiting 

- Liberality of John M. Forbes - Colonel Maggi - Town Authorities 
ask Civilians to be commissioned - First Attempt to raise Colored 
Troops - Letter to Hon. J. G. Abbott - Recommends Merchants and 
Others to devote Half of each Day to Recruiting - Hardship to Sea- 
board Towns -Attempt to have Credits allowed for Men in the Navy 
-Difficulties- Earnest Letter - Surgeons sent forward - Several 
Recommendations -Battle of Antietam - Dr. Hitchcock sent forward 

- His Report - Affairs at the Front - Recruiting Brisk - Republican 
Convention - Sharp Debate - Nominations - People's Convention 

- General Devens nominated for Governor - Speeches-Letter to 
General Dix - Contrabands - Complaints - Quotas filled - Depar- 
ture of Regiments-Invasion of Texas - Major Burt - State Ap- 
pointments, &c 338-399 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The Proclamation of Freedom - Colored Regiments -Letter to Samuel 
Hooper- The California Battalion - Meeting of the Legislature, 
January, 1863 -Organization- Address of the Governor- Delay of 
the Government in paying the Soldiers -The Commission of Mr. 
Crowninshield - His Claim not allowed-Reports of the Adjutant, 
Surgeon, and Quartermaster Generals-Abstract of Military Laws 
-Letter to Hon. Thomas D. Eliot - Western Sanitary Commission 
-Confidential Letter to General Hooker - Efforts to reinstate Major 
Copeland - The Pirate " Alabama " - Curious Coincidence -Au- 
thority to recruit a Colored Regiment-The Governor's Policy in 
the Selection of Officers - Colonel Shaw - The Passage of the 
Fifty-fourth (colored) Regiment through Boston - Departure for 
South Carolina - Death of Colonel Shaw at Fort Wagner-Letter of 
the Governor to Captain Sherman-Letter to General Hamilton, of 
Texas -Major Burt - Plan to invade Texas -Mortality of Massa- 
chusetts Regiments in Louisiana - War Steamers - Rights of Col- 
ored Soldiers - Temperance -General Ullman's Expedition - Coast 
Defences - General Wilde - John M. Forbes writes from London - 
Colonel Ritchie - A Rebel Letter-Robert C. Winthrop -Letter to 
Mr. Gooch, M.C. - Army Officers in Boston - Cases of Suffering - 
Useless Detail of Volunteer Officers -Letter to General Wool - Sug- 
gestions about Recruiting -About Deserters - Staff Appointments 

- Complaints - Nine Months' Men -Letter to J. H. Mitchell, Mas- 
sachusetts Senate - Claims for Money in the Legislature - Case of 
Mr. Maxwell, of Charlemont - Sergeant Plunkett, of the Twenty- 
first Regiment - Soldiers to be shot-Troubles in the Department 

of the GuJf, &c 391-440 



CHAPTER K. 

The Military Condition-Reverses and Successes of the Union Arms 
- Service and Return Home of the Nine Months' Regiments - List 



xii CONTENTS. 

of Casualties -Deserters - The July Riot in Boston -Prompt Ac- 
tion - An Abstract of the Orders -Alarm in other Cities - The 
Attack in Cooper Street - The Eleventh Battery- The Word to fire 

- The Riot suppressed-The Draft - Appointment of Provost-Mar- 
shals - The Fifty-fifth Colored Regiment -Letters from Secretary 
Stanton-Injustice to the Colored Troops - Letters of the Govern- 
or on the Subject-Difficulties with the Draft-Major Blake sent 
to Washington-Request to allow Bounties to Drafted Men refused 

- John M. Forbes in Washington - Letters to the Governor - 
Heavy Ordnance - Colonel Lowell - The Attack on Wagner - 
Death of Colonel Shaw - Instances of Bravery on the Part of Colored 
Troops-Letters to General Dix - Troops for Coast Defence - Gov- 
ernor writes to Governor of Ohio -Formation of Veteran Regiment 
-Massachusetts Militia- Letters to Colonel Lee - Colored Cavalry 
-Letter of Secretary Stanton - Confidential Letter on the Exposed 
Condition of the Coast- Telegraph Communication with the Forts 
-Letters to Senator Sumner- Exact Condition of the Defences - 
Letter of the Adjutant-General-Reports of General William Ray- 
mond Lee - Colonel Ritchie sent to England-Democratic State 
Convention - Republican State Convention - Re-election of Govern- 
or Andrew - The President calls for Three Hundred Thousand more 
Volunteers - Extra Session of the Legislature called - Governor's 
Address-Bounties increased-Abstract of Laws 441-506 

CHAPTER X. 

The Military Camps in Massachusetts-Number of Troops Jan. 1, 1864 

- Where Serving-Letter of Governor to Lewis Hayden-From 
Miss Upham- Soldier's Scrap-book-Letter to Samuel Hooper - 
Sale of Heavy Ordnance -The Condition of our Defences - Colo- 
nel Ritchie in England -Meeting of the Legislature - Organization 
-Addresses of Mr. Field and Colonel Bullock - Address of the Gov- 
ernor- Eloquent Extract- Abstract of Military Laws-Members of 
Congress -Letter to John B. Alley - The Springfield Companies - 
Secretary Stanton refuses to pay them Bounties - Correspondence in 
Regard to it-Letters from General Butler - Governor to Miss Up- 
ham - Complaints about Soldiers at Long Island - Re-enlisted 
Veterans - Order of War Department - Returns of Veteran Regi- 
ments - Their Reception-Letter to General Hancock - General 
Bumside review. 8 the Troops at Readville-Letter to the Christian 
Watchman - General Andrews - Surgeon-General Dale - Confed- 
erate Money -Letter from General Gordon -Battle of Olustee - 
Letter to Selectmen of Plymouth-A Second Volume of Scrap- 
book -Letter from Mr. Lovejoy - Lieutenant-Colonel Whittemore 

- Correspondence-The Heavy Artillery - Condition of Fort War- 
ren - Misunderstanding - Secretary Stanton and the Governor- 
Colonel William F. Bartlett-His Promotion -Earnest Letter to 
Mr. Sumner-Troubles about Recruiting - Complaints made-A 
Convention held -Letter of the Adjutant-General-The Recruiting 
of New Regiments -Forwarded to the Front- The Advance of 
General Grant 507-559 



CONTENTS. xiii 

CHAPTER XI. 

General Position of Affairs at the Beginning of 1864 - Credits in the 
Navy - Law of Congress - Appointment of Commissioners - Cir- 
cular Letter - Agents to Recruit in Rebel States - Letter to Mr. 
Everett-Governor Andrew in Washington - Pay of Colored Troops 

- Letter to the President - Letter to Mr. Stanton - Expectation of 
Rebel Attack on our Coast - Present of a Turtle - Brigadier-General 
Bartlett- Letter to Governor Seymour, of New York - Letter to the 
Secretary of War- Letter to the Attorney-General - Letter to An- 
drew Ellison- Colonel N. A. M. Dudley - Letter of Governor Yates, 
of Illinois - Case of Otis Newhall, of Lynn- Case of Mrs. Bixby, of 
Boston - Letter to the President - Plan to bum the Northern Cities 

- Speech of Mr. Everett-Destruction of the "Alabama" - Honors 
paid to Commodore Winslow - Donations for our Soldiers-Letter 
of Mr. Stebbins-Letter to the Union League Club, New York- 
Colored Officers - Letter to James A. Hamilton - Battle before Nash- 
ville - Case of Jack Flowers - National Conventions -Nominations 

- Republican State Convention - Proceedings - Renomination of 
Governor Andrew - Democratic State Convention - Nominations - 
Report of the Adjutant-General's Journey to the Front - Staff Ap- 
pointments during the Year - Conclusion 560-608 

CHAPTER Xn. 

Public Confidence-Meeting of the Legislature - Organization-Ad- 
dress of Governor Andrew - Acts passed by the Legislature - 
General Sargent - Death of Edward Everett - Frontier Cavalry 

- Governor and Secretary Stanton - Abolition of Slavery - Boston 
Harbor-Fast Day - Currency Question - Proclamation of President 
Lincoln - Case of a Deserter - Letter from Secretary Seward - 
Foreign Enlistments- The End of the Rebellion - Capitulation of 
General Lee - Rejoicings throughout the State -Governor sends 
a Message to the Legislature-Meeting in Faneuil Hall- Proposi- 
tion for a National Thanksgiving -Death of President Lincoln - Ac- 
tion of the Legislature - Governor's Letter to Mrs. Lincob- Original 
Copy of General Lee's Farewell Address, sent to the Governor by 
General Russell-Death of General Russell- Monument to the First 
Martyrs in Lowell - Address of the Governor -Letter to F. P. Blair, 
Sen. - Meeting at Faneuil Hall-Letter of the Governor -Recon- 
struction - Colonel William S. Lincoln - Memorial Celebration at 
Harvard-Letter to Mr. Motley, Minister to Austria-Miss Van 
Lew - Alexander H. Stephens - Governor to President Lincoln- 
Relics of Colonel Shaw -Letter to Colonel Theodore Lyman - 
State Prisoners in Maryland- Letter to James Freeman Clarke 

- Freedman's Bureau-Emigration South -Letter to General Sher- 
man- Governor's Staff- Governor declines Re-election - Republi- 
can Convention - Democratic Convention - Reception of the Flags 

- Forefathers' Day - Speech of General Couch - Speech of Gov- 
ernor Andrew - Compliment to the Adjutant-General - General 



V CONTENTS. 

Grant visits Massachusetts - Mrs. Harrison Gray Otis - Her Services 

- New England Women's Auxiliary Association - What it did - 
New England Rooms, New York-Massachusetts Soldiers' Fund - 
Boston Soldiers' Fund - Surgeon-General's Fund - Number of Men 
sent from Massachusetts to the War - Governor Andrew's Valedic- 
tory Address - Governor Bullock inaugurated - Last Military Order 

- Close of the Chapter 609-670 



CIVIL AND MILITARY HISTORY 

OF 

MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 



CIVIL AND MILITARY HISTORY 



OF 



MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION 



CHAPTER I. 

Massachusetts - Civil Government - Election, 1860 - Legislature-President 
of the Senate - Speaker of the House - State of the Country - Farewell 
Address of Governor Banks - Governor Andrew's Inaugural - Their Views 
of the Crisis - Sketch of Governor Andrew-Lieutenant-Governor - Execu- 
tive CouncU - Adjutant-General - Military Staff - Congressmen - The Vol- 
unteer Militia - Military Equipment - Early Preparations - Salutes, 8th of 
January - General Order No. 2 - Report of Adjutant-General - General 
Order No. 4 - Proceedings of the Legislature - Regular Session - Emer- 
gency Fund-Loan Credit of State - Delegates to Peace Convention - South 
Carolina to Massachusetts - Two thousand Overcoats - Order of Inquiry - 
Letter of Adjutant-General - Letter of Colonel Henry Lee, Jr. - Meeting of 
Officers in Governors Room - Colonel Ritchie sent to Washington - His Let- 
ters to the Governor - Secretary Seward's Letter - Letter of Colonel Lee - 
Charter of Transports - John M. Forbes, Esq. - Meeting in Faneuil Hall - 
Meeting in Cambridge - Speech of Wendell Phillips, Esq., at New Bedford 
- Remarks - The President caUs for Troops - The Eve of Battle. 

To write the part taken by Massachusetts in the civil war which 
began in April, 1861, and continued until the capture, by Gen- 
eral Grant, of Lee and his army in Virginia, and the surrender 
of Johnston and his forces to General Sherman in North Caro- 
lina, in 1865, requires patient research, a mind not distracted 
by other duties, and a purpose to speak truthfully of men and 
of events. Massachusetts bore a prominent part in this war, 
from the beginning to the end ; not only in furnishing soldiers 
for the army, sailors for the navy, and financial aid to the 
Government, but in advancing ideas, which, though scouted 



2 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

at in the early months of the war, were afterwards accepted 
by the nation, before the war could be brought to a successful 
end. 

Massachusetts is a small State, in territory and in population. 
With the exception of Maine, it lies the farthest eastward of 
all the States in the Union. Its capital is four hundred and 
fifty miles east of Washington, and is separated from it by the 
States of Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland. It contains seven 
thousand eight hundred square miles of land, river, lakes, and 
sea. In 1860, it had a population of 1,231,066, engaged in 
farming, manufacturing, fishing, and mercantile pursuits. Less 
than one-half the land is improved. It is about 1/380 part of the 
whole Union, ranking the thirty-sixth in size among the forty 
States and Territories. It is divided into fourteen counties, 
and three hundred and thirty-five cities and towns. Its gov- 
ernor, lieutenant-governor, eight councillors, forty senators, 
and two hundred and forty representatives, are elected every 
year, in the month of November, by the free suffrage of the 
qualified voters. 

The executive department of the Government is vested in the 
governor and Executive Council, -the governor, however, be- 
ing the supreme executive magistrate, whose title is. His 
Excellency; the legislative, in a Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, each having a negative upon the other, and known 
and designated as the General Court. The judicial depart- 
ment is composed of different courts, the judges of which are 
appointed by the governor, and hold their offices during good 
behavior, and can only be removed upon the address of both 
houses of the Legislature, or by the abolishment of the court; 
this to " the end, that it may be a government of laws, and not 
of men." 

In the election for governor, in 1860, there were four candi- 
dates and four political parties. John A. Andrew, of Boston, 
was the candidate of the Republicans ; Erasmus D. Beach, of 
Springfield, of the Douglas wing of the Democrats ; Amos A. 
Lawrence, of Boston, of the conservative party ; and Benjamin 
F. Butler, of Lowell, of the Breckenridge wing of the Demo- 



ELECTION, 1860. - LEGISLATURE. 3 

cratic party; John A. Andrew received 104,527 votes; 
Erasmus D. Beach, 35,191; Amos A. Lawrence, 23,816; 
Benjamin F. Butler, 6,000; all others, 75. Mr. Andrew's 
majority over all the opposing candidates was 39,445. 

The eight councillors elected were all Republicans, as were all 
the members of Congress. The presidential electors in favor 
of the election of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin, for 
President and Vice-President of the United States, received 
about the same majority Mr. Andrew did for Governor. 
Nearly all of the members of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives were of the Republican party. 

The newly elected Legislature met on the first Wednesday in 
January, 1861. Hon. William Claflin, of Newton, was chosen 
President of the Senate, and Stephen N. Gifford, Esq., of Dux- 
bury, clerk. Hon. John A. Goodwin, of Lowell, was chosen 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, and William Stowe, 
Esq., of Springfield, clerk. 

On assuming the duties of President of the Senate, Mr. Claf- 
lin made a brief address, in the course of which he said, - 

"While we meet under circumstances auspicious in our own State, 
a deep agitation pervades other parts of our country, causing every true 
patriot to feel the greatest anxiety. Disunion is attempted in some 
States, because, as is alleged, laws have been passed in others con- 
trary to the Constitution of the United States. Massachusetts is 
accused of unfaithfulness in this matter in some of her enactments, 
although she has always been ready to submit to judicial decisions, and 
is so still. She has ever guarded jealously the liberties of her citizens, 
and, I trust, ever will. We cannot falter now without disgrace and dis- 
honor. Whatever action we may take, let us be careful of the rights 
of others, but faithful to our trust, that we may return them to our 
constituents unimpaired." 

Mr. Goodwin, on taking the Speaker's chair, referred to 
national affairs in the following words : - 

"The session before us may become second in importance to none 
that has been held in these halls, since, threescore years ago, our fathers 
consecrated them to popular legislation. For the second time in our 
history, we see a State of our Union setting at naught the common 
compact, and raising the hand of remorseless violence against a whole 
section of her sister States, and against the Union itself. But for 



4 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

the first time in our history are unrebuked traitors seen in the high 
places of the nation, where, with undaunted front, they awe into trea- 
sonable inaction the hand the people have solemnly deputed to hold 
the scales of justice, and wield her imperial sword. To what points 
this ignominious crisis may compel our legislative attention, cannot now 
be stated; nor is it for the Chair to allude to particular measures of 
legislation. But it is to be remembered, that Massachusetts sacrificed 
much to establish the Union, and to defend and perpetuate it. She is 
ready to sacrifice more, provided it touch not her honor or the princi- 
ples of free government,- principles interwoven with her whole his- 
tory, and never dearer to the hearts of her people of all classes and 
parties than they are to-day. Let us approach this portion of our du- 
ties with coolness and deliberation, and with a generous patriotism." 

Not since the days of the Revolution had a legislature assem- 
bled at a time of more imminent peril, when wise counsels, firm 
resolution, and patriotic devotion to the Constitution and the 
Union, were imperatively demanded. James Buchanan was 
still President of the United States ; Floyd was Secretary of 
War ; Cobb, Secretary of the Treasury ; Thompson, Secretary 
of the Interior; and Toucey, who, although a New-England 
man, was believed to sympathize with the South, Secretary of 
the Navy. John C. Breckenridge was Vice-President of the 
united States, and presided over the deliberations of the Senate, 
of which Jefferson Davis, Judah P. Benjamin, John Slidell, 
James M. Mason, and Robert Toombs were members ; all of 
whom proved traitors to the Government, were plotting daily 
and nightly to effect its overthrow, and to prevent the inaugura- 
tion of Abraham Lincohi on the fourth of March. South Caro- 
lina had akeady voted itself out of the Union, and had assumed 
a hostile front to the Union garrison in Fort Sumter, in Charles- 
ton harbor. Other Southern States had called conventions to 
consider what steps they should take in the emergency which had 
been precipitated upon them by the South-Carolina secession 
ordinance. Our navy was scattered over far-off seas, the United- 
States arsenals were stripped of arms by orders from the 
Secretary of War, and the treasury of the General Government 
was well-nigh depleted by the Secretary of the Treasury. 

The debates in Congress were warm and exciting. The 
speeches of the disunionists were rank with treason. The power 



STATE OF THE COUNTRY. 5 

of the North to prevent, by armed force, the South from seced- 
ing was sneered at and derided. Some of the Republicans in 
Congress replied with equal warmth and animation to the 
threats of the Southern men ; others counselled moderation, 
and expressed a hope that the difficulties which threatened our 
peace might yet be adjusted. Prominent among those who 
expressed these views were Mr. Adams, of Massachusetts, and 
Mr. Seward, of New York. To gain time was a great point, - 
time to get Mr. Buchanan and his Cabinet out of power and out 
of Washington, and to get Mr. Lincoln and his new Cabinet into 
power and into Washington. I have good reason to believe, 
that neither of the distinguished statesmen whom I have named 
had a full belief that an appeal to arms could, for a great length 
of time, be avoided; but they felt, that, when it did come, it 
was all important that the Government should be in the hands 
of its friends, and not of its enemies. They argued, that, if the 
clash of arms could be put off until the inauguration of the new 
President on the fourth of March, the advantage to the Union 
side would be incalculable. It was wise strategy, as well as able 
statesmanship, so to guide the debates as to accomplish this great 
purpose ; and to these two gentlemen acting in concert, one in 
the Senate and the other in the House, are we, in a great de- 
gree, indebted for the wise delay. Mr. Lincoln was inaugu- 
rated, and the Union ship of state was fairly launched, not 
indeed with fair winds and a clear sky, but with stout hands 
and wise heads to guide her course ; and after long years of 
terrible disaster, and amid obstacles which at times appeared 
insurmountable, finally weathered them all, and was brought 
safely to a peaceful haven. 

Hon. Nathaniel P. Banks was Governor of Massachusetts 
the three years immediately preceding the election and inaugura- 
tion of John A. Andrew. His administration had been highly 
successful and popular. He had met public expectation on every 
point. Many important measures had been passed during his 
term ; and, upon retiring from office, he deemed it proper 
"to present to the Legislature a statement of the condition of 
pubhc affairs, with such considerations as his experience might 
suggest ; " and enforced this departure from the course pursued 



6 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

by his predecessors in the gubernatorial office, with many 
cogent reasons. He delivered his valedictory address on the 
3d of January, 1861, in which he gave a review of the legis- 
lation, and a statement of the finances of the State for the three 
years during which he had been the chief executive officer. 

It is my purpose to speak upon but two of the topics dis- 
cussed in the address, which have a direct bearing on the war 
which was so soon to open, and in which Governor Banks was 
to take a prominent part, as a major-general in the Union 
army. 

The Legislature of 1858 had passed what was known as an 
act for the protection of personal liberty. It was intended to 
mitigate the harsh and unjust provisions of the act of Congress 
passed in 1850, known as the Fugitive-slave Law. Several 
persons, held in the South as slaves, had made their way to 
Massachusetts ; and, being afterwards arrested, had been re- 
turned to their masters. The entire provisions of that act were 
abhorrent to our people, notwithstanding its friends and support- 
ers claimed for it an exact conformity to the provisions of the 
Constitution of the United States. 

The opinion of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
pronounced by Judge Story, himself a Massachusetts man, 
declared that the Constitution contemplated the existence of "a 
positive, unqualified right, on the part of the owner of the 
slave, which no State law or regulation can in any way qualify, 
regulate, control, or restrain." This opinion of the Supreme 
Court, Governor Banks said, "has been approved by the Legis- 
lature of this State, and confirmed by its Supreme Judicial 
Court." He then invited the attention of the Legislature to 
the sections of the State act relating to the writ of habeas corpus 
and the State act for the protection of personal liberty, which he 
thought conflicted with the act of Congress regarding fugitive 
slaves ; and said: "It is not my purpose to defend the constitu- 
tionality of the Fugitive-slave Act. The omission of a provision 
for jury trial, however harsh and cruel, cannot in any event be 
supplied by State legislation. While I am constrained to doubt 
the right of this State to enact such laws, I do not admit that, 
in any just sense, it is a violation of the national compact. It is 



GOVERNOR BANKS'S ADDRESS. 7 

only when unconstitutional legislation is enforced by executive 
authority, that it assumes that character, and no such result has 
occurred in this State." 

He then remarked, that Massachusetts had given unimpeach- 
able evidence of her devotion to law ; and it was because she had 
been faithful that he wished to see her legislation in harmony 
with her acts. " It is because I do not like to see her representa- 
tives in Congress, and her sons everywhere, put upon the defen- 
sive when they have just cause to be proud of her loyalty; . . . 
it is because, in the face of her just claims to high honor, I do 
not love to hear unjust reproaches cast upon her fame, -that I 
say, as I do, in the presence of God, and with a heart filled 
with the responsibilities that must rest upon every American cit- 
izen in these distempered times, I cannot but regard the mainte- 
nance of a statute, although it may be within the extremest 
limits of constitutional power, which is so unnecessary to the 
public service and so detrimental to the public peace, as an 
inexcusable public wrong. I hope, by common consent, it may 
be removed from the statute-book, and such guaranties as indi- 
vidual freedom demands be sought in new legislation." 

I have referred to these matters because they were prominent 
pretexts, made by the disunion party to justify a dissolution of 
the Union. The State acts named were condemned by many of 
our wisest men, who never had a thought unfriendly to the Union, 
nor would, by their acts or votes, sanction the existence of 
human slavery, or extend the area of its domain. The views 
of Governor Banks at this time are also important and inter- 
esting as in contrast to those expressed, a few days after, in the 
inaugural address of Governor Andrew. 

Governor Banks, in concluding his address, referred in direct 
terms to the secession ordinance of South Carolina, and said, 
"While I would not withhold from the South what belongs to 
that section, I cannot consent that we should yield what belongs 
to us. The right to the Territories, so far as the people are 
concerned, must be a common right; and their status should 
be determined upon the rights of men, and not upon privileges 
of property." He was opposed to founding government upon 
the right to hold slaves. "There is no species of property 



8 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

entitled to such protection as will exclude men from Territories, 
aside from all considerations of property. Neither do I believe 
that a geographical line will give peace to the country. The 
lapse of time alone will heal all dissensions. There can be 
no peaceable secession of the States. The Government has 
pledged its faith to every land, and that pledge of faith cannot 
be broken." He drew encouragement from the thrill of joy 
which touched every true heart, when Major Anderson moved 
his little garrison from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter. "Cer- 
tainly, never an act, so slight in itself, touched the hearts of 
so many millions of people like fire from heaven, as the recent 
simple, soldier-like, and patriotic movement of Major Anderson 
at Fort Moultrie." He closed this part of his address with 
these grand words : "But no such result can follow as the de- 
struction of the American Government. The contest will be 
too terrible, the sacrifice too momentous, the difficulties in our 
path are too slight, the capacity of our people is too manifest, 
and the future too brilUant, to justify forebodings, or to excite 
permanent fears. The life of every man is lengthened by 
trial ; and the strength of every government must be tested 
by revolt and revolution. I doubt not that the providence of 
God, that has protected us hitherto, will preserve us now and 
hereafter." 

Throughout the entire address a hopeful feeling prevailed. 
The Governor evidently did not believe that we were so nigh 
the verge of civil war. He made no recommendation for the 
increase of the military force of the State, or to prepare that 
already organized for active service. It may properly be said, 
however, in this connection, that Governor Banks, upon retiring 
from office, did not deem it in good taste or proper to recom- 
mend legislative action to a body with which he was so soon to 
sever all official connection. 

Shortly after retiring from the gubernatorial chair. Governor 
Banks made arrangements to remove to Illinois, having accepted 
a responsible executive position in the Illinois Central Railroad ; 
but, in a few months, the country required his services as a mili- 
tary commander, which post he accepted, and continued in high 
command until the end of the war, when he returned to Massa- 



GOVERNOR ANDREW INAUGURATED. 9 

chusetts, and was elected to Congress by the people of his old 
district. 

John A. Andrew, Esq., of Boston, was inaugurated Gov- 
ernor of the Commonwealth, Jan. 5, 1861, and immediately 
delivered his address to the Legislature, in which he gave a 
statement of the financial condition of the Commonwealth, its 
liabilities, and its resources to meet them. The State was 
practically free of debt. The aggregate valuation of taxable 
property was within a fraction of nine hundred millions, a com- 
putation of which had been made by a special committee 
appointed for the purpose, whose labors had closed on the 1st 
of January, 1861, only five days before the address was deliv- 
ered. After asking the attention of the Legislature to matters 
of a purely local character, Governor Andrew devoted the 
remainder of his address to matters of more general interest. 
He discussed the right of the Legislature to pass the statutes 
concerning personal liberty and the habeas corpus, and con- 
tended that Massachusetts had a clear right to pass them; and 
that, if properly understood and rightfully carried out, there 
could not be any conflict of jurisdiction between the State and 
Federal officers. The argument upon these questions extends 
through nine pages, and concludes as follows : - 

" Supposing, however, that our legislation in this behalf is founded 
in mistake, the Legislature will only have endeavored to perform their 
duty towards the citizens whom they were bound to shield from un- 
lawful harm. The power to obtain the judgment of the court affords 
ample redress to all claimants. Should a critical examination disclose 
embarrassments in raising and reserving questions of law for the ap- 
propriate tribunals, the Legislature will readily repair the error. 

"In dismissing this topic, I have only to add, that in regard, not 
only to one, but to every subject bearing on her Federal relations, 
Massachusetts has always conformed to her honest understanding of 
all constitutional obligations ; that she has always conformed to the 
judicial decisions; has never threatened either to nullify or to dis- 
obey ; and that the decision of one suit, fully contested, constitutes a 
precedent for the future." 

The concluding ten pages of the address give a graphic, con- 
densed, truthful, and eloquent review of the condition of the 



10 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

country, of the danger and wickedness of a civil war, and of 
the position which Massachusetts and her great statesmen have 
always held in regard to them. He said, - 

"Inspired by the same ideas and emotions which commanded the 
fraternization of Jackson and Webster on another great occasion of 
public danger, the people of Massachusetts, confiding in the patri- 
otism of their brethren in other States, accept this issue, and respond, 
in the words of Jackson, ' The Federal Union : it must be preserved! 

"Until we complete the work of rolling back this wave of rebel- 
lion, which threatens to engulf the Government, overthrow demo- 
cratic institutions, subject the people to the rule of a minority, if not 
of mere military despotism, and, in some communities, to endanger 
the very existence of civilized society, we cannot turn aside, and we 
will not turn back. It is to those of our brethren in the disaffected 
States, whose mouths are closed by a temporary reign of terror, not 
less than to ourselves, that we owe this labor, which, with the help 
of Providence, it is our duty to perform. 

"I need not add, that whatever rights pertain to any person under 
the Constitution of the Union are secure in Massachusetts while the 
Union shall endure; and whatever authority or function pertains to 
the Federal Government for the maintenance of any such right is 
an authority or function which neither the Government nor the people 
of this Commonwealth can or would usurp, evade, or overthrow; 
and Massachusetts demands, and has a right to demand, that her sister 
States shall likewise respect the constitutional rights of her citizens 
within their limits." 

I have given these extracts from the addresses of Governors 
Banks and Andrew, that their official opinions in regard to 
important national questions, expressed on the eve of a great 
war, might be made fresh in the memories of men. Both gen- 
tlemen expressed the true sentiment of Massachusetts. I have 
taken their words as a base or starting-point to begin the long, 
grand story of Massachusetts in the Rebellion. 

As Governor Andrew was at the head of the State Gov- 
ernment during the entire period of the war, he of course was 
and ever will be the prominent, central figure in the galaxy of 
gentlemen, civil and military, who, by their services and sacri- 
fices, gave renown to the Commonwealth, and carried her with 
imperishable honor through the conflict. 



SKETCH OF GOVERNOR ANDREW. 1 1 

John A. Andrew was the twenty-first Governor of Massa- 
chusetts since the adoption of the Constitution of the State in 
1780. He was bom at Windham, in the District of Maine, 
about fifteen miles from Portland, on the 31st. of May, 1818. 
The family was of English origin, descending from Robert 
Andrew, of Rowley village, now Boxford, Essex County, Mass., 
who died there in 1668. He was connected with most 
of the ancient families of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay. 
The grandmother of Governor Andrew was the grand-daughter 
of the brave Captain William Pickering, who commanded the 
Province Galley, in 1707, for the protection of the fisheries 
against the French and Indians ; and the mother of her hus- 
band was Mary Higginson, a direct descendant of the Reverend 
Francis Higginson, the famous pastor of the fu-st church in the 
colony. The grandfather of Governor Andrew was a silver- 
smith in Salem, who removed to Windham, where he died. 
His son Jonathan was born in Salem, and lived there until 
manhood, when he also removed to Windham. There he 
married Miss Nancy G. Pierce, formerly preceptress of Frye- 
burg Academy, where Daniel Webster was once a teacher. 
These were the parents of Governor Andrew. 

At an early age, he entered Bowdoin College, from which 
he graduated in the class of 1837. He then removed to Bos- 
ton, and entered, as a law student, the office of Henry H. 
Fuller, Esq. Being admitted to the Suffolk Bar in 1840, he 
commenced the practice of his profession, and adhered to it 
without interruption until his election as Governor in 1860, 
establishing in later years a reputation as an advocate second to 
no lawyer at that distinguished bar since the death of Rufus 
Choate. Attractive in personal appearance and bearing, with 
an excellent flow of language and variety of expression, and 
possessed of that sympathetic disposition which identifies an 
advocate in feeling and in action with the cause of his client, 
his merits were eminent as an advocate before juries ; but the 
causes in connection with which his reputation as a lawyer 
had become chiefly known beyond legal circles, were those of 
arguments before Massachusetts courts, and the United-States 
courts for the district and circuit, on questions of political sig- 



12 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

nificance. He defended the parties indicted in 1854, for an 
attempt to rescue the fugitive slave Burns, and succeeded in 
quashing the indictments on which they v/ere arraigned. The 
following year, he successfully defended the British consul at 
Boston against a charge of violating the neutrality laws of 
the United States during the Crimean War. In 1856, co- 
operating with counsel from Ohio, he made a noted appli- 
cation to Judge Curtis, of the United-States Supreme Court, 
for a writ of habeas corpus, to test the authority by which the 
Free-State prisoners were held confined in Kansas by Federal 
officers More lately, in 1859, he initiated and directed the 
measures to procure suitable counsel for the defence of John 
Brown in Virginia ; and, in 1860, was counsel for Hyatt and 
Sanborn, witnesses summoned before Senator Mason's commit- 
tee of investigation into the John-Brown affair. Upon his argu- 
ment, the latter was discharged by the Supreme Court of 
Massachusetts from the custody of the United-States marshal, 
by whose deputy he had been arrested under a warrant issued 
at the instigation of that committee. Being himself, about the 
same time, summoned before the committee, he appeared at 
Washington, and rendered his testimony. Nor had he hesi- 
tated, under his theory of his duties as a lawyer, to defend 
causes appealing less directly to his sympathies, or even posi- 
tively repugnant to them. Among others, besides the instance 
of the British consul before mentioned, may be named his 
advocacy, in 1860, of the right of Mr. Burnham, against the 
inquisition of a committee of the Massachusetts Legislature ; 
and also his defence, the same year, in the United-States Dis- 
trict and Circuit Courts, of the notorious slaver-yacht "Wan- 
derer" against forfeiture. 

This brilliant legal career was a result of uninterrupted devo- 
tion to a profession which always demands constancy as a con- 
dition of success. Although warmly interested from an early 
age in the course of public affairs, and often taking part in 
political assemblies, -until 1848 as a Whig, in that year pass- 
ing into the Free-Soil party, and in 1854 uniting naturally 
with the Republicans, -it was not until 1858 that he consented 
to accept political office. In the autumn campaign of the pre- 



STATE OFFICERS. - CONGRESSMEN. 13 

vious year, resulting in the overthrow of the Know-Nothing 
party, by which Massachusetts had been ruled since 1854, he 
had sustained an active part. The former political issues be- 
ing revived by the dissolution of that organization after its 
defeat, he consented to be chosen to the Legislature of 1858. 
Mr. Andrew was at once recognized as the leader of his party 
in the House. The leader of the opposition was Hon. Caleb 
Gushing, of Newburyport, formerly member of Congress, and 
the Attorney-General of the United States under President 
Pierce. At the close of the session, Mr. Andrew returned to 
his profession, refusing to permit his name to be used as a 
candidate for Governor, and declined also an election to the 
Legislature, and an appointment, tendered him by Governor 
Banks, of a seat on the bench of the Superior Court. In 
the spring of 1860, he was unanimously selected to head the 
delegation from Massachusetts to the Republican National Con- 
vention, at Chicago. As chairman of the delegation, he cast 
the vote of the State for Mr. Seward until the final ballot, 
when it was thrown for Mr. Lincoln. That fall he was nomi- 
nated by the Republican State Convention for Governor, and 
was elected by the majority we have already stated, in the 
largest popular vote ever cast in the State. 

This, in brief, was the life of Governor Andrew, up to the 
time he entered upon the duties of Governor of this Common- 
wealth. 

Associated with him on the ticket as Lieutenant-Governor 
was Hon. John Z. Goodrich, of West Stockbridge, who, being 
afterwards appointed Collector of the Port of Boston, resigned 
on the 29th of March, 1861. Oliver Warner, of Northampton, 
was elected Secretary of State; Henry K. Oliver, of Salem, 
Treasurer and Receiver-General ; Dwight Foster, of Worcester, 
Attorney -General ; and Levi Reed, of Abington, Auditor of Ac- 
counts. Jacob Sleeper, of Boston ; John I. Baker, of Beverly ; 
James M. Shute, of Somerville ; Hugh M. Greene, of North- 
field ; Joel Hayden, of Williamsburg ; James Ritchie, of Rox- 
bury ; Oakes Ames, of Easton; and Eleazer C. Sherman, of 
Plymouth, - were elected Councillors. William Schouler, of 
Lynn, was Adjutant-General, to which office he had been ap- 



14 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

pointed by Governor Banks ; he was also acting Quartermaster 
and Inspector- General of the Commonwealth, - the entire 
duties of which offices he performed with the assistance of 
William Brown, of Boston, clerk, and one man, who had 
charge of the State arsenal at Cambridge, in which were de- 
posited the arms and munitions of war belonging to the Com- 
monwealth, except those which were loaned to the companies of 
active militia, and cared for in their several armories. 

The personal military staff of the Governor was limited by 
law to four aides-de-camp, each with the rank and title of lieu- 
tenant-colonel. Governor Andrew appointed, as his military 
aids, Horace Binney Sargent, of West Roxbury (senior aid) ; 
Harrison Ritchie, of Boston ; John W. Wetherell, of Worcester ; 
and Henry Lee, Jr., of Brookline. Colonel Sargent had served 
on the staff of Governor Banks. He remained on the staff of 
Governor Andrew until he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel 
of the First Regiment of Massachusetts Cavalry, in August, 
1861, when Colonel Ritchie became senior aid, and John Quincy 
Adams, of Quincy, was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

Massachusetts was represented in the Thirty-sixth Congress, 
which ended March 4, 1861, by Charles Sumner and Henry 
Wilson, in the Senate, and by Thomas D. Elliot, James Buf- 
finton, Charles Francis Adams, Alexander H. Rice, Anson 
Burlingame, John B. Alley, Daniel W. Gooch, Charles R. 
Train, Eli Thayer, Charles Delano, and Henry L. Dawes, in 
the House of Representatives. 

Before the war, and during the war, Mr. Sumner was chair- 
man of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and Mr. Wilson of 
the Militia and Military Affairs, two of the most important 
committees of that body, which positions they now hold. 

In the Thirty-seventh Congress, which terminated March 4, 
1863, Benjamin F. Thomas succeeded Mr. Adams, who re- 
signed his seat upon receiving the appointment of Minister to 
England, Samuel Hooper succeeded Mr. Burlingame, who was 
appointed Minister to China, and Goldsmith F. Bailey suc- 
ceeded Mr. Thayer. 

In the Thirty-eighth Congress, which terminated March 4th, 
1865, Oakes Ames succeeded Mr. Buffinton, George S. 



VOLUNTEER MILITIA. 15 

Boutwell Mr. Train, James D. Baldwin Mr. Bailey, (deceased) 
and William B. Washburn Mr. Delano. 

In the Thirty-ninth Congress, Mr. Gooch having accepted a 
government appointment, Ex-Governor Banks was elected to 
fill the vacancy. 

These Congresses extend over the period immediately pre- 
ceding the war, and that of its duration and close. The Massa- 
chusetts Senators and Representatives served with distinction on 
several of the most important committees, and thus were promi- 
nent in perfecting bills and shaping the legislation of Con- 
gress. It does not, however, come within the scope of this 
volume to speak of their varied and valuable services in behalf 
of the Union, although, if properly recorded, they would add 
materially to the renown of the Commonwealth. The story of 
their services will hereafter be told by the historian of the nation, 
for it was the nation, and not merely a part, that they served. 

The whole number of enrolled militia of the Commonwealth, 
in 1860, was 155,389 ; and the number of the active or volun- 
teer militia, 5,593. The active force was organized into three 
divisions and six brigades ; nine regiments and three battalions 
of infantry; three battaUons and eight unattached companies of 
riflemen ; one battalion and five unattached companies of cav- 
alry. Officers and men found their own uniforms. The State 
furnished arms and equipments, except to officers. Each com- 
pany had an armory for the deposit of its arms, and for drill pur- 
poses, the rents of which were paid by the Commonwealth. 

The State, on the 1st of January, 1861, had at the arsenal 
at Cambridge, and distributed to the active militia, seventy-one 
field-pieces, of various calibre, and about ten thousand serviceable 
muskets, twenty-five hundred of which were of the most ap- 
proved pattern of the Springfield rifled musket, which, as a 
muzzle-loading arm, is the best in the world. 

It was plain, from the tenor of his inaugural address, that Gov- 
ernor Andrew believed war between the North and South was 
imminent. He advised, among other things, an inquiry, 
whether, in addition to the active volunteer militia, the dor- 
mant militia, or some considerable portion of it, should not be 
placed on a footing of activity. "For how otherwise," he asks, 



16 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

"in the possible contingencies of the future, can we be sure that 
Massachusetts has taken care to preserve the manly self-reliance 
of the citizens, by which alone, in the long-run, can the crea- 
tion of standing armies be averted, and the State also be ready, 
without inconvenient delay, to contribute her share of force in 
any exigency of public danger?" 

But it was not alone in his address that he foreshadowed his 
belief of the approach of war. It would not have been wise 
to make known publicly his inmost thoughts. Let actions 
speak. On the evening of the very day on which his inaugural 
address was dehvered (Jan. 5) he despatched confidential mes- 
sages, by trustworthy messengers, to each of the Governors of 
the New-England States, urging preparation for the approach- 
ing crisis. Early in December, soon after the meeting of Con- 
gress, he had visited Washington, and personally acquainted 
himself with the aspect of national affairs, and with the views 
of the principal representatives both of North and South. 
After his return, he had opened a confidential correspondence 
on matters transpiring there, with Hon. Charles Francis Adams, 
who kept him minutely acquainted, from day to day, with the 
progress of events. One of the suggestions of Mr. Adams 
was, that there should be public demonstrations of loyalty 
throughout New England, and it was proposed by him to have 
salutes fired in each of the States on the 8th of January, the 
anniversary of General Jackson's victory at New Orleans. Colo- 
nel Wardrop, of New Bedford, Third Regiment Massachusetts 
Volunteer Militia, was sent to Governor Fairbanks, of Vermont ; 
and other messengers were sent to Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
New Hampshire, and Maine, for this purpose. One of these mes- 
sengers was the gentleman who afterwards became Governor An- 
drew's private military secretary, - Colonel Albert G. Browne, 
of Salem, -and who served him during the entire war ; and who, 
for ability as a ready writer, truthfulness, sturdy independence, 
reticence, and undoubted patriotism, deserved, as he received, 
the respect and confidence of the Governor, the entire staff, and 
of gentlemen holding confidential and important relations with 
His Excellency. Colonel Browne's mission was to confer with 
Governor Goodwin, of New Hampshire, and Governor Wash- 



PREPARATION - GENERAL ORDER NO. 2. 17 

burn, of Maine. Besides the mere duty of organizing public 
demonstrations, he was intrusted, as to the Governor of Maine 
with a mission of a far more important character. Maine and 
Massachusetts, being subject to a common State government until 
1820, sustained pecuhar relations to each other, by similarity of 
legislation, institutions, and, in later years, of political senti- 
ment . Colonel Browne was intrusted with the whole of the 
private correspondence with Mr. Adams before mentioned, and 
was directed to lay it confidentially before Governor Washburn ; 
to advise him, that, in Governor Andrew's judgment, civil war 
was the inevitable result of the events going on at Washing- 
ton and in the South ; that the safety of Washington was al- 
ready threatened ; that the policy of the Executive government 
of Massachusetts, under the new administration, would be to 
put its active militia into readiness at once for the impending 
crisis, and persuade the Legislature, if possible, to call part of 
the dormant militia into activity ; and to urge Governor Wash- 
bum to adopt the same pohcy for Maine. Leaving Boston on 
the evening of Saturday, Jan. 5, Colonel Browne, after an 
interview with Governor Goodwin, at Portsmouth on Sunday, 
reached Augusta on Jan. 7, and held his interview with Gover- 
nor Washburn. By him, Adjutant-General John L. Hodsdon; 
and United States Senator Lot M. Morrill were called into con- 
sultation, and the answer was returned, that, "wherever Massa- 
chusetts leads, Maine will follow close, if she can't keep 
abreast." 

Thus Governor Andrew, on the very day of his inauguration, 
placed himself in confidential relations with each of the Gover- 
nors of New England, which continued through the entire rebel- 
Uon, and were of mutual benefit. 

On the 6th of January, the day after the inauguration. Gov- 
ernor Andrew directed the Adjutant-General to issue General 
Order No. 2, which was promulgated the next day, and prop- 
erly executed on the eighth. 

Head-Quarters, Boston, Jan.7, 1861 
General Order No. 2. 

In commemoration of the brave defenders of New Orleans, Jan. 8, 
1815, by the deceased patriot. General Jackson, and in honor of the 

2 



18 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

gallant conduct and wise foresight of Major Anderson, now in command 
of Fort Sumter, in the State of South Carolina, His Excellency John 
A. Andrew, Governor and Commander-in-chief, orders, that a salute 
of one hundred guns be fired on Boston Common, at twelve, meridian, 
on Tuesday, Jan. 8th inst., and a national salute be fired, at the same 
time, for the same purposes, in Charlestown, Lexington, Concord, Wal- 
tham, Roxbury, Marblehead, Newburyport, Salem, Groton, Lynn, 
Worcester, Greenfield, Northampton, Fall River, and Lowell. 

By command of His Excellency John A. Andrew, Governor and 
Commander-in-chief. 

William Schouler, Adjutant-General. 

The purpose of firing these salutes was to revive old patri- 
otic memories. The 8th of January had been held a hohday by 
the Democratic party since the presidency of General Jackson ; 
though of late years it had been, in a great measure, passed over 
without special regard. The association of the first battle-fields 
of the Revolution with the last and most brilliant action of the 
war of 1812 and the patriotic movement of Major Anderson 
in Charleston Harbor, would, it was believed, revive pleasant 
recollections of the past, and serve to unite the North in sup- 
port of the Constitution and the Union. 

As required by law, the Adjutant-General had made his 
annual report in December. It was addressed to Governor 
Banks, and is dated Dec. 31, 1860. On pages 37 and 38 he 
says,- 

"Events have transpired in some of the Southern States and at 
Washington, which have awakened the attention of the people of 
Massachusetts, in a remarkable degree, to the perpetuity of the Federal 
Union, which may require the active militia of the Commonwealth to 
be greatly augmented. Should our worst fears be realized, and this 
nation plunged into the horrors of civil war, upon Massachusetts may 
rest, in no inconsiderable degree, the duty of staying the effusion of 
blood, and of rolling back the black tide of anarchy and ruin. She 
did more than her share to achieve the independence of our country, 
and establish the Government under which we have risen to such un- 
paralleled prosperity, and become the Great Power of the American 
Continent; and she will be true to her history, her traditions, and her 
fair fame. Should it become necessary to increase the number of her 



ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S REPORT. 19 

active militia to a war footing, the present organization offers an easy 
and a good means. The present companies could be filled to their full 
complement of men, and the regiments to their full complement of 
companies ; new regiments of infantry, new battalions of riflemen, 
new companies of artillery and cavalry, could be formed, with which 
to fill the several brigades, and make our present divisions five thou- 
sand men each, with proper apportionment of the several military arms. 
This, of course, would require a large outlay of money, which would 
doubtless be cheerfully met by our people, if their honor and the wel- 
fare of the country demand it of them." 

The Adjutant-General then suggested, "that a board of off- 
cers be called, as provided in section one hundred and sixty- 
three, chapter thirteen, of the General Statutes, to consider and 
recommend such changes as their judgment shall approve, and 
their experience suggest. "--"In the mean time," he said, "I 
would suggest, that a general order be issued, calling upon 
commanders of the active force to forward to head-quarters the 
names of the persons composing their commands, also their 
places of residence, so that a complete roll of each company 
may be on file in this department. The companies that have 
not their full quota of men should be filled by new enlistments 
to the number fixed by law ; and, whenever new enlistments are 
made or discharges given, the names of the persons enlisted and 
discharged should be forwarded immediately to head-quarters, 
and placed on file." 

Governor Banks, to whom the report was addressed, retired 
from office four days after it was printed, and before any 
action could be taken upon the recommendations made. They 
looked to a greatly increased active militia force, and are the 
first suggestions that were made in an official form for strength- 
ening the military force of the Commonwealth, and placing it 
upon a war footing. 

Governor Andrew adopted these suggestions ; and on the 
16th of January, eleven days' after his inauguration, directed 
the Adjutant-General to issue General Order No. 4, which cre- 
ated a great interest throughout the State, and especially among 
the active militia. 



20 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

Head-Quarters, Boston, Jan. 16, 1861. 
General Order No. 4. 

Events which have recently occurred, and are now in progress, re- 
quire that Massachusetts should be at all times ready to furnish her 
quota upon any requisition of the President of the United States, to 
aid in the maintenance of the laws and the peace of the Union. His 
Excellency the Commander-in-chief therefore orders, - 

That the commanding officer of each company of volunteer militia 
examine with care the roll of his company, and cause the name of each 
member, together with his rank and place of residence, to be properly 
recorded, and a copy of the same to be forwarded to the office of the 
Adjutant-General. Previous to which, commanders of companies shall 
make strict inquiry, whether there are men in their commands, who 
from age, physical defect, business, or family causes, may be unable or 
indisposed to respond at once to the orders of the Commander-in-chief, 
made in response to the call of the President of the United States, that 
they be forthwith discharged ; so that their places may be filled by 
men ready for any public exigency which may arise, whenever called 
upon. 

After the above orders shall have been fulfilled, no discharge, either 
of officer or private, shall be granted, unless for cause satisfactory to 
the Commander-in-chief. 

If any companies have not the number of men allowed by law, the 
commanders of the same shall make proper exertions to have the va- 
cancies filled, and the men properly drilled and uniformed, and their 
names and places of residence forwarded to head-quarters. 

To promote the objects embraced in this order, the general, field, 
and staff officers, and the Adjutant and acting Quartermaster General 
will give all the aid and assistance in their power. 

Major-Generals Sutton, Morse, and Andrews will cause this order 
to be promulgated throughout their respective divisions. 

By command of His Excellency John A. Andrew, Governor and 
Commander-in-chief. 

William Schouler, Adjutant-General. 

The order was generaUy well received, and immediately 
acted upon. Some of the newspapers attacked it, as unneces- 
sary and sensational ; but it was sustained as proper. The 
active militia responded with alacrity. Meetings were held 
in their armories, the rolls called ; and the men who could 



LEGISLATIVE PROCEEDINGS. 21 

not respond, should a call be made to march, were honorably 
discharged, and their places filled by active men who could. 
The corrected rolls were forwarded to head-quarters. Only 
one company sent in a political argumentative answer, which 
was drawn up with ability, and was evidently written by a 
Southern sympathizer. The document made several pages of 
manuscript. The Adjutant-General returned it to the officer, 
with the remark, that the paper was disrespectful in its tone and 
language to the Commander-in-chief, and in violation of the fu-st 
principles of military law. He would give him an opportunity 
either to modify it or to withdraw it entirely. If a satisfactory 
response was not received within a reasonable time, the matter 
would be laid before His Excellency the Governor ; and the 
probability was, the officers of the company would be dis- 
charged, and the company disbanded. In a few days, a proper 
answer was made ; and the officer with his company, before the 
end of the year, were mustered into the service for three years, 
and were sent to the Department of the Gulf, where they did 
good service. 

From the day that General Order No. 4 was issued, a new 
spirit and zeal imbued our volunteer force. Applications also 
came from different parts of the Commonwealth for permission 
to raise new companies. A general impression prevailed, that 
we were on the perilous edge of battle, and it was the duty of 
Massachusetts to be ready to meet the crisis. In the mean time, 
the Governor, who believed from the fu-st that war would ensue, 
was obtaining information, from every available source, that 
would be of use, and which could guide him wisely in his 
course. 

The first movement made in the Legislature in relation to 
national or military matters was a resolution which was offered 
in the House on the 11th of January, six days after Governor 
Andrew's inauguration, and a day or two after the Speaker had 
announced the standing committees ; which was in effect, "that it 
is the universal sentiment of the people of Massachusetts, that 
the President should enforce the execution of the laws of the 
United States, defend the Union, protect national property ; 
and, to this end, the State "cheerfully tenders her entire means, 



22 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

civil and military, to enable him to do so." This was referred 
to the Committee on Federal Relations. 

Jan. 12. Mr. Slocum, of Grafton, offered a resolution, di- 
recting the Committee on the Militia to inquire whether the 
miUtia laws of this State were in accordance with the Constitu- 
tion and laws of the United States. 

In the Senate, Jan. 14, the Committee on the Militia re- 
ported a bill of three sections to increase the volunteer force, 
which was discussed on the 15th and 16th, and finally recom- 
mitted to the committee, together with all the amendments that 
had been proposed. 

On the same day (14th), Mr. George T. Davis, of Greenfield, 
introduced a bill " to prevent hostile invasions of other States ; 
the purpose of which was to prevent, by fine and imprisonment, 
persons who should set on foot any unlawful scheme, military 
or naval, to invade any State or Territory of the Union. This 
was referred to the Committee on Federal Relations, but never 
was passed. 

Jan. 18. In the Senate. -Mr. Cole, of Berkshire, from the 
Committee on Federal Relations, reported a series of resolu- 
tions, the purport of which was, to stand by the Union, and 
tendering to the President of the United States such aid, in men 
and money, as he may require. On motion of Mr. Northend, 
of Essex, the rules were suspended, and the resolves passed the 
Senate by a unanimous vote. 

On the same day, Mr. Parker, of Worcester, introduced in 
the House a new militia bill, which was referred to the commit- 
tee on that subject. 

Jan. 19. In Senate. -Mr. Northend introduced a series 
of resolutions, to the effect that the Constitution of the United 
States was the supreme law of the land ; that the recent acts 
of South Carolina are revolutionary and treasonable; and that 
this Government must be maintained at all hazards. 

Referred to the Committee on Federal Relations. 

The same day, a long debate took place in the House, on a 
bill to increase the miUtia, but without coming to a vote. 

Jan. 21. In Senate. -Mr. Walker, of Worcester, intro- 
duced a resolution to inquire whether there were parties in this 



LEGISLATIVE PROCEEDINGS. 23 

Commonwealth making arms or ammunition, to be sold to the 
agents of States now or likely to be in rebellion, with power to 
send for persons and papers. Adopted. 

Same day, a debate occurred in the House on the Militia 
Bill ; but, without taking a vote, the bill was recommitted. 

Jan. 23. In Senate. - Mr. Schouler, of Middlesex, of- 
fered an order, which was adopted, directing the Adjutant- 
General to furnish estimates, for the use of the Legislature, of 
the cost of furnishing 2,000 overcoats, 2,000 blankets, 2,000 
knapsacks, and camp equipage for a force of 2,000 men, 
when in active service. 

In the House, same day, Mr. Coffin, of Newburyport, re- 
ported the Militia Bill in a new draft. 

Same day, the Governor sent a communication to the 
House, informing it of the tender of the Sixth Regiment, by 
Colonel Jones, for immediate service, if required. 

Jan. 24. In Senate. -A message was received from the 
Governor, transmitting the proposition from the Legislature of 
Virginia, for the appointment of commissioners to meet at 
Washington on the 4th of February, to agree upon a compro- 
mise of the national difficulties. Referred to the Committee on 
Federal Relations, and ordered to be printed. 

Jan. 26. In Senate. -Mr. Davis, of Bristol, offered this 
order : - 

" That the Committee on the Judiciary be instructed to forthwith 
report a bill authorizing the authorities of this Commonwealth to in- 
dorse and guarantee the treasury notes of the United States to the full 
amount of the surplus revenue received by Massachusetts in the year 
1837." 

Some opposition was made to the order, but it was adopted. 
Jan. 23. In the House. -Mr. Pierce, of Dorchester, in- 
troduced resolutions to sustain the Union ; and that all at- 
tempts to overthrow it, with the expectation of reconstructing 
it anew, were vain and illusory. 

Referred to the Committee on Federal Relations. 
Jan. 29. In Senate. - A message was received from the 
Governor, transmitting certain resolutions passed by the States 
of Pennsylvania and Tennessee ; also the Ordinance of Seces- 



24 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

sion of the State of Georgia, adopted by a convention of 
the people of that State, and forwarded to Governor Andrew 
by George W. Crawford, president of that convention. After 
some debate, it was voted to print the message of Governor 
Andrew and the resolutions from the two States, but not to 
further notice the Secession Ordinance. 

A debate then arose upon passing the bill for Massachu- 
setts to indorse the notes of the United States to the amount 
of our indebtedness on account of the surplus revenue, which, 
after debate, was rejected, - yeas 14, nays 19. The reason 
for rejecting the bill was stated by Mr. Hardy, of Norfolk. 
"He did not like to have it put on record that old Massachu- 
setts came to the Federal Government in the hour of distress, 
and said that, she would loan her all she owed, and no more. 
He was in favor of giving all that the Government needed, as 
far as it was possible, -two, three, or four millions." 

Same day, in the House, the bill to increase the militia was 
further debated, and a substitute for the whole bill, offered by. 
Mr. Banfield, of West Roxbury, was adopted, and passed to a 
third reading by a vote of 116 to 40. This bill, however, did 
not become a law. 

Jan. 30. In Senate.- On motion of Mr. Hardy, of Nor- 
folk, the bill in relation to loaning the State credit to the 
United States, which was rejected yesterday, was re-consid- 
ered ; and he offered a new proposition, as follows : - 

" That the Treasurer and Receiver-General of the Commonwealth 
be and hereby is authorized to guarantee, upon the request of the 
Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, the treasury bonds 
of the United States to the amount of $2,000,000 on such conditions 
as shall be agreed upon by the Secretary of the Treasury of the Uni- 
ted States, and the Governor and Council of this Commonwealth." 

Mr. Boynton, of Worcester, thought the passage of the bill 
would indicate that the credit of the United States is not 
good, and we must indorse it to make it good. He did not 
think it necessary to take such a step before it is called for. 
He thought it was " a Union-saving " movement, and would do 
more to our discredit than to the good of the country. 

Mr. Hardy said it was not only a movement in behalf of the 



LEGISLATIVE PROCEEDINGS. 25 

Union, but a matter of business. It is true, the General Gov- 
ernment is bankrupt. Massachusetts can help by her notes or 
her indorsement ; and, instead of bending the knee or rolling 
in the dust before the South, it is putting backbone into the 
Government. It shows that Massachusetts has faith in the 
General Government. 

Mr. Boynton was opposed to giving any aid to the present 
Administration (Buchanan's). When we have a new Adminis- 
tration that we can trust, he thought it would be time enough 
to talk about lending money. 

Mr. Davis, of Bristol, moved to amend the bill so that it 
would take effect immediately upon its passage. The amend- 
ment was carried, and the bill was passed to a third reading. 

On motion of Mr. Schouler, of Middlesex, the bill was 
ordered to be printed. 

Jan. 30. In the House. - The Senate Militia Bill came 
up in order. Mr. Durfee, of New Bedford, moved to strike 
out all after the enacting clause and to substitute a bill of his 
own. The subject was then laid on the table, and the bill and 
amendment ordered to be printed. 

Jan., 31. /" Senate. - A communication was received 
from the Adjutant-General, in accordance with a joint resolu- 
tion of the Legislature, adopted on the 23d inst., giving the 
following estimates of equipping 2,000 men for active service : 
2,000 overcoats, at $9 each, $18,000; 2,000 knapsacks, at 
$2.25 each, $4,500 ; 2,000 blankets, at $3 each, $6,000 ; camp 
equipage (exclusive of tents), $3,000, -total, $31,500. 

On motion of Mr. Schouler, of Middlesex, the communica- 
tion was laid on die table, and ordered to be printed. 

Feb. 1. In Senate. - Mr. Whitney, of Plymouth, from 
the Committee on Federal Relations, reported a bill to create 
an emergency fund for the Governor of $100,000, to take effect 
upon its passage. The bill was immediately passed through the 
several stages, under a suspension of the rules. 

The communication of the Adjutant-General was taken from 
the table, and referred to the Joint Standing Committee on the 
Militia. 

In the House, the Mihtia Bill was discussed. Several amend- 



26 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

ments were offered by Mr. Quincy, of Boston, which were 
lost. The substitute offered by Mr. Durfee, of New Bedford, 
was also voted down; and the bill in the draft offered by Mr. 
Banfield, of West Roxbury, was ordered to be engrossed. 

Mr. Parker, of Worcester, moved to reconsider the vote by 
which the bill was passed. Placed on the orders of the day. 

Saturday, Feb. 2. In the House. - The motion to re- 
consider the vote by which the Militia bill was ordered to be 
engrossed was carried; and, on motion of Mr. Hills, of Bos- 
ton, it was recommitted to the Committee on the Militia. 

On leave, Mr. Smith, of Boston, introduced a new bill in 
relation to the militia ; and that also was referred to the Com- 
mittee on the Militia. 

Mr. Tyler, of Boston, from the Finance Committee, reported 
to the House the Senate bill creating an emergency fund of 
$100,000. He moved that the rules be suspended, that it 
might take its several readings at once. 

Mr. Parsons, of Lawrence, opposed the suspension of the 
rules, on the ground that a bill of so much importance should 
be carefully considered. 

Mr. Slack, of Boston, thought extraordinary circumstances 
demanded extraordinary measures, and alluded briefly to the 
present state of national affairs. 

On motion of Mr. Davis, of Greenfield, the House went into 
secret session. During the secret session, the motion to suspend 
the rules prevailed ; and the bill took its several readings, and 
was ordered to be engrossed. 

Feb. 2. -The Senate debated the resolves for the appoint- 
ment of seven commissioners to proceed to Washington to con- 
fer with the General Government, or with commissioners from 
other States, upon the state of the country. These resolves- 
were reported in accordance with the invitation of the General 
Assembly of Virginia. The debate in the Senate was very 
able : the proposition being sustained by Messrs. Northend and 
Stone, of Essex; Davis, of Bristol; and Hardy, of Norfolk ; 
and opposed by Mr. Whiting, of Plymouth. The resolves 
passed, -yeas 24, nays 6. The bill provided, that the com- 
missioners should be appointed by the Governor, and should 
make their report to the Legislature. 



LEGISLATIVE PROCEEDINGS. 27 

In the House, resolutions of a similar character were intro- 
duced by Mr. Parker, of Worcester. They were supported by 
Mr. Davis, of Greenfield, and Mr. Parker ; and opposed by Mr. 
Branning, of Lee. Before coming to any conclusion, the re- 
solves which had passed the Senate reached the House. Mr. 
Parker's were laid on the table, and the Senate resolves were 
discussed. After a long debate on a motion to suspend the 
rules, which was lost, -yeas 104, nays 65, not two-thirds, - 
the House adjourned. 

Tuesday, Feb. 5. In the House. -The Senate resolves for 
the appointment of commissioners were, on motion of Mr. 
Davis, of Greenfield, taken from the orders of the day, and 
considered. He said the resolves met with his entire appro- 
bation. 

Mr. Slocum, of Grafton, said, with all respect for Virginia, 
he could not abide by her opinions, since they might desecrate 
the soil of Massachusetts to slavery; rather than that, said he, 
let blood come. He moved an amendment. 

Mr. Wallis, of Bolton, favored the amendment. 

Mr. Gifford, of Provincetown, opposed it, and favored the 
resolutions. "He had no fears that Massachusetts would act at 
the bidding of Virginia or any other State." 

Mr. French, of Waltham, favored the amendment, which 
was, in substance, that Massachusetts did not agree with Vir- 
ginia that the Constitution required amendment to guarantee 
to each State its rights. 

Mr. Hyde, of Newton, opposed the amendment. He did 
not see any good reason why it should be adopted. He did not 
think Virginia needed to be told where Massachusetts stands 
to-day. 

Mr. Pierce, of Dorchester, did not want the matter forced 
through by outside influence. He was opposed to the resolves, 
and hoped they would be rejected. 

Mr. Fisk, of Shelbume, advocated the proposition, and would 
forward it with his hand and vote. 

Mr. Prentiss, of Marblehead, opposed the measure in a speech 
of considerable length, and asked if we would send commission- 
ers to a convention of traitors? Let us rather send the sword. 



28 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Mr. Slack, of Boston, spoke in opposition. He foresaw that 
the convention would act contrary to the desires of the people 
of Massachusetts, and that this Commonwealth would be partly 
responsible for its acts. 

Mr. Durfee, of New Bedford, moved to amend by instruct- 
ing the commissioners not to recognize the resolutions presented 
in Congress by Mr. Crittenden, of Kentucky, as a proper basis 
for adjustment or compromise of difficulties. 

Mr. Sears, of Boston, and Mr. Gibbs, of New Bedford, spoke 
in favor of the original resolves, and against the amendments. 

The amendments were voted down, and the resolves were 
passed to be engrossed by a vote of yeas 184, nays 31. 

Feb. 6 . - The House voted to substitute the Senate bill for 
the increase of the militia for the bill of Mr. Banfield, of West 
Roxbury, -yeas 96, nays 60. 

The bill was as follows : - 

Chapter 49. - An Act in Relation to the Volunteer Militia. 

Section 1. The volunteer militia companies, as now organized, with 
their officers, shall be retained in the service; and hereafter, as the 
public exigency may require, the organization of companies of artillery 
may be authorized, on petition, by the Commander-in-chief, with advice 
of the Council, and the organization of other companies may be au- 
thorized, on petition, by the Commander-in-chief, or by the mayor and 
aldermen or selectmen, by his permission ; and said companies, so re- 
tained and so organized, shall be liable, on a requisition of the Presi- 
dent of the United States upon the Commander-in-chief, to be marched 
without the limits of the Commonwealth ; but all additional companies, 
battalions, and regiments which may be organized under the provisions 
of this act, shall be disbanded whenever the Governor or the Legisla- 
ture shall deem that their services are no longer needed. Companies 
of cavalry shall be limited to one hundred privates, and a saddler and 
a farrier ; companies of artillery to forty-eight cannoneers, twenty-four 
drivers, and a saddler and farrier ; the cadet companies of the first and 
second divisions to one hundred, and companies of infantry and rifle- 
men to sixty-four, privates. 

S ECT. 2. The fourteenth section of the thirteenth chapter of the 
General Statutes, and all laws or parts of laws now in force, limiting 
the number of the volunteer militia, are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 



LEGISLATIVE PROCEEDINGS. 29 

The resolves to appoint commissioners to attend a convention 
to be held in Washington, Feb. 5, were approved by the Gov- 
ernor, and were as follows : - 

"Whereas, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is desirous of a full 
and free conference with the General Government, and with any or all 
of the other States of the Union, at any time and on every occasion, 
when such conference may promote the welfare of the country; and 

"Whereas questions of grave moment have arisen touching the 
powers of the Government, and the relations between the different 
States of the Union; and 

"Whereas the State of Virginia has expressed a desire to meet her 
sister States in convention at Washington ; therefore - 

"Resolved, That the Governor of this Commonwealth, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Council, be, and he hereby is, authorized 
to appoint seven persons as commissioners, to proceed to Washington 
to confer with the General Government, or with the separate States, 
or with any association of delegates from such States, and to report 
their doings to the Legislature at its present session ; it being expressly 
declared, that their acts shall be at all times under the control, and 
subject to the approval or rejection, of the Legislature." 

On the same day, Feb. 5, the Governor, with the consent of 
the Council, appointed the following named gentlemen as com- 
missioners : - 

Hon. John Z. Goodrich , of Stockbridge. 
Hon. Charles Allen, of Worcester. 
Hon. George S. Boutwell, of Groton. 
Hon. Francis B. Crowninshield , of Boston. 
Theophilus p. Chandler, Esq., of Brookline. 
John M. Forbes, Esq., of Milton. 
Richard P. Waters, Esq., of Beverly. 

These gentleman immediately proceeded to Washington, and 
took part in the dehberations of the " Peace Congress." It was 
a very able delegation. 

There was great interest felt in regard to the action of the 
Peace Congress, and how far its acts would bind the States 
which the delegates represented. 

Feb. 8. In the House. - Mr. Albee, of Marlborough, 
offered the following resolution : - 



30 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

"That our commissioners at Washington are hereby instructed to 
use every effort to prevent the adoption of the Crittenden Compro- 
mise, or any similar proposition, by the Convention now in session in 
Washington." 

Passed, - yeas 112, nays 27; and the Governor was re- 
quested to forward a copy to each of the commissioners. 

After the adjournment of the House, the members retained 
their seats, and the Clerk read the following communica- 
tion : - 

Extract from the Proceedings of the House of Representatives of South 
Carolina, Jan. 23, 1861. 

"Mr. Holland offered the following, which were unanimously 
adopted : - 

"Whereas a certain Mr. Tyler, of Boston, has introduced a resolution 
in the Massachusetts Legislature, 'that, in view of the great suffering in 
South Carolina, the immediate consequence of the citizens of that State 
acting under a mistaken idea of their rights and obligations, and in view of 
the abundance of this Commonwealth, a sum be appropriated from the State 
treasury, to be invested in provisions and stores for the relief of our suffer- 
ing fellow-countrymen of that State ; ' therefore be it - 

" Resolved, That the report now current in Massachusetts or elsewhere, 
that any part of South Carolina is suffering, or likely to suffer, for the want 
of provisions, is a lie as black as hell, and originated nowhere but amongst 
negro-worshippers at the North. 

"Resolved. That the Legislature of Massachusetts be respectfully re- 
quested to appropriate the money to the relief of her own suffering, 
starving, poor thousands. 

" Resolved, That we can attend to our own affairs without the aid of 
Massachusetts." 

Mr. Speaker, -The foregoing is a true copy of the proceedings 
of the South Carolina Legislature. You are respectfully requested to 
have them read in open session. 

W. F. Coy Kendall, Assistant Clerk. 

March 19. In the House. -Mr. Tyler, of Boston, from 
the Committee on Finance, reported a resolve relating to the 
equipment of troops for active service in a new draft, reducing 
the sum from $35,000 to $25,000; which, on motion of Mr. 
Jewell, of Boston, was referred to the Committee on the Militia, 
with instructions " to inquire and report whether any contracts 
have been made or liabilities incurred in regard to any of the 



LEGISLATIVE PROCEEDINGS. 31 

matters mentioned in the resolve ; and, if so, what and when, 
and by what officer, and under what authority." 

March 23. In the House. -Mr. Coffin, of Newbury- 
port from the Committee on the Militia, reported that the 
resolve for the equipment of troops for active service ought 
to pass; also the following communication from the Adjutant- 
General : - 

Boston, March 21, 1861. 
Colonel Frederick J. Coffin, //oM.se of Representatives. 

SiR,-In answer to the inquiry made by the Honorable House of 
Representatives, " whether any contracts have been made or liabilities 
incurred in regard to any of the matters mentioned in the resolve re- 
ported to the House, relating to the equipment of troops for active 
service, and, if so, when, and by what authority," I have the honor to 
s a y : - 

Under the direction of His Excellency the Governor and the Hon- 
orable Council, the following contracts have been made by me as Adju- 
tant and Acting Quartermaster General : - 

1st. With the Middlesex Company, Lowell, for 6,000 yards of 
cloth, six-fourths wide, to make 2,000 military overcoats, at $1.37 a 
yard. 

2d. With William Deacon, to make 2,000 military overcoats at 
$2.15 each, he finding the trimmings, except the buttons. 

3d. With James Boyd & Sons, to make 1,000 knapsacks, army 
pattern, and with Edward A. G. Roulstone, to make 1,000 knapsacks, 
army pattern, severally at $1.88 each. 

4th. With Converse, Harding, & Co., for 1,000 pairs of blankets, 
army size, at $3.75 a pair. 

5th. With the Rubber Clothing Company, Beverly, for 2,000 haver- 
sacks, at 75 cents each. 

6th. The buttons for the coats have been contracted for with the 
manufacturer at Attleborough, and will cost about $740. 

7th. I was also authorized to contract for 200,000 ball-cartridges to 
suit the new rifled musket. The lowest market price for these 
cartridges is $14 a thousand. At the State Arsenal, at Cambridge, 
there have been for many years upwards of 200,000 musket-balls 
suitable for the old smooth-bore musket. I have caused these to be 
recast, and the cartridges made at the Arsenal ; so that the entire cost 
to the Commonwealth for the 200,000 new musket cartridges will not 
exceed $1,500. 

The aggregate cost to the Commonwealth to fulfill these contracts 



32 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

will be $23,770 ; to which should be added $150 to pay a proper per- 
son or persons to inspect the work when finished, to ascertain whether 
the parties contracted with have faithfully fulfilled their several agree- 
ments. The resolve appropriating $25,000 will cover the entire 
expense, and will leave a surplus sufficient to purchase 300,000 per- 
cussion caps, which it will be necessary to buy, if the troops of the 
Commonwealth are called into active service. 

With great respect, I have the honor to be your obedient servant, 

W illiamSchouler, 
Adjutant and Acting Quartermaster General. 

Monday, March 25. In Senate. - A message was received 
from the Governor, transmitting a report of the commissioners 
appointed to represent the Commonwealth in the Peace Con- 
gress at Washington, which was read. Without taking action, 
the Senate adjourned. 

The report gave a careful record of the proceedings of 
the Convention, which commenced its sessions in Washing- 
ton on the 4th of February, and adjourned on the 27th of 
the same month. It sat with closed doors, and no full or 
consecutive report of its proceedings was ever made. It ap- 
pears, however, from the report of our Commissioners, that 
most of the time was consumed in considering seven distinct 
propositions for amending the Federal Constitution, each of 
which was intended to strengthen the institution of slavery, 
by giving it additional guarantees and enlarged privileges. 
These propositions were reported by a committee composed 
of one from each State represented. Mr. Guthrie, of Ken- 
tucky, was made chairman. Massachusetts was represented on 
the committee by Mr. Crowninshield, who appears to have 
called for a specific statement of the grievances complained of 
by the discontented States. This request led to discussion, but 
failed to obtain the desired information. Mr. Guthrie's report 
was adopted by the committee by a majority of five, but the 
report, as a whole, never received the sanction of a majority of 
the Convention. Massachusetts voted against all of the propo- 
sitions except the last, and on that, the delegation declined to 
vote, either for or against. As this Congress failed to accom- 
plish any practical purpose, or to make an impression upon the 



FORTIFICATIONS IN THE STATE. 33 

country, either for good or for evil, it is not necessary at this 
late day to exhume from its secret records the crude conceits and 
extravagant demands which were pressed by Southern members, 
by which they hoped to prevent civil war, but which, if adopted, 
would have added strength and permanency to slavery, which 
was the weakness and the crime of the republic, and the fruit- 
ful cause of all our national woes. It does not appear that the 
Massachusetts members submitted any plan of adjustment, but 
contented themselves with debating such as were offered by 
others, and voting as their judgments dictated. 

Same day. In the House. - Colonel Coffin, of Newbury- 
port, introduced a bill to limit the number of privates in infan- 
try and rifle companies to fifty, except when, in the opinion of 
the Governor, the number should be extended to sixty-four, 
which was subsequently passed. 

The bill also to provide for the equipment of troops in active 
service was passed to be engrossed. 

April 3. In the House. - The Committee on the Militia 
reported it was inexpedient to legislate upon the appointment 
of a commissary and surgeon-general, and of amending chap- 
ter 13, section 144, of the General Statutes, in relation to the 
mileage of the militia. 

April 5. In Senate. - A resolve in favor of calling a na- 
tional convention was discussed. It was opposed by Mr. 
Whiting, of Plymouth, and Mr. Walker, of Worcester, and 
advocated by Mr. Northend, of Essex, and Mr. Hardy, of 
Norfolk. It was finally, on motion of Mr. Davis, of Bristol, 
referred to the next Legislature. 

The session closed Thursday, April 11, 1861. 

The most important acts of the session, having for their 
object the preparation of the State for war, were " the act 
in relation to the volunteer militia," the appropriating of 
$100,000 as an emergency fund, and of $25,000 to provide 
overcoats and equipage for 2,000 men. The militia law of 
the General Statutes limited the active militia to 5,000 men : 
the act akeady quoted gave the Governor authority to organize 
as many companies and regiments as the pubUc exigency might 
require. 

3 



34 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

While the Legislature was considering and passing prepara- 
tory measures, the Governor was not idle. A constant corre- 
spondence was kept up with our members of Congress and the 
Governors of other States. Leading merchants, and other gen- 
tlemen of experience and wisdom, were daily consulted. The 
militia was strengthened. A cipher key was arranged, to be 
used in transmitting messages which required secrecy. 

The defenceless condition of the forts in Boston harbor was 
considered. In Fort Warren there was but one gun ; in Fort 
Winthrop none at all; and, in Fort Independence, hardly 
twenty guns, and most of them were trained on the city itself. 
The casemates were unfit for human occupation. The grounds 
inside the forts were covered with workshops and wooden shan- 
ties ; and, instead of being a defence to the city and harbor, 
the fortifications of Boston were a standing menace to them, 
and invited seizure by the enemy. The entire coast of Massa- 
chusetts was open to attack from sea ; not a fort or an earth- 
work or a gun was in proper condition. There were neither 
officers nor troops in garrison. Our entire reliance, should 
war come, was in the patriotism of the militia and the people 
of the Commonwealth. 

If troops were to be sent to Washington, the best and safest 
way of forwarding them was a question for discussion. Two 
Southern States lay between Boston and Washington ; which, 
in case of civil war, were as likely to array themselves against 
the Government as for it. The danger of sending troops 
through Baltimore was very fully considered. The ease with 
which the passage of the Susquehanna could be impeded, and 
the long railroad bridges over the creeks between that river 
and Baltimore destroyed, was foreseen, and on the other hand 
the facility with which the approach by transports up the 
Potomac could be stopped by batteries, seemed to render that 
route impracticable. A meeting was held in the Governor's 
room on the 2d of February, and was adjourned to the 6th, at 
which Major-Generals Sutton, Morse, and Andrews, of the State 
militia ; Colonel Thayer, U.S.A. ; the Adjutant-General of the 
State ; the aides-de-camp of His Excellency ; and others, were 
present. 



CONSULTATIONS IN GOVERNOR'S ROOM. 35 

Colonel Henry Lee, of Governor Andrew's staff, in a letter 
dated July 9, 1867, to me, says, - 

"With regard to the preparations for war made by Governor An- 
drew, I recollect, for my part, collecting information respecting steam- 
ers, and reporting the names and capacities and whereabouts of all 
which plied between Boston and other ports, on Feb. 2, 1861. On 
Feb. 4, the Governor called a meeting at his chamber in the State 
House, at which were present some of the chief officers of the militia : 
also, General Thayer, of the United-States Engineers, and Messrs. Gor- 
don and Andrews, ex-United-states-army officers, both major-generals 
of volunteers in the late war. I recorded the replies, and drew up a 
memorandum of the items of clothing, equipment, arms, and ammuni- 
tion needed, to prepare the militia for service in the field. 

"On Feb. 6, a second meeting was called by the Governor. I cannot 
remember distinctly how much of the discussion took place at the first, 
and what at the second; but the result of the two was, the Governor's 
order for two thousand overcoats, equipments, &c., which was for two 
months the subject of so much ridicule. Feb. 9, a report was made by 
the Committee on Militia, of the Council, and a communication re- 
ceived by His Excellency from the Adjutant-General, giving estimates 
for clothing and equipments for two thousand troops in service. 

The same order passed by the Council referred to by Colonel 
Lee; respecting the overcoats, speaks also of forwarding troops 
to Washington, "the mode of transit to be governed by circum- 
stances that may arise hereafter ; rail being preferred, if practi- 
cable." 

Immediately after the meeting on the 2d of February, Gov- 
ernor Andrew detailed Colonel Ritchie, of his staff, to visit 
Washington, to confer confidentially with the Massachusetts 
senators and representatives, and General Scott, in regard to 
the prospect of a requisition being made for troops, and espe- 
cially to learn from the general by what route in case of such a 
call he would wish the troops to be sent, and whether they 
would have to carry field equipage with them. He arrived at 
Washington on the 6th ; and, on that evening, wrote to the 
Governor as follows : - 

Washington, D.C, Wednesday, Feb. 6, 1861. 

I received your instructions on Monday, at 1. P.M. I found, that, if I 
left Boston that afternoon, I could get here on Tuesday evening, but too 



36 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

late to attend to any business. I therefore determined to start on 
Tuesday morning, which gave me an opportunity of discussing the ob- 
jects of my mission with Colonel Sargent, who took the same train as 
far as Springfield. Mass., and enabled me to reach this city this morn- 
ing by daybreak. 

Immediately after breakfast, 1 called on the Hon. Charles Sumner. 
He at once understood the object of my mission, and favored me with 
a statement on the present state of affairs. I also met him again later 
in the day in the Senate Chamber, when he went over again, with me, 
the same ground. 

He gives as serious an account of the conspiracy to take possession 
of this city by the secessionists as any you have received ; but he thinks 
the danger has been steadily diminishing since the 2d of January, - 
the day on which the President gave General Scott power to concen- 
trate troops for the defence of the capital. The President has had 
several relapses since that date; and at times has seemed about to 
recall all the confidence he had placed in General Scott, and oblige him 
to undo all that had been done. The most extraordinary scenes have 
taken place in the Cabinet: only last week it was on the point of 
breaking up entirely, and the danger seemed to be as great again as 
at any previous time ; but the general has triumphed in all particu- 
lars, excepting in his desire to have the militia of the Northern States 
called out: to that the President will not even now consent. 

Mr. Sumner thinks there was a crisis in the Cabinet last week, and 
that, even after the general had overcome the hesitation of the Presi- 
dent, there was a most serious danger to be apprehended from the 
revolutionary threats of the Democratic leaders in Maryland, in which 
the leaders of both wings of the Democratic party united. He thinks, 
however, that, the first schemes of the conspirators having been discon- 
certed, there was nothing to be apprehended in the way of an attack upon 
this city, unless the conspirators should have been enabled to lean upon 
State authority for their action. Therefore he thinks that the result 
of the election of delegates to the convention in Virginia has postponed 
the danger from this source. He is convinced that the conspirators 
counted upon a different result in Virginia; that, by the 18th, the 
Virginia Convention would have pronounced for secession; and that 
they were therefore safe in calling the Maryland Convention for that 
day, being sure that in that event Maryland would follow suit. If the 
result of the Virginia election had been in favor of the secessionists, 
the attack on the Capitol might have been carried out without waiting 
for the formal action of the Virginia Convention. Mr. Sumner now 
thinks there is no immediate danger to be feared of such an attack. 



COLONEL RITCHIE AT WASHINGTON. 37 

He is by no means confident of the determination to which that con- 
vention will ultimately come, but thinks that a delay has been gained 
which will carry us over the 4th of March in safety. Mr. Adams and 
Mr. Seward, with both of whom I have had long conversations, agree 
with Mr. Sumner fully as to any danger of an immediate attack. Mr. 
Seward thinks all danger is past. Mr. Sumner thinks Mr. Seward has 
never been aware of the real peril ; and is evidently of the opinion 
that the crisis is only postponed. Mr. Adams thinks there will be no 
need of troops before the 6th of March, but thinks we shall have to 
fight after that date. 

Mr. Sumner thinks Congress would be now sitting in Independence 
Hall, Philadelphia, but for General Scott's action. Mr. Seward seems 
to think this concentration of troops has been unnecessary. General 
Wilson appears to be of the opinion that Massachusetts and New York 
will have to furnish money, but doubts if they will be called upon for 
any troops. Mr. Seward urged me to write to you, and beg you to 
secure the passage of the resolutions by which Massachusetts would 
endorse the bonds of the United States to the extent of the deposit of 
surplus revenue in her hands, made in 1837. He says this is all they 
now ask of Massachusetts ; that she will never have to pay a cent on 
account of such indorsement, but that the indorsement must be given, 
as the new Administration will be without funds. I have also con- 
versed with Mr. Burlingame, Mr. Thayer, and Mr. Alley, of Massa- 
chusetts, and particularly with Mr. Stanton, of Ohio, the chairman of 
the committee who have been inquiring into this conspiracy. 

Mr. Adams, Mr. Burlingame, Mr. Thayer, and Mr. Stanton, all 
talked the matter over together in my presence ; and all were of opin- 
ion that no call would be made on Massachusetts before March 4. 

Mr. Seward is the only one I have seen who stated that he thought 
all danger was now at an end, owing to the action of Virginia. And 
even Mr. Seward, at dinner this P.M., at Mr. Adams', stated that the 
South must succumb, or we should have to exterminate them, or they 
would have to exterminate us. He thinks the South are anxious to 
creep out of the movement of their own creation. 

I have had to give you as rapid a resume of the opinions of these 
civilians as possible, as I have hardly time to reach the mail. The 
only point of immediate importance is, that all agree that there is no 
probability of an immediate call upon us for militia. 

Mr. Stanton thought, that, if a call were made, it would be for vol- 
unteers ; and that there would be time to enlist special regiments for 
the war, as in the Mexican war. After leaving Mr. Sumner, I called 
on General Scott. He is avowedly very anxious even now, and would 



38 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

at once call for ten thousand men, if empowered to do so. He says 
the President, however, will never issue such a requisition. The 
President doubts his power; and, while I was with the general, Mr. 
Stanton came to consult with him about a bill, which I inclose, intro- 
duced for the purpose of meeting this objection of the President's. 

But even if this bill passes, - and it will pass, unless the Republi- 
cans are satisfied that the President already possesses the power hereby 
intended to be given him, -still the President thinks that a call 
for Northern militia would at once set Virginia and Maryland in a 
blaze. 

They have declared in Maryland, only last week, that the Susque- 
hanna should flow with blood, if the attempt were made to bring North- 
ern troops across it. 

General Scott therefore agrees that there is no probability of any 
call being made on you by President Buchanan. He, however, would 
himself issue such a call at once if he had the power, and would have 
issued it a month ago. 

With Colonel Keyes, of General Scott's staff, I discussed all the 
points at length, which were considered at the meeting of officers con- 
vened by you on Monday last. 

Colonel Keyes is General Scott's right-hand man, and is the officer 
who has been charged with ferreting out this whole matter. He also 
says there will be no call at present, but that we must be prepared. 
I telegraphed at once, after my interview with Mr. Sumner, General 
Scott, and Colonel Keyes, to Mr. Albert G. Browne, Jr., " There is 
not the slightest probability of any immediate call; particulars by 
mail; take no further steps." Colonel Keyes approved of this de- 
spatch ; and so did Messrs. Sumner. Wilson, Adams, Burlingame, and 
Thayer. 

Colonel Keyes thinks it would not be safe to come, either by land or 
by the Potomac, but that the United States must hold the forts at 
Baltimore ; and that the troops must come by sea to Baltimore, and 
land there under cover of the forts. 

As to this, however, as also the other details, I will give you oral 
information ; and Colonel Keyes will furnish me with much at a later 
day to which he could not give answers at once. There are also many 
things which will depend upon circumstances at the date of the call. 
I shall see to-morrow if affairs assume any different aspect ; and, if they 
do not, I shall leave here to-morrow afternoon. 

I shall not think it expedient, under the circumstances, to approach 
the Mayor of Baltimore. 

Please excuse this hurried note, as I have been writing to save the 



COLONEL RITCHIE AT NEW YORK. 39 

mail, and been obliged to disregard form. I believe I have given you 
the substance of all that I have learned here. 

Your Excellency's most obedient, 

Harrison Ritchie, 
Lieutenant- Colonel and Aide-de- Camp. 

P.S. It is thought that the delay gained by the result of the Vir- 
ginia election will give time for at least one thousand of the troops 
from Texas to get here before they are wanted. General Scott thinks 
he can count upon two thousand of the volunteers of this district. 
Colonel Keyes says, be prepared; organize your regiments, and drill 
them; furnish them with the new rifle-musket, knapsacks, canteens, 
blankets, and proper clothing, one hundred rounds of ammunition per 
man, and a supply of camp-kettles. 

As to other camp equipage, it may be necessary: that he cannot tell 
at present. 

Colonel Ritchie left Washington the next day, and, on arriv- 
ing at New York, wrote another letter from that city, dated 
February 8th, in which he discusses again the position of 
affairs at Washington, and makes certain suggestions in regard 
to getting troops to Washington, which in time became of 
great practical service : - 

"You will have perceived by my first letter that I had already 
made the acquaintance of Colonel Keyes. In fact we became great 
friends. When General Scott referred me to his two aides, -Colonels 
Leigh and Keyes, - I made up my mind after a very short conversa- 
tion, that Colonel Leigh was a man of 'Southern proclivities,' who 
did not look with any favor upon my mission, though I had a letter of 
introduction to him from a mutual friend. He was disposed I thought 
to prevent my interview with General Scott, - and interrupt it after I 
had obtained it by introducing other people and other matters, -and 
he showed evident marks of dissatisfaction at my quiet persistence 
until I had accomplished my object. Of course I did not appear to 
notice this." Keyes, on the other hand, went into the matter with 
his whole heart. He said he was bored to death with inquiries on 
these points -but where they were direct and to the point, he would 
answer them by the hour with pleasure. I had also heard of Mr. 
Goddard's errand, and conversed with him before receiving your 

* Leigh afterwards deserted to the enemy, taking with him many of General 
Scott's plans and confidential papers. 



40 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Excellency's note. I, however, had another conversation with him 
yesterday morning, when he informed me that the answer given to his 
request for a detailed plan, was, in effect, that none such could be 
furnished at present. Some regulars, one company of artillery from 
Augusta, and one company of dragoons from Carlisle barracks, arrived 
yesterday ; and, as I believe I mentioned in my first, a draft of infantry 
arrived at Washington in the train in which I reached the city. 

" General Scott and Colonel Keyes are evidently anxious, and would 
like more men; but the President will never issue the requisition . . . 
Floyd has so plundered the United-States magazines, arsenals, and 
depots of munitions of war, and warlike stores, that they do not know 
yet what is left, and so cannot tell what we must bring with us. It is 
clear, that, if we move, it must be by sea, landing at Baltimore or 
Annapolis ; that pilots must be secured in advance, as they will be 
seized by the secessionists; and that the ships must go to sea with 
sealed orders, while a false destination is publicly reported. 

"I shall take the liberty to recommend one other caution, to be 
adjusted when I can speak with you in private, and which actual expe- 
rience has shown me is necessary, if you desire that certain Boston 
papers should not divulge all your plans, as they have done hitherto. 
On Thursday morning (yesterday), I saw Mr. Sumner, Mr. Wilson, 
Mr. Burlingame, Mr. Adams, and others. They had nothing new to 
communicate, but adhere to their conviction, that there is no prospect, 
or possibility indeed, of an immediate call upon you. I mentioned in 
my first, that Mr. Seward was the only person I saw who pretended 
to think the danger more than postponed. I happened to be present 
at a conversation between him and some of his most intimate and con- 
fidential friends, when he evidently spoke out his sincere conviction. 
I was much impressed with what he said, which satisfied me that his 
optimist views are assumed, as necessary in his relation to the new 
Administration, and that in reality he is no more hopeful than Mr. 
Sumner. I will repeat his remark to you on my return. Mr. Adams 
also heard this remark ; and when I asked him, yesterday, if he no- 
ticed it, he seemed surprised at my having marked it also, and con- 
fessed that it impressed him very forcibly. 

"Mr. Adams was on his way to find me yesterday, as I was going 
to his house. He came to ask me to inform your Excellency that the 
Secretary of the Treasury had sent for him that morning, to beg him 
to urge upon you the extreme importance of our Legislature passing 
the resolves authorizing the indorsement by Massachusetts of the bonds 
of the United States to the amount of the shares of the surplus 



LETTER OF SECRETARY SEWARD. 41 

revenue deposited with her in 1837. Mr. Adams said that the Secre- 
tary wished to issue his proposals on Monday, if possible, and hoped 
these resolves would be passed before that time. 

"I told Mr. Adams that Mr. Seward and Mr. Wilson had impressed 
me with the importance of this on the previous day, and that 1 had 
conveyed their request already to your Excellency. Mr. Adams then 
said I could do no more, and that he would write to you at once. I, 
however, saw Mr. Wilson about it yesterday morning, and he said he 
would consult the Massachusetts delegation yesterday, if possible, and 
get them all to sign a letter to you on the subject, for you to show to 
the Legislature. 

■'I should mention that I called the attention of our delegation to 
the unsatisfactory state of the United-States militia laws, and the ques- 
tions that have arisen with us already. I left a copy of Lothrop's 
opinion with Mr. Wilson. He will read it, and read again the debates 
in our Constitutional Convention, and see what can be done. They 
all saw the delicacy of the points, and their importance, and will do 
what they can. 

"Finding 1 could do nothing more, I decided to leave Washington 
last night, though, for my own pleasure, 1 should have liked to have 
remained some time longer at the centre of action in this great crisis. 
I accordingly came here last night. We were detained by ice and the 
extreme, savage cold.; and I found this morning that my baggage, 
though properly checked and shipped at Washington, had not come 
through ; indeed, none of the baggage did. This will detain me here ; 
but I can only repeat in more detail what I have already written to 
your Excellency, when I have the pleasure of reporting my return to 
you in person. I hope your Excellency will not think my journey 
has proved entirely unprofitable. I think, at any rate, that an under- 
standing and communication has been opened that may prove very 
useful in the future." 

In connection with the letters of Colonel Ritchie, the follow- 
ing extract from a letter addressed to me by Secretary Seward, 
dated Washington, June 13, 1867, is of interest and impor- 
tance : - 

"In regard to February, 1861, I need only say, that, at the time 
the secession leaders were all in the Senate and House, with power 
enough, and only wanting an excuse, to get up a resistance in the 
capital to the declaration of Mr. Lincoln's election and to his inaugu- 
ration; in other words, to have excuse and opportunity to open the 



42 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

civil war here before the new Administration and new Congress could 
be in authority to subdue it. I desired to avoid giving them that advan- 
tage. I conferred throughout with General Scott and Mr. Stanton, then 
in Mr. Buchanan's Cabinet. I presume I conversed with others in a 
way that seemed to me best calculated to leave the inauguration of a war 
to the secessionists, and to delay it, in any case, until the new Admin- 
istration should be in possession of the Government. It was less 
military demonstration that was wanted at that particular moment 
than political discretion. 

"Discretion taught two duties ; namely, to awaken patriotism in the 
North, and to get the secessionists, with Buchanan's Administration, 
out of Washington. Mr. Adams well and thoroughly understood me. 
On the 22d of February, in concert with Mr. Stanton, I caused the 
United-States flag to be displayed throughout all the Northern and 
Western portions of the United States." 

Colonel Ritchie did not leave Washington until he had come 
to a definite understanding in regard to the route by which to 
forward troops to Washington, should a call for them be made. 
He had been cordially received by General Scott, to whom the 
purpose of his mission was made known, and he was referred 
to Colonel Keyes of General Scott's staff for information upon 
matters of detail. It was then arranged, that, in case of a call, 
the troops should be forwarded by sea to Annapolis or Balti- 
more. Colonel Keyes stated, that all other routes to Washing- 
ton would be unsafe ; that, for this reason. General Scott had 
placed an officer in command of Fort McHenry in Baltimore 
Harbor, upon whom he could rely to hold it to the utmost. 
Immediate measures were taken by the Governor to have the 
necessary transports in readiness, and Colonel Lee, of his staff, 
was detailed to attend to this duty. The following extract 
from a letter dated Boston, Feb. 2, 1861, addressed to the 
Governor, by Colonel Lee, relates a conversation he had held 
that day with John M. Forbes, Esq., in regard to chartering 
steamers to be used as transports, which shows that the atten- 
tion of the Governor had been given to this subject before 
Colonel Ritchie had returned from Washington : - 

"Mr. Forbes assures me that he and others will have the trans- 
ports ready as soon as the men can be, waiting until orders come 
before the vessel is chartered, so as to keep as quiet as possible. And 



MEETING IN CAMBRIDGE. 43 

he thinks, with me, that we had better wait for New York, as we can 
get ready and move quicker; and any forwardness on the part of 
Massachusetts would be more offensive than that of New York. He 
urges also to write or telegraph to General Scott, that we can 
at once send three hundred men to relieve the garrison at For- 
tress Monroe, if he desires to have the present garrison march to 
Washington. The cost of steamer per month, with crew, would be 
three to four thousand dollars, probably. I send a list in order of 
merit." 

A very large and respectable meeting of the citizens of Bos- 
ton was held in Faneuil Hall, on the 5th of February, to 
indorse the resolutions of Mr. Crittenden, of Kentucky, in 
favor of a compromise with the South. J. Thomas Stevenson, 
Esq., presided, and made a strong and able speech in favor of 
compromise, in the course of which he said "he would almost 
pray for a foreign war, that it might bind us again as one, and 
prevent the shedding of fraternal blood. He would give up 
every thing but honor." B. R. Curtis, Esq., ex-judge of the 
United-States Supreme Court, made the leading speech, which 
was received with great favor. The resolutions were read by 
Colonel Jonas French. Speeches were made by Mr. Wight- 
man, mayor of the city, Mr. Saltonstall, Mr. G. S. Hillard, 
and others, some of whom afterwards distinguished themselves 
as officers in the war. 

This meeting spoke the sentiments of the conservative citi- 
zens, who regarded war and disunion as evils greater than the 
existence of slavery, or even of its further extension ; and yet 
they were anti-slavery men, and regarded slavery as a great 
moral and political wrong, and would gladly have seen it abol- 
ished. 

A few days later, on the 11th of February, a great meeting 
was held in Cambridge. The City Hall was crowded. The meet- 
ing was called without distinction of party. Hon. John G. 
Palfrey spoke briefly. He said, " South Carolina has marshalled 
herself into revolution ; and six States have followed her, and 
abandoned our Government." Richard H. Dana, Jr., Esq., made 
the speech of the occasion. He said the South was in a state 
of mutiny ; he was against John-Brown raids, and uncompro- 
misingly for the Union. He was opposed to the Crittenden 



44 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

compromise, and held to the faith of Massachusetts. This 
meeting uttered the sentiments of the majority of the State, 
and was designed as a counterblast to the meeting held the week 
before at Faneuil Hall. 

The speeches made and resolutions passed at these meetings 
expressed the sentiments of the people of the State. Those who 
were at Faneuil Hall would rather compromise the issues than 
have bloodshed and civil war. The men who were at Cam- 
bridge would risk the chance of civil war rather than compro- 
mise. 

There was another party, which, though small in number, 
was powerful in eloquence, moral character, and cultivated in- 
tellect. Its zeal never flagged, its leaders never faltered. Its 
hatred of slavery was chronic. Its martyr spirit was felt and 
acknowledged. Its policy was aggressive. It made no com- 
promises ; it sought no office ; it asked no favor ; and it gave 
no quarter. This was the abolition party. The leaders of it 
were Mr. Garrison and Mr. Phillips. The Federal Constitution, 
as interpreted by them, was a pro-slavery instrument : they 
would not, therefore, support it. The Union was " a covenant 
with hell : " therefore they would break it. For a quarter of 
a century they had thus spoken, and consistently acted, and 
held their ground up to the very day that the rebels fired on 
Sumter. 

The following extract from a speech delivered in New Bed- 
ford by Mr. Phillips, on the evening of the 9th of April, 1861, 
is curious and remarkable, when we consider the positions held 
by that gentleman before the war, during the war, and since 
the war. It shows that learned men and orators are sometimes 
false prophets ; and what is visible to plain men is hid from 
them : - 

" The telegraph," said Mr. Phillips, "is said to report to-night, that 
the guns are firing, either out of Fort Sumter or into it; that to-mor- 
row's breeze, when it sweeps from the North, will bring to us the echo 
of the first Lexington battle of the new Revolution. Well, what shall 
we say of such an hour? My own feeling is a double one. It is like 
the triumph of sadness, -rejoicing and sorrow. I cannot, indeed, con- 
gratulate you enough on the sublime spectacle of twenty millions of 



SPEECH OF WENDELL PHILLIPS. 45 

people educated in a twelvemonth up to being willing that their idol- 
ized Union should risk a battle, should risk dissolution, in order, at any 
risk, to put down this rebellion of slave States. 

" But I am sorry that a gun should be fired at Fort Sumter, or that 
a gun should be fired from it, for this reason: The Administration at 
Washington does not know, its time. Here are a series of States gird- 
ing the Gulf, who think that their peculiar institutions require that 
they should have a separate government. They have a right to decide 
that question, without appealing to you or me. A large body of people, 
sufficient to make a nation, have come to the conclusion, that they will 
have a government of a certain form. Who denies them the right? 
Standing with the principles of '76 behind us, who can deny them the 
right? What is a matter of a few millions of dollars, or a few forts ? 
It is a mere drop in the bucket of the great national question. It is 
theirs, just as much as ours. I maintain, on the principles of '76, that 
Abraham Lincoln has no right to a soldier in Fort Sumter. 

" But the question comes, secondly, ' Suppose we had a right to in- 
terfere, what is the good of it? ' You may punish South Carolina for 
going out of the Union : that does not, bring her in. You may subdue 
her by hundreds of thousands of armies, but that does not make her a 
State. There is no longer a Union : it is nothing but boy's play. Mr. 
Jefferson Davis is angry, and Mr. Abraham Lincoln is mad, and they 
agree to fight. One, two, or three years hence, if the news of the after- 
noon is correct, we shall have gone through a war, spent millions, re- 
quired the death of a hundred thousand men, and be exactly then where 
we are now, - two nations, a little more angry, a little poorer, and a 
great deal wise? ; and that will be the only difference : we may just as 
well settle it now as then. 

" You cannot go through Massachusetts, and recruit men to bombard 
Charleston or New Orleans. The Northern mind will not hear it; you 
can never make such a war popular. The first onset may be borne ; 
the telegraph may bring us news, that Anderson has bombarded 
Charleston, and you may rejoice; but the sober second thought of 
Massachusetts will be, ' wasteful, unchristian, guilty.' The North never 
will indorse such a war. Instead of conquering Charleston, you create 
a Charleston in New England; you stir up sympathy for the South. 
Therefore it seems to me that the inauguration of war is not a viola- 
tion of principle, but it is a violation of expediency. 

" To be for disunion, in Boston, is to be an abolitionist : to be against 
disunion is to he an abolitionist to-day, in the streets of Charleston. 
Now, that very state of things shows, that the civilization of the two 
cities is utterly antagonistic. What is the use of trying to join them? 



46 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Is Abraham Lincoln capable of making fire and powder lie down 
together in peace ? If he can, let him send his army to Fort Sumter, 
and occupy it. 

"But understand me: I believe in the Union, exactly as you do, in 
the future. This is my proposition : ' Go out, gentlemen ; you are wel- 
come to your empire ; take it. Let them try the experiment of cheat- 
ing with one hand, and idleness with the other. I know that God has 
written bankruptcy over such an experiment. If you cannonade South 
Carolina, you cannonade her into the sympathy of the world. I do 
not know now but what a majority there is on my side; but I know 
this, that, if the telegraph speaks true to-night, that the, guns are echo- 
ing around Fort Sumter, that a majority is against us; for it will con- 
vert every man into a secessionist. Besides, there is another fearful 
element in the problem; there is another terrible consideration: we 
can then no longer extend to the black race, at the South, our best 
sympathy and our best aid. 

" We stand to-night at the beginning of an epoch, which may have 
the peace or the ruin of a generation in its bosom. Inaugurate war, 
we know not where it will end; we are in no condition to fight. The 
South is poor, and we are rich. The poor man can do twice the injury 
to the rich man, that the rich man can do the poor. Your wealth rides 
safely on the bosom of the ocean, and New England has its millions 
afloat. The North whitens every sea with its wealth. The South has 
no commerce, but she can buy the privateers of every race to prey on 
yours. It is a dangerous strife when wealth quarrels with poverty. 

" Driven to despair, the Southern States may be poor and bankrupt, 
but the poorest man can be a pirate; and, as long as New England's 
tonnage is a third of that of the civilized world, the South can punish 
New England more than New England can punish her. We provoke 
a strife in which we are defenceless. If, on the contrary, we hold our- 
selves to the strife of ideas, if we manifest that strength which despises 
insult and bides its hour, we are sure to conquer in the end. 

"I distrust these guns at Fort Sumter. I do not believe that 
Abraham Lincoln means war. I do not believe in the madness of 
the Cabinet. Nothing but madness can provoke war with the Gulf 
States. My suspicion is this : that the Administration dares not com- 
promise. It trembles before the five hundred thousand readers of 
the New-York Tribune. 

"But there is a safe way to compromise. It is this : seem to pro- 
voke war. Cannonade the forts. What will be the first result? New- 
York commerce is pale with bankruptcy. The affrighted seaboard 
sees grass growing in its streets. It will start up every man whose 



CONDITION OF THE MILITIA. 47 

livelihood hangs upon trade, intensifying him into a compromiser. 
Those guns fired at Fort Sumter are only to frighten the North into a 
compromise. 

" If the Administration provokes bloodshed, it is a trick, - nothing 
else. It is the masterly cunning of the devil of compromise, the 
Secretary of State. He is not mad enough to let these States run into 
battle. He knows that the age of bullets is over. If a gun is fired 
in Southern waters, it is fired at the wharves of New York, at the 
bank-vaults of Boston, at the money of the North. It is meant to 
alarm. It is policy, not sincerity. It means concession; and, in 
twelve months, you will see this Union reconstructed, with a constitu- 
tion like that of Montgomery. 

" New England may, indeed, never be coerced into a slave confed- 
eracy. But when the battles of Abraham Lincoln are ended, and 
compromises worse than Crittenden's are adopted. New England may 
claim the right to secede. And, as sure as a gun is fired to-night at 
Fort Sumter, within three years from to-day you will see thirty States 
gathered under a Constitution twice as damnable as that of 1787. 
The only hope of liberty is fidelity to principle, fidelity to peace, 
fidelity to the slave. Out of that God gives us nothing but hope and 
brightness. In blood there is sure to be ruin." 

The lecture "was interrupted by frequent hisses." 
In the preceding pages, we have sketched the position held 
and the measures adopted by Massachusetts during the four 
months immediately preceding the advent of war. Sumter had 
been fu-ed upon ; hostilities had commenced ; nothing remained 
but the arbitrament of battle. By the wisdom and foresight of 
her Governor and Legislature, Massachusetts was better pre- 
pared for it than other loyal States. Her militia had spent the 
winter and spring nights in drilling, recruiting, and organizing. 
The requirements of Order No. 4 had been enforced. The 
young men who filled the ranks of the volunteer force had kept 
alive the military spirit and martial character of the Common- 
wealth. They had remained faithful to duty, despite the taunts 
and jeers of open enemies, and the neglect and parsimony of 
professed friends. They were now to give the world an exhibition 
of ready devotion and personal sacrifice to duty and country sel- 
dom equalled and never surpassed in any age or nation. They 
had been bred in the delightful ways of peace, unused to war's 



48 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

alarms and the strifes of battle. The common schools of Massa- 
chusetts were their Alma Mater. In their homes by the shores 
of the sea, and in the pleasant fields and valleys of the interior, 
they had been nurtured in Christian morals and the ways of God. 
They had beheld with anxiety, but without fear, the dark clouds 
of war settling upon the face of the nation, which they knew 
must be met and dispelled, or it would remain no longer a 
nation to them. Through the long and anxious years of the 
war, they never hesitated, doubted, or wavered in their faith that 
the Union would stand the shock which menaced it ; and that, 
through the sacrifice of noble lives and the baptism of precious 
blood, it would emerge from the smoke and fire of civil war with 
unsubdued strength, and with garments glittering all over with 
the rays of Liberty. It was to be a contest between right 
and wrong, law and anarchy, freedom and despotism. He who 
could doubt the issue of such a war could have no abiding 
faith in, the immortality of American progress, or the eternal 
justice of Christian civilization. 

On the 15th day of April, 1861, Governor Andrew received 
a telegram from Washington to send forward at once fifteen 
hundred men. The drum-beat of the long roll had been struck. 



CHAPTER II. 

The Call for Troops -The Marblehead Companies first in Boston - The Excite- 
ment of the People - Headquarters of Regiments -Four Regiments called 
for - General Butler to command-New companies organized - Liberal 
Offers of Substantial Aid- Dr. George H. Lyman, Dr. William J. Dale, 
Medical Service-Action of the Boston Bar-The Clergy, Rev. Mr. Cud- 
worth - The Women of the State - The Men of the State -Liberal Offers of 
Service and Money-Robert B. Forbes, Coast Guard-Colonel John H. 
Reed appointed Quartermaster -The Personal Staff- Executive Council - 
Mr. Crowninshield appointed to purchase Arms in Europe - An Emergency 
Fund of Two Hundred Thousand Dollars -Letter of the Governor to Secre- 
tary Cameron - General Butler consulted - The Route by Annapolis - Nar- 
rative of Samuel M. Felton - Mr. Lincoln's Journey to Washington- 
His Escape from Assassination - The Third Regiment-Speech of Ex- 
Governor Clifford-The Fourth Regiment - Address of Governor Andrew 
-Departure for Fortress Monroe - The Sixth Regiment - Departure for 
Washington-Reception in New York and Philadelphia- The Eighth Regi- 
ment - Departure - Speeches of Governor Andrew and General Butler - 
Reception on the Route-Arrival in Philadelphia- The Fifth Regiment 
sails from New York for Annapolis-Major Cook's Light Battery ordered to 
Washington - The Third Battalion of Rifles sent forward - The Massachu- 
setts Militia -Arrival of the Third Regiment at Fortress Monroe-Attempt 
to save Norfolk Navy Yard - The Fourth Regiment the first to land in 
Virginia-Fortress Monroe - Big Bethel - The Fifth Regiment - Battle 
of Bull Run -The Sixth Regiment-Its March through Baltimore - The 
Nineteenth of April -First Blood shed - The Eighth Regiment -Lands at 
Annapolis - Saves the Frigate Constitution -Arrives in Washington - The 
Rifle Battalion at Fort McHenry - Cook's Battery at Baltimore-End of the 
Three Months' Service - Conclusion. 

The call for troops, mentioned in the last paragraph of the pre- 
ceding chapter, came from Washington by telegraph, through 
Henry Wilson, of the United-States Senate ; which was dated 
April 15, 1861, and asked for twenty companies, to be sent on 
separately. In the course of the day, formal requisitions were 
received from the Secretary of War and the Adjutant-General 
of the Army for two full regiments. By command of Governor 
Andrew, Special Order No. 14 was immediately issued by the 
4 



50 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Adjutant-General, and was forwarded, by mail and by special 
messengers, to Colonel Wardrop of the Third Regiment, at 
New Bedford; Colonel Packard of the Fourth, at Quincy ; 
Colonel Jones of the Sixth, at Pepperell ; and Colonel Monroe 
of the Eighth, at Lynn. The order was to muster the regiments 
under their command in uniform on Boston Common forthwith, 
" in compliance with a requisition made by the President of the 
United States : the troops are to go to Washington." An order 
was also issued to fill all existing vacancies in regimental and 
Une officers, waiving the usual notice. 

The reason for ordering four regiments when only two had 
been called for was, that, by detaching strong companies from 
weak regiments, the two called for might be filled to the 
maximum. 

