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Full text of "History of the medical profession of Camden County, N. J., : including a brief review of the charitable institutions within the county"

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HISTORY 



OF THE 



Medical Profession 



CAMDEN COUNTY, N. J., 



Including a brief review of the 



Charitable Institutions Within the County. 



H. L. B. GODFREY, A.M., M.D., 

Colonel and Assistant Surgeon-General of the National Guard of New Jersey ; Correspond- 
ing Secretary of the Medical Society of New Jersey ; Secretary of the New Jersey 
State Board of Medical Examiners; Ex-President of the New Jersey Sanitary 
Association, the Military Order of Surgeons of New Jersey, the 
Camden District and City Medical Societies; Physician to 
The Cooper Hospital ; Lecturer on Medical Nursing 
in the New Jersey Training School for Nurses ; 
Member of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, the Association of Mil- 
itary Surgeons of the 
United States, 
etc., etc. 



PHILADELPHIA 

The F. A. Davis Company 

1896 




■7-U 



>i. 9 H-* 



Copyright, 1896, 

BY 

E. L. B. GODFREY 



C\4- 



Preface. 



In presenting this work to the public, the author desires to 
state that the utmost pains have been taken to insure its accuracy. 
In addition to the references given in the foot-notes of the work, 
indebtedness is here acknowledged to the personal records that 
have been furnished him and to the minutes, published trans- 
actions and reports of the societies, associations, orders and 
institutions considered ; but the incompleteness of some of these 
is, however, a matter of regret. Next to the consecutive history 
of professional matters within Camden county, and of the kindred 
professions of pharmacy and dentistry, the social, educational, 
political and military relationship of the medical fraternity to the 
City and County of Camden, the State of New Jersey and to the 
Government of the United States, has been carefully presented. 
This volume was prepared while the author was engaged in 
arduous professional duties, and it is his hope that its reader will 
derive as much pleasure from its perusal as it has afforded him 
in its preparation. 

Camden, New Jersey, 
January, 1896. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Open Knowledge Commons 



http://www.archive.org/details/historyofmedicaOOgodf 



Contents. 



CHAPTER I. 
Introduction. 

:tion 

I. — Old Gloucester, 
II. — The Medical Profession in Old Gloucester, 



PAGE 

I 

2 



CHAPTER II. 
The Period from i 844-1 850. 

I. — The Erection of Camden County, . . .9 

II. — The Organization of the Camden District Medical 

Society, . . . . .10 

III. — The Medical Society of New Jersey, . 17 

IV. — The Censors of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 21 

V. — The American Medical Association, . 23 

VI. — Miscellaneous, . . . -25 

a.— The Camden County Bible Society, . 25 

b. — Mulford's History of New Jersey, . 25 

c. — The Cholera Epidemic of 1849, . 25 

CHAPTER III. 

The Period from 1 850-1 855. 

I. — The Medical Society of New Jersey, . . 27 

II. — The Camden District Medical Society, . 31 

III. — The Medical Enactment of 1 85 1, . . -35 

IV. — Political Interests, . . . . -37 

V. — The Camden City Medical Society, . . .40 

VI. — The Medical Enactment of 1854, . . . 41 

VII. — The Cholera Epidemic of 1854, . . -43 

VIII. — Physicians and Druggists, . . .44 

CHAPTER IV. 
The Period from 1855-1860. 

I. — The Medical Society of New Jersey, . . 46 

II. — The American Medical Association, , . 49 



Vlll 



Co?i tents 



SECTION 

III.— The Camden District Medical Society, 
IV. — The Camden City Medical Society, 

V. — Fisler's History of Camden, 
VI. — Educational, Political and Naval Interests, 



PAGE 
50 

52 

54 

55 



CHAPTER V. 
The Period from 1 860-1 865. 
I. — The Medical Society of New Jersey, 
II.— The Camden City Medical Society, 
III. — The Camden District Medical Society, 
IV. — Political Interests, 
V.— The Civil War of 1861-1865, 

a. — The United States Army, 
b.— The United States Navy, 
VI. — Educational Interests, 



58 
60 

63 
65 
67 
67 
81 

83 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Period from 1865-1870. 

I. — The Medical Society of New Jersey, . . 85 

II.— The Camden City Medical Society, . . -87 

III. — The Camden City Dispensary, . . -89 

IV. — The Camden District Medical Society, . .92 

V. — The Cholera Epidemic of 1866, . . -94 

VI. — Miscellaneous Interests, . . . -96 

a. — The Military Order of the Loyal Legion, . 96 

b. — The National Guard of New Jersey, . 96 

c. — Educational Matters, . . -97 

d. — Drug Interests, . . . -97 

e. — Masonic Interests, . . . -98 

VII. — Homoeopathy, . . . . -99 

a. — The American Institute of Homoeopathy, 99 

b. — The West Jersey Homoeopathic Medical 

Society, . . . . .100 

VIII. — The Camden Home for Friendless Children, . 102 

IX. — Deaths of Prominent Physicians, . . . 103 

CHAPTER VII. 
The Period from 1 870-1 875. 

I. — The Camden City Dispensary, . . . 107 

II. — The Camden City Medical Society, . , .108 



Contents. 

SECTION 

III. — The Camden District Medical Society, 
IV. — The Medical Society of New Jersey, 
V. — The New Jersey State Homoeopathic Medical 
Society, .... 
VI. — The New Jersey State Dental Society, 
VII. — -Miscellaneous Interests, 

a. — The Water Supply of Camden, 
b. — Independent Order of Odd Fellows 
c. — Masonic Matters, 
d. — National Guard of New Jersey, 
e. — Educational Matters, 
f. — The Small-pox Epidemic of 187 1 
g. — Drug and Professional Interests, 
h. — The New Jersey Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, . 
i. — Deaths of Prominent Physicians, 

CHAPTER VIII. 
The Period from 1 875-1 880. 
I. — The Camden City Dispensary, 
II. — The Camden City Medical Society, . 
III. — The Camden District Medical Society, 
IV.— The Medical Society of New Jersey, 

V. — The New Jersey Sanitary Association, 
VI. — Charitable Institutions, 

a. — The Cooper Hospital, 
b. — The West Jersey Orphanage, 
VII. — Miscellaneous Interests, 

a. — Physicians and Druggists, . 

b. — Educational Matters, 

c — The Centennial Celebration, 

d. — The American Academy of Medicine, 

e. The Grand Army of the Republic, 

f. The Camden Microscopical Society, 
VIII. — County Physicians, .... 

IX.— The New Jersey State Board of Health, 
X. - Deaths of Prominent Physicians, 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Period from 1880-1885. 
I. — The Camden City Dispensary, 



IX 

PAGE 
IIO 

115 

117 
Il8 
119 
119 
119 
I20 

121 
122 
122 
123 

123 
124 



129 
131 
133 
137 
139 
141 
141 
I42 
143 
143 
I44 
144 
145 
145 
I46 
I46 

147 
148 



151 



x Contents. 

SECTION 

II. — The Camden City Medical Society, 
III. — The Camden District Medical Society, 
IV. — The American Medical Association, 
V. — -The Medical Society of New Jersey, 
VI.— The Medical Enactments from 1880-1885, 
VII. — Epidemic Diseases, 

a. — The Small-pox Epidemic of 1880 
b. — Vaccination, 
c. — Epidemic of Typhus Fever, 
VIII.— The New Jersey State Board of Health, 
IX. — The New Jersey Sanitary Association, 
X. — Miscellaneous Interests, 

a. — Physicians and Druggists, 

b. — Young Men's Christian Association, 

c. — Military Interests, 

1. — Association of the Sons of Veterans, 
2. — Medical Officers of the National Guard 

of New Jersey, 
3. — United States Pension Board of Ex- 
amining Surgeons, 
d — Political Interests, . 

e. — Society for the Relief of Widows and 
Orphans of Medical Men of New Jersey, 
f. — The Philadelphia County Medical Society, 
g. — The Druggists Association of Camden, 
XI. — Deaths of Prominent Physicians, 



PAGE 
153 

154 
158 
l60 
l62 
165 
165 
I67 
168 
I70 
173 
174 
174 
176 
176 
I 7 6 

177 

177 
I 7 8 

179 
179 
ISO 
I8O 



CHAPTER X. 

The Period from i 885-1 890. 
I. — The Camden City Dispensary, 
II. — The Camden City Medical Society, 
III. — The Camden District Medical Society. 
IV. — The Medical Societ3> r of New Jerse3^, 
V. — The New Jersey Sanitary Association, 
VI.— The Board of Health of the City of Camden, 
VII— The New Jersey State Board of Health, 
VIII. — The Camden Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensan 
Association, .... 
IX.— The Cooper Hospital, 

a. — -The Cooper Hospital Training School for 
Nurses, . 



i»5 

188 
191 

197 
200 
202 
205 

209 

211 

214 



Contents. xi 

SECTION PACK 

X. — The Ninth International Medical Congress, . 215 

XI. — The Camden County Society for the Prevention of 

. Cruelty to Children, . . . .217 

XII. — Military Interests, . . . . .218 

a. — Medical Officers of the National Guard of 

New Jersey, . . . .218 

b. — The Military Order of Surgeons of New 

Jersey, . . - . .218 

c — The Association of Military Surgeons of 

the United States, . . .220 

d. — The New Jersey Society of the Sons of the 

American Revolution, . • . .220 

XIII. — Medical Enactments of 1889, . . . 221 

a. — Concerning Physicians and Surgeons, . 221 

b. — Concerning Veterinary Surgeons, . 221 

XIV. — Medical Professorships and Lectureships, . 222 

XV. — Physicians, ..... 223 

XVI. — Deaths of Prominent Physicians, . . .224 



CHAPTER XI. 
The Period from 1890-1895. 
I. — The Camden City Dispensary, 
II. — The Camden City Medical Society, 
III. — The Camden District Medical Society, 
IV. — The Medical Society of New Jersey, 

V. — The New Jersey Sanitary Association, 

VI. — The New Jersey State and Local Boards of Health, 249 

VII. — The New Jersey State Board of Medical Examiners, 253 

VIII. — The Cooper Hospital, .... 257 

IX. — The New Jersey Training School for Nurses, . 259 

a. — The Alumni and Alumnae Association of 
the New Jersey Training School for 
Nurses, .... 265 

b. — The Camden Nurse Directory, . . 265 

X. — The Camden Day Nursery Association, . . 266 

XI. — Medical Department of the National Guard of New 

Jersey, ...... 269 

XII. — The Epidemic of La Grippe, . . .271 

XIII. — The West Jersey Homoeopathic Dispensary and 

Hospital Association, . . . .272 



228 
232 
237 
243 

247 



xii Contents. 

SECTION PAGE 

XIV.— Miscellaneous Interests, .... 275 
a. — The Pan-American Medical Congress, . 275 

b. — The American Medical Association , . 276 

c. — The Methodist Episcopal Home, . . 277 

d. — The Haddonfield Training School for Back- 
ward Children, . . . .278 
e. — The Camden City Medical and Surgical 

Society, . . . . -279 

f.— Political Interests, . . .280 

g. — Professional Interests, . . • 280 

h. — Major Surgical Operations, . - 282 

i. — Deaths of Prominent Physicians, . . 283 

]".— The Cooper Medical Club. . . 283 

k. — College Affiliations of Physicians, . . 284 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Section I. — Oed Gloucester. 
[1623-1 682.] To properly record the history of the medical 
profession of Camden county it is necessary to make a brief 
review of the parent county, Old Gloucester, and to trace, 
through changing settlements and forms of government, the rise 
and progress of the healing art in this section of New Jersey. 
The first European settlement in West Jersey was made by the 
Dutch in Gloucester county about 1623, wno were followed by 
the Swedes about 1640. Neither the Dutch nor the Swedes 
effected permanent settlements, but were dispossessed by the 
English when Charles II, under the claim of prior rights, 
conveyed, in 1664, the territory of New York and New Jersey, 
with powers of government, to his brother, the Duke of York. 
The Duke, in turn, conveyed the Province of New Jersey, 
with authority to govern, to Lord Berkeley and Sir George 
Cartaret, and Lord Berkeley, in 1673, disposed of his rights 
and interests to two English Quakers, John Fenwicke and 
Edward Byllinge.* The province was divided into East and 
West Jersey; and Fenwicke and Byllinge acquired West 
Jersey, which they selected as a place of retreat for their perse- 
cuted, religious associates in the Society of Friends, and thus 
peopled West Jersey with English, Scotch and Irish Friends. 
In 1675, Fenwicke founded Salem, and, in 1677, Burlington 
was settled and the boundaries of Old Gloucester were laid out, 
to extend from the Delaware river to the Atlantic ocean. In 
1682, Newton, the first English settlement in Old Gloucester, 
was founded and, in 1685, the county was formally erected, 
being the first constituted by the choice of its inhabitants. 
From these three settlements, Salem, Burlington and Newton, 
the peaceful and cultured civilization of the Friends was dis- 
seminated throughout West Jersey. 

♦Gordon's History of New Jersey. Mulford's History of New Jersey. Smith's History 
of New Jersey. 



2 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

[1681-1776.] A form of government was instituted by 
the Friends in 1681, under the proprietary rights which 
accompanied the transfer of the land, and the principles of 
civil and religious liberty, of trial by jury, and of the validity 
of accepted titles to land were guaranteed. The government 
was in advance of any existing at the time in regard to indi- 
vidual safety and freedom, but, owing to petty disputes, it was 
not a success, and was finally surrendered to the English crown 
in 1702. There were seven successive governors, during 
this period, of whom the most influential personage and the 
greatest land-owner was Dr. Daniel Coxe. By the surrender of 
1702, 4 he provinces of East and West Jersey were united, and 
thereafter the whole colony was ruled by a governor appointed 
by the King of England, which continued until 1776, when the 
separation of the American colonies from the mother country 
took place, and the State of New Jersey was organized. 

[1776-1844.] During the Revolution, 1776-1783, Old 
Gloucester played a conspicuous part. Its position exposed it 
to the raids of Count Donop and Major Simcoe, under whom 
on different occasions the British invaded the county at 
Cooper's Point, Haddonfield, Woodbury and Gloucester City, 
and, on October 22, 1777, met with disastrous defeat in the 
Battle of Red Bank. After the Revolution and the formation 
of the State of New Jersey, the progress of Old Gloucester in 
increased population and in the development of its resources 
was uninterrupted. As the population increased, the interests 
of government and of trade demanded a division of the county, 
and, in 1837, that portion bordering on the Atlantic ocean 
was set apart by Act of Legislature under the name of Atlantic 
county, and, in 1844, nearly half of the remaining townships, 
including two which date from the earliest settlements in New 
Jersey, viz. : Newton and Gloucester, were erected into Camden 
county. 



Section II. — The Medical Profession of Old Gloucester. 

[1 623-1 702.] The physicians of Old Gloucester exerted 
a marked influence in the periods of development previously 



The Medical Profession of Old Gloucester. 3 

referred to, viz.: the Dutch and Swedish, proprietary, colonial 
and revolutionary periods. During the Dutch and Swedish 
periods (1623-1664), there were doubtless clever physicians 
among the settlers, though little is known of them except on 
the west bank of the Delaware, where two Dutch and two 
Swedish surgeons practiced their art.* In the proprietary 
period of the Friends (1675-1702), some improvement was 
made in medical matters throughout West Jersey by the indi- 
vidual efforts of a few practitioners. In seeking an asylum in 
the New World where freedom from religious persecution 
might be obtained, the Friends were not unmindful of the 
privations and dangers to be encountered, and brought edu- 
cated physicians with them.| Among the best known of these 
were Doctors Daniel Wills, John Goslin and Robert Dimmes- 
dale. During the governorship of Dr. Daniel Coxe, a distin- 
guished London physician, a member of the Royal College of 
Physicians and Surgeons and physician to Queen Anne, it is 
not unlikely that he influenced others of his profession to 
settle in the province, though he himself never visited it. At 
that time, physicians not infrequently exercised the functions 
of the clergy and were not averse to political preferment and 
to land speculations. Because of the privations and exposure 
incident to pioneer life — pneumonia during the winter, sun- 
stroke in summer, malarial fevers and epidemics of small-pox — 
their services were in great demand. J There was no law regu- 
lating the practice of medicine except the medical code pro- 
mulgated by the Duke of York in 1665. This did not prevent 
any one from practicing medicine, but was intended " to 
restrain the presumptuous from exercising power contrary to 
the approved rules, without the advice of those skilled in 
the art or the consent of the patient." In consequence of this 
law, any one could ply the vocation of a physician at pleastire 
and "quacks abounded like the locusts of Egypt." § The 
apprenticeship system, which consisted of living a year or two 



* Early Physicians of Philadelphia, by James J. Levick, M. D. 

t Wickes' History of Medicine in New Jersey. 

I Ibid. 

§ Smith's History of New Jersey. 



4 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

with a physician as an assistant and then setting up as a prac- 
titioner, was the only method of medical education. 

[i 702-1 766.] During the colonial period a great advance 
was made in medical practice. Inoculation was introduced 
into America, in 1721, by Cotton Mather, and was early prac- 
ticed in West Jersey.* In consequence of increasing immigra- 
tion, and the prevalence of diseases incident to a virgin soil, 
the demand for physicians became urgent and their numbers 
multiplied. A great stimulus to a higher medical education 
was offered by the French and Indian War, (1 758-1 766). 
While the southern portion of New Jersey was not exposed 
like the northern to the invasion of the Indians, yet a bat- 
talion of English troops was stationed at Burlington, and furn- 
ished an opportunity for the native physicians to become ac- 
quainted with the newer methods of practice current among 
English army surgeons. The stimulus of this war led to the 
organization of the Medical Society of New Jersey, f and the 
welfare of medicine was still farther advanced by the founding 
of the University of Pennsylvania, in 1765, and the gradua- 
tion of its first-class in 1768. This gave an opportunity for 
medical apprentices to acquire a more liberal and scientific 
medical education. In 1766, the Medical Society of New 
Jersey was organized, and among its original members was Dr. 
Isaac Harris, father of Dr. Samuel Harris, who was the pioneer 
physician of Camden. The science of medicine at this time 
was at a low ebb, but the new society succeeded in elevating 
the professional standard by securing, in 1772, an "Act of 
Assembly regulating the practice of physic and surgery within 
the Colony of New Jersey," which provided for the licensing 
of physicians by Judges of the Supreme Court after an exam- 
ination by a board of physicians selected by the court. This 
was the first medical law enacted in the Colony of New Jersey, 
following that of the Duke of York in 1665 — a period of one 
hundred and seven years. 

[1776-1783.] During the revolutionary period, the 
profession in Old Gloucester tendered the county honorable 

* Wickes' History of Medicine in New Jersey. 
f Ibid. 



The Medical Profession of Old Gloucester. 5 

service both in the councils of government and in the battal- 
ions of the army. Dr. Benjamin Van Leer,* of Haddon- 
field, served as a member of the "Committee of Correspond- 
ence"; Doctors Thomas Hendry, of Woodbury; Bodo Otto, of 
Swedesboro, and Jacob Harris, uncle of Dr. Samuel Harris, 
were commissioned surgeons in the American army. Dr- 
Hendry was surgeon of the Third Battalion, Gloucester county ; 
Dr. Bodo Otto was surgeon of Colonel Charles Reed's Battalion, 
Colonel of State Troops, First Battalion, Gloucester county 
and a member of the Legislature. f Dr. Jacob Harris, t in 
addition to other services, participated in the Battle of Red 
Bank, in 1777, and dressed the wounds of Colonel Count Donop, 
the young Hessian commander who fell mortally wounded in 
the fight. On account of the Revolution, and of the interest 
it excited among physicians, the meetings of the Medical 
Society of New Jersey were suspended from 1775 to 1781. 
In 1783, the passage of a State law regulating medical practice 
was secured, in which the examining provisions of the colonial 
law of 1772 were re-enacted. In 1786, a supplementary law 
was enacted providing for medical examinations by physicians,, 
selected by the Supreme Court, or by any two of its members,, 
without the presence of the judges. In this year, Doctors 
Benjamin Tallman, of Haddonfield, and James Stratton, of 
Swedesboro, joined the State Society, and, in 1788, Dr. Stratton 
became its president. Dr. Dayton Lummis, of Woodbury, 
subsequently joined the society, but there were a number of 
physicians in the county who never became members, among 
whom were Doctors John Craig, Evan Clement and John 
Blackwood, of Haddonfield, and Dr. Samuel Bloomfield, of 
Colestown. 

[1790-1859.] In 1790, the Medical Society of New 
Jersey was incorporated for a term of twenty-five years, and 
among its incorporators were Doctors Tallman and Stratton. 
In the war of 181 2, Dr. J. J. Foster was the surgeon of General 
Ebenezer Elmer's Brigade, General Elmer being himself a 

* Prowell's History of Camden County. 

t Stryker's Register 

I Wickes' History of Medicine in New Jersey. 



6 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

physician. In 1816, the Medical Society of New Jersey was 
re-incorporated and provision was made for District or County 
Medical Societies and for the examination of applicants by 
Boards of Censors in each county. The censorship of the 
Supreme Court, dating from 1772, was annulled and the 
examination by Boards of Censors was made the basis of lawful 
practice. In 1818, a supplement was passed providing that 
the State Medical Society should be composed of delegates from 
the District Societies which might be formed in the various 
counties, each district being entitled to send four. This Act 
placed the membership upon a representative basis and, under 
these provisions, the Gloucester and Camden Societies were 
formed. In 1818, the Gloucester District Society was organ- 
ized with the following members : Doctors Dayton Lummis, 
Thomas Hendry, Joseph Fithian, Lorenzo F. Fisler, Davis, 
Evans, Francis Hoover, William Hunt, Samuel Harris, Bow- 
man Hendry, J. J. Foster, Ezra Balear and John C. Warner. 
The organization continued until 182 1, when it was dissolved. 
In 1835, it was reconstituted with the following members: 
Doctors C. V. Clark, Isaac S. Mulford, Thomas Lee, Joseph 
Fithian and Samuel Harris. This reorganization was not 
recognized by the State Medical Society, because of the failure 
of the Gloucester Society 7 to submit its constitution and by-laws 
for inspection and approval. In 1846, after the separation of 
Camden county, the Gloucester Society was again reorganized 
by Doctors Joseph Fithian, C. V. Clark, J. C. Weatherby, T. J. 
Saunders, John R. Sickler and Benjamin P. Howell. Since 
then it has been in active operation and has furnished two 
presidents for the State Society, viz.: Dr. Fithian, in 1849, ano ^ 
Dr. Sickler, in 1859. 

Although the profession of Old Gloucester was reluctant 
to organize, there were several physicians who exerted an 
influence over their co-workers and the general public. Doc- 
tors Bowman Hendry, Samuel Harris, Francis Hoover, John 
R. Sickler and Isaac S. Mulford were prominent in the locality 
now embraced in Camden county. Dr. Bowman Hendry,* son 
of Dr. Thomas Hendry of Woodbury, practiced medicine at 

* Memoir of Bowman Hendry, M. D., by a Physician. 



The Medical Profession of Old Gloucester. 7 

Haddonfield with much distinction from 1794 to 1838. "Dr. 
Hendry was educated at the Woodbury Academy and at the 
University of Pennsylvania. Even in boyhood he was distin- 
guished for his courtesy and kindness of disposition and, as a 
student, his punctuality, industry and zeal won for him the 
confidence and favor of his teachers. Towards the close of his 
course of study, at the University of Pennsylvania, the Whiskey 
Insurrection broke out in Pennsylvania (1794) and young 
Hendry entered the government service as a private soldier 
and, by means of a premature medical examination, was com- 
missioned as assistant surgeon. * * * Locating in Had- 
donfield, his practice soon extended from the Delaware to the 
sea. He did more to elevate the standard of medicine and to 
rescue obstetrics from the hands of mid wives than any physician 
of his time in the county. * * * For fifteen years he rode 
in the saddle and was often absent days at a time in his 
professional visits. * * * Not infrequently, from the 
extent of his journeys, he was obliged to sleep in the 
woods. * * * It has been estimated that he exhausted 
more than two hundred horses in his service. * * * Dur- 
ing the latter part of his career, his barns and horses were 
burned, and so great was his popularity that his friends imme- 
diately erected and presented new buildings to him and 
replaced his horses." Dr. Hendry was one of the original 
members of the Gloucester District Medical Society, in 1818, 
and was the father of Doctors Charles D. Hendry and Bowman 
Hendry, Jr. 

Dr. Samuel Harris* practiced medicine in Camden from 
181 1 to 1843. He came from a family of physicians, his 
father, two uncles, a brother and a nephew all belonging to the 
profession. His father, Dr. Isaac Harris, served with distinc- 
tion as a surgeon in the Revolution, and was one of the incor- 
porators of the Medical Society of New Jersey in 1790 and its 
president in 1792. Dr. Samuel Harris was the first physician 
to permanently locate in Camden, and he lived in the house still 
standing on the southeast corner of Cooper and Second streets. 

* " History of Medicine and Medical Men in Camden County," by John R. Stevenson, 
A. M., M. D., published in Prowell's History of Camden County. 



8 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

He was one of the constituent members of the Gloucester 
District Medical Society, in 1818, and at its reorganization, 
in 1835. He was one of the founders of St. Paul's Church, in 
1830, and was a vestryman until his death, in 1843. Dr. 
Francis Hoover* located in Camden in 18 12 and was contem- 
porary with Dr. Harris, but remained only a short time. Dr. 
John R. Sicklerf moved to Camden from Chew's Landing in 
1832 and opened a drug-store on Federal street, returning to 
Chew's Landing in 1834. Dr. Isaac S. Mulford began his 
medical career in Camden in 1823. At this time, Dr. Samuel 
Harris was the only physician in the village. Dr. Mulford 
was the connecting link between the physicians who were 
identified with Old Gloucester and its Medical Society and 
those who were distinctively Camden county physicians. % In 
the year that Camden county was erected (1844), the following 
physicians practiced within its limits: Doctors Isaac S. Mul- 
ford, Richard M. Cooper, Lorenzo F. Fisler, Othniel H. Taylor 
and J. R. Andrews, in Camden; Benjamin W. Blackwood, 
Jacob P. Thornton, Charles D. Hendry and Aaron D. Wood- 
ruff, at Haddonfield; William C. Mulford, in Gloucester; 
Martin Synott, at Chew's Landing; William Parham and 
Ezekiel C. Chew, at Blackwood ; George Barrows, at Tansboro, 
and James C. Risley, at Berlin. 



* Dr. Francis Hoover was born in Salem, N. J., and was one of the original members 
of the Gloucester County Society, in 1818. At this time he probably lived at Swedesboro. 
He removed to Smyrna, Delaware, in 1821, and remained there until his death, in 1832. — 
(Wickes.) 

t Dr John R. Sickler lived in Camden from 1832 to 1S34. He subsequently removed to 
Mantua. He was an Associate Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Gloucester county 
from 1828 to 1865 ; a member of the Constitutional Convention in 1844 ; a charter member 
of the Gloucester District Medical Society in 1846, and President of the Medical Society of 
New Jersey in 1859. iStevenson.) 

\ History Oi Medicine and Medical Men in Camden County, by John R. Stevenson, 
A. M.. M D. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE PERIOD FROM 1844-1850. 

Section I. — The Erection of Camden County. 

[1844.] Camden county was set apart from Old Glouces- 
ter county by legislative enactment, March 13, 1844. The 
Act was preceded by much discussion and political agitation, 
extending over a number of years, in which Dr. Isaac S. Mul- 
ford, with other citizens, took a prominent part. Under the 
Act providing for the erection of the county, the selection of 
the county-seat was left to a vote of the people, and the Board 
of Chosen Freeholders set apart August 12, 1845, as the day of 
the election. Camden, Haddonfield, Gloucester, Long-a-coming 
(Berlin) and Mount Ephraim were voted upon, but neither 
place secured the required majority.* The issue was remanded 
to the Board of Freeholders, which was composed of two 
representatives from each of the seven townships and the one 
city (Camden) comprising the county. The erection of the 
new county had caused a most violent opposition against 
Camden by the other townships, since it was against their 
consent that Old Gloucester county was divided. Several of 
the townships desired to have the public buildings located 
within their limits, and a majority united in opposing the 
selection of Camden. The agitation was continued until 1851, 
a period of seven years, when Camden was finally selected as 
the county-seat, f 

In addition to the political issues within the county, the 
affairs of the nation, State and city excited unusual attention. 
The admission of Texas into the Union was the chief question on 
which the people divided in the presidential election of 1844.I 
The Whigs, under the leadership of Henry Clay, opposed 

*" The contest was carried on with a degree of acrimony that can hardly be appre- 
ciated." — MS. History of Camden County Medical Society, by Richard M. Cooper, M. D. 
t History of Camden County, by George R. Piowell. 
% Ridpath's History of the United States. 



io History Medical Profession Camden County. 

annexation, and the Democrats, under James K. Polk, favored 
it. Polk was elected to the presidency, and the contest sur- 
passed in excitement any previous presidential election. The 
Mexican War followed the admission of Texas, and maintained 
a strong hold upon the people until the treaty of peace in 
1848. State issues also claimed attention.* The marks of 
colonial dependence retained in the State Constitution were 
objectionable to the people. In February, 1844, the General 
Assembly provided for a convention in May to frame a State 
Constitution to be submitted to the people for ratification or 
rejection. At this convention, Dr. John R. Sickler represented 
Gloucester county. In August the Constitution was adopted, 
and in October, in pursuance with its provisions, an election 
for Governor of the State took place and Charles C. Stratton, 
son of Dr. James Stratton, of Swedesboro, was elected to the 
position. 

In the city of Camden a supplement f was made, in 1844, 
to the charter, making the Mayor elective by the people 
instead of by Common Council. This occasioned increased 
interest in municipal affairs, which resulted in the election of 
John R. Cowperthwaite over Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler, who had 
previously held the position. The political excitement of the 
times, in national, State, county and municipal affairs, delayed 
the formation of the Camden County Medical Society for 
nearly two years, and finally led to its organization at Haddon- 
field, instead of at Camden. 

Section II. — The Organization of the Camden District 
Medical Society. 
[1846.] The absence of a medical organization in 
Gloucester county, immediately preceding the erection of 
Camden county, permitted a lax enforcement of medical law 
and rendered the physicians of the new county but little 
acquainted with each other. Nevertheless a few physicians, 
deeming an organization essential to the highest professional 
usefulness, circulated a petition, under the care of Doctors 

* History of New Jersey, by Isaac S. Mulford, M. D. 
f History of Camden County, by George R. Prowell. 



Organization of the Camden District Medical Society . n 

James S. Risley, of L,ong-a-coming (Berlin), and Charles D. 
Hendry, of Haddonfield, for the signatures of the legal prac- 
titioners of medicine within the new county. Only those phy- 
sicians who had been examined by the censors of the Medical 
Society of New Jersey, and had received a license signed by its 
president, were regarded as legal practitioners. The petition 
was presented to the State Medical Society at its eightieth 
annual meeting at New Brunswick, May 12, 1846, and a com- 
mission was issued by the society authorizing Doctors Jacob 
P. Thornton and Charles D. Hendry, of Haddonfield ; Isaac S. 
'Mulford and Richard M. Cooper, of Camden, and James S. Risley, 
of Berlin, to organize at Haddonfield* a District Medical 
Society for Camden county,t "provided that the corresponding 
secretary is satisfied that the above named are licensed prac- 
titioners of this State, with power to supply other names if 
necessary." 

Pursuant to the commission, a meeting was held at the 
hotel of Joseph C. Shivers, Haddonfield, August 14, 1846, 
when the "District Medical Society for the County of Camden 
in the State of New Jersey" was organized. Doctors Jacob P. 
Thornton and Richard M. Cooper, graduates of the University 
of Pennsylvania, 1828 and 1839, respectively; James S. Risley, 
Jefferson Medical College, 1844; Charles D. Hendry and Oth- 
niel H. Taylor, University of Pennsylvania, 1833 and 1825, 
respectively, attended the meeting, making the legal number 
required to effect an organization. Dr. Isaac S. Mulford, 
graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, 1822, was unable 
to attend on account of sickness, but was present at the follow- 
ing meeting. Dr. James S. Risley was elected president ; Dr. 
Othniel H. Taylor, vice-president ; Dr. Richard M. Cooper, 
secretary, and Dr. Jacob P. Thornton, treasurer. A constitution 
and by-laws, the originals of which are preserved in the 
archives of the society, were adopted. Doctors Risley, Thorn- 



* " Doctors Risley and Hendry, who had charge of the petition for the formation of the 
society, had Haddonfield inserted in the communication, as they were both against 
Camden." — MS. History of Camden County Medical Society, by Richard M. Cooper, M. D. 

f In the Transactions of the Medical Society of New Jersey for 1846, the name of Dr. 
Lorenzo F. Fisler is given in the place of Dr. James S. Risley, but in the original commis- 
sion the name of Dr. Fisler does not appear. 



12 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

ton, Hendry, Taylor and Cooper were appointed to attend the 
semi-annual meeting of the State Medical Society at Hights- 
town in November, and the secretary, Dr. Cooper, was 
instructed to notify the society of the new organization and to 
publish a notice of the same in the county papers. 

[1847.] The constitution and by-laws, however, were 
not received by the State Society, and a special meeting of the 
County Society was held at Haddonfield, March 13, 1847, to 
consider the reason thereof and to appoint four delegates to 
the annual meeting of the State Society at New Brunswick, 
May nth. Doctors Risley, Taylor, Cooper and Charles D. 
Hendry were appointed, and Dr. Isaac S. Mulford raised the 
point that the organization in the previous August was defect- 
ive in that it was effected at Haddonfield instead of at Camden, 
the county-seat. This exception was presented to the State 
Medical Society at the May meeting, by which time the inau- 
gural proceedings of the County Society had been received and 
approved, and a decision was rendered that, as there was no 
permanent county -seat in Camden county, the inaugural meet- 
ing at Haddonfield, though informal, did not vitiate the pro- 
ceedings, and that the District Society was regularly organized. 
Censors for the Camden district were duly appointed. 

On June 15th, the society met at the hotel of Israel Eng- 
lish, Cooper and Front streets, Camden. The informality 
attending the organization of the society was further discussed 
and a resolution adopted to hold the annual meeting in Cam- 
den, on the third Tuesday in June, and the semi-annual meet- 
ing on the third Tuesday in December. Three graduates of 
Jefferson Medical College — Dr. A. Dickinson Woodruff, 1844 ; 
Dr. Bowman Hendry, Jr., 1846, and Dr. Daniel M. Stout, 
1847 — were elected members upon the recommendation of the 
censors. Dr. Stout graduated from Pennington Seminary in 
1844. Nine months had now elapsed since the organization 
of the County Society, and three meetings had been held without 
applications for membership, save by those just elected. The 
society was regarded with indifference by some physicians, and 
others openly refused to join it. This, in part, was due to the 
lack of organization of the profession in Old Gloucester county 



Organization of the Camden District Medical Society . 13 

at the time of the erection of Camden county ; in consequence 
of which, medical law was not actively enforced and the 
organization of a District Medical Society and the appoint- 
ment of a Board of Censors made an unpopular innovation. 
To offset this feeling, and to make plain the relationship which 
the District Society and the Board of Censors should maintain 
to the profession and to the public, it was decided to publish 
the names of all regularly licensed physicians residing in the 
county in one of the county papers, together with that section 
of the law incorporating the Medical Society of New Jersey, 
that provided for the organization of District Medical Soci- 
eties. The publication aroused the antipathy of Homoeopaths, 
Thompsonians, and those who disregarded the society ; engen- 
dered much ill-feeling in the fraternity and occasioned a bitter 
newspaper controversy. This reached a climax in the publi- 
cation, in the Camden Democrat, of the correspondence 
between Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler, of Camden, and the society, 
in regard to the omission of Dr. Fisler's name from the list of 
licensed physicians. Dr. Fisler, at this time, had been engaged 
in the practice of medicine for twenty-eight years, eleven of 
which had been spent in Camden. He was not only promi- 
nent as a physician, but had also served as Mayor of the city for 
four terms, and was widely known as a public lecturer. He 
was one of the petitioners for the organization of the County 
Society in 1846, and his name appears as such in the Transac- 
tions of the State Medical Society for that year, but it was erased 
from the commission and the name of Dr. James S. Risley 
substituted. Dr. Fisler, on this account, refused to take part 
in the organization of the County Society, and, when his name 
was omitted from the published list of licensed physicians of 
the county, he severely criticised the society for this action in 
an open letter in the Camden Democrat. To meet this, a 
special meeting of the society was called on September 2nd, 
when the matter was considered in a committee of the whole, 
and the following address and reply, signed by the president 
and secretary, was made and ordered to be published in the 
same journal: 



14 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

TO THE PUBLIC. 
' ' A communication has appeared in the Camden Democrat, over the signa- 
ture of L. F. Fisler, complaining of the course of the Medical Society of the 
County of Camden, in omitting his name from a published list of licensed 
practitioners. A simple statement of facts is deemed proper in reply. The 
formation of medical associations is recommended by advantages that are 
obvious and well understood, and the Society of the County of Camden was 
formed with a single view,— the security of these general advantages. Its 
institution was effected in pursuance of an order from a superior body, the 
members themselves having no other agency in this appointment than 
simply to furnish the evidence that the}' are legal practitioners ; but after 
their appointment an obligation was felt to promote to the best of their 
ability the objects proposed. It was made their duty to discourage the 
practices of persons who were acting in contravention of existing laws and 
the regulations of the medical authorities of the State. For this purpose, a 
publication of the list of those who were known to be properly qualified 
was supposed to be advisable, as a measure of justice to the profession and 
to the community at large. In preparing this list, the case of the present 
complainant was fully considered. It was known that an application had 
been made by him to the Board of Censors to be received and recognized by 
them as a licentiate, on the ground of former examination. But the Board 
of Censors had no authority to make any such grant based upon the action 
of a former body. They' could only grant upon an actual examination of 
the person before them. Besides this, there was doubt as to the issue of the 
former application. Information was in possession coming from the presi- 
dent of the State Medical Society, and who had also been a member of the 
Board of Examiners, to the effect that the complainant had not received a 
license. This information was given to different individuals and in positive 
terms. Under these circumstances no warrant was thought to exist for plac- 
ing the name of the person in question on the list of licensed practitioners. 
With the seeming inconsistency of the statements above referred to, with 
the production of the certificate now given by the complainant, the society 
have nothing to do. That must be settled by the parties directly concerned. 
But a confirmation of these statements has since been given in the following 
terms, in a letter to the society from Dr. Hannah, the late president of the 
State Medical Society, and whose name appears on the certificate given by 
the complainant : ' Taking all the circumstances into consideration, I say, 
unhesitatingly, that E- F. Fisler never did receive a certificate entitling him 
to a diploma from any Board of Censors of which I was a member, and I 
was a member of every board that convened in the county during that 
period.'* The society disclaim all invidious or unfriendly views or inten- 
tions. They have no other desire than to act with fidelity in a public duty. 
They wish to injure no one, but they cannot depart from an established 
course in favor of any. 

By order of the society, James S. RiSLEY, President. 

Richard M. Cooper, Secretary." 

*Dr. Charles Hannah resided in Salem county, and was the president of the Medical 
Society of New Jersey in 1846. 



Organization of the Camden District Medical Society. 15 

Closely following this special meeting, a new light was 
shed upon the Fisler controversy. The missing certificate of 
license, given by the Board of Censors of Salem county to Dr. 
Fisler in 1825, was found by him and presented to the Camden 
county censors. The error of Dr. Hannah was immediately 
acknowledged by the Camden Board and, upon the institution 
of legal proceedings against him by Dr. Fisler, Dr. Hannah 
made an ample apology and the matter was dropped.* At the 
semi-annual meeting of the society in December, the subject 
was presented in detail and the explanatory statement of Dr. 
Hannah was ordered filed with the minutes, but no further 
public prominence was given to it. A great injustice was 
done to Dr. Fisler by the society. Had as much spirit been 
shown in investigating his professional record as in deciding 
against him upon ex parte testimony, the society would have 
found that not only had Dr. Fisler graduated from the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania in 181 8, but that he was licensed by the 
Board of Censors of Salem county in 1825, and was appointed 
a member of that board by the State Medical Society in 1829. 
The method employed to rectify so great an injustice was not 
acceptable to Dr. Fisler. He refused to join the Camden 
County Society, f and the case was presented to the State Medical 
Society for further consideration the following year, at its 
meeting in Camden. 

Since the organization of the Camden District Medical 
Society had now become fully established and regular meet- 
ings were held in June and December, scientific questions and 
the subject of professional fees began to attract attention. Dr. 
James S. Risley was appointed to deliver an address at the 
annual meeting in June, and Doctors Mulford, Taylor and 
Cooper, to report on professional intercourse and fees. Dr. Ben- 
jamin W. Blackwood, of Haddonfield, graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania in 1828, was elected a member. 

[1848.] At the annual meeting in June, Dr. Risley failed 
to deliver the appointed address, and no scientific subject was 
therefore discussed. The admission fee was fixed at three dol- 

* MS. History of Camden County Medical Society, by Richard M. Cooper, M. D. 
t Ibid. 



1 6 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

lars and the annual dues at one dollar, with a fine of one dollar 
for non-attendance, except in cases of sickness. Dr. J. S. Ris- 
ley was re-elected president; Dr. O. H. Taylor, vice-president, 
and Dr. R. M. Cooper, secretary and treasurer. The semi- 
annual meeting, in December, passed off without discussion 
of a medical subject ; the attendance was small and the need 
of popularizing the society was recognized. As a means 
to this end, it was decided that members failing to attend, or 
to pay their fines, should have their names stricken from the 
roll. The code of ethics of the American Medical Association 
and the fee-bill of the State Medical Society were adopted, 
excepting the fee for a single visit (fifty cents), which might be 
increased to one dollar "when persons are able and have in 
other instances paid it." Two licentiates of the State Medical 
Society were elected to membership, — Dr. Edward J. Record, 
of Blackwood, and Dr. John V. Schenck, of Camden. Dr. 
Schenck graduated as an A. B. at Rutgers College in 1844, 
and M. D. at the University of Pennsylvania in 1847. 

[1849.] It was the duty of the senior censor to receive 
and transmit annually the licentiate fees of the board to the 
treasurer of the State Medical Society. The accumulation of 
the Camden county fees for 1847 and 1848, amounting to 
ninety dollars, had not been forwarded by Dr. Risley, and, at 
the request of the treasurer of the State Society, a special 
meeting of the District Society was called, January 16, 1849, 
to inquire into the matter. Although duly notified, Dr. Risley 
failed to attend, and Doctors Cooper, Mulford and Taylor were 
appointed a committee to communicate with him and state the 
wish of the society that the amount be paid without delay. 
But before communication had been held with Dr. Risley, and 
at this same meeting, the office of president, which Dr. Risley 
had filled with great acceptance since 1846, was declared vacant, 
and Dr. Isaac S. Mulford was elected to fill the vacancy. A copy 
of the communication in the archives of the society is dated 
the following day, January 17th. The summary method used 
in displacing Dr. Risley on ex parte testimony, and the filling 
of his position by a member of the committee appointed to 
confer with him, before the conference had been held, was as 



The Medical Society of New Jersey . 17 

unjustifiable as the methods adopted in the Fisler controversy. 
At the June meeting, this committee reported that Dr. Risley 
had paid the fees in full to the State Society. During the year 
Dr. Risley moved to Columbia, Pennsylvania, and his name 
does not appear again in the county records.* At the special 
meeting, Dr. Jacob P. Thornton, of Haddonfield, resigned on 
account of the expense of attending the meetings, which reason 
was ordered placed upon the minutes. Within the year, he 
removed to Ohio. 

[1849.] The annual meeting was held on June nth, and 
the following elections were made : Dr. I. S. Mulford, presi- 
dent ; Dr. O. H. Taylor, vice-president ; Dr. R. M. Cooper, 
secretary and treasurer, and Dr. Robert M. Smallwood, of 
Chew's Landing, graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, 
1849, a member. On December 18th the semi-annual meet 
ing was held at Haddonfield, when the chief object of discus- 
sion was the recent epidemic of cholera. Dr. O. H. Taylor 
was appointed to deliver an address at the annual meeting in 
June, and Doctors John W. Snowden, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1844, and John J. Jessup, Jefferson Medical College, 
1848, were elected members. 

Section III. — The Medical Society of New Jersey. 
[1846.] The Medical Society of New Jersey met at New 
Brunswick, May 12, 1846, when a petition was presented ask- 
ing for a commission to institute a District Society in Camden 
county. This was favorably received and a commission was 
issued to the following gentlemen : Doctors Jacob P. Thornton, 
Charles D. Hendry, Isaac S. Mulford, Lorenzo F. Fisler and 
Richard M. Cooper, " provided that the corresponding secretary 
is satisfied that the above-named are licensed practitioners of 
this State, with power to supply other names, if necessary." 

*Dr. Risley was the son of Judge Risley and was born at Woodstown, 1817, and died 
there in 1866, in the forty-ninth year of his age. In 1838, he was licensed by the censors 
of the Western District and, in 1844, graduated from Jefferson Medical College, when he 
began the practice of medicine in Camden county. He remained here until 1849. "Dr. 
Rislev was celebrated for his brilliant colloquial powers When listening to his almost 
unbroken flow of language, the hours would pass unnoticed away. In his profession he 
had few superiors either as physician or surgeon. Wherever he practiced, he immediately 
won the confidence of the people, and became the leading physician. His mind was one 
of unusual power."— Transactions N.J. Medical Society, 1867. 



1 8 History Medical Profession Camden Cozinty. 

This proviso led to the substitution of the name of Dr. James 
S. Risley for that of Dr. L. F. Fisler, * as has been stated. 

The semi-annual meeting of the society was held at 
Hightstown, November ioth, with Doctors O. H. Taylor, R. 
M. Cooper and J. P. Thornton present as the representatives 
from Camden, who stated that the District Society for Camden 
county had been duly organized and a copy of the constitution 
and by-laws and of the proceedings of the first meeting had 
been transmitted to the corresponding secretary. But neither 
the secretary nor the standing committee were present at this 
meeting, and, in the absence of any communication having 
been received from them, permission was given the Camden 
delegates to state the character of their proceedings and to 
submit certificates of delegation. Under a suspension of the 
rules, Doctors James S. Risley, Jacob P. Thornton, Othniel H. 
Taylor and Richard M. Cooper were appointed censors for 
Camden county. 

[1847.] The annual meeting for 1847 was held at New 
Brunswick, with Doctors Risley, Hendry, Taylor and Cooper 
present as delegates. The Camden Society was fully recognized ; 
censors were appointed for the county and Dr. Cooper was 
made reporter for the Western District of the State, t — a position 
of importance, since it comprised all the counties of West 
Jersey. At the semi-annual meeting of the society at Bur- 
lington, November 7th, Doctors Risley and Taylor represented 
Camden. 

[1848.] On May 9, 1848, the society met at New Bruns- 
wick, with Doctors Woodruff, Hendry, Stout and Cooper 
present as delegates from Camden. Dr. Cooper, in reporting 
for the Western District, spoke briefly of ether and chloroform, 
the new anaesthetics, concerning which the medical and secular 
press were teeming with articles. Doctors Risley, Mulford, 

* Records of the Camden County Medical Society. 

fThe Standing Committee of the State Society was established in 1820, and, in 1822, one 
person from each District Society was appointed to report facts, history, etc., from their 
respective districts. In 1830, the State was divided into three medical districts, Eastern, 
Middle and Western, and a reporter was appointed for each to report to the standing com- 
mittee. In 1849, it w as made the duty of each District Society to appoint its own reporter,, 
and, in 1853, each district or county reporter was made a member, ex officio, of the State 
Society. 



The Medical Society of New Jersey . 19 

Taylor and C. D. Hendry were appointed censors, and Dr. 
Cooper, a delegate to the American Medical Association. 
Diplomas were granted by the president to Doctors A. D. 
Woodruff, D. M. Stout and Bowman Hendry, Jr., for which 
the regular fee of fifteen dollars was paid. Doctors Stout and 
C. D. Hendry represented Camden at the semi-annual meeting 
held at Trenton in November. 