The call aroused the people of the entire State to instant 
action. The State House became the great centre of interest. 
The Governor's room and the Adjutant-General's quarters 
were crowded with citizens, tendering their services in what- 
ever capacity they could be made useful. Telegrams were re- 
ceived from military and civil officers, living in remote parts 
of the Commonwealth, making the same generous and patriotic 
offers. As if by magic, the entire character of the State was 
changed : from a peaceful, industrious community, it became a 
camp of armed men ; and the hum of labor gave place to the 
notes of fife and drum. 

On the morning of the 16th of April, the companies began 
to arrive in Boston ; and, before nightfall, every company that 
had received its orders in time reported at headquarters for 
duty. 

There has been some controversy in military circles as to 
which company can claim the honor of first reaching Boston. I 
can answer, that the fu-st were the three companies of the Eighth. 
Regiment belonging to Marblehead, commanded by Captains 
Martin, Phillips, and Boardman. I had been at the State 
House all night ; and, early in the morning, rode to the Arsenal 
at Cambridge, to ascertain whether the orders from headquarters, 
to send in arms, ammunition, overcoats, and equipments, had 
been properly attended to. Messengers had also been stationed 



THE MARBLEHEAD COMPANIES. 51 

at the different depots, with orders for the companies, on their 
arrival, to proceed at once to Faneuil Hall, as a north-easterly 
storm of sleet and rain had set in during the night, and had not 
abated in the morning. On my return from Cambridge, I 
stopped at the Eastern Raikoad Depot. A large crowd of men 
and women, notwithstanding the storm, had gathered there, ex- 
pecting the arrival of troops. Shortly after eight o'clock, the 
train arrived with the Marblehead companies. They were re- 
ceived with deafening shouts from the excited throng. The 
companies immediately formed in line, and marched by the flank 
directly to Faneuil Hall ; the fifes and drums playing " Yankee 
Doodle," the people following and shouting like madmen, and 
the rain and sleet falling piteously as if to abate the ardor of the 
popular welcome. And thus it was the Marblehead men en- 
tered Faneuil Hall on the morning of the 16th of April. 

It is impossible to overstate the excitement which pervaded 
the entire community through this eventful week. The raikoad 
depots were surrounded with crowds of people; and the com- 
panies, as they arrived, were received with cheers of grateful 
welcome. Banners were suspended, as if by preconcerted ar- 
rangement. The American flag spread its folds to die breeze 
across streets, from the masts of vessels in the harbor, from the 
cupola of the State House, the City Hall, in front of private 
dwellings ; and men and boys carried miniature flags in their 
hands or on their hats. The horse-cars and express-wagons were 
decked with similar devices ; and young misses adorned their 
persons with rosettes and ribbons, in which were blended the 
national red, white, and blue. In the streets, on 'Change and 
sidewalk, in private mansion and in public hotel, no topic was 
discussed but the approaching war, the arrival and departure 
of the troops, and measures best adapted for their comfort and 
welfare. Every one was anxious to do something, and in some 
way to be useful. Young men, wishing to raise new com- 
panies and proffer services, pressed to the offices of the Gov- 
ernor and the Adjutant-General. These offices, the rotunda, 
and the passages leading to the State House, were filled with 
zealous and determined people. Faneuil Hall, Boylston Hall, 
the hall over the Old-Colony Raikoad Depot, where companies 



52 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

were quartered, had each its Hving mass of excited spectators. 
Every train which arrived at Boston brought in relatives, 
friends, and townsmen of the soldiers, to say a kind word at 
parting, to assure them that their families would be well cared 
for while they were absent, and to add to the general enthusiasm 
and excitement of the occasion. 

During the entire week, wagons were bringing in, from the 
State Arsenal at Cambridge, clothing, arms, ammunition, and 
other munitions of war, to be deposited, prior to distribution, in 
Faneuil Hall and the State House. On Saturday, the 13th of 
April, two days prior to the call for troops, the Adjutant-Gen- 
eral, by direction of the Governor, had written to the Secretary 
of War, asking the privilege of drawing, from the United-States 
Armory at Springfield, two thousand rifled muskets in advance 
of the annual quota becoming due; also urging the President 
to order two regiments of volunteers to garrison Fort War- 
ren and Fort Independence in Boston harbor, to be there drilled 
and exercised, until called by the President for active service in 
the field. Neither request was granted. 

While the troops ordered out were getting to Boston with all 
diligence, and making ready for instant departure, another tele- 
gram was received (April 16) from Senator Wilson, stating 
that Massachusetts was to furnish immediately four regiments, 
to be commanded by a brigadier-general ; on receipt of which, 
orders were issued for the Fifth Regiment to report, and, on 
the 17th, Brigadier-General Benjamin F. Butler was detailed to 
command the troops. 

By six o'clock on the afternoon of the 16th, the Third, 
Fourth, and Sixth Regiments were ready to start. The head- 
quarters of the Third was in the hall over the Old-Colony 
Railroad Depot; that of the Fourth at Faneuil Hall ; that of 
the Sixth in the armory of the Second and Fourth Battalions, 
at Boylston Hall, over the Boylston Market. 

While these regiments were getting ready, offers to raise new 
companies of militia came from all parts of the State. The 
Adjutant-General, in his Report for 1861, says, "From the 
13th of April to the 20th of May, one hundred and fifty-nine 
applications were granted to responsible parties for leave to 



ENTHUSIASM AND LIBERALITY OF THE PEOPLE. 53 

raise companies. In nearly every instance, the application was 
signed by the requisite number of men for a company. These 
applications came from every part of the Commonwealth, and 
represented all classes, creeds, and nationalities. The authori- 
ties of the several cities and towns acted with patriotic liber- 
ality toward these companies, furnishing good accommodations 
for drilling, and providing for the families of the men." In the 
aggregate, they numbered full ten thousand men, eager for 
orders to march. Drill companies were also formed of men 
past the military age, and of citizens who desired to learn the 
manual of arms. To these companies two thousand seven hun- 
dred old muskets were loaned by the State. Most of these 
new militia companies were organized between April 13 and 
the 4th of May. Numerous letters, offering pecuniary aid to 
soldiers' families, were received by the Governor and the 
Adjutant-General. William Gray, of Boston, sent his check 
for ten thousand dollars ; Otis Norcross, of Boston, sent his for 
five hundred ; Gardner Brewer, also of Boston, offered the 
State ten thousand dollars ; and many other gifts, of less 
amount, were received. 

The Boston Banks offered to loan the State three milhon six 
hundred thousand dollars, without any security for repayment, 
but faith in the honor of the Legislature, when it should 
meet. They also offered the Secretary of the Treasury to 
take Treasury notes to the full extent of their power. The 
banks in other parts of the State made offers of loans equally 
generous, according to their capital. Gentlemen of the learned 
professions showed the same liberal and patriotic spirit. Dr. 
George H. Lyman, who was afterwards medical inspector in 
the United-States Army, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, 
had, in anticipation of civil war, prepared himself, by a study of 
rules and regulations of the medical department of the army, 
for the expected emergency. Therefore, on the call for troops, 
he tendered his services to the Governor, to prepare medicine 
chests, and act as medical purveyor in fitting out the regiments. 
Dr. William J. Dale writes thus : " On the sixteenth day of 
April, 1861, I was called from my professional pursuits, by 
Governor Andrew, to assist Dr. George H. Lyman in furnish- 



54 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

ing medical supplies for the Sixth Regiment ; and I continued, 
under the direction of the Governor, to perform, conjointly with 
Dr. Lyman, such duties as were incidental to a medical bureau, 
until the 13th of June, 1861, when I was commissioned Sur- 
geon-General of Massachusetts, with the rank of colonel." 
Thus early in the war, steps were taken to form a military 
medical department for the State, which was of great value 
and importance during the whole of the war, reflecting honor 
upon the Commonwealth and upon the distinguished gentleman 
who was placed at its head. Many of the first physicians of 
the Commonwealth volunteered to give their professional services 
to the families of the soldiers, free of charge. A meeting of the 
Boston Bar was held, at which it was voted to take charge of all 
cases of other attorneys while absent in the war, and that 
liberal provision be made for their families. Many applications 
were made by clergymen to go out as chaplains, to take care of 
the sick and wounded, and protect the physical, moral, and 
religious welfare of the soldiers. Conspicuous among these was 
Rev. Mr. Cudworth, pastor of the Unitarian Church in East 
Boston. On Sunday, April 21, he preached a sermon on the 
crisis, in which he said he had already offered his services to the 
Governor as chaplain. He hoped his society would furnish at 
least one company to defend the flag. In case his services as 
chaplain were not accepted, he should devote his year's salary 
to the common cause; and he announced that the sexton and 
organist would do the same. He advised that the money 
raised by the parish to build a new church should be appropri- 
ated to the families of die soldiers, and that they should worship 
in the old house until the war was over. He recommended the 
ladies of the parish to form a society to make under-clothing for 
the soldiers. He showed a handsome necklace, which a lady 
had given him to be sold for the benefit of the soldiers' families. 
On this occasion, the pulpit was draped with the American 
flag. Mr. Cudworth, soon after, was commissioned -chaplain 
of the First Massachusetts three-years Regiment, and left 
with it for the front on the 15th of June, and continued in the 
service, and the regiment, until the 28th of May, 1864. 

During the week, and particularly after the Sixth Regiment 



OFFERS OF ASSISTANCE. 55 

had been attacked in Baltimore, the enthusiasm and resolution 
of the people were intense. Many ladies of the most refined 
and tender culture offered their services as hospital nurses ; and 
many of them subsequently went forward on their mission of 
humanity, and ministered with tender hands and feeling hearts 
to the comfort of our sick and wounded men in the hospitals. 
The letters of these true Christian women are on file at the 
State House. They speak one language, and express one 
thought,- opportunity to do good, and to comfort those who 
are afflicted. Among these letters is one dated April 19, 
from Mrs. Frances Wright, of Foxborough, and signed by one 
hundred young ladies of that town, offering their services as 
nurses, or to make soldiers' garments, to prepare bandage and 
lint, to do any thing for the cause in their power to do. The 
Governor, in his answer, writes, " I accept it as one of the most 
earnest and sincere of the coundess offers of devotion to our old 
Commonwealth, and to the cause of the country ; " and concludes 
by asking them " to help those who are left behind, and 
follow those who have gone before with your benedictions, your 
benefactions, and your prayers." 

Benjamin F. Parker, and Whiton, Brown, & Wheelright, 
"tender the use of their sail-loft, and all such assistance of 
workmen as may be necessary to do any work on the tents, 
free of expense to the Commonwealth." John H. Rogers, 
offers "twenty cases of boots, as a donation for the soldiers now 
enlisting." Captain Francis B. Davis offers " his barque ' Man- 
hattan,' to take men and munitions of war to any part of the 
United States." As arrangements had been already made, 
this offer was declined for the present. James M. Stone and 
Newell A. Thompson offered their services to superintend 
the distribution of quartermaster's stores and ordnance, which 
were accepted. Robert B. Forbes, on the 17th, made a 
proposal to raise a Coast Guard, which met with the cordial 
approval of the Governor; but as there was no provision, in 
the militia law, by which material aid could be given by the 
State, the Governor wrote to the Secretary of War on behalf 
of the project. On the 19th, thirty thousand dollars was 
subscribed by a few gentlemen in Boston, as a fund to organize 



56 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

a volunteer regiment, which was subsequently raised, and 
known as the Second Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer 
Infantry. The subscription paper was headed by David Sears, 
James Lawrence, Thomas Lee, Samuel Hooper, George O. 
Hovey, and Mrs. William Pratt, each of whom subscribed one 
thousand dollars. 

The call for troops, and their organization and equipment, 
rendered a division of military duties, and the enlargement of 
the staff of the Governor, a necessity. By law, the Adjutant- 
General, in time of peace, was Inspector-General and acting 
Quartermaster-General of the Commonwealth. In time of war, 
the triple duties of these offices could not be performed by one 
person ; and therefore Colonel John H. Reed, who had expe- 
rience in military affairs, and had served as senior aide-de-camp 
on the staff of Governor Banks, was commissioned, on the 
nineteenth, Quartermaster-General of Massachusetts, with the 
rank of brigadier-general. General Reed entered upon his 
duties immediately, and relieved the Adjutant-General of all 
quartermaster's duties and responsibilities. Many of the duties 
had previously been performed, during the week, by the aides- 
de-camp of the Governor, and by private gentlemen, who had 
volunteered their services. 

From the hour the telegram was received by the Governor, 
the pressure of business upon the executive and military depart- 
ments of the State became more and more urgent. Colonels 
Sargent, Ritchie, Lee, and Wetherell, of the Governor's per- 
sonal staff, were on duty, answering inquiries, writing letters, 
and attending to the multiplicity of details which the duties of 
the executive rendered necessary. The Executive Council was 
also in session ; and, on the 20th of April, it " was ordered that 
the Treasurer be authorized to borrow two hundred thousand 
dollars, to be held as an emergency fund for miUtary purposes ; " 
also, "that an agent be sent to Europe with authority to 
purchase, on account of the Commonwealth, twenty-five thou- 
sand rifles and army pistols, to be imported as soon as may be, 
for the use of the militia in defence of the State and of the 
nation, and that the Governor issue a letter of credit to such 
agent for the purpose of fulfilling this order." The Governor 



GOVERNOR ANDREW'S LETTER. 



57 



appointed Hon. Francis B. Crowninshield the agent to proceed 
to Europe and purchase arms, and gave him a letter of 
credit to the amount of fifty thousand pounds sterling. Mr. 
Crowninshield sailed in the next steamer from New York for 
England. 

On the day that orders were received to send forward 
troops, the Governor wrote the following letter :- 

Boston, April 15, 1861. 
To Hon. Simon Cameron, Secretary of War. 

Sir, -I have received telegrams from yourself and Brigadier- 
General Thomas, admonishing me of a coming requisition for twenty 
companies of sixty-four privates each ; and I have caused orders to be 
distributed to bring the men into Boston before to-morrow night, and 
to await orders. Allow me to urge the issue of an order to the 
Springfield (Mass.) Armory, to double the production of arms at once, 
and to push the work to the utmost. If any aid by way of money or 
credit is needed from Massachusetts, I hope to be at once apprised. 
An extra session of our General Court can be called immediately, if 
need be ; and, if called, it will respond to any demand of patriotism. 

And I beg you would permit, in addition to suggesting the utmost 
activity at Springfield Armory, to urge that the armory at Harper's 
Ferry be discontinued, and its tools, machinery, and works be trans- 
ferred elsewhere, or else that it be rigidly guarded against seizure, of 
the danger of which I have some premonitions. If any more troops 
will certainly be needed from Massachusetts, please signify it at once, 
since I should prefer receiving special volunteers for active militia to 
detail any more of our present active militia, especially as many most 
efficient gentlemen would like to raise companies or regiments, as the 
case may be, and can receive enlistments of men who are very ready 
to serve. 

Allow me also to suggest that our forts in Boston Harbor are 
entirely unmanned. If authorized, I would put a regiment into the 
forts at any time. Two of my staff spent last Saturday in making 
experiments of the most satisfactory character, with Shenkle's new in- 
vention in projectiles ; and so extraordinary was the firing, that I have 
directed eighteen guns to be rifled, and projectiles to be made. May 
I commend this invention to the examination of the United-States 
Government? 

I am happy to add that I find the amplest proof of a warm devotion 
to the country's cause, on every hand to-day. Our people are 

alive. Yours, John A. Andrew. 



58 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

General Butler was appointed on the 17th to command the 
Massachusetts Brigade. He established temporary headquar- 
ters in the State House. He was consulted by the Governor in 
regard to the movement of the troops ; the letters which Colonel 
Ritchie had written from Washington, in February, were read 
to him; and the arrangements which had been agreed upon by 
General Scott and the Governor, that troops, when called for, 
should be sent by sea to Annapolis or by the Potomac River to 
Washington, were made known. He was put in possession 
of all the information which had been obtained respecting the 
movement of troops to Washington by way of Annapolis. 
On the day the requisition for troops came to Governor Andrew, 
he telegraphed, in reply,, that the troops would be at once for- 
warded to Annapolis by sea; to which an answer was received 
from the Secretary of War, to " send the troops by railroad: 
they will arrive quicker, the route through Baltimore is now 
open." In consequence of this despatch, the route was changed, 
and the Sixth Regiment was forwarded by rail, although, through 
the activity and foresight of John M. Forbes, steamers were 
in readiness to take the regiment by sea. Had the route not 
been changed, the bloodshed in Baltimore on the ever-memora- 
ble 19th of April would have been avoided. How the Secre- 
tary of War could have believed the route through Baltimore 
was safe, it is difficult to understand, if, as may have been 
supposed, he was aware of the schemes which were planned 
in Baltimore to assassinate Mr. Lincoln, when on his way to 
Washington to be inaugurated, and which were thwarted by the 
prudence, vigilance, and accurate knowledge of one man. 

The true history of Mr. Lincohi's perilous journey to Wash- 
ington in 1861, and the way he escaped death, have never been 
made public until now. The narrative was written by Samuel 
M. Felton, of Philadelphia, President of the Philadelphia and 
Baltimore Railroad Company, in 1862, at the request of Mr. 
Sibley, Librarian of Harvard University ; but it was not com- 
pleted until lately, when it was sent to me, with other valuable 
material, by Mr. Felton. It has a direct bearing upon events 
which transpired in forwarding the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment 
to Washington, and which are now to be narrated. Mr. Felton 



NARRATIVE OF SAMUEL M. FELTON. 59 

is a native of Massachusetts, and a brother of the late President 
of Harvard University. He was bom in West Newbury, Essex 
County, Mass., July 17, 1809, and graduated at Harvard 
in the class of 1834. His services in the cause of the Union 
and good government, therefore, are a part of the renown 
of this Commonwealth, and should properly find a place in 
these pages. His narrative is as follows : - 

"It came to my knowledge in the early part of 1861, first by 
rumors and then from evidence which I could not doubt, that there 
was a deep-laid conspiracy to capture Washington, destroy all the 
avenues leading to it from the North, East, and West, and thus prevent 
the inauguration of Mr. Lincoln in the capital of the country ; and, if 
this plot did not succeed, then to murder him while on his way to the 
capital, and thus inaugurate a revolution, which should end in estab- 
lishing a Southern Confederacy, uniting all the Slave States, while it 
was imagined that the North would be divided into separate cliques, 
each striving for the destruction of the other. Early in the year 1861; 
Miss Dix, the philanthropist, came into my office on a Saturday after- 
noon. I had known her for some years as one engaged in alleviating 
the sufferings of the afflicted. Her occupation had brought her in 
contact with the prominent men South. In visiting hospitals, she had 
become familiar with the structure of Southern society, and also with 
the working of its political machinery. She stated that she had an 
important communication to make to me personally ; and, after closing 
my door, I listened attentively to what she had to say for more than 
an hour. She put in a tangible and reliable shape, by the facts she 
related, what before I had heard in numerous and detached parcels. 
The sum of it all was, that there was then an extensive and organized 
conspiracy throughout the South to seize upon Washington, with its 
archives and records, and then declare the Southern conspirators 
de facto the Government of the United States. The whole was to be 
a coup d'etat. At the same time, they were to cut off all modes of 
communication between Washington and the North, East, or West, 
and thus prevent the transportation of troops to wrest the capital 
from the hands of the insurgents. Mr. Lincoln's inauguration was 
thus to be prevented, or his life was to fall a sacrifice to the aUempt at 
inauguration. In fact, troops were then drilling on the line of our own 
road, and the Washington and Annapolis line, and other lines ; and they 
were sworn to obey the commands of their leaders; and the leaders 
were banded together to capture Washington. As soon as the inter- 



60 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

view was ended, I called Mr. N. P. Trist into my office, and told him 
I wanted him to go to Washington that night, and communicate, these 
facts to General Scott. I also furnished him with some data as to the 
other routes to Washington, that might be adopted in case the direct 
route was cut off. One was the Delaware Railroad to Seaford, and 
then up the Chesapeake and Potomac to Washington, or to Annapolis 
and thence to Washington ; another, to Perryville, and thence to 
Annapolis and Washington. Mr. Trist left that night, and arrived in 
Washington at six the next morning, which was on Sunday. He im- 
mediately had an interview with General Scott, who told him he had 
foreseen the trouble that was coming, and in October previous had 
made a communication to the President, predicting trouble at the 
South, and urging strongly the garrisoning of all the Southern forts 
and arsenals with forces sufficient to hold them, but that his advice 
had been unheeded; nothing had been done, and he feared nothing 
would be done; that he was powerless; and that he feared Mr. 
Lincoln would be obliged to be inaugurated into office at Phila- 
delphia. He should, however, do all he could to bring troops to 
Washington sufficient to make it secure; but he had no influence 
with the Administration, and feared the worst consequences. Thus 
matters stood on Mr. Trist's visit to Washington, and thus they 
stood for some time afterwards. About this time, - a few days sub- 
sequent, however, -a gentleman from Baltimore came out to Back- 
river Bridge, about five miles this side of the city, and told the 
bridge-keeper that he had come to give information which had come 
to his knowledge of vital importance to the road, which he wished 
communicated to me. The nature of this communication was, that 
a party was then organized in Baltimore to burn our bridges, in case 
Mr. Lincoln came over the road, or in case we attempted to carry 
troops for the defence of Washington. The party, at that time, had 
combustible materials prepared to pour over the bridges ; and were to 
disguise themselves as negroes, and be at the bridge just before the 
train in which Mr. Lincoln travelled had arrived. The bridge was 
then to be burned, the train attacked, and Mr. Lincoln to be put out 
of the way. This man appeared to be a gentleman and in earnest, 
and honest in what he said; but he would not give his name, nor allow 
any inquiries to be made as to his name or exact abode, as he said his 
life would be in peril were it known that he had given this information ; 
but, if we would not attempt to find him out, he would continue to 
come and give information. He came subsequently several times, and 
gave items of information as to the movements of the conspirators; 
but I have never been able to ascertain who he was. Immediately 



MR. LINCOLN'S ESCAPE FROM ASSASSINATION. 61 

after the development of these facts, I went to Washington, and there 
met a prominent and reliable gentleman from Baltimore, who was well 
acquainted with Marshal Kane, then the chief of police. I was 
anxious to ascertain whether he was loyal and reliable, and made par- 
ticular inquiries upon both these points. I was assured that Kane was 
perfectly reliable; whereupon I made known some of the facts that 
had come to my knowledge in reference to the designs for the burning 
of the bridges, and requested that they should be laid before Marshal 
Kane, with a request that he should detail a police force to make the 
necessary investigation. Marshal Kane was seen, and it was sug- 
gested to him that there were reports of a conspiracy to burn the 
bridges and cut off Washington ; and his advice was asked as to the 
best way of ferreting out the conspirators. He scouted the idea that 
there was any such thing on foot; said he had thoroughly investi- 
gated the whole matter, and there was not the slightest foundation for 
such rumors. I then determined to have nothing more to do with 
Marshal Kane, but to investigate the matter in my own way, and at 
once sent for a celebrated detective, who resided in the West, and 
whom I had before employed on an important matter. He was a man 
of great skill and resources. I furnished him with a few hints, and at 
once set him on the track with eight assistants. There were then 
drilling, upon the line of the railroad, some three military organiza- 
tions, professedly for home defence, pretending to be Union men, and, 
in one or two instances, tendering their services to the railroad in case 
of trouble. Their propositions were duly considered ; but the defence 
of the road was never intrusted to their tender mercies. The first 
thing done was to enlist a volunteer in each of these military compa- 
nies. They pretended to come from New Orleans and Mobile, and 
did not appear to be wanting in sympathy for the South. They were 
furnished with uniforms at the expense of the road, and drilled as 
often as their associates in arms ; became initiated into all the secrets 
of the organization, and reported every day or two to their chief, who 
immediately reported to me the designs and plans of these military 
companies. One of these organizations was loyal; but the other two 
were disloyal, and fully in the plot to destroy the bridges, and march 
to Washington, to wrest it from the hands of the legally constituted 
authorities. Every nook and corner of the road and its vicinity was 
explored by the chief and his detectives, and the secret working of 
secession and treason laid bare, and brought to light. Societies were 
joined in Baltimore, and various modes known to, and practised only 
by, detectives, were resorted to, to win the confidence of the conspira- 
tors, and get into their secrets. The plan worked well; and the 



62 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

midnight plottings and daily consultations of the conspirators were 
treasured up as a guide to our future plans for thwarting them. I t 
turned out, that all that had been communicated by Miss Dix and the 
gentleman from Baltimore rested upon a foundation of fact, and that 
the half had not been told. It was made as certain as strong circum- 
stantial and positive evidence could make it, that there was a plot to 
burn the bridges and destroy the road, and murder Mr. Lincoln on his 
way to Washington, if it turned out that he went there before troops 
were called. If troops were first called, then the bridges were to be 
destroyed, and Washington cut off, and taken possession of by the South. 
I at once organized and armed a force of about two hundred men, whom 
I distributed along the line between the Susquehanna and Baltimore, 
principally at the bridges. These men were drilled secretly and regu- 
larly by drill-masters, and were apparently employed in whitewashing 
the bridges, putting on some six or seven coats of whitewash, saturated 
with salt and alum, to make the outside of the bridges as nearly fire- 
proof as possible. This whitewashing, so extensive in its application, 
became the nine days' wonder of the neighborhood. Thus the bridges 
were strongly guarded, and a train was arranged so as to concentrate 
all the forces at one point in case of trouble. The programme of Mr. 
Lincoln was changed ; and as it was decided by him that he would go 
to Harrisburg from Philadelphia, and thence over the Northern Cen- 
tral road by day to Baltimore, and thence to Washington. We were 
then informed by our detective, that the attention of the conspirators 
was turned from our road to the Northern Central, and that they 
would there await the coming of Mr. Lincoln. This statement was 
confirmed by our Baltimore gentleman, who came out again, and said 
their designs upon our road were postponed for the present, and, unless 
we carried troops, would not be renewed again. Mr. Lincoln was to 
be waylaid on the line of the Northern Central road, and prevented 
from reaching Washington; and his life was to fall a sacrifice to the 
attempt. Thus matters stood on his arrival in Philadelphia. I felt 
it my duty to communicate to him the facts that had come to my 
knowledge, and urge his going to Washington privately that night in 
our sleeping-car, instead of publicly two days after, as was proposed. 
I went to a hotel in Philadelphia, where I met the detective, who was 
registered under an assumed name, and arranged with him to bring Mr. 
Judd, Mr. Lincoln's intimate friend, to my room in season to arrange 
the journey to Washington that night. One of our sub-detectives 
made three efforts to communicate with Mr. Judd while passing 
through the streets in the procession, and was three times arrested 
and carried out of the crowd by the police. The fourth time he sue- 



NARRATIVE CONTINUED. 63 

ceeded, and brought Mr. Judd to my room, where he met the detective- 
in-chief and myself. We lost no time in making known to him all the 
facts which had come to our knowledge in reference to the conspiracy ; 
and I most earnestly advised that Mr. Lincoln should go to Washing- 
ton privately that night in the sleeping-car. Mr. Judd fully entered 
into the plan, and said he would urge Mr. Lincoln to adopt it. On 
his communicating with Mr. Lincoln, after the services of the evening 
were over, he answered that he had engaged to go to Harrisburg and 
speak the next day, and he would not break his engagement even in 
the face of such peril, but that, after he had fulfilled the engagement, 
he would follow such advice as we might give him in reference to his 
journey to Washington. It was then arranged that he should go to 
Harrisburg the next day, and make his address ; after which he was to 
apparently return to Governor Curtin's house for the night, but in 
reality go to a point about two miles out of Harrisburg, where an 
extra car and engine awaited to take him to Philadelphia. At the 
time of his retiring, the telegraph lines, east, west, north, and south 
from Harrisburg were cut, so that no message as to his movements 
could be sent off in any direction. Mr. Lincoln could not probably 
arrive in season for our regular train that left at eleven, p m., and I 
did not dare to send him by an extra for fear of its being found out or 
suspected that he was on the road ; so it became necessary for me 
to devise some excuse for the detention of the train. But three or 
four on the road besides myself knew the plan. One of these I sent 
by an earlier train, to say to the people of the Washington Branch 
road that I had an important package I was getting ready for the 
eleven, p.m., train ; that it was necessary I should have this package 
delivered in Washington early the next morning without fail; that I 
was straining every nerve to get it ready by eleven o'clock, but, in 
case I did not succeed, I should delay the train until it was ready, - 
probably not more than half an hour; and I wished, as a personal 
favor, that the Washington train should await the coming of ours from 
Philadelphia before leaving. This request was willingly complied 
with by the managers of the Washington Branch ; and the man whom 
I had sent to Baltimore so informed me by telegraph in cipher. The 
second person in the secret I sent to West Philadelphia, with a car- 
riage, to await the coming of Mr. Lincoln. I gave him a package of 
old railroad reports, done up with great care, with a great seal attached 
to it, and directed in a fair, round hand, to a person at Willard's. I 
marked it ' Very important ; to be delivered without fail by eleven 
o'clock train,' indorsing my own name upon the package. Mr. Lincoln 
arrived in West Philadelphia, and was immediately taken into the 



64 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

carriage, and driven to within a square of our station, where my man 
with the package jumped off, and waited till he saw the carriage drive 
up to the door, and Mr. Lincoln and the detective get out and go into 
the station. He then came up, and gave the package to the conductor, 
who was waiting at the door to receive it, in company with a police 
officer. Tickets had been bought beforehand for Mr. Lincoln and 
party to Washington, including a tier of berths in the sleeping-car. 
He passed between the conductor and the police-officer at the door, and 
neither suspected who he was. The conductor remarked as he passed, 
'Well, old fellow, it is lucky for you that our president detained the 
train to send a package by it, or you would have been left.' Mr. 
Lincoln and the detective being safely ensconced in the sleeping-car, 
and my package safely in the hands of the conductor, the train started 
for Baltimore about fifteen minutes behind time. Our man No. 3, 
George - — , started with the train to go to Baltimore, and hand it 
over, with its contents, to man No. 1, who awaited its arrival in Balti- 
more. Before the train reached Gray's Ferry Bridge, and before Mr. 
Lincoln had resigned himself to slumber, the conductor came to our 
man George, and accosting him, said, ' George, I thought you and I 
were old friends ; and why did you not tell me we had Old Abe on 
board ? ' George, thinking the conductor had in some way become 
possessed of the secret, answered, ' John, we are friends, and, as you 
have found it out. Old Abe is on board ; and we will still be friends, 
and see him safely through.' John answered, 'Yes, if it costs me my 
life, he shall have a safe passage.' And so George stuck to one end of 
the car, and the conductor to the other every moment that his duties 
to the other passengers would admit of it. It turned out, however, that 
the conductor was mistaken in his man. A man strongly resembling 
Mr. Lincoln had come down to the train, about half an hour before it 
left, and bought a ticket to Washington for the sleeping-car. The 
conductor had seen him, and concluded he was the veritable Old Abe. 
George delivered the sleeping-car and train over to William in Balti- 
more, as had been previously arranged ; who took his place at the brake, 
and rode to Washington, where he arrived at six, a.m., on time, and 
saw Mr. Lincoln, in the hands of a friend, safely delivered at Wil- 
lard's, where he secretly ejaculated, 'God be praised !' He also saw 
the package of railroad reports, marked 'important,' safely delivered into 
the hands for which it was intended. This being done, he performed his 
morning ablutions in peace and quiet, and enjoyed with unusual zest 
his breakfast. At eight o'clock, the time agreed upon, the telegraph- 
wires were joined; and the first message flashed across the line was, 
'Your package has arrived safely, and been delivered,' signed ' William." 



ROSTER OF THE THIRD REGIMENT. 65 

Then there went up from the writer of this a shout of joy and a 
devout thanksgiving to Him from whom all blessings flow; and the 
few who were in the secret joined in a heartfelt Amen. Thus, began 
and ended a chapter in the history of the Rebellion, that has been never 
before written, but about which there have been many hints, entitled 
'A Scotch Cap and Riding-cloak,' &c., neither of which had any founda- 
tion in truth, as Mr. Lincoln travelled in his ordinary dress. Mr. 
Lincoln was safely inaugurated ; after which I discharged our detective 
force, and also the semi-military whitewashers, and all was quiet and 
serene again on the railroad. But the distant booming from Fort 
Sumter was soon heard, and aroused in earnest the whole population 
of the loyal States. The seventy-five thousand three-months men 
were called out ; and again the plans for burning bridges and destroying 
the railroad were revived in all their force and intensity. Again I 
sent Mr. Trist to Washington to see General Scott, to beg for troops 
to garrison the road, as our forces were then scattered, and could not be 
got at. Mr. Trist telegraphed me that the forces would be supplied; 
but the crisis came on immediately, and all, and more than all, were re- 
quired at Washington. At the last moment, I obtained, and sent down 
the road, about two hundred men, armed with shot-guns and revolvers, 
-all the arms I could get hold of at the time. They were raw and 
undisciplined men, and not fit to cope with those brought against them, 
-about one hundred and fifty men, fully armed, and commanded by 
the redoubtable rebel, J. R. Trimble." 

Such was the condition of affairs along the line of that road 
when the Sixth Regiment reached Philadelphia, on the 18th of 
April. I now proceed with the narrative. 

The Third and Fourth Regiments were composed of com- 
panies belonging to towns in Norfolk, Plymouth, and Bristol 
Counties. The Sixth and Eighth were almost exclusively from 
Middlesex and Essex Counties. The field-officers of the Third 
were David W. Wardrop, of New Bedford, colonel ; Charles 
Raymond, of Plymouth, lieutenant-colonel ; John H. Jennings, 
of New Bedford, major; Austin S. Cushman, of New Bedford, 
adjutant; Edward D. Allen, Fairhaven, quartermaster ; Alex- 
ander R. Holmes, of New Bedford, surgeon; Johnson Clark, 
of New Bedford, assistant-surgeon ; Alberti C. Maggi, of New 
Bedford, sergeant-major, and Frederick S. Gifford, of New Bed- 
ford, quartermaster-sergeant. 

Company A, "Halifax Light Infantry." Joseph S. Harlow, 
6 



66 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

of Middlcborough, captain. The lieutenants were Cephas Wash- 
burn, of Kingston, and Charles P. Lyon, of Halifax. 

Company B, " Standish Guards," of Plymouth. Charles C. 
Doten, of Plymouth, captain ; Otis Rogers, of Plymouth, and 
William B. Alexander, of Boston, lieutenants. 

Company B, " Cambridge City Guards," of Cambridge. This 
company was the first company raised for the war in Massachu- 
setts, and was organized in January, 1861, and attached tempo- 
rarily to the Fifth Regiment. It was recruited out of the 
Cambridge "Wide Awake Club." Its officers were James P. 
Richardson, captain ; Samuel E. Chamberlain and Edwin F. 
Richardson, lieutenants, -all of whom belonged to that part 
of die city of Cambridge known as Cambridgeport. 

Company G, the " Assonet Light Infantry," Freetown. John 
W. Marble, captain; Humphrey A. Francis and John M. 
Dean, lieutenants, - all of Freetown. 

Company H. " Samoset Guards," Plympton. Lucian L. 
Perkins, of Plympton, captain ; Oscar E. Washburn, of Plymp- 
ton, and Southworth Loring, of Middlcborough, lieutenants. 

Company K, " Bay State Light Infantry," Carver. William 
S. McFarlin, of South Carver, captain ; John Dunham, of North 
Carver, and Francis L. Porter, of New Bedford, lieutenants. 

Company L, " New Bedford City Guards." Timothy Ingra- 
ham, captain ; and James Barton and Austin S. Cushman, 
lieutenants, - all of New Bedford. 

This company left New-Bedford early on the morning of the 
16th. Its departure was witnessed by thousands of citizens. 
Addresses were made by ex-Governor John H. Clifford and 
the Mayor of the city. The following is an extract from Gov- 
ernor Clifford's speech : - 

"You, New-Bedford Guards, - guards of honor and safety to your 
fellow-citizens! We know, that, when brought to the test, you will 
be justified and approved. It was a severe trial to be summoned 
away in time of peace and prosperity ; but it may be the discipline of a 
beneficent Providence, to remind us of our blessings, and that as a people 
we might show to the world whether we are worthy of liberty. W e 
remain: you go forth. The ties of affection, the tenderness of 
mother, wife, sister, and friends, cluster around this hour. All these 



EX-GOVERNOR CLIFFORD'S SPEECH. 67 

ties you cheerfully yield to the call to patriot conflict and our coun- 
try's welfare. . . . All bid you God-speed, even the families who are 
to be left alone ; as the wife of one of you said this morning to the 
question if her husband was going, ' My husband going? Yes ; and I 
would not keep him back for all that he could gain at home. I will 
welcome him on his return, if he should return; and, if that should 
not be, I will for ever bless and honor his memory. Go in peace, my 
friends. Disturb not your minds about the care of your families. 
Your fellow-citizens will see to it that those you leave behind shall 
want nothing while you are gone. We shall hear from you on the 
field of duty, and that not one has failed, wherever he may be. God 
keep you safe under his care, and bring you back with untarnished glory, 
to be received by your fellow-citizens with heartfelt joy and honor !" 

At the conclusion of this speech, an impressive prayer was 
made by Rev. Mr. Girdwood. An escort of citizens, headed 
by ex-Governor Clifford, conducted the company to the cars, 
which started for Boston amid the cheers of the assembled 
thousands. 

The Third Regiment was destined for Fortress Monroe ; and, 
the steam transport being ready, the regiment left its quarters 
about six o'clock on the afternoon of Wednesday the 17th, 
marched to the State House to receive its equipments, and from 
thence to Central Wharf, where it embarked. The regiment 
was cheered the whole length of its march, and a national 
salute was fired on the wharf. The steamer cast off about 
seven o'clock, and anchored in the stream, where it remained 
until noon the next day, when it sailed, bearing to Virginia its 
patriot freight. It arrived at Fortress Monroe on the 20th. 

The field and staff officers of the Fourth Regiment were 
Abner B. Packard, of Quincy, colonel ; Hawkes Fearing, Jr., of 
Hingham , lieutenant-colonel ; Horace O. Whittemore, of Bos- 
ton, major ; Henry Walker, of Quincy, adjutant; William H. 
Carruth, of Boston, quartermaster; Henry M. Saville, of 
Quincy, surgeon ; William L. Faxon, of Quincy, "surgeon's 
mate ; " Alvin E. Hall, of Foxborough, sergeant-major; and 
George W. Barnes, of Plymouth, quartermaster-sergeant. 

Company A, "Union Light Guards," Canton. Officers : 
Ira Drake, of Stoughton, captain ; Henry U. Morse and Wal- 
ter Cameron, of Canton, lieutenants: At this time. Lieutenant 



68 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Cameron was in New Orleans ; and John McKay, Jr., of Can- 
ton, was chosen to fill the vacancy. Lieutenant Cameron, how- 
ever, soon after returned home, and joined his company at 
Fortress Monroe. 

Company B, " Light Infantry," Easton. Officers : Milo M. 
Williams, captain ; Linton Waldron and William E. Bump, 
Jr., lieutenants, - all of Easton. 

Company C, " Light Infantry," Braintree. Officers : Cephas 
C. Bumpus, captain ; James T. Stevens and Isaac P. Fuller, 
lieutenants, - all of Braintree. 

Company D, " Light Infantry," Randolph. Officers : Horace 
Niles , captain; Otis S. Wilbur and H. Frank Wales, lieu- 
tenants, -all of Randolph. 

Company E, " Light Infantry," South Abington. Officers : 
Charles F. Allen, captain ; Lewis Soule and John W. Mitchell, 
lieutenants , -all of South Abington. 

Company F, " Warren Light Guards," Foxborough. Offi- 
cers : David L. Shepard, captain ; Moses A. Richardson and 
Carlos A. Hart, lieutenants, - all of Foxborough. 

Company G, " Light Infantry," Taunton. Officers : Timothy 
Gordon, captain ; Zaccheus Sherman and Frederick A. Har- 
rington, lieutenants, - all of Taunton. 

Company H, " Hancock Light Guards," Quincy. Officers : 
Franklin Curtis, captain ; Edward A. Spear and Benjamin F. 
Meservey, lieutenants, - all of Quincy. 

Company I; " Lincoln Light Guards," Hingham. Officers : 
Luther Stephenson, Jr., captain ; Charles Sprague and Nathaniel 
French, Jr., lieutenants, -all of Hingham. This company 
was named in honor of Major-General Benjamin Lincoln, of 
revolutionary renown. 

This regiment was ready to march on the 16th ; but transpor- 
tation could not be arranged until the next day. Its destination 
was Fortress Monroe. It left Faneuil Hall at three o'clock on 
the afternoon of the 17th, and marched to the State House, 
where it was addressed by Governor Andrew, who said, - 

" It gives me unspeakable pleasure to witness this array from the 
good Old Colony. You have come from the shores of the sounding 
sea, where lie the ashes of Pilgrims ; and you are bound on a high 



THE FOURTH REGIMENT. -SPEECH OF GOV. ANDREW. 6 9 

and noble pilgrimage for liberty, for the Union and Constitution of your 
country. Soldiers of the Old Bay State, sons of sires who never 
disgraced their flag in civil life or on the tented field, I thank you from 
the bottom of my heart for this noble response to the call of your 
State and your country. You cannot wait for words. I bid you God- 
speed and an affectionate farewell." 

Colonel Packard made a brief and fitting response ; and the 
regiment filed down Park Street., and marched to the depot of 
the Old Colony Railroad, where a train was ready to receive 
it. In a few minutes, the regiment was on the way to Fall 
River, where it was put on board the steamer "State of Maine," 
and arrived at New York the next afternoon. Its departure 
was delayed until four o'clock on the morning of the 19th, in 
adjusting ballast and taking in coal, when it started for For- 
tress Monroe, and arrived there at break of day on the morning 
of the 20th. In its march through Boston and along the 
route to Fall River, the regiment was received with cheers of 
approval from the men, and by the waving of handkerchiefs by 
the women, who turned out to greet it. 

The Sixth Regiment mustered on the 16th at Lowell, at nine 
o'clock in the morning. Before leaving the city for Boston, it 
was addressed by the Mayor and others, and cheered by the 
populace. Four of the companies belonged in Lowell. The 
inhabitants in mass came from their dwellings, mills, and work- 
shops, to witness the regiment depart. It arrived in Boston at 
one o'clock, where it met with a cordial reception. The crowd 
followed it to Faneuil Hall, and from thence to Boylston Hall, 
where its headquarters were established. 

The field and staff officers of the Sixth were Edward F. 
Jones, of Pepperell, colonel; Benjamin F. Watson, of Law- 
rence, lieutenant-colonel; Josiah A. Sawtell, of Lowell, ma- 
jor ; Alpha B. Farr, of Lowell, adjutant ; James Monroe, of 
Cambridge, quartermaster ; Charles Babbidge, of Pepperell, 
chaplain ; Norman Smith, of Groton, surgeon; Jansen T. 
Paine, of Charlestown, " surgeon's mate ; " Rufus L. Plaisted, 
of Lowell, paymaster ; Samuel D. Shattuck, of Groton, ser- 
geant-major ; Church Howe, of Worcester, quartermaster- 
sergeant ; John Dupee, of Boston, commissary-sergeant ; Fred- 



70 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

erick Stafford, of Lowell, drum-major ; William H. Gray, of 
Acton, hospital steward. The Sixth had a full staff and regi- 
mental band. 

Company A, " National Greys," Lowell. Officers : Josiah 
A. Sawtell, captain ; Andrew J. Johnson and Andrew C. 
Wright, lieutenants, - all of Lowell. 

Company B, " Groton Artillery," Groton. Officers : Eusebius 
S. Clark, captain; George F. Shattuck and Samuel G. Blood, 
lieutenants , -all of Groton. 

Company C, " Mechanics' Phalanx," Lowell. Officers : Al- 
bert S. Follansbee, captain; Samuel D. Shipley and John C. 
Jepson, lieutenants, - all of Lowell. 

Company D, " City Guards," Lowell. Officers : James W. 
Hart, captain; Charles E. Jones, and Samuel C. Pinney, 
Llewellyn L. Craig, lieutenants, - all of Lowell. 

Company E, " Davis Guards," Acton. Officers : Daniel 
Tuttle, captain ; William H. Chapman and George W. Rand, 
'Silas B. Blodgett, Aaron S. Fletcher, lieutenants, - all of 
Acton. 

This company was named in honor of their brave towns- 
man. Captain Isaac Davis, who commanded an Acton company 
to defend the North Bridge, across Concord River, on the 19th 
of April, 1775, where he fell a martyr to liberty and American 
independence. 

Company F, "Warren Light Guard," Lawrence. Officers : 
Benjamin F. Chadbourne, captain; Melvin Beal, Thomas J. 
Gate, and Jesse C. Silver, lieutenants, - all of Lawrence. 

Company G, "Worcester Light Infantry," Worcester. Offi- 
cers : Harrison W. Pratt, captain ; George W. Prouty, Thomas 
S. Washburn, J. Waldo Denny, and Dexter F. Parker, lieu- 
tenants, - all of Worcester. 

This company was originally organized in 1803, by Hon. 
Levi Lincoln, and served in the war of 1812, under command 
of his brother. Captain John W. Lincoln. 

Company H, " Watson Light Guard," Lowell. Officers : 
John F. Noyes, captain ; George E. Davis, Andrew F. Jewett, 
and Benjamin Warren, lieutenants, -all of Lowell. 

Company I, " Light Infantry," Lawrence. Officers : John 



THE SIXTH REGIMENT'S DEPARTURE. 71 

Pickering, captain ; Daniel S. Yeaton, A. Lawrence Hamilton, 
Eben H. Ellenwood, and Eugene J. Mason, lieutenants, -all 
of Lawrence. 

Company K, " Washington Light Guard," Boston. Officers : 
Walter S. Sampson, captain; Ansell D. Wass, Moses J. 
Emery, Thomas Walwork, and John F. Dunning, lieutenants. 

This company was detached from the First Regiment to com- 
plete the Sixth. The company was drilling in its armory, on 
Eliot Street, Boston, on the evening of the 16th. About ten 
o'clock, the Adjutant-General brought to Captain Sampson, at 
the armory, an order from the Governor, attaching the com- 
pany to the Sixth Regiment, to proceed the next morning to 
Washington. The order was received with nine cheers. Every 
man was ready and eager to go. 

Company L, " Light Infantry," Stoneham. Officers : John 
H. Dike, captain; Leander F. Lynde, Darius N. Stevens, and 
John F. Rowe, -all of Stoneham, - and William B. Blais- 
dell, of Lynn, lieutenants. 

This company was detached from the Seventh Regiment. 
The Adjutant-General, in his Report for 1861, says, - 

" It was nine o'clock, in the evening of the 16th, before your Excel- 
lency decided to attach the commands of Captains Sampson and Dike 
to the Sixth Regiment. A messenger was despatched to Stoneham 
with orders for Captain Dike, who reported to me, at eight o'clock the 
next morning, that he found Captain Dike at his house in Stoneham, 
at two o'clock in the morning, and placed your Excellency's orders in 
his hands ; that he read them, and said, 'Tell the Adjutant-General 
that I shall be at the State House, with my full command, by eleven 
o'clock to-day. True to his word, he reported at the time; and that 
afternoon, attached to the Sixth, the company left for Washington. 
Two days afterwards, on the 19th of April, during that gallant march 
through Baltimore which is now a matter of history, Captain Dike was 
shot down while leading his company through the mob. He received 
a wound in the leg, which will render him a cripple for life." 

The orders were promulgated at Stoneham immediately. 
The bells of the several meeting-houses were rung. The com- 
pany and the inhabitants assembled. Immediate preparations 
to leave were made. The citizens made up a purse of five hun- 



72 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

dred dollars, and gave it to Captain Dike, for the service of 
himself and company. 

At eleven o'clock in the forenoon of the 17th, the Sixth Regi- 
ment marched from Boylston Hall to the State House, where it 
received the new rifled muskets in exchange for smooth-bores. 
When in line in front of the State House, the Governor made 
a short and eloquent speech to the regiment, and presented it 
with a new set of colors. Colonel Jones received the colors, 
and pledged himself and the regiment that they should never be 
disgraced. At seven o'clock that evening, the Sixth marched to 
the depot of the Boston and Worcester Raikoad, and embarked 
by the land route for New York. At the depot, and along the 
entire line of road, they received one continued ovation. At 
several places, the bells were rung, and salutes of artillery fired. 
At Worcester, an immense throng cheered them ; at Springfield, 
the military and the fire department turned out to do them 
honor. The regiment reached New York at sunrise on the 18th 
having been in the cars all night. The march down Broadway 
to the Astor House, where the officers and men breakfasted by 
invitation of the proprietor, General Charles Stetson, and from 
the Astor House down Cortland Street, to the Jersey-City 
Ferry, is described as one of the most grand and effective scenes 
ever witnessed. The wildest enthusiasm inspired all classes. 
Strong men wept like tenderly nurtured women, and silently 
implored the blessings of Heaven upon the regiment, and the 
State which had placed it at the extreme right of the Union 
column. A gentleman who witnessed the scene wrote, " I was 
always proud of my native State; but never until now did I 
fully realize how grand she is." Another writer thus describes 
the scene : - 

" Having breakfasted, they employed their time until eleven in 
conversation, smoking, and preparing for the march. All appeared 
determined to stand by the old flag under all hazards, and to punish 
those who would dare to insult it. Many of the men are exceedingly 
intelligent, and not a few came from families eminent in the history 
of the old Bay State. They spoke of the ability of Massachusetts to 
send thirty thousand men, and even more volunteers, to the support of 
the Government, if needed. At eleven o'clock, the various companies. 



THE SIXTH IN NEW YORK. 73 

having assembled at the Astor House, formed in Broadway. By this 
time, thousands of our citizens had gathered to bid the brave fellows 
God-speed. No language can describe the excitement of the vast 
concourse. Cheer followed cheer, until the welkin rung as with a 
sound of thunder. There were cheers for the star-spangled banner ; 
for the dear old flag ; for the red, white, and blue ; for the Government ; 
for the North; for Lincoln; for Major Anderson; for every thing the 
loyal heart could suggest. Old men, young men, and lads waved 
the American flag over their heads, pinned it to their hats and coats ; 
cartmen displayed it on their horses; Barnum flings it from every 
window of the Museum. The guests of the Astor House shouted till 
they were hoarse; so did the visitors at the Museum; and when at last, 
at half-past eleven, the police taking the lead, the regiment took up 
their march for the Jersey-City Ferry, the enthusiasm was perfectly 
overwhelming. At every step, the roar of the multitude was increased; 
at every window, the flags were waved. 

" Turning from Broadway into Cortland Street, the scene was such 
as has seldom, if ever, been seen in New York. The stores could 
hardly be seen for the flags, of which there must have been, on an 
average, one for every window in the stores. Every building was 
thronged with persons eager to see the regiment ; while the sidewalks, 
awning-posts, and stoops were literally covered with a mass of excited 
humanity. There was one uninterrupted and unprecedented cheer 
from Broadway to the ferry. Those who have witnessed all the great 
demonstrations of the city for a half-century back, remember none so 
spontaneous and enthusiastic. As the regiment filed off to go upon the 
ferry-boat, which was gayly decorated with flags, as was the ferry- 
house, there were loud cries of ' God bless you ! ' ' God bless you! ' and 
unbounded cheers for the Old Bay State." 

On crossing the river, the troops were met by a dense crowd 
of Jersey men and women. Flags were waved by hundreds of 
fair hands, and miniature flags were distributed by them to the 
regiment before the train moved. There was delay in getting 
off; and the crowd continued to increase, and the enthusiasm 
to grow more intense. The passage across New Jersey was 
marked with similar scenes. At Newark, they were received 
with a salute of artillery, and also at Trenton, which was ordered 
by the Governor of the State. The reception at Philadelphia 
was a fitting climax to what had taken place elsewhere. A 
member of the regiment wrote, " So enthusiastic were our friends, 



74 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

that they rushed into our ranks, threw their arms about the 
necks of our soldiers, and, emptying their own pockets for our 
benefit, seemed fairly beside themselves with joy. I doubt if 
old Massachusetts ever, before or since, received such encomiums, 
or her sons such a generous welcome, as that night in the City 
of Brotherly Love." The regiment reached Philadelphia at 
seven o'clock in the evening, partook of a bountiful supper at 
the Continental Hotel, and were quartered for the night in the 
Girard House, where I shall leave them for the present. 

The Eighth Regiment, which had arrived in Boston on the 
16th, did not leave the city until the 18th. The field and 
staff officers were Timothy Monroe, of Lynn, colonel ; Edward 
W. Hinks, of Lynn, lieutenant-colonel ; Andrew Elwell, of 
Gloucester, major. Colonel Monroe resigned on the 12th 
of May : and, on the 16th of May, Edward W. Kinks was 
elected colonel ; Andrew Elwell, lieutenant - colonel ; and 
Ben. Perley Poore, of Newbury, major; George Creasey, of 
Newburyport, was appointed adjutant ; E. Alfred Ingalls, 
of Lynn, quartermaster ; Rowland G. Usher, of Lynn, pay- 
master : Bowman B. Breed, of Lynn, surgeon ; Warren Tapley, 
of Lynn, assistant-surgeon ; Gilbert Haven, Jr., of Maiden, 
chaplain; John Goodwin, Jr., of Marblehead, sergeant-major; 
Horace E. Monroe, of Lynn, sergeant-major; and Samuel 
Roads, of Marblehead, drum-major. 

Company A, " Gushing Guards," Newburyport. Officers : 
Albert W. Bartlett, of Newburyport, captain ; George Barker, 
Gamaliel Hodges, Nathan W. Collins, all of Newburyport, 
and Edward L. Noyes, of Lawrence, lieutenants. 

Company B, " Lafayette Guard," Marblehead. Officers : 
Richard Phillips, of Marblehead, captain ; Abiel S. Roads, 
Jr., William S. Roads, and William Cash, all of Marble- 
head, lieutenants. 

Company C, " Sutton Light Infantry," Marblehead. Officers : 
Knott V. Martin, of Marblehead, captain; Samuel C. Graves, 
Lorenzo P. Linnel, John H. Haskell, all of Marblehead, 
lieutenants. 

Company D, " Light Infantry," Lynn. Officers : George T. 
Newhall, of Lynn, captain ; Thomas H. Berry, E. Z. Saunder- 
son, C. M. Merritt, all of Lynn, Lieutenants. 



EIGHTH REGIMENT. - GOVERNOR ANDREW'S SPEECH. 75 

Company E, " Light Infantry," Beverly. Officers : Francis 
E. Porter, of Beverly, captain; John W. Raymond, Eleazer 
Giles, Albert Wallis, and Moses S. Herrick, all of Beverly, 
lieutenants. 

Company F, " City Guards," Lynn. Officers : James Hud- 
son, Jr., of Lynn, captain ; Edward A. Chandler, Henry 
Stone, Mathias N. Snow, all of Lynn, lieutenants. 

Company G, " American Guard," Gloucester. Officers : 
Addison Center, of Gloucester, captain; David W. Lowe, 
Edward A. Story, Harry Clark, all of Gloucester, lieu- 
tenants. 

Company H " Glover Light Guard," Marblehead. Officers : 
Francis Boardman, of Marblehead, captain ; Thomas Russell, 
Nicholas Bowden, and Joseph S. Caswell, all of Marblehead, 
lieutenants. 

Company I, " Light Infantry," Salem. Officers : Arthur F. 
Devereux, of Salem, captain; George F. Austin, Ethan A. 
P. Brewster, and George D. Putnam, all of Salem, lieu- 
tenants. 

This company belonged to the Seventh Regiment, but was 
ordered, on the evening of the 17th of April, to join the Eighth, 
and, at ten o'clock the next morning, reported at Faneuil Hall 
with full ranks. Before leaving Salem, it was addressed by the 
Mayor and other prominent citizens. A great crowd met it at 
the depot, and cheered it when it left. This company wore a 
Zouave uniform, and, in skirmish drill, was probably the most 
efficient in the State. 

Company K, " Allen Guard," Pittsfield. Officers : Henry 
S. Briggs, of Pittsfield, captain ; Henry H. Richardson and 
Robert Bathe, both of Pittsfield, lieutenants. This company 
was detached to complete the organization of the Eighth. 
It was ordered to join the regiment at Springfield, when on 
the way to Washington. The captain was a son of Ex-Gov- 
ernor Briggs. Before the company left Pittsfield, each soldier 
was presented by the citizens with ten dollars. 

On the 18th of April, the regiment marched to the State 
House, and was presented with a set of regimental colors by 
Governor Andrew, who also addressed it as follows : - 



76 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

" Mr. Commander and Soldiers, - Yesterday you were citi- 
zens : to-day you are heroes. Summoned by the sudden call of your 
country, true to the fortunes of your flag, to the inspirations of your 
own hearts, and to the mighty example of your fathers, you have hur- 
ried from the thronged towns of Essex, and all along the shore from 
Boston to Cape Ann, famed through all Massachusetts for noble men, 
brave soldiers, and heroic women. You have come to be cradled anew, 
one night in Faneuil Hall, there breathing once more the inspiration 
of historic American liberty, and standing beneath the folds of the 
American banner. [Applause.] From the bottom of my heart of 
hearts, as the official representative of Massachusetts, I pay to you, 
soldiers, citizens, and heroes, the homage of my most profound grati- 
tude; and the heart of all Massachusetts beats with full sympathy to 
every word I utter. There is but one pulsation beating through 
all this beautiful domain of liberty, from the shores of Cape Cod to 
the hills of Berkshire; and the mountain waves and mountain peaks 
answer to each other. Soldiers, go forth, bearing that flag; and, as our 
fathers fought, so, if need be, strike you the blow. 

' Where breathes the foe but falls before us. 

With freedom's soil beneath our feet. 
And freedom's banner waving o'er us ? 

We stay behind, to guard the hearthstones you have left ; and, what- 
ever may be the future, we will protect the wives and children you 
may leave, and, as you will be faithful to the country, so we will be 
faithful to them. I speak to you as citizens and soldiers, not of Mas- 
sachusetts, but of the American Confederate Union. While we live, 
that Union shall last. [Applause.] And until these countless thou- 
sands, and all their posterity, have tasted death, the Union of the 
American people, the heritage of Washington, shall be eternal. [Ap- 
plause.] 

" Soldiers ! go forth, bearing with you the blessing of your coun- 
try, bearing the confidence of your fellow-citizens; and under the 
blessing of God, with stout hearts and stalwart frames, go forth to vic- 
tory. On your shields be returned, or bring them with you. Yours 
it is to be among the advanced guard of Massachusetts soldiers. A s 
such, I bid you God-speed, and fare-you-well." 

At the close of the Governor's speech. Colonel Monroe 
received the colors, and said, " We shall do our duty." Three 
cheers were given for the regiments, and three for General But- 
ler, who, being present, advanced, and said, - 



RECEPTION AT WORCESTER. - GENERAL BUTLER. 77 

" Soldiers, -We stand upon that spot to which the good pleasure 
of the Commander-in-chief, and our own dearest wishes, have assigned 
us. To lead the advance guard of freedom and constitutional liberty, 
and of perpetuity of the Union, is the honor we claim, and which, 
under God, we will maintain." [Applause.] 

"Sons of Puritans, who believe in the providence of Almighty 
God ! as he was with our fathers, so may he be with us in this strife 
for the right, for the good of all, for the great missionary country of 
liberty! [Applause.] And, if we prove recreant to our trust, may 
the God of battles prove our enemy in the hour of our utmost need !" 

" Soldiers ! we march to-night; and let me say for you all to the 
good people of the Commonwealth, that we will not turn back, till we 
show those who have laid their hand upon the fabric of the Union, 
there is but one thought in the North,- the union of these States, 
now and for ever, one and inseparable." 

The regiment left Boston at four o'clock that afternoon by 
Worcester and Springfield, and was greeted with the same 
unbounded enthusiasm the Sixth received. General Butler 
accompanied it as commander of the Massachusetts brigade. 
While the train stopped at Worcester, he spoke a few words to 
the crowd at the depot. "In this contest," he said, "we 
banish party differences. We are all Americans. We love 
our country and its flag; and it is only by the sword we can 
have peace, and only in the Union, liberty." 

The regiment reached New York on the morning of the 
19th, and marched down Broadway amid the congratulations 
of the vast multitude. This was the second Massachusetts 
regiment that had marched through that city in advance of all 
others, while two other regiments were on the seas for Fortress 
Monroe. After partaking of the generous hospitalities ten- 
dered them, the regiment crossed to Jersey City, and proceeded 
by railroad to Philadelphia, which it reached at six o'clock that 
evening, and first received positive information concerning the 
attack made upon the Sixth in Baltimore that day. 

The field and staff officers of the Fifth Regiment were, Samuel 
C. Lawrence, of Medford, colonel; J. Durell Greene, of 
Cambridge, lieutenant-colonel ; Hamlin W. Keyes, of Boston, 
major ; Thomas 0. Barri, of Cambridge, adjutant; Joseph E. 
Billings, of Boston, quartermaster; G. Foster Hodges, of 



78 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Roxbury, paymaster; Samuel H. Hurd, of Charlestown, 
surgeon, Henry H. Mitchell, of East Bridgewater, surgeon's 
mate ; Benjamin F. De Costa, of Charlestown, chaplain ; Henry 
A. Quincy, of Charlestown, sergeant-major ; Charles Foster, 
of Charlestown, drum-major. 

Several changes occurred while the regiment was in service. 
Colonel Greene, Major Keyes, and Adjutant Barri were ap- 
pointed officers in the regular army. To fill these vacancies. 
Captain Pierson was elected lieutenant-colonel ; Captain John 
T. Boyd, major; and Lieutenant John G. Chambers was 
appointed adjutant. The following is the roster of the 
companies : - 

Company A, " Mechanic Light Infantry," Salem. George 
H. Pierson, of Salem, captain ; Edward H. Staten and Lewis 
E. Wentworth, of Salem, lieutenants. 

Company B, " Richardson Light Guard," South Reading. 
John W. Locke, of South Reading, captain ; Henry D. 
Degen, Charles H. Shepard, James D. Draper, and George 
Abbott, all of South Reading, lieutenants. 

Company C, " Charlestown Artillery," Charlestown. William 
R. Swan, of Chelsea, captain : Phineas H. Tibbetts, of 
Charlestown ; John W. Rose, of South Boston ; Hannibal D. 
Norton, of Chelsea ; and George H. Marden, Jr., of Charles- 
town, lieutenants. 

Company D, " Light Infantry," Haverhill. Officers : Carlos 
P. Messer, of Haverhill, captain ; George J. Dean, Daniel F: 
Smith, Charles H. P. Palmer, and Thomas T. Salter, all of 
Haverhill, lieutenants. 

Company E , " Lawrence Light Guard", Medford. Officers : 
John Hutchins, of Medford, captain ; John G. Chambers 
and Perry Colman, of Medford, and William H. Pattee, of 
West Cambridge (Arlington), lieutenants. 

Company F, " Wardwell Tigers," Boston. Officers : David 
K. Wardwell, Boston, captain : Jacob H. Sleeper, of 
Boston ; George G. Stoddard, of Brookline; Horace P. 
Williams, of Brookline ; and Horatio N. Holbrook, of Boston, 
lieutenants. 

This was a new company, recruited, organized, uniformed, 
and equipped in two days. 



DEPARTURE OF THE FIFTH REGIMENT. 79 

Company G, " Concord Artillery," Concord. Officers : 
George L. Prescott, of Concord, captain ; Joseph Derby, 
Jr., Humphrey H. Buttrick, and Charles Bowers, all of Concord, 
lieutenants. 

Company H, " City Guards," Salem. Officers : Henry F. 
Danforth, of Salem, captain ; Kirk Stark, William F. Sumner, 
George H. Wiley, and John E. Stone, all of South Danvers, 
lieutenants. 

Company I, " Light Infantry," Somerville. Officers : George 
O. Brastow, of Somerville, captain; William E. Robinson 
and Frederick R. Kinsley, both of Somerville, lieutenants: 

Company K, " City Guards," Charlestown. Officers : John 
T. Boyd, of Charlestown, captain; John B. Norton, Caleb 
Drew, and Walter Everett, all of Charlestown, lieutenants. 

This regiment did not receive orders to report until Friday, 
April 19. It was in readiness to go forward the next day, 
but was detained until Sunday, with headquarters at Faneuil 
Hall. The line was formed on South Market Street, at five 
o'clock on Sunday morning, April 21 ; and the regiment 
marched to the Worcester Depot. Notwithstanding the early 
hour and the sabbath day, thousands were on the streets, and 
at the depot, to witness the departure. Kind greetings met 
this regiment everywhere on the route. To state what was 
said and done would be only a repetition of what has already 
been said in regard to regiments which had preceded. It 
reached New York safely on Sunday evening, at eight o'clock. 
After partaking of a hearty meal at the hotels, the regiment, 
was put on board of two transports ; four companies, under 
command of Major Keyes, going on board the " Ariel," and six, 
under command of Colonel Lawrence, on board the " De Soto." 
The Third Battalion of Massachusetts Rifles, under command of 
Major Devens, and Major Cook's Light Battery, were placed 
on board the same vessels ; the former in the " De Soto," and 
the latter in the " Ariel." 

The duties of the week had been incessant clay and night at 
the State House. The attack upon the Sixth Regiment in 
Baltimore had added to the number of people who crowded in, 
and intensified the earnest feelings of every one. Late on 



80 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Friday night, (the 19th), the Adjutant-General, wearied with the 
labors of the four preceding days, left the State House with 
Senator Wilson. They obtained lodging at Young's Coffee 
House. About four o'clock on Saturday morning, a messenger 
brought an order to him from Governor Andrew, that a tele- 
gram had just been received from General Butler, at Philadelphia, 
to send forward immediately Major Cook's Light Battery. The 
Governor's orders were to notify the officers at once, that the 
battery might be ready, and pushed forward that night. The 
Adjutant-General told the messenger to get a carriage, and he 
would be ready by the time he returned. Major Cook lived in 
Somerville, but in what part of it he did not know. The ad- 
jutant lived in Chester Square, Boston : he ordered the carriage 
to drive there. The city was asleep ; not a human being was 
on the streets. The silence of the great city appeared more 
impressive and profound than that of a primeval forest. At 
Chester Square, he learned that the adjutant had sailed for 
Europe the week before. He then was driven to Cambridge 
Street, where the former commander of the battery. Major Nims, 
lived. He was aroused from a sound sleep, and informed of the 
purpose of the errand. He knew where Major Cook hved, and 
volunteered to carry the orders to him without delay. The 
orderly sergeant of the company boarded in McLean Place. 
The Adjutant-General found him also asleep ; but soon aroused 
him, and ordered him to notify the company. The sergeant 
said he " knew where every man hved, and they all wanted to 
go." Early in the forenoon, the company reported with full 
ranks. The Quartermaster-General succeeding in purchasing 
horses, and providing ammunition. The field and staff were 
Asa M. Cook, of Somerville, major ; Frederick A. Heath, of 
Boston, adjutant ; Thomas J. Foss, of Boston, quartermaster ; 
John P. Ordway, of Boston, surgeon; F. Le Baron Monroe, 
assistant-surgeon ; Josiah Porter, of North Cambridge ; William 
H. McCartney, of Boston ; C. C. E. Mortimer, of Boston; and 
Robert L. Sawin, of Boston, lieutenants. 

The company numbered one hundred and twenty men. The 
battery had six brass six-pounders. They took with them seventy 
horses, selected mainly from the stables of the Metropolitan Horse 



THE RIFLE BATTALION AT WORCESTER. 1 

railroad Company, and ten tons of cartridges of shot and 
grape. They marched to the Worcester Railroad Depot, be- 
tween one and two o'clock that afternoon, ready to start ; but 
waited until the next morning for the Fifth Regiment. They 
went to New York in the same train with the Fifth, and to Anna- 
polis in the transports with four of the companies of that regiment. 
Orders were issued from the State House on Saturday, the 
20th of April, for the Third Battalion to go forward to Wash- 
ington. It consisted then of three companies, with head- 
quarters in Worcester. They were in line, ready to proceed, at 
five o'clock that afternoon. The battalion was addressed by 
Hon. Isaac Davis, Mayor of Worcester, and by Major Devens, 
in command. A prayer by Rev. Dr. Hill closed the ceremony. 
At half-past ten that evening, they took the cars for New York, 
where they arrived early on the morning of the 21st. While 
there, they quartered in the armory of the New-York Seventh. 
During the day, they were visited by Hon. Charles Sumner, 
who made a short address. At eight o'clock, they embarked on 
board the transport " Ariel " for Annapolis, with a part of the 
Fifth Regiment, and arrived at Annapolis on the morning of 
the 24th, where they remained until the 2d of May, when they 
were ordered to Fort McHenry, in the harbor of Baltimore, 
which they reached by transport on the morning of the third. 

The field and staff of the Third Battalion of Rifles were, 
Charles Devens, Jr., major ; John M. Goodhue, adjutant; 
James E. Estabrook, quartermaster ; Oramel Martin, surgeon ; 
Nathaniel S. Liscomb, sergeant-major ; George T. White, 
quartermaster-sergeant, - all of Worcester. 

Company A, " City Guards," Worcester. Officers : Augus- 
tus R. B. Sprague, captain; Josiah Pickett, George C. Joslin, 
Orson Moulton, Elijah A. Harkness, lieutenants, -all of 
Worcester. 

Company B, " Holden Rifles," Holden. Officers : Joseph 
H. Gleason, of Holden, captain : Phineas R. Newell, Holden ; 
Edward F. Devens, Charlestown; Samuel F. Woods, Barre; 
George Bascom, Holden, lieutenants. 

Company C, " Emmet Guards," Worcester. Officers : Mi- 
chael P. McConville, captain ; Michael O'Driscoll, Matthew. J, 
6 



82 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

McCafferty, Thomas O'Neil, and Maurice Melvin, lieutenants,- 
all of Worcester. 

Company D, Boston. Officers : Albert Dodd, captain ; 
Charles Dodd, Cornelius G. Atwood, George A. Hicks, and 
Joseph Nason, lieutenants, - all of Boston. 

Company D was raised in Boston on the morning of the 19th 
of April, by the gentlemen who were afterwards commissioned its 
officers. It was attached to the Third Battalion, and left Bos- 
ton in the steamer "Cambridge" on the 2d of May for Fortress 
Monroe, and from thence by the Potomac River to Washing- 
ton. The vessel sailed from Boston with sealed instructions, 
which were not opened until outside of Boston Light. In 
these instructions to Captain Dodd, the Adjutant-General says, 
" It is the earnest desire of His Excellency the Commander-in- 
chief, that the ship ' Cambridge ' shall reach Washington, and 
demonstrate that a Massachusetts ship, manned with Massachu- 
setts men, shall be the first ship to arrive by that route, as our 
Sixth Regiment was the first to arrive at Washington, through 
the hostile city of Baltimore." The " Cambridge" arrived safely 
with the company, and was the first that reached Washington 
by the Potomac River. After remaining in Washington twelve 
days, the command was sent to Fort McHenry, Baltimore 
harbor, and joined the Battalion. 

The Third Battalion completed the number of three-months 
men called for by the Government, which consisted of five 
regiments, one battalion, and one battery. 
By the constitution and laws of Massachusetts, company 
officers were elected by the men composing the company, regi- 
mental officers by the commissioned officers of companies, 
brigadier-generals by the regimental field-officers of the brigade, 
and major-generals by the Legislature. The General Statutes 
of the Commonwealth allowed four lieutenants to each infantry 
company. In the regular army, only two lieutenants were 
allowed to a company of infantry. The reader will have 
observed that some of the companies in the regiments forwarded 
to the front had two, some three, and some four lieutenants. 
This was permitted by our laws. The extra lieutenants belong- 
ing to the two regiments sent to Fortress Monroe were not 



THE CHARACTER OF THE MILITIA. 83 

mustered into the service, the mustering officers refusing to mus- 
ter them. They had, therefore, either to return home, or join 
the ranks as enlisted men. In the regiments which were sent 
to Washington, the extra lieutenants were mustered in, and 
served with their companies to the end of their terms. The 
reason for this distinction has never been given. 

The material of these commands was of the best. They 
were young men who had a taste for military duty. They were 
from the middle walks of life, and depended upon their health 
and hands for support. Most of them were mechanics, farmers' 
sons, and clerks in stores. They bought their own uniforms, 
and paid company assessments out of their own pockets. They 
were public-spirited, full of life, and knew their duty. Many 
of the companies had honorable records, running back to the 
war of 1812, of which they were proud. They had rivalries 
and jealousies. They demanded their right position in the regi- 
mental line, and would have it. They obeyed their officers 
because they were their officers, and held positions by their 
votes. They chose the color and style of their own uniforms. 
If a rival company wore blue, they would have gray or red. 
The uniforms in a regiment were variegated, like the colors of 
a rainbow.They were made more for show than use, as active 
service proved. Yet they cost much money. But it was no 
one's business but their own, as they paid the bills. They had 
their pet names, as well as the regimental letter, and they 
preferred being known by the name they had themselves chosen. 
Thus there were the N. E. G.'s and B. L. I.'s, the "Tigers," 
the " Savages," and the " Guards." Each had its friends and 
followers, and each its enemies and detractors. Yet beneath 
all these there was a substratum of genuine good feeling, and a 
soldieriy pride. The very opposition they received from those 
who laughed or sneered at the militia cemented them in closer 
union, and made them more determined to be militia. Their 
armories were their own. There they could meet and drill, and 
talk back at the outside world, free from interruption, as in 
their own homes. These they adorned with pictures of old 
generals, photographs of former captains, and fac-similes of 
the Declaration of Independence. There they talked of bygone 



84 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

musters and sham fights, and of excursions to neighboring cit- 
ies and States, and of receptions given in return. The dates of 
prominent events were fixed by the year of such a spring train- 
ing or fall review. The politics of the members were not of 
the intense type. Their votes were generally given to men who 
were friendly to the military, and politicians sometimes made 
nominations with a view to catch their votes. On public affairs, 
they were simply friends of their country, with a strong leaning 
toward liberal legislation and popular rights. They were, of all 
the community, the least fanatical in religion, and the least dog- 
matic in politics. They took a broad view of their country and 
its institutions. They were stronger Union men than they could 
explain. If the Union was attacked, it was their duty to 
defend. This they knew, and were ready. There was no hatred 
in their hearts to any living man. If the mob in Baltimore 
had known the men they attacked and murdered on the 19th of 
April, they would have welcomed them with open hands, instead 
of with death. These were the men who saved Fortress Mon-, 
roe and the city of Washington, as we shall now proceed to 
show. 

We left the Third Regiment on board the transport, bound 
for Fortress Monroe. The following is its record : - 

" At ten o'clock, a.m., April 18, weighed anchor, and steamed out 
of Boston harbor, bound for Fort Monroe. Arrived at Fort Mon- 
roe at eight, a.m., April 20, disembarked at eleven, a.m., and marched 
into the fort, every man for duty. Found the Fourth Regiment 
there, which had arrived two hours before, and seven companies of 
United - States artillery in garrison. Colonel Dimick, commanding 
post, asked Colonel Wardrop 'if he was a minute-man.' He an- 
swered, ' Yes.' - 'How long will it take to get your regiment 
ready ? ' - ' Fifteen minutes.' - ' Get it.' In ten minutes, he received 
the following order : - 

Headquarters, Fort Monroe, Va., April 19,1861 
Order No. 55. 

The Colonel of the Third Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers will 
immediately report for orders to Commodore Paulding, United-States Navy. 
By order of Colonel Dimick, 
(Signed) T. J. Haines, Adjutant. 



THE THIRD REGIMENT AT NORFOLK NAVY YARD. 85 

" Colonel Wardrop requested to know the object, and was informed 
that it was to hold possession of Gosport Navy Yard. Colonel 
Wardrop reported to Captain Paulding, U.S.N., at four o'clock, 
P.M., and was ordered to embark on board of United-States steamer 
' Pawnee,' which was done at once, without a single ration ; Captain 
Paulding saying he could not wait, and that rations would be obtained 
at the yard. Left Fort Monroe at five, p.m. At dusk, reached the 
mouth of the Elizabeth River, and found the enemy had sunk five ves- 
sels in the channel to obstruct the passage. Between seven and eight, 
P.M.. a river steamer, loaded with passengers, passed us, bound to Nor- 
folk. Our men were kept out of sight. At nine, p.m., when within 
about two hundred yards of United-States frigate 'Cumberland,' 
were hailed by an officer from her. They did not appear to hear our 
answer, when the officer hailed us again. Same effect. Then we dis- 
tinctly heard from the deck of the ' Cumberland ' a voice, saying, ' Shall 
I fire sir?' At the same moment, we saw six ports opened from 
United-States ship 'Pennsylvania.' She was lying broadside to us. 
It was an anxious moment. It seemed as if our friends were intend- 
ing to do the enemy's work. Another hail from the 'Cumberland,' an 
answer from us, and the same voice, 'Shall I fire, sir ?' A hundred 
voices yelled 'Pawnee,' and then cheer upon cheer broke from the 
' Cumberland ' and ' Pennsylvania,' and as heartily answered by us, who 
felt relieved from peril. The regiment immediately disembarked, and 
marched to a central position in the yard, and ordered to find quarters 
and rations ; did not succeed in doing either. About eleven, p.m., 
Captain Paulding informed Colonel Wardrop that he had been ordered 
to send out the United-States vessels ' Merrimac,' ' Raritan,' ' German- 
town,' and 'Cumberland,' and destroy all public property that he could 
not carry away ; that he had intended to hold the yard, if possible ; but, 
from Captain Pendergast's representation, he doubted if he could. 
Captain Pendergast had felt so sure of this, that he had commenced 
destroying property during the afternoon, and had scuttled the very 
ships that he had been ordered to take away. Colonel Wardrop 
thought the yard might be held, and begged that Captain Paulding 
would consider the great stake, and try by some means to save the place. 
Captain Paulding said he would consult again before deciding. Near 
midnight. Captain Paulding informed Colonel Wardrop, in presence 
of Captain Pendergast, that he could not hold the yard, but should 
destroy all the buildings and ships and other property. Colonel Ward- 
rop remonstrated strongly ; advising that the 'Cumberland' retain her 
position, while the 'Pawnee' ran up and down the river, preventing the 
enemy from sinking any more obstruction, or building batteries on the 



86 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

banks of the river, while his regiment manned the walls, and put 
the yard in the best state of defence possible. If we were attacked, 
to threaten a bombardment of the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth ; 
that we could not destroy all the large guns in the yard (variously 
estimated from one thousand to twenty-five hundred) that night ; that 
together, in his opinion, the place could be held until sufficient re- 
enforcements arrived ; that the great importance of the place demanded 
that a great risk should be taken for its preservation. Captain Pen- 
dergast said the enemy was too strong for us, and that, if we did not 
get away with the two vessels that night, we never should; and that 
every moment lessened our chances ; and that the 'Cumberland' ought 
to be saved at all hazards, being, in his opinion, more valuable than all 
else. The two captains then had a private consultation, from which 
Colonel Wardrop was quietly excluded. Shortly afterwards, Captain 
Paulding informed the colonel that he should withdraw the two ships, 
and abandon the yard; and then ordered him to furnish eighty 
men to assist in undermining the dry dock, another detail to assist 
in firing the buildings and vessels, and the balance were employed in 
rolling solid shot overboard. During this time, a mob broke into the 
yard, but were promptly driven out by the marines and our regiment. 
About three o'clock, a.m., of the 21st, the regiment embarked on board 
of the ' Pawnee,' and dropped down the river a short distance. At four, 
AM., every thing was fired that would burn. We waited until five 
o'clock, A.M., before all the men returned by small boats, when we found 
that Captain H. G. Wright, United-States engineer, and Captain John 
Rodgers, United-States Navy, had been captured by the enemy. The 
ships were burned to the water's edge, excepting the 'United States;' and 
she was so old and rotten she would not burn. The public buildings 
were mostly destroyed. Some, however, were but slightly damaged. 
After all our trouble with the dry dock, the mine did not explode. 
We succeeded in knocking off the trunnions of seven guns : the others 
were useful to the rebels. When we arrived at the mouth of the 
Elizabeth River, we found the enemy had almost obstructed the chan- 
nel. The 'Pawnee' passed through ; the 'Cumberland' did not that 
afternoon, when they turned one of the sunken vessels, and passed 
through, and anchored off the fort. We disembarked from the 'Paw- 
nee' a little after eight o'clock, a.m., and marched into the fort to our 
quarters, having eaten nothing since the day before. Thus ended the 
Norfolk expedition. 

"April 22, the regiment became a part of the garrison of Fort Mon- 
roe. April 23, the regiment was properly mustered into the United- 
States service for three months. Companies I and M joined May 14. 



THE THIRD REGIMENT AT NORFOLK NAVY YARD. 87 

Company I, Captain Chamberlain, was raised in Lynn, for three years' 
service ; company M, Captain Tyler, was raised in Boston, for three 
years' service. Companies D and E joined the regiment May 22 ; 
Company D, Captain Chipman, raised at Sandwich ; Company E, 
Captain Doten, raised at Plymouth, for three years' service. On this 
day, Major-General Butler assumed command of the Department of 
Virginia, North and South Carolina, headquarters at Fort Monroe. 
May 27, Company G, of Lowell, Captain P. A. Davis, was assigned 
to the regiment temporarily. 

"July 1, the regiment and naval brigade left Fort Monroe early in 
the morning, crossed Hampton Creek, and occupied the town ; had a slight 
skirmish with the enemy; took up quarters in the town, and estab- 
lished advanced posts on the outskirts. The Fourth Regiment was 
added to the command, and all placed under Brigadier-General Eben- 
ezer W. Peirce. The duties on the outposts were arduous and harassing, 
as the enemy was hovering about the lines, firing upon the sentinels 
occasionally, and attempting to capture some of the most distant posts ; 
but, by keeping out beyond our lines strong bodies of scouts and 
skirmishing parties, we soon drove them from our vicinity. July 4, at 
night, a strong body of the enemy, having artillery and cavalry, crossed 
New-Market Bridge, threatening Hampton. At two o'clock, on the 
morning of the 5th, Colonel Wardrop, with nine companies of the 
Third and seven companies of the naval brigade, with four pieces of 
artillery, marched out, and took up position at the forks of the road, 
two miles from Hampton. Remained there until an hour after sun- 
rise, when the scouts brought the intelligence that the enemy had 
retired beyond the New-Market Bridge. Returned to quarters with- 
out firing a shot. Immediately sent out fresh scouts, who followed 
the enemy to Big Bethel. They saw a regiment march from there 
that night, and followed it to within five miles of Yorktown; then 
passed over to Lee's Mills, on the James River, crossed the Warwick 
River, and returned by way of Buck River, without losing a man. 
This party was commanded by Lieutenant Chamberlin, Company C, 
and consisted of thirty-five of his own men. They were absent a 
little over five days. Too much credit cannot be given for the skill, 
courage, and fidelity displayed by this scouting party. A remarkably 
correct report of the enemy's position and strength on the Peninsula 
was made by Lieutenant Chamberlin, which, ten months after, was 
verified. During all this time, the troops in Hampton were busily 
engaged in finishing the intrenchments, sending detachments on water 
expeditions, &c. It was a remarkable fact, that grumbling ceased 
among the men when the regiment marched out of Fort Monroe; 



88 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

The harder the duties, the more contented they seemed to be, like men 
determined to perform the most disagreeable duties cheerfully, forget- 
ting self in patriotic desire to benefit their country. On the 16th of 
July, the regiment, leaving Companies D, E, I, and M, who had enlisted 
for three years, behind, marched into Fort Monroe, where, by order 
of General Butler, they gave up their rifled muskets for old smooth- 
bore muskets, and five rounds of ammunition and four days' rations, 
embarked on board of steamer ' Cambridge,' at four, p.m., and left for 
Boston about five, p.m. ; arrived at Long Island, Boston harbor, about 
daylight. July 19, disembarked at Long Island about ten, am. Re- 
ported to the Adjutant-General of the State. Was mustered out of 
the service of the United States July 23, 1861." 

The Fourth Regiment arrived at Fortress Monroe on the 
morning of April 20. The adjutant of the regiment writes, 
" At daybreak, the long low lines of the fort were visible. 
Anxiously the regiment watched as the boat lay off and on, 
until at sunrise they saw the old flag unfolding from the flag- 
staff. The men were quickly landed, and, amid the cheers of 
the little garrison, marched into the fort." This was the first 
loyal regiment in the war that landed upon the "sacred soil of 
Virginia." The adjutant continues, " Hardly was the regiment 
well in quarters before their labors commenced. The fort was 
found to be almost unarmed on the land side, and ill supplied 
with material of war. For several weeks the men were em- 
ployed mounting heavy guns, unloading vessels, storing provi- 
sions, and keeping guard. General Butler arrived about the 
middle of May, and took command of the Department of Vir- 
ginia." On the 27th of May, the Fourth Regiment, in conjunc- 
tion with a New-York regiment under Colonel Bendix, and a 
Vermont regiment under Colonel Phelps, took possession of 
Newport News, and made an entrenched camp. Here the regi- 
ment remained, there doing the usual camp duty, until the 9th 
of June, when " five companies were detailed, with a portion of 
the Vermont and New-York regiments, to make up a detach- 
ment to join one from Hampton, to start at one o'clock the next 
morning to attack big Bethel, a position held by the enemy 
about twelve miles from Newport News. Of the battle of Big 
Bethel it is needless to go into details. Its unfortunate result 



THE FOURTH REGIMENT THE FIRST IN VIRGINIA. 89 

[says Adjutant Walker] was owing to a variety of causes; but 
if other troops had done their duty as well, and gone as far as 
those from Massachusetts and Vermont, the name of Big Bethel 
would not have headed a long list of federal repulses." Major 
Whittemore was the officer who reported to the commander of 
the fort. In a letter never pubhshed before, he says, - 

"I was the first to step on shore, and the regiment was reported 
by myself to the Officer of the Day. I inquired of him who had pos- 
session of this fort, -the regulars or the rebels? He replied, United- 
States regulars. He was answered, 'Then the Fourth Regiment, Mas- 
sachusetts Militia, has come to help you keep it.' On the 22d of April, 
we were mustered into the United-States service, and were, as I believe, 
the first troops mustered. We remained at the fort some two or three 
weeks, engaged in mounting guns, and on the work necessary to put 
the place in suitable condition for defence. Some time in May, Gen- 
eral Butler arrived; and one of the first things he did was to send 
three regiments, of which the Fourth was one, about twelve miles up 
the river to Newport News. We set to work, as soon as we could 
obtain tools, at building entrenchments, and were engaged in this work 
all of the time until our departure in the latter part of June. While 
here, the affairs at Little Bethel and Great Bethel occurred, which 
might have had, and ought to have had, and would have had, a very 
different result. 

" Five companies of the Fourth took part in this expedition, and 
were under my command, and we were all volunteers. The march 
was commenced at 12y2 a.m., and continued until daylight without 
interruption. Then, unfortunately. Colonel Townsend's regiment of 
Troy, N.Y., was mistaken for rebels, and a fire was opened between 
it and our rearguard, composed of a part of Colonel Bendix's New- 
York volunteers, which resulted in the killing and wounding of eleven 
men of Townsend's command. Further damage was prevented, and 
the affair ended, by the major of the Fourth Massachusetts riding out 
alone in front of his line, and discovering the New-York troops. This 
mishap made it evident that the object of our expedition, if it had 
any, had been frustrated; and it was the pretty general opinion, that 
the best thing to be done was to return to camp. It was decided, 
however, to go on; and we marched until within gunshot of Big 
Bethel, when the rebels opened fire with a rifled gun. The troops 
were immediately put in line for an attack; and the five Massachusetts 
companies were ordered to turn the enemy's left, in connection with 



90 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

five companies of the First Vermont. This they proceeded to do, 
and were gallantly and rapidly succeeding, some of my men being on 
the very brink of the works, when Colonel Townsend, of New York, 
peremptorily ordered a retreat. The Massachusetts men retired in 
good order, having had two men killed and one mortally wounded, 
and were drawn up on the same line they started from, where I soon 
reported to General Peirce, expecting to receive orders to go in again. 
I now learned that General Peirce-as brave a man as I have ever 
seen in battle * -had not ordered a retreat, nor did he intend to do 
so ; but circumstances beyond his control compelled him to do so, and 
the five Massachusetts companies brought up the rear on the march 
back to camp, whither they returned in good order, and marched into 
Newport News with closed ranks and shouldered arms, feeling that 
they at least had done their duty, and with no reason to be ashamed 
of their part in this the first battle of the war. 

" Thus the Fourth Massachusetts, under my command, were the 
first troops from Massachusetts in the first battle of the war. I have 
been in many actions since ; but never have I seen a hotter fire than 
that at Great Bethel. After this, until our departure from Newport 
News, nothing of consequence occurred." 

The Fourth remained at Newport News until the 3d of July, 
when it moved to the village of Hampton. Adjutant Walker 
writes, " On our arrival at Hampton, we found the quaint old 
town deserted. Hardly a score of its former white inhabitants 
remained, although many negroes, especially old and very young 
ones, were still there. The troops had quarters assigned them 
in the various houses, and remained there undisturbed until 
Wednesday, July 11, when we marched over to Fortress Mon- 
roe, preparatory to embarking for home." Previous to leaving, 
their Springfield rifled muskets were exchanged for old smooth- 
bores. On the eve of departure, the regiment was addressed 
by General Butler and Colonel Dimick. On the 15th of 
July, it embarked on board the steamer "S. R. Spaulding," 
and in fifty-six hours arrived in Boston harbor, after an absence 
of three months. It was mustered out at Long Island, Boston 
harbor, on the 22d of July. 

The Fifth Regiment arrived at Annapolis on the morning of 

* Major Whittemore was afterwards major and lieutenant-colonel of the 
Thirtieth Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers, and served three years. 



THE FIFTH REGIMENT AT BULL RUN. 91 

the 24th of April, and landed in the afternoon. The next day, 
the regiment was ordered to Washington. Only four com- 
panies could find car accommodation to the Annapolis Junction. 
The other six, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Greene, 
marched to that point. The regiment arrived in Washington 
on the 26th, and was quartered in the Treasury building ; and 
was mustered into the United-States service on the 1st of May. 
Prom that time to the 24th of May, the regiment was exercised 
in drill. On the 25th, it was ordered to Alexandria, and, 
marching across the Long Bridge, entered Virginia, and that 
evening encamped near Alexandria. The regiment had only 
brought with it the State colors. Several Massachusetts gentle- 
men in Washington presented it with a handsome national flag. 
On the 28th, they formed camp near Shuter's Hill, not far from 
Alexandria, and named it "Camp Andrew," in honor of the 
Governor of Massachusetts. Nothing of special interest oc- 
curred until the 25th of June, when Lieutenant-Colonel Greene, 
Major Keyes, and Adjutant Barri, having been appointed 
officers in the regular army, took leave of the regiment. This 
was a grievous loss ; for the gentlemen named were among the 
very best officers in the volunteer service at that time. The 
regiment celebrated the Fourth of July in camp. The chaplain 
read the Declaration of Independence, Colonel -Lawrence made 
a speech, and the " Star-spangled Banner " was sung. On the 
16th of July, the regiment was put in General Franklin's 
brigade, and soon after advanced towards Bull Run. The 
Fifth bore an honored part in that disastrous battle, which was 
fought on the 21st of July, exactly three months from the day 
the regiment left Faneuil Hall. In this battle. Colonel Lawrence 
was shghtly wounded. The regiment left Washington on the 
28th of July, and arrived in Boston on the 30th, having been 
in service three months and seven days. Its reception in 
Boston was worthy of its military record. 

The famous Sixth Regiment arrived at Philadelphia, as we 
have already stated, on the afternoon of the 18th of April. 
This regiment has the undisputed honor of having been the first 
to reach Washington, and the first to sacrifice life in the great 
war. Its passage through Baltimore, a city of two hundred 



92 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

thousand inhabitants, more than half of whom were rebels ; the 
attack upon it by the mob ; the death of four, and the wound- 
ing of thirty-six, of its members, on the memorable 19th of 
April, - sent a thrill through the heart of the nation, and 
aroused it like a giant to defend its life. This was the anniver- 
sary of the battle of Lexington, in which, on the soil of Massa- 
chusetts, the first blood was shed in the struggle for Independence 
in 1775. This regiment came from the county of Middlesex, 
in which are " Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill ; " and some 
of the men who were attacked in Baltimore were the direct 
descendants of the men who breasted the power of England in 
those memorable conflicts. 

At midnight on the 18th, reports reached Philadelphia, that 
preparations were being made to dispute the passage of this 
regiment through Baltimore, and to attack Washington. The 
long roll was beat ; and the men formed in column, and marched 
to the depot of the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad, and 
took their places in the cars. At one o'clock in the morning, the 
train started ; Colonel Jones intending to have his command 
pass through Baltimore early in the morning, before a force 
could be gathered to impede its march. Mr. Felton, President 
of the railroad, says, - 

"Before they left Philadelphia, I called the colonel and principal 
officers into my office, and told them of the dangers they would probably 
encounter, and advised that each soldier should load his musket before 
leaving, and be ready for any emergency. We had arranged a cipher, 
by which messages were sent and received every few moments along 
the whole road, and from the officers of the Baltimore and Ohio road; 
so that we were posted up constantly as to the exact condition of 
affairs. Just before the starting of the Sixth, I received a message 
that a part of a Pennsylvania regiment had arrived over the Northern 
Central road, and passed through Baltimore without any demonstra- 
tions of hostility, save a few hisses. * This fact I communicated to the 
Sixth, but, at the same time, advised that they should relax no 
vigilance on that account. The regiment started ; and I stood at the 
telegraph instrument in Philadelphia, constantly receiving messages of 
its progress. Finally, it was announced from Baltimore that they were 

* This was a regiment without arms. 



THE SIXTH REGIMENT IN BALTIMORE. 93 

in sight; next, that they were received at the station with cheers ; 
then that ten car-loads had started for the Camden-street station, and 
all was right; then that the other four car-loads had started, and 
turned the corner on to Pratt Street all right ; then, after a few 
moments, that the track was torn up in front of the last four cars, and 
they were attacked on Pratt Street. Then the reports subsided into 
mere rumors, and we could not tell whether the mob was to succeed, 
or the military was to be triumphant, as guns were being fired by both 
rioters and military, and the tide of battle was surging, now this way, 
and now that; then that the mob had turned upon an unarmed 
Pennsylvania regiment [Colonel Small's, which had left Philadelphia 
with the Sixth]; that the mob had mounted tops of the cars, and 
were breaking them in, and throwing down paving-stones and other 
missiles upon the heads of the volunteers, and chasing those who had 
left the cars through the streets of the city. The excitement, anxiety, 
and oppression that I felt at that moment may be better imagined than 
described. At this juncture, I received a message from the Mayor of 
Baltimore and the Police Commissioners as follows in substance: 
'Withdraw the troops now in Baltimore, and send no more through 
Baltimore or Maryland. An immediate answer was demanded. I, 
in order to get time to ascertain more exactly the condition of affairs 
before deciding what to do, telegraphed to the Mayor and Commis- 
sioners, that I had received such a message as the above, and asked, 
'Is it genuine?" In the mean time, I ascertained that the bulk of the 
Sixth had got through Baltimore, and were on their way to Washington; 
and believing that the mob would murder the unarmed men under 
Colonel Small if I allowed them to remain where they were exposed 
to their violence and fury, and believing that our bridges would be at 
once destroyed, and that some other route must be adopted, I be- 
thought myself of the Seaford and Annapolis scheme before communi- 
cated to General Scott, and at once telegraphed to the Mayor of 
Baltimore, 'I will withdraw the troops now in Baltimore, and send 
no more through the city till I first consult with you.' I made no 
allusion to sending any through Maryland ; but so worded my message 
that they would rather conclude that no more troops would be sent, 
and thus be unprepared to throw any impediment in the way of the 
Annapolis route." 

Persons who have not passed over the railroad from Phila- 
delphia to Washington may not know that the cars from 
Philadelphia enter the depot in Baltimore on the north side of 
the city. Here the locomotive is detached, and the cars for 



94 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Washington are drawn by horses about two miles, across the 
lower part of the city, to the depot of the Baltimore and Wash- 
ington Raih-oad, on the south side of the city, where the loco- 
motive is again attached, and the train taken by steam-power to 
Washington. It is one hundred miles from Philadelphia to Bal- 
timore, and about forty from that city to Washington. 

Colonel Jones's account is dated " Capitol, Washington, April 
22, 1861." He says, - 

"After leaving Philadelphia, I received intimation that the pas- 
sage through the city of Baltimore would be resisted.* I caused 
ammunition to be distributed and arms loaded, and went personally 
through the cars, and issued the following order ; viz., - 

'"The regiment will march through Baltimore in columns of sections, 
arms at will. You will undoubtedly be insulted, abused, and perhaps 
assaulted, to which you must pay no attention whatever, but march with 
your faces square to the front, and pay no attention to the mob, even if they 
throw stones, bricks, or other missiles; but if you are fired upon, and any 
one of you are hit, your officers will order you to fire. Do not fire into 
any promiscuous crowds, but select any man whom you may see aiming at 
you, and be sure you drop him.' 

Reaching Baltimore, horses were attached the instant that the loco- 
motive was detached, and the cars were driven at a rapid pace across 
the city. After the cars containing seven companies had reached the 
Washington Depot, the track behind them was barricaded, and the cars 
containing band and the following companies; viz.. Company C, of 
Lowell, Captain Follansbee ; Company D, of Lowell, Captain Hart ; 
Company I, of Lawrence, Captain Pickering; and Company L, of 
Stoneham, Captain Dike, - were vacated by the band ; and they pro- 
ceeded to march in accordance with orders, and had proceeded but a 
short distance before they were furiously attacked by a shower of mis- 
siles, which came faster as they advanced. They increased their step 
to double-quick, which seemed to infuriate the mob, as it evidently 
impressed the mob with the idea that the soldiers dared not fire or had 
no ammunition ; and pistol-shots were numerously fired into the ranks, 
and one soldier fell dead. The order, 'Fire,' was given, and it was 
executed ; in consequence, several of the mob fell, and the soldiers 
again advanced hastily. The Mayor of Baltimore placed himself at 
the head of the column, beside Captain Follansbee, and proceeded with 



* This is an error. The information was received before the regiment left 
Philadelphia. 



ATTACK BY THE MOB. - THE FIRST BLOOD SHED. 95 

them a short distance, assuring him that he would protect them, and 
begging him not to let the men fire; but the Mayor's patience was 
soon exhausted, and he seized a musket from the hands of one of the 
men, and killed a man therewith ; and a policeman, who was in advance 
of the column, also shot a man with a revolver. 

"They at last reached the cars, and they started immediately for 
Washington. On going through the train, found there were about one 
hundred and thirty missing, including the band and field-music. Our 
baggage was seized, and we have not as yet been able to recover any 
of it. I have found it very difficult to get reliable information in 
regard to the killed and wounded, but believe there were only three 
killed." 

Here follows a list of the killed and wounded, which was 
incomplete and incorrect. 

" As the men went into the cars, I caused the blinds to the cars to be 
closed, and took every precaution to prevent any shadow of offence to 
the people of Baltimore; but still the stones flew thick and fast into 
the train, and it was with the utmost difficulty that I could prevent the 
troops from leaving the cars, and revenging the death of their com- 
rades. After a volley of stones, some one of the soldiers fired, and 
killed a Mr. Davis, who, I ascertained by reliable witnesses, threw a 
stone into the car. Yet that did not justify the firing at him ; but the 
men were infuriated beyond control. On reaching Washington, we 
were quartered at the Capitol, in the Senate Chamber, and all are in 
good health and spirits. I have made every effort to get possession of 
the bodies of our comrades, but have not yet succeeded. Should I 
succeed, I shall forward them to Boston, if practicable ; otherwise, 
shall avail myself of a kind offer of George Woods, Esq., who has 
offered me a prominent lot in the Congressional Burying-ground for 
the purpose of interment. We were this day mustered into the 
United-States service, and will forward the rolls at first opportunity 
after verification." 

It appears, that, on arriving at the Susquehanna, they over- 
took a Pennsylvania regiment, called " Small's Brigade," having 
about a thousand unarmed and ununiformed men, on their way 
to Washington. These made the train very heavy, and caused a 
change of the order in which the cars containing the Sixth were 
arranged when the regiment left Philadelphia. This was not 
known until afterwards ; it interfered with previous orders, 
and accounts in a degree for the separation of the regiment in 



96 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Baltimore. Seven companies went safely through that city 
to the Washington Depot. Four others, with the band, were 
in the rear, and those were the companies which bore the brunt 
of the attack. They are designated in Colonel Jones's report. 
It was the expectation that the entire regiment would march 
through Baltimore to the Washington Depot, in conformity 
with previous orders. The companies in the forward cars were 
being drawn across the city while those in the rear cars were 
in the depot, waiting orders to file out. A writer and eye- 
witness says, - 

"No orders came to file out; and, in a few minutes, all the cars 
forward of the one occupied by Captain Sampson's company disap- 
peared. We knew nothing of the movements of the balance of the 
regiment, as no intimation had been transmitted to us of a change of 
the orders. Meanwhile the mob increased in numbers about the depot. 
Soon the car moved on. At the first turn of a street, it was thrown 
from the track. The men were ordered to remain in the car until it 
was put again on the track. The mob now begun to throw stones and 
brickbats, some of which entered the car. On Pratt Street, the mob 
surrounded it; the car was made a complete wreck. Shots were fired 
by the mob, which were returned by the company, and was kept up 
with more or less spirit until the company reached the Washington 
Station, and joined the other seven." 

Major Watson was with this company in its perilous passage, 
and exhibited much coolness and capacity. The other three com 
panics, which had been separated from the rest of the command 
after crossing the Susquehanna, had not yet been heard from. 
These were the companies commanded by Captains Follansbee, 
Pickering, and Dike. Before they got from the Baltimore De- 
pot, the rebels had barricaded the streets, and removed the rails 
from the track crossing the city, so the cars containing these 
companies could not move. They had, therefore, either to force 
their way through the city on foot, retreat, or surrender. They 
determined to go forward. In getting out of the cars, cheers 
were given by the mob for Jeff Davis and South Carolina. 
Secession flags were flaunted in the faces of the men ; they were 
told to dig their graves ; that thirty Southern men could whip 
the whole of the Yankee State of Massachusetts. Our men 
bore these affronts with silence. They were two hundred men 



FIGHTS ITS WAY THROUGH THE CITY. 97 

against ten thousand, in a strange and hostile city. Under com- 
mand of Captain Follansbee, they begun their march. The 
mob increased in numbers. Stones, bricks, oyster-shells, and 
other missiles were thrown at them. Random shots were fired. 
Shouts of derision and yells of savage hatred rent the air. 
Still the gallant band moved on. No one skulked; no one 
thought of looking back. Washington was their goal, and the 
streets of Baltimore the way to it. Several men were already 
wounded with pistol-shots ; two were killed ; the time had come 
for retaliation. They had suffered with closed lips insults and 
indignities hard for brave men to bear; but, when they saw 
their dead comrades, they brought their muskets to the shoulder, 
and fired. Their shots told. Several of the mob fell lifeless 
on the pavement, and a large number were wounded; and so 
for two miles these brave, devoted men fought their way, and 
joined their comrades at the Washington Depot. 

The killed were Addison O. Whitney, Luther C. Ladd, and 
Charles A. Taylor, of Company D, Lowell, and Sumner H. 
Needham, Company I, of Lawrence. Thirty-six were wounded, 
three of whom were Captain Dike, and Leander F Lynde and 
James F. Rowe, of the Stoneham company. 

The mob howled like wolves around the Southern Depot, 
where the regiment now was, and threw stones at the cars after 
the men were seated. Several of the mob were shot by our 
men from the cars while waiting to start. The regiment reached 
Washington at five in the afternoon, and was received by the 
loyal people who surrounded the depot the wildest en- 
thusiasm. Soon after, it marched to the Capitol building, and 
was quartered in the Senate Chamber, and rooms connected 
with it. Thus, under the roof of the Capitol, were sheltered 
the men who first marched to save it, and in whose ranks the 
first blood had been shed, and the first lives sacrificed in its 
defence. 

The regiment remained in Washington until die 5th of May, 
when it was ordered to the Relay House, - a railroad station 
about ten miles from Baltimore, - where it remained doing 
guard and picket duty until the 29th of July, when it broke 
camp and returned to Massachusetts, and arrived in Boston 
7 



98 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

on the 31st of July, after a service of three months and a 
half. 

Distinguished honors have been paid this regiment, as the 
historic regiment of the war. Distinguished ladies volunteered 
to nurse the sick and wounded. Poets sung its praises in 
heroic verse. The loyal ladies of Baltimore presented it with a 
national Flag; and the citizens of Bergen Point, in New Jersey, 
with another, as a "slight acknowledgment of their appreciation 
of its moral and soldierly deportment, its gallantry at Baltimore, 
and timely rescue from danger of the capital of our common 
country." The United-States House of Representatives unani- 
mously voted these soldiers the thanks of the House for 
their "prompt response to the call of duty," and "their patriot- 
ism and bravery in fighting their way through Baltimore to the 
defence of the capital ; " and, in so doing, spoke the sentiments 
of the loyal men of the nation. 

The Eighth Regiment reached Philadelphia, as we have before 
stated, on the evening of April 19. There they learned that the 
Sixth Regiment had been attacked in Baltimore, and compelled 
to fight its way through the city. This intelligence gave new 
energy and enthusiasm to the men, and made them more eager 
to press forward to Washington. They had expected to reach 
the capital by way of Baltimore ; but that route was now closed, 
and a new one had to be opened, which served as the military 
highway to Washington for Eastern troops until sedition was 
suppressed in Baltimore, and that city assumed a loyal attitude. 
The new route was by the Susquehanna and Chesapeake Bay to 
Annapolis, the capital of Maryland. A branch railroad of 
seventeen miles connected Annapolis with the Baltimore and 
Washington Railroad. By this route, Washington could be 
reached without touching Baltimore. It was a flank movement ; 
and the honor of suggesting and making it successful belongs 
to Samuel M. Felton, Esq. The honors due him for this ser- 
vice can only be measured by the important ends which it accom- 
plished. General Butler was in Philadelphia with the Eighth. 
His orders were to march to Washington by way of Baltimore. 
That was now impossible. Mr. Parton, in his " Life of Gen- 
eral Butler," says, - 



THE EIGHTH OPENS THE WAY TO ANNAPOLIS. 99 

"On this evening, at Philadelphia, there was telegraphing to the 
Governor of Massachusetts ; there were consultations with Commodore 
DuPont, commandant of the navy yard ; there were interviews with 
Mr. Felton, President of the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad, - 
a son of Massachusetts, full of patriotic zeal, and prompt with needful 
advice and help ; there was poring over maps and gazetteers. Mean- 
while, Colonel A. J. Butler was out in the streets buying pickaxes, 
shovels, tin-ware, provisions, and all that was necessary to enable 
troops to take the field, to subsist on army rations, to repair bridges 
and railroads, and throw up breastworks. All Maryland was supposed 
to be in arms ; but the general was going through Maryland." 

The same writer says, - 

"Before evening was far advanced, he had determined his plan. 
His officers were summoned to meet him. On his table were thirteen 
revolvers. He explained his design to go by way of Annapolis, 
and took upon himself the sole responsibility. Taking up one of the 
revolvers, he invited every officer who was willing to accompany him 
to signify it by accepting a revolver. The pistols were all instantly 
appropriated." 

A "Memorial of Plan and Reasons for Proceeding to Anna- 
polis," written that evening by General Butler, was received by 
Governor Andrew, enclosed in a letter from Major P. Adams 
Ames, an officer of Major-General Andrews's staff of the Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Militia, who happened to be in Philadelphia 
at the time. This paper was as follows : - 

"I have detailed Captain Devereux and Captain Briggs, with their 
commands, supplied with one day's rations and twenty rounds of am- 
munition, to take possession of the ferry-boat at Havre-de-Grace for the 
benefit of this expedition. This I have done with the concurrence of 
the present master of transportation. The Eighth Regiment will remain 
at quarters, that they may get a little solid rest after their fatiguing 
march. I have sent to know if the Seventh (New York) Regiment will 
go with me. I propose to march myself at the hour of seven o'clock 
in the morning, to take the regular eight and a quarter o'clock train to 
Havre-de-Grace. The citizens of Baltimore, at a large meeting this 
evening, denounced the passage of Northern troops. They have 
exacted a promise from the President of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road not to send troops over that road through Baltimore ; so that any 
attempt to throw troops into Baltimore entails a march of forty miles. 



100 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

and an attack upon a city of two hundred thousand inhabitants at the 
beginning of the march. The only way, therefore, of getting commu- 
nication with Washington for troops from the North is over the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railway, or marching from the west. Commodore 
DuPont, at the navy yard, has given me instructions of the fact in 
accordance with these general statements, upon which I rely. I have 
therefore thought I could rely upon these statements as to time it will 
take to proceed in marching from Havre-de-Grace to Washington. 
My proposition is to join with Colonel Lefferts, of the Seventh Regi- 
ment of New York. I propose to take the fifteen hundred troops to 
Annapolis, arriving there to-morrow about four o'clock, and occupy the 
capital of Maryland, and thus call the State to account for the death 
of Massachusetts men, my friends and neighbors. If Colonel Lefferts 
thinks it more in accordance with the tenor of his instructions to wait 
rather than go through Baltimore, I still propose to march with this 
regiment. I propose to occupy the town, and hold it open as a means 
of communication. I have then but to advance by a forced march of 
thirty miles to reach the capital, in accordance with the orders I at 
first received, but which subsequent events, in my judgment, vary in 
their execution, believing, from the telegraphs, that there will be others 
in great numbers to aid me. Being accompanied by officers of more 
experience, who will be able to direct the affair, I think it will be 
accomplished. We have no light batteries; I have therefore tele- 
graphed to Governor Andrew to have the Boston Light Battery put 
on shipboard at once to-night to help me in marching on Washington. 
In pursuance of this plan, I have detailed Captains Devereux and 
Briggs, with their commands, to hold the boat at Havre-de-Grace. 

Eleven, a.m. - Colonel Lefferts has refused to march with me. I 
go alone at three o'clock, p.m.. to execute this imperfectly written 
plan. If I succeed, success will justify me. If I fail, purity of inten- 
tion will excuse want of judgment or rashness. 

B. F. Butler. 
His Excellency Governor Andrew. 

This despatch of General. Butler is inaccurate and obscure. 
When he speaks of Havre-de-Grace, he means Perryville, as 
Perryville is on the northern side of the Susquehanna, and 
Havre-de-Grace is on the southern side. When he says, " If 
Colonel Lefferts thinks it more in accordance with the tenor 
of his instructions to wait rather than go through Baltimore," 
he means rather than go through Annapolis; for Baltimore 



GENERAL BUTLER. - MR. FELTON'S NARRATIVE. 101 

was the city to be avoided. Neither the despatch nor the 
biography gives just credit to Mr. Felton, who had suggested 
and fixed upon this route on the 19th, when the Mayor of Balti- 
more telegraphed him to send no more troops through that city, 
and he promised that no more would be sent. Mr. J. Edgar 
Thompson, President of the Pennsylvania Central Railroad, 
and Isaac Hazlehurst, Esq., of Philadelphia, were in his office 
when the despatch from the Mayor of Baltimore was received; 
and to them he suggested the Annapolis route, and they agreed 
that it was " the only thing to be done." He immediately tele- 
graphed to Captain Galloway, of the ferry-boat " Maryland," at 
Perryville, to fill her up with coal, and to make her ready to 
go to Annapolis ; and also to procure a pilot who knew Anna- 
polis Harbor. These three gentlemen also conferred with the 
steamboat owners in Philadelphia about getting their boats 
ready to take troops from Perryville to Annapolis ; and, in 
some cases, they became personally responsible for the pay of 
the officers of the boats. Some of the men declined absolutely 
to put their boats at the disposal of the Government; and they 
were seized by Governor Curtin, who arrived that evening from 
Harrisburg. A consultation was held that night at the house 
of General Patterson, in Philadelphia, at which Governor Cur- 
tin, Mr. Felton, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Hazlehurst, and Mr. 
Henry, Mayor of Philadelphia, were present. The exciting 
state of affairs was discussed, and Mr. Felton explained the 
route to Washington by way of Annapolis. " After considera- 
ble discussion, the Annapolis route was adopted by the military, 
and the programme of Mr. Felton and Mr. Thompson ap- 
proved." I now quote from Mr. Felton' s manuscript : - 

" General Butler arrived in Philadelphia the same evening, with 
the Eighth Massachusetts Regiment ; and I requested General Patter- 
son to give me an order to take to General Butler, directing him to 
go to Washington by the Annapolis route. The general said he had 
no military authority over General Butler, and could not give the 
order ; but that I might say to him that he most urgently advised that 
he should go to Annapolis. I then, in company with Admiral, then 
Commodore, DuPont, and my brother Frank, called upon General Butler 
at the Continental Hotel, and told him all I knew about the condition 



102 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

of things in Baltimore, and of the impossibility of his going that way, 
as then they had the streets barricaded, and a large force under arms, 
with artillery, to resist his march through the city. I then advised 
his taking the Annapolis route, which he at first declined, saying his 
orders were to go to Baltimore, and he would go that way ; and, if 
they fired upon him from any house, he would raze that house to the 
ground, by the help of God, or leave his bones and ashes in the streets 
of the city. We told him he could not get through that way ; that 
our bridges would be burned that night, if they were not already; 
and we could not land him in the city: so the only route left was 
Annapolis. After some considerable discussion and hesitation, the gen- 
eral concluded to go by Annapolis, in our ferry-boat, from Perryville, 
with Captain Galloway, and the pilot whom I had engaged, in charge 
of the boat. I was to see Colonel Lefferts, of the New-York Seventh, 
then on its way to Philadelphia, and give him all the facts that I had 
come in possession of, and urge him to join General Butler. I then 
went to my office ; and at about three, A.M., Colonel Lefferts arrived 
at the depot, but declined to go with General Butler, saying his orders 
were to go through Baltimore. Mr. Thompson and myself endeavored 
to persuade him to join General Butler. He finally concluded to 
embark on board the steamer 'Boston," one of the steamers we had 
secured, and go up the Potomac. I earnestly advised him against this 
course, as I had heard that the rebels had erected batteries on the 
banks of the Potomac. I urged his going to Annapolis in the steamer 
'Boston,' and then joining General Butler for a march to Washington, 
as the next best thing to going to Perryville, the Perryville route 
being quicker than the route down the Delaware and by sea. He 
finally gave up his Potomac route, and joined General Butler at 
Annapolis. At three o'clock the next day (Saturday), April 20, Gen- 
eral Butler started from the Broad and Prince Streets Station, in the 
cars, to Perryville, and thence by steamer 'Maryland ' to Annapolis. 
I watched his progress from station to station by telegraph with great 
anxiety, as our bridges had been burnt, as I had expected, the night 
before, between the Susquehanna and Baltimore, by J. R. Trimble, 
at the head of a military rebel force of about one hundred and fifty 
men ; and he was threatening to come to the river, and take possession 
of our boat, which was then our chief dependence. I had, however, 
so arranged matters on board the boat as to make it impossible for him 
to capture it, if my orders were obeyed. We also found that our 
bridges would be destroyed on this side of the Susquehanna, unless we 
were better guarded than on the other side. Trimble did not succeed 
in reaching the river and capturing the ferry-boat, being frightened 



FROM PHILADELPHIA TO ANNAPOLIS. 103 

from his undertaking by one of our engine-men, who was on the 
engine that Trimble had seized, in order to take his force out to the 
river. This man told him, when he was within about eight miles of 
the river, that there were twenty-five hundred soldiers on board the 
ferry-boat, who would give him a very warm reception if he attempted 
to go to the river. Trimble thereupon concluded that discretion would 
be the better part of valor, and returned to Baltimore, burning the 
bridges after passing over them. At six, p.m., the telegraph announced 
that General Butler had arrived at Perryville. He embarked imme- 
diately on board the 'Maryland,' with his regiment, and started for 
Annapolis. After this, I went home completely worn out by anxiety, 
labor, and loss of sleep, having eaten only irregularly in my 
and having neither changed my linen, shaved, nor closed my eyes in 
sleep, for three days and two nights." 

In making up the record of this gallant regiment from its 
departure from Philadelphia until its return, I am under especial 
obligations to the full and interesting narrative of Captain George 
T. Newhall, of Company D, Lynn Light Infantry. On arriving 
near Perryville, the cars stopped, and skirmishers were thrown 
forward. The main body followed closely. A crowd was at the 
ferry. The regiment moved by "double quick." Captain 
Newhall says, " The steamer, a very large ferry-boat, called the 
' Maryland,' being in its slip, was instantly taken without firing 
a shot." It is evident from this, that neither the officers nor men 
of the regiment knew that the "Maryland" had been pre- 
pared, and was waiting to take them to Annapolis. After 
getting on board the luggage, the "Maryland" proceeded to 
Annapolis, where it arrived on Sunday morning, April 21, 
and anchored in the harbor, near the frigate "Constitution." 
The men suffered from fatigue. Seven hundred persons were 
on board. The United-States Naval Academy is at Annapolis. 
The frigate "Constitution" was the school-ship of the academy. 
It was the most famous ship in our naval annals ; having, 
in the war of 1812, won the choicest laurels. It was sup- 
posed that she would be seized by the rebels : to save 
her from such a disgrace was the duty of the hour. Two 
companies of the Eighth were placed on board; the crew not 
being strong enough to defend her, if seriously attacked. Cap- 
tain Rogers, U.S.N., who commanded her, was prepared to 



104 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

sink her, rather than strike his colors. Both the "Maryland" 
and the "Constitution" were aground ; great efforts were made 
to float them, and tow the frigate over the bar. This was 
accomplished with the assistance of the steamer "Boston," 
which arrived in the harbor in the morning with the Seventh 
New-York Regiment. Company K, of Pittsfield, was sent by 
steamer to Fort McHenry, Baltimore Harbor, and did not join 
the regiment again for three weeks. The "Constitution" was 
taken safely from Annapolis to New York, having Captain 
Devereux's company, and a detail of Lynn, Gloucester, and Mar- 
blehead men on board under command of Lieutenant Berry, of 
Company D, Lynn, to assist in working her. They afterwards 
joined the regiment at Washington. The rest of the Eighth was 
kept on board the "Maryland" forty-eight hours, short of ra- 
tions, and without water. Captain Newhall says the men were 
"supplied with pilot-bread from the 'Constitution,' stamped 
'1848,' the year it was made, and salt pork bearing the same 
brand, which the men were obliged to eat raw. Salt water 
only could be procured : this was eagerly drank by some, 
making them more thirsty than ever." The regiment was not 
landed until Tuesday morning. The Seventh New York, which 
arrived in the harbor a day after the Eighth, landed first. Sev- 
eral communications had passed between General Butler and the 
Governor of Maryland, the latter protesting against landing 
the troops, and also between the general and the commandant 
of the Naval Academy, who rendered him all the assistance in 
his power. On the day on which the troops landed, a report 
was brought to General Butler, that the slaves in the city and 
surrounding country were to rise against their masters, and 
assert their right to be free. General Buder immediately offered 
the services of himself and command to put down the insurrec- 
tion. The offer was declined ; there being no truth in the 
report, and the masters being able to maintain peace, and sup- 
press a revolt of their slaves. 

The railroad from Annapolis to the Junction, where it con- 
nects with the Baltimore and Washington Railroad, had, in 
part, been destroyed, and the engines and cars partially broken. 
After considerable delay, the track was relaid, and the engines 



THE EIGHTH REACH WASHINGTON. 105 

and cars were put in order by the men of the Eighth. Many 
of them were mechanics, who had made locomotives and cars. 
On the 24th of April, the Eighth and the New-York Seventh 
marched twenty-two miles to the Junction. The heat was 
oppressive, and the men suffered for want of food. "On arriving 
at the Junction, they dropped asleep." On the afternoon of 
Friday, April 26, the regiment arrived in Washington, eight days 
after its departure from Boston. The National Intelligencer 
the next morning, speaking of the Eighth, said, "We doubt 
whether any other single regiment in the country could furnish 
such a ready contingent to reconstruct a steam-engine, lay a 
rail-track, and bend the sails of a man-of-war." General 
Butler remained behind at Annapolis in command of that im- 
portant post. 

The hard labor of laying the raih-oad track, and repairing the 
locomotives and cars, had worn out the men's uniforms. The 
fact being presented to the President by Colonel Monroe, he 
ordered them to be furnished with army trousers and blouses. 
On the 30th of April, the regiment was mustered into the 
United-States service. The regiment remained in Washington 
until the middle of May, when it was ordered to the Relay 
House to guard the raih-oad. It remained there, with changes 
of detail, until the 29th of July, when it received orders 
to return home. It arrived in Boston on the 1st of August, 
where it was honorably received, and addressed by the Mayor 
of the city. 

These soldiers received the thanks of the United-States House 
of Representatives, "for the energy and patriotism displayed by 
them in surmounting obstacles upon sea and land, which traitors 
had interposed to impede their progress to the defence of the 
national capital." On the 4th of July, while at the Relay 
House, the regiment was presented with a new flag, made and 
forwarded by the ladies of Lynn. On the 12th of May, Colonel 
Monroe resigned his commission, and Lieutenant-Colonel Hinks 
was elected to fill the vacancy. In acknowledgment of the long 
and valuable services of Colonel Monroe in the militia of his 
State and country. Governor Andrew directed the Adjutant- 
General to address him the following letter : - 



106 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 



COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

Adjutant-General's Office, Boston, May 16, 1861. 
Colonel MuNROE, M.V.M. 

Sir, -I am directed by His Excellency the Commander-in-chief 
to inform you, that, in assenting to your discharge from the command 
of the Eighth Massachusetts Regiment, now in active service at Wash- 
ington, to defend the Union, the Constitution, and the Government of 
the United States, he is impressed by your long and meritorious services 
in the militia of the Commonwealth; that you have earned long years 
ago an honorable discharge; but by your alacrity and patriotism so 
recently exhibited in answer to the order to march your command to 
Washington, where you have taken an honorable and prominent part 
in the defence of the country, you are doubly entitled to it. 

His Excellency takes this occasion to assure you of his high ap- 
preciation of your services, and expresses a hope that you may live 
many years in the enjoyment of that peaceful Union to which your 
services have been devoted. 

Major-General Sutton will transmit this letter to Colonel Monroe, 
together with his discharge. 

By order of His Excellency John A. Andrew, Governor and 
Commander-in-chief. 

William Schouler, Adjutant-General. 

To the Eighth Regiment will ever be the honor of having 
opened the route to Washington by way of Annapolis, and of 
having saved from possible loss the frigate "Constitution," 
the "Old Ironsides" of the war of 1812. 

The Third Battalion of Rifles, by transport from New York, 
reached Annapolis April 24, and quartered in the Naval 
Academy, where it remained until the 2d of May, when it was 
ordered to Fort McHenry, where it continued until the end of 
its term of service. The battalion was drilled in the practice 
of heavy ordnance, and in infantry tactics. The men were always 
ready for duty, and by their good conduct and discipline received 
the confidence and praise of the garrison commanders. They 
were engaged in no battle ; but the fort which it held saved 
Baltimore and Maryland from going with Virginia and other 
Southern States headlong into rebellion. They were thanked by 
General Dix, post commandant, for their patriotism and good 



CLOSE OF THE THREE MONTHS' SERVICE. 107 

behavior, and, at his request, remained on duty two weeks after 
their term of service had expired. This battalion was from 
Worcester, " the heart of the Commonwealth." Company C 
was originally a local organization, composed of men of Irish 
birth, who, on the call for troops, offered their services to the 
Governor, which were accepted, and the company was attached 
to the Third Battalion. It was the first Irish company to reach 
the seat of war, and be mustered into the United-States service ; 
and Company D, of the same battahon, was the fu-st to reach 
Washington by the Potomac River. 

Major Cook's Light Battery, which left New York with the 
Fifth Regiment and Rifle Battalion, arrived at Annapolis on 
the 24th of April, and was quartered at the Naval Academy, 
where it remained until the 4th of May, when it was sent to the 
Relay House. On the 13th of June, it was ordered, with the 
Sixth Regiment, to Baltimore, to protect the polls on election 
day. It remained in that city until the 30th of July, four 
days beyond the term of its enlistment. Two detachments 
were stationed in Monument Square, and others at the Custom 
House. The battery arrived in Boston on the 3d of August, 
where it was cordially received by the Mayor of the city, and 
a large crowd of people. The First Battalion of Dragoons, the 
Second Battalion of Infantry, and the National Lancers hon- 
ored the corps with an escort to their old quarters. 

In the preceding pages, I have sketched the departure, the 
services, and the return of the first three-months men. They 
made an honorable record. Speaking of them, the Adjutant- 
General, in his annual report for 1861, says, - 

" They were the first to respond to the call of the President; the 
first to march through Baltimore to the defence of the capital ; the first 
to shed their blood for the maintenance of our Government ; the first to 
open the new route to Washington by way of Annapolis; the first 
to land on the soil of Virginia, and hold possession of the most impor- 
tant fortress in the Union ; the first to make the voyage of the Potomac, 
and approach the Federal city by water, as they had been the first to 
reach it by land. They upheld the good name of the State during 
their entire term of service, as well by their good conduct and gentle- 



108 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

manly bearing, as by their courage and devotion to duty in the hour of 
periL They proved the sterling worth of our volunteer militia. Their 
record is one which will ever redound to the honor of Massachusetts, 
and will be prized among her richest historic treasures. These men 
have added new splendor to our revolutionary annals; and the brave 
sons who were shot down in the streets of Baltimore on the 19th of 
April, have rendered doubly sacred the day when the greensward of 
Lexington Common was drenched with the blood of their fathers." 

The three-months service was a good preparatory experience. 
It educated officers to command three-years companies and 
regiments, which were then being raised in the State; several 
of whom came back, when the war was over, with distinguished 
fame, and with generals' stars upon their shoulders. Among these 
we name Hinks and Devens and Briggs and Martin and Dev- 
ereux and McCartney. Others rose to high rank, who never 
came back, but who fell in distant battle-fields, by the side of 
their men, and beneath the shadow of the flag they carried, 
which symbolized their cause and the nation's. Of these we 
name Chambers and Pratt and Parker and Prescott and Keyes 
and Dodd. 

While the events here enumerated were transpiring at a 
distance, others of great importance and interest were of daily 
occurrence at home, as will appear in the next chapter. 



CHAPTER III. 

The People of the Towns - The Press - The Pulpit-Edward Everett - 
Fletcher Webster offers to raise a Regiment - The Sunday Meeting in State 
Street - Mr. Webster's Speech-Meeting in the Music Hall - Speech of 
Wendell Phillips-Meeting in Chester Park - Speeches of Edward Everett 
and Benjamin F. Hallett - Meeting under the Washington Ebn in Cambridge 
-Ex-Governor Banks, George S. Hillard, and others - Letters received by 
the Governor - Extracts -Reception of the Dead Bodies of the Killed in 
Baltimore - Mr. Crowninshield goes abroad to buy Arms - Ex-Govemor 
Boutwell sent to Washington - Letter of John M. Forbes to Mr. Felton - 
Letter to General Wool - To Rev. Dr. Steams -To Robert M. Mason - 
Offer of a Ship Load of Ice - Purchase of the Cambridge - Provisions sent 
to Fortress Monroe and Washington-Governor to President Lincoln - 
Attorney-General Foster - The Ladies of Cambridge - Call for Three Years' 
Volunteers -Letter of John M. Forbes -Letters received by the Adjutant: 
General - Extracts-Letters from Dr. Luther V. Bell and Richard H. Dana, Jr. 

- Ex-Govemor Boutwell arrives at Washington - Letters to the Governor- 
State of Affairs at Washington - Letter from Mr. Foster-Cipher Telegram 

- Judge Hoar at Washington-Letters to the Governor - The War De- 
partment will accept no more Troops - Charles R. Lowell, Jr., Massachusetts 
Agent at Washington- His Instmctions -Letter of Governor to Dr. Howe 

- Appointed to examine the Condition of the Regiments - His Report - 
Colonel Prescott-Letters of the Governor and General Butler- Slavery. 

The people of Massachusetts were deeply moved by the depar- 
ture of the three months' men, and the attack made upon the 
Sixth Regiment at Baltimore. Meetings were held in city and 
town. Speeches were made by the most distinguished orators 
in the State. In some of the towns, the people were called 
together by the ringing of church-bells, and in others by the 
town-crier. The meetings generally were opened with prayer ; 
and the oldest and most venerable of the inhabitants were seated 
on the platform. The veterans of the Revolution had passed 
away, and the seats which they would have filled were occupied 
by the surviving soldiers of the War of 1812. Addresses were 
made by clergymen, lawyers, and by young men, to whom the 



no MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

cause gave words of earnest eloquence. The Union, one and 
inseparable, and how Massachusetts could best serve it, were 
the themes which inspired them all. Resolutions were passed, 
pledging life and fortune to the cause. Large sums of money 
were subscribed and paid. Historic memories were revived, 
and the sacrifices of the fathers in the War for Independence 
held up for imitation. The women formed aid societies to sew 
and knit and work for the absent soldiers and for their families 
at home. Young men formed military companies, and more 
companies were offered than the Government would receive; 
and more articles of clothing and stores of provisions than the 
men required. 

The public journals of the Commonwealth spoke with one 
voice. Party spirit was allayed, pohtical differences forgotten. 
The past was buried with the past. The Boston Morning 
Post, the leading Democratic paper in New England, gave to 
the cause its strong support. It had sustained the nomination 
of John C. Breckinridge for President the preceding year; but 
it did so without intent or thought of following him into rebel- 
lion. On the morning of April 16, the Post published a 
patriotic appeal to the people, from which we make the follow- 
ing extract : - 

Patriotic citizens ! choose you which you will, serve, the world's 
best hope, - our noble Republican Government, - or that bottomless pit, 
- social anarchy. Adjourn other issues until this self-preserving issue 
is settled. Hitherto a good Providence has smiled upon the American 
Union. This was the morning star that led on the men of the Revo- 
lution. It is precisely the truth to say, that when those sages and 
heroes labored they made Union the vital condition of their labor. 1 1 
was faith in Union that destroyed the tea, and thus nerved the resist- 
ance to British aggression. Without it, patriots felt they were noth- 
ing; and with it they felt equal to all things. The Union flag they 
transmitted to their posterity. To-day it waves over those who are 
rallying under the standard of the Law; and God grant, that in the 
end, as it was with the old Mother Country, after wars between White 
and Red Roses and Roundheads and Cavaliers, so it may be with the 
daughter ; that she may see Peace in her borders, and all her children 
loving each other better than ever !" 

The Boston Liberator, edited by William Lloyd Garrison, 



SPEECH OF COLONEL WEBSTER. HI 

the well-known and ably conducted organ of the extreme Aboli- 
tion party, spoke with equal spirit in support of the Govern- 
ment . The religious press, without exception, invoked the 
blessings of Heaven upon our soldiers and the holy cause they 
had gone forth to uphold. Religious creeds, like political 
dogmas, were harmonized in the general current of opinion. 
Edward Everett, who in the preceding fall election was the 
Conservative candidate for Vice-President, threw himself, with 
all his powers of eloquence and culture, into the struggle. He 
was absent from the State when the call for troops was made, 
but returned to Boston on the 18th of April. He fully approved 
the measures taken by the Government, and thought the 
Administration ought to be cordially supported by all good 
citizens. 

Among the first to raise a regiment for the service was 
Fletcher Webster, the sole surviving child of Daniel Webster. 
On Sunday morning, April 21, an immense meeting was held 
in State Street, in front of the Merchants' Exchange. It had 
been announced in the papers of the preceding day that Mr. 
Webster and other gentlemen would speak. There was much 
excitement and enthusiasm, notwithstanding it was the sabbath. 
Mr. Webster began his address from the steps of the Merchants' 
Exchange. The position was unfavorable; the crowd could 
not hear, and calls were made to adjourn to the rear of the Old 
State House. The adjournment was carried. The crowd re- 
mained in the street. Mr. Webster spoke from the rear bal- 
cony, facing State Street. He was received with great favor. 
He said he could see no better use to which the day could 
be put than to show our gratitude to Divine Providence for 
bestowing upon us the best Government in the world, and to 
pledge ourselves to stand by it and maintain it. He whose 
name he bore had the good fortune to defend the Union and the 
Constitution in the forum. This he could not do ; but he was 
ready to defend them on the field. [Applause.] But this is no 
time for speeches ; it is a time for action. He proposed to raise 
a regiment for active service; he called for volunteers. Mr. 
Webster then gave directions regarding the manner in which 
companies were to be raised, in order to comply with the laws 



112 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

of the State and the requirements of the War Department. He 
concluded by saying, - 

"Time presses. The enemy is approaching the capital of the 

nation. It may be in their hands now. [Cries of ' Never ; it never shall 
be.'] Promptness is needed. Let us show the world that, the patri- 
otism of '61 is not less than that of the heroes of '76 ; that the noble 
impulses of those patriot hearts have descended to us. Let us do 
our duty, and we shall yet see the nation united, and our old flag 
remain without a star dimmed or a stripe obliterated." 

The report of the meeting in the Daily Advertiser says, - 

" The remarks of Mr. Webster were received with great enthu- 
siasm, and at the close of his speech he was loudly cheered. Loud calls 
were then made for General Schouler, who was seen upon the balcony. 
In response, he stepped forward, and thanked the vast assembly in an 
almost inaudible voice for their good feeling, and asked Mr. Webster 
to speak for him. Mr. Webster at once informed the audience that 
the General was utterly prostrated with the arduous labors during the 
past week, and that he had scarcely been in bed for fifty-four hours ; 
that he must be excused, as he was utterly unable to address them. 
The crowd then gave three cheers for General Schouler." 

The meeting was ably addressed by William Dehon, Edward 
Riddle, and Charles Levi Woodbury, who were received with 
great favor and satisfaction. Mr. Webster's appeal met with a 
prompt response. More companies were offered than he could 
accept; but, before the regiment was ready to leave the State, 
orders came from Washington that no more three months' 
regiments would be received. On the receipt of this information, 
Mr. Webster's regiment immediately volunteered to serve for 
three years : it was accepted, and during the war was known 
as the Twelfth Regiment of Massachusetts Infantry. 

Wendell Phillips spoke in the afternoon of this memorable 
Sunday in the great Music Hall, which was crowded in every 
part ; and thousands were unable to gain admission. Many 
feared that he would not be permitted to speak ; and that, if he 
attempted to sustain the position which he assumed in his 
speech at New Bedford ten days before, a riot would occur. 
The first sentence uttered by Mr. Phillips, however, gave 



WENDELL PHILLIPS IN THE MUSIC HALL. MS 

assurance that the events of the preceding week had not been 
without their effect upon his mind. The hall was profusely 
decorated with the stars and stripes ; and the speaker stood upon 
the platform beneath an arch formed by the national colors. 
The speech was remarkable not only for its force and vigor, its 
patriotic and elevated sentiments, but for its strong contrast 
with the speech quoted in the first chapter. He began by say- 
ing, - 

"I am here to retract not a single word of what I have ever said. 
Every act of my life has tended to make the welcome I give this 
war hearty and hot. Civil war is a momentous evil, and needs the 
soundest justification. I rejoice before God, that every word I have 
said has counselled peace; and I rejoice, for the first time in my 
anti-slavery life, I stand under the stars and stripes, and welcome the 
tread of Massachusetts men. [Great applause.] No matter what 
may have been done in the past. To-day the slave asks but a sight of 
this banner, and calls it the twilight of his redemption; to-day it 
represents sovereignty and justice. The only mistake I have ever 
made is in supposing Massachusetts wholly choked with cotton dust 
and cankered with gold. [Laughter.] The first cannon shot upon 
our forts has put the war-cry of the Revolution on her lips. I can- 
not acknowledge the sentiment, ' Our country, right or wrong.' In a 
moral light, it is knavish and atheistical; but it is sublime to see this 
rallying of a great people to the defence of the national honor ; a noble 
and puissant nation, arising like a strong man from a sleep and shaking 
his locks. She is thus collecting her scattered elements and rousing 
her dormant thunder. How do we justify this last appeal to arms ? 
I always cry for peace ; and the anti-slavery banner has that name 
upon it. We have thought to set free the millions of slaves, and the 
North has responded. It is in the increasing education of our people, 
and in that moral sense which is fast gaining ground, that we are to 
accomplish this. No man can prevail against the North in the nine- 
teenth century. It thinks. It can appreciate the argument. The South 
is the fourteenth century. Wat Tyler and Jack Cade loom up on the 
horizon. There the fagots still burn, and men are tortured for opinion. 
Baron and serf are names which form too flattering a picture. Sum- 
ner stamped them the barbarous States. The struggle now is, not of 
opinion, but of civilization. There can be but two things, - compro- 
mise or battle. The integrity of the North scorns the first; the 
general forbearance of nineteen States has preceded the other. The 
South opened with a cannon-shot, and Lincoln showed himself at 



114 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

the door. [Applause.] The war is not of aggression, but of self- 
defence ; and Washington becomes the Thermopylae of liberty and 
justice. Rather than surrender it, cover every foot of ground with a 
living man. Guard it with a million of men, and empty our bank- 
vaults to pay them. Proclaim that the North is under the stars and 
stripes, and no man is in chains." 

He said the North is all right and the South all wrong ; that 
for thirty years there has been no exhaustion of conciliation and 
compromise. "We must," he said, " acknowledge the right 
before you send Massachusetts through the streets of Baltimore, 
and carry Lexington and the 19th of April into the Southern 
States." - "During long and weary years we have waited. 
Massachusetts blood has consecrated the streets of Baltimore, 
which are now too sacred to he trodden by slaves." - "When the 
South cannonaded Sumter, the bones of Adams rattled in his 
coffm ; and we might have heard him from his granite grave in 
Quincy say, 'Seize the thunderbolt, and annihilate what has 
troubled you for sixty years.' " - " There are four sections of 
people in this struggle : First, the ordinary masses, mingling 
mere enthusiasm in the battie ; Second, those that have commer- 
cial interests, - the just-converted hunkerism ; Third, the peo- 
ple, - the cordwainers of Lynn and the farmers of Worcester, 
- people who have no leisure for technicalities ; Fourth, the 
Abolitionists, who thank God that he has let them see salvation 
before they die. Europe, and some of you, may think it a war 
of opinion ; but years hence, when the smoke of the conflict 
shall have cleared away, we shall see all creeds, all tongues, all 
races one brotherhood ; and on the banks of the Potomac the 
Genius of Liberty robed in light, with four and thirty stars 
in her diadem, broken chains under her feet, and the olive 
branch in her right hand." 

Mr. Everett made his fu-st speech in the war on Saturday the 
27th of April, to a vast crowd of citizens in Chester Square, 
Boston. The people who lived in the south part of the city 
had erected a lofty flag-staff, and from its height the national 
banner was to be unfurled that afternoon. The ceremonies 
were opened with prayer by Rev. Mr. Hepworth, and national 
songs were sung by the school-children. Mr. Everett was 



SPEECHES OF MR. EVERETT AND MR. HALLETT. 115 

received with loud applause ; which he gracefully acknowl- 
edged, and said, - 

" The great assemblage that I see around me ; the simple but inter- 
esting ceremonial with which the flag of our country has been thrown 
to the breeze; the strains of inspiring music; the sweet concord 
of those youthful voices ; the solemn supplication of the reverend 
clergyman, which still fills our ears, - all these proclaim the deep, 
patriotic sentiment of which the flag is the symbol and expression. 
Nay, more : it speaks for itself. Its mute eloquence needs no aid from 
my lips to interpret its significance. Fidelity to the Union blazes 
from its stars: allegiance to the Government under which we live is 
wrapped within its folds. We set up this standard, my friends, not as 
a matter of idle display, but as an expressive indication, that, in the 
mighty struggle which has been forced upon us, we are of one heart 
and one mind, - that the Government of the country must be sus- 
tained. We are a law-abiding, quiet-loving community. Our time, 
our thoughts, our energies are habitually devoted to the peaceful arts 
by which States grow and prosper ; but, upon an issue in which the 
life of the country is involved, we rally as one man to its defence. 
All former differences of opinion are swept away. We forget that we 
ever had been partisans. We remember only that we are Americans, 
and that our country is in peril. . . . Why does it float as never before, 
not merely from arsenal and masthead, but from tower and steeple, 
from the public edifices, the temples of science, the private dwelling, 
in magnificent display or miniature presentment? Let Fort Sumter 
give the answer. When on this day fortnight, the 13th of April (a 
day for ever to be held in inauspicious remembrance, like the Dies 
Alliensis in the annals of Rome), the tidings spread through the land, 
that the standard of United America, the pledge of her union and the 
symbol of her power, which so many gallant hearts had poured out 
their life-blood on the ocean and the land to uphold, had, in the harbor 
of Charleston, been for a day and a half the target of eleven fratricidal 
batteries, one deep, unanimous, spontaneous feeling shot with the 
tidings through the bosoms of twenty millions of freemen, - that its 
outraged honor must be vindicated." 

Mr. Everett then described the bombardment of Sumter, and 
paid a high tribute to Major Anderson and his gallant com- 
mand. He also referred to his long and intimate acquaintance 
with the leading men of the South, from whom he had hoped 
never to have been separated by civil war. He closed with 
these words : - 



116 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

"All hail to the flag of the Union ! Courage to the heart and 
strength to the hand to which in all time it shall be intrusted ! May 
it ever wave in unsullied honor over the dome of the Capitol, from 
the country's strongholds, on the tented field, upon the wave-rocked 
topmast. It was originally displayed on the 1st of January, 1776, 
from the headquarters of Washington, whose lines of circumvallation 
around beleaguered Boston traversed the fair spot where we now stand ; 
and it was first given to the breeze within the limits of our beloved 
State : so may the last spot where it shall cease to float in honor and 
triumph be the soil of our own Massachusetts ! " 

The gentleman who succeeded Mr. Everett was Benjamin 
F. Hallett, who, for thirty years, had been a distinguished leader 
of the Democratic party. He had made its platforms, advo- 
cated its principles, and labored for its success. No Democrat 
in Massachusetts was better known than Mr. Hallett. He had 
never wavered in his love or faltered in his allegiance to his 
party. No one doubted his sincerity, no one questioned his 
ability. As a lawyer, he held a high rank. Notwithstanding 
his determined zeal and devotion to his pasty, his nature was 
kind and generous ; and his private character was pure and 
spodess. Like Mr. Everett, he gave up party for his country. 
His speech in Chester Square was worthy of his talents and of 
the occasion which called it forth. Like Mr. Everett, he re- 
mained true to the Union ; and, like him, he died ere the end 
was gained. 

In the city of Cambridge, almost within the shadows of the 
halls of Harvard University, stands the "Washington Elm," 
where it has stood sentinel since the foundation of the college. 
They have grown old and venerable together. Beneath the 
branches of the tree, Washington first took command of the 
American army, in 1775, which was drawn up in line on 
the Common in front. On this historic spot, on the same 
day that Mr. Everett and Mr. Hallett spoke in Chester Square, 
the people of Cambridge held a meeting. John Sargent, the 
mayor of the city, presided. Among the vice-presidents were 
Jared Sparks, Henry W. Longfellow, Joel Parker, Emory 
Washburn, Isaac Livermore, and Theophilus Parsons. A pre- 
amble and resolutions were read by John G. Palfrey. One of 
the resolutions was in these words : - 



MEETING UNDER THE "WASHINGTON ELM." 117 

" Resolved by us. citizens of Cambridge, convened under the shadow 
of the Washington Elm. that animated, we trust, by the spirit of him 
who, in the clouded dawn of the Revolution which created our nation, 
drew his sacred sword on this memorable spot, we desire to consecrate 
ourselves to the services of freedom and our country." 

The meeting was addressed by John C. Park, ex-Governor 
Banks, George S. Hillard, and Thomas H. Russell in speeches 
filled with patriotic sentiments and earnest appeals to the judg- 
ment and conscience of the people. 

We now return to the State House, where the work of fitting 
out regiments, organizing new departments, listening to various 
propositions, answering innumerable questions, receiving and 
writing letters, pressed upon the Governor and his personal 
staff, the Adjutant-General and his assistants, the Quarter- 
master-General and his clerks, from early morning until mid- 
night. An abstract of a portion only of the correspondence will 
show the nature and extent of a part of the labor performed. 

April 18. - The Governor writes to Miss A. J. Gill, also 
to Miss Anna M. Clarke, also to Mary A. G. Robinson, who 
have offered themselves to be nurses ; to Robert B. Forbes, 
acknowledging the receipt of his "Address to the Merchants 
and Seamen of Massachusetts to organize a Coast Guard ; " to 
Dr. Winslow Lewis, who offered to give medical advice and 
attendance to soldiers' families free of charge. Thanks Leopold 
Morse, of Boston, for a gift of one hundred pairs of ready- 
made pants for soldiers. To Secretary Cameron, asking for 
more muskets. 

April 19. - Governor telegraphs to the Secretary of War, 
" Would you like another regiment composed of Irishmen en- 
listed specially?" Writes to Arthur Hanley, who had inquired 
" if unnaturalized persons would be accepted in the militia," to 
" go ahead." Acknowledges " with gratitude the devoted and 
benevolent offer of Mrs. Harriet M. Gibson;" also a letter 
from Miss Hannah E. Stevenson, who offered her services as a 
nurse. Telegraphs to Secretary Cameron that "the steamer 
'State of Maine,' with the Fourth Regiment on board, is detained 
at New York; depends on his providing a convoy from the 
capes of Virginia, if necessary. Writes to William Gray, 



118 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

accepting the offer made by ladies through him "to supply 
under-clothing for the soldiers." Thanks James M. Stone "for 
his valuable aid as assistant quartermaster in getting off the 
regiments. Acknowledges the receipt of a beautiful fire-arm 
from Dr. Henry G. Clark, "to be given to the surgeon of the 
forces of Massachusetts who shall best perform his duty in the 
exercise of his profession towards the brave men who have 
taken up arms in behalf of liberty and the country." Tele- 
graphs, seven o'clock, p.m., to General Butler, "When did 
you reach Philadelphia ? When will you leave? Is the way 
open? Can you communicate by telegraph with Washington? 
Has Jones reached Washington?" 

April 20. - Writes to Dr. H. H. Fuller that "surgeons are 
appointed under the militia law by colonels of regiments, and 
not by the Governor." Acknowledges receipt from Captain 
Edward Ingersoll, Springfield Armory, of " two hundred and 
fifty rifled muskets." Thanks Miss Laura A. Phillips, of Great 
Falls, N.H., for her offer to nurse our wounded men in Balti- 
more ; also Miss Laura B. Forbes, of Cambridgeport, for the 
same offer. Telegraphs Hon. Hannibal Hamlin, Vice-Presi- 
dent, Hampden , Me. , "I advise you to come forward without 
delay, in view of possible events at Washington." Telegraphs 
Governor Washburn, of Maine, "One advance regiment [the 
Sixth] has reached Washington. No other yet beyond Phila- 
delphia." Directs the Adjutant-General "to grant all applica- 
tions for organizing new companies when he has confidence in 
the parties. When doubts exist, consult the Governor." Di- 
rects the Adjutant-General "to get off Cook's Light Battery by 
steamer before midnight ; also the left wing of the Fifth Regi- 
ment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Greene, and the right wing, 
under Colonel Lawrence, by railroad during the night." This 
arrangement could not be made ; and the Governor telegraphed 
to Simeon Draper, New York, to "engage steamers for twelve 
hundred troops, six cannon, caissons, and seventy-two horses, 
from New York to Annapolis, to leave New York Sunday 
morning." Telegraphs Major Ladd, "Senator Wilson will be 
in New York to-morrow morning, and will inform you fully 
what our wants are for the troops on their march." Telegraphs 



MISCELLANEOUS LETTERS OF THE GOVERNOR. 119 

Major p. Adams Ames, Philadelphia, "We will send horses, 
artillery, and infantry to New York by rail, thence by steamer 
to Annapolis." Telegraphs the Mayor of Baltimore, "I 
pray you to cause the bodies of our Massachusetts soldiers 
dead in Baltimore to be immediately laid out, preserved with 
ice, and tenderly sent forward by express to me. All expenses 
will be paid by this Commonwealth." Telegraphs Simeon 
Draper, New York, "Procure, to be deUvered to Colonel Law- 
rence, of our Fifth Regiment, to-morrow morning, eight, hun- 
dred knapsacks suitable for service, or else slings for carrying 
blankets." Thanks Mrs. William Ward for her offer "to aid 
in any manner in her power, our departing troops, and to cheer 
those whom they leave behind." Telegraphs to Mayor Sargent, 
of Lowell, " We have no official information of the names of the 
dead. A despatch from the Mayor of Baltimore says the bodies 
cannot be sent on at present, as communication by land and sea 
is stopped. But they have been carefully cared for, and will 
be put in Greenwood Cemetery till they can be sent to Massa- 
chusetts." Informs A. B. Ely, of Boston, that " we are taking 
most active measures for procuring a supply of efficient arms." 
Thanks Rev. Eli A. Smith "for his patriotic and Christian 
offer" of assistance ; also Dr. Coale, of Boston, for offer of 
professional services, and Miss Hazard and Miss Burns, who 
offer themselves as nurses. Notifies Mr. Crowninshield that 
the Executive Council have "approved of his suggestion, and he 
has appointed him to proceed to Europe in the next steamer to 
purchase arms." Telegraphs George William Brown, Mayor of 
Baltimore : " Dear Sir, -I appreciate your kind attention to our 
wounded and our dead, and trust that at the earliest moment 
the remains of the fallen will return to us. I am overwhelmed 
with surprise, that a peaceful march of American citizens over 
the highway, to the defence of our common capital, should be 
deemed aggressive to Baltimoreans. Through New York the 
march was triumphal." To Adams & Co.'s Express, Boston : 
"Can't you get the bodies of our dead through Baltimore? 
The Mayor telegraphs the raikoad is interrupted." Major Ladd, 
who is referred to above, was an officer on the staff of Major- 
General Sutton ; and Major Ames, also mentioned, was an 



120 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

officer on the staff of Major-General Andrews, of the Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Militia. They had been detailed on special 
duty at New York and Philadelphia. 

April 22.- The Governor telegraphs to the Superintendent 
of the Springfield Armory, " Can you send me to-night a first- 
rate armorer, who is a judge of arms, ready to go where he 
may be wanted for six weeks?" A first-rate armorer, Charles 
McFarland, was procured, who went abroad with Mr. Crown- 
inshield, two days after, to purchase arms. Governor acknowl- 
edges receipt of a check for five hundred dollars from George 
Draper, "to be appropriated for the relief of the families of 
those who have fallen or may fall in obeying the call of their 
country." Gives a letter to Rev. N. Shepard, pastor of the 
Tremont-Street Baptist Church, who said he should "start for 
Washington this evening, if he had to walk all the way." 
Acknowledges the receipt from William Dehon of eighty-eight 
flannel shirts "for the soldiers of Massachusetts who may be 
unprovided for in the present emergency." Requests S.G. 
Ward, of Boston, banker, "to issue a letter of credit in favor of 
F. B. Crowninshield for fifty thousand pounds sterling." Tele- 
graphs Simeon Draper, New York, that Mr. Crowninshield 
"will be at Fifth Avenue Hotel to-night, to take steamer 'Persia' 
for Liverpool on Wednesday." Writes to General Butler, that 
" the citizens of Salem have appointed Dr. Lincoln R. Stone to 
attend to the wants of the companies that have marched from 
that city, and that he would see that the funds raised by sub- 
scription for that purpose may be properly expended." Writes 
to President Lincoln, that "Ex-Governor Boutwell has been 
appointed the agent of the Commonwealth to proceed to Wash- 
ington to confer with him in regard to the forts in Massachu- 
setts and the militia." Governor Boutwell was also to see 
General Wool in New York. Instructs Mr. Crowninshield 
" that he is to procure twenty-five thousand stand of arms, of 
the best style and patterns, and to have them conform as nigh 
as possible to those now in use in the army," He was to co-ope- 
rate with agents from other loyal States, and to look out if 
agents of disloyal States were abroad on a similar errand. 
Writes to Secretary Cameron, that Ex-Governor Boutwell will 



MISCELLANEOUS LETTERS OF THE GOVERNOR. 121 

confer with him in regard to garrisoning our forts with militia ; 
also recommends that a guard be placed at the United-States 
Arsenal at Springfield. "Two thousand men could be thus 
employed, who would enlist for one or two years, be drilled as 
soldiers, and sent forward when required." Telegraphs to Secre- 
tary of War for " one or two thousand smooth-bore muskets, 
of which there are one hundred thousand at the Springfield 
Arsenal." Acknowledges with thanks the offer of the Empire 
Association of Lynn to " give to the new volunteer company 
raised in that city sixty-six military frock-coats." Thanks 
"Mr. Tilson, and the ladies of the Baptist Church and Society 
of Hingham, for the tender of their services to make clothing 
and sew for the soldiers." 

April 23. - The Governor writes a letter to Major-General 
Wool, introducing William L. Burt, of Boston, who was in- 
structed to "get authority to garrison die forts in Boston harbor 
with militia." John M. Forbes, by direction of the Governor, 
writes to Samuel M. Felton, of Philadelphia : "Your informa- 
tion about matters at Annapolis received. The expedition 
which left New York yesterday will take care of Annapolis ; 
but we shall continue our preparations, including armed ships. 
Look out for Port Deposite. Keep us posted." Governor 
writes to Mrs. Harriet C. Gould and Mrs. Harriet A. Jaquith, 
who had offered to furnish the soldiers with the New Testa- 
ment, and informs them "that each soldier of the Fifth Regi- 
ment, which left Boston on Sunday, had been furnished with a 
Bible; and there is an abundant supply to furnish those who 
are expected to leave." Writes to Henry A. J. Williams that 
"colored men cannot be enrolled in the militia. It cannot be 
done by law, which limits the militia to white male citizens. 
Personally, he knows no distinction of class or color, in his 
regard for his fellow-citizens, nor in their regard for our com- 
mon country." Writes to Mrs. Devereux, wife of Captain 
Devereux, of the Eighth Regiment, who had offered her services 
as a nurse, " that he would be reluctant to call into the field 
another member of a family which has already contributed so 
many of its children to the country." Two brothers of Captain 
Devereux were also in the service. 



122 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

April 24. - The Governor writes to Governor Washburn, 
of Maine, that " the understanding is, that Mr. Crowninshield is 
to purchase three thousand rifled muskets, of the most approved 
pattern, for Maine, and Maine is to bear her proportion of the 
expenses of the agent." Also to Governor Goodwin, of New 
Hampshire, that Mr. Crowninshield is to purchase two thou- 
sand musks for that State, with the same understanding in 
regard to sharing expenses. 

April 25, -The Governor writes to the Trustees of the State 
Nautical-School Ship, inclosing an order passed by the Execu- 
tive Council, "to place guns on board the ship, and to have 
the boys drilled in their use for the defence of the coast. The 
guns are to be four bronze six-pounders." Writes to the Secre- 
tary of War a letter introducing Wilder Dwight and George 
L. Andrews, who were going to Washington to get authority to 
raise a regiment of volunteers for the war. He had written 
to the Secretary on the 17th on the subject, but had received 
no answer. He fully indorses the scheme, and "hopes it may 
receive such assistance and co-operation from the United States 
as can with propriety be offered. Major Gordon, who will 
command the regiment, is a gentleman of careful military edu- 
cation and large executive ability; and it will be officered by 
such gentlemen as Mr. Andrews and Mr. Dwight, gentlemen 
of the best standing in Massachusetts." Writes to the Com- 
mander of the Charlestown Navy Yard, " Allow me to advise and 
urge you to hold at the navy yard, or under your control, all 
naval officers who will not swear allegiance to the United-States 
Government, until instruction can be got from Washington." 
Writes to the Secretary of War, " In addition to raising Gor- 
don's regiment, we can send you four thousand more troops 
within a very short time after receipt of a requisition for them. 
Do you wish us to send men as we may get them ready, without 
waiting requisitions? WTiat shall we do, or what do you wish 
us to do, about provisioning our men? Is Fortress Monroe 
supplied with provisions ? Will you authorize the enlistment 
here, and mustering into the United-States service, Irish, Ger- 
mans, and other tough men, to be drilled and prepared here 
for service? We have men enough of such description, eager 



MISCELLANEOUS LETTERS OF THE GOVERNOR. 123 

to be employed, sufficient to make three regiments. Finally, 
will you direct some general instructions and suggestions to be 
sent to me as to any thing, no matter what or how much, you 
may wish from Massachusetts, and procure General Scott also to 
do so ? and we will try and meet, so far as may be, every wish of 
the Government up to the very limit of our resources and power. 
Will you put the six thousand rifles, now at the United-States 
Arsenal at Watertown, at our disposal for our men, and send. 
immediately orders for that purpose ? We shall be able to 
replace them at an early day, if it shall be necessary." Ac- 
knowledges the receipt of a letter from George T. Curtis, of 
New York, who had written "to express his sincere apprecia- 
tion of, and thanks for, his co-operation in all actions taken by 
the Commonwealth, and by himself as its chief magistrate, to 
maintain the integrity and supremacy of the Federal Union." 

April 26. - Governor writes to Commodore Hudson, Navy 
Yard, Charlestown, "John M. Forbes is acting as agent for 
the Commonwealth in fitting up and preparing the 'Cambridge' 
as an armed steamer for coast defence, and for the benefit of 
the common cause. Will you be good enough to oblige us 
with furnishing him with guns, armament, and ammunition he 
may need from the navy yard ? Any aid you may give will 
serve the great object nearest the hearts of us all, and receive 
my lasting gratitude." To George S. Boutwell, Groton, Mass. : 
"We need your information, influence, and acquaintance with 
the Cabinet, and knowledge of Eastern public sentiment, to 
leave immediately for Washington. Hope you will proceed at 
once, and open and preserve communication between you and 
myself" To Montgomery Blair, Postmaster-General : "Hon. 
Dwight Foster, our Attorney-General, will hand you this note, 
with my full commendations. Mr. Foster is a gentleman with 
whom you can take counsel, finding him full of the fire and 
hard-working zeal of Massachusetts. How long, Lord ! how 
long will they delay our people ?" To George Ashmun, Spring- 
field, Mass. : "A Mr. T. Jones Lyman, of Montreal, Canada 
West, informs me that there are two hundred thousand percus- 
sion muskets at the armories, either at Quebec or Montreal. 
Will you ascertain if there is any way in which they can be 



124 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Sought?" Governor to General John E. Wool, commanding 
Department of the East, New York : "I have garrisoned Fort 
Independence, on Castle Island, in Boston harbor, with a battalion 
of infantry of one hundred and fifty men ; and shall have another 
battalion of the same strength in Fort Warren, on George's 
Island, on Monday morning. I have a third battalion, which I 
can station at Fort Winthrop ; and there are from two to three 
thousand volunteers, whom I wish to place under drill and disci- 
pUne, in these forts. In Fort Independence, there are none of 
the casemate guns mounted, and no barbette guns on the face 
which vessels entering the harbor approach. In Forts Warren 
and Winthrop there are no guns. This important harbor, there- 
fore, seems to be almost entirely undefended. I would therefore 
request you to order Captain Rodman [Watertown Arsenal] to 
supply these forts with the guns and carriages necessary for their 
defence, and detail an officer of engineers to put the works in 
proper condition. If an officer of artillery could also be detailed 
to give the necessary instruction, the garrison would soon be able 
to use the guns with effect. Please give us the order for the 
guns and carriages at once." Governor to Governor Washburn, 
of Maine (telegram) : "New York urges that Maine would 
hurry forward her men. We have parted with certain equip- 
ments to Mr. Blaine, the agent of your adjutant." Governor 
to Governor Fairbanks, of Vermont (telegram) : " New York 
wants Vermont to hurry. The case is urgent. Your adjutant 
said that the three hundred muskets we let him have would finish 
equipment." 

April 27. - By direction of the Governor, Colonel Sargent, 
aide-de-camp, writes to Secretary Cameron, asking "to have 
the Irish Brigade, so called, sent to the forts to help man them 
and place the guns." Governor to General Wool, "Cannot 
you send us an officer of the United States army, with authority 
to superintend the military operations, and to give us some 
advice, from time to time, on military questions?" By direc- 
tion of the Governor, Colonel Browne, private secretary, writes 
to the Mayor of Boston, in reply to a letter of the day before, 
"Concerning the action of the city of Boston in reference to 
the subsistence of troops detailed to garrison the forts in the 



MISCELLANEOUS LETTERS OF THE GOVERNOR. 125 

harbor, His Excellency directs me to say, that at the earliest 
practical moment, probably during the first days of the coming 
week, he shall place troops in the forts, to whom the bounty of 
the city will apply ; and the Adjutant-General is instructed to 
superintend and arrange all the details of the operation." Gov- 
ernor to John M. Forbes, "Buy the 'Pembroke' on the best terms 
possible, letting the merchants or coast-guard company put in such 
part of the cost as you can arrange. She must be armed and fitted 
with all reasonable speed, and be prepared to carry stores. She 
must only be used as coast-guard, when we can spare her from 
transportation. Let the alterations be as few as possible, so as 
to keep her cost down to the lowest point compatible with effi- 
ciency as an armed storeship." Governor to James M. Stone, 
who had given valuable aid as assistant-quartermaster: "I received 
your account last Saturday, with your admirable, full, and accu- 
rate report. The whole forms a model statement. I will have 
the account passed to-day by the Council." The Council ap- 
proved Mr. Stone's account, and voted to pay him seventy-five 
dollars for his services, which he declined to receive, as he in- 
tended his services to be gratuitous. 

April 29. - Governor to Rev. Dr. Stearns, President of 
Amherst College : " I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter concerning the three young gentlemen, students of 
Amherst College, -Mr. James A. Rhea and Mr. Joseph B. 
Rhea, of Blountville, Tenn., and Mr. William A. Stay- 
maker, of Alexandria, Va., -who, you assure me, are loyal 
to their Government, and who, on account of the perils of the 
times, are summoned by their friends to return to their homes. 
No persons who are loyal to their Government need any 'pass- 
port or testimonial,' from me or from any other person, to travel 
freely throughout this Commonwealth ; and I feel confident, that 
the travel of such persons throughout the United States will be 
obstructed nowhere, unless by traitors and rebels, or as a mih- 
tary necessity by troops acting against traitors and rebels." 
Governor to George Dwight, Superintendent of the Springfield 
Armory, introducing Mr. Blaine, agent of the State of Maine, 
who wished to get three thousand muskets for that State. 
Governor to Robert M. Mason, of Boston : "I hold a check for 



126 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

ten thousand dollars, payable to my order, being the gift of 
William Gray, Esq., for the benefit and relief of the families of 
the Massachusetts privates and non-commissioned officers called 
into active service. It was tendered to me before the forma- 
tion of the Committee of One Hundred ; and I now, with 
Mr. Gray's consent, at your convenience, desire to place it in 
your hands, as the treasurer of the committee, for appropriate 
distribution according to the methods and rules of that organi- 
zation. I cannot perform this pleasing task without adding a 
feeble expression of the deep sensibility with which I received 
this noble and characteristic munificence, and of the honor I 
feel in being made the instrument of its transmission." Also, a 
similar letter to Mr. Mason, transmitting a check of Mrs. Han- 
nah F. Lee for one thousand dollars. To Governor Bucking- 
ham, of Connecticut, " We cannot furnish you with muskets, as 
we have exhausted our store. Will you co-operate with us, 
and have some bought by our agent in England?" To Dr. 
William J. Dale, "Express to Mrs. Tyler, and other citizens 
of Baltimore, my thanks for the care they have taken of our 
wounded men in that city." 

These extracts show the variety of topics which, in the first 
two weeks of the war, engaged the Governor's attention. 
The letters on file in the Adjutant-General's office, embracing 
the same period, also disclose much that is of interest, though 
in a more limited and local sense. They are chiefly confined 
to answering inquiries made by selectmen of towns, and ap- 
plications made by young men to raise new companies, many 
of whom were afterwards officers in the volunteer service, and 
rose to high commands. On the 25th of April, the Adjutant- 
General received a letter from Addison Gage & Co., of Boston, 
tendering to the Massachusetts soldiers a ship-load of ice. The 
letter says, - 

The Massachusetts troops who have so nobly responded to the call 
of our Government for the defence of the capital, being, for the most 
part, in the habit of using ice, and now called to a warm climate, where 
it is more a necessity than a luxury, we shall be happy to contribute a 
cargo for their use, the time to be at your disposal, whenever you deem 
it expedient to send it. In case there is no suitable place to receive 



THE DEAD WHO FELL AT BALTIMORE. 127 

the cargo, it can be packed in the vessel, and kept for months, with 
proper care." 

The offer was accepted, and a vessel was chartered to take 
the ice to Fortress Monroe. The occupants of Quincy Market, 
of whom Hiscock & Winslow and Harrison Bird were a com- 
mittee, contributed a large quantity of fresh provisions, which 
were preserved on the ice, and sent in the ship. 

On the 1st of May, the bodies of Luther C. Ladd, Addison 
O. Whitney, and Sumner H. Needham, who were killed in 
Baltimore on the 19th of April, reached Boston. Even then 
the names of the dead were not positively known. The bodies 
were properly received, and placed in the receiving-vault at 
King's Chapel. That same afternoon, the Governor wrote to 
Colonel Jones, of the Sixth Regiment, - 

" Mr. Merrill Wright arrived at Boston this afternoon in charge 
of the bodies of three Massachusetts soldiers who fell at Baltimore. 
They were received by me at the depot, and were conveyed, under an 
appropriate escort, to the Kings Chapel, where they are deposited until 
they can be finally interred with appropriate funeral honors. When- 
ever you can obtain the finite and absolutely certain information con- 
cerning the names of the three dead, I desire you to inform me. I 
understand them to be James Keenan, of Stoneham; Edward Cobum, 
of Lowell ; and S. Henry Needham, of Lawrence : but I desire to 
obtain final and official information as to the correctness of my pres- 
ent understanding." 

He also wrote to Mr. Sargent, Mayor of Lowell, - 
"I met these relics of our brave and patriotic soldiers at the Wor- 
cester Railroad Depot, accompanied by my military staff and the 
Executive Council, where we took them in charge, and, under the 
escort of the corps of ' Independent Cadets,' bore them through our 
streets, thronged by sympathizing citizens, and placed them in the 
'Vassall' tomb, beneath the ancient King's Chapel, at the comer of 
Tremont and School Streets. There they remain, subject to the 
orders of those friends who have the right to decide their final disposi- 
tion. But it would be most grateful to the Executive Department, in 
co-operation with those nearest to the lamented dead, to assist in the last 
funeral honors to their memory ; and I should be pleased to meet you, 
and the Mayor of Lawrence, and the Selectmen of Stoneham, as soon 
as you may convene them, at the State House, to consider the arrange- 
ments suitable to this occasion." 



128 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

On the 2d of May, Colonel Sargent, of the Governor's staff, 
wrote to Mrs. Mary E. Whitney : - 

I promised to write to you if I learned any thing of interest to you. 
There are no marks of any description whatever on the arms of the 
man whom you saw this afternoon. I had a careful examination made. 
There is no doubt whatever that this man and your husband are two 
entirely different persons. There is no reason to think that any 
harm has come to your husband. I have no doubt he is alive and 
well, and doing his duty like a good citizen and brave soldier." 

James Keenan and Edward Coburn were wounded in Balti- 
more, but neither of them fatally. Of the four who were 
killed, Charles Taylor was buried, in Baltimore. No trace of 
his family or friends has ever been discovered. Needham was 
buried in Lawrence ; Whitney and Ladd, in Lowell. The 
funeral services at Lawrence and Lowell, over the bodies 
of these first martyrs of the great Rebellion, were grand and 
imposing. In each city, monuments of enduring granite have 
been raised to commemorate their deaths, and to be their sepul- 
chres . 

On the 2d of May, Governor Andrew wrote to Simeon 
Draper, of New York, that he had " about four thousand troops 
already in the field, as many more ready at brief notice ; proba- 
bly ten thousand drilling, hoping for an opportunity. Why 
don't the Government call faster? We sent a steamer with sup- 
plies to-day." The steamer here referred to was the "Cam- 
bridge," which had been fitted out by the State, and had sailed, 
laden with supplies of clothing and provisions for the Massa- 
chusetts troops, on the 1st of May. She had also some re- 
cruits for the Third Regiment, and a company for the Rifle 
Battalion. After taking out certain supplies and men at For- 
tress Monroe, she was to go by the Potomac to Washington, if 
it were safe to do so. Governor Andrew wrote to General 
Scott a detailed statement of the expedition. He said, - 

" 1st. I desire our Massachusetts troops to receive and have the 
first benefit of our supplies, but, if need be, that others should share 
them. 

" 2d. That, if you see any objection to the 'Cambridge' going up 
the Potomac, you would give orders to Captain Matthews, her com- 
mander, who is instructed to receive your directions. " 



STEAM TRANSPORTS WITH PROVISIONS. 129 

The vessel cleared for Annapolis ; but her real destination 
was Washington, and she was the first ship that arrived there 
with troops and supplies of clothing and provisions. On ar- 
riving at Washington, Captain Matthews was ordered to report 
to General Scott, and, if he needed the steamer for the public 
service, to obey his commands ; if not, to return immediately to 
Boston. His sealed orders were to report "first to the senior 
Massachusetts officer at Fortress Monroe, and deliver to him 
such supplies and special packages as shall be designated for 
that port. 

"Second, if at Fortress Monroe he should hear from General 
Butler that the passage up the Potomac was dangerous, he was 
to wait twenty-four hours for orders from General Scott ; and, 
if he received orders from him not to proceed up the Potomac, 
he was to proceed forthwith to AnnapoUs, land Captain Dodd's 
company, and turn over the stores to the senior Massachusetts 
officer in command. He was to bring back 'such sick or duly 
discharged soldiers' as he might be requested to take and could 
accommodate." If at any time he should be attacked, he was 
to resist, and, if possible, to take or sink the attacking vessel. 
He was to preserve strict discipline, and to practise, at suitable 
times, with his guns. He was to offer to every Massachusetts 
command he fell in with to bring home any letters or packages 
they might wish to send home to friends. 

The following is a list of reserved stores sent to Fortress Mon- 
roe, purchased and shipped by John M. Forbes, under orders 
from the Governor : - 

60 beef barrels mess beef, at $10 per bbl $600.00 

30 beef barrels prime pork, at $14 per bbl 420.00 

5,000 lbs. hams, about, at 10 cents per lb 500.00 

20 kegs lard, about 850 lbs., at 12 cents per lb 102.00 

1,000 lbs. butter, about, at 23 cents per lb 230.00 

2,000 lbs. cheese, about, at 1 1 cents per lb 220.00 

2,000 lbs. of sugar, about, at 8 cents per lb 160.00 

500 lbs. Oolong tea, about, at 36 cents per lb 175.00 

1,000 lbs. coffee, about, at 13 cents per lb 130.00 

10,000 lbs. pilot bread, about, at 4 cents per lb 400.00 

5 beef bbls. pickles, about, at Is. per gall 33.33 

Lot meats in canisters, for officers, valued at 100.00 

$3,070.33 
9 



130 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

On the 3d of May, Governor Andrew addressed the follow- 
ing letter to President Lincoln : - 

I hand you copy of a letter addressed to the Commissary-General, 
explaining the action they (the agents I have appointed) have taken 
to provide subsistence for our Massachusetts troops. 

" Cut off as we were from connection with you, I took the responsi- 
bility of providing and forwarding such things as could be bought 
advantageously here, believing they will be found useful to the army 
and navy. 

"I hope that you will direct the proper department to take charge of 
such of their supplies as are suitable to their use, and pay for the same, 
as suggested. We have, further, under the pressure of the exigency, 
taken the responsibility of joining the underwriters and merchants of 
Boston in buying, fitting out, and, with the help of Captain Hudson, 
arming two propellers, for the combined purpose of coast-guard and 
transports for troops and supplies. 

"Neither of the vessels is exactly what is wanted; but they are 
strong, useful, nearly new, and are bought at prices but little above 
their commercial value in peaceful times, and can hardly fail to be use- 
ful to the public service in the impending struggle. // you approve our 
action, will you be pleased to direct the proper departments, either to 
receive the vessels at their cost, as if bought for the United-States Gov- 
ernment, or, if that is impossible, to give them employment, in carrying 
stores and troops, at the highest prices which are paid to individuals, 
with the assurance that the vessels will be always at the disposition 
of Government, and will meantime be used to guard our coasts, and 
allay the apprehension of our people regarding the threatened piratical 
proceedings of the secessionists ? A description of these vessels is 
annexed. 

" I beg leave to add, that, immediately upon receiving your proc- 
lamation, we took up the war, and have carried on our part of it in 
the spirit in which we believe the Administration and the American 
people intend to act; namely, as if there was not an inch of red tape 
in the world. 

"We have now enough additional men to furnish you with six 
more regiments to serve for the war, unless sooner discharged. 

" We think the efficiency of any further levies will be much greater 
if you will muster them, and put them into camps at once for some drill- 
ing here. The men we offer, besides fighting, can do any other things 
for which there may be occasion, from digging clams up to making 
piano-fortes. 



LOAN OF MONEY TO THE GOVERNMENT. 131 

" Fervently devotional to the cause of our country and to the great 
interests of our country and of the great interests of posterity as well 
as our own time, and cordially in earnest in the support of the honor 
and success of your Administration, the people of Massachusetts are 
ready for the amplest and promptest obedience to your commands. " 

The above letter was inclosed in one to Mr. Foster, the 
Attorney-General of the State, who was in Washington. He 
was requested to call upon the President and deliver it to him, 
and to exert his power and influence to have matters properly 
adjusted and permanently settled. 

A number of ladies of Cambridge formed a society to work 
for the soldiers. They requested Professor Washburn, of the 
Law School, to communicate their purpose to the Governor, 
who wrote. May 3, in acknowledgment of the offer as fol- 
lows : - 

"In glancing over the list of their names, I realize most completely 
how deep a hold the cause, in behalf of which those troops are mus- 
tered, has upon every social class in our community ; that there are no 
hands in Massachusetts too delicate to contribute something to the 
work. Almost the next letter which I opened, after breaking the seal 
of yours, was from a poor needle-woman, saying she had but little, 
but desiring to give something from that little in the same behalf; and 
surely a cause which so appeals both to the garret and the drawing- 
room cannot be other than national and just." 

May 4, Governor writes to J. Amory Davis, President of 
the Suffolk Bank, - 

"Please read the within. We shall have an extra session of our 
Legislature on Tuesday, May 14. Will the banks of Massachusetts 
take $5,000,000 of United-States loan at par? If not, - supposing 
that the Legislature of Massachusetts should authorize a loan of 
$5,000,000 to the United States, -would the banks lend that amount 
to this Commonwealth ? They have already offered it more than 
$6,000,000. Will you confer on this subject with the gentlemen 
upon State Street? I should like to see you, and any others who will 
take an interest in this subject, at your first convenience." 

This brings the correspondence of the Governor to the day 
when orders were issued by the War Department, that no more 
three months' regiments would be accepted. On the 3d of 



132 MASSACHUSETTS. IN THE REBELLION. 

May, 1861, the President called for thirty-nine regiments of in- 
fantry and one regiment of cavalry, to serve for three years, or 
during the war, making an aggregate of officers and enlisted 
men of 42,034 volunteers. On the 4th of May, General Order 
No. 15 was issued by the Secretary of War, in which directions 
were given respecting the organization of the volunteers, but 
nothing was said regarding the number of regiments which each 
State was to furnish; and it was not until the 22d of May, 
eighteen days after the call had been made, that the quota which 
Massachusetts was to furnish was received from Washington. 
During this interval, companies in all parts of the State were 
offering their services, and pressing to be accepted. These com- 
panies comprised in the aggregate at least 10,000 effective men. 
After much solicitation on the part of the Governor, by letter, 
telegram, and gentlemen appointed by him to visit Washington, 
leave was given to furnish six regiments of infantry. But, before 
entering upon a narration of the three years' regiments, other 
matters claim attention. 

Reference has already been made to the valuable services 
rendered by John M. Forbes at the outbreak of the war. His 
labors ceased only with the war. In a letter of recent date, 
written by Mr. Forbes, he says : - 

"When the war fairly broke out, on the Monday after Fort Sumter 
fell, 14th or 15th of April, I first remember taking part in the trans- 
port question. In common with all Massachusetts, I then offered my 
services to the Governor, and was authorized to make preliminary 
arrangements for securing transportation. I accordingly got posted 
up, with the help of George B. Upton, Esq., of Boston, and Colonel 
Borden, of Fall River, as to the available steamers at both places, and 
was accordingly prepared to act, when, about five, p.m., of Tuesday, the 
16th [?] of April, Colonel Harry Lee, of His Excellency's staff, 
conveyed to me an order to go ahead with vessels ; the despatch having 
arrived to start two regiments for Fortress Monroe, besides those which 
it was arranged to send by land. I remember well the electric shock 
which this order gave me. I felt that it would the whole country. A 
north-east storm was blowing ; and a glance at the window was enough 
to enable me to tell the colonel, ' Too late for to-night.' But, with the 
help of the friends above referred to, you will remember, that, the fol- 
lowing night (Wednesday), we got off one regiment by the 'Spaulding," 



LETTER OF JOHN M. FORBES. 133 

one by the 'State of Maine," in company with the Sixth, which was 
sent by railway to New York, Baltimore, and Washington. In this 
connection, it may be worth while to recall the circumstances under 
which Governor Andrew disobeyed (fortunately) the order of the War 
Department to send his troops to Fortress Monroe via Baltimore by 
rail. I had heard two months earlier from S. M. Felton, not only the 
plot to attack Mr. Lincoln in Baltimore, but also the plan which he 
had discovered of burning the bridges on his road between Perryville 
and Baltimore; and this suggested still more strongly than the mere 
arguments of convenience the importance of re-enforcing Fortress 
Monroe by sea. I accordingly took a chart of the coast up to the 
State House, and pointed out to the Governor the ease and certainty 
with which he could place the troops at the fortress by water, with the 
additional advantage of having any or all of them taken directly up to 
Annapolis or Washington, in case they were needed for the defence of 
the capital. The Governor looked at his orders from General Scott, 
which were to send the whole by rail, then scrutinized the chart 
carefully, and, after a short delay, replied, 'It's a clear case ; be ready 
to send the two regiments by water.' This was, I think, on Monday, 
the glorious day when our Massachusetts men were rallying from their 
fields, workshops, and homes to defend the flag. If you will take the 
trouble to look at the charters of the 'Spaulding' and the 'State of 
Maine,' you will find a clause allowing the Governor to order the ships 
either to Annapolis or Washington ; and in the telegraphic letter-book 
at the State House you will find a telegram, dated, I think, Wednesday, 
to General Scott, informing him when these two regiments would be 
due at Fortress Monroe, and also that the charters of the vessels pro- 
vided for taking them up to either place. This, you, will notice, was 
before the burning of the bridges or the fight of 19th of April in 
Baltimore ; and it is due to Samuel M. Felton, that the historian 
should award to him the credit of calling General Butler's attention 
to the Annapolis route, as the best means of reaching Washington." 

While Mr. Forbes, Mr. Upton, and Colonel Borden were 
active in securing transports to forward troops, other gentle- 
men were interesting themselves with the subject. William F. 
Durfee, of Fall River, wrote to the Adjutant-General, April 
15,- 

"Govemor Sprague, of Rhode Island, has been trying to charter 
steamers of Colonel Borden, of Fall River, to take a Rhode Island 
regiment to Washington, I think they may succeed in getting the 



134 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Empire State.' The ' Metropolis ' is laid up, and will not be ready for 
two or three days. Application has also been made from New York. 
I write for the purpose of posting you in regard to the operations of 
our neighboring States. The gentleman stated that Governor Sprague 
intended to have the Rhode-Island troops in Washington in advance 
of any other State in New England ; and I have an ambition to see the 
Massachusetts men there as soon as ' Little Rhody's,' - sooner, if possi- 
ble. If they can get the 'Empire State,' they intend to leave Provi- 
dence Thursday, at twelve o'clock." 

The "Empire State " was chartered by Governor Sprague, but 
the Rhode-Island troops did not get to Washington first. The 
following extracts from letters received by the Adjutant-General 
show in part the patriotic feeling which inspired the people : - 

April 15. - Charles Bowers, of Concord, writes, " Believing 
most fervently in the doctrine vindicated at 'the Old North 
Bridge' in 1775, that resistance to tyrants is obedience to 
God, in this hour of our country's peril I offer my poor services 
in her defence. If you can assign me to any position, however 
humble, where I can do any thing for freedom and the right, 
I wiU hasten to the post in your command." The writer went 
out lieutenant in the Concord company attached to the Fifth 
Regiments. He was afterwards captain in the Thirty-second 
Regiment, and served through the war. Rev. B. F. De Costa 
writes, "I hereby tender my services as chaplain for any of 
the forces now called into service by the State. I should be 
glad to accompany any regiment to the capital or elsewhere, 
and cheerfully endure with them the hardships of the campaign." 
Mr. De Costa was appointed and commissioned chaplain- of the 
Fifth Regiment. A. A. Marsh, of Cincinnati, Ohio, telegraphs,, 
"I wish you would let me know if you can buy ten six-pounder 
rifled field-pieces ready for use, and at what price, and when 
we can get them. We want them for use here, for the protec- 
tion of this city. Telegraph the price." General George H. 
Devereux, of Salem, writes, " I eamesdy hope that the General 
Government will go into this contest with the olive branch 
frankly and cordially displayed in one hand, offering every 
reasonable opportunity to avoid the dreadful alternative of a 
civil war with our own countrymen. But, if war must, come. 



PATRIOTIC OFFERS OF SERVICES. 135 

all sound policy and even humanity requires that it be vigorously 
sustained, and that we show ourselves capable of maintaining 
the honor, dignity, and safety of our country." General 
Devereux had three sons officers in war, one of whom 
was brevetted a general. 

April 16. - General Nettleton, of Chicopee, writes, " I hereby 
tender to His Excellency the Governor, and through him to the 
President, my personal services to any appointed post in the 
gift of either. I cannot, by reason of age, be admitted to 
the ranks by enlistment ; yet I am hearty and hale, and not 
older than my grandsire was when following the lead of Wash- 
ington." General Nettleton's son raised a company for the 
Thirtieth Regiment, of which he went out captain, and came 
home colonel of the regiment. 

April 17. - Edward Kinsley, of Cambridge, writes, "The 
patriotic ladies of Cambridge are making bandages and pre- 
paring lint for our troops who have been ordered out of the 
State. A box will be ready to-morrow morning. Please tell the 
bearer where you will have it sent." Colonel Borden, of Fall 
River, writes, " The 'Empire State ' will be let at a thousand dol- 
lars a day ; the ' State of Maine,' for eight hundred." George 
B. Upton, of Boston, writes that he had made a "contract with 
the agents of the 'S. R. Spaulding' to take troops to Fortress 
Monroe at twelve dollars each. The vessel will be ready in 
eight hours after notice is received." 

April 18. - E. C. Peirce, of Weymouth, writes, "If the 
services of an active horse and rider as courier are required for 
any distance, great or small, let me know." Daniel Denny, of 
Boston, writes, "I have three spacious lofts. No. 142, Fulton 
Street,' quite light and airy, which I freely offer for the use of 
the military. Being considerably more than forty-five years old, 
I fear my personal services would not be accepted if offered." 
Captain Peard, of Milford, writes, " I offer my company, the 
'Davis Guards,' all of whom are adopted citizens, for the ser- 
vice." This company was accepted, and formed part of the 
Ninth Regiment, of which Captain Peard was commissioned 
major. He died in the service. 

The following letter is from one of the most noble and highly 



136 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

cultivated men whom Massachusetts sent to the war, and who 
sacrificed his life for the cause: - 

Monument Square, Charlestown, April 19, 1861. 

Adjutant- General SchOULER,- We are at that point where 
every man who can devote himself to his country's service should come 
forward. I beg that you would put on file this my application for any 
position in the medical service of the Commonwealth in which I could 
be useful. I am aware of the law under which surgeons are ap- 
pointed, and of course understand that you have no direct control of 
this matter. But there may be exigencies from deaths, resignations, 
unusual demands, or unforeseen circumstances, when you may be called 
upon to advise or suggest. If such a call is made, be pleased to 
remember this application of your old personal and political friend. I 
may be allowed to say, should this communication ever be brought up 
for consideration, that, while I am known mainly in another specialty, 
I was educated in the New- York hospitals for a surgeon ; and for some 
years, in a wide field, I was much engaged in that capacity. Inquiry 
in New Hampshire would show, that there are but few of the greater 
operations of surgery which I have not performed. I am a little above 
fifty; in health so good as not to have been confined to my house a 
day in the past three years ; and, entirely removed from all cares by 
easy personal circumstances, of course am ready at the shortest notice 
for any duty. As this application is for use, not show, may I beg of 
you, that it may not reach the press, which, in its avidity for para- 
graphs, might be ready to put me unnecessarily before the public? 

Truly yours, Luther V. Bell. 

Dr. Bell's offer was accepted. He was appointed surgeon of 
the Eleventh Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, was commis- 
sioned June 13, 1861, and immediately entered upon his duties. 
His family was one of the oldest and most distinguished in New 
Hampshire ; his father, John Bell, having been Governor of the 
State and a member of the United-States Senate. Dr. Bell for 
many years had charge of the McLean Asylum for the Insane, 
in Somerville, and was at the head of his profession in that 
branch of medical science. His figure was tall and command- 
ing ; his face was eminently handsome and pleasant. On the 
3d of August, 1861, while with his regiment at the front, he 
was appointed brigade-surgeon by President Lincoln, and was 
placed on the staff of General Joseph Hooker. About four 



PATRIOTIC OFFERS OF SERVICES. 137 

o'clock, on the wintry morning of February 5, under his canvas 
shelter at Camp Baker, two miles from Budd's Ferry, on the 
Potomac, Dr. Bell was taken suddenly ill; and about nine 
o'clock, on the evening of the 11th, he passed peacefully away 
for ever. We shall have occasion to refer again to this distin- 
guished person in the next chapter. 

April 19. -General John S. Tyler, commanding the "An- 
cient and Honorable Artillery Company," "tenders, by vote of 
the corps, their services for coast defence." The Massachusetts 
Bible Society " offers a supply of Bibles and Testaments for the 
soldiers ." 

April 21. -Mrs. Julia R. Seavy, Jamaica Plain, writes, 
"I am anxious to contribute in some way to the comfort of our 
brave volunteers. Would twenty flannel shirts be acceptable? 
If so, I will have them made and forwarded to you for distribu- 
tion. Our country, right or wrong." 

April 23. -Edward Greenmon, or Greenmast, of Mendon, 
writes, " Will you accept the service of a Dartmoor prisoner in 
the war of 1812, and near seven years on board of a British 
ship-of-war? Impressed at the age of twelve years, when the 
war was declared, I was most cruelly flogged and threatened to 
be hung, because I would not fight against my country. I am 
ready now to fight the traitors of my country, and battle for 
freedom." Edward S. Waters, of Salem, suggests " the organi- 
zation of an engineer corps, to repair the bridges between 
Philadelphia and Washington." George Gregg, of Boston, 
informs the Adjutant-General, that "certain British sub- 
jects in Boston and vicinity have formed themselves into a rifle 
company, and offer their services for duty anywhere within 
thirty miles of Boston, to be drilled, armed, and clothed at 
private expense." 

April 27. -Colonel Newell A. Thompson, of Boston, re- 
ports, " Have fulfilled the duty for which I have been detailed, - 
to remove certain arms and ammunition from the United-States 
Arsenal at Watertown, to the State Arsenal at Cambridge." 
Rev. George D. Wilde, of Salem, sends a roll of forty men for 
" field-hospital corps, to be sent to the front; and each pledges 
himself to submit to all the requirements of mihtary life." 



138 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

April 28. - James L. Merrill, of Athol, volunteers him- 
self and three "of my seven sons, with eight or ten other good, 
faithful, and temperate men, to go to the front, and act as scouts, 
to be armed with rifles and side-arms." John Waters, of West 
Sutton, writes, "I and several citizens of this town, being well 
acquainted with the use of the rifle, are anxious to form a 
company of sharpshooters." Captain Rand, First Regiment of 
Infantry, writes, "At a meeting of my company, held last even- 
ing, it was unanimously voted to adopt the following as a com- 
pany name, 'Schouler Volunteers,' with many thanks to you 
for your numerous kindnesses." This company was Company 
I, First Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers. Captain Rand 
was killed at Chancellorsville. Captain Peirson, of Byfield, 
"volunteers his whole command (Company B; First Battalion 
of Rifles) for the war." 

May 1. -Samuel Fowler, of Westfield, writes, "This town 
has appropriated ten thousand dollars for the equipment and 
outfit of a company of volunteers, and to drill them until called 
for. God save the Commonwealth of Massachusetts." 

Richard H. Dana, Jr., of Cambridge, writes, - 

The topi I left with you yesterday is the result of fifty years' expe- 
rience of the British in the East. It is now universally used by the 
British military in India, China, and Indian Islands. I wore that topi 
in China, India, and Egypt some six months, including June, July, and 
August. It is the best thing possible. It gives air between the head and 
the outer case all round. This is the best safeguard against sunstroke 
or congestion. It is a mistake to wear any thing thin or light like 
straw. The desiderata are (1) a thick wall between the head and the 
sun's rays, and (2) air between the wall and the head. The weight 
on the head, when adjusted around the side, and not on the top, is of 
little consequence, as all men experienced in Eastern life and travel 
will tell you. The rim to this protects the eyes, and back of the head 
and neck. In the East, the back of the head and back of the neck 
are considered specially sensitive to the sun. The topi may be made 
either of felt (as mine is) or of pith. I prefer the felt." 

The topi spoken of was a most excellent protection to the 
head from the heat of the sun, but was never adopted, either 
by the State or the Federal authorities. 



AGENTS SENT TO WASHINGTON. 139 

May 6. - President Felton, of Harvard University, informs 
the Adjutant-General that "between three and four hundred 
students have entered their names for a drill-club ; and between 
one and two hundred have brought their fathers' certificates, 
that they consent to the watch. In a day or two, I shall proba- 
bly be able to furnish you a complete list of both." The 
"watch" here spoken of was in reference to a guard of students 
to watch the State Arsenal at Cambridge. 

May 10. - Colonel Newell A. Thompson presented "a roll 
of one hundred past members of the 'Boston City Guards,' who 
have voluntarily placed themselves under my command, and 
authorized me to tender their services as a Home Guard." 

The foregoing extracts, from letters received by the Adjutant- 
General in the first days of the war, serve to show in a degree 
the patriotic spirit of the people. They are selected from a 
great mass of letters received by him in those early days of the 
war ; all of which bear more or less on the same subject, and are 
imbued with the same spirit and determination. 

From the time the three months troops left the State until a 
call was made for three years' volunteers. May 3, communica- 
tion with the departments at Washington was dilatory and un- 
satisfactory; which caused the Governor to request Ex-Governor 
Boutwell, Attorney-General Foster, Judge Hoar, and William 
L. Burt to go forward, and endeavor to keep up a Une of com- 
munication with him. This will explain some of the letters and 
telegrams given in preceding pages. One great point to be 
gained was authority from the War Department to garrison and 
man the forts in Boston Harbor, the defenceless condition of 
which exposed the city to attack, and caused much uneasiness 
among the merchants, underwriters, and other citizens of Bos- 
ton. After the attack upon the Sixth Regiment in Baltimore, on 
the 19th of April, inquiry was made by the Governor in regard 
to establishing hospital accommodations for the sick and wounded 
who may return to the State. The matter was referred to 
Dr. William J. Dale, who, on the 21st of April, reported, "I 
have conversed with Mr. Rogers, chairman of the Trustees 
of the Massachusetts General Hospital, and the institution 
will be open for soldiers in the service ; and, at short notice. 



140 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

they can put up a large temporary building in the hospital 
yard for the accommodation of the sick and wounded." This 
excellent institution, during the whole war, gave all the accom- 
modation and assistance within its power to the sick and 
wounded soldiers. 

Ex-Governor Boutwell left Boston for Washington on the 
23d of April. In New York, he had an interview with Major- 
General Wool, commanding the Department of the East, and 
with Vice-President Hamlin, whom he met there. On the 24th 
he wrote to the Governor, " General Wool and Vice-President 
Hamlin are in favor of your taking the responsibility of sending 
two regiments to take charge of the forts, and to furnish and 
arm three vessels for the protection of the coast. You can 
exercise the power, under the circumstances, better than any one 
else." On the same day on which this letter was written, an 
order passed the Executive Council, that the Governor send a 
force of militia to garrison the forts, and one company to each 
of the arsenals at Cambridge and Watertown, the whole not 
to exceed seven hundred men ; the Adjutant-General to furnish 
subsistence, and the Quartermaster-General transportation. On 
the same day, Mr. Boutwell telegraphed from New York to 
Governor Andrew, "Send without delay a steamer, with pro- 
visions, for General Butler's command at Annapolis. She 
must be armed. Mr. Burt returns by eleven-o'clock train with 
orders from General Wool." 

On the 25th of April, Mr. Crowninshield, who was in New 
York to take the steamer for Europe to purchase arms, writes 
to the Governor, " I am detained till this forenoon for despatches 
from the British minister. I learn that he has telegraphed to 
Halifax for a fleet to go to Washington to protect him and 
save the archives of their Government. I believe it." 

Before leaving New York, Mr. Boutwell succeeded in obtain- 
ing an order from General Wool upon the ordnance officer at 
the United-States Arsenal at Watertown, for four thousand stand 
of arms. These arms were what were known as the "Windsor 
rifle," and had the sword bayonet. Upon the receipt of Mr. 
Boutwell' s telegram to forward provisions to General Butier at 
Annapolis by armed steamer. Governor Andrew consulted John 



LETTER OF MR. FORBES TO THE GOVERNOR. 141 

M. Forbes, and put the matter in his charge. On the after- 
noon of the same day, he addressed the following letter to 
Governor Andrew : - 

Boston, April 25, 1861. 
To His Excellency Governor Andrew. 

SIR,- Having reference to the letter of Hon. George S. Boutwell, 
I beg leave to say, that, after you showed it me this morning, 1 found 
that the only really suitable vessel in port for the purpose indicated 
was on the point of being sold for $75,000. Just before the war, her 
owners asked $70,000 for her, which I thought a little too high. Under 
the circumstances, however, she seemed to me cheap; and I took the 
responsibility of buying her, intending to offer her to you or to the 
General Government. 

I have since applied to the underwriters and merchants to take and 
own half of the ship, if the State will take the other half, with the 
understanding that she is to be managed as an armed transport, used 
to convey troops and stores, at the prices current for other transports ; 
and, when not so used, to act as coast-guard or despatch vessel, under 
the management of a Government agent or agents. 

It is hoped, upon this basis, to make her pay her way, with little or 
no loss, besides doing good service, and keeping up the confidence of 
our citizens and the fears of our enemies. 

If you approve the plan, I should like to have you own such part 
of her as I cannot get readily taken by the underwriters ; also, propor- 
tion of her outfit, which I estimate at under $10,000. 

She can at once load coal and the stores ordered, get on board the 
guns, which the Navy Yard will lend us temporarily, and be ready for 
troops or other service. 

I have inquired also about other vessels. The only suitable pro- 
peller is a small vessel of about three hundred tons, nearly new, 
due here to-night, which can be bought for a trifle under $30,000. 
She would make a good temporary gunboat; could carry her crew, a 
good load of stores upon a pinch, and a few troops, not many. 

If you are disposed to have another vessel, she is the most available, 
and is not dear. I think, if you wish it, the merchants and under- 
writers would take part of her, - probably half. She would be well 
adapted to the coast-guard now being raised. 

In addition to these, I have found a side-wheel ship of about one 
thousand tons, older than the others, and having the single advantage of 
light draught of water, - a good serviceable ship. She can be bought 
on reasonable terms to-day, - not cheap, not very dear, - but, in my 



142 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

opinion, not so desirable as either of the others, unless some new 
arrangement arises. 

I should strongly recommend some prompt action as to the first two 
vessels, if you knew the emergency as I do, and are willing to take 
the responsibility. 

The money for the " Cambridge " ought to be appropriated immedi- 
ately, and orders given as to the name in which she shall stand regis- 
tered, -perhaps two trustees, one to represent the State, and one the 
individual subscribers. 

With much respect, your obedient servant, J. M. FORBES. 

N.B. - I do not think the merchants ready, at this moment, to 
share in the third vessel, -the side-wheel steamer. 

On the same day, the letter was referred by the Governor to 
a committee of the Executive Council, who reported that "the 
Committee authorize the Governor to procure, on the basis of 
the letter, two steam-vessels, the State to take one half and the 
underwriters the other, to be managed as armed transports to 
convey troops and stores, and, when not so used, as a coast- 
guard or despatch vessels." These vessels were immediately 
purchased, - the "Cambridge" at a cost of $75,000, and the 
"Pembroke" at $30,000. The outfit of the "Cambridge" cost 
$10,000. The Council also ordered, "that the Governor, with 
the advice of the Council, employ John, M. Forbes, Esq., to 
procure proper rations for the supply of four thousand men in 
service for thirty days, to be furnished immediately." 

Mr. Boutwell arrived at Washington on the 28th of April, 
and, on the evening of that day, wrote the following interesting 
letter to Governor Andrew, which was the first satisfactory 
communication he had received from Washington since the regi- 
ments had left the State : - 

Washington, April 28, 1861. 
To His Excellency Governor Andrew. 

SIR, - I arrived in Washington to-day, after a journey of forty- 
eight hours from Philadelphia by Annapolis. There have been no 
mails from the North for a week; and you may easily understand, that 
the mighty public sentiment of the Free States is not yet fully appre- 
ciated here. 

The President and Cabinet are gaining confidence ; and the measures 
of the Administration will no longer be limited to the defence of the 



MR. BOUTWELL WRITES FROM WASFIINGTON. 143 

capital. Secretary Welles has already sent orders to Captain Hudson 
to purchase six steamers, with instructions to consult you in regard to 
the matter. I regret that the Secretary was not ready to put the 
matter into the hands of commissioners, who would have acted effi- 
ciently and promptly. 

Mr. Welles will accept, as part of the quota, such vessels as may 
have been purchased by Mr. Forbes. 

Senator Grimes, of Iowa, will probably give Mr. Crowninshield an 
order for arms. The United-States Government may do the same; 
but no definite action has yet been taken. 

Martial law will be proclaimed here to-morrow. Colonel Mansfield 
will be appointed general, and assigned to this district. He is one of 
the most efficient officers in the country. 

Baltimore is to be closed in from Havre-de-Grace, from the Relay 
House, from the Carlisle line, and by an efficient naval force. She 
will be reduced to unconditional submission. The passage of the 
troops through Maryland has had a great moral effect. The people 
are changing rapidly in the country places. Many instances of a 
popular revolution, in towns through which troops have passed or been 
stationed, have come to my knowledge. I came to Washington with 
the Twelfth New-York Regiment ; and from Annapolis Junction there 
were cheers from three-fourths of the houses by the wayside. 

Every thing appears well at Annapolis, where General Butler com- 
mands in person. There is a large body of troops, the people are 
gradually gaining confidence in the army and the Government, and the 
regulations seem to be effective. General Butler is popular with the 
officers whom I met. He has taken command of the highlands that 
command the town and the encampment. All sorts of rumors are 
spread among the troops concerning an attack upon the Annapolis 
Station ; but the place can be defended under any conceivable circum- 
stances. I am sorry to say, that every thing is in confusion at Annap- 
olis Junction ; and a moderate force might, in a single night, break off 
the connection of this city with the North. It is at present a military 
station without a permanent head. Each colonel, as he moves towards 
Washington, commands for twelve or twenty-four hours. My own 
belief, however, is, that Maryland will never see two thousand men 
together as a military organization in opposition to the Government. 

I presume that your Excellency has means of obtaining information 
concerning the condition of Massachusetts men, morally and physically ; 
but, as I am here, I shall try to obtain and transmit any information 
that seems important. I may say now, that the Eighth Regiment is 
quartered in the rotunda of the Capitol ; and a military man, not of 



144 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Massachusetts, says, that they are already suffering from the cold and 
dampness of the place. He advises tents and out-door encampment,. 

I repeat what is every hour said in my hearing, that Massachusetts 
has taken her place at the head of the column in support of the Gov- 
ernment ; and our regiments are everywhere esteemed as noble exam- 
ples of citizen-soldiers. I, for one, feel anxious that every thing that 
is proper should be done. 

I have written this communication in great haste ; and 1 have only 
time to subscribe myself your Excellency's obedient servant, 

George S. Boutwell. 

On the 30th of April, Governor Andrew received from 
Attorney-General Foster a telegram from Washington, saying, 
"Arrived last night. All well at Annapolis and here." Mr. 
Foster had followed on the heels of Mr. Boutwell. While at 
New York, on his way to Washington, he wrote to Governor 
Andrew as follows : - 

New York, April 27, 1861. 

I have spent to-day in trying to find the utmost known in this city ; 
but there is no reliable intelligence not known to you. New York 
has sent up to this time five thousand four hundred troops, and by 
Tuesday next will send four thousand more. 

Three regiments from Connecticut are nearly ready, - two thou- 
sand four hundred. New Jersey claims to have four regiments nearly 
ready, - three thousand two hundred. Notwithstanding all this, it 
seems to be the strong desire of every one here, that more men should 
go from Massachusetts, without waiting for a requisition. General 
Wool says, if you telegraph to him whether you shall send two more 
regiments, he will answer, "Yes." I have seen him, and he appears 
well, but very much overworked and worn out. For the occasion, the 
committee of merchants are working very hard, and comprise many 
of their best men. I did not feel it was a sufficiently clear case in 
favor of sending more men to telegraph to that effect. But I would 
do it unless you get later advices adverse. The present feeling 
here is, that Washington is safe, but that more troops are greatly 
needed ; and the universal cry is, that the Government is far behind 
the people. I am going to Washington to-night via Annapolis, and 
no doubt shall find the way open and safe. There are a number of 
bills here for transportation by steamer, and for subsistence furnished 
our men ; and I am very confident, that a faithful, sensible man, with 
a small office in this city, to act as agent for Massachusetts, and to 
whom alone you should refer all bills, &c., would save a great deal of 



STATE OF FEELING IN THE CABINET. 145 

money and time. There will be men going and returning, and, a great 
variety of wants, large and small, until the end is reached; and we 
shall have undesirable men claiming to represent the State, and inter- 
meddling in many ways, unless there is some one agent on the spot all 
the time. 

The praise of the Old Bay State is in every mouth ; and the repeti- 
tion of the half said of her Governor to you would be flattery. 
Very respectfully and truly yours, 

DwiGHT Foster 

Mr. Boutwell remained in Washington until the 1st of May, 
when he left for Boston. At Perryville, he telegraphed to 
"Mr. Forbes & Co., - Two lots of stocks additional ordered 
by Cabot." This was in the cipher arranged by Mr. Forbes, 
and meant, "Two regiments of troops additional ordered by 
Cameron." Mr. Boutwell arrived at New York on the 2d of 
May, and wrote to Governor Andrew that evening : - 

I arrived here this afternoon, and I hope to report to you in person 
Saturday. I had free conversation with the President, General Scott, 
Mr. Seward, Mr. Chase, General Cameron, and Mr. Blair, upon public 
affairs. The impression I received from all, except perhaps Mr. Sew- 
ard, was favorable to a vigorous prosecution of the war. Mr. Seward 
repeated his words of December and February, "The crisis is over." 
It is, however, understood at Washington, that Mr. Seward favors vigor- 
ous measures. Mr. Chase says, that the policy of the Administration is 
vigorous and comprehensive, as sure to succeed in controlling the 
Rebellion, and preserving the whole territory of the Union. I will 
only say now, that I left Washington with a more favorable impres- 
sion of the policy of the Government than I entertained when I left 
Boston. 

General Cameron agreed to authorize Massachusetts to raise two 
regiments in addition to that of Dwight's. The papers were all made, 
and only a Cabinet meeting prevented their completion on Tuesday. 
I did not wish to remain another day, and I left the papers with the 
chief clerk ; and I also received the assurance of Colonel Ripley, that 
he would give personal and prompt attention to transmitting them to 
Boston. I shall expect them on Saturday. 

Colonel Ripley issued an order on Tuesday for rifling cannon. Mr. 
Forbes's letter aided very much. 

I am very truly your most obedient servant, 

George S. Boutwell. 
10 



146 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

The "Cambridge " had arrived in Washington from Boston, 
with troops and military stores. Judge Hoar was in the city. 
There appears to have been no one to act for the Government 
to take charge of the stores, or to superintend their distribution. 
The following letter from E. Rockwood Hoar, one of the jus- 
tices of the Supreme Court, to the Governor, relates to this 
matter, and to the hardships borne by die Fifth Regiment, from 
the time it left Boston until it arrived in Washington, which, in 
part, were occasioned by haste and bad management in loading 
the transports at New York, by which the rations and the bales 
of blankets, which were to have been distributed to the men, 
were covered with other merchandise, and could not be got at, 
so that the men suffered for want of food and blankets : - 

Washington, May 6,1861. 
To His Excellency Governor Andrew . 

DEARSlR,-Mr. Foster, I learn, has gone with General Butler, 
and cannot be communicated with. Dr. Howe has not arrived. The 
"Cambridge" arrived yesterday afternoon. I have therefore, as I 

wrote to you yesterday, "taken the responsibility," which I trust will 
meet your approbation, as there is nobody here to attend to the busi- 
ness ; and, unless instant attention be paid to it, in the present extreme 
confusion of affairs here, there would be even great delay in getting 
their private packages to our troops. I saw the President this morn- 
ing the instant he left the breakfast table, presented your letter to him, 
and explained to him the whole business. I also saw General Cam- 
eron, and he has agreed to take the stores, with the exception of such 
as we may retain for hospital use, and for the reasonable comfort of 
our men, at the invoice price, with the freight added at the price you 
named. The President sent for Mr. Seward ; and I had a conference 
with them jointly as to the purchase or employment of the steamers, 
and also with General Cameron. The strong inclination of the Gov- 
ernment is to purchase rather than charter vessels; and I think the 
arrangement can be made to sell them. But to-morrow they are to 
have a detailed report of the number of vessels already engaged, and 
I am promised a definite answer on Wednesday. 

I took Senator Wilson with me, and consulted Colonel Lawrence, 
the senior officer in command of the Massachusetts men, and Colonel 
Monroe, and the quartermaster of the Sixth Regiment, as to the sup- 
plies and stores which should be retained for the hospital service and 
the comfort of the troops, and we have examined the invoice and made 



JUDGE HOAR AT WASHINGTON. 147 

the selection ; and I have the promise that by one o'clock the business 
shall be put through the proper department. 

The Sixth Massachusetts Regiment left Washington yesterday, 
under General Butler's orders, for the Relay House, between Annap- 
olis Junction and Baltimore. Their future destination is not certain ; 
but. if there should be a march for the occupation of Baltimore, it is 
felt that poetical justice requires that regiment to have the first place. 

I have the honor, further, to submit a matter which I venture to 
press upon your immediate attention. 

The Fifth Regiment left Boston, by their own choice, partially 
equipped, on Sunday morning, April 21, rather than wait another day 
to have their equipments completed. They had to sleep in Faneuil 
Hall, in the confusion and bustle of the two preceding nights. They 
went to New York on that Sunday, marched the whole length of that 
city in the evening, hardly able to stand from fatigue and sleeplessness. 
They were crowded on board the steamer, and sent fresh from their 
country homes and habits to the sickness and misery of the sea voyage, 
with only the deck to lie down on, and not room enough for all to do 
that. They landed at Annapolis at night, were kept standing in line, 
waiting for orders, four or five hours, and at eleven, P.M., required to 
march on foot to Annapolis Junction, twenty miles. Their blankets and 
clothing were done up into bales and boxes on the steamer, and had only 
been partially landed when they started. Colonel Lawrence wanted to 
wait for it ; but the danger and necessity of their immediate presence at 
the juuction made their march imperative. He left forty men detailed 
to take charge of and forward the baggage ; but, after the regiment had 
gone. General Butler ordered them off to serve as a guard on the line 
of the railroad. The regiment reached the Junction, and took their 
first substantial sleep on the ground, without shelter or blankets. 
Our Concord company had nothing but their guns, and what they left 
home in and their great-coats; and a number had not even the coats 
-left behind at Annapolis. The baggage, left without charge, got 
mixed with general United-States stores, and got distributed to Penn- 
sylvania and other troops promiscuously. It is gone past redemption. 
Thirty men of the Concord company have not yet got a blanket, and 
sleep on a hard floor. They had not a shirt in the company till last 
Friday, two weeks from home, except those they wore from home, nor 
a pair of drawers or stockings till Saturday, and then not enough to 
go round. There is no complaint. Health generally good, and spirits 
and patriotism as high and cheerful as yours or mine, - the heroes! 
The United States have no blankets here ; and all attempts possible 
have been made, here and at Annapolis, to supply them. Colonel 



148 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Lawrence is doing, and has done, all in his power, and is entitled to 
great credit for his services. But they want what the enclosed list 
states, -instantly. I know you will send them if you can. If the 
State cannot pay for them, send the bill for the Concord company to 
Concord, and it shall be paid as soon as I get there. I will write 
again this evening. 

The commissary says Government is very short of money. Treas- 
ury-notes are but partially serviceable, because they are used to pay 
dues to the Government, and so must cut off revenue ; in fact, substan- 
tially amount only to an anticipation of revenue. 

The matter of the loan, on which we addressed you last week, is 
therefore of the highest importance. 

I learned on my arrival, that the orders for Massachusetts regiments 
to be enlisted, mustered, and drilled at Boston had been forwarded. 
If they have not come to hand, telegraph me or Wilson, and duplicates 
will be sent. 

Faithfully your Excellency's friend, and the servant of the com- 
mittee and the cause, E. R. HOAR. 

With the following letter from Judge Hoar to the Governor, 
we close this part of the correspondence relating to matters 
connected with the three months' troops, and the disposition of 
the War Department neither to accept more troops, purchase 
transports, nor to take charge of commissary stores which had 
been forwarded by Massachusetts : - 

Washington, May 8, 1861. 
To His Excellency Governor Andrew. 

Dear Sir, - The "Cambridge" arrived this morning, having been 
detained between two and three days at Fort Monroe to bring on some 
heavy guns and shells. Dr. Howe arrived this morning, having been 
detained on the way by illness. 

Mr. Cameron told me this morning, that his department would not 
purchase, or agree to employ, the steamers; and, in answer to my 
urgent representations about the six Massachusetts regiments for the 
war.said that none could be received at present, and that he could 
give no promise or encouragement for the future. I asked Mr. Chase 
if he could help us, and he said he was afraid he could not, as he had 
been trying to get Cameron to receive ten regiments from Ohio, and 
had succeeded in getting him to accept only three. 

In regard to the steamers, I have made a very strong application to 
the Secretary of the Navy, which I think has produced some impres- 



OFFER TO FURNISH MORE TROOPS. 149 

sion; and he has promised to have the naval inspectors examine the 
"Cambridge" to-morrow, and to see if he can take her. I put the 
matter upon all the public grounds I could urge, and upon the claim 
which our State has for consideration from what she has done and 
what she is doing; and I am sure Mr. Welles feels personally friendly 
to our purpose. The "Pembroke" I do not believe you can sell to 
either department, and think you had better put her freight charge, 
and make your plans for her future employment upon that suppo- 
sition. 

I have the promise, that the duplicate orders for our troops to be 
mustered into service in Boston shall be immediately transmitted. I 
received your telegram too late to have it done to-day. I must leave 
Washington to-morrow morning, and shall leave Mr. Lowell in charge 
of the affairs of the "Cambridge" until he is superseded by some one 
else. I trust he may receive express and direct authority, addressed 
to him personally from you, or by your order, which I think will facili- 
tate his action and communication with the authorities. 

Dr. Howe prefers he should go on with the business, as he under- 
stands and has begun it ; and it requires a great deal of running about 
and personal hard work. 1 think it will be done to your satisfaction. 
The captain of the "Cambridge" thoughtlessly omitted to make any 
bargain for the transmission of the guns and shells from Fortress Mon- 
roe, and that will make some trouble, but will be carefully looked 
after. Senator Wilson will do all he can to forward the sale of the 
vessel ; and he and Dr. Howe will advise with Mr. Lowell. 

Faithfully your Excellency's obedient servant, E. R. HOAR. 

The letters of Mr. Boutwell and Judge Hoar describe the 
duties with which they were charged by the Governor. They 
were to consult with the President and his Cabinet and with 
General Scott respecting the exigencies of the occasion, and 
keep up a communication with the authorities of the State. 
They had also charge of the provisions, clothing, and munitions 
of war, forwarded from the State to the Massachusetts soldiers. 
Judge Hoar, who was in Washington about the time when the 
proclamation of the President was issued for regiments of three 
years' volunteers, made, by direction of the Governor, urgent 
efforts to induce the Government to accept of all the regiments 
which Massachusetts was prepared to furnish. On the 8th of 
May, a proposition was made by him in writing, to the Secretary 
of War, offering, on behalf of the State, to "furnish six regiments 



150 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

for three years, or for the war, perfectly equipped, in addition 
to the quota which Massachusetts might be called upon to 
furnish under the first call of the President ; and, on the same 
day, it was refused by the Secretary. He also, in co-operation 
with Mr. Foster, the Attorney-General, and Senator Wilson, by 
direction of the Governor, offered such aid as Massachusetts 
could furnish to the pecuniary credit of the Government. 

Judge Hoar left Washington on or about the 15th of May, 
to return home ; and his duties and responsibilities were assumed 
by Charles R. Lowell, Jr., who had been appointed by the Gov- 
ernor as the agent of Massachusetts in Washington. Before 
leaving Washington, Judge Hoar addressed a letter to Mr. 
Lowell, in which the duties he was expected to perform were 
carefully and concisely stated. He was to communicate with the 
departments in relation to stores sold, or troops carried on 
the Massachusetts transports. He was to communicate with the 
officers commanding Massachusetts regiments ; and every thing 
wanting by them was to be received and distributed through 
him. He was to keep an account of his expenses, and report 
as nearly daily as practicable of all his doings to the Governor. 
He was empowered to buy a copying-press, and "to employ a 
clerk, if necessary." - "The object of the whole arrangement is," 
says Judge Hoar, "to have some one responsible, competent 
agent, who will know all that is done and sent from Massachu- 
setts, and all that is wanted and received at Washington, or by 
the troops, wherever stationed; to take care of property, take 
vouchers, prevent waste, and to be the sole channel of commu- 
nication between supply and demand." 

This letter of Judge Hoar to Mr. Lowell brings up pleasant 
and sad memories of one of the best and bravest of men. Mr. 
Lowell was bom in Boston, Jan. 2, 1835. He was the son of 
Charles R. Lowell, and the grandson of Rev. Charles Lowell. 
The best blood of Massachusetts flowed in his veins. He 
graduated at Harvard University at the head of his class in 1853. 
When the Rebellion broke out, he was in Cumberland, Md. 
He had charge of the Mt. Savage Iron Works at that place. 
On the 20th of April, 1861, hearing of the attack upon the Sixth 
Regiment in Baltimore, he abandoned his position, and set out 



MR. LOWELL APPOINTED AGENT. 151 

for Washington. In what manner he made the journey is not 
clearly known; but he reached the capital on Monday, April 
22. On the 24th, he wrote to his mother, "I was fortunate 
enough to be in Baltimore last Sunday, and to be here at pres- 
ent. How Jim and Henry will envy me! I shall come to see 
you if I find there is nothing to be done here. So have the 
blue-room ready." Mr. Lowell remained at his post as the 
agent of Massachusetts in Washington until the 14th of May, 
when he was appointed by the President a captain in the Sixth 
United-States Cavalry. On the 15th of April, 1863, he was 
commissioned by Governor Andrew colonel of the Second Regi- 
ment of Massachusetts Cavalry, a regiment which was recruited 
by him in this 'State. It was while raising and organizing this 
regiment that we became acquainted with him. On the 19th 
of October, 1864, he was made a brigadier-general of volun- 
teers by President Lincoln. On the same day, he fell from 
his horse, from wounds received at the battle of Cedar Creek, 
and died on the day following, October 20. The writer was in 
Washington when the battle was fought in which Colonel Lowell 
was killed. The following is an extract from a letter addressed 
by me to Governor Andrew, and which is printed in the Adju- 
tant-General's Report for 1864 : - 

On arriving at my hotel in Washington, I had the honor of an intro- 
duction to Brigadier-General Custar, of General Sheridan's army. He 
had arrived in Washington that afternoon (Oct. 22) from the Shenan- 
doah Valley, having in his custody twelve battle-flags, which had been 
captured from the enemy the Wednesday preceding. He was to pre- 
sent them the next day to the Secretary of War, and he was pleased 
to give me an invitation to be present. From him I first learned that 
Colonel Lowell, of the Second Massachusetts Cavalry, had been killed, 
gallantly leading the regiment in the front of battle. This news sad- 
dened my heart. Colonel Lowell was my beau ideal of an officer and a 
gentleman. I had seen much of him while he was in Massachusetts, 
raising and organizing his regiment, and had become warmly attached 
to him. He was one of our best and bravest. General Custar in- 
formed me that Colonel Lowell was severely wounded in the early 
part of the engagement, and was advised to retire to the rear. H e 
thought, however, he could stand the fatigues of the day, and stoutly 
held to his command; in a few hours afterwards, he fell, mortally 



152 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

wounded. It was pleasant to listen to the words of praise which Gen- 
eral Custar bestowed upon his fallen comrade." 

Mr. Lowell was succeeded as agent for Massachusetts in 
Washington by Charles H. Dalton, of Boston, who was com- 
missioned assistant quartermaster-general, with the rank of 
colonel, May 23, 1861. Of his services we shall speak here- 
after. 

On the 2d of May, Governor Andrew addressed the follow- 
ing letter to Dr. Samuel G. Howe : - 

Executive Department, Boston, May 2, 1861. 
To Dr. Samuel G. Howe, Boston. 

My dear Sir, - The Massachusetts Volunteer Militia now in the 
field demand and deserve our anxious care, as well in respect to their 
sanitary condition (including their medical and surgical supplies and 
attendance, their nursing and comfort in sickness), as also in respect to 
the departments of the commissary and the quartermaster. 

I desire to avail myself of your experience, and good judgment, 
and energy, to procure a speedy and exhaustive survey of the condition, 
in those respects, of our men pertaining to General Butler's brigade, 
wherever they may be, and an early and minute report thereon. 

We wish to know what they have received, so as to learn whether 
what we pay for reaches them, whether it is distributed, and, if so, 
how carefully and skilfully, and whether it is properly husbanded. 

I desire especially also to ascertain how it happens that we hear so 
much complaint from Colonel Lawrence's regiment about being stinted 
for food on the voyage from New-York City to Annapolis, when we 
are advised that Major Ladd obtained fifteen days' rations in New 
York for the whole command, and shipped them on board the steamers 
"Ariel" and "De Soto," on which the troops sailed. 

Major Charles Devens, major of the Rifle Battalion of Worcester, 
will be found, among others, a most intelligent person with whom to 
consult. 

Learn and report, if possible, what aid, if any, is needed in the 
commissary and quartermaster's departments and on the medical staff. 