[1849.] The eighty-third annual meeting of the society 
occurred on May 8th, at New Brunswick, and Doctors Taylor^ 
Schenck and Record were present as delegates from Camden, 
Doctors Mulford, Taylor, C. D. Hendry and Woodruff were 
appointed censors, Dr. Woodruff filling the vacancy caused by 
the removal of Dr. Risley, and Dr. Mulford taking the position 
of senior censor. Dr. O. H. Taylor was elected third vice- 
president and was appointed on a committee to inquire into the 
expediency of establishing a fund for the relief of families of 
physicians who die in indigent circumstances. This resulted 
in an Act of Legislature, in 1850, entitled, "To Establish a 
Fund for the Support of Widows and Orphans of Deceased 
Members of the State and District Societies," but the matter 
did not assume practical shape until 1882, when the Society 
for the Relief of Widows and Orphans of Medical Men of New 
Jersey was established. Doctors John V. Schenck, Edward J. 
Record and Robert M. Smallwood were made licentiates of 
the society. 

On the occasion of the semi-annual meeting, November 
13th, the society convened for the first time in Camden, at 
Elwell's Hotel. There was a large attendance, ten out of the 
fifteen counties represented in the society having sent dele- 
gates. A communication was presented by Dr. L,. F. Fisler, 
who was dissatisfied with the result of his controversy with the 
Camden District Society, which led to the introduction of the 
following resolutions by Dr. O. H. Taylor : 

" WHEREAS, Many years ago, our highly respected fellow citizen, Dr.. 
Lorenzo F. Fisler, regularly and legally subjected himself to an examination 
before the proper Board of Examiners for the district in which he then 
resided, and duly received from them the usual certificate, entitling him to 
a diploma of license from the Medical Society of New Jersey, which certifi- 
cate was afterwards for a long time lost ; moreover, 



20 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Whereas, Much misapprehension upon this subject has occurred, giving 
rise to erroneous statements questioning the reception of a certificate by Dr. 
Fisler, and in other respects doing him injury in his professional reputa- 
tion ; therefore, 

Resolved, That the president be authorized to issue a diploma of license 
to the said Dr. Fisler, in a manner which he shall deem most agreeable to the 
feelings of the recipient, and best calculated to make amends for uninten- 
tional injustice committed by the society in the premises." 

These resolutions arose from the desire of the County 
Medical Society to make amends to Dr. Fisler for past injus- 
tice, and the State Society readily conferred upon him the 
degree of Doctor of Medicine ; but he never overlooked the in- 
dignity sufficiently to join the County Society. Nevertheless, 
he subsequently took an active part in the organization of the 
Camden City Medical Society and of the Camden City Dispen- 
sary, maintained the respect of the community as a physician, 
and was subsequently elected Mayor of the city. Dr. Othniel 
H. Taylor, third vice-president, delivered an address on "Medi- 
cal Reform and the Present System of Medical Instruction," 
which was received with much appreciation. The methods of 
teaching in medical colleges were attacked and the society 
urged to guard more zealously its censorship over applicants 
for its honors. The address was published, at the request of 
the society, and was one of the factors which led to the con- 
centration of the Medical colleges against the society and to 
the passage of the Medical Acts of 185 1 and 1854, which 
practically annulled its censorship, — a result exactly opposite 
to that anticipated by the author and by the society. The 
separation of State medical examining boards from those of 
college faculties was a distinctive tenet of the New Jersey 
Medical Society, and its delegates were instructed to bring this 
fact to the attention of the American Medical Association. 
The report of the standing committee for the Western Dis- 
trict was made by Dr. Franklin Gauntt, and the advantage of 
having a reporter for each District Society was advocated. 
The by-laws, in consequence, were amended to this effect. 
The bill of Dr. R. M. Cooper for expenses incurred in attend- 
ing the American Medical Association, amounting to twenty- 
four dollars was ordered paid. 



The Censors of the Medical Society of New fersey . 21 

Section IV. — The Censors of the Medical Society of 

New Jersey. 
The proper method of admitting new practitioners into the 
medical fraternity of New Jersey has been a matter of anxious 
discussion by the regular profession in New Jersey, and has 
occasioned many and widely different legislative enactments at 
various periods. How to maintain the high standard of educa- 
tion and character necessary to the good repute of the medical 
profession, and at the same time to place no unnecessary burden 
upon the candidates for license, has been a complex problem. 
For a long time, in the history of the Colony of New Jersey, 
the matter was left to adjust itself. Between the medical code 

promulgated by the Duke of York in 1665, and the 
[1772.] " Act to Regulate the Practice of Medicine," passed 

in 1772, there were no laws regulating medical 
practice in the Colony of New Jersey. The Medical Society 
of New Jersey was organized in 1766, but the state of 
medicine was so low, at that time, it was not deemed 
advisable to ask for legislative sanction, and the organi- 
zation was, therefore, voluntary. The society, however, in 
the succeeding year raised the standard of education of 
medical apprentices by requiring a knowledge of Latin and 
Greek and a term of four years of study, and also secured the 
enactment of the medical law of 1772, which provided for the 
examination of candidates by the Judges of the Supreme Court, 

assisted by one or more physicians selected by them. 
[1783.J In 1783, the colonial law was re-enacted by the State 
[181 1.] and the examining provision was retained. In 181 1, 

the State was divided into three medical districts, East- 
ern, Middle and Western, and three examiners were appointed for 
each district, and the State Society prayed the Supreme Court 
to accept these physicians as the examiners required by law. 

In the Act re-incorporating the State Medical Society 
[1816.] in 1816, District or County Societies were provided 

for, and the State Society was empowered to nom- 
inate examiners, or censors, in each District Society, to examine 
intending practitioners of medicine and to certify to their 
fitness for license by the president of the State Society ; to direct 



22 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

and prescribe methods of examination ; to license applicants 
and to prescribe the penalty of practicing as a physician or 

surgeon without a license. In the supplementary 
[1818.] Act of 1818, the censors were made the appointees, 

instead of the nominees, of the State Society, and 
the District Societies were relieved of the responsibility of 

their selection. This continued until 1830,* when 
[1830.] the State was again divided into three medical 
[1844.] districts, Eastern, Middle and Western, and the old 

method of appointing censors was reverted to. In 
1844, the appointment of four censors for each District Society 
was again adopted by the State Society, the fees received being 
turned into the treasury of the State Society, in order to 
re-awaken interest in District Societies by restoring to them 
the rights of examination. This continued until 1866, when 
the censors were abolished. 

[1846.] Upon the recognition of the Camden District 
Medical Society b}- the State Society, in 1846, Doctors James S. 
Risley, Jacob P. Thornton, Othniel H. Taylor and Richard M. 
Cooper were appointed censors for the Camden Society. The 
appointment of a Board of Censors caused great discussion and 
excited much feeling among a number of the medical prac- 
titioners of the county. It at once placed the County Society 
in a commanding position, because only through it could legal 
entrance into the profession in the county be obtained. It also 
cemented a closer relationship between the County and the 
State Society. 

[1847.] Doctors Mulford, Risley, Taylor and C. D. Hendry 
were re-appointed censors in May, 1847, Dr. Hendry taking the 
place of Dr. Thornton, and on June 8th the board held their 
first meeting and issued the following notice : 

"Sir. — You are hereby notified that the annual meeting of the Board 
of Censors for Camden county will be held at English's Hotel, Camden, on 
Tuesday next, 15th June, inst., at ten o'clock, a.m., for the purpose of 
examining candidates for medical licenses. 

By order of the District Medical Society for Camden county, 

Richard M. Cooper, Secretary." 

* The Act of Legislature, January 28, 1830, provided for the examination of students 
through the Boards of Censors of the several counties or districts ; and three approving 
signatures made valid each certificate recommending the applicant for license, which, 
when presented to the president of the State Medical Society, empowered him to grant a 
license under the hand and seal of the society. 



The American Medical Association. 23 

In response to this notice, Doctors Bowman Hendry, Jr., 
of Gloucester ; A. D. Woodruff, of Camden, and D. M. Stout, of 
Berlin, appeared before the board for examination and were 
recommended to be licensed by the president of the State 
Society. These were the first medical licentiates in the county. 

[1848.] At the meeting of the State Society, May 9th, 
Doctors Risley, Mulford, Taylor and C. D. Hendry were 
appointed censors, and Bdward J. Record and John. V. Schenck 
were examined and recommended for license. 

[1849.] On account of the difficulty relating to the 
transmission of licentiate fees to the treasurer of the State 
Society, as has been previously related (Sections II and III), 
Dr. Woodruff was appointed censor in place of Dr. Risley. 
Dr. Robert M. Smallwood was recommended for medical license. 

Section V. — The American Medical Association. 
[1846.] Notwithstanding the progress of various States in 
medical organization, no national effort had been made to unite 
the regular profession of medicine or to bind together State 
medical organizations. This was greatly needed. The Ameri- 
can Institute of Homoeopathy, organized in 1844, provided 
for the needs of homoeopathic practitioners, but the regular 
profession lacked unity of purpose and cohesion, and was 
without a code of ethics. In recognition of this, the New 
York State Medical Society issued a call, in 1845, f° r a meet- 
ing of delegates from medical societies and colleges through- 
out the United States, to convene in New York in May, 
1846.* New Jersey was not officially represented. At this 
meeting, resolutions to institute a National Medical Associa- 
tion were adopted and committees were appointed to issue an 

address to medical societies and schools of medicine, 
[1847.] inviting them to meet in Philadelphia in May, 1847, 

to report a plan for a national organization, and to 
adopt an authorized code of ethics. At this second meeting, 
the American Medical Association was organized, a code of 
ethics was adopted, the standard of medical education was 
elevated and the autonomy of the profession secured. New 

* Transactions of the American Medical Association. 



24 History Medical Profession Camden County . 

Jersey was represented by a number of delegates, among 
whom were Doctors R. M. Cooper and O. H Taylor, and the 
delegation took an active part in the proceedings. Medical 
organization was dear to them, New Jersey being the first 
colony to establish a medical society (1766), to institute medi- 
cal examinations (1772), and to raise the apprenticeship 
standard of medical study (1790). Their interest was more 
active because of the effort made, in 1845, by the medical 
colleges of New York and Philadelphia, to have their graduates 
admitted to practice medicine within New Jersey without 
examination and license by the State Medical Society. This 
attempt to repeal medical enactments was made in conjunction 
with Thompsonians and was successfully opposed through the 
influence of the State Medical Society. 

This convention marked an era in the medical progress of 
the United States, and tended to unite the profession through- 
out the country ; to place upon an equal footing the member 
of a county medical society and the college professor ; to 
bind together by organization medical men of unquestioned 
standing and to eliminate from the ranks of the profession 
ignorant pretenders and quacks. 

[1848.] The association met at Baltimore on May 2, 
1848, with four hundred and seventy-five physicians present^ 
including eight delegates from New Jersey. Dr. R. M. 
Cooper represented the State Medical Society and Dr. O. EL 
Taylor the Camden District Society. The organization was 
decidedly popular, and the contrast, as stated in the speeches, 
between the requirements of American and European medical 
colleges made a profound impression and showed the necessity 
of an extended curriculum of medical study in this country. 
The expenses of both State and county delegates were paid 
by the societies represented. 

[1849.] The annual meeting of the association was held 
in Boston, in 1849, twenty-two States being represented by 
over four hundred delegates. Dr. Cooper attended on behalf 
of the New Jersey Medical Society, and Doctors J. V. Schenck 
and C. D. Hendry for the Camden District Society, and became 
permanent members, with Doctors Cooper and Taylor. 



Miscellaneous Interests. 25 

Section VI. — Miscellaneous Interests. 

A. THE CAMDEN COUNTY BIBLE SOCIETY. 

[1847.] The Camden County Bible Society* was organ- 
ized June 21, 1847, for the object of putting a copy of the 
Bible in every household in the county and in the hands of 
every worthy person. "After these needs are supplied, the 
funds remaining are given to the American Bible Society." 
The organization was effected by the election of Dr. Lorenzo 
F. Fisler, as president, and Mr. J. C. de la Cour, as secretary, 
whose store was the first depository for the Bibles. These 
gentlemen held their respective offices for a number of years. 
In 1876, Dr. James A. Armstrong was elected treasurer, a 
position held by him until his death, in 1881. In this year, 
Dr. S. B. Irwin was made a member of the Executive Com- 
mittee. 

B. MULFORD'S HISTORY OF NEW JERSEY. 

[1848.] In May, 1848, Dr. Isaac S. Mulford's "Civil and 
Political History of New Jersey" was published. This is an 
important literary contribution and embraces the period 
between the early English discoveries in America and the close 
of the Revolution, in 1783. The adoption of the State Consti- 
tution, following the Revolutionary War, is especially con- 
sidered and brief mention is made of its revision in 1844. 
The book contains five hundred pages, divided into twenty- 
three chapters. It was written during a period of active 
medical practice and to carry out a fondness for historical 
research for which the author was distinguished. It is the 
most elaborate and comprehensive literary production by any 
member of the medical profession in Camden county, and is an 
accepted authority on New Jersey history. 

C. CHOLERA. 

[1849.] This year was memorable in Camden county 
because of the second invasion of cholera. The first epidemic 
occurred in 1832, when the disease made its appearance in 
Quebec and spread throughout the northern States. At that 
time, it prevailed extensively in Philadelphia and Dr. Othniel H. 

*MS. Notes of Rev. F. R. Brace, PhD 



26 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Taylor served as a consulting physician to the Sanitary Board 
of that city, and rendered such distinguished assistance that he 
was presented with a service of silver by the City Council. In 
1848, cholera entered this country by the way of New Orleans 
and spread rapidly. In 1849, one hundred and nineteen cases 
occurred in Camden county, with fifty deaths. It was a more 
extensive epidemic than that of 1832, and occasional outbreaks 
occurred throughout the State until 1854. The disease was 
largely treated by direct depletion. The physicians of Cam- 
den received at this time universal praise for their numerous 
acts of heroism in staying the plague.* 

* Transactions of the Medical Society of New Jersey for 1854 



CHAPTER III. 
THE PERIOD FROM 1850 TO 1855. 

Section I. — The Medical Society of New Jersey. 

The relationship between the Medical Society of New 
Jersey and the District Societies was cemented during this 
period by the establishment of a nominating committee in the 
State Society ; the appointment of a reporter in each District 
Society and the combined opposition of certain medical col- 
leges and systems of medicine against the censorship of the 
State Medical Society. The Camden District Society was 
more closely linked with that of the State through the presi- 
dency of Dr. Othniel H. Taylor. 

[1850.] The annual meeting of the State Society was 
held at New Brunswick, May 14th, when Doctors Blackwood, 
Woodruff and Bowman Hendry represented the Camden 
Society. Dr. O. H. Taylor was elected second vice-president 
and Dr. Isaac S. Mulford a delegate to the American Medical 
Association. Diplomas were granted to Doctors John W. 
Snowden and George J. Jessup, by the president, and Doctors 
Mulford, Taylor, Woodruff and C. D. Hendry, were appointed 
censors, — positions retained by them through re-appointment 
during this period. The appointment of a nominating com- 
mittee for the selection of officers for the State Society, and of 
a reporter for each District Society, was championed by the 
Camden delegates as a means of removing existing jealousies 
in the selection of officers and of acquainting the State Society 
more fully with the diseases prevailing throughout the State. 

The status of medical officers of the United States Army 
and Navy was made a subject of official inquiry. Because of 
the number of medical officers furnished by New Jersey, the 
State Society was especially interested in protecting their 
rights and advancing their interests. This applied with par- 
ticular force to Camden count}', which was represented in the 

27 



28 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

navy by Doctors Robert M. Smallwood and William S. 
Bishop, and, as an advocate of the cause, Dr. O. H. Taylor sub- 
mitted the following resolutions, which were adopted : 

" Whereas, It is a manifest duty that organized medical bodies should 
exercise a proper influence for the protection of the rights of such regular 
members of the profession as are necessarily detached from the great body 
of their brethren ; and, 

Whereas, Many of the medical officers included in the military organ- 
izations of the country are placed in this condition ; and, 

Whereas, We heard with regret that there is a disposition on the part 
of a portion of the naval service to deprive medical men connected with that 
department of the benefits arising from an assimilated rank, conferred by a 
general order of a late Secretary of the Navy ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the New Jersey State Medical Society regards with 
pleasure the successful efforts of Naval Boards in raising the standard of liter- 
ary and medical knowledge, for admission to their ranks. 

Resolved, That the society is much pleased to learn that in their system 
of examination the diplomas of the schools (which are now but too easily 
obtained) are wholly disregarded ; and that the moral character of the candi- 
date, and his scientific and professional attainments, are his only passports 
to the medical corps of the navy. 

Resolved. That this society cannot look with indifference on any attempt 
to depress or degrade a whole class of officers belonging to a liberal profess- 
ion, and so indispensable in the proper organization of the navy. 

Resolved, That as a well-defined ' assimilated rank ' has been assigned to 
medical officers of the army by an Act of Congress dated, February II, 1847, 
this society cannot believe that an invidious distinction will be made 
between the medical departments of the public service ; but that the 
National Legislature will grant to surgeons and assistant surgeons their just 
claim to a nominal rank, or to a social position as respectable among the 
other grades of the navy as the medical staff of the army now enjoy by law, 
in relation to their brethren in the line of that service. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to the Secretary 
of the Navy, through the chief of the medical department ; and also that a 
copy be forwarded to the Chairman of the Naval Committee in each House 
of Congress." 

The semi-annual meeting was held in November, at 
Elizabethtown, with Doctors Blackwood, Hendry and Wood- 
ruff as delegates. The year was reported as unusually healthy 
throughout the State ; the cholera epidemic of the preceding 
year seeming to have exhausted the predisposition to disease. 

[185 1.] In January, the State Society presented a bill to 
the Legislature to amend the incorporative Act of 1830, so 
that the place . and time of the annual meeting might be 
changed to Trenton, in January ; the semi-annual meetings 



The Medical Society of New Jersey . 29 

discontinued, and the standard of the censors' examinations 
advanced for those without a diploma in the arts. The provis- 
ions of the Act were enacted, with the exception of that part 
relating to the censors 1 examinations, which was amended to 
admit the graduates of certain medical colleges of New York 
and Philadelphia to practice without examination by the 
censors. The amendment (which will be considered under 
the Section relating to the Medical Act of 185 1) was, in part, 
agreed to by certain prominent physicians throughout the 
State, but did not meet with the unqualified approval of the 
State Society. The annual meeting, on May 31st, at New 
Brunswick, was one, therefore, of unusual interest. The Act 
was not satisfactory and was discussed with much earnestness 
by those members who were not graduates of the five favored 
colleges. In consequence of this enactment, the semi-annual 
meetings were discontinued and the fees accruing from the 
censors' examinations were so greatly reduced that the pay- 
ment of the expenses of the delegates to the American Medical 
Association was discontinued. Dr. O. H. Taylor was the only 
representative from the Camden Society and was elected first 
vice-president. 

[1852.] On January 21st, the State Society met at 
Trenton, in accordance with the new medical law, and with 
Doctors Cullen, Schenck, Woodruff and C. D. Hendry present 
as delegates and Dr. O. H. Taylor, as vice-president. The 
provisions of the new law relating to medical examinations 
were the subject of animadversion and, much to the satisfaction 
of those members who favored a higher standard of medical 
education, Dr. O. H. Taylor, who in 1849 so strongly espoused 
the censorship of the society, was elected president. Of the 
forty-eight licentiates of the year, among whom was Dr. John 
R. Andrews, of Camden, graduate of Pennsylvania Medical 
College, forty were graduates of the colleges favored in the 
Act, and, therefore, exempt from examination by the censors. 
This indicates the force of the college combination against the 
society in the legislation of the preceding year. 

[1853.] On January 25th, the State Society met at Trenton 
with President Othniel H. Taylor in the chair and Doctors 



30 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Snowden, Birdsell, Cooper and C. D. Hendry present as dele- 
gates. One of the objects in revising the charter of the society 
was to provide for holding the annual meeting at Trenton in 
January, in order to strengthen the society before the Legisla- 
ture in the interests of higher medical education. Of this, and 
of the censorship of the society, Dr. Taylor was an acknowl- 
edged exponent, in consequence of which, and to further the 
interests named, the Executive and Legislature were invited to 
hear his address before the society on the " Relations of Popular 
Education with the Progress of Empiricism." The address was 
received with favor and published by order of the society, but 
failed to turn the tide of public and professional opposition to 
its censorship. The appointment of a reporter from each 
District Society, under the revision of the by-laws in 1849, na( ^ 
not proved a success. None had reported to the standing 
committee and, to remedy this, the committee suggested that 
each reporter be made an ex officio member, — a provision, how- 
ever, that remained dormant for a long time. 

[1854.] The eighty-eighth annual meeting was held at 
Trenton with Doctors Woodruff, Cullen, Mulford and B. 
Hendry as delegates from Camden county. This was an im- 
portant session. The favoritism shown three years previously 
to five medical colleges aroused the jealousies and opposition 
of the graduates of other medical schools ; so that conciliatory 
measures were adopted, admitting a diploma from any 
chartered college, with a curriculum equal to that of the 
colleges previously recognized, as sufficient evidence of medical 
study to be presented to the censors in lieu of an examination 
by them. This marked the extreme limit reached by the 
society in its modification of its own censorship, and practi- 
cally admitted the graduates of regular medical colleges to 
practice, without examination. But this was not sufficient to 
stem the tide of opposition to the censors' examination, which 
arose from regular and irregular practitioners of medicine, as 
well as frpm the laity, as the enactment of 1854 will show. 
At this meeting, the standing committee was composed 
exclusively of Camden physicians, viz.: Doctors Mulford, 
Cooper and Bowman Hendry. This committee was changed 



The Camden District Medical Society . 3 1 

annually, and appointments from the same section of the State 
were made to facilitate its work. The Medical Act of 1854 
(which will be considered under Section VI.) was passed by 
the Legislature after the adjournment of the society, and 
aroused its membership as they were never aroused before. In 
consequence of this, a special meeting of the society was held 
at Trenton, July nth, at the request of several District 
Societies, among which Camden was foremost, to consider the 
recent legislative enactments concerning medical practice. 
The society, after discussion, referred the matter to the standing 
committee, which reported, through Dr. R. M. Cooper, that the 
subject be referred to the Fellows present, to report to the society 
at its present session. The report was adopted and the Fellows, 
after consideration, requested, through Dr. O. H. Taylor,* that 
a committee be appointed to memorialize the next Legislature 
to repeal the law in question. A resolution on membership 
similar to that adopted by the Camden District Society in 
June, was submitted and referred to the next annual meeting. 
But these efforts to maintain the integrity of the society, which 
were largely prompted by Camden physicians, proved futile in 
the face of the growing sentiment of liberalism in medical 
practice. 

Section II. — The Camden District Medical Society. 
[1850.] The annual meeting of the Camden District 
Medical Society was held at English's Hotel, June 18th, 
when Dr. Othniel H. Taylor delivered the annual address on 
"Disease of the Prostate Gland." Because of the increase in 
membership and the desire for rotation in office, the by-laws 
were amended, limiting the eligibility of the president and 
vice-president to two years in succession. Since 1846, the 
position of president had been filled successively by Doctors 
Risley and Mulford. Dr. Isaac S. Mulford was elected presi- 
dent; Dr. O. H. Taylor, vice-president; Dr. R. M. Cooper, 
secretary and treasurer and also reporter to the State Medical 
Society, a position held by him for a number of years. Dr. 

*Dr. Othniel H. Taylor became a Fellow of the Medical Society of New Jersey under 
the Medical Act of 1823, which provided that presidents of the society shall rank as Fellows 
and be entitled to the rights and privileges of delegates. 



32 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Cooper reported attendance at the American Medical Associa- 
tion at Cincinnati, in May. At the semi-annual meeting, 
December 17th, Dr. Jacob Grigg, of Blackwood, a graduate of 
the University of Pennsylvania, 1 843 ; Dr. Thomas F. Cullen, 
of Camden, graduate of the same University in 1844, and Dr. 
Sylvester Birdsell, of Camden, a graduate of Jefferson Medical 
College, 1848, were elected members. 

[185 1.] The annual meeting of the society was held in 
Camden, June 17th. Dr. R. M. Cooper delivered the annual 
address on " Revaccination." The popularity of the society 
had not become fully established and there were still a number 
of reputable practitioners in the county who declined to 
affiliate with it, and others who disregarded both it and the 
laws governing medical practice. In order to become accu- 
rately informed concerning the number of physicians prac- 
ticing in the county, the society appointed a committee to 
report at the next meeting "the names of all person's practic- 
ing medicine in the county, distinguishing the licensed phy- 
sician and regular graduate from irregular practitioners." Dr. 
Isaac S. Mulford was re-elected president ; Dr. Othniel H. 
Taylor, vice-president ; Dr. Richard M. Cooper, secretary and 
treasurer, and Dr. Ezekiel C. Chew, of Blackwood, graduate of 
Jefferson Medical College, 1843, a member of the society. 
Following the example of the State Society, the semi-annual 
meetings were discontinued. 

[1852.] On June 15th, the society held its annual meet- 
ing, in Camden, and Dr. Charles D. Hendry delivered the 
annual address on "Fracture of the Skull." In accordance 
with the resolutions passed in 1850, limiting the term of the 
president and vice-president to two years, a change was made 
in the selection of officers. Dr. C. D. Hendry was elected 
president ; Dr. J. W. Snowden, vice-president ; Dr. T. F. 
Cullen, secretary and treasurer, and Dr. B. Fullerton Miles, of 
Camden, graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 1852, a mem- 
ber of the society. A committee was appointed to report, at 
the ensuing meeting, the prevalent diseases of the year, and 
the fees in emergency cases were decided to be due, in the 
absence of the regular medical attendant, to the physician 



The Camde?i District Medical Society. 33 

called upon. The committee appointed to report the number 
and names of physicians practicing in the county, distinguish- 
ing the regular and licensed from the irregular and unlicensed, 
made the following report : Regular physicians — Benjamin 
W. Blackwood, licentiate, Haddonfield; Sylvester Birdsell, 
licentiate, Camden ; Ezekiel C. Chew, Blackwood ; Richard 
M. Cooper, licentiate, Camden ; Thomas F. Cullen, licentiate, 
Camden; Lorenzo F. Fisler, licentiate, Camden; Frederick R. 
Graham, licentiate, Blackwood; Jacob Gregg, licentiate, Tans- 
boro ; Bowman Hendry, licentiate, Gloucester ; Charles D. 
Hendry, licentiate, Haddonfield ; Isaac S. Mulford, licentiate, 
Camden ; William C. Mulford, licentiate, Gloucester ; B. Fuller- 
ton Miles, licentiate, Camden ; Edward J. Record, licentiate, 
Blackwood ; Daniel M. Stout, licentiate, L,ong-a-coming ; 
Joseph B. Stafford, Camden; John V. Schenck, licentiate, 
Camden ; Robert M. Smallwood, licentiate, Blackwood ; John 
W. Snowden, licentiate, Waterford Works; Martin Synnott, 
Blackwood ; Othniel H. Taylor, licentiate, Camden ; Jacob P. 
Thornton, licentiate, Haddonfield ; A. D. Woodruff, licentiate, 

Haddonfield, and Allen, Williamstown. There were in 

addition two homoeopathic practitioners and one botanic 
physician. Of the twenty-seven physicians mentioned, twenty- 
five were graduates of regular medical colleges, and of these 
twenty-one were licensed by the State Medical Society, includ- 
ing one who subsequently practiced homoeopathy. Of the six 
unlicensed physicians, four were graduates of regular medical 
colleges, one a homceopathist and one a botanic doctor. Of 
the twenty-seven practitioners named, seventeen were members 
of the Camden District Medical Society. 

[1853.] The annual meeting of the society was held June 
21st, with an attendance of nine members. At this time, there 
was but little spirit of co-operation among physicians, and the 
District Society, therefore, was not a strong factor in profes- 
sional progress. Dr. O. H. Taylor, chairman of the special 
committee, reported that remittent fever was generally preva- 
lent with a tendency to local congestion and intestinal hemor- 
rhage. This report led to the establishment of a standing 



34 History Medical Profession Camde?i County. 

committee, instructed to report the diseases incident to the 
year, and Doctors Taylor, Woodruff and Snowden were made 
its members. The sum of ten dollars was received from the 
State Medical Society as the apportionment due from censor 
and licentiate fees, this being in excess of the amount required 
to pay the expenses of the society and of the delegates to the 
American Medical Association. Dr. O. H. Taylor reported 
attendance at the American Medical Association at New York, 
in May; Dr. C. D. Hendry was elected president; Dr. J. W. 
Snowden, vice-president, and Dr. T. F. Cullen, secretary and 
treasurer; Dr. R. M. Smallwood, U. S. N., was dropped from 
the rolls ; Dr. Edward J. Record, of Blackwood, was expelled 
for adopting homoeopathy, and the resignation of Dr. Benjamin 
W. Blackwood, of Haddonfield, was accepted for the same 
reason. 

[1854.] On June 19th, the annual meeting of the society 
was held at the West Jersey Hotel. Dr. O. H. Taylor made 
the report of the standing committee and presented the sub- 
ject of "Placenta Prsevia." The constitution was amended 
by limiting the term of the president to one year. The new 
medical law, enacted in March, was discussed and a resolution 
was adopted, requesting the State Medical Society to meet in 
special session and petition the Legislature for its repeal or 
modification ; in consequence, a special meeting of the State 
Society was held on July nth. This, however, did not fill the 
measure of opposition against the new medical law. A resolu- 
tion was adopted, limiting the membership to those possessing 
a diploma from the State Society, irrespective of their collegiate 
affiliations. But this proved of little avail, because, of the 
twenty-seven practicing physicians in the county, only fifteen 
were members of the society at this time. Dr. A. D. Woodruff 
was elected president; Dr. John V. Schenck, vice-president; 
Dr. T. F. Cullen, secretary and treasurer, and Doctors G. W. 
Bartholomew, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, 
1853, an d Richard C. Dean, a graduate of Yale College, and 
of Jefferson Medical College, 1854, were elected to membership. 
During this period, Doctors Mulford, Taylor, Hendry and 
Woodruff were the State Society's appointees for censors. 



The Medical E7iactment of 1S51. 35 

Section III. — The Medical Enactment of 185 1. 

[1851.] The year 1851 marked an era in the medical 
history of New Jersey. Previously to this time, the only legal 
way of entering the medical profession in New Jersey was 
through the censors' examination of the New Jersey Medical 
Society. Through the influence of this society, medical exam- 
inations were instituted in 1772, under the supervision of the 
Supreme Court of the State, and were continued until 18 16, 
when the State Society was re-incorporated and Boards of 
Censors were established as appointees of the society. Under 
the direction of its censors, the New Jersey Medical Society 
guarded with a jealous care the interests of the profession. 
But, in the progress of time, this censorship was complained 
of by medical colleges as inimical to public and professional 
interests ; the cry of monopoly was raised by empirics and the 
law was finally attacked and practically abrogated, through 
medical colleges of neighboring States. The society, however, 
believed in its censorship, because, at this time, there was no 
accepted, universal standard of medical education, and medical 
graduates varied considerably in their attainments; so that 
restraining laws, governing medical practice, were needful. 
Medical education had been a subject of discussion in the 
American Medical Association since its organization in 1847, 
when an effort was made to make up its constituent member- 
ship of delegates from County and State Medical Societies 
throughout the Union, and to exclude those from medical 
colleges, hospitals and asylums. This movement was intended 
to advance the cause of medical education, by excluding a 
personally interested element, and also to unite more thoroughly 
in its interests County and State Societies. The movement 
resulted in the formation of the Association of American 
Medical Colleges, which adopted a standard curriculum of 
medical study, and has, at this time, a membership of about 
seventy institutions. 

In January, the committee, appointed at the preceding 
annual meeting of the State Society to propose amendments 
for a revision of the charter of the society, presented a bill for 
the same to the Legislature. The bill was introduced as a 



36 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

supplement to the medical Act of 1830, and provided for trie 
holding of the annual meeting at Trenton, in January; the 
discontinuance of the semi-annual meeting ; the power of the 
society to revoke medical license for unprofessional conduct ; 
the right of the censors to demand a four years' course of 
study from applicants not having a diploma in the arts, and 
for other medical matters.* This movement was taken advan- 
tage of by the graduates of medical colleges in New York and 
Philadelphia, and the revising bill was amended and passed to 
permit the graduates of five medical colleges; viz., the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, the Medical Depart- 
ment of the University of the City of New York, the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, Jefferson Medical College, the Medical 
Department of Pennsylvania College, and such other medical 
colleges as the society shall from time to time designate, to 
present their diplomas to the president of the Medical Society 
of New Jersey with testimonials of good character, and, if satis- 
fied with such testimonials, the president was authorized and 
empowered to grant a license, under his hand and the seal of 
the society, to practice within the State, for which a sum not 
exceeding five dollars was demanded. The Act was approved, 
March 15, 1851. The contest which led to the passage of this 
law was begun by the medical colleges in 1845, but was then 
defeated by the society. In 1849, the cause of higher medical 
education was championed by Dr. S. H. Pennington, at the 
annual meeting, and by Dr. O. H. Taylor at the semi-annual 
meeting of the State Society ; and when the revised charter was 
presented to the Legislature, empowering the censors of the 
State Medical Society to demand a four years' course of study 
from applicants without a diploma in the arts, the contest 
became aggressive on the part of the medical colleges named. 
In this year, there were one thousand two hundred and fourteen 
medical students at the colleges in Philadelphia and six hundred 

*" In 1850, the committee on charter reported several amendments. * * * This pro- 
ceeding came to the knowledge of the colleges through the published Transactions. * * * 
When the committee came before the Legislature, they were met by the colleges in full 
force. * * * Although the committee succeeded in regard to its own amendment, yet 
the adverse influence procured the passage of another, virtually exempting certain colleges 
from the provisions of the law." — Address of Dr. T. Ryerson, Transaciions of State Medical 
Society, 1858. 



Political Interests. 37 

and eighty-one in New York.* New Jersey being situated 
between these medical centres, the opposition to the extension 
of the period of medical stndy and to the increase of power in 
the censorship of the New Jersey Medical Society, was 
obvious. 

Immediately following the executive approval of the law, 
its execution became at once a source of embarrassment to the 
State and District Medical Societies, because of its limitations 
and favoritism. It was the first Act passed by the Legislature 
to thwart the interests of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 
whose existence antedates that of the State ; the first to disturb 
their mutual relationship since the medical enactment in 1783. 
The censors of the society were not officially connected with 
the colleges and were, therefore, disinterested in the examina- 
tion. They acted wholly in the interest of the medical 
profession and the public good. The law not only abrogated 
the examining power of the society, but placed it in a position 
of compulsory favoritism to the five medical colleges named. 
Graduates from these colleges were admitted to practice 
medicine within New Jersey, without passing an examination 
before the Board of Censors and upon paying a fee of five 
dollars, while those of other colleges were examined by 
the censors and taxed fifteen dollars by the society for 
a diploma. A reward was practically offered students to 
attend the colleges mentioned in the Act, and a penalty 
prescribed for joining others. The State Medical Society 
was outwitted and beaten, and the law was so clearly unjust 
that other medical colleges and their graduates secured the 
passage of an Act, in 1854, still further modifying its censor- 
ship. 

Section IV. — Political Interests. 

[1850.] The medical profession has always manifested 
an interest in national and municipal politics and, during this 
period, the physicians of Camden county took an active part 
in political affairs. In the winter of 1850, a new charter was 
granted to the city of Camden by the Legislature 
[185 1.] and was supplemented, during the following 

*New Jersey Medical Reporter for 1851. 



38 History Medical Profession Camde?i County. 

year, by an Act greatly enlarging municipal authority. The 
growth of the city demanded new provisions for its welfare 
and, in the selection of its officers, a deeper interest was mani- 
fested by the citizens. The contest for the Mayoralty excited 
considerable interest, because of the enlarged official duties and 
the number of candidates in the field. The question of the 
day, underlying party interests and causing the political division 
of national issues into three parties during the Taylor-Fillmore 
administration, was slavery. The agitation made itself felt in 
Camden and necessitated placing three candidates in the field : 
Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler, American candidate; Dr. Othniel H. 
Taylor, Whig candidate, and John Sands, Democratic candi- 
date.* Of the votes cast, Dr. Fisler received four hundred 
and forty; Dr. Taylor, one hundred and thirty-five, and Mr. 
Sands, three hundred and forty-five, t Dr. Fisler had filled the 
office of Mayor in 1840, '41, '42 and '43, and was a candidate, 
in 1848, on the Whig ticket, but was defeated. His re-election 
again evidenced the respect in which he was held by his 
fello w-to wn smen. 

[1852.] At this time, Dr. Reynell Coates, of Camden, 
was the acknowledged champion of aggressive Americanism. 
He helped to found the Native American party in 1837,! and at 
the first national convention in Philadelphia, in 1845, wrote 
the platform adopted by the party. The Native American 
party advocated the rights and privileges of Americans, as 
opposed to those of foreigners, and demanded a residence of 
twenty-one years as a qualification for naturalization. The 
party was an incident in the political history of the period. 
During the closing years of the Fillmore administration, four 
political parties marshalled their forces to secure the presidency. 
Pierce and King were the Democratic candidates ; Scott and 
Graham, the Whig candidates ; Hale and Julian, the Free-Soil 
candidates, and Daniel Webster and Dr. Reynell Coates, the 
Native American candidates. The main question at issue 
before the country was the Compromise Act of 1850, which 

* Prowell's History of Camden County. 

t Ibid. 

I Origin and Progress of the American Party in Politics, by J. H. Lee. 



Political Interests. 39 

the greater parties favored, but the Free-Soil party opposed. 
During the campaign, Daniel Webster died, leaving the Native 
Americans without a head, and the party, therefore, did not 
carry a State in the election. The Democratic candidates 
were elected ; the Free-Soil party passed out of existence ; the 
Whig and American parties consolidated in the subsequent 
presidential election, after which all issues went down before 
slavery ; the Whig party gave place to the Republican party 
and the Native American party degenerated into a secret 
political organization called the Know-Nothings. 

[1853.] During this year, a fusion ticket of Whigs and 
Americans was formed in Camden and Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler, 
its candidate, was re-elected Mayor and again re-elected the 
following year as an American and Anti-Nebraska candidate. 

[1854.] Following the erection of Camden county in 
1844, the office of coroner was filled by non-medical men, 
which proved unsatisfactory to the people, because of the 
medical as well as judicial qualifications required in the 
investigation of casual, accidental and violent causes of death. 
Medical knowledge is required to determine the cause of 
death, and legal knowledge to determine the bearing of relative 
evidence. The office naturally belongs to medical men and 
the recognition of its requirements led to the nomination 
and election of Dr. Thomas G. Rowand, of Camden, in 1854. 
Since then, the office of coroner of the county has been filled 
by Dr. Rowand in 1868; Dr. Duncan W. Blake, of Gloucester 
City, in 1871, '74 an d '78; Dr. James A. Armstrong, of Cam- 
den, in 1871, '73 and '74; Dr. William H. Iszard, of Camden, 
in 1878; Dr. John D. Leckner, of Camden, in 1881 and 1884; 
Dr. P. W. Beale, of Camden, in 1884 ; Dr. Edwin Tomlinson, 
of Gloucester City, in 1884; Dr. H. H. Davis, of Camden, in 
1884; Dr. George W. Henry, of Camden, in 1887; Dr. James 
G. Stanton, of Camden, 1887 ; Dr. E. R. Smiley, of Camden, 
in 1890, and by Dr. Edwin Tomlinson, of Gloucester City, in 
1890. The term of office of the coroner was formerly one 
year, but it has been extended to three years and the county 
divided into three districts. 



4© History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Section V. — The Camden City Medical Society. 

[1853.] On June 2d, the Medical Society for the City of 
Camden was organized. This was the medical event of the 
year within the county. The growth of Camden ; the increased 
number of physicians ; the interval between the meetings of 
the County Medical Society, and the necessity for bringing the 
physicians of Camden into closer relationship with each other, 
in order to advance their mutual interests, led to its formation. 
The importance of such an organization had been discussed for 
a long time, and, by mutual consent, Doctors Lorenzo F. 
Fisler, Isaac S. Mulford, Othniel H. Taylor, Richard M. 
Cooper, Sylvester Birdsell, Thomas F. Cullen and John V. 
Schenck met June 2, 1853, an d organized the society. At 
this temporary organization, Doctors Taylor, Birdsell and 
Fisler were appointed to prepare a constitution and by-laws 
and to report the same at an adjourned meeting to be held June 
1 6th. The constitution, as reported, provided for meetings to 
be held in December, March and June, and for the annual 
meeting in September; a standing committee to execute the 
business of the society between the meetings and to superin- 
tend its publications ; a membership limited to regular grad- 
uates who have complied with the medical laws of New 
Jersey ; the adoption of the code of ethics formulated by the 
American Medical Association, and of the fee-bill of the 
Medical Society of New Jersey, and for a reporter on medical 
literature, improvements in medical science and the diseases 
prevalent during the quarter. Dr. Isaac S. Mulford was 
elected president; Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler, vice-president; Dr. 
John V. Schenck, secretary and treasurer ; Dr. R. M. Cooper, 
reporter, and Doctors Cooper, Birdsell and Cullen were elected 
the standing committee. The financial delinquencies of patients 
were made the subject of debate and a constitutional clause was 
adopted, providing for the reporting of delinquents by each 
member in writing to the secretary, who should arrange 
the names alphabetically and furnish copies to each member of 
the society. The financial status of the citizens of Camden 
became well known to the society, but the law proved unpop- 
ular and ineffective in its application and was omitted in the 



The Medical Enactment of 1854. . 4 1 

revision of the constitution in 1887. The organization of 
the society was voluntary ; no charter was obtained, and the 
society is still without legal status except in its elective 
relation to the Camden City Dispensary. 

The first annual meeting was held September 1st, when 
the officers were re-elected. Dr. R. M. Cooper read the 
quarterly report and, in discussing malarial and typhoid fevers, 
stated, in substance, that remittent and intermittent fevers, 
known as "autumnal fevers," were most prevalent in the 
southern section of Camden because of the marsh lands and 
the prevalence of south-west winds ; and, in that portion 
bordering on the meadows, intermittent fever prevailed from 
July to October with a tendency to return on the seventh, 
fourteenth or twenty-first day. As the population increased 
and the improvements of the city were extended, he believed 
that intermittent fever would cease its annual visitations and 
give place to typhoid fever, which was most prevalent in 
North Camden, where the greatest improvements had been 
made. At the December meeting, Dr. Sylvester Birdsell read 
a paper on dysentery, claiming it to be of malarial origin 
because of its intermittent character. 

[1854.] On March 2d, the society convened at the resi- 
dence of Dr. L. F. Fisler ; in June, at Dr. J. V. Schenck's ; 
in September, the annual meeting was held and Dr. I. S. 
Mulford was re-elected president ; Dr. L. F. Fisler, vice- 
president ; Dr. J. V. Schenck, secretary and treasurer, and 
Doctors Richard C. Dean, Samuel Thomas and Jesse Sellers 
were elected members. Dr. Mulford delivered an address on 
" Laryngitis " and Dr. Cullen reported a case of yellow fever 
in a patient recently arrived from Savannah, which recovered 
without further infection. In October, a special meeting was 
held to discuss cholera, which will be considered under its 
proper section. In December, no meeting was held. 

Section VI. — The Medical Enactment of 1854. 
[1854.] Following the enactment of the medical law of 
1 85 1, a condition of dissatisfaction pervaded the profession, 
because of the favoritism shown to the five medical colleges 



4 2 History Medical Profession Camde?i Co?inty. 

named in the Act ; so that the Medical Society of New Jersey, 
at its annual meeting in January, 1854, adopted conciliator}- 
measures admitting the graduates of any regular medical 
school to practice medicine within New Jersey, without exam- 
ination before its censors. But this did not suffice to stem the 
tide of opposition to the censors' examinations. Physicians of 
the homoeopathic, eclectic, botanic, Thompsonian and other 
schools secured a legislative Act that made it "lawful for all 
persons of good moral character, who have diplomas from any 
medical college or medical department of any university of 
any State of the United States, which, before conferring diplo- 
mas, requires those upon whom they are conferred to be 
twenty-one years of age, to have studied physic and surgery 
three full years with a lawful practitioner of medicine, includ- 
ing two full courses of lectures of not less than twelve weeks 
each, in which shall be taught the principles of materia inedica, 
pharmacy, chemistry, anatomy, physiology, and the practice of 
physic, surgery and midwifery, to practice physic and surgery 
in this State, after depositing a copy of such diploma, trans- 
lated into the English language, with the clerk of the county 
in which such practitioner may reside." This law was passed 
at the close of the session of the Legislature and without the 
knowledge of the New Jersey Medical Society.* It was 
approved March 17th. It practically abrogated the duties of the 
censors ; diminished the influence of the society and lowered 
the moral and educational standard of the medical profession 
in New Jersey. It directly contravened the efforts of the 
American Medical Association to extend the period of medical 
study, and made easy the registration of fraudulent diplomas 
from bogus medical colleges, which began to flourish about 
this time. It became unpopular with the regular profession of 
the State, because strict examinations had been required to 
enter upon medical practice since 1772, a period of eighty-two 
years, and the tone of the older members of the medical pro- 
fession was consequently very high. For the first time in her 
history, New Jersey was thrown open to practitioners of every 
kind and grade, since the law was indifferently enforced, and 

* MS. History of the Camden County Medical Society, by Dr. R. M. Cooper. 



Cholera. 43 

the censorship of the State Society so limited, that it was 
voluntarily surrendered to the State in 1866. Medical practice 
in New Jersey remained uninfluenced by restrictive legislation 
until 1880, a period of twenty -six years. 

The enactment of this medical law gave such encourage- 
ment to homoeopathic practitioners of medicine that a State 
Homoeopathic Medical Society was organized, but was not 
incorporated until 1870. This system of medical practice was 
becoming popular throughout New Jersey and won to its ranks 
not a few regular practitioners, and much of the influence ex- 
erted in securing the legislation in question was due to the 
followers of Hahnemann. The organization of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy in 1844 ; the founding of the Homoe- 
opathic Medical College of Pennsylvania, 1848, which subse- 
quently became the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadel- 
phia (the oldest homoeopathic college in the world), and the 
influence of the homoeopathic schools of New York City, made 
successful the efforts to overthrow the censorship of the Medi- 
cal Society of New Jersey. In Camden, the new system of 
medicine became popular. Dr. J. R. Andrews, a regular gradu- 
ate of medicine and a licentiate of the State Medical Society 
in 1852, was the first to adopt and practice it. In 1853, Dr. & 
J. Record, of Blackwood, and Dr. B. W. Blackwood, of Had- 
donfield, both members of the Camden District Medical Society, 
adopted it and, in 1875, Dr. Samuel Carles, of Camden, 
began homoeopathic practice. 

Section VII. — Cholera. 
[1854.] In April, cholera broke out in Chicago, among 
recently arrived immigrants, and soon spread throughout the 
country. In June, it was introduced into Quebec by an infected 
ship and became epidemic in that quarter. In July, the 
disease made its appearance in Camden, and in October became 
an epidemic. A special meeting of the Camden City Medical 
Society was held on October 14th to consider the subject, and, 
with Mayor Fisler, to inaugurate measures to check its spread 
and to quiet the general alarm. After accomplishing this, the 
society adjourned to the 19th, when it convened for further 



44 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

discussion, and the conclusion was reached that "calomel, ace- 
tate of lead and the cautious use of opium" gave the best 
therapeutic result. At the regular meeting, December 7th, 
Dr. T. F. Cullen, in a report on the subject, said: "Cholera 
made its appearance in Camden about the middle of July in 
Mulford's Alley, where two or three fatal cases occurred. * * * 
In a few days, it spread rapidly and well-marked cases were 
under the treatment of almost every physician in the town. 
The alarm became general and almost every one either had, or 
imagined they had, a diarrhoea. Toper and temperance man 
flew to brandy as a preventive, and Brown's Essence of Jamaica 
Ginger was deemed by many an 'Elixir of Life.' * * * 
Whilst no one part of the town was entirely exempt from the 
disease, the majority of cases exhibited themselves in the North 
and Middle wards,* and between Third street and the Delaware 
river. The disease presented itself in a much more unmanage- 
able form than in the epidemics of 1832 and 1849. * * * 
In August, the city was almost exempt from the epidemic. 
* * * During the first week in October, cholera again made 
its appearance without warning. Persons were attacked in 
various parts of the town. * * * The disease prevailed in 
epidemic form until about the first of November." As sum- 
marized by Dr. Cullen, there were in the first epidemic fifty- 
seven cases and twenty-two deaths ; in the second, thirty-seven 
cases with fifteen deaths, making a total of ninety-four cases 
with thirty-seven deaths during the year, a death rate of thirty- 
nine and one-third per cent. This was a less extensive 
epidemic of cholera than that of 1849, when one hundred and 
nineteen cases with fifty-seven deaths occurred in Camden, — 
a death-rate of forty-seven per cent. 