I desire you particularly to attend to the proper distribution of 
the stores shipped on the steamer "Cambridge," which will be due 
at Washington, probably on Saturday next. Please advise with 
Brigadier-General Butler and with Lieutenant-General Scott on this 
subject. 



DR. S. G. HOWE, SANITARY AGENT. 153 

I annex invoices of the stores belonging to the Commonwealth, 
which were shipped on board of her. 

In all these matters which I commit to your care for inspection 
and supervision, it must be left to your discretion to obtain the fullest 
and most accurate information possible, in order to direct your course 
of action. In all your operations, I do not doubt that you will 
receive the most cordial assistance and co-operation from General But- 
ler, to whose kind attention I commend you, and with whom I desire 
you shall constantly advise and consult. What I desire to obtain is, 
a thorough comprehension of the position and condition of our troops, 
in all respects, so as to remedy existing deficiencies and provide against 
future evils. 

It is impossible to convey any such thorough idea to me through 
written despatches so speedily as I wish to obtain it ; and therefore, 
inasmuch as in the absence of a Lieutenant-Governor I cannot con- 
veniently leave Massachusetts in person for that purpose, I desire you 
to act in a species of representative capacity for observation in my 
behalf. 

Your expenses will be paid by the Commonwealth ; and I con- 
gratulate the service that I bate been able to induce you to undertake 
this duty. 

With great regard, your friend and servant, 

John A. Andrew, Governor. 

Dr. Howe immediately entered upon his duties. Upon his 
return, he made a report of the condition of the regiments. 
He went by way of Annapolis to Washington. His first im- 
pression was at the changed appearance of the men. But yes- 
terday they were citizens ; to-day they are soldiers, five hundred 
miles from their homes, and ready to go a thousand more. On 
looking at the actual condition of the regiments, he was sur- 
prised to find how abundant had been the provision made for 
their comfort and efficiency. There were some complaints and 
grumblings about exposure and sleeping on the ground by 
night, and about hard fare and disgusting food by day ; but on 
one who had found relish in boiled sorrel, and a luxury in raw 
snails, these complaints made but little impression. It was evi- 
dent, as a general thing, there had been an abundant outfit, 
and a superabundance of what are usually considered luxuries 
at home. The breaking-in of a soldier to campaign life seems 



154 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION., 

a rough and hard process ; but it is not a killing one, especially 
to New-Englanders. In a while, the boys would laugh at what 
they have complained of. There is a vein of humor and sar- 
casm running through the report of Dr. Howe, such as might 
have been expected from a. gentleman of his peculiar tempera- 
ment, knowledge, and practical experience in the rough usage 
of active mihtary Ufe ; and yet it is full of kind words and wise 
suggestions. He says, "The invoice of articles sent by the 
'Cambridge' and other vessels for our troops, contains articles 
hardly dreamed of even by general officers in actual war. Hun- 
dreds of chests of Oolong teas, tons of white crushed sugar, 
and then a whole cargo of ice!" Besides these regular sup- 
plies, a vast variety of articles of use and luxury had been sent 
by the families of die soldiers and the town committees. "Their 
principal value (and that is priceless) is as a testimony of the 
patriotism, zeal, and generosity of the men and women, who 
felt that they must do something for the cause, which seemed to 
them, not only of their country, but of humanity." He speaks 
of the reports of cruelty practised in one of the regiments (not 
named), which are so frequent that they made a powerful im- 
pression on him. He found only about one per cent on the 
sick-list, and only two cases of dangerous illness. As to the 
matter of suffering, he says, " Some soldiers do indeed complain 
that they have undergone needless exposures, privations, and 
hardships, through the indifference of officers. It is hoped that 
the most flagrant cases of the kind arose from over-sanguine 
temper, which made the officers overlook the great hability to 
storms, when leading out troops unprovided with tents, and 
that longer experience will correct this." But, he says, - 

" There will be many captains like one whom I could name in the 
Massachusetts Fifth, - the stalwart man, every inch of whose six feet 
is of soldier stamp; the captain who eschews hotel dinners, and takes 
every meal with his men, eating only what they eat ; who is their reso- 
lute and rigid commander when on duty, but their kind and faithful 
companion and friend when off duty ; who lies down with them upon 
the bare ground or floor, and, if there are not blankets enough for all, 
refuses to use one himself; who often gets up in the night, and draws 
the blankets over any half-covered sleeper, and carries water to any 



ANECDOTE OF CAPTAIN PRESCOTT. 155 

one who may be feverish and thirsty ; the man who is like a father as 
well as a captain of his soldiers. He is the man who administered 
that stern rebuke the other day to the upstart West-Point cadet, sent 
to drill the company. The first day, the cadet interlarded the orders 
with oaths, - his commands with curses. The men complained to their 
captain. ' I'll stop that to-morrow,' says he. The next day's drill 
begins, and the cadet begins to swear at the soldiers. 'Please not 
swear at my men, sir,' says the captain. 'What do you know about 
the drill ?' says the cadet ; ' and what can you do about my swearing ? ' 
'Sir.' says the captain sternly, 'I know this, and you ought to know 
it, - swearing is forbidden by the army regulation ; and, if you con- 
tinue to break the rule, I'll order my men to march off the ground, 
and they'll obey me, and leave you to swear alone. The cadet took 
the rebuke, and swore no more at that company. There are many 
officers of this stamp ; and then there is among the soldiers enough of 
the old Puritan leaven to lighten the lump.' 

"The stalwart man, every inch of whose six feet is of 
soldier stamp," was undoubtedly Captain Prescott, who com- 
manded the Concord company in the Fifth Regiment, as the 
story is told of him in nearly the same words by Ralph Waldo 
Emerson, in his address, delivered a few months ago on the 
occasion of the dedication of the soldiers' monument, erected 
in Concord in honor of the soldiers of that town who fell in the 
war. On that monument is the name of George L. Prescott, 
who, as colonel of the Massachusetts Thirty-second Regiment, 
fell in front of Petersburg, mortally wounded, on the 18th of 
June, 1864, while leading his men in a charge upon the enemy, 
and who died on the field. A brave and generous gentleman! 

Dr. Howe's report is too long to quote entire. It contains 
many wise suggestions in regard to cleanliness and cooking 
rations, and concludes with this pithy sentence : " If a tithe of 
the science, skill, and care which are so hberaUy given to im- 
proving all the means of killing the soldiers of other armies 
were devoted to the means of keeping our own soldiers in 
health, the present fearful mortality of war would be greatly 
lessened." 

We have stated in the preceding chapter, that, when General 
Butler landed with the Eighth Regiment at AnnapoUs, a rumor 
reached him that the slaves in that vicinity were on the eve of 



156 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

rising in rebellion against their masters; and that he offered 
to Governor Hicks the Eighth Regiment to suppress it, which 
offer was declined peremptorily by the Governor of Maryland. 
The rumor had no foundation upon which to rest. Governor 
Andrew was informed that such an offer had been made, by a 
despatch from General Butler, written at Annapolis. He re- 
garded it with disfavor, and immediately wrote to the General, 
expressing his approval of all that he had thus far done, with 
the exception of this offer to use Massachusetts troops for such a 
purpose, especially as their first duty was to get to Washington, 
and protect the national capital from threatened attack. Gov- 
ernor Andrew said, - 

" I think that the matter of servile insurrection among a commn- 
nity in arms against the Federal Union is no longer to be regarded by 
our troops in a political, but solely in a military point of view ; and is 
to be contemplated as one of the inherent weaknesses of the enemy, 
from the disastrous operations of which we are under no obligations of 
a military character to guard them, in order that they may be enabled 
to improve the security which our arms would afford, so as to prose- 
cute with more energy their traitorous attacks upon the Federal 
Government and capital. The mode in which outbreaks are to be 
considered should depend entirely upon the loyalty or disloyalty of the 
community in which they occur ; and, in the vicinity of Annapolis, I 
can on this occasion perceive no reason of military policy why a force, 
summoned to the defence of the Federal Government, at this moment 
of all others, should be offered to be diverted from its immediate duty, 
to help rebels, who stand with arms in their hands, obstructing its 
progress towards the city of Washington. I entertain no doubt, that, 
whenever we shall have an opportunity to interchange our views per- 
sonally on this subject, we shall arrive at entire concurrence of 
opinion." 

General Butler, on the 9th of May, wrote a long letter to 
Governor Andrew, in which he defended his action in offering 
the Eighth Regiment to suppress a slave insurrection. He be- 
gan by apologizing for delay in writing ; his active official duties 
pressing him for time, and a slight attack of illness, being his 
excuses. He acknowledges " the more than usual accuracy " of 
the despatch received by Governor Andrew, and then proceeds 
to defend his course. He said, " I landed on the soil of Mary- 



GENERAL BUTLER'S OFFER TO GOVERNOR HICKS. 157 

land against the formal protest of the Governor and the corpo- 
rate authorities of Annapolis, but without armed opposition on 
their part." He informed Governor Hicks that the soldiers of 
his command were armed only against insurgents and disturbers 
of the peace of Maryland and of the United States. He 
received from the Governor and Mayor assurances of the 
loyalty of the State to the Union. He told the Governor and 
Mayor, that, supported by the authorities of the State and city, 
he should repress all hostile demonstrations against the laws 
of Maryland and the United States ; and would protect both 
himself and the city of Annapolis from any disorderly per- 
sons whatever. Therefore, when he was subsequently informed 
of the probable insurrection, he could do nothing less than make 
the offer he did, as it came within the pledge he had given. 
He proceeds, " The question seemed to me to be neither military 
nor political, and was not to be so treated. It was simply a 
question of good faith and honesty of purpose." He then speaks 
of "the benign effect" which his offer had upon the people of 
Annapolis. The people had returned to their homes, and peace 
and order everywhere prevailed. "Confidence took the place 
of distrust, friendship of enmity, brotherly kindness of sectional 
hate ; and I beheve to-day there is no city in the Union more 
loyal than the city of Annapolis. I think, therefore, I may 
safely point to the results for my justification." He also says, 
- the "neighboring county of Washington" had a few days 
before elected a Union delegate to the Legislature by a vote of 
four thousand out of five thousand ballots, - This vote "is 
among the many fruits of firmness of purpose, efficiency of 
action, and integrity of mission." But, as he may have to act 
hereafter " in an enemy's country, among a servile population, 
when the question may arise as it has not yet. arisen, as well in 
a moral and Christian as in a political and military point of 
view, what shall I do?" The remainder of the letter we give 
entire : - 

" I appreciate fully your Excellency's suggestion as to the inherent 
weakness of the rebels, arising from the preponderance of the servile 
population. The question, then, is, in what manner shall we take 
advantage of that weakness? By allowing, and of course causing, 



158 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

that population to rise upon the defenceless women and children of the 
country, carrying rapine, arson, and murder - all the horrors of San 
Domingo a million of times magnified - among those whom we hope to 
re-unite with us as brethren, many of whom are already so, and all 
who are worth preserving will be, when this horrible madness shall 
have passed away or be threshed out of them? Would your Excel- 
lency advise the troops under my command to make war in person 
upon defenceless women and children, of any part of the Union, 
accompanied with brutalities too horrible to be named? You will say, 
God forbid! If we may not do so in person, shall we arm others so to 
do, over whom we can have no restraint, exercise no control, and who, 
when once they have tasted blood, may turn the very arms in their 
hands against ourselves as a part of the oppressing white race? The 
reading of history, so familiar to your Excellency, will tell you, the 
bitterest cause of complaint which our fathers had against Great 
Britain, in the war of the Revolution, was the arming by the British 
Ministry of the red man with the tomahawk and the scalping-knife 
against the women and children of the colonies; so that the phrase, 
'May we not use all the means which God and nature have put in our 
hands to subjugate the colonies ?' has passed into a legend of infamy 
against the leader of that ministry who used it in Parliament. Shall 
history teach us in vain? Could we justify ourselves to ourselves, 
although with arms in our hands, amid the savage wildness of camp 
and field, we may have blunted many of the finer moral sensibilities, 
in letting loose four millions of worse than savages upon the homes 
and hearths of the South? Can we be justified to the Christian com- 
munity of Massachusetts? Would such a course be consonant with 
the teachings of our holy religion? I have a very decided opinion 
upon the subject ; and if any one desires-as I know your Excellency 
does not -this unhappy contest to be prosecuted in that, manner, some 
instrument other than myself must be found to carry it on. I may not 
discuss the poUtical bearings of this subject. When I went from under 
the shadow of my roof-tree, I left all pohtics behind me, to be resumed 
only when every part of the Union is loyal to the flag, and the potency 
of die Government through the ballot-box is established. 

"Passing the moral and Christian view, let us examine the subject 
as a military question. Is not that State already subjugated which 
requires the bayonets of those armed in opposition to its rulers to pre- 
serve it from the horrors of a servile war? As the least experienced 
of military men, I would have no doubt of the entire subjugation of a 
State brought to that condition. When, therefore, - unless I am 
better advised, - any community in the United States who have met 



LETTER ON SLAVERY. 159 

me in an honorable warfare, or even in the prosecution of a rebellious 
war in an honorable manner, shall call upon me for protection against 
the nameless horrors of a servile insurrection, they shall have it ; and 
from the moment that call is obeyed, I have no doubt we shall be 
friends, and not enemies. 

" The possibility that dishonorable means of defence are to be taken 
by the rebels against the Government I do not now contemplate. if, 
as has been done in a single instance, my men are to be attacked by 
poison, or, as in another, stricken down by the assassin's knife, and thus 
murdered, the community using such weapons may be required to be 
taught, that it holds within its own border a more potent means for 
deadly purposes and indiscriminate slaughter than any which it can 
administer to us. 

" Trusting that these views may meet your Excellency's approval, 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"Benj. F. Butler" 

The letter of Governor Andrew was not written for publica- 
tion : whether the reply of General Butler was written for that 
purpose, the reader can judge for himself. To the surprise of 
the Governor, both letters appeared in the public prints shortly 
after the reply of General Butler was received by him. General 
Butler gave as one reason for the publication, that the Boston 
correspondent of the New-York Tribune had referred to the 
correspondence in one of his letters to that paper; and stated 
that the correspondent had received information concerning 
them from the Governor's private secretary. Colonel A. G. 
Browne. This charge was emphatically denied by the secre- 
tary, in a letter addressed to General Butler, and he also obtained 
from the Tribune correspondent a letter denying, in the fullest 
and broadest sense, that he had given him the information. 
Copies of these letters are on file in the executive department 
in the State House. 

The letters of Governor Andrew and General Butler are 
interesting and important as an exhibition of the sentiments of 
the two gentlemen respecting the proper course to pursue in 
regard to the slave population in a rebellious State, and also 
as to what was the proper course to pursue in the exigency 
which then existed. The Government had called for troops to 
proceed without delay to Washington, which was threatened by 



160 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

rebel forces from Virginia and Maryland. The troops had been 
called from their homes and workshops, and sent from the State 
to perform this duty, not to put down a negro insurrection in 
Maryland. They had not volunteered for that purpose. They 
were to go to Washington with all possible despatch, and report 
to the United-States officers in command of that post. The 
capital of the nation was in imminent peril. They were 
to defend it against the enemy. Thus Governor Andrew re- 
monstrated against their being diverted, in violation of express 
orders, from the purpose for which they had been called into 
action. 

General Butler, in his reply, does not touch this point, which 
was the strong point in Governor Andrew's letter. The Gen- 
eral goes into a long argument upon the question of slave 
insurrections, illustrating his meaning by references to the 
atrocities of San Domingo, and the barbarities committed by 
the Indian allies of Great Britain in the war of the Revolu- 
tion. It is not our intention, however, to pursue this subject 
further. The correspondence makes an interesting episode in 
the war record of Massachusetts, and therefore could not prop- 
erly be passed, over without remark. Nor is it necessary now 
to criticise the argument used by General Butier, to show how 
utterly, at that time, he misunderstood and wrongly appreciated 
the character of the colored race in the Southern States. 

The only notice which Governor Andrew took of General 
Butler's letter was in a letter addressed to him, dated May 21, 
1861, from which we extract as follows : - 

" Your note of the 16th instant is before me. While I have no 
objection to your publishing your views on military, political, and 
moral questions in the character of a private controversialist (for of 
that it is your own supreme right to judge as a gentleman and a citi- 
zen), yet I cannot engage in the controversy, however agreeable. to me 
it might be to do so under other circumstances, since a great and noble 
cause ought not to be disturbed or imperilled by personal complica- 
tions. And therefore, although your paper, by its discussions of 
questions not logically arising out of that to which it, is in professed 
reply, has the tendency to mislead the reader injuriously to myself, yet 
I cannot persuade my own judgment that I should do otherwise than 
wrong, considering our mutual and public relations, were I to join 



END OF RECORD OF THREE MONTHS" TROOPS. 161 

issue, and go to trial before the popular tribunal of newspaper readers. 
On this ground you will excuse my silence and non-appearance in the 
arena of debate." 

It is proper to state, that the offer made by General Butler 
to Governor Hicks was not known to the colonel of the Eighth 
Regiment, who informed the writer that he was not aware that 
such an offer was ever made, or that a correspondence had 
passed between General Butler and Governor Andrew on 
such a subject. 

We now close the record of the three months' troops. A 
call for volunteers to serve for three years or the war had 
been issued by the President. An extra session of the Legis- 
lature had been called by the Governor of Massachusetts. The 
war began to assume a giant form, that increased in stature 
and in power, and cast its shadow to the ends of the civilized 
world. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Companies sent to the Forts - Officers appointed to command - Militia Bat- 
talions - First Call for Three Years' Troops - Delays at Washington - Let- 
ter to Montgomery Blair - Letter of Secretary of War - General Order 
No. 12 - Six Regiments allowed - Governor anxious to send more - Letter 
of General Walbridge - Governor to Senator Wilson - More Delay - Extra 
Session of the Legislature - Address of the Governor -Proceedings of the 
Legislature-War Measures adopted - Debate on Colored Troops-Bills 
passed by the Legislature - Sinking Fund - Government Securities -Pay 
of Troops -Established Camps - Seven Millions of Dollars - State Aid to 
Families of Soldiers - The Sbc Regiments of Three Years' Men - Ten more 
Regiments called for - Their Organization -Additional Staff Officers ap- 
pointed - Surgeon-General's Department organized - Letter of Governor to 
Dr. Lyman - Board of Medical Examiners - Promotion of the Surgeon- 
General-Letter of the Governor to Colonel Frank E. Howe - New-England 
Rooms, New York -Letter of Colonel Lee to Charles R. Lowell - Letters 
of the Governor to Different Parties - Circular of the Secretary of War - 
Colonel Browne to Colonel Howe - Abstract of Correspondence - Colonel 
Sargent to General Scott - Cobb's Battery - Letter to Colonel Webster - 
Letter to the President-Irish Regiments - Flag-raising at Bunker-Hill 
Monument - Speech of Governor Andrew - Speech of Colonel Webster - 
Interesting Ceremonies - Conclusion. 

The defenceless condition of the forts in Boston Harbor, in 
the early part of the war, was a cause of much labor and 
anxiety to the Governor, and to the merchants and under- 
writers, whose vessels at anchor in the harbor, or lying at the 
wharves, were greatly exposed. Frequent representations of 
the insecure condition of Boston were made by the Governor 
to the Secretary of War, which, for a considerable, time, 
failed to elicit attention. To allay, in some degree, the gen- 
eral feeling of insecurity, the Governor, on the 24th of 
April, ordered the Fourth Battalion of Infantry, under com- 
mand of Major Thomas G. Stevenson, to garrison Fort Inde- 
pendence, where it remained until the 21st of May. On the 
29th of April, the Second Battalion of Infantry, under com- 



TROOPS SENT TO THE FORTS. 163 

mand of Major Ralph W. Newton, was ordered lo garrison 
Fort Warren, where it remained until the 1st of June. 

Major-General Samuel Andrews, of Boston, was ordered to 
take command of both forts, which position he held from the 
1st of May until the 1st of June, when he was relieved. The 
command of Fort Warren was given to Brigadier-General 
Ebenezer W. Peirce, on the 13th of May. He was relieved 
on the 27th of the same month, having been appointed to take 
command of the Massachusetts troops at the front, and to fill 
the vacancy occasioned by the promotion of General Butler to 
be a major-general of volunteers. General Peirce was suc- 
ceded in command of Fort Warren by Brigadier-General 
Joseph Andrews, who remained on duty there, and at Camp 
Cameron, in Cambridge, until Nov. 18, 1861. 

On the 21st of May, the Fourth Battalion of Rifles, Major 
Samuel H. Leonard, was ordered to Fort Independence, where 
it was recruited to a regiment of three years' volunteers, 
afterwards known as the Thirteenth Regiment. A camp was 
also formed on Long Island, in Boston Harbor, to which a 
number of companies, composed of men of Irish birth, were 
ordered. These companies were to form two regiments of 
three years' men, to be known as the Thirteenth and Fourteenth 
Regiments. They were afterwards consolidated into one, and 
known as the Ninth. Of this camp, on the 11th of May, 
Brigadier-General William W. Bullock was placed in com- 
mand. He remained on duty until the 12th of June, when 
the Ninth was ordered to Washington, and the camp was 
broken up. 

The battalions first ordered to the forts performed much labor 
in removing rubbish, old shanties, piles of bricks, and lumber ; 
filling up excavations ; erecting chimneys and cook-houses ; ar- 
ranging hospital accommodations, and preparing them, as well 
as the limited means would permit, for defensive operations. 
These labors have never been properly acknowledged by the 
General Government ; on the contrary, a captious and unjust 
report of the condition of the forts was made, in June, 1861; 
by an army officer, a copy of which was sent to Governor An- 
drew by Major-General Wool. This report sets forth that the 



164 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

forts had been greatly injured by the two battalions ; that nails 
had been driven into the walls of the casemates, drains ob- 
structed, filth accumulated, and chimneys so erected that large 
guns could not be properly manned and worked. That these 
statements had a slight foundation upon which to rest, we shall 
not deny; but if the officer had made a survey of the forts, 
and especially of Fort Warren, before the two battalions had 
taken possession, his report would have been of a different 
tenor, and he would have accorded to the soldiers praise instead 
of censure. They certainly deserved it : they saved the Govern- 
ment time and money in making the forts habitable, and by put- 
ting them in a condition to defend the harbor, and maintain 
garrisons. 

The Governor, on the 25th of April, appointed the three 
major-generals of militia, - Messrs. Sutton, Morse, and 
Andrews, - with a portion of their respective staff, an examin- 
ing board to pass upon the qualification of persons elected 
officers of new companies. This board remained in service 
until the 24th of May, when it was relieved from further 
duties. The number of persons examined by the board was six 
hundred and forty-one men, thirty-nine of whom were rejected. 
On the 2d of May, Lieutenant-Colonel C. C. Holmes, of 
the First Company of Cadets, was placed in command of a 
guard at the State Arsenal at Cambridge, and the powder 
magazine at Captain's Island. The guard was composed of 
members of the cadets and students of Harvard University, who 
volunteered their services. They were relieved on the 30th of 
May, and received the thanks of the Governor. 

We have already stated, that the President issued a proclama- 
tion, on the 3d of May, for volunteers to serve for three years, or 
during the war. On the 4th of May, Secretary Cameron issued 
General Order No. 15, setting forth the number of regiments 
to be raised, and the manner in which they were to be organ- 
ized. There were to be thirty-nine regiments of infantry, and 
one regiment of cavalry. Nothing was said or intimated in 
the Secretary's order about the proportion of men or regiments 
which each State was to furnish. At this time, there were, in 
Massachusetts, upwards of ten thousand men organized into 



DELAY IN WASHINGTON. 165 

companies. They had enlisted as militia : they now pressed 
forward to the State authorities to be accepted and organized as 
volunteers for three years. The Governor could not accept 
them ; could not muster them ; could not encourage them, fur- 
ther than with kind words, until answers were received from 
Washington to messages which he had sent, asking that they 
might be accepted. Days passed on : no requisitions came. 
The companies held to their organizations ; paraded the streets, 
partly for drill, but chiefly to pass the time, until information 
should come from Washington, thattheir services would be ac- 
cepted. 'No orders came ; delay and disappointment marked 
the hour ; men could not understand why the Government would 
not accept their services. They pressed daily to the State 
House; the Governor wrote and telegraphed again and again 
to Washington, beseeching the Secretary to accept the services 
of men anxious to serve their country. No answer came for 
more than a fortnight after the President's call had been issued, 
A letter from Secretary Cameron was received by Governor 
Andrew, on the 22d of May. As a favor, Massachusetts was 
allowed to furnish six regiments of three years' men. 

From among a number of letters written at this time, and 
upon this subject, we select the foUowing, to Montgomery Blair, 
Postmaster-General : - 

May 6, 1861. 
Hon. Montgomery Blair, Washington, D.C. 

My dear Friend, -Your last letter, in which was mentioned a 
possible plan for retaking Sumter, reached me in the midst of cares 
and toil, which have left no opportunity to pursue the subject. 

1 do not know what may be your opinion, or that of the Administra- 
tion, as to operating at that point. 

The whole matter has now assumed the broadest proportions, and 
we in Massachusetts are only anxious to be up to our whole duty ; and 
it is my strong desire to receive from you every friendly and prompt- 
ing hint, and to endeavor to follow it. At the same time, I wish your 
aid in affording Massachusetts those full opportunities which become 
her services and her character. 

I have not the honor of personally knowing the Secretary of War. 
nor do I know how far he may share your sympathy with Massachu- 
setts in her present attitude. At all events, I cannot address him on 



166 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

paper in the earnest and familiar manner I wish, and which, indeed, I 
might adopt if face to face. 

Massachusetts, first in the field, hurrying thither but half prepared, 
eager, at any risk, to save the capital, and, if possible, clinch by a blow 
the national resolve, and, by some gallant act or exhibition, revive the 
flagging pulsations of the public heart, by reason of her promptness of 
action ; of the blood which, flowing from her veins, has once more ren- 
dered the 19th of April an historic day; by the good conduct of her 
Old Colony Regiment, in the affair of Norfolk Navy Yard ; of Butler's 
whole command at Annapolis, in holding the post, saving "Old Iron- 
sides," cutting out a ship-of-war at Baltimore, rebuilding railroads, and 
reconstructing locomotives, - may possibly be looked upon, even though 
useful to the country, as too forward in earning renown. 

But, my dear Blair, I can trust you, that you both believe and know 
of Massachusetts, that we fight from no love of vulgar glory, no desire 
to conquer what is not ours, but that from the quiet industry of their 
peaceful callings, all unused to arms, and with no thirst for war, our 
men have drawn their swords, simply because their country called, 
and justice, patriotism, and honor summoned them to the field. 

Trusting that no shameful concessions of the Government will ever 
purchase the cherished blessings of peace for a price incompatible with 
the undoubted, eternal, and confirmed establishment, and restoration of 
natural rights, and the cause of liberty and democratic constitutional 
government, we relent at no sacrifice appropriate to a patriotic and de- 
voted people. In that spirit we began, and are continuing to prepare 
soldiers and material. 

We are enlisted for the war : we have put ourselves, or rather keep 
ourselves, where we belong, under the national lead of the President 
and his Cabinet, under the folds of the flag our fathers helped to raise. 
But we wish to go onward, not to stand still. 

"From the blood of the slain, from the fat of the mighty, let the 
bow of Jonathan turn not back, and his shield return not empty." 

I pray you now, as my personal friend, who may speak for me and my 
people to the President and in the Cabinet, - I pray you claim and 
secure to us the right, as ours was the first military force to encounter 
the shock of arms (namely, the Sixth Regiment of the Massachusetts 
line), - the right to furnish six regiments m number, and to march with 
the advancing column over the very streets where our brothers poured 
out their blood. The number of our citizens ready to go, the strength 
of their convictions, their willingness to support the Government, the 
variety of useful capacity which characterizes our people, certainly leave 
them behind no others. Moreover, we believe, since we have a war 



LETTER TO SECRETARY CAMERON. 167 

on hand, in making it a short one, by making it an, active one ; and, as 
we have it to carry on, we desire to " pay attention to it," finish it up, 
suppress speedily the rebellion, and then restore the waste places of 
Zion. 

Tell Mr. Chase 1 have begun inquiries and efforts, in the hope that 
Massachusetts may take five millions of his loan. It ought all to be 
taken at par, on six per cent interest. 

I am, ever faithfully, JOHN A. ANDREW 

P.S. - I understand that matters at our navy yard, in Charlestown, 
are not as expeditious as they would be if some old incumbents were 
away. The blacksmith is especially complained about. We do need 
men in sympathy with the great work ; and I hope Mr. Welles will 
refer to Mr. Greene, of the Ordnance Department, and Mr. Roulstone, 
of the same carriage department, and see if, with their suggestions, he 
cannot inspire some new life, with new blood, into certain branches of 
the work. 

The letter of Secretary Cameron, permitting Massachusetts to 
furnish six regiments of volunteers, as before stated, was not 
received until the 22d of May. It was not calculated to inspire 
either spirit or enthusiasm. We copy it entire. 

War Department, Washington May 16, 1861. 
Governor John A. Andrew, Boston. 

Dear Sir, - I have the honor to forward you enclosed herewith 
the plan of organization of the volunteers for three years, or during the 
war. Six regiments are assigned to your State ; making, in addition to 
the two regiments of three months' militia already called for, eight 
regiments. 

It is important to reduce rather than to enlarge this number, and in 
no event to exceed it. Let me earnestly recommend to you, therefore, 
to call for no more than eight regiments, of which six only are to 
serve for three years, or during the war, and, if more are already called 
for, to reduce the number by discharge. In making up the quota of 
three years' men, you will please act in concert with the. mustering, 
officers sent to your State, who will represent this Department. 
I am, sir, respectfully, 

Simon Cameron Secretary of War. 

On the receipt of this letter. General Order No. 12 was issued 
by direction of the Governor, which gave notice that, the quota of 
Massachusetts was "fixed at six regiments of infantry, to be 



168 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

organized as prescribed in General Order No. 15 from the 
War Department." The plan for the organization of the regi- 
ments was substantially the same as in the regular army. Each 
regiment was to be composed of ten companies, each company 
to have a captain, two lieutenants, and ninety-eight enUsted men. 
The field and staff officers of a regiment were to consist of a 
colonel, lieutenant-colonel, major, adjutant, quartermaster, as- 
sistant-surgeon, sergeant-major, quartermaster-sergeant, com- 
missary-sergeant, hospital-steward, two principal musicians, 
and a band of twenty-four musicians. This system of regi- 
mental organization was observed during the whole of the war, 
with the exception that an additional surgeon was allowed, and 
regimental bands were discontinued. 

The six regiments selected, to complete the requisition of the 
Secretary of War, were, the First, which was ordered to "Camp 
Cameron," in North Cambridge. The regiment left the State on 
the 15th of June, for Washington, and marched through Balfi- 
more on the 17th, the anniversary of the battle of Bunker Hill. 
It. was the first three years' regiment that reached Washington 
in the war. The Second, which was recruited at "Camp 
Andrew," in West Roxbnry, left the State on the 8th of July, 
for the front. The Seventh, which was recruited at "Camp 
Old Colony," in Taunton, left for Washington on the 11th of 
July. The Ninth, which was recruited and organized on Long 
Island, in Boston Harbor, left the State in the steamer "Ben De 
Ford ," on the 24th of June, for Washington. The Tenth, which 
was recruited in the western part of the State, remained in 
camp near Springfield, until completely organized. Before 
leaving the State, the regiment was ordered to Medford, and 
was there until the 25th of July, when it was sent forward to 
Washington. The Eleventh, which was quartered in Fort 
Warren, left for Washington on the 24th of June. These six 
regiments were organized, armed, equipped, clothed, and sent 
forward, within four weeks after orders were received that they 
would be accepted. Several others were in a state of formation, 
some of them in camp with full complement of men, and could 
have been sent to the front with little delay if the Secretary 
had given his consent. This could not be obtained. His letter 



MORE REGIMENTS ACCEPTED. 169 

of the 15th of May cast no ray of hope that more regiments 
would be accepted from Massachusetts : on the contrary, " it was 
important to reduce rather than to enlarge this number," The 
Governor, nevertheless, continued to urge upon the President and 
the Secretary the acceptance of more regiments. 

Among the men who sympathized with the Governor in his 
desire to have more troops accepted was General Hiram 
Walbridge, of New York. He was earnest to have the war 
carried on with vigor. At the request of Governor Andrew, 
General Walbridge brought the subject to the attention of the 
President. His efforts were successful. He wrote to the 
Governor from Washington, June 17th, - 

"I am gratified to enclose you herewith a copy of a letter addressed 
to me by the Secretary of War, with the sanction of the President, in 
response to my application in favor of taking additional forces, author- 
izing me to notify you that ten additional regiments will be called from 
the loyal and patriotic State of Massachusetts, in accordance with the 
terms stated in your letter to me of the 12th inst." 

This permission to send forward ten more regiments gave 
great satisfaction, and relieved the Governor from much anxiety 
and care, with which, at this particular period, he was sorely 
pressed. 

Immediate orders were issued to organize and send forward 
the regiments. The correspondence of the Executive Depart- 
ment reveals some of the embarrassing questions which pressed 
upon it at this time. On the 8th of May, Senator Wilson 
who was in Washington, wrote to the Governor, that " the con- 
dition of the uniforms and equipments of the Massachusetts 
three months' troops was bad, as compared with those of other 
States." On the receipt of this letter, the Governor wrote to 
the Senator a long and able reply. The letter is dated May 
10th ; and in it he said, "he has sent and is sending forward 
large supplies both of provisions and of clothing ; but as he is 
not gifted by the Lord with omniscience, and as in no single 
instance has he received any report from any of the regiments 
in and about Washington of what they need, he is sorry he is 
unable to satisfy everybody, and still more sorry that Massa- 
chusetts troops should be permitted to suffer. Although a month 



170 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

has now elapsed since they left the Stale, the muster-rolls of the 
Eighth Regiment are the only ones which have as yet been 
received." He then recites the facts concerning the blankets 
which were put on board of the transport at New York for 
the Fifth Regiment, which were stowed away so that the regi- 
ment could not get them, and were finally taken at Annapolis, 
and distributed among Pennsylvania troops. 

He also speaks of the neglect of officers to report to him 
what they need fully and frequently, in order that he may know 
what to furnish. In no single instance had authentic informa- 
tion been received of any needs, without measures being taken 
instantaneously to supply them. "We have not less than fifty 
thousand dollars' worth of under-garments and other clothing 
now on hand. 'We are now having manufactured no less than 
six thousand summer uniforms; and we have spent not less 
than fifty thousand dollars in merely supplying subsistence to 
our troops on their way and in the field." He had, when the 
call was first made for troops, informed the Secretary of War 
that the troops needed some articles of equipment, who replied in 
substance, "No matter : only hurry them forward, we will look out 
for all that, and will remedy all such needs when they are 
arrived here : it is essential to us that they should be sent at 
once." Notwithstanding, from that day to this he had not 
been advised in any manner what suppUes he has furnished or 
expects to furnish. Notwithstanding repeated requests, no 
United-States officer had been detailed here to muster troops or 
to advise with the Governor concerning military affairs, as has 
been done in the instance of New York and other States. Not- 
withstanding he had frequently called attention to the defence- 
less state of Boston Harbor, it remains undefended by a single 
gun. His requests meet either with silence, or with positive 
refusal. He is even denied by the Secretary of War permission 
to clean Fort Warren at the expense of the State, so as to 
render it healthy and comfortable for the volunteer troops to be 
placed there. The Governor suggests "that the influence of 
all the agents of Massachusetts at Washington is needed, and 
may be profitably exerted to extort from the national Govern- 
ment, if it cannot be done by persuasion, at least some approach 



MEETING OF THE LEGISLATURE. 171 

to the courtesy and attention which have evidently been extended 
to other States in these respects, and which is pre-eminently 
due to Massachusetts, by reason of her constant loyalty, her 
prompt movement to the defence of the nation, her children 
dead at Baltimore, and the sacrifice of money and of men which 
she expects, and is willing, to make for the common cause." 

The delay at Washington in calling for more troops, and the 
apparent neglect with which the Governor's letters were treated, 
did not change his purpose nor daunt his spirit. He never 
doubted that a change of policy would soon be adopted at 
Washington, and that the war would be carried on with might 
and vigor. Foreseeing that it would be a long war, he deter- 
mined that the State should be placed in a condition to sustain 
her part with all the resources of men and money at her com- 
mand. Accordingly, he called an extra session of the Legislature, 
which met at the State House on Tuesday, the 14th of May. 

Mr. Claflin, in calling the Senate to order, referred to the ex- 
traordinary events which had transpired since the adjournment, 
and urged upon the Senate the importance of meeting them in 
a proper spirit. "To this end, let us act our part faithfully, that 
those who, placed in our hands these great trusts may not be 
disappointed, and we, in coming time, may have the proud con- 
sciousness of having done our duty." 

Speaker Goodwin congratulated the House that the Old 
Bay State had so nobly sustained her heroic fame. He referred 
to the absence of some of the members who were with their 
regiments in the field, and concluded by saying, "1 know you 
will all join in a most ardent aspiration, that an honorable peace 
may soon be won by our army, and the arts of peace once 
more become the engrossing topic of the Legislature of the 
Commonwealth." 

The two branches met in convention, and Governor Andrew 
dehvered his address. 

" The occasion," he said, " demands action, and it shall not be delayed 
by speech; nor do either the people or their representatives need or 
require to be stimulated by appeals or convinced by arguments. A 
grand era has dawned, inaugurated by the present great and critical 
exigency of the nation, through which it will providentially and 



172 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION 

triumphantly pass, and soon, emerging from apparent gloom, will breathe 
a freer inspiration in the assured consciousness of vitality and power. 
Confident of our ultimate future ; confident in the principles and ideas 
of democratic republican government, in the capacity, conviction, 
and manly purpose of the American people, wherever liberty exists, 
and republican government is administered under the purifying and 
instructing power of free opinion and free debate, - I perceive noth- 
ing now about us which ought to discourage the good or to alarm the 
brave." 

The Governor then spoke of the nature of the war. "This 
is no war of sections, no war of North and South. It is 
waged to avenge no former wrongs, nor to perpetuate ancient 
griefs or memories of conflict. It is the struggle of the people 
to vindicate their own sights, to retain and invigorate the institu- 
tions of their fathers." He then recapitulated the services of 
the Massachusetts troops, -their prompt response to the call of 
the President ; the march through Baltimore ; the garrisoning 
of Fortress Monroe ; the advance by way of AnnapoUs and the 
Potomac River ; the saving of " Old Ironsides; " the activity of 
General Butler and of the State officers ; the cost of equipping 
and provisioning the regiments, which, up to that time, amounted 
to $267,645.18, exclusive of the fifty thousand pounds sterling 
drawn in favor of Mr. Crowninshield, for the purchase of arms 
in Europe, and of contracts made, which, when fulfilled, would 
amount to $100,000 more. 

Up to that time, one hundred and twenty-nine new companies 
had been organized. The Governor recommended the formation 
of a State camp for military instruction, under proper rules and 
regulations, but which encampment "should be confined to 
those enUsting themselves for an extended term of actual service, 
and should not include the ordinary militia." He was opposed 
to towns' paying bounties to men enUsting in local companies, 
and to all costly and inefficient modes of organizing and disci- 
plining troops. His recommendations to the Legislature met 
with unanimous approval, as the patriotic and judicious acts 
passed at this brief session abundantiy prove. Near the close 
of his address, the Governor paid the following merited tribute 
to the services and worth of the then commanding General of 
the United-States army : - 



THE GOVERNOR'S ADDRESS. 173 

"For myself. I entertain a most cordial trust in the ardor and 
patriotism of the President of the United States and his Cabinet, 
and of the venerable head of the American army, whose long and 
eminent career has given him a place second to no living captain of 
our time. True to his allegiance to his country and to himself, may 
he long be spared to serve his countrymen, and to enjoy their gratitude ! 
and though white the marble, and tall the aspiring shaft, which posterity 
will rear to record his fame, his proudest monument will be their 
affectionate memory of a life grand in the service of peace, not less than 
of war, preserving in their hearts for ever the name of Winfield 
Scott. " 

He spoke also in fitting words of the generous sympathy and 
munificent gifts of the entire people for the soldiers and their 
cause, which came "from every department of social, business, 
and religious life ; from every age, sex, and condition of our 
community ; by gifts, by toil, by skill, and handwork ; 'out of 
the basket and the store, and out of the full hearts of the com- 
munity, -they have poured through countless channels of 
benevolence." 

In concluding, he asks, - 

"But how shall I record the great and sublime uprising of the 
people, devoting themselves, their lives, their all ? No creative 
art has ever woven into song a story more tender in its pathos, or 
more stirring to the martial blood, than the scenes just enacted, passing 
before our eyes in the villages and towns of our dear old Common- 
wealth. Henceforth be silent, ye cavillers at Ne w- En G l a n d 
thrift, economy, and peaceful toil. Henceforth let no one dare accuse 
our Northern sky, our icy winters: or our granite hills ! 'Oh, what a 
glorious morning !' was the exulting cry of Samuel Adams, as he, 
excluded from royal grace, heard the sharp musketry, which, on the 
dawn of the 19th of April, 1775, announced the beginning of the war 
of Independence. The yeomanry who in 1775, on Lexington Common, 
and on the banks of Concord River first made that day immor- 
tal in our annals, have found their lineal representatives in the 
historic regiment, which, on the 19th of April, 1861, in the streets of 
Baltimore, baptized our flag anew in heroic blood, when Massachusetts 
marched once more 'in the sacred cause of liberty and the rights of 
mankind.' " 

Before passing from the consideration of this remarkable 
address, we would refer to the following paragraph, which illus- 



174 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

trates so well the liberal and just mind of the author,- we mean 
his defence of the right of citizens to freely discuss the acts of 
pubUc men and the policy of government : - 

"Let us never," he said, " under any conceivable circumstances of 
provocation or indignation, forget that the right of free discussion of all 
public questions is guaranteed to every individual on Massachusetts 
soil, by. the settled convictions of her people, by the habits of her 
successive generations, and by express provisions of her Constitution. 
And let us therefore never seek to repress the criticism of a minority, 
however small, upon the character and conduct of any administration, 
whether State or national." 

It is probable that the occurrence spoken of in the following 
letter of Colonel Lee caused the Governor to incorporate in his 
address the paragraph quoted : - 

Boston, May 13. 
Messrs. Cartes. Hescock, Bird, and others, Quincy Market. 

D E AR SiRS,-The Sunday papers report the extortion of one 
hundred dollars from a produce-dealer named Walker, who seriously 
and jestingly expressed sympathy with the secessionists, and hoped 
that our troops would starve. The receipt of this money casts a slur 
upon the reputation of our State, and upon the sincerity of all the 
generous men who freely contributed. It must be returned at once, or 
we are disgraced: our cause is too good to be injured with illegal 
violence. While we fight for liberty and the law, let us respect them 
ourselves. I feel sure, upon reflection, you will agree with the 
Governor on the subject. 

Yours truly, HenryLee, A.D.C 

When the Governor concluded his address, the Senate re- 
turned to its chamber, and the two branches entered at once upon 
the business of the session. 

In the Senate, on the same day, on motion of Mr. Stone, 
of Essex, it was voted, that a committee of seven on the part 
of the Senate, and fifteen on the part of the House, be appointed, 
to whom the address of the Governor, and the accompanying 
documents, should be referred. The motion was adopted : and 
the committee appointed on the part of the Senate were Messrs. 
Stone of Essex, Bonney of Middlesex, Northend of Essex; 
Rogers of Suffolk, Davis of Bristol, Walker of Middlesex, and 
Cole of Berkshire ; on the part of the House, Messrs. Bullock 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE. 175 

of Worcester, Calhoun of Springfield, Branning of Lee, Davis 
of Greenfield, Tyler of Boston, Coffin of Newburyport, Peirce of 
Dorchester, Peirce of New Bedford, Jewell of Boston, Gifford 
of Provincetown, Clark of Lowell, Kimball of Lynn, Mer- 
riam of Fitchburg, Barnfield of West Roxbury, and Hyde 
of Newton. 

Mr. Northend, of Essex, introduced a bill of eighteen sections, 
entitled " a bill to provide for the disciplining and instruction of 
a military force." 

Petitions were presented of James W. White, and eighty 
others of Grafton, and of the commissioned officers of the 
Twelfth Regiment of Infantry (Colonel Webster), severally for 
an act to legalize the appropriations of cities and towns in 
behalf of the volunteer militia, and for other purposes. 

Referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. 

May 15. In the Senate. -Petition of Robert Morris and 
seventy-one others, for a law authorizing colored men to form 
military companies ; of John Wells and others, of Chicopee, for 
a law to allow cities and towns to raise money for the support 
of volunteers and their families. 

On motion of Mr. Carter, of Hampden, a joint committee was 
appointed to consider the expediency of tendering the service of 
members of the Legislature free of expense. 

Mr. Stone, of Essex, reported a bill regulating drill com- 
panies, also in favor of the bill for the estabhshment of a home 
guard. On motion of Mr. Boynton, of Worcester, it was 
voted, that the joint special committee on the Governor's 
address consider the expediency of providing by law for the 
expense of improving and drilling the volunteer companies, and 
also of re-imbursing such expenditure of money as towns 
and military companies have incurred for such purposes. 

Mr. Northend, of Essex, reported his bill from the joint 
committee to provide for the discipline and 'instruction of a 
military force. 

The same gentleman, from the same committee, introduced a 
bill "in aid of the families of volunteers." Mr. Stone, of 
Essex, from the same committee, reported a bill to enable banks 
to purchase government securities. 



176 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

In the House, Mr. Bullock, of Worcester, from the same 
committee, reported a bill "to provide for the maintenance of the 
Union and Constitution." 

Also a bill to repeal the act of the previous session " to 
authorize the Treasurer and Receiver-General to indorse the 
notes of the United States." 

And, under a suspension of the rules, these bills passed to 
a third reading. 

May 16. In the Senate. - The Senate discussed the bill in 
aid of the families of volunteers. Several amendments were 
offered, after which it was recommitted. The bill for the or- 
ganization of a home guard was passed to be engrossed. 

A bill to regulate drill companies was opposed by Mr. 
Rogers, of Suffolk, and Mr. Battles, of Worcester, and re- 
jected. 

The bill to enable banks to purchase Government securities, 
under a suspension of the rules, was passed to be enacted. Mr. 
Whiting, of Plymouth, moved an amendment to limit the pur- 
chase to fifteen per cent of their capital stock. Lost. 

The bill to provide for the discipline and instruction of a 
military force was amended, on motion of Mr. Schouler, of 
Middlesex, to limit the force to five thousand men, instead of 
three thousand. The bill and the amendment were then re- 
committed. 

In the Senate. Afternoon Session. - On motion of Mr. 
Hardy, of Norfolk, the act to provide for the maintenance of 
the Union and the Constitution was taken up. An amend- 
ment was proposed by Mr. Clark, of Middlesex, to strike out 
the clause ratifying the acts done by the Governor and Council 
in any way connected with the disbursements made by them, &c. 
Mr. Whiting, of Plymouth, favored the amendment ; but it was 
rejected, - yeas 10, nays 11. The bill was then passed to be 
engrossed. 

The bill authorizing the issue of State scrip to the amount of 
seven millions of dollars was passed unanimously, by a yea and 
nay vote. 

The bill for the discipline and instruction of a military force 
was reported, providing for five regiments of infantry and one 



DEBATE ON RIGHTS OF COLORED MEN. 177 

battery of artillery, to be sent to camp ; and, in this form, it 
passed to be engrossed. 

The Special Committee reported, that the petitions of J. Sella 
Martin, and Robert Morris and others, to strike out the word 
"white" in the militia laws, be referred to the next General 
Court. 

In the House. - A petition of John T. Hilton and twenty- 
two others, colored citizens of Massachusetts, that the word 
"white" be stricken from the militia laws, was laid on the 
table. 

The Senate report referring the petitions of J. Sella Martin 
and Robert Morris and others, to the next General Court, was 
opposed by Mr. Slack, of Boston, who spoke in favor of striking 
out the word "white" from the militia laws. He said the 
colored men were anxious to serve their country, and that no 
law should be enacted to prevent them. 

Mr. Hammond, of Nahant, spoke in favor of accepting the 
report. 

On motion of Mr. Albee, of Marlborough, the question on 
receiving the report was taken by yeas and nays. The report 
was accepted, -yeas 119, nays 81. 

The Senate bill to enable banks to purchase Government secu- 
rities was passed to be engrossed, under a suspension of the 
rules. 

The Senate bill for the organization of a home guard was 
passed to be engrossed, without opposition. 

May 17. In the Senate. -Mr. Whiting, of Plymouth, 
moved a reconsideration of the vote whereby the petition of J. 
Sella Martin, Robert Morris, and others, was referred to the 
next General Court. Placed in the orders of the day. 

In the House. - A petition was presented by 13. C. Sargent, 
Mayor of Lowell, and a committee of the City Council of Low- 
ell, for State aid in the erection of a monument to Luther C. 
Ladd and Addison O. Whitney, who fell at Baltimore, April 
19. Referred. 

Mr. Jewell, of Boston, from the Special Committee, reported 
a bill " to provide for a sinking fund." 

May 18. In the Senate. -The motion to reconsider the 
12 



178 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

vote referring the petition of J. Sella Martin, Robert Morris, 
and others, to the next General Court, was advocated by 
Mr. Whiting, of Plymouth, who said this was not a time to 
make invidious distinctions between the different classes of 
citizens. 

Mr. Cole, of Berkshire, spoke in opposition. 
The vote stood, for reconsideration, 1 1 ; against it, 22. 
In the House - Mr. Stebbins, of Boston, asked and ob- 
tained leave to introduce a bill, " withholding certain aid from 
the people in the so-called seceded States," which was referred 
to the Special Committee. 

Mr. Drew, of Dorchester, asked leave to introduce a bill to 
strike out the word " white " from the militia laws. Leave was 
refused, -yeas 56, nays 139. 

May 20. In the Senate. -Almost the entire day was oc- 
cupied in debating the bill " in aid of the families of volunteers." 
A number of amendments were proposed, some of which were 
adopted, others rejected. The bill, as amended, was ordered 
to. a third reading. Laid on the table, and ordered to be 
printed. 

In the House - Mr. Bullock, of Worcester, from the Joint 
Special Committee, reported " resolves concerning the present 
crisis " (five in number). 

A debate arose upon ordering them to be printed, in the 
course of which Mr. Durfee, of New Bedford, said the resolves 
could not be fairly understood by the House from merely hear- 
ing them read. He wished to see them in print. 

Mr. Drew, of Dorchester, spoke at length. In the course of 
his speech, he attacked General Butler, for offering, to the Gov- 
ernor of Maryland, Massachusetts soldiers to put down a slave 
rebellion. He said the war was a means of emancipation, and 
complained of the Legislature for retaining the word "white" 
in the militia laws, which forbids a portion of our people from 
taking part in the struggle. 

Mr. Stevens, of Boston, could not see any thing objection- 
able in the resolutions, and was in favor of their immediate 
passage. 

The resolves were ordered to be printed. 



PROCEEDING OF THE LEGISLATURE. 179 

May 21. In the Senate. - The whole of the forenoon ses- 
sion was taken up in discussing and amending the bill "in aid 
of the families of volunteers." It finally passed to be engrossed, 
-yeas 27, nays 7. 

The resolves from the House, "concerning the present crisis," 
were discussed in the Senate a great part of the afternoon ses- 
sion, but, before taking the question, were laid on the table, to 
allow a committee to be appointed to wait upon the Governor, 
and request him to return the bill "for the organization of a 
home guard." 

The committee subsequently reported, that they had returned 
with the bill ; when, on motion of Mr. Stone, of Essex, the vote 
whereby the bill was passed, was reconsidered ; and on motion 
of Mr. Boynton, of Worcester, it was referred to the Commit- 
tee on the Judiciary. 

In the House. - Mr. Jewell, of Boston, from the Joint 
Special Committee, reported "a bill in addition to an act for 
the maintenance of the Union and the Constitution," which was 
passed to be engrossed, under a suspension of the rules. 

Mr. Branning, of Lee, from the same committee, reported 
that the bill offered by Mr. Stebbins, " withholding certain aid 
from the people of the so-called seceded States," ought not to 
pass. 

The resolves concerning the present crisis were taken up, dis- 
cussed, and ordered to be engrossed. 

Mr. Pierce, of Dorchester, introduced a bill authorizing the 
Governor to pay the company of Cadets of Boston for guard 
duty at the State Arsenal at Cambridge, and at Captain's Island ; 
also, the Second Battalion, for garrison duty at Fort Warren, 
and the Fourth Battalion, for garrison duty at Fort Independ- 
ence, one dollar a day, including rations to each man while in 
service ; which was referred to Special Committee on Governor's 
Address. 

The bill withholding certain aid from the people of the so- 
called seceded States was taken up, and, after being amended, 
was passed to be engrossed. 

The bill giving aid to the families of volunteers was dis- 
cussed, amended, and passed to a third reading. 



180 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Wednesday, May 22. In the Senate. - On motion of Mr. 
Northend, of Essex, the bill to provide for the discipline and 
instruction of a militia force was taken from the table, - the 
question being on passing it to be enacted. 

Mr. Bonney, of Middlesex, opposed the bill. He said that 
it authorized the Governor to order into camp a military force, of 
not less than six thousand men. It provided for nothing less 
than a standing army, for an unlimited period. It conferred 
upon the Governor a power 'which the sovereigns of England 
and France did not possess over their troops. 

Mr. Northend spoke briefly in support of the bill, after which, 
no amendment being in order, the bill was passed to be enacted, 
-yeas 27, nays 2. 

Mr. Northend then moved to take from the table the resolves 
concerning the present crisis, which motion was rejected, -yeas 
10, nays 24. 

The House bill, entitied an act " withholding certain aid from 
the people of the so-called seceded States," was rejected. 

Mr. Stone, of Essex, from the Committee on the Judiciary, 
reported, in a new draft, "a bill to provide for a home guard," 
which, under a suspension of the rules, was ordered to be en- 
grossed. 

In the afternoon session, Mr. Whiting, of Plymouth, moved 
a reconsideration of the vote by which the bill " withholding cer- 
tain aid from the people in the so-called seceded States" was re- 
jected, which was placed in the orders of the day. 

In the House. - The bill for aid to the families of volunteers 
was discussed in the morning session, until adjournment ; with- 
out taking the question, several amendments were offered. 

In the afternoon, a petition was received from Robert Morris 
and sixty-three other colored citizens, for leave to form a 
home guard. Referred to the Committee on the Militia. 

Mr. Pierce, of Dorchester, reported that the bill to pay for 
the services of the cadets, and other militia organizations, for 
services, ought not to pass, as payment had been provided in 
another bill. 

The bill giving aid to the famihes of volunteers was passed to 
be engrossed. 



DEBATE CONCERNING COLORED CITIZENS. 181 

Also, the Senate bill to organize a home guard. 

May 23. In the Senate - Mr. Davis, of Bristol, intro- 
duced a series of resolutions "on the national crisis ; " but 
as they were opposed by Messrs. Northend of Essex, Bonney 
of Middlesex, Battles of Worcester, Cole of Berkshire, Carter 
of Hampden, and Boynton of Worcester, Mr. Davis reluct- 
antly withdrew them. 

The resolves which had been rejected in the House, "in re- 
gard to the rights of citizens," elicited a warm debate. Mr. 
Schouler, of Middlesex, spoke in favor of the resolves. He 
could not see the objection to this act of simple justice to the 
colored man. 

Mr. Northend asked what good the passage of these resolu- 
tions would do in the present crisis. Would it strengthen the 
hands of the Administration? No : no one believed that it 
would. It would embarrass them. 

Mr. Bonney, of Middlesex, was not opposed to the sentiments 
of the resolves ; but he did not beheve it was expedient to in- 
struct our Senators and Representatives in Congress at this 
time. 

Mr. Davis, of Bristol, said it was always safe to do right. 
He should vote for the resolves. 

Mr. Schouler said we were afraid all the time of doing some- 
thing that would hurt the feelings of the South. The resolves 
were then passed to a third reading, -yeas 18, nays 12. 

On their passage to be engrossed, Mr. Cole, of Berkshire, 
and Mr. Hardy, of Norfolk, spoke in opposition. They were 
then passed to be engrossed, - yeas 17, nays 13, - and were 
sent back to the House. 

In the House. - Mr. Durfee, of New Bedford, from the 
Committee on the Militia, reported that the petition of Robert 
Morris and others be referred to the Joint Special Com- 
mittee. 

On motion of Mr. Slocum, the report and accompanying 
papers were laid on the table. 

Mr. Durfee, of New Bedford, introduced resolutions in rela- 
tion to the rights of colored citizens, which were referred to the 
Special Committee. Subsequently, Mr. Davis, of Greenfield, 



182 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

from the committee, reported, that, in view of the exigencies of 
public affairs, and the near approach of the close of the session, 
the resolves ought not to pass. He deemed it unwise to legis- 
late on a minor point of the controversy, when the fact is, the 
battle for the black man is being fought every day, and will be 
fought on battle-fields yet unknown. 

Mr. Albee, of Marlborough, spoke in favor of the re- 
solves. 

Mr. Slack, of Boston, recurred to the days of the Revolu- 
tion, when the deeds of the colored citizens were the subject of 
the highest marks of approval. 

Mr. Pierce, of Dorchester, advocated the passage of the re- 
solve, and read the words of General Andrew Jackson in com- 
mendation of the bravery of the colored battalions at New 
Orleans, in the war of 1812. 

Mr. Branning, of Lee, had always been, and was now, in 
favor of the rights of colored men ; but he did not think it was 
wise to pass these resolves at the present time. 

The vote to accept the report that the resolves ought not to 
pass was then taken, -yeas 78, nays 69. 

The following was the principal resolution : - 

"Resolved, That our Senators in Congress be instructed, and our 
Representatives requested, to use their utmost efforts to secure the re- 
peal of any and all laws which deprive any class of loyal subjects of 
the Government from bearing arms for the common defence." 

On assembling in the afternoon, a committee of the two 
branches was appointed to inform the Governor that the Houses 
were ready to be prorogued. 

The House then took a recess of an hour. On re-assembling, 
at three o'clock, the resolves in relation to the rights of colored 
citizens came down from the Senate, adopted. 

Mr. Pierce, of Dorchester, moved a suspension of the rules, 
that they might be considered at once. 

Mr. Bullock, of Worcester, made an earnest argument against 
suspending the rules, and against passing the resolves. He 
avowed his willingness to remove every vestige of disability from 
the colored citizens, and, in a proper time, he hoped to see it. 



DEBATE. -RIGHTS OF COLORED MEN. 183 

This was not the time. Twenty-three sovereign States are a unit 
in this conflict. He who would now cast a firebrand among 
the ranks of the united North and West and the Border States, 
will initiate a calamity, the extent of which will be appalling 
and inconceivable. Let us cultivate unity and union. Let us 
frown upon every element of distraction and weakness and dis- 
cord. "I am therefore willing," said he, "to place my name 
in the negative upon an imperishable record, believing that I am 
doing a service to my beloved and imperilled country." 

After further remarks by Mr. Pierce, of Dorchester, the pre- 
vious question was moved ; and the House refused to suspend 
the rules, by a yea and nay vote of 74 to 69. Two-thirds not 
voting for suspension, the motion was lost. The resolves then 
went into the orders of the day. 

Mr. Slack, of Boston, moved that a committee be appointed 
to wait upon the Governor, and request him to postpone, for the 
present, the prorogation of the Legislature. 

During his remarks, the Secretary of State was announced, 
with a message from the Governor, that his Excellency had pro- 
rogued the Legislature, according to request. 

The Legislature was then prorogued, and the resolves were 
left among the unfinished business in the orders of the day. 

We have given prominence to the debate upon these resolves, 
as it reflects the opinions of members at that period in regard to 
the rights of colored men. This was undoubtedly the first 
debate in the war touching the right of colored men to bear 
arms, and the expediency of employing them as soldiers to put 
down the rebellion. The resolutions passed the Senate ; and, if 
the vote in the House to suspend the rules was a test of the opin- 
ions of the members, the resolutions would have also passed the 
House, had it remained another day in session. 

The following is an abstract of the laws which bear upon 
our subject, passed in this session : - 

First. An act to provide a sinking fund. The Treasiu^er 
is to report, on Jan. 1, 1863, the amount of all scrip, or cer- 
tificates of debt, of the United States, which shall have been 
received by this Commonwealth from the United States, under 
provisions of acts of the Legislature, and the actual market- 



184 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

price of the same at the date of such report; and the same 
shall be pledged and held as part of the sinking fund hereby 
created, the same to be applied for the redemption of the debt. 
It also provides, that there shall be raised, by tax, twice in each 
year, commencing Jan. 1, 1863, a sum equal to one-tenth part 
of the difference found by the report of the Treasurer, as above 
provided, to exist between the amount of scrip, or certificates of 
debt, issued under said acts, and the actual market-value of the 
scrip or certificates, and to be held as a sinking fund to pay the 
same. Approved May 21, 1866. 

Second. An act to enable banks to purchase Government 
securities provided that loans directly made by any bank to the 
Commonwealth or to the United States, and notes or scrip of 
the Commonwealth or United States, held by any bank, and 
directly purchased by such bank from the Commonwealth or 
United States, shall not be deemed debts due within the mean- 
ing of the twenty-fifth section of the fifty-seventh chapter of the 
General Statutes. 

Third. An act to provide for the maintenance of the Union 
and the Constitution confirmed and ratified all that the Gov- 
ernor, Executive Council, or any other person, with his or their 
sanction, had done in furnishing and forwarding troops for the 
service of the Government. It vested the Governor, with the ad- 
vice of the Council, with full power and authority, as he might 
deem best, to provide for additional troops, and also to appoint 
and commission all needful officers and agents, and to fix their 
rank and pay ; also, to investigate, adjust, and settle all accounts 
and matters between the State and the General Government, 
which might arise under the provisions of this act ; also, to pay, 
out of the fund created by this act, any of the troops of this 
Commonwealth which had been or might be mustered into the 
service of the United States, during the whole or a part of 
the time of such service, and to settle the same with the United 
States : also, created a fund, to be called the Union Fund, of 
three millions of dollars, to be raised by the issue of scrip. 
The scrip to bear interest of six per cent, to be redeemable in 
not less than ten, nor more than twenty, years from the first of 
July, 1861; and not more than five hundred thousand dollars 
shall be redeemable in any one year. 



LAWS PASSED FOR THE SOLDIERS. 185 

Fourth. An act entitled an act in addition to the act for the 
maintenance of the Union and the Constitution, gave the Gov- 
ernor, with the advice of the Council, power to issue scrip or 
certificates in the name and in the behalf of the Commonwealth, 
for sums not exceeding, in the aggregate, seven millions of dol- 
lars. 

Fifth. An act further in addition thereto authorized the 
Governor, with the advice of the Council, to pay from the 
Union Fund any of the troops of the Commonwealth, mus- 
tered into the service of the United States from the time that 
they reported themselves for service until they were mustered 
into the service of the United States. 

Sixth. An act to provide for the discipline and instruction 
of a military force empowered the Governor, with the consent 
of the Council, to establish one or more camps in suitable 
places within the Commonwealth, for the instruction and disci- 
pline of a military force, not to exceed five regiments of in- 
fantry, and one battery of six pieces of artillery, at any one 
time ; for which tents, camp-equipage, and other necessary arti- 
cles, were to be furnished by the State. 

The Governor was also empowered to rent land for such camp 
purposes. 

No companies or regiments were to be placed in such camps 
until all the members should agree to be mustered into the 
United-States service, on such terms as the President should 
direct in his calls for volunteers. The entire formation, organi- 
zation, drill, and discipline of these forces was to conform as 
near as possible to the regular army, and be subject to the rules 
and articles for governing mihtia in actual service. 

Each camp was to be under the command of a suitable 
officer appointed by the Governor, and subordinate only to 
him. He had the power to recommend, and the Governor 
to commission, such subordinate camp officers as might be 
proper ; the pay and rank of such officers to be fixed by the 
Governor. The authority of the officers commanding these 
camps might be extended by the Governor one-fourth of a mile 
beyond the limits of the camp ; and certain rules and regulations 
were to be made for the admission of visitors. 



186 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

The privates, when in camp, were to receive the same pay as 
privates in the regular service ; and the officers were to receive 
such pay as the Governor and Council might determine, pro- 
vided that the pay of no officer should exceed that of a captain 
in the regular army. The officers and men to be paid once a 
month. 

The Governor, with the consent of the Council, could appoint 
and fix the pay of a suitable person for paymaster, to pay the 
men in the camps, he giving bonds and securities for the proper 
discharge of his duties. 

The regimental and line officers were to be chosen and com- 
missioned as provided for by the mihtia laws of the Common- 
wealth. 

Seventh. "An act in aid of the families of volunteers, and 
for other purposes," contained eight sections, and was one of 
the most humane and admirable passed during the war. It 
provided, - 

1st, That any town or city might raise money by taxation, 
and apply the same for aid of the wife, and of the children 
under sixteen years of age, of any volunteer mustered into the 
service of the United States to the credit of Massachusetts, and 
for each parent, brother, sister, or child, who, at the time of his 
enlistment, was dependent on him for support. 

2d, The sum so paid or applied should be annually re-im- 
bursed from the State treasury to such city and town, provided 
it did not exceed one dollar a week for the wife, and one dollar 
for each child or parent of such soldier ; provided that the 
whole sum for the family and parents of each soldier did not in 
the aggregate exceed twelve dollars a month. 

The act also provided, that any town or city might raise 
money by taxation to defray any expense akeady incurred, or to 
carry out any contracts heretofore made with any of its inhabi- 
tants who might have enlisted in the volunteer service, or who 
may have been or might be called into the service of the United 
States ; but all other contracts in the mihtia should terminate in 
ninety days. 

The act also provided, that any city or town, "when danger 
from attack from the sea is apprehended, is authorized to 



DEPARTURE OF SIX VOLUNTEER REGIMENTS. 187 

organize an armed police to guard against such an attack, and 
may provide by taxation to maintain the same." Such police 
might act in any part of the county within which city or town 
might be situated. 

The act provided for the "discipline and instruction of the 
military forces," and gave the Governor the power to appoint 
such staff officers as he might consider necessary, which power 
continued in force until the end of the war. 

After the six regiments first called for by the Secretary of 
War for three years' service had left the State, and ten more 
had been accepted, a constant demand was made upon the State 
until the close of the Rebellion, for all the troops that could be 
raised, which were sent forward to the front as they were 
organized. Therefore the establishment of a State camp, as 
contemplated by the act of the Legislature, for drill and organ- 
ization, was never established ; but, instead thereof, temporary 
camps were formed in different parts of the State to accommo- 
date the local demand. Thus it was, that the First Regiment, 
Colonel Cowdin, which was recruited in Boston and its imme- 
diate vicinity, was sent to "Camp Cameron" in North Cam- 
bridge, where it remained until June 15, when it was ordered 
to Washington. The Second Regiment, which was recruited by 
Colonel Gordon, and officers under his command, established a 
camp in West Roxbury, which was called "Camp Andrew," in 
honor of the Governor. 
Governor Andrew determined that the regimental number 
should not be duplicated ; hence it was, that the Third, Fourth, 
Fifth, and Sixth Regiments should retain their own designations, 
and should not be confounded with the three years' regiments. 
Therefore the next three years' regiment which was recruited by 
Colonel Couch at "Camp Old Colony," near Taunton, was 
called the Seventh Regiment. The Eighth Regiment, being a 
three months' regiment, retained its original number ; and the 
next three years' regiment was called the Ninth Regiment, which 
was composed of men of Irish birth, and their immediate de- 
scendants, and was recruited and organized under the superin- 
tendence of Colonel Thomas Cass, at Long Island, in Boston 



188 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Harbor. The Tenth Regiment was recruited in the five 
western counties, and had its camp near the city of Spring- 
field, until it was fully organized. The Eleventh Regiment 
was recruited in Boston and vicinity by Colonel Clark, and was 
placed at Fort Warren, where it was recruited to the full standard, 
and mustered into the service. These regiments completed the 
quota under the first requisition of the Secretary of War. 
When leave was given to send forward ten more regiments 
spoken of in the letter of General Wallbridge to Governor 
Andrew, measures were taken immediately to consolidate the 
companies in different parts of the State into regiments. The 
first of these was the Twelfth Regiment, which was always 
familiarly known as the Webster Regiment, because it was 
recruited and organized by Colonel Retcher Webster, who held 
command of it until he was killed at the second battle of Bull 
Run, Aug. 30, 1862. He fell gallantly at the head of his regi- 
ment, for "Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and insepa- 
rable." The Twelfth Regiment was recruited and organized at 
Fort Warren. It left Boston for Washington, July 23, 1861. 

The Thirteenth Regiment was recruited at Fort Independence. 
The Fourth Battalion of Rifles formed the nucleus of this regi- 
ment. It had been ordered, on the 25th of June, to garrison 
the fort ; and, while upon that duty, it was recruited to a full 
regiment of three years' volunteers. Major Samuel H. Leonard 
commanded the Fourth Battalion ; and he was commissioned the 
colonel of the Thirteenth, the regiment having been recruited 
by him. It left the State for the front on the 30th day of 
July, 1861, and was stationed during the year on the line of the 
Potomac in Maryland. 

The Fourteenth Regiment was recruited by Colonel William 
13. Greene, a graduate of West Point, at Fort Warren. He 
was in Paris with his family when the Rebellion broke out, and 
immediately returned to his native State, and tendered his ser- 
vices to the Governor. On the 25th of June, he was placed in 
command of the regiment at Fort Warren, and left Boston with 
his command on the 7th of August, 1861, for Washington. 
This regiment was afterwards changed to heavy artillery, and 
during the war was known as the First Regiment Massachusetts 
Heavy Artillery. 



ORGANIZATION OF TEN NEW REGIMENTS. 189 

The Fifteenth Regiment was recruited in the county of 
Worcester, at "Camp Lincoln," in the city of Worcester. 
Major Charles Devens, Jr., who commanded the Second Bat- 
talion of Rifles in the three months' service, was appointed 
colonel. It left the State on the 8th of August, 1861 : it bore 
a prominent part in the battle of Ball's Bluff of that year, which 
made it one of the marked regiments of Massachusetts. 

The Sixteenth Regiment was raised in Middlesex County. It 
was ordered to "Camp Cameron," Cambridge, June 25, 1861, 
and left the State, August 17, 1861, for Washington. Colonel 
Powell T. Wyman, who commanded it, was a graduate of 
West Point, and had served with distinction in the regular 
army. He was in Europe when Fort Sumter was fired upon. 
When the news reached him, he wrote by the next steamer to the 
Adjutant-General, tendering his services to the Governor in any 
military capacity in which he might be placed. Without waiting 
for an answer, he came home, and reported in person to the 
Governor. His offer was accepted; and he was commissioned 
colonel of the Sixteenth, which was recruited at "Camp 
Cameron," Cambridge, and left the State for the seat of war 
on the 17th of August, 1861. Colonel Wyman was killed in 
battle near Richmond, June 30, 1862 ; having in this short 
time achieved a reputation for military capacity and bravery not 
surpassed by any. 

The Seventeenth Regiment was recruited at "Camp Schouler," 
Lynnfield, of which eight companies belonged to the county of 
Essex, one to Middlesex, and one to Suffolk, Captam Thomas 
J. C. Amory, of the United-States Army, a graduate of West 
Point, was commissioned colonel. He belonged to one of the 
oldest and best families of Massachusetts. He died in North 
Carolina, while in command of the regiment. The Seventeenth 
left Massachusetts for the front on the 23d of August, 1861. 

The Eighteenth Regiment was recruited at "Camp Brigham," 
Readville, and was composed of men from Norfolk, Bristol, and 
Plymouth Counties. The camp was named in honor of Colonel 
Elijah D. Brigham, Commissary-General of Massachusetts. 
James Barnes, of Springfield, a graduate of West Point, and 
a veteran officer, was commissioned colonel. The regiment left 



190 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

the State for Washington, on the 24th of August, 1861. Colonel 
Barnes graduated at West Point in the same class with Jeff 
Davis. He was commissioned by President Lincoln brigadier- 
general of volunteers. 

The Nineteenth Regiment was organized and recruited 
at " Camp Schouler," Lynnfield. It was composed of Essex- 
County men. Colonel Edward W. Hinks, of Lynn, who had 
command of the Eighth Regiment in the three months' service, 
was appointed colonel. This regiment left for Washington on 
the 28th of August, 1861. Captain Arthur B. Devereux, of 
Salem, who commanded a company in the Eighth Regiment in 
the three months' service, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel ; 
and Major Henry J. How, of Haverhill, a graduate of Harvard 
College, class of 1859, who was killed in battle June 30, 
1862, was commissioned major. 

The TwentieUi Regiment was recruited at "Camp Massasoit," 
Readville, and left the State for Washington on the 4th of Septem- 
ber, 1861. William Raymond Lee, of Roxbury, a graduate of 
West Point ; Francis W. Palfrey, of Boston, son of Hon. John 
G. Palfrey ; and Paul J. Revere, of Boston, - were chiefly in- 
strumental in raising the regiment : and they were commissioned, 
severally, colonel, lieutenant-colonel, and major, The roster of 
this regiment contains the names most distinguished in the 
history of Massachusetts. The Twentieth bore a prominent 
part in the disastrous Battle of Ball's Bluff, Oct. 21, 1861. 
Many of. the officers were killed and wounded. Colonel Lee, 
Major Revere, and Adjutant Charles L. Peirson, of Salem, 
were taken prisoners, and confined in a cell as hostages at 
Richmond. We shall have occasion to speak of these gentle- 
men in subsequent chapters. 

The Twenty-first. Regiment was recruited at "Camp Lincoln," 
at Worcester. The men belonged to the central and western por- 
tions of the Commonwealth. This was one of the five regiments 
recruited in Massachusetts for special service, designed originally 
to be commanded by General Thomas W. Sherman, but which 
command was afterwards given to General Burnside; but of 
which more in the next chapter. Augustus Morse, of Leo- 
minster, one of the three major-generals of militia of the 



SENATOR WILSON'S REGIMENT. 191 

Commonwealth, was commissioned colonel. A. C. Maggi, of 
New Bedford, who had volunteered as quartermaster-sergeant 
in the Third Regiment of the three months' militia, was com- 
missioned lieutenant-colonel. He was an Italian by birth, a 
citizen by choice, and a thoroughly educated officer. William 
S. Clarke, a professor of Amherst College, was commissioned 
as major. The regiment left the State for Annapolis, Mary- 
land, on the 22d of August, 1861. 

The Twenty-second Regiment, known as Senator Wilson's 
regiment, because it was recruited by him, under special per- 
mission of the Secretary of War if agreeable to the Governor, 
was organized at "camp Schouler," Lynnfield. It left the 
State, on the 8th of October, 1861, for Washington. To this 
regiment were attached the Second Company of Sharpshooters, 
Captain Wentworth, and the Third Light Battery, Captain 
Dexter H. Follett. Shortly after the arrival of the Twenty- 
second at Washington, Colonel Wilson, whose duties as Senator 
precluded the possibility of retaining command, resigned; and 
Colonel Jesse A. Gove, of Concord, New Hampshire, a 
regular-army officer, was commissioned colonel. Colonel Gove 
was killed in battle before Richmond, July 27, 1862. This 
regiment was attached to the army of the Potomac during the 
war. The heutenant-colonel was Charles E. Griswold, of Bos- 
ton, who was afterwards colonel of the Fifty-sixth Regiment, and 
was killed in the Battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864. The 
major was William S. Tilton, of Boston, who afterwards became 
colonel, and, for brave and meritorious services in the field, was 
commissioned by the President brigadier-general of volunteers. 

The Twenty-third Regiment was recruited at Lynnfield, 
and left the State for Annapolis, on the 11th of November, 
1861. The Twenty-third was one of the five regiments of 
General Burnside's special command. The field officers were 
Colonel John Kurtz, of Boston, who commanded a company in 
the Thirteenth Regiment. The lieutenant-colonel was Henry 
Merritt, of Salem, who was killed in battle in North Carolina, 
March 14, 1862. The major was Andrew Elwell, of Glou- 
cester, who was afterwards commissioned colonel. 

The Twenty-fourth Regiment was known as the New-England 



192 MASSACHUSETTS !N THE REBELLION. 

Guards Regiment. It was recruited by Colonel Thomas G. 
Stevenson, at "Camp Massasoit," Readville, and left the State 
for Annapolis on the 9th of December, 1861, and formed part 
of General Bumside's command. The Twenty-fourth was one 
of the best regiments ever recruited in Massachusetts. Colonel 
Stevenson, its first commander, was a gentleman of intelligence, 
high character, and sterling worth. For his bravery and effi- 
ciency, he was appointed by the President, Dec. 27, 1862, 
brigadier-general of volunteers, and was killed in the Battle of 
Spottsylvania, Va., May 10, 1864. The lieutenant-colonel, 
Francis A. Osborne, also rose to the rank of brigadier-general, 
and served with distinction during the war. Major Robert H. 
Stevenson, after the promotion of his superiors, was commis- 
sioned lieutenant-colonel, and served in that capacity until after 
the death of his brother, General Stevenson, when from wounds 
received he resigned his command, and returned home. 

The Twenty-fifth Regiment was raised in Worcester County, 
and was organized at "Camp Lincoln," near the city of Wor- 
cester. It left the State for Annapolis, on the 31st day of 
October, 1861, and formed a part of General Bumside's divi- 
sion. The field officers were Edward Upton, of Fitchburg, 
colonel; Augustus B. R. Sprague, of Worcester, lieutenant- 
colonel ; and Matthew J. McCafferty, of Worcester, as major. 
These gentlemen had held commissions in the volunteer militia, 
and were possessed of considerable military knowledge. Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Sprague commanded a company in the Rifle 
Battalion in the three months' service, and, before the close of 
the war, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel in the Third 
Regiment Heavy Artillery. 

The Twenty-sixth Regiment was recruited at "Camp Chase," 
Lowell, and was attached to Major-General Butler's division, 
designed to attack New Orleans. Many of the officers and men 
of this regiment belonged to the Sixth Regiment in the three 
months' service, which was attacked in Baltimore, on the 19th 
of April, 1861. The Twenty-sixth left Boston in the transport 
steamer "Constitution," on the 21st day of November, 1861, for 
Ship Island, Mississippi. This was the first loyal volunteer regi- 
ment that reached the Department of the Gulf. Its field officers 



DEPARTURE OF THREE YEARS' REGIMENTS. 193 

were Edward F. Jones, of Pepperell, colonel ; Alpha B. Farr; 
of Lowell, lieutenant-colonel; and Josiah A. Sawtelle, of 
Lowell, major, -all of whom were officers in the Sixth Regi- 
ment in the three months' service. 

The Twenty-seventh Regiment was recruited at "Camp 
Reed," Springfield, from the four western counties in the 
State. It left the Commonwealth for Annapolis on the 2d day 
of November, 1861, and formed a part of General Burnside's 
command. The field officers were Horace C. Lee, of Spring- 
field, colonel, who afterwards rose to the rank of brigadier- 
general ; Luke Wyman, of Northampton, lieutenant-colonel ; 
and Walter G. Bartholomew, of Springfield, major, - both of 
whom were made full colonels before the close of the war. 

The Twenty-eighth Regiment was recruited at "Camp Cam- 
eron," Cambridge. Its officers and men were chiefly of Irish 
birth or descent. It did not leave the State until January, 
1862. Its field officers were William Monteith, of New York, 
colonel ; Maclelland Moore, of Boston, lieutenant-colonel ; 
George W. Cartwright, of New York, major. The colonel and 
major had served in one of the New-York regiments in the 
three months' service. The lieutenant-colonel had been for 
many years connected with the militia of Massachusetts, and 
commanded a company in the Eleventh Massachusetts Regiment, 
three years' volunteers, from which he was discharged for pro- 
motion in the Twenty-eighth. 

The Twenty-ninth Regiment was composed of seven com- 
panies originally raised as-militia in the three months' service, 
but which volunteered for three years, and were sent by detach- 
ments to Fortress Monroe, while the Third and Fourth three 
months' regiments were still there : on the return of the three 
months' regiments, these seven companies remained at the for- 
tress, and were formed into a battalion, under the command 
of Captain Joseph H. Barnes. Permission was given by the 
Secretary of War to recruit the battalion to a regiment, by 
the addition of three new companies. The field officers of 
the regiment were Ebenezer W. Peirce, of Freetown, colonel; 
Joseph H. Barnes, of Boston, lieutenant-colonel ; and Charles 
Chipman, of Sandwich, major. Colonel Peirce, on the break- 

13 



194 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

ing-out of the war, was brigadier-general of the Second Brigade, 
First Division, Massachusetts Militia, and succeeded General 
B. F. Butler, after his promotion to major-general of volun- 
teers, to the command of the Massachusetts three months' men 
at Fortress Monroe. General Peirce had command of the 
expedition against Big Bethel, in May, 1861. On the return 
of the three months' men, he was mustered out of service, 
and remained without command until he was commissioned 
colonel of the Twenty-ninth by Governor Andrew, Dec. 13, 
1861. He lost his right arm in the battle before Richmond at 
"White Oak Swamp," in 1862. 

The seven original companies of this command were among 
the first three years' volunteers raised in Massachusetts, that 
were mustered into the United-States service. 

While these infantry regiments were being organized and 
forwarded to the front, a battalion of infantry for three years' 
service was organized, and sent to Fort Warren for garrison 
duty. It was composed of five companies, of which Francis J. 
Parker, of Boston, was commissioned major. It was on duty 
at Fort Warren, at the close of the year 1861. 

Two companies of sharpshooters, with telescopic rifles, were 
recruited at Lynnfield. The first company, under command of 
John Saunders, of Salem, was not attached to any regiment. 
It left the State for Washington on the 3d day of December, 
1861, and was ordered to report to General Frederick W. 
Lander, who commanded a brigade near Maryland Heights, on 
the Upper Potomac. The second company was attached to die 
Twenty-second Regiment, and left the State with it. In these 
two companies were many of the best marksmen in the Com- 
monwealth. 

The first regiment of cavalry was ordered to be raised on the 
third day of September, 1861; and Colonel Robert Williams, of 
Virginia, one of the most accomplished cavab-y officers in the 
regular army, was detailed to accept the command. Horace 
Binney Sargent, of West Roxbury, senior aide-de-camp to the 
Governor, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel ; Greely S. 
Curtis, of Boston, and John H. Edson, of Boston, were com- 
missioned majors. The regiment was recruited at "Camp Brig- 



DEPARTURE OF LIGHT BATTERIES. 195 

ham," Readville, and left for the seat of war in detachments, 
-the first being sent forward Dec. 25 ; the second, Dec. 27 ; 
and the third, on Sunday, December 29, 1861. The regiment 
was ordered to Annapolis; and Colonel Williams was to await 
orders from the Adjutant-General of the United States. The 
regiment remained at Annapolis until the close of the year. 

The First Light Battery was recruited at "Camp Cameron," 
Cambridge, by Captain Josiah Porter, assisted by William H. 
McCartney, Jacob H. Sleeper, Jacob Federhen, and Robert L. 
Sawin, of Boston, who were severally commissioned lieutenants. 
The battery left the State on the 3d of October, 1861, for 
Washington. 

The Second Battery was recruited at "Camp Wollaston," 
Quincy, and left for Washington, on the eighth day of August, 
1861. Its officers were Ormond F. Nuns, Boston, captain; 
John W. Wolcott, Roxbury, first lieutenant; George G. 
Trull of Boston, Richard B. Hall of Boston, second lieuten- 
ants. 

The Third Battery was recruited at Lynnfield, by Captain 
Dexter H. FoUett, and was temporarily attached to the Twenty- 
second Regiment, and left the State on the seventh day of 
October, 1861. Its officers were Dexter H. FoUett, Boston, cap- 
tain : Augustus P. Martin, Boston, and Caleb C. E. Mortimer, 
Charlestown, first lieutenants : Valentine M. Dunn and Philip 
H. Tyler, Charlestown, second lieutenants. 

Soon after the battery reached Washington, Captain Follett 
resigned his cormnission, and Lieutenant Martin was appointed 
to fill the vacancy. 

The Fourth Light Battery was recruited at "Camp Chase," 
Lowell, and formed part of Major-General Butler's command to 
invade Louisiana. The nucleus of this battery was a section 
of light artillery in the Second Division of Militia at Salem, 
commanded by Captain Charles H. Manning. When recruited 
to a full battery, it left Boston in the steam-transport "Con- 
stitution," Nov. 21, 1861. Its officers were Charles H. Man- 
ning, of Salem, captain : Frederick W. Reinhardt, Boston, 
and Joseph R. Salla, Boston, first lieutenants : Henry Davidson 
and George W. Taylor, of Salem, second lieutenants. 



196 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

The Fifth Light Battery was recruited at Lynnfield, and at 
"Camp Massasoit," Readviile, and left the State for Washing- 
ton, with orders to report to Major-General McClellan. Its 
officers were Max Eppendorff, of New Bedford, captain : 
George D. Allen, Maiden, and John B. Hyde, New Bedford, 
first lieutenants : Robert A. Dillingham, New Bedford, and 
Charles A. Phillips, Salem, second lieutenants. 

This battery was the only one which left the State in 1861 
without a complete equipment. Every thing was furnished 
except horses, which Quartermaster-General Meigs, U.S.A., 
preferred to have supplied at Washington. 

These regiments and batteries of three years' volunteers com- 
prised, in the aggregate, twenty-seven thousand officers and 
enlisted men. They had been organized, officered, equipped, 
and sent to, the front, within six months. Including the three 
months' men, the number of soldiers furnished by Massachu- 
setts, from the sixteenth day of April to the thirty-first day of 
December, 1861, in the aggregate was thirty thousand seven 
hundred and thirty-six officers and enlisted men. This is exclu- 
sive of six companies, raised in Newburyport, West Cambridge, 
Milford, Lawrence, Boston, and Cambridgeport, which went to 
New York in May, and joined what was called the Mozart Regi- 
ment, and Sickles' s brigade ; nor does it include two regiments 
which were recruited by Major-General Butler at Pittsfield 
and Lowell, and which were originally known as the Western 
Bay State and the Eastern Bay State Regiments, of which we 
shall speak in the next chapter ; nor does it include three hun- 
dred men who were recruited in Massachusetts for a military 
organization at Fortress Monroe, known as the Union Coast 
Guard, and commanded by Colonel Wardrop, of the Third 
Regiment Massachusetts Militia, in the three months' service. 
Including these enlistments, the total number of officers and sol- 
diers, furnished by Massachusetts in 1861, would be thirty-three 
thousand six hundred and thirty-six, or more than twice the 
number of the entire army of the United States at the com- 
mencement of the war. But, in addition to this large number 
of men furnished by this Commonwealth for the military de- 
fence of the nation, it appears, by the enlistment-record of the 



STAFF APPOINTMENTS BY THE GOVERNOR. 197 

receiving-ship at the navy yard in Charlestown, that seven 
thousand six hundred and fifty-eight Massachusetts men entered 
the navy to maintain our rights, and defend the flag upon the 
ocean. Add these to the men furnished for the army, and the 
aggregate is forty-one thousand two hundred and ninety-four. 

To avoid confusion, we have given, in consecutive form, the 
organizing and getting off the regiments during the year 1861, 
which required great attention and much labor, and rendered 
necessary the appointment of additional staff officers, and the 
creation of new military departments. On the twenty-fifth day 
of May, 1861, General Ebenezer W. Stone was appointed 
master of ordnance, with the rank of colonel, which position 
he held until the third day of October of the same year. Al- 
bert G. Browne, Jr., of Salem, was appointed, on the twenty- 
seventh day of May, 1861, military secretary to the Governor, 
with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, which position he held until 
the close of Governor Andrew's administration in 1865. On 
the thirteenth day of June, 1861, Dr. William J. Dale, of Bos- 
ton, was appointed Surgeon-General of Massachusetts, with the 
rank of colonel. Dr. Dale and Dr. George H. Lyman had 
given their time and professional services in a medical supervision 
of the troops, and the selection of proper persons for surgeons 
to the regiments, from the commencement of the Rebellion. Dr. 
Dale, in a letter addressed to me says, - 

" Whatever of success attended the preparation of the troops, prior 
to my commission, is attributable to Dr. Lyman, who showed great 
energy and good judgment. He was constantly in consultation with 
the Governor ; while I attended to the routine of office duties, and gave 
such help to Dr. Lyman as my limited knowledge of such matters al- 
lowed. He is an accomplished man, an able surgeon, and stood high 
in his profession. He was considered one of the most energetic and 
thorough officers on the medical staff in the United-States army, until 
honorably mustered out at the expiration of the Rebellion." 

The following letter of the Governor to Dr. Lyman shows 
bow well he appreciated the services rendered by him : - 

June 14, 1861. 

My dear Sir,- I wish to render you my sincere thanks, both 
personally and in behalf of the Commonwealth, for the constant and 
valuable services which you have so kindly rendered in our medical ser- 



198 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

vice and of the faithfulness of which. I beg to assure you, I am deeply 
sensible. 

I shall esteem it an especial favor, if you will retain your connection, 
with the medical department for the present, in order to co-operate with 
Dr. Dale in the work respecting ambulances, hospital outfits, &c., on 
which you are now engaged, and if you will also henceforth act as a 
member of the Board of Medical Examiners, to which I beg you to con- 
sider this letter as an appointment. 

I shall always remember with gratitude - almost beyond any other 
service I have ever received - the friendly co-operation of those who 
came to the assistance of the Commonwealth during the anxious and 
hurried days of April, when, destitute as we were of any efficient mili- 
tary organization, we were enabled, as individuals working in a common 
spirit, to effect a result which was creditable to Massachusetts. 

Yours faithfully and respectfully, JohnA. Andrew. 

To Dr. G. H. Lyman. 

At the beginning of the war, a memorial was addressed to 
the Governor, signed by Drs. James Jackson, George Hay- 
ward, and S. D. Townsend, asking that none but well-quaHfied 
and competent surgeons should receive medical appointments. 
The memorial was favorably regarded by the Governor; and he 
appointed Drs. Hayward, Townsend, John Ware, Samuel G. 
Howe, J. Mason Warren, S. Cabot, Jr., R. M. Hodges, 
George H. Lyman, and William J. Dale, as a medical commis- 
sion. Drs. George H. Gay, Samuel L. Abbott, John C. Dalton, 
and R. W. Hooper were subsequently appointed to fill vacancies 
caused by death or resignation. This board was charged with 
the responsibihty of examining candidates for the medical staff, 
and also acted as a board of consultation in sanitary mat- 
ters, when called upon by the Surgeon-General. Their valua- 
ble services were in constant requisition during the war; and, 
being composed of men distinguished and humane, their opin- 
ions had great weight. Their services were entirely voluntary, 
and continued during the war. 

The Surgeon-General established hospitals, received and cared 
for the sick and wounded who returned; and his labors in the 
reception and care of these men continued until the establish- 
ment of general hospitals by the Government, and were exceed- 
ingly laborious, and of great usefulness. 



SURGEON-GENERAL'S OFHCE. 199 

Soon after the commencement of the war, as there was no 
army-surgeon in Boston, the Medical Bureau at Washington 
appointed Surgeon-General Dale acting assistant surgeon in 
the United-States army, for the purpose of giving him official 
responsibility in matters pertaining to the sanitary welfare of 
the troops. Under these joint commissions, he furnished medi- 
cal supplies, organized hospitals, received and cared for the sick 
and wounded, and remained acting medical director in the 
United-States army, until relieved, in July, 1862, by Surgeon 
McLaren, of the regular service. 

The admirable manner in which General Dale organized his 
department, and discharged his duties, his humane and tender 
care of the sick and wounded, will ever be regarded with grati- 
tude by our people; in acknowledgment of which, he was ap- 
pointed to the rank of brigadier-general by Governor Andrew, 
by General Order No. 24, dated- 

Headquarters, Boston, Oct. 7,1863, 
In view of the considerate, able, and unwearied services rendered 
the past two years by Colonel William J. Dale, as Surgeon-General of 
the Commonwealth, his Excellency the Governor directs that he here- 
after take rank as brigadier-general, and that he be obeyed and respected 
accordingly. W illiam Schouler, 

Adjutant- General. 

Elijah D. Brigham, of Boston, on the thirteenth day of June, 
186L was commissioned Commissary-General of Massachusetts, 
with the rank of colonel, which rank he held until May 14, 
1864, when he was promoted by the Governor to the rank of 
brigadier-general. 

Charles H. Dalton was appointed assistant quartermaster- 
general, on the twenty-third day of May, 1861, with the rank 
of colonel. Colonel Dalton did very acceptable services at 
Washington, as the agent of the Governor, in the early part of 
the war, which were given gratuitously. 

William P. Lee and Waldo Adams, of Boston, were ap- 
pointed assistant quartermaster-generals, with the rank of first 
lieutenant, June 14, 1861. The services rendered by these 
gentlemen were given, gratuitously. 

Frank E. Howe, of New York, was appointed assistant 



200 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

quartermaster-general Aug. 23, 1861, with the rank of lieuten- 
ant-colonel. Colonel Howe was a native of Massachusetts, 
doing business in New York. In the month of May, he had 
written to Governor Andrew, tendering the use of rooms in his 
store, and his own personal services, to take charge of the sick 
and wounded Massachusetts soldiers who might pass through 
New York on their return from the front. On the twentieth 
day of May, Governor Andrew wrote him the following letter 
in reply : - 

Frank E. Howe, Esq., 203, Broadway. May 20, 186L 

Sir, -I have received, with great pleasure, the liberal and patriotic 
tender of the services of yourself and employees, and the use of your 
premises on Broadway, for the benefit of the Massachusetts troops, and 
the general advancement of the interests of this Commonwealth in its 
relations to the present war. 

Expressing to you my thanks, I accept your generous offer. It will 
be of great advantage to our soldiers to make your premises their head- 
quarters, so far as convenient, while in New York; and you may ex- 
pect, from time to' time, to be intrusted with the performance of various 
offices for their benefit. 

Should you fall in with any sick or wounded Massachusetts officers 
or soldiers, you will please to relieve them at the expense of the State, 
and take measures for forwarding them to their homes. 

With regard to the sundry other duties that we may ask of you to 
perform, you will, so far as possible, receive specific instructions as they 
arise. 

You will please to make a weekly return of the expenses to be de- 
frayed by the State to this department. 

Yours faithfully. John A. Andrew. 

This was the origin of what was familiarly known as the 
New-England Rooms in New York, of which Colonel Howe 
had charge during the entire war. It became a home and hos- 
pital for the sick and wounded of New-England soldiers, both in 
going to, and returning from, the front. Other New-England 
States, following the lead of Massachusetts, appointed Colonel 
Howe their agent to take care of their soldiers. These rooms 
were supported, by voluntary subscriptions, by patriotic and 
Uberal men in the city of New York. We shall have occasion 



MILITARY STORES AT FORTRESS MONROE. 201 

to speak again of this admirable institution and Colonel Howe 
in a subsequent chapter. 

Charles Amory, of Boston, who, in the early part of the 
war, had tendered to the Governor his services, free of charge, 
in any position where be could be of use, was appointed master 
of ordnance, upon the discharge of General Stone, on the 
seventh day of October, 1861, with the rank of colonel. Colo- 
nel Amory performed the duties of the office until Jan. 9, 1863, 
when he resigned, there being no further necessity for his ser- 
vices. He received the thanks of the Governor, in General 
Orders No. 2, series of 1863. 

William Brown, of Boston, who was chief clerk in the 
oftice of the Adjutant-General when the war broke out, and for 
several years previous thereto, was commissioned Assistant 
Adjutant-General, with the rank of colonel, on the twenty- 
ninth day of October, 1861, which position he held until re- 
moved by death, Feb. 16, 1863. He was a faithful and 
intelligent officer, and died at his post. 

These were all the staff commissions issued in 1861. 

We now return to the correspondence of the Executive De- 
partment. 

A large amount of valuable stores for our troops had been 
forwarded to Fortress Monroe, in the steamer "Pembroke," 
early in the month of May, 1861. The following letter, writ- 
ten by Colonel Lee by direction of the Governor, has reference 
to these stores : - 

May 20, 1861. 

D EAR Sir, - The captain of the steamer "Pembroke," just re- 
turned from Fort Monroe, reports, that several boxes and bales, put 
ashore for the Fifth and Eighth Regiments, remained as long as the 
"vPembroke" lay at the fort, exposed to mud and the weather ; and 
that, although he applied successively to the quartermasters of the 
Third and Fourth Regiments, and to the colonels, then to the 
quartermaster of the regulars, and, lastly, to Colonel -, he did not 
succeed in interesting any one to receive and store these goods, or to 
engage to forward them to the regiments in Washington, or else- 
where. 

Governor Andrew would like to have the whereabouts of these 
goods discovered ; and, if they have not been delivered, would like to 



202 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

have them sent to the regiments to whom they are addressed. Com- 
modore Stringham very kindly promised to send them by the first 
opportunity, but that may not have come. 

The Governor would also express his great surprise at the indiffer- 
ence - almost surliness -exhibited by United-States officers, when 
applied to as to the reception and care of these comforts for Massachu- 
.setts troops ; also, his astonishment that room could not be found in 
Fort Monroe for their storage. 

As you are obliged to leave Washington, the Governor has commis- 
sioned for the time, as Massachusetts agent, Mr. Charles H. Dalton, a 
gentleman of perfect integrity, and great business experience and abil- 
ity, and he leaves Boston for Washington, this evening; and any busi- 
ness you have in hand, when obliged to leave, you will give to his 
charge. 

Your obedient servant, 

H E N R Y L E E, Jr., Aide-de-camp. 

Charles R. Lotyell, Jr., Esq., Washington, D.C. 

May 23, 1861. - The Governor telegraphs to Hon. Charles 
Sumner, at Washington, "Why can't I send a brigadier in But- 
ler's place ? It is my wish, and is only just to General Peirce. 
Butler recommends him. He is sound, faithful, and ardent. 
Answer immediately." Permission was given, and General 
Peirce was appointed. On the same day, the Governor writes 
to Professor Rogers, thanking him for eight hundred military 
hats, contributed by the "Thursday Evening Club;" also, to 
Mrs. Jared Sparks, Cambridge, and the ladies with whom she 
is associated, for presents of needle-books and handkerchiefs for 
the soldiers. 

May 24, 1861. - overnor writes to Lieutenant Amory, 
U.S.A., mustering officer at Boston, "Whatever rations, cloth- 
ing, &c., you may want for the soldiers, after they are mustered 
in, will be furnished upon proper requisitions." The same day, 
he writes to A. W. Campbell, of Wheeling, Va., inclosing an 
order passed by the Executive Council, loaning that city two 
thousand muskets. He writes to William Robinson, of Balti- 
more, Md., - 

"I have gratefully received, and desire cordially to acknowledge 
your very kind letter, concerning the fate and last days of poor Need- 
ham, of Lawrence, Mass. Allow me also to render to you my thanks 



LETTERS TO SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY. 203 

in behalf of those most nearly related to the young man, as well as in 
behalf of all my people, for your Christian, brotherly conduct towards 
the strangers who fell in your way, rendering the offices of a good 
Samaritan. I have sent a copy of your letter to the Mayor of Law- 
rence, who will send it to the Needham family. 

"I beg leave to add the assurances of my personal respect, and the 
hope that I may yet see you in Boston." 

He writes to Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Trea- 
sury : - 

" I have consulted with the representatives of many of our princi- 
pal banking institutions, and with our leading private capitalists ; and 
I feel confident, that, if necessary or desirable, $5,000,000 of the 
$14,000,000 of the next loan can be taken in this Commonwealth. 

" If the United-States bonds to that amount should be guaranteed 
by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, they would command a pre- 
mium probably, and could certainly be readily negotiated at par. Will 
you advise me what would be the wishes of the national Administration 
in this respect ? " 

He writes again to the Secretary of War, calling his atten- 
tion to the defenceless condition of the forts in Boston Har- 
bor ; also to General Stetson, of the Astor House, thanking 
him for his kindness and liberality to our soldiers in passing 
through New York ; also thanks Daniel Lombard, Esq., of 
Boston, who offers to clear "a cargo of rice, free of expense, 
for the use of our troops." 

He writes to Colonel Dalton, at Washington, inclosing him 
an extract from a letter written by F. A. B. Simkins, to the 
effect that a soldier of the Fifth Regiment had told him that the 
quartermaster of the regiment had neglected his duty. "Mat- 
tresses that came with the regiment had since lain in a cellar, 
while the men have slept on stone floors; tons of cheese from 
Boston had been there more than a week, before the men could 
get a mouthful of it ; canteens had also been there, for a con- 
siderable time, and had not been distributed, - thinks some- 
thing wrong." He also incloses another letter from a gentleman 
in Washington, giving an entirely different account of the con- 
dition of the regiment. Colonel Dalton is asked to look into 
the matter, and report. 



204 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

May 28, 1861. -Governor writes to Jacob F. Kent, Esq., 
Providence, R.I., that " Massachusetts is allowed six regi- 
ments, and would be glad to send twenty, if they would let 
her." 

He writes to Governor Washburn, of Maine, - 

" If I have a chance to make an appointment of a good man as offi- 
cer, I make no question as to his age, unless he comes somewhere near 
Methuselah. I hold that I am not hound to take judicial notice of a 
man's age, or to enter into any particular investigation on the subject, 
provided I feel that I have got the right man. Both of us know some 
people at fifty who are younger than some at twenty-five; yet, on the 
whole, I like the suggestion of the War Department; and, if they err 
in favor of young men, why, that is so uncommon an error now-a-days 
among Government officials, that 1 regard it with great charity, as a 
hopeful symptom." 

This letter undoubtedly has reference to a circular letter 
addressed to the Governors of the loyal States by the Secretary 
of War, in which the following suggestions are made in respect 
to the appointment of officers in the volunteer service : - 

" 1. To commission no one of doubtful morals or patriotism, and not 
of sound health. 

" 2. To appoint no one to a lieutenancy (second or first) who has 
passed the age of twenty-two years, or to a captaincy over thirty years ; 
and to appoint no field officers (major, lieutenant-colonel, or colonel), 
unless a graduate of the United-States Military Academy, or known to 
possess military knowledge and experience, who have passed the respec- 
tive ages of thirty-five, forty, forty-five years. 

" This department feels assured, that it will not be deemed offensive 
to your Excellency to add yet this general counsel, that the higher the 
moral character and general intelligence of the officers so appointed, 
the greater the efficiency of the troops, and the resulting glory to their 
respective States. " 

May 28. - The Governor telegraphs to Governor Dennison, 
of Ohio, "If you wish us to buy or contract for any equipments 
for you, can get two hundred a day made, suitable, if you 
wish." 

He telegraphs to the Secretary of War, " The First Regiment 



LETTER TO COLONEL HOWE, NEW YORK. 205 

has been mustered in. I want to know whether they shall be 
sent to Fortress Monroe, as General Butler wants them to be, 
or what I shall do with them. They are ready to start at 
twenty-four hours' notice." 

May 29. - He telegraphs to Colonel Dalton, Washington, 
"Urge Government to let me have guns from ordnance yard, 
and mount them in harbor forts. Merchants here constantly 
pressing me to obtain them." 

He writes to M. C. Pratt, Holyoke, " I have no orders for 
cavalry. Nothing would give me greater pleasure than to fur- 
nish more infantry and cavalry, but cannot do it." 

He writes to Colonel Jonas H. French Boston, declining to 
accept his offer to raise a regiment, " as there are troops now 
under arms in the State sufficient to fill double the quota as- 
signed to Massachusetts. Nothing would give me greater pleas- 
ure than to have liberty to send more troops." 

In the early weeks of the war, several debts were contracted 
in the name of the Commonwealth, by officers and others, for 
supplies for the immediate use of troops on their way to 
Washington. The commissary and quartermaster's departments 
had yet to be organized, and a proper system of expenditure 
and personal accountability established. Many of the bills 
which were forwarded from New York and other places to the 
State authorities for payment contained items which were not 
recognized in "the regulations," and the prices charged were 
extravagantly high. The files of the Governor contain a num- 
ber of letters relating to these matters. One of these letters 
states that in "almost all the New- York bills for supplies bought 
at that time for the troops, the charges average very much more 
than Boston prices for similar articles." One of the committee 
of the Governor's Council, to whom these bills were referred 
for settlement, remarked that " the purchasers, whoever they 
were, seemed to have looked for persons who sold at retail 
prices,, and to have succeeded admirably in finding what they 
were looking for." These bills were, however, paid; and the 
appointment of Colonel Frank E. Howe as the agent of the 
Commonwealth to look after the wants of our soldiers in New 
York put an end to these early attempts to peculate upon the 



206 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

liberality of Massachusetts. The Executive Council also kept 
a close watch upon expenditures, and scrutinized all bills pre- 
sented for payment, which relieved the Governor and heads of 
departments from much of the drudgery of examining and 
ascertaining the accuracy of this description of accounts. 

May 30. - The Governor writes to Colonel Dalton, at Wash- 
ington, asking him to urge again upon the Government the 
necessity of arming our forts. " There are plenty of guns at 
the navy yard, at Walertown, and Springfield, which could easily 
he put into position. The necessity is urgent." 

He acknowledges the receipt of the letter of Powell T. Wy- 
man, from Europe, forwarded to him by the Adjutant-General, 
offering his services in any military capacity. 

May 31. - The Governor telegraphs to Henry Ward Beecher, 
New York, " The Milford company will arrive by the Norwich 
boat, to-morrow morning ; the Newburyport company, by the 
Stonington boat; the West-Cambridge company, by the land 
train, leaving here at eight o'clock, this evening. Prepare to 
receive them : they are consigned to you." These three com- 
panies were impatient, to enter the service. They could not be 
placed in any regiment here, as the quota assigned to this State 
was full, and the Secretary of War would accept no more. 
They were induced, by representations made, to go to New 
York, and complete a regiment said to be forming in Brooklyn, 
and to be known as the "Beecher Regiment." Upon arriving 
at New York, they were sadly disappointed in their expecta- 
tions. No such regiment as had been represented was in readi- 
ness to receive them, and they were utterly neglected. Those 
by whom they were encouraged to come to New York gave them 
no support or assistance ; and they telegraphed to the Governor 
for transportation to return home again. They came back, and 
again went to New York, and entered the Mozart Regiment, so 
called. 

June 3. -In regard to these companies, the Governor tele- 
graphed to Frank E. Howe, " Brooklyn must prepare to return 
our diree companies. We have incurred expense, raised hopes ; 
and Brooklyn has cruelly misled, disappointed, and mortified 
us." Colonel Sargent, by direction of the Governor, writes to 



LETTER TO GENERAL SCOTT. 207 

Henry Ward Beecher, asking if Brooklyn people will send the 
companies back. If not, Massachusetts will pay the expense. 
Also, writes a letter of introduction for William E. Parmenter, 
Esq., of West Cambridge, to Colonel Howe. Mr. Parmenter 
went on to see about the West-Cambridge company. 

The Governor telegraphs to Colonel Dalton, at Washington, 
"Urge desperately for one more regiment from Massachusetts. 
It is next to impossible for us to get along without at least one 
more." 

June 4. - Governor telegraphs to Colonel Dalton, at Wash- 
ington, " Can regiments be received without tents and wagons? 
Hearing that the Government can't supply them, we contracted, 
and expect some in a few days, and can forward regiments soon 
as mustered, and wagons and tents received. Will forward the 
regiments, and send things afterwards, if permitted." 

June 5 . - Governor writes a long letter in answer to one 
received from Colonel Hinks, of the Eighth Regiment, then in 
Maryland, who had asked that the regiment might be detained 
in the service as one of the six regiments asked for the three 
years' service. The Governor declines to entertain the propo- 
sition. "As the men have a right to come home at the end of 
three months, and the officers cannot speak for them, they must 
speak for themselves." 

June 10, 1861 
To Lieutenant - General Winfield Scott. 

General,- His Excellency the Governor of Massachusetts 
orders me to make a detailed statement to you in regard to Cobbs 
Flying Artillery. Major Cobb raised, drilled, and commanded Cooks 
Battery, now in service under General Butler; and understands 
himself. 

He has one hundred and fifty picked men, most carefully selected; 
six pieces rifled and throwing twelve-pound shot and nine-pound shell 
(concussion), intended to burst on striking a column of men. The 
principle is beautiful.. 

Captain Van Bmnt, of the "Minnesota," saw a trial of these guns 
with shot, and expressed surprise and delight. The trials with shell 
are pronounced by competent judges to be even more satisfactory, with 
equal precision, at three and a half degrees elevation, one thousand 
three hundred and fifty yards' distance, one and a half pounds powder. 



208 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

time four and a half seconds. The shot, weighing with patch twelve 
pounds, were thrown from these rifled six-pounders with precision 
enough to strike a section nearly every time ; and most of them were 
thrown within four feet lateral deviations, towards the latter part of 
the trial. The guns are bronze, of course. 

At twelve degrees elevation, chronometer measurement over water 
indicated a flight of two and a half miles before ricochet. At twenty 
degrees, ricochet was lost. 

The shells burst beautifully. There is no lead to strip off over the 
heads of men, and they are very safe to handle or drop. The charge 
fits so loosely, expanding after ignition of the powder, that a child can 
ram the shot home. Major Cobb can fire one hundred rounds from 
his battery in six minutes. 

Every thing - horses, wagons, and all -is ready for your call. 

I have the honor to be sir, your most respectful and obedient 
servant, Horace Binney Sargent, Aide-de-camp. 

June 10. - The Governor writes to Governor Buckingham, of 
Connecticut, "I have your letter of the 7th, inclosing duplicate 
letter of credit for £10,000 on George Peabody, which you 
state will be sent to Mr. Crowninshield. That gentleman has 
already received orders to execute your orders; and I trust that 
he will be able to do so." 

On the same day, the Governor gave written instructions to 
Colonel Ritchie, of his personal staff, to visit our regiments at the 
front, and confer with General Scott as regards future movements, 
and to report. The Governor writes to General Scott, asking 
the discharge of Captain Henry S. Briggs, of the Eighth Regi- 
ment, M.V.M., three months' regiment, that he may com- 
mission him colonel of the Tenth Regiment, three years' service. 
Captain Briggs was discharged, and commissioned colonel of the 
Tenth, June 21, 1861. He served gallantly through the war, 
and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers by President 
Lincoln, for brave and meritorious services in the field. He 
was wounded in the seven days' fight before Richmond, in 1862, 
but remained in service to the end of the war. He is a son 
of the late Hon. George N. Briggs, formerly Governor of 
Massachusetts, and he is now Auditor of State, having been 
elected three times to that responsible position. 

June 14. - Governor telegraphs to the Secretary of War, 



LETTER TO COLONEL WEBSTER. 209 

"Lieutenant Amory, U.S.A., mustering officer in Boston, 
thinks we ought to furnish thirty wagons, instead of fifteen, for 
every thousand men. If so, we will send wagons additional to 
fifteen." The Executive Council passed an order to have the 
Twelfth Regiment (Colonel Webster) go to Fort Warren, 
preparatory to being mustered into the service. 

On the same day, the Governor's military secretary addressed 
the following letter to Colonel Webster : - 

To Colonel Webster. 

D E A R S I R, - His Excellency the Governor, having accepted an 
invitation to assist in raising an American flag on the summit of the 
monument at Bunker Hill, will take pleasure, if you will join his 
military staff on that occasion, - the 17th of June. 

the staff will meet at the private room of the Governor, at the 
State House, on the morning of that day, in season to take carriages 
for Charlestown at eight o'clock. 

It is desired that there may be no delay as to the time of starting 
for Charlestown ; for, according to the programme of the managers of 
the celebration, it is expected that the Governor and staff shall be 
present at the house of Mr. Warren, President of the Monument 
Association, at half-past eight o'clock. 

Very truly, your obedient servant, 

A. G. Browne, 

Military Secretary to Commander-in-chief. 

June 15. -The Governor addressed the following letter to the 
President of the United States, which was given to Mr. William 
Everett, and taken by him to Washington, and delivered to Mr. 
Lincoln : - 
His Excellency A. Lincoln, President United States. 

Sir, - I beg to present Mr. Everett, of Boston, a son of the Hon. 
Edward Everett, and through him to present to your notice a 
copy, - 

1. Of a letter from Bishop Fitzpatrick to yourself. 

2. Copy of your Excellency's endorsement thereon. 

3. Copy of endorsement of the Secretary of War. 

4. A letter from myself to Mr. H. A. Pierce, the agent of the 
regiment referred to. 

5. A copy of my general order, under which our six regiments were 
designated, and encamped regiments provided for. 

14 



210 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

I do this for the purpose of showing the system in which I have 
proceeded in regard to the three years' men, the effect of progress 
made and making, and what we are willing and desire to do ; and 
also what is the truth as to the Fourteenth* (Irish regiment), which I 
am as willing to forward as any other, but not to the cost or injustice 
to others by deranging the scheme; If the United-States Government 
will designate any special regiment, without leaving any responsibility 
of selection on me, I will, however, proceed with the utmost zeal and 
alacrity to execute its order, whether it agrees with my scheme or not. 

Again I wish to urge attention to our splendid new battery of light 
artillery, specially prepared for service ; and to add, that, if the want 
of a United-States army officer is in the way, I should be very glad 
to have one detailed, and allowed to take its command. 

I am, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

John A. Andrew. 

The above letter requires explanation. The Fourteenth Regi- 
ment referred to was composed, in great part, of men of Irish 
birth. At the beginning of the war. Colonel Thomas Cass, of 
Boston, proposed to raise an Irish regiment for the three months' 
service. He had been long and favorably connected with the 
volunteer militia of Massachusetts. His request was granted, 
and the regiment was raised ; but, before its organization could 
be completed, information was received from Washington that 
no more three months' regiments would be accepted. Coinci- 
dent with the request made by Colonel Cuss, an offer was made 
by Dr. Smith and others, of Boston, to raise a second Irish 
regiment, which they were pleased to designate "the Irish Bri- 
gade." This regiment was to be commanded by a person by the 
name of Rice, who was not a citizen of Massachusetts, although 
he was here at the time, and, so far as the writer knew, of 
no military experience whatever. This regiment was also raised, 
but was not accepted, for the same reasons that Colonel Cass's 
regiment was not. When the call was made for three years' 
troops, a very large proportion of the men composing the two 
regiments agreed to enlist for three years ; and both were sent to 
Long Island, Boston Harbor, until their organizations could be 
completed, and the regiments accepted by the Government. The 

* The disbanded old Fourteenth Regiment. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE IRISH REGIMENTS. 211 

long delay, by the Secretary of War, in fixing the quota of Massa- 
chusetts under the first call of the President for three years' men, 
and his persistent refusal, for a still longer time, to accept more 
than six regiments from this State, and the uncertainty which 
existed whether they would be accepted at all, had a demoral- 
izing and pernicious effect upon both commands. When, how- 
ever, orders were received on the twenty-second day of May, 
that Massachusetts was to furnish six regiments, the Governor 
determined that one of the six should be an Irish regiment. At 
diis time, neither of the Irish regiments were full. They were 
designated the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Regiments. Until a 
regiment was full,-that is, with ten companies, and each com- 
pany with ninety-eight enlisted men and three commissioned 
officers, -it could not be mustered into the United-States service, 
and consequently could not receive United-States pay. Colonel 
Cass's regiment lacked about two hundred men to complete it. to 
the maximum. These men were to be obtained at once; and 
the Governor decided that these men should be taken from the 
Fourteenth Regiment, which numbered only about six hundred 
men. 

The Adjutant-General was ordered by the Governor to effect 
this consolidation. He proceeded the same day to Long Island 
with the Governor's orders, which he read to the officers of die 
Fourteenth, and requested their assistance to fill up the, regi- 
ment of Colonel Cass. It appeared that the intention of the 
Governor had been known at the camp before the Adjutant- 
General arrived ; and a meeting of the officers had been held, at 
which resolutions had passed condemnatory of the orders of the 
Governor, which resolutions were to appear in the Boston 
papers the next morning. The resolutions which were passed 
were shown to the Adjutant-General upon his arrival at Long 
Island. He read them with surprise, and told Mr. Rice and the 
officers, that, if they were made public, he thought the Gov- 
ernor would order the organization to be disbanded at once. The 
resolutions were suppressed. After considerable difficulty, and a 
good deal of forbearance, a sufficient number of men agreed to 
join Colonel Cass's regiment to fill it up ; and, in a few days 
afterwards, it was mustered into the service of the United States 



212 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

as the Ninth Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers. The remain- 
ing men of the Fourteenth, through heeding advice given them by 
disappointed aspirants for commissions, became dissatisfied, and 
left the island. As they had not signed the enlistment paper, and 
had not been mustered into the United-States service, they could 
not be held to service. Nothing was further from the desire of 
the Governor or the Adjutant-General than to break up or dis- 
band this nucleus of a regiment. But bad counsels prevailed, 
and unjust complaints were made, which demoralized the men, 
and rendered it necessary in, the end to disband the organization. 
Many of the men went to New York, and joined regiments 
there. Some returned to their homes, and others entered 
regiments which were being organized in. other parts of the 
State. The letter of Bishop Fitzpatrick, mentioned in the Gov- 
ernor's letter to the President, we have no doubt was an earnest 
request that the President would allow more regiments to be 
furnished by Massachusetts, and that the so-called Fourteenth 
Regiment should be one of them. 

One of the most interesting and imposing ceremonies of the 
year was the flag-raising from the summit of Bunker-Hill Monu- 
ment on the seventeenth day of June, the anniversary of the bat- 
tle. The day was warm and pleasant, and a large concourse of 
people were assembled. At the base of the monument a stage 
was erected, on which were the officers of the Association, the 
school children, the city authorities of Charlestown, Governor 
Andrew and his staff. Colonel Fletcher Webster, of the Twelfth 
Regiment, and many other prominent citizens of the State. A 
fine band of music played national airs. The services were opened 
by prayer by the Rev. James B. Miles ; and a short and eloquent 
address was made by Hon. G. Washington Warren, introdu- 
cing Governor Andrew, who was received with hearty cheers 
by those present. The Governor's address was brief, fervent, 
eloquent, and patriotic. After referring to the men of the Revo- 
lution who had sacrificed their lives for independence, and made 
moist the soil of Bunker Hill with their blood, he said, - 

"It is one of the hallowed omens of the controversy of our time, 
that the men of Middlesex, the men of Charlestown, the men of 
Concord, of Lexington, of Acton, are all in the field in this contest. 



FLAG RAISING ON BUNKER HILL. 213 

This day, this hour, reconsecrated by their deeds, are adding additional 
leaves to the beautiful chaplet which adorns the fair honor of good old 
Massachusetts. Not unto me, not unto us, let any praise be given. 
Let no tongue dare speak a eulogy for us ; but reserve all the love 
and gratitude that lauguage can express for the patriotic sons of 
Massachusetts who are bearing our country's flag on the field of 
contest. . . . 

"Obedient, therefore, to the request of this Association, and to the 
impulse of my own heart, I spread aloft the ensign of the republic, 
testifying for ever, to the last generation of men, of the rights of man- 
kind, and to constitutional liberty and law. Let it rise until it shall 
surmount the capital of the column, let it float on every wind, to every 
sea and every shore, from, every hill-top let it wave, down every 
river let it run. Respected it shall be in Charlestown, Massachusetts, 
and in Charleston, South Carolina, on the Mississippi as on the 
Penobscot, in New Orleans as in Cincinnati, in the Gulf of Mexico as 
on Lake Superior, and by France and England, now and for ever. 
Catch it, ye breezes, as it swings aloft; fan it, every wind that blows ; 
clasp it in your arms, and let it float for ever, as the starry sign of 
Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable." 

The flag had been at the summit of the staff, rolled up as the 
signal-flags are on board of a man-of-war. As Governor 
Andrew concluded, he pulled the rope, the knot was loosened, 
and the flag floated out on the breeze, amid the shouts of the 
assembled thousands, and the playing of the Star-spangled 
Banner by Gilmore's band. The words of the Star-spangled 
Banner were then sung by F. A. Hall, Esq., of Charlestown; 
and the whole assemblage joined in the chorus, the ladies taking 
part with peculiar zest. 

The Governor then called for nine cheers to the glorious Star- 
spangled Banner, which were given with great heart, the ladies 
waving their handkerchiefs. 

When the excitement had somewhat subsided, the Governor 
came forward, and, in a few complimentary remarks, introduced 
to the audience Colonel Webster. The speech of this gentle- 
man was brief and appropriate. His father had made the 
oration when the corner-stone of the monument was laid, and 
again, when the monument was completed. Colonel Webster 
said he well remembered the preliminary meetings of the com- 



214 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

mittee selected to decide upon the size, character, design, and 
site of this monument. They met frequently at his father's 
house. He could remember the appearance of most of them, - 
Colonel Thomas H. Perkins, William Sullivan, and Gilbert 
Stuart, the great painter, whose enormous block-tin snuff-box 
attracted his youthful attention. 

"As a boy, I was present at the laying of the corner-stone of this 
great obelisk under whose shadow we now are. La Fayette laid the 
stone with appropriate and imposing masonic ceremonies. The vast pro- 
cession, impatient of unavoidable delay, broke the line of march, and in 
a tumultuous crowd rushed towards the orators platform; and I was 
saved from being trampled under foot, by the strong arm of Mr. George 
Sullivan, who lifted me on his shoulders, shouting, 'Don't kill the 
orator's son!' and bore me through the crowd, and placed me on 
the staging at my father's feet. I felt something embarrassed at that 
notice, as I now do at this unforeseen notice by His Excellency; but I 
had no occasion to make an acknowledgment of it." He had also 
noticed the ceremonies of the completion of the monument in the pres- 
ence of many distinguished persons from all parts of the country, 
"some of whom," said Colonel Webster, " I regret to say would hardly 
like to renew that visit, or recall that scene." 

"Within a few days after this, I sailed for China; and I watched, 
while light and eyesight lasted, till its lofty summit faded at last from 
view. I now stand again at its base, and renew once more, on this 
national altar, vows, not for the first time made, of devotion to my 
country, its Constitution and Union." 

He concluded as follows :- 

From this spot I take my departure, like the mariner commencing 
his voyage; and, wherever my eyes close, they will he turned hither- 
ward toward this North; and, in whatever event, grateful will be the 
reflection that this monument still stands, -still, still is gilded by 
the earliest beams of the rising sun, and that still departing day 
lingers and plays on its summit for ever." 

The services concluded by a benediction by the venerable 
Father Taylor. The flag thus raised, floated from its serene 
height during the entire war, until it was respected in Charleston, 
South Carolina, as in Charlestown, Massachusetts. Few men 
who knew Colonel Webster, can read the words uttered by him 
on this occasion, without recalling many pleasant memories con- 



SPEECH OF COLONEL WEBSTER. 215 

netted with his name. It was his last utterance in pubUc; for, 
before the close of the next year, he fell in Virginia, at the head 
of his regiment, in a desperate battle. His body was brought 
home to Massachusetts, and lay in state at Faneuil Hall a day, 
when it was taken to Marshfield, and buried by the side of his 
illustrious father, "and there it will remain for ever." 



CHAPTER V. 

Death of Governor Andrew - The Great Loss - Mission of Mr. Crowninshield 
to Europe - The Purchase of Arms - Colonel Lucius B. Marsh - Vote of 
Thanks by the Council - The Policy of the Governor in making Military 
Appointments - Letter to General Buder in regard to our Soldiers - Neglect 
of Officers - Letter to Colonel Couch, of the Seventh - Sends Two Thousand 
Muskets to Wheeling, Va. - General Lander - Governor Stevens, of Oregon 

- General Sherman comes to Boston to confer with the Govemor - The War 
Department and Appointments - Govemor makes an Address to the People 

- Mission to Washington - Writes to Govemor Curtin, of Pennsylvania - 
Blockade -runners at Halifax - Govemor saves the Life of a Private Soldier 

- His Letter to Patrick Donahoe - Religious Toleration - To the Editor of the 
Boston Post-Massachusetts Companies in New-York Regiments - Gene- 
ral Sherman's Command-Liberality of the People - Battle of Balls Bluff 

- The Massachusetts Dead - A Noble Letter - Exchange of Prisoners - 
Governor's Letter to President Lincoln- Scheme to invade Texas - Sug- 
gests that Congress offer Bounties - Controversy about making Massachusetts 
Soldiers catch Fugitive Slaves -Letter to General McClellan-Another Let- 
ter to the President, about Exchange of Prisoners - Our Men in Richmond 
Jail - San Francisco sends Two Thousand Dollars for Soldiers Families- 
The Maryland Legislature -Liberal Action-The Republican State Con- 
vention - Interesting Debate - Democratic Convention - Thanksgiving 
Proclamation - Thanksgiving in the Massachusetts Camps - Major Wilder 
Dwight - The Second Regiment at Harpers Ferry - Full Account of the 
Controversy between Govemor Andrew and Major-General Butler about re- 
cruiting and raising Regiments in Massachusetts. 

The last chapter was finished on the thirtieth day of October, 
when an event occurred which brought sorrow to every true 
heart in the nation : John A. Andrew died on that day. The 
preceding pages of this work have exhibited, in an imperfect 
and feeble manner, a portion of the services which he rendered 
to his State and country in the hour of its greatest peril, -we 
say imperfect and feeble, because much which he did was never 
put in writing, and many of his best thoughts and wisest sug- 
gestions were the inspiration of the moment, and conveyed to 
his friends and subordinates in colloquial conversation. We had 



DEATH OF GOVERNOR ANDREW. 217 

known him long and well ; and, during the five years of his 
administration as Governor of this Commonwealth, our connec- 
tion was official and confidential. We saw him every day, and 
had occasion to consult him upon nearly every matter in relation 
to the part which Massachusetts took in the war. He was 
one of the few men whom we have known, upon whom public 
life worked no detriment to the simplicity, honesty, and kind- 
ness of their character. No man ever appeared in his presence 
to make a dishonest proposition. If any one approached him for 
such a purpose, he would not have had the hardihood to make 
it. His mind was active, and labor appeared to give him, 
strength, rather than weakness. It was the wonder of us all, 
how he could stand so much bodily and mental labor. When 
not absent from the city upon business connected with the war, 
at Washington, he was in his room at the State House, like a 
skilful and steady pilot at the helm, guiding the Ship of 
State. 

We all felt his loss when he was absent, and felt relieved when 
he returned. In the darkest hours of the war, - after the fu-st 
Bull Run battle, the disastrous affair at Ball's Bluff in 1861, 
after the retreat of McClellan from before Richmond, and many 
of the stoutesthearts were despondent, and the peril of the na- 
tion oppressed the minds of men, - Governor Andrew never 
lost faith or hope in the ultimate success of our arms, and the 
favorable termination of the conflict. It was in these days of 
depression, these hours of sadness, that he shone forth with the 
brightness of the sun. 

Never despair of the republic, was his motto, and guide of 
life. He infused hope into minds bordering almost on despair, 
and his acts corresponded with the promptings of his heart. We 
well remember one night, when the news of McClellan' s retreat 
reached Boston ; the papers were filled with accounts of the ter- 
rible disaster; the names of the dead and wounded of Massa- 
chusetts' bravest and best were arrayed in the ghastly bulletins 
transmitted from the front. That very night, the Governor said, 
"We must issue a new order, call for more men, incite recruiting, 
inspire hope, dispel gloom ; this is the time which requires bold- 
ness, firmness, and every personal sacrifice." The order was 



218 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

issued ; it aroused the latent energies of the people ; young 
men, who had not before thought of volunteering, offered them- 
selves as recruits, eager to press forward, to fill the gaps which 
disaster and death had made in our ranks : and so it was all 
through the war. He always had a kind word for the soldiers 
and their families, and he felt every word he spoke. It was no 
lip-service ; it was no honeyed phrase ; it was no politician's 
flattery. It was earnest talk, kind talk. Every one felt it, and 
were wiser men and truer patriots because of it. 

This is not the time, nor this the place, to speak his eulogy. 
No one but Pericles could fitly pronounce the honors of the 
Athenian dead ; and no one less gifted than the great orator 
of Greece can speak the eulogy of him whom we have lost. 

It was fitting that the heart of Massachusetts should sigh 
when John A. Andrew died. It was fitting that his remains 
should be borne to the grave by those who knew him best, and 
loved him most, - the funeral cortege, as it wound its solemn 
way from the church in Arlington Street around the Common, 
past the State House, over the broad avenue leading from the 
city ; the march of the Cadets, with reversed arms, keeping step 
to the funeral dirge ; that the sidewalks should be crowded with 
well-dressed men and women, who bowed their heads, or raised 
their hats, as the coffin moved before them to its resting-place 
in Mount Auburn. 

He was a private citizen when he died ; he held no office ; he 
had no honors to bestow : but his was a name beloved and cher- 
ished in all loyal hearts, and his was a death that moved them 
to the inmost core. He died when his manhood was in its 
prime ; when the fruits of his wisdom and knowledge were 
ripening, and the future was holding out, with favoring hand, the 
highest honors of the republic ; but - 

" He has gone on the mountain. 

He is lost to the forest. 
Like a summer-dried fountain. 
When our need was the sorest. " 

We pass from the contemplation of the character and merits 
of the dead to the consideration of his services while living. 
We have already stated, that Francis B. Crowninshield, of 



PURCHASE OF ARMS IN ENGLAND. 219 

Boston, was appointed, in April, to proceed to England to pur- 
chase arms. Mr. Crowninshield discharged the important trust 
confided to him with great fidelity, and to the satisfaction of the 
Governor. It may be interesting to learn, from so intelligent a 
party, the state of feeling in England towards this country in 
the beginning of the war. 

Mr. Crowninshield arrived in London on Sunday morning, 
the sixth day of May. He found, on his arrival, that there 
were a very few rifles for sale in England. The "Persia," the 
steamer in which he was a passenger, had taken out many orders, 
to purchase. He found an agent there from South Carolina, to 
purchase arms for that State. New York had also sent out an 
agent in the same ship with him ; but he did not know the fact 
until after his arrival in England. There were also several pri- 
vate speculators in the ship for the purchase of arms. Many 
telegrams were sent from Queenstown to England, on the arrival 
of the " Persia" at that port. The London Times, the morning 
on which Mr. Crowninshield arrived in that city, contained 
the announcement that agents had come over to purchase rifles, 
which caused great excitement in the trade. 

On arriving at Liverpool, Mr. McFarland, who had been em- 
ployed to go with Mr. Crowninshield, was despatched to Birming- 
ham, and directed to act promptly in the purchase of arms, if he 
found any there suitable for our purpose. John B. Goodman, 
the chairman of the gun trade in Birmingham, had the control of 
about twenty-five thousand Enfield rifles, of excellent quality, 
which could be delivered in a very short time. The current price 
for these arms was sixty shillings sterling each ; a party stood 
ready to give one hundred shillings each for the lot to go South. 
The preference of purchase was given to Mr. Crowninshield, 
and he purchased two thousand of them at that price. One 
thousand of them were to be sent in the "Persia," on her return 
voyage. In London, he purchased two thousand eight hundred, 
at seventy shillings each ; he also purchased two hundred from 
the London Armory, at sixty-five shillings each. 

The New- York agent purchased about the same number, and 
contracted for about fifteen thousand more ; he also contracted 
for five thousand second-hand rifles, used in the Crimea. The 



220 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

first lot of guns were ready to be sent over ; but the "Persia" 
would not take them, which delayed their arrival here. 

In a letter to the Governor, Mr. Crowninshield says, "I have 
not ventured to approach the British Government about guns, 
at the strong recommendation of Mr. Baring; but one of the 
gun trade, who has the means to do so, has promised to sound 
them about buying some from them on his own account. I 
have but little hope of success. Colonel Fremont, who is here, 
assured me that he was confident I could do nothing in France, 
but has written for information, which he will give me. The 
Government seems inclined to favor the South, so far as the 
question of cotton is concerned,- I think no further. I have a 
credit of one hundred thousand dollars from Ohio, with author- 
ity to buy to that extent. It does not seem to me, under the 
emergency, that we ought to haggle too much about the price : 
to save ten thousand dollars might be to lose every thing." 

Before Mr. Crowninshield' s return, he had bought and con- 
tracted for Massachusetts, and forwarded part of them home, 
19,380 Enfield rifles, and 10,000 sets of equipments, with which 
several of our regiments were provided, and rendered much ser- 
vice in the war. 

Among the gentlemen who were very active in procuring 
arms and equipments in the States, and indefatigable and untir- 
ing in their exertions to serve the Commonwealth and the cause, 
was Lucius B. Marsh, whose services were rendered gratuitous- 
ly- In recognition of them, the following order was passed by 
the Executive Council : - 

Ordered, That the thanks of the executive branch of the Govern- 
ment of Massachusetts be tendered to Lucius 13. Marsh, for his very 
valuable services to the State in the procurement of arms and military 
equipments. These services were rendered as a patriotic duty to the 
country, and wholly without compensation, and entitle him to the grati- 
tude of the State, and to that of every loyal citizen ; and it is further 
ordered, that the generous act of Mr. Marsh be recorded upon the books, 
of the Council, and that a copy of the record be transmitted to him. 

Mr. Marsh was chiefly instrumental, in the succeeding year, 
in raising and organizing the Forty-seventh Regiment, - nine 
months' troops, - of which he was commissioned colonel. The 



THE ACT OF CONGRESS CONCERNING VOLUNTEERS. 221 

regiment was sent to the Department of the Gulf, and served 
out the time of its enlistment, in the defences at New Or- 
leans. 

On the twenty-second day of July, 1861, Congress, in 
extra session, passed an act authorizing the President to accept 
the services of five hundred thousand volunteers ; in which it 
was provided, that " the President shall, from time to time, issue 
his proclamation, stating the number desired, and the States 
from which they are to be furnished, having reference in any 
such requisition to the number then in service from the several 
States, and to the exigencies of the service at the time, and 
equalizing, as far as practicable, the number furnished by the 
several States, according to the federal population." This act also 
provided, that the volunteer regiments and companies should be 
recruited and organized, and the officers commissioned., by the 
Governors of the several States. Under this authority given 
by Congress, requisitions continued to be made upon Massachu- 
setts, as upon other States, during the year 1861, and regiments 
were organized, formed, and sent to the front, in the order stated 
in the preceding chapter. It was the desire of the Governor to 
have the regiments commanded by the best educated and most 
experienced officers he could find. In the selection of company 
officers, the same care was taken. Political influences to obtain 
appointments had no effect upon him ; as he frequently declared, 
that the lives of the soldiers, their health and discipline, de- 
pended in a great degree upon the officers who commanded 
them, and that mere political opinions, and the mere political 
services of appUcants for commissions, properly had no connec- 
tion with these matters. It was his desire to have as many of 
the three months' men enlist in the three years' regiments as 
possible; and, as an encouragement to this end, he telegraphed, 
on the twenty-second day of June, to Colonel Ritchie, who was 
then in Washington, "Wouldn't it be expedient for the Mas- 
sachusetts mihtia-men now in the service to be discharged, who 
will enlist in our new volunteer regiments ? Many of the 
Eighth Regiment, I am told, would enlist, if this opportunity 
were given." 

He also telegraphed to the Secretary of War, asking that 



222 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Lieutenant Palfrey, of the regular army, stationed at Fortress 
Monroe, and Lieutenant Paine, of the regular army, stationed 
at Fort Schuyler, New York, both of whom were Massa- 
chusetts men, might be furloughed to accept colonelcies in 
Massachusetts volunteer regiments. He also telegraphed to 
Senator Sumner, requesting him to urge Joseph Hooker, after- 
wards major-general of volunteers, then in Washington without 
a command? to accept the commission of colonel in one of our 
regiments. Neither of these requests were granted. 

June 24. - Lieutenant William P. Lee, assistant quarter- 
master-general, was directed to accompany the steamers "Cam- 
bridge " and "Pembroke," to Fortress Monroe, as the agent of 
the Commonwealth, with authority to sell, charter, or make any 
disposition of die " Pembroke " as he should think best. 

On the same day, the Governor wrote a long letter to General 
Butler, at Fortress Monroe, concerning the Massachusetts troops 
at tiiat post, under his command; it having been represented to 
him by Colonel Ritchie, of his staff, who had made a tour of 
inspection, that the men were suffering for the want of canteens, 
shoes, and other necessary articles. The letter fills eight pages, 
and expresses with great freedom the Governor's profound re- 
gret that no requisitions had been made, either upon the General 
Government or upon the State, for articles necessary to the 
comfort and health of the troops. He informs General Butler 
diat he has that day forwarded eight hundred canteens to supply 
the Massachusetts troops at Fortress Monroe, although no 
requisition had been made for them by any one, nor proper 
information received that they were in need of them. He had 
also been informed by Colonel Ritchie that the men were in 
want of shoes ; but no intimation of the kind had reached him 
from the officers at Fortress Monroe. It would have been 
absurd to "have launched out canteens, shoes, or any other arti- 
cles, upon mere unauthorized rumors of need for them." At the 
same time, "no properly authenticated requisitions have ever 
reached me which have not been promptly and amply answered." 
"In the complicated and unprecedented relation in which this 
State stands to the Federal Government with regard to sup- 
plies," he thought " application for every thing should in the first 



CONDITION OF OUR SOLDIERS AT FORTRESS MONROE. 223 

place be made to the United States." The men were mustered 
into the United-States service, and were United-States soldiers.. 
When the men were forwarded upon the requisition of the Presi- 
dent, the Governor represented that they were deficient in cer- 
tain necessary equipments : the answer was, "No matter for 
any deficiencies : only hurry on the men, and any and all defi- 
ciencies will be supplied here." 

He considered, therefore, that the Federal Government had 
pledged itself to see our troops properly supplied. He had also 
received a despatch from General Butler, dated May 20, which 
said, "The Massachusetts troops are now supplied with all pro- 
visions and clothing necessary for their term of service." How- 
ever, in view of their present wants, the Governor asked him 
to impress upon the officers, " that if their men need any neces- 
sary equipments or provisions whatever, and fail to obtain them 
from the United States, the State will furnish them." 

Colonel Ritchie had also informed the Governor, that there 
were, at Fortress Monroe, several hundred pairs of thin trou- 
sers, which had been condemned as unfit for service, and. had 
not been issued to the soldiers. These were part of a lot of 
thin clothing sent forward in April, and which were designed to 
be used during the warm weather. The Governor hoped Gen- 
eral Butler would issue them to the troops, as they would serve 
them during the brief remainder of their term. " Let them," 
he says, "get what comfort out of them they can. If the 
United States will not accept the pecuniary responsibihty for the 
cost, then this Commonwealth must defray it. The question 
who shall pay for them afterwards, is of secondary importance, 
if our troops need clothes." The Governor also represented that 
no report had reached him, from any source, of the disposition 
of the Massachusetts stores sent to our troops at Fortress Mon- 
roe, and particularly of the cargo sent by the bark "Aura." 
He hoped, as a Massachusetts man, having a common interest in 
the comfort and reputation of Massachusetts soldiers, the Gen- 
eral would interest himself in these matters. 

On the eighth day of July, the Governor telegraphed to 
Colonel Dalton, at Washington, that he might sell the steamer 
"Cambridge " for $80,000, exclusive of her armament. 



224 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

July 16. - He wrote a long letter to General Butler, protest- 
ing against his taking "from the three months' regiments under 
his command, when about to leave for home, on the expiration 
of their time of service, the Springfield rifled muskets, which 
they carried with, them, and giving, them poor smooth-bores in 
exchange. The muskets belonged to Massachusetts, and were 
wanted to arm our three-years' volunteers." The rifled muskets 
were retained, however, and the men came home with the 
smooth-bores. 

On the same day, he wrote to the Secretary of the Navy in 
regard to Southern privateers capturing our commerce on the 
seas, and of the anxiety felt in the mercantile community 
about them. He urges that stronger measures be taken to seal 
up the Southern ports, and again offers him the privilege of 
buying the steamers "Cambridge" and "Pembroke." 

The Governor was unable to visit the camp at Taunton, and 
witness the departure of the Seventh Regiment from the State. 
He wrote an excuse to Colonel Couch, in which he expressed 
warmly and sincerely his regrets that business required his pres- 
ence at the capital. "I am reluctant," he says, "to permit any 
regiment to depart from Massachusetts without a chance to bid 
it God-speed, that I was even incUned to delay you for a day or 
two in order to secure such an opportunity ; but, on reflection, 
it seemed to me unwise to postpone for a mere sentiment your 
call to active duty. We shall watch your career, and rejoice 
in your successes with no less eager interest than that with 
which we followed those regiments which preceded you, and 
those which are to tread in your footsteps. And, to you, per- 
sonally, I wish to express my thanks for your quiet, con- 
siderate, and judicious conduct ; and I beg you never to hesitate 
to call upon Massachusetts, whenever you need, for sympathy 
and aid." 

About the beginning of June, an agent of the loyal people 
in the city of Wheeling, Va., came to Boston, and represented 
that they were greatly in need of two thousand muskets, which 
they could not obtain from the Government, nor from any of 
the other States. Governor Andrew, aware of the importance 
of Wheeling as a military point, agreed at once to furnish 



DISTINGUISHED OFFICERS OFFERED COMMISSIONS. 225 

them, and, on the 19th day of July, telegraphed to Hon. John 
S. Carlisle, of Wheeling, that they had been forwarded, con- 
signed to Thomas Hemlock, collector of the customs at that 
place. 

July 25. -The Governor telegraphed to Colonel Dal ton, at 
Washington, to find out whether a "company of sharpshooters, 
for one year or the war, would be accepted, - to be raised in 
four divisions of twenty-five men each, with four lieutenants 
and four sergeants. They should have twenty-five dollars a 
month. Their rifles will cost one hundred dollars each : will 
the Government pay for them?" 

July 27. - The Governor telegraphed to Colonel Dalton, 
"See Frederick W. Lander, who is reported to be with 
McClellan; offer him the command of the Seventeenth Regi- 
ment, encamped at Lynnfield. Definite and final answer imme- 
diately desired." 

July 30. - The Governor telegraphed to General Wilson, 
United States Senate, "I will give Governor S. an Essex regi- 
ment, if you are sure of your man. If you say that you are 
sure, telegraph reply and send him on immediately." This had 
reference to Governor Stevens, who was a Senator in Congress 
from Oregon, a man of Massachusetts birth, and an expe- 
rienced officer. The doubt expressed by Governor Andrew in 
the despatch arose from the fact that Governor Stevens had sup- 
ported John C. Breckenridge in the presidential election. From 
some cause unknown to the writer, Governor Stevens was not 
commissioned at this time. He was afterwards commissioned 
colonel of the Seventy-ninth Regiment, New-York Volunteers, 
and was killed in the second battle of Bull Run. 

Aug. 1. - The Governor writes to General Ripley, chief of 
Ordnance Bureau, that the Massachusetts regiments, armed with 
the Enfield rifles, want an additional supply of ammunition ; 
and he wishes to know whether the Government "does not in- 
tend to supply suitable ammunition ; if not, what arrangements 
it is desirable for Massachusetts to make ? " 

Aug. 2. -The Governor telegraphs to Senator Wilson, at 
Washington, "Has, any provision been made for half-pay to 
16 



226 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

soldiers' families ? Such an arrangement would prevent much 
suffering this winter." 

Aug. 3. - The Governor telegraphs to Senators Sumner and 
Wilson, "Can it be intended by Congress, that volunteers in 
the field shall fill vacancies by election? Where is to be the 
source of discipline, when every candidate is seeking personal' 
favor of the men ? " 

Aug. 14. - The Governor telegraphs to Governor Wash- 
burn, of Maine, "General Sherman left here, this afternoon, 
for Concord, N.H., intending to proceed thence to Augusta. 
His business is of importance, which justifies your waiting for 
him there." 

General Sherman came to Boston to confer privately with 
the Governor, in regard to an expedition contemplated by the 
Government to the coast of North Carolina. Massachusetts, 
was to furnish three regiments for it; New Hampshire and 
Maine were also to furnish regiments. General Sherman had 
commanded a brigade at the first battle of Bull Run, and had 
distinguished himself as a commanding officer. His subsequent, 
career in the war is known and appreciated by all. The Gov- 
ernor entered warmly into the proposed scheme, and promised 
him the support he required. Out of this promise grew the 
subsequent controversy between the Governor and General But- 
ler, to which we shall hereafter refer. 

Up to this time, no definite instructions, pointing out the man- 
ner of filling vacancies in volunteer regiments after they had 
left the State, had been received from the War Department. 
The act of Congress of July 22 appeared to be clear enough, 
that the vacancies should be filled by appointments made by the 
Governors of the States ; but the acfion of the War Depart- 
ment for a time appeared to contravene this mode of action. 
The Governor had written to our Senators in Congress in re- 
gard to the subject, but had received no satisfactory reply. 
Accordingly, on the 16th of August, he wrote to the Adjutant- 
General of the United States army, at Washington, upon the 
subject ; stating that he was continually embarrassed, from want 
of information and direction from the military authorities of, the 



FILLING VACANCIES, ADDRESS OF THE GOVERNOR. 227 

United States upon this important point. He therefore re- 
quested minute information. He says, - 

"As I understand it, at present, I can appoint to no vacancy which 
is not officially certified to me by the United States Adjutant-General; 
from headquarters, at Washington. But in no single instance has any 
such vacancy been so certified to me; and yet I am aware that many 
such vacancies exist, and I am continually entreated by Massachusetts 
commanders to make appointments to fill them. Within the past week, 
I have received notices from Major-General Butler, from Fort Monroe ; 
from Colonels Couch, Cowdin, and Cass, and Lieutenant-Colonel Blais- 
dell, at Washington ; and from Colonel Gordon and Major-General 
Banks, at Harper's Ferry, - of vacancies existing among the officers of 
their respective commands, and I am anxious to fill them, if I have the 
power to do so ; for delay in filling them is prejudicial in various ways, 
which I need not mention." 

The letter had the desired effect ; and from that time, when a 
vacancy occurred, the Governor was immediately notified of the, 
fact by the Adjutant-General of the United States, and an ap- 
pointment made to fill it. 

Aug. 17. - The Governor telegraphs to the Secretary of 
War, "I have unofficial information, that General Fremont is 
wanting muskets and equipments in Missouri. Massachusetts 
can and will send him from five to ten thousand, if the Govern- 
ment says so, and will take them at cost price." 

On the 20th of August, the Governor published a short and 
stirring address to "the citizen-soldiers of Massachusetts," call- 
ing upon them to fill up the regiments recruiting in the several 
camps in the State, and to fill the ranks of those in the front 
which had suffered loss at the battle of Bull Run, a few weeks 
before. The address closed in these words : "Citizen-soldiers of 
Massachusetts! Duty, honor, the clearest sentiments of patri- 
otic love and devotion, call for your hearts and unconquerable 
arms." 

Aug. 30. - The Governor sent General Reed, Quartermaster- 
General, and Colonel Browne, his private secretary, to Wash- 
ington, with instructions to arrange for the settlement of 
Massachusetts claims against the Government for money and 
stores furnished by the State. Among the results of this mis- 



228 MASSACHUSETTS IN T!1E REBELLION. 

sion was the payment in cash, by the Government, of seven 
hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars. An elaborate and 
carefully matured system was also devised for the adoption and 
payment, by the Federal Government, of future contracts for 
military stores. These gentlemen were furnished with letters 
by the Governor to the President and members of the Cabi- 
net. 

Aug. 3 1.- Governor telegraphs Colonel Frank E. Howe, 
New York, "Find George S. Greene, late of the United-States 
Engineer Corps, and see if he will take command of a Massa- 
chusetts regiment." On the same day, the Governor wrote a 
letter to the Secretary of War, in regard to the high prices 
paid for provisions by the Government here, and concerning dis- 
honest practices in the purchase of shoes ; and, at his request. 
Senator Wilson, who was at the State House, sent the following 
telegram to the Secretary : "Pay especial attention to a letter 
you will receive from Governor Andrew and the Commissary- 
General of Massachusetts (Colonel Brigham), relative to the 
cost of rations here to the United-States troops. The Govern- 
ment is paying much more than the State does for the same 
article. It is reported here, on good authority, that army shoes 
condemned by inspectors in New York are sold again to con- 
tractors, who are permitted to fill their contracts with them. A 
competent inspector should be appointed here, to see that com- 
demned shoes are not sold again." 

Sept. 2. - Governor wrote to Governor Curtin, of Pennsyl- 
vania, - 

"I have read, with great interest and pleasure, the copy of your com- 
munication of the 21st ult. to the President of the United States, 
which you were kind enough to send me, and in which you have so 
thoroughly exposed the evils resulting from the interference of the War 
Department with the regular, legal mode of organizing regiments of 
volunteers. 

"In common with Pennsylvania, Massachusetts has suffered much 
loss of enthusiasm, and great inconvenience, from those irregularities 
of which you so justly complain : but I trust we may congratulate our- 
selves, that this source of trouble is to be dried up at the fountain-head ; 
as I have received the most positive assurance from the Secretary of 
War, that, in future, no outside interference with the regularly consti- 



REBEL BLOCKADE RUNNERS. 229 

tuted authorities of the State will be permitted, and that persons hold- 
ing commissions from the War Department, authorizing them to raise 
regiments of volunteers, will be required to report to, and take orders 
from, the executive departments of the States. 

"Hopeful and confident, in these eventful days, that all will yet be 
well with the republic, I have the honor to remain your obedient ser- 
vant." 

When we come to speak of recruiting in Massachusetts by 
General Butler, which began about this time, we shall find 
that the confident hope expressed by the Governor, that the 
State authorities should not again be interfered with, proved 
wholly delusive. 

On the 26th of August, the Adjutant-General wrote to Mr. 
Seward, Secretary of State, that he had reliable information, 
that five schooners had arrived at Halifax, N.S., -having 
run the blockade in North Carolina, - and had landed four- 
teen hundred barrels of turpentine. They were loading again 
with merchandise, intending to run the blockade on theu- return 
home. The names of the vessels were given, and two of them 
were captured on their return voyage. The following telegram, 
dated Sept. 3, we copy from the Governor's files : Senator Wil- 
son to Mr. Seward, -"Is your consul at Halifax thoroughly 
loyal ? Four vessels from North Carolina have recently arrived 
there, loaded with naval stores, and are now loading with con- 
traband goods." Same day. Governor writes to General Lan- 
der, "Will you please look out for the welfare of Captain 
Sanders's company of sharpshooters, which will this day march 
almost from under the shadow of your own roof-tree, in the 
county of Essex?" This splendid company was recruited at 
"Camp Schouler," Lynnfield. Captain Sanders was killed in 
battle, SepL 17, 1862. 

Sept. 10. - Governor writes to the selectmen of Wellfleet, 
acknowledging the receipt of five hundred dollars, raised in that 
town for the benefit of the families of soldiers. 

Sept. 11. -Governor writes to Major-General John A. 
Dix, commanding at Baltimore, "Pray do not execute private 
Stephen C. Scott, of our Sixteenth Regiment, until you have 
given his friends an opportunity to be heard ; for I have every 



230 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

reason to believe the man has been for a long time crazy. 
Besides, Colonel Wyman promised his friends the case should 
be delayed until all the evidence on either side can be collected." 
The man was crazy. He was sentenced to be hung for killing 
a comrade : he was pardoned and discharged from the service. 

It was represented to the Governor by Patrick Donahoe, 
Esq., of Boston, that the religious opinions of some of the 
Catholic soldiers in one of our regiments had been interfered 
with by the officers. The Governor wrote to Mr. Donahoe, 
saying, "I am utterly surprised by the intimation you make. 
I will cause our Adjutant-General to pursue a strict inquiry into 
this subject immediately." After expressing his views of 
religious toleration, he says, "Those who serve God according to 
their convictions, are not likely to fear man, or offend against 
the rights of others." 

A paragraph appeared in the Boston Morning Post, reflect- 
ing upon a part of the Governor's personal staff, which caused 
him to address a private letter, on the 16th of September, 
to the editors of that paper, showing how unjust it was, 
and how laborious and useful their gratuitous services had 
been. 

"In all these," he said, "my staff help me, -not deciding nor 
establishing any thing, but investigating, arranging, reporting and 
sometimes executing, -always modest, loyal, disinterested, respectful 
to others, and most capable and efficient. 

"And the least duty I can do is to ask that they may not be re- 
warded by sarcasm or unkind remark." 

" Whatever is rightly done may be credited to any one; but whatever 
is deemed worthy of blame, charge it to me, not to them. I am in truth 
responsible, acting often against their opinions and advice, and feeling 
at all times perfectly willing to meet whatever may fall thereon, - 
conscious of no merit of any sort, save a good intent. Excuse this note, 
- one I should not have written, but to gentlemen of urbanity who 
will appreciate the feelings of a gentleman in others." 

Sept. 17. - The Governor wrote to the Secretary of 
War, calling his attention to the delay on his request for the 
transfer of three Massachusetts companies in the New-York 
Mozart Regiment, to be sent to Fortress Monroe, to be attached 



WAR RELICS. - REBEL EMISSARY. 231 

to the seven Massachusetts companies there, and the ten to 
form a regiment. It was a matter that ought to have been im- 
mediately attended to ; for while the companies remained in the 
New-York regiment, and were credited to the quota of that 
State, the families of the men were deprived of the benefits of 
the Massachusetts State-aid law, which would amount to them, 
in the aggregate, to one hundred and forty-four thousand dollars 
a year. The subject was presented with much force by the 
Governor ; but the transfer never was made, and the families 
mere deprived of the State-aid until the following winter, when 
the Legislature amended the State-aid act, so as to include them 
in its provisions. 

Sept. 18. -The Governor wrote to General Stetson, of 
the Astor House, acknowledging the receipt of fragments of 
the flag taken by Colonel Ellsworth, at Alexandria, and of that 
which waved over Port Pickens, while commanded by Lieu- 
tenant Slemmer, U.S.A.. These were placed among the 
military relics and trophies, side by side with mementoes of 
Lexington, Bunker Hill, and Bennington. 

Sept. 19.- The Governor telegraphed to Governor Den- 
nison, of Ohio, "Five thousand infantry equipments sent for- 
ward to day, as directed." 

Sept. 20. -He received the following telegram from Joshua 
R. Giddings, American Consul, at Montreal, Canada. 

" John Bateman, a major in the rebel army, bearer of despatches to 
Europe, and now returning, will be at the Revere House this evening. 
He is five feet nine or ten inches in height, dark complexion, dark 
hair, wears a moustache, and has the evidence of guilt on his person. 
I have also telegraphed Mr. Seward." 

This was placed in the hands of John S. Keyes, United-States 
Marshal for this district. Major Bateman, however, did not 
come to Boston, but went by another route to Nova Scotia, and 
sailed in the steamer from Halifax to England. Marshal 
Keyes writes, " This was only one of the thousand instances of 
Governor Andrew's active efforts in the good cause." 

Sept. 21. -The Governor telegraphs to Secretary Seward, 
"Large quantities of shoes are shipped from this city to 



232 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Louisville, KY., and Baltimore, Md., intended for the rebel 
army. Cannot a stop be put to it?" 

Sept. 28. - The Governor writes to Senator Wilson to 
"recommend James Magner as a first heutenant in the Twenty- 
second Regiment, that he might be commissioned, and detailed 
on the staff of General Sherman." This was not done; but 
Magner was afterwards commissioned a lieutenant in the 
Twenty-eighth Regiment, and was killed in battle. May 18, 
1864. 

Oct. 1. -The Governor writes to Colonel Frank E. Howe, 
New York, " What has become of General Sherman? I 
have not heard from him for some days. Does he wish Wilson's 
regiment to go with him ? The regiment is expected to leave 
on the 3d." On the same day, he writes to General Scott, - 

It is my desire that the regiment under Colonel Wilson shall form a 
part of the force of General Sherman, but I am not advised whether the 
battery attached to the regiment is desired for that especial service ; and, 
as I have no positive recent information of the present location of 
General Sherman's camp, I await orders from you. 

"There seems to be no diminution of the zeal or the patriotism of 
the people of Massachusetts ; and I am happy in being able to report to 
you that all our regiments are in a fair way to be speedily filled to the 
maximum standard." 

Oct. 3. -The Governor telegraphs to the proprietors of 
the Stevens House, New York, "Is General Sherman in New 
York? if so, ask him if he wants die Massachusetts battery diat 
will arrive there to-morrow." 

Oct. 7. - The Governor issues another address to the 
people of Massachusetts, urging them to assist, with all their 
power, recruiting for our regiments in the Commonwealth, and 
asking the citizens to forward to Boston, without delay, such 
blankets and underclothing, for our soldiers at the seat of war, 
as their means will admit of. Quartermaster-General Reed also 
addressed a letter to the Presidents of the Massachusetts railroads, 
inquiring if they would pass over their several roads without 
charge, during the next two weeks, such contributions as might be 
received. An immense quantity of blankets and underclothing 



BATTLE OF BALL'sBLUFF. 233 

was. received in response to the call, and forwarded without 
delay to the front. 

The Governor telegraphs to the Secretary of War, "Shall 
Wilson's regiment go to Old Point Comfort by sea from 
New York, as General Sherman requests by telegram just 
received ? " 

The same day, he telegraphs to General Scott, "A sufficient 
guard shall be placed at Fort Warren at any moment we are 
directed. If a force specially organized shall not be ready at 
that time, the Cadets, who constitute the Governor's body- 
guard, will act in the mean while." 

The same day, he telegraphs to General Sherman, at New 
York, "Wilson's regiment starts to-morrow for Washington. 
He is directed to see you in New York, and take such other 
orders as may be given." 

A sworn statement having been forwarded to the Governor, 
making serious charges against the quartermaster of the Fifteenth 
Regiment, the Governor sent it to Colonel Devens, with direc- 
tions to make an investigation of the charges. In the letter, he 
says, "I am determined that no dishonest officer shall hold a 
commission for any length of time, after the full proof is fur- 
nished to me which establishes his guilt; and I feel quite sure, 
that, in this view of my official duties, I shall have your hearty 
support and co-operation." The charges were not sustained. 

The Governor, at this time, visited Washington, where he 
had gone to arrange about the payment of Massachusetts claims, 
and did not return until the twenty-second day of October. He 
was successful in making arrangements for payment. 

Oct. 23. - The Governor writes to Hon. David Sears, of 
Boston, thanking him for his offer to place the large hall in 
Liberty-tree Block at the disposal of the Executive, as a place 
of deposit for articles for the soldiers. 

The battle of Ball's Bluff was fought Oct. 21. The Fif- 
teenth and Twentieth Massachusetts Regiments were engaged 
in it. They behaved with great gallantry, and suffered severely, 
especially the Twentieth. On the 25th, Lieutenant-Colonel Pal- 
frey telegraphed, "Colonel Lee, Major Revere, Adjutant Peir- 
son. Dr. Revere, and Lieutenant Perry, prisoners ; Lieutenants 



234 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Babo and Wesselhoeft, probably drowned; Lieutenant S. W. 
Putnam, killed ; Captains Dreher, Schmitt, Putnam, Lieuten- 
ants Lowell and Holmes, wounded, - not fatally. All other 
officers safe, including myself. Captains Dreher and Schmitt, 
badly wounded, - probably not fatally. Captain Putnam's 
right arm gone, - doing well. Lowell and Holmes doing very 
well." 

This disastrous battle carried grief into many of our Massa- 
chusetts families, and depressed the buoyant and patriotic spirit 
of our people for a time. Its effect upon the country was 
also unfavorable. Nothing had occurred, since the battle of 
Bull Run, in July, which so disappointed the expectations and 
saddened the hearts of loyal people. A distrust was felt of the 
loyalty and miUtary capacit>' of some of the high army officers. 
In many quarters, the Administration was blamed for our ill 
luck, and want of success. It was at this trying hour that 
the Governor wrote this splendid letter : - 

Boston, Oct. 30, 1861. 
Hon. J. D. Andrews, Washington, D.C. 

My Dear Sir, - I trust you will attribute my non-reply to your 
letters before this moment to the pressure of employment, and not to 
inadvertence or neglect. 

I fear and feel sometimes in the spirit of your own state of mind, as 
given in your correspondence ; but still I prefer not to lose faith in any 
one, much less in those in whom I have heartily confided, and to whom 
belongs the wielding of the national power. I see great proofs of en- 
ergy and of skill. I also see tokens of slowness, both of sight and of 
insight. States falter, which should be firm. Counsels cross each other, 
which should combine, and hear up together. 

O God! for a Cameronian battle-cry ; for a grand, inspiring, electric 
shout, coming from the high priests themselves, from the very Jerusa- 
lem of our cause! I wait to hear it, and believe it will yet burst forth, 
and ring in all our ears. This people must be welded together with the 
fire itself, both of the spirit and the flesh. They must turn their 
backs upon the possibility of compromise; devote themselves to the 
labor and pains of this grand conflict of Western civilization ; combine 
heartily in the industries, economies, and enterprises of public and social 
material life, and in the devoted and daring efforts of war. Every drop 
of blood shed by our braves will be avenged, not by the cruelty of sav- 
age warriors, but by the stern resolve of Christians, patriots, and phi- 



CAPTAIN SCHMITT, OF THE TWENTIETH. 235 

lanthropists, who soon will understand the barbarism of our foes, and 
will know what price to, ask for the lives of those who fall. 

How many of our noblest and bravest shall give their blood for the 
ransom of a subject race, the redemption of their country's peace, and 
the final security of her honor and integrity? 

Yours always, J. A. ANDREW. 

Captain Schmitt, who is mentioned as having been wounded, 
was an instructor at Harvard College. We well remember the 
day he came to the Adjutant-General's office, accompanied by 
two young gentlemen, - Mr. Putnam and Mr. Lowell, one of 
whom was killed at Ball's Bluff, and the other wounded, - 
for leave to raise a company for the Twentieth Regiment; 
Leave was granted, the company was raised, and the three gen- 
tlemen were commissioned officers of it. Putnam and Lowell 
were cousins, and belonged to distinguished families. Lieuten- 
ant Putnam, we thought then, and think now, was, in style, 
manner, and features, a youth of rare beauty. The writer 
little thought then, that, in a few short months, he would at- 
tend his funeral ceremonies, which were performed in the old 
church on Cambridge Street, of which his grandfather. Dr. 
Charles Lowell, had been the pastor for half a century. But 
the paths of glory lead but to the grave. As an evidence among 
the thousand which might he given of Governor Andrew's 
kind regard for the soldiers and their relatives, we copy the 
following letter, written to the father of Captain Schmitt, while 
the son was lying wounded in hospital, near the banks of the 
Potomac : - 

Oct. 29, 1861 
To Mr. Michael Schmitt, teacher at Versbeck, near Wurzburg, Bavaria. 

My Dear Sir, - The Twentieth Regiment of Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers, in which your son is a captain, formed part of a detachment of 
Federal troops, which, on the 21st inst., crossed the Potomac, some 
thirty miles above Washington, and had an engagement with the enemy. 
The latter, being far superior in numbers, and having a more favorable 
position, compelled our troops to retreat, after they had fought with a 
bravery unsurpassed by that of the best troops of either hemisphere. 
Your son was severely, but not mortally, wounded; and from one 
of my aides-de-camp, whom I have sent to the spot to see that no 
duty or care is neglected towards the wounded of our regiments, I re- 



236 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

ceived, last Sunday, a despatch, stating that your son, with some of his 
wounded fellow-officers, is cheerful, and doing well, and is expected soon 
to recover. 

While I take occasion to communicate to you this afflicting informa- 
tion, I, at the same time, have pleasure in congratulating you upon the 
bravery of your son, which has enrolled his name upon the list of 
American heroes. 

I remain truly your friend, JOHN A. ANDREW, 

Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

OcL 31. 
The news received concerning the condition of your son, up to this 
day, continues to be equally favorable to his sure recovery. 

J. A. A. 

Nov. 5. - The Governor writes to A. H. Bullock, at Worces- 
ter, forwarding to him a check from A. D. and J. G. Smith & 
Co., Providence, R.I., for one hundred dollars, payable to 
his order; fifty dollars to be expended for the soldiers of the 
Fifteenth, and fifty dollars for the soldiers of the Twentieth 
Regiment, -the two which had been engaged in the battle 
of Ball's Bluff. 

Nov. 6. - The Governor writes to Surgeon Galloupe, of the 
Seventeenth Regiment, acknowledging the receipt of one of 
Ross Winans's pikes, made by him at Baltimore for the rebels, 
and says, "It will find a place among the other souvenirs 
of the war in Massachusetts. At present, it finds a place over 
the portrait in the Council Chamber of Rev. Mr. Higginson, 
one of the earliest clergymen of Salem, whose ghost must 
be astonished at the strange incongruity." On the same day, 
he writes to Colonel Palfrey, of the Twentieth, "Please write 
to me at once the facts concerning the young man now under 
arrest for sleeping on his post, as you understand them. I 
believe that he has always been subject to turns of fainting, and 
losing his consciousness, when suffering from fatigue, excite- 
ment, and exposure. Please see that he suffers no harm, until I 
can procure and forward the evidence." 

No one in the Massachusetts regiments was too high or too 
humble to elude the vigilance, the watchful care and sympa- 
thy, of Governor Andrew. This was plainly visible throughout 



SCHEME TO INVADE TEXAS. 237 

his entire official life. On the 25th of November, he wrote to 
the President of the United States, recalling to his mind an 
interview he had with him, when in Washington a few weeks 
before, in which he had advocated the policy of an exchange of 
prisoners. No action having been taken by the Government on 
the question, he wrote about it to the President. He was con- 
fident of the justice and expediency of making an exchange : it 
would be both convenient and humane. The letter concludes, 
"I earnestly hope that immediate measures may be taken to 
effect exchanges, and that the hearts of the people may not be 
sickened by hope deferred." 

About this time, a private conference was held in this city, 
by some of our most practical, experienced, and influential 
business men, favoring an armed expedition to Texas. The 
Governor entered warmly into the scheme, and, on the 27th of 
November, wrote to Captain G. V. Fox, Assistant Secretary 
of the Navy, calUng his attention to the subject, and drawing 
an outline of the objects to be gained. A demonstration was 
to be made on the coast of Texas. The force, when landed, 
was to proclaim martial law, and, when the proper time ar- 
rived, to free all the slaves, " compensating loyal owners if 
necessary." The results would be, first, we flank the entire 
rebelhon ; second, we open a way for cotton ; third, we cut 
off future annexations in the interests of rebels, and demon- 
strate to foreign nations that this war is to stop the spread of 
slavery ; fourth, it would prevent loyal men from leaving 
Texas, and would encourage foreign emigration, and would 
demonstrate that cotton can be raised without slaves; finally, 
it would "leave the question of slavery in the cotton States 
for philosophical treatment, unless it becomes necessary to settle 
it under the war power before the present war is ended." The 
letter concludes as follows : - 

" These points are urged, not in the interests of abolitionists, but by 
leading commercial men and capitalists, as fairly coming under the 
necessities and rules of war. Martial law proclaimed, events will 
no doubt educate the people and the next Congress to a wise solution 
of all the questions which may afterwards arise in connection with 
slaves and slavery, in an exceptional State or dependency like Texas. 



238 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

By such seizure and treatment of Texas as is briefly indicated above, 
it is urged, that we shall have, at the end of the war, material guaran- 
ties that will prevent any such compromise or settlement as to make 
a renewal of the struggle for ascendency, or another rebellion, pos- 
sible." 

A copy of the letter was sent to some friends of the Gov- 
ernor in New York and Washington, including the Postmaster- 
General, Montgomery Blair, to whom the Governor wrote, "I 
believe that the subject will be of interest to you, and that you 
will be pleased to say the right word at the proper time, in 
furtherance of some such measure as I have indicated." Of all 
the Cabinet officers, Mr. Blair appears to have been the one on 
whose judgment, influence, and activity he relied the most to 
advance his views of policy upon the Administration. 

On the same day, the Governor wrote to Senator Wilson, 
suggesting that Congress offer a bounty of twenty-five dollars 
to raw recruits in new regiments, and double that sum to 
soldiers who will serve in regiments in the field. 

On the 2d of December, he acknowledged, with thanks, 
the receipt of twenty-seven hundred and eighty-seven dollars, 
raised by voluntary subscription among die mechanics employed 
in the Charlestown Navy Yard. Commodore Hudson and 
Charles Field paid the money to the Governor. It was to be 
used "for the relief of poor and dependent families of volun- 
teers in the military service of the United States." 

During the month of December, information reached the 
Governor, that an order had been issued by Brigadier-General 
Stone, U.S.A., in command near Pottsville, Md., giving a 
description of two fugitive slaves, and directing, should they 
appear in camp, that they be arrested and returned to their 
owners. On Sunday morning, as usual, several negroes came 
into the camp of our Twentieth Regiment to sell cakes and 
fruits to the soldiers. Among the negroes who visited the 
camp were two who answered the description of the fugitives 
named in General Stone's order. They were immediately 
arrested. "A file of soldiers, under a sergeant, with loaded 
muskets, was sent to escort them to their supposed owners, and 
deliver them up." That Massachusetts soldiers should be 



CATCHING FUGITIVE SLAVES. 239 

employed to catch and return fugitive slaves, sorely vexed the 
Governor, who immediately wrote to Lieutenant-Colonel Palfrey 
against Massachusetts men being employed in such duty. He 
also wrote a long letter to Secretary Cameron, protesting against 
the practice. He said, "I invoke your interposition, not only now, 
but for the future, for the issue of such orders as will secure the 
soldiers of this Commonwealth from being participators in such 
dirty and despotic work." This letter he enclosed in another to 
Senator Sumner, with a request that he would read it, and hand 
it to the Secretary of War, and that he, Mr. Sumner, " would 
co-operate with him in his efforts to protect the soldiers of 
Massachusetts from being made the bloodhounds of slavery in 
obedience to the iniquitous and illegal orders of brigadier-gener- 
als, and others in the interest of the slave power." The War 
Department took no immediate action upon this particular case. 
Mr. Sumner brought it before the Senate, and denounced in 
strong language the order of General Stone, which drew from 
that officer a letter equally denunciatory of the Senator, and an 
implied challenge to a duel. Mr. Sumner took no notice of 
either. But the matter did not end here. On the thirtieth day 
of December, the Governor wrote a long letter to Major-Gen- 
eral McClellan, in reply to a letter from Brigadier-General 
Stone, which had been forwarded and apparently approved by 
General McClellan, in which the order issued by General Stone, 
directing the arrest of the fugitives, is defended, and an attempt 
is made to belittle the State of Massachusetts, and in which he 
speaks of the "usurpations of these ambitious State author- 
ities." It also speaks of the soldiers of the Twentieth Regi- 
ment being "enlisted in the service of the United States, 
in the State of which the Governor referred to is the re- 
spected chief magistrate ; but this gives him no right to as- 
sume control of the internal discipline of the regiment." The 
Governor gives the General to understand that the regiment 
was recruited in Massachusetts, that the soldiers were Mas- 
sachusetts men, that they were provided with every kind of 
equipment, including Enfield rifles, every thing "down to shoe- 
strings and tent-pins," all of which was furnished by the State, 
and paid for by the State, that the officers were commissioned 



240 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

by him. " the colonel of the regiment was Colonel William 
Raymond Lee, an army officer, and graduate of West Point, 
now a prisoner in a felon's cell at Richmond. I would to 
Heaven he were back now, or that the Army of the Potomac 
were hammering at his prison-door with both hands, and neither 
hand averted to protect the institution which is the cause of all 
this woe." The Governor disclaimed any intention to " assume 
control of the interior discipline of the regiment." His purpose 
was to prevent Massachusetts soldiers from being used, contrary 
to law, to catch and return fugitive slaves. He was sorry "to 
perceive in the conduct of Brigadier-General Stone a levity of 
mind which does not appreciate the responsibility of the grave 
duties with which the power of appointment charges the officer 
in whom it is vested." This appears to have been the end of 
the correspondence. General Stone was afterwards imprisoned 
in Fort Lafayette, by order of the Secretary of War, Mr. Stan- 
ton ; but the charges upon which the arrest was made have 
never been made public. 

The inhuman treatment by the rebel authorities of the Massa- 
chusetts officers and soldiers taken prisoners at Ball's Bluff, 
caused the Governor, on die 16th of December, to write another 
letter to the President, upon the necessity of organizing a system 
for the mutual exchange of prisoners. A large portion of the 
prisoners in the hands of the rebels belonged to this State ; and 
he urged upon the President to interpose for their immediate 
relief. He contrasts the cruel treatment of our men at Rich- 
mond with the humane treatment of rebel prisoners in Fort 
Warren. 

" I am informed, from trustworthy sources, that our soldiers who are 
prisoners of war at Richmond are neither well fed nor well clothed, 
and they are subjected to the most rigid military surveillance, and occa- 
sionally exposed to the insulting language and demeanor of the popu- 
lace of that city. Some of their number- among whom I may mention 
Colonel Lee and Major Revere, of the Massachusetts Twentieth In- 
fantry, and Captains Bowman and Rockwood, of the Massachusetts 
Fifteenth (all of them gentlemen and soldiers, who have no superiors, in 
any sphere of human life, in all those qualities which ought to command 
respectful treatment) - are imprisoned in felon's cells, fed on felon's 
fare, in a common jail ; huddled together in a space so narrow that there 



TREATMENT OF PRISONERS. 241 

is not air enough for health or comfort ; allowed, for exercise, to prom- 
enade half an hour each day on a narrow pathway surrounding their 
prison ; and especially exposed to disease, by the fact, that some of their 
companions, who are grievously sick, are not removed to hospitals, but 
are left to share the same privations, and breathe the same foul air, with 
those whose physical vigor is not yet broken. 

" In contrast, allow me to state, that the prisoners at Fort Warren 
are allowed certainly equal fare with the garrison, which consists of 
five companies of loyal Massachusetts troops, and are permitted all lib- 
erties consistent with retaining them upon the island; and that trai- 
tors, like Mr. Mason, of Virginia, and Mr. Slidell, of Louisiana, whose 
hands are red with the best blood of Massachusetts, are treated with 
certainly equal consideration (as to quarters, fare, and attendance, and all 
privileges consistent with retaining them in custody) with the officers 
of, that loyal battalion. These facts and this contrast, sir, are sick- 
ening to many of our people, and are especially painful to those 
who are closely related, by friendship or blood, to our prisoners in the 
hands, and at the mercy, of the rebels. I submit to you, with the 
utmost respect, whether it is just or decent, that the contrast should 
continue. I urge no inhumanity towards even traitors. If we are at 
war with cannibals, that is no reason why we should eat human flesh 
ourselves ; but it is a reason why we should spare no effort to rescue 
our brothers from the hands of such savages, lest they become their 
victims." 

We now turn from these unpleasant subjects to others of a 
more agreeable character, which close the general correspond- 
ence of the Executive for the year 1861. 

On the twenty-sixth day of December, the Governor received 
a letter from the Executive Committee of the Soldiers' Relief 
Society of San Francisco, Cal., dated Nov. 30, enclosing a 
draft for two thousand dollars upon Messrs. Duncan, Sher- 
man, & Co., New York, the proceeds of which were to be 
distributed " among the wives, the children, the sisters and 
brothers, of the patriotic citizen-soldiers of Massachusetts." 
In acknowledgment of which, the Governor wrote a grateful 
and patriotic answer, which concludes by saying, that the 
"Hon. Francis B. Pay, the present Mayor of Chelsea, and 
George W. Bond, Esq., an eminent merchant of this city, - 
both gentlemen of the highest integrity, large experience, and 
humane sympathies, - will co-operate with me in the proper 

16 



242 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

bestowal of the bounty of your association, in connection with 
the bestowal of a similar fund received for like purposes from 
other sources." The names of the San Francisco Executive 
Committee were Messrs. Frank B. Austin & Co., Moses Ellis, 
James P. Hunt, Aaron Holmes, William V. Welles, C. H. Sher- 
man, William B. Swayne, and F. B. Folger. 

Another pleasant and gratifying event, which closed this re- 
markable year in the history of Massachusetts, was the liberal 
and humane action of the Legislature of Maryland, which is 
best explained by publishing the correspondence entire : - 

Legislature of Maryland, House of Delegates, 
Annapolis, December, 1861. 
His Excellency John A. Andrew, Governor of Massachusetts. 

D E A R S I R, - The Committee on Militia have instructed me, as their 
chairman, to carry out an order passed by the House, a few days since, 
and referred to them.- to confer with you, and learn the condition of 
the widows and orphans, or any dependants on those patriots who were 
so brutally murdered in the riot of the 19th of April. 

In obedience to that order, it gives me great pleasure to state, that 
the loyal people of Maryland, and especially of the city of Baltimore, 
after long suffering, are at length able, through a Union Legislature, 
to put themselves in a proper relation to the Government and the 
country. 

In effecting the latter, they feel their first duty is to MassachuseUs. 
They are anxious to wipe out the foul blot of the Baltimore riot, as far 
as it can be wiped out, and as soon as possible. 

You will do us a great favor, therefore, by instituting-an immediate 
inquiry into the condition of those who were dependent for support upon 
the services of those unfortunates, and by informing me, at your ear- 
liest convenience, of the result of your inquiry. I should be obliged 
to you, also, if you would designate what, in your opinion, would be the 
best manner of applying an appropriation to be made for that pur- 
pose. 

Any suggestions you may make will be kindly received, and meet 
with proper consideration. 

With many prayers, which I know I offer in common with you, that 
this unrighteous rebellion may be brought to a speedy close, I am 
Your Excellency's obedient servant. 

John F. L. Findley. 

This letter was received by the Governor on the twenty- 



PATRIOTIC ACTION OF MARYLAND LEGISLATURE. 243 

second day of December, the anniversary of the landing of the 
Pilgrims at Plymouth, which is referred to in the text. 

Dec. 22, 1861. 
To Hon. John F. L. Findley, Chairman of a Committee on Militia of the 

House of Delegates of the State of Maryland. 

My dear Sir, - It is with feelings which I will not attempt to 
express that I have received, on this anniversary day. your letter, 
addressed to me from Annapolis. 

I immediately addressed the Mayors of the cities of Lowell and 
Lawrence 'on the subject of your inquiries, and hope to be able to trans- 
mit their answers at an early day. 

The past cannot be forgotten ; but it can be and will be forgiven ; 
and, in the good providence of God, I believe that the day is not 
distant, when the blood that was shed at Baltimore, by those martyrs 
to a cause as holy as any for which sword was ever drawn, shall be 
known to have cemented, in an eternal union of sympathy, affection, 
and nationality, the sister States of Maryland and Massachusetts. 

With sincere regard, I have the honor to be, faithfully and respect- 
fully, yours, John A. Andrew. 

By direction of the Governor, a list of the killed and wounded 
on the 19th of April was prepared, and inquiries made in regard 
to the families and relatives of the men by the Adjutant-General, 
which information was subsequently transmitted to the Gov- 
ernor, and by him to Mr. Findley. 

The Legislature of Maryland made an appropriation of seven 
thousand dollars, and transmitted it to the Governor, and, by 
him and the Executive Council, it was distributed among the 
families of the fallen, and to the wounded who survived. This 
was a most gracious act, and did much to remove the bitterness 
and ill feehng entertained by the people of the Commonwealth 
towards the city of Baltimore and the State of Maryland, for the 
blood of Massachusetts men, shed on their soil. 

The people in the State were a unit in support of the war. 
The officers and enlisted men of the regiments were composed 
of all parties. In the selection of men to be commissioned,. 
poHtics were never regarded. It was the desire of a large por- 
tion of the Republican party, that, in the nomination of a State 
ticket in the election in November, representative men of 
both the Republican, and Democratic parties should be placed 



244 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

upon it. The Republican Convention met at Worcester, on the 
first day of October, of which Hon. Henry L. Dawes was chosen 
President. On taking the chair, he made an eloquent speech, 
in which he recommended that a liberal policy be pursued in 
making nominations, and carrying on the war. He paid a well- 
deserved tribute to the Boston Morning Post, the leading 
Democratic paper in the New-England States, for its patriotic 
course in sustaining the Government, and said, - 

"It was fitting, therefore, as it was patriotic, for the organ of that 
party in this Commonwealth to summon, as it has, to this council the, 
representatives of all her ' citizens who are in favor of union for the 
support of the Government, and for a vigorous prosecution of the war 
against wicked and unprovoked rebellion ; and who are determined, in 
good faith and without reservation, to support the constituted authori- 
ties in all attempts to restore the sway of the Constitution and laws 
over every portion of our country.' [Applause.] . . . We are here, 
in the presence of the public peril, ready to sink, more than hitherto, 
the partisan in the patriot: counting it honor, as well as duty, to 
lock arms with such glorious patriots as the noble Holt [applause], 
working at the pumps, whoever is at the helm ; the bold and unflinch- 
ing Johnson [applause], nailing his flag to the mast; and the peerless 
Everett [applause], sounding the clarion-notes of his stirring eloquence 
along the ranks of the army of the Union, from the ocean to the per- 
ilous front of the war, on the dark and bloody ground of Kentucky or, 
the battle-fields of Missouri." 

This speech was the key-note to the convention. When Mr. 
Dawes concluded his speech, John A. Andrew was nominated 
by acclamation, and without opposition, for re-election. A mo- 
tion was then made to have a ballot for Lieutenant-Governor. 
Thomas Russell, Esq., of Boston, moved to amend the motion, 
that a committee of two from each congressional district be 
appointed to report nominations for the other officers to the 
convention. He said, " We have come here to lock arms with 
Holt and Dickinson and Butler and Frothingham and Greene, 
and we have got to do it in some practical way." This amend- 
ment was carried, and a committee appointed, which subse- 
quently reported, for Lieutenant-Governor, Edward Dickin- 
son, of Amherst ; for Secretary of State, Richard Frothingham, 
of Charlestown ; for Treasurer, Henry K. Oliver, of Salem; 



THE REPUBLICAN CONVENTION. 245 

for Auditor, Levi Reed; of Abington ; and for Attorney-Gene- 
ral, Dwight Foster, of Worcester. Mr. Dickinson had been, in 
former years; a Whig ; in later years, he was what was called a 
Conservative. He never had joined the Republican party. Mr. 
Frothingham had always been a Democrat, of the straightest 
sect ; and was, at this time, one of the editors of the Boston Post. 
Mr. Oliver, Mr. Reed, and Mr. Foster were Republicans, and 
incumbents of the offices for which they had been renominated. 
On taking the vote upon the report of the committee, Mr. 
Frothingham failed of a nomination; the incumbent of the 
office, Oliver Warner, being the choice of the convention. The 
opposition to Mr. Frothingham was led by Mr. Moses Kimball, 
of Boston, who quoted part of an article from the Boston 
Post, of that morning, asking the convention "to drop such 
extreme men as Governor Andrew, and some of his associates, 
in the executive departments," in making up a new State ticket. 
The authorship of the article was attributed by Mr. Kimball to 
Mr. Frothingham. The effect on the convention answered the 
purpose of the gentleman who made use of it. Before the vote 
was taken upon the report, Richard H. Dana, Jr., of Cambridge, 
replied to Mr. Kimball. He said, " We are engaged in a strug- 
gle which the world has never seen equalled, either in its im- 
portance or its results ; we have got beyond Wilmot Provisos 
and Dred Scott decisions ; we have got to fight for the exist- 
ence of the country. Let us rise above all personal prejudices, 
and nominate a ticket as men determined to serve the country; 
we are met here to send throughout the Union, and to the ene- 
mies of our institutions abroad, that the pattern Commonwealth 
is taking the lead in this crisis." 

A motion was then made by Mr. Russell, of Boston, to sub- 
stitute the name of Hon. Josiah G. Abbott, of Lowell, for 
Attorney-General, in place of Mr. Foster's name. This motion 
was sustained by the mover, and by Mr. Usher, of Medford ; 
and opposed by Mr. A. H. Bullock, of Worcester. Mr. Dana, 
of Cambridge, said "he could not see his duty in any other way 
than by placing a Democrat upon the ticket. The rejection 
of Mr. Frothingham involved a reconstruction of the ticket." 
He paid a high compliment to Mr. Foster; but, for public rea- 



246 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

sons, would vote for Mr. Abbott. Mr. Abbott was nominated, 
by a vote of 286 to 239. This created much excitement and 
ill feeling in the convention, which, however, was soon allayed 
by Mr. Foster himself, who arose, amid great applause, and said, 
"it would give him great satisfaction to have placed upon the 
ticket any distinguished gentleman of his profession, like Judge 
Abbott, of different politics from himself, if, in the least degree, 
the harmony of the people of Massachusetts can be promoted, 
and if the national Administration can be sustained in the vigor- 
ous prosecution of the war. He hoped, therefore, his friends 
would join with him in the hope that the nomination of Judge 
Abbott would be made unanimous." [Cheers.] 

The convention adjourned, having placed on the State ticket 
a " Conservative." for Lieutenant-Governor, and a Democrat for 
Attorney-General. Subsequently, both declined to be candi- 
dates ; and their places were filled with John Nesmith, of 
Lowell, for Lieutenant-Governor, and Dwight Foster for Attor- 
ney-General. 

The marked feature of the convention, however, was the 
speech of Hon. Charles Sumner, which, at the time, gave much 
offence to the convention, and to the RepubUcan majority in the 
State. The offence was caused by his open advocacy of pro- 
claiming freedom to the slaves, and using colored men as soldiers 
in the armies of the Union. He said, - 

"Look at the war as you will, and you will always see slavery. 
Never were the words of the Roman orator more applicable, - Nullum 
facinus exstitit nisi per te; nullum flagitium sine te. " No guilt, unless 
through thee ; no crime without thee. Slavery is its inspiration, its 
motive power, its end and aim, its be-all and end-all. It is often said, 
the war will make an end of slavery. This is probable ; but it is surer 
still, that the overthrow of slavery will at once make an end of the 
war. 

"If I am correct in this statement, which I believe is beyond ques- 
tion, then do justice, reason, and policy all unite that the war must be 
brought to bear directly on the grand conspirator and omnipresent 
enemy, which is slavery. Not to do this is to take upon ourselves, in 
the present contest, all the weakness of slavery, while we leave to the 
rebels its boasted resources of military strength. Not to do this is to 
squander life and treasure on a vain masquerade of battle, which can 



THE SLAVERY QUESTION. 247 

reach no practical result. Believe me, fellow-citizens, I know all the 
imagined difficulties and unquestioned responsibilities of the suggestion. 
But, if you are in earnest, the difficulties will at once disappear, and the 
responsibilities are such as you will gladly bear. This is not the first 
time that a knot hard to untie has been cut by the sword, and we all 
know that danger flies before the brave man. Believe that you can, 
and you can. The will only is needed. Courage now is the highest 
prudence. It is not necessary even, according to a familiar phrase, to 
carry the war into Africa : it will be enough if we carry Africa into the 
war, in any form, any quantity, any way. The moment this is done, 
rebellion will begin its bad luck, and the Union will be secure for 
ever." 

The speech further elaborated these points. The resolutions 
which were reported to the convention made no mention, even 
remotely, of slavery, either as the cause of the war, or of its 
overthrow as a means of ending it. The only idea advanced in 
them was, that the purpose we had was to "put down armed 
rebellion ," that " no rights secured by the Constitution to loyal 
citizens or States of the Union in any section ought to be in- 
fringed, and that rebels in arms against the Government can 
have no rights inconsistent with those of loyal citizens, which 
that Government is bound to respect." The whole tenor and 
purpose of the resolutions were to ignore the question of slavery, 
and to bring about a political union of men of all parties in the 
State. Such being the views of the convention, the speech of 
Mr. Sumner was regarded with disfavor. Rev. James Freeman 
Clarke, a delegate from Boston, offered two resolutions, which 
had a bearing towards sustaining the position taken by Mr. 
Sumnet ; but they failed to receive the approval of the conven- 
tion. The first expressed confidence "in the wisdom of the 
national Administration," and that Massachusetts was ready to 
give of its blood and treasure to answer its calls ; " yet, believing 
that slavery is the root and cause of this Rebellion, they will 
rejoice when the time shall come, in the wisdom of the Gk)vern- 
ment, to remove this radical source of our present evils." The 
second declared, that, " when the proper time shall arrive, the 
people of Massachusetts will welcome any act, under the war 
power of the commander-in-chief. Which shall declare all the 



248 MASSCHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

slaves within the lines of our armies to be free, and accept 
their services in defence of the Union, compensating all loyal 
owners for slaves thus emancipated, and thus carrying liberty 
for all human beings wherever the stars and stripes shall 
float." 

It is plain, that the Republican party of Massachusetts at this 
time, so far as its opinions were foreshadowed by the conven- 
tion, did not favor the abolition of or interference with slavery. 
When charged with favoring such doctrines by the press of 
the opposition, the Boston Daily Advertiser of Oct. 4, three 
days after the convention was held, utterly disclaimed them. 
In its leading editorial it said, - 

"The convention certainly disavowed any intention of indorsing 
the fatal doctrines announced by Mr. Sumner, with a distinctness that 
can be hardly flattering to that gentleman's conception of his own 
influence in Massachusetts. The resolutions offered by Rev. Mr. 
Clarke, as a crucial test of the readiness of the convention to adopt 
open abolitionism as its creed, went to the table, and were buried, never 
to rise." 

Further on, it says, - 

"It may not appear so to Mr. Sumner and his supporters, and it 
may be forgotten by some who oppose him; but we hold it for an 
incontestable truth, that neither men nor money will be forthcoming 
for this war, if once the people are impressed with the belief, that the 
abolition of slavery, and not the defence of the Union, is its object, or 
that its original purpose is converted into a cloak for some new design 
of seizing this opportunity for the destruction of the social system of 
the South. The people are heart and soul with their Government in 
support of any constitutional undertaking. We do not believe that 
they will follow it, if they are made to suspect that they are being 
decoyed into the support of any upconstitutional and revolutionary 
designs." 

It would be easy to add similar extracts from the Republican 
papers in the Commonwealth; but they would only add weight 
to an accepted truth. At this time, the importance of saving 
the border slave States from being engulfed in the current of 
rebellion was immediate and paramount. The Union men 
of those States excited our sympathy and admiration. They 



DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION. 249 

had bearded the lion of Rebellion in its den. They knew its 
strong and weak points. They asked Massachusetts and other 
anti-slavery States to take no aggressive stand against slavery, 
as it would weaken them, and strengthen the enemy. Massa- 
chusetts was one of many States battling for the nation : it was 
not therefore deemed wise for her alone to attempt to change the 
issue from a war to preserve the Constitution and the Union, into 
one for the abolition of slavery. The calm judgment of the 
people accepted this argument ; and hence they could not affirm 
the policy advanced by Mr. Sumner, because they did not believe 
it wise then to adopt it. The time might come, they argued, 
when it would be the highest wisdom to take such a stand ; and 
that time came, and the nation was saved. 

The Democratic convention was held in Worcester, Sept. 
18, and nominated Isaac Davis, of Worcester, for Governor ; 
Edwin C. Bailey, of Boston, Lieutenant-Governor ; Charles 
Thompson, of Charlestown, Secretary of State; Moses Bates, 
of Plymouth, Treasurer; and Edward Avery, of Braintree, 
Attorney-General. These gentlemen were war Democrats. 

Moses Bates was elected president of the convention, and, on 
taking the chair, made a long speech, which, so far as it related to 
the great national issue, was decided in favor of a vigorous pros- 
ecution of the war. Speeches were made by Oliver Stevens, of 
Boston ; E. A. Alger, of Lowell ; and Edwin C. Bailey, of Bos- 
ton, - all of whom condemned the Rebellion, and favored " con- 
quering a peace." The resolutions reported by A. R. Brown, of 
Lowell, and adopted by the convention, were of the same stamp. 

It appears clear, therefore, that upon this great and vital ques- 
tion, which filled all minds, and overtopped all other issues, the 
two great poUtical parties were a unit ; and but for the habit of 
making separate nominations, and of rallying under different 
party names, a union would have been made, and the ticket, 
with John A. Andrew's name at the head, would have been 
elected by a vote approaching unanimity. A union of this sort 
was not required to insure the election of the Republican candi- 
dates. They were certain to be elected by majorities of thou- 
sands. Every one knew that. Therefore no political advantage 
could be gained by them in receiving Democratic support. The- 



250 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

advantage would have been moral, not political ; of effect abroad; 
not here. It would have shown, that in Massachusetts at least, 
among her people at home as in her regiments in the field, 
there was but one party, one thought, one impulse, while the 
Union was imperilled, and armed Rebellion reared its hated 
crest. 

The annual election was held on Tuesday, Nov. 5. The 
aggregate vote was comparatively small, owing chiefly to the 
large number of men absent from the State in the army and 
navy. Governor Andrew received 65,261 votes ; Isaac Davis, 
31,264 ; scattering, 796; majority for Andrew, 33,201. The 
Legislature was unanimous for a vigorous prosecution of the war. 
The position of Massachusetts was thus clearly defmed, and ad- 
mitted of no doubt. The course taken by the Governor and 
the Legislature to sustain the Union and the Government, re- 
ceived the approving voice of the Commonwealth. 

It is hardly possible even to name the vast number of letters 
received and answered by the Governor, the Adjutant-General, 
the Surgeon-General, and other department officers, during the 
years of this Rebellion : they fill more than three hundred vol- 
umes, Many of the letters received from officers contain matters 
of great interest, especially those received immediately after the 
battle of Bull Run, in July, and of Ball's Bluff, in October. 
Among these is a letter written by Dr. Luther V. Bell, surgeon 
of the Eleventh Regiment, to Surgeon-General Dale, which gives 
a graphic description of the advance of the army to Bull Run ; 
his services to the wounded assisted by Dr. Josiah Carter and 
Dr. Foye. Dr. Bell improvised a hospital in a small stone 
church near the battle-field, in which seventy-five wounded men 
were brought, before the rout of the Union army brought 
the church within the rebel lines, and forced a retreat. The 
Massachusetts regiments engaged in this battle were the First, 
Colonel Cowdin, the Eleventh, Colonel Clark, three years' volun- 
teers ; and the Fifth, Colonel Lawrence, three months' regiment. 
The reports of these officers, and the testimony of others, show 
that the regiments behaved with great bravery, and that no part 
of the defeat can properly be attributed to them. We could fill 
many pages with extracts from these reports ; but they would 



THANKSGIVING IN THE ARMY. 251 

present no facts of special interest, which have not already been 
made public. 

None of the officers of our regiments wrote with more ease 
and elegance than Major Wilder Dwight, of the Second Regi- 
ment. In one of his letters to the Governor, written in July, 
at Harper's Ferry, where the Second was encamped to protect 
the Ferry and hold the town, he says,- 

"It is perhaps worthy of remark, that the guard-house occupied by 
the town-guard is the engine-house which John Brown held so long, 
and which is one of the few buildings left standing amid the general 
ruins of the Government property. Directly opposite to it, from the 
flag-staff, which lately bore the secession flag, our own banner now 
floats. Several unavailing attempts were made to raise it, when 
Sergeant Hill, of Company B, volunteered to climb the tall pole, and 
adjust the halyards. This he did amid the wildest enthusiasm of the 
people. There has been a reign of terror here ; and to-day, for the first 
time, Union men dare to show themselves, and return to their homes. 
The protection of the flag is indicated everywhere, and many Virginian 
men and women have said with quivering lip they were glad to see the 
old flag again. Throughout our march, in every village, and by almost 
every house, we have made the hills echo again our national airs." 

In the Governor's proclamation for Thanksgiving; this year, 
it may well be supposed the soldiers in the field were not for- 
gotten. It was read in every Massachusetts camp, and the day 
was celebrated by the regiments with great spirit and cheerful- 
ness. Major Dwight writes, " I had the honor and pleasure 
to receive the Governor's proclamation for Thanksgiving. I 
give a short record of the day's celebration. Military duty was, 
by authority of General Banks, suspended, At ten, a.m., we 
had the proclamation read, and religious service by the chap- 
lain. The men afterwards sat down to dinner, which may be 
summed up as follows : turkeys 95, weight 997 1/2 pounds; 
geese 76, weight 666 pounds; chickens 73, weight 165 
pounds ; plum-puddings 95, weight 1,179 pounds. If you 
state the weight in tons, the whole dinner amounts to one and 
a half, in round numbers. The men had games and dancing 
in the evening. It should perhaps be added, that they are in 
fme health this morning." 



252 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

This gallant and accomplished officer was a graduate of Har- 
vard College, in the class of 1853. He was promoted lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the Second, June 13, 1862, and was mortally 
wounded in the battle of Antietam, and died two days after, 
Sept. 19, 1862. His body was brought home to his father's 
house in Brookline, and was buried from St. Paul's Church, in 
that town. The Forty-fourth Regiment, Colonel Frank Lee, 
then in camp at Readville, volunteered as military escort. The 
Governor and staff were present at the funeral, and the people 
of the village followed, with the mourning relatives, his body 
to the grave, where it rests quietly from the noise of civil Ufe 
and the conflict of battle. 

We turn from these grand but solemn memories to the con- 
troversy between the Governor and Major-General Butler, 
which stands in Massachusetts' great record of the war as the 
only event in which the fulfilment of official duty grew into a 
protracted personal controversy. 

The correspondence would make nearly one hundred pages 
of this volume. The causes which led to it we shall state as 
briefly as we can. Massachusetts had forwarded to the front 
sixteen regiments of infantry to serve for three years ; and in 
August, 1861, was recruiting, in the various camps in the 
Commonwealth, six additional regiments of infantry, one 
regiment of cavalry, four companies of light artillery, and 
one company of sharpshooters. Two other regiments, to be 
composed of Irishmen, were also soon to be recruited. It was 
the intention of the Governor to have these regiments and 
batteries recruited to the maximum as speedily as possible ; 
and, until they were filled, no recruiting, except for them 
and for regiments already in the field, would be permitted in 
the Commonwealth. Some of these regiments had been prom- 
ised and designated as part of an expeditionary corps, to 
be commanded by Brigadier-General Thomas W. Sherman, 
U.S.A. 

General Sherman arrived in Boston about the first, of Sep- 
tember, bringing with him a letter to Governor Andrew from, 
Hon. Simon Cameron, Secretary of War, dated Washington, 
Aug. 27, in which he renews a previous request, that "you,". 



GOVERNOR ANDREW AND GENERAL BUTLER. 253 

the Governor, "will put three regiments, as soon as they can 
be prepared for service, under the orders of General Sherman, 
who will indicate the place of rendezvous." The place of ren- 
dezvous was' somewhere in Long Island, N.Y. On the next 
day after this letter was written, - namely, on the 28th of 
August, - "Colonel " David K. Wardwell, who had commanded 
a company in the Fifth Regiment, three months militia, received 
authority from Secretary Cameron to raise a regiment of volun- 
teers in this State. He was instructed "to report to His Ex- 
cellency the Governor of Massachusetts, from whom you will 
receive instructions and orders in reference to the regiment 
which this department has authorized you to raise." Governor 
Andrew was very justly opposed to having these special per- 
missions given to favored parties to recruit regiments in this 
Commonwealth, without his knowledge or consent. It inter- 
fered with previous arrangements, delayed the completion of 
regiments already partly recruited, detracted from the authority 
of the Governor, and violated the act of Congress under which 
volunteer regiments were authorized to be raised, which pro- 
vided, section fourth, "That the Governors of the States, furnish- 
ing volunteers under this act, shall commission the field, staff, 
and company officers, requisite for said volunteers ; and in 
cases where, the State authorities refuse or omit to furnish 
volunteers at the call, or on the proclamation, of the President, 
and volunteers from such States offer their services under such 
call or proclamation, the President shall have power to accept 
such services, and to commission the proper field, staff, and 
company officers." It is clear from this, that the recruiting 
of regiments, and the commissioning of officers, in the loyal 
States, was intended to be under the exclusive control of the 
Governors of those States. Neither the President, nor the 
Secretary of War, nor any State or Federal officer, civil or 
military, had any right either to authorize persons to recruit or 
to commission officers of volunteers, in States which had loyal 
Governors, who were ready and anxious to do whatever was 
demanded of them by the President and the laws of Congress. 
It was only in States having disloyal Governors, who would 
refuse to organize regiments and commission officers for the 



254 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Union service, that the President could act. Massachusetts was 
not a disloyal State, and John A. Andrew was not a disloyal 
Governor. 

Captain Wardwell's authority to raise a regiment in Massa- 
chusetts was not recognized by the Governor. He was granted 
permission to raise a company for the Twenty-second Regiment, 
and he was afterwards commissioned captain in that regiment. 
Having protested to the authorities in Washington against this 
pernicious and illegal system of granting special permits to raise 
regiments in this State, on the 28th of August-the very day 
on which Wardwell had been given authority to recruit a regi- 
ment,- the Governor received a telegram from the Secretary 
of War, that "he would not sanction for the future any such 
irregularities ; " and Quartermaster-General John H. Reed, 
who was then in Washington, was requested by Governor 
Andrew to call upon Mr. Cameron, and to "express the pleas- 
ure " which the information had given him. Innumerable 
difficulties had arisen in New York from similar practices, which 
led to the issuing by the War Department of General Order 
No. 71, which directed "all persons having received authority to 
raise volunteer regiments, batteries, or companies in the State 
of New York to report immediately to Governor Morgan." 
They and their commands were placed under his orders, who 
would organize them "in the manner he might judge the most 
advantageous." In a letter dated Washington, Sept. 6, written 
jointly by General.. John H. Reed and Colonel A. G. Browne, 
Jr., to Governor Andrew, they state that they had held inter- 
views with the President and the Secretary of War the day 
before ; and both had promised that no more special permits 
should be given, and that General Order No. 71 should be made 
to apply to Massachusetts the same as to New York. These 
preliminary details are necessary in order to have a correct 
understanding of the controversy which grew up between the 
Governor and General Butler. 

On the seventh of September, the Governor received a tele- 
gram from President Lincoln, urging him to forward troops as 
speedily as possible to General Sherman's headquarters ; to 
which he replied on the same day, "I have written General 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 255 

Sherman about it during the past week. We are raising five 
new regiments, all of which I mean Sherman shall have if 
you will get an order from the War Department to send them 
to him. " This letter was returned to the Governor with the 
following indorsements : " Respectfully submitted to the War De- 
partment. A. Lincoln." - " Let this be done. Simon Cameron, 
Secretary of War." -"I send you the order you desire. William 
H. Seward." On the 9th of September, General Sherman 
writes from New York to the Governor, "The public interest 
requires that the remaining troops for this expedition assemble 
here at the very earliest day practicable." To which the Gov- 
ernor answered on the elevendi, "The new regiments are going 
forward towards completion very rapidly. General Wilson has 
about nine hundred men in camp to-day." The other regiments 
were rapidly filling up ; two would be completed by the twen- 
tieth , " and three more in a good state of forwardness by that 
time." 

So matters stood on the 11th of September. The Governor, 
every one connected officially with him, the city and town audior- 
ities, were actively at work, and lending all their energies to 
complete these regiments for General Sherman. It was a great 
surprise, then, that, after the promises made by the authorities at 
Washington, and the urgent necessity which existed of complet- 
ing the organization of these regiments, the Secretary of War 
should, on the tenth of this very month, give authority to Major-, 
General Butler to raise six new regiments in New England, 
and to arm, uniform, and equip them. The first intelligence 
Governor Andrew had that such authority had been given, was 
by a telegram dated Washington, Sept. 11, and jointly signed, 
"A. Lincoln, President, " and " Simon Cameron, Secretary of 
War-," stating that "General Butler proposes raising in New 
England six regiments, to be recruited and commanded by him- 
self, and to go on special service : we shall be glad if you, as 
Governor of Massachusetts, will answer by telegraph that you 
consent ." On receipt of this despatch, the Governor immedi- 
ately answered, "Authorize State to raise whatever regiments 
you wish additional. We will first fulfil engagements with 
General Sherman, ordered by Secretary of War ; then add 



256 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Others fast as possible; will help General Butler to the utmost." 
On the 12th (next day), Mr. Cameron telegraphed to the Gov- 
ernor , " Despatch of yesterday received. Massachusetts has 
done so well in all she has promised, that she shall not be dis- 
appointed in any thing she requires from the General Govern- 
ment." This was complimentary, but it was not an answer. 
A few hours before the Governor received this despatch from 
Mr. Cameron, he received the following, dated New York, 
Sept. 11, from General Sherman : "The object of my tele- 
gram of the 10th was to ascertain if there existed any possibil- 
ity of being disappointed in the time when the troops would 
be prepared. " Thus when General Sherman was anxiously' 
waiting in New York for the five regiments authorized to be 
raised for him in Massachusetts, and when every possible effort 
was being made to complete them, the Secretary of War wrote 
the following paper. We do not know what to call it : it is not a 
letter, because it is addressed to no one; it is not an order, be- 
cause it is not so designated, and bears no number. 

War Department, Sept. 12, 186L 
Major-General Butler is authorized to fit out and prepare such 
troops in New England as he may judge fit for the purpose, to make 
an expedition along the eastern shore of Virginia, via the railroad 
from Wilmington. Del., to Salisbury, and thence through a por- 
tion of Maryland, Accomac, and Northampton Counties of Virginia, to 
Cape Charles. Simon Cameron, Secr^fwry of War. 

This document, in effect, gave General Butler authority over 
every new regiment raised, or to be raised, in New England. 
He was to have as many troops as he might "judge fit" for his 
purpose ; and what that purpose was no one except himself and 
Mr. Cameron knew. The document wholly ignored the Gov- 
ernors of the New-England States, the act of Congress already 
quoted, and, so far as this State was interested, the promise made 
to General Sherman that he should have three of the Massachu- 
setts regiments then in course of formation. This was not all - 
indeed, it was only a small part - of the complicated, contradic- 
tory, and painfully embarrassing position under which this new 
state of things placed the Governor of Massachusetts. He had 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 257 

been ordered to furnish five new regiments for General Sherman, 
he had promised the General he should have them, he had 
nearly completed a part of them, when, without consultation or 
previous knowledge, this paper, prepared in the War Office at 
Washington, and signed by the Secretary, was issued, placing 
all the troops in New England under the command of Major- 
General Butler, and as many more as he might judge fit 
for his purpose. Four days after Mr. Cameron had written 
the paper just quoted. Special Order No. 78 was issued from the 
War Department. 

War Department, Adjutant -General's Office, 
Washington, Sept. 16, 1861. 

All persons having received authority from the War Department to 
raise volunteer regiments, batteries, or companies, in the loyal States, 
are, with their commands, hereby placed under the orders of the Gov- 
ernors of those States, to whom they will immediately report the pres- 
ent condition of their respective organizations. These troops will be 
organized or re-organized, and prepared for service, by the Governors of 
their respective States, in the manner they may judge most advantageous 
to the interests of the Federal Government. 

By order, L. Thomas. Adjutant-General. 

This order was easy of comprehension, and in strict accord- 
ance with the acts of Congress ; but it was in direct conflict 
with the paper signed by Mr. Cameron four days before. Upon 
its receipt. Governor Andrew directed the Adjutant-General 
of the Commonwealth, to issue General Order No. 23, which 
enumerated the regiments and batteries then being recruited in 
the State, and the camps at which they were stationed. It also 
said, that "until they were killed, no recruiting, except for 
these regiments and batteries, is authorized, or can be en- 
couraged, by the Commander-in-chief. " After quoting the 
preceding order of the War Department, signed by General 
Thomas, it proceeds to say, "The Commander-in-chief directs 
that no new regiments or companies be formed, or ordered 
into camp, nor any already in camp change their location, with- 
out orders from these headquarters. " 

Although the order restricted recruiting for new regiments 
except those designated, it aUowed and encouraged recruiting for 
17 



258 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

regiments already in the field. It also gave notice that two new 
regiments, to be composed of men of Irish birth, were soon to 
be placed in camp, one of which, the Twenty-eighth, "to form 
a part of the command of Major-General Butler, whose head- 
quarters is at Lowell." 

On the 23d of September, Mr. Cameron telegraphed to the 
Governor, "Will the three regiments for General Sherman be 
ready this week? He must be supplied in advance of all other 
applications for same service. Please reply immediately." To 
which the Governor answered the same day, and requested the 
Secretary not. to issue an order detailing particular regiments to 
General Butler, but to leave all such details to him : he could 
provide for him otherwise and sufficiently. To which Mr. 
Cameron answered, "'Select the regiments yourself for Sherman, 
and supply him first." Same day, Colonel Browne, military 
secretary to the Governor, by order of His Excellency, addressed 
a note to General Butler, in which he proposed to assign to 
his command an Irish regiment, in the raising of which Patrick 
Donahoe, Esq., of Boston, took much interest. This was 
afterwards known as the Twenty-eighth Regiment. The receipt 
of this letter was acknowledged by Major Haggerty, of General 
Butler's staff, on the 24th, and information given that Gen- 
eral Butler had gone to Portland, Me., and that his attention 
would be called to it as soon as he returned, which would be 
"to-morrow evening." 

A letter was sent to General Sherman on the 23d by the 
Governor, requesting him to exert his personal efforts to secure 
for his command the regiments promised him, and prevent them 
from "being diverted to General Butler or any other officer." 
The regiments designed for him were the Twenty-second and 
Twenty-third, in camp at Lynnfield, and known as General 
Wilson's, and the Twenty-fifth, encamped at Worcester. The 
letter further stated that the Governor proposed "to assign to 
General Butler the Twenty-sixth Regiment, being raised by 
Colonel Jones at Lowell," and an Irish regiment. To this 
General Sherman replied, on the 27th, that he had immediately 
called the attention of the Secretary of War to it; that "five 
regiments are yet waited for, - three from Massachusetts, one 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 259 

from Maine, one from New Hampshire ; and it is hoped that 
they will all be pressed forward at the earliest day." While 
this correspondence was going on, and Sherman waiting for his 
regiments in New York, the Secretary of War sent orders 
direct to General Wilson, which he received on the 24th, to 
report to General Butler, and form a component part of his pro- 
posed expedition. The Governor then wrote to Secretary 
Cameron, "I have been much perplexed and embarrassed 
during the last few days by contradictory orders and assurances, 
issuing from your department." To avoid which, he said the 
regiments in this State should be organized through, and not 
outside of, its Governor. He also says, " General Butler, it is 
evident to me, desires naturally to secure to his own command, 
with or without consultation with me, according as best he may, 
all the force he can, even to the prejudice of what General 
Sherman has a positive right to expect from Massachusetts." 
Mr. Cameron replied on the 27th, that General Sherman was 
to be supplied first, afterwards General Butler. "It is the in- 
tention of this department," he says, "to leave to your Excel- 
lency aU questions concerning the organization of troops in your 
State, and the orders to which you refer were designed to be 
subject to the approval and control of the Executive of Massa- 
chusetts. It will be my endeavor to act strictly in accordance 
with your suggestions." This extract is underscored in the 
original. 

This appears explicit enough ; and yet the same system of 
cross purposes was kept up for some time after at Washington, 
to the insufferable annoyance of the Governor, complicating 
and retarding recruiting, and delaying the completion of the 
regiments. On the 1st of October, General Order No. 86 
was issued by the Adjutant-General of the army, forming the 
six New-England States a military department, the head- 
quarters at Boston, and providing that "Major-General B. F. 
Butler, United States Volunteer Service, while engaged in re- 
cruiting his division, will command." In connection with this, 
the Secretary directed the Paymaster-General to detail an 
assistant to pay the men enlisted, and to be enlisted, by Gen- 
eral Butler, a month's pay from date of muster in, which was a 



260 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

very proper order if it had been of general application ; but it 
was very improper, to be applied only to General Butlers com- 
mand, and denied to General Sherman's. 

On the 2d of October, the Secretary telegraphs to the Gov- 
ernor, "Send three regiments for General Sherman to Hamp- 
stead Camp, on Long Island, by Monday morning at the latest, 
earlier if possible." On the 3d, next day, the Secretary tele- 
graphs again to the Governor, "Send the Wilson Regiment to 
Washington direct. Give Sherman the next one, as soon as 
possible." 

The name of General Sherman henceforth ceases to appear in 
the correspondence. He was assigned to another department. 
The command of the special expedition was given to General 
Burnside, and five Massachusetts regiments composed a part 
of iL These were the Twenty-first, Twenty-third, Twenty- 
fourth, Twenty-fifth, and Twenty-seventh. The camp of ren- 
dezvous was at Annapolis, and the point of attack was North 
Carolina, by way of Roanoke Island and Newbern. The ex- 
pedition was successful. 

Major-General Butler, having assumed command of the De- 
partment of New England, and established his headquarters at 
Boston, on the 5th of October issued his first general order, 
announcing his staff, and directing " all officers in command of 
troops mustered in the service of the United States to report, 
either in person or by letter, to his headquarters." An official 
copy of this order was forwarded to Governor Andrew. 

On the 5th of October, General Butler addressed a long 
letter to the Governor, informing him that he had been au- 
thorized by the President to raise men for " a special purpose," 
to which, he stated, "your assent was given." He then 
says, - 

"Acting upon that assent, I called upon you, and you desired that I 
should wait a week, when the regiment of Colonel Wilson, then being 
recruited, would be full, before I took any action upon that subject. 
To this I assented, and have been only looking out for officers for re- 
cruiting purposes, and have made no public announcement, and allowed 
no one who had a special corps to make advertisement, which I thought 
would be fully within the understanding. 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 261 

"I then show you an order to take regiments akeady raised, and not 
assigned to other officers, for another purpose, and you offered to assign 
me Colonel Jones' regiment. You also said, that an Irish regiment, 
now being raised, you would like to be assigned to me; to that I 
assented, and left for the purpose of organizing- recruiting in Maine, 
and from thence to Washington. On my return, I find that recruiting 
officers have been malting publications injurious to me and the recruit- 
ing service ; so it becomes necessary to know exactly what is under- 
stood between us." 

He then proceeds, " I desire, therefore, the simple announce- 
ment, by-general order, that I have authority to enlist men for a 
regiment, to be numbered as you please, also a squadron of 
mounted men ; these troops to be a part of the volunteer force 
of the State ; these to be in addition to those aheady assigned, 
by you." He also says he will make no objections, if the Irish 
regiment is withheld. These requests granted, he adds, "I see 
no difficulty in the way of filling up all these regiments at once, 
save this one," which was the practice here of "recruiting offi- 
cers offering private bounties for men, of five and seven dollars." 
This he regarded as vicious, and as "the sale of men," and men- 
tions other objections. 

The Governor repUed to the letter of General Butler the same 
evening, after his return from the cavalry camp at Readville. 
The letter is of considerable length. In the beginning, he 
says, - 

"I beg leave to say at once, in reply to your remark relating to 
some supposed promise of mine, that I did not at any time say, 
that, while we were already raising so many regiments in Massachusetts, 
I could consent to an embarrassment of the service by additional com- 
petition for recruits. But while I assured you of my willingness, so 
far as it lay in my power, to assign to you, out of regiments in progress, 
our fair proportion, or more than that, of the six regiments you told 
me you wished to raise in New England, I have constantly declared 
that I could not concur in a policy, which, by crowding the competition 
of regiments, would be fatal, or very dangerous, to successful recruit- 



The Governor thought that we were overdoing recruiting ; 
and, until the regiments already ordered were filled, recruiting 
for new regiments should not be undertaken. Having given his 



262 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

own opinion, however, he asks the General to forward a roster 
of company officers for the regiment he wishes to raise, and 
"he would authorize a new regiment to begin in a week from 
Monday next, under Captain Henry L. Abbott (of Massachu- 
setts) , of the United States Topographical Engineers, for colo- 
nel ; and Charles Everett, late colonel of District of Colum- 
bia Volunteers, formerly serving in Mexico, or Major Francis 
Brinley, for lieutenant-colonel ; the major to be seasonably se- 
lected." 

The Governor disclaims any knowledge of recruiting officers 
offering private bounties, and asks that the names of such per- 
sons may be sent to him, "that the more speedy and vigilant 
measures for suppression and rebuke may be instituted." In 
the matter of recruiting and organizing regiments, the Governor 
says, "We have pursued a system, carefully, watchfully, faith- 
fully, and zealously, in which, by the, intelligent aid and loyal 
co-operation of all officers, of the State and of the Union, who 
have had any connection with such matters here, we have found 
reason to trust. In fact, almost any system is better than 
none." After stating that Massachusetts had already forwarded 
sixteen regiments of infantry, and other troops, to the front, he 
continues, - 

" We are, at this very moment, doing half as much more, and doing 
it with the utmost of our ability ; and we have thus far escaped the 
confusion and uncertainty of movement which have embarrassed some 
other States, and from which, with much effort, their Governors have 
only just now escaped. Now, with the utmost respect for the Depart- 
ment of War, and for yourself personally, and with the most loyal sen- 
timents of obedience, I mean to continue to do just what I have, from 
the first, persistently done: and that is, to hold, with an iron hand 
and unswerving purpose, all the powers which, by the laws, pertain to 
me officially, in my own grasp, - yielding the most implicit obedience, 
in all things, to those having the right to direct me, but, at the same 
time, remembering that true subordination requires every officer to per- 
form his own duties and fulfil his own functions himself, as well as to 
submit himself loyally to his superiors." 

He then refers to the laws of Congress and the orders of the 
department, which give to the Governors of States the exclu- 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 263 

sive control of raising regiments in their own States : "Nor is 
it permitted by law, even to the President himself, even were he 
so disposed, to interfere in the premises." He also informs the 
General, that he has the assurance of the Secretary of War, 
"that he had issued no orders, and would issue none, tending to 
interfere with the State authorities." 

He concludes this able letter by saying, - 

" I shall do exactly by you as I have done by General Sherman and 
General Burnside, - that is to say, I shall use every exertion to furnish 
troops for the service you propose, in our full proportion ; but it must 
be done by pursuing such methods and plans as we have found neces- 
sary for the general advantage of the service. Nor can I permit, so far 
as it lies with me, to decide any officers of the United States to raise 
troops as Massachusetts volunteers within this Commonwealth, except 
for the recruitment of existing regiments, or subject to the conditions 
indicated ; while any advice or friendly assistance will be gratefully re- 
ceived from any quarter, much more from a gentleman of your capacity 
to advise, and your hearty zeal in the cause we are both anxious to 
serve." 

The Governor had telegraphed, on the morning of the 5th, to 
the Secretary of War, to know if he "would pay our soldiers, 
as fast as mustered in, half a month's pay, detailing paymasters 
therefor. Do not authorize this for any, unless for all. What 
is General Butler's power and position here?" To which he 
received, as an answer, "We cannot pay in advance. General 
Butler has authority to concentrate a brigade for special service, 
all of which is to be organized under the several Governors of 
the Eastern States. We gave General Butler authority with re- 
gard to advance pay." The Governor also wrote a letter to Mr. 
Cameron in regard to matters. It would appear, that, some 
time on the seventh of the month, General Butler requested a 
personal interview with the Governor, and called at the State 
House ; but, the Governor being engaged in the Council Cham- 
ber, the interview did not take place. 

It does not appear that the letter of the Governor of Oct. 5 
changed in the least degree the determination of General But- 
ler to enlist men. He opened a camp in Pittsfield, and another 
in Lowell, and commenced recruiting two regiments of infantry. 



264 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

- one designated the Western Bay-State Regiment, the other 
the Eastern Bay-State Regiment ; also, a battery of hght artil- 
lery, and three companies of cavalry. 

The only reply made to the letter of the 5th is the following, 
which is given entire : - 

Headquarters Department of New England, 
Boston, Oct. 12, 1861. 

Will "His Excellency Governor Andrew" assign to General But- 
ler the recruitment of a regiment of Massachusetts volunteers, and a 
squadron of mounted men, to be armed and equipped by him, under 
the authority of the President ; the officers to be selected by General 
Butler, but commissioned by "His Excellency," with, of course, a veto 
power upon what may be deemed au improper selection. As these 
officers are to go with General Butler upon duty, would "His Excel- 
lency" think it improper he should exercise the power of recommenda- 
tion ? 