Section VIII. — Physicians and Druggists. 
During the period under consideration, the drug interests 
of Camden were extended by the opening of a drug-store at 
Fourth and Walnut streets by Dr. Sylvester Birdsell, in 

*In 1848, Camden was divided into three wards, North, Middle and South. The North 
ward comprised that portion of the city lying north of Federal street ; the Middle ward, 
that portion between Federal and Line streets, and the South ward that portion south of 
Line street. In 1871, the city was divided into eight wards. 



Physicians and Druggists. 45 

1 85 1, which has passed successively into the possession of Dr. 
M. West, Samuel Cochran, Dr. C. M. Green and Dr. J. F. Stock ; 
by the opening of a drug-store by Dr. T. G. Rowand at the north- 
west corner of Fifth and Federal streets, which was removed 
to the northeast corner of the same streets and has been owned 
successively by Prof. A. P. Brown and Prof. G. M. Beringer, 
and by the opening of a drug-store at Haddonfleld by C. S. 
Braddock. In 1852, the profession lost, through death, Doctors 
George Barrows and John J. Jessup. In 1854, Dr. George S. 
F. Pfeiffer, formerly a medical cadet in the navy of Holland 
and an officer in the French army, where he won distinction in 
his profession, and Dr. William G. Thomas, a graduate of Penn- 
sylvania Medical College, located in Camden. Among the 
more prominent publications of this period is the paper on 
"Forensic Medicine in New Jersey," by Dr. Isaac S. Mulford. 



CHAPTER IV. 
THE PERIOD FROM 1855 TO i860. 

Section I. — The Medical Society of New Jersey. 

[1855.] The annual meeting of the society was held at 
Trenton, January 25th, and attended by Doctors Mulford, 
Cooper and Bowman Hendry as members of the standing 
committee, and Doctors .Schenck, Bartholomew, Dean and 
C. D. Hendry, as delegates. Dr. Othniel H. Taylor never 
attended the meetings, after the special meeting in 1854, until 
1863. Dr. I. S. Mulford presented an elaborate report on the 
cholera epidemics of 1832, '49 and '54, and also urged the 
repeal of the legislative enactment of the preceding year relat- 
ing to medical practice. Doctors Mulford, Taylor, Woodruff 
and C. D. Hendry were appointed censors for Camden county, 
and Dr. Richard M. Cooper was elected second vice-president. 
Of the twenty-one diplomas granted by the president, only four 
of the recipients passed the censors' examination. 

[1856.] On January 21st, the society met at Trenton 
with Dr. R. M. Cooper present as vice-president and Dr. J. V. 
Schenck as a delegate. Dr. Cooper was elected president of 
the society. This was the second time the office had been 
conferred on a Camden physician, the first being in 1852, 
when Dr. O. H. Taylor held the position. A modification of 
the medical laws was again made the subject of discussion, and 
a second committee was appointed to memorialize the Legisla- 
ture to this end, but failed, as in all preceding efforts. The 
State, in consequence, became a free field for practitioners of' 
medicine of every grade and kind; self-protecting measures, 
governing the membership of the society, became necessary,, 
and the following resolutions were adopted : 

' ' Resolved, That no person hereafter shall be deemed qualified to hold a 
seat in this society unless he shall have obtained a license agreeable to the 
provisions of our charter and by-laws as they existed prior to the legislative 
session of 1854. 
46 



The Medical Society of New Jersey . 47 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the several District Societies not 
to admit to membership any person who has not received a regular diploma, 
according to the by-laws of the Medical Society of New Jersey." 

These resolutions were approved and adopted by the Dis- 
trict Societies throughout the State and, as a result, the educa- 
tional record of physicians, when applicants for membership in 
medical societies, became a matter of investigation and 
irregular physicians were openly ostracized. Of the eight 
licenses granted by the president, only two were upon the cer- 
tificates of the censors, thus showing the indifference with 
which the society was regarded by beginning practitioners of 
medicine. 

[1857.] The annual meeting of the society was held at 
Trenton, January 27 th. Dr. Richard M. Cooper, the presi- 
dent, delivered an address on "Vaccination," a subject to which 
he had given much attention. Preliminary to the address, Dr. 
Cooper said, in reference to the medical enactment of 1854: 
"As the most sanguine among us have ceased to look any 
longer for the repeal of those enactments that have deprived 
us of the power that our society had, for so many years, used 
without partiality, but with justice, both to the profession and 
the people, we shall be enabled by union and harmony among 
ourselves to maintain our society as an organization honorable 
in its aims and useful in its results." Notwithstanding this 
address, the medical laws of 185 1 and 1854 still rankled in the 
bosom of the society, and a resolution was adopted to instruct 
the standing committee to obtain legal advice as to "What 
constitutes a valid license under existing laws." The Camden 
District Society was represented by Doctors C. D. Hendry, 
Bowman Hendry, T. F. Cullen and J. V. Schenck, and the 
censors lor the county were re-appointed. By resolution, the 
secretary of each District Society was made a reporter, and the 
report to the standing committee from the Camden Society 
was made by Dr. J. V. Schenck. 

[1858.] The society met at Trenton, January 25th, with 
Dr. R. M. Cooper present as a fellow and Doctors Thomas, 
Birdsell, Woodruff and Snowden, as delegates. Dr. William A. 
Newell, Governor of New Jersey, attended the meeting. The 



48 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

first change was made in the Board of Censors for Camden 
county since 1849, the appointees being Doctors Cooper, 
Taylor, Hendry and Schenck. Dr. Cooper was appointed in 
the place of Dr. Mulford and Dr. Schenck in that of Dr. 
Woodruff. The medical enactments of 1851 and 1854 were 
still subjects of adverse comment. Dr. T. Ryerson delivered 
an address on "An Examination of Some of the Principles and 
Workings of the Medical Law," and, after reciting the legisla- 
tive history of the society, said : 

"At the semi-annual meeting in Camden in 1849, Vice-president Othniel 
H. Taylor addressed the society specifically on the existing system of medical 
education. In this, the medical colleges received a most unmerciful but just 
and well-deserved scoring. Under the influence of this address, the society 
formally resolved in favor of Boards of Examiners separate from the faculties 
of the different medical schools. At the session of 1850, the committee ap- 
pointed on charter reported several amendments directed towards raising the 
standard of general education, which amendments the society directed 
should be urged upon the attention of the Legislature. Of course all these 
proceedings came to the knowledge of the colleges through the published 
Transactions, and, as a consequence, when the committee came before the 
Legislature they were met by the colleges in full force. The society, 

' WKE AN EAGLE IN A DOVE-COTE,' 
had fluttered their parchment plumage, and although the committee suc- 
ceeded in regard to its own amendments, yet the adverse influence procured 
the passage of another, virtually exempting certain first-class colleges from 
the provisions of the whole law. * * * The wedge was entered under the 
license system and it toppled and fell." 

The standing committee presented, under instructions, a 
report as to " What constitutes a valid license under existing 
laws," from Hon. William L. Dayton, who said : "The sup- 
plement of 1854 gives authority to practice medicine in New 
Jersey under the conditions named in the Act and obviates the 
necessity for a technical license from the Medical Society of 
New Jersey." With this opinion, the hope of the State Society 
for a restoration of its chartered privileges, in the examination 
and licensing of physicians, vanished to re-appear in the meet- 
ing of the American Medical Association in the ensuing May. 

£1859.] The ninety-third annual meeting of the society 
was held at Trenton, January 25th, and Dr. R. M. Cooper was 
the only representative from Camden. A change was again 
made in the Camden Board of Censors, Dr. I. S. Mulford taking 



The American Medical Association. 49 

the place of Dr. 0. H. Taylor who had served since 1847 ; the 
board now consisted of Doctors Mulford, C. D. Hendry, 
Schenck and Cooper. New departures in the raising of a 
revenue, in the publication of the Transactions of the society and 
in the reorganization of the nominating committee, were made. 
Since the enactment of the medical law of 1854, the revenue 
derived from medical examinations and the licensing of candi- 
dates had decreased to such an extent that a direct tax became 
necessary and an assessment of three dollars for every ten mem- 
bers was made upon each District Society. One of the objects 
of the tax was the publication of the Transactions of the 
society in separate form. Up to 1849, none of the proceed- 
ings of the society had been published, but at the semi-annual 
meeting of that year, in Camden, The New Jersey Medical and 
Surgical Reporter was made the official organ of the society, 
and the Transactions were printed in its columns until 1858.* 
In the following year, the annual issue in the present form was 
begun. x\nother step was taken in the direction of county 
equalization, in the selection of officers through a nominating 
committee, consisting of one member from each District 
Society. 

Section II. — The American Medical Association. 

[1855.] On May 1st, the association met in Philadel- 
phia, with Dr. R. M. Cooper present as one of the delegates 
from the New Jersey Medical Society ; Doctors Mulford and 
Woodruff, from the Camden County Medical Society ; Dr. T. 
F. Cullen, from the Camden City Medical Society, and Dr. O. 
H. Taylor, as a permanent member. Dr. Taylor was ap- 
pointed a member of the committee on vital statistics. Dur- 
ing the succeeding year, Camden was not represented in the 
association, but, in 1857, Dr. Cooper attended the meeting of 
the association at Nashville, Tennessee. 

[1858.] On May 4th, the association met at Washing- 
ton, D. C, with Dr. J. V. Schenck as one of the representa- 

* The New Jersey Medical and Surgical Reporter was started at Burlington, N. J., by 
Dr. Joseph Parrish, in 1847 ; in 1860, the journal was sold to Dr. S. W. Butler, who removed 
it to Philadelphia and changed the name to The Medical and Surgical Reporter. 



50 History Medical Profession Camdeii County . 

tives from the New Jersey Medical Society and Dr. A. D. 
Woodruff from the Camden County Medical Society. At this 
meeting", the delegation from New Jersey took a prominent 
part. Failing to repeal or amend the medical laws of 185 1 
and 1854, the New Jersey delegates introduced a resolution ask- 
ing that a Board of Censors be established in each Judicial 
Circuit of the United States Supreme Court, who should 
examine candidates for membership in the association and on 
whose certificate the president of the association should 
grant a diploma. Doctors Schenck and Woodruff supported 
this motion. The resolution was laid over under the 
rules and never recalled. It was the last act of the 
Medical Society of New Jersey in opposing unlicensed medical 
practice and, in 1866, the society voluntarily surrendered its 
censorship. 

Section III. — The Camden District Medical Society. 

[1855.] On June 19th, the society met at the hotel of 
James El well, Camden, with an attendance of ten members. 
Dr. I. S. Mulford presented the report of the standing com- 
mittee and spoke of the tendency of malarial fever to assume 
a typhoid form, and of the difference between it and enteric 
fever. Dr. A. D. Woodruff, the president, delivered an address 
on "Oxide of Silver as a Medicinal Agent." Dr. G. W. 
Bartholomew, having followed Doctors Record and Blackwood 
in adopting homoeopathy, was expelled from the society. At 
this time there were six regular graduates in medicine prac- 
ticing homoeopathy within the county; viz., Doctors E. J. 
Record, of Blackwood; B. W. Blackwood, of Haddonfield, arid 
Doctors G. W. Bartholomew, J. R. Andrews, Samuel Carles 
and G. S. F. Pfeiffer, of Camden. The following officers were 
elected: President, Dr. John W. Snowden ; vice-president, Dr. 
Bowman Hendry; secretary and treasurer, Dr. Richard C. 
Dean ; standing committee, Doctors Cooper, Stout and Dean. 

[1856.] The annual meeting of the society was held on 
June 17th, with an address on "Infantile Pneumonia," by Dr. 
Bowman Hendry. Dr. R. M. Cooper read the report of the 
standing committee and advocated revaccination on account 



The Ca?>iden District Medical Society. 5 1 

of an epidemic of variola and of varioloid which began early in 
the year and continued late into the spring. In the summer, 
pertussis was epidemic and, in the autumn, malarial fever 
prevailed, which, when neglected, became complicated, in 
many instances, with colliquative diarrhoea, protracted vomit- 
ing and intestinal hemorrhage. Two cases of yellow fever, 
both of which were imported from Brooklyn, N. Y., occurred 
in Camden during the year. The following officers were 
elected : President, Dr. Othniel H. Taylor ; vice-president, Dr. 
Thomas F. Cullen ; secretary and treasurer, Dr. John V. 
Schenck ; standing committee, Doctors Cullen, Hendry and 
Woodruff. 

[1857.] At the annual meeting held June 16th, Dr. O. 
H. Taylor, the president, delivered an address on "The 
Obvious Decline in the Respect of the Public for the Medical 
Profession in New Jersey, with an Enquiry into Some of its 
Causes." The history of the profession, especially in its legis- 
lative and educational aspect, was considered and the fee-bill 
of the State Society dwelt upon as being too small and un- 
wisely arranged. As a result of this address, a committee was 
appointed to report a fee-bill at the next meeting. Dr. T. 
F. Cullen made the report of the standing committee and, in 
substance, said: 

"The summer of 1856 was hot and dry ; the autumn, dry and warm ; 
the winter, unusually cold, the mercury being lower for a series of days than 
it had been known for twenty-five years. There were snow-storms of unpre- 
cedented violence ; the river was frozen so as to impede navigation and the 
spring was tardy in appearing. During the summer, remitting fever was 
general, which, if neglected, became complicated with dysentery and a 
typhoid condition. In the winter, erysipelas prevailed with a tendency to 
attack the throat and, at this time, puerperal fever was not uncommon." 

Dr. John W. Snowden read a paper on " Ergot of Rye " ; 
Dr. R. M. Cooper reported attendance at the American Medical 
Association, at Nashville, and Doctors N. B. Jennings of 
Haddonfield, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 1856, and 
W. G. Thomas of Camden, a graduate of Pennsylvania Medi- 
cal College, 1854, were elected members. 

The society decided hereafter to hold its meetings at the 
West Jersey Hotel. The officers elected for the year were: 



52 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Dr. Thomas F. Cullen, president ; Dr. Sylvester Birdsell, vice- 
president ; Dr. John V. Schenck, secretary and treasurer, and 
Doctors C. D. Hendry, B. Hendry and A. D. Woodruff, mem- 
bers of the standing committee. 

[1858.] The records of the society for this year could not 
be found. Dr. Sylvester Birdsell was elected president and 
Dr. John V. Schenck, vice-president. 

[1859.] The annual meeting of the society was held at 
the house of Stacy Stockton, Ellisburg, June 21st. The presi- 
dent, Dr. Sylvester Birdsell, delivered an address on " The 
Physiological and Therapeutical Action of Belladonna" ; Dr. 
R. M. Cooper read the annual report and laid before the society 
the action of the State Society in regard to its assessment, the 
publication of its Transactions and the reorganization of the 
nominating committee. Dr. John V. Schenck was elected 
president ; Dr. N. B. Jennings, vice-president ; Dr. Henry 
Ackley, secretary and treasurer ; Doctors Snowden, Ackley 
and Jennings were elected members of the standing committee, 
and Dr. Henry Ackley, of Camden, a graduate of Jefferson 
Medical College, 1858, was made a member of the society. 

Section IV. — The Camden City Medicae Society. 

[1855.] Regular meetings of the society were held dur- 
ing the year and the medical history of each quarter was 
presented by Doctors Schenck, Thomas, Taylor and Dean, suc- 
cessively. Following the cholera epidemic of the preceding 
year, the health of the city was above the average ; a condition 
observed in the year following the epidemic of cholera in 1 849. 
This was not due, according to Dr. Schenck, to the tendency 
of cholera to destroy the weak and those predisposed to disease, 
because the robust and vigorous were its victims while the weak 
and the valetudinarians escaped. In the autumn, dysentery- 
prevailed as an epidemic. Dr. T. F. Cullen reported a case of 
" Hydrophobia" from the bite of a cat ; Dr. O. H. Taylor read 
a paper on the "Hydrant Water of the City" and Dr. S. Bird- 
sell a paper on " Sulphuric Acid in the Treatment of Dysen- 
tery." Dr. R. M. Cooper was elected president; Dr. O. H. 
Taylor, vice-president ; Dr. J. V. Schenck, secretary 7 and 



The Camden City Medical Society. 53 

treasurer, and Doctors Cooper, Cullen and Birdsell were elected 
members of the standing committee. 

[1856.] The society held regular quarterly meetings and 
the report for the March meeting was made by Dr. I. S. Mul- 
ford ; for June, by Dr. L. F. Fisler ; for September, by Dr. R. 
M. Cooper, and for the December meeting, by Dr. O. H. Tay- 
lor. At the annual meeting, Dr. O. H. Taylor was elected 
president ; Dr. T. F. Cullen, vice-president, and Dr. J. V. 
Schenck, secretary and treasurer. Similar positions were held 
in the County Medical Society by these officers. 

[1857.] Only three meetings of the society were held 
during the year. In September, the annual address was 
delivered by Dr. O. H. Taylor, on "The Treatment of Scarlet 
Fever," and Dr. T. F. Cullen was elected president; Dr. Sylves- 
ter Birdsell, vice-president, and Dr. J. V. Schenck, secretary 
and treasurer. As in the preceding year, these officers held 
similar positions in the County Society. At this time, the 
local quarantine laws of each State were the subject of inter- 
state controversy and an effort was made to establish a uniform 
system relating to the commerce along the Delaware river. 
To effect this, an invitation was extended to the City Medical 
Society by the Philadelphia Board of Health to meet the board 
in conference. The society accepted the invitation and 
appointed Doctors Cooper, Bishop and Taylor as its representa- 
tives. In the following year, the society was requested to send 
delegates to the Quarantine Convention at Baltimore, but did 
not comply with the request. 

[1858.] In March, the society met at Dr. L. F. Fisler's, 
who read the quarterly report ; in June, at the residence of Dr. 
W. G. Thomas, where Dr. Sylvester Birdsell read a paper on the 
hydrant water of Camden as a cause of dysentery. This subject 
had engaged the attention of the profession for a long time, and 
since the epidemic of cholera, in 1849, it had been regarded as the 
chief cause of enteric disorders. The issue made by Dr. Birdsell 
was so direct that a committee, consisting of Doctors Mulford, 
Taylor and Cullen, was appointed to investigate the matter. The 
inquiry was continued through July and August and, during 
the latter month, the committee called a special meeting of the 



54 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

society and submitted a report, demanding a better water- 
supply, which was sent to the Directors of the Camden Water 
Works Company and published in the Public Ledger* In 
September, Dr. Sylvester Birdsell was elected president and 
Dr. J. V. Schenck vice-president, secretary and treasurer. 
During the month, Dr. W. G. Thomas died of dysentery, which 
accentuated the opposition to the Camden Water Works Com- 
pany. Appropriate resolutions were adopted and his funeral 
expenses were ordered paid by the society. In December, 
Dr. R. M. Cooper entertained the society and Dr. J. V. 
Schenck read the quarterly report. The fee-bill of the State 
Medical Society was adopted and each member was requested 
to place it in a conspicuous place in his office. 

[1859.] The need of a city dispensary had long been 
talked of, and the society made an effort during the year to 
establish one. In March, Dr. Othniel H. Taylor brought the 
subject before the society, and, upon his suggestion, a com- 
mittee was appointed to memorialize City Council to co-operate 
with the society, in the establishment of such an institution. 
Doctors Taylor, Cooper and Fisler constituted the committee. 
Plans for the organization of a dispensary were submitted to 
Council, and the interest of the physicians and a number of 
influential citizens secured ; but Council viewed the sub- 
ject with such indifference that the matter was indefinitely 
postponed. The quarterly reports were read by Doctors I. S. 
Mulford and S. Birdsell. Dr. Henry Ackley was elected a 
member, being the only physician to join the society since 
1854. Dr. J. V. Schenck was elected president; Dr. I. S. 
Mulford, vice-president, and Dr. Henry Ackley secretary and 
treasurer. 

Section V. — Fisler's History of Camden. 

[1858.] During the year, Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler appeared 
before the public in a new capacity. Hitherto he had won repu- 
tation as a physician, politician, public lecturer and local Metho- 

* The Camden Water Works Company was chartered April 2,1845. The water-works 
then stood upon the site now occupied by the Esterbrook Steel Pen Works. * * * In 
1854, new works were constructed at Pavonia by the company which are now owned by the 
city. — Prowell's History of Camden County. 



Educational, Political and Naval Interests. 55 

dist preacher. He now aspired to the honors of literature and, in 
July, published, through Francis A. Cassady, a "History of 
Camden" and dedicated it "To the Honorable President and 
Members of the City Council of Camden." The history pre- 
sents a brief outline of Camden from its early settlement to 
1858, — the period of publication. Of the early history of the 
city, the author said : 

" Camden, anterior to the charter of incorporation (1828), which consti- 
tuted her a city, was a small and unimportant village situated in the county of 
Gloucester and the township of Newton. It contained, at that time, but few 
houses and a small population. * * * What little importance she then 
possessed was solely dependent on her proximity to Philadelphia. Camden, 
in the original town plot, was of limited dimensions. On the north, it was 
bounded by the south side of Cooper street, extending down to a line running 
about midway between Market and Plum (Arch) streets and from the Dela- 
ware to Sixth street. These were the outlines as laid down in the original 
survey of the town. All outside of these bounds, with the exception of a few 
old houses, were either sterile fields or thick forests of trees. What few 
dwellings there were, were mostly along the margin of the river and occupied 
by fishermen or ferrymen. About the year 1814, Edward Sharp * * * 
purchased of Joshua Cooper all the land lying between Federal street down 
to Line street. * * * It was the intention of Mr. Sharp to construct a 
bridge from Camden to Windmill Island,* for which purpose a street one 
hundred and twenty feet wide was laid out, called Bridge avenue, at the foot 
of which the bridge was to start. A charter for it was granted, January 26, 
1819, by the Legislature, but the projectors were unable to dispose of the 
stock and the enterprise failed." 

The history was published in a pamphlet containing sixty- 
two pages and described the public buildings, the churches, 
the ferries, the press, the health, water and fire departments 
and the city government, over which Dr. Fisler had presided 
as Mayor for seven terms. 

Section VI. — Educational, Political and Naval 
Interests. 

[1854.] The physicians of Camden county have been 
closely identified with the management of the public schools. 
In 1809, Dr. Bowman Hendry was a trustee of the first public 
school built in Haddonfield. In 1842, Dr. Isaac S. Mulford 
was chiefly instrumental in securing an Act of Legislature 
authorizing the inhabitants of townships to raise money by 

* Windmill Island was situated in the middle of the Delaware, opposite Federal street, 
and was removed by the U. S. Government in 1894. 



56 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

direct taxation for public schools in addition to trie State 
apportionment, which alone supported public instruction at 
that time. The Act gave a great impetus to the cause of 
education. In 1843, a public school system was inaugurated 
in Camden and a board of trustees for the township was 
organized at the residence of Dr. Mulford, who became its 
president in 1845. In 1854, the Board of Education of the 
City of Camden was organized, over which Dr. Sylvester 
Birdsell presided in 1862, Dr. Thomas G. Rowand, in 1866, 
and Dr. James M. Ridge, in 1870. Dr. Sylvester Birdsell 
also served as secretary of the board in 1858, and Dr. Alex- 
ander M. Mecray as superintendent of public schools in 1870. 
In addition to these, Doctors C. W. Sartori, A. M. Mecray, 
M. F. Middleton, John H. Austin, J. D. Leckner, H. H. Davis, 
Dowling Benjamin and druggists J. C. De L,a Cour, Stanley C. 
Muschamp, Richard S. Justice and George D. Borton have 
served as members of the Board of Education. 

[1859.] During this year, Dr. Thomas G. Rowand was 
elected Professor of Materia Medica, Pharmacy and General 
Therapeutics in Penn Medical University of Philadelphia, and 
Dr. Iyorenzo F. Fisler gained increased reputation as a public 
instructor from the delivery of his lecture on "Queen 
Victoria." 

In politics, professional interest centered in the candidacy 
of Dr. Thomas G. Rowand, who was elected coroner over Dr. 
Thomas F. Cullen, and in that of Dr. L. F. Fisler for Mayor 
of Camden, who, however, was defeated. 

As the third representative of the medical profession of 
Camden to enter the United States Navy, Dr. Richard C. 
Dean was commissioned an assistant surgeon during the year. 
Dr. Dean has attained, through promotion, the grade of medical 
director. Dr. Robert M. Smallwood, U. S. N., died of phthisis 
pulmonalis during the year. Dr. Smallwood was graduated 
from the University of Pennsylvania in 1849 5 located at Chew's 
Landing ; became a member of the District Medical Society ; 
was commissioned an assistant surgeon in the United States 
Navy in 1851 and served with the Mediterranean Squadron.* 

* History of Medicine and Medical Men in Camden County, by John R.Stevenson, 
A. M.,M. D. 



Educational, Political and Naval Interests. 57 

The following physicians located in the county during 
this period: Dr. Samuel Carles, a graduate of Jefferson Medical 
College, 1838, and of Hahnemann Medical College, 1855, located 
in Camden ; Dr. James M. Ridge, a graduate of the University of 
Pennsylvania, 1852, located in Camden in 1856; Dr. Henry E. 
Branin, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College in 1858, located 
at Blackwood ; Dr. Elijah B. Woolston, a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania in 1854, located at Marlton; Bowman H. 
Shivers, a graduate of Penn Medical University in 1858, located 
at Marlton in 1858, and Dr. N. B. Jennings, a graduate of Jeffer- 
son Medical College, located at Haddonfield in 1856. In 1855, 
Dr. Joseph F. Garrison abandoned medicine for theology and 
became rector of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Camden, and Dr. 
William Parham, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1835, died at Blackwood, where he had located in 1846. 
Dr. Parham acquired an extensive practice, but never affiliated 
with the District Medical Society.* 

* History of Medicine and Medical Men in Camden County, by John R. Stevenson, 
A. M..M. D. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE PERIOD FROM i860 TO 1865. 

Section I. — The Medical Society of New Jersey. 

[i860.] The annual meeting of the society was held at 
Trenton, January 25th. Dr. J. R. Sickler, of Gloucester 
county, presided, and Dr. S. Birdsell represented Camden 
county. There was but little to interest the profession of 
Camden county. Dr. Henry A. Branin, of Blackwood, was 
made a licentiate and Doctors Mulford, Schenck, Cooper and 
C. D. Hendry were appointed censors for the county. 

[186 1.] During this year, the annual meeting was held 
at Trenton, January 27th, with Dr. William Elmer, of Bridge- 
ton, in the chair. Ex-president Cooper was the only represen- 
tative from Camden. Because of the political excitement of 
the times, there were but eight District Societies represented, 
which fact led to the appointment of committees to secure 
organization in every county in the State. Doctors R. M. 
Cooper and H. Genet Taylor, a licentiate of the year, were 
appointed to confer with the profession in Atlantic county, 
and Dr. A. D. Woodruff was appointed on the Board of 
Censors for Camden county in the place of Dr. Cooper. 

[1862.] On January 25th, the society met at New 
Brunswick with Doctors Snowden, Branin, Woodruff and ' 
Cooper as representatives from the Camden County Society, 
which, at this time, numbered fourteen members. Delegates 
were sent for the first time to sister State Societies, and Dr. 
Cooper was appointed to the Pennsylvania Society and made 
a member of the standing committee, and also of the Board of 
Censors for Camden in place of Dr. Woodruff. 

[1863.] The annual meeting was held this year at Jersey 

City with Doctors Taylor and Cooper present as Fellows, and 

Doctors Cullen, Jennings and Snowden, as delegates from 

Camden. This was the first meeting attended by Dr. Taylor 

58 



The Medical Society of New Jersey . 59 

since 1854. Doctors Mulford, Schenck, Cooper and Cullen 
were appointed censors for Camden county, the latter taking 
the place of Dr. C. D. Hendry, who had been a member of the 
board since 1847. Dr. T. F. Cullen was appointed essayist 
(the first appointment of the kind given to the Camden 
Society) and Dr. R. M. Cooper was re-appointed on the stand- 
ing committee and made a delegate to the Massachusetts 
Medical Society. Doctors Alexander Marcy and I. Gilbert 
Young were among the licentiates of the year, but the appli- 
cants for this acknowledgment were so few that the society 
deemed a continuation of its censorship over beginning prac- 
titioners of medicine useless, since the medical law of 1854, 
and appointed a committee, of which Dr. R. M. Cooper was 
made a member, to report, at the next meeting, "upon the 
propriety of a modification of the charter of the society upon 
a new basis of organization." 

[1864.] For the second time in its history, the Medical 
Society of New Jersey met in Camden, the first occurring in 
1849. The society convened in Odd Fellows Hall, January 
26th, in accordance with the arrangements effected by a joint 
committee from the County and City Medical Societies. The 
expenses of the meeting were paid by Dr. R. M. Cooper. Dr. 
Thomas F. Cullen, essayist, read a paper on " The Influence of 
the War upon the Practice of Medicine and Surgery," in 
which the collection and preservation of medical and surgical 
observations by the surgeons of New Jersey regiments ; the 
enactment of laws securing the rights of patients in military 
hospitals; the improvement of the ambulance service and the 
adoption of international laws, rendering the medical staff of 
the army non-combatants, were advocated. Dr. John R. 
Stevenson presented a paper on " Vital Statistics," collated 
from an examination of applicants for exemption from the 
draft in the First Congressional District of the State.' Between 
November 23, 1863, and January 5, 1864, Dr. Stevenson 
examined for physical disability six hundred and seventy-five 
men, of whom three hundred and thirty were found unfit for 
military duty. The average age of the applicants was stated to be 
29.02 years ; height, 5 feet 7.09 inches ; weight, 133.03 pounds, 



60 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

and the diseases and infirmities for which exemption was 
granted were fifty-nine, of which hernia stood first, consump- 
tion of the lungs, second, and injuries to the joints, third. Dr.. 
Stevenson was made a licentiate of the society and appointed 
essayist for the ensuing year. Doctors Mulford, Cullen,, 
Schenck and Cooper were re-appointed censors. The com- 
mittee on reorganization of the society presented a form of 
enactment which they recommended for presentation to the 
Legislature, and the president was requested to petition the 
Legislature, on behalf of the society, for the passage of the 
same. The petition for reorganization of the society was 
presented to the Legislature without delay and expressed the 
desire of the society " to surrender all its special privileges 
and pecuniary immunities " and "to reorganize as nearly as- 
possible on a voluntary basis." The Act of reorganization 
was approved March 14th. The Act defined how the society 
should be constituted, — its delegates, officers and Fellows ; gave 
authority to confer the degree of doctor of medicine and pro- 
vided that no one shall be admitted to membership in any 
District Society having connection with the State Medical 
Society, unless he shall have received said degree or been 
admitted ad cardem from some medical authorities recognized 
by the society ; neither should any County or District Society 
admit any one to membership unless a graduate of a medical 
school or college in affiliation with the American Medical 
Association. The incorporation Act of 1830 and all supple- 
ments thereto were repealed. 

Section II. — The Camden City Medical Society. 
[i860.] Regular meetings of the society were held dur- 
ing the year, without special progress in medical matters. In 
March, the society met at the residence of Dr. O. H. Taylor ; 
in June, at Dr. S. Birdsell's, when Dr. H. Genet Taylor, 
a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, i860, was elected 
a member; in September, Dr. Henry Ackley was elected presi- 
dent and Dr. H. Genet Taylor vice-president, secretary and 
treasurer, and, in December, Dr. R. M. Cooper entertained the 
society and read the report for the quarter. 



The Camden City Medical Society. 61 

[1861.] During the year, medical interests were second- 
ary to political, and little progress was made in the develop- 
ment of the society. In March, there was an attendance of 
seven members to hear the quarterly report of Dr. T. F. Cul- 
len ; in June, an attendance of but five members with no re- 
port ; in September, Dr. Henry Ackley delivered the annual 
address, and Dr. H. Genet Taylor read the quarterly report 
before four members. Dr. Taylor was elected president ; Dr. T. F. 
Cullen, vice-president, and Dr. R. M. Cooper, secretary and treas- 
urer. In December, Dr. Cooper presided in the absence of the 
president, who had entered the United States Volunteer service 
as an assistant surgeon, and Dr. I. S. Mulford read a report on 
small-pox, which prevailed in Camden during October, Novem- 
ber and December. 

[1862.] Medical affairs were of still less interest this year 
in the presence of the great political and military matters that 
engaged the attention of the country. Regular meetings were 
held, except in September, but there were no quarterly reports 
made nor were there any officers elected. 

[1863.] During the present year, an increased interest in 
medical matters was effected through the influence of Dr. Cul- 
len, who secured the adoption of a resolution, at the March 
meeting, requesting each member " to make a clear and suc- 
cinct account of at least one case occurring in his practice in 
which any peculiarity in character or treatment is noticed." 
This request met with favorable acceptance and, at the June 
meeting, Dr. Cullen read the quarterly report ; Dr. O. H. Tay- 
lor reported two cases of puerperal fever and Dr. Schenck a 
case of purpura hemorrhagica. In September, the sanitary 
condition of Camden, which had excited considerable comment 
during the summer, was discussed, especially the water-supply 
of the city, on account of the appearance of a peculiar form 
of diarrhoea presenting some of the symptoms of Asiatic 
cholera. The disease was especially prevalent in Kensington, 
and obtained the soubriquet, therefore, of " Kensington Diar- 
rhoea." Only those who drank the water supplied by the 
Kensington Water Works were affected by it and, as many of 
the residents of Camden were employed in Kensington, the 



62 History Medical Profession Camden Coimty. 

disease made its appearance in Camden and drew attention to 
the source of supply of the Camden Water Works Company, 
which had already incurred public displeasure. This found its 
highest expression in the action of the society in 1858. Fur- 
ther action was now deemed necessary and a public meeting 
was held on September nth, at which Dr. Reynell Coates 
presided, and the Camden Water Works Company was again 
denounced and City Council was urged to declare the company 
a nuisance. Dr. James M. Ridge and others addressed the 
meeting.* In December, Dr. L. F. Fisler read the quarterly 
report ; Dr. Schenck reported a case of " Suppression of the 
Urine"; Dr. Stevenson presented a paper on "Facts Elicited 
During Examination of Applicants for Exemption from the 
Draft" ; Doctors Fisler, Schenck and Stevenson were appointed 
to arrange for the meeting of the State Medical Society in the 
ensuing January, and to tender the hospitality of the city ; Dr. 
Cooper was appointed a delegate to the American Medical 
Association, whose sessions were suspended during 1861 and 
1862, on account of the Civil War; Dr. O. H. Taylor was ap- 
pointed a delegate to the Pennsylvania State Medical Society, 
and Dr. Alexander Marcy, a member of the class of 1859, at 
Amherst College, and a graduate of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1 86 1, and Dr. John R. Stevenson, an A. B. of the Phila- 
delphia High School in 1850, A. M. in 1853, and M - D - of tne 
University of Pennsylvania, during the year, located in Camden, 
and became members of the society. The names of the 
officers elected are not recorded. 

[1864.] Concerted effort was made this year, through Dr. 
T. F. Cullen, to increase the fee for each visit to one dollar 
within city limits, and a notice to that effect was published in 
two of the city papers, with the names of all of the members 
of the society appended. The minimum obstetrical fee was 
fixed, through a motion of Dr. Alexander Marcy, at six dollars. 
Reports were made by Doctors Mulford, Cooper, Fisler, 
Schenck, Cullen, Dean, Stevenson and Marcy on "Spotted 
Fever," which prevailed at this time, all agreeing that free 
stimulation gave the only chance of success. A vote of thanks 

* Camden Democrat, September, 1863. 



The Camden District Medical Society. 63 

was extended to Dr. Cooper for entertaining the State Society 
in Camden, in January. In June, Dr. J. R. Stevenson read the 
quarterly report and, on the 7th inst, Dr. R. C. Dean repre- 
sented the society at the meeting of the American Medical 
Association in New York. This was the second meeting of 
the association since the Civil War, and its popularity was 
attested by the presence of four hundred and sixty-five dele- 
gates, representing sixteen States. At this meeting, Dr. William 
B. Atkinson was elected permanent secretary, a position since 
held continuously by him. In September, no meeting took 
place and the officers held over. In December, Dr. O. H. 
Taylor entertained the society and made the quarterly report, 
including a case of " Lumbar Abscess." Small-pox, which was 
epidemic during the year, was also considered. 

Section III. — The Camden District Medical Society. 

[i860.] On June 19th, the society met at the West 
Jersey Hotel with an attendance of thirteen members. Dr. 
John V. Schenck, the president, delivered the annual address, 
on "Nature and Art in the Care of Disease" ; Dr. J. W. Snow- 
den read the annual report; Doctors H. Genet Taylor and 
Henry E. Branin were elected to membership ; Dr. Bowman 
Hendry was chosen president; Dr. Henry Ackley, vice-presi- 
dent, and Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary and treasurer. 

[1861.] On June 18th, the annual meeting was held 

with an attendance of ten members. The political excitement 

of the times did not escape the profession, as appears in the 

following graphic and satirical report of Dr. Thomas F. Cullen, 

chairman of the standing committee : 

" How little, when we last met, did any of us realize the terrible import 
of the events that have occurred in the United States in one short year ! 
We could not then realize that for twenty years, political villains had been 
steadily working to produce a disintegration of this Union, and that a miser- 
able faction would dare to raise an arm against the Federal Government, to 
fire upon its flag and murder its defenders. Can such things be and over- 
come us like a summer cloud without a special warning ? With the circum- 
stances concerning the first appearance and growth of this secession, 
epidemic fever, you are all well acquainted, and it is to be regretted that the 
first cases were not treated heroically and prompt sanitary measures adopted 
to prevent the spread of the contagion. The expectant plan of treatment 



64 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

was adopted, placebos used, emollients, demulcents and the like were tried, 
but without avail. Under this plan, all the symptoms became more violent 
and the contagion more widely spread. A change in the mode of treatment 
was resolved on and so far with benefit. The nitrate of potash, combined 
with sulphur and charcoal, in conjunction with iron and lead, has been 
found very serviceable, and large tracts of country have been almost entirely 
relieved of the epidemic influence by its judicious use. In fact, so favorable 
has been the result of this treatment, that many good judges believe that the 
early administration of these remedies in large doses would have instantly 
checked the disease. Steel, in various forms, has been found an excellent 
adjuvant. (Similia similibus curantur.) For to steal seems to be a very 
prominent symptom in the disease. Do not, Mr. President and gentlemen, 
doubt the orthodoxy of your committee for having taken a liberty with the 
homoeopathic creed. If the above remedies fail, or should not give the 
satisfaction deserved, hemp (cannabis sativa) prepared in a peculiar form and 
applied to the neck, it is asserted, will be of infinite benefit in the worst 
cases. So potent is this medicine that even the knowledge to the patients 
that its exhibition was intended has had the most salutary effect in not only 
improving their constitution, but in making them approve our Consti- 
tution. " 

The following officers were elected: President, Dr. N. B. 
Jennings; vice-president, Dr. H. E. Branin; secretary and 
treasurer, Dr. H. Genet Taylor ; standing committee, Doctors 
Schenck, Woodruff and Branin. 

[1862.] On June 14th, the annual meeting was held 
with Dr. N. B. Jennings in the chair, who delivered the annual 
address, on "Obstetrics." Dr. O. H.Taylor read the annual 
report and said that miasmatic diseases which were met with 
every spring and autumn were becoming less frequent owing 
to the cultivation of the land and improved drainage within 
the city of Camden. Dr. Henry E. Branin, of Blackwood, 
was chosen president ; Dr. Isaac S. Mulford, vice-president ; 
Dr. John V. Schenck, secretary and treasurer; Dr. T. F. 
Cullen, reporter, and Doctors Woodruff, Taylor and Schenck 
were elected members of the standing committee. 

[1863.] On June 1 6th, the society met at the West 
Jersey Hotel. No report was made from the standing com- 
mittee. Dr. T. F. Cullen submitted a report of the epidemic of 
small-pox which prevailed in Camden in 1861 and 1862 and said 
that "small-pox prevailed in Camden in October, November 
and December of 186 1, until the middle of the spring of 1862. 
It was first observed among the colored residents of South 



Political Interests. 65 

Camden, but before its termination there were few blocks in 
the city exempt from it. There were no municipal laws gov- 
erning vaccination, and there had been but one lame effort 
within the preceding fifteen years to procure anything like a 
general vaccination." Dr. Branin delivered the annual address 
on "Sickness at the Almshouse." Dr. John R. Stevenson, of 
Camden, and Dr. I. Gilbert Young, of Haddonfield, the latter 
an A. B. of the Central High School of Philadelphia and an 
M. D. of the University of Pennsylvania, were elected members. 
Dr. I. Gilbert Young was elected president ; Dr. J. R. Steven- 
son, vice-president ; Dr. J. V. Schenck, secretary and treasurer, 
and Doctors Taylor, Woodruff and Snowden were made the 
standing committee. Dr. Cooper was made chairman of the 
committee to arrange for the meeting of the State Medical 
Society in January of the ensuing year. 

[1864.] The annual meeting of the society was held this 
year at the West Jersey Hotel and, in the absence of Dr. O. H. 
Taylor, Dr. Schenck read the report of the standing com- 
mittee and said : " About midsummer, the community 
became involved in one of the most general epidemics of inter- 
mittent fever experienced for years, the type of which was 
quotidian, and its character asthenic and attended with painful 
vomiting and diarrhoea. Congestion of the brain was of fre- 
quent occurrence, and often a fatal complication in children." 
The subject of "spotted fever," prevailing at Blackwood, was 
also considered. Dr. I. Gilbert Young delivered the annual 
address and Dr. Alexander Marcy was elected a member. The 
following officers were elected : President, Dr. John R. Steven- 
son ; vice-president, Dr. Alexander Marcy ; secretary and 
treasurer, Dr. H. Genet Taylor ; standing committee, Doctors 
O. H. Taylor, Branin and Jennings. 

Section IV. — Political Interests. 
[i860.] The causes that led to the breach between the 
people of the North and the South strongly influenced the 
physicians of Camden county. The Kansas and Nebraska 
controversy, the Dred Scott decision of the United States 
Supreme Court and the raid of John Brown made slavery- 

5 



66 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

paramount to all other issues. Before its influence, the Native- 
American, the Whig and the Free-Soil parties were buried in 
oblivion, the Democratic party split into three factions and 
all anti-slavery sentiment solidified into the new Republican 
party. The nineteenth presidential election was one of intense 
excitement. There were four candidates for President of the 
United States, representing the four political parties. In this 
conflict of political elements, Doctors Mulford, O. H. Taylor, 
Ridge, Coates, Fisler, Cullen, Marcy, Carles, Andrews, Birdsell 
and R. G. Taylor took prominent parts. In February, Di\ 
Reynell Coates, the leader of the Native- American party, united 
with the Whigs in calling a convention to meet at Trenton 
for the organization of a Constitutional Union party in the 
State and the election of delegates to the Constitutional Union 
Convention, which, on May 9th, nominated Bell and Everett.* 
With equal earnestness, the Northern and Southern wings of 
the Democratic party were supported by the leading prac- 
titioners of the country. The climax of political excitement 
and enthusiasm was reached on May 18th, when the Repub- 
lican party nominated Lincoln and Hamlin and adopted a plat- 
form opposed to the extension of slavery. On September 
15th, Dr. Sylvester Birdsell, who, with Benjamin F. Braker 
and Henry L. Bonsall, was a pioneer Republican of Camden, 
presided at the Republican County Convention at Haddonfield, 
which ratified the nomination of Lincoln and Hamlin and 
placed in nomination candidates for county offices. The 
national contest resulted in the election of Lincoln and Hamlin, 
which was regarded by the leaders of the South as a just cause 
for the dissolution of the Union. As the sentiment of dis- 
union increased, the people of New Jersey, irrespective of party, 
assembled at Trenton, on December nth, for the purpose of 
entering their protest against dismemberment of the Union. 
And when, on December 20th, the act of secession was con- 
summated by South Carolina, the physicians of Camden county 
loyally supported the National government and contributed 
officers to both the army and navy for the conflict inaugurated 
during the ensuing year. 

* Camden Democrat. 



The Civil War. 67 

[186 1.] The agitation originating in the slavery question 
had now reached a climax. Following the example of South 
Carolina, six other States passed ordinances of secession and 
withdrew from the Union and, on February 4th, united to 
form a new government under the name of the Confederate 
States of America. On April 12th, hostilities began between 
the United States and Confederate Governments at Fort Sumter 
and, on April 15th, President Lincoln issued a call for troops 
to overthrow the secession movement. On April 16th, the 
first war meeting was held in Camden and a patriotic address 
was issued in response to the President's proclamation, signed 
by one hundred and sixteen prominent citizens, led by Dr. 
Isaac S. Mulford.* In reply to this address, an enthusiastic 
meeting was held at the Court House on the 18th, at which 
Dr. Thomas G. Rowand was chosen secretary, and speeches 
were made by Samuel H. Grey, David M. Chambers and 
others, advocating the raising of troops, money and arms. 

Section V. — The Civil War. 

A. THE UNITED STATES ARMY. 

[186 1.] The attack on Fort Sumter by the Confederates,. 
April 1 2th, aroused the North with a unanimity of purpose to 
vindicate the majesty of insulted law. An immediate call for 
troops was made by the United States Government to serve for 
three months. f On the 15th, a requisition for four regiments 
of infantry was made upon New Jersey, and, on the 17th, Gov- 
ernor Olden issued a proclamation sustaining the Government 
and ordering the militia to report for duty within twenty days. 
The active- militia at this time consisted of four divisions, each 
under the command of a major-general, and was, therefore, 
without organic unity. Notwithstanding this, the requisition 
of the President was honored without delay and, on the 27th, 
the organization of a brigade of four regiments, known as the 
New Jersey Brigade, was effected and General Theodore 
Runyon was placed in command. On May 6th, General 

* Prowell's History of Camden County. 

t New Jersey and the Rebellion, by John Y. Foster. 



68 History Medical Profession Camden Cotcnty. 

Runyon reported for duty, with the brigade, to General 
Winfield Scott, at Washington. The presence of the brigade 
gave decided support and encouragement to the Government, 
since these were the first fully equipped regiments to arrive at 
Washington. General Scott began at once the organization of 
the Army of the Potomac, which, on May 24th, entered 
Virginia. On the 27th, General McDowell took command 
and, on June 21st, engaged the Confederates at Bull Run and 
sustained a disastrous defeat. The New Jersey Brigade was 
not engaged in the battle, being held as a reserve. The 
brigade was mustered out of the service on July 24-25, having 
served three months. The Fourth Regiment was largely made 
up of Camden companies under the command of Colonel 
Matthew Miller, on whose staff Dr. Elijah B. Woolston, of 
Marlton, formerly a division surgeon in the State militia, 
served as surgeon. 

Following the battle of Bull Run, General Scott retired 
from the army on account of advanced age and General George 
B. McClellan was placed in command. Previously to this, 
however, the secession movement had assumed such propor- 
tions that the Government, on May 3d, called for additional 
troops to serve for three years, or during the war. On May 
17th, a requisition for three regiments was made on New 
Jersey and Governor Olden began the organization of another 
brigade, known as the First Brigade, New Jersey Volunteers, 
and composed of the First, Second and Third Regiments, which 
reported at Washington on June 29th. An effort was made 
to organize the Second Regiment in Camden by Colonel 
Thomas McKeen, who appointed Dr. Thomas F. Cullen as 
surgeon, Rev. Joseph F. Garrison as chaplain and Benjamin 
F. Archer as quarter-master ; but on account of there being a 
greater number of organized companies in North Jersey, wait- 
ing to be mustered into the service of the State, the regiment 
was organized at Newark instead of at Camden. No surgeons 
from Camden county served in these regiments. 

In July, a requisition was made on the State for five 
additional regiments, and the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh 
and Eighth Regiments were promptly organized. The Fourth 



The Civil War. 69 

Regiment, under command of Colonel J. H. Simpson, was 
assigned to the First Brigade, under General Phil. Kearney, 
and the remaining regiments were organized into the Second 
Brigade, under the command of Colonel Samuel H. Starr. 
In addition to the First and Second Brigades, New Jersey 
furnished the Government, during the Civil . War, with 
twenty-nine regiments of infantry, three regiments of cavalry 
and five batteries of artillery.* Of these, Camden county 
furnished surgeons for the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth and 
Twenty-fourth Regiments. 