To the telegram of the President, asking consent that the authoriza- 
tion should be given to General Butler to raise troops, "His Excel- 
lency" telegraphed, in reply, that he would "aid" General Butler to the 
utmost. 

General Butler knows no way in which His Excellency can aid 
him so effectually as in the manner proposed. 

The selection by " His Excellency" in advance, without consulta- 
tion, of a colonel and lieutenant-colonel of an unformed regiment, not a 
soldier of. which has been recruited by the State, and both these gen- 
tlemen, to whom the General, at present, knows no personal objection, 
being absent from the State on other duty, seems to him very objec- 
tionable. 

It is not certain that Lieutenant Abbott, of the Topographical En- 
gineers, will be permitted to leave his corps. Colonel Everett has not 
lived in the State for many years, and has not such interest identified 
with the State, or the men of Massachusetts whom he would com- 
mand, as to render his appointment desirable. 

General Butler has had and can have the aid of neither in his regi- 
ments ; and he believes that those who do the work, other things being 
equal, should have the offices. General Butler would have been happy 
to have conferred with " His Excellency" upon these and other points ; 
but " is Excellency" did not seem to desire it. 

General Butler has proceeded upon this thesis in his recruitment, 
to say to all patriotic young men who seemed proper persons, and who 
have desired to enter the service as officers. If you have the confidence 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 265 

of your neighbors, so that you can recruit a given number of men, then 
by giving evidence of your energy and capacity thus far, if you are 
found fit in other respects, on examination, I will recommend you for a 
commission to command the number of men you shall raise. 

This is believed to be a course much better calculated to find officers 
than to hunt for them by the uncertain light of petitions and recom- 
mendations. 

General Butler desires to make good his word to these young gen- 
tlemen. " His Excellency " will perceive the impossibility of at once 
furnishing a roster under such circumstances, as requested, for " His 
Excellency's " perusal. 

" His Excellency's" attention is called to the fact that no reply has 
been received to General Butler's request, as to a squadron of mounted 
men. 

Genera! Butler is informed, by the returns of those who have 
recruited for him, that he has already a number of men equal to 
two regiments in such progress that they can be organized, being the 
most prompt recruitment ever done in this State,- these besides the 
Twenty-sixth and Twenty-eighth 'Regiments, assigned to him by gen- 
eral order. 

General Butler trusts that "His Excellency" will not, without the 
utmost necessity for it, throw any obstacles in the way of his recruit- 
ment, as General Butler is most anxious to get his division organized, 
so as to start upon an expedition already planned, in the service of his 
country. 

General Butler hopes that these views will meet "His Excellen- 
cy's " concurrence and co-operation. 

Most respectfully "His Excellency's" obedient servant, 

Benjamin F. Butler. 

The Governor being absent from Boston, the receipt of the 
letter was acknowledged by Colonel Browne on the 14th, and 
was by him forwarded to the Governor. 

It does not appear that the Governor took any immediate 
official notice of this letter. 

We pass over much that was written, but which were but 
eddies in the tide of this correspondence, to bring it to a fair 
and intelligent close. We will only state the fact, that, on the 
11th of November, we received a letter from Colonel Ritchie, 
senior aid, directing the Adjutant-General to issue Order No. 
570, which was, in substance, that General Butler, having sent 



266 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

an order to Colonel Stevenson, Twenty-fourth Regiment Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers, to deliver up to him certain soldiers mus- 
tered into said regiment, who had deserted from one of General 
Butler's regiments, that Colonel Stevenson was not to obey the 
order, as General Butler had no authority to enlist volunteers in 
Massachusetts, except for the Twenty-sixth and Twenty-eighth 
Regiments. Colonel Stevenson, at that time, had a part of 
his command at Fort Warren, on duty, although his headquar- 
ters were at Readville ; and he was ordered, that, "if he cannot 
protect and hold his men at Fort Warren, he shall remove them 
immediately to 'Camp Massasoit,' at Readville, and hold them 
until otherwise ordered." 

The Governor had been written to by Mr. Sargent, the Mayor 
of Lowell, and many other city and town authorities, asking 
him whether the families of the men who had enlisted under 
General Butler were entitled to the " State aid," which com- 
munications were referred to the Attorney-General, Hon. 
Dwight Foster, who returned, as an opinion, that all volunteers 
who are inhabitants of this State, and enlist here under the 
authority of the Governor, and the officers of the regiments are 
commissioned by him, their families are entitled to the aid ; and, 
if General Butler's brigade is to be so raised and commissioned, 
then the families of the men enlisted should receive it He con- 
cludes by saying, - 

"I suppose this will be the case, and the men enlisted by him will 
be entitled to the usual aid ; and I only state my opinion in this guarded 
form, because of the possible and highly improbable contingency of vol- 
unteers being enlisted in full regiments in Massachusetts, without the 
sanction of its Executive, the officers of which he might decline to com- 
mission or recognize." 

This opinion was, in effect, against allowing the State aid to 
the families of the men who had been enlisted by General But- 
ler. The "highly improbable contingency" already existed. 
State aid was not paid by the cities and towns to the families 
of enlisted men, until the authorities of the places to which 
the men belonged had received a certificate, signed by the 
Adjutant-General of the State, that the men were mustered in, 
and the muster-rolls had been deposited in his office. No 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 267 

muster-rolls had been received by the Adjutant-General from the 
corps said to have been recruited by General Butler. No 
assurance had been received from Washington, that the men 
had been mustered in, and credited to the contingent of the 
State. 

On the 27th of November, Major Strong, chief of staff to 
General Butler, forwarded to the Adjutant-General of the State 
a list of officers which had been adopted by General Butler for 
"a company known as the Salem Light Artillery," with a 
request that they be commissioned by the Governor. 

On the 17th of December, General Butler wrote to the 
Governor, calling his attention to the letter of Major Strong, 
with a request that he might be favored " with a reply whether 
he will or will not commission the officers therein named." 
General Butler also claimed, that the company "was raised 
under the authority of the State, and with His Excellency's 
approval." 

By direction of the Governor, Colonel Browne replied on the 
same day to this communication, that it was the intention of 
the Governor "at a proper time to appoint and commission suit- 
able officers for the battery ; but that he was not advised of their 
intended removal from the Commonwealth, nor was any request 
made for such appointments, either from the company or from 
the acting officers, or from any source, until eight days after 
the whole company had been removed from Massachusetts, 
when the Governor was requested by Major Strong to com- 
mission certain persons, on the ground that they had been 
elected by the company, as it was said. But the company was 
gone. None of its rolls having been deposited in the office of 
the Adjutant-General, there was no means of identifying its 
men." 

The letter further states, that the responsibility of appointing 
suitable officers rests with the Governor, and that, as regards one 
of the persons recommended, "the information received by the 
Governor is, that his character is such as to render him unfit for 
appointment." 

The Governor further stated, that he was desirous of com- 
missioning officers for the battery, "and would be glad to 



268 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

receive the testimonials of any on which their claims are 
founded." 

On the 18th (next day), this letter was returned to Colonel 
Browne by Major Strong, with the following note : - 

" Sir, - Major-General Butler, commanding the Department of 
New England, directs that the enclosed communication be respectfully 
returned to His Excellency Governor Andrew, as being of improper 
address and signature." 

The same day, the Governor wrote to Major Strong, express- 
ing his surprise, and that, knowing the contents of the letter 
which is returned, he found himself unable to instruct Colonel 
Browne how to amend it, "since the particulars of the offence 
were not stated, and were not discernible to me, nor, as I 
am assured, by him." He therefore asks " the favor of a precise 
statement of the offence committed." To which Major Strong 
replied on the 19th. After referring to army regulations, pare- 
graph 449, he said, - 

"The letter to which that was a reply was addressed to your 
Excellency, and therefore signed by General Butler himself, as claim- 
ing to be your Excellency's co-ordinate. Lieutenant-Colonel Browne's 
letter was addressed, not to the chief of staff at these headquarters, 
but directly to the Major-General commanding the department, and 
even then not in his official capacity." 

On Dec. 20, a reply was made in a letter signed by Colonel 
Browne, from which we make the following extracts : - 

"With the single exception of the President of the United States, 
no officer or person, whether State or national, civil or military, 
whether temporarily sojourning or permanently residing within the 
limits of Massachusetts, can be recognized within such limits as the 
'co-ordinate' of the Governor of the Commonwealth in official dignity 
or rank." 

He then expresses surprise that a gentleman of General 
Butler's acumen and professional training "should quote the 
regulations of the army of the United States, as dictating cere- 
monies of official intercourse to a magistrate who is no part of 
that army, and not subject to its, regulations." His attention is 
also called to the order of the War Department of Sept. 16, by 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 269 

which Major-General Butler is placed under the orders of the 
Governor of Massachusetts, in respect to raising and organizing 
volunteers. 

" In the present condition of national affairs, the Governor considers 
it impolitic and unpatriotic to embarrass the public service by undue 
nicety of etiquette ; and he regrets that Major-General Butler's 
views of duty in this particular should not have corresponded with his 
own, so as to render the present correspondence unnecessary." 

After disclaiming all intentional discourtesy, the letter thus 
refers to the letter quoted entire on a preceding page : - 

"General Butler's letter of Oct. 12, written to Governor Andrew, 
but not addressed to him, except in so far as he is mentioned in the 
third person, after the fashion of dinner invitations, and the like, on 
private and social occasions, and not signed by the Major-General 
with any addition of rank or command, and frequently re-iterating the 
Governor's constitutional title and name, with significant and con- 
spicuous marks of quotation surrounding them whenever repeated. 

"It is customary to affix marks of quotation in manuscript to indi- 
cate passages or expressions borrowed from some other to whom they 
ought to be credited. But I am not aware, that a name given in 
baptism, or inherited from a parent, or a title conferred by the Constitu- 
tion on a magistrate as his official description, are in any sense original 
ideas, or expressions which it is usual to designate by marks of quota- 
tion. Nor is this a matter in which a gentleman of Major-General 
Butler's learning and urbanity could have erred by mistake. . . . When 
a gentleman has violated the substance of courtesy, as did General 
Butler in that letter of Oct. 12, by a studious, indirect, insinuating, 
but not less significant, intentional act of impoliteness towards a 
magistrate whose only offence was fidelity to his duty, to the laws, and 
to the rights of his official position, he cannot be permitted, without 
comment, to arraign another for a supposed breach of military inter- 
course, simply formal, technical, and arbitrary, as he has assumed to 
arraign me in this matter through yourself." 

This letter would have been addressed directly to General 
Butler, had the Governor not been advised that he was at 
Washington. He soon after returned, and, on the 28th of 
December, wrote to the Governor a letter in which he says, - 

"I disclaim most emphatically any intentional or even accidental 
discourtesy to the Governor of Massachusetts. 



270 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

"In the matter of the address in quotation, I but copied the address 
assumed by one of the numerous military secretaries who write me 
on behalf of the Governor, and it was because of the formality of that 
address. ' His Excellency Governor Andrew ' is neither a baptismal, 
inherited, or constitutional title ; and, after using it once in the letter 
alluded to, I carefully used the title of the Constitution, and marked it 
in quotation to call attention to the difference." 

It appears by this, that General Butler " carefully used the 
title of the Constitution, and marked it in quotation to call 
attention to the difference." 

Mr. Parton, in his " Life of General Butler," says, - 
"The person who made the copy sent to the Governor, with per- 
verse uniformity, placed inverted commas before and after those words 
(His Excellency), as if to intimate that the author of the letter used 
them reluctantly, and only in obedience to a custom. It looked like an 
intentional and elaborate affront, and served to embitter the contro- 
versy. When, at length, the General was made acquainted with the 
insertion, he was not in a humor to give a complete explanation ; nor, 
indeed, is it a custom with him to get out of a scrape by casting blame 
upon a subordinate." 

This information, Mr. Parton says, he received "from a con- 
fidential member of General Butler's staff, the late General 
Strong," who was killed at Fort Wagner. 

This letter appears to have closed the controversy regarding 
the letter of Oct. 12 ; but it introduced a new element of con- 
troversy. Respecting commissioning the officers of Battery 
No. 4, General Butler alludes to the objections which the Gov- 
ernor had, interposed in regard to one of the persons recom- 
mended, and says, - 

" If any base charge can be substantiated against either of them. I 
shall be happy to substitute others. I believe, however, that neither 
of them have ever done any thing worse than seducing a mother, 
and making a father wifeless and children motherless ; and that, you 
know, is no objection to a high military commission in Massachu- 
setts." 

On the 30th, the Governor addressed a note to General But- 
ler, in which he quotes the words in the above extract, and 
requests to know what officer it is to whom he refers : - 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 271 

"Moreover, may I ask whose mother is alluded to, and whose wife ? 
and does the implied allegation mean that the crime of murder was 
added to that of seduction, although the words ' you know ' assume the 
existence of greater knowledge than I possess ? And, indeed, since 
the day I had the honor to detail yourself as a brigadier-general of 
the militia, at the beginning of the present war, to this day, and both 
inclusive, I cannot accuse myself of such an appointment. If I have 
done so, I beg you to expose it." 

On the 1st of January, 1862, General Butler answered, - 

" I referred, in my communication of the 28th ult., to the case of 
Wyman, appointed by your Excellency colonel of the Sixteenth Mas- 
sachusetts Regiment. Unless the testimony of brother officers serving 
with Wyman is to be disbelieved, facts notorious are to be denied 
which have never been denied before. 

" Colonel Wyman, while an officer of the United States army, held 
long adulterous intercourse with a Mrs. Brannan, the wife of a brother 
officer. This woman afterwards left her home under such circum- 
stances as to induce the belief that she was either murdered by herself 
or another. 

" This Wyman obtained leave of absence from the army, and joined 
his paramour in Europe; while there, he resigned his commission, 
because of a letter from the Adjutant-General of the army that he 
would be court-martialled if he did not, and remained abroad until 
after the breaking-out of the war, when he left her embraces, and re- 
turned to the army of the Commonwealth under your Excellency's 
appointment. 

"This woman was the mother of children ; and, if I should amend 
the language of my communication of the 28th ult., I should add, 
'making a father worse than wifeless, and children worse than 
motherless.' 

" I used the phrase 'you know,' because I have been informed, and I 
have reason to believe and do believe, that the substance of these facts 
was known to your Excellency at the time you made the appointment. 
Will your Excellency deny that you were then put upon inquiry as to 
them ? 

" I cannot expose this matter, because it has long since been made a 
matter of exposition in the public prints. I have no farther knowledge 
of Colonel Wyman, save that which may be learned by inquiry of any 
officer of the army who served with him. I have no disposition to 
injure or interfere with him, and have made this communication only 
in reply to your Excellency's statement." 



272 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

As this was a grave, personal matter, touching the character 
of a brave and patriotic officer of Massachusetts, then at the 
front with his regiment, and who fell at the head of it, a few 
months afterwards, bravely fighting, we have thought it proper 
to copy this correspondence entire. The dead officer lies in 
Mount Auburn Cemetery. His services and his memory de- 
serve that the defence of Governor Andrew, like the charge of 
General Butler, should be given without abridgment. Under 
date of Jan. 6, 1862, Governor Andrew writes to General 
Butler, - 

"Sir, - At the first hour at my disposal for the purpose, I ac- 
knowledge the receipt of your letter of Jan. 1, in which you state that 
Colonel Powell T. Wyman, commanding the Sixteenth Regiment 
Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, now stationed at Fortress Monroe, 
is the person to whom you had reference, when, addressing me under 
date of Dec. 28, you asserted that I ' know ' that 'seducing a mother, 
and making a father wifeless and children motherless,' 'is no objection 
to a high military commission in Massachusetts.' 

"In answer to your somewhat peremptory interrogatories, ad- 
dressed to me in that letter of Jan. 1, I would state, for your informa- 
tion, that the first knowledge I ever had of Mr. Wyman was through 
a letter addressed by him to the Adjutant-General of Massachusetts, 
dated 'London, England, May 1, 1861,' stating that he was a citizen 
of Boston and a graduate of the West-Point Military Academy, and 
had served for ten years as an officer of artillery of the United States 
army, and tendering his services to the Executive of this Common- 
wealth in any military capacity. I am not aware that any acknowledg- 
ment was ever made of this communication. 

"During the month of June, I received another note from Mr. Wy- 
man, dated at the Parker House, Boston, he having, in the mean while, 
returned to America. This letter was assigned to a member of my 
staff, to whom Mr. Wyman was referred for consultation. It was at 
that time that I first heard that there was said to be a cloud of some 
sort upon Mr. Wyman' s character ; and, having little leisure myself to 
enter into quasi-judicial investigations as to personal character, I passed 
over his name in the appointments which 1 was then making. The 
nature of the reports against him were not then stated to me; and, al- 
though I was soon after advised of them, yet there are things stated, in 
your letter of Jan. 1, as 'notorious facts,' of which it is only through 
yourself that I have knowledge. 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 273 

"Very shortly afterwards, Adam W. Thaxter, Esq., of this city, 
doubtless known to you as one of the most distinguished merchants of 
Boston, brought the name of Mr. Wyman very urgently to my atten- 
tion, both personally and in a letter, dated June 20, in which he re- 
quested me to call on himself, if Mr. Wyman should "need an indorser, 
and stated, that, in his opinion, Mr. Wyman, if appointed a colonel, 
would 'do credit to his native State.' 

"And, on July 1, Mr. Thaxter further presented to me a communi- 
cation, in writing, signed by Captain Thomas J. C. Amory, of the Sev- 
enth Infantry, U.S.A., and Captain Lewis H. Marshall, of the Tenth 
Infantry, U.S.A., both of whom had served in the army with Mr. Wy- 
man, and who were, if I remember, the only United States regular 
army officers then on duty in this city; and signed also by Charles G. 
Greene, Esq., Franklin Haven, Esq., William Dehon, Esq., William 
Parkman, Esq., Hon. George Lunt, Hon. Benjamin F. Hallett, Henry 
L. Hallett, Esq., P. Holmes, Esq., Edward F. Bradley, Esq., Joseph 
L. Henshaw, Esq., Peter Butler, Esq., Thomas C. Amory, Esq., and 
J. P. Bradlee, Esq.,- all of these gentlemen of this city, who are 
doubtless known to you by reputation, and with some of whom I cannot 
doubt that you are personally acquainted, - in which communication, 
these gentlemen requested the appointment of Mr. Wyman as a colo- 
nel, and certified that they 'believed in him as a gentleman, a man of 
worth, an accomplished officer, and brave soldier ; and that a regiment 
under his command would yield to none in the service for discipline, 
high tone, and efficiency ; and also, that they felt convinced, 'under all 
circumstances,' he 'would do honor to his State and to his country. 
These gentlemen further stated, that they made this request, in full 
knowledge of the existence of the rumors and influences against Mr. 
Wyman's reputation; and nevertheless, with such knowledge, they 
earnestly ' urged ' him, ' as one of those to whom the honor of Massa- 
chusetts may confidently be trusted. 

"About the same time, Mr. Wyman addressed to me a communica- 
tion in writing, denying the truth of the prejudicial rumors in circula- 
tion against him, and, although admitting that it was true that he had 
formed a matrimonial connection with a lady who had eloped from her 
husband by reason of that husband's brutal treatment of her, yet stat- 
ing also that he had not seen the lady for the year preceding, nor for the 
year after, her elopement. This communication, I find, upon referring 
to it, amounts also to a denial of the truth of much that is stated by 
you, in your letter of Jan. 1, as 'notorious facts,' derogatory to Mr. 
Wyman's character. 

" Upon the basis of this statement, made by Mr. Wyman, and con- 
18 



274 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

trolled by no responsible counter-statement or testimony whatsoever, and 
upon the formal assurance I received from the numerous gentlemen 
whom I have mentioned, that he was a good soldier and a good citizen, 
I did not feel myself justified in rejecting the services of a highly mer- 
itorious and thoroughly educated officer, upon unsubstantial rumors of 
an alleged moral error, which did not affect his military competency, 
and more especially at a time when the services of educated officers 
were so greatly needed for the command of our troops. 

"I therefore appointed Mr. Wyman to be colonel of the Sixteenth 
Regiment, -an appointment which, under the circumstances stated, 
commended itself to my judgment, and which I have no reason what- 
soever now to regret, and, under like circumstances, should not hesitate 
to repeat. 

"As it was upon the faith of the assurances made to me by Mr. 
Thaxter and the other gentlemen in their communication of July 1 that 
the appointment of Colonel Wyman was made. I therefore conceive 
that your quarrel with this appointment should be with those gentlemen, 
rather than with myself; and therefore I propose to inclose copies of 
your correspondence with me, in this connection, to Mr. Thaxter, as rep- 
resenting them ; and I must request you to address to them any future 
correspondence upon this subject, inasmuch as they are better acquainted 
than myself with Colonel Wyman, and his character, life, and con- 
nections, which I know chiefly through them. I desire to add, that, 
in all the intercourse which I have had with Colonel Wyman during 
the organization of his regiment, I never observed, on his part, the 
manifestation of any other qualities than those of an accomplished 
officer ; and I should be very reluctant to give credit to your reproaches 
against his character, especially in view of the standing of those gen- 
tlemen by whom his character as a gentleman was certified to me. 

" In conclusion, I would say, that I do not feel that any reason exists, 
requiring me to enter into such an explanation as the above ; but when 
an officer of the rank of major-general in the army of the United 
States volunteers thinks it necessary to diversify his occupations by 
needless flings at a fellow-officer in the same army, seeking to strike 
myself through him, a sense of honor and duty, both to the Common- 
wealth and to the gentleman thus struck at, requires me to spare no 
proper pains to see that justice is fully done." 

As reference is made, in the above letter, to a letter received 
by the Adjutant-General from Colonel Wyman, we would say, 
that our recollection of it is, that it was brought to our office by 
an old friend of Colonel Wyman, - James Oakes, Esq., a 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 275 

merchant of this city. The letter had been inclosed in one 
which he had received from Colonel Wyman. It was a tender 
of his services to the Governor of his native State, in any mili- 
tary capacity he might be pleased to place him. Before any 
action was taken upon the mattes, Colonel Wyman arrived in 
Boston, and reported at the State House. He was a true Union 
man, and anxiously desired to serve his country. As before 
stated, he was killed before Richmond, June 30, 1862. No one 
in command of a regiment of Massachusetts, in so short a time, 
made himself more beloved by his officers and men, or exhib- 
ited higher military qualities, than Colonel Wyman. He was a 
modest, quiet, and reserved gentleman. He possessed the 
qualities of kindness and firmness in a high degree. He was of 
light frame, of middle age, had a pleasant, thoughtful face, a 
fme-formed head, and a warm, generous heart. There is not an 
officer or soldier remaining of the original Sixteenth Regiment 
who does not speak of him with an affectionate regard, surpass- 
ing ordinary respect ; and many have said, that, if he had lived, 
he would have commanded the Army of the Potomac before the 
close of the war. 

General Butler continued independent recruiting until two 
regiments of infantry, three companies of cavalry, and a com- 
pany of light artillery, were raised by him in Massachusetts, not- 
withstanding the law gave to the Governor the exclusive right to 
organize regiments, and to commission the officers. The con- 
troversy lasted four months. The Governor had given General 
Butler the Twenty-sixth and the Twenty-eighth Regiments, 
which was the full proportion of this State, for his expedition. 
The troops raised by General Butler were sent from the State 
without commissioned officers, without rolls being deposited in 
the Adjutant-General's office, and without the knowledge of the 
Executive ; all of which was against orders, good policy, and 
statute law. In the mean time, Massachusetts had sent forward 
to the front eight full regiments, besides many recruits for old 
regiments. The Governor had written of late frequently to 
the War Department about General Butler's course, but re- 
ceived no satisfactory answer. On the 21st of December, he 
enclosed copies of the entire correspondence up to that date to 



276 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

our Senators in Congress, accompanied by an earnest appeal 
for them to examine it, and afterwards to present it to the Presi- 
dent. He said, - 

As I do not receive any reply from the officers of the Federal Gov- 
ernment whom I have thus addressed, nor any redress or correction of 
the evils of which complaint is therein made, I am compelled thus to 
resort to your official intervention. However humble and unimportant 
might be the person who holds the place of chief executive magistrate 
of Massachusetts, the venerable Commonwealth which he serves should 
be treated with respect." 

The letter refers to the blood shed by the children of this 
Commonwealth at Baltimore, at Ball's Bluff, and wherever else 
they have been called in arms, during the present year, and to 
the willingness the State has always been to bear her portion of 
the burdens of the war, and closes with this paragraph : - 

"I am compelled to declare, with great reluctance and regret, 
that, the course of proceeding under Major-General Butler in this 
Commonwealth seems to have been designed and adapted simply to 
afford means to persons of bad character to make money unscrupu- 
lously, and to encourage men whose unfitness had excluded them from 
any appointment by me to the volunteer military service, to hope for 
such appointment over Massachusetts troops from other authority than 
that of the Executive of Massachusetts." 

To this letter Mr. Sumner wrote, Jan. 10, 1862, "I am au- 
thorized by the War Department to say, that, if you will send 
on your programme with reference to General Butler, it shall be 
carried out, and the department (of New England) given up. 
Please let me know your desires." This was received by the 
Governor on the 14th; and he immediately telegraphed, as an 
answer, "The President has my programme written, replying to 
his telegram of last Saturday. My letters should be directly, 
and not indirectly, answered by the President or Depart- 
ment." 

The result of the controversy was, that the Department of 
New England was dissolved. The two regiments raised by 
General Butler, known as the Eastern and Western Bay-State 
Regiments, were afterwards designated the Thirtieth and Thirty- 
first Regiments Massachusetts Volunteers, and the officers were 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 277 

selected and commissioned by Governor Andrew ; and, from that 
time until the end of the war, the War Department, under the 
Secretaryship of Mr. Stanton, did its business with the States 
through the Governors of States. 

Before closing this subject, it is proper to state, that Governor 
Andrew, about the beginning of November, authorized the 
Adjutant-General to confer with General Butler in regard to 
organizing and equipping the Twenty-eighth (Irish) Regiment, 
which had been set apart as one of the two regiments which the 
Governor had offered him. At that time, parts of two Irish 
regiments had been recruiting, one of which was designated the 
Twenty-ninth, which was encamped at Framingham. It was, 
however, found expedient to take the men from Framingham, 
and mass them with the Twenty-eighth, which was in "Camp 
Cameron," at Cambridge. On the 7th of November, after the 
consolidation, the Twenty-eighth Regiment had seven hundred 
and fifteen men. On that day, the Adjutant-General addressed 
a letter to Major-General Butler, by du-ection of the Governor, 
calling his attention to the fact that the men had not been' 
armed, uniformed, or equipped, which General Butler had in- 
formed the Governor he had authority from Washington to do. 
The regiment had received " no aid or attention " whatever, from 
his head-quarters. The Governor, therefore, wished to be in- 
formed immediately whether he considered the regiment as part 
of his command, or whether he did not wish to have it. 

To which an answer was made, the same day, by Major 
Strong, that, as the Twenty-eighth Regiment had been thus far 
recruited by the State, it would be continued to be recruited by 
the State; but General Butler would take it as part of his 
command, if it could be ready by the 1st of December, and 
would add some recruits to complete it, if he could be permitted 
to indicate the officers who should command the men they had 
recruited. This being permitted. General Butler would at once 
"arm, uniform, and equip the regiment, as his authority re- 
quires him to ' organize ' as well ; but he will ask only an advisory 
power in the organization." 

The Adjutant-General had a personal interview with Major 
Strong on the 9th, in which the whole matter was talked over. 



278 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

There were, at that time, fifteen parts of companies at "Camp 
Cameron." After the personal conference with Major Strong, 
and on the same day, the Adjutant-General wrote to Major 
Strong, in which he referred to the personal interview, and 
said, - 

"There are fifteen companies and parts of companies at Camp 
Cameron. I propose to make ten companies of them, and fill up the 
ranks of each to the maximum standard; and I wish to know if Gene- 
ral Butler will furnish men for the purpose. If you prefer, I will mass 
the men into eight companies, and then have two full companies sent 
from ' Camp Chase ' (Butler's camp) to complete the regiment. Gene- 
ral Butler can advise in regard to the officers. It is important that the 
regiment be filled immediately, and properly officered. I am author- 
ized to adjust all matters relating to the regiment with General Butler 
and yourself. ... I will, if you desire it? make out a complete roster ; 
and you can lay it before General Butler for examination and approval. 
I would be glad to have him name persons whom he would like to have 
appointed, if he has any in his mind. His Excellency will leave for 
New York on Monday evening. I wish to have these matters definitely 
settled, if possible, before he leaves." 

Nov. 11. - Major Strong wrote, in answer, that - 

"It will be quite satisfactory to make the arrangement proposed, - 
viz., to make eight companies of the fifteen skeleton companies you men- 
tion, and to add two companies from 'Camp Chase' as soon as they are 
full, with the list of officers accompanying them, to be designated by 
General Butler, -this to be upon the understanding, that the Twenty- 
eighth Regiment is to be a part of the expeditionary corps soon to sail, 
and not a portion of the troops to be raised by General Butler, under 
order of Sept. 10, 1861 ; General Butler desiring to fill up the regiments 
destined for this purpose as soon as possible, besides those he is re- 
cruiting." 

Major Strong further stated, that two regiments and two bat- 
teries "will sail the coming week ; " also, that the " arrange- 
ment in regard to the Twenty-eighth Regiment is designed to be 
made wholly independently of the unhappy and unfortunate 
difference of opinion which has arisen between His Excellency 
the Governor and General Butler (which the latter much re- 
grets) , upon the right of recruitment, on the part of the United 
States Government, in Massachusetts." He also said, that 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 279 

"General Butler would be happy to examine the roster, as pro- 
posed ; " and, if not satisfactory, he would send other recom- 
mendations, as requested. 

The letter was received by the Adjutant-General on the day 
on which it was written : and he returned his answer on the 
same day, as follows : - 

" Yours of date is received, in relation to the Twenty-eighth Regi- 
ment. The fact which I wish to ascertain is this : Will General Butler 
accept of the Twenty-eighth Regiment? In your letter, he accepts it, 
with the following stipulation : " On the express understanding, that the 
Twenty-eighth Regiment is to be apart of the expeditionary corps soon 
to sail, and not a portion of the troops to be raised by General Butler, 
under order of Sept. 10, 1861.' This acceptance is not satisfactory. 
If General Butler accepts the Twenty-eighth Regiment for his di- 
vision, it must be as one of the two regiments raised by Massachusetts 
as her quota of the six which were to be raised for his division in New 
England ; and I wish to be informed, as soon as possible, whether Gene- 
ral Butler will accept of the Twenty-eighth, with this understanding. 
The other propositions in your letter are satisfactory." 

To this, Joseph M. Bell, Esq., acting aide-de-camp to Gene- 
ral Butler, made immediate answer Nov. 11, - 

"If the Governor will authorize two regiments - the Twenty-eighth 
and Twenty-ninth-to be organized by General Butler, with a veto 
power upon General Butler's selection of improper persons as officers. 
General Butler will accept the Twenty-eighth as one of them. This 
in answer to a communication of to-day to the Assistant Adjutant- 
General, who is absent." 

The following note closed the correspondence : - 

Adjutant-General's Office, Boston, Nov. 11, 1861, 
To Joseph M. Bell, Esq., acting Aide-de-camp to Major-General Butler. 

Sir,- Your letter of this date has been received. The proposition 
is respectfully declined. 

Your obedient servant, 

W ILLIAM ScHOULER, Adjutant-General. 

The Twenty-eighth Regiment consequently never became a 
part of Major-General Butler's command. When organized, it 
was sent to South Carolina, and was subsequently transferred 
to the Army of the Potomac. 



280 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

In the foregoing pages, we have endeavored to give an impar- 
tial transcript of the correspondence between the Governor and 
General Butler, and of the other parties who incidentally took 
part in it. The original trouble grew out of the unauthorized 
interference by Secretary Cameron with recruiting in Massachu- 
setts, by giving special permits to outside parties to recruit regi- 
ments here. No one had this right but the Governor of the 
State ; no one had the right to appoint or to commission offi- 
cers but the Governor. Upon him, and upon him alone, rested 
the responsibility of selecting proper officers to command our 
men. It was a responsibility which Governor Andrew had no 
right, and no wish, to avoid. The wisdom of having the entire 
control of raising, forming, and officering regiments placed in the 
hands of the Governors of States, must be apparent to every 
person who will give the subject a moment's consideration. 
They alone were responsible for their acts to the people of 
their several Commonwealths. To recruit men to meet the 
several calls of the President required in each State a well- 
arranged plan of operations, with a single will to guide and 
control it. It admitted of no interference by outside parties. 
There could be no State within a State. The Governor was the 
supreme executive officer of the Commonwealth, and there 
could be "no co-ordinate" power within its limits. He could 
not divide the responsibilities of his position with another, how- 
ever honorable or distinguished, any more than he could divide 
the honors of his high office with another. 

Whenever the State authority was interfered with by the Sec- 
retary of War, or by parties pretending to act under his orders, 
independent of the Governor of the State, confusion and strife 
ensued; out of these attempts grew embarrassing and contra- 
dictory orders, the evil of which is illustrated vividly in this 
correspondence. By interference. General Sherman lost his 
original expeditionary command, and Massachusetts the honor 
of contributing her part of the contingent to complete it. By 
interfering with the plans of the Governor, and his clearly 
established rights and responsibilities under the laws, the or- 
ganization and completion of regiments were delayed. It inter- 
posed obstacles by interposing a pretended divided authority 



CONTROVERSY WITH GENERAL BUTLER. 281 

in the State. In the case of General Butler, whatever may be 
thought of his original authority to recruit six regiments of 
infantry in New England, it is clear that it was modified, and 
made to conform to the law of Congress, by subsequent orders of 
the War Department, - that he was to report to the Governor, 
and the regiments, so far as Massachusetts was concerned in 
raising them, were to be raised, organized, and officered as the 
Governor should direct. Two regiments were a liberal por- 
tion for Massachusetts to raise of the six authorized to be raised 
for his command. The Governor promised the President 
and Secretary of War to aid in their completion to the ex- 
tent of his ability ; but, having given his promise first to Gen- 
eral Sherman to furnish certain regiments for him, he asked 
that his promise to General Sherman should be fulfilled before 
undertaking to recruit new regiments for General Butler. In 
part fulfilment of this qualified promise, however, he designated 
the Twenty-sixth Regiment, then nearly completed, and the 
Twenty-eighth Regiment , when completed, to form the con- 
tingent of Massachusetts for General Butler's command. Not- 
withstanding this. General Butler proceeded to recruit two new 
regiments of infantry, three new companies of cavalry, and one 
new company of artillery, in this State. He established a camp 
in Lowell, and another in Pittsfield. He promised persons 
commissions, which no one could issue but the Governor ; he 
appointed recruiting officers, and enhsted men, and, in so doing, 
wholly ignored the act of Congress, and the orders and au- 
thority of the Governor. The Governor had either to succumb 
or resist ; to sink the Commander-in-chief of the State and 
become a mere recruiting officer, to issue commissions to men 
whom he did not know or respect, or to sustain the whole dig- 
nity of his position as a magistrate, and his honor as a gentle- 
man. 

Those who knew Governor Andrew can feel no doubt as to 
the course he would pursue in such an exigency. Without 
any of the pride which mere place sometimes gives, without any 
of the arrogance which power sometimes nourishes, without 
desire of self-aggrandizement or unmerited personal favor, with 
an entire absence of that "insolence of office" which weak men 



282 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

often show, he was at the same time the proudest, the firmest, 
the most determined enemy of any thing like mere pretension, 
come from whatever source it might. He never took a posi- 
tion which he had not first well considered ; and, when his position 
was taken, nothing but a clear conviction that he was wrong 
could make him change from it. Though no man cared less for 
power than he did, no man was more conscientious and scrupu- 
lous in the exercise of it. His authority as Governor he re- 
garded as delegated to him by the people. He held it in trust, 
to be exercised for their benefit, and to be trampled upon by no 
man. Hence, what may have appeared to some who have read 
this correspondence as matters of no moment, and which might 
have been passed by without objection, the Governor viewed 
as an indignity to the office he filled, involving principles which 
could neither be compromised with honor, nor ignored with 
silence. By pursuing this firm and steady course, he was en- 
abled in the end to preserve inviolate the rights of the State, 
the dignity of its chief officer and the demands of public justice. 
It was these, traits of character which made him honored and 
respected while Uving, and caused him to be mourned for when 
dead, even as the children of Israel, when bondmen in a strange 
land, mourned their captivity, and hung their harps upon the 
willows which grew by the waters of Babylon. 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Campaign of 1862 - Meeting of the Legislature - Ex-Governor Clifford 
elected President of the Senate - His Speech - Alexander H. Bullock elected 
Speaker of the House-Speech of Mr. Bullock - Of Caleb Cushing-Pro- 
ceedings of the Legislature - Abstracts of Military Laws passed - Massa- 
chusetts Prisoners in Richmond - Clothing sent - Letter from Adjutant 
Pierson - Expedition of General Bumside - Capture of Roanoke Island - 
Massachusetts Troops first to land - Care of the Sick and Wounded - Dr. 
Hitchcock sent on - The Wounded in New York - Colonel Frank E. 
Howe - Establishment of the New-England Rooms - Care of the Sick and 
Wounded - The Army of the Potomac - The Wounded at Williamsburg - 
Letters of Colonel Howe - Every Assistance given - The Agencies of the 
State for the Care of the Men - The Office in Washington - Colonel Gardiner 
Tufts, Mrs. Jennie L. Thomas, Robert C. Carson, William Robinson, appointed 
Agents -Visits of the Adjutant-General, Colonel Ritchie, and Colonel John 
Q. Adams, to the Front-Report to the Governor - The Appearance of 
Washington - Reports of Edward S. Rand and Dr. Bowditch - First Massa- 
chusetts Cavalry at Hilton Head - Our Troops in North Carolina - Appoint- 
ment of Allotment Commissioners - Their Valuable Services - Letters of 
the Governor -Rule for making Appointments - Illegal Recruiting - Colonel 
Dudley - Thirtieth Regiment - Captured Rebel Flags - Death and Burial 
of General Lander - Letters of Governor to Secretary of War - Secretary 
of the Navy - To the President on Various Subjects - Letter to General 
Bumside - Secretary Chase - The Retreat of General Banks - Great Excite- 
ment - Troops sent forward - Militia called out - The Position of our Regi- 
ments - The War in Earnest. 

At the close of the year 1861 and the beginning of 1862, 
Massachusetts had filled every demand made upon her for troops, 
and most of them had been sent to the front. The Twenty- 
eighth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-first Regiments, nearly recruited 
to the maximum, were yet in camp ; but they were sent forward 
in January and February, 1862. Massachusetts regiments and 
batteries were in front of Washington and at Fortress Monroe ; 
five regiments were at Annapolis, ready to embark in General 
Bumside' s expedition against North Carolina. One regiment 
and a battery were at Ship Island, in Mississippi, waiting orders 
from General Butler. In the Army of the Potomac, we were 



284 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Ihe Strongest. Gunboats officered and manned by Massachu- 
setts men kept watch and ward on the Southern coast, or carried 
the flag upon far-off seas. Officers remained here on recruiting 
service ; and enlistments were made to complete new regiments, 
and to fill the depleted ranks of those at the seat of war. 
Wounded officers and soldiers were at home on furlough or dis- 
charged for disability. The "empty sleeve " was seen daily in 
our streets ; and maimed veterans hobbled up the steps of the 
State House on crutches, on their return from distant hospitals, 
to show their honorable discharge papers, and tell in modest 
words of their toils and dangers. 

The Legislature met at the State House, on Wednesday, 
Jan. I, 1862. Hon. John H. Clifford, of New Bedford, for- 
merly Governor of the State, was chosen President of the Senate, 
and Stephen N. Gifford, clerk. On taking the chair, Mr. 
Clifford referred to the present state of the country, to the war 
which existed, and to the duties which were imposed upon the 
Legislature. They were then in a new and untried exigency of 
public affairs, and subject to the solemn and momentous re- 
sponsibiUties which attach themselves to every position of public 
trust. 

"We should fail, I am sure, to reflect the prevailing sentiment of 
the people of Massachusetts, and show ourselves unworthy the gen- 
erous confidence of our respective constituents, if we could permit a 
word of party strife to be uttered within these walls. Whatever may 
be his professions, he is no true patriot, who, in this season of his coun- 
try's peril, cannot rise to such a height as to lose sight of all those lines 
of political difference, which, in more peaceful and prosperous times, 
have divided the people of the Commonwealth, or who is not ready to 
sacrifice every thing but principle to make and keep them a united 
people. Already have the gallant sons of Massachusetts, native and 
adopted, of every class and condition, and holding every variety of 
opinion upon controverted questions of policy and principle, marched 
as a band of brothers to the field to uphold the common flag, or to fall 
in its defence." 

Hon. Caleb Gushing, of Newburyport, senior member, called 
the House to order ; in doing which, he made a short address, 
and referred to his services as a member in years that were past, 
and said, - 



THE LEGISLATURE OF 1862. 285 

"At other times, the wordy warfare of party, the strifes of faction 
might be tolerated and endured, if not encouraged and applauded. 
Such is not the present hour. Higher and greater thoughts occupy us 
now. I confidently believe that you, gentlemen; will prove your- 
selves equal to the emergency; that you will rise to the height of 
your duties; and that, taking the Constitution for your loadstar and 
your guide through the troubles of the times, you will dedicate your- 
selves to the single object of contributing, with heart and soul, to 
uphold, to re-establish, and to perpetuate our sacred and beloved 
Union. That we resolve and determine to do, with the good help 
of God." 

The House then made choice of Hon. Alexander H. Bullock, 
of Worcester, Speaker of the House : he received every vote 
cast. William S. Robinson, of Maiden, was elected clerk. On 
taking the chair, Mr. Bullock also referred to the existing war, 
and to the duty of Massachusetts in regard thereto. 

"More than thirty thousand of the men of Massachusetts are at this 
moment far from home, in arms, to preserve the public liberties along 
the Upper and Lower Potomac, among the islands and deltas of the 
Gulf, or wherever else they have been called 'to follow that imperilled 
but still radiant flag." 

He closed with these words : "In the service of the State at 
all times, but especially at the present, the least of duties is a 
part of the impressive whole." 

On Friday, Jan. 3, the two branches met in convention to 
administer the oath of office to the Governor and Lieutenant- 
Governor elect, and to listen to the annual address. 

The Governor, in his address, made a broad survey of the 
military field of observation, and the part which Massachusetts 
had taken in the war during the year preceding; The amount of 
money expended by the State, for war purposes, was $3,384,- 
649.88, of which there had been reimbursed, by the United 
States, the sum of $987,263.54 ; leaving an unpaid balance of 
about $2,500,000. This was exclusive of the amount paid by 
the several cities and towns of the Commonwealth for the sup- 
port of the families of soldiers, under the act passed at die extra 
session of 1861, which amounted, in the aggregate, to about 
$250,000, which was to be reimbursed from the treasury of 



286 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

the State, and raised by direct taxation upon the property in 
the Commonwealth. Upwards of half a million of dollars had 
been expended in the purchase of Enfield rifles, and about 
twenty-four thousand dollars for English infantry equipments. 
Five thousand more Enfield rifles had been contracted for in 
England; but the English Government had placed an interdict 
against the export of arms and munitions of war to this country, 
which prevented, for a time, the completion of the contract. 
The Governor also referred, at considerable length, to the coast 
defences of Massachusetts, and the exertions which he had made 
to have them placed in proper condition. 

Next to the harbor defences of Boston in importance was the 
harbor of Provincetown, at the end of Cape Cod, which was 
accessible in all weathers without a pilot, with excellent an- 
chorage, in which whole navies might ride in safety. It was 
best adapted to be the base of naval operations. It was utterly 
undefended, and could easily be taken from us by the enemy. 
The Governor, in referring to other matters, not of a military 
character, speaks of the national cause; and as the result of 
the war, which is but die revolt of slavery, he regards its ulti- 
mate extinction as inevitable. "Yet I mean, as I have done 
since the beginning of secession, to continue to school myself 
to silence ; nor can I suspect that my opinions can be miscon- 
ceived ; nor do I believe that the faith of Massachusetts can be 
mistaken or misinterpreted." 

The only question which he could entertain is what to do, 
and, when that was answered, is what next to do; "for by 
deeds, and not by words, is this people to accomplish their salva- 
tion." The great rebellion was to be put down, and its pro- 
moters crushed beneath the ruins of their own ambition.; and 
now, he says, - 

"When the beauty of their Israel has been slain in our high places, 
and when her Lee and Revere, Rockwood and Bowman, lie in felon's 
cells, and hundreds of her sons wear out their hearts in sad captivity, 
-victims of their valor, and devotion to our Union, - one irre- 
pressible impulse moves our people, and inspires our people in the field ; 
one prayer to see the day when an army of loyal Americans shall 
hammer at the doors of their prison-houses, and with both hands 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE. 287 

pledged to the solemn task of war, and with neither hand averted to 
uphold the institution which is the cause of all this woe ; and that their 
bow shall not turn back, and their sword return not empty, until their 
grand deliverance shall be completed." 

He speaks in fitting words of praise of the action of the Legis- 
lature of Maryland, in appropriating money to relieve the 
suffering condition of the widows and orphans of the Massa- 
chusetts men killed by the mob in Baltimore on the 19th day 
of April, and calls it "an oasis in all the resentment of the 
hour." The address concludes as follows : "Inspired by trust 
in God, an immortal hate of wrong, let us consecrate to-day 
every personal aspiration, every private hope, in one united 
apostrophe to our country and her cause, - 'Where thou goest, 
I will go ; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge ; thy people 
shall be my people, and thy God my God : where thou diest 
will I die, and there will I be buried.'" 

The Governor the same day transmitted to the Legislature a 
letter from Secretary Seward, urging that expenditures be 
made by the State for the defence of its coast, which he had 
no doubt that Congress would sanction and reimburse; also, 
a letter, dated Dec. 20, from Brigadier-General Joseph C. 
Totten, Engineer Department, U.S.A., giving a detailed state- 
ment of the different surveys made in time past of the defences 
on the coast of Massachusetts ; also, a letter addressed to His 
Excellency by Colonel Ritchie, of his personal staff, upon popu- 
lar military instruction, in which a review was given of the dif- 
ferent systems in Europe, and recommending that military art 
be encouraged and taught in some of our public schools, and 
higher seminaries of learning. 

Jan. 6. In the House. - Mr. Gushing, of Newburyport, 
introduced an order that the Committee on the Militia con- 
sider the expediency of making provision for the families of 
citizens of the State engaged in the naval service of the United 
States during the existing war, similar to that made for those in 
the land service. The order was referred. 

Jan. 7. In the House. - On motion of Mr. Maglathlin, 
of Duxbury, the Committee on the Militia were instructed to 
consider the expediency of the State paying the expenditures 



288 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

made by the cities and towns of the Commonwealth for uni- 
forming and drilling volunteers during the present war. 

Mr. Heard, of Clinton, offered an order, which was referred 
to the Committee on Federal Relations, that the Governor be 
requested to communicate with the President of the United 
States in regard to obtaining the release of Colonel Lee and 
Major Revere of the Twentieth Regiment, and of Captains 
Rockwood and Bowman of the Fifteenth Regiment, who are 
confined as hostages, in a felon's cell in Richmond, for cap- 
tured rebel privateersmen. 

Jan. 8. In the Senate. - Mr. Stockwell, of Suffolk, 
from the Committee on Printing, reported in favor of printing 
two thousand extra copies of the Adjutant-General's Report. 

In the House. - Mr. Brown, of Taunton, introduced an 
order directing the Committee on the Militia to consider the 
expediency of amending the law of 1861, so that each city 
and town shall provide for the support of persons who may be 
dependent on volunteers of this State mustered into the United- 
States service, and that each city and town shall be reimbursed 
from the State treasury for the money so expended. 

Jan. 9. In the House. - On motion of Mr. Stanwood, 
of Essex, the Committee on the Militia were instructed to 
report an amendment to the State-aid law, so as to extend its 
provisions to the families of Massachusetts soldiers who have 
enlisted in regiments belonging to other States. 

Jan. 10. In the House. - Mr. Carver, of Newburyport, 
introduced an order instructing the Committee on the Mi- 
litia to inquire what amount of money was paid to the three 
months' volunteers, while in the service of the State and before 
being mustered into the service of the United States, and what 
amount may now be due them for commutation pay. 

Jan. 13. In the Senate. - A bill was reported from the 
Committee on the Militia, granting State aid to the families 
of the volunteers in the regiments raised in this State by 
General Butler. An attempt was made to suspend the rules 
and pass the bill through its several readings, but did not 
prevail. 

In the House. - On motion of Mr. Davis, of Plymouth, it 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE. 289 

was ordered, that the Governor be requested to communicate to 
the House the correspondence relating to the recruiting of 
troops in this Commonwealth by General Butler. 

Jan. 14. In the Senate. - The bill to give aid to the 
families of volunteers recruited in this State by General Butler 
was passed to be engrossed. 

In the House. - Mr. Roberts, of Lakeville, offered an 
order, directing the Committee on the Militia to consider the 
expediency of making certain amendments to the State-aid law 
of 1861. 

The Senate bill to give aid to families, &c.. was passed 
through its various stages, under a suspension of the rules. 

Jan. 17. In the Senate. - On motion of Mr. Northend, 
of Essex, the Committee on Printing were directed to con- 
sider the expediency of printing three thousand extra copies 
of the Adjutant-General's Report, in addition to those already 
ordered. 

In the House. - On motion of Mr. Manning, of Reading, it 
was ordered, that the Committee on the Militia consider the 
expediency of amending the militia law, so as to make all the 
enrolled miUtia do military duty. 

Jan. 20. In the House. - On motion of Mr. Pierce, of 
Dorchester, it was ordered, that the Committee on the Militia 
inquire whether the blankets, which were contributed by the 
people of the State to relieve the necessities of the volunteers 
in the service, were delivered to the soldiers as gifts, or were 
charged to them at the market price. 

Mr. Chandler, of Boston, moved that the same committee 
consider the expediency of authorizing the Governor to enter 
into contracts immediately for the manufacture of heavy ord- 
nance for the coast defences of Massachusetts, and also for 
instituting a camp of instruction for artillery. 

Jan. 23. In the Senate. - A message was received from 
the Governor, returning the bill to grant State aid to the 
families of volunteers recruited by General Butler, with his 
reasons for not signing it. The Governor was in favor of 
granting the aid as contemplated ; but the bill was imperfectly 
19 



290 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

drawn. He pointed out the errors which it contained. The 
message was laid upon the table. 

In the House. - Mr. Burbank, of Boston, from the Com- 
mittee on the Militia, reported that the troops in the three 
months' service had been paid by the Commonwealth, from the 
time of being ordered out by the Governor until mustered into 
the United-States service, $9,580.63. There was nothing more, 
due them, and nothing more had been claimed by them. 

On motion of Mr. Pierce, of Dorchester, the Committee on 
the Militia was requested to consider the expediency of requiring 
the State Treasurer, or some suitable person, to act as allotment 
commissioner for such sums as the soldiers in the field may allot 
of their pay for themselves or families. 

Jan. 30. In the House. - A message was received from 
the Governor, calling the attention of the Legislature to the 
illegal enlistment of men in Massachusetts by persons coming 
from other States. Laid on the table, and ordered to be 
printed. 

Jan. 31. In the House. - Mr. Pierce, of Dorchester, re- 
ported a resolve appropriating $500,000 for the manufacture of 
ordnance for coast defences. 

Feb. 3. In the House. - The above resolve was debated, 
and passed to a third reading by a unanimous vote. 

Feb. 7. - Mr. Burbank, of Boston, from the Committee on 
the Militia, reported a bill concerning the custody and distribu- 
tion of funds of the Massachusetts volunteers. 

On motion of Mr. Curtis, of Roxbury, it was ordered, that 
the Committee on the Militia be authorized to send for persons 
and papers on the matter of blankets and other articles contrib- 
uted for the use of the soldiers. 

Feb. 11. /n the Senate. - The veto message of the Gov- 
ernor, of the bill granting State aid to the families of volunteers 
recruited by General Butler, came up by assignment. The 
Governor had informed the Militia Committee, that, since the 
message was sent in, the Secretary of War had placed these 
troops to the credit of Massachusetts, and under the authority 
of the Governor, the same as other regiments ; and therefore no 
further legislation was necessary, as they would come within the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE. 291 

provision of the law of 1861. The whole subject was then laid 
upon the table. 

Feb. 15. In the Senate. - Mr. Thompson, of Hampden, 
from the Committee on the Militia, submitted a report upon all 
the orders which had been referred to them concerning State 
aid to soldiers' families. The report was accompanied by a bill, 
which provided that State aid should be paid to the families of 
Massachusetts soldiers who were in the New-York regiments, 
and whose famihes resided in this State. It also provided that 
the same should be paid to the families of Massachusetts men 
who should thereafter enUst in the navy. 

Feb. 20. In the House. - Mr. Chandler, of Boston, from 
the Committee on Federal Relations, to whom was referred the 
resolve requesting the Governor to communicate with the Pres- 
ident in favor of an exchange of prisoners, recommended that the 
resolve ought to pass. Mr. Chandler made a long and able 
report in favor of the object sought for in the resolve, which was 
ordered to be printed. 

Feb. 26. In the Senate . - A long debate ensued upon the 
bill granting State aid to families of volunteers. That part of 
it relating to families of men in the navy was stricken out. 
Pending the consideration of other amendments, the Senate 
adjourned. 

March 1. In the Senate. -The bill concerning State aid, 
&c., was amended, and passed to be engrossed. 

March 3. In the Senate. - Mr. Northend, of Essex, an- 
nounced the death of Brigadier-General Frederick W. Lander, 
and delivered a short but touching eulogy upon his life and 
character. He also introduced a joint resolution in honor of the 
deceased, which was passed unanimously. 

March 5. In the House. - A message was received from 
the Governor concerning three rebel flags, which had been cap- 
tured by the Massachusetts regiments in the battle at Roanoke 
Island, N.C. A resolution was adopted to have the flags placed 
in the House of Representatives during the remainder of the 
session. Patriotic speeches were made by Mr. Field, of Stock- 
bridge, and by the Speaker of the House, Colonel Bullock. 

March 6. In the House. - The Senate bill granting State 



292 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

aid to the families of volunteers was discussed during the greater 
part of the day, and was passed to a third reading, yeas 100, 
nays 73. 

Nothing further of material interest to the volunteers, or in 
relation to the war, was considered during the session. The 
acts passed by the extra session the year before left little more 
to be done for the soldiers. 

The session continued until the 30th of May, when both 
Houses were prorogued, having passed 226 acts and 117 
resolves. 

Among the laws passed by the Legislature at this session 
was one declaring that the term of enlistment of a person in the 
military or naval service shall not be taken as part of the 
Period limited for the prosecution of actions of such persons, 
and that, if defaulted, he may sue out a writ of review, and that, 
when absent, the court may continue or suspend the suit ; also, 
a resolve authorizing the Governor to build one or more iron- 
clad Monitors for coast defences ; also, authorizing the Treasurer 
to receive and distribute moneys remitted by Massachusetts vol- 
unteers, and to notify the treasurer of the town in which the 
family of the soldier resides, who was to notify the party to whom 
the money was due, and to pay the same free of charge. All 
such money was exempt from attachment, by trustee process or 
otherwise. If the money remained in the State treasury over 
thirty days, interest was to be allowed. A resolve was passed 
appropriating five hundred and fifty dollars to reimburse expen- 
ditures made for the reUef of the Massachusetts prisoners of war 
at Richmond and elsewhere; also, a resolve authorizing the 
Governor to take measures for the removal of the sick and 
wounded soldiers of Massachusetts to their homes, the expenses 
of which were to be paid from the treasury of the State ; also, 
a resolve authorizing the Governor to arrange for the reception 
and treatment in State hospitals of such of our wounded and sick 
seamen and soldiers as they can accommodate, to be paid for by 
the State ; also, an act authorizing towns to raise and appropri- 
ate money for the aid of the families of the soldiers, not to 
exceed one dollar a week for the wife, and one dollar a week 
for each child and parent, provided that the whole sum shall not 



OUR PRISONERS AT RICHMOND. 293 

exceed twelve dollars per month for all the persons named, the 
money thus expended to be annually reimbursed to the cities 
and towns from the treasury of the State ; also, a resolve 
thanking Adeline Tyler, of Baltimore, for the kind, humane, and 
Christian services rendered by her to our soldiers who were 
wounded in Baltimore, April 19, 1861; also, resolves acknowl- 
edging the liberal appropriation of the State of Maryland for 
the relief of the wounded, and to the families of the killed, of the 
Sixth Regiment in Baltimore, on that memorable day. 

The clothing and blankets forwarded to Richmond for the 
comfort of the Massachusetts prisoners confined there was con- 
tained in thirty-six cases. Lieutenant Charles L. Peirson, 
adjutant of the Twentieth Regiment, was one of the prisoners at 
Richmond. He was permitted by the rebel authorities to 
receive and distribute the articles. In a letter addressed by 
him to the Quartermaster-General of Massachusetts, dated 
Richmond, he says, - 

"I have distributed the articles, and find the invoice correct. I find 
the number of prisoners to be nearly four hundred. By strict economy 
in the distribution, they are all, with hardly an exception, completely 
clothed. There are, however, some sailors of the crew of the ' Massa- 
chusetts' who are badly off. I hope soon to see them provided for. 
I have sent part of the clothing forward to those Massachusetts soldiers 
who are in New Orleans and Tuscaloosa. One hundred and seventy- 
five, including some of the Fifteenth and Twentieth men, are to be 
sent to Salisbury, N.C., to-morrow ; and the remainder will follow in 
a short time. Mr. Faulkner called upon me yesterday, and assured me 
that the rebel privateers in New York were much better cared for than 
Colonel Lee and his associates in Henrico County jail, and promised to 
use his influence to render their condition more comfortable. I hope 
soon to represent Massachusetts under the stars and stripes." 

The military expedition under General Bumside, to invade 
North Carolina, commenced embarking on board transports at 
Annapolis, on the fifth day of January, 1862, and sailed from 
that port on the ninth and tenth. The military force was 
divided into three brigades, of five regiments each. One- 
third of the whole force was from Massachusetts ; comprising 
the Twenty-first, in the Second Brigade, commanded by Gen- 



294 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

eral Jesse L. Reno, and the Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, 
Twenty-fifth, and Twenty-seventh Regiments, in the First Bri- 
gade, commanded by Brigadier-General John G. Foster. The 
most intense interest was felt in Massachusetts for the safety 
and success of this expedition. The report reached Boston, 
on the twenty-third day of January, that shipwreck and disaster 
had befallen the fleet, which gave pain to many hearts. The 
report, however, proved groundless, although the ships had 
encountered a succession of severe storms for nearly two weeks 
the ships were at sea ; great difficulty was encountered in cross- 
ing the bar at Cape Hatteras, which was at length successfully 
surmounted. When the fleet came to anchor off Roanoke 
Island, an escaped slave came on board the ship to General 
Bumside, with whom he had a long interview, and gave much 
valuable information in regard to the best place to land, and 
the force of the enemy on the island. 

The troops disembarked on the seventh day of February. A 
detachment of General Foster's Brigade, and the Twenty-fifth 
Massachusetts, was the first regiment to land and invade the 
soil of North Carolina. The capture of the island, the bravery 
exhibited by the troops, and the large number of prisoners taken 
from the rebels, made it one of the most successful and brilliant 
exploits, up to that time, of the war. The Massachusetts regi- 
ments were conspicuous for their bravery and good conduct, and 
captured three rebel regimental colors. On the reception of the 
news of Burnside's success, great joy was felt throughout the 
Commonwealth, although many homes were made desolate by 
the death of members who had fought, and won the victory. 
The news of the battle reached Massachusetts on the fifteenth 
day of February ; the battle having been fought on the eighth. 
The Legislature was in session ; and a number of the members 
requested the Governor to send a special agent to the island to 
take care of the wounded. He at once selected, with great 
judgment, Hon. Alfred Hitchcock, of Fitchburg, a member 
of the Executive Council, and one of the most experienced 
and skilful surgeons in the State. The doctor reached the 
island in the quickest possible time, where his services as a 
surgeon were put in immediate requisition. He remained there 



RETURN OF SICK AND WOUNDED. 295 

several weeks, and assisted in preparing the convalescents for 
transportation to New England. 

On the seventh day of March, one hundred and twenty-five 
sick and wounded soldiers were placed on board a steam 
transport, by order of General Burnside ; and Dr. Hitchcock 
was placed in charge of them, with full power to provide for their 
wants, and procure transportation to their several homes. They 
reached Baltimore on the evening of the 9th of March. On 
arriving at New York, the wounded soldiers were welcomed 
by Colonel Frank E. Howe, our Massachusetts agent, and 
amply supplied with whatever was necessary for their wants. 
The Massachusetts men, seventy-one in number, were at once 
forwarded by rail, and reached their homes or hospitals before 
the thirteenth day of March. At the New-York and New- 
Haven depot, in New-York City, a cruel and unjustifiable 
detention occurred in the embarkation of these wounded men, 
which eUcited some very sharp criticisms in the loyal papers of 
that day, and in letters of Dr. Hitchcock and Colonel Frank 
E. Howe to Governor Andrew. 

Colonel Howe writes to the Governor, from New York, 
March 11, " Received telegram from Dr. Hitchcock at two 
o'clock at night, got up immediately, did all I could for him 
and his poor men. Dr. Hitchcock is a remarkable man. It 
was very rough for him and all his men. I have spent a 
good many dollars to-day." Also telegraphs the Governor the 
same day, "Dr. Hitchcock leaves with his men in half-past- 
three-o'clock train. They will need litters, carriages, and re- 
freshments." 

During the mondi of March, a large number of other sick and 
wounded soldiers were forwarded by General Burnside. March 
25, Colonel Howe telegraphs to the Governor, "One hundred 
wounded men from Burnside left Baltimore this morning, mostly 
Massachusetts men. Shall take good care of them." Same 
day, he writes to the Governor, "Dr. Upham has just arrived, 
with thirty Massachusetts men, - Major Stevenson, Lieu- 
tenant Nichols, Lieutenant Sargent, Sergeant Perkins, and 
others. We shall get them off to-morrow morning by the eight- 
o'clock train. A hundred and fifty men, who left Baltimore 



296 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

this morning, have not yet arrived." On the fourth day of 
April, Surgeon-General Dale made a report to the Governor, in 
which he submitted a plan of forwarding the sick and wounded 
men of the Massachusetts regiments, which would obviate much 
of the confusion and delay heretofore experienced. He says 
that Colonel Howe had leased in New York a large, commodi- 
ous, and well-ventilated store, on Broadway, for the accom- 
modation of the returning sick and wounded, and that Dr. 
Satterlee, the army purveyor stationed there, had provided them 
with one hundred and fifty iron bedsteads, with bed-sacks, 
blankets, sheets, and pillow-cases. He would also furnish 
medicines, dressings, and every thing necessary for the comfort 
of the sick and wounded in this temporary building. Colonel 
Eaton, U.S.A., would furnish subsistence, and Colonel Tomp- 
kins, United-States Quartermaster, would furnish transportation. 
Nothing is wanted of the State, except an ambulance wagon. 

Colonel Howe writes, April 6, "The store is nearly ready. 
Every thing is in it but baths and cooking ranges, and those 
I am at work on day and night, and am ready to take in and 
care for the wounded soldiers from any and every where. 
Plenty of money, heaps of hearts ready and determined. 
I have got all the United States officials with us, and as 
many of the surgeons as we want. The community is with 
us, and we feel sure that we have the Almighty with us." 

About the middle of March, General McClellan began his 
movement against Richmond, by a change of base from before 
Washington to the James River. It was not until the middle 
of April that the Army of the Potomac was ready to advance. 
Yorktown was captured April 26 ; and the battle of Williams- 
burg was fought May 5, in which Hooker's brigade bore a 
conspicuous part, and the Massachusetts First and Eleventh 
Regiments suffered severely. 

From that time until the retreat of McClellan, in August, the 
Army of the Potomac stood with its face towards the rebel 
capital, every foot of its onward march contested by the rebels, 
and almost every mile of its advance a battle-field. Many of 
the Massachusetts dead were embalmed, and sent home to their 
relatives for burial by the graves of their kindred. Many of 



COLONEL HOWE IN NEW YORK. 297 

the wounded were forwarded to the North ; the military hospi- 
tals at Washington, Fortress Monroe, and elsewhere being 
filled to repletion. On the 13th of May, the first instalment 
of the wounded at Williamsburg reached New York. Colonel 
Howe on that day telegraphs to the Governor, "1 am com- 
pelled to send off thirty-three wounded to-night, by eight-o'clock 
train, all able to walk, - all from Williamsburg. Twenty-six 
of them belong in Boston. The transport ' Daniel Webster ' 
in, with three hundred more." Next day, - May 14, - he tele- 
graphs, "I send, by eight-o'clock train, six bully Chelsea boys, 
of the First Regiment, in care of a Councilman, John Buck, 
also five more brave fellows. All will have to ride from 
the depot. We are with the sick and wounded day and night, 
ladies and all. Have one hundred at rooms, and one hundred 
and fifty coming in this morning. Not one complains." Every 
assistance in the power of the Governor, the Surgeon-General, 
and other State officers, was rendered the brave men, upon their 
arrival in Boston. Among the many despatches received at 
this time is one dated New York, May 18, to the Governor : 
"Have sent forty-eight men, - Twenty-third Regiment, - by 
five-o'clock train, to Boston, from Bumside's Division, all able to 
travel." This, on being referred to Surgeon-General Dale, was 
remmed to the Governor, with this characteristic indorsement : 
"The men came four hours ago ; and I am sorry I was not in- 
formed of it, though none of them required medical assistance, 
probably ; yet it is better to be there when they arrive. It looks 
more friendly, and as if the State was solicitous about them. 
No harm done now, however." 

From this period until the end of the war, the number of our 
sick and wounded soldiers increased; and the duties of die seve- 
ral State agents were rendered more important and arduous. 
The Governor was fortunate in the selection of gentlemen to fill 
these places, and discharge these duties. The most important 
of these agencies was the one established in Washington, of 
which Colonel Gardiner Tufts, of Lynn, was placed in charge. 
A brief sketch of its origin and subsequent growth deserves a 
place in this volume, and may as well be given now as here- 
after. 



298 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

When our Sixth Regiment reached Washington, April 19, 
1861, it was ordered to the Capitol, and quartered in the Senate 
wing. No provision had been made for the wounded; but by 
advice of Major McDowell, U.S.A., they were taken in car- 
riages by the Massachusetts residents, who met the regiment at 
the depot, to the Providence Hospital. This institution is under 
the direction of the Sisters of Charity. Here the first wounded 
in the war were kindly and tenderly cared for. On the same 
evening, a meeting of the Massachusetts residents was held, to 
organize a society to look out for the wants of the Massachu- 
setts soldiers. We have before us the original copy of the con- 
stitution which was adopted, with the names of the original 
members, who signed it. The preamble is in these words : - 

"The undersigned, now or formerly citizens of Massachusetts, in 
order to secure, by organization and mutual co-operation, proper care 
for the wounded and disabled, and decent interment for the dead, of 
the Massachusetts troops which are now or may be on duty in this 
vicinity, do form ourselves into a society, to be called the Massachu- 
setts Association." 

This preamble expresses, in clear language, the object of the 
association. This was the first organization of the kind formed 
in the war. The names of the original signers were Ben. 
Perley Poore, George W. McClellan, Charles F. Macdonald, 
Arthur W. Fletcher, Arnold Burgess Johnson, Ira Murdock, 
William Stimpson, I. 0. Wilson, Nathan S. Lincoln, Edward 
Shaw, Henry 0. Brigham, H. H. Pangborn, J. Wesley Jones, 
Z. K. Pangborn, Judson S. Brown, B. Fanuel Craig, B. W. 
Perkins. 

The meeting for the choice of officers was held in the old 
Senate Chamber, in the Capitol. George W. McClellan, Sec- 
ond Assistant Postmaster-General, was elected president ; Z. K. 
Pangborn, vice-president ; Charles F. Macdonald, surgeon and 
treasurer ; and A. B. Johnson, secretary. This society appointed 
Miss Lander, of Salem, to distribute proper articles for the sick 
and wounded. Before the end of April, it was in successful 
operation. Upon the arrival of our Eighth Regiment at Wash- 
ington, Lieutenant Herrick, of the Beverly company, whose, 
foot was severely wounded by the accidental discharge of a mus- 



STATE AGENT AT WASHINGTON. 299 

ket in the rotunda of the Capitol, was taken to the supreme- 
court room, where his foot was amputated. It was then de- 
cided to fit up the room as a field hospital; and it became the 
first army hospital established in the Rebellion. Its beds were 
soon all occupied ; and the care of sick and wounded devolved 
upon the members of the association, who were promptly sec- 
onded by the Massachusetts ladies then in Washington. Miss 
Lander, of Salem, sister of the late General Frederick W. 
Lander, was a leader in these good works. She " headed the 
advance-guard of that corps of mercy." This volunteer associa- 
tion fulfilled its mission. As the war went on, many of the 
most active members entered the army and navy. The de- 
mands for hospital accommodations now required the action of 
the Government, and an organized system. In the summer of 
1862, when the sick and wounded were returned in great num- 
bers from the peninsula of Virginia, the Governor decided to 
appoint Gardiner Tufts the agent for Massachusetts in Wash- 
ington ; and, on the 18th of July, Mr. Tufts was commissioned 
for that purpose. 

His instructions were prepared at the State House, and for- 
warded to him. He was to prepare a weekly report of the dis- 
abled Massachusetts soldiers in Washington, with the company 
and regiment to which they belonged. As far as practicable, 
he was to visit the hospital in person, and supply all proper 
wants of our men. He was to communicate with the families 
of the patients, stating their wants, and how the needed sup- 
phes could be forwarded. He was to have an oversight of the 
burial of the dead, and, when requested by their friends, to 
have the bodies forwarded, at the expense of the parties re- 
questing it. He was to aid the soldiers with money in return- 
ing home, if they had not sufficient for their wants themselves. 
The instructions, were very comprehensive, and drawn with 
marked ability. They covered every service which an agent 
could do, or a soldier require. 

Mr. Tufts entered upon his duties July 28, 1862. There 
were, at that time, forty-four army hospitals in the District 
of Columbia, Fairfax, and Falls Church, Va. The battles of 
Cedar Mountain, second Bull Run, Chantilly, and Centreville, 



300 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

soon after increased the sick and wounded to sixty hospitals, 
which were filled. The first business of the agent was to ascer- 
tain the number of Massachusetts soldiers among the sick and 
wounded, also their condition, the regiments to which they be- 
longed, and what assistance they required. Nearly five hun- 
dred of our men were in these hospitals ; and the whole number 
upon the books of the agency, as having been in the hospitals 
in that department, during the war, was seventeen thousand 
four hundred and eighty-eight, of which seven hundred and 
thirty-six died. Soon after the appointment of Mr. Tufts, an- 
other society, composed of Massachusetts men, living in the 
district, was organized, under the name of the "Massachusetts 
Soldiers' Relief Association," the members of which visited the 
hospitals regularly, and ascertained the name and condition of 
every Massachusetts soldier, and relieved his wants. This 
organization ceased some time in 1863 ; and the labor which the 
members had performed devolved upon the State agent, who 
was empowered to employ persons to visit the soldiers, for which 
they were paid by the Commonwealth. By systematic effort, 
the agent, during the entire war, was enabled to ascertain the 
exact condition of every patient belonging to the State, and to 
have a perfect record in his office. The greatest number 
of persons employed at any one time was eighteen. This 
was in December, 1864. All accessible battle-fields were visited 
by the agent, a knowledge of our wounded obtained, and assist- 
ance rendered. In May, 1864, when General Grant began his 
memorable advance toward Richmond from the Rapidan, a field- 
agency, was established, following the army, which continued in 
successful operation until the end of the war. During the 
general exchange of prisoners, which began in December, 1864, 
a force of the agency was maintained at Annapolis, Md., and 
information of great value obtained in regard to our men who 
had suffered and who had died in rebel prisons, and much needed 
assistance was rendered. 

Up to Jan., 1, 1867, over twenty-five thousand letters had 
been written at the agency at Washington, which covered 
twenty thousand pages of letterpress. During the same 
period, about five hundred and sixty thousand dollars had 



STATE AGENTS AT PHILADELPHIA AND BALTIMORE. 301 

been collected from the Government for soldiers or their heirs 
without charge. During this period, the total amount of money 
transactions of the agency was $721,722.87. The total num- 
ber of names of Massachusetts soldiers invalided during the 
war at the agency was 36,151, the names of whom had, 
from time to time, been reported by Mr. Tufts to the State 
authorities. Many more interesting facts connected with the 
agency might be given; but those already stated are suf- 
ficient to show its importance, and to make manifest the ar- 
duous and faithful labors of the agent, in grateful recognition 
of which the Governor appointed Mr. Tufts an assistant adju- 
tant-general, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, The entire 
cost of the agency to the Commonwealth was thirty-five thousand 
dollars. We cannot close this brief sketch without expressing 
our acknowledgments to Colonel Tufts, for the services rendered 
by him to the sick and wounded soldiers of the Commonwealth; 
and also to Mrs. Jennie L. Thomas, of Dedham, who was 
appointed in October, 1862, to assist Colonel Tufts in his 
humane labors, and whose devotion to the cause and kindness 
to the worn and weary of Massachusetts soldiers, suffering from 
honorable wounds or from fevers engendered by exposure in the 
Wilderness of Virginia, the morasses of the CaroHnas, and the 
swamps of Mississippi and Louisiana will never be forgotten by 
them. 

Agencies were also formed in Baltimore and Philadelphia. 
William Robinson was appointed to take charge of the first 
named, and Robert C. Carson of the last. Mr. Robinson 
had been kind to our soldiers who were wounded on the 
19th of April ; and Mr. Carson had been distinguished for his 
attention to our men on their way to the front, and on their 
return, while in Philadelphia. Mr. Robinson died before the 
close of the war ; Mr. Carson was appointed assistant quar- 
termaster-general, and commissioned by the Governor lieu- 
tenant-colonel. These two agencies were of much assistance to 
the State authorities, and of material service in many ways, 
especially as useful auxiliaries to the two great agencies in New 
York and Washington, at the heads of which were Colonel 
Howe and Colonel Tufts. 



302 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

In addition to the agencies established by the Governor to 
guard the rights and protect the suffering soldiers of Massachu- 
setts, members of his staff, at various times, were sent to the 
front to look after them, to report their condition, and ascertain 
if any thing could be done by the State to render them more 
comfortable. The Governor also frequently visited the Massa- 
chusetts regiments, and made himself personally acquainted 
with their condition. During the year 1862, which was one 
of much disaster and suffering, the Adjutant-General, Colonel 
Ritchie, Colonel John Q. Adams, and Dr. Bowditch, were 
sent to the front and visited our men, and reported to the Gov- 
ernor all matters of interest in relation to them. An abstract 
of these reports we now present. 

The Adjutant-General left Boston on the 21st of January. 
He remained in New York one day, and visited the Twenty- 
eighth Regiment, which was in the old fort on Governor's 
Island, New-York Harbor. The cold and gloomy casemates, 
in which they were quartered, and the badly provided commis- 
sariat, caused much suffering and discontent among the men. 
He hurried on to Washington that night, and the next morning, 
accompanied by Senator Wilson, called at the War Department, 
and had an interview with Adjutant-General Thomas, and ac- 
quainted him with the condition of the regiment. The latter 
promised to lay the subject before the Secretary of War imme- 
diately. The Adjutant-General says, " I waited three days be- 
fore I could see him again ; and it was not until I received your 
Excellency's letter, inclosing a copy of a letter from Captain 
Barrett complaining of the treatment of this regiment, that I 
was enabled, with Senator Wilson's assistance, to have action 
taken by the War Department. Secretary Stanton issued 
orders immediately, by telegraph, to the commander of the fort 
and to the colonel of the regiment, which I subsequently ascer- 
tained were of great service in obtaining the necessary comforts 
for the men. On my return to New York, a fortnight after, I 
found the regiment in good condition." The Twenty-eighth 
sailed, on the 16th of February, from New York, to join General 
Sherman at Port Royal, S.C. 

The Fifth Battery was encamped on Capitol Hill, and had 



VISIT TO THE ARMY. 303 

been assigned to General Franklin's division. The officers had 
preferred to be put in General Fitz John Porter's division, as 
he had many Massachusetts regiments in his command. This 
he effected with the aid of Messrs. Elliot and Gooch, members 
of Congress. He next visited the camps of the Seventh and 
Tenth Regiments at Brightwood, about six miles from Wash- 
ington. He says, "Although the weather had been bad, and 
the roads were in a condition hardly conceivable by a New- 
Englander, I found the officers and men in good health and 
excellent condition. There was but one man sick in the Sev- 
enth, and the Tenth had not a single person in the hospital. 
The men lived in comfortable log huts, which they had built 
themselves, and were quite well satisfied with their quarters. 
After spending some pleasant hours with the officers, and making 
an inspection of the men's quarters, I returned to Washington, 
much pleased with the day's labors." The journey was made 
on horseback ; and he was accompanied by Captain Dudley, 
U.S.A., then stationed in Washington, but who was shortly 
after appointed by the Governor colonel of the Thirtieth Regi- 
ment ; and by Major Fletcher, United-States paymaster. The 
next two days, he remained in Washington, transacting business 
at the War Department, and endeavoring to secure the accept- 
ance of Maxwell's company of sharpshooters, but failed to 
accomplish it. The report then proceeds : - 

" Having obtained a pass from General McClellan, I proceeded to 
the Virginia side to visit the Massachusetts troops beyond the Poto- 
mac. I passed over the Long Bridge about nine o'clock, and was 
surprised at the number of wagons, equestrians, and pedestrians, 
moving through the mud into Virginia. At the end of the Long 
Bridge is Fort Runyon, garrisoned by a company of the Massachu- 
setts Fourteenth [shortly afterwards changed to the First. Heavy 
Artillery]. The other companies of this command are near, at Forts 
Albany and Hamilton ; the main body being at Fort Albany, the 
headquarters of Colonel Green." 

Here he spent an hour, and then rode on to visit the Ninth, 
Eighteenth, and Twenty-second Regiments, and the Third and 
Fourth Batteries in General Porter's division. The roads were 
shocking. He stopped at General Blenker's headquarters. 



304 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

which were in what had formerly been a cross-roads tavern. 
He was kindly received, and was introduced to a number of 
the staff officers. They were all foreigners, among whom was 
Prince Salm-Salm, who has since become famous for his ex- 
ploits in Mexico, under the late Emperor. Blenker's brigade 
was composed almost entirely of German regiments. The 
Massachusetts regiments named above were encamped near 
Hall's Hill. The camps of many of the regiments were 
decorated with evergreens ; beautiful arches, made of pines and 
cedars, adorned the company streets. On a large, open field, 
between the German and the Massachusetts camps, he witnessed 
a spendid sham-fight, in which upwards of five thousand men, 
of all arms of the service, took part. After making a pleasant 
call at the headquarters of the Eighteenth and Twenty-second 
Regiments, where he found the men in good health, and supplied 
with every necessary for camp life, he passed on over Hall's 
Hill and Minor's Farm, through fields made desolate by war, 
to the camp of the Ninth Regiment, stationed within a mile of 
Fall's Church, which was plainly in sight, though it was within 
the rebel lines, where pickets were plainly visible. "Between 
Hall's Hill and the camp of the Ninth is a large field, where a 
skirmish had taken place some months before. The graves of 
the men who had fallen, and the skeletons of dead horses, half 
buried, mark the spot." 

He found Colonel Cass in his tent, and received from him a 
warm and hearty welcome. The regiment was full, and not a 
sick man among them. General Morrell, who commanded the 
Brigade, came over to Colonel Cass's quarters in the evening, 
and stopped several hours. 

" That night I slept under canvas; and, although it rained inces- 
santly, not a drop came through. The next morning, I saw the regi- 
ment in line ; and, notwithstanding the snow and rain which continued 
to fall, the ranks were full. I saw most of the officers, and passed 
many pleasant hours with this regiment. On my return, Colonel Cass 
accompanied me as far as Fort Albany. On our way, we called on 
Major-General Porter, and arranged with him about receiving our 
Sixth Battery. We also called at the headquarters of Brigadier- 
General Martindale, but he was absent; but I was glad to find, in a 



GENERAL SCHOULER'S REPORT. 305 

tent near by, our old friend Dr. Lyman ; also. Captain Batchelder, 
late of the Twenty-second Regiment, now on Martindale's staff. We 
then proceeded over fields of fallen timber, and across ravines, for 
about four miles, to Fort Cass, which was constructed last summer 
by the Ninth, and named in honor of their colonel. After warm- 
ing ourselves and drying our clothes, we started across the country 
towards Fort Albany, passing through several camps ; among them, 
that of the Nineteenth Indiana, commanded by an old veteran friend 
of mine. Colonel Meredith. At Fort Albany, we parted with Colonel 
Cass ; he returning to his regiment, and we to Washington, and 
reached our hotel about six o'clock." 

We never saw Colonel Cass in life again. He was mortally 
wounded before Richmond, and died July 12, 1862. The 
report continues, - 

"I had been two days on horseback, through a continued storm of 
rain and snow, with mud up to the stirrups part of the way ; and yet I 
never had a more delightful journey." 

Two more days were passed in Washington, transacting busi- 
ness at the War Office. On the third day, accompanied by 
Colonel Coffin, of Newburyport, went on board a steamer, 
and were taken to Budd's Ferry, about fifty miles flown the 
Potomac, on the Maryland side. Here were the First and 
the Eleventh Regiments, which formed part of General Hook- 
er's brigade. We quote again : - 

" On the opposite side from the landing, one of the rebel batteries 
was distinctly visible. The roads from the landing to the camps of our 
regiments were the worst I ever saw. At one place, a wagon of the 
Second New-Hampshire Regiment was stuck fast in the mud. The 
forward wheels were completely out of sight, and the thin, red mud 
was running into the bottom of the wagon. We soon came to a de- 
tachment of the First Regiment, under command of my friend. Captain 
Chamberlain, of Roxbury, making a corduroy road. After a tiresome 
ride on horseback of two hours, we came to General Hooker's head- 
quarters." 

We had a pleasant interview with the General, and then went 
forward to the regiments, where we met with a hearty welcome. 
Colonel Cowdin was acting Brigadier-General. The regiments 
were comfortably quartered, and there were but few in the hospi- 

20 



306 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

tals. We remained in Colonel Cowdin's quarters all night, made 
an inspection of the regiment next morning, and, taking a 
friendly good-by of officers and men, rode back to the ferry, and 
reached Washington that night. 

The next day " (says the report), " I went to see General Barry, 
chief of artillery, with Captain Davis, of Lowell, to have his com- 
pany, which has been at Fortress Monroe ever since May last, changed 
to a light battery, as recommended by Major-General Wool." 

The change was made the next day, and the company was 
from that time known as the Seventh Light Battery Massachu- 
setts Volunteers. On the following day, we went to Baltimore, 
where the Seventeenth Regiment and the First Light Battery 
were stationed. We received a hearty welcome from officers 
and men; visited the barracks and the hospital. There was 
more sickness in the regiment than in any others we had 
visited, which we attributed to its close proximity to a large 
city. The number in hospital was thirty. The report says, - 

" The officers take good care of the health of the men. Both the 
regiment and battery are highly esteemed by the loyal citizens of Bal- 
timore, several of whom I saw, and conversed with." 

On the same evening, we left Baltimore in a steamer for 
Fortress Monroe, and Arrived there the next morning. We 
paid our respects to Major-General Wool, who was in command 
of the department. He spoke warmly in praise of our State, 
and of the Massachusetts troops in his command. We quote 
again : - 

" I remained three days at Fortress Monroe and Newport News, 
and had an excellent opportunity of becoming acquainted with the 
condition of our Sixteenth and Twenty-ninth Regiments. Here, as 
elsewhere, I found our men in general good health, and earnestly de- 
siring to advance on the enemy. Colonel Wyraan is almost, idolized 
by his regiment (the Sixteenth), which he has brought to a high 
state of discipline. Colonel Pierce had taken command of the Twenty- 
ninth a short time before my arrival. From all I can learn, his ap- 
pointment seemed to give general satisfaction ; and I believe he will be 
an efficient and popular officer. The New-York Ninety-ninth is sta- 
tioned near Fortress Monroe, and commanded by my old friend. Colonel 



COLONEL RITCHIE'S REPORT. 307 

Wardrop.* As nearly one-half of his regiment is composed of Mas- 
sachusetts men, I regret he does not hold a Massachusetts commission. 
Captain Davis's company, to which I have before alluded, is stationed 
inside of the fortress, and is permanently attached to the garrison." 

We remained at Fortress Monroe three days, and then re- 
turned direct to Boston. We succeeded in getting from the 
regiments correct rolls of desertions, discharges, and deaths, 
since they had left the Commonwealth. These rolls were 
of great value in correcting the descriptive rolls at the State 
House, and in preventing frauds in paying the State aid to the 
families of soldiers. We were absent from the State about 
three weeks. 

It was difficult to realize the change which the war had made 
in Washington and vicinity. Soldiers were everywhere. From 
the dome of the Capitol, a splendid view was obtained of the 
different camps, in which were stationed a hundred thousand 
armed men, - the nucleus of what afterwards became the Grand 
Army of the Potomac. The railroad from the Susquehanna 
was guarded by soldiers, along the entire line, to Washington. 
Pennsylvania Avenue was patrolled by detachments of infantry 
and cavalry. New regiments arrived daily, marched up the 
avenue, crossed the Long Bridge into Virginia, selected their 
camp-ground under orders of brigade commanders, pitched their 
tents, lighted their camp-fires, and became a part of the living 
mass wherein were centred the best hopes of loyal America, 
and for whom the prayers, from a million family altars, as- 
cended daily to heaven. No one can fully realize the grandeur 
of the army, and the magnitude of the Rebellion, who never 
visited Washington in the years when it was being fought. 

On or about the 20th of July, the Governor despatched Colonel 
Ritchie, of his personal staff, to the James River, to make a per- 
sonal examination into the condition of the Massachusetts regi- 
ments in General McClellan's army, which had fallen back from 
before Richmond to the James River, near Harrison's Landing 
and Malvern Hill. On the 28th of July, Colonel Ritchie had 



* Colonel Wardrop commanded the Third Regiment of Massachusetts Mili 
tia, in the three months' service. 



3 08 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

reached Harrison's Bar, James River, Va., where he wrote a long 
and interesting letter to the Governor. It appears that Colonel 
Ritchie went by way of Washington, where he found General 
Burnside, who had been summoned from North Carolina to a 
consultation with General Halleck ; "and they both left, that 
same day, for this place, to confer with General McCIellan. 
This move on the part of General Halleck was intended to be 
kept a great secret, and he left Willard's almost in disguise ; 
but, though no one at Fortress Monroe or this point knew of the 
visit, it was duly recorded by those admirable spies for the 
enemy, the New- York papers. Generals Halleck, Burnside, 
Reno, Parke, Cullom, and Sedgwick have all made most earnest 
inquiries concerning the success of the recruiting in Massachu- 
setts, and expressed the greatest satisfaction at your determina- 
tion to fill up the old regiments first. At the same time, I fmd 
that the almost universal feeling of the army is against the sys- 
tem of bribing men to do their duty by large bounties, and in 
favor of an immediate draft." General Burnside offered Colonel 
Ritchie passage to Fortress Monroe in his flag-boat, which 
offer was accepted ; and, finding that our Twenty-first and 
Twenty-eighth Regiments were at Newport News, he deter- 
mined to visit them at once. Captain Davis (Seventh Battery) 
had left Fortress Monroe, that morning, with a force of infantry, 
to reinforce against an apprehended attack. It was represented 
to be in splendid condition. 
The Colonel then writes, - 

It may be useful to remark, that General Dix, in command at Fort- 
ress Monroe, exercises a discretionary power, or revising power, at Old 
Point, as to passes from the Secretary of War; and the vise' of the 
provost-marshal is absolutely necessary to enable any one to get up this 
river. I will also notice, for the information of any of the staff whom 
your Excellency may see fit to send out here at any time, that, con- 
trary to General Reed's opinion, I find my uniform an 'open sesame,' 
while a civilian's dress would stop a man at every step." 

Colonel Ritchie found, at Newport News, three divisions of 
Bumside's corps, and General Stevens's division, from Hil- 
ton Head. General Burnside expected to have, in a short time, 
thirty thousand men ; but it was a curious fact, that not a regi- 



COLONEL RITCHIE'S REPORT. 309 

ment had been sent up the river to Harrison's Landing. He 
found the Twenty-first Regiment, which had come from North 
Carolina, " in fine condition," and only requiring a hundred and 
fifty recruits to fill it up. Colonel Clarke, who commanded the 
Twenty-first, informed Colonel Ritchie, that "he had forwarded 
his recommendations for promotions, and had nothing more to 
add, excepfing that he hoped your Excellency would not give 
any commissions to officers who had resigned. I will add here, 
that this is a point upon which I find the greatest sensitiveness, 
in every direction. The number of resignations have been 
scandalously large ; only those are accepted which are consid- 
ered beneficial to the service ; and it would have a most disastrous 
effect to send back men with increased rank, or with any 
rank, who have shirked the hardships and exposures of the 
army." 

Colonel Ritchie next visited the Twenty-eighth Regiment, 
which was composed, in great part, of men of Irish birth, and 
which had been brought up from South Carolina to reinforce 
the Army of the Potomac. It was stationed at Newport News, 
and formed part of General Stevens's division. Of this regi- 
ment, the Colonel writes, - 

"They have made full returns of the number of recruits required. 
Colonel Monteith is under arrest, and is now before a court-martial. H e 
has been very ill, and is such a sufferer as to be unfit for duty. The 
lieutenant-colonel has resigned. Major Cartwright is in command, and 
is an excellent officer. The regiment is composed of splendid mate- 
rial; but it requires two new field officers, of energy and capacity, and 
who are also gentlemen, to bring up its morale and discipline, which is, 
at present, very unsatisfactory." 

Colonel Monteith was a citizen of New York. He was 
strongly recommended by James T. Brady, Esq., of that city, 
and by prominent Irish gentlemen of Boston. The Governor 
had no acquaintance with Colonel Monteith, but commissioned 
him upon the representations made of his fitness by the gentle- 
men referred to. In five days after Colonel Ritchie wrote the 
report from which we quote, -viz., on the 5th of August, - 
Colonel Monteith was discharged. Colonel Ritchie left Fort- 
ress Monroe on Saturday, the 26th, for Harrison's Landing, 



310 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

in the mail-boat, taking a gunboat as convoy from James Island, 
about sixty miles up the river. The passage was somewhat 
hazardous, and very exciting. On landing, he says, - 

"I should have been miserably helpless, had not General Devens 
sent down his orderlies, with horses and wagon, and Lieutenant 
Church Howe, aide-de-camp to General Sedgwick, to show me the way. 
We had to take refuge at this general's headquarters. This gave me a 
chance of talking with him. He spoke most warmly of the Fifteenth, 
Nineteenth, and Twentieth, which are in his division, Sumner's 
corps. The officers he particularly commended were Hinks, whom 
he has repeatedly urged for a brigadier-generalship; Palfrey, who, 
he says, is a most excellent officer ; and Major Paul Revere, who, he 
says, ought to have a regiment. General Sumner says that he has 
offered Revere the inspector-generalship of his staff. Revere hesitates, 
as he has made application for a position in one of the new regi- 
ments." 

The brigade commanded by General Devens included the Sev- 
enth and Tenth Massachusetts Regiments. The brigade was in 
Keyes's corps. These were next visited by Colonel Ritchie. 
The Seventh had been but httle exposed in action, and was "in 
magnificent condition. The colonel is held in high esteem." 
The lieutenant-colonel was regarded as inefficient ; the major, 
a most excellent officer. A board had been appointed to exam- 
ine the heutenant-colonel, and he would probably resign. He 
was discharged Oct. 4, 1862. A great many officers and men 
were at this time in hospitals, and a good many enlisted men 
had deserted. General Marcy, of General McClellan's staff, 
"urged the importance of some appeal, by the Governors of 
States, to the authorities of cities and towns, and the people in 
general, to force deserters to return to their duties, and give 
such information concerning such men as to get them returned." 
Colonel Ritchie reports at great length in regard to filling the 
existing vacancies in the Seventh and Tenth Regiments, and 
gives a full and impartial review of the qualifications of those 
who were naturally looking for promotions. The Tenth Regi- 
ment wished to have an army officer appointed colonel in place 
of Colonel Briggs, wounded, and promoted brigadier-general. 
Captain Dana, of the regular army, was the choice of nearly all. 



EDWARD S. RAND'S REPORT. 311 

"Dexter F. Parker, who has resigned his commissariat to go into 
the Hne is highly recommended by General Devens, for a major- 
ship in the Tenth. Captain Parker said he would not go into 
the regiment ; but, on the suggestion that the regiment might 
get Captain Dana for colonel, Parker said, that, in such a case, 
he would be too glad to go into it; that he knew Dana well, 
and considered him one of the entirely honest and reliable men 
and gentlemen in the Quartermaster's Department." Captain 
Dana was not commissioned colonel of the Tenth, but Henry L. 
Eustis, a graduate of West Point, was. Captain Parker was 
conmiissioned major, and served until he was mortally wounded 
in General Grant's advance from the Rapidan, and died May 12, 
1864. The remaining part of Colonel Ritchie's report relates 
to matters not of general interest, though of importance to the 
Governor, in furnishing information to guide him in making 
appointments to fill the vacancies in the Massachusetts regiments 
in the Army of the Potomac. 

Edward S. Rand, Esq., of Boston, who had a son, an officer 
in the First Regiment of Massachusetts Cavahy, in April, 1862, 
visited the regiment, then stationed at Hilton Head, S.C. Of 
this regiment, much complaint had been made, even before it 
left the State, concerning the severity of the discipline imposed 
by Colonel Williams. These complaints reached the State 
House; and Mr. Rand was requested by the Governor to in- 
quire into them, and report the facts upon his return. The 
report made by Mr. Rand was in the highest degree complimen- 
tary to Colonel Williams, and to the condition of the regiment, 
which had been brought to an excellent state of efficiency. 
The charges of undue severity and cruelty, made by interested 
parties, were declared to be entirely groundless. The men were 
satisfied, were well cared for, and in good health. In conclu- 
sion, he says, - 

"I cannot omit mentioning a custom introduced by Colonel Wil- 
liams, which I could wish prevailed in all the regiments of our vast 
army. At the close of the dress-parade, each day, and before the parade 
is dismissed, the chaplain, who has been standing in the rear of the 
colonel, advances to the front, and, while officers and men stand un- 
covered, offers a short and earnest prayer to Him who is the only 
shield from danger, and the only Giver of all victories." 



312 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Mr. Rand also visited the camp of the Twenty-eighth Massa- 
chusetts Infantry, who were encamped near the cavalry. The 
camp was kept clean, and the general health of the men good, 
for which, he says, - 

"Much praise is due to the skillful and attentive surgeon. Dr. 
O'Connell, for his faithful discharge of duty, his care of the men; 
and perhaps the highest praise will be found in the fact that in the 
hospital were but four patients, all convalescent." 

Dr. Henry I. Bowditch, of Boston, who also had a son, 
an officer in the regiment, visited the regiment about the same 
time. On his return, the Governor requested him to state, in 
writing, his opinion in regard to the regiment, and upon the 
general question of the best way to preserve the health of the 
soldiers on duty in the extreme Southern States. Of the condi- 
tion of the regiment, he fully confirms the favorable report of 
it made by Mr. Rand. He says, - 

"The drills are actively carried out, and the highest officers in the 
army agree that, at times, they are equal to any in the regular cavalry. 
Three times a week, the colonel has recitations, at which the highest 
principles of military tactics are enforced. To sum up my opinion in 
one sentence : I have very near and dear relatives, and many young 
friends, in that regiment ; I should greatly regret, if, from any cause, 
any of them should be compelled to leave the service of such a com- 
mander." 

Colonel Williams, at the time of his appointment, was a 
captain of cavalry, U.S.A. He was a graduate of West 
Point, and distinguished as a cavalry officer. He was a Vir- 
ginian by birth, but never hesitated which was the path of duty 
for him to tread. He was a strict disciplinarian, but he was 
kind to his men. During the last two years of the war, 
Colonel Williams was assistant adjutant-general of the army, 
and was brevetted brigadier-general, for brave and meritorious 
services. 

John Quincy Adams, who was appointed on the personal 
staff of the Governor to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
resignation of Colonel Horace Binney Sargent, who was ap- 
pointed lieutenant-colonel of the First Massachusetts Cavalry, 



COLONEL J. Q. ADAMS'S REPORT. 313 

was directed by the Governor, in September, to visit the Mas- 
sachusetts regiments in the Department of North Carolina, and 
to report their condition on his return. These regiments were 
the Seventeenth, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, Twenty-fifth, 
'and the Twenty-seventh. The Seventeenth he found in camp 
upon a fine plain across the river, westward from Newbem. It 
was stationed there to guard the ends of two bridges which 
span the river. The regiment was in excellent order, and the 
men looked hardy and cheerful, and were under the command 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Fellows. Colonel Adams requested a 
report showing the exact condition of the regiment on that 
day, -their wishes, wants, notes, or information in any way 
appertaining to their condition, - in order that he might lay 
the same before the Governor. But. the regiment was ordered 
on an expedition up the Roanoke River, and Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Fellows promised to send the report home by mail. 
Colonel Amory, of this regiment, had been for some time act- 
ing as brigadier-general. Colonel Adams witnessed a review 
of the regiment, and afterwards made a thorough inspection of 
each company. He says, - 

" I examined every musket personally, and almost every equipment, 
and can say, with perfect satisfaction that their condition, in almost 
every case, was admirable. The arms, particularly, were as clean and 
bright as when they were issued. The regiment was then drilled by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Fellows in various evolutions, concluding with the 
drill as skirmishers, in all which the men showed careful and faithful 
training, and most commendable proficiency." 

The Twenty-third Regiment, Colonel Kurtz, had been sta- 
tioned, since May preceding, in the town of Newbern itself, 
where it-performed the duties of provost guard, Colonel Kurtz 
acting as provost-marshal. He could not, therefore, speak of 
the condition of their camp-equipage; but the barracks, which 
he visited, were clean and orderly, and the appearance of the 
men tidy and excellent. He also reviewed the regiment, and 
inspected their arms and equipments, which were in perfect 
order. " Altogether," he says, "the condition of the regiment 
was very satisfactory, and reflects great credit upon their of- 
ficers ." 



314 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Colonel Adams next visited the Twenty-fourth Regiment, 
Colonel Stevenson, who had been for some time acting as 
brigadier-general ; and the command had devolved upon Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Osborne. The regiment was in camp on a fine, 
dry plain, about a quarter of a mile from the town. Every 
thing was in perfect order, as he found upon careful inspection 
of the arms and equipments, and of the camp. " Both 
officers and men might well be a source of pride to the Com- 
monwealth." 

On the morning of the second day of his stay in Newbem, he 
rode out to the camp of the Twenty-fifth Regiment, Colonel 
Upton ; but neither he nor the lieutenant-colonel nor the 
major were in camp at the time; but the adjutant was there, 
and with him he examined carefully the camp, which was on a 
fine, beach plain of very large extent, and admirably adapted for 
a drill and parade ground, about half a mile from the centre of 
Newbern, and westerly from the camp of the Twenty-fourth 
Regiment. He says, - 

"I was entirely satisfied with the appearance of the camp, and the 
aspect of the men. Great neatness was evident in the cleanliness of 
the company streets, and the men seemed tidy, cheerful, and contented. 
I attended a dress parade of this regiment with General Foster, and 
found their appearance admirable, and their drill excellent." 

Colonel Adams says General Foster told him, - 

" The first thing an officer should do is to try to make every man of 
his regiment a dandy, proud of his appearance, the glitter of the musket, 
and the polish of the brass on his equipments. When you see such a 
man, be sure he is a good soldier." 

The Twenty-seventh Regiment, Colonel Lee, he found 
under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Lyman. Colonel 
Lee was acting as brigadier-general. There were only five com- 
panies in camp, the remaining five being engaged in picketing 
the railroad to Beaufort, and thus scattered, in small squads, 
along twenty miles of road. Colonel Adams could not see them. 
Those in camp looked as well as any companies he had seen. 

These comprised all the Massachusetts regiments in that 
department ; and as each had made regular reports to the 



APPOINTMENT OF ALLOTMENT COMMISSIONERS. 315 

Adjutant-General of the Commonwealth, showing their exact 
condition, nothing more was necessary to be done. Colonel 
Adams says, - 

" Major-General Foster repeatedly assured me, that he considered 
them as good as any regulars in the army ; and he was never weary of 
extolling the energy, efficiency, accomplishments, and bravery of Mas- 
sachusetts officers, and the intelligence, docility, discipline, and courage 
of Massachusetts privates." 

Colonel Adams concludes his report in these words : - 

"I was much impressed with the untiring energy and interest with 
which General Foster looked after every thing within his reach ; and 
I was pleased at the high commendation he bestowed upon Colonels 
Stevenson, Amory, and Upton, in especial. I was the bearer of a 
recommendation from him to the Secretary of war, that Colonels 
Amory and Stevenson 'should be appointed brigadier-generals. He 
desired me to solicit your recommendation for them also." 

During the early part of the year 1862, three allotment com- 
missioners were appointed by the President, as provided by acts 
of Congress, passed July 22, 1861, and Dec. 24, 1861. These 
acts provided, - 

First, for the transmission, free of expense, of portions of 
the soldiers' pay to their families or friends, as had been done 
under the half-pay system in the navy. 

Second, for the appointment, by the President, for each 
State which chose to adopt this system, of three commissioners, 
without pay, who should visit the troops, and invite each soldier 
to avail himself of this opportunity. 

In February, 1862, President Lincoln, upon the recom- 
mendation of Governor Andrew, appointed, as commissioners 
for Massachusetts ; Henry Edwards, of Boston ; Frank B. Pay, 
of Chelsea; and David Wilder, Jr., of Newton. They imme- 
diately proceeded to visit all the Massachusetts volunteers, - in 
the Army of the Potomac, under General McClellan ; in the 
Shenandoah Valley, under General Banks; and at Warrenton, 
under General McDowell : and, when the Army of the Poto- 
mac moved to James River, they accompanied it to Fortress 



3 1 6 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Monroe, and to Yorktown. Allotments were made by the 
First, Second, Seventh, Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thir- 
teenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth, Twen- 
tieth, Twenty-second, and Thirty-second Regiments, and the 
Third and Fifth Light Batteries, and, subsequently, by the 
Thirty-third, Thirty-fourth, Thirty-seventh, Thirty-ninth, and 
Forty-first Regiments, and the Ninth, Tenth, and Eleventh 
Light Batteries ; at a still later period, allotment rolls were 
made up for the Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, Forty- 
third, Forty-fourth, Forty-fifth, Forty-sixth, Forty-seventh, 
Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth, Fiftieth, Fifty-second, Fifty-third, 
Fifty-fourth, and Fifty-fifth Regiments,- making, in all, forty- 
one different organizations which were visited, either in the field, 
or at the camps at home, before the men were sent forward. The 
Legislature of Massachusetts passed an act, March 11, 1862, 
to carry out more perfectly the system of payments. Mr. J. P. 
Wainwright, as a volunteer agent of the commissioners, aided in 
getting the soldiers to make allotments, and, in the fulfilment 
of this work, visited the Massachusetts regiments in the De- 
partment of the Gulf. Communications were made by the 
commissioners to the officers of the Massachusetts regiments, 
pressing upon them the advantages, to the soldiers and to their 
families, of the system. No allotments were received, how- 
ever, from regiments not visited, except, in a solitary case, of 
the Twenty-fourth, - Colonel Stevenson's regiment. Much 
of the success in securing allotments in regiments depended 
upon the interest felt, and the encouragement given, by its 
officers. For instance, in one company, containing eighty- 
three men, seventy-four, following the example of a worthy 
captain; allotted a portion of their pay ; and thirty-three of 
these, mostly young men, placed it in the State Treasury on 
interest, subject, at anytime, to their order, properly approved 
by the commanding officer of their company; and two regi- 
ments allotted about seven thousand five hundred dollars a 
month each. 

The allotment system was simply this : The sums allotted 
were deducted by the paymaster on each pay-day, and forwarded 
to the State Treasurer for distribution, or by separate checks to 



ALLOTMENT COMMISSIONERS. 317 

the family, according to the system adopted by the State. Our 
Massachusetts system proved most satisfactory, as it avoided all 
risk of chance of omission by transmission of a check by mail, 
and secured payment directly to the family at home. The pay- 
ments to the soldiers, from the General Government, were to be 
made at or near the close of every two months, commencing with 
January. But, owing to sudden or hazardous movements and 
other causes, these payments were often delayed, and both the 
men and their families were much distressed. To remedy this 
evil, - in part, at least, - and secure, if possible, the retention 
of a large share of the soldiers' wages at home, the Massachusetts 
Legislature, in 1863, at the suggestion of Governor Andrew, 
passed an act, authorizing the State Treasurer to assume the pay- 
ment of all the Massachusetts volunteers, provided that Congress 
would permit this to be done. For some reason, permission was 
not given, much to the regret of the soldiers and the Massachu- 
setts authorities. The act passed by the Legislature of Mas- 
sachusetts, March 11, 1862, provided that the Treasurer of 
the Commonwealth should receive and distribute, without ex- 
pense to the soldiers or their families, all money which our 
volunteers might forward for this purpose ; and that the distri- 
bution should be made to parties in the State by the Treasurer 
of the Commonwealth, through the town and city treasurers, 
who were to notify the persons to whom the money was as- 
signed, and, if they failed to call for it, return the money to 
the State Treasurer, who placed it on interest, until further 
order from the soldier. Persons living out of the State, to 
whom money was assigned, were to be notified ; and, upon the 
return of a proper order or draft, the amount was forwarded, 
by a check upon a bank in Boston or New York, as would best 
serve the interest of the claimant. In many cases, the money 
was directed by the soldier to be placed at once in the State 
Treasury, where it drew five per cent interest, thus virtually 
making the State Treasury a savings bank. 

It appears, from the report of the State Treasurer for 1866, 
that the first allotments forwarded to him were in April, 1862 ; 
and that - 



318 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

The whole amount, for that year, including about 

$40,000, placed on interest, was $202,905.56 

In 1863, including $90,000 on interest, was. . . . 698,297.76 

Also, allotments of State bounties 190,012.50 

In 1864 and 1865, including State bounties. . . . 2,144,136.65 

In 1866, for deposits by State paymaster 2,294.65 

Total $3,237,647.12 

At the close of the year 1866, all this money, excepting 
$76,269.15, which remained on interest to the credit of eight 
hundred and seventy soldiers, had been distributed ; and the bal- 
ance awaited the appearance of the men, or their legal representa- 
tives, to whom it will be paid. 

It is evident, from these figures, that the system of allotment, 
and the very able and satisfactory manner by the commissioners 
and the State Treasurer, was of very great utility. It secured 
to many men and to their families much money which would 
otherwise have been wasted ; and it induced and encouraged a 
habit of saving, the effect of which may have a material, bene- 
ficial influence upon those who practised it. It also lessened 
the taxes which would otherwise have been imposed upon the 
Commonwealth. To the members of Congress, who in- 
augurated this admirable system, and to Governor Andrew and 
the Legislature, who encouraged it, and especially to the com- 
missioners, who gratuitously, at great expense of time and 
money, performed this onerous service, the soldiers and the 
State owe a debt of gratitude. 

The letters written by the Governor, during the year, relate 
chiefly to military matters, - many, in the early part of the 
year, to the appointment of regimental and company officers. 
Governor Andrew had established a rule for making appoint- 
ments, from which he seldom departed during the Rebellion. 
This rule was based upon the principle of selecting the best 
men he could find, without regard to personal or political affini- 
ties. Whenever he could obtain the services of an experienced 
and educated officer to command a Massachusetts regiment, he 
commissioned him. The selection of officers for commands he 



APPOINTMENTS BY THE GOVERNOR. 319 

regarded as the most solemn duty which the war imposed on 
him. We have often heard him say, when asked to appoint 
persons whose claims upon his favor were based upon the fact 
that the candidate and his family exercised a local, political in- 
fluence, - 

"Such considerations impress me with no force. The appoint- 
ment is in no manner a political one. The man I shall commission is 
he who can best command his men, care for their health, lead them 
bravest in battle, and, by his intelligence and capacity, save life and limb 
from needless sacrifice. This I owe alike to the men themselves, to 
their families they leave behind, and to common humanity." 

Of course, he did not, at all times, make the best choice ; but 
he endeavored to, and thought he had succeeded. We remem- 
ber one rather remarkable case, where the Governor erred in 
making selection of a captam in the Twenty-second Regiment 
The Governor believed the person whom he selected to be best 
fitted for the command. The Adjutant-General believed, and 
so reported, that the gentleman who was to be a lieutenant 
in the company should be made captain. The Governor, how- 
ever, did not change from his original purpose ; and the commis- 
sions were made out as originally determined upon. The 
person commissioned captain never attained higher rank : the 
one commissioned heutenant rose to be a major-general of vol- 
unteers, and gained a reputation second to none, as an able and 
accomplished volunteer commander, in the Army of the Poto- 
mac, - we refer to Major-General Nelson A. Miles, now colo- 
nel of infantry in the United-States army, who began his military 
career as first lieutenant in the Massachusetts Twenty-second 
Regiment, and whose military record reflects great honor upon 
his native State. 

Governor Andrew, however, seldom erred in his judgment of 
men ; and we have no question that the officers selected by him 
will bear a favorable comparison with those of any other State. 
When a vacancy occurred after the regiment left the State, his 
rule was to wait until a reconunendation of a person to fill the 
vacancy was received from the officer in command of the 
regiment, which recommendation required the approval and 



320 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

indorsement of the officer in command of the brigade. If the 
person recommended appeared, by the roster, to be junior to 
others of the same rank, the colonel was written to for his 
reasons for deviating from the military rule of seniority : if the 
reasons returned were satisfactory and properly indorsed, the 
promotion was made, and the commission issued; but, if 
the reasons given were not satisfactory, - if they disclosed favor- 
itism, family influence, or unjust prejudice, -the appointment 
was not made, but the officer properly in the line of promotion 
was commissioned. The Governor's mind was eminently just ; 
he despised trickery and treachery, and all the small devices to 
which mean natures resort to gain their ends. 

On the 11th of January, the Governor writes to Montgomery 
Blair, Postmaster-General, calling his attention to a bill re- 
ported in the United- States Senate by Senator Wilson, 
"providing, among other things, that vacancies occurring in 
regiments of volunteers mustered into the United-States service 

shall be filled by presidential appointment," and gives strong 
reasons why it should not become a law. He concludes by say- 
ing, - 

"It is simply impossible that the volunteer officers can be well se- 
lected at Washington. I make mistakes, make some exceptionable 
appointments, find it out, and try to avoid similar errors again; and I 
know how difficult is the task. Knowing its difficulty, I write you this 
note, though the passage of the bill would relieve me personally from 
much irksome and anxious duty." 

The bill herereferred to never became a law ; and appointments 
continued to be made by the Governors of States, until the end 
of the war. On the same day, he writes a long and interesting 
letter to Major-General McClellan, thanking him for the "as- 
surance of your valuable aid in establishing our coast defences, 
furnishing instructors for our volunteer artillerists," and asking 
his influence to have a company accepted, "the rank and file of 
which will be mechanics, riggers, carpenters, smiths, &c., 
for the special duty of garrisoning Fort Independence, putting 
the fort in order, mounting and serving the guns." This com- 
pany was, long afterwards, raised and accepted, of which Ste- 



CORRESPONDENCE OF THE GOVERNOR. 321 

phen Cabot was commissioned captain, and became the nucleus 
of the Fort Warren Battalion. 

On the 13th of January, the Governor writes three letters, 
in regard to our coast defences, - one to the President, one to 
our Senators and Representatives in Congress, and one to Secre- 
tary Seward, - in which he argued the importance of the subject, 
and that the General Government authorize it to be done by 
the State, as " the State can do it with more expedition, and 
economy than it can be done otherwise." These letters were 
taken to Washington by Colonel Charles Amory, master of 
ordnance of Massachusetts. 

Jan. 13. - Colonel Browne, by direction of the Governor, 
writes to Henry N. Hooper, of Boston, respecting an exchange 
of prisoners : - 

" Every thing that the Governor can do by prayers, entreaties, argu- 
ments, and remonstrances, to induce the Federal Government to do 
justice to our prisoners by instituting a proper system of regular ex- 
changes, has been done in vain. The Federal Administration have 
obstinately refused to institute such a system; and it is only by indi- 
vidual effort that our fellow-citizens can extricate their fathers, 
brothers, and sons from that Southern captivity." 

Jan. 22. -Governor writes to Hon. Roscoe Conkling, 
United-States House of Representatives, and now United- 
States Senator : - 

" I have received, and perused with lively gratification, your speech, 
delivered on the 6th inst. For its lofty eloquence, and its tribute to 
the valor and devotedness of our soldiers, - particularly of the men 
of the Fifteenth and Twentieth Regiments, - I beg to tender you the 
homage of respectful and hearty gratitude." 

Jan. 27. - Governor writes to Edwin M. Stanton, who was 
recently appointed Secretary of War, in place of Mr. Cam- 
eron, - 

"I have the honor to introduce John M. Forbes, Esq., of Boston, 
one of the most eminent citizens and business men of Massachusetts. 
He takes great interest in the subject of coast defences, of which Mr. 
Seward wrote me, last October, but which, I believe, is now in the care 
of your department. It is very desirable that MassachuseUs should act 
21 



3 22 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

promptly in every way in which her action is needful; and I desire not 
to be remiss in any duty, but rather to anticipate than delay. Any 
views imparted to Mr. Forbes would be received for the common 
good." 

Same day, to Hon. Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Treas- 
ury : - 

"I have the honor to give notice, that Massachusetts assumes, and 
will pay, her quota of the direct national tax ; and I inclose you a copy 
of the resolve of the General Court, giving me authority to that 
end." 

Reference having been made, in the newspapers, to the letter 
written by General Butler, reflecting upon the personal charac- 
ter of Colonel Powell T. Wyman, of the Sixteenth Regiment,, 
and the answer which the Governor made to it, it would ap- 
pear that Colonel Wyman, on the 24th of January, wrote to 
the Governor, as we find a letter written by the Governor, 
Jan. 27, to Colonel Wyman, from which we extract the essen- 
tial part : - 

"Nothing contained in General Butler's letter lessens my estima- 
tion of your qualities as a soldier and a gentleman ; nor, to my knowl- 
edge, is there any officer connected with my staff who entertains any 
other feeling towards you than such as was manifested continually dur- 
ing your intercourse with us, while organizing your regiment. I have 
heard but one expression of sentiment with regard to the affair ; and 
that has been of very cordial sympathy with you, under the infliction 
of so wanton, unprovoked, and unmerited an attack." 

On the 30th of January, the Governor was suddenly called 
to Washington, and was absent about ten days. It was while 
in Washington at this time that the troops raised by General 
Butler in Massachusetts were placed in the charge of the Gov- 
ernor, and the irregular and illegal manner of raising regiments 
ended ; and the "Department of New England" was discon- 
tinued. 

In January and February, persons representing themselves 
recruiting officers for a Maryland regiment came to Boston, and, 
by their misrepresentations of large pay and little service, in- 
duced some thirty or forty men to enlist, and go with them to 



LETTER OF COLONEL DUDLEY. 323 

Baltimore. Upon arriving there, they found how miserably 
they had been imposed upon. The promises held out were de- 
lusive, and the men whom they had trusted were cheats. They 
were left without money to support themselves ; and many letters 
were received by the Governor and the Adjutant-General, asking 
that transportation be furnished to return to Massachusetts, 
Strenuous efforts were made by the Governor to have the men 
released from the trap in which they had, been caught. We 
find among his letters, at this time, many relating to this unfor- 
tunate occurrence. He wrote to General Dix, then command- 
ing at Baltimore ; to the Secretary of War ; to our members of 
Congress ; to the Governor of Maryland ; and to the men. them- 
selves. In a letter to one of our members of Congress, he 
thus describes the transaction : - 

"It has been done by the most dishonorable and outrageous fraud:; 
and my efforts have been baffled, and these men and others have been 
entrapped into organizations in which they find, only discomfort and 
misery ; and I think that their condition appeals strongly to the sym- 
pathy, as well as to the sense of justice, of the war Department." 

He had the satisfaction in a few weeks to know that his 
efforts had been successful. The men were released, and after- 
wards enlisted in Massachusetts regiments. 

Feb. 18. - The Governor writes to the Secretary of War, - 

" I am informed by Colonel Dudley, that, from conversations he 
has had with Major-General Butler, he is satisfied, and feels it his duty 
to report to me, that, if I commission any other person than Mr. Jonas 
H. French as lieutenant-colonel, he will compel him (Colonel Dud- 
ley) to recognize Mr. French as such, and to repudiate the gentleman 
I appoint, notwithstanding the commission. Colonel Dudley states, 
that, as a pretence for this action. General Butler states to him-that 
he proposes to rely on Special Order No. 11, of the current series of 
your department, which is of course inoperative, so far as it under- 
takes to designate officers over a body of men which it rests with me 
alone to organize by the appointment of commissioned officers, but 
which, nevertheless, Major-General Butler cites, in opposition to the 
law. I respectfully suggest to you, that that order should be annulled, 
and that General Butler should receive, from his commander-in-chief, 
directions suitable-to the occasion, and to the demeanor thus assumed 
by him." 



324 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Colonel Dudley, who is here mentioned, was a captain in the 
United-States army, - a Massachusetts man, - and had been 
commissioned by the Governor colonel of the Thirtieth Regi- 
ment. 

At this time, the Governor had offered the lieutenant-col- 
onelcy of the regiment to William S. Lincoln, of Worcester; 
but, from some cause, a change was made, and William W. 
Bullock, of Boston, received the appointment, and served with 
the regiment until ill health compelled him to resign, Nov. 25, 
1863 

The following is the answer of the Secretary of War to the 
letter above quoted : - 

" This Department recognizes the right of a Governor to commis- 
sion volunteer officers. If General Butler assumes to control your 
appointment, or interfere with it, he will transcend his authority, and 
be dealt with accordingly. The Adjutant-General will transmit to 
General Butler an order that will prevent his improper interference 
with your legitimate authority." 

Feb. 19. - The Governor telegraphed Hon. John B. Al- 
ley , member of Congress, - 

" The gentlemen said to have been designated by the President, as 
allotment-commissioners for Massachusetts troops, have received no 
notice of their appointment. Will you ascertain why, and see that 
notice is immediately forwarded ? Telegraph, if you succeed." 

Feb. 20. -The Governor's private secretary. Colonel Browne, 
writes to Colonel Dudley, - 

" Govemor Andrew directs me to inclose to you the within photo- 
graphic likeness of the young gentleman, Mr. Joseph W. Morton, of 
Quincy, of whom he spoke to you, and who is acting as a non-com- 
missioned officer in the Thirtieth Regiment. He hopes you may find 
him qualified to be recommended for appointment to a first or second 
lieutenancy. He is represented to be a person of careful education, 
extensive travel, and general capacity." 

It is proper to state here, that the Thirtieth and Thirty-first 
Regiments of Infantry, recruited by General Butler in this 



FORT WARREN BATTALION. 325 

Commonwealth, and originally designated by him as the East- 
ern and Western Bay-State Regiments, were sent from the 
State to Louisiana without a single commissioned officer. Per- 
sons selected by General Butler had been designated by him to 
act as officer. As many of these persons acted in good faith, 
and were believed to be competent to command men. Colonel 
Dudley, of the Thirtieth, and Colonel Gooding, also an army 
officer, who was commissioned colonel of the Thirty-first, were 
directed by the Governor, upon joining their regiments in 
Louisiana, to make a careful examination of the qualifications 
of the gentlemen acting as officers, and to report to him the 
names of those who were qualified, that they might receive their 
commissions. This duty was performed,, and, in due time, the 
officers were properly commissioned. The young gentleman, 
Mr. Morton, referred to in the above letter, was afterwards 
commissioned by the Governor in one the cavalry companies 
raised by General Butler, and serving in the Department of 
the Gulf He was a good officer, and died at his home in 
Quincy, before the end of the war; from disease contracted in 
the service. 

Feb. 20. - The Governor writes to Mr. Stanton, - 

" I earnestly desire authority to change the battalion at Fort War- 
ren to a regiment. It consists of six companies, and needs the staff 
officers pertaining to a regiment. Major Parker has repeatedly urged 
this, and is by my side while now writing." 

The battalion here spoken of was raised by Francis J. 
Parker, of Boston, for garrison duty at Fort Warren, and 
remained there until the retreat of General McClellan, in the 
summer of 1862, from before Richmond, when it was sent 
forward to the front, at a day's notice, to meet the pressing exi- 
gency, which then existed, for additional forces. Previous to 
this time, Mr. Stanton persistently refused to allow the bat- 
talion to be recruited to a regiment. After it had left the State 
for the seat of war, permission was given, and four new com- 
panies were added to it, and it was designated and known, to 
the end of the war, as the Thirty-second Regiment, Massachu- 
setts Volunteers. 



326 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Feb. 27. - The Governor writes to Colonel Tompkins, United- 
States Quartermaster at New York, - 

" The Rev. A. L. Stone, pastor of the Park-street Church in this 
city, desires to visit Port Royal for the purpose of gathering informa- 
tion concerning the moral and spiritual condition of tile ' contrabands 
in that quarter. He is a suitable person to accomplish such a mis- 
sion. May I hope that you will do what you can to facilitate Mr. 
Stone's transit to and from Port Royal ?" 

Feb. 28. -The Governor writes to the Adjutant-General of 
Massachusetts, - 

" I have just, this afternoon, had time to read your interesting 
report, and I beg you would do what it reminds me of; namely, send 
to Captain Davis, at Fortress Monroe, and-learn what is the present 
state of his company. General McClellan agreed to change it to 
artillery ; but as yet I have received no orders about it." 

This letter refers to the report made by the Adjutant-General 
of his visit to, the front, of which an abstract is given in pre- 
ceding pages in this chapter. 

March 3. -The Governor addressed a letter to Hon. A. H. 
Bullock Speaker of, the House of Representatives, calling his 
attention to a general order issued that day by the Adjutant 
General of the State, concerning three rebel flags taken at 
the battle of Roanoke Island by the Massachusetts regiments, 
and says, - 

" Such trophies are always prized by the soldier. They are earnest 
proofs of his efforts and achievements in the performance of his peril- 
ous duties. I confess that I received these with the utmost sympathy; 
and I can but pay to the men who won that day my humble but hearty 
and admiring gratitude," 

The Governor then states that the House of Representatives 
would probably like to pay to our soldiers the honor of having 
the flags displayed for a time in their hall and that any direc- 
tion as would enable this to be done he would gladly concur in. 
The flags were subsequently presented to the House, and were 
displayed there until the end of the session. 

March 3. -The Governor writes to Right Rev. Bishop Fitz- 
patrick that he had no power "to order private McDonald's 



FUNERAL OF GENERAL LANDER. 327 

discharge : that rests alone with the Federal authorities. I 
will, however, be happy to unite with you in presenting to the 
Secretary of War, or the General-in-chief of the army, any 
statement of reasons for requesting the discharge which is 
desired." 

March 4. - The Governor writes to Colonel Kurtz, Twenty- 
third Regiment, at Newbern, N.C., - 

"I wish to learn the place of burial of James H. Boutell. late 
private in Co. K. Twenty-third Regiment. He died in the service, 
and is supposed to have been buried at Hatteras ; also, the best means 
for his friends to get his remains to Massachusetts. His wife, Mrs. Abbie 
P. Boutell, resides in Wrentham." 

March 9. - The Governor writes to Mr. Stanton, Secretary 
of War, - 

" I beg leave to report to you, that the honor you paid to the 
memory of General Lander, by causing 'his remains to be' returned, 
under a suitable escort, to his native State, was rendered complete by 
the faithful and decorous manner in which the sad duty was fulfilled 
by Captain Barstow, and the officers and soldiers accompanying him. 
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and the city of Salem, the 
place of General Lander's nativity, have received with much sensi- 
bility the manifestation of grateful respect, on the part of the War 
Department, toward a soldier and gentleman whose fame, now a part 
of his country's history, is one of the precious possessions of those 
from whom he went forth to her service and defence. His body now 
rests in silence beneath the soil on which his youth was spent, and to 
which it was committed with every' demonstration of regard on the 
part of the executive and legislative branches of the government of 
the Commonwealth, and on the part of the municipality of Salem, in the 
presence of many thousands of his fellow-citizens, and with appropriate 
military honors. With the fervent hope that we who survive him, and 
are charged with leadership in our patriotic army, will vindicate on the 
field an equal title with his to gratitude and admiration, and with 
sentiments of the utmost regard, I am, sir, ever 
"Your obedient and humble servant, 

" John A. Andrew, Governor of Massachusetts. " 

No words of ours can add to the respect and esteem with 
which General Lander was held by the people of this Common- 



328 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

wealth ; and no words of eulogy can be added which would give 
significance and strength to the letter we have just quoted. 

March 28. - The Governor wrote to Mr. Fox, Assistant 
Secretary of the Navy, by which it appears that Mr. Fox had 
sent to the Governor a copy of a letter "taken out of a 
pocket of a secesh pea-jacket" by Commodore D. D. Porter, 
commanding the fleet at the mouth of the Mississippi River, 
and which related to a Mrs. Sarah A. Blich, of Holmes Hole, 
who, it appeared, had been giving information to the rebels at 
New Orleans. Inquiry was made by the Governor, and it was 
ascertained that a person of that name resided there. He 
writes, - 

"She is a native of New Orleans, and was married to Blich last 
spring. Her maiden name was Sarah A. Stickney. She has a 
brother in the South, named William Stickney, who is undoubtedly 
the writer of the letter in question. Her husband, Blich, is a sea- 
faring man, and sailed recently on a voyage to Rio Janeiro ; he has 
a brother who keeps a jewelry shop at Holmes Hole, and is now there. 
Mrs. Blich is known to have used very violent language of a treasona- 
ble character during the progress of the rebellion, and is believed by 
my informants to be disposed to aid the rebels by information or other- 
wise. My informants think it more than probable that she has been 
a medium of communication with the rebels as intimated in her 
brother's letter. I have not been able to ascertain who is the per- 
son named 'Dora,' to whom the letter is addressed ; but I expect 
within a few days to obtain information on that point also." 

Nothing further in relation to this matter appears in the Gov- 
ernor's correspondence. 

On the ninth day of April, the Governor writes to Colonel 
Frank E. Howe, New York, that Surgeon-General Dale had 
made arrangements by which to have an ambulance kept at the 
city stables, and that city horses would be furnished, without 
expense, to be used for our wounded soldiers, whenever 
required. An ambulance, therefore, was purchased ; and Colo- 
nel Howe was authorized to purchase one, to be used for our 
wounded in New York. 

April 8. - The Governor writes to the President of the 
United States : - 



LETTER TO PRESIDENT LINCOLN. 329 

"I have the honor, by the hand of Hon. Francis W. Bird, who is 
specially deputed therefor, to place in your hands an engrossed copy 
of the resolves of the General Court of Massachusetts, in approval of 
your recent message to the Congress of the United States, in favor of 
national co-operation with any State of this Union, in the abolishment 
of slavery. I deem it due to the solemnity, interest, and importance 
of the occasion, and to the earnest devotion of this ancient Common- 
wealth, alike to the Union, the fame, and the happiness of these States 
and people, as well as to her hereditary love of liberty, that this ex- 
pression of her hearty concurrence with your great act, should receive 
the most formal and cordial utterance. ... I devoutly pray that the 
good providence of God will conduct your administration and this 
nation through all the perils they encounter, and establish our country 
on eternal foundations of impartial justice to all her people." 

April 9. -The Governor telegraphs to the Secretary of 
War, - 

"Accept my congratulations on victories at Corinth, and the Mis- 
sissippi. Do you desire extra surgeons from Massachusetts for the 
care of wounded, there or elsewhere ? If so, there are several here, 
of professional eminence, who, under the direction of our State Sur- 
geon-General, are prepared to start immediately to any point of active 
operations, giving their professional services gratuitously, from motives 
of patriotism." 

April 12. - The Governor writes to General Burnside, at 
North Carolina, congratulating him upon his well-deserved pro- 
motion, which has given " sincere as well as universal pleasure." 
He then refers to a 'letter which he had received from Brigadier- 
General Foster, that seven hundred and -fifty recruits were 
needed to supply the losses in the four Massachusetts regiments 
in his brigade. But just at this time, an order had been issued 
from the War Department, discontinuing recruiting in every 
State, and requiring recruiting parties to close their offices, and 
join their regiments. The Governor telegraphed to Mr. Stanton 
for permission to recruit for the Massachusetts regiments under 
General Foster, and leave was granted. At this time, the gen- 
eral superintendence of recruiting, in the different States, had 
passed into the hands of the War Department ; and army offi- 
cers were detailed, in various States, as military commanders, 
who assumed control of all enlistments, mustering, subsistence. 



330 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

and transportation of men. The military commander in Massa- 
chusetts, in April, 1862, was Colonel Hannibal Day, U.S.A. 

This change in mode of recruiting was not satisfactory at 
first; but, after it was in operation some time, certain modifi- 
cations were made by the War Department, and the State 
and United-States authorities worked in harmony together. 
The men asked for by General Foster were soon recruited, and 
forwarded to North Carolina. 

April 19. - The Governor writes to Mr. Chase, Secretary of 
the Treasury, calling his attention to a communication of the 
Treasurer of Massachusetts, which he inclosed to him, and 
says, - 

"The prominent fact to which I beg to allude with emphasis is, that, 
after the passage of the tax act, we very much more than paid our share 
of it by heavy expenditures, made at Mr. Cameron's request, and on 
which we are losing the interest. I ask, therefore, that at least as much 
as the amount of the tax assessed on Massachusetts should be paid to 
is before we pay this tax. This is safe for the United States, and only 
just to Massachusetts." 

On the same day, the Governor wrote to the Secretary of the 
Navy, introducing Hon. Joel Hayden, of the Executive Coun- 
cil, and Edward S. Tobey, President of the Boston- Board 
of Trade, who were deputed to confer with him in relation to 
iron-clad ships. These gentlemen had a plan for iron-plating 
four steamers, belonging to the Government, at Charlestown 
and the Kittery Navy Yards, which, the Governor said, "would 
render them invulnerable, and present them ready for action 
and in sea-going trim in fifty days. If those vessels be- 
longed to us," he continues, "we would undertake to prepare 
some of them for service in this way ; but they belong to the 
United States. If you will turn over to us one or two of them 
we will be glad to take them, and have the work done ; and we 
desire that the four should be thus treated." The proposi- 
tion here made was not complied with. 

As one of the many evidences of the firmness of purpose and 
justness of decision of Governor Andrew, we give an extract 
from a letter, dated April 29, to Brigadier-General Doubleday, 
then on duty at Washington. A lieutenant-colonel of one of 



CASE OF COLONEL OLIVER. 331 

our regiments had been accused, by the colonel, of certain de- 
hnquencies ; and charges were preferred to bring the case before 
a court-martial. In a hasty and inconsiderate moment, the 
lieutenant-colonel resigned, rather than stand trial. After the 
resignation was accepted, the officer repented of his hasty act, 
and sought to be restored by the Governor. Before acting upon 
this request, he wrote to General Doubleday, to make inquiry 
into the charges, and inform him what he thought of them. 
From this letter we quote : - 

"While I feel kindly towards Lieutenant-Colonel Oliver, I wish only 
for exact justice, and would not restore him to the regiment, unless he 
was unjustly accused. I am jealous of the honor of the Massachusetts 
corps, sensitive to every thing which affects them, desirous of doing 
exactly right, hit where it will. The matter lies in a narrow compass ; 
and I wish to reach a speedy conclusion, founded upon a basis of es- 
tablished proofs, which shall satisfy the demands of justice, truth, and 
honor." 

Lieutenant-Colonel Oliver was not restored to the regiment 
from which he resigned, but was afterwards commissioned ma- 
jor in the Second Regiment Heavy Artillery, which shows that 
the Governor had been satisfied that the charges against him 
did not affect his standing as an officer and gentleman. 

April 30. - The Governor received the following despatch 
from Major-General Wool, dated - 

Headquarters Department of Virginia, 
Fortress Monroe, April 29. 

"I have just received your communication of the 26th inst. The 
Government have made arrangements to send the sick and wounded 
of the Army-of the Potomac to Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, 
New York, and Boston. Agents have been detailed to superintend for- 
warding them." 

This is the first despatch received at the State House in rela- 
tion to the sick and wounded of General McClellan's army, 
from which, for months following, the brave and ghastly suffer- 
ers of that memorable campaign returned, to fill the homes of 
their friends, and the hospitals of the Government. In con- 
nection with these wounded and suffering men, we find a letter 
written by the Governor, May 1, addressed to all officers, of. 



332 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Massachusetts corps volunteer officers in the field, commending 
to their courtesy and co-operation Dr. Alfred Hitchcock and his 
assistant, Mr. J. W. Wellman, who were detailed to visit the 
Massachusetts troops at Yorktown, Newbem, or elsewhere, and 
to render such aid as might be practicable to the sick and 
wounded in the field or hospitals, and transporting them to 
their homes. Of Dr. Hitchcock's services, while thus detailed, 
we have already spoken, but shall have reason to speak of them 
again, when he visited, by direction of the Governor, the san- 
guinary but victorious field of Antietam. 

The first mention we find, in the Governor's letters, of 
raising colored troops, is in a letter addressed by him to 
Mr. Francis H. Fletcher, Pratt Street,, Salem, in which he 
says, - 

"No official information has been received at this department from' 
the United-States Government, concerning the plan, which is now men- 
tioned with favor, of raising colored regiments for garrison duty in the 
Gulf and cotton States; nor is any thing known at this department 
of the intentions of the United-States Government in that regard, beyond 
what is published in the public prints. General Saxton, who is men- 
tioned in the newspapers as being detailed to organize such a force, is 
a native of Massachusetts, and a most worthy and humane gentleman, 
as well as a skilful officer; and, if the report is correct, it is a very 
judicious selection for such a duty and command." 

It appears that Mr. Fletcher was a candidate for a commis- 
sion in such regiments ; and the Governor offered him a letter 
to General Saxton, and such other assistance as was in his 
power, to obtain what he desired. 

Dr. Le Baron Russell, of Boston, at the request of a com- 
mittee of teachers and other friends of education in Massachu- 
setts, visited Washington, for the purpose of arranging some 
plan, under the sanction of the Federal authority, to enable 
Massachusetts teachers and agents to participate in the humane 
and benevolent work of improving the intellectual and moral 
condition of the emancipated slaves within certain of our mili- 
tary posts. He carried letters from the Governor to the Secre- 
tary of War and other official persons, highly approving the 
purpose of his mission. This appears to have been the com- 



LETTER TO THE PRESIDENT. 333 

mencement of the educational labors among the liberated slaves, 
which has been attended with so much good. 

On the 19th of May, the Secretary of War telegraphed to the 
Governor to know if he could raise four more new regiments at 
short notice, to which he replied affirmatively ; but, in the letter 
expressing his readiness to comply with the Secretary's demand, 
he says, - 

" If our people feel that they are going into the South to help fight 
rebels, who will kill and destroy them by all the means known to sav- 
ages, as well as civilized man,- will deceive them by fraudulent flags 
of truce and, lying pretences, will use their negro slaves against them 
both as laborers and as fighting men, while they themselves must never 
fire at the enemy's magazine;-I think that they will feel that the 
draft is heavy on their patriotism. But, if the President will sustain 
General Hunter, -recognize all men, even black men, as legally capa- 
ble of that loyalty the blacks are waiting to manifest, and let them fight 
with God and human nature on their side, - the roads will swarm, if 
need be, with multitudes whom New England would pour out to obey your 
call." 

A copy of this letter was sent to the Governors of the New- 
England States, in the thought that mutual conference might 
be useful, and tend to unite and concentrate opinion in New 
England upon the subject to which it relates. 

On the 25th of May, received from Mr. Stanton the follow- 
ing telegrams : - 

"Send all the troops forward that you can, immediately. Banks is 
completely routed. The enemy are, in large force, advancing on Har- 
per's Ferry." 

" Intelligence from various quarters leaves no doubt that the enemy, 
in great force, are advancing on Washington. You will please organ- 
ize and forward immediately all the volunteer and militia force in your 
State." 

Upon the receipt of these telegrams, orders were immediately 
issued by the Adjutant-General for the militia of the Common- 
wealth to report at once for duty on Boston Common, to pro- 
ceed to Washington ; and four thousand men were in Boston, 
and ready to start, on the 27th. But, on the morning of the 



334 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

27th, the Governor received the following, dated midnight. May 
26, from the Secretary of War : - 

Two despatches have been received from General Banks, one dated 
at Martinsburg, the other between Martinsburg and Williamsport, which 
state that he has saved his trains, and the chief part of his command, 
and expected to cross the Potomac at Williamsburg in safety. We hope 
he may accomplish his purpose." 

In consequence of the favorable change of affairs in General 
Banks's command, the order to send forward the militia was 
countermanded, and the men returned to their homes, most of 
them disappointed that they were not to go forward. 

The battalion raised for garrison duty at Fort Warren, com- 
posed of six companies of three years' men, left, on the 27th, for 
the front, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Francis J. 
Parker ; and orders were received to recruit four new companies, 
and make it a regiment, which was speedily done. 

This was what was called afterwards "the great scare," and 
many people blamed Mr. Stanton for the semi-sensational char- 
acter of his telegraph messages. They certainly created the 
wildest excitement throughout the Commonwealth ; and Boston, 
in a degree, resembled Edinburgh on receipt of the fatal news 
of Flodden Field. 

June 2. - Governor telegraphs General Banks, Williams- 
port, Md. : - 

" Telegram received yesterday. Surgeon-General Dale has arranged 
to supply your requisition immediately. I greet you cordially. All 
honor to our brave Massachusetts men! 

This was a request to send forward additional surgeons to take 
care of the wounded in General Banks's command. 

On the 4th of June, the Governor wrote Colonel George H. 
Gordon, Second Massachusetts Volunteers, who had command 
of a brigade under General Banks, - 

Permit me, in closing, to congratulate you upon your nomination 
to the rank of brigadier-general, and also upon the brilliant success 
achieved by the withdrawal of our forces, with so little loss, from the 
heart of the enemy's country, and against a force so completely over- 
whelming." 



DEPARTURE OF REGIMENTS. 335 

The Governor had written, the day before, to Senator Sum- 
ner, in favor of the confirmation, by the Senate, of Colonel 
Gordon's nomination, and hoped "it would be unanimous." 

The letters written by the Governor from the first of Janu- 
ary to the first of July, 1862, fill five volumes, of five hundred 
pages each : from these volumes we have made the extracts imme- 
diately preceding. The letters in these volumes relate to every 
matter of detail connected with our regiments in the field, the 
proceedings of the Legislature, recruiting at home, coast de- 
fences, building monitors, the sick and wounded, the State aid 
to soldiers' famiUes, the selection of officers, the discipline of 
the army, the delay of the Government to hasten warlike meas- 
ures, -all which, though of great and lasting interest, are too 
voluminous even to name by their titles and dates, in a work 
like this. This herculean labor of correspondence was con- 
tinued by the Governor until the end of the war ; and he re- 
tired from the gubernatorial chair, after five years of official 
service, which required more active thought and exertion, and 
was freighted with higher duties and responsibilities, than had 
been imposed upon all the Governors of the Commonwealth in 
the preceding fifty years. 

In the first six months of 1862, four thousand five hundred 
and eighty-seven men had been recruited for three years' ser- 
vice, and sent to the front ; also, a company of light artillery, 
known as Cook's Battery, which was mustered in for six months' 
service, - these men were in the Thirtieth Regiment ; three 
companies of unattached cavahy, which left the State by trans- 
ports for the Department of the Gulf, Jan. 3, 1862 ; three 
companies of infantry, to complete the organization of the 
Twenty-ninth Regiment, which was sent forward, Jan. 7, to 
Fortress Monroe; the Twenty-eighth Regiment, which left the 
State for South Carolina via New York, Jan. 8 ; the Sixth Bat- 
tery, which sailed from Boston for Ship Island, Department of 
the Gulf, Feb. 7 ; the Thirty-first Regiment, which sailed in 
transport for Fortress Monroe, Feb. 21, and from Fortress 
Monroe to Ship Island, Department of the Gulf; seven com- 
panies, comprising what was known as the Fort Warren Battal- 
ion, and afterwards as the Thirty-second Regiment, which were 



336 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

sent forward to the Army of the Potomac, May 26 ; two com- 
panies for the Fourteenth Regiment, shortly afterwards changed 
to the First Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, which were sent to 
join the regiment in Virginia, March 1, 1862. 

One company, designated the First Unattached Company of 
Heavy Artillery, was enlisted for three years, for service in the 
forts in Boston Harbor, of which Stephen Cabot was commis- 
sioned captain. On the twenty-sixth day of May, the First 
Company of Cadets, Lieutenant-Colonel C. C. Holmes, was 
mustered into the service to take the place of the Fort Warren 
Battalion, which was ordered to the front on that day. The 
Cadets remained on duty until July 1. The Second Company 
of Cadets, of Salem, commanded by Captain John L. Marks, 
was, mustered in May 26, for garrison duty in the forts at 
Boston Harbor, and was mustered out Oct. 11. The company 
raised by Captain E. H. Staten, of Salem, was also mustered 
in for garrison duty, and remained on duty until Jan. 1, 1863. 

In addition to these new organizations, which were mustered 
into the service in the first six months of 1862, upwards of 
three thousand volunteers were recruited, and sent forward to 
fill the ranks of the Massachusetts regiments in the field. It was 
the policy of Governor Andrew to keep the regiments in the 
service full, rather than to organize new regiments while the 
old regiments were wanting men. In pursuance of this policy, 
seven thousand men were enlisted during the year 1862, as- 
signed to regiments in the field, and forwarded to their several 
destinations. 

On the 28th day of May, an order was received from the 
President of the United States for thirty companies of infantry, 
twenty of which were to compose two regiments, -the Thirty- 
third and Thirty-fourth, - six for a battalion to garrison Fort 
Warren, and four to complete the organization of the Thirty- 
second Regiment. The Thirty-third regiment was recruited at 
Lynnfield, and left the State to join the Army of the Poto- 
mac, Aug. 14, 1862. The Thirty-fourth Regiment was re- 
cruited at "Camp John E. Wool," on the Agricultural Fair 
Grounds in Worcester. It left the State for Washington, 
Aug. 15, 1862. The other ten companies were recruited in a 
few weeks, and assigned to duty. 



THE POSITION OF REGIMENTS. 337 

The Massachusetts regiments and batteries in the spring of 
1862, and previous to the commencement of the campaign in 
North Carolina under Burnside, and in Virginia under Gen- 
eral McClellan, were stationed as follows : The First, Seventh, 
Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Eighteenth, 
Nineteenth, Twentieth, Twenty-second, Twenty-ninth, and 
Thirty-second Regiments of Infantry, the First, Third, and 
Fifth Batteries, and the two companies of Sharpshooters, were 
in the Army of the Potomac. The Second, Twelfth, and Thir- 
teenth Regiments of Infantry were in the Army of Virginia, in 
the upper waters of the Potomac. The Seventeenth: Twenty- 
first, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, Twenty-fifth, and Twenty- 
seventh Regiments of Infantry were in General Burnside' s 
army, in North Carolina. The Twenty sixth, Thirtieth, and 
Thirty-first Regiments of Infantry, three unattached com- 
panies of cavalry, the Second and Sixth Companies of Light 
Artillery, were in the Department of the Gulf in Louisiana. The 
Twenty-eighth Regiment of Infantry and the First Regiment 
of Cavahy were in the Army of the South, in South Carolina. 
The First Regiment of Heavy Artillery was stationed in forts 
near Washington, on the Virginia side of the Potomac. The 
Seventh Company of Light Artillery was stationed at Fortress 
Monroe ; and the Eighth Company of Light Artillery (Cook's), 
was stationed near Washington. 

Thus the soldiers of Massachusetts were stationed in array 
of battle, at the beginning of this eventful year, at different 
points, - from the valley of the Shenandoah to the lowlands of 
Louisiana. In the year before, they had been the first to reach 
Washington, and to plant the colors of the Commonwealth 
upon the soil of Virginia. So they were the first, in 1862, to 
land in North Carolina, and "carry the flag, and keep step to 
the music of the Union," in the far-off plains of Mississippi 
and Louisiana. Before the end of the year, as we shall pro- 
ceed to show, Massachusetts soldiers were the first to land on 
the soil of Texas, and display the ensign of the republic in the 
city of Galveston. 

22 



CHAPTER VII. 

Recruiting for the New Regiments - The Position of the Armies in the Field - 
Letters from the Adjutant-General to Different Persons - Establishment of 
Camps - Departure of New Regiments - Recruits for Old Regiments - Let- 
ter to Secretary Seward - Suggestions adopted - Foreign Recruits - Letter 
to General Couch-Deserters - Want of Mustering Officers - Letter from 
General Hooker - Our Sick and Wounded -Letter to General McClellan - 
General Fits - John Porter - Call for Nineteen Thousand Soldiers for Nine 
Months - Appointment of Major Rogers - Preparing for a Draft - Militia 
Volunteers - Letter to the President - Great Activity in Recruiting - Liber- 
ality of John M. Forbes - Colonel Maggi - Town Authorities ask Civilians 
to be commissioned - First Attempt to raise Colored Troops - Letter 
to Hon. J. G. Abbott - Recommends Merchants and Others to devote Half 
of each Day to Recruiting - Hardship to Seaboard Towns - Attempt to have 
Credits allowed for Men in the Navy - Difficulties - Eamest Letter - Sur- 
geons sent forward - Several Recommendations - Battle of Antietam - Dr. 
Hitchcock sent forward - His Report - Affairs at the Front - Recruiting 
Brisk - Republican Convention - Sharp Debate - Nominations - People's 
Convention - General Devens nominated for Governor - Speeches - Letter 
to General Dix - Contrabands - Complaints - Quotas filled - Departure of 
Regiments - Invasion of Texas - Major Burt - State Appointments, &c. 

On the fourth day of July, 1862, the President of the United 
States issued a call for three hundred thousand men, to serve 
for three years or to the end of the war. Three days after, - on 
the seventh day of July, - General Order No. 26 was issued, 
by order of Governor Andrew, in which it was stated, that "a 
call has been made upon the Governor of this Commonwealth, 
by the President of the United States, for fifteen thousand volun- 
teers, to form new regiments, and to fill the ranks of those of 
this Commonwealth now at the seat of war." At that time, 
the Thirty-second, Thirty-third, Thirty-fourth, and Thirty-fifth 
Regiments were being recruited in the State. To bring the 
matter of recruiting more nearly home to each city and town, 
and to invest it with a peculiar and local interest, the Adjutant- 
General suggested to the Governor, that it would be well to 



THE POSITION OF AFFAIRS. 339 

show the number which each city and town should furnish as its 
proportion of the number called for, not taking into account the 
number which they had already furnished. This could be done 
by assuming, as a basis, the men enrolled liable to do military 
duty, as exhibited by the annual returns made to the Adjutant- 
General by the assessors of the cities and towns, as required 
by law. This suggestion met with the approval of the Gov- 
ernor ; and therefore the number each city and town was to 
furnish was embodied in the general order. 

This had a beneficial effect. The municipal authorities, 
knowing what they had to do, entered upon the work of recruit- 
ing with patriotic zeal. Town meetings were held, money 
appropriated, and committees appointed to assist in recruiting, 
and to carry into practical effect the call of the President. 
Many of our regiments at the seat of war had been decimated 
by losses in battle, and by sickness occasioned by exposure, a 
Southern climate, and the hardships of a great campaign. 

The Army of the Potomac at this time, failing in its object, 
- the capture of Richmond, - was faUing back on Harrison's 
Landing, on the James River. The command of General 
Banks occupied the upper waters of the Potomac. The army 
under General Burnside had captured Newbern, and other 
important places in North Carolina, and was holding its position. 
The command of General Butler occupied New Orleans, and 
other important posts in Louisiana. The Thirty-first Regiment, 
under Butler's command, on the first day of May, was the fu-st 
to land, and take possession of the city. The landing was 
effected without difficulty, though threats and insults met them 
as they put their feet on the soil of Louisiana. Our great 
admiral, Farragut, had silenced Forts Jackson and St. Philip, 
and opened the Mississippi for the advance of the army. The 
Thirtieth Regiment had proceeded up the river to Baton Rouge, 
disembarked on the morning of June 2, and quartered in the 
State Capitol, and from its dome raised the stars and stripes, 
from which they were never struck. In these commands were 
centred, all the regiments and batteries which Massachusetts 
had sent to the war. 

Success had crowned the efforts of the Union arms, except 



340 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

before Richmond. The losses in the Army of the Potomac 
were fearfully great. The newspapers, for weeks, had daily 
published the long lists of dead and wounded; many of our 
bravest and best had fallen. Homes had been made desolate; 
the maimed, with their ghastly wounds, crying for help, reached 
us daily. But never was the war spirit more determined and 
buoyant than at this time. Never was recruiting more active ; 
never did men flock to our camps to enlist more eagerly. In 
Boston, many of our merchants closed their places of business 
at two o'clock in the afternoon, that they might devote the re- 
mainder of the day to recruiting. Meetings were held, and 
addresses made, on the Common and in Roxbury ; recruiting 
tents were erected in Haymarket Square, Court Square, and on 
the Common. Meetings were held, and speeches made, in 
front of the Old South ; and men, unused to public speech, 
were tired with eloquence. A general camp of rendezvous was 
established m the city of Worcester, and named "Camp Wool," 
in honor of the veteran, Major-General Wool. To this camp 
all recruits from the counties of Berkshire, Franklin, Hampden, 
Hampshire, and Worcester, were sent. The old camp at Lynn- 
field was continued, and designated "Camp Stanton," which 
served as the general rendezvous of recruits from the counties 
of Barnstable, Bristol, Dukes, Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk, Nan- 
tucket, Plymouth, and Suffolk. Until further orders. Lieuten- 
ant-colonel Lincoln, of the Thirty-fourth Regiment, which was 
then being recruited, was placed in command of "Camp Wool;" 
and Colonel Maggi, of the Thirty-third Regiment, which was 
also being recruited, was placed in command of "Camp Stan- 
ton." Surgeon-General Dale was instructed to have a surgeon 
at each of the camps, to examine recruits. 

These camps were intended for recruits who were to form 
new regiments ; and "Camp Cameron," at North Cambridge, 
under the command of the United States military commander. 
Colonel H. Day, was the general rendezvous for recruits in- 
tended for regiments akeady in the field. 

The necessity of filling the quota of Massachusetts in the 
shortest possible time was strongly pressed upon the Governor 
by the President and the Secretary of War, and by him urged 



ACTIVITY IN RECRUITING. 341 

upon the people with all his power of eloquence and enthu- 
siasm for the cause. We cannot better illustrate the interest 
felt, and the activity exercised, by the people of the State to 
recruit and send forward men, than by making a few extracts 
from letters written by the Adjutant-General in answer to others 
received by him from gentlemen in all parts of the Common- 
wealth, asking for recruiting papers and information to guide 
them in their patriotic work. From the eighth day of July to 
the first day of August, upwards of five hundred letters were 
written by him upon this and kindred subjects. 

July 8. -He writes to J. N. Dunham, Adams, - 

"Thanks for your patriotic letter. You will see, by General Or- 
der No. 26, in this morning's papers, that your quota is sixty-eight 
men. Get them as speedily as possible, and I will furnish transporta- 
tion as soon as notified. Why cannot Berkshire raise a regiment? 
We must have men at once. Let every good citizen take hold, and 
give his influence and money to the cause." 

To P. W. Morgan, Lee, - 

"The quota of Lee is thirty-seven men. Raise them ; and if you 
are qualified, and I doubt not you are, a lieutenancy will doubtless be 
given you; but we must have the men. The influential citizens of 
the town should take hold with heart and will. You will receive two 
dollars for every man you recruit. This letter is all the authority you 
require." 

To Moody D. Cook, Newburyport, - 

"Recruit every man you can ; take him to the mustering officer in 
Salem, and take a receipt for him. After he is mustered into the 
United States service, you shall receive two dollars for each man. 
The officer will furnish transportation to Lynnfield. Work, work; 
for we want men badly." 

To Moses P. Towne, Topsfield, - 

"We require the aid of every man in the State to forward recruit- 
ing. You will not need any papers. If you can enlist a man in 
Topsfield, do it, and I will immediately furnish transportation to Lynn- 
field. The necessity is urgent. The quota for Topsfield, nineteen 
men." 

To A. Potter, Pittsfield - 



342 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

"The terrible pressure of business upon me has prevented my 
answering your favor of the 4th inst. before. I inclose you the 
blanks you ask for. Pittsfield must furnish one hundred and two 
men. Why can't you raise a regiment in Berkshire ? If we cannot 
get the men in this way, we must draft; for the men must be had at 
once. Let a meeting be called ; and let those who have money in their 
pockets, and patriotism in their hearts, step forth, and give to the cause. 
We must have the men." 

To E. W. Norton, North Blandford,- 

"In answer to your patriotic and excellent letter of the 4th inst., 
I would say that we want all the men asked for at once. Please see 
General Order No. 26 in the papers of to-day. Each town's quota is 
set down, and they must respond. Let influential and patriotic men 
take hold at once, and put. the thing through. The order contains all 
the necessary information. A copy will be sent to every town in the 
State. Any thing you can do to forward the cause will be gratefully 
remembered." 

To Charles F. Crocker, Cotuit Port, - 

"You will see, by General Order No. 26 in to-day's papers, that the 
quota for Barnstable County is two hundred and eighty-five men. I 
care not how they are raised ; only raise them, as we want men very 
much. I hope the selectmen and prominent citizens will act together, 
and raise the men, -each town its own share. I want the towns to 
take hold systematically." 

To H. W. Pratt, Worcester, - 

"Give Mr. Brewer the authority he requires. Let him recruit men 
for you, and take receipts for the same, and I will see that he gets his 
two dollars. We must have the men at once. Let meetings be called, 
and the influential men. and the city and town authorities, take hold 
with a will." 

To Joshua Tarr, Rockport, - 

" The quota of Rockport is twenty-nine men. We want these men 
very much indeed; and any means you may adopt to recruit them will 
be satisfactory. If Mr. Thurston is the man, then you may employ 
him. This letter will be his authority. The men are entitled to one 
month's pay (thirteen dollars), and a bounty of twenty-live dollars in 
addition, as sooh as the company is full to which they may be attached. 
How long will it take to recruit these men? I will furnish transporta- 
tion to the camp. Let me hear from you again." 



LETTERS OF THE ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 343 

To Frank J. Crosby, Nantucket, - 

"In answer to yours of July 3, I would say, that we are very 
much in want of recruits. The quota of Nantucket is eighty-two men. 
I hope they will be got as soon as possible. If you can raise a full 
company there, so much the better. 1 inclose you the proper papers. 
They may be sent to Fort Warren ; but, no positive assurance can be 
given, for, as soon as they are mustered in, they are under orders. 
The company that went to Fort Warren, of which you speak, was a 
militia company, and is only there for six months. We can garrison 
the fort all the time with militia companies. What is wanted now is 
men for the front, as stated in General Order No. 26. Consult, with 
the selectmen and influential citizens, and get, the eighty-two men as 
quick as possible. I will furnish the transportation." 

To Henry D. Capen, North Hadley, - 

" In answer to yours of the 7th inst., I would say that General 
Order 26 calls upon the towns, and every citizen in them, to get re- 
cruits ; and, if tie cannot get them this way, I fear the next, step will 
be a draft." 

To W. W. S. Oleton, Haverhill, - 

" We want all the men for Massachusetts quota at once. The quota 
of Haverhill is two hundred and twelve men. I hope you will do what 
you can to aid the recruiting ; and, if you do, I think you will get a com- 
mission. But, that lies with the Governor. If qualified, I will do my best 
for you. I hope the people of the town will take hold, and at once 
see if they cannot get their quota enlisted. Let me hear from you 
again." 

July 9. -To Thomas Allen, Pittsfield, - 

" Nothing can exceed the patriotic spirit, of the people of Pittsfield. 
The town has already most nobly connected its name with the bright- 
est, pages of this war, and now it is the first to take hold in the right 
way to raise its quota for the new demand. I find that the cities and 
towns are taking hold with a good will ; and I feel very much en- 
couraged that we shall get our quota, not only without drafting, but 
before any other State has got half its share. Of course, the towns 
which raise their quota under General Order No. 26 will be exempt 
from draft, should one be made, which I now believe will not be neces- 
sary. The quota of Pittsfield is one hundred and two men, - just, a 
company." 



344 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

To Malcolm Ammidown, Southbridge, - 

"The towns which furnish their quota promptly will, of course, be 
exempt from a draft for the 300,000 men. I do hope that South- 
bridge, and every town in Massachusetts, will furnish its quota at 
once, so that the old Commonwealth whose blood has drenched to a 
mire the soil of Virginia, will have her quota ready in advance of all 
other States, as in the beginning. Do put your shoulder to the wheel, 
and help the great cause m which we all feel so deep an interest." 

To Charles G. Potter, North Adams, - 

"The quota of your town is sixty-eight men. If you can raise a 
full company, so much the better. We are sadly in want of men to fill 
up our regiments at the seat of war, as well as to fill up the new regi- 
ments. I find, however, that the towns and cities are taking hold nobly, 
each to get its quota ; and I feel confident that Massachusetts will have 
her contingent filled in advance of any other State. Should a company 
be raised in Adams, I have no doubt His Excellency would commission 
officers from that town, if they are qualified for the positions. Let 
every man take hold and recruit." 

To G. B. Weston, Duxbury, - 

"I send, as you requested, an enlistment-roll ; also, a copy of Gene- 
ral Order No. 26. I sincerely hope that no town will cease its efforts 
until it has its quota enlisted. I feel greatly encouraged to-day. The 
towns have taken hold of the matter with spirit and liberality ; and I 
feel, that, before the end of the month, we shall have sent forward a 
large share of the men. When you have yours ready, inform me, and 
I will send you transportation for them to camp." 

July 10. -To Artemas Hale, Bridgewater, - 

" The term of enlistment is for three years, or to the end of the war, 
which, 1 think, we may see before winter comes in, if we are only pre- 
pared now to send on our quota. 1 have great encouragement; the 
towns are taking hold with great spirit; some of them have already 
furnished their quotas. The President is extremely anxious to have 
the Governor forward our Massachusetts men. We want to be first in 
this, as we were in the beginning." 

Hon. H. Hosford, Mayor of Lowell, - 

" We are not expecting a requisition to draft troops, as we expect to 
get the quota of the State without a draft; and I think there is no 
doubt of it, if the large towns do as well as the small ones are doing. 



LETTERS OF THE ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 345 

and promise to do. I beg of you, Mr. Mayor, to exert all your influ- 
ence to have Lowell furnish its quota. The demand is urgent and 
imperative. The President and Cabinet are all anxious that Massachu- 
setts should lead in this, the second campaign of the war, as she did in 
the first. Should Lowell furnish its quota, and other towns should fail, 
to Lowell will be the honor." 

To J. R. Comstock, Blackslone, - 

"Make such arrangements for getting your quota as may to you 
seem best. We want the men ; and as soon as your forty-two are re- 
cruited, or any portion of them, notify me, or Colonel Lincoln, in com- 
mand of 'Camp Wool,' who will furnish transportation. Any person 
you will mame to assist you recruit I will appoint, and give him papers. 
Do hurry on the men: we want them sadly." 

To N. S. Kimball, Haverhill, - 

"The towns that raise their quotas will be exempt from any draft, 
under the present requisition for fifteen thousand men. I hope you will 
do every thing in your power to hurry the men along: we are very 
much in need of them, and must have them." 

To John A. Goodwin, Lowell, - 

"Before a captain and second lieutenant can be commissioned and 
mustered in, the company must be full. The first lieutenant can be 
mustered when the company is half full. This will explain why Mr. 
Thompson is not commissioned. I do not say the rules of the service are 
wise ; indeed, I think they are unwise. Let Lowell fill up the com- 
panies, and then the commissions will come." 

To James T. Sumner, Canton, - 

"You can enlist persons under twenty-one years, if their parents or 
guardians give their consent. As to enlisting under eighteen years of age, 
I doubt the expediency of it, unless they have an extraordinary physi- 
cal development. You may enlist men over forty-five, if they are hale, 
vigorous, and free from physical defect. I beg of you to hurry on the 
work : you have little idea of the terrible pressure upon us for men from 
Washington." 

To Edwin F. Whitney, HoUiston, - 

"The proportion for each town, under General Order No. 26, was 
based upon the returns received at this office from the several cities 
and towns of the Commonwealth. They were presumed to be correct. 



346 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

I do not see how a change can now be made. We are sadly in want, 
of men ; and I sincerely hope that there will be no delay in getting your 
quota : you have no idea of the great and important demand there is for 
them." 

We have quoted from letters written by the Adjutant-General, 
in the three days immediately succeeding the issuing of General 
Order No. 26, to show the activity which prevailed in his de- 
partment, and in the cities and towns of the Commonwealth, to 
obtain recruits, and fill the contingent of fifteen thousand men, 
assigned to this State. This activity increased, and the feelings 
of the people intensified, until the men were recruited. To 
facilitate recruiting, and accommodate the people in the extreme 
western part of the State, a camp of rendezvous was estabUshed 
in Pittsfield, which was named "Camp Briggs," in honor of 
Colonel Briggs, of the Tenth Regiment, -a native of Berk- 
shire, and a citizen of Pittsfield, who had distinguished himself in 
the battles before Richmond, in one of which he was severely 
wounded. He was appointed by the President a brigadier- 
general of volunteers and, after recovering from his wounds, 
served to the end of the war. 

As evidence of the activity with which the people entered into 
the business of recruiting, and the success which attended it, it 
may be noted that, within two months from the day General 
Order No. 26 was issued, upwards of four thousand men had 
been recruited for the old regiments at the seat of war, and sent 
forward to the front. Four new companies to complete the 
Thirty-second Regiment, and nine new regiments, had been filled 
to the maximum, and completely organized, and fully equipped ; 
and eight of them had left the State, and entered upon active 
duty. The three companies for the Thirty-second Regiment left 
the State Aug. 20 ; the Thirty-third Regiment, Colonel Maggi, 
Aug. 11 ; the Thirty-fourth, Colonel Wells, Aug. 12 ; the 
Thirty-fifth, Colonel Wild, Aug. 22 ; The Thirty-sixth, Colo- 
nel Bowman, Aug. 31; the Thirty-seventh, Colonel Edwards, 
Sept. 5 ; the Thirty-eighth, Colonel Ingraham, Aug. 24; the 
Thirty-ninth, Colonel Davis, Sept. 6 ; the Fortieth, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Dalton, Sept. 8. All of these regiments were ordered 
to report to the Adjutant-General of the army, at Washing- 



VISIT OF SECRETARY SEWARD. 347 

ton. The Forty-first Regiment, Colonel Chickering, left the 
State Nov. 5, and was ordered to report to Major-General 
Banks, at New York, who had superseded Major-General But- 
ler in command of the Department of the Gulf, and who was 
then in New York, superintending the embarkation of troops 
destined for his command. The Forty-first Regiment sailed 
from New York, direct for New Orleans. 

In addition to the nine new regiments, and the four thousand 
men recruited for the regiments in the field, two new batteries 
-the Ninth and Tenth - were recruited and organized within 
the same period. The Ninth Battery, Captain De Vecchi, left 
the State Aug. 21 ; and the Tenth, Captain Sleeper, Oct. 6, - 
with orders to report to the Adjutant-General of the army, at 
Washington. Thus, within three months from the date of the 
receipt of orders from Washington, Massachusetts had furnished 
her contingent of fifteen thousand men ; had sent forward nine 
new regiments and two light batteries, completely armed, 
clothed, and equipped, to swell the number of those already in 
the field, and more than four thousand men to fill the gaps in 
the old regiments, which the waste of war had caused. To 
these noble men, and to those who preceded them, not a dollar 
of bounty was paid by the Commonwealth. 

Rapidly as this contingent of fifteen thousand men had been 
recruited, it was but half filled, when President Lincoln, on the 
4th of August, issued another call, for three hundred thousand 
more men, to serve for nine months, of which, by some process 
of arithmetic known only to the authorities in Washington, the 
proportion assigned to Massachusetts was nineteen thousand and 
ninety men. These men were to be raised by "draft, in accord- 
ance with orders from the War Department, and the laws of the 
several States." 

Early in July, Mr. Seward, Secretary of State, and General 
Buckingham, of the War Department, visited Massachusetts to 
ascertain, by personal examination and conference, the means best 
calculated to encourage enlistments and raise volunteers. The 
Adjutant-General had a long and satisfactory interview with 
these gentlemen, and gave them his views at length, which he 
was requested to put in writing, and forward to Washington. 



348 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

In accordance with which request, on the 7th of July, he wrote a 
letter to Secretary Seward, giving his thoughts upon recruiting, 
from which we make a few extracts : - 

"1st, We should be allowed a band of ten musicians for each 
camp, to enliven the men and cause attraction. This proposition I 
made when you were here, and I understood you and General Buck- 
ingham to accede to it; but I wish to have the authority in writing, 
so it may go on file. The cost for each camp will be about four hun- 
dred dollars a month. 

"2d, There should be a commissioned officer in each of the 
camps to muster in recruits as soon as they arrive in camp. We now 
have to depend upon Captain Goodhue, who is stationed in Boston; 
but his time is so taken up that he can but seldom go to the camp at 
Worcester. The senior officer in command of any camp ought to have 
authority to muster recruits. 

"3d, Officers authorized to raise companies should be commis- 
sioned, and draw pay, from the time they begin recruiting, with the 
understanding, that, unless the company is raised in a reasonable time, 
the commissions shall be cancelled. As it now is, the men who recruit 
spend their time and money without receiving any pay for their ser- 
vices. Why should not their pay begin when their labors begin? 

"4th, We are too much hedged in with army regulations and army 
officers. Our tents should be floored ; but the United States officers 
won't pay the bills, because the regulations don't allow it. In 
order to get recruits, the camps should be made comfortable and at- 
tractive. It is the denial of these little things which annoys officers 
and men. It was a great mistake when the recruiting was taken from 
the State authorities, and put in charge of army officers : they move 
slowly, and appear to have no enthusiasm. 

"Please have this letter given to General Buckingham, and request 
him to let me know what we may be authorized to do. I think he 
can have the fifteen thousand men in the time you stated : only give 
us a little margin, and keep us as much as possible under State au- 
thority." 

The suggestions made by the Adjutant-General were sub- 
stantially compUed with : a band was engaged for each camp ; 
a lieutenant for each company was commissioned; flooring 
was allowed for camp-tents, and the recruiting was put under 
the control of the State authorities, - the army officers audit- 
ing and paying the bills, and mustering in the recruits. 



FOREIGN ENLISTMENTS. 349 

On the 27th of July, the Governor received a telegram from 
President Lincoln, making inquiry as to the condition of the 
new Massachusetts regiments, which the Governor answered by 
letter on the 28th. He spoke encouragingly, and said, - 

"Our main effort is to fill up our regiments already in the field. 
The small towns are doing well towards furnishing their quotas, and 
are sending large numbers of recruits to old regiments. I wish it 
were possible that all our recruits could go to them. But some have 
an invincible prejudice for new organizations. If I could but have 
power to do what needs to be done, without waiting for others to 
move until people are angry and disgusted, we could make much 
faster progress in filling the old regiments." 

Having been advised that informal representations had been 
made to Secretary Seward by the British consul in Boston, 
that "he had received many complaints from poor British 
subjects, who are made intoxicated, and then enlisted as volun- 
teers, that the protests which they had made on recovering 
their senses are not listened to, and that the interference of the 
consul had hitherto been fruitless," the Governor addressed 
a letter to Marquis Lousada, Her Majesty's consul in Boston, 
in which he said the recruitment of all volunteer regiments, 
until they are organized and their muster-rolls completed, 
was under his exclusive control; but in no instance had 
any complaints of the nature described, from any source, 
been made ; nor had he been advised, in any instance, of 
an interference by the British consul. He would be obliged, 
therefore, if the consul would make known to him all cases 
of enlistments such as described, that the wrong done to the 
parties 'might be repaired; and if any future cases should 
occur, when brought to his notice, they would receive immediate 
attention. We are disposed to beheve that comparatively few 
cases of this nature occurred. Those of which complaint was 
made were referred to the Adjutant-General to investigate, with 
directions to report the facts to the Governor. We cannot call 
to mind a dozen cases during the entire period-of the war. 

The Governor having heard a report that Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Couch intended to resign his commission in the army in 
consequence of injustice done him, wrote a strong, friendly 



350 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

letter, dissuading him from his purpose. The letter was sent to 
Harrison's Landing, Va., and did not reach General Couch, as 
he had come home to Massachusetts on short leave, to regain 
his health and strength. The Governor therefore wrote him 
again, on the 28th of July, representing to him "the great 
need our country has of all good officers and patriots," and 
assuring him that his fame as a soldier was not to be tarnished 
by official neglect or oversight, however hard to bear. "It 
would give me," the Governor says, "and all my staff, great 
pleasure to be assured you have no intention of leaving the 
army till thiswar is ended." 

General Couch had raised the Seventh Regiment of Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers, and was commissioned the colonel of it. 
Whether he intended, at this time, to tender his resignation as 
brigadier-general, and retire from the service, we have no posi- 
tive knowledge. We know, however, that he did not resign,, 
but served, like a gallant soldier and gentleman, until the end 
of the war ; and rose, by his bravery and merit, to the rank of 
major-general and corps commander. 

On the 23d of July, Brigadier-General Buckingham, of the 
War Department, addressed a circular letter to the Governors 
of States, calling their attention to the great number of officers 
and soldiers in their respective States who had obtained fur- 
loughs on account of wounds and sickness, but who had recov- 
ered, and were overstaying their time. On the receipt of this, 
the Governor prepared a circular, calling the attention of the 
public to the matters complained of, in which he said, - 

"Except cowardice in the field, there is no baser offence than ab- 
sence, from their regiments, of officers and men who ought to be back 
to their posts. In some cases, these soldiers delay here from ignorance 
how to return to their regiments ; all such should be instructed by their 
more intelligent neighbors. Let all who are guilty be shamed into an 
immediate return to their regiments : if they will not voluntarily return, 
they are deserters, and should be arrested, and sent back." 

The evils complained of existed in all the States, to a very 
great extent, and could only be eradicated by organized effort 
on the part of the States and the nation. 



THE TOWN OF MARBLEHEAD. 351 

On the 1st of August, the Governor wrote a long letter to 
Secretary Stanton, complaining of the want of officers to mus- 
ter in recruits at the several camps ; the only one detailed on 
that duty in the State being Captain Goodhue, of the regular 
service. 

"Why not," the Governor asks, "appoint Colonel William Raymond 
Lee, and Captains Putnam and Bartlett, of the Massachusetts Twen- 
tieth; Major Robert H. Stevenson, of the Twenty-fourth, mustering 
officers ? - all of them now at home, wounded, and unfit to return to 
the field, but anxious and eager to work. The want of mustering offi- 
cers has cost us hundreds of men, infinite trouble, and sometimes 
insubordination in camps where the men have not yet been mus- 
tered." 

This request was, in part, complied with, and more army 
officers were detailed to attend the camps, and muster in 
men. 

The following permission to recruit we find on the Govern- 
or's files, in his own handwriting, dated Aug. 1 : - 

"In consequence of the request of the town of Marblehead, made 
by a legal town meeting, held yesterday, - a copy of the record which 
is handed me, attested by the town clerk, -I appoint, at the nomina- 
tion of the other gentlemen who came to represent the town, Samuel 
Roads, Esq., additional recruiting agent for Marblehead. He will 
co-operate with the town's committee, and use his influence to forward 
the enlistment ; and I ask the good people of Marblehead to support 
and help him with all their hearts and hands." 

As the town authorities throughout the State were authorized, 
under general orders, to recruit the quotas of their towns, we 
suspect that the people of the good town of Marblehead thought 
their selectmen were not as active in the discharge of this pecu- 
liar duty as they wished to have them, and therefore held a town 
meeting on the subject. 

On the 1st of August, die Governor detailed Colonel William 
R. Lee, Twentieth Regiment, "to establish a camp of rendezvous 
at Pittsfield, for all recruits who may offer, and be found com- 
petent." The United States mustering and disbursing officers in 
Boston were to furnish such material from their departments as 
might be necessary. 



352 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

On the 2d of August, the Governor received from Major- 
General Hooker the following letter, dated Harrison's Landing, 
James River, Va., July 29 ; the same being in answer to one 
written on the 24th, by Governor Andrew : - 

"The fate of Major Chandler is still involved in mystery. I have 
heard of his having been in Richmond, and also of his having been 
seen on his way to Boston ; but, in tracing up these reports, I regret to 
say, that I have not been able to satisfy myself that he is still num- 
bered with the living. I may also add, that this is the opinion of his 
regiment." 

Major Chandler was a young gentleman of much promise. 
He was major of the First Regiment, and was killed at one of 
the battles before Richmond. His body never was found, nor 
was any information ever received concerning him after it was 
ascertained he was missing. He went into battle with his regi- 
ment, and never returned. His simple epitaph might be, "He 
lived and died for his country." 

Some time in June or July, the Surgeon-General of the 
army established military hospitals at different posts for the 
accommodation of the sick and wounded, and issued rigid 
orders against their removal to their homes. These orders 
caused great dissatisfaction among the families of the sick and 
wounded soldiers, who asked that their suffering sons, husbands; 
and brothers might be released from army hospitals, and cared 
for at their homes. These orders, for a time, were very unpopu- 
lar, and had a prejudicial effect upon recruiting. We find, on 
the files of the Governor, the Adjutant-General, and Surgeon- 
General, a great many letters, complaining of these arbitrary 
and "cruel orders," from persons whose relatives, wounded and 
sick, were retained in the hospitals, and refused transportation 
to their homes. Many letters were written the State officials ; 
and the Governor sent Colonel Frank E. Howe to Washington, 
"for the purpose of attempting to procure some mitigation of 
the rigor of the present system." The system, however, re- 
mained in force ; and, like other usages of war, the people 
acquiesced in them as among the severities required for the good 
of the cause. 



GOVERNOR TO GENERAL M'CLELLAN. 353 

Of Joseph W. Wheelwright, - who had raised a number of 
men, and who had reason to expect a command, but, for miU- 
tary reasons, the men whom he had recruited had been placed 
in other regiments to complete their organizations, thus leaving 
him without a command or a commission, -the Governor wrote 
to the Adjutant-General, Aug. 8, - 

"Mr. Wheelwright is very deserving. There are circumstances 
connected with his domestic life which entitle his case to especial con- 
sideration. I rely on you, by hook or by crook, in working over the 
Thirty-fifth, to find a place for a lieutenancy for him ; and I am de- 
sirous that this shall be effected, if, by any possibility, it can be 
done." 

The request is another evidence of the kind and considerate 
regard which the Governor always evinced for deserving and 
patriotic men. Mr. Wheelwright, was commissioned a second 
lieutenant in the Thirty-second Regiment, and died in the ser- 
vice, Jan. 18, 1863. 

Meanwhile, the recruiting was going on, and with success 
greater than was at first believed could be attained. The great 
desire of the Governor was to fill up' our regiments in the field, 
rather than to recruit new ones. The generals in the army had 
written to him, urging the importance of this duty ; among whom 
was Major-General McClellan, whose letter, dated July 15, was 
answered by the Governor on the 21st, in which he said he 
should "zealously and studiously seek to promote the measures 
and methods touching the new enlistments which you have ad- 
vised." They fully accorded with his own views, had been 
expressed in his general orders in regard to recruiting. 

"It is much more difficult to induce men to go into old corps than 
to join new ones. For this there are general reasons, some specious, 
but all of them superficial. . . . You may depend upon it, I shall 
turn a deaf ear to every resigning officer unless I have the amplest 
proofs of his ability, gallantry, and innocence of any offending cause 
for resignation. I deeply regret that so many officers of the volunteer 
army have disappointed the expectations formed of them." 

The Governor adds, that he had appointed Colonel Ritchie, 
of his personal staff, to visit all the Massachusetts regiments 

23 



354 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

in the Army of the Potomac, and to report to him their con- 
dition, and the names of the proper persons to be commis- 
sioned to fill existing vacancies of field and line officers. Of 
Colonel Ritchie's report to the Governor we have spoken in the 
preceding chapter, and from it made several extracts. 

On the 26th of July, Major-General Fitz-John Porter wrote 
to the Governor a letter, from Harrison's Landing, Va., which 
was promulgated in special orders July 30, in which he said, - 

"It affords me great gratification to express to you my admiration 
for the noble conduct of the troops from your State, under my com- 
mand, in the late actions before Richmond. No troops could have 
behaved better than did the Ninth and Twenty-second Regiments and 
Martin's Battery (the Third), and portions of Allen's (the Fifth), or 
done more to add to our success. Their thinned ranks tell of their 
trials ; the brave men lost, their heroic dead, and gallant conduct, and 
devotion to their country. Their discipline was never excelled ; and 
now, with undaunted hearts, they await, with confidence of success, 
the order to advance. I hope you will be able to send on men to fill 
their depleted ranks, even in parties of ten, as fast as recruited. A 
few men joining us now gives great heart to all men, and adds to our 
strength nearly five times the same number in new regiments." 

The call issued on the 4th of August, by the President of the 
United States, for three hundred thousand men for nine months 
service, added materially to the labors of the Governor and the 
different departments of the State. These men were to be 
drafted. The number which Massachusetts was called upon to 
furnish was nineteen thousand and ninety. Regulations for the 
enrolment and draft were issued from the War Department 
Aug. 9, and additional regulations were issued on the 14th of 
August, directing that the quotas should be apportioned by the 
Governors of States among the several counties and subdivisions 
of counties, so that allowances should be made for all volunteers 
previously furnished and mustered into the United States service, 
whose stipulated terms of service had not expired. To make 
this new enrolment, and establish the number of men which each 
town and city must furnish to complete its proportion of the 
nineteen thousand and ninety men subject to draft, required great 
labor and accuracy of statement. It threw an immense weight 



THE ENROLMENT OF THE STATE. 355 

of responsibility upon the Adjutant-General, whose duties were 
already extremely arduous, and increased in a great degree the 
labors of the office. This was so apparent to the Governor, 
that he appointed, on the 23d of August, William Rogers, 
Esq., of Boston, second Assistant Adjutant-General, with the 
rank of major, who was specially intrusted with the superin- 
tendence of all matters connected with the enrolment and 
allotment of the quotas which each city and town was required 
to furnish ; a duty which he discharged with scrupulous fidelity 
and unquestioned accuracy. But, as Massachusetts furnished 
her contingent within a reasonable time by voluntary enlist- 
ments, a draft was avoided. The enrolment, however, which 
was made at this time, the credits which were allowed to the 
several municipalities of the Commonwealth for men already 
furnished by them, and the proportion which they were required 
to furnish under this call, remained as a basis upon which the 
quotas of the cities- and towns were apportioned, from that time 
until the end of the war; the particulars and details of which 
can be found in the Annual Report of the Adjutant-General 
for the year 1862, but need not be enlarged upon in these 
pages. 

From the beginning to the end of the Rebellion, the Gov- 
ernor, the city and town authorities, and the people of the Com- 
monwealth, were opposed to a draft, and labored to avoid it. 
Upon these, and kindred matters. Governor Andrew, on the 
8th of August, sent a letter to President Lincoln, from 
which we make the following extracts :- 

" I sent by mail, last night, to General Buckingham, a copy of Mas- 
sachusetts Militia Laws, and remarks. If you will call on me, by 
requisition, for our quota of militia for nine months' duty immediately, 
asking for so many regiments, we can answer the call, in great part, 
without a draft, by sending our militia regiments already organized, 
and being filled up, and by recruiting new ones. The iron is hot: 
strike quick. Drafting is mechanical: the impulse of patriotism is 
vital and dynamic. 

" Call for our militia brigade, under General Davis, a competent 
officer, as part of Massachusetts militia quota, communicating to us, at 
same time, number of militia regiments required for our whole quota. 



356 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

His brigade includes four regiments of infantry, all of which, if 
called for now for nine months, can be filled to maximum, and march 
by first of September. Exclude the artillery and cavalry of brigade, 
if you desire only infantry. It will begin a three days' encampment, 
under State laws, next Wednesday. If requisition is made for brigade, 
this encampment can be continued right on till brigade is ready to 
march to war. Davis's military capacity is unquestioned. I have 
thrice offered him colonelcies of volunteers. 

"All leading merchants here have signed agreement, that their em- 
ployes who enlist shall resume their employment when returned. I 
am confident of getting more volunteers and militia this month by 
enlistments, and by wheeling militia men into line, than conscription 
could bring in same time. Meanwhile, will be preparing machinery 
for draft. 

"Our people want nothing to spur them, but assurance from Wash- 
ington that the enemy shall be conquered, and right vindicated at all 
hazards by our arms. They will go, if the flag may but advance with 
all the principles it symbolizes. The enemy has spurned constitutional 
rights, and chosen belligerent rights. Let them have one or the other, 
but not both. They having elected the latter, let us give them full 
measure. Give us the grand inspiration of duty to country, human 
nature, and God. and the people are heroic, invincible, and always 
ready." 

The Governor had written a few days before to the Secretary 
of War, complaining of the delay practised by the United-States 
officers stationed here in paying the bounties and month's pay 
to recruits after being mustered in. On the 11th of August, 
Secretary Stanton telegraphs a reply to this letter, and also 
to the telegram sent to the President, from which we have 
quoted, - 

"Answer to your telegram of the 8th, to the President, has been de- 
layed, in order to obtain information from some other States as to the 
condition of enlistments. Requisitions for enlistments and bounty 
funds were delayed some days in the Treasury unavoidably ; but I am 
informed that the amount required for your State has gone forward. 
1 see no objection to making the call upon your State for militia in the 
manner indicated by you, especially if it will hasten the arrival of 
troops ; but I do not see how we can call for any specific brigade. 
You can turn over the regiments constituting Davis's brigade as a part 
of the call. Time is of the utmost importance in the organization." 



THE NINE MONTHS' REGIMENTS. 357 

The brigade of nine months' men was never accepted, 
although the regiments which composed General Davis's com- 
mand were recruited to the maximum, mustered in, and sent 
to the front. What the Governor said of General Davis was 
just and true. He was commissioned colonel of the Thirty- 
ninth Regiment, three years volunteers, Aug. 29, 1862, which 
joined the Army of the Potomac; and was killed in action, 
July 11, 1864. 

On the 11th of August, after receiving the telegram above 
quoted, the Governor wrote to President Lincoln, - 

"I can't get these regiments off, because I can't get quick, ener- 
getic work out of the United States disbursing officer and the pay- 
master. I cannot start our men in violation of my authorized pro- 
clamation and promises. Everybody here is alive : men swarm our 
camps ; we will raise regiments, until you cry hold. But why not 
turn over the funds to me, and we will disburse and account for them 
and stop delays." 

On the 12th of August, the Governor telegraphs the Secre- 
tary of War, - 

" The nine months' regiments, which are organizing, will be put into 
camp at once, and under strict discipline. May I go on, and make 
requisitions for quartermaster's and commissary's supplies, as for three 
years' men ? 

Authority was given. On the same, he writes to Brigadier- 
General Briggs, who was in Boston on wounded furlough,- 

"As you have expressed a wish to do some service for the State 
while waiting here, I ask you, as a great favor, to repair to Worcester 
to-morrow, to inspect the condition of the Thirty-sixth Regiment, and 
make a report to me as to its organization, - conferring with me and 
with the Adjutant-General before leaving." 

Aug. 13. -Governor telegraphs Adjutant-General Thomas, 
Washington, "Can the nine months' militia of Massachusetts 
be mustered in now, and as fast as they present them- 
selves? Please answer at once." Leave was only given to 
have them mustered in by full companies. On the same day, 
he telegraphed to Assistant Adjutant - General Townsend, 
"Please telegraph whether furloughs granted between July 31 



358 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

and Aug. 1 1 are revoked by General Order 92 of July 
31." On the same day. Colonel Browne, by direction of the 
Governor, forwards to John M. Forbes copies of certain 
papers in relation to supplies furnished by Mr. Forbes to our 
prisoners of war in Richmond, Vs., with information that "the 
Quartermaster-General of the Commonwealth will have pleas- 
ure in adjusting with you your account against the State for 
funds advanced by you for the supplies mentioned; and the 
Governor directs me to renew to you, officially and personally, 
the expression of his thanks for your generous kindness in this 
transaction." 

Among the letters and papers transmitted to Mr. Forbes by 
Colonel Browne was the following by Adjutant Peirson of the 
Twentieth Regiment, dated Camp Lee, Poolesville, Md., March 
8, 1862, and addressed to Colonel Browne : - 

"By special request of His Excellency Governor Andrew, I have 
the honor to report, that while a prisoner of war in Richmond, Va., I 
received a letter of credit from John M. Forbes, Esq., for $1,000. 
A portion of this money, $475, I expended for the benefit of enlisted 
men belonging to various Massachusetts regiments, and confined in 
Richmond and other places in Southern States. On being released 
and sent home, I left the balance subject to the draft of Assistant-Sur- 
geon E. H. R. Revere, Twentieth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, 
with instructions to expend it, as I had already done, for luxuries for 
the sick and necessities for the well. He will report to you for the 
balance in his hands. You will pardon my omitting to make a more 
detailed report, as I write while in the field and under marching 
orders." 

Another letter is from Assistant-Surgeon Revere, in which 
he states, that, after the departure from Richmond of Lieutenant 
Peirson, he had no occasion to draw on the letter of credit fur- 
nished by Mr. Forbes. He inclosed a copy of the account of 
Messrs. Enders, Sutton, & Co., with Lieutenant Peirson, 
which statement merely shows that the amount drawn by Lieu- 
tenant Peirson was $475. 

The whole matter had been laid before the Executive Council 
by the Governor, and by them it was voted that the sum ex- 
pended should be reimbursed to Mr. Forbes, principal and 



LETTERS OF THE GOVERNOR. 359 

interest. This transaction, although not of a great pecuniary 
amount, is interesting, as showing the warm sympathy which 
Mr. Forbes felt in the welfare of our prisoners, the scrupulous 
honesty of the officers intrusted to disburse the money, and the 
determination of the Governor and Council that the sum thus 
expended should be assumed by the State. 

On the fourteenth day of August, the Governor writes to 
Joseph F. Hitchcock, Warren, - 

"It gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter dated this day, which makes known to me the patriotic action of 
the citizens of Warren at the meeting held last evening, at which, you 
inform me, thirty persons volunteered to make up the quota of your 
town under the draft ordered by the President of the United States. 
I am pleased, also, to learn of the prompt zeal with which the quota of 
the town of Warren, under the first call, has been brought into camp ; it 
reflects great honor upon the town. In reply to the question contained 
in your letter, I would cordially recommend that the people of Warren 
unite with some of the neighboring towns, and present a full company, 
as suggested by you." 

On the same day, he wrote to Captain Lucius Slade, of Bos- 
ton, commanding the Boston Lancers, - 

" I assure you that it is quite impossible for any one who is not 
with me to understand how hard I work to put into the new regiments 
as commissioned officers our fine young fellows who are now in service, 
and how consistently and unanimously I am opposed in this policy by 
city and town officers, and committees claiming to represent the wishes 
of their vicinities, who all demand that their own townspeople shall be 
appointed as officers of the companies they have raised. I work in all 
the soldiers that I can, but still must usually give men belonging to 
their own towns." 

Aug. 15. -The Governor sends telegram to Secretary 
Stanton, that the Thirty-third Regiment, Colonel Maggi, left 
for Washington the day before, and that the Thirty-fourth, 
Colonel Wells, would leave that day. The Governor then 
says, - 

"In the material of their men, these regiments are excelled by no 
others Massachusetts has sent. If it shall be necessary to send them 
immediately into the field, it is the desire of Maggi to be assigned to 



360 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Sigel, and of Wells to Banks ; and I should like to have their wishes 
gratified. Both these regiments would have gone a week ago, but for 
the delay in giving them their bounty and advance pay." 

These regiments were assigned as desired. Colonel Maggi, 
of the Thirty-third, resigned his commission April 1, 1863. 
Colonel George D. Wells, of the Thirty-fourth, a judge of 
the Police Court of Boston when the war broke ant, who 
accepted the commission of lieutenant-colonel in the First 
Massachusetts Regiment of Infantry, three years' volunteers, 
and who had signalized himself for bravery and military ability 
in the campaign on Richmond, was killed in action, Oct. 13, 
1864, and was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers by 
the President of the United States for brave and meritorious 
services. 

The same day (Aug. 15)) the Governor writes to Hon. Car- 
ver Hotchkiss, Shelburne Falls : - 

"For more than a month I have been engaged in a constant strug- 
gle with town officers to get deserving men from the field appointed to 
lieutenancies and captaincies in the new regiments, in preference to 
ignorant civilians, who have every thing military yet to learn. In 
most instances, I have failed, owing to the necessity I am under of 
hastening enlistments as much as possible, and to the town authorities 
declaring, officially and individually, that they cannot raise men unless 
men at home, and from civil life, are appointed officers ; and owing 
also to the fact that the Administration will allow no man to be ap- 
pointed from the field, until all the men are raised whom he is to com- 
mand. The result is, that I have on my files several hundred of 
applications from prominent officers of Burnside's army and of the 
Army of the Potomac and of Virginia, recommending the promotion, 
into new regiments, of men who have distinguished themselves in the 
field for uniform good conduct and great bravery. Your son's name is 
among the number, and, as with the rest, I should be glad to put him 
anywhere that a place could be found for him ; but, as with the rest, I 
seek in vain for such a place. If a new company of three years' men 
is being raised by your town and its neighbors, and you can connect 
your son with its organization instead of some inexperienced man, 
who in the natural course of affairs might otherwise be injected there, 
that would aflord me the opportunity." 

It is proper to state here that the evil complained of in the 



LETTERS OF THE GOVERNOR. 361 

above letter naturally grew out of the system adhered to by 
the War Department, by not allowing men who had distin- 
guished themselves in service to come home and recruit men for 
the new regiments, so as to be commissioned officers when 
the regiment was raised. The town authorities were anxious to 
fill their quotas ; and in every town there were young men in 
every way qualified, except by practical experience in war, to 
have commissions. They exerted themselves to raise men, and 
many enlisted because of their exertion, who preferred that 
these men whom they knew should be their officers. Hence 
it was, that, while the Governor wished to appoint officers from 
the regiments in the field, the town authorities, and the recruits 
themselves, wished to have men commissioned who had aided in 
recruiting, and who were personally known to the recruits them- 
selves. Many letters were written by the Governor in regard 
to this matter ; but the evil being chronic, and beyond his power 
to cure, it continued until the end of the war. 

It would appear by the following letter, written by Colonel 
Browne, to Cyrus W. Francis, Yale College, New Haven, Ct., 
that the first attempt to enlist colored volunteers was by Gov- 
ernor Sprague, of Rhode Island, - 

"By direction of Governor Andrew, I beg to acknowledge the re- 
ceipt of your letter, and to reply, advising you to place yourself 
in communication and co-operation with the Governor of Rhode 
Island, on the subject of the enlistment of the company of colored 
men as volunteers. It will be essential to the recruitment of the 
colored regiment commenced by Governor Sprague, that the colored 
population of other States shall contribute towards it, the number of 
persons of African descent in the State of Rhode Island alone being 
insufficient for the purpose." 

It is proper and just, however, to say that the first regiment 
of colored troops, of which we shall have more to say hereafter, 
was raised in Massachusetts. 

On the twenty-fourth day of August, the Governor addressed 
the following letter to Hon. J. G. Abbott, Boston : - 

"My Dear Sir,- Not merely a certain official relation towards 
a brave young man, a citizen of Massachusetts and a soldier of the 
Union lately sustained and now severed, but a sincere sympathy with 



362 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

his father, whom, after all, I can scarcely call bereaved, invites me, after 
a brief space of respectful silence, to offer my humble word of friend- 
ship and consolation. An acquaintance of many years, less familiar 
perhaps than it had been useful to me had the opportunity existed, 
assures me that the resources of the mind of the man will do much to 
alleviate the grief and desolation which must depress the heart of the 
father. And, while I know that nothing I can suggest will not have 
been anticipated, I venture to hope, that a simple and earnest expres- 
sion of natural and human sympathy will be received and valued, if 
only for the sake of the kindness with which it is meant. I have fre- 
quently been impressed, my dear sir, with the manly spirit with which 
you have repeatedly and freely offered your sons to your country; and 
now that, in the providence of God, one of them has been verily taken, 
I would that it were in my power, by a feather's weight even, to soften 
the blow. But I rejoice to bear my hearty testimony, which is all that 
I can do, to the constant, uniform, and conspicuous merit, as a soldier 
and a gentleman, of the son you have given. I think you will always 
have a right to remember, with the pride equalled only by parental 
love, that our inheritance in a Commonwealth is made richer and 
nobler by the memories of such dear and brave boys of Massachusetts, 
whose young lives, consecrated even to death, were beautiful testi- 
monies of the preciousness of our birthright and the worth of liberty. 
I pray leave, my dear sir, to offer, through yourself, to your family my 
respectful sympathy and respect." 

This beautiful and touching letter was written to Mr. Abbott 
on the death of his son, Edward G. Abbott, who was killed in 
action, Aug. 9, 1862. He was a captain in the Second 
Regiment Massachusetts Infantry. Mr. Abbott had two sons 
in the war, - one in the Second, and one in the Twentieth 
Regiment. His other son, Henry L. Abbott, went out a cap- 
tain in the Twentieth Regiment, rose to the rank of major, and 
was killed in the Wilderness, May 6, 1864. They were young 
men of great promise, bom and reared in the city of Lowell, 
graduates of Harvard College, and both now he beneath a sol- 
diers' monument in the cemetery of their native city. These 
were all the sons of the family. 

On the twenty-third day of August, an executive order was 
issued, of which the following is a copy : - 

In order to promote the recruitment of the Massachusetts quotas. 



THE APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS. 363 

both of volunteers and militia, I respectfully recommend that through- 
out the Commonwealth, and especially in the cities and larger towns, 
business generally be suspended during the afternoons of the coming 
week, and that the time and influence of every citizen be given to en- 
couraging enlistments, by the example of his own enrolment, if he is 
within the prescribed limits of age and health, and, if not, by stimulat- 
ing the patriotism of his neighbors. 

" Jo H N A . An D R E w. 
" By His Excellency the Governor. 

" OLIVER WARNER Secretary of the Commonwealth. " 

This order was very generally observed throughout the Com- 
monwealth, until the thirty-four thousand men which we were to 
raise were organized into regiments, and sent forward to the 
war. 

In the appointment of field officers for the new three years' 
regiments, the Governor determined to appoint men who had 
seen service, and who had given unquestionable evidence of 
bravery and military capacity. Accordingly, he wrote to Mr. 
Stanton, at different times, for the discharge of Captain Bates, 
of the Twelfth Regiment, to be commissioned major of the 
Thirty-third ; Lieutenant-Colonel Batchelder, of the Thirteenth, 
and others, that they might be promoted to higher commands 
in new regiments. It appears that these applications met with 
serious opposition from army officers, as we find on the Gov- 
ernor's files a letter, dated Aug. 24, addressed to Mr. Stanton, 
in which he says, - 

" I am right, no matter what the army officers think or say, in ask- 
ing you for some officers to be promoted in the new regiments. Our 
old ones have plenty of men well worthy of promotion ; and, when I 
take out an officer, I merely make it weaker by one man : a good man 
below him stands ready to make good tile place vacated. In a new 
regiment just marching to the field, a few good fellows, who know what 
camp life and battles are, are valuable beyond price to all the rest of 
the command. Batchelder, of the Thirteenth, is not needed there. 
That regiment could furnish officers for a whole regiment outside of 
itself, and be no more weakened than is a bird by laying its eggs. 1 1 
is remarkable for its excellence of material. ... I beg you, my dear 
sir, to forgive my explicitness ; for I know that if here, where you could 
cross-examine me, you would be satisfied I am right." 



364 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Aug. 25. - Governor telegraphs Mr. Stanton, - 

"We have now recruited thirteen thousand eight hundred and one 
men for three years, under July requisition. Nothing done afternoons 
in Massachusetts but recruiting. Balance of quota sure So will be 
militia quota. If supplies are ready, I mean the old Sixth Regiment, 
of Baltimore memory, to march the first day of September. No draft 
can be useful or expedient here." 

One of the greatest hardships which Massachusetts and other 
maritime States had to bear in furnishing their quotas of the 
several calls for troops made by the President, was the refusal 
of Congress to allow credits for men serving in the navy. It 
bore with peculiar weight upon the towns in Barnstable, Nan- 
tucket, Essex, Suffolk, Plymouth, and Norfolk Counties, which 
had sent many thousand men into the navy, but had received no 
credit for them, and no reduction of their contingent for the army. 
It was not until 1864, after Massachusetts had sent upwards of 
twenty-three thousand men into the navy, that credits were 
allowed by Congress for the men who manned our frigates, 
under Porter and Farragut, watched blockade-runners, and 
sealed the Southern ports. Governor Andrew had frequently 
spoken of the injustice of Congress in refusing to allow these 
credits, and had exerted himself to the utmost to effect, a 
change. On the 27th of August, he telegraphed to Governor 
Washburn, of Maine, - 

"Has Maine succeeded in obtaining an allowance on her men in the 
navy towards the army draft? If not, does she propose to be content 
without such an allowance? How can some towns possibly fill their 
quotas without it?" 

On the same day in which the above was written, Governor 
Andrew drew up a form of a letter, addressed to President 
Lincohi, which was sent to the Governors of the New-England 
States, which, if approved, they were requested to sign. The 
letter received their sanction and their signatures, and was for- 
warded to the President of the United States. It read as 
follows : - 

"We unite in respectfully but most urgently presenting to your 
attention the inequality of the militia draft among the States, caused 



IMPEDIMENTS TO ENLISTMENTS. 365 

by withholding every allowance for men sent into the naval service. 
The New-England States have many thousands of volunteers in the 
national navy, belonging chiefly to the sea-coast counties, which are 
nevertheless to be subject to the same draft as the counties in the in- 
land States. So great is this inequality, that, if the draft is to be 
vigorously imposed on some of our seaports without making this allow- 
ance, it will absorb the whole male population of those towns within 
the limits of the military age." 

The letter produced no change ; and the towns referred to 
succeeded in filling their quotas by inducing persons to enlist 
from other places to their credit. 

On the 28th of August, the Adjutant-General reported to 
the Governor thus : - 

" In recruiting the nine months' men, we meet with obstacles at every 
step. The mustering officer refuses to muster them in until a regiment 
is full: Now he also refuses to furnish transportation for the recruits 
to camp, and there is no way to get them to camp unless the State 
assumes the responsibility, or the officers and men pay their fares from 
their own means. As this is a matter of serious importance, I ask 
your Excellency's orders what to do." 

The same day, the Governor telegraphed these facts to Mr. 
Stanton, and added, - 

"We have more than five thousand nine months' men ready to go 
into service immediately, who have abandoned their avocations, and ask 
only to be received at once, but are repressed and discouraged by these 
repulses. If I were capable of discouragement, I should be almost 
discouraged by the obstacles which block my efforts at every turn. If 
the whole recruitment, transportation, and equipment were left to the 
State as last year, we should be a month ahead of our present 
position." 

Mr. Stanton telegraphed, that it was by law impossible for 
him to put the recruitment of the militia, and the disbursement 
of the funds, into the hands of the Governor ; to which he 
wrote a long and able reply, showing that all reason and expe- 
rience proves the absolute necessity that human affairs should 
be controlled from the centre, and not from the circumference. 
He says,- 



366 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

"Perhaps we are doing as well as other Slates ; but it nearly drives 
me mad when I see the American armies running before a generation 
of scoundrels, and American liberty almost prostrate before a power 
which challenges government itself, outrages humanity, and defies God ; 
and when I know the full strength and power of our Massachusetts 
people is unused, and incapable of being fully used, by reason simply 
of formal and mechanical defects of system and method, I feel as if 
we absolutely did nothing. Our State is one vast camp ; the people, 
from midday until midnight, close their shops and stores, and work for 
the recruitment. God only knows whether the President will ever 
burst his bonds of Border-Stateism and McCIellan : but the people 
somehow are blessed with an instinct of faith, before which, I believe, 
mountains themselves will move; and I work with the same confi- 
dence and zeal as if I knew that they had moved already. I believe 
that Providence has made too great an investment, alike in the history 
and in the capacity of this people, to permit their ruin. I am sure you 
feel as I do ; and if I had a power of speech which could raise the dead, 
like the trumpet of an archangel, or if words could blister the granite 
rocks of Mount Washington, still, no voice nor language could ex- 
press the sentiments of emotion which befit the occasion and the 
hour." 

An arrangement was made, at this time, for the Governors 
of the New-England States to meet, as if accidentally, at the 
Commencement of Brown University, in Providence, on the 3d 
of September, " for an hour of frank and uninterrupted conver- 
sation." The meeting was held ; but no intimation of what 
was discussed, or what was done, appears upon the. Executive 
files. 

In the latter part of August, the scene of active war was 
changed from before Richmond, to the army under General 
Pope, before Washington. The losses in the Union army were 
very great. The Secretary of War telegraphed the Governor 
to send forward additional surgeons to take charge of the sick 
and wounded. Surgeon-General Dale was directed to make 
arrangements to comply with the request, and to send forward 
hospital stores. On the 1st of September, the Governor tele- 
graphed to Mr. Stanton, - 

"In obedience to your telegram received at five o'clock, Saturday 
afternoon, eleven first-rate surgeons started immediately ; thirty more 



MEMORIAL OF PHYSICIANS. 367 

left Massachusetts yesterday -all regularly detailed by our Surgeon- 
General, under your order,-- and all surgeons of high character and 
ability ; also, nine car-loads of hospital stores left Boston last night. " 

On the fifteenth day of September, the Governor wrote to 
the Secretary of War, recommending the appointment of Gen- 
eral Strong to the command of the post of New York, in place 
of the officer then there. He preferred to have one selected 
from civil hfe, rather than one whose experience and education 
was only military. New York is the gate through which our 
regiments advance to the war, and through which also "our 
poor and wounded men, brave in their patience, and more than 
heroic in their sufferings, are obliged to return, as they wearily 
and sadly are borne home to die." General Strong, here 
spoken of, probably was the gentleman who was chief-of- staff 
to General Butler while in command of the Department of New 
tingland, and who was afterwards killed at Fort Wagner. But 
of this we are not certain. 

On the first day of October, the Governor forwarded to the 
Secretary of War a memorial signed by about seventy-five phy- 
sicians of Massachusetts, among whom were many of the most 
distinguished in the State, setting forth that the ambulance 
arrangements of the United-States army were extremely de- 
fective, and caused great suffering to our sick and wounded 
soldiers ; and suggesting that the cause of humanity and the 
real welfare of the soldiers would be promoted by placing the 
control of this part of the service more immediately under the 
supervision of the Medical Department of the United States; 
with authority to authorize a distinct ambulance corps. 

On the same day, he wrote to the President, bringing to his 
attention a certain injustice done our. soldiers, in keeping them 
imprisoned without trial by court-martial ; and suggesting, 
that a board be convened by the Governors of States for 
such duty, the following names to constitute the board for 
Massachusetts : Major-General William Sutton, Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Richard A. Peirce, Lieutenant-Colonel C. C. Holmes, 
Lieutenant-Colonel John W. Wetherell; Major Charles W. 
Wilder, Major Thornton K. Lothrop, Captain George H. 
Shaw, Lieutenant Curtis B. Raymond, and, for Judge-Advo- 



368 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Gate, Major William L. Burt, all of whom held commissions 
under the Governor in the Massachusetts militia. The Gov- 
ernor draws the attention of the President to chapter 201 of the 
Acts of Congress of 1862, which gives him power for the ap- 
pointment of such a board. The suggestion of the Governor 
was not approved; at least, the board recommended was never 
convened. 

The battle of Antietam, in which many of the Massachu- 
setts officers and men were killed and wounded, was fought 
Sept. 15, 1862. Dr. Hitchcock, of Fitchburg, a member of the 
Executive Council, was requested by the Governor to obtain, 
if possible, from General McClellan, the transfer of the Massa- 
chusetts soldiers to our own State hospitals for treatment. Dr. 
Hitchcock says, - 

" I called at General McClellan' s headquarters, and delivered the 
Governor's written request, which he immediately telegraphed to the 
Secretary of War, to which a favorable reply was returned. This 
interview, which lasted but a few minutes, was remarkable for polite- 
ness and deliberation on his part. He sat cross-legged, and puffed away 
at a fragrant Havana, and, at the interval of each clearly expressed 
sentence, would gently snap the ashes from the end of the cigar. 
During this interview, with the most perfect nonchalance, he made 
known the fact that eleven thousand wounded men were lying near his 
tent, and that the headquarters of General Lee, with his rebel army, 
was only three miles distant, across the Potomac. It is needless, per- 
haps, to add, that the consent of the Secretary of War, and the willing 
word, but non-action, of General McClellan, failed in the fullest 
sense to realize the urgent request of Governor Andrew in reference 
to our men. Many of our soldiers were, however, brought home from 
that bloody field, and tenderly cared for in the hospitals of the State. 
and at the homes of the men." 

It would be difficult to describe accurately the excitement and 
interest which the great battle of Antietam created in Massa- 
chusetts . The great majority of our regiments and batteries 
were engaged in it. Several of our best officers were killed ; 
many were wounded ; and the fatality which attended the rank 
and file was terrible. It was a victory, however, - a victory for 
the Union, a triumph for the Army of the Potomac over the 



RETURN OF THE SICK AND WOUNDED. 369 

rebel army under Lee. From early spring these two armies 
had been face to face ; from Yorktown to within the sight of the 
spires of Richmond, they had fought almost daily for months. 
The advance on Richmond, however, was not successful. The 
retreat to Harrison's Landing, of General McClellan's army, 
gave the rebels an opportunity to attack Pope, and defeat him. 
Then we had the second Bull Run battle. Lee then advanced 
with his entire command, crossed the Potomac, and entered 
Maryland, McClellan's army was brought, up from the Penin- 
sula, and advanced to meet him. On the fourteenth day of Sep- 
tember, Hooker's corps took Maryland Heights by storm ; 
General Reno and General Mansfield killed. Hooker wounded. 
On the 17th, the battle of Antietam was fought. Lee retreated, 
with what remained of his army, across the Potomac. He was 
not pursued, as many thought he should have been. General 
McClellan was deposed from the command of the army. The 
pursuit of Leo commenced; but it was too late. This great 
year of war was practically finished. The army went into 
winter quarters, taking position in Virginia to shield the capital 
from attack. 

Recruiting for the army continued briskly through the year ; 
the losses in battle, the disasters on the Peninsula and under 
General Pope, stimulated rather than depressed enlistments. 
Successes had crowned our arms in the Southwest and in North 
and South Carolina ; and hope grew strong, that, in the end, the 
Union arms would be victorious everywhere. The wounded 
and sick who came home spoke in cheering words. They 
claimed that the Union army had been victorious every time and 
everywhere. This buoyant and gallant spirit, expressed by 
those who had seen the most and suffered the most, was remark- 
able. We cannot call to mind an instance where these wounded 
veterans ever spoke despondingly; and we saw many of them 
every day. Their wives and mothers felt proud of them, and 
the men felt proud of themselves. They had stories to tell 
which they had learned around the camp-fires, and incidents 
to relate which happened on the advance and on the retreat. 
They had learned new phrases, and coined new words, about the 
"Johnnies" and the "Butternuts," terms used to designate the 
24 



370 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

rebel soldiers. Jests and banters had been exchanged across 
the picket lines. Some of them made jokes about losing their 
legs, and "how funny they felt" after recovering from the 
effects of chloroform, and found that a limb had been taken off; 
and every one knew, that, " with fair play, the Army of the 
Potomac could whip the world." Such was the spirit of our 
wounded men. There was no grumbling, no fault-finding ; nor 
was there any appearance of personal hatred towards the sol- 
diers in the rebel army. General McClellan was their idol ; 
they believed in him, and trusted him, and wished for no other 
commander. The unfavorable criticisms which had been made 
upon him found no response in their bosoms. What qualities 
of mind or of personal address there were in General McClellan 
to inspire love and confidence in the breasts of his soldiers we 
know not, as he, of all the great army commanders, is the 
only one whom we never saw ; but that he possessed this power, 
which is one of the greatest and most necessary in a great offi- 
cer, we have no doubt. The evidence of it was presented to us 
every day. Next to McClellan, in the popular affection of the 
soldiers, was General Hooker. They loved to call him "Fight- 
ing Joe ; " and men who served in his corps felt themselves as 
especially honored, and many, we doubt not, would freely have 
sacrificed their lives for him personally. It was curious and 
interesting to hear these men converse about their officers, 
many of whom they freely criticised in a manner not at all com- 
plimentary ; but those whom they beheved in, whom they knew 
to be brave, and who took good care of their men, they spoke 
of in words of warm affection. 

The men who served in North Carolina under Burnside and 
Foster were equally warm in their attachment to these officers. 
They had led them to victory ; and, whatever was said in their 
praise, they felt they were entitled to a share of it. They called 
General Burnside "Old Bumsie ; " and many were the stories of 
his kindness when he visited them in their hospitals, or received 
returned prisoners in a flag-of-truce boat, and shook them by the 
hands, and inquired after their health, and saw that they had 
good quarters, and were properly cared for. Many anecdotes 
are told by the winter firesides about these officers by the sol- 



REPUBLICAN STATE CONVENTION. 371 

diers who fought under them ; forgetting for the moment their 
trials and sufferings, to say kind words of the officers who had 
led them into so many fatal fields. These are among die com- 
pensations which true merit receives, and are the highest honors 
and rewards which true valor and high soldierly qualities com- 
mand. 

We now return to the political aspect of the Commonwealth. 

The Republican State Convention met in Worcester on the 
10th of September. The call issued by the State Central Com- 
mittee for the election of delegates invited the attendance and 
co-operation of all "who will support the present national and 
State Governments, and in favor of all means necessary for the 
effectual suppression of the Rebellion." It does not appear, 
however, that any but members of the Republican party took 
part in the Convention. 

Hon. A. H. Bullock, of Worcester, was chosen president; 
and, on taking the chair, he made a brief patriotic address, in 
which he said, that since, upon the absorbing question of prose- 
cuting the war, we all are substantially agreed, he "could not 
see why there should be any occasion for partisan spirit within 
the assembly, or cause for disapproval without." He said he 
had learned many things during the past year ; one of which 
was, "that African slavery on this continent is so intimately 
connected with the war, that the two things can no longer be 
considered apart. It had been a source of strength to the Re- 
bellion ; " and asked, "If this be so, why is it not the duty of the 
Administration to deal with the subject precisely as all the poli- 
cies of war suggest, and all the necessities of our case demand." 
Further on, he said, "At all events, let Massachusetts, while 
abiding in her holy and traditional faith, hold herself in har- 
mony with her sister States in constancy and in sacrifice to the 
last." Colonel Bullock closed his address by an eloquent 
quotation from Mr. Webster to avoid disunion, and abide by the 
Constitution. 

J. &. A. Griffin, of Charlestown, moved that a committee 
be appointed " to draft the customary resolutions." This motion 
was opposed by R. H. Dana, Jr., of Cambridge, who said this 
was not a day for long resolutions. If any were necessary, he 



372 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

hoped they would be short, declaring a hearty support of the 
State and national Governments for the suppression of the Re- 
bellion ; and concluded by offering the following, which some 
one had handed him : - 

"Resolved, That Massachusetts, with all her heart and soul and 
mind and strength, will support the President of the United States in 
the prosecution of this war to the entire and final suppression of this 
Rebellion." 

Mr. Griffin replied ; and, although he should vote for the reso- 
lution just read, yet he wished the position of Massachusetts to 
be more broadly expressed. He concluded with offering a reso- 
lution, the substance of which was, thanking Senators Sum- 
ner and Wilson for the faithful manner in which they had 
discharged their duties, and recommending Mr. Surmier for re- 
election to the Senate. 

Mr. Davis, of Plymouth, said that this was a war of ideas, 
of barbarism against civilization, involving the principles of civil 
liberty on one hand, and the principles of damnafion on the 
other. He wanted an expression of opinion on the general 
pohcy of the war. "We haven't," he said, " a press in Boston 
to speak for us. There are some country papers which speak 
for us, but they are kept down by the subscription-hsts of Bos- 
ton." He favored the appointment of a Committee on Resolu- 
tions, which, after some further discussion, was carried ; and the 
resolutions offered by Mr. Dana and Mr. Griffin were referred 
to the committee. 

A letter from Mr. Sumner was read, regretting his inability 
to accept an invitation to be present at the convention. He 
said he should show plainly "how to hamstring this Rebellion, 
and to conquer a peace. To this single pracfical purpose all 
theories, prepossessions, and aims should yield. So absorbing 
at this moment is this question, that nothing is practical which 
does not directly tend to its final settlement." We infer that 
Mr. Sumner's mode of hamstringing the RebelUon was to declare 
freedom to the slaves, and to put arms in the hands of colored 
soldiers. "All else is blood-stained vanity." He referred to 
the action of General Butler in Louisiana, in organizing a negro 



DEMOCRATIC STATE CONVENTION. 373 

regiment, and to General Banks, "when, overtaking the Uttle 
slave girl on her way to freedom, he lifted her upon the na- 
tional cannon. In this act, the brightest, most touching, and 
most suggestive of the whole war, which art will hereafter 
rejoice to commemorate, our Massachusetts General gave a 
lesson to the country." 

The Committee on Resolutions reported five in number : 
First, That Massachusetts would support the Government in the 
prosecution of the war. Second, That, as slavery was a princi- 
pal support of the rebellion, slavery should be exterminated. 
Third was complimentary to the valor of our soldiers, and ex- 
pressed sympathy for those who had fallen. The fourth was 
the same which had been introduced by Mr. Griffm, complimen- 
tary to our Senators in Congress, and favoring the re-election 
of Mr. Sumner to the Senate by the Legislature to be elected 
in November. The fifth indorsed in strong terms the State 
Administration. 

These resolutions were adopted, although considerable oppo- 
sition was made to the one recommending Senator Sumner's 
re-election. 

The convention nominated Governor Andrew and the old 
State officers for re-election by acclamation, with the exception 
of the Lieutenant-Governor. Hon. John Nesmith had de- 
cUned to be again a candidate ; and Joel Hayden, of Williams- 
burg, was nominated Lieutenant-Governor in his stead, on the 
first ballot. This completed the ticket, which was as follows : 
For Governor, John A. Andrew, of Boston; Lieutenant- 
Governor, Joel Hayden, of Williamsburg ; Secretary of State, 
Oliver Warner, of Northampton ; Treasurer, Henry K. Oliver, 
of Salem; Auditor, Levi Reed, of Abington; Attorney-Gen- 
eral, Dwight Foster, of Worcester. 

The Democratic party proper did not hold a convention to 
nominate candidates for State officers this year; but a conven- 
tion was held in Faneuil Hall on the 7th of October, composed 
of Democrats and conservative Republicans, at which Brigadier- 
General Charles Devens, Jr., was nominated for Governor ; 
Thomas F. Plunket, of Adams, for Lieutenant-Governor ; and 
Henry W. Paine, of Cambridge, for Attorney-General. The 



374 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Other State officers nominated by the Republicans were adopted 
by the "People's Convention." 

The call for this convention was very numerously signed by 
gentlemen living in different parts of the Commonwealth. 

The resolutions which were adopted favored a vigorous prose- 
cution of the war. Perhaps the last one of the series explains 
the motives which induced the call better than any remarks of 
our own :— 

"Resolved, That Massachusetts responds with full heart to the ac- 
claim with which the Army of Virginia greeted the appointment to its 
command of Major-General George B. McCIellan. We put trust in 
him whom brave men desire, to do battle for our cause. Let all irregu- 
lar and irresponsible intermeddling with his command of the army, 
whether in high places or low, by letter-writers in camp or Governors 
in convention, anywhere and everywhere, henceforth cease." 

The president of the convention was Hon. Linus Child, who 
described the action of the Republican Convention as "of a char- 
acter to disturb that union, and that unity of action and of 
government, which alone can render our efforts successful in the 
great work we have in hand." 

Judge Abbott spoke in favor of every patriot coming forward 
to sustain the Government, "and consult for the best interests 
of a tottering nation. We must have the abandonment of all 
parties. The only question now is, Shall the glorious old flag 
wave over the whole land, or only a part of it?" In conclusion, 
he said, "Let us pledge ourselves anew to defend the Constitu- 
tion, and, in the presence of the great Webster, swear that we 
will give life, honor, and every thing else, in support of it, till 
it shall float in undimmed splendor over the whole country in 
peace and in honor." 

Judge Parker, of Cambridge, was the next speaker; and, in 
the course of his remarks, he took up the address drawn up and 
signed by the Governors of the loyal States, as agreed upon at 
Altoona, Pa., a few days preceding. He considered it a treasona- 
ble plotting of the Governors, and added, that, if they sought 
the removal of General McCIellan, they met too late to dare to 
do this, as he was the commander of a victorious army, and it 
was too dangerous. 



MR. SALTONSTALL'S EXPLANATION. 375 

At this point, Mr. Saltonstall, of Newton; stepped on the 
platform, and said, he held a letter in his hand from a friend in 
Baltimore, which stated that a formal proposition was made at 
Altoona to remove General McClellan from the command of the 
Army of Virginia. On being asked which of the Governors it 
was who had made the proposition, Mr. Saltonstall said that the 
letter was of a private nature, and he was not permitted to 
give all its contents ; but the convention could well imagine 
who made the proposition." The meeting understood him to 
mean Governor Andrew. 

Two days after the convention was held, Mr. Saltonstall ad- 
dressed a letter to the editor of the Boston Journal to correct 
an error he had made; by which it appeared that Mr. Salton- 
stall' s statement had, for its basis, the following paragraph, 
which was in a letter addressed to him by a friend in Balti- 
more : - 

" I learn from Governor B. [meaning Governor Bradford, of Mary- 
land], that there was a formal proposition made to remove the Com- 
manding General. He does not feel at liberty to say more." 

Mr. Saltonstall' s explanation was, that he had mistaken the 
word no for the letter a ; and, instead of saying, a formal 
proposition had been made, &c., the letter really said that no 
formal proposition had been made. No gentleman supposed 
Mr. Saltonstall was intentionally guilty of misrepresentation. 
The explanation, dierefore, was satisfactory to the public, though 
the mistake, necessarily, was very annoying to the gentleman 
who made it. 