The profession of Camden was not without representatives 
in the medical department of the regular army. On May 28th, 
following the second call for troops by the Government, Dr. 
Peter V. Schenck, of Camden, was commissioned, by President 
Lincoln, an assistant surgeon of the United States Army, with 
the rank of first lieutenant. During the war, Lieutenant 
Schenck served with distinction and was brevetted captain and 
also major for faithful and meritorious services. He resigned 
January 1, 1867, after the close of the civil conflict. The close 
relationship existing between the surgeons of the volunteer 
forces and those of the regular army renders a brief review of 
the development of the medical department of the regular 
army necessary. At the beginning of hostilities, the medical, 
like other departments of the regular army, was unprepared for 
so great a conflict. At this time, the department was com- 
posed of one surgeon-general with the rank of colonel, thirty 
surgeons each with the rank of major, and eighty-four assistant 
surgeons ranking as first lieutenants, with the rank of captain 
after five years' service. None of these were attached to any 
command, but belonged to the general staff and were subject 
to duty wherever their services were needed, f The surgeons 
of the volunteer forces were commissioned in some of the 
States without a professional examination and, after the battle 
of Bull Run, confusion reigned supreme in the care of the 
wounded. But the needs of the hour were met and speedily 
remedied by many of the most distinguished surgeons of the 

*New Jersey and the Rebellion, by John Y. Foster. 

t Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion. 



"]o History Medical Profession Camden County. 

North hastening with younger practitioners to Washington 
and offering temporarily their professional services. In response 
to an invitation from Surgeon-General Henry F. Smith, of 
Pennsylvania, Dr. H. Genet Taylor reported for duty at Wash- 
ington on July 2 2d, the day following the first battle of Bull 
Run, and remained for three days caring for the wounded, 
by which time the regular and volunteer surgeons were 
enabled to accomplish the work. The attention of the Govern- 
ment was directed to the necessity of a better and more 
extended system in the medical department, and in the call for 
troops, immediately following the battle, Congress authorized 
the appointment of brigade surgeons, with the rank of major, 
eligible to all the duties and prerogatives pertaining to medical 
officers of the army, whether as directors in the field, or as chiefs 
in the hospitals. This led the best class of physicians to enter 
the army and, in connection with the institution of examina- 
tions in the States, prevented the further commissioning of 
irregular and incompetent physicians in the volunteer forces. 
In April, 1862, the medical department of the army was 
reorganized by Act of Congress and its efficiency greatly 
increased. The rank of brigadier-general was conferred upon 
the surgeon-general and provision was made for an assistant 
surgeon-general and a medical inspector-general, with the rank 
and pay of a colonel of cavalry ; for eight medical inspectors, 
with the rank and pay of a lieutenant-colonel of cavalry, and for 
medical purveyors and cadets. In August, 1862, an ambulance 
corps was organized, but a uniform system of ambulance service 
was not established until March, 1864, when an Act of Con- 
gress placed the corps under the authority of the . medical 
department. Not until near the close of the Civil War was the 
autonomy of the medical department secured. Thus, through 
regularly ascending gradations, the medical department of 
the army, by its inherent fitness and the influence of the pro- 
fession at large, received such recognition from the President 
and Congress as enabled it to control its operations and carry 
them to a height of sanitary and scientific usefulness never 
before known in any war. The system won the unqualified 
admiration of European nations, and was adopted by many of 



The Civil War. 71 

them. Since the war, the department has passed through a 
number of changes. It is now independent of other depart- 
ments in its operations ; its members are eligible to the rank, 
pay and emoluments of all grades in the army to brigadier- 
general, and its hospital and ambulance corps is established 
upon the same military footing as companies of infantry. 

Returning to the consideration of the New Jersey regi- 
ments and the Camden surgeons serving with them, the 
Eighth Regiment of the Second Brigade at this time alone 
engages attention. The Eighth Regiment was raised under 
the requisition of President Lincoln, July 24th, and was 
originally the Second Regiment of the New Jersey Brigade in 
the three months' service. When the Second Regiment was 
mustered out in July, it was offered to the Government for 
three years by Chaplain St. John Chambre, provided it could 
remain intact.* The offer was accepted by President Lincoln 
and, with the consent of Governor Olden, the regiment was 
reorganized by Colonel A. J. Johnson, of Newark, under the 
name of the Eighth Regiment, with a large percentage of the 
old officers, except the medical, to which latter positions Gover- 
nor Olden commissioned, on September 14th, Dr. Alexander J. 
McKelway, of Blackwood, as major and surgeon, and Dr. H. 
Genet Taylor, of Camden, as first lieutenant and assistant sur- 
geon. The regiment, together with the Fifth, Sixth and 
Seventh, reported, under Colonel S. H. Starr, the senior officer, 
to General Hooker, at Budd's Ferry, near Washington, and was 
there brigaded as the Third Brigade, Hooker's Division, Third 
Corps, t 

[1862.] The military operations this year, between the 
Federal and Confederate forces, were conducted on a most 
extensive scale. The New Jersey troops rendered signal service 
in the campaigns of McClellan, Pope and Burnside. On 
March 10th, the Army of the Potomac, after thorough re- 
organization, set forth under General McClellan to capture 
Richmond, whereupon the Confederate army retired beyond 
the Rappahannock river, when McClellan changed his plans 

*MS. Notes (if A. St. John Chambre, Chaplain, Eighth Regiment, N. J. V. 
t New Jerse}- and the Rebellion, by John Y. Foster. 



72 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

and moved his army to the peninsula between the James and 
York rivers as the best route to the Confederate capital. This 
transfer of the army was made early in April, and included 
both the First and Second Brigades, New Jersey Volunteers. 
In the Fourth Regiment, First Brigade, Dr. Bowman Hendry, 
3d, of Haddonfield, served as first lieutenant and assistant sur- 
geon, having been commissioned February 3d, and, in the 
Eighth Regiment, Second Brigade, Dr. Alexander J. McKel- 
way served as surgeon and Dr. H. Genet Taylor as assistant 
surgeon, both having been commissioned on September 14, 
1 86 1. When Hooker's Division, of which the Second Brigade 
formed a part, left Budd's Ferry to join the Army of the 
Potomac, Lieutenant Taylor was detailed with other surgeons 
for duty at the division hospital. But the detail being unsatis- 
factory, he made application to Colonel Johnson to march with 
the regiment, and Surgeon-Major Alexander McKelway was 
assigned to the hospital, and, consequently, in the Peninsular 
campaign, Lieutenant Taylor was the only medical officer 
with the Eighth Regiment. On June 1st, Dr. O. S. Belden, of 
Camden, was assigned to the Fifth Regiment, Second Brigade, 
under Colonel S. H. Starr, as first lieutenant and assistant 
surgeon. These were the only medical officers from Camden 
county who served with the New Jersey troops in the Penin- 
sular campaign. This campaign was waged with a severity 
hitherto unknown on this continent. The transfer of the 
army was made early in April. On May 4th, Yorktown 
was captured and followed by the battles of Williamsburg,* 
West Point, Bottom's Bridge, Fair Oaks, Oak Grove, Mechanics- 
ville, Gaines' Mill, Savidge Station, White Oak Swamp, Glen- 
dale and Malvern Hill. In these battles, the surgeons from 
Camden county participated with their regiments in some of 
the most desperate engagements of the war, including seven 
days of continuous battle. Although, at one time, the Army 
of the Potomac was within seven miles of Richmond, General 

*In speaking of Assistant-Surgeon H. Genet Taylor, at the Battle of Williamsburg, a 
correspondent of the Newark Mercury, on May 16, 1862, said : " Dr. H. G. Taylor has done 
and does all that mortal man can do for the sick and suffering. He is one of the noblest 
men it has ever been my fortune to meet and has cheerfully worked to prostration day and 
night during the trials of our brave regiment." 



The Civil War. 73 

McClellan failed to capture the city and, in July, was ordered 
by the President to transfer his army to Alexandria. 

During the occupancy of the peninsula between the York 
and the James rivers by McClellan's army, the territory between 
Washington and the Rappahannock river was guarded by the 
Army of Virginia under command of General John Pope. 
Following the withdrawal of General McClellan's command 
from the peninsula, General Lee with his Confederate forces 
attacked General Pope and won a series of victories during 
August at Bristow Station, Bull Run and Chantilly, which 
resulted in General Pope's withdrawing his forces within 
intrenchments in the vicinity of Alexandria. In these engage- 
ments, Lieutenant Bowman Hendry, 3d, Fourth Regiment \ 
Lieutenant O. S. Belden, Fifth Regiment; Lieutenant H. 
Genet Taylor, Eighth Regiment, and Lieutenant Bowman 
Hendry, 2d, commissioned assistant surgeon of the Sixth Regi- 
ment, August 8th, participated. After the second battle of 
Bull Run, Lieutenant H. Genet Taylor, with other assistant 
surgeons, volunteered to go through the Confederate lines 
to attend the wounded. An escort of cavalry, with a flag 
of truce, ambulances and supplies, was provided ; the enemy's 
lines were entered, but, before the necessary relief could be 
given, General Pope retreated, leaving the surgeons in the 
hands of the Confederates. After ten days, they were paroled 
and secured the transportation of their wounded to Washing- 
ton. In the report of these engagements, Lieutenant-Colonel 
George C. Burling, commanding the Sixth Regiment, said : 
"It gives me pleasure to speak of the indefatigable exertions 
of Surgeon John Wiley and his able assistant, B. Hendry, for 
their care and attention to the wounded."* The defeat of 
General Pope led to the consolidation of the Armies of Virginia 
and of the Potomac, and General McClellan was placed in 
supreme command. This, however, did not check the designs 
of General Lee, who, on September 6th, invaded Maryland 
and, on the 17th, the battle of Antietam, one of the great 
battles of the war, was fought. The troops with which the 
Camden county surgeons were connected did not participate 

*New Jersey and the Rebellion, by John Y. Foster. 



74 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

in this battle, except the First Brigade. Following the battle 
of Antietam, General McClellan, because of his failure to press 
his advantage and prevent the withdrawal of General Lee 
across the Potomac, was superseded by General A. E. Burnside. 
In October, General Burnside advanced against the Confederates 
and, on December nth and 12th, engaged them in battle at 
Fredericksburg and sustained defeat with terrific loss. The 
New Jersey troops lost heavily in killed and wounded and, in 
addition to the Fourth, Sixth and Eighth Regiments, with 
which Lieutenants Bowman Hendry, 2d and 3d, Major A. J. 
McKelway and Lieutenant H. Genet Taylor were respectively 
connected, the Twenty-fourth Regiment, with which Lieu- 
tenant Thomas G. Rowand, of Camden, served as an assistant 
surgeon, was actively engaged. In this engagement, however, 
Lieutenant O. S. Belden, who had served with the Fifth 
Regiment since June 1st, did not participate, having resigned 
on November 30th.* The Twenty-fourth Regiment, com- 
posed of companies from South Jersey, was mustered into 
United States service on September 16th, under command of 
Colonel William Robertson with Franklin Knight, of Camden, 
as lieutenant-colonel ; William L. Newell, of Millville, as major- 
surgeon, and Alban Williams and Thomas G. Rowand as first 
lieutenants and assistant surgeons. The regiment was assigned 
to the Second Army Corps and ordered to the front without 
delay, and participated in the battle of Fredericksburg with a 
loss of one hundred and sixty-nine men.f In speaking of the 
service of its medical officers during the battle, an officer of the 
regiment said: "Too much commendation cannot be awarded 
to Surgeon William L. Newell and his assistants, Doctors 
Williams and Rowand, who were engaged all day, Sunday 
(December 14th), in attending the wounded."! Following the 
battle of Fredericksburg, Lieutenant H. Genet Taylor was 
detailed by General Hooker to take the medical direction of 
the Artillery Brigade, Third Corps, succeeding Lieutenant 
Harrison Allen, assistant surgeon, United States Army. This 

* Stryker's Register. 

fNew Jersey and the Rebellion, by John Y. Foster. 

j Ibid. 



The Civil War. 75 

position demanded high professional and military training 
and was retained by Lieutenant Taylor until his resignation 
from the service in 1864.* 

[1863.] This year, the Civil War grew to enormous 
proportions and extensive military operations were carried 
on in the West, and along the Atlantic seaboard, as well as in 
Virginia. Following the defeat of General Burnside at Fred- 
ericksburg, General Joe Hooker, on January 28th, was placed in 
command of the Army of the Potomac ; crossed the Rappa- 
hannock, April 30th, and engaged the Confederates at Chan- 
cellorsville, May 2d. The Fourth Regiment, First Brigade, to 
which Lieutenant Bowman Hendry, 3d, was attached, was at 
this time serving on provost duty at Washington. The Second 
Brigade, under Colonel G. M. Mott, of Bordentown, including 
the Sixth Regiment, to which Lieutenant Bowman Hendry, 
2d, was attached, and the Eighth Regiment, to which Major A. 
J. McKelway and Lieutenant H. Genet Taylor were attached, 
Tendered distinguished service. During the engagement, 
Colonel Mott was wounded and Colonel William J. Sewell, Fifth 
Regiment, assumed command and led the brigade in a charge 
that is regarded as one of the most brilliant of the war. The 
Twenty-fourth Regiment also participated in this battle and, 
following it, Lieutenant Thomas G. Rowand was detailed for 
duty at the Third Division, Second Corps Hospital, Potomac 
Creek, where he remained until the regiment was mustered 
out of service at Beverly, June 6th. 

Flushed with his victories at Fredericksburg and Chan- 
cellorsville, General Lee invaded Pennsylvania, in June, and 
on July 1-3 met with disastrous defeat at Gettysburg at the 
hands of the Federal Army under command of General George 
G. Meade, who had succeeded General Hooker in command on 
the very eve of battle. This was the greatest battle of the war 
and, during its continuance, Major McKelway and Lieutenant 
Taylor, of the Eighth Regiment, and Lieutenant Bowman 
Hendry, 2d, of the Sixth Regiment, rendered effective service 
in caring for the wounded. Following the retreat of General 
Lee into Virginia, the New Jersey troops participated in the 

* MS. Notes of A. St. John Chambre, Chaplain Eighth Regiment, N. J. V. 



76 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

movements and battles of the Army of the Potomac at Wap- 
ping Heights, McLane's Ford, Brandy Station and Mine Run,, 
and went into quarters along the Rappahannock, remaining 
practically inactive until General U. S. Grant took command 
of the army in the following year. 

The stupendous proportions which the war had assumed 
led Congress, in the early part of the year, to pass a Conscrip- 
tion Act, which, on March 3d, was approved by the President. 
The Act provided for a Board of Enrollment, consisting of a 
marshal, a surgeon and a commissioner, for each Congressional 
district, and through Hon. John F. Starr, M. C, the President, 
on May 2d, appointed Colonel R. C. Johnson, provost-marshal;. 
Dr. John R. Stevenson, surgeon, and James M. Scovel, com- 
missioner, for the first district of New Jersey.* Dr. Stevenson's 
position gave him the rank and pay of a first lieutentant of 
cavalry. The law also provided for assistant surgeons who stood 
in the relation of contract surgeons and, during the life of 
the board from May 2, 1863, to June 1, 1865, this position was 
held successively by Doctors B. P. Howell, of Woodbury; 
Quinton Gibbon, of Salem ; Jonathan Learning, of Cape May, 
and H. Genet Taylor, of Camden. On October 26th, the draft- 
ing of men for the army was begun by the Board of Enrollment 
in Camden and Lieutenant Stevenson began examinations of 
applicants for exemption on account of physical disability, the 
results of which he presented in an elaborate report to the 
Government and to the Medical Society of New Jersey. 

[1864.] The closing conflicts of the war were inaugu- 
rated under General U. S. Grant, who, on March 2d, was 
appointed commander-in-chief of all the Union forces. Under 
his direction, the campaign of the Army of the Potomac was 
conducted • by General Meade and that of the Cumberland 
by General Sherman. On May 3d, the Army of the Potomac 
began the march to Richmond, and there followed the battles 
of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania and Cold Harbor, ending in 
the siege of Petersburg, which began in June and was con- 
tinued through the winter. But two of the Camden county 
surgeons participated in the campaigns of this year. On 

*MS. Notes of Dr. John R. Stevenson. 



The Civil War. 77 

March 15th, Lieutenant H. Genet Taylor, of the Eighth Regi- 
ment, resigned on account of the illness of his father, and, 
on April 7th, Surgeon-Major Alexander J. McKelway, of 
the same regiment, resigned, both of whom had rendered 
continuous service to the Government from September 14, 
1 86 1.* But Lieutenants Bowman Hendry, 2d, of the Sixth 
Regiment, and Bowman Hendry, 3d, of the Fourth Regiment, 
participated in the campaign and rendered distinguished 
service. On September 7th, the former was discharged 
at Trenton, by reason of expiration of service, having 
served with his regiment since August 8, 1862, and the 
latter resigned from the Fourth Regiment, November 3d, 
having served with the regiment since February 3, 1862. 

Near the beginning of the Civil War, Dr. George S. F. 
Pfeiffer, who had located in Camden, in 1854, moved to Phila- 
delphia to accept a Professorship of the Theory and Practice of 
Medicine at the Penn Medical University, which he retained 
until 1864. On March 30th, he was commissioned first lieu- 
tenant and assistant surgeon of the One Hundred and Eighty- 
sixth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, and remained with 
his regiment until mustered out of the service on August 15, 
1865. f During this period, Lieutenant Pfeiffer, from his 
experience in the navy of Holland and in the French army, 
rendered effective service in matters pertaining to the sanitary 
condition of the army. After the war, Lieutenant Pfeiffer 
again located in Camden. 

On June 29th, the United States Government established 
a military hospital of two thousand and fifty-six beds at Beverly, 
N. J., which, on September 29th, was increased to two 
thousand, four hundred and sixty-nine beds. The hospital 
was placed under a corps of contract surgeons, among whom 
were Dr. Elijah B. Woolston, of Marlton, and Doctois Franklin 
Gauntt and J. Howard Pugh, of Burlington. The hospital was 
maintained by the Government until August, 1865, when it 
was closed. I 

* Record of Officers and Men of New Jersey in the Civil War, by W. S. Stryker. 

t Bates' History of Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

tMS. Notes Col. James S. Kiger, Adjutant-General's Office Trenton, N. J. 



78 History Medical Profession Camden Cotmty. 

During this year, the Fair of the Sanitary Commission 
was held in Philadelphia under the auspices of New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania and Delaware, in aid of sick and wounded 
soldiers. An auxiliary of the fair was formed in West Jersey, 
for the benefit of which Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler delivered a 
series of lectures, and in which Dr. John R. Stevenson served 
as chairman of the committee on "Original Ballads and Poetry 
of the War." 

On August 2 2d, the Geneva Convention was held and 
"Articles of Agreement for the Amelioration of the Condition 
of Armies in the Field" were adopted and signed by the repre- 
sentatives of thirty-four nations. In the agreement, military 
hospitals, ambulances, surgeons, chaplains and employees of 
hospitals were to be regarded as neutral in war and possessing 
special rights. Freedom from imprisonment was guaranteed 
to the medical corps, upon wearing an arm badge of a red 
cross upon a white ground, and protective rights were secured 
to hospitals and ambulances, displaying a flag similar to the 
badge. 

[1865.] The closing period of the war opened this year, 
with a continuation of the siege of Petersburg, and closed with 
the surrender of General Lee at Appomattox, April 9th. In 
this siege and surrender, the medical profession of Camden 
county was represented by Dr. Duncan W. Blake, of Gloucester 
City, who was commissioned first lieutenant and assistant 
surgeon of the Fourth Regiment, N. J. V., early in the spring; 
joined the regiment at Park Station and subsequently partici- 
pated in the battles of Fort Steadman, March 25th; Peters- 
burg, April 2d ; Farmville, April 7th, and was present at 
Appomattox at the surrender of the Confederate Army, April 
9th. Following the surrender of General Lee, the Fourth 
Regiment was ordered in pursuit of Jefferson Davis, the fleeing 
President of the Confederacy, and marched as far as Danville, 
from which place it was ordered to report at Washington to 
participate in the grand review of the Army of the Potomac, 
ordered by President Lincoln as the closing act of the drama 
of the Rebellion. Lieutenant Blake received honorable men- 
tion for meritorious services and was honorably discharged 



The Civil War-. 79 

from the service in August, when he began the practice of 
medicine at Gloucester City. 

There were a number of surgeons who served with dis- 
tinction in the Civil War and, after its close, located in Camden 
county. Dr. James A. Armstrong was commissioned first 
lieutenant and assistant surgeon of the Seventy-third Regiment, 
Pa. V., September n, 1861 ; promoted major and surgeon, 
October 15, 1862; resigned October 16, 1864, and, after a 
short service in Satterlee Hospital, located in Camden.* In 
1 86 1, Dr. Joseph W. McCullough was commissioned first 
lieutenant and assistant surgeon of the First Delaware Regi- 
ment and served until the close of the war, when he was com- 
missioned an assistant surgeon in the regular army, but 
resigned, in 1866, and located at Blackwood. t In the summer 
of 1862, Dr. D. H. Bartine was appointed assistant surgeon on 
board the floating hospital, under command of Surgeon- 
General Smith, of Pennsylvania, on duty with the Army of 
the Potomac; on July 25th, he was commissioned first lieu- 
tenant and assistant surgeon of the One Hundred and Four- 
teenth Regiment, Pa. V., and served with the regiment until 
September, 1863, when he was detached and assigned to duty 
as attending surgeon at General Meade's headquarters; on 
August 22, 1864, he was promoted major and surgeon of the 
One Hundred and Twelfth Regiment, Pa. V. After the sur- 
render of General L,ee, Major Bartine became surgeon-in-chief 
of the Fair Ground General Hospital, Petersburg, Va., where 
he remained until mustered out of service, January 29, 1866, 
when he located at Merchantville. On November 1, 1862, 
Dr. D. Parish Pancoast entered the United States service as a 
contract surgeon and remained until January 1, 1866. During 
this time, Dr. Pancoast served in the Mower Hospital until 
February, 1863, when he was detailed for duty with the Two 
Hundred and Third Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery, at Fortress 
Monroe, where he also served as medical commissary and as 
surgeon-in-charge of the hospital transport, "Matilda." After 
the surrender of General Lee, Dr. Pancoast was assigned to 

* Bates' History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers 

t Stevenson's History of Medicine and Medical Men in Camden County. 



So History Medical Profession Camden County. 

hospital duty at Petersburg, where he remained until he 
resigned from the service, after which he located in Camden. 
■On July 23, 1863, Dr. William T. Collins was commissioned 
first lieutenant and assistant surgeon of the Sixth Regiment, 
Delaware Volunteers, and on August 12, 1864, was promoted 
major and surgeon of the Seventh Regiment, Delaware Volun- 
teers. Early in the war, Dr. Frederick F. Pfeiffer was 
warranted a medical cadet and assigned to the Fifth United 
States Artillery, with which he served in the seven days' fight 
in the Peninsular campaign. He was subsequently transferred 
to the hospital transport steamer, "Louisiana," and was on 
board when the first exchange of prisoners was made, July 19, 
1862, and transported wounded prisoners to the North. 
During the voyage, Cadet Pfeiffer rendered effective service 
and was later assigned to Satterlee Hospital at Philadelphia, 
in charge of Surgeon Hayes, the Arctic explorer. In 1863, 
Dr. A. M. Mecray was warranted a medical cadet and 
assigned to duty at the Satterlee Hospital, and Dr. William 
H. Iszard was also warranted a medical cadet and assigned 
to the United States Hospital, Broad and Cherry streets, 
Philadelphia. In 1861, Henry F. Chew served with the 
Fourth Regiment, N. J. V., and was subsequently elected 
captain of Company I, Twelfth Regiment, where he rose to 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel and commanded the regiment 
when it was mustered out of service in 1865. After the war, 
Colonel Chew studied dentistry and located in Camden. 
J. W. Donges served as a private in the One Hundred and 
Twenty-ninth Regiment, Pa. V., and participated in the 
battle of Fredericksburg, where he was severely wounded, 
on account of which he was discharged for physical disability.* 
In 1863, I. N. Hugg was commissioned second lieutenant in 
Company I, Thirty-fourth Regiment, N. J. V., and served in 
General Sherman's army. Lieutenant Hugg attained the rank 
of captain and, after the regiment was mustered out of service 
in 1866, began the study of medicine, which he is now practic- 
ing in Camden. f W. B. E. Miller served as a private in the 

*• Stevenson's History of Medicine and Medical Men in Camden County, 
f Prowell's History of Camden County, N. J. 



The Civil War. 81 

Twenty-third Regiment, N. J. V., in 1862 and 1863, and as a 
first lieutenant in the One Hundred and Forty-third Regiment, 
Illinois Volunteers, from which he was detached and appointed 
acting assistant inspector-general, on the staff of General C. C. 
Washburne, in which capacity he received the thanks of 
President Lincoln and Secretary Stanton for services rendered. 

B. THE UNITED STATES NAVY. 

[186 1.] During the Rebellion, the operations of the navy 
contributed, in a great measure, to the success of the Federal 
cause by the blockading of the Atlantic and Gulf sea-ports, 
and by the expeditions along the Mississippi, Tennessee and 
Cumberland rivers. At the beginning of hostilities, Dr. William 
S. Bishop was a passed assistant surgeon in the navy, having 
been commissioned April 11, 1843, an ^ promoted to passed 
assistant surgeon, January 22, 1848. When the Civil War 
began, he was on duty at the Navy Yard, Warrington, Florida, 
from which he was detached and placed on waiting orders, 
January 17, 1861, and, on November 18th, was ordered to the 
Navy Yard, Mare Island, California, where he remained until 
November 25, 1864, when he was placed on the Examining 
Board for admission to the Naval Academy. In March, 1866, 
he was commissioned a surgeon on the retired list and, in May, 
was assigned to duty at the Naval Academy, from which he 
was detached and placed on special duty at Philadelphia, 
where he died, December 28, 1868, after a service of twenty- 
five years.* Surgeon Bishop was an honorary member of the 
Camden District Medical Society and one of the corporators 
of the Camden City Dispensary. 

On April 17, 1856, Dr. Richard C. Dean, of Camden, was 
commissioned an assistant surgeon in the navy; promoted 
passed assistant surgeon, April 17, 1861,'and surgeon, August 
1, 1 86 1. During the war, he served on the "Tuscarora," 
and was assigned to special duty at Baltimore, Camden 
and the Naval Academy. He subsequently served on the 
"Sacramento" and the "Michigan," in the Bureau of Medicine 
and Surgery at Washington and, on June 8, 1873, ne was 

* Records of the United States Navy Department. 

6 



82 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

promoted medical inspector. On January 10, 1880, he was 
promoted medical director,* and on May 27, 1895, was placed 
on the retired list, having attained the position of second rank- 
ing officer in the medical corps of the United States Navy. 

On May 18, 1861, Dr. Charles W. Sartori, of Camden, was 
appointed an acting assistant surgeon in the navy, and 
ordered to duty on board the steamer " Flag," at Philadelphia. 
On October 8, 1863, he was detached and ordered to report to 
the department; on December 8th, was assigned to duty on 
the "Sassacus" ; on December 17th, was detached and assigned 
to the " Wyalusing," at Philadelphia, and on July 19, 1864, he 
resigned from the service, f 

On July 30, 1 86 1, Dr. Henry Ackley, of Camden, was 
commissioned an assistant surgeon in the navy and assigned 
to duty at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. On November 2d, he 
was detached and assigned to the " Wissahickon " ; on April 
29th, he was detached and placed on waiting orders; on June 
10, 1863, assigned to the "Marion" ; on June 17th, to the "San 
Jacinto"; March 15, 1864, detached and, on August 17th, 
assigned to Brooklyn Navy Yard ; on August 31st, assigned to 
the "Vermont"; and, October 1st, detached and placed on 
waiting orders. He died at Philadelphia, December 1, 1865. J 

[1864.] On March 10, 1864, Dr. John H. Austin was 
appointed an acting assistant surgeon in the navy and on 
May 26th was commissioned an assistant surgeon. He served 
on the "North Carolina"; on the "Manhattan," in the 
West Gulf Squadron; participated in the battle of Mobile, 
under Admiral Farragut, August 5 1864, and resigned Jan- 
uary 14, 1865. § Dr. Austin located in Camden in 1868 
and remained until 1879. He served as a member of the 
Board of Education in 1871, '72 and '73 ; captain of Company 
B. Sixth Regiment, N. G., N. J., in 1876, and as medical 
director of the Grand Army of the Republic. Martin Gold- 
smith served as hospital-steward on the "Georgia," during 
the closing period of the Civil War, and subsequently opened 

* Records of the United States Navy Department. 
f Ibid. 

X Ibid. 
$ Ibid. 



Educational and Other Interests. 83 

a drug-store at the corner of Second and Vine streets, now 
occupied by George J. Pechin. 

Section VI. — Educational and Other Interests. 

From i860 to 1864, the physicians of Camden county 
showed an active interest in the government of the public 
schools. In 1862, Dr. James M. Ridge was elected a member 
of the Board of Education from the Middle ward of Camden, 
over Dr. T. G. Rowand; Dr. S. Birdsell was elected for the 
South ward and Dr. T. F. Cullen was defeated for the North 
ward. Dr. Daniel M. Stout, of Berlin, was elected superinten- 
dent of public schools for Waterford township in the same year. 
In 1864, Dr. Ridge was elected president of the Board of Educa- 
tion of Camden, of which Dr. Sylvester Birdsell was a member. 

During this period (1 860-1 864), the following physicians 
located in Camden county: in i860, Dr. H. Genet Taylor, at 
Camden; in 1861, Doctors Alexander Marcy, Robert G. Taylor, 
a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, and Louis Hatton, a 
graduate of Penn Medical College the same year, at Camden ; in 
1863, Dr. John R. Stevenson, at Camden, and Dr. I. Gilbert 
Young, at Haddonfield; in 1864, Dr. Henry F. Hunt, a student 
at Brown University, Bellevue Hospital and a graduate of 
Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia (1864), and Dr. J. 
Kemper Bryant, a graduate of Hahnemann Medical College in 
1858, at Camden; Dr. Duncan W. Blake, a graduate of Phila- 
delphia Medical College and subsequently of Jefferson Medical 
College, at Gloucester City, and Dr. Bowman H. Shivers, who 
had moved from Marl ton to Philadelphia in 1862, located in 
Haddonfield. 

In 1 86 1, Simeon T. Ringel began the drug business at 
the corner of Second and Market streets, which is now owned 
by Charles E. Slough, and, in 1862, Albert P. Brown succeeded 
Dr. Thomas G. Rowand in the drug-store at the corner of Fifth 
and Federal streets, now owned by Prof. G. M. Beringer. 

In 1864, Dr. J. R. Andrews, the pioneer homoeopathic 
practitioner of Camden, died after a life of successful profes- 
sional work.* 

*Prowell's History of Camden County. 



84 History Medical Profession Camden Comity. 

Dr. Andrews was graduated from Pennsylvania Medical 
College and was made a licentiate of the New Jersey Medical 
Society, in 1852. Afterwards he adopted the principles of 
Hahnemann and became an active practitioner of that school. 
He was succeeded in his practice by his son, Dr. P. W. 
Andrews, a graduate of Hahnemann Medical College of 
Philadelphia in 1866. 



CHAPTER VI. 
' THE PERIOD FROM 1865 TO 1870. 
Section I. — The Medical Society of New Jersey. 

[1865.] The society met at Burlington, January 24th, 
with Dr. R. M. Cooper present as a Fellow and Doctors Cullen, 
Marcy, Branin and H. G. Taylor as the representatives from 
Camden county. The legislative Act to reorganize the 
society in its centennial year was approved. The report from 
the District Society to the standing committee was made by 
Dr. John W. Snowden, of Waterford, and included the consid- 
eration of "Spotted Fever" at Blackwood; a case of "Lumbar 
Abscess," by Dr. O. H. Taylor, and a paper on "The Means of 
Improving the Physical Development of the Community," by 
Dr. John R. Stevenson. Doctors Mulford, Cullen, Schenck and 
Cooper were appointed censors, an office, at this time, entirely 
nominal. Dr. R. M. Cooper was made a member of the com- 
mittee of arrangements for the centennial anniversary in the 
ensuing year. 

[1866.] The closing of the old and the dawn of a new 
century, in the history of the society, was now at hand. 
Instituted in 1766, incorporated in 1790, and re-incorporated 
in 18 16 and in 1830, the society, because of the medical 
enactment of 1854, deemed it wise to relinquish its special 
examining privileges and to reorganize, as nearly as possible, 
on a voluntary basis. This movement was begun in 1863, 
when a committee, of which Dr. R. M. Cooper was a member, 
was appointed to revise the charter of the society. The 
revision was presented to the Legislature in 1864 and an Act 
of re-incorporation was passed, repealing the incorporative 
Act of 1830, and all supplements relating thereto, which 
became operative on the fourth Tuesday of January, 1866. 
The Act provided for the abolition of the censors; the con- 
ferring of the degree of Doctor of Medicine, instead of a license 

85 



86 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

and diploma; for three delegates from each District Society 
and one additional delegate for every ten members who, 
together with the officers and Fellows, should constitute the 
society; for a change of the annual meeting to the fourth 
Tuesday in May, and for authority to formulate rules for its 
own management, and, indirectly, for that of the District 
Societies. The reorganization united the interests of the 
State and District Societies more closely than before and gave 
an impetus to medical progress throughout the State. 

The annual meeting took place at New Brunswick, 
January 23d, where, on July 23, 1766, the society was organ- 
ized. Fourteen District Societies, with a total membership of 
five hundred and ninety-nine, of whom twenty-four were 
members of the Camden Society, were represented. Doctors 
O. H. Taylor, Cooper, Cullen, Marcy, Woodruff and Schenck 
represented Camden. Dr. Abram Coles, of Newark, presided 
and delivered his annual address in poetry, his poem being 
called "The Microcosm,"* and Dr. William Pierson, Sr., of 
Orange, the secretary of the society since 1835, delivered an 
historical address and was elected third vice-president. Dr. 
William Pierson, Jr., was elected secretary, a position which he 
still retains. At this meeting, Dr. John V. Schenck was 
appointed essayist ; Dr. James M. Ridge was made a licentiate 
and Doctors Alexander Marcy and I. Gilbert Young reported 
special medical cases. 

[1867.] The society met this year at Jersey City, in 
May, with Doctors Cullen, Marcy, Snowden and H. Genet 
Taylor as the Camden representatives. Dr. R. M. Cooper was 
present as a Fellow ; Dr. Thomas F. Cullen was elected third 
vice-president; Dr. John V. Schenck read an essay on 
"Thrombosis," and Dr. John R. Stevenson presented a paper 
entitled "A History of Cholera in Camden in 1866 and the 
Means Adopted for its Prevention." 

* " Dr. Abram Coles, of Newark, N. J., was, next to Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, the most 
distinguished poet the medical profession has produced in America. * * * In ' The 
Microcosm,' he describes with classic dignity and sympathetic fervor the mission of the 
physician and introduces, as illustrations, the famous paintings, ' Vesalius Engaged in 
Dissecting,' 'Harvey Demonstrating the Circulation of the Blood' and 'Rembrandt's 
Lessons in Anatomy.'" — "The American Physician in Literature" by E. L. B. Godfrey, 
A. M., M. D. 



The Camden City Medical Society. 87 

[1868.] The society met at Princeton, in May. Dr. R. 
M. Cooper was present as a Fellow ; Dr. T. F. Cullen as third 
vice-president, and Dr. J. V. Schenck as the only Camden 
delegate. Dr. Cullen delivered an address on "The Inutility of 
Tenotomy in the Treatment of Congenital Varus," in which 
the history of the deformity, from the time of Thilenius, in 
1784, was reviewed and the cause, nature and mechanical 
treatment were considered. The paper was extensively illus- 
trated and advocated the use of mechanical appliances instead 
of the knife. 

[1869.] During this year, the society met at Jersey City, 
in May. Doctors Cooper, Cullen, Ridge, Schenck, Marcy and 
H. Genet Taylor were present. Dr. Cullen read a paper on 
"Hypodermatic Medication in the Relief of Pain and Nausea" 
and was elected first vice-president; Doctors Ridge and 
Schenck were made members of the legislative committee, 
and the reporters of County Societies were made ex-officio 
members of the society. 

Section II. — The Camden City Medical Society. 

[1865.] Two objects engaged the attention of the society 
this year; viz., the establishment of a city dispensary and the 
prevention of cholera. The organization of the first was 
effected from the surplus funds of the North Ward Bounty 
Association, through its representatives, Colonel Thomas 
McKeen and Samuel B. Garrison, and through Doctors O. H. 
Taylor, Fisler, Cooper, Schenck and Cullen, the representatives 
of the society. 

On September 7th, a special meeting of the society was 
held to discuss cholera and a committee, consisting of Doctors 
Stevenson, Fisler and Mulford, was appointed to confer and to 
take measures with City Council to prevent an invasion of the 
disease. Dr. Thomas F. Cullen was elected president; Dr. 
H. Genet Taylor, vice-president ; Dr. J. R. Stevenson, secretary 
and treasurer and Dr. Bowman Hendry, 2d, a member. 

[1866.] The epidemic of cholera and the founding of a 
dispensary were matters of active consideration in 1866. The 



88 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

special committee appointed during the previous September 
did effective work in overcoming the cholera epidemic and 
commendable progress was made in regard to the dispensary, 
by purchasing the Perseverance Hose House and fitting up 
a room in the building for the use of the society. The 
society met there for the first time on March 21st. At the 
annual meeting, Dr. J. M. Ridge was elected a member of the 
society and its president ; Dr. Alexander Marcy, vice-president, 
and Dr. J. R. Stevenson, secretary and treasurer. Dr. Ridge 
presented a specimen of extra-uterine pregnancy. Dr. J. R. 
Stevenson was requested to furnish Surgeon-General Joseph 
R. Barnes, U. S. A., with all obtainable information concern- 
ing wounds of Camden county soldiers for the " Medical and 
Surgical History of the War." Through the efforts of Dr. 
Schenck, the obstetric fee was raised to ten dollars, if paid in 
cash, and fifteen dollars when charged. 

[1867.] Regular quarterly meetings of the society were 
held throughout 1867, and its membership was increased by 
the election of the following graduates from the University 
of Pennsylvania: Doctors Reynell Coates, 1823; Peter V. 
Schenck, i860; Alexander Mecray, 1864; Thomas J. Smith, 

1866, and a graduate of Williams College, 1862; also Dr. J. 
Newton Achuff, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 

1867. Important papers were read by Doctors Schenck, 
Marcy, Taylor and Ridge and an operation of inguinal hernia, 
and a case of fragilitas ossium, in a child whose right radius and 
ulna, left humerus and right femur were fractured, were 
reported by Dr. T. F. Cullen. Dr. Alexander Marcy was 
elected president ; Dr. J. V. Schenck, vice-president ; Dr. T. J. 
Smith, secretary and treasurer, and six members were elected 
to the Dispensary Board of Managers. 

[1868.] The chief object of interest, in 1868, was the 
effort of the society to fix a uniform fee for post-mortem ex- 
aminations, which, however, was not finally settled. Dr. 
Alexander Marcy, the president, delivered an address on "The 
Elevation of the Medical Profession"; Dr. A. M. Mecray was 
elected president ; Dr. T. J. Smith, vice-president ; Dr. J. 
Orlando White, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, 



The Camden City Dispensary . 89 

1868 (elected to membership during the year), secretary and 
treasurer, and Rev. Joseph F. Garrison, M. D., a graduate of 
the University of Pennsylvania, 1845, was made an honorary 
member. The representatives in the Board of Managers of the 
dispensary were re-elected. 

[1869.] The chief occasions of interest, in 1869, were the 
reports of committees on delinquents and on post-mortem 
examinations. As for the delinquents, the society concluded 
that each member should report the names of those who refused 
to pay their medical bills, but that this should not prevent 
other members from attending them : As to post-mortem exam- 
inations, it was determined that the fee-bill for the same might 
vary from five to forty dollars, according to their extent ; that 
members should decline to make, or assist in making, a post- 
mortem examination for the court, or any coroner, until the fee- 
bill adopted should be agreed to by them. Notice of this 
decision was forwarded to the presiding judge of the county, the 
coroners, the State and the County Societies, but the matter 
was never determined and remained a subject of contention 
until the law, providing for a county physician, was enacted in 
1877. The annual meeting was not held and the officers of 
the society consequently held over. 

Section III. — The Camden City Dispensary. 

[1865.] The origin of the Camden City Dispensary is due 
to the efforts of Dr. Othniel H. Taylor and of Colonel Thomas 
McKeen and Samuel B. Garrison, members of the North Ward 
Bounty Association.* On December 9, 1864, this associa- 
tion was founded to provide substitutes for those unable, or 
unwilling, to enlist in the army. Liberal sums were con- 
tributed, but, before the quota of the county was completed, the 
surrender of the Confederacy occurred (April 9th) and obviated 
the necessity for continuing the association. A surplus of 
$3,776.91 remained in the treasury, which was ordered to be ex- 
pended upon some charitable institution, and Colonel Thomas 
McKeen and Samuel B. Garrison were appointed a committee 

* Historical Sketch of The Camden City Dispensary, by H. Genet Taylor, A.M., M. D. 



90 History Medical Profession Camden Comity. 

to execute the project. The Camden City Medical Society 
was advised of this intention and appreciated at once the 
opportunity to found a dispensary under its management. On 
May 4th, a special meeting was called at the residence o± 
Dr. R. M. Cooper, when the subject was fully considered and a 
committee, consisting of Doctors O. H. Taylor, Fisler, Cooper, 
Schenck and Cullen, was appointed with plenary powers to 
advise with Messrs. McKeen and Garrison concerning the 
project. As a result of this conference, plans were adopted 
for the founding of a dispensary, but their execution was 
delayed by an appeal to the courts by those contributors to the 
fund who wished to divide the surplus among themselves. 
The action of the association was subsequently sustained and 
the committee continued its work. 

[1866.] Early in the year, Messrs. McKeen and Garrison 
purchased the Perseverance Hose House* and began fitting it 
up for a dispensary, in which they set apart a room for the 
City Medical Society to meet. The total cost was $2,005.46. 
Arrangements were made to procure a charter and subscription 
books were opened for securing funds. On March 1st, 
Dr. Othniel H. Taylor submitted a plan of organization to the 
City Society, similar to that advocated by him in 1859, which 
was adopted, and the committee was instructed to co-operate 
with Messrs. McKeen and Garrison, and such citizens as might be 
appointed to work with them, in the organization of the work. 
On March 4th, the matured plan of the joint committee was 
approved by the City Society at a special meeting and, on the 
17th, the building, equipped for dispensary purposes, was 
formally turned over to the City Society by Messrs. McKeen and 
Garrison, with the request that the institution be carried on by 
the society until a charter could be obtained from the Legisla- 
ture, authorizing a Board of Managers. The trust was accepted 
by the society, with public expression of satisfaction to Messrs. 
McKeen and Garrison and the North Ward Bounty Associa- 
tion. On March 21st, the society met for the first time in the 
room provided for its use. On April 1st, the dispensary was 

* The Perseverance Hose House stood on Third street below Market, where the 
vaults of the West Jersey Title and Guarantee Compam- now stand. 



The Camden City Dispensary . 91 

opened for professional work, with a ward for the care of 
patients, the following staff having been appointed: North 
ward, Dr. H. Genet Taylor ; Middle ward, Dr. John R. Steven- 
son; South ward, Dr. Alexander M. Mecray; superintendent 
and apothecary, Othniel G. Taylor. On June 7th, Doctors 
Cooper, Fisler and Cullen were appointed consulting physi- 
cians. There were three hundred and four cases treated during 
the year. 

[1867.] On February 5th, the Act of incorporation was 
approved with the following corporators: Doctors Isaac S. 
Mulford, Othniel H. Taylor, Richard M. Cooper, Lorenzo F. 
Fisler, Thomas F. Cullen, John V. Schenck, William S. 
Bishop, Alexander Marcy, Bowman Hendry, 2d, James M. 
Ridge, H. Genet Taylor and John R. Stevenson. On March 
7th, an organization was effected with the following officers : 
President, Dr. Othniel H. Taylor; vice-president, Dr. Lorenzo 
F. Fisler; secretary, Dr. John R. Stevenson; treasurer, 
Dr. Richard M. Cooper. Doctors O. H. Taylor, Fisler, Schenck, 
Cooper and Stevenson were appointed to prepare a constitution 
and to assume the management of the institution until the next 
annual meeting. On December 12th, the deed of the building 
was procured. 

[1868.] The first annual meeting was held January 4th, 
when a constitution, providing that the Board of Managers 
shall consist of eleven members, six of whom shall be chosen 
by the Camden City Medical Society and five by the contribu- 
tors to the institution, was adopted. This placed the institu- 
tion under medical control, — a wise forethought on the part 
of the committee on the preparation of the constitution. 
Doctors I. S. Mulford, O. H. Taylor, R. M. Cooper, J. V. 
Schenck, T. F. Cullen and Alexander Marcy were elected to 
the Board of Managers, as the representatives of the City 
Medical Society, and Thomas P. Carpenter, Thomas A. Wilson, 
Joseph J. Reed, Richard W. Test and Jeremiah Smith, as the 
representatives of the contributors. On January 21st, the 
board organized by electing Dr. T. F. Cullen, president ; 
Dr. J. V. Schenck, vice-president ; Dr. R. M. Cooper, secretary 
and treasurer ; Doctors H. Genet Taylor, J. N. Achuff and T. J. 



92 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Smith as attending physicians; Doctors Cooper, Fisler and 
Cullen as consulting physicians, and Othniel G. Taylor as 
superintendent and apothecary. 

[1869.] At the annual meeting held January 12th, Colonel 
Thomas McKeen, Thomas A. Wilson, John Morgan, Joseph C. 
De La Cour, Richard W. Test and Doctors I. S. Mulford, O. H. 
Taylor, R. M. Cooper, J. V. Schenck, T. F. Cullen and Alex- 
ander Marcy were elected managers. The board organized by 
electing Dr. Cullen, president; Dr. Schenck, vice-president, 
and Dr. Cooper, secretary and treasurer. An appropriation of 
$300.00 was received from City Council, which, in addition to 
the interest of the invested fund, $1,771.45 (the balance 
remaining of the grant from the North Ward Bounty Associa- 
tion, after deducting the amount expended for the purchase of 
the Perseverance Hose House), and the annual subscriptions, 
amounted to $666.30. The operating expenses for the year 
were $531.71 and two hundred and thirty-nine patients were 
treated. The hospital ward, fitted up at the opening of the 
dispensary, was closed for want of funds to properly main- 
tain it. 

Section IV. — The Camden District Medicae Society. 

[1865.] But little of interest occurred in the society 
during the year. A resolution, imposing a fine of one dollar 
for non-attendance, except in sickness, was adopted, and a 
refusal to pay the same for three consecutive meetings forfeited 
the rights of membership. Dr. John R. Stevenson, the presi- 
dent, delivered an address on "The Final Report of the 
Provost-Marshal"; Dr. O. H.Taylor read the report of the 
standing committee, and Dr. Bowman Hendry, 2d, read a 
paper on "The Work of the Mower U. S. Hospital from its 
Opening, January 2, 1863, to May 31, 1865." This hospital 
was located at Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania, and had a capacity 
of three thousand, six hundred beds. Dr. Hendry served on 
its surgical staff, after his resignation from the United States 
Volunteer Service. Dr. H. Genet Taylor was elected president 
of the society; Dr. Alexander Marcy, vice-president, and Doctors 



The Camden District Medical Society . 93 

Cooper, Stevenson and Young were elected members of the 
standing committee. The name of the secretary and treasurer 
is not recorded. Dr. W. S. Bishop, U. S. N., a graduate of 
Jefferson Medical College, 1842, was elected an honorary mem- 
ber. Doctors A. D. Woodruff and C. D. Hendry, of Haddon- 
field, who had moved to Philadelphia, were allowed to retain 
their membership. 

[1866.] The society convened this year at the West 
Jersey Hotel, June 19th, with Dr. H. Genet Taylor in the chair, 
who delivered an address on "The Surgery of the Rebellion." 
Dr. R. M. Cooper presented the report of the standing com- 
mittee; Dr. Alexander Marcy was elected president; Dr. 
James M. Ridge, vice-president ; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secre- 
tary and treasurer, and Dr. James M. Ridge, of Camden, and 
Dr. Jonathan J. Comfort, of Haddonfield, a graduate of Jefferson 
Medical College, 1859, were elected members. Rev. Joseph 
F. Garrison, M. D., was elected an honorary member. 

[1867.] The annual meeting of the society was changed, 
by a constitutional provision, to the second Tuesday in May, 
because of the change of time for the meeting of the State 
Medical Society. Dr. Alexander Marcy delivered an address 
on "Hypodermatic Medication," a method of treatment then 
coming into vogue, which he was the first to introduce into 
Camden in the treatment of a case of tetanus. Dr. Marcy used 
this method with signal success in the cholera epidemic of the 
preceding year, and was the first physician to use strychnia 
hypodermatically for the treatment of collapse. In the county, 
Dr. Henry K. Branin, of Blackwood, was the first physician to 
employ hypodermatic medication. Dr. R. M. Cooper read the 
report of the standing committee ; Dr. J. M. Ridge was elected 
president; Dr. J. J. Comfort, vice-president; Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor, secretary and treasurer, and Doctors Peter V. Schenck, 
A. M. Mecray, T. J. Smith and J. N. Achuff, of Camden, and 
John L,. Sullivan, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 1856, 
and H. A. M. Smith, of Gloucester, a graduate of Jefferson 
Medical College, 1864, were elected members. 

[1868.] The annual meeting was held on May 12th. 
Dr. James M. Ridge delivered an address on "Criminal Abor- 



94 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

tion" ; Dr. R. M. Cooper read the report of the standing com- 
mittee, and Dr. I. G. Young read a paper on, and presented a 
specimen of, "Cancer of the Stomach." Dr. J. J. Comfort, of 
Haddonfield, was elected president; Dr. A. M. Mecray, vice- 
president; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary and treasurer, and 
Dr. J. Orlando White, a member. The regular delegates were 
appointed. 

[1869.] At the annual meeting in May, the County 
Society was chiefly occupied in considering the code of medical 
ethics. Dr. J. J. Comfort delivered an address on "Functions 
of this Society in Affiliation with other Societies," in which he 
cited the consultation of Philadelphia surgeons with a homoeo- 
pathic physician in Haddonfield. This led to the appointment 
of a committee to investigate the allegation, with instructions 
to report the results of the same to the State Medical Society. 
Dr. R. M. Cooper was appointed to prepare a historical sketch 
of the society for its twenty-fifth anniversary in 187 1 ; Dr. A. 
M. Mecray was elected president ; Dr. H. A. M. Smith, vice- 
president ; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary and treasurer, and 
Dr. Cooper, chairman of the standing committe. The society, 
at this time, numbered nineteen members. 

Section V. — Cholera. 

[1865.] The prevalence of cholera in Europe, this year, 
called forth the best quarantine measures of the period to 
prevent its appearance in this country. The medical profes- 
sion of Camden were abreast of the times in this matter. 
Mindful of its visitation, in epidemic form, in Camden in 1832, 
'49 and '54, a meeting of the Camden City Medical Society 
was called on September 7th, and a committee, consisting of 
Doctors J. R. Stevenson, L. F. Fisler, I. S. Mulford and T. F. 
Cullen, was appointed "to confer and to take measures with 
City Council to prevent an invasion of the disease." The 
committee met on the 9th, and memorialized Council to call a 
special meeting, which was held on the 16th, when its sanitary 
committee was given plenary powers over sanitary matters and 
instructed to meet in conference the special committee of the 



Cholera. 95 

City Medical Society. A joint meeting of the committees was 
held on the 19th, when arrangements were made for an inspec- 
tion of the city, and Dr. L,. F. Fisler, as the representative of the 
committee from the City Medical Society, and Benjamin F. 
Archer, as a member of the sanitary committee of Council, 
were appointed to prepare a circular of information and advice 
to be printed and distributed throughout the city. So thorough 
was the work of the committees that, at a joint meeting held 
on November 13th, the city was reported to be in good sanitary 
condition. 

[1866.] In April, cholera, so prevalent in Europe, invaded 
New York City and gradually spread throughout the country. 
Further sanitary precautions were taken in Camden, and, in 
order that the best results might be obtained, City Council 
empowered the special committee of the City Medical Society 
"to execute any measure they might adopt to resist an inva- 
sion of cholera." Notwithstanding this delegated authority, 
the disease appeared in Camden on June 25th, and continued 
with varying severity until October 20th, between which dates 
thirty-nine cases were reported with thirty deaths.* It was 
most prevalent at Second and Mickle and Second and Line 
streets, and at Ninth and Chestnut streets. One case occurred 
at Winslow. 

The prevalence of cholera in New Jersey, in 1866, led to 
the appointment of a State Sanitary Commission, by Governor 
Marcus L,. Ward, with instruction to furnish the Executive 
with such advice and information as they might deem impor- 
tant, in reference to cholera. The commission consisted of 
Doctors E. M. Hunt, S. B. Coleman, Thomas Ryerson and I. A. 
Nichols, and R. M. Cooper, of Camden. The public was 
informed, through the press, of the course and nature of the 
disease and the methods of prevention, and, by means of the 
restrictions placed upon public travel and public highways, the 
disease did not become generally epidemic throughout the 
State, although there were two hundred fatal cases reported 
by the commission during the year.f 

* History of Cholera in Camden in 1S66, by John R. Stevenson, A. M. , M. D. 
t The Progress of Sanitation in New Jersey, by E. L. B. Godfrey, A. M., M. D. 



96 History Medical Profession Camdeii County. 

Section VI. — Miscellaneous. 

A. THE MILITARY ORDER OE THE LOYAL LEGION OF 
THE UNITED STATES. 

[1865.] Following the assassination of President Lincoln, 
April 14, 1865, Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel B. Wylie 
Mitchell, M. D., Surgeon, Eighth Pennsylvania Cavalry ; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel T. Elwood Zell, Third Pennsylvania Infantry, 
and Captain Peter D. Keyser, M. D., Ninety-first Pennsylvania 
Infantry, and late acting assistant surgeon United States Army, 
organized the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, April 15th, 
to aid in maintaining the supremacy of the National Govern- 
ment at that critical period of its history, to commemorate the 
efforts of Abraham Lincoln and the principles for which he con- 
tended, and to strengthen the friendships of the officers of the 
Army, Navy and Marine Corps of the United States, formed by 
companionship in arms. Like the inception and organization of 
the Grand Army of the Republic and the Sons of Veterans, 
the principles and objects of the Order were largely conceived 
and put into execution by a physician. 

While less representative of the civil conflict than the 
Grand Army of the Republic, the Order of the Loyal Legion 
has grown to national proportions and bears the same relation- 
ship to the Civil War that the Order of the Cincinnati bears 
to the Revolution. The officers from Camden county, who 
served in the Civil War and belong to the Order, are members 
of the Pennsylvania Commandery, having joined on the follow- 
ing dates: Brevet Major-General William J. Sewell, in 1868; 
Major John M. McGrath, Surgeon Seventy-eighth Regiment, 
P. V., 1874; Dr. Henry F. Chew, Lieutenant-Colonel Twelfth 
Regiment, N. J. V., 1881; Captain George E. Wilson, Sixth 
Regiment, N. J. V., 1877 ; Lieutenant H. Genet Taylor, 
Assistant Surgeon, Eighth Regiment, N. J. V., 1888, and Major 
D. H. Bartine, Surgeon, One Hundred and Twelfth Regiment, 
P. V. Major Hamilton Markley, of the National Guard of 
New Jersey, became a junior member in 1891. 

B. NATIONAL GUARD OF NEW JERSEY. 

[1869.] On March 9th, the old militia law of the State 
was repealed and an Act, establishing the present National 



Miscellaneous. 97 

Guard, was passed by the Legislature and approved by the 
Governor. The military companies of West Jersey were, 
by order of General Runyon, consolidated into the Fifth 
Battalion, Second Brigade, First Division, under command of 
Major E. G. Jackson, and Dr. H. Genet Taylor was appointed 
major and surgeon on Major Jackson's staff, and commissioned 
December 1, 1869. Under the Act of organization, a medi- 
cal department was provided for in the National Guard, under 
the supervision of the surgeon-general, who was given the 
rank of brigadier-general. The Act also provided for the 
examination of surgeons and assistant surgeons in medicine 
and surgery by the surgeon-general, or a medical officer desig- 
nated by him for that purpose, before a commission could 
be issued by the Governor. This placed the medical depart- 
ment on a high professional basis. Dr. Theodore R. Varick 
was commissioned surgeon-general October 5, 1869, succeeding 
Dr. Lewis W. Oakley, who had served since December 27, 
1865. 

C. EDUCATIONAL. 

[1865.] The physicians of Camden exerted a marked 
influence in educational matters during this period. The 
early efforts of Dr. I. S. Mulford in securing an enactment 
providing a tax for school purposes ; the establishment of the 
Board of Education for Camden and the creation of county 
superintendents for the public schools, promoted, in a great 
degree, the cause of education. In this year, Doctors Sylvester 
Birdsell and Thomas G. Rowand served as members of the 
Camden Board of Education, and Doctors Lorenzo F. Fisler, 
Thomas F. Cullen and James M. Ridge were appointed censors 
of the Philotechnic Institute, established by Rudolphus Bing- 
ham.* In 1867, Dr. Thomas G. Rowand was elected presi- 
dent of the Board of Education of Camden, and served also as 
a member during 1868. 

D. DRUG INTERESTS. 

[1865.] The drug interests were extended this year by the 
opening of a drug-store, at the corner of Second and Main 

"Camden Democrat. 



98 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

streets, by Martin Goldsmith, now owned by George J. Pechin ; 
by the purchase, in 1866, of the drug-store of Dr. M. West, at 
Fourth and Walnut streets, by Dr. A. M. Mecray and since 
owned successively by Doctors C. M. Schellenger, C. G. Hoell 
and W. W. Kaighn; by the purchase of a store at Third and Line 
streets, by Dr. D. P. Pancoast, which was subsequently removed 
to Fifth and Clinton streets, and by the establishment of a store 
on West street, by Doctors Cullen and Ridge, which was pur- 
chased by Dr. T. G. Rowand, moved to Fifth and Benson 
streets,* and now occupied by Dr. A. H. Lippincott. 

E. MASONIC INTERESTS. 

Since the time of Colonel Daniel Coxe, provincial grand- 
master of the Masonic fraternity of New Jersey, and son of Dr. 
Daniel Coxe, governor of West Jersey during the latter part of 
the proprietary period of the Friends, the order of Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons has had a continuous existence in New Jersey. 
Camden Lodge, No. 15, was originally instituted in 1821, but 
surrendered its charter in 1842, and reorganized in 1850. With 
this lodge many physicians have been connected ; among them 
the names of Doctors Thomas F. Cullen, Charles W. Sartori, H. 
F. Hunt, W. H. Malin, Maximilian West, Alexander Marcy, H. 
Genet Taylor, George R. Fortiner, M. F. Middleton, William 
C. Mulford, P. W. Beale, W. A. Davis, C. G. Hoell, Rowland 
I. Haines and W. S. Moslander appear. Dr. Charles W. Sar- 
tori attained the position of Master ; Dr. Thomas F. Cullen 
withdrew upon connecting himself with the Roman 
[1867.] Catholic Church. In 1867, Siloam Royal Arch Chap- 
ter, No. 19, was organized, and the following phy- 
sicians are, or have been, connected with it: Doctors D. P. 
Pancoast, H. H. Davis, W. R. Powell, G. T. Robinson, E. S. 
Wynn, C.J. Cooper, J. D. Leckner, C. G. Hoell, L. L. Sharp and 
Harry Jarrett, of Camden ; James A. Walmsley, of 
[1868.] Gloucester, and Henry E. Branin, of Blackwood. In 
1868, Cyrene Commandery, No. 7, K. T., was chartered 
and organized, with Doctors William H. Malin and Frederick 
P. Pfeiffer among its constituent members. Members of the 

* Prowell's History of Camden County. 



Ho m ceo pa th\ >. 99 

medical fraternity who have joined the commandery are 
Doctors H. H. Davis, J. D. Leckner, George T. Robinson, 
L. L. Sharp, James A. Walmsley and Harry Jarrett. 

Ionic Lodge, No. 94, was instituted, in 1868, as an out- 
growth of Camden Lodge, with Doctors Charles W. Sartori, 
Alexander M. Mecray and Frederick P. Pfeiffer among its 
charter members. In its membership, the names of Doctors J. 
N. Achuff, J. H. Austin, C. J. Cooper, H. H. Davis, George R. 
Fortiner, N. B. Jennings, J. D. Leckner and T. J. Rowand ap- 
pear. Dr. Leckner became Master in 1886; Dr. Pfeiffer, with 
others, instituted Mozart Lodge, No. 121, in 1871, and Dr. 
Jennings became a charter member of Haddonfield Lodge, No. 
130, in 1872. Doctors Charles H. Jennings and John W. 
Marcy have held official positions in Merchantville Masonic 
Lodge, and Dr. Henry E. Branin has been prominently 
connected with Florence Lodge of Woodbury. 

Section VII. — Homoeopathy. 

A. AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMOEOPATHY. 

[1867.] The American Institute of Homoeopathy was 
established, in 1844, for the improvement of homoeopathic 
therapeutics and other departments of medical science. It 
was organized the year that Dr. Samuel Hahnemann died, and 
has done much to disseminate his medical doctrine. In 
1867, Dr. H. F. Hunt, of Camden, became a member and, 
since then, Doctors M. F. Middleton, in 1869; Wallace Mc- 
George and Bowman H. Shivers, in 187 1 ; Anna E. Griffith, in 
1 881; E. M. Howard, in 1883; Jerome L. Artz, Thomas R. 
Blackwood, Franklin E. Williams and George D. Woodward, 
in 1 89 1 ; George R. Fortiner, Ida F. Fortiner, Henry A. Lacey 
and S. Bryan Smith, in 1892, have become connected with it. 
The Institute was founded largely by Philadelphia physicians, 
who, in 1848, founded the first Homoeopathic Medical College 
in this country; viz., The Homoeopathic Medical College of 
Pennsylvania. In 1867, this college was consolidated with the 
Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, and its gradu- 
ates will be credited to Hahnemann College. 



ioo History Medical Profession Camden County. 

B. THE WEST JERSEY HOMCEOPATHIC MEDICAL SOCIETY. 

[1869.] This society was organized in Camden, on the 
third Wednesday of May 1869, in response -to a call issued to 
the homoeopathic physicians of West Jersey, by Doctors Wal- 
lace McGeorge, of Hightstown ; R. M. Wilkinson, of Trenton ; 
Henry F. Hunt, of Camden; J. G. Street, of Bridgeton, and 
Walter Ward, of Mt. Holfy. The invitation was accepted by a 
large number of physicians, among whom were Doctors W. H. 
Malm, M. F. Middleton and J. H. Austin, of Camden. An 
organization was effected by the election of Dr. Alexander 
Kirkpatrick, of Burlington, as president; Dr. Wallace Mc- 
George, of Hightstown, as secretary, and included the following 
members : Doctors D. R. Gardiner, of Woodbury ; R. M. 
Wilkinson, of Trenton ; J. G. Street, of Bridgeton ; Wallace 
McGeorge, of Hightstown ; Isaac Cooper, of Mullica Hill ; E. 
R. Bancroft, of Mt. Holly ; E. K. Phillips, of Cape May ; S. E. 
Allen, of Trenton; L. W. Brown, of Vineland; Alexander 
Kirkpatrick, of Burlington; David E. Gardiner, of Borden- 
town; M. W. Wallins, of Woodstown, and W. H. Malin, H. 
F. Hunt, M. F. Middleton and J. H. Austin, of Camden. 
The society adopted the code of ethics of the American 
Institute of Homoeopathy, established a uniform fee-bill and 
provided for quarterly meetings. It contributed materially 
towards securing, in 1870, a charter for the New Jersey State 
Homoeopathic Medical Society and the adoption of a three 
years' graded course of study in homoeopathic medical colleges. 
The society has unified the interests of the homceopathists of 
West Jersey and advanced their standard of medical practice. 
The following Camden count)' physicians became members of 
the society on the accompanying dates: In 1869, Doctors 
Wallace McGeorge, W. H. Malin, H. F. Hunt, J. H. Austin, M. 
F. Middleton, P. W. Andrews and G. S. F. Pfeiffer, of Camden ; 
in 1870, Doctors Richard Gardiner, Jr., of Gloucester City; 
Joseph Shreve, of Berlin, and Charles W. Perkins, of Marlton ; 
in 187 1, Dr. Bowman H. Shivers, of Haddonfield ; in 1872, Dr. 
Clark J. Cooper, of Camden; in 1873, Dr. Thomas R. Black- 
wood, of Camden ; in 1876, Dr. Anna E. Griffith, of Camden; 
in 1878, Dr. Joseph G. Edwards, of Blackwood, and Doctors 



Homoeopathy. ior 

Silas H. Quint and E. M. Howard, of Camden ; in 1879, Dr - Eli 
R. Tullis, of Camden; in 1880, Dr. Franklin E. Williams, of 
Haddonfield; Dr. John D. Leckner, of Camden, and Dr. William 
G. DuBois, of Gloucester City ; in 1881, Dr. Robert H. Peacock, 
of Berlin; in 1884, Dr. J. K. Bryant, of Camden; in 1886, Dr. 
George D. Woodward, of Camden, and Dr. E. B. Sharp, of 
Marlton; in 1887, Dr. Jacob M. Hinson, Jr., of Merchantville, 
and Dr. Jerome Artz, of Dudley; in 1888, Dr. George R. 
Fortiner, of Camden; in 1889, Doctors S. Bryan Smith, C. J. 
Wallace and William S. Moslander, of Camden ; E. K. McGill, 
of Collingswood, and James A. George, of Cramer's Hill ; in 
1890, Dr. Frederick M. Eaton, of Camden; in 1892, Dr. Oscar 
L. Grumbrecht, of Camden; in 1893, Dr. William W. Knowl- 
ton, of Camden, and, in 1 894, Doctors H. C. Garrison, Emerson 
P. McGeorge, Allen S. Ironside and William G. Gardiner. 

The following Camden county physicians have served 
as president: Dr. Henry F. Hunt, in 1873; ^ r - Wallace 
McGeorge, 1876 ; Dr. Clark J. Cooper, 1877 ; Dr. Silas H. 
Quint, 1879 ; Dr. E. R. Tullis, 1887 ; Dr. M. F. Middleton, 
1888 ; Dr. T. R. Blackwood, 1890; Dr. E. M. Howard, 1891, 
and Dr. George D. Woodward, in 1893. As vice-president, Dr. 
P. W. Andrews served in 1878; Dr. C. J. Cooper, 1879 ; Dr. E. 
M. Howard, 1880, '81, '82 and '83; Dr. R. H. Peacock, 1884 
and 1885, and Dr. E. R. Tullis, 1886. As recording secretary, 
Dr. Wallace McGeorge served from 1869 to 1876, and from 
1876 to 1880; Dr. S. H. Quint, 1880; Dr. R. H. Peacock, 
1882; Dr. E. M. Howard, 1884 to 1888; Dr. George D. Wood- 
ward, 1888, and Dr. Wallace McGeorge from 1890 to the 
present time (1895). In 1884, Dr. Anna E. Griffith was elected 
treasurer and still retains the office. Delegates have been regu- 
larly appointed to the American Institute of Homoeopathy and 
to the New Jersey State Homoeopathic Society, and the 
homoeopathic profession of West Jersey has been kept in touch 
with State and National medical interests, while important 
papers have been presented from the Bureau of Medicine, Sur- 
gery, Obstetrics and Gynecology, at each quarterly session. In 
1890, the American Institute of Homoeopathy met at Atlantic 
City, upon invitation of the West Jersey Homoeopathic Medi- 



102 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

cal Society, and in May, 1894, the society celebrated its 
twenty-fifth anniversary in Camden.* 

Section VIII. — The Camden Home for Friendless 

Children. 

[1865.] The Camden Home for Friendless Children was 
incorporated April 6, 1865, for "the object and design of afford- 
ing a home, food, clothing and schooling for destitute, friendless 
children and, at a suitable age, to place them with respectable 
families to learn some useful trade or occupation." The 
corporate charter was granted unto Matthew Newkirk, Elijah 
G. Cattell, James H. Stevens, George W. N. Curtis, J. Earl 
Atkinson, Joseph C. De La Cour, Joseph D. Reinboth, Robert 
B. Potts, Jesse W. Starr, Edmund E. Reed, John R. Graham, 
Benjamin H. Browning, S. M. Stimson, P. C. Brick, John 
Aikman, Thomas P. Carpenter, Elisha V. Glover, Thomas B. 
Atkinson, Isaac L. Lowe and Peter L. Voorhees. 

The Home is organized upon a liberal basis, and children are 
admitted at the discretion of the Board of Managers and cared 
for under specific, charter provisions. It is sustained by volun- 
tary contributions. The affairs of the Home are conducted by 
a Board of Managers, consisting of twenty-four ladies, and 
a Board of Trustees, consisting of twenty gentlemen. In the 
report for 1894, the managers comprised the following ladies : 
Miss E. L. Few Smith, president; Mrs. H. B. Wilson, first 
vice-president ; Mrs. John F. Starr, second vice-president ; Miss 
E.F.Jennings, treasurer; Mrs. George G. Felton, assistant 
treasurer ; Mrs. J. A. Vansant, recording secretary ; Mrs. Joseph 
H. Watson, corresponding secretary, and Mrs. Joseph Elverson, 
Mrs. Joseph J. Read, Mrs. John T. Bottomly, Mrs. Charles 
Hollingshed, Mrs. George F. Archer, Mrs. Samuel H. Grey, 
Mrs. L. H. Goldy, Miss S. Fitzwater, Mrs. F. Wayland Ayer, 
Mrs. Horace M. Sharp, Mrs. George E. Wilson, Mrs. H. Alex- 
ander, Mrs. C. V. D. Joline, Mrs. J. L. Nicholson, of Camden, 
and Mrs. Charles Rhoads and Mrs. George Glover, of Haddon- 
field. The following gentlemen constituted the Board of 

*MS. Historical Sketch of the West Jersey Homoeopathic Medical Society, by Wallace 
McGeorge, M. D. 



Deaths of Prominent Physicians. 103 

Trustees in 1894 : Charles Rhoads, president ; Henry B. Wilson, 
first vice-president; Joseph J. Read, second vice-president; 
N. F. Cowan, treasurer; H. B. Hanford, secretary, and Dr. H. 
Genet Taylor, John T. Bottomly, Hon. L,. T. Derousse, 
Hon. John F. Starr, Maurice Browning, William Severns, 
David M. Chambers, Samuel H. Grey, Judge E. A. Armstrong, 
Dr. H. H. Davis, George A. Munger, Hon. Edward Bettle, 
J. A. Vansant and George E. Taylor. The medical staff 
consisted of Dr. H. Genet Taylor, physician-in-chief; Dr. 
William R. Powell, Dr. G. T. Robinson, Dr. Alexander 
McAlister, Dr. Orange W. Braymer, Dr. E. A. Y. Schellenger, 
Dr. John G. Doron, Dr. William H. Pratt and Dr. Joseph 
E. Nicholson. Solicitors, Samuel H. Grey and Judge Howard 
Carrow ; matron, Miss Elizabeth N. Butcher ; teacher, Miss 
Sarah Brooks. During 1894, eighty-seven children were 
admitted and received care at the Home. The trustees and 
managers have afforded the medical staff liberal provisions 
for the care of the children when sick, and, in compliment 
to the medical profession, have permitted the managers 
of the New Jersey Training School for Nurses to establish 
clinics at the Home, for the purpose of giving instruction to 
nurse pupils. 

Section IX. — Deaths of Prominent Physicians. 

[1865.] On December 1st, Dr. Henry Ackley, United 
States Navy, died in the twenty -ninth year of his age. Dr. 
Ackley was a son of Thomas Ackley, of the National State 
Bank of Camden. After taking the degree of A. B., he 
was graduated from Jefferson Medical College in 1858, located 
in Camden and became a member of the County Medical 
Society and, on August 14, 1861, was commissioned an 
assistant surgeon in the United States Navy. He served 
with distinction in the East Gulf Blockading Squadron, and 
also in the Mississippi Squadron, and participated in the battles 
of New Orleans, Vicksburg and in a number of minor engage- 
ments, finally attaining the position of acting surgeon-in-chief 
of the squadron.* 

*Transactions of the Medical Societj- of New Jersey, 1S66. 



104 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

[1868.] On June 8th, Dr. Bowman Hendry, 2d, died at 
his residence in Camden. For four generations, the Hendrys 
were representative physicians in Gloucester and Camden 
counties. Dr. Thomas Hendry, of Woodbury, the grand- 
father, served with great distinction as a surgeon in the 
Revolution ; Dr. Bowman Hendry, of Haddonfield, son of 
Dr. Thomas Hendry and father of Doctors Bowman Hendry, 
2d, and Charles D. Hendry, served as an assistant surgeon in 
the Whiskey Insurrection in Pennsylvania in 1794, and, after 
locating at Haddonfield, became the foremost physician in 
Gloucester county, while Dr. Charles D. Hendry practiced with 
great acceptance at Haddonfield. Dr. Bowman Hendry, 2d, 
was graduated from Jefferson Medical College, in 1846, and 
began medical practice at Gloucester City and, in the following 
year, joined the Camden County Medical Society, of which he 
was president in 1869. In 1862, he was commissioned assistant 
surgeon of the Sixth Regiment, N. J. V., and served with 
distinction in the Civil War until mustered out of service 
with his regiment in 1864. He then accepted a position on 
the surgical staff of Mower Hospital for a short time, after 
which he began medical practice in Camden, where he resided 
until his death. 

Dr. William S. Bishop, United States Navy, an honorary 
member of the Camden County Medical Society and an 
incorporator of the Camden City Dispensary, died December 
28th. Dr. Bishop was commissioned an assistant surgeon in 
the United States Navy, May 11, 1844, and served in nearly 
every quarter of the globe.* 

[1869.] Dr. Charles D. Hendry, of Haddonfield, died 
April 25 th, of apoplexy. Dr. Hendry, who was the grandson 
of Dr. Thomas Hendry and also, on his mother's side, of Dr. 
Duffield, of Philadelphia, was the son of Dr. Bowman Hendry, 
1st, and the father of Dr. Bowman Hendry, 3d, thus making 
the four generations of physicians in the Hendry family. He 
was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1832, 
and began practice at Haddonfield, where he continued for 
thirty-two years. He was distinguished for his ability in 

transactions of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 1869. 



Deaths of Prominent Physicians. 105 

diagnosis ; served as a member of the Board of Censors for the 
Camden County Medical Society from 1847 to 1862; was a 
charter member of the society and its president in 1852 and 
1853. Dr. Hendry was a constituent member of Grace P. 
E. Church in Haddonfield. He was interred at Colestown 
Cemetery.* 

Dr. Othniel H. Taylor died of pneumonia at his residence 
in Camden, September 5th. Dr. Taylor was graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1825, and began practice in 
Philadelphia. In the epidemic of cholera in 1832, he volun- 
teered his services to the municipal authorities of Philadel- 
phia, and was made consulting physician to their sanitary 
board and placed in charge of St. Augustine's Hospital, where 
five hundred and twelve cholera patients were treated. Dr. 
Taylor, with others, was appointed to visit Canada, where 
the epidemic first appeared, to study its nature and treatment, 
but was obliged to decline. For his public services during 
the epidemic, he received the thanks of the Philadelphia City 
Council, and was presented with a service of silver, " as a token of 
regard for intrepid and distinguished services." In 1844, Dr. 
Taylor located in Camden, and at once took a commanding 
position in the medical profession. He was one of the organ- 
izers of the Camden County Medical Society, in 1846, and was 
made its first vice-president. In the same year, he was ap- 
pointed one of the censors of the State Medical Society, for 
Camden county, and was made one of the delegates to represent 
that society at the organization of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation. In 1849, ne was elected third vice-president of the 
State Medical Society, and, out of compliment to him, the 
semi-annual meeting of that year was held in Camden. At that 
meeting he delivered his celebrated address on " Medical Reform 
and the Present System of Medical Instruction," which has 
been noticed in connection with the medical enactments of 
1851 and 1854. In 1850, he was elected second vice-president of 
the State Medical Society; in 1852, its president; after which 
he became a Fellow of the society. In 1853, ne was one °f 
the organizers of the Camden City Medical Society ; wrote its 

transactions of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 1869. 



106 History Medical Profession Camde?i County. 

constitution and by-laws, and subsequently became its president. 
In 1856, he was elected president of the Camden County Medi- 
cal Society. In 1859, he endeavored to establish a dispensary 
in Camden, and was unsuccessful ; but in 1865, when the North 
Ward Bounty Association made the project possible, Dr. Taylor 
presented the plans of organization, which were adopted, and 
became one of its incorporators in 1867. Dr. Taylor was a 
versatile and prolific writer on medical subjects, one of his best 
efforts being on the "Topography of Camden County." Ac- 
tive in politics and an ardent Whig, he became a candidate for 
Mayor of Camden in 1851, but was defeated by Dr. Lorenzo F. 
Fisler, the American candidate. In religion Dr. Taylor took 
an active part, especially in St. Paul's Church, following in the 
footsteps of Dr. Samuel Harris and Dr. Bowman Hendry, 1st, 
who were associated with the church at its organization in 
1830. Dr. Taylor gave to his profession all the energies of his 
life. Dr. Reynell Coates said of him: "His death brought 
gloom over hundreds of families who had placed confidence in 
his skill and value in his friendship." He left three children — 
Dr. H. Genet Taylor, who is prominent in the medical affairs 
of the State ; Othniel G. Taylor, pharmacist and superintendent 
of the Camden City Dispensary for twenty years, and Marma- 
duke B. Taylor, an eminent lawyer, who was regarded as "the 
legal guardian of the medical profession." * 



Among the physicians who located in Camden, between 
1865 and 1870, are the following: Dr. A. M. Mecray, a gradu- 
ate of Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, in i860, and of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 1863 ; Dr. Frederick P. Pfeiffer, 
a graduate of Penn Medical College, in 1863, and an ex-army 
surgeon, and Dr. Isaac N. Hugg, graduate of Philadelphia 
University of Medicine and Surgery. In 1866, Dr. David 
Hedding Bartine, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, 
1862, acting assistant surgeon at St. Joseph's Hospital, Phila- 
delphia, in 1862, and an ex-army surgeon, 1862 to 1866, 
located in Merchantville. 

* Transactions of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 1870. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE PERIOD FROM 1870 TO 1875. 

Section I. — The Camden City Dispensary. 

[1870.] The annual meeting of the dispensary was held, 
January nth, when the report of the fiscal year showed an 
income of $793.51, including an appropriation of $300.00 
from City Council. The beneficiaries for the year numbered 
two hundred and eleven. Colonel Thomas McKean, Thomas 
A. Wilson, John Morgan, Richard W. Test and Joseph L. De La 
Cour were elected to the Board of Managers, as the representa- 
tives of the contributors, and Doctors R. M. Cooper, J. M. 
Ridge, J. V. Schenck, H. Genet Taylor and A. M. Mecray, 
as the representatives of the City Medical Society. Thomas 
A. Wilson was elected president and Dr. R. M. Cooper, secre- 
tary and treasurer. 

[187 1.] The report for the past year showed an income 
of $1,062. 19; the number of cases treated was three hundred 
and thirty-four. The Board of Managers consisted of the same 
officers and members as in the preceding year. 

[1872.] The annual meeting of the managers was held, 
January 9th, and the representatives of the contributors were 
re-elected, with the exception of Richard W. Test, who was 
succeeded by Joseph W. Cooper. Doctors Cooper, Schenck, 
Ridge, Marcy, Taylor and White were elected to represent the 
City Medical Society. Thomas A. Wilson was elected 
president; Dr. R. M. Cooper, secretary and treasurer, and 
Doctors Cooper, Taylor, Mecray and White were elected attend- 
ing physicians. An extra appropriation was secured from 
Council because of the prevalence of small-pox. 

[1873.] Notwithstanding the extra appropriation of the 
preceding year, the funds of the dispensary were unable to 
meet the current demands, and, in consequence, but one meet- 
ing of the managers was held; no election for officers took 
place and the members of the attending staff resigned. 

107 



io8 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

[1874.] During the greater part of 1874, the dispensary 
was still without attending physicians. Efforts to secure an 
increased appropriation from Council, or the appointment of a 
salaried city physician, were unavailing. Toward the close of 
the year, Dr. William G. Taylor volunteered his services and 
performed the clinical work of the dispensary alone. The 
officers for the year were John Morgan, president ; Dr. R. M. 
Cooper, secretary and treasurer, and O. G. Taylor, pharmacist. 
Upon the death of Dr. Cooper in May, Dr. H. Genet Taylor 
was elected secretary and Joseph B. Cooper treasurer. 
Dr. Taylor has held the office of secretary ever since. The 
dispensary received a legacy of $1,000.00 from Dr. R. M. 
Cooper and $500.00 from Esther L. Cooper. 

Section II. — The Camden City Medical Society. 

[1870.] The regular quarterly meetings of the society 
were held during the year, and, in addition to the quarterly 
reports, Dr. James M. Ridge read a paper on "Anaesthesia" 
and Dr. A. M. Mecray, the president, delivered an address on 
"Inflammation of the Cellular Tissue." Dr. Charles A. Baker, 
druggist and physician ; Dr. D. P. Pancoast, a graduate of 
Marietta Academy, 1853, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
1856, and of the University of Pennsylvania, 1859, an( ^ 
Dr. Randall W. Morgan, a student of Dr. Henry E. Branin, a 
former pupil at the U. S. Naval Academy and at Bucknell 
University, and a graduate of the University ' of Pennsylvania 
during the year, were elected members. Dr. J. Orlando White 
was elected president ; Dr. Reynell Coates, vice-president, and 
Dr. Charles A. Baker, secretary and treasurer. 

[187 1.] Regular meetings of the society were held during 
1 87 1, but, at the annual meeting, the absence of a quorum was 
noted and, in consequence, the election of officers was post- 
poned. Dr. Isaac B. Mulford, a graduate of West Jersey 
Academy, 1861, of Princeton College, 1865, and of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 187 1; Doctors John R. Haney, 
William H. Ireland, and Richardson B. Okie, graduates of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 1861, 1867 and 1870, respectively, 
and Thomas D. Westcott, a student at Bucknell University and 



The Camden City Medical Society. 109 

at Jefferson Medical College, were elected members. The 
revision and amendment of the charter of Camden, approved 
in February, by which the boundaries of the city were 
extended, provided for a division of the city into eight wards. 
This called for the re-arrangement of the duties of the dispen- 
sary staff and Dr. R. B. Okie was appointed physician for the 
First, Second and Eighth wards; Dr. LB. Mulford for the 
Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth wards and Dr. J. R. Haney for 
the Seventh ward. In December, Doctors Cooper, Schenck, 
Taylor, Ridge, Mecray and White were elected managers for 
the dispensary. 

[1872.] No meetings of the society were held in March 
or in June, but in September, through the influence of Doctors 
Cullen and White, the annual meeting was held and 
Dr. White, the president, delivered an address, "On the Apathy 
of the Camden City Medical Society in those Interests and 
Objects for which it was Organized." The meeting resulted 
in the appointment of a committee on the reorganization of 
the society and a revision of the table of fees. Dr. Reynell 
Coates was elected president; Dr. Isaac B. Mulford, vice- 
president ; Dr. D. P. Pancoast, secretary and treasurer, and 
Doctors Cooper, Cullen, Schenck, Taylor, Mecray and Pancoast, 
managers for the dispensary. The December meeting was of 
unusual interest, because of the discussion of vaccination and 
revaccination and the consideration of the reorganization of 
the society. Dr. Cullen, chairman of the committee on 
reorganization, recommended that in the future the meetings 
of the society be held at the offices of members, instead of at 
the dispensary, and invited the society to hold its next meeting 
at his residence. The inauguration of this custom aided 
materially in building up the society and was continued for a 
number of years. The revision of the fees was referred to a 
special meeting in December, when Doctors Cullen and White 
presented a resolution increasing the regular fee for a profes- 
sional visit in Camden to two dollars and the obstetric fee from 
fifteen to twenty dollars. This resolution was unanimously 
adopted, signed by even' member of the society, and published 
in the newspapers of the city. The effect was not favorable to 



no History Medical Profession Camden County. 

the interests of the regular profession of Camden. An oppor- 
tunity was thus afforded to homoeopathic physicians and others, 
who charged but one dollar per visit, to extend their practice, 
and, as the increased fees met with unexpected disfavor from 
the citizens of Camden, the policy of the society was abandoned. 

[1873.] The adoption of the Cullen resolution greatly 
increased the popularity of the meetings, which were regularly 
held at the residences of members. In July, a special meeting 
was called to consider cholera, which had appeared at New 
Orleans in February, and gradually spread throughout the 
West, reaching New York and Philadelphia in September. 
At this meeting, a special committee was appointed to act in 
conjunction with the sanitary committee of City Council and 
to supervise the sanitary condition of the city. Three cases of 
cholera, however, occurred, one of which proved fatal. At the 
annual meeting, Dr. Reynell Coates delivered an address on 
"The Later Development of the Microscope"; Dr. Isaac B. 
Mulford was elected president ; Dr. D. P. Pancoast, vice-presi- 
dent, secretary and treasurer, and the managers for the dispensary 
were re-elected. 

[1874.] Considerable interest was expressed this year in 
the discussion of medical subjects ; in an endeavor to induce 
Council to enlarge the laws relating to the reports of births 
and deaths, and in the effort to secure the appointment, by 
Council, of a city physician. Neither of the requests to 
Council were granted. At the annual meeting, Dr. I. B. 
Mulford delivered the annual address ; Dr. D. P. Pancoast was 
elected president ; Dr. J. R. Haney, vice-president ; Dr. I. B. 
Mulford, secretary and treasurer; Dr. T. G. Rowand, a graduate of 
Philadelphia Medical College, 1850, a member, and Doctors 
Cullen, Schenck, Taylor, Mecray, Ridge and Pancoast were 
elected managers for the dispensary. 

Section III. — The Camden District Medical Society. 

[1870.] At the last meeting of the District Society, 
Doctors J. J. Comfort and N. B. Jennings were appointed a 
committee to investigate the alleged violations of the code of 
ethics, in Camden county. They reported that Professors S. D. 



The Camden District Medical Society. 1 1 1 

Gross and Joseph Pancoast, of Jefferson College, had held con- 
sultations with an irregular practitioner of the county ; that 
correspondence had been held with the physicians named; 
that the matter had been presented to the Medical Society of 
New Jersey and referred by that body to the Medical Society 
of Pennsylvania. The charges against Dr. Pancoast were ulti- 
mately withdrawn, upon his explanation, and those against 
Dr. Gross were dropped after they had been heard and 
dismissed by the Pennsylvania State Medical Society. In this 
case, the County Society was clearly in the wrong because 
sufficient opportunity was not given Dr. Gross to explain his 
position, as is shown in his communications with the society. 
As in the Risley and Fisler controversies, the society acted upon 
ex parte testimony, and was compelled to drop the charge 
because the point of the discussion was explained away. 

For the first time in several years, a representative of the 
County Society attended the American Medical Association, 
which met at Washington in May, and Dr. H. Genet Taylor, 
acting in this capacity, was made a permanent member of the 
association. Dr. R. M. Cooper represented the State Society 
on the same occasion. The election of officers for the County 
Society was as follows: Dr. J. Orlando White, president; 
Dr. I. W. Heulings, vice-president, and Dr. H. Genet Taylor, 
secretary and treasurer. Doctors I. W. Heulings, of Haddon- 
field, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 1869, and R. W. 
Morgan, of Camden, were elected members. Dr. Isaac S. 
Mulford, in view of his distinguished services to the profession, 
was made an honorary member. The fee-bill of the City 
Medical Society, for making post-mortem examinations, was 
adopted and officially sent to corresponding societies through- 
out the State. From the Gloucester County Society, it met 
with ready acceptance, but was not generally adopted by 
others. 

The first effort to rescue the profession from the low state 
into which it had fallen, in regard to the professional standing 
of its members, was made this year. The removal, in 1854, of 
all legal restrictions over medical practice in the State, was 
followed by an influx of incompetent and irregular physicians, 



ii2 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

who seriously injured the reputation of the profession. No 
legislative action within the State had lately been attempted, 
except the securing of a charter for the Homoeopathic State 
Medical Society. The organization of the West Jersey 
Homoeopathic Society, together with the adoption of the code 
of ethics of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, tended to 
classify and control medical practitioners. But at the meeting 
of the American Medical Association, at New Orleans, the 
previous year, a resolution, requesting the several States to 
secure the registration of all medical practitioners and the 
colleges from which they had graduated, was passed, and, in 
consequence, the New Jersey Medical Society called the atten- 
tion of the District Societies to the matter. The Camden 
District Society, thereupon, appointed a committee to take a 
medical census of the county. This report was made in 1872, 
but little good, however, was accomplished until the passage 
of the medical Act of 1880. Dr. R. M. Cooper read the annual 
report and discussed the treatment of scarlet fever then prevail- 
ing as an epidemic; the effects of chloral, a new agent 
recently introduced by Leibricht, of Prussia, and intermittent 
fever, which he. said was not as prevalent as formerly on 
account of the sanitary improvements in the city and the 
reclamation of land in the country. Dr. A. M. Mecray 
reported a case of rupture of the uterus, with recovery, in 
which one leg of the foetus protruded through a rent in the 
uterine wall. 

[187 1.] On May 9th, the society held its twenty-fifth 
anniversary at the West Jersey Hotel. A special programme 
and banquet had been prepared, and Dr. R. M. Cooper, by 
request, reviewed the history of the society in an elaborate 
address in which its organization, its relation to the changes in 
the medical laws of 1851, '54 and '66, and the services 
rendered by the constituent members were narrated. This 
address was not published. With the exception of Dr. Isaac S. 
Mulford, who had been placed on the honorary list, Dr. Cooper 
was the only charter member now living. He had repeatedly 
refused the office of president ; but, at this meeting, the honor 
was bestowed upon him and Dr. I. W. Heulings was elected 



The Camdeii District Medical Society. 113 

vice-president, and Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary and treasurer. 
The president, Dr. J. Orlando White, delivered an address on 
" The Emotions as Therapeutic Agents in the Treatment of 
Disease"; Dr. Cooper read the annual report, in which he 
stated that dysentery, which in years past had been prevalent, 
was disappearing, like intermittent fever, and Dr. T. F. Cullen 
reported a case of extra-uterine gestation at full term, which 
died undelivered. Doctors Cooper and Taylor reported attend- 
ance at the American Medical Association at Washington, D. C. 

The bounds of professional intercourse were extended 
through a resolution, introduced by Dr. Alexander Marcy, 
providing for the appointment of delegates to corresponding 
District Societies, and appointments were made for the first 
time to Burlington, Gloucester and Union District Societies. 
The society, at this time, numbered twenty-one members, to 
whom were added, by election, Doctors John R. Haney, D. P. 
Pancoast, R. B. Okie, I. B. Mulford, Thomas D. Westcott and 
W. H. Ireland, of Camden, and Doctors Joseph W. McCul- 
lough, of Blackwood, and George W. Boughman, of Glouces- 
ter City, the former a graduate of Jefferson Medical College in 
i860 and the latter in 1863. Dr. A. D. Woodruff resigned 
because of his removal to Maryland. Dr. Woodruff served 
as president of the society in 1854, and was elected an honorary 
member on his retirement. 

[1872.] The annual meeting of the society was held on 
May 14th, with Dr. R. M. Cooper in the chair. The medical 
census of the county, as reported at this time, showed that 
there were fifty-two physicians residing in the county, most of 
whom were engaged in active practice. Of these, there were 
thirty-three regular graduates, practicing as such, twenty-one 
of whom resided in Camden, four in Haddonfield, three in 
Blackwood, three in Gloucester, and one each in Waterford and 
Berlin. Twenty-four were members of the County Medical 
Society. There were fourteen practicing homoeopathy, includ- 
ing one regular graduate ; there were also five eclectics. There 
was an increase of twenty-five physicians in the county since 
the last medical census, in 1852. Dr. Cooper delivered the 
annual address and reported for the standing committee the 



H4 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

subject of small-pox, then prevailing in epidemic form, and 
Dr. Joseph F. Garrison read a paper on "European Hospitals." 
Doctors Schenck, Cullen and Snowden attended the American 
Medical Association at Philadelphia, May 7th. Dr. I. W. 
Heulings was elected president ; Dr. J. V. Schenck, vice-presi- 
dent ; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary and treasurer, and Dr. 
Edwin Tomlinson, of Gloucester City, a graduate of Jefferson 
Medical College, 1872, a member. Delegates were appointed 
to corresponding societies. 

[1873.] The close relationship between the Masonic 
fraternity and the medical profession led Camden Lodge, No. 15, 
F. and A. M., to offer, through Colonel Thomas McKeen and 
William H. Gamble, the use of its room for the meetings of 
the County Society. This offer, however, the society declined 
with regret, because of the inconvenient location, and the 
annual meeting was held at the West Jersey Hotel. A marked 
progress was made by the adoption of a provision, introduced 
by Dr. N. B. Jennings, re-establishing the semi-annual meeting 
on the second Tuesday in November, which had been discon- 
tinued in 185 1. The president, Dr. I. W. Heulings, delivered 
an address upon "The Profession and the People"; Dr. J. V. 
Schenck read the annual report and Dr. H. Genet Taylor 
reported attendance at the American Medical x\ssociation at 
St. Louis. Dr. Schenck was elected president; Dr. J. W. 
Snowden, vice-president ; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary and 
treasurer, and Dr. Charles H. Shivers, of Haddonfield, a former 
student at Bucknell University and the University of Penn- 
sylvania and a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 1872, was 
elected a member. The usual delegates were appointed. The 
semi-annual meeting was held at Cooper's Point Hotel, Novem- 
ber nth, when the society went into a committee of the whole 
for the discussion of such medical topics as might be presented. 
The following papers were read: "Use of the Forceps" and 
"Hypodermatic Medication," by Dr. R. M. Cooper; "Rupture 
of the Perineum," by Dr. T. F. Cullen, and "Ovarian Cysts," 
by Dr. I. B. Mulford. Among the visitors present were 
Professor William Goodell, Dr. Franklin Gauntt and Dr. 
Thomas G. Rowand. 



The Medical Society of New Jersey. 115 

[1874.] The annual meeting of the society was held at 
Cooper's Point Hotel, May nth, when Dr. Schenck, the 
president, delivered an address on "Physiognomy of Disease"; 
Dr. Taylor read the annual report, in the absence of Dr. Cooper, 
who was sick; resolutions, expressive of sympathy for Dr. 
Cooper, "the Nestor of the society," were passed, and he was 
unanimously elected permanent president. Dr. Cullen was 
elected vice-president ; Dr. Taylor, secretary, and Dr. Mulford, 
treasurer, this being the first time that the office of treasurer 
was held separately from that of secretary. On May 24th, 
Dr. Cooper died, after an illness of several months, and, at the 
semi-annual meeting in November, Dr. Cullen presided and 
committees were appointed to take charge of the legacy left by 
Dr. Cooper to the society, and to arrange for a reception to the 
State Medical Society at its ensuing meeting at Atlantic City. 

Section IV. — The Medicae Society of New Jersey. 

[1870.] The society met at Trenton, on May 24th and 
25th, with Dr. R. M. Cooper present as a Fellow and as a 
reporter, Dr. T. F. Cullen as first vice-president and Doctors 
Ridge, Branin, Comfort and White, as delegates from the 
Camden District Society. Dr. Cullen was elected president 
and Dr. Cooper a representative to the American Medical 
Association. An elaborate memoir of Dr. O. H. Taylor was 
presented and ordered published in the Transactions. 

[187 1.] The annual meeting was held at Flemington, 
May 23rd, and was of special interest to Camden physicians on 
account of the presidency of Dr. Cullen. For the third time, 
Camden County Society had been honored with this position, 
Dr. O. H. Taylor having held it in 1852 and Dr. R. M. Cooper 
in 1856. Dr. Cullen had well earned this high honor. He 
was the recognized leader of medical thought in the county ; 
an accepted court expert ; distinguished as a surgeon, and 
favorably known in politics and polite literature. From his 
first association with the society, he imparted to it so much of 
his strong personality that his presidency was regarded with 
great favor. He delivered his annual address on " The Posi- 
tion, Rights and Duties of the Medical Expert in a Court," 



n6 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

concluding that medical colleges should establish duplex pro- 
fessorships on medical jurisprudence for the education and self- 
protection of the physician and the more effective practice of 
the lawyer. The curriculum of medical study, " by which 
mediocrity and even still slighter capacity secures, with ease, 
the diploma that admits its possessor into the fellowship of the 
medical profession," was reviewed with emphatic disfavor. 
Doctors Schenck, White and Heulings were present as dele- 
gates at this meeting. 

[1872.] On May 28th, the society met at Paterson, with 
Dr. Cullen present as a Fellow, and Doctors Ridge, Schenck, 
Taylor, Mulford and Marcy, as delegates. Dr. A. M. Mecray 
presented a paper on " Narcotism" from the hypodermatic use 
of one-third grain of morphia, and Dr. Cooper, a case of cyst of 
the right kidney, with the report of the standing committee. 

[1873.] At the annual meeting of the society at Mt. 
Holly, in May, Dr. John V. Schenck was elected third vice- 
president and Dr. H. Genet Taylor presented the report of the 
standing committee for the county, in the place of Dr. Cooper. 
Doctors Marcy, Jennings, Shivers, Schenck and Taylor were 
present as delegates. 

[1874.] The custom of holding the annual meeting of 
the society at prominent resorts along the coast was inaugurated 
this year and, for the first time in its history, the society met at 
Ivong Branch. The innovation proved so acceptable that it has 
since been continued. Dr. Schenck delivered an address on 
"Obstetrical Forceps," in which he stated that the profession 
should " sing paeans of praise to the inventor of the forceps, 
and that he who stands by the couch of suffering and lends 
no helping hand is unworthy of a position in the grand 
profession of medicine, since the forceps robs obstetrics of 
its greatest annoyances and anxieties." Dr. Schenck was 
elected second vice-president and Dr. Taylor presented the 
annual report for the county. Upon the invitation of the 
Camden County Society, the next annual meeting was 
voted to be held at Atlantic City, and Doctors Cullen, 
Snowden, Taylor and Stevenson were appointed to perfect 
the arrangements. 



The New Jersey State Homoeopathic Medical Society. 117 

Section V. — The New Jersey State Homceopathic 
Medical Society. 

[1870.] Immediately following the revocation of the 
censorship of the Medical Society of New Jersey over medical 
practice in 1854, the homceopathic physicians of New Jersey 
organized a State Medical Society, but did not secure its 
incorporation until this year (1870). On February 9th, the 
Act incorporating the New Jersey State Homceopathic Medical 
Society was passed and provided "that the regular members 
shall have all the benefits and privileges that any duly 
licensed physicians or surgeons now have, or may hereafter 
have, under any law of this State." In 1884, a supplementary 
Act was passed defining a homceopathic physician "as a graduate 
of a homceopathic medical college or a member of a homceo- 
pathic medical society." The incorporation of the society 
was due, in a large measure, to the efforts of the West Jersey 
Homceopathic Medical Society. Doctors Wallace McGeorge, 
H. F. Hunt and C. J. Cooper, of Camden, were among the 
incorporators. The object of incorporation was to secure the 
advancement of medical science, the mutual improvement 
of the members and the protection of their legal rights. 
Authority was given to organize county societies. Among 
the homceopathic physicians of Camden county who have 
joined the society are the following : Doctors H. F. Hunt, M. 
F. Middleton, E. M. Howard, C. J. Cooper, P. W. Andrews, 
Wallace McGeorge, T. R. Blackwood, W. G. DuBois, M. F. 
Eaton, G. R. Fortiner, Ida R. Fortiner, Anna E. Griffith, W. 
H. Hunt, J. D. Eeckner, S. H. Quint, W. S. Moslander, S. 
Bryan Smith, E. R. Tullis, W. C. Williams, G. D. Woodward, 
James A. George and W. W. Knowlton, of Camden ; E. K. 
McGill, of Collingswood ; J. L. Artz, of Dudley; B. H. 
Shivers and F. E. Williams, of Haddonfield, and J. M. Hinson, 
of Merchantville. Doctors H. F. Hunt, Wallace McGeorge 
and E. M. Howard have served as presidents of the society ; 
Dr. G. D. Woodward, as vice-president and Dr. Wallace 
McGeorge as secretary.* 



transactions of the New Jersey State Homceopathic Medical Society, 1891. 



n8 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Section VI. — New Jersey State Dental Society. 

[1870.] The profession of dentistry in West Jersey was 
crystallized into the organization known as the West Jersey 
Dental Association, November 11, 1867 ; but this organization 
was absorbed by the New Jersey State Dental Society, organized 
October 25, 1870, and incorporated March 14, 1873. T ne 
incorporative Act made it " unlawful for any person to engage 
in the practice of dentistry unless a graduate of a chartered 
dental college " ; provided for a State Board of Examiners to 
be elected by the societ)* and for the granting of certificates 
to applicants who passed a satisfactory examination. The 
society took an active interest in building up the profession 
and, in 1880, secured the passage of a supplementary Act, 
making it unlawful to engage in the practice of dentistry 
unless a regular course of instruction of at least one year had 
been pursued in a reputable and chartered dental college, or a 
certificate or diploma had been granted by a board of dentists 
authorized to issue such. The filing of the diploma with the 
county clerk was also required. In 1882, Dr. A. Irwin was 
elected a member and is the only Camden dentist connected 
with the society. In 1884, a further supplement was passed 
regulating dental practice and, in 1890, a State Board of 
Registration and Examination in Dentistry was created, 
consisting of five persons appointed by the Governor upon 
the recommendation of the State Dental Societ}" and the 
dental enactments of 1873, '8° and '84 were repealed. This 
board was given supervision over the practice of dentistry in 
New Jersey. With the West Jersey Association, Dr. J. B. 
Wood, of Camden, served as secretary. Dr. D. W. Neal, 
of Camden, was the first dentist in the United States to 
manufacture porcelain teeth.* Among the prominent dentists 
of the county are the following : Doctors A. E. Street, 
Henry F. Chew, Alphonso Irwin, E. E. Bower, J. E. Duffield, 
B. E. Fortiner, W. W. Morgan, F. M. Smith, C. P. Tuttle, 
S. G. Wallace, William Blanc, B. R. West, M. F. Worrell, 
W. H. Gelston, Charles W. Street, Marvin A. Street and 
Christopher S. Street. 

* MS. notes of A. Irwin, D. D. S. 



Miscellaneous Interests. 119 

Section VII. — Miscellaneous Interests. 

A. WATER-SUPPLY. 
[1870.] Originally established in 1845 as a private enter- 
prise, on the site now occupied by the Esterbrook pen factory, 
the Camden Water- works Company failed to keep pace with the 
growing demands of the city and was a source of public dis- 
satisfaction for a number of years. A better water-supply had 
frequently been demanded by the medical profession, and this 
year the water-works, which had been established at Pavonia, 
passed into the control of the city, a result which Doctors 
Reynell Coates and James M. Ridge largely contributed to 
bring about. Notwithstanding the change in ownership, and 
the oversight of city officials, the quality of the supply is still 
unsatisfactory. 

B. INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS. 

[1870.] This Order has always been popular with the 
medical profession, since its introduction into this country in 
18 1 9,* and, like it, is bound to humanity by the triple links of 
friendship, love and truth. The first lodge in New Jersey was 
established in Camden in 1829, an d the State Grand Lodge in 
1833. I n I 87o, Dr. William H. Iszard was made a Grand 
Representative to the State Lodge and became a Grand Master, 
and, in 1881, was made a representative to the Sovereign Grand 
Lodge, a position which he has held continuously since. 
Dr. T. R. Blackwood has served as a representative in the 
Sovereign, and also in the State, Grand Lodge. In 1882, 
Dr. Iszard became a Patriarch Militant, serving as surgeon- 
general, and Dr. William B. Christine served as siirgeon of the 
Order in New Jersey, with the rank of major, and as Past Grand, 
since 1885. Dr. B. S. Lewis has served as Past Noble Grand 
of the Order. Among the members of the Order in the county 
are the following : Doctors James M. Ridge, H. E. Branin, 
D. H. Bartine, W. T. Collins, E. E. DeGrofft, C. J. Hoell, 
W. S. Long, Wallace McGeorge, G. E. Kirk, J. W. Donges, 
N. A. Cohen, R. I. Haines, J. E. Hurff, P. W. Beale, J. M. 
Walmsley, G. W. Henry, L. B. Hirst, W T illiam I. Kelchner, 
O. W. Braymer, Jerome L. Artz and Edgar B. Sharp. 

* Odd Fellowship, by Theo. A. Ross. 



120 History Medical Profession Camde?i County. 

C. MASONIC. 

[1870.] The reorganization of Camden Lodge, No. 15, 
F. and A. M., in 1850, paved trie way for the rapid rise of the 
Masonic fraternity in Camden. Acting under the strict super- 
vision of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, which, since its 
organization in 1786, has preserved with jealous care the tradi- 
tions and landmarks of the craft, and, by frequent visitations of 
its officers, disciplines subordinate lodges into harmonious 
operations, Camden Lodge became popular and enrolled among 
its members many of the leading citizens of the county. As 
its membership assumed proportions warranting the institution 
of other lodges, it cheerfully embraced the opportunity to 
extend the filial bonds of the fraternity, and, from its bosom, 
Ionic, Trimble, Merchantville and Haddonfield Lodges sprang 
into full-fledged activity. In 1870, Trimble Lodge, No. 117, 
F. and A. M., was constituted, with Dr. H. Genet Taylor as 
one of its charter members. Among the members of this 
lodge are, or have been, Doctors Joseph F. Garrison, Charles G. 
Garrison, John H. Austin, Henry F. Chew, Dowling Benjamin, 
W. R. Powell, W. H. Hunt, O. B. Gross, S. H. Quint, L. B. 
Hirst, E. R. Tullis, Harry Jarrett, O. W. Braymer and E. L. B. 
Godfrey. During 1870, bodies of Scottish Rite Masonry were 
established in Camden, meeting a higher interest in the 
fraternity and indicating the progress of Masonic sentiment in 
this section. Among the physicians who became members 
are the following : H. Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray, O. B. 
Gross, H. H. Davis, W. R. Powell, Harry Jarrett, F. P. Pfeiffer, 
J. D. Leckner, C. J. Cooper and L. L. Sharp. 

[187 1.] The Ancient and Honorable Order of Free- 
masonry was further extended this year by the institution of 
Mozart Lodge, No. 121, F. and A. M., through the instru- 
mentality of Dr. Frederick P. Pfeiffer, and others. Dr. Pfeiffer 
was a charter member of Ionic Lodge, and, upon the organiza- 
tion of Mozart Lodge, was made master of the latter, — a posi- 
tion held by him for two years with marked acceptance to the 
members. 

In 1872, Haddonfield Lodge, No. 130, F. and A. M., was 
constituted, with Dr. N. B. Jennings as a charter member and 



Miscellaneous Interests. 121 

past master, by dispensation. Of this lodge, Dr. Lawrence L. 
Glover and Dr. Charles H. Shivers are members, and the latter 
served as master in 1880. 

Of the charter members of the Masonic lodges in the 
county, Doctors C. W. Sartori, A. M. Mecray and F. P. 
PfeifFer were charter members of Ionic Lodge ; Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor, of Trimble Lodge ; Dr. F. P. PfeifFer, of Mozart Lodge, 
and Dr. N. B. Jennings, of Haddonfield Lodge. Dr. Sartori 
attained the position of W. M. in Camden Lodge, Dr. F. P. 
PfeifFer in Mozart Lodge, and Dr. J. D. Leckner in Ionic 
Lodge. 

D. NATIONAL GUARD OF NEW JERSEY. 

[1870.] Following the organization of the Fifth Battal- 
ion of the National Guard of New Jersey in 1869, public 
interests became aroused in military matters and new com- 
panies were recruited, necessitating a regimental formation of 
the battalion. This resulted in the organization of the Sixth 
Regiment, National Guard, in 1870, under the command of 
Colonel James M. Scovel. Dr. H. Genet Taylor was commis- 
sioned major and surgeon and Dr. J. Orlando White first 

lieutenant and assistant surgeon, September 24, 1870, 
[1871.] on Colonel Scovel's staff. On September 11, 1871, 

Lieutenant White resigned and, on September 28th, 
Dr. I. B. Mulford was commissioned first lieutenant and assistant 
surgeon. Under Colonel Scovel, the regiment rendered effective 

service in protecting the ballot in the Centreville riots 
[1873.] °f that year. In 1873, Colonel Scovel resigned the 

command of the regiment and Major-General William 
J. Sewell was elected and commissioned colonel, January 22, 
1873. In 1877, the regiment was ordered on duty to enforce 
the law in the railroad riots at Phillipsburg ; a provisional 
brigade was formed, General Sewell placed in command and 
Major Taylor was made surgeon of the brigade. On Septem- 
ber 7, 1877, Major-General Sewell was promoted to the com- 
mand of the Second Brigade, National Guard, and was 
succeeded by Colonel William H. Cooper. 



122 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

E. EDUCATION. 

[1870.] During this year, Dr. James M. Ridge was 
elected president of the Board of Education of Camden, and 
Dr. A. M. Mecray, superintendent of public instruction. 
Both brought to their positions trained abilities and advanced 
the educational interests of the city. Considerable intellectual 
activity was also displayed in the organization of the Camden 
Literary and Library Association, through the influence of 
Doctors Reynell Coates, I. C. Martindale, F. Bourquin, John F. 
Harned, U. F. Richards and others. At this time, Dr. Coates 
stood in the front rank of polite literature. The organization 
lasted only a short time, but helped to cement the friendship 
of those interested in literary pursuits. In 1872, Dr. C. W. 
Sartori served as a member of the Camden Board of Educa- 
tion ; in 1873, Doctors J. M. Ridge, M. F. Middleton, J. H. 
Austin and J. R. Haney were members, and, in 1874, 
Dr. Haney and Druggists J. C. De La Cour and Herman Miller 
became members. 

F. SMALL-POX. 

[187 1.] In August, an epidemic of small-pox* appear- 
ed in South Camden, but its extent could not be accur- 
ately ascertained because there was no city ordinance re- 
quiring the quarantining or reporting of cases. Dr. R. M. 
Cooper approximated the number of cases at one thousand, 
with one hundred and fifty-seven deaths, in a population of 
twenty-three thousand, which Camden then contained. The 
sanitary committee of Council took charge of the infected 
district and checked, for a time, the progress of the disease, 
but, in October, it spread to other sections of the city. A 
small-pox hospital was then opened by the city and placed in 
charge of Dr. R. W. Morgan, who treated one hundred and 
thirty-three cases with a mortality of 18.2 per cent. The 
mortality, in one hundred and four cases reported in the 
private practice of a number of physicians, averaged 16.4 per 
cent. With the advent of cold weather, the disease spread and 
frequently, among the unvaccinated, assumed a malignant 
form. Dr. Morgan did much to subdue the epidemic and 

* Transactions of the Medical Society of New Jersey for 1872. 



Miscellaneous In teres ts . 123 

received the just praise of the public and of the medical 
profession of the city. 

G. DRUG AND PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS. 

[187 1.] In this year, Dr. J. R. Haney established the 
drug-store on Kaighn's avenue, now occupied by Dr. W. T. 
Collins, and Dr. Max. West bought the store at the corner of 
Fourth and Walnut streets, of Dr. S. Birdsell; in 1872, 
Dr. D. P. Pancoast opened a drug-store at the corner of Fifth 
and Clinton streets, now occupied by Dr. J. W. Fithian, and 
J. E. Lehman, on March 1st, opened the store at the corner of 
Eighth and Market ; in 1874, Dr. R. W. Morgan established 
a drug-store at the corner of Fifth and Kaighn's avenue, and 
George D. Borton purchased the store, at Second and York 
streets, established by Dr. William H. Ireland, in the preced- 
ing year.* 

In 1870, Dr. William C. Mulford moved from Gloucester 
to Charles City, Va., where he died in 1878. Dr. Mulford, in 
his earlier life, was a member of the Salem County Medical 
Society and frequently represented it in the State Society. 
He was favorably known in Masonic and political circles 
and served as superintendent of public schools and also as post- 
master at Gloucester, and as a surgeon in the Civil War, but 
never became identified with the Camden County Medical 
Society. 

In 1872, Dr. Charles H. Shivers located at Haddonfield 
and Dr. Randall W. Morgan received the degree of Ph.D. 
from the University of Pennsylvania ; in 1873, Dr. Silas H. 
Quint, a graduate of Hahnemann Medical College, located in 
Camden ; in 1874, Dr. Anna Elizabeth Griffith, a graduate of 
the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women and 
a member of the staff of the Woman's Hospital, New York, 
and Dr. Elijah J. Snitcher, a graduate of the Chicago Medical 
College, 1874, located in Camden. 

H. NEW JERSEY PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

[1874.] On February 18, 1874, this association was 
incorporated for the advancement of the science of pharmacy 

* Prowell's History of Camden County. 



124 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

and exerted a direct and favorable influence upon the 
profession throughout the State. Among its members were 
J. C. De La Cour, J. L. De La Cour, A. P. Brown, S. T. Ringel, 
A. W. Test, M. Goldsmith, Emmor H. Lee, F. G. Thoman, O. 
G. Taylor, G. W. Henry, of Camden, and W. H. Zelly, of 
Marl ton. J. L. De La Cour served as vice-president in 1874, and 
as president of the association in 1875, an( ^ A. P. Brown 
as recording secretary from 1876 to 1884, and as president in 
1884. In 1877, the association secured the passage of an 
Act, regulating the practice of pharmacy, which provided for 
the appointment of a State Board of Pharmacy. In 1879, 
the Act was amended and, in 1886, further legislation was 
secured, providing that stores for the retailing, dispensing 
or compounding of drugs or medicines must be managed 
by a registered pharmacist ; for the appointment, by the 
Governor, of a State Board of Pharmacy, to consist of five 
members recommended by the association, and for the condi- 
tions for examinations, the regulating of the terms of office, 
place of meeting, compensation and the penalties for procuring, 
or attempting to procure, fraudulent registration. Of this 
board, Professor A. P. Brown, of Camden, was made a member 
in 1883. The board meets on the third Thursday of January, 
April, July and October, alternately at Newark, Trenton, 
Camden and Paterson, and its examination embraces pharmacy, 
materia medica, chemistry and toxicology. 

I. DEATHS OF PROMINENT PHYSICIANS. 

During this period (1870-1875) the profession and public 
were called to mourn the death of the three foremost 
physicians in West Jersey, — Doctors Lorenzo F. Fisler, Isaac 

S. Mulford and Richard M. Cooper. On March 30, 
[1871.] 1871, Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler died of softening of the 

brain, at his residence in Camden, in the seventy- 
fourth year of his age. Dr. Fisler came from a family of 
physicians, his father and twin brother being members of the 
medical profession. In 1 8 1 8, he was graduated from the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania; in 1825, h e was licensed by the Salem 
County Board of Censors and, in 1829, served as a member of 



Miscellaneoiis Interests. 125 

that board. At this time, he practiced at Port Elizabeth. 
In 1837, he moved to Camden, where he at once took a 
commanding position in the medical profession, in politics, 
as a local preacher of the Methodist Church and as a public 
lecturer. In 1840, '41, '42 and '43, he was elected Mayor* of 
Camden ; in 1846, he was one of the petitioners for the 
Camden County Medical Society; in 1848, he was defeated for 
Mayor on the Whig ticket; in 1851, he was elected to the 
same office as the American candidate; in 1852, he was 
again defeated; in 1853, ne was elected Mayor on the Whig 
and American tickets, and in this year, also, he was one of the 
organizers of the Camden City Medical Society ; in 1854, he 
was elected Mayor as the American and anti-Nebraska nominee ; 
in 1858, he wrote and published a " History of Camden" ; in 
1859, he was defeated for Mayor as the Republican candidate; 
in 1865, he gave public lectures in aid of the Sanitary Fair; in 
1866, he was defeated for Mayor as the Democratic candidate. 
In this year, he was prominent in the organization of the 
Camden City Dispensary and, in 1867, he became one of its 
incorporators. As a practitioner of medicine, Dr. Fisler 
displayed great abilities, commanded the confidence of his 
patients and was the first in Camden to use chloroform for 
anaesthetic purposes. As a politician, he was very popular. 
He was a candidate for Mayor of Camden twelve times, eight 
of which he was elected, and represented successively the Whig, 
American, Republican and Democratic parties. In the Metho- 
dist church, he attained distinction as a local preacher. As a 
public lecturer, he was best known by his lectures on "Queen 
Victoria" and "Witchcraft." Appropriate notice was taken 
of his demise by the medical societies and he was interred at 
Port Elizabeth. 

[1873.] O n February 18th, Dr. Isaac S. Mulford, the 
oldest member of the medical profession in Camden county, 
died at his residence in Camden, in the seventy-fifth year of 
his age. Dr. Mulford was graduated from the University of 
Pennsylvania, in 1822, and located in Camden. He was a 
contemporary of Dr. Samuel Harris, the pioneer practitioner 

*Prowell's History of Camden County 



126 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

of Camden, and was the connecting link between the 
physicians in practice anterior to the erection of Camden 
county and his confreres of the County Medical Society. 
Dr. Mulford possessed high professional and literary quali- 
fications and, during the period of his greatest activity, he 
was regarded as the foremost citizen of Camden. His labors 
in behalf of the public-school system, the State, County and 
City Medical Societies, the Camden Dispensary, in the fields of 
literature and politics and, as an elder of the Society of 
Friends, were productive of far-reaching benefits. In 1842, 
the public-school system was broadened by a legislative Act,, 
secured largely through his influence, admitting of direct 
taxation for the support of public schools, in addition to the 
State appropriation. He was identified with the management 
of the schools for many years and, in 1845, was made president 
of the Camden Board of Education. Through his counsel, 
the Board of Education, in 1852, was made a separate factor 
in the city government. In consequence of his efforts for the 
public good, he was made a member of the State Board of 
Education and the Mulford Grammar School of Camden was 
named in his honor. In the State Medical Society, he served 
as a member of the standing committee in 1855, and, for a 
number of years, as chairman of the Board of Censors for 
Camden county. He was a constituent member of the Camden 
County Medical Society in 1846, of the Camden City Medical 
Society in 1853 and of the Camden City Dispensary in 1865. 
In 1848, he published a " History of New Jersey"; in 1861, 
he was foremost among the citizens of Camden to support 
President Lincoln, and his name heads the list of citizens 
called to meet for that purpose. In 1870, he was made an 
honorary member of the Camden County Medical Society, of 
which he was president from 1848 to 1851. Dr. Mulford 
resided on the site now occupied by the Camden Safe Deposit 
and Trust Company, which was chartered the year he died. 
He was buried at Newtown Cemetery. 

On May 24th, Dr. Richard M. Cooper died at his residence, 
Cooper and Second streets, of gout, in the fifty-eighth year of 
his age. He was a son of Hon. Richard M. Cooper, who was a 



Miscellaneous Interests . 127 

State Senator, Judge in Old Gloucester County Court, member 
of Congress, president of the National State Bank of Camden 
and a lineal descendant of William Cooper, who settled in 
Camden in 1682. Dr. Cooper was graduated as an A. B. from 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1836, and as an M. D. in 
1839. He then located in Camden, where he practiced for 
thirty-five years. He soon attained a high position in the 
profession and was regarded as one of the leading physicians in 
New Jersey. At the time of his decease, Dr. Cooper was the 
oldest active practitioner in Camden. In 1846, he was one of 
the organizers of the County Medical Society and served as a 
censor until 1851, and, in 1853, ne became a constituent member 
of the City Medical Society. In 1856, he was elected president 
of the Medical Society of New Jersey and served on the stand- 
ing committee in 1854, '56 and '57. In 1865, he was one of the 
incorporators of the Camden City Dispensary; in 1866, he was 
appointed by Governor Ward a member of the State Sanitary 
Commission, to furnish the State information and advice in 
reference to cholera, this being the first sanitary commission 
ever appointed in New Jersey; in 187 1, he was elected presi- 
dent of the County Medical Society and prepared a history of 
the society, which was never published, and, in 1874, he was 
elected permanent president, — a position never before accorded 
to any one. He was also appointed the same year a member 
of a State commission to examine into the sanitary needs of 
the State, into the laws bearing upon the prevention of disease, 
and to inquire what should be done by the State towards con- 
serving the physical welfare of its citizens. This commission 
made an elaborate report to the Governor and Legislature 
and paved the way for the organization of the New Jersey 
Sanitary Association in the following year, and the establish- 
ment of the State Board of Health in 1878. But before 
the commission had concluded its work, Dr. Cooper died and 
Dr. H. Genet Taylor made the report for Camden, which 
considered the prevailing diseases, drainage, water-supply, 
vaccination and garbage collection. The funeral of Dr. Cooper 
was attended by delegations from the Dispensary, City and 
County Medical Societies and also from the State Society, which 



128 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

was in session at the time. Appropriate resolutions were passed 
by each of these bodies. In addition to his professional repu- 
tation, Dr. Cooper was highly esteemed socially and was 
distinguished for his philanthropy. The hospital, which bears 
the Cooper name, was a favorite project of his, although it was 
not commenced until after the death of his twin brother, 
William D. Cooper. He bequeathed $1,000 to the Camden 
City Dispensary, his medical library to the Camden City 
Medical Society and $3,000 to the Camden County Medical 
Society. The extract from his will, relating to the legacy to 
the County Society, is as follows : 

" I give and bequeath to the Camden County District Medical Society, of 
which I have been a member since its organization, the sum of three thou- 
sand dollars, to be invested by the said society in the loans of the United 
States, the State of New Jersey or the City or County of Camden, or some 
other public loan, and the interest of said sum to be used by the said society 
in the payment of the expenses usually incurred by the said society at its 
annual or other meetings, or for any other expense of said society. 

In case my said executors should think proper to pay said legacy in any 
securities belonging to my estate bearing interest at their market value I do 
authorize and direct them to pay said legacy in such securities instead 
of cash." 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE PERIOD FROM 1875 TO 1880. 

Section I. — The Camden City Dispensary. 

[1875.] The managers of the dispensary, burdened with 
the difficulties of the preceding year, were still unable to 
secure the services of an attending staff of physicians, or the 
appointment, by City Council, of city physicians to attend the 
indigent sick, at stated salaries. Dr. William G. Taylor again 
volunteered his services as medical interne for the year. There 
were, however, four hundred and twenty -seven patients treated, 
at a cost of $627.83. At the annual meeting, John Morgan 
was elected president ; Dr. J. V. Schenck, vice-president ; 
Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary, and Joseph B. Cooper, 
treasurer. The legacies of $1,000 from the estate of Dr. 
Richard M. Cooper, and $500 from Esther L. Cooper, as 
previously mentioned, were acknowledged, which, in addi- 
tion to $2,200 already invested in the bonds of the Camden 
Horse Railroad Company, made a permanent fund of $3,700.. 

[1876.] The annual meeting of this year was held, in 
January, with the following managers present : John Morgan, 
Colonel Thomas McKeen, Joseph B. Cooper, Maurice Brown- 
ing, Rudolphus Bingham, and Doctors J. V. Schenck, H.. 
Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray, D. P. Pancoast, T. F. Cullen and 
J. M. Ridge. The officers of the preceding year were re- 
elected. Five hundred and ninety-eight patients were treated, 
at a cost of $574.48. The appropriation received from City 
Council was $300. 

[1877.] The failure to secure a larger appropriation from 
the city or the appointment of salaried city physicians, and the 
difficulty of securing the services of an attending staff of 
physicians, led to a proposition to the trustees of The Cooper 
Hospital to transfer the dispensary to the hospital manage- 
ment, but the proposition was declined. During the year, 
Dr. William G. Taylor, who had performed the clinical duties 

9 129 



130 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

since 1874, died, and this emphasized the necessity for a change 
in the policy of the institution. Clinics were established at 
the dispensary, and Doctors W. H. Ireland, W. P. Melcher, 
John Miller and E. L. B. Godfrey were appointed by the City 
Medical Society to conduct them. These were the first clinics 
established at the dispensary, but were not successful because 
of the irregular attendance of the physicians. The number of 
cases treated during the year was five hundred and nineteen, 
at a cost of $798.50. The Board of Managers consisted' of the 
same members as in the preceding year, with the exception 
that Doctors Alexander Marcy and I. B. Mulford were elected 
in the place of Doctors T. F. Cullen and J. M. Ridge. The 
officers of the preceding year were re-elected. 

[1878.] Interest in the dispensary was less active -than in 
any previous year, on the part of both the managers and the 
attending staff, who were the same as in 1877.. But one meet- 
ing of the managers was held and the only charitable work 
done, except in the filling of prescriptions for members of the 
City Medical Society, was at the clinics, which were indiffer- 
ently attended by the physicians. Five hundred and sixty- 
eight cases were treated during the year. 

[1879.] The efforts of the managers were not less 
arduous this year in securing the services of an attending staff 
at the dispensary, who, at this time, were appointees of the City 
Medical Society. This difficulty, added to the financial embar- 
rassment of the institution, led the managers to again seek a 
larger appropriation from City Council. At this time, 
medicines were supplied to the poor by druggists in certain 
parts of the city, under contract with Council, and the request, 
in consequence, met with some opposition. But through the 
influence of Dr. John W. Donges, a member of Council, a 
resolution was adopted by Council, directing its sanitary 
committee to enter into an agreement with the Board of 
Managers of the dispensary to supply medicine and medical 
attendance to the poor of the city for $1,600 per annum. 
This action of City Council infused new life into the institu- 
tion. The sanitary committee consisted of William Abels, 
J. Willard Morgan, A. J. Milliette, Elwood W. Kemble and 



The Camden City Medical Society . 131 

Dr. John W. Donges. A joint meeting of the committee and 
dispensary managers was held and the following conditions, 
under which the dispensary should operate, were agreed to : 
" The city to be divided into three medical districts, for each 
of which medicine and a medical attendant should be appointed, 
who, upon application of the sanitary committee or any 
overseer of the poor, should render attendance except in 
parturient cases, or illness or injury induced by intoxication." 
Following this meeting, the committee, on May 29th, intro- 
duced into Council an ordinance, embracing these provisions, 
which was adopted, and, on June 3rd, the contract was signed 
by both parties. The clinical facilities of the institution were 
extended ; the duties of the pharmacist increased, and the 
following medical appointments were made : Dr. O. B. Gross, 
attending physician for the First district ; Dr. C. M. 
Schellenger, for the Second district, and Dr. Maximilian West, 
for the Third. In October, Dr. West resigned and Dr. J. F. 
Walsh was appointed to fill the unexpired term. 

Section II. — The Camden City Medical Society. 

[1875.] Regular quarterly meetings were held at the 
residences of Doctors Cullen, White, Pancoast and Mulford, 
respectively, at each of which quarterly reports were read. At 
the annual meeting, Dr. D. P. Pancoast delivered an address 
on "Disinfectants and Disinfecting Agents," and Dr. T. F. 
Cullen reported a case of yellow fever. Dr. William G. Taylor, 
a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 1873 ; Dr. Maximilian 
West, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, 1875 ; 
Dr. E. J. Snitcher, a graduate of Chicago Medical College, 1874, 
and Dr. R. G. Taylor were elected members. Dr. A. M. 
Mecray was elected president ; Dr. Maximilian West, vice- 
president, and Dr. LB. Mulford, secretary and treasurer. The 
managers for the dispensary were re-elected. 

[1876.] The society was entertained during the year, in 
turn, by Doctors Marcy, Cullen, Morgan and Ireland, each of 
whom read the report for his respective quarter. Dr. A. M. 
Mecray delivered an address on " Quackery" ; Dr. William P. 
Melcher, A. B. of Waterville College, Maine, and M. D. of the 



132 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

University of Pennsylvania in 1876; Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey,. 
Ph. B. of Peddie Institute, 1872, M. D. of Jefferson Medical 
College, 1875, and ex-resident physician of the Presbyterian 
Hospital, Philadelphia, and of the Rhode Island Hospital,. 
Providence, Rhode Island ; Dr. James A. Armstrong, Ph. G. of 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 1855, M. D. of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, 1861, ex-surgeon United States Volun- 
teers, and ex-coroner of Camden, were elected members. Dr. 
Maximilian West was elected president ; Dr. R. W. Morgan, 
vice-president; Dr. I. B. Mulford, secretary and treasurer, and 
Doctors Schenck, Taylor, Mecray, Pancoast, Cullen and Ridge 
were elected dispensary managers. 

[1877.] Regular meetings of the society were held 
during the year and the following papers were read: " Cleft 
Palate," by Dr. H. Genet Taylor ; " Premature Labor," by 
Dr. W. H. Irelnad; "Amputation of the Thigh and Fore- 
Arm," by Dr. A. M. Mecray ; " Alcohol," by Dr. Max. West, 
and " Dislocation of the Lower Jaw," by Dr. E. h- B. Godfrey. 
Dr. E. J. Snitcher was elected president ; Dr. W. P. Melcher, 
vice-president ; Dr. I. B. Mulford, secretary and treasurer, and 
Dr. William A. Davis, a graduate of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1876 ; Dr. Samuel B. Irwin, a graduate of Jefferson 
Medical College, 1844, and ex-surgeon in the U. S. Marine 
Hospital service, and Dr. John S. Miller, a graduate of George- 
town Medical College, were elected members. The managers 
of the dispensary were re-elected, except that Dr. I. B. Mulford 
was chosen to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Dr. T. F. 
Cullen. 

[1878.] In March, Dr. E. U- B. Godfrey entertained the 
society and read a paper on the " Resuscitation of the 
Apparently Dead from Drowning," with the report of a case 
resuscitated after ten hours of continuous ' effort ; in June, the 
society met at the residence of Dr. James A. Armstrong, who 
read a paper on " Bronchocele" and exhibited a case. 
Dr. Melcher was elected president ; Dr. Godfrey, vice-president; 
Dr. Mulford, secretary and treasurer, and Dr. J. F. Walsh, a 
graduate of the University of Pennsylvania in 1876; Dr. O. B. 
Gross, a graduate of the same institution in 1878, and Dr. 



The Camden District Medical Society . 133 

William H. Iszard, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College in 
1870, were elected members. 

[1879.] During this year, but one meeting of the society 
was held, at which Dr. James H. Wroth, a graduate of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 1878, was elected a member. 

Section III. — The Camden District Medical Society. 

[1875.] The preparations for entertaining the State 
Medical Society at Atlantic City, in May, were reported in 
•detail at the annual meeting and included an offer from John 
Lucas to furnish a special, complimentary train, over the Camden 
and Atlantic Railroad from Camden to Atlantic City and return, 
for the use of the delegates and their friends, and the statement 
that arrangements had been made for a complimentary banquet 
at Congress Hall. The report of the committee was unani- 
mously accepted and the society looked forward to the event 
with pleasant anticipations. At this meeting, the "' Dr. Richard 
M. Cooper Legacy," consisting of three one thousand dollar 
"bonds of the West Jersey Railroad Company, was received. 
Dr. Alexander Marcy read the annual report, and, in discussing 
pneumonia, said: "That in the treatment, equal parts of 
syrup of squills and the tincture of veratrum viride, beginning 
with ten drops and increasing one drop every hour until the 
toxic effects of veratrum viride are obtained, or the disease 
yields, will give good results." Dr. T. F. Cullen, in lieu of an 
address, gave an account of the work being done at The Cooper 
Hospital, then in course of construction. Dr. John W. 
S no wden was elected president; Dr. T. F. Cullen, vice-presi- 
dent ; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary, and Dr. I. B. Mulford, 
treasurer. At the semi-annual meeting in November, a large 
number of invited guests were entertained, and a bill, amount- 
ing to $429.50, for entertaining the State Medical Society, 
numbering two hundred and twenty, at a banquet at Congress 
Hall, Atlantic City, was presented and ordered paid. Dr. Maxi- 
milian West was elected a member. 

[1876.] Considerable progress was shown, and professional 
interest in the society was increased, by the establishment 
•of sections on medicine, surgery, obstetrics, pathology and 



134 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

microscopy. The progress of medical science and the desire 
of the members necessitated this innovation and an abundant 
opportunity was offered, at the semi-annual meetings, for its 
exemplification. The success of sectional work was demon- 
strated at the first meeting and led to the appointment of a 
committee, consisting of Doctors H. G. Taylor, J. V. Schenck 
and J. M. Ridge, to revise the constitution and by-laws and to 
make suitable provisions for its continuance. Dr. J. W. 
Snowden, the president, delivered an address on "A Plea for 
Women," in which the principles of gynaecology, then becom- 
ing generally adopted, were ardently advocated. Dr. Alexander 
Marcy was elected president; Dr. Edwin Tomlinson, vice- 
president ; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary ; Dr. I. B. Mulford,. 
treasurer, and Doctors James A. Armstrong, William P. Melcher,. 
E. J. Snitcher, Thomas G. Rowand and E. L. B. Godfrey, 
of Camden; E. B. Woolstou, of Marlton, a graduate of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 1854, and Duncan W. Blake, of 
Gloucester City, a graduate of Philadelphia Medical College, 
1864, and of Jefferson Medical College, 1876, were elected 
members. At the semi-annual meeting, the revised constitu- 
tion was adopted. This provided for the reading of the report 
of the standing committee (practically the medical history of 
the county for the year) at the annual meeting and reports, 
from the sections named, at the semi-annual meeting. The 
constitution also provided for a nominating committee and a 
Board of Censors. 

[1877.] On May 8th, the annual meeting was held at 
Cooper's Point Hotel, with Dr. Alexander Marcy, the president, 
in the chair. Dr. Marcy delivered an address on " The 
Importance of Diseases of Women," in which he traced the 
history of gynaecology, and medicine as applied to women, 
through Egyptian, Greek and Ptolemaic civilization and 
reviewed the present methods of local and general treatment. 
Dr. Edwin Tomlinson, of Gloucester City, was elected presi- 
dent ; Dr. H. A. M. Smith, of Gloucester City, vice-president ; 
Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary ; Dr. I. B. Mulford, treasurer ; 
Dr. J. W. Snowden, chairman of standing committee ; Doctors 
Schenck, Cullen, Snowden, Marcy and Branin were elected 



The Camden District Medical Society. 135 

censors, and Dr. Dowling Benjamin, a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, 1877, and Doctors William A. Davis 
and John S. Miller, of Camden, to membership. At the semi- 
annual meeting, reports were made from sections on medicine, 
surgery and obstetrics. 

[1878.] The society met at Cooper's Point Hotel on 
March nth, with Dr. Edwin Tomlinson in the chair, who 
delivered an address on "Quackery." Dr. Snowden, chairman 
of the standing committee, reported the prevalence of periodical 
fevers in Camden and an epidemic of diphtheria in the Academy 
at Haddonfield, which infected twenty out of forty-five pupils, 
with a death-rate of ten per cent. Dr. H. A. M. Smith was 
elected president; Dr. D. P. Pancoast, vice-president; Dr. H. 
Genet Taylor, secretary ; Dr. I. B. Mulford, treasurer ; Dr. J. W. 
Snowden, chairman of the standing committee; Doctors 
Schenck, Cullen, Snowden, Marcy and Branin were elected 
censors, and Doctors John F. Walsh and S. B. Irwin to mem- 
bership. At this meeting, a committee of arrangements was 
appointed for the first time, through general consent. The 
usual delegates were appointed. At the semi-annual meeting, 
Dr. Snowden made the report for the section on medicine; 
Dr. Godfrey, on surgery; Dr. Schenck, on obstetrics, and Dr. 
Ridge, on pathology. 

[1879.] The annual meeting was held May 12th, with 
Dr. H. A. M. Smith in the chair. Dr. Snowden read the 
annual report and called attention to the increase of typhoid 
fever in Camden and Gloucester City, the prevalence of malar- 
ial fever at Blackwood and Berlin, and to the fact that 
Winslow has always been exempt from malaria, which is due to 
its location within the pine belt and to the sandy, porous soil. 
The constitution was amended to provide that the standing 
committee should consist of five members and that its report 
should be transmitted annually to the State Medical Society. 
Dr. Smith, the president, delivered an address on "The Useful- 
ness of the Society as an Element of Professional Power." 
During the preceding year, the Board of Chosen Freeholders 
erected a three-story brick building with modern appliances, 
on the county farm at Blackwood, for the care of the indigent 



136 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

insane of the county, under the State law, granting counties 
an allowance for such purposes. The building accommodates 
ninety patients and is known as the Camden County Insane 
Asylum. Upon the opening of the building for the reception 
of patients, the board elected Dr. Silas H. Quint, a prominent ' 
homoeopathic physician of Camden, resident physician and 
superintendent. This act at once aroused the opposition of the 
members of the regular profession and, upon the assembling of 
the County Society, Dr. J. M. Ridge introduced a resolution 
calling for the appointment of a committee " to consider what 
action should be taken in reference to the appointment of a 
homoeopathic physician by the Board of Freeholders as resident 
physician of the Camden County Insane Asylum." The resolu- 
tion was adopted and Doctors Ridge, Marcy and Benjamin, of 
Camden ; Dr. N. B. Jennings, of Haddonfield, and Dr. E. B. 
Woolston, of Marlton, were appointed with instructions to 
report their conclusions to the society. The committee met 
in June and, after formulating a plan of action, appointed 
Doctors Dowling Benjamin and O. B. Gross a sub-committee 
to attend the next regular meeting of the Freeholders and 
urge the removal of Dr. Quint. The sub-committee met the 
Freeholders in session and were accorded a hearing, with the 
result that, at the semi-annual meeting of the society, in 
November, Dr. Ridge reported " that the Board of Freeholders 
had replaced Dr. Quint by Dr. J. J. Comfort, a regular physi- 
cian of Haddonfield." Following this, the society appointed 
Doctors Jennings, of Haddonfield ; Branin, of Blackwood ; 
Woolston, of Marlton ; Tomlinson, of Gloucester City ; 
Snowden, of Waterford, and H. Genet Taylor, Ridge and 
Benjamin, of Camden, a visiting committee for the asylum ; 
but they were never officially recognized by the Freeholders 
and, after two visitations, no further appointments were made. 
On June 1, 1880, Dr. Comfort resigned and the Board of Free- 
holders elected Dr. Henry B. Branin medical director to the 
Asylum, a position still retained by him. The following were 
elected officers of the society for the ensuing year : President, 
Dr. D. Parish Pancoast; vice-president, Dr. Charles H. Shivers; 
secretary, Dr. H. Genet Taylor ; treasurer, Dr. I. B. Mulford ; 



The Medical Society of New Jersey . 137 

chairman, standing committee, Dr. J. W. Snowden ; censor for 
five years, Dr. N. B. Jennings. Doctors O. B. Gross, W. H. 
Iszard, and James H. Wroth were elected members, and 
Dr. W. P. Melcher resigned upon removing to Pemberton. 
Dr. Melcher subsequently removed to Mt. Holly, where he now 
enjoys a lucrative practice. At the semi-annual meeting, 
reports were made in the sections on medicine, surgery and 
obstetrics. 

Section IV. — The Medical Society of New Jersey. 

[1875.] The innovation of holding the State Medical 
Society at the sea-shore furnished the Camden County Society 
an opportunity, long desired, of inviting the State Medical 
Society to meet in South Jersey. At the annual meeting at 
Ivong Branch in the preceding year, the State Society accepted 
an invitation to hold its next meeting at Atlantic City, as 
the guest of the Camden County Society. Extensive arrange- 
ments were made by the County Society for the occasion. A 
special, complimentary train was tendered by the officers of the 
Camden and Atlantic Railroad Company and, on the evening 
of May 25th, the date of the meeting, a complimentary 
banquet was served for two hundred and twenty guests, at a 
cost of $429.50. This afforded the first instance in which a 
County Society entertained the New Jersey Medical Society as 
its guest and the first occasion on which a complimentary train 
was placed at the disposal of either society. Camden was well 
represented at the convention. Dr. T. F. Cullen was present 
as a Fellow; Dr. J. V. Schenck, as second vice-president; 
Dr. Alexander Marcy, as reporter for the County Society ; 
Dr. J. W. Snowden, as chairman of the committee of arrange- 
ments and Doctors Mulford, Taylor, Haney, Jennings and 
Ridge attended as delegates. Dr. Cullen read a paper on "Dis- 
location of the Radius and Ulna" and reported a case of "A 
Male Monstrosity," with photographic views; Dr. Marcy pre- 
sented a paper on "Remitting Fever," and Dr. Schenck pre- 
sented a paper on an "Interesting Case of Labor," and was 
elected first vice-president. 



138 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

[1876.] On May 23d, the society met at Cape May and 
was given special, complimentary transportation over the 
West Jersey Railroad, through the influence of the Camden 
County Society. Dr. Ridge, in his report of the standing 
committee of the County Society, discussed the germ theory of 
disease and alluded to the close relation between putrefaction, 
fermentation and zymosis. He also made a special report of 
the treatment of a case of fibroid tumor by hypodermatic injec- 
tions of ergot and presented a paper on " Theories of Fermen- 
tation." Dr. J. V. Schenck was elected president; Dr. J.»M. 
Ridge was made one of the delegates to the International 
Medical Congress, and Dr. H. Genet Taylor, a delegate to the 
American Medical Association, both of which met in Philadel- 
phia during the Centennial year. 

[1877.] The annual meeting of the society was held in 
Trenton, May 22d, with President John V. Schenck, of 
Camden, in the chair and with Doctors Snowden, Branin, 
Godfrey, Melcher and Taylor present as the representatives of 
the Camden Society. There were ninety-eight delegates present 
from a membership of four hundred and fifty-eight in the Dis- 
trict Societies. Dr. Schenck delivered his address on "The 
Physician, Physically, Mentally and Morally Considered." He 
claimed that, "In none of the learned professions is a higher 
grade of health required than for the student of medicine. The 
practitioner of medicine is too lavish of his vital powers ; he 
peals his own death-knell in the vain effort to answer all the 
demands upon him. Intellectually, a first-class preliminary 
education is required. * * * Medicine has always been 
progressive and the medical investigator yokes to his car the 
scientist of every field. * * * As a moralist, a wide range 
of duty is open. * * * The votaries of medicine have 
occupied a place in history from the earliest time. Its prac- 
titioners have kept pace with the sciences, art and learned 
professions. The accomplishments of the medical profession 
are great, and noble should be the monument erected to the 
fame of those who have preceded us." 

[1878.] On May 28th, the State Society met at Spring 
Lake with Doctors H. Genet Taylor, Snowden, Benjamin, 



The Netv Jersey Sanitary Association. 139 

Woolston and Stevenson present as delegates from Camden. 
Dr. Taylor was appointed, by the president, essayist for the 
next meeting. 

[1879.] O n May 27th, the society met at Englewood, 
with Dr. J. V. Schenck present as a Fellow; Dr. J. W. 
Snowden, as reporter, and Doctors H. Genet Taylor, Ridge, 
Branin, White, Benjamin and Woolston, as delegates from 
Camden. Dr. Taylor read an essay on "The Unity of the 
Medical Profession." He claimed, in substance, that the 
physician should possess a unity of mind and purpose ; that the 
aim of professional intercourse should be to repel any attack 
upon the dignity and rights of the profession ; that the char- 
acter of a physician should have a mighty influence over his 
patients, and that the physician should feel himself charged at 
all times with the care of the profession as a whole. 
Dr. John W. Snowden, of Waterford, was elected third vice- 
president. 

Section V. — The New Jersey Sanitary Association. 

[1875.] The first definite movement in the direction of 
State sanitation in New Jersey was made in 1866, when a 
legislative Act was passed empowering Governor Marcus L. 
Ward to appoint a sanitary commission for the purpose of 
reporting to the Governor, at as early a date as practical, "such 
information and advice as they might deem important in refer- 
ence to Asiatic cholera." This enactment was effected through 
the influence of Doctors Ezra M. Hunt and Samuel Lilly, who, 
with Dr. Richard M. Cooper, of Camden, and others, were 
appointed members of the commission. In 1874, another 
step was taken in State sanitation, through the influence of 
Dr. Hunt, and a law was enacted, providing for a Health Com- 
mission to be appointed by the Governor to inquire, among 
other duties, "what ought to be done by the State towards 
conserving the physical welfare of its citizens." Dr. R. M. 
Cooper was also appointed a member of this commission. The 
report of this commission increased popular interest in sanitary 
matters with the result that, on September 24th, a call was 



140 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

issued by Dr. Hunt and others to prominent physicians and 
sanitarians throughout the State to meet at Newark, N. J., 
October 13th, to discuss sanitary matters. At the appointed 
time, the meeting was held and was presided over by Dr. 
Stephen Wickes, of Orange, N. J., the distinguished author of 
the " History of Medicine and Medical Men in New Jersey." 
As a result of the conference, the New Jersey Sanitary Associ- 
ation was formed. Frederick Bourquin, a member of the 
sanitary committee of City Council, represented Camden. 
The organization was effected on a liberal basis ; physicians, 
sanitarians, pharmacists, teachers, architects, civil engineers, 
and all those impressed with the claims of sanitary science, 
and interested in public and personal hygiene, were invited to 
become members. From the outset, the organization met with 
favor from sanitarians ; meetings have been held annually and 
the association has become a potent factor, within the State, in 
matters of sanitation. Camden county has furnished two 
presidents for the association, — Dr. Dowling Benjamin in 1889 
and Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey in 1892. Rev. F. R. Brace, Ph.D., 
of Blackwood; Doctors Dowling Benjamin, Daniel Strock, 
E. E. B. Godfrey, Hon. L. T. Derousse and Richard H. Reeve, 
of Camden, and Arnold H. Moses, of Merchantville, have 
served in the executive council. Dr. Daniel Strock was elected 
recording secretary of the association in 1894. Among those 
who have been elected to membership from Camden county are 
the following : Hon. H. L. Bonsall, Dr. B. S. Lewis, Henry 
B. Francis, E. E. Read, Jr., Dr. William Shafer, Dr. W. B. E. 
Miller, Dr. W. H. Iszard, Dr. E. M. Howard, Dr. W. A. Davis 
and Prof. C. Henry Kain, of Camden ; Dr. J. A. Walmsley, of 
Gloucester, and Dr. Henry E. Branin, of Blackwood. In 1877, 
Rev. Dr. F. R. Brace, superintendent of public schools for 
Camden county, made a report on "School Hygiene," in which 
the location, structure, air-space, lighting and heating of school- 
houses were elaborately set forth.* 

* History of Sanitation in New Jersey, by E. t,. B. Godfrey, A. M., M. D. 



Charitable Institutions. 141 

Section VI. — Charitable Institutions. 

A. THE COOPER HOSPITAL. 

[1875.] The Cooper Hospital was incorporated March 24, 
1875, under the name of "The Camden Hospital," but the 
name was changed to the present one, March 6, 1877, by legis- 
lative enactment. From the experiences of a medical practice 
extending over a period of thirty-five years, and from long 
connection with the management of the Camden City Dispen- 
sary, Dr. Richard M. Cooper appreciated the urgent need of a 
hospital for the city of Camden, and impressed upon his twin 
brother, William D. Cooper, the manager of the Cooper estate, 
his sisters, Sarah W. and Elizabeth B. Cooper, and his medical 
confreres the importance of establishing such an institution. 
Dr. Cooper, however, died in 1874, without bequeathing any 
part of his estate for hospital purposes, with the exception of 
$1,000 to the Camden City Dispensary. In 1875, William 
D. Cooper died, without perfecting a plan for a hospital or 
leaving a bequest for hospital purposes. But the subject had 
been so frequently considered by the Cooper family that, in his 
last illness, William D. Cooper designated to his brother 
Alexander, and his sisters, Sarah and Elizabeth, the grounds 
upon which he would like a hospital to be erected, and named 
Albert W. Markley, Charles P. Stratton, Rudolphus Bingham, 
Dr. Thomas F. Cullen, Joseph B. Cooper, Augustus Reeve, 
Alexander Cooper, John W. Wright and Peter L. Voorhees as 
trustees. An Act of incorporation was secured, March 24, 
1875, after which Alexander Cooper, Sarah W. Cooper and 
Elizabeth B. Cooper, desirous of carrying out the wishes of 
their brother, conveyed the grounds valued at $50,000, upon 
which the hospital now stands, to the trustees, and Sarah W. 
and Elizabeth B. Cooper jointly donated $200,000. Upon 
receiving this donation, the trustees began the erection of the 
present building, which was completed in 1877, but the 
expense of construction proved so great that its opening was 
delayed until August 11, 1887. In the meantime, Sarah W. 
Cooper died (1880) and bequeathed to the institution $25,000, 



142 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

which was supplemented by a further gift of $25,000 from 
Elizabeth B. Cooper, who died in ii 



B. WEST JERSEY ORPHANAGE. 

[1875.] The West Jersey Orphanage was chartered during 
the preceding year, under the management of the Society of 
Friends, and opened in February, 1875, for the reception of 
colored children. The object of the Orphanage is to provide a 
home for destitute colored children, to furnish them the means 
of acquiring an elementary education and to afford them, at a 
suitable age, an opportunity to learn a trade or engage in a 
useful occupation. The Orphanage is governed by a Board of 
Trustees, composed of gentlemen, and a Board of Managers, 
consisting of ladies. In the report for 1894, the Board of 
Trustees consisted of the following: President, Howard M. 
Cooper ; first vice-president, Dr. George W. Bailey, of Wenonah; 
second vice-president, Daniel Thackara, of Woodbury ; secre- 
tary and treasurer, Alexander C. Wood, of Camden ; solicitor, 
Howard M. Cooper ; physician, Dr. Alexander McAlister, of 
Camden ; members of the board, Dr. Wallace McGeorge, 
William Bettle, John Cooper, Augustus Reeve, Richard H. 
Reeve, Benjamin C. Reeve, Edward E. Farr, William J. 
Cooper, Henry Troth and Harvey Sharpless, of Camden ; John 
Gill, of Haddonfield ; William J. Evans and David E. Cooper, 
of Marlton ; Thomas W. Synnott, of Wenonah, and Josiah 
Wistar, of Salem. The Board of Managers consisted of the 
following : President, Eucy S. Cooper ; first vice-president, 
Mary Emma S. Wood, of Cinnaminson ; second vice-president, 
Dr. Sophia Presley, of Camden ; treasurer, Rebecca C. W. 
Reeve, of Camden ; secretary, Rebecca C. Reeve, of Philadel- 
phia ; corresponding secretary, Susan S. Wood, of Merchant- 
ville ; secretary of donations, Margaret B. French, of Camden ; 
members, Hannah F. Carter, Moorestown; Susan S. Haines, 
Helen Eippincott and Annie S. Sharp, of Riverton ; Hannah 
H. Stokes and Elizabeth Allen, of Cinnaminson ; Maty E. 
Eyre, of Philadelphia ; Hettie G. Evans and Caroline S. 



* Historical Sketch by Peter L. Voorhees in the Report of the Managers of The Cooper 
Hospital for 1892. 



Miscellaneous Interests. 143 

Haines, of Haddonfield ; Maria M. Clement and Sarah C. 
Griscom, of Woodbury, and Mary L. Troth, Laura W. Scull, 
Elizabeth C. Reeve, Mary R. C. Reeve, Rebecca H. C. Reeve 
and Anna Waring, of Camden. Dr. Isaac B. Mulford was the 
first physician appointed to the Orphanage and was succeeded 
by Dr. Sophia Presley, who in turn was succeeded by Dr. Alex- 
ander McAlister, the present medical director of the institu- 
tion. The management of the Orphanage has always afforded 
the attending physician the best facilities for caring for the 
sick of the institution. On January 2, 1895, an epidemic of 
diphtheria broke out in the Orphanage and infected nineteen 
of the inmates. Upon requisition of Dr. McAlister for anti- 
toxin, a new remedy then coining into vogue, the Board of 
Trustees sent an agent to New York to procure the blood-serum 
from the Pasteur Institute. As soon as the remedy was 
obtained, Dr. McAlister began its immediate use, stopping all 
other forms of treatment, and, in eighteen cases, effected a 
cure. In the case that died, antitoxin was not used because 
death occurred within thirty-two hours after the epidemic 
began and before the antitoxin could be procured. This was 
the first instance in which antitoxin treatment was employed 
in Camden county in diphtheria cases. Within three months, 
Dr. McAlister used it in nine cases in his private practice, mak- 
ing a total of twenty-seven cases, with a death-rate of seven per 
cent. Of these, twelve were laryngeal cases, with a death-rate 
of eight and one-half per cent., — one case dying. 

Section VII. — Miscellaneous Interests. 

a. physicians and druggists. 

[1875.] The drug interests of Camden were extended by 
the opening of stores at the following locations : Broadway and 
Ferry avenue, by Dr. J. W. Donges ; Linden and Fourth streets, 
by Emmor H. Lee, who was succeeded by Stanley C. Muschamp 
and, later, by Lewis H. Wilson ; Third and Kaighn's avenue, 
by Dr. H. H. Davis, now owned by Dr. R. I. Haines, and 
Fourth and Walnut streets by Dr. Maximilian West, 
[1876.] successor to S. W. Cochran. In 1876, Dr. D. P. 



144 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Pancoast opened a drug-store at Sixth and Royden streets. 
During the year, Doctors Dowling Benjamin, William A. 
Davis, E. Iv. B. Godfrey and John D. L,eckner, the latter a 
graduate of Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia in 
1873, located in Camden, and Edgar B. Sharp, a graduate of 

Hahnemann Medical College, 1876, located at Berlin. 
[1877.] In 1877, Dr. W. A. Davis opened a drug-store at 

Third and Washington streets, now owned by Dr. J. S. 
Baer, and Richard S. Justice, a graduate of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, opened a store at Fifth and Elm streets. 
During this year, Dr. E. M. Howard, B. S., of Cornell University, 

1873, an d M. D. of the Hahnemann Medical College of 
[1878.] Philadelphia, 1877, located in Camden. During 1878, 

Dr. O. B. Gross and Dr. Willis H. Hunt, the latter a 
graduate of Harvard Medical School, 1877, and of Hahnemann 
Medical College, 1878, located in Camden; Dr. James A. 
Walmsley, graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 1878, located 
at Gloucester City, and R. G. Stevenson, Ph. G., opened the 

drug-store at Sixth and Market streets, now owned by 
[1879.] Frank S. MacPherson. During 1879, Dr - p - w - 

Beale, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College in 
1876, located at Wrights ville, but subsequently removed to 
Camden ; Dr. Franklin E. Williams, a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania in 1878 and of Hahnemann Medical 
College in 1879, located at Haddonfield ; Doctors George R. 
and Ida F. Fortiner, graduates of Penn Medical University, 
1879, an d Dr. Hli R. Tullis, a graduate of Hahnemann Medical 
College, 1879, located in Camden. 

B. EDUCATION. 

[1875.] In 1875, Dr. James M. Ridge represented the 
Third ward of Camden in the Board of Education; in 1876, 
Dr. Max. West served in the board from the Fifth ward ; in 
1878, Dr. J. D. Leckner served as a member of the board, and, 
in 1879, Doctors Dowling Benjamin, H. H. Davis and M. F. 
Middleton were members. 

C. THE CENTENNIAL. 

[1876.] The celebration, in Philadelphia, of the centen- 



Miscellaneous Interests. 145 

nial year of the Nation's independence afforded an opportunity 
for the meeting of various scientific associations of the country. 
In the Fifth International Medical Congress, which met in 
Philadelphia during the year, Dr. James M. Ridge was one of 
the representatives of the New Jersey Medical Society ; in the 
World's Congress of Homoeopathic Physicians, Dr. H. F. Hunt 
was one of the representatives of the New Jersey State Homoeo- 
pathic Society, of which he was president ; and in the American 
Medical Association, Dr. H. Genet Taylor represented the New 
Jersey Medical Society and Doctors Alexander Marcy and 
J. V. Schenck represented the Camden District Medical 
Society. 

D. THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF MEDICINE. 

[1876.] On September 6th, the American Academy of 
Medicine was organized for the purpose of bringing those who 
are alumni of classical, scientific and medical schools into closer 
relationship with each other, to encourage drill in the classics 
before beginning medical study and to extend the bounds of 
medical science. Graduation from a college of the arts and 
sciences in which the degree of A. B. is conferred, or a period 
of residence at such an institution, is essential to membership. 
The academy is intended to encourage an extension of the 
period of medical study and has, in a great degree, accom- 
plished its object. Of the Camden county physicians, Doctors 
Isaac B. Mulford and Orange W. Braymer have been elected to 
membership. 

E. GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. 

[1876. J Following the Civil War, the honorably dis- 
charged soldiers and sailors, imbued with the necessity of 
perpetuating the principles for which they contended and the 
deeds of heroism and patriotism incident thereto, organized the 
Grand Army of the Republic, with the motto of Fraternity, 
Charity and Loyalty. This organization, like the Loyal Legion 
and the Sons of Veterans, was largely effected through the 
influence of a physician; viz., Col. B. F. Stephenson, M.D., of 
Springfield, Illinois. Various Posts, usually named in honor 
of a dead comrade, were organized throughout the country. 



146 History Medical Profession Camden County . 

In January, 1876, T. M. K. Eee Post was organized, in Camden, 
with Doctors H. Genet Taylor and James A. Armstrong among 
its members. Dr. G. S. F. Pfeiffer subsequently became a 
member of the Post. In 1879, William B. Hatch Post was 
established with Dr. Thomas G. Rowand as surgeon, and, later, 
Thomas H. Davis Post was organized, at Haddonfield, with 
Dr. John R. Stevenson as a member. 

F. THE CAMDEN MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 

[1878.] In November, the Camden Microscopical Society 
was organized, largely through the influence of Professor A. P. 
Brown, druggist at Fifth and Federal streets, and lecturer on 
Microscopy at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. The 
upper room of the Camden City Dispensary was furnished for 
the purposes of the society, and cases containing an almost 
complete herbarium of the flora and collection of the minerals 
found in New Jersey, were presented to the society. Among 
the constituent members were Prof. A. P. Brown, Prof. C. 
Henry Kain, Hon E. T. Derousse, Rev. C. F. Bowden, Col. S. 
C. Hufty, H. S. Fortiner, E. E. Read, Jr., I. C. Martindale, 
J. L. De La Cour, John T. Woodhull, Esq., N. F. Cowan, G. G. 
Browning, and Doctors H. Genet Taylor, M. F. Middleton, 
J. H. Wroth, J. F. Walsh, George T. Robinson, S. T. Banes, 
George R. Fortiner and E. L. B. Godfrey. Prof. Brown was 
elected president and J. E. De Ea Cour secretary. The society 
flourished with considerable activity for a number of years and 
gave the public frequent microscopical exhibitions during the 
period of its existence. 

Section VIII. — County Physicians. 

[1876.] The legislative " Act Respecting County Physi- 
cians" was passed April 21, 1876, because of the want of 
medical knowledge among coroners, who were usually laymen, 
and the consequent expense attending their official investiga- 
tions. The Act provided for the election of county physicians 
by Boards of Freeholders; gave them the precedence and 
authority over coroners and justices of the peace, in the investi- 
gation of the causes of casual, accidental and violent deaths, 



New Jersey State Board of Health. 147 

and placed the inmates of county jails under their professional 
care. In 1878, a supplementary Act was passed, empowering 
county physicians to take charge of the remains of the unknown 
dead and to take an inventory of their effects. In 1879, a 
further supplementary Act was passed, fixing the salary of the 
county physician; in 1885, another supplement was enacted, 
making the fees of coroners, for holding inquests or viewing 
bodies, non-collectable without a written order from the 
county physician, unless his permission could not be obtained 
within six hours after being notified in writing by the coroner. 
Further supplementary Acts have been passed, defining 
the powers and duties of county physicians. When the law 
providing for the election of a county physician went into 
effect in Camden county, in 1876, the Board of Freeholders 
advertised for bids from physicians, with responses from six. 
Dr. Randal W. Morgan was elected to the position for five 
years, at a salary of $467 per annum. During his term of 
office, Dr. Morgan went to Europe to regain his health, and, 
in his absence, Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey was qualified as county 
physician. Upon the expiration of the term of Dr. Morgan, 
in 1 88 1, Dr. William H. Ireland was elected to the position for 
three years. He was succeeded by Dr. O. B. Gross in 1884. 
Dr. William H. Iszard was elected in 1887 and re-elected in 
1890. In 1894, Dr. William S. Jones succeeded Dr. Iszard as 
county physician. 

Section IX. — New Jersey State Board of Health. 

[1877.] Following the organization of the New Jersey 
Sanitary Association in 1875, the necessity for a State Board 
of Health became so apparent that the Legislature, through 
the influence of Dr. Ezra M. Hunt and others, enacted, in 
1877, a law instituting a State Board of Health and Vital 
Statistics, which Governor Bedle approved, May 22nd. The 
law provided that the board should take cognizance of the 
sanitary interests and of the health and lives of the people ; 
make sanitary investigations; inquire into the causes of 
epidemics; investigate the diseases of animals and make an 



148 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

annual report to the Governor in December of each year. 
Upon the approval of the enactment on May 22nd, Governor 
Bedle appointed the following gentlemen as members of the 
board : E. A. Osborne, C. E., of Newark ; Laban Dennis, 
M. D. ; Elias J. Marsh, M. D., of Paterson ; Prof. Cyrus 
Brackett, of Princeton ; Surgeon-General Theodore Varick, of 
Jersey City ; Ezra M. Hunt, M. D., of Metuchen, and James 
M. Ridge, M. D., of Camden. In the organization of the 
board, Dr. E. J. Marsh was elected president and Dr. Ezra M. 
Hunt secretary, — a position retained by the latter until his 
death, in 1894. During the year, Dr. James M. Ridge 
presented a studied communication on " Domestic Hygiene," 
discussing with elaboration the subjects of air, water and 
food, which was published in the annual report. Although 
appointed for five years, Dr. Ridge resigned from the board 
in 1879. " The board took a wide and comprehensive 
view of its sphere and privileges. A critical examination of 
its reports and circulars shows that a definite plan was pursued, 
which was the diffusion of sanitary information, first, among 
the members of the medical profession, and, second, among the 
people. Next to physicians, the board enlisted the interest of 
civil engineers, teachers, architects, chemists, plumbers and 
members of other allied callings. Even the agricultural popu- 
lation was reached through circular information given concern- 
ing the care of animals in contagious diseases. By its reports 
and circulars, by the use of the press, by conferences with boards 
of trade, local boards of health, common councils and mayors 
of cities, and by talks on sanitary subjects, the board educated 
a sentiment throughout the State so favorable to sanitary- 
progress that the laws relating to public health have been revo- 
lutionized in New Jersey." * 

Section X. — Deaths. 

[1875.] During the period under consideration, the 
medical profession and the public were called to mourn the 
death of Doctors Charles W. Sartori and Charles F. Clark, of 

*The Progress of Sanitation in New Jersey, by E. L. B. Godfrey, A. M., M. D. 



Deaths. 149 

Camden ; Dr. Martin Synnott, of Blackwood, and Doctors- 
William G. Taylor and Thomas F. Cullen, of Camden. 

Dr. Charles W. Sartori died at his residence in Camden, 
October 24th. Dr. Sartori is accredited by Stevenson as being 
a graduate from Jefferson Medical College in 1829, ^ ut hi s 
'name does not appear in the catalogue of graduates. During 
the Civil War, Dr. Sartori served with distinction in the 
United States Navy from May 18, 1 861, to July 19, 1864, as 
an acting assistant surgeon, which has been previously related. 
After the war, he located in Camden and engaged in teaching 
in the public schools, in which he became a principal. He 
was also a member of the Board of Education. In Masonry, 
Dr. Sartori took an active interest and became Master of 
Camden Lodge and a charter member of Ionic Lodge. He 
never affiliated with either the City or the County Medical 
Society. 

Dr. Charles F. Clark, an honorary member of the Camden 
City Medical Society, died at his residence, in Camden, in 
September. Dr. Clark practiced medicine at Woodbury and,, 
with Doctors I. S. Mulford and Samuel Harris, of Camden, was 
one of the constituent members of the Gloucester County 
Society at its reorganization in 1835, and again in 1846. 
Upon retiring from practice in Woodbury, he moved to 
Camden. He was succeeded at Woodbury by his son, Dr. H. 
C. Clark. 

[1877.] Dr. Martin S. Synnott died at Blackwood, in 
1877, of consumption. Dr. Synnott was graduated from Jeffer- 
son Medical College in 1839. He began practice at Chew's 
Landing, but subsequently removed to Blackwood.* 

Dr. William G. Taylor, son of Dr. R. G. Taylor, died at 
his residence in Camden, April 8, 1877, and was buried at 
Evergreen Cemetery. Dr. Taylor was graduated from Jefferson 
Medical College in March, 1873, an( ^ entered upon the work 
of a missionary under the Presbyterian Board of Foreign 
Missions. "On June 11, 1873, he sailed from New York for 
Africa. His station was Gaboon, on the west coast, and his 
duty was to visit monthly, or oftener, the stations between it 



*The Medical History of Atlantic County, by J. B. Somers, M.D. 



15° History Medical Profession Camden County. 

and Benita, a point one hundred miles north. The mode of 
travel was by sea, in an open boat five and one-half feet wide 
by twenty-six long. This exposed life and repeated attacks of 
African fever impaired his health and, after two years' labor, 
he returned home."* Dr. Taylor served as physician to the 
Camden City Dispensary. 

Dr. Thomas F. Cullen died in Camden, November 21, 
1877, of consumption, in the fifty-sixth year of his age. 
Dr. Cullen was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1844, an d was one of the most distinguished physicians of 
his time in New Jersey. He was the recognized leader of the 
profession in West Jersey. As a surgeon, he possessed decided 
merit, but never sought notoriety by the use of the knife. In 
his every-day life, he was noted for upholding the honor and 
dignity of the medical profession, and, as a strict observer of 
professional etiquette, he became closely attached to his profes- 
sional brethren by the ties of a common brotherhood which 
were strengthened by his superior wisdom and skill. As a 
court expert, Dr. Cullen was greatly distinguished. In 1850, 
he joined the County Medical Society and became its president 
in 1857; in 1853, ne > with others, organized the Camden City 
Medical Society; in 1866, he was one of the incorporators of 
the Camden City Dispensary; in 1870, he was elected president 
of the Medical Society of New Jersey and, in 1874, he was one 
of the incorporators of the Cooper Hospital. Dr. Cullen wrote 
many valuable medical and surgical papers and attained a 
reputation as a dramatist, as well as a musical composer. He 
was buried at Evergreen, where a monument marks his resting- 
place. 

*A History of Medicine and Medical Men in Camden County, by John R. Stevenson, 
A. M., M. D. 



CHAPTER IX. 
THE PERIOD FROM 1880 TO 1885. 

Section I. — The Camden City Dispensary. 

[1880.] The contract made the preceding year between 
the managers of the dispensary and City Council, by which 
the dispensary received $1,600 per annum for furnishing 
medicines and providing medical attendants for the indigent 
sick, increased both the work and worth of the institution. 
During the year, fourteen hundred and five patients were 
treated, — an increase of six hundred and sixty-six over the 
preceding year. The city contract was again renewed. The 
following managers were elected: Maurice Browning, John 
Morgan, Colonel Thomas McKeen, Joseph B. Cooper, Rudolph us 
Bingham and Doctors J. V. Schenck, H. Genet Taylor, A. M. 
Mecray, D. P. Pancoast, Alexander' Marcy and I. B. Mulford. 
John Morgan was elected president ; Dr. J. V. Schenck, vice- 
president; H. Genet Taylor, secretary; Joseph. B. Cooper, 
treasurer ; Dr. O. B. Gross, physician for the First district ; 
Dr. C. M. Schellenger, for the Second, and Dr. C. W. Green, for 
the Third. 

The annual meeting was held January 1 ith, and the report 
for the year showed that one thousand and forty-eight cases 
had been treated, two thousand and seventy prescriptions com- 
pounded and a deficit of $9.96 incurred, from an income of 
$2,077.33, for the year. John Morgan was elected president; 
Dr. J. V. Schenck, vice-president ; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secre- 
tary; Joseph B. Cooper, treasurer; Dr. O. B. Gross, physician 
for the First district ; Dr. H. H. Davis, for the Second, and 
Dr. J. W. Donges, for the Third. In October, these medical 
appointees resigned and Dr. J. W. Wroth was appointed for the 
First district; Dr. W. A. Hamilton, for the Second, and 
Dr. H. F. Palm, for the Third. 

[1882.] On November 8th, of the preceding year, the 
dispensary sustained a loss in the death of John Morgan, presi- 

151 



152 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

dent of the Board of Managers, and, at the annual meeting in 
January, 1882, Joseph B. Cooper, the treasurer, presented his 
resignation. Richard H. Reeve was elected a member of the 
board in place of John Morgan and William B. Cooper 
succeeded Joseph B. Cooper. The expenses of the institution 
for the fiscal year, ending in January, were $1,734.86; two 
thousand and fifteen cases were treated and six thousand three 
hundred and ten prescriptions compounded. Colonel Thomas 
McKeen was elected president ; Dr. J. V. Schenck, vice-presi- 
dent; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary; Richard H. Reeve, 
treasurer; Othniel G. Taylor, pharmacist; Dr. J. H. Wroth, 
physician for the First district; Dr. George T. Robinson, 
for the Second; Dr. H. F. Palm, for the Third, and Dr. W. A. 
Hamilton, interne. The dispensary received a legacy of $100 
from the estate of John Morgan. 

[1883.] The annual meeting was held, January 9th, and 
the record of the year showed that eighteen hundred and 
ninety-one cases were treated, at an expense of $2,001.67. The 
management had sustained a double loss in the death of 
Dr. J. V. Schenck, on July 25th, and of Dr. I. B. Mulford, on 
November 2j, 1882. Dr. E.J. Snitcher was elected in place of 
Dr. Schenck, and, with Doctors Marcy, Taylor and Mecray, 
represented the City Medical Society for the remainder of the 
year. Dr. Mulford's place was not filled. Colonel Thomas 
McKeen was elected president; Dr. Alexander Marcy, vice- 
president ; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary ; Richard H. Reeve, 
treasurer ; Dr. A. T. Dobson, physician for the First district ; 
Dr. C. M. Schellenger, for the Second ; Dr. George T. Robinson, 
for the Third, and Dr. H. F. Palm, interne. 

[1884.] The dispensary sustained another loss, during the 
year just closed, in the death of Colonel Thomas McKeen, mak- 
ing four vacancies by death in the management in three succes- 
sive years. At the annual meeting held January 9th, the follow- 
ing managers were elected by the contributors : Maurice Brown- 
ing, Rudolphus Bingham, Richard H. Reeve, William B. Cooper, 
and David M. Chambers. The representatives from the City 
Medical Society were Doctors H. Genet Taylor, Alexander 
Marcy, A. M. Mecray, W. A. Davis, E. J. Snitcher and 



The Camden City Medical Society. 153 

J. Orlando White. Dr. Marcy was elected president ; Maurice 
Browning, vice-president; Dr. Taylor, secretary ; R. H. Reeve r 
treasurer ; O. G. Taylor, pharmacist ; Dr. A. T. Dobson, physi- 
cian for the First district; Dr. C. M. Schellenger, for the 
Second, and Dr. H. F. Palm, for the Third, and also interne. 
There were thirteen hundred and two cases treated and seven 
thousand and twenty-five prescriptions compounded, at an 
expense of $2,254.19. 

Section II. — The Camden City Medical Society. 

[1880.] Because of the suspension of the meetings of the 
society during the greater part of 1879, but little encourage- 
ment was held out for regular meetings this year. On March 
24th, a special meeting, at which Dr. J. E. Clawson presided, 
was called for the purpose of reviving an interest in the society, 
but it was not wholly successful on account of the small 
attendance. The necessity for the existence of the society was 
ardently discussed and frankly admitted, and a committee, 
consisting of Doctors J. H. Wroth, O. B. Gross and I. B. 
Mulford, was appointed to wait upon the members and solicit 
their aid in the reorganization. The meeting thereupon 
adjourned to April 8th, when the committee reported their 
action and recommended " that the meetings be held hereafter 
at the residence of such members as may invite the society, or 
at the dispensary." Dr. William A. Hamilton, a graduate of 
the University of Maryland, 1870, was elected a member. 
This second meeting was so poorly attended that no further 
effort at reorganization was made until September 7, 1882. 

[1882.] Solicitous for the welfare of the profession,. 
Dr. Dowling Benjamin issued an invitation to the members of 
the society to meet at his residence, September 7th, where a 
reorganization was effected by the election of Dr. William A. 
Davis, president ; Dr. William H. Iszard, vice-president ; 
Dr. E. J. Snitcher, secretary and treasurer ; Doctors Marcy, 
Taylor, Mecray, Mulford and Snitcher as dispensary managers, 
and Doctors Conrad G. Hoell, Ph. G., and George Taylor 
Robinson, graduates of the University of Pennsylvania during 
the year, and Dr. Dowling Benjamin were elected members. 



154 History Medical Profession Camden County.. 

[1883.] Following the meeting at Dr. Benjamin's, interest 
in the society revived ; regular quarterly meetings were held 
during the year, and Doctors E. P. Townsend and Henry H. 
Davis, graduates of Jefferson Medical College, the former in 
1863 and the latter in 1879, ana - H. F. Palm, a former student 
at Pennington Seminary and graduate of Jefferson Medical 
College, 1 88 1, were elected members. At the annual meeting, 
Dr. William H. Iszard was elected president ; Dr. E. P. 
Townsend, vice-president ; Dr. E. J. Snitcher, secretary and 
treasurer. Doctors Taylor, Marcy, Mecray, W. A. Davis, White 
and Snitcher were elected managers of the dispensary, and Dr. 
C. M. Schellenger, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 
1879, was elected a member. 

[1884.] This year witnessed a decline in the interest in 
the society to such an extent that only two meetings were held. 
The first took place at the residence of Dr. William A. Davis, 
when Professor B. F. Baer, of Philadelphia, read a paper on 
" Metrorrhagia," and the second, at Dr. E. P. Townsend's, 
when Dr. Townsend read a paper on " Modern Therapeutics." 
Dr. Townsend was elected president ; Dr. J. F. Walsh, vice- 
president ; Dr. E. J. Snitcher, secretary and treasurer, and the 
managers for the dispensary were re-elected. 

Section III. — The Camden District Medical Society. 

[1880.] The society met at Cooper's Point Hotel, May 
nth, with Dr. D. P. Pancoast in the chair, who delivered an 
address on " The Therapeutics of Homoeopathy." Dr. John 
W. Snowden read the annual report, embracing papers by 
Dr. Alexander Marcy, of Camden ; Doctors H. A. M. Smith 
and D. W. Blake, of Gloucester ; N. B. Jennings and C. H. 
Shivers, of Haddonfield ; H. E. Branin and J. W. McCullough, 
of Blackwood, and D. M. Stout, of Berlin. Dr. John R. 
Stevenson read a paper on "Syphilis" and Dr. O. B. Gross 
one on "Three Cases in which Bromide of Ethyl was Used." 
Dr. Charles H. Shivers, of Haddonfield, was elected president; 
Dr. Isaac B. Mulford, vice-president ; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, 
secretary ; Dr. A. M. Mecray, treasurer ; Dr. John W. Snowden, 



The Camden District Medical Society . 155 

chairman, standing committee ; Dr. Alexander Marcy, censor 
for five years, and Doctors J. W. McCullough, of Blackwood, 
a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, i860 ; John W. Donges, 
University of Pennsylvania, 1866, and Charles W. Green, 
Dartmouth Medical College, 1867, were elected to membership. 
On August 1 6th, a special meeting was called to consider the 
medical enactment of 1880. At the semi-annual meeting, in 
November, sections on jurisprudence and nervous diseases 
were established, in addition to those already existing, and 
Doctors O. B. Gross and N. B. Jennings reported attendance 
at the American Medical Association, at New York, in June. 
[188 1.] On May 9th, the society convened at Gloucester 
City for the first time. With the exception of the meetings 
held at Haddonfield and Ellisburg, the sessions had been held 
in Camden. The president, Dr. C. H. Shivers, was absent. 
The standing committee reported the prevalence of an 
epidemic of small-pox in Camden ; an epidemic of typhus 
fever at the County Almshouse ; the prevalence of malarial 
fever throughout the county and the presence of diphtheria 
and scarlet fever in Camden every month of the year, except 
July and August. Dr. Isaac B. Mulford was elected president ; 
Dr. E. L,. B. Godfrey, vice-president ; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, 
secretary; Dr. A. M. Mecray, treasurer, and Dr. J. W. Snowden, 
chairman of the standing committee and censor for five years. 

On November 8th, the semi-annual meeting was held at 
the West Jersey Hotel, Camden. Dr. J. W. Snowden read the 
report of the section on medicine; Dr. J. V. Schenck, on 
obstetrics; Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, on surgery, and Dr. D. 
Benjamin, on nervous diseases. Reports were made by the 
Asylum committee and the committee on medical registra- 
tion. Dr. Charles G. Garrison was elected an honorary 
member; Doctors C. M. Schellenger and H. H. Davis were 
elected members and Dr. Charles W. Green resigned. Doctors 
H. Genet Taylor, I. B. Mulford and E. L- B. Godfrey reported 
attendance at the American Medical Association, Richmond, 
Va., May 3d. 

[1882.] The society convened at the West Jersey Hotel, 
May 9th. The president, Dr. Isaac B. Mulford, was absent. 



156 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

The standing committee made a report on the increase of 
malarial fever and its tendency to assume a typhoid form ; on the 
effect of the deposits of mud along the river-bank, and on the 
common use of bovine virus. Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey read a 
paper on "Humanized and Bovine Virus" and Dr. O. B. 
Gross reported "A Case of Hydatid Disease of the Uterus." 
Dr. H. Genet Taylor, chairman of the committee on medical 
registration, reported that there were no illegal practitioners 
known to the committee, since the law of 1880 was being 
enforced, but that no one was indictable before the court for 
illegal practice unless action was taken by the employe. The 
work of this committee will be considered under the section 
relating to the medical enactment of 1880. Dr. E. L- B, 
Godfrey was elected president ; Dr. John R. Haney, vice-presi- 
dent; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary; Dr. I. B. Mulford, 
treasurer; Dr. J. W. Snowden, chairman of the standing com- 
mittee, and Dr. J. V. Schenck, censor for five years. 

The semi-annual meeting was held November 14th, with 
Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey in the chair. Doctors Dowling Benjamin 
and E. L. B. Godfrey reported, in the section on surgery, a 
case of "Compound Fracture of the Skull with the Removal 
of the Greater Part of the Left Parietal Bone, with Recovery" ; 
Dr. J. W. Snowden made the report on medicine ; Dr. A. M. 
Mecray, on obstetrics, and Dr. Charles G. Garrison, on juris- 
prudence. As an effect of the latter report, Dr. Benjamin 
introduced a resolution requesting, in substance, the section on 
jurisprudence to prepare a bill for the Legislature, requiring 
all expert testimony to be called by the court, instead of by 
parties at suit ; that the presiding judge shall, at the request of 
either party, designate and summon one or more experts, who 
shall indicate the points on which scientific light is required, 
and that the fees of experts shall be paid in the first instance 
by the court, but eventually added to the costs of the suit. 
This resolution prevailed and resulted in the presentation to, 
and adoption by, the State Medical Society, of a bill of a similar 
character, prepared by Dr. Charles G. Garrison. The bill, 
however, was not presented by the society to the Legislature. 
Dr. William A. Hamilton was elected a member and Dr. J. W. 



The Camden District Medical Society . 157 

Wroth resigned in consequence of his removal to New Mexico. 
Following the meeting, a banquet was served and the following 
toasts were responded to : "Listerism in its Application to Surg- 
ery," by Dr. Richard J. Levis, of the Pennsylvania Hospital ; 
"The Experiments of Pasteur in their Application to Medicine, 1 ' 
by Dr. J. Solis-Cohen, of Jefferson College; "The Discoveries 
of Koch in their Application to Medicine," by Dr. James M. 
Ridge, of Camden ; "Artistic Anatomy," by Dr. W. W. Keen, 
of the Philadelphia School of Anatomy; "The Profits and 
Loss of the Profession," by Dr. Oscar H. Allis, of Jefferson 
College Hospital ; " Medical Specialties," by Dr. Charles K. Mills, 
of the University of Pennsylvania, and "Medical Journalism," 
by Dr. John V. Shoemaker, editor of the Medical Bulletin. 

[1883.] The annual meeting of the society was held in 
Camden, May 8th, with the president, Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, 
in the chair. Dr. J. W. Snowden spoke, in the annual report, 
of the prevalence of typhoid fever in Camden and of periodic 
fevers in the count)-. Dr. John R. Stevenson read a paper on 
"The Revision of the Pharmacopoeia" ; Dr. O. B. Gross, on the 
"Water-Supply of Camden"; Dr. Charles G. Garrison, on 
"Medical Jurisprudence," and Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey delivered 
the annual address on "Syphilis in its Relation to Marriage." 
Dr. John R. Haney was elected president; Dr. Dowling 
Benjamin, vice-president; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary; 
Dr. A. M. Mecray, treasurer; Dr. John W. Snowden, chairman, 
standing committee ; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, a member of the 
Board of Censors in the place of Dr. Schenck, and Dr. Ellis P. 
Townsend and Dr. Howard F. Palm were elected members. 
At the semi-annual meeting in November, Dr. D. P. Pancoast 
reported attendance at the American Medical Association, at 
Cleveland, in June ; Dr. J. W. Snowden reported for the section 
on medicine; Dr. A. M. Mecray, for obstetrics; Dr. J. M. 
Ridge, on pathology, and special papers were read by Dr. O. B. 
Gross, on "The Water-Supply of Camden," and by Dr. E. L. B. 
Godfrey, on "The Germ Theory of Disease." 

[1884.] The annual meeting of the society was held at 
Gloucester City, May 13th. Dr. D. Benjamin occupied the 
chair in the absence of the president, Dr. John R. Haney. 



158 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Dr. John W. Snowden read the annual report; Dr. A. M. 
Mecray reported "A Case of Pyo thorax, with Recovery, from 
the Introduction of a Drainage-Tube" ; Dr. John R. Stevenson 
read a paper on "Homoeopathic Remedies," and Dr. E. L. B. 
Godfrey a paper on "The Germ Theory in its Relation to 
Disease." Dr. Dowling Benjamin was elected president; 
Dr. E. B. Woolston, vice-president; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, 
secretary ; Dr. A. M. Mecray, treasurer ; Dr. J. W. Snowden, 
chairman of the standing committee ; Dr. Henry E. Branin, 
censor for five years ; Doctors Philip W. Beale, C. G. Hoell and 
Augustus T. Dobson, a graduate of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, 1882, were elected members, and ex-presidents 
I. Gilbert Young, of Philadelphia, and J. W. Heulings, of 
Moorestown, were elected honorary members. At the semi- 
annual meeting in November, Doctors J. W. Snowden and 
D. Benjamin reported for the sections on medicine and surgery, 
respectively ; City Council of Camden was again requested to 
establish a Board of Health, under the laws of the State, and 
an amendment to the constitution was introduced by Dr. E. L. 
B. Godfrey, providing for a regular meeting of the society on 
the second Tuesday in February. Doctors Godfrey, Taylor and 
Mecray were appointed to arrange for a special meeting at that 
time for the consideration of cholera. A resolution was adopted 
expressive of admiration for the skill, bravery and heroic devo- 
tion to duty of Dr. Henry E. Branin, and of Dr. Joseph W. 
McCullough, in the typhus fever epidemic at the Almshouse, 
in which Dr. McCullough lost his life. 

Section IV. — The American Medical Association. 

[1880.] During the period under consideration, the 
Camden District Medical Society* was well represented in the 
American Medical Association. In 1880, Doctors N. B. 
Jennings and O. B. Gross attended the meeting of the 
association in New York; in 1881, Doctors H. Genet Taylor, 
Isaac B. Mulford and E. L. B. Godfrey attended the meet- 
ing at Richmond, Va.; in 1882, Dr. Isaac B. Mulford, at 
St. Paul, Minn.; in 1883, Dr. D. P. Pancoast, at Cleveland,. 



The American Medical Association. 159 

[1884.] Ohio, and, in 1884, Doctors Dowling Benjamin, 
William A. Davis, 0. B. Gross, John W. Donges and 
William H. Ireland, at Washington, D. C. At this latter 
meeting, membership in the association was made obtainable 
by any delegate of a State or County Medical Society, recog- 
nized by the association, upon application indorsed by the 
president and secretary of said society, and said membership 
was acknowledged by the association so long as delegates 
remained in good standing in their local societies and paid the 
annual dues of the association. At this meeting, also, the 
advocates of a higher medical education won a decided victory 
and extended, in a marked degree, the influence of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association over the Association of American 
Medical Colleges, in the methods and extent of medical teach- 
ing. This was largely accomplished through Dr. Dowling 
Benjamin, of Camden, a delegate from the Medical Society of 
New Jersey, who introduced and secured, after pronounced 
opposition, the adoption of a resolution, "urging upon all 
American medical colleges the necessity of elevating the 
standard of education at least so far as to require a preliminary 
examination, a three years' course of study, a registration of 
attendance and practical demonstrations in physical diagnosis." 
The resolution was opposed with vehemence and bitterness by 
a number of delegates present, who were officially connected 
with medical colleges and members of the Association of 
American Colleges ; but the necessities of the hour demanded 
that the American Medical Association should again take an 
advanced position in extending the curriculum of medical 
study, and when, after prolonged debate, the Benjamin resolu- 
tion was put to vote, it was adopted by a decided majority. 
This movement in the National Association was in accordance 
with similar resolutions previously adopted by the Medical 
Society of New Jersey and the Camden District Medical Society. 
Situated between two great centres of medical instruction, the 
necessity of a more extended curriculum of medical study was 
so apparent that the adoption of the Benjamin resolution met 
the universal approval of the medical profession of New Jersey. 
The desire for a higher medical education, among the physi- 



160 History Medical Professio7i Camde?i Comity. 

cians of New Jersey, was based upon their experience of the 
advantages obtained from examinations under strict medical 
law and the disadvantages arising from unlicensed privileges in 
medical practice. Medical examinations were a preliminary 
condition to medical practice in New Jersey from 1772 to 
1854, and, during that period, the esprit dn corps of the 
profession was a matter of just pride and its influence was 
every where acknowledged throughout the State. But, in 1854, 
through the rivalry of medical colleges, which, as joint-stock 
corporations, sprang up with mushroom-like growth in Phila- 
delphia and New York, aided by the influence of the disciples 
of Hahnemann, the restrictive legislation governing medical 
practice in New Jersey was offset by the enactment of a law 
allowing graduates of any medical college, in which the 
principles of medicine were taught through two courses of 
instruction of sixteen weeks each, to practice medicine upon 
filing their diplomas with the clerk of the county in which 
they had decided to practice. In consequence of this legisla- 
tion, the Medical Society of New Jersey surrendered its examin- 
ing privileges in 1866; physicians multiplied rapidly and the 
title of Doctor was despoiled of much of its former dignity. 
In 1880, the need of restrictive measures governing medical 
practice became so apparent that the filing of a fraudulent 
diploma was made a misdemeanor, and this was further 
enforced, in 1883, by an Act of Legislature, requiring county 
clerks to report to the State Board of Health the names of all 
physicians filing their diplomas, with the name of the college 
from which they had graduated. But this was not sufficient 
to prevent the possessors of diplomas of bogus medical colleges 
from illegally plying an honorable calling, and it remained for 
the State Board of Medical Examiners, established in 1890, to 
free New Jersey from charlatans and quacks. 

Section V. — The Medical Society of New Jersey. 

[1880.] The society met at Princeton, May 25th, with 
Dr. John W. Snowden present as third vice-president, and 
Doctors Taylor, Benjamin, Stout and Godfrey as delegates from 



The Medical Society of New Jersey . 161 

Camden. Dr. Snowden was elected second vice-president and 
delivered an address on "The Abuse of the Obstetric Forceps," 
claiming that much of the gynaecological work of the present 
was due to an abuse of the instrument. County societies were 
requested to appoint committees to examine the list of physi- 
cians registered under the medical law just enacted. 

[1881.] On May 24th, the society met a,t Long Branch. 
Dr. J. V. Schenck was present as a Fellow, Dr. J. W. Snowden 
as second vice-president, and Doctors Taylor and Godfrey as 
delegates. Dr. Snowden was elected first vice-president. 

[1882.] On May 23d, the society met at Asbury Park. 
Doctors Snowden, Taylor, Pancoast and Godfrey were the rep- 
resentatives of the Camden society. Dr. Snowden was elected 
president of the society, and, through the influence of the 
Camden delegates, the next meeting of the society was voted to 
be held at Atlantic City, and Doctors Taylor and Godfrey were 
appointed on the committee of arrangements, with power to 
add to their number. 

[1883.] In accordance with arrangements, the society 
convened at Atlantic City, June 12th, with an unusually large 
attendance of delegates and friends. The committee of arrange- 
ments, consisting of Doctors H. Genet Taylor and E. L. B. 
Godfrey, of Camden ; Boardman Reed and Willard Wright, of 
Atlantic City, and D. B. Ingersoll, of May's Landing, secured, 
through General William J. Sewell, a special, complimentary 
train, over the Camden and Atlantic Railroad from Camden to 
Atlantic City and return, for the use of the delegates and their 
friends, which led to a meeting of unusual interest because of 
the number of physicians present. The society was welcomed 
to Atlantic City by Mayor Charles Maxwell, Dr. Boardman 
Reed and by Dr. H. Genet Taylor, the chairman of the com- 
mittee of arrangements. In the evening an elaborate banquet 
was served by the citizens of Atlantic City, in honor of 
the society. Camden was represented by Doctors Godfrey, 
Stevenson, Tomlinson and Haney as delegates. Dr. John W. 
Snowden, the president, delivered an address on "The Advances 
Made in Medicine by Physical Diagnosis," in which he 
reviewed the history of auscultation, percussion and the array 



1 62 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

of means and appliances used in physical diagnosis, and showed 
that they had been introduced by the profession within the 
century. Cape May was selected as the next place of meeting 
and Doctors Taylor and Godfrey were again made members of 
the committee of arrangements, with power to add to their 
number. 

[1884.] Thje society met at Cape May, in June, as previ- 
ously arranged, and, through the committee of arrangements, 
the delegates and friends were transported from Camden to 
Cape May and return, on a special, complimentary train over 
the West Jersey Railroad, through the courtesy of General 
William J. Sewell, its vice-president. The address of welcome 
was delivered by Dr. H. Genet Taylor. Camden was repre- 
sented by Doctors Snowden, Mecray, Taylor, Iszard, Tomlinson, 
Branin, Benjamin, Davis and Godfrey. 

Section VI. — Medical Enactments from 1880 to 1885. 

[1880.] On March 10th, an "Act to Regulate the Prac- 
tice of Medicine and Surgery" was passed by the Legislature, 
approved by the Executive, March 12th, and went into effect 
June 1, 1880. The Act provided that every person practicing 
medicine in New Jersey shall be a graduate of a legally- 
chartered medical college ; that copies of all diplomas must be 
recorded in the office of the county clerk in the county in 
which the possessor is practicing medicine; that practicing 
medicine without conforming to the Act is a misdemeanor, 
punishable by a fine of twenty-five dollars for each prescription, 
or operation performed, or imprisonment from three to six 
months; that illegal practitioners shall be disqualified from 
collecting fees, and that the recording of a fraudulent diploma 
is a high misdemeanor, punishable by a fine not less than three 
nor more than five hundred dollars, or imprisonment at hard 
labor for not less than one nor more than three years. The 
Act revolutionized medical registration throughout the State, 
in that it compelled the filing of all medical diplomas with 
clerks of counties ; gave an opportunity to discover the validity 
of recorded diplomas; made fraudulent registration a mis- 



Medical Enactments from 1880 to 1885. 163 

demeanor, punishable by fine or imprisonment, and again 
restored the guardianship of the State over medical practice. 

Appreciating the importance of the law, the State Medical 
Society, at Princeton, May 25th, requested County Societies to 
appoint committees to examine the list of registered physicians 
in each county. In accordance therewith, the Camden County 
Medical Society met in special session, August 16th, to take 
action concerning the registration of physicians under the new 
law, and Doctors H. Genet Taylor, Dowling Benjamin and 
J. W. Wroth, of Camden ; Edwin Tomlinson, of Gloucester ; 
John W. Snowden, of Waterford ; John R. Stevenson, of 
Haddonfield, and D. M. Stout, of Berlin, were appointed a 
committee " to investigate the legal standing of registered 
practitioners of medicine within the county." The committee 
met in September, and arranged for the prosecution of their 
work and, at the semi-annual meeting of the society, Novem- 
ber 9th, made the following report : " There are eighty-five 
diplomas registered in the office of the county clerk ; there are 
nine physicians practicing without diplomas and nine registered 
diplomas of doubtful origin. The committee recommend a 
return to the former method of examination by censors ap- 
pointed by the State Medical Society." 

The report produced a sensation in the society. It 
not only revealed its numerical weakness,* but caused the 
name of one of its members, because of illegal registration, to 
be stricken from its rolls. The recommendation of the 
committee was impracticable. Instead of advising the societv 
to maintain the present law, a return to the regulations 
governing medical practice previous to 1854 (which the State 
Medical Society had voluntarily surrendered) was recom- 
mended. The recommendation was not adopted, but the 
committee was continued and, in 1882, reported to the societv 
that there were no illegal practitioners of medicine within 
the county. The need of a restraining law to assure the 
public that each practitioner was a graduate of an authorized 
school of medicine was manifest. Of the eighty -five registered 

*Of the ninety-four physicians practicing within Camden county, fifty- four were 
graduates of the regular system of medicine and only thirty-eight were members of the 
Camden County Medical .Society. 



164 History Medical Profession Camdeji County . 

practitioners in Camden county, twenty-nine were graduates of 
the University of Pennsylvania ; nineteen, of Jefferson Medical 
College ; thirteen, of Hahnemann Medical College ; five, of 
Pennsylvania College of Homoeopathic Medicine ; four, of 
Penn Medical University; three, of Philadelphia University of 
Medicine and Surgery; two, of the University of Maryland; 
one each of the University of Glasgow, Dartmouth College, 
Northwestern University of Chicago, Harvard Medical School, 
Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania 
Medical College, Pennsylvania Homoeopathic College, Eclectic 
Medical College, Woman's Homoeopathic Medical College of 
New York and the American Veterinary College. Of these 
institutions, nearly one-third are now defunct ; not, however, 
through the direct efforts of the medical profession, but chiefly 
through the exposure of the charlatanism of some of them by 
the Philadelphia Record of that year. The progress made in 
the legal protection of the medical profession was not confined 
to New Jersey. In 1877, Illinois took the initial steps in the 
licensing and registration of physicians, and the protection of 
the public from charlatanism, and it was discovered that out 
of seven thousand six hundred physicians in that State, only 
three thousand six hundred were legalized practitioners. 

In addition to the Act just considered, an "Act Respect- 
ing Bridges" was passed by the Legislature, "exempting 
physicians from a penalty for driving faster than a walk over 
a bridge while visiting patients, but liable to damages for 
reckless or negligent driving." 

[1881.] The medical Act of 1880 seemed, however, to 
work some hardship, and, on March 2, 1881, a supplementary 
law was enacted by the Legislature, exempting any physician 
from the provisions of the Act of the previous year, who had 
practiced twenty years in one place. 

[1882.] A further modifying supplement was enacted in 
1882, providing that physicians and surgeons, graduates of 
medical colleges, who should deposit their diplomas with the 
county clerk within one year, shall not be subject to the fines 
and penalties prescribed in the Act of 1880. 

[1883.] On March 28, 1883, a further supplement to the 



Epidem ic Diseases . 1 65 

medical Act of 1880 was secured, through the State Board of 
Health, requiring county clerks to furnish the board, once a 
year, with a list of all physicians and surgeons who had regis- 
tered copies of their diplomas during the year, with the name 
of the institution from which each had graduated. This 
amendment was secured because the unscientific death reports 
forwarded to the board necessitated a knowledge of the 
professional standing of physicians, in regard to the facts of 
their graduation and registration and their right, under the 
law, to give a certificate of death. As a result of this amend- 
ment, the names of sixty -nine physicians were forwarded to the 
State Board of Health as practitioners in Camden ; six, from 
Gloucester City ; six, from Haddonfield ; four, from Berlin ; 
two, from Blackwood ; one each from Merchantville, Marlton 
and Waterford, and twenty-eight without post-office address, 
but presumably from Philadelphia, making, in all, one hundred 
and eighteen registered physicians in Camden county. At 
this time, the Camden County Medical Society had thirty- 
seven members. 

[1884.] In 1884, an Act of Legislature, defining a 
homoeopathic physician to be a graduate of a homoeopathic 
college or a member of a homoeopathic medical society, was 
passed. 

Section VII. — Epidemic Diseases, 
a. small-pox. 

[1880.] In February, small-pox appeared in Camden and 
assumed an epidemic form of unusual severity, both in its 
extent and fatality, because of the inadequate means employed 
by the sanitary committee of City Council to arrest it. The 
Camden City Medical Society, appreciating the urgent need 
of municipal supervision over the epidemic, urged the sanitary 
committee to enforce vaccination and quarantine, which the 
committee claimed could only be done, to a limited extent, 
under existing municipal laws. City Council was the source 
of authority for the operations of the committee, and, conse- 
quently, the sanitary provisions of the city were not abreast of 
the times ; vaccination and quarantine were tardily enforced 
and cases of contagious diseases were indifferently reported. 



1 66 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Up to June, ten deaths were reported in the city ; in July, a 
temporary hospital was erected by the sanitary committee 
upon vacant lots in the Eighth ward, against which, however, 
an injunction was issued, but was dissolved, July 26th. 
Dr. C. M. Schellenger was appointed physician to the hospital 
and rendered invaluable service. On Jul)- 28th, Dr. E. M. 
Hunt, secretary of the State Board of Health, met the sanitary 
committee and a number of the leading physicians of the city 
in a conference, and urged a general vaccination and the segre- 
gation of small-pox cases. Provisions, however, were not made 
by the sanitary committee for free vaccination of the public. 
On August 4th, the managers of the Camden City Dispensary, 
because of the continued spread of the epidemic and the inade- 
quate means provided to arrest it, invited Dr. Hunt and the 
members of the sanitary committee to a conference, August 
1 6th, and a general vaccination was then agreed to, and subse- 
quently ordered. During the remainder of the month, eight 
thousand persons were reported to have been vaccinated. On 
August 2 2d, thirty-eight cases of small-pox were reported in 
the hospital and sixty in the city. Following the general 
vaccination and the segregation of cases, the epidemic yielded, 
but lingered through a series of months, to the great detriment 
of the city. Six hundred and eighty-eight cases were reported 
with one hundred and thirty-four deaths.* During 1880, and 
up to July, 1 88 1, one hundred and forty-four death certificates 
from small-pox in Camden were filed in the office of the State 
Board of Health. 

During the epidemic under consideration, Dr. John W. 
Donges was a member of City Council, having been first 
elected in 1878, and, at this time, served as a member of the 
sanitary committee. Dr. Donges used his best endeavors to 
check the spread of the epidemic and to further the sanitary 
interests of the city, and supervised the transportation of the 
afflicted to the hospital, free of charge. For his intrepid and 
unselfish services and his efficiency during the epidemic, City 
Council unanimously passed the following resolutions and 
ordered them framed : 



: Transactions of the Medical Society of New Jersey for iS 



Epidemic Diseases. 167 

Council Chamber, City Hall, 

Camden, April 28, 1881. 

"At a stated meeting of City Council, held on the above date, it was 
unanimously 

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to draft suitable reso- 
lutions conveying the thanks of this body to J. W. Donges, M. D., for special 
services rendered as a member of the Camden Board of Health, during the 
prevalence of small-pox in our city in the fall of i879-'8o. 

The committee reported the following, which was unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, The citizens of this community, through their representa- 
tives, having expressed an earnest desire that a token of public appreciation 
should be extended to J. W. Donges, M. D., for the fearless and faithful 
discharge of his duties as a member of the Board of Health, be it therefore 

Resolved, That the sincere and heartfelt thanks of this body and commu- 
nity are hereby extended to J. W. Donges, M. D., member of City Council 
from the Eighth Ward, and member of the Board of Health, for his indefati- 
gable, self-sacrificing and successful efforts to obliterate the loathsome 
disease that infested our city. 

Resolved, That to his valuable assistance and wise professional judgment 
is due the successful effort of the board in preventing a wide-spread 
epidemic, and placing practical safeguards against a recurrence of the 
disease for years to come. 

Resolved, That his exceptional care and provision for the comfort of the 
public patients commands their gratitude in a manner that words are 
inadequate to express. 

James P. Michellon, President, City Council, 
Frank F. Michellon, Clerk, City Council. 

Alex. J. MlLLIETTE, \ 

Wilbur F. Rose, [■ Committee." 

F. P. Pfeiffer, ) 

B. VACCINATION. 

During this epidemic of small-pox, Dr. E. Iy. B. Godfrey 

published a monograph on "Dr. Edward Jenner's Discovery of 

Vaccination." After reciting the brilliant experiments of 

Dr. Jenner, which began on the 14th of May, 1796, and 

which have placed the practice of vaccination upon an 

unshaken basis, the history of vaccination in both Europe 

and America was outlined, and its effects upon the public and 

the medical profession were portrayed. The monograph closed 

with the following paragraphs : 

" Nearly one hundred years have passed since Jenner announced to the 
world his discovery of vaccination. The most loathsome and universally 
destructive of all the acute diseases known to man has been stayed in its 



1 68 History Medical Profession Camde?i County. 

deadly progress and greatly divested of the virulence of its infecting poison. 
Mankind of every language, creed and clime have broken down all barriers 
and received even from profane hands its protective power, and, had legal 
enactments compelled vaccination, small-pox would be known only from its 
gloomy records in the past. 

Every age has been marked with the results of its geniuses. Neither the 
genius of the sculptors of the Periclean age of the ancient world, nor of the 
romantic and dramatic poets, philosophers or historians of the Elizabethan 
age of the modern world, have furnished anything whose results have sur- 
passed the immediate and universal good of the discovery of vaccination. 
Cuvier has said, 'If vaccination were the only discovery of the epoch, it 
would serve to render it illustrious forever.' 

. Living to see the practice of vaccination adopted in every quarter of 
the civilized world, Jenner died on the twenty-sixth day of January, A. D., 
1823, at the ripe age of seventy-four, conscious that the imperishable effort 
of his consistent life made him universally recognized as a willing benefactor 
of his kind. If burned cities and desolated countries make the soldier- 
worthy of monumental marble, then, indeed, has vaccination erected to 
Edward Jenner an enduring monument and ' inscribed the marble with his 
name.' 

' More than armies to the public weal 
Is a wise physician, skilled our wounds to heal.' 

On the monument that marks his resting-place, his generous country- 
men have inscribed in poetic verse the measure of his greatness : 

' Within this tomb hath found a resting-place 
The great physician of the human race — 
Immortal Jenner, whose gigantic mind 
Brought life and health to more than half mankind. 
Let rescued infancy his worth proclaim, 
And lisp our blessings on his honored name ! 
And radiant beauty drop her saddest tear, 
For beauty's truest, trustiest friend lies here. ' " 

C. TYPHUS FEVER. 

[1880.] On November 24th, typhus fever was conveyed 
to the Camden County Almshouse, at Blackwood, through the 
admission of a subject from a sailors' boarding-house in Phila- 
delphia. At this time, the Almshouse contained two hundred 
and seventy-five inmates and was without proper hospital 
facilities. The original building was constructed in 1864 and 
enlarged in 187 1. The present hospital building was then 
under course of construction, which necessitated the overcrowd- 
ing of the main building with fever subjects. In consequence of 
this, and of the prevailing cold weather, which rendered venti- 



Epidemic Diseases. 169 

lation ineffective, the disease spread rapidly and, by the latter 
part of December, there were forty-one cases of the fever. The 
importance of the epidemic was recognized by Doctors Henry E. 
Branin and Joseph W. McCullough, the attending physicians, 
who urged the segregation of fever subjects and the speedy 
completion of the new hospital building. Through the 
strenuous exertions of Messrs. John Gill, Thomas Wentz and 
Louis T. Derousse, the Almshouse committee of the Board of 
Freeholders, the new building, containing forty beds, was 
opened for the reception of patients before the close of the year. 
Notwithstanding the increased accommodations for the care of 
the sick, the disease continued to spread. Early in January, 
Mr. E. A. Ward, the builder of the hospital, contracted the 
disease; on January nth, Dr. William Pepper, of Philadelphia, 
visited him in consultation with Doctors Branin and 
McCullough and, after visiting the Almshouse wards, pro- 
nounced the disease typhus fever of a malignant type. On 
January 17th, Dr. E. M. Hunt, secretary of the New Jersey 
State Board of Health, visited the institution upon the request 
of Dr. Branin and, with Mr. Derousse, investigated in detail 
the buildings, drainage and water-supply and took away 
specimens of drinking-water for analysis. On February 10th, 
Dr. E. M. Hunt, of Trenton ; Dr. Franklin Gauntt, of Burling- 
ton, and Prof. C. F. Brackett, of Princeton, members of the 
State Board of Health, visited the Almshouse a second time 
and requested that a post-mortem examination of one of the 
victims be made, for which the board would pay one-half of 
the expense, in order to determine with exactness whether the 
fever was typhus. This request was complied with and Doctors 
James Tyson and H. F. Formad, of Philadelphia, were 
employed for the work ; three post-mortem examinations were 
made and a written opinion was submitted that the fever was 
typhus. From November 24, 1880, to iVpril 9, 1881, there 
were one hundred and three cases of the fever treated, with a 
death-rate of thirty-three, making the mortality a little over 
thirty-two per cent. The death-list included Dr. Joseph W. 
McCullough ; Isaac P. Wilson, the steward ; E. A. Ward, con- 
tractor and builder of the new hospital building ; the assistant 



170 History Medical Profession Camden County . 

matron and two assistants.* It was the most extensive epidemic 
of typhus fever ever known in Camden count)'. Appropriate 
notice of the death of Dr. McCullough, March 15, 1881, was 
taken by the County Medical Society and, at the semi-annual 
meeting of the society in November, 1884, a resolution was 
adopted expressive of the bravery, skill, intrepidity and devotion 
to duty of Doctors Branin and McCullough during this deadly 
epidemic. Dr. Joseph E. Hurif was elected to fill the unex- 
pired term of Dr. McCullough and rendered signal service at 
the Almshouse, during the epidemic. He has since held the 
position of visiting physician. 

Section VIII. — New Jersey State Board of Health. 

[1880.] The services of the State Board of Health were 
of acknowledged value to Camden city and county during the 
year, because of the epidemic of small-pox in the former and 
of typhus fever in the latter, which have been referred to. 
The board educated the city and county officials to a higher 
and broader idea of sanitation, and reports were made to the 
board, by Alexander J. Milliette, of the sanitary committee of 
City Council, for Camden ; Ezra C. Bell, for Centre township ; 
Abel Hillman, for Delaware township; Alfred Hillman, for 
Gloucester township; J. Stokes Coles, for Haddon township, 
and Dr. P. W. Beale, for Stockton township. 

[1881.] In response to circular inquiries concerning 
local sanitation, reports were received by the board from the 
various townships throughout Camden county, but none from 
the city of Camden. Hiram E. Budd reported for Centre 
township; A. Hillman, for Delaware; R. B. Stevenson, for 
Gloucester; Mathias Simmerman, for Winslow; J. Stokes 
Coles, for Haddon; Dr. P. W. Beale, for Stockton; John 
Horner, for Merchantville, and William H. Boker, for 
Gloucester City. 

[1882.] The policy of diffusing sanitary knowledge by 
means of circulars and of placing the responsibility of the 

* " The History, Origin, etc., of the Epidemic of Typhus Fever at the Camden County 
Almshouse, by Henry E. Branin, M. D."— Transactions of the Medical Society of New 
Jersey, 1881. 



New Jersey State Board of Health . 171 

public health on local boards, empowering them to meet 
sudden sanitary emergencies and to enforce local health laws, 
as provided by the sanitary Act of 1880 and its supplements, 
led to the organization, under this Act, of local boards in 
Merchantville, Gloucester City and in Centre, Delaware, 
Gloucester, Haddon, Stockton and Winslow townships. 
Camden, however, still acted independently. Reports were 
forwarded to the State Board, during the year, from Centre 
township, by Dr. F. E. Williams, and from Haddon, by 
J. Stokes Coles. 

[1883.] The health reports, for 1883, from Camden 
county to the State Board, were made from Haddon township, 
by J. Stokes Coles ; from Gloucester township, by Dr. Joseph 
E. HurfF; from Stockton, by Dr. P. W. Beale, and from 
Delaware, by Dr. F. E. Williams. The city of Camden still 
continued to supervise sanitary matters independently of the 
State Board, notwithstanding the efforts made by the County 
and City Medical Societies to induce the organization of a 
local health board under State laws. Frederick Bourquin was, 
at this time, chairman of the sanitary committee of City 
Council. An ordinance had been introduced into Council, 
providing for the organization of such a health board, but it 
was indifferently advocated because it would deprive Council 
of some of its political power. Impressed with the belief that 
a board of health, operating under State laws, would be more 
effective in executing sanitary measures than a committee of 
Council, the advocates of the measure continued their work 
and, at the annual meeting of the Camden County Medical 
Society, the following resolution, introduced by Dr. Dowling 
Benjamin, was adopted and forwarded to City Council: "That 
it is the opinion of the society that the interests of the city of 
Camden demand an organization of a board of health under 
State laws." 

[1884.] Notwithstanding this communication from the 
County Medical Society, and the efforts of the State Board in 
1880, as has been related, City Council still delayed action and 
continued to control sanitary matters under municipal laws. 
The various townships of the county, since the typhus-fever 



172 History Medical Profession Camden Comity. 

epidemic at Blackwood, had organized, in 1882, under the 
sanitary code of 1880, and were co-operating with the State 
Board of Health. Camden still remained independent and had 
forwarded but one annual report to the State Board; viz., in 
1880, following the small-pox epidemic. To obtain a report 
of the sanitary conditions of Camden, it became necessary for 
the State Board to appoint a special sanitary inspector. This 
position was offered to Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, who was unable 
to accept it, and, upon his recommendation, Dr. Onan B. Gross 
was appointed. The sanitary committee of City Council was 
officially notified of the appointment by the State Board of 
Health. Dr. Gross made an exhaustive report on the location, 
geology, topography, climate, population, streets and houses, 
markets and manufactures, public buildings and schools, 
slaughter-houses and diseases of animals, cemeteries, refuse and 
garbage, water-supply, drainage and sewage, public health laws 
and expenses and vital statistics. In concluding his report, 
Dr. Gross said: "As the result of a prolonged inspection, the 
sanitary condition of Camden loudly calls for the relief 
embodied in the late enactments of our State laws in regard 
to local boards of health," and that "the board should be 
composed of practical sanitarians and able inspectors, organized 
according to the spirit and letter of approved sanitary science 
and administrative art." In speaking of this report, Dr. E. jVL 
Hunt said: "The report should lead to a vigorous sanitary 
policy in the interests of Camden and will be found in many 
respects a model report for sanitary methods and study in other 
localities." In consequence of the inspection and report of 
Dr. Gross, which was published in the "Annual Report of the 
State Board of Health," the sanitary committee of Council, 
through George Van Benschoten, for the second time in its 
history, made a report to the State Board, and local reports 
were also made by N. Barton, of Centre township; Dr. F. E. 
Williams, of Delaware ; Dr. J. E. Hurff, of Gloucester ; J. Stokes 
Coles, of Haddon, and Dr. P. W. Beale, of Stockton. 



The New Jersey Sanitary Associatio)i . 173 

Section IX. — The New Jersey Sanitary Association. 
[1882.] The organization of this association, which has 
been previously considered, advanced the cause of sanitation, 
in a marked degree, throughout the State. The sixth annual 
meeting was held at Trenton, the seventh at New Brunswick, 
and the eighth at Trenton. At the latter meeting (1882), 
Dr. E. ' L. B. Godfrey, of Camden, read a paper on ' 'Animal 
Vaccine-lymph, its Propagation by Variolation of Kine, 
Retro-vaccination and Inoculation from Original, Sponta- 
neous Cow-pox." The history of each of these was given, and 
inoculation from original cow-pox was shown to be the only 
true source for obtaining animal-lymph for the purpose of 
vaccination. In considering these sources of supply, the follow- 
ing conclusions were stated, and a brief summary of the history 
of small-pox was given : 

"From a knowledge of the cultivation of bovine-lymph, and from an 
experience in its employment for vaccination, two points, in conclusion, 
suggest themselves : 

Firstly. That lymph should be procured directly from propagators of 
acknowledged skill, intelligence and honesty ; not through agents paid from 
thirty to sixty per cent, for its disposal 

Secondly. That this association should recommend legislation that 
would enable the State Board of Health to cultivate bovine-lymph for 
gratuitous distribution. 

In our generation, when vaccination has curtailed small-pox to an almost 
incomputable degree, but a faint conception can be formed of its ravages in 
former times. From the middle of the sixth century until the announcement 
of the principle of vaccination, near the close of the eighteenth, the most 
destructive epidemics of small-pox prevailed in every quarter of the civilized 
globe. Procopius, who flourished in the sixth century, gives the first 
description of the character of the disease, then raging in epidemic 
violence in Egypt and Arabia Bruce, in his ' Travels to Discover the Source 
of the Nile,' expresses his belief that the abandonment of the siege before 
Mecca by the Abyssinian army was due to the effects of small-pox among 
the troops. During the ninth century the disease invaded England, and 
was carried throughout Europe by the Crusaders In 1516, it was carried to 
St. Domingo by the Spaniards, and three years later it entered Mexico, 
destroying more than three millions of its inhabitants. In 1707, it reached 
Iceland ; extended to Greenland in 1733, and in a short time destroyed 
one-quarter of the population of those islands So terrible have been its 
ravages that, not excepting the black death, which destroyed in the Eastern 
countries during the fourteenth century more than twenty-four millions of 
people, or the sweating sickness of the sixteenth century, has this scourge 
been regarded as the most destructive of all the acute diseases known to 



174 History Medical Profession Camden County . 

man. Not alone for its great fatality, the loathsome condition attending it, or 
the disfiguration of those who escape its dangers, but also for the demoraliza- 
tion it engenders, as seen in the prostration of business, the desertion of 
friends, and the abandonment of homes, has it been regarded by Macaulay 
as 'the most terrible of all the ministers of death.' When it is remembered 
that, in the century preceding the discovery of vaccination, forty-five 
millions of people died from the effects of small-pox ; that more than two 
hundred thousand, according to Dr. Lettison, fell annual victims to it on the 
continent of Europe ; that two millions perished in the Russian empire in a 
single year; that the yearly mortality in England was forty-five thousand, — 
forty times greater than it is at this time, in proportion to the increase of 
population ; that an epidemic existed in London for more than ninety con- 
tinuous years; that cities have been desolated, villages abandoned, and 
armies disbanded, some estimate can be formed of the transcendent impor- 
tance of the discovery of the principle of vaccination."* 

At this meeting, Rev. F. R. Brace, of Blackwood, county 
superintendent of public schools, read a paper on "What is 
Feasible as to Method and Law for the Protection of Schools 
from Uncleanliness and Contagious Diseases." 

[1883.] The ninth annual meeting of the association 
was held at Trenton, December 6th and 7th. Dr. Dowling 
Benjamin discussed the "Germ Theory" in its application to 
malaria, which theory was opposed by Dr. E. M. Hunt and 
others, because malaria was believed to be of paludal origin. 
Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey read a paper on "The Germ Theory in its 
Relation to the Cause of Specific Diseases." Louis T. 
Derousse and Dr. Dowling Benjamin were made members of 
the Executive Council. 

[1884.] At the meeting of the association at Trenton, in 
December, Dr. Dowling Benjamin made an address on "The 
Work of the Water-Supply Commission" and advocated the 
right and duty of the State to protect the sources of water- 
supply. 

Section X. — Miscellaneous Interests. 

A. NEWLY LOCATED PHYSICIANS AND DRUGGISTS. 

[1880.] During the year, the following physicians, 
besides those mentioned in ■ connection with the Camden City 
and County Medical Societies, began practice in Camden: 
Dr. George W. Henry, a graduate of the Philadelphia College of 

* Annual Report of the New Jersey State Board of Health for 1883. 



Miscellaneous Interests. 175 

Pharmacy in 1875 and of Jefferson Medical College in 1880; 
Dr. John H. Sutton, a graduate of the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons of New York in 1877 ; Dr. E. R. Smiley, a graduate 
of Jefferson Medical College during the year; Dr. Daniel 
Strock, a Jefferson College graduate of 1877, and Dr. Thomas 
R. Blackwood, a graduate of Hahnemann Medical College, 1870. 
Dr. William G. DuBois, a graduate of Hahnemann College, 1880, 
located at Gloucester city, but subsequently removed to Camden. 
During 1881, Dr. Sophia Presley, a graduate of the Woman's 
Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1879 ; Dr. James G. Stanton 
and Dr. Howard F. Palm, graduates of Jefferson Medical 
College in 1881, and Dr. P. W. Beale located in Camden, and 
Dr. Joseph E. Hurff, a graduate of Jefferson College, 1881, 
located at Blackwood. During 1882, Dr. Robert H. Peacock, a 
graduate of Hahnemann Medical College, 1 881, located at Berlin, 
and Mrs. Jennie Rickards,* graduate of the Eclectic College of 
Philadelphia, located in Camden. In 1883, William A. 
Westcott, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College during the 
year, began practice at Berlin, and Doctors George H. Jones, 
a graduate of the University of New York, 1870; James H. 
Stanton, William Warnock and Joseph H. Wills, the two 
latter graduates of the University of Pennsylvania in 1883, 
located in Camden, and Dr. J. W. Gardiner, a graduate of 
Hahnemann Medical College, 1875, located at Gloucester City. 
During 1884, Dr. Guilford Gunter, a graduate of the University 
of Pennsylvania, 1880; Dr. William C. Raughley, a graduate of 
the same institution in 1884, and Dr. William Shafer, a graduate 
of Jefferson Medical College during the year, began practice in 
Camden. Dr. George D. Woodward, a student at Swarthmore 
College and a graduate of Hahnemann Medical College, 1884, 
began practice at Belair, Md., and moved to Camden two years 
after. 

During 1880, William H. Braddock opened a drug-store 
at the corner of Third and Elm streets, which has since been 
removed to Third and Birch, and is now owned by G. S. 
Hoffecker; in 1882, Dr. N. Davis opened a store at Broadway 
and Spruce streets; in 1884, Dr. William Shafer opened a 

* Prowell's History of Camden County. 



176 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

store at Fourth and Hamilton streets; Dr. E. R. Smiley, at 
Third and Washington streets, and Dr. P. W. Beale, at Ninth 
and Federal streets. 

B. YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

[188 1.] The Young Men's Christian Association of 
Camden was organized October 16, 1878, and has filled an 
important position in the development and maintenance of the 
religious interests of the city. The growth of its influence 
and possessions, from its organization and early meetings in 
the lecture-room of the Tabernacle Baptist Church, now 
William B. Hatch Post, G. A. R., to its present handsome and 
spacious quarters on Federal street, attest its popularity among, 
and its usefulness to, the young people of Camden. With its 
development, the physicians of Camden have been strongly 
and actively identified. In 1881, Dr. E. M. Howard was 
elected a member of its Board of Directors and has held the 
position since with much advantage to the association. 
Doctors William A. Davis, John G. Doron and A. E. Street, 
dentist, have each served for a number of years on its govern- 
ing board and have contributed in many ways to its success. 

C. MILITARY INTERESTS. 

i. The Association of the Sons of Veterans of the United 

States. 

[188 r.] The principles and the organization of this 
association originated with Dr. G. S. F. Pfeiffer, of Camden,* 
who had served with distinction as a medical cadet in the navy 
of Holland; in the French army in 1825, an d as an assistant 
surgeon in the One Hundred and Eighty-sixth Regiment, 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, during the latter part of the Rebellion 
of 1 86 1 to 1865. The Order of the Loyal Legion and the 
Grand Army of the Republic, which preceded the Sons of 
Veterans in the order of organization, were also originated by 
physicians. The association is formed of the male descendants 
of the deceased or honorably discharged soldiers, sailors and 
marines of the United States forces who served in the Rebellion. 

* MS. Notes of Dr. F. P. Pfeiffer. 



Miscellaneous Interests. 177 

Its object is "to keep green the memories of their fathers and 
their sacrifices for the maintenance of the Union." The 
association is divided into camps, State organizations and the 
commandery-in-chief. Among those in Camden county who 
have taken an active interest and held important positions in 
the association are Doctors E. E. De Grofft, of Camden, and 
J. J. Haley, of Gloucester City. 

2. Medical Officers of the National Guard of New Jersey. 
[1882.] Important changes occurred in the Sixth Regi- 
ment, National Guard, this year. Major-General William J. 
Sewell, colonel commanding, was promoted to the command 
of the Second Brigade, National Guard, and Major H. Genet 
Taylor, surgeon of the regiment, resigned his position, June 
23, 1882, after a service of thirteen years in the State forces, 
dating from December 1, 1869. Lieutenant-Colonel William 
H. Cooper was elected and commissioned colonel of the 
regiment, September 21, 1882, to succeed General Sewell; 
First Lieutenant and Assistant Surgeon Isaac B. Mulford was 
promoted major and surgeon, October 9, 1882, on the staff of 
Colonel Cooper to succeed Major Taylor, and, on the same date, 
Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey was commissioned first lieutenant and 
assistant surgeon of the regiment, vice Mulford promoted. On 
November 21, 1881, Major Mulford died and Lieutenant 
Godfrey was promoted to the maj orate of the regiment and 
commissioned January 4, 1883, and Dr. Dowling Benjamin was 
commissioned first lieutenant and assistant surgeon on the same 
date. On September 16, 1884, Lieutenant Benjamin resigned 
and, on October 6th, Dr. George T. Robinson was commis- 
sioned first lieutenant and assistant surgeon to fill the vacancy. 
In 1884, Levi B. Hirst was warranted hospital steward of the 
regiment and retained the position until 1894, when he was 
honorably discharged. 

3. The United States Pension Board of Examining Surgeons. 
[1884.] This board was established in Camden, June 14th. 
Previously to this, the physical examinations of disabled 
soldiers and sailors were made by Dr. James A. Armstrong, of 
Camden, ex-surgeon of the Seventy-fifth Regiment, Pennsyl- 



178 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

vania Volunteers, and, if approved by the Pension Bureau of 
Washington, the applicant would be ordered to report for 
examination to a United States Pension Board, then only found 
in large cities. The difficulty and delay of securing examina- 
tions for pensions, by the soldiers and sailors of this vicinity, 
was brought to the attention of United States Senator William 
J. Sewell, and, through his influence, a board was established 
in Camden by the Commissioner of Pensions, and Doctors H. 
Genet Taylor, James A. Armstrong and O. B. Gross were 
appointed to constitute the board. In 1885, Doctors Taylor 
and Armstrong were succeeded by Doctors James M. Ridge and 
John W. Donges and Dr. O. B. Gross was retained. In 1889, 
Doctors H. H. Davis, P. W. Beale and E. P. Townsend were 
appointed to constitute the board. In 1892, Dr. Townsend 
resigned and Dr. Howard F. Palm was appointed to fill the 
vacancy. In 1893, Doctors John W. Donges, John K. Bennett 
and P. W. Beale were made its members. 

D. POLITICAL INTERESTS. 

[1882.] In the revision of the charter of the city of 
Camden, in 1851, the power and authority of City Council to 
elect its presiding officer was provided for and, during 
this year (1882), Dr. John W. Donges was elected president of 
Council. Dr. Donges was elected a member of City Council in 
1878 and won distinguished recognition from his confreres, 
as a member of the sanitary committee, in the epidemic of 
small-pox, in 1880. He was the first physician to hold the 
position of president. Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler was the first 
physician to hold a councilmanic position, and, since then, 
Doctors Charles W. Sartori, Frederick P. Pfeiffer, W. B. E. 
Miller, John D. Eeckner, P. W. Beale, William S. Jones and 
B. S. Lewis have been members of this department of the 
government of Camden. In 1881, Doctors M. F. Middleton 
and H. H. Davis represented, respectively, the Second and 
Fifth wards of Camden in the Board of Education, and were 
re-elected in 1882. 



Miscellaneous Interests. 179 

E. SOCIETY FOR RELIEF OF WIDOWS AND ORPHANS OF 
MEDICAL MEN OF NEW JERSEY. 

[1882.] The plan of organization of this society was first 
presented to the New Jersey Medical Society in 1850, and an 
Act of Legislature was secured to enable the members of the 
Medical Society of New Jersey to provide a fund for the relief 
of widows and orphans of deceased physicians and surgeons, 
members of the State Society and of District Medical Societies. 
The project was not completed until May 20, 1882, when the 
present society was incorporated at Newark, largely through 
the influence of Dr. Charles J. Kipp, for the purpose of afford- 
ing pecuniary aid to the families of deceased medical men and, 
also, to its members in time of special need. The society has 
a relief fund, for the purpose of affording immediate aid on the 
death of a member, and a permanent fund which enables it to 
make yearly allowances, when required. Its president, 
Dr. Joseph D. Osborne, has contributed materially to its 
success and the organization has assisted the families of a 
number of its deceased members. Among the Camden county 
physicians who have become members of it are Doctors H. 
Genet Taylor, Joseph J. Wills and E. L. B. Godfrey. 

F. THE PHILADELPHIA COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 

[1883.] This society was organized, in 1848, for the 
purpose of securing a delegate relationship with the American 
Medical Association. It became, in consequence, an organi- 
zation with a large membership and has maintained a 
close affiliation with other county medical societies. The 
professional and social amenities of the county societies of 
Philadelphia and Camden have strengthened the bonds of pro- 
fessional fellowship. For a number of years, it has been the 
custom for the Camden County Medical Society to entertain 
prominent Philadelphia physicians and those from other places 
at its semi-annual meeting, and, to do this on a more extended 
scale, the February meeting was provided. The Cooper legacy 
was bequeathed mainly for social purposes. To reciprocate 
the many acts of hospitality of the Camden Society, the Phila- 
delphia County Society set apart October 10, 1883, for the 



i8o History Medical Professio?i Camden County. 

purpose of entertaining the Camden county physicians at the 
hall of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, when Dr. E. M. 
Hunt, secretary oi the New Jersey State Board of Health, 
delivered an address on "Cholera.'' 

G. THE DRUGGISTS' ASSOCIATION OF CAMDEN. 

[1884.] This association was organized in Camden, 
Jul}' 1, 1884, for the purpose of promoting and protecting the 
professional and trade interests of the druggists of Camden. 
The association met monthly at the Camden City Dispensary 
and existed for about three years. For a time it sustained a 
delegate relationship with the National Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation and increased and profited the common interests of the 
profession. During 1885, it entertained as its guests the New 
Jersey Pharmaceutical Society, of which Prof. Albert P. Brown, 
of Camden, was president. Prof. Brown also served as presi- 
dent of the association and Stanley C. Muschamp as secretary 
and treasurer. The following druggists were members: 
Doctors D. P. Pancoast, Dowling Benjamin and George W. 
Henry, and Druggists J. L. De La Cour, A. W. Test, L. H. 
Street, George D. Borton, Charles E. Slough, William H. 
Braddock, Richard S. Justice, Simeon T. Ringel and Ehrman 
Lehman.* 

Section XL — Deaths. 

[1881.] During the period under consideration, Camden 
county sustained severe losses in the death of Dr. Joseph W. 
McCullough and of John Morgan in 1881 ; Doctors John 
Y. Schenck and Isaac B. Mulford, in 1882 ; Doctors Sylvester 
Birdsell and G. S. F. Pfeiffer and Colonel Thomas McKeen, in 
1883, an d Dr. Randall W. Morgan, in 1884. 

Dr. Joseph W. McCullough died March 15, 1881, of typhus 
fever contracted while on duty at the Almshouse, Blackwood, 
during the epidemic previously referred to. His death illus- 
trated, in a degree rarely equalled, a devotion to professional 
duty. From November to March, he continuously faced the 
dangers of malignant typhus fever without sign of fear or 

* MS. Notes of S. C. Muschamp. 



Deaths. 181 

relaxation of service, until prostrated with the plague, from 
which he died a martyr's death. No such evidence of 
unfaltering courage and heroic devotion to duty has ever been 
exhibited by any physician in Camden county, except his 
distinguished co-laborer and confrere, Dr. Henry E. Branin, 
and his successor, Dr. Joseph E. Hurff. The medical fraternity 
of Camden county owe to their profession, and to posterity, 
the erection of a tablet at the Almshouse to commemorate the 
heroic services of Doctors McCullough, Branin and Hurff. Dr. 
McCullough served in the Rebellion as assistant surgeon, and 
subsequently as surgeon, of the First Delaware Regiment, 
and participated in many of the battles of the Army of the 
Potomac. After the close of the Civil War, he was com- 
missioned an assistant surgeon in the regular army, but 
resigned, in 1866, and located at Blackwood. In 1868, he 
was appointed physician to the Almshouse, — a position retained 
by him until his death. Dr. McCullough was a member of the 
Camden County Medical Society, which took appropriate action 
at his death. 

John Morgan, president of the Camden City Dispensary, 
died November 8, 1881. For a number of years, he had been 
an active supporter of the dispensary and, at the time of his 
death, had served as its president seven years. He left a legacy 
of one hundred dollars to the dispensary. 

[1882.] Dr. John V. Schenck died July 25, 1882. Dr. 
Schenck was graduated with the degree of A. B. from Rutgers 
College, in 1844, and as an M. D. from the University of Penn- 
sylvania, in 1847. He located in Camden, in 1849, and soon 
became prominently and favorably known because of his labors 
in the cholera epidemic. In 1853, ne was one °f the organizers 
of the Camden City Medical Society ; in 1859 anc ^ iri 1 ^73) he 
served as president of the County Medical Society ; in 1867, he 
was one of the incorporators of the Camden City Dispensary ; 
in 1877, he was elected president of the Medical Society of 
New Jersey and, in this year also, upon the death of 
Dr. Thomas F. Cullen, he was made a member of the Board of 
Trustees of The Cooper Hospital, — a position held by him until 
his death. Dr. Schenck was the most extensive practitioner of 



1 82 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

obstetrics Camden count}' has ever known and, at the time of 
his death, was the acknowledged leader as well as the oldest 
member of the profession. It was said of him that he averaged 
attendance upon a parturient case daily, during some years of 
his practice. 

Dr. Isaac B. Mulford 'died November 21, 1882, in the 
thirty-ninth year of his age. Dr. Mulford was graduated as an 
A. B. from Princeton College, in 1865, and as an M. D. from 
the University of Pennsylvania, in 187 1, after which he began 
medical practice in Camden. In 1868, Princeton College con- 
ferred on him the degree of A. M. In 1 881, he was elected 
president of the Camden County Medical Society. He served 
for a number of years on the Board of Managers of the Camden 
City Dispensary and also as physician to the West Jersey 
Orphanage and took an active interest in their management. 
He was a member of the American Medical Association, the 
American Academy of Medicine and of the New Jersey Sani- 
tary Association. He was commissioned an assistant surgeon 
in the National Guard of New Jersey and appointed on 
the staff of Colonel William J. Sewell, Sixth Regiment, 
and, upon the resignation of Major H. Genet Taylor, surgeon 
of the regiment, he was promoted major and surgeon and served 
on the staff of Colonel W. H. Cooper of the same regiment, 
until his death. Following the example of Dr. R. M. Cooper, 
Dr. Mulford bequeathed his medical library to the Camden City 
Medical Society, on the condition that it should be properly 
cared for and known as "The Mulford Library." The library 
contained a choice collection of books and was valued at one 
thousand dollars. The society accepted the bequest with the 
conditions named ; procured a proper case, catalogued the books 
and appointed a librarian. 

[1883.] Dr. Sylvester Birdsell, whose death occurred 
during the year, was graduated from Jefferson Medical College 
in 1848, and began his professional career in Camden, in 1850. 
In 1853, ne assisted in the organization of the Camden City 
Medical Society and, in 1858, was elected president of the 
Camden County Medical Society. He held, at one time, a 
lectureship in the Woman's Medical College of Philadelphia. 



Deaths. 183 

Most of his time, however, after a few years of medical 
practice, was devoted to his drug interests at Fourth and 
Walnut streets, Camden. He served for a number of terms as 
a member of the Board of Education. 

Dr. George S. F. Pfeiffer died at his residence in Camden, 
November, 1883. Dr. Pfeiffer, a native of Worms, Germany, 
was born in 1806 and came to America, in 1833. Previously 
to this, his career had been eventful. While a student at the 
University of Strasburg, he entered the naval service of 
Holland as a medical cadet In 1825, while cruising off the 
coast of Algiers, he, with a number of shipmates, made an 
incursion inland and was captured by Bedouins and retained 
a prisoner until 1830, when the French captured Algiers 
and liberated them. He then entered the French army 
and won meritorious recognition because of his knowl- 
edge of the country and of the language and customs of the 
Algerians. He remained with the army for six months, when 
he was permitted to return to Germany to resume and com- 
plete his medical studies. In 1833, he emigrated to America 
and, in 1854, located in Camden. In 1856, he was graduated 
from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia; about 
i860, he accepted the professorship of the Theory and Practice 
of Medicine in the Penn Medical University of Philadelphia, 
which he retained until 1864, when he was commissioned an 
assistant surgeon in the One Hundred and Eighty-sixth Regi- 
ment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. He retained this position until 
mustered out of the service in 1865, when he returned to Camden. 
Dr. Pfeiffer was a master of eight languages. He wrote a number 
of books and translations, for the benefit of his countrymen, on 
the manufacturing industries of the United States, which were 
published in Germany. He was a member of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania; Post 5, G. A. R., of Camden; the 
originator of the Order of Sons of Veterans and member of 
Lodge No. 51, F. and A. M., of Philadelphia.* 

In the death of Colonel Thomas McKeen (1883), the 
Camden City Dispensary and the medical profession lost an 
active friend and an ardent supporter. To him, more than to 

* MS. Notes of F. P. Pfeiffer, M. D. 



184 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

any other, was due the organization of the dispensary, and his 
continued interest in its welfare, as a member of its Board of 
Managers and its president, bears testimony to the singleness of 
purpose that actuated him in devoting the surplus funds of the 
North Ward Bounty Association to the founding of the insti- 
tution. At the time of his death, he was president of the 
Board of Managers of the dispensary. He bequeathed to his 
family a record ennobled by deeds of charity and acts of 
benevolence. 

[1884.] Dr. Randal W. Morgan died at sea on a return 
voyage from Europe, October 20th. Dr. Morgan was 
appointed to a cadetship at the U. S. Naval Academy, at 
Annapolis, but was obliged to resign on account of ill health. 
He then studied at Bucknell University for a time and was 
graduated as a Doctor of Medicine from the University of 
Pennsylvania, in 1870, after which he located in Camden. In 
1872, the University of Pennsylvania conferred on him the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy. In the same year, he won 
distinction in an epidemic of small-pox prevailing in Camden r 
which has been referred to. In 1876, he was elected county 
physician and was the first physician to hold the position 
under the legislative Act creating the same. In 1879, 
he established a drug-store at the corner of Kaighn and 
Newton avenues. 



CHAPTER X. 
THE PERIOD FROM 18S5 TO 1890. 

Section I. — The Camden City Dispensary. 

[1885.] The annual meeting of the Board of Managers 
was held January 13th. The report for the year showed that 
six hundred and twenty-five patients had been treated, and four 
thousand, seven hundred and seventeen prescriptions com- 
pounded, from an expenditure of $2,634.69, including all the 
expenses of the institution. Dr. Alexander Marcy was elected 
president; Maurice Browning, vice-president; Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor, secretary, and Richard H. Reeve, treasurer. The con- 
tract with City Council, for furnishing medicine and medical 
attendants for the poor of the city for $1,600 per annum, 
first made for that amount in 1879, expired May 31st Its 
renewal met with opposition from the managers of the Camden 
Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary, who requested the 
sanitary committee of City Council to permit them to submit 
a bid for supplying the poor of the city with medicine and 
medical attendants for the ensuing year. The request was 
complied with ; the managers of the Camden City Dispensary 
were duly notified and solicited to make a bid for the work, 
which would be opened and recorded upon the meeting of the 
committee. The invitation was officially refused and, in con- 
sequence of a bid of $1,500 from the Camden Homoeopathic 
Hospital and Dispensary, the entire contract was awarded to 
that institution for the ensuing year. During the year, the 
dispensary came into possession of a legacy of $1,000 from 
Elizabeth Cooper and of $100 from the estate of John 
Morgan. 

[1886.] In consequence of the failure of the dispensary 
to secure the usual appropriation from the city for the care of 
its indigent sick, an effort was made to provide a sustaining 
fund, by means of private subscriptions, and, at the annual 
meeting in January, the report showed that, while less work 

185 



1 86 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

was done throughout the city in the way of professional visits, 
an increased number of prescriptions were written at the dis- 
pensary and the expenses for the last fiscal year, amounting to 
$ I >335-34> were met without difficulty, from private subscrip- 
tions and the interest of invested funds. At this meeting, the 
managers and officers were re-elected, with the exception of 
Othniel G. Taylor, the pharmacist, who had served in that 
capacity since the organization of the dispensary, but now 
resigned because of ill-health. Dr. Howard F. Palm was 
elected pharmacist and interne at a salary of $300 per 
annum. The effort to support the dispensary by means of 
contributions from the citizens of Camden led to an extension 
of interests in other directions. A constitutional provision 
was introduced by Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey increasing the Board 
of Managers to fifteen persons, eight of whom should be elected 
as the representatives of the Camden City Medical Society and 
seven as the representatives of the annual contributors. Clinics 
were again established with the following appointments: 
Medicine, Doctors H. F. Palm and Jesse J. Wills ; surgery, 
Alexander McAlister and Joseph H. Wills; gynaecology, J. F. 
Walsh and Alexander McAlister; diseases of the eye, E. P. 
Townsend ; diseases of the skin, George T. Robinson, and 
diseases of the throat, F. G. Stroud. The report for the year 
was printed for distribution. As the time approached for the 
expiration of the contract between the city and the Camden 
Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary, the managers of the 
Camden City Dispensary realized the necessity of securing at 
least a part of the city's appropriation and, as a result of the 
effort, the annual appropriation of City Council for the poor 
was increased to $1,800, half of which was paid to the 
Camden City Dispensary and half to the Camden Homoeopathic 
Hospital and Dispensary. An agreement was then made 
between the institutions to divide the city into regular and 
homoeopathic districts; to provide medicine and medical 
attendants for each, and the First, Third, Fifth and Sixth 
wards were assigned to the Camden City Dispensary, and the 
Second, Fourth, Seventh and Eighth wards to the Homoeo- 
pathic Hospital and Dispensary. Dr. Joseph H. Wills was 



The Camden City Dispensary . 187 

appointed physician for the First and Third wards, and 
Dr. William Warnock for the Fifth and Sixth wards, on the 
part of the Camden City Dispensary. The names of the repre- 
sentatives of the Camden Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispen- 
sary could not be procured. 

[1887.] The annual meeting was held in January and, 
under the new constitutional provisions, Messrs. Maurice 
Browning, David M. Chambers, Richard H. Reeve, Joseph B. 
Cooper, Peter V. Voorhees, Rudolph W. Birdsell and Henry B. 
Wilson were elected to the Board of Managers, to represent the 
annual contributors, and Doctors H. Genet Taylor, A. M. 
Mecray, E. L. B. Godfrey, William A. Davis, H. H. Davis, 
Dowling Benjamin, J. F. Walsh and E. P. Townsend, as the 
representatives of the Camden City Medical Society. Maurice 
Browning was elected president; David M. Chambers, vice- 
president ; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, secretary ; Richard H. Reeve, 
treasurer, and Dr. H. F. Palm, pharmacist. There were treated 
during the year one thousand, three hundred and ninety 
cases and three thousand, eight hundred and twenty-three 
prescriptions were compounded. The contract with the city 
($900) was renewed in June. The first effort to enlarge the 
dispensary building, or to purchase a new building, was made 
during this year, but met with opposition in the Board of 
Managers. 

[1888.] The annual meeting of the dispensary was held 
January 10th. The managers, officers, attending staff and 
district physicians were re-elected. Two thousand, one hundred 
and sixty-three patients were treated, at an expense of $1,216.64, 
during the past year. The Society for the Relief of Poverty * 
was given free quarters at the dispensary and the prescriptions 

*The Camden Society for the Prevention and Relief of Poverty was organized, in 1884, 
for the object which its title indicates and to prevent children from growing up as paupers. 
The managers of the dispensary placed a room in their building at the disposal of the 
society, for the use of its officers and superintendent, and the society became the recipient 
of the annual appropriation of City Council for the relief of the poor. The officers for 1892 
were as follow: President, His Honor, the Mayor of the City ; vice-presidents, General 
William J. Sewell, F. W. Ayer and S. H. Grey ; secretary, Edmund E. Read, Jr ; treasurer, 
Wilbur F. Rose; superintendent, Abel Smith; directors, D. M. Chambers (chairman), 
Wilbur F. Rose, Geoffrey Buckwalter, J. Lynn Truscott, Rev. Moses Wilcox, F. H. Burdsall, 

B. C. Reeve. J. B. Fox, E. E. Read, Jr., Howard M. Sharp, Joseph P. Weatherbyand William 

C. Dayton. 



1 88 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

from the out-patient department of The Cooper Hospital, and 
from the Camden Home for Friendless Children, were ordered 
to be compounded free of charge. . 

[1889.] The annual meeting was held January 8th, with 
President Maurice Browning in the chair. Three thousand, five 
hundred and eight cases were reported to have been treated 
during the year, and six thousand, four hundred and twenty- 
eight prescriptions compounded. The managers representing 
the Camden City Medical Society were re-elected, with