When Governor Bradford was informed of Mr. Saltonstall' s 
statement, he immediately telegraphed to Governor Andrew, 
disavowing having made it, to which Governor Andrew replied 
that- 

"No explanation was needed between us on the matter in question ; 
for of course I knew that any declaration that, such a statement had 
been made by or from you must be mistaken. . . . The truth is, that I 
made no proposition, formal, informal, direct, indirect, near, or re- 
mote, for the appointment, promotion, or displacement, or for any other 
dealing, with any officer, high or low, in our military service," 



376 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION, 

The Faneuil-Hall Convention was a highly respectable body 
of men, and the nominations were very proper to be made. 
General Devens, who was put forward for Governor, had ren- 
dered efficient service by his bravery and capacity in the field, and 
was well and favorably known throughout the Commonwealth ; 
but nothing could shake the confidence of the people in Gov- 
ernor Andrew, or cause a change in the State Administration. 
Governor Andrew was triumphantly re-elected ; the vote for 
Governor being, - Andrew, 79,835 ; Devens, 52,587 ; all 
others, 1,733. 

On the thirtieth day of September, the Governor received a 
letter from Major John A. BoUes, a gentleman formerly well 
known in Boston, but who at this time was serving on the staff 
of Major-General Dix at Fortress Monroe. Major Belles' s letter 
was accompanied by one from General Dix ; also, one addressed 
to him from the Secretary of War. In these communications, 
it was proposed that the Governor should take some active 
measures for the reception in Massachusetts of a portion of the 
escaped slaves then within our lines near Fortress Monroe. 
This plan was represented as very desirable, for reasons both 
military and humane. It was also urged that the fortress 
might be attacked by the rebels, and these people swept back 
into slavery. To this invitation the Governor replied, that, 
though he sympathized deeply with the humane motives upon 
which General Dix was seeking to act, he did not assent, in any 
way or in any degree, to the plan proposed; but that these 
motives of humanity led him in a different direction, which 
sound reasoning made manifest. He said that the true interest 
of the African and Saxon were interwoven, and their rights 
identical; so that the maintenance of the one became the salva- 
tion of the other. If it were true, as stated, that "rebel hordes 
were coiling their traitorous length for a deadly spring upon 
Fortress Monroe, and that rebel iron-clads were coming down 
the river," and that " the Union force who opposed the threat- 
ened assault was inferior to the force that menaced them," then, 
by listening to the proposals made, he should deprive " the band 
of heroes now under command of General Dix, and steadily, 
awaiting the storm'," of the strength of hundreds of stout arms 



COLORED FREEDMEN. 377 

which would be nerved with the desperation of men fighting for 
liberty, and would deprive this slandered race of the praise to 
be acquired in a bold struggle for their dearest rights. Here 
Providence had given to them a chance to complete their emanci- 
pation from slavery ; and, if he should do any thing to deny them, 
that chance, he would be injuring the cause of the Union arms. 
He would not, therefore, do any thing to take away from General 
Dix this great reserved force, as he had no doubt it would 
prove, if the General would but use it. If the fortress was 
attacked, the blacks would fight to preserve their freedom, and 
they are needed. If any thing could strengthen his previous 
opinions on this point, it would be just such facts as were nar- 
rated in the letters he had received. If the negroes had 
wives and children to fight for, in addition to their freedom, 
they would not show themselves insensible to the motives 
which have inspired all other races. He would welcome every 
blow of theirs which might at once carry succor to a patriot, 
death to a traitor, renewed life to their own veins, and victory to 
our flag. Contemplating, however, the probability of their 
removal, the Northern States were of all places the worst possi- 
ble to select for an asylum. These poor people were inhabi- 
tants of a Southern climate, and were subject to needs and to 
peculiarities of physical constitution accordingly. Where, then, 
was the prudence or humanity of subjecting them to the rigors 
of a Northern sky in the winter season, with the moral cer- 
tainty of inflicting extreme suffering, resulting probably in dis- 
ease and death. If their removal were definitely determined 
upon, he wouldsuggest for the asylum some Union foothold in 
the South, as Hilton Head, where they could retain their 
health, be trained as soldiers, and their labor made available. 
For them to come North would be for them to come as paupers 
and sufferers to a strange land, as a swarm of houseless wan- 
derers migrating without a purpose to a busy community, 
where they would be incapable of self-help ; a course certain to 
demoralize themselves and endanger others. Such a course 
would be a handle to all traitors, and to all persons evilly dis- 
posed : we should be told that the experiment had been tried, 
and failed ; that the negroes had proved worthless, and incapable 



378 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

of taking care of themselves, - when the truth would be that 
we had pursued the plan most calculated to disable and corrupt 
them. He met with pleasure the motive of humanity which 
had dictated the proposed plan ; but, from the very same feelings, 
he considered the plan a mistaken one. It was because he did 
not wish the negroes to suffer, because he wished to save their 
wives and children from perishing, and to prevent their new 
freedom from becoming license, corruption, and infamy, that he 
declined to aid or countenance this plan for their transportation 
to the North. The Governor presented the same views to the 
Secretary of War, who acceded to them ; and the plan was 
abandoned. 

We fmd in the Governor's files a large number of letters in 
regard to the freedmen ; among others, a long and interesting 
report from C. B. Wilder, " superintendent of contrabands " at 
Fortress Monroe, showing how the colored laborers at that 
point were denied their hard-earned wages through the neglect 
and dishonest practices of officers of the Government. We 
also find the draft of a memorial to Congress, written by the 
Governor Dec. 10, 1862, in which the claims of the freedmen 
to the protection of the Government are very strongly set forth, 
and which says, that, without a system for the speedy organiza- 
tion of the emancipated, the proclamation of the President, of 
Sept. 22,1862, would prove either fruitless, or only a proclama- 
tion of anarchy. With a proper system wisely administered, 
emancipation would be "prosperity to the South, progress to 
the African race, and peace to the republic." 

The great number of men which Massachusetts was called 
upon in 1862 to furnish for the military service of the country 
rendered this year one of the most busy and anxious of the war. 
To this we may add the fearful losses which had been sustained 
in the battles before Richmond, at Antietam, and before Wash- 
ington under General Pope, which multiplied greatly the labors 
of all the military departments of the Commonwealth, and espe- 
cially those of the Surgeon-General. The towns were anxious to 
fill their quotas on the one hand, and on the other to receive back 
the sick and wounded from the regiments in the field. Every 
thing was done which human agency could do to accomplish 



LETTER OF ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 379 

both of these objects. What gave an impetus to recruiting was 
the fear of a draft, which the Government was determined to 
enforce unless the men called for were furnished by voluntary 
enlistments within a reasonable time. A new enrolment had 
been made, under the superintendence of Major Rogers, assist- 
ant Adjutant-General, and the United-States military com- 
mander . Assistant provost-marshals had been appointed in 
the several Congressional districts to carry out the machinery 
of the draft; but, thanks to the patriotism of the people and 
the activity of the city and town authorities, and the officers of 
the State, the contingent was raised before the end of the year 
by volunteers. Yet all that was done by the State authorities 
to aid recruiting, and organize and send forward regiments, did 
not shield them from complaints by selectmen and others, whose 
own labors in the work of recruiting left them no time to 
reflect upon the labors of others. Many letters are upon the 
files in the State House, filled with complaints of this character. 
We will quote the answer made by the Adjutant-General to one 
of these complaints, which will serve to illustrate the whole :- 

" Your favor has been received ; and I wish you would say to the 
selectmen and others who scold the Governor and me for not sending 
a mustering officer to Pittsfield whenever they feel like having one, 
that they had better come here, and try half as hard as I do to have 
officers sent there, and I think afterwards they would grumble no 
more at the Governor and the Adjutant-General. Last week I sent a 
mustering officer to Pittsfield, through the kindness of Captain Collins, 
United-States chief mustering officer. I told him how much one was 
needed ; and, although the officer sent was needed at 'Camp Stanton, 
I arranged that he should go to Pittsfield instead. Well, he went 
there. The next day, he telegraphed Captain Collins that there was 
no one in camp ready to be mustered in, and requested to know how 
long he must stay there. This telegram Captain Collins sent up to 
me, with a little note blaming me for sending his officer two hun- 
dred miles off on a sort of tomfool's errand. I advised him, however, 
to hold on a day or two, and finish up Berkshire if possible ; that I 
had no doubt you would have the recruits ready for him by that time. 
So I supposed the thing was finished, and that I should have the 
thanks of the selectmen, instead of 'their sweet little curses.' Now, 
then, I wish you would say to the town authorities who ' swear at us'. 



380 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

that we have nine camps of rendezvous in the State, in two of which 
there are three regiments each ; in three, two regiments each ; and, in 
the others, one each. There are but two mustering officers in the 
State ; so you will see that it is not such an easy thing to get a mus- 
tering officer to go to Pittsfield every day. We have no. command 
over these officers, and cannot say to them, Go, and he goeth, or Come, 
and he cometh ; but, like the voters for the People's party, we have to 
get them when and how we can. I have just heard that Captain 
Arnold is at Pittsfield, and will muster in the two remaining companies 
of the Berkshire regiment ; so you see you have been treated as you 
ought to be, with marked liberality in regard to mustering officers. I 
hope I have satisfied you. With any shortcomings, no blame can 
properly attach to the State authorities." 

At length the quota of the State was filled. Upwards of 
thirty-three thousand men had been recruited in less than five 
months, regiments formed, thoroughly organized and equipped, 
and sent to the war. We have already given the names of the 
three months' regiments and batteries, dates of their departure 
from the State, and the names of the commanding officers. We 
now proceed with the nine months' regiments. 

The Third Regiment served in the three months' term in the 
beginning of the war. It was recruited to the full standard for 
the nine months' service at " Camp Joe Hooker," at Lakeville. 
On the twenty-second day of October, the regiment embarked 
at Boston, in steamers " Merrimack " and "Mississippi," under 
command of Colonel Silas P. Richmond, and arrived at Beau- 
fort, N.C., Oct. 26, and reached Newbem the same evening. 

The Fourth Regiment, which had also served in the three 
months' campaign in 1861, was recruited to the full standard at 
"Camp Joe Hooker " for the nine months' service. On the 
seventeenth day of December, it was ordered to join General 
Banks's command at New Orleans. It left the State on that 
day for New York, under the command of Colonel Henry 
Walker. From New York it went by transport to New 
Orleans. 

The Fifth Regiment, which had also served in the three 
months' campaign, was recruited for nine months' service at 
"Camp Lander," at Wenham. It sailed from Boston in trans- 



DEPARTURE OF NINE MONTHS* REGIMENTS. 381 

ports, under command of Colonel George H. Peirson, for New- 
bern, N.C., with orders to report for duty to Major-General 
Foster. 

The Sixth Regiment, the same which had fought its way 
through Baltimore, April 19, 1861, was recruited and or- 
ganized for the nine months' service at "Camp Henry Wilson," 
at Lowell. It was the determination of the Governor to have the 
Sixth Regiment the first to leave the State for the nine months' 
service. It received orders to report at Washington, and left 
Massachusetts under command of Colonel Albert S. Follansbee 
about Sept. 1. It remained in Washington until the 13th, 
when it was ordered to Suffolk, VR. 

The Eighth Regiment served with distinction in the three 
months' service. It opened the route by Annapolis to Wash- 
ington. It was recruited to the maximum for the nine months' 
service at "Camp Lander," at Wenham. It sailed from Boston 
on the seventh day of November, under the command of Colo- 
nel Frederick J. Coffin, for Newbern, N.C., with orders to 
report for duty to Major-General Foster. 

The Forty-second Regiment was recruited for nine months' 
service at "Camp Meigs," at Readville. The nucleus of this 
regiment was the Second Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia. It was assigned to the Department of the Gulf, and 
left Massachusetts Nov. 19, with orders to report to General 
Banks in New York. It remained in camp at Long Island 
until about the first day of December, when it sailed from New 
York for New Orleans under command of Colonel Isaac S. 
Burrill. 

The Forty-third Regiment was recruited at "Camp Meigs." 
at Readville. It was recruited chiefly through the Second 
Battalion, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, with which organ- 
ization a portion of the officers had been connected. On 
the twenty-fourth day of October, it went on board transports, 
together with the Forty-fifth and Forty-sixth Regiments, with 
orders to report to Major-General Foster at Newbern, N.C. 
The regiment was commanded by Colonel Charles L. Holbrook. 
While these three regiments were on the transports in Boston 
Harbor, a very severe easterly storm came on, which detained 



382 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

them several days, and caused much suffering among the 
troops. 

The Forty-fourth Regiment was recruited at "Camp Meigs," 
at Readville. The Fourth Battalion, Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia, under Major Francis L. Lee, was the nucleus of this 
regiment. Nearly the whole battalion volunteered, officers and 
men. It left Boston, Oct. 22, by transport, under command 
of Colonel Francis L. Lee, with orders to report to Major- 
General Foster at Newbern, N.C. 

The Forty-fifth Regiment was recruited at "Camp Meigs," 
at Readville. The Forty-fifth was known as the "Cadet Regi- 
ment," from the fact that most of its officers were or had been 
officers of the First Corps of Cadets. The regiment went on 
board transport on the twenty-fourth day of October, under com- 
mand of Colonel Charles R. Codman, with orders to proceed to 
Newbern, N.C. This is one of the regiments that were de- 
tained in Boston Harbor by the storm. 

The Forty-sixth Regiment was recruited chiefly in Hampden 
County, at "Camp N. P. Banks," in the vicinity of Springfield. 
It sailed from Boston, under command of Colonel George 
Bowler, for Newhern, N.C. This was one of the three regi- 
ments detained in Boston Harbor by the storm before referred 
to. 

The Forty-seventh Regiment was recruited at "Camp Edwin 
M. Stanton," at Boxford, where it remained to within a few 
weeks of its departure from the State, when it was ordered to 
"Camp Meigs," Readville. This regiment was recruited in a 
great degree by Lucius B. Marsh, Esq., who afterwards became 
its colonel. It broke camp on the twenty-ninth day of No- 
vember, and proceeded to New York, under command of Colonel 
Marsh, with orders to report to Major-General Banks. It 
remained on Long Island for two or three weeks, awaiting trans- 
portation to New Orleans, where it arrived in safety in the 
latter part of December. 

The Forty-eighth Regiment was recruited at "Camp Lander," 
at Wenham, by Hon. Eben F. Stone, of Newburyport. Before 
its organization was completed, it was ordered to "Camp 
Meigs," at Readville, Mr. Stone was elected colonel. The 



NINE MONTHS' REGIMENTS. 383 

latter part of December, it received orders to report to 
Brigadier-General Andrews at New York, who had been left 
in command by General Banks, to take charge of the transpor- 
tation for the remaining Massachusetts regiments destined for 
the Department of the Gulf. 

The Forty-ninth Regiment was raised in Berkshire County, 
and organized at "Camp Briggs," at Pittsfield. Captain 
William F. Bartlett, a young and gallant officer, who had 
lost a leg at the battle of Fair Oaks, Vs., was elected colonel. 
It received marching orders on the twenty-first day of Novem- 
ber, to report to Brigadier-General Andrews at New York. 
It remained in camp at Long Island several days, awaiting 
transportation to New Orleans. 

The Fiftieth Regiment was recruited and organized at "Camp 
Edwin M. Stanton," at Boxford. The nucleus of the Fiftieth 
was the old Seventh Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia. It left Massachusetts on the nineteenth day of No- 
vember, with orders to report to Major-General Banks, at New 
York. The transports furnished for this regiment were three 
small vessels, two of which were nearly foundered at sea. One 
put in at Philadelphia, and another at Hilton Head. Both were 
pronounced unseaworthy, and new transports were obtained. 
No lives were lost, and the regiment eventually safely arrived 
at New Orleans. This regiment was commanded by Colonel 
Carlos P. Messer, who had commanded a company in the Fifth 
Regiment, in the three months' service. 

The Fifty-first Regiment was recruited at "Camp John E. 
Wool," in the city of Worcester. On the eleventh day of 
November, the regiment was ordered to Newbem, N.C. A few 
days afterwards, it came to Boston, and entered on board trans- 
port, and proceeded at once to its destination. Augustus B. 
R. Sprague, who had served as captain in the Rifle Battalion, in 
the three months' service, was colonel of this regiment. 

The Fifty-second Regiment was recruited at "Camp Miller," 
at Greenfield. Henry S. Greenleaf, was commissioned colonel. 
It left Massachusetts on the nineteenth day of November, 
for New York, where it embarked for New Orleans, with 
orders to report to Major-General Banks, commanding the 
Department of the Gulf. 



384 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

The Fifty-third Regiment was recruited at "Camp Stevens," 
at Groton. It left Massachusetts on the eighteenth day of 
November, for New York, under command of Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Barrett, with orders to report to Major-General Banks at 
New Orleans. John W. Kimball, who had served with dis- 
tinction as major of the Fifteenth Regiment, three years' service, 
was commissioned colonel of the Fifty-third. Before he could 
get home from the front, and take command, the regiment had 
left the State. He joined it, however, at New York, and went 
with it to Louisiana. 

The Eleventh Light Battery, to serve for nine months, was 
recruited by Captain Edward J. Jones, at "Camp Meigs," at 
Readville. It left Massachusetts on the third day of October, 
under command of Captain Jones, with orders to report for 
duty to the Adjutant-General of the army at Washington. 
This was the only nine months' battery raised in the State. 

Thus, in December, 1862, Massachusetts had in active ser- 
vice fifty-three regiments of infantry, one regiment and three 
unattached companies of cavalry, twelve companies of light 
artillery, two companies of sharpshooters, and three companies 
of heavy artillery, which were distributed as follows: Twenty- 
seven regiments of infantry, seven companies of hght artillery, 
two battalions of cavalry, and two companies of sharpshooters, 
in the Army of the Potomac, and in Virginia and Maryland; 
thirteen regiments of infantry in North Carolina ; thirteen 
regiments of infantry, five companies of light artillery, and 
three unattached companies of cavalry, in the Department of 
the Gulf; one battalion of cavalry at Hilton Head, S.C. ; 
and three companies of heavy artillery doing garrison duty in 
the forts in Boston Harbor. The number of three years' volun- 
teers who had entered the service from Massachusetts from the 
commencement of the war to Dec. 31, 1862, was 46,920; 
number of nine months' men, 19,080 ; number of three months' 
men, 3,736,-making a total of 69,736 men. During the year 
1862, the number of men who entered the navy in Massachu- 
setts was 5,960, which, added to the number who shipped from 
April 15 to Dec. 31, 1861 (7,658), makes a total of 13,618 
men for whom Massachusetts received no credit, and who were not 



THE TEXAS EXPEDITION. 385 

taken into consideration in fixing the contingent which Massa- 
chusetts was to furnish for the military arm of the service; an 
injustice which bore with crushing weight upon the fishing and 
maritime towns and cities of the Commonwealth, and which was 
not removed until 1864, when Congress passed an act allowing 
credits for men serving in the navy. 

The regiments sent from Massachusetts to the Department of 
the Gulf were intended as an expeditionary corps, to invade and 
hold Texas. The purpose of the expedition was kept a pro- 
found secret ; and neither the officers nor the enlisted men of 
the regiments, nor the public, were advised of it. This was one 
of the well-kept secrets of the war; and, although the expedi- 
fion failed of its object, the fault, if one, did not attach to 
Massachusetts, nor to the splendid array of troops which she fur- 
nished for it. A portion of the Forty-second Regiment reached 
Galveston, and has the honor of being the first detachment of 
the loyal army that landed in that far-off State. They were 
attacked by overwhelming numbers. The war vessels in the 
harbor, which were to co-operate with them, were beaten off or 
captured by the rebels ; and the detachment of the Forty-second; 
after fighting gallantly, was obliged to surrender. 

Governor Andrew detailed Major William L. Burt, of his 
staff, to accompany the expedition. He was to look out for the 
welfare of the troops, and report from fime to time the exact 
condition of affairs. On reaching New Orleans, he was to re- 
port to General Hamilton, who had been appointed by the 
President military Governor of Texas. The Governor, in his 
written instrucfions to Major Burt, said, - 

"In selecting you for this position, I have in mind your experience, 
tact, and energy as a man of business as well as of education. It be- 
ing my desire, since so many Massachusetts soldiers are bound to a 
very remote field of military service, that some staff officer of ample 
capacity, zeal, and position should represent the Commonwealth in her 
rightful relation of a careful guardian and watchful parent towards 
these brave and precious sons, I have been accustomed to detail gen- 
tlemen of my staff for occasional duties of this description in Virginia 
and elsewhere, not too far from home. In this instance, the number 
of our troops, and their remoteness from home, jusfifies a more perma- 
nent arrangement?' 

26 



386 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

He was also charged to exercise a friendly oversight of the 
men, to use his influence to accommodate inconveniences, alle- 
viate suffering, and prevent grievances, and, by his advice and 
interposition, to "promote the efficiency, fidelity, patriotic devo- 
tion, zeal, happiness, and welfare of our troops." The Governor 
furnished Major Burt with letters of introduction to General 
Hamilton, whom he afterwards met in New Orleans, and formed 
his acquaintance. We shall in the next chapter refer to this 
expedition again, and quote from the interesting reports made 
by Major Burt to the Governor. 

Massachusetts having sent forward her regiments, Governor 
Andrew wrote to the Secretary of War, - 

"To say one word about brigadiers " (after speaking about having 
sent forward ten new regiments for three years' service, saying nothing 
about the men sent forward to fill up the old regiments), "we claim 
that we are entitled to two brigadier-generals on that score ; and, for 
the seventeen regiments of nine months' men, we are entitled to four 
more. We therefore recommend, first of all, Colonel James Barnes, of 
the Eighteenth," whom he describes as a long-headed, able man, 
of thorough military education, over fifty years old, served all last fall, 
winter, and spring, in Martindale's brigade, now an acting brigadier 
with McClellan ; the most constant, unremitting, and careful of men. 
He deserved the first promotion, and would have got it, probably, but 
that his regiment happened not to be in battle, for which he was not 
to blame. His lieutentant-colonel (Hayes) is able to lead the regi- 
ment, if promoted to its command, with the highest honor. He de- 
serves promotion." 

Colonel Barnes was made a brigadier-general Nov. 29, 
1862, a few days after this letter was written. 

" Second, William Raymond Lee, of the Twentieth Massachusetts 
Regiment, now acting as brigadier, under McClellan, in Sedgwick's 
division. He fought at Ball's Bluff; and, in the first and last battles 
before Richmond, was the bravest and most chivalrous gentleman in all 
our commands, or in any army ; educated, too, at the Military Academy, 
but, like Barnes, for many years in civil life. Both these gentlemen, 
at my request, took regiments, not for glory or money, but because 
they felt, that, having been educated by the country, they were bound 
to appear at the first call of danger. They have patriotic hearts, fully 
devoted to the manliest views of carrying on the war. Colonels Lee 



BRIGADIER GENERALS. 387 

and Barnes are too proud and too modest to ask : I speak wholly self- 
moved." 

Colonel Lee resigned, on account of severe illness, Dec. 
17, 1862, and was brevetted brigadier-general for brave and 
meritorious services in the field. 

"Third, Colonel Edward F. Jones commanded the "old Sixth," 
of Baltimore memory ; more recently, of the Twenty-sixth, under 
Butler. Returning from New Orleans very ill, recovered of ty- 
phoid, resigning his command, finding that his wife was also very 
ill, -now, after her death, which happened a week or so ago, he is 
ready for a brigade. He is a true, good, intelligent, capable, business- 
like officer. He is a sagacious, determined man. I wish he might be 
appointed, and go to Banks to Texas." 

Colonel Jones, although worthy of it, never received the 
appointment to which he was recommended. 

" Fourth, Colonel Edward W. Hinks, of the. Nineteenth, formerly 
of the bid Eighth,' which repaired the railroad to Annapolis Junc- 
tion in the spring of 1861, saved the ' Constimtion ' frigate at Annapo- 
lis, and is now recovering from his wounds at Antietam, having been 
wounded, too, before Richmond. He is a young, brave, ardent, very 
devoted, natural soldier. He, too, ought to be promoted." 

Colonel Hinks was appointed brigadier-general Nov. 29, 
1862. He was afterwards brevetted major-general, and is now 
a Ueutenant-colonel in the regular army. 

"Fifth, Albert C. Maggi, an Italian, about forty years old, now 
with General Sigel, saw fourteen years' service abroad ; was a major 
in Italy ; fought under Garibaldi in South America, as well as in Italy ; 
enlisted in the spring of 1861, at New Bedford (where he was teaching 
the classics, modem languages, and gymnastics), in our Third Regi- 
ment ; went to Fortress Monroe ; was, in succession, sergeant-major, 
adjutant of the Third, and acting brigade-major; when, after the 
three months expired, he, as lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-first, 
led it in the battle of Roanoke Island, and, resigning, took the Thirty- 
third Regiment. 

" If General Sigel should require any additional brigadier, I can- 
not imagine a better one for foreign troops, or, since he speaks good 
English, even for native troops ; and his Ueutenant-colonel, Adin B. 



3 88 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Underwood, is perfectly fit to command his regiment. He has been in 
service as captain in our Second, until he reached this lieutenant- 
colonelcy." 

Colonel Maggi was not promoted; and he resigned the colo- 
nelcy of the Thirty-third Regiment April 1, 1863, and was 
not again in service. 

"Sixth, Colonel Burr Porter, of our Fortieth. He is a splendid 
soldier. I appointed him, as I have several others, - though not from 
Massachusetts,- because so able. He is recommended, I learn, by 
Governor Olden, with the understanding that he be changed to New 
Jersey, his own State. I wish he might be appointed, and, with his 
regiment, be sent to Texas. He would make a great fighting brigadier. 
He is magnetic, like Maggi. He was educated at a French military 
academy ; was on Omar Pasha's staff in the Crimea, and served 
under Fremont in Virginia." 

Colonel Porter was not appointed brigadier, and resigned as 
colonel of the Fortieth, July 21, 1863. He was afterwards 
appointed major in the First Battalion Frontier Cavalry, Jan. 
1, 1865, and colonel Third Cavalry March 21, 1865, and dis- 
charged at expiration of service, July 21, 1865. 

"Seventh, Colonel, formerly Lieutenant-Colonel, George L. An- 
drews, of the Second Regiment. Educated at West Point; modest, 
firm, and methodical ; a scholarly soldier, and an honest, faithful man. 
He is recommended by divers Boston gentlemen for a brigade, and he 
would be an excellent chief-of-staff for a major-general commanding 
an army corps." 

Colonel Andrews was appointed brigadier before this letter 
was written; the date of his commission being Nov. 9, 1862. 

"Eighth, Colonel Timothy Ingraham, of the Thirty-eighth Regi- 
ment, would be an excellent brigadier. He is now acting as such. 
He is a most constant, trustworthy, and reliable man, conscientious, 
and ' sure fire.' " 

Colonel Ingraham was detailed for a long time as provost- 
marshal at Washington, and brevetted brigadier-general Oct. 2, 
1865. 

"Ninth, I wish Major-General Hooker might be appealed to for his 
opinion of the propriety of nominating Colonel George D. Wells, 



STAFF APPOINTMENTS. 389 

of the Thirty-fourth, until lately lieutenant-colonel of the First, for 
brigadier. I have heard General Hooker call Wells 'a remarkable 
soldier.' Nor can I doubt that General Hooker, under whom, first as 
brigadier, and afterwards general of a division, the First Massachu- 
setts served for nearly one year ; and General Grover, who succeeded 
to the command of Hooker's brigade, would unite in emphasizing my 
suggestion. I would also refer to Colonel Blaisdell of our Eleventh, 
Colonel Wilde, and Lieutenant-Colonel Carruth of our Thirty-fifth. 
who served in the First Brigade, with and under Colonel Wells. 

Colonel Wells was killed in action, Oct. 13, 1864, and was 
brevetted brigadier-general after his death. He was one of the 
best and bravest officers that went from Massachusetts into the 
war. 

'Tenth, We have five three years' regiments at Newbem. They 
went out with Burnside ; all but one was in his three battles there. 
Captain T. J. C. Amory, United-States Tenth Infantry, is colonel of 
our Seventeenth Volunteers. He has acted as general of brigade, and 
even of division, while there, much of the time. If any one is pro- 
moted there, I suggest Colonel Amory. He is an accomplished offi- 
cer. Now, / do not ask the creation of new generals : of that let me 
not. presume to judge. I only ask, that, if any are made, Massachusetts 
troops may be put under such men as I have named. 

Colonel Amory died of yellow fever at Newbem, N.C., Oct. 
7, 1864, after having been brevetted brigadier-general. 
This remarkable letter concludes as follows : - 

"I beg leave to add that all these views are my own, unsuggested 
save by the accumulated knowledge of careful pains taken in appoint- 
ing, and keeping up my acquaintance with our officers, and impelled by 
my zeal for the cause, and the honor of my State. I trust my fulness 
and freedom may receive your pardon. 

The changes and additions to the Governor's staff in the year 
1862 were as follows : - 

John Quincy Adams, of Quincy, was appointed aide-de-camp, 
with the rank of heutenant-colonel, Jan. 4, 1862, to supply the 
vacancy occasioned by the appointment of Horace Binney Sar- 
gent as lieutenant-colonel of the First Regiment Massachusetts 
Cavalry. Harrison Ritchie became senior aide, with rank of 
colonel. 



390 MASSACEIUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

Charles F. Blake, of Boston, was appointed assistant quarter- 
master-general, with the rank of major, Aug. 7, 1862. The 
duty of Major Blake was to return to their regiments the men 
who were reported deserters. 

Charles N. Emerson, of Pittsfield, was appointed assistant 
quartermaster-general, with the rank of major, Aug. 20, 1862, 
with special reference to raising troops. 

William Rogers, of Boston, was appointed assistant adjutant- 
general Aug. 23, 1862, with special reference to preparing the 
State for a draft. 

Charles J. Higginson, of Boston, was appointed assistant ad- 
jutant-general, with the rank of major, Sept. 9, 1862. 

William L. Burt, of Boston, was appointed judge-advocate- 
general, Oct. 1, 1862, and was promoted to the rank of briga- 
dier-general, Feb. 9, 1865. 

Charles Sprague Sargent, of Brookline, was appointed 
assistant quartermaster-general, with the rank of first lieutenant, 
Nov. 3, 1862. 

William Sturgis Hooper, of Boston, was appointed assistant 
adjutant-general, with the rank of captain, Nov. 19, 1862. 
Captain Hooper served with this rank at New Orleans as staff 
officer under General Banks, and died July 1, 1863. 

The foregoing pages bring the history of Massachusetts in the 
war to the close of the year 1862, at which time Massachusetts 
was represented by her brave men in nearly every field of ser- 
vice, and upon the decks of every ship, in the American navy. 
She had given martyrs to the great cause on nearly every battle- 
field, and in every naval engagement, in the war. Many had 
died ; many had their limbs severed from their bodies ; many 
households had been made desolate ; many stood by the buts of 
their muskets, keeping watch and ward, facing the enemy, from 
the falls of the Potomac to the delta of the Mississippi. Some 
were in prison, some were in hospitals, some were in tents, 
some swinging in their hammocks at the mouths of rivers to 
prevent blockade-runners from supplying the enemy. Thus 
sixty thousand men of Massachusetts were engaged when the 
course of fime brought in the year 1863. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

The Proclamation of Freedom- Colored Regiments-Letter to Samuel Hooper 
-The California Battalion - Meeting of the Legislature, January, 1863 - 
Organization-Address of the Governor- Delay of the Government in pay- 
ing the Soldiers -The Commission of Mr. Crowninshield - His Claim not 
allowed - Reports of the Adjutant, Surgeon, and Quartermaster Generals - 
Abstract of Military Laws-Letter to Hon. Thomas D. Eliot-Western 
Sanitary Commission - Confidential Letter to General Hooker - Efforts to 
reinstate Major Copeland - The Pirate " Alabama " - Curious Coinci- 
dence - Authority to recruit a Colored Regiment-The Governors Policy 
in the Selection of Officers - Colonel Shaw - The Passage of the Fifty- 
fourth (colored) Regiment through Boston-Departure for South Carolina 
-Death of Colonel Shaw at Port Wagner-Letter of the Governor to Cap- 
tain Sherman-Letter to General Hamilton, of Texas -Major Burt - 
Plan to invade Texas -Mortality of Massachusetts Regiments in Louisiana 
- War Steamers - Rights of Colored Soldiers - Temperance-General 
Ullman's Expedition - Coast Defences - General Wilde - John M. Forbes 
writes from London - Colonel Ritchie -A Rebel Letter -Robert C. Win- 
throp - Letter to Mr. Gooch, M.C. - Army Officers in Boston- Cases of 
Suffering - Useless Detail of Volunteer Officers -Letter to General Wool - 
Suggestions about Recruiting - About Deserters - Staff Appointments - 
Complaints -Nine Months' Men -Letter to J. H. Mitchell, Massachusetts 
Senate-Claims for Money in the Legislature - Case of Mr. Maxwell, of 
Charlemont - Sergeant Plunkett, of the Twenty-first Regiment - Soldiers 
to be shot-Troubles in the Department of the Gulf, &c. 

The battle for the Union had now lasted two years without 
decisive results. The Union armies had met the enemy on many 
battle-fields ; alternate victory and defeat had marked the con- 
test. The Union forces had stretched from the lines of 
Virginia to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the Mississippi to 
the Tennessee ; gradually bringing within their folds the enemies 
of the nation. The loyal people had learned much in those two 
years. The Administration had been educated to an anti-slavery 
point. On the 22d of September, 1862, the President had 
issued his Proclamation of Freedom to the enslaved; and, be- 
fore the end of the year 1863, what had been predicted by ear- 



392 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

nesl men at the commencement of the war, became a truth. 
"Africa was carried into the war;" the black man made a 
soldier, with a musket in his hand, and on his body the uniform 
of a loyal volunteer. The colored men were to fight side by 
side with the whites for the unity of the nation, and the flag, 
which for the first time, but now for all time, symbolized liberty 
for all men. 

The proclamation of liberty, and the employment of freedmen 
as soldiers in the Union army, were the practical embodiment of 
intelligent Massachusetts thought. The plan was favored from 
the beginning, and looked forward to with fond hopes, by Gov- 
ernor Andrew and prominent public men in the Commonwealth. 
They saw in this the certainty of a successful issue of the war. 
Upon the appearance of the President's proclamation, the Gov- 
ernor caused a hundred thousand copies of it to be printed, which, 
together with a circular addressed to the commanding officers of 
Massachusetts regiments, he forwarded to the front, with the 
expectation and hope that opportunities would occur to have 
them distributed within the enemy's lines ; a thousand copies he 
also forwarded to General Rufus Saxton, commanding the Union 
forces in South Carolina. The proclamation was to take effect 
on the 1st of January, 1863. On the 2d, General Order No. 
1 was issued by the Governor, which had reference to the proc- 
lamation ; the opening paragraph of which was in these 
words : - 

" With the new year, America commences a new era of national 
life, in which we invoke the blessing of Heaven upon our country and, 
its armies with renewed faith in the favor of Almighty God." 

The order recapitulated the substance of the proclamation, 
and presented an argument for the blessings expected to flow 
from it, and concluded in these words : - 

"In honor of the proclamation, and as an official recognition of its 
justice and necessity by Massachusetts, which was the first of the 
United States to secure equal rights to all its citizens, it is ordered 
that a salute of one hundred guns be fired on Boston Common at noon 
the next day, Jan. 3." 

Before the end of the year, Massachusetts, had recruited two 



ARRIVAL OF THE CALIFORNIA COMPANY. 393 

regiments of colored troops, the first that were organized in any 
of the loyal States, and sent them forth into the war, armed 
and equipped in the best manner, and officered by the best men 
who had served in the volunteer army. 

On the twenty-seventh day of December, 1862, Hon. Samuel 
Hooper, a member of Congress from this State, wrote to the 
Governor for his opinion in regard to the national finances : to 
which he replied, Jan. 5, that he did not consider himself 
qualified to express a definite opinion on the subject. On 
the contrary, " I feel," he says, "a degree of happiness in 
being in a position similar to that of the judge who congratu- 
lated himself that it was his privilege not to have any opinion 
on a complicated question of fact, on which it was the duty of 
the jury to make up their minds." The Governor said, how- 
ever, that he should not run counter to Mr. Chase's system in 
regard to our national currency, but should decidedly favor it ; 
that he had seen, a few days before, a letter, written to a friend 
in Boston by Joshua Bates, of London, concerning the conduct 
of our finances during the war, which he deemed to have been 
on the whole to our credit, although he criticised the issue of 
legal-tender notes, thinking we should have first resorted to bor- 
rowing on long loans ; yet it was his opinion that it would have 
been absolutely impossible for us ultimately to avoid resorting 
to them. 

We have akeady spoken of a sum of money collected in San 
Francisco, Cal., by citizens of that place, and forwarded to 
Governor Andrew, to be distributed among the families of 
Massachusetts volunteers in the war. When it was proposed in 
November, 1862, to raise the Second Regiment of Cavalry, 
men of Massachusetts birth, living in California, proposed to 
raise a company for the regiment ; and a correspondence was 
opened through Mr. Rankin, Collector of the port of San Fran- 
cisco, with the Governor, in regard to accepting it. Permissions 
was given by Secretary Stanton to accept it, and the men were 
to be credited to the quota of Massachusetts. The company was : 
raised by Captain J. Sewall Reed, of San Francisco. The pas-, 
sages of the officers and men were paid by this State ; and the, 
company arrived at "Camp Meigs," Readville, Jan. 4, 1863. ; 



394 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

The Adjutant-General of the State was detailed to receive 
the company, in behalf of the Governor, at the camp, and to 
thank them in his name for the honor they had conferred on 
the State by coming so many miles to enter a Massachusetts 
regiment, and carry its flag in the war for liberty and Union. 
It was five o'clock in the morning when the company arrived. 
Colonel Charles R. Lowell, Jr., who was to command the regi- 
ment, Brigadier-General Peirce, Major Crowninshield, and a 
number of the Hne officers, were present to receive them. 

On the arrival of the company, a salute was fired, and an 
escort of the cavalry conducted the company to their quarters, 
where a good warm breakfast had been prepared, and was ready 
for the men. The officers were taken to Colonel Lowell's quar- 
ters, where they were welcomed to Massachusetts by the Adju- 
tant-General, whose speech, in behalf and in the name of the 
Governor, was responded to by Captain Reed; and in this way, 
on a cold January morning, were the Califomians received, and 
took their places in the Union army on the Massachusetts line. 
In a report made by the Adjutant-General to the Governor on 
the same day, he says,- 

"Tomorrow at eleven o'clock. General Peirce, Colonel Lowell, and 
the officers of the California company, will pay their respects to your 
Excellency at the State House. The Califomians are mostly Massa- 
chusetts men, though not exclusively so ; some are from New York 
and New Hampshire ; one is a native of California, a celebrated 
thrower of the lasso. The captain told me that five hundred men 
applied to go with him to Massachusetts. He selected his men with 
great care, and came with a full and complete company. I never saw a 
finer body of men ; Colonel Lowell is delighted with them. If your 
engagements are such that you cannot receive the officers at eleven, 
to-morrow, please appoint a time when they can be received." 

The engagement was kept, and Governor Andrew gave the 
officers a hearty welcome. 

So great was the success of the arrangement, and so well 
satisfied were the California men, that three other companies, 
making a battalion, were raised in California, and joined the 
regiment ; Massachusetts paying expense of transportation, 
and allowing the bounty to the volunteers which the Legislature 



ORGANIZATION OF THE LEGISLATURE. 395 

had authorized. Of this battalion, Dewitt C. Thompson, for- 
merly of Major-General Halleck's staff, was appointed major. No 
better officers or men than these volunteers from California 
served in the Union army. Many of them were killed in 
battle, and never returned again to the shores of the Pacific ; 
among whom was the first captain, J. Sewall Reed, who was 
killed in action Feb. 22, 1864. 

The Legislature for 1863 met at the State House on Wed- 
nesday, Jan. 7. Jonathan E. Field, of Berkshire County, was 
elected President of the Senate, having received all the votes 
but four, which were cast for Peter Harvey, of Suffolk. 

On taking the chair, Mr. Field made a short address, the 
only part of which relating to national affairs was the fol- 
lowing reference to the Proclamation of Freedom issued by the 
President, which went into effect on the first of January. Mr. 
Field said, - 

"The year was inaugurated by an event claimed by its friends to be 
second in importance only to that which relieved us from colonial de- 
pendence. Whatever may be its influences upon the war and upon 
the disloyal States, the loyal are made truly free. In this, as in every 
other measure intended to suppress the Rebellion, and uproot its causes, 
Massachusetts will yield to the Government no qualified support. In 
the complete performance of her whole duty to the Union, she will 
neither falter nor fail." 

Stephen N. Gifford, of Duxbury, was re-elected clerk, hav- 
ing received every vote. 

The House organized by the choice of Alexander H. Bullock, 
of Worcester, for Speaker, who received every vote but three, 
which were cast for Caleb Gushing, of Newburyport. 

Mr. Bullock spoke at considerable length. In the course of 
his speech, he was eloquent in his praise of the services of 
Massachusetts soldiers in the war. He said, - 

"They have fought, many have fallen, under McClellan and Bum- 
side, both dear to them; under Buder and Banks, both soldiers of 
Massachusetts, bringing laurels to her brow. They have stood, and they 
have fallen, wheresoever and under whomsoever it has pleased the 
Government to appoint their lot." 



396 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

William S. Robinson, of Maiden, was r-e-elected clerk of the 
House by a unanimous vote. 

The address of the Governor was delivered before the two 
branches of the Legislature, on Friday, Jan. 9. It was a 
document of remarkable force and eloquence. It not only dis- 
cussed the position of Massachusetts in the war, but also a 
variety of topics relating to the social, physical, financial, agri- 
cultural, and educational condition of the State. The receipts 
in the treasury from the ordinary sources of revenue, for the 
year 1862, were $2,947,732.48, of which $1,763,108.62 were 
raised by direct taxation upon the property of the Common! 
wealth. The disbursements for the year amounted to $1,683, 
390.93, of which $435,251.77, was for State aid to the 
families of soldiers. The Governor then presented in concise 
form the labors performed during the year in raising and 
equipping troops for the general service, and the number of men 
sent to the front, which has been stated in preceding pages. 
The Governor said, - 

" I have always insisted, that, so far as possible, every corps should 
receive a full outfit and equipment before leaving the Commonwealth. 
This much I have felt was demanded by my duty to the soldiers and 
the people." 

He deeply regretted that his request to have the troops des- 
tined for the expeditions to Louisiana and Texas embark from 
our own ports, where they could have been protected from need- 
less hardships and perils, encountered by some of them in their, 
embarkation from New York, had been refused. 

"The conduct of the troops of this Commonwealth," he said; 
"whether in camp or on the march or under fire, has won the un- 
qualified commendation of all the generals under whom they have 
served. They are universal favorites, sought for by commanders for 
their intelligence, obedience, and valor." 

In speaking of the draft by which it was proposed to raise the 
nine months' troops, he says, - 

" Questions of grave, practical importance, affecting the interest and 
feelings of large masses of the people, sometimes involving local and geo- 
graphical considerations ; points of honor, on which whole communities 



ADDRESS OF GOVERNOR ANDREW. 397 

were sensitive ; points of right even, touching which all men are jealous ; 
many of them difficult, all of them new and without a precedent,- 
have crowded upon the Executive for decision. For a correct decision, 
he alone was responsible." 

He then expresses his thanks for the cordial, intelhgent, and 
constant assistance he had received from the other officers, 
military and civil, and the different municipal authorities of 
the cities and towns. 

The bounties paid by the different municipalities to obtain 
men, and avoid a draft, he recommended should be equalized, and 
assumed by the State, to be paid by tax upon the property 
and polls of the whole people. He also referred to the cases 
of deserters, which he said were rare; and, so far as want and 
flight from duty was concerned, many men who had come home 
on furloughs either sick or wounded had not returned to their 
regiments after recovering their health, because of the difficulties 
attendant on finding their regiments, and their dread of the 
convalescent and stragglers' camp at Alexandria. Many con- 
valescent soldiers have been returned as deserters who had been 
detained as nurses in hospitals, sent on detached duty of every 
sort, and detailed to assist quartermasters and commissaries. 
Of the twelve hundred Massachusetts soldiers who had been 
reported absent without leave, only about twenty had manifestly 
deserted. This did not include persons attracted by recent 
bounties, of whom there had been too many striving to enlist 
without the purpose of serving. 

The Governor devoted considerable space to the consideration 
of the fortifications and coast defences of the State. He referred 
to a circular letter issued by Mr. Seward, Secretary of State, 
Oct. 14, 1861, calling the attention of the Governors of the 
seaboard and lake States, and urging that such defences 
should be perfected by the States themselves, with the assurance 
of the reimbursements from the Federal treasury. This State 
at once acted upon the suggestion : information and estimates 
were asked from the War Department in regard to the cost. 
In February, 1862, the Legislature authorized the Governor to 
enter into contracts to the amount of $500,000 for the manu- 
facture of ordnance suitable for the defence of our coast. But it 



398 MASSACHUSETTS IN TFIE REBELLION. 

was ascertained, by consultation with Federal ordnance officers, 
that the cost of completing the armament of the Massachusetts 
coast would amount to 150,000. This delayed matters. In 
the mean time, the conflict between the "Merrimack " and the 
"Monitor," in Hampton Roads, cast a serious doubt upon the 
stability of any projects of fortification or armament of our har- 
bor ; and the Governor was requested by the War Department 
to expend the money appropriated upon the immediate construc- 
tion of iron-clad vessels. He appointed a committee -two 
members of the Executive Council, the President of the Boston 
Board of Trade, and an eminent civil engineer - to consider the 
subject. The Legislature had passed a resolve Feb. 14, 1862, 
and appropriated a sum of money to build one or more iron-clad 
steamers for the protection of the coast. Parties stood ready to 
build such a vessel, when a protest was received from the Naval 
Department against it, alleging that that department was will- 
ing to put "under construction, in every part of the country, all 
that the utmost resources of the people could accomplish," and 
it was " sorry to find a State entering the market in competition 
with Government, the result of which could only injure both 
parties." To this the Governor answered that there were at 
least two establishments in Massachusetts capable of building 
such vessels, whose services had not been required by the Gov- 
ernment. The reply of the Navy Department was an offer, to 
each of these establishments, of a contract for building an iron- 
clad steamer. A like difficulty prevented the State from pro- 
curing the manufacture of heavy ordnance. The War Depart- 
ment had engaged, to the full extent of their capacity, all the 
founderies which were known to be prepared to cast suitable and 
heavy cannon for arming the fortifications on the coast ; and no 
aid from the State, therefore, had been necessary to expedite the 
work. The result was, that nothing was done by the State at this 
time, either to build iron-clads or manufacture heavy guns ; and 
the coast remained for some time longer without any adequate 
means of defence. 

Towards the close of the address, the Governor spoke in fit- 
ting language of our heroic dead, and of the soldiers in the 
war:- 



ADDRESS OF GOVERNOR ANDREW. 399 

'Peaceful, rural, and simple in their tastes, her people, never for- 
getting the lessons learned by their fathers, not less of War than of 
Religion, are found in arms for their fathers' flag wherever it waves, 
from Boston to Galveston. The troops of Massachusetts in Maryland, 
in Virginia, in the Carolinas, in Louisiana, in Texas ; the details from 
her regiments for gunboat service on the Southern and Western rivers ; 
her seamen in the navy, assisting at the reduction of the forts, from 
Hatteras Inlet to the city of New Orleans, or going down to that 
silence deeper than the sea, in the ' Monitor ' or the ' Cumberland,' - 
all remember their native State as a single star of a brilliant con- 
stellation, -the many in one they call their country. By the facts 
of our history, the very character of our people, and the tendencies 
of their education, industry, and training, Massachusetts is independ- 
ent in her opinions, loyal to the Union, and the uncompromising foe of 
treason." 

After recapitulating the many battle-fields, from Big Bethel 
and Cedar Mountain to Baton Rouge and Antietam, in which 
Massachusetts soldiers had borne a brave and gallant part, he 
says, - 

"How can fleeting words of human praise give the record of their 
glory? Our eyes suffused with tears, and blood retreating to the 
heart stirred witii unwonted thrill, speak with the eloquence of nature 
uttered but unexpressed. From the din of the batde they have passed 
to the peace of eternity. Farewell ! Warrior, citizen, patriot, lover, 
friend j' whether in the humbler ranks, or bearing the sword of offi- 
cial power; whether private, captain, surgeon, or chaplain, -for all 
these in the heady fight have passed away, - Hail ! and Farewell ! 
Each hero must sleep serenely on the field where he fell in a cause 
sacred to Hberty and the rights of mankind." 

On the twentieth day of January, the Governor sent in a 
special message to the Legislature, calling their attention to the 
vexatious delays of the General Government in the payment of 
the soldiers, which occasioned suffering both in the army and to 
the families of the soldiers at home. He therefore recommended 
to the Legislature to assume the payment of the Massachusetts 
soldiers, or such of them as would consent to allot a portion of 
their monthly pay for the support of their families at home, or 
to deposit on interest in the State treasury subject to their 
order. 



400 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

On the sixth day of February, in reply to an order of the 
House, requesting a report of the amount claimed or paid as 
commissions, compensation, expenses, or profits by persons who 
went to foreign countries to purchase arms on account of the 
State, the Governor submitted a brief statement, by which it 
appears that Mr. Crowninshield, and Mr. McFarland, who ac- 
companied him to Europe to purchase arms and equipments, 
were the only persons that had been employed on that business 
up that time. Mr. Crowninshield returned home in August, 
1861. Mr. McFarland was left in England to superintend the 
execution of uncompleted contracts, and to inspect the arms as 
manufactured. He remained on this business until the spring 
of 1862. For his entire services Mr. McFarland was paid the 
sum of $3,527.96. "In the final settlement of accounts," the 
Governor says, "the claim of two and a half per cent on all 
the disbursements was made by Mr. Crowninshield for compen- 
sation for himself." The disbursements were $351,347.48. 
This claim was not allowed by the Governor and Council. An 
order was passed by the Executive Council, allowing Mr. Crown- 
inshield $2,500 for his expenses in purchasing arms in England 
on condition that he settle the account as rendered by him of 
Mr. McFarland as inspector of said arms, and return to the 
Treasurer proper vouchers for the same; and James M. Shute, 
James Ritchie, and Gerry W. Cochrane, members of the Coun- 
cil, were appointed a committee, with authority to settle with 
Mr. Crowninshield on the above conditions. 
The Governor then states, - 

"The proposition made by this order, being communicated by the 
committee to Mr. Crowninshield, was declined by him in writing, Sept. 
20 ; and his account remains, unadjusted. He retains in his hands a 
balance of 3312. 10s. 5d., or $2,482.87, of funds belonging to the Com- 
monwealth, and claims for his compensation an additional amount of 
33,276. 14s., or $6,184.90, or. in all, 1,789. 4s. 5d., or $8,667.77." 

The Governor further adds, - 

"The instructions addressed to Mr. Crowninshield are silent on the 
subject of compensation for his agency. 'At the time he sailed for 



THE PURCHASE OF ARMS IN ENGLAND. 401 

Europe, in April, 1861, an advance of $1,600 was made to him from 
the treasury of the Commonwealth for his personal expenses, which 
amount is included in the $2,500 allowed to him by the order of the 
Governor and Council of Sept. 17, 1862; and it is not intended on 
the part of the Governor to admit, by any thing herein contained, that 
any valid claim existed against the Commonwealth in favor of the 
agent for time and services. On that point, for the purpose of the in- 
quiries of the honorable House, it is not necessary here to express an 
opinion." 

On the twenty-fourth day of February, the Governor trans- 
mitted with a message to the House the Annual Report of the 
Adjutant-General, Quartermaster-General, Master of Ordnance,, 
and the Surgeon-General. Of these reports he says, - 

"It has been the aim of the Adjutant-General to present in full 
detail, not only the formal returns, but, so far as possible, the main fea- 
tures; of the military history of each of the Massachusetts volunteer 
and militia corps organized and serving during the past year." 

He speaks of it as forming an interesting and honorable 
record. Of the Surgeon-General's report he says, - 

"1 venture to mention, as of special interest, the wise and suggestive 
report of the Surgeon-General, to whose intelligent and humane ad- 
ministration of his bureau 1 confess a constant obligation." 

He also speaks in terms of praise of our agents, Robert R. 
Corson, of Philadelphia, and William Robinson, of Baltimore, 
gentlemen who have rendered good service in the care of sick 
and wounded soldiers in hospitals, and soldiers falling into dis- 
tress or want. These gentlemen's names had been inadvertently 
omitted in the Adjutant-General's report. He also refers to the 
services rendered by Colonels Howe and Tufts, Massachusetts 
agents at New York and Washington, of whom we have spoken 
in preceding pages, and whose services will ever be remembered 
with gratitude by a humane and Christian people. 

The Legislature remained in session until the 30th of April. 
We omit giving an abstract of its proceedings, as the greater 
portion of the time was occupied with State matters not relat- 
ing to military affairs. It, however, passed a number of excellent 
26 



402 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

laws respecting our soldiers and their families, an abstract of 
which we here present. 

The resolve passed March 10, empowered the Governor 
to purchase or have manufactured fifteen thousand stand of 
muskets ; also, arms and equipments for one regiment of 
cavab-y ; also, guns and equipments for five batteries. 

An act passed April 29, authorized the re-imbursement to 
the cities and towns for the bounties paid by them to volun- 
teers, in sums not exceeding one hundred dollars to each volun- 
teer. 

An act passed April 17, authorized sheriffs and deputy- 
sheriffs, police of cities, and constables of towns, to arrest 
persons charged with desertion, upon the written order of the 
provost-marshals of the different districts within the Common- 
wealth. 

An act approved April 17, provided that no person, en- 
listed or drafted, who had received bounty money or advance 
pay, should be discharged from the service upon a writ of 
habeas corpus on the ground that he was a minor, or on any 
other ground, until he had paid over the bounty money or ad- 
vance pay, and turned in the clothing and arms and military 
accoutrements, which he might have received. 

The resolve approved April 14, appropriated the sum of 
ten thousand dollars for the benefit of the Discharged Soldiers' 
Home, on Springfield Street, Boston, on condition that an equal 
amount be raised by private subscription, and used for the same 
purpose. 

An act approved April 27, legalized the acts and doings 
of cities and towns in paying bounties to volunteers, and taxes 
assessed to pay the same. 

An act approved April 23, authorized the State aid to be 
paid to families of drafted men the same as to families of 
volunteers. 

An act approved March 1 rendered null and void any tax 
levied upon a city or town to relieve or discharge from the mili- 
tary service any person who shall be called or drafted into such 
service. 

The resolves approved April 6, were in grateful acknowl- 



ACTS PASSED BY TEE LEGISLATURE. 403 

edgment of the services rendered by our soldiers in the war ; 
and the Governor was authorized to forward copies of the same 
to the different regiments. 

The resolve approved April 28, authorized the Governor to 
appoint three persons to be commissioners to inquire into the 
expediency of establishing a State military academy. 

An act passed March 3, provided for the payment, by the 
State, of the pay due to soldiers by the Federal Government, 
and for the encouragement of the allotment of pay by the 
soldiers. 

An act approved March 7, provided that each city and 
town shall keep a complete record of the soldiers belonging 
thereto in the United-States service ; the book to be furnished 
by the Adjutant-General. 

An act approved March 17, authorized the Governor to 
pay bounties, not to exceed fifty dollars each, to volunteers. 

The resolve approved March 30, appropriated twenty thou- 
sand dollars for the maintenance of agencies out of the Com- 
monwealth, as the Governor may find needful, for the aid of 
sick and wounded or distressed Massachusetts soldiers. 

An act approved March 12, authorized cities and towns to 
raise money by taxation for the support of the families of 
deceased soldiers ; also, families of soldiers discharged for 
disability. 

An act approved April 21, authorized the formation of vol- 
unteer companies for military service, to be composed of men 
over forty-five years of age, who were to be called the State 
Guard, and be uniformed, armed, and equipped as a majority 
of each company might decide. 

On the fourteenth day of January, the Governor wrote to 
Thomas D. Eliot, requesting him to forward a copy of the 
President's message, with the accompanying reports of the Sec- 
retaries, and adds, - 

"When you see or write to your brother, the Rev. E>r. Eliot, of St. 
Louis, pray give him my respects, and tell him that the subscription 
for the Western Sanitary Commission is doing quite well. I saw the 
book a few days ago, when our Lieutenant-Governor, two Councillors, 
and a member of my staff, who were present, put down an aggregate 



404 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

of seven hundred dollars ($700). Having recently received three 

thousand dollars ($3,000) from an American citizen abroad, to use for 
the relief of sick and wounded soldiers and their families at my dis- 
cretion, I devoted one thousand dollars ($1,000) of it to this purpose, 
and gave our friend, Mr. Forbes, a check for that amount. I knew 
but little of the subject, save that I knew your brother was interested 
in the matter. His name is good evidence always in Massachusetts." 

Among the gentlemen of Boston who took an early and 
earnest interest in furnishing the military contingent of Massa- 
chusetts, in' their donations for the maintenance and support of 
soldiers' families, was Amos A. Lawrence, a well known and 
distinguished merchant. He was particularly active and effi- 
cient in raising the Second Regiment of Cavalry, and received 
from the Governor, Jan. 19, a letter of acknowledgment for 
his generous and efficient services, in which appears the follow- 
ing paragraph : - 

"And in respect to the project for confirming the intellectual ascend- 
ency of Massachusetts by inaugurating a system of university educa- 
tion in advance of the other States, and which shall be to them a 
model, I learn with pleasure that the views I had the honor to express 
in my late address to the Legislature are confirmed by your respected 
judgment and extensive experience." 

On the 1st of January, 1863, our regiments and batteries in 
the Army of the Potomac were, after a year's hard fighting in 
winter quarters, divided only by the Rappahannock from the 
rebel forces. Major-General Joseph Hooker had succeeded 
Generals McClellan and Bumside in command. For his quali- 
fies as a strategetical and brave general, great hopes of 
success were entertained. He was popular with the army, and 
had in a remarkable degree the confidence of the people. He 
was an especial favorite of Governor Andrew, and of the 
soldiers of Massachusetts. He had succeeded in having the 
army newly clothed and armed ; he had improved the com- 
missariat ; and, by his efforts, the soldiers had received their back 
pay . 

On the 26th of January, Governor Andrew wrote General 
Hooker a confidential letter, in which he congratulated him 
upon his appointment to the command of the Army of the 



LETTER TO MAJOR-GENERAL HOOKER. 405 

Potomac, and suggested to him to use a "little mlitary 
eloquence in his first order," in which he should especially com- 
mend, encourage, and cheer the 'brave good fellows, who have 
borne the brunt already, some of them in three campaigns." 
The general orders heretofore issued "have looked to the 
future only, and have reflected more or less merely on the com- 
mander." A few words of praise and of gratitude, "suggesting 
nothing but hopefulness, thankfulness, and good-will, would be 
worth a victory." He then advised him to go around and speak 
a few pleasant and kind words to "every single regiment, - 
EVERY ONE. Tell the boys that all have a country; all will 
hereafter have a history ; and that, a hundred years hence, the 
children by the firesides will be charmed by the stories their 
mothers will tell them of the valor and manUness of the humblest 
private who served well or died bravely." 
This letter concludes as follows : - 

"I am anti-slavery ; but may I say that at first I would not allude to 
the proclamation. When the Secretary of War shall, by general order, 
promulgate it, which will be done shortly, let it be read at the head of 
every regiment; and I would then, by word and deed, make it as effi- 
cient and vital as the bayonet of the soldier, and the voice of the com- 
mander. You can immediately and strongly commit every officer to 
the policy and orders of his Government ; and the men will easily see 
that while their wives give up their husbands, their fathers give up 
their sons, to the hazards of war, it is only the merest justice that rebel 
masters should yield up their slaves, and not compel them to be rebels 
too. You will, I know, general, pardon, and ascribe to my friendly 
interest and my confidence in your chivalrous character, the apparent 
freedom of this note and its suggestions." 

An officer who had held rank on the staff of Major-General 
Banks, had been summarily dismissed the service by Mr. 
Stanton, for what he deemed a breach, of military etiquette, 
which was regarded by Governor Andrew as an act of. in- 
justice towards the officer; and he exerted himself with the 
President and the Secretary of War, at divers times, to have 
him reinstated. He had great confidence in his ability, and of 
his soundness in regard to commanding colored troops. When 
General Ullman, of New York, received the appointment of 



406 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

brigadier-general to raise a brigade of colored troops in the 
Department of the Gulf, he wrote to Governor Andrew, request- 
ing him to recommend some good officers for his command. 

The gentleman who had been dismissed the service the Gov- 
ernor regarded as the man for General Ullman to have ; but, 
unless the Secretary of War or the President would agree to 
overlook and forgive the offence committed, he could not be 
commissioned. We find on the Governor's files a number of 
letters written about this time to the President, Mr. Stanton, 
and Senator Sumner, urging the re-appointment of this officer, 
with especial reference to serving under General Ullman. One 
of these letters addressed to Mr. Sumner, dated Jan. 28, 
says, - 

"Without a moment's delay, go to the President, and tell him for 
me that he ought to believe in the forgiveness of sins, as well as in the 
resurrection of the body and the life everlasting. This is the text: 
now for the sermon. You know Maurice Copeland was struck off the 
rolls last summer by a presidential order." 

The Governor's "sermon" is a strong argument in favor of 
recommissioning Major Copeland. The error which he had 
committed, and for which he was dismissed, was a letter which 
he had written reflecting upon what he regarded as the delay 
of the War Department in the employment of colored troops. 
The decision originally made by Mr. Stanton could not be re- 
versed, as he regarded the letter of Mr. Copeland as a personal 
insult. 

On the second day of February, a letter was written by Mr. 
George Winslow, of Boston, to the Governor, in which he in- 
forms him that the pirate "Alabama" was reported, Jan. 24, 
two hundred miles east of Hatteras, steering north; while the 
"Vanderbilt" sailed Jan. 30, the same day that the above 
news reached New York : so the " Vanderbilt " may have gone to 
the Gulf Semmes was reported as having an intention of com- 
ing into Massachusetts Bay. "Suppose he makes such an impu- 
dent dash now, and comes into Provincetown, which he could 
easily do one of these moonlight nights." The writer then sug- 
gests to the Governor to telegraph to Washington to have one 



THE PIRATE "ALABAMA." 407 

of the men-of-war at Charlestown sent to Provincetown. The 
letter has this indorsement : - 

"The within copy of a letter I have received from George Winslow, 
Esq., a respectable and intelligent merchant of this city. I respect- 
fully refer it to the Secretary of the Navy in connection with the 
telegram I have addressed to the Navy Department to-day." 

The Governor had telegraphed, on the receipt of Mr. Wins- 
low's letter, to have a war-vessel sent to Provincetown. It may 
be regarded as one of the coincidences of the war, that the infor- 
mation in the above letter should have been conveyed to the 
Governor by Mr. Winslow, and that the "Alabama" should 
have been sunk by Commodore Winslow, months afterwards, 
in the harbor of Cherbourg, France. 

Authority was received, from the Secretary of War, by an 
order dated Jan. 26, to recruit a colored regiment in Massa- 
chusetts. The first authority given by the Governor to any 
person to recruit colored men in Massachusetts, was dated 
Feb. 7 ; and the regiment was filled to the maximum May 14, 
in less than one hundred days. Before its organization was 
completed, there being so many colored men anxious to enlist, 
it was decided to raise another regiment, which was rapidly 
filled. These two colored regiments were designated the Fifty- 
fourth and Fifty-fifth. An almost impenetrable wall of prejudice 
had been reared against the employment of colored men in the 
military service. The Adjutant-General of Massachusetts, in his 
report for 1863, said, - 

"It required calm foresight, thorough knowledge of our condition, 
earnest conviction, faith in men, faith in the cause, and undaunted 
courage, to stem the various currents which set in and flooded the land 
against employing the black man as a soldier. In the Executive of 
Massachusetts was found a man who possessed the qualifications 
necessary to stem these currents, and to wisely inaugurate, and peace- 
fully carry out to a successful termination, the experiment of recruit- 
ing regiments of colored men." 

Although the act of Congress authorizing the formation 
of colored regiments did not prohibit the commissioning of 
colored officers, the order of the Secretary of War did. On 
the third day of February, the Governor telegraphed to Secre- 



408 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

tary Stanton, asking him to withdraw his prohibition, so far as 
concerns line officers, assistant surgeons, and chaplain of the 
colored regiment which he was about to raise. He says, 
'Power would not be used, except, possibly, for a few cases of 
plainly competent persons, recommended by the field officers, 
who shall be gentlemen and soldiers of highest merit and in- 
fluence." Permission was not given. 

There is no part of the military history of Massachusetts of 
greater interest than the part which relates to the recruiting and 
organization of these colored regiments. It was a new thing. 
Few men in the State had ever seen a colored-man in uniform. 
They were not allowed to form part of the militia, or to be en- 
listed in the regular service. By many it was regarded as 
an experiment of doubtful utility; and there were those, even 
here in Massachusetts, who secretly hoped the experiment 
would prove a failure. With the Governor and his staff, and 
prominent citizens who had supported him in his war policy, 
the employment of colored troops had been long and well con- 
sidered and anxiously desired. No one knew better than the 
Governor the importance of having the experiment succeed. 
As one of the means to this end, he determined to select for 
officers the very best material that could be found in the Massa- 
chusetts volunteer service. They should be men of acknowledged 
military ability and experience, of the highest social position, if 
possible, in the State, and men who believed in the capacity of 
colored men to make good soldiers. Upon receiving authority 
to recruit a regiment, he immediately fixed upon Robert G. 
Shaw, a captain in the Second Regiment Massachusetts Infantry, 
as the colonel ; a gentleman of education, a brave officer, and 
connected, by blood and marriage, with the oldest and most re- 
spectable families in the State. Before communicating his pur- 
pose to Captain Shaw, he wrote Jan. 30 to Francis G. Shaw, 
Esq., Staten Island, N.Y., father of the captain, to obtain his 
consent. After stating fully his purpose to have the colored 
regiments officered by the best men, he said, "My mind is drawn 
toward Captain Shaw by many considerations. I am sure he 
would, attract the support, sympathy, and active co-operation 
of many- among his , immediate family relations. The more 



ORGANIZATION OF COLORED REGIMENTS. 409 

ardent, faithful, and true republicans and friends of liberty 
would recognize in him a scion from a tree whose fruit, and 
leaves have always contributed to the strength and healing of 
our generation." Mr. Shaw was willing that his son should 
serve ; and Captain Shaw was shortly afterwards relieved from 
his command, and came to Boston to superintend the recruit- 
ment of the regiment. The Governor also fixed upon Captain 
Edward N. Hallowell, a captain in the Twentieth Regiment, as 
lieutenant-colonel. He was a son of Morris L. Hallowell, a 
Quaker gentleman of Philadelphia, whose house in that city had 
been a hospital and home for Massachusetts officers all through 
the war. When the organization of the Fifty-fourth was com- 
pleted, many gentlemen in New York, who favored the enlist- 
ment of colored troops, desired to have the regiment pass 
through that city on its way to the front. They wanted to 
have it march down Broadway, that the people might see it, and 
the State might imitate the example of Massachusetts in regard 
to colored regiments. But others, equally friendly to raising 
colored troops, counselled against it. They feared the regiment 
might be insulted by vicious men in that city, and that a tu- 
mult might ensue. These prudent counsels prevailed. 

The regiment was ordered to South Carolina. It came to 
Boston on the twenty-eighth day of May, and embarked on 
board the United-States steam transport "De Molay." It was 
reviewed on the Common by the Governor. Thousands of. 
citizens came in from the country to witness the march of the 
regiment through the streets of Boston. The sidewalks were 
crowded with people ; flags were displayed everywhere. The 
regiment was cheered the whole route. It was. one of the 
most splendid ovafions ever seen in Boston. The men kept 
close rank ; not a man left his place ; not a straggler was seen. 
The embarkation was orderly and complete. Two sons of 
Frederick Douglass, the colored orator, were in the ranks ; the 
father himself was present to witness the departure of his sons. 
About eight o'clock in the evening, the transport left the wharf. 
The Adjutant-General, Mr. Douglass, and a few other friends 
of the regiment, were on board. The evening was beautiful ; 
the moon was at its full. A small Government steamer ac- 



410 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

companied the transport a mile outside of Boston Light. On 
the passage down the bay, the men were addressed by Mr. 
Douglass, the Adjutant-General, and some of the officers. 
Those who were not to go with the regiment returned to the 
city on the Government boat. It was a splendid sight to see 
the large vessel, with its precious freight, vanish in the distance, 
as it proceeded on its way to South Carolina. The regiment 
reached Hilton Head June 3. On the eighteenth day of July, 
it led the advance at Fort Wagner, in which engagement 
Colonel Shaw was killed. His body never was recovered; 
but it was buried, as the Charleston papers said, "with his niggers" 

The Fifty-fifth Regiment left Boston on the twenty-first day 
of June, in the transport "Cahawba," for Moorehead City, 
N.C. The Adjutant-General, in his report for 1863, gives 
many details relating to the organization, departure, and 
services of these colored regiments. The Surgeon-General, 
also, in his report to the Governor for 1863, gives an interest- 
ing and valuable record of the sanitary condition and good con- 
duct of these two regiments while in camp at Readville. 

"If," says the Adjutant-General, "it be a weakness to feel a strong 
interest in the success of the colored men to sustain the Government, 
free their kindred and race from oppression, and work out for them- 
selves and their children, through the smoke and fire of battle, a 
respectable position among the peoples of the earth, I confess myself 
guilty of that weakness ; and if it be prudence to meet their proffered 
assistance, not with reciprocal kindness, but with coldness and with in- 
sult, I choose still to follow where natural impulse leads, and to give 
up that false and mistaken prudence for the voluntary sentiments of 
my heart." 

Among the prominent public men who contributed to raise 
the colored regiments was Gerritt Smith, of New York, who, 
too, sent the Governor a check for five hundred dollars, which 
was indorsed over to the committee of citizens intrusted with 
the superintendence of the recruiting for these regiments. This 
contribution is noticeable because Mr. Smith had devoted his 
wealth and talents for years in the interests of the American 
Peace Society. 



LETTER TO CAPTAIN SHERMAN 411 

While our Forty-eighth Regiment was in the Department of 
the Gulf, Captain Sherman, of Company F, wrote to the Gov- 
ernor respecting certain officers in that department, whose sym- 
pathies, if judged by their language, were on the side of the 
rebels. On the fourth day of March, the Governor wrote, to 
Captain Sherman thanking him for his letter, and said, - 

"I well understand the cry of every honest soldier, and his scorn 
and disgust at the insidious croakers, in the midst of the army, who 
fight feebly with their hands, while they sow dissension with their 
mouths ; hireling parasites, feverish for the ruin of the country which 
pays them, and insolent in a seemingly temporary success. By and by, 
like the venomous reptile so appropriately the symbol of the most bitter 
and treasonable secession State, they will bite themselves in baffled 
rage, and die with their own poison. ... I have repeatedly appointed 
men with conservative antecedents (for I ask no question of party in 
military appointments), but who, being men of honest hearts and ear- 
nest minds, exercised upon the ideas involved in a great, crisis, have 
emancipated themselves from all bondage of old beliefs and preju- 
dices, and have cast off die old garments which the whole age is labor- 
ing to throw aside. Others, again, I have appointed of Republican 
principles, only to find them yield feebly at first trial, unworthy of the 
fi-ee principles and free soil which nurtured them. I beUeve, however, 
that, among Massachusetts officers, such views and remarks as you have 
described gain little hold, and diat those holding them are in an insig- 
nificant minority." 

On the tenth day of March, the Governor wrote to General 
Hamilton, of Texas, then at Washington, expressing his re- 
grets that unavoidable public duties would prevent his meeting 
him at Washington, that he might stand by him in his earnest 
efforts to save Texas. 

"I would do so," he says, " if it was only for the satisfaction of try- 
ing, and, if you fail, of failing with you. I pray you to give my hearty 
and sympathetic regards to Governor Johnson, of Tennessee, and 
assure him of the interest widi which we of Massachusetts watch for 
the welfare of his Union friends, and for his own personal success in 
his noble career." 

Major Burt visited Washington on his return from Texas, at 
the request of the Governor, who gave him a letter to Secre- 
tary Stanton, dated Feb. 3, in which he urges at considerable 



412 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

length the importance of invading Texas. His plan was to 
have Matagorda Bay as a base, and, with an army of 25,000 
men, march upon Austin, "through a population two to one in 
favor of the Union." He believed a respectable portion of the 
nine months' troops in the Department of the Gulf would re- 
enlist for three years for an expedition of this kind. He advised 
that General Fremont be selected to command it, who should 
carry with him 20,000 additional stand of arms. He could 
enlist more Mexicans, half-breeds, and Germans on his way 
through Texas (to, say nothing of loyal native Texans) than 
any other man. The results which the Governor expected would 
flow from the expedition were, - 

1st, It would benefit the morale of our men in the Gulf De- 
partment, by giving them active employment. 

2d, 'The transformation en masse of many nine months' regi- 
ments " to three years' regiments. 

3d, The immediate relief of all Western Texas from the 
Confederacy. 

4th, Five thousand mounted men could be recruited on the 
march through Texas. 

5th, On reaching Austin, we could take control of the State 
Government. Then Galveston could be made the base, and 
the whole country, including Trinity Valley, could be held. 

6th, This would entirely cut off all contraband trade in arms, 
supplies, &c., by the Rio Grande, through Texas to the Red 
River and Shreveport. 

7th, When wholly accomplished, the whole blockading squad- 
ron west of the passes of the Mississippi would be relieved from 
that duty. 

These points were elaborated, by the Governor, and enforced 
by various arguments respecting the practicability and impor- 
tance of the enterprise. Major Burt, who was conversant with 
the subject, and who entered fully into the Governor's views, 
was to confer confidentially with Mr. Stanton, and give him all 
the information he possessed. The scheme, however, did not 
meet with the favor of the Secretary. He was opposed to it, 
and, it is said, treated both Major Burt and the suggestions of 
the Governor with a degree of rudeness altogether unexpected. 



THE EXPEDITION TO TEXAS. 413 

This, however, did not deter the Governor from making 
another effort for the invasion of Texas. On the twenty-third 
day of March, he wrote to the President of the United States, 
recapitulating many of the arguments contained in the letter 
addressed to the Secretary of War. He said that many of the 
Massachusetts nine months' regiments in the Department of 
the Gulf were induced to enter the service by an assurance 
given them in good faith, that they were to be led into Texas, 
allowed to redeem that section of the country, and then, without 
returning to their homes, be joined by their families and settle 
there. He had appointed Major Burt of his staff to go with 
the regiments and with General Hamilton, military Governor of 
Texas, to look after the interest of the troops in the expedition. 
To the great disappointment of officers and men, with the 
exception of a portion of the Forty-second Regiment, the 
regiments failed to reach Texas, and were then on duty in 
Louisiana. Major Burt, who had returned home, was person- 
ally acquainted with a large number of the officers and men from 
Massachusetts, and had reported to him,, that, notwithstanding 
their disappointment, many of the regiments would re-enlist for 
three years for special service in Texas. He had the same in- 
formation from other reliable sources ; and he therefore requested 
that the President would cause an order to be issued in regard 
to the Massachusetts nine months' regiments in the Department 
of the Gulf, which would embrace the following points : that 
the re-enlistments should be immediate ; that the transportation 
home, to which they were entitled, should be commuted to them 
in money as an extra bounty ; that they should go immediately 
to Texas under a proper commanding general. 

The movement for the restoration of Texas had been consid- 
ered by the Governor for nearly a year and a half; and in his 
judgment, and in that of other gentlemen who had considered 
the subject, it was of untold importance. He believed the expe- 
dition, by the good which it would do and the harm which it would 
prevent, would be of as much value as any expedition of five 
times its force to any other place. It would cripple the rebels, 
cut off their avenue of suppHes, would flank the Rebellion, in- 
tercept the designs of foreign powers on Mexico, preserve Texas 



414 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

to freedom, increase its value hereafter to the Union, and be a 
brilliant stroke of statesmanship, executed in the midst of war 
by military means and agencies. These arguments, presented 
with great force, failed to produce a favorable response, either 
from the President or the Secretary. The capture of Vicksburg 
and Port Hudson, a few months afterwards, by which the Mis- 
sissippi River was opened, were at that time objects sought to 
be obtained by the Government. 

As the climate of Louisiana caused a great amount of sickness 
among the Massachusetts regiments on duty in that State, this 
doubtless influenced the Governor in his efforts to have them 
removed to Texas. The reports received from the three years' 
regiments on duty there presented a fearful list of deaths, and 
of men sick in hospitals of malaria fever. So great, indeed, 
was the fatality from this cause, that the Governor wrote to the 
Secretary of War in March, asking that the regiments of Massa- 
chusetts troops which had passed the preceding summer in the 
Department of the Gulf might be replaced by others, and that 
they be brought North, as two successive summers there might 
be very fatal to their unacclimated constitutions. He asked this, 
not as a favor to himself or State, but as a measure of humanity 
and common prudence. 

Accompanying these letters was a report which had been 
received by the Surgeon-General of the Commonwealth, from 
Captain Welles, of the Thirtieth Regiment, which contained a 
very full and interesting account of the sanitary condition of that 
regiment, and expressed fairly the condition of the others. 
It appears by Captain Welles' s report, that at times not more than 
seventy men of the entire command were free from sickness, and 
entirely well. Feb. 15, 1863, the regiment had about four 
hundred men left for Ught duty, out of more than one thousand 
officers and men. From the time they had left the State, 
six had died in battle, about one hundred had been discharged, 
and " nearly all the rest have died of fever or diseases resulting 
from fever. Dr. Soule gives us to the fu-st of June, before we 
shall again become a burden to the service. In my opinion, if 
we are not removed to some station free from malaria before 
fall, the remnant that may be left will come home utterly 



THE COAST DEFENCES. 415 

broken down." Captain Welles also said that "a great deal of 
sickness might have been avoided, if negroes who had come 
within our lines had been employed as soldiers, as they wished 
to be, or in digging ditches and making roads through swamps, 
which the Northern soldiers had been employed to do. 

"General Williams," he said, "returned these slaves to their owners, 
who undoubtedly used their stout arms on the defences of Vicksburg, 
while we are killing white men, digging canals and trenches before 
Vicksburg." 

On the eighteenth day of March, the Governor telegraphed 
to Senator Sumner, - 

"I earnestly entreat your immediate attention to mine of Feb. 12, 
about war steamers. See the President and Fox, to whom I wrote 
same date. Nobody answered. Boston is very earnest and solicitous. 
Can we do any thing by visiting Washington ?" 

This telegram was also signed by Mr. Lincoln, Mayor of 
Boston. 

On the twentieth day of March, the Governor wrote to 
Edward S. Tobey and Samuel H. Walley, - 

"I have yours of the 14th inst., and I assure you of the cordiality 
with which we shall endeavor to co-operate with our citizens and 
municipalities in defending our coast." 

He also refers to the bill for coast defences, then before the 
Legislature, which he had no doubt would pass, appropriating a 
million and a half of dollars for that object. 

On the twenty-third day of March, the Governor wrote to 
George T. Downing, a well-known and highly respected colored 
citizen of New York, who had written to him in regard to the 
position of colored men who might enlist in the volunteer 
service, and says, - 

"Their position in respect to pay, equipments, bounty, or any aid 
and protection, when so mustered, will be precisely the same, in every 
particular, as that of any and all other volunteers. When 1 was in 
Washington upon one occasion, I had an interview with Mr. Stanton, 
Secretary of War; and he stated, in the most emphatic manner, that 



416 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

he would never consent that colored men should be accepted into the 
service, and serve as soldiers in the South, until he should be assured 
that the Government of the United States was prepared to guarantee 
and defend, to the last dollar and the last man, to these men all the 
rights, privileges, and immunities that are given, by the laws of civil- 
ized warfare, to other soldiers." 

The promise here made by the Governor in regard to the pay 
of colored troops was not redeemed by the Government. For 
more than a year after the two colored regiments had left 
Massachusetts, the Government refused to pay them the same 
as white soldiers. The Legislature of the State, at the extra 
session of 1863, appropriated money to make up the deficiency, 
of which we shall speak hereafter. 

On the twenty-third day of March, the Governor detailed the 
Adjutant-General to visit Washington and Fortress Monroe, to 
inquire concerning the feasibility of procuring men of color 
to enlist in the colored regiments of Massachusetts. At this 
time, there were a great number of contrabands who were at 
those two points, who desired to come North and enter into the 
service. The Adjutant-General was directed to confer with 
the military authorities, and to offer to colored men wishing to 
enlist the State bounty of fifty dollars, if the War Department 
would credit the men to the contingent of the State. Upon 
arriving at Washington, he found plenty of men at the colored 
camp, on the Virginia side of the Potomac, who were willing and 
anxious to come North and enlist in our regiments. But the 
War Department at that time would not allow it to be done; 
and therefore he was unsuccessful in his mission. 

This policy was afterwards changed, and colored men were 
permitted to come. North and enlist in our colored regiments. 
Time appeared to ripen almost every scheme of policy devised 
by the Governor, and cause it to be adopted, to the healing of 
the nation. 

On the 23d of March, the Grand Division of the Sons of 
Temperance forwarded a memorial to the Governor, setting 
forth the danger to which soldiers were exposed from the 
use of intoxicating drinks, and asking him to "fix his seal 
of condemnation upon the example of drinking officers." To 



APPROPRIATION OF A MILLION OF DOLLARS. 417 

which the Governor replied that the memorial did not over- 
estimate the importance of the matter to which it related ; that 
the consideration of it wits not a new thing ; in many cases, he 
had gone beyond the letter of the law in his endeavors to pre- 
vent such men from being commissioned; that he would not 
knowingly commission a person so offending. It was his desire 
to have the soldiers of Massachusetts surrounded by the best 
influences in the camp and in the field ; and that he would 
gladly avail himself of advice given by respectable parties in 
the selection of officers. 

On the 28th of March, he wrote to Colonel Frank E. Howe, 
in New York, to recommend to the consideration of General 
Ullman, who was authorized to raise a colored brigade in the 
South, James Miller, of Salem, as a proper person to receive 
a commission. He was then serving in our Fiftieth Regiment, 
in the Department of the Gulf. "Mr. Miller," he says, 'Is 
the eldest grandson of General Miller, of the war of 1812, - 
the hero of Lundy's Lane." 

On the 31st of March, he wrote to Colonel Maggi, command- 
ing our Thirty-third Regiment, - 

"You must not resign. As soon as our Legislature adjourns, I am 
intending to visit Washington. I shall then do my utmost for your 
advancement. I want you to secure the good favor of General 
Hooker, and see if he wants help. You must make yourself neces- 
sary to him, by giving him to know your capacity, devotedness, and 
zeal." 

Colonel Maggi had resigned before the letter reached him. 
His discharge from the service was dated April 1, 1863. 

The Legislature having passed the bill appropriating one 
million of dollars to be expended, under the, direction of the 
Governor, for coast defences, on the first of April he dis- 
patched Colonel Browne, his military secretary, to Washington, 
to confer with the Secretary of War on the subject, and to 
obtain his opinion as to the manner in which the money could 
best he apphed to secure the object for which it was designed. 
He says,- 

"Mention to General Totten the subject of revolving turrets, men- 
tioned by the committee of the Boston Marine Society ; and, if possi- 

27 



418 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

ble, get some expression of the views of other gentlemen ; also, from 
General Meigs, if possible, touching the whole question of the best 
use and application of the million grant, with a view to the speediest 
and most efficient service to be rendered by such an expenditure." 

The Massachusetts Twenty-ninth Regiment, having been 
ordered to join the Army of the Tennessee, received a very 
warm and cordial reception in Cincinnati, an account of which 
was transmitted to the Governor by Mr. Andrews, superintend- 
ent of the Soldiers' Home in that city ; to which the Governor 
repHed on the 1st of April, in which he says, - 

" I trust, as you suggest, that a proper State pride might have been 
gratified, had I witnessed the march of the Twenty-ninth through 
Cincinnati. Rut the pride in the fact that they were Massachusetts 
men could have no proportion to the pride in the fact that they 
were United States soldiers." 

On the same day, the Governor wrote a long letter to the 
Secretary of War in regard to raising a colored brigade in 
North Carolina, which could be easily done if the proper man 
should be selected to organize and command it. "It needs 
a man of soul for any movement, even to trundle a wheel- 
barrow." His own undertaking to raise a colored regiment 
in Massachusetts "was begun with talking with you about North 
Carolina." General Foster, in command in that State, regarded 
favorably the formation of colored troops. The Governor 
recommended Brigadier-General Frank Barlow, of New York, 
as a good officer to detail for such a command. It appears that 
Colonel Edward A. Wilde, of the Massachusetts Thirty-fifth 
Regiment, was also named for brigadier-general of colored 
troops ; and that the subject was brought to the attention of 
Secretary Stanton by Lieutenant-Colonel Browne, when in 
Washington, at this time; but the former did not receive, the 
proposition favorably, as we find by a letter written on the 16th 
of April by the Governor to Secretary Stanton, which com- 
mences as follows : - 

"1 am surprised and sorry to perceive, by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Browne's report, that you seem to have regarded me as trying to 
force upon the Government a new brigadier-general, and that you 
refuse to commission Colonel Wilde as a brigadier-general until he 
shall have raised a colored brigade in North Carolina." 



LETTER TO PRESIDENT LINCOLN. 419 

The Governor warmly disclaims any such intention. He 
proposed the name of Colonel Wilde in obedience to the sug- 
gestion made to him from the War Department, to name a 
suitable person for such a position. He knew of no one to 
whom the trust could be more properly committed. He was of 
the right age ; a graduate of Harvard College ; a physician by 
profession. His first military experience was as a surgeon in the 
Crimea, on the staff of Omar Pacha. He raised a company in 
the beginning of the war, and went with it as captain, in the 
First Regiment of three years' men from Massachusetts. He 
was in the first Bull-Run fight, and in all the battles before 
Richmond, in one of which he was severely wounded. As col- 
onel of the Thirty-fifth Regiment, he fought at South Mountain 
and Antietam, where he lost his left arm. 

The letter of the Governor appears to have been satisfactory 
to Mr. Stanton, as Colonel Wilde was commissioned brigadier- 
general April 24, eight days after it was vmtten. 

The defenceless condition of Boston Harbor had from the first 
attracted the serious attention of the Governor and of the com- 
munity generally. The seizure of our merchant vessels upon 
the high seas by rebel cruisers, and the frequent reports of the 
approach of the "Alabama " upon our coast, contributed im- 
mensely to the question of defence. Hardly a month had elapsed 
since the war begun that the Governor had not pressed the sub- 
ject upon the attention of the Government. The Legislature had 
appropriated a miUion and a half of dollars for coast defences, 
which were never undertaken, because of protests of the War 
and Navy Departments against it, claiming that it would inter- 
fere with their arrangements, and promising to supply the needed 
demand from the available resources of the Government Noth- 
ing, however, commensurate to the necessities of the case was 
done. 

On the 27th of April, the Governor brought the matter to 
the personal attention of the President, in a letter of several 
pages, and written in his best manner. He requested the Presi- 
dent to "consider the importance of detailing immediately an 
iron-clad vessel of war for the exclusive duty of protecting the 
harbors on the Massachusetts coast, and particularly the harbor 



420 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

of Boston." Within gunshot of the State House, he said there 
was a population of five hundred thousand people; and an amount 
of private property of an assessed value of five hundred millions 
of dollars; besides which, there were the Custom House, the 
Sub-Treasury, the Navy Yard, and the Arsenal at Watertown, 
belonging to the Federal Government. In the fortifications, 
built, by the Government at immense outlay, there was less than 
one-fifth of proper armament. In Fort Warren and at Castle 
Island there was not a single gun of more than eight-inch cali- 
bre, and those poorly mounted, and of old and abandoned pat- 
terns. Not a single Federal war- vessel was on our coast. The 
officer in command at, Fort Warren had no authority to detain 
or examine suspicious vessels. In the Vineyard Sound, where 
ninety thousand sail of vessels annually pass Gay-Head Light, 
there was no protection whatever. A swift war-steamer, like 
the " Alabama," might run into Boston Harbor or the Vineyard 
Sound, and do incalculable mischief, almost without molestation. 
New- York Harbor was five times as well protected as Boston. 
For these and other reasons, the Governor asked the President 
to comply with his request. He thought that he had a right to 
demand the protection asked for, which would have before this 
been furnished by the State itself, but for the protests made by 
the Government. A copy of this letter was sent to the Secre- 
tary of the Navy, Postmaster-General Blair, Mr. Sumner, and 
others. 

On the second day of May, the Secretary of the Navy ac- 
knowledged the receipt of the letter, and said he had not at his 
disposal a vessel of the descripfion asked for that could be spared 
from present service. He thought that a vessel best adapted to 
the coast defences of Massachusetts and New England would be 
a fast cruiser stationed at Boston, and always prepared for ser- 
vice. Such a vessel, besides affording security to Boston, could 
proceed to any scene of danger on the coast at short notice. 
An iron-clad vessel might be of more real service in the harbor 
of Boston ; but, as they moved slowly, would not do well to 
cruise in the bay or on the coast. He approved of the Gov- 
ernor's suggestions, made through Senator Sumner, and prom- 
ised it should have his immediate attention. It appears from a 



LETTER FROM LONDON. 421 

letter written by Mr. Blair, the Postmaster-General, that the 
President referred the letter received by him to General Totten, 
who made a report upon it to the President, which was read to 
him in the presence of Mr. Blair ; the purport of which was, that 
big guns were too much for iron-clads, which Mr. Blair consid- 
ered "all stuff." Mr. Blair's advice to the Governor was to 
spend a million dollars in obstructing the channels to Boston ; 
then big guns could be brought to bear on iron-clads, and could 
sink them. 

At this time, fears were entertained that matters might be- 
come so complicated between 'this country and England as to 
bring on a war with that nation ; and John M. Forbes, who was 
then in London, wrote a letter April 18, upon the subject. 
He said it was his opinion that it would take but little to bring 
on another excitement similar to that about the "Trent ;" that 
the British Premier would be likely to act in the same way, - 
"try to get British pride up to back him, and then insist upon 
our fighting or backing down." He was to meet Messrs. Cob- 
den, Bright, and Foster at Mr. Adams's the next day, and 
should probably bear something more. 

"Cobden I saw yesterday. He is going to speak next week, and I 
hope will speak entirely from a British point of view, showing their 
interest in protecting the sea fronn privateers, and in showing good 
faith as to fitting out expeditions. What havoc another Russian war 
would make on British commerce from our ports ! and yet these slow 
coaches do not see it, or only dimly. It needs infinite caution and firm- 
ness to avoid a war by avoiding further irritation ; and even then a 
spark may blow it up. I hope, upon the information before sent, you 
have already ordered a lot of Blakely 8 1/2-inch rifles. I expect to meet 
Blakely to-morrow, and shall get some light perhaps." 

Mr. Forbes then expresses a hope that the American people 
will pursue a firm but quiet course, and also that the Governor 
would have two iron revolving towers across the Narrows, and 
a chain with hoisting machinery connecting them. 

"But the first great want is the guns. I feel the danger so strongly, 
that I may even be tempted to buy some as samples. The enemy are 
getting them ; and, if these iron-clads get out, nothing but these guns 
and obstructions in the channels will save Boston. I think you have 



422 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

about three months before the iron-clads get out after this reaches you, 
before the danger becomes imminent; but it may be longer. People 
here base great hopes on Mr. Cobden's coming speech." 

The letter of Mr. Forbes undoubtedly added to the anxiety 
of the Governor to have the Government place the harbor of 
Boston in a position to defend the city. Colonel Ritchie, of his 
personal staff, was sent to Washington to confer with our dele- 
gation in Congress, and the Navy and War Departments, and 
endeavor to bring about the object which the Governor had so 
much at heart. A large portion of the letters written by the 
Governor at this time refer to this important matter. We are 
not aware, however, that any immediate steps were taken, by 
the Government, to place the harbor of Boston in a secure con- 
dition, although the forts mounted more and heavier guns, and, 
before the close of the year, were completely armed in the best 
possible manner. 

On the fifth day of May, the Governor wrote to John M. 
Forbes in London, giving him a full and detailed statement 
of the condition of our harbor defences, the appropiiation made 
by the Legislature, and the promises made by the Govern- 
ment. On the subject of buying Blakely guns, the Governor 
says, - 

"The prices which you send me, aggravated as they would be by die 
cost of exchange and insurance, are too extravagant, according to my 
ideas, to justify me in spending a milUon dollars in that way, especially 
when I consider the possibility of their transit to America being in- 
terrupted by the British Government, or in some other manner. I f 
it were ten millions I had to spend, I might willingly devote a million 
or two to that purpose ; but it is evident to me that a portion of the 
single million must be devoted to harbor obstructions, and certainly 
two or three hundred thousand dollars from the remainder ought to be 
held in reserve for the erection of field works, or any like labor which 
a certain exigency might require. I therefore abandon the idea of 
devoting any part of this million dollars to importing ordnance from 
abroad. In this opinion I am confirmed by every officer with whom I 
have consulted." 

It will be seen, however, that the pressure of causes forced 
the Governor to change his opinion. 



LETTER TO A REBEL CAPTAIN. 423 

We find on the Governor's files a letter dated Atlanta, 
Ga., April 10, 1863, signed Henry Shelby, and directed 
to his brother. Captain William Shelby, Co. B, Second Regi- 
ment, Georgia Infantry, C.S.A., on which is endorsed by 
Colonel Browne, 'The within is a copy of an original letter 
taken in the engagement at Chancellorsville, by a sergeant in 
an Ohio regiment." This letter gives an account of a visit to 
Atlanta by Jefferson Davis, and of a conversation held by him 
in regard to the "Alabama" visiting Boston. A portion of the 
letter is too vulgar to quote. It says, - 

'President Davis was here a few days ago, and said that the 
' Alabama,' with four others that will be dreaded as much as she has 
been, will make, the Yankees a call some time in June, at Boston or 
Portland ; and wonl they shell out ? Davis said the forts might try 
to play ball a little, but they are so fast sailers they could not hurt 
them much. Wonit Governor Andrew look as black as some of his 
Southern friends, when one of our big shells just bids him good-morn- 
ing in the State House. Then Boston people can see how good it is 
to have their homes destroyed ; for, before they can get out any thing 
at the Navy Yard, we can knock them. Any way, how I should like 
to see the fun ! Now, William, after you have read this, bum it up; 
dont tell any one what is in it, as the visit must be kept a secret, as it 
would be rather tough to have them know of it. Davis said it must 
not be known, as they could run off in disguise, and come on in a 
hurry. Donl put it in your pocket, as you might forget it. Are you 
all right to give it to Hooker's Yankee mob ? We hope to hear a good 
account soon from you. Your family are all well." 

There can be no doubt of the genuineness of this letter, and 
that it was contemplated by the Confederate Government to 
have Semmes and his associate pirates make a dash upon Boston 
or Portland, and damage the "Yankees" as much as possible. 
But in this case, as in many others, discretion became the better 
part of valor. 

On the twenty-third day of May, Robert C. Winthrop, of 
Boston, inclosed a letter to the Governor, which he had re- 
ceived from the American consul at Malta, a kinsman of his, 
giving information in regard to a portion of the British fleet 
stationed at that port, that had been ordered to Halifax ; and, 
should a war occur between America and England, the first 



424 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE. REBELLION. 

point of attack would be Portland, the second Boston, and the 
third Newport, so far as the Northern States were concerned, and 
he should be glad if the Governors of the New-England States 
were informed of the danger which threatened them. The 
letter contained much information which was of interest at the 
time, and would have been invaluable in case of a war between 
the two nations. The letter which Mr. Winthrop forwarded to 
the Governor was a copy of one the consul had written to Mr. 
Seward, Secretary of State. 

On the 28th of May, an order was passed by the Executive 
Council that the sum of $250,000 of the million appropriation 
for coast defences be set apart for the procurement, for the 
defence of the coast of Massachusetts, of as many Blakely and 
Whitworth guns, or others of similar capacity and quality, as 
could be obtained during the next four months, and that an 
agent be appointed to visit Europe to purchase them. 

The Governor requested Colonel Ritchie, of his personal staff, 
to accept the appointment of agent ; but private business en- 
gagements would not permit of it at that time. Some con- 
tracts were made by Mr. Forbes in London. Colonel Ritchie, 
having arranged his business, accepted the appointment in 
August, and early in September sailed for England to pur- 
chase ordnance. His experience abroad, and the success of his 
mission, forms one of the most interesting episodes in the war 
history of Massachusetts, as we shall show hereafter, and for 
the present pass to other matters. 

In the preceding pages, we have brought the correspondence 
of the Governor down to July 1, 1863. Not that we have given 
any thing approaching a full record of it : that would be im- 
possible in a publication like this. We have given only those 
relating to matters of general interest, which we have abridged 
from seven volumes, each containing upwards of four hundred 
letters, and which relate to every conceivable subject connected 
with the war, and the civil policy of the State. In the Adju- 
tant-General's office, an equal number were written, of which 
we can refer only to a few, to illustrate some of the difficulties 
against which die State officers had to contend. 

On the 12th of January, the Adjutant-General, by direction 



LETTER TO MR. GOOCH. 425 

of the Governor, wrote to Mr. Gooch, member of Congress, 
calling his attention to the case of David E. Goodfellow, an 
enlisted man in the Twenty-first Regiment, who had served under 
General Burnside in the capture of Roanoke Island, Beaufort, 
and Newbern, N.C. In January, 1862, he had been detailed by 
General Burnside to help lay a railroad-track at Annapolis, Md., 
a business which he was acquainted with. He remained faith- 
ful to his duty until he was prostrated with a fever, and re- 
ceived a furlough to come home from Mr. Goddard, who had 
charge of the Government work. On his recovery, he at once 
reported at the State House, and asked for transportation back 
to his post. The Adjutant-General sent him to Colonel Day, 
U.S.A., who had authority to furnish transportation. Colonel 
Day refused it, on the ground that Mr. Goddard's furlough 
"was no sufficient authority for the man's absence." Captain 
McKim, the United-States Quartermaster in Boston, also 
declined to furnish transportation. The State had neither 
authority nor funds. The adjutant-General said, - 

"We have no means of sending him on unless we take the money 
out of our own pockets ; a thing we have become so used to, that it is 
difficult now to repeat. The man is well-behaved, intelligent, and 
smart, a citizen of Fitchburg, and is anxious to get back to his duty. 
This is only one of many cases which occur almost daily: shall it 
continue for ever? The man cannot get back without transportation, 
is willing to have it deducted from his pay, and, although he has not 
been paid for ten months, utters no complaint." 

The Adjutant-General disclaimed any wish to say a word dis- 
paragingly of Colonel Day. 

"He is an old officer of the army ; but he does not understand our 
people, and is too aged to learn. He will do nothing that is not in the 
'regulations.' Cannot some discretionary power be given, or are we 
to die daily,' like St. Paul, by this adherence to the old rules, made 
when the army of the United States did not number as many men as 
the county of Middlesex has sent to this war. Goodfellow is now at 
the Hancock House at the expense of the Commonwealth. He 
had either to go there or sleep all night in the Tombs or police 
station. It is this utter disregard of the rights and amenities of brave 
and patriotic men that is sapping to its roots the tree of patriotism, 



426 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

and making recruiting almost an impossibility. Please show this letter 
to Senator Wilson and such of your colleagues as you may think best, 
and let me hear from you as soon as possible." 

Many of the authorities of the cities and towns will never 
forget the repulses which they met, and the vexations they un- 
derwent in recruiting, during the time Colonel Day repre- 
sented the military authorities of the nation at this post. And 
yet he was an honest and brave officer ; but he was wholly un- 
used to transact business, except as specified in general orders 
and army regulations. Goodfellow finally reached his regiment 
by transportation furnished by orders from Washington. We 
give this case as one of a class. 

Here is another class of cases, of which there were a great 
number : - 

" To His Excellency . 

"The case of George M. Dixon is this : He enlisted in the Tenth 
Battery (Captain Sleeper) on the 16th of August, and was sent to 
camp, where he remained until the 9th of September, when he was 
mustered into service. He has been paid from the time of muster in, 
but has received nothing for the one month (lacking five days) he was 
in camp previous to that time. It is for this time that he claims pay ; 
but as no provision of law, and no appropriation of money, has been 
made to meet such cases, I do not see how he can be paid. There are 
thousands of cases existing similar to this. I think, if a gratuity of 
ten or fifteen dollars was made to him, he would be satisfied. He is a 
painter by trade, and can get work; but he is not well enough to work 
at present. While I was writing the above, Mrs. Abbott, of East Bos- 
ton, came to see me on a case precisely similar. Her husband is in 
the Tenth Battery. He enlisted on the 16th of August, and was mus- 
tered in on the 9th of September. Mrs. Abbott has three children, 
and has received no money since the battery left the State. I think 
her case is as deserving as the other, the facts being the same." 

In January, 1863, the Governor was in Washington. The 
following paragraph appears in a letter addressed to him on 
other matters : - 

There is nothing new here that requires mention. Every thing, I 
believe, is progressing in the right direction. 'Camp Day' (North 
Cambridge) was broken up yesterday, and the recruits transferred to 



LETTER ABOUT RECRUITING OFFICERS. 427 

Fort Independence, which, I understand, will hereafter be the rendez- 
vous for recruits for old regiments. If we could only have some ener- 
getic person appointed at the head of the recruiting service, and have 
two-thirds of the officers now here, ostensibly on recruiting duty, sent 
back to their regiments, the service would be benefited. It is a great 
eyesore to me to see so many young officers here on i-ecruiting ser- 
vice,' but, in fact, doing nothing of the least use to the country or of 
advantage to themselves." 

On the 2d of February, the Adjutant-General wrote a letter 
to Major-General Wool, commanding the Eastern Department, 
with headquarters at New York, calling his attention to the 
matters complained of in the extract given above. The letter 
sets forth that there were in Boston about thirty commissioned offi- 
cers detailed from their regiments on recruiting service here, and 
twice that number of enlisted men acting as orderlies ; all of 
whom, with the exception of half a dozen who were unfit for 
field service on account of wounds, he thought should be sent 
to their regiments. They were of no use here ; they did not, on 
an average, recruit one man a day. Some of them, he feared, 
were not anxious on the subject. 

" I am sure, however, that a majority of the able-bodied officers are 
anxious to join their commands. They are weary of staying here 
doing nothing. They have asked to be relieved ; but their request is 
denied them, and here they remain, although conscious they are doing 
no good whatever to their regiments or their country. I know of one 
first Ueutenant, a smart, active, good officer, who has been here nearly 
six months recruiting for his regiment (the Thirtieth), stationed at 
New Orleans, who has not in that whole time sent a single recruit to 
the regiment, and has not one now to send to it. What, then, is the use 
of his staying here ? His regiment is in want of officers : why not 
send him to it ? He wants to go. His case is not an isolated one." 

What was wanted, he said, was a concentrated, energetic 
system. Recruiting for the old regiments was done chiefly in 
Boston. There should be one general headquarters for recruit- 
ing in the city, and one officer at the head of it, "who knows 
our people, and whom our people know." He deprecated hav- 
ing so many officers here, each having his orderlies and paying 
rent for thirty different offices, when one man and one office 



428 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

would be far more efficient. H e presumed the same state of 
facts existed elsewhere; but in this little State the evils com- 
plained of were more early seen and deeply felt. 

" So many officers seen in our streets and places of public amuse- 
ment make our people who have sons and husbands in the field, ask 
what are these officers doing here ? why are they not with their regi- 
ments? I tell you, general, that the effect is all bad, and the system is 
all wrong.)' 

On this letter the Governor indorsed, "Read and cordially 
approved by me." The system complained of was afterwards 
corrected ; and, in a degree, the recommendations of the Adju- 
tant-General were adopted. 

We insert a letter which bears upon another class of cases. 
Ferdinand Fillmore, of the Eleventh Regiment, was reported a 
deserter. He was in Boston, and had written to his captain for 
a descriptive list, that he might get his monthly pay, of which 
he was in great need. The captain refused to send it, on the 
ground that the man was a deserter ; to which the Adjutant- 
General replied, - 

"The man is no deserter. He was sent from Fortress Monroe to 
New York. You say he was to go to Alexandria ; but the poor fellow 
had to go on the vessel he was ordered to, and he had to go to such 
port as the vessel took him to, and that was to New York. He was 
there in hospital two months. He wanted to join his regiment when 
he got better ; but the officer in command would not let him, but gave 
him a discharge from the service on surgeon's certificate of disability, 
which he now has, and 1 have it before me as I write. The man is 
poor, and in feeble healtii. The United-States Government owes him 
two months' pay, which he cannot get until he has his descriptive list 
from you ; I pray you to send it on. I am as anxious to return deserters 
as you can possibly be, ^d probably exert myself to send them back 
as much as any one ; but this man is not a deserter, and should not 
be so regarded." 

March 3. -To William D. Northend, Salem : - 
"You ask if an inhabitant of Salem goes direcdy to Virginia, and 
there enlists, and is mustered into the service of the United States in 
the Massachusetts Second Regiment, can he be considered a part of the 
quota of Massachusetts, so that his family can receive the State aid? 
I answer, most unequivocally, yes." 



COMPLAINTS MADE. 429 

Brigadier-General Humphries, U.S.A., Army of the Poto- 
mac, wished Governor Andrew to commission Mr. Edward C. 
Rice, of Framingham, that he might appoint him on his staff. 
There was no place for him in the three years' regiments. The 
Governor referred the matter to the Adjutant-General, who re- 
plied, - 

" I presimie that a staff appointment by one of our militia brigadier- 
generals would answer the purpose. It did in the case of Colonel 
T. Bigelow Lawrence, who received an appointment upon the staff of 
General McDowell, upon a commission which he held as an officer on 
the staff of Major-General Sutton, Second Division M.V.M. There 
are four vacancies in the staff of Brigadier-General Peirce : if he will 
appoint Mr. Rice, I believe it will accompUsh the purpose sought for 
by General Humphries." 

And it did. 

A colonel in a Massachusetts regiment having written to the 
Governor that " great trouble had arisen," and officers had lost 
their pay, because the Adjutant-General of the State delayed 
forwarding the commissions when made out, the letter was 
referred by the Governor to the Adjutant-General, who replied, 
that all commissions were immediately transmitted to the Adju- 
tant-General of the army, to correct his roster by, and were by 
him transmitted to their proper destination. If there had been 
any delay, it must have been in that office, not here. The let- 
ter concludes : - 

" I do not suppose that any colonel of a Massachusetts regiment 
would state what he did not believe to be true ; and I did not suppose 
there was one who would make complaint against a public officer until 
he had ascertained that there was just cause. Now, may it please 
your Excellency, whoever the officer may be who has made this com- 
plaint, I will, say, without fear of contradiction, that he has spoken of 
what he has no knowledge of, and has made a charge which has not a 
shadow of foundation on which to stand." 

A very large number of letters were written in answer to 
questions put by the city and town authorities, in regard to the 
payment of State aid to soldiers' families. The rule was almost 
general, on the part of those gentlemen, to construe the law 
liberally ; a few only interposed technical objections, and were 



430 MASSACHUSETTS IN THE REBELLION. 

over-prudent in the dispensation of this wise and humane reHef. 
One of the selectmen wrote to ascertain the town to which a 
soldier was credited, without giving the number of the regiment 
in which the soldier was serving. The Adjutant-General wrote 
for this information. The question at issue was, which of two 
towns should pay the family the State aid. The law was clear 
upon the point, that the town in which the family resided 
should pay it, if the family needed it. Another letter came, 
the purport of which may be learned from the concluding para- 
graph of the Adjutant-General's answer : - 

" Instead of answering my question, and informing me of the num- 
ber of the regiment to which the man belongs, you write to me, under 
date of April 1, in terms not over-courteous, that it is my duty to 
decide whether this town shall look after this family.' With all due 
respect, permit me to say that it is no part of my duty to decide any 
such question. If it were, I should take good care that, the wife and 
family of a poor soldier did not suffer from quarrels, or from an over 
desire to throw off the duty of paying the State aid by narrow points 
of dispute between town authorities." 

Some of the nine months' regiments had been absent from 
the State but a few months, when some of the officers and en- 
listed men began writing home to ascertain when their time 
would expire. Some of the companies had been mustered in 
several weeks before others; and the question raised was, did 
the time begin when the first company or the last company 
was mustered ; or was each company to be mustered out in nine 
months from the date of muster-in. One of these letters came 
to J. H. Mitchell, a member of the Massachusetts Senate, who 
referred it to the Adjutant-General for his opinion, which was 
that the term of service began from the time that the regiment 
was completed and organized. This answer was sent to North 
Carolina ; but it was not satisfactory to the officer who made 
the inquiry, who wrote again to Mr. Mitchell ; this letter was 
also referred to the Adjutant-General, who answered it at length. 
He said, - 

"The officer tiiinks my rule is unjust, because some companies of 
the regiment have been mustered in sooner than others, and therefore 
the term should commence by companies, and not as a regiment. Such 



THE NINE MONTHS' REGIMENTS. 431 

a rule would be an absurdity. Whoever heard of a regiment being dis- 
charged by companies ? Toward the end of the service, if such a rule 
prevailed, the regiment would only have one company, and, when its 
term was up, the field and staff would be left alone in their glory, with- 
out any command; and if each company were to step out by itself, 
and be sent home, the Government would be under the necessity of 
finding ten transports to send men back, or else the companies would 
have to remain where they were, without rations and without pay, 
until the entire regiment had reached its tenth death. 

"It is true that some companies are formed and mustered in before 
others ; but in making regiments, there, must be a beginning and an 
ending, and this applies to companies as well as to regiments, for 
there is always a first man and a last man in a company. Why not 
apply the same rule to the term of service of men in a company, and 
let the first who enUsted be the first to be discharged? 

"But to conclude : The companies which are first mustered in have 
their pay begin first, which should satisfy the men; and I have no 
doubt that it does. 

" Lastly, the terms of service of the nine months' men are precisely 
the same as fixed for the diree years' men. The term of service of 
the three years' men begins when the regiment is completed; and the 
propriety of it has never, to my knowledge, been questioned by either 
officers or men. It is only by a few gentlemen in the nine months' 
service that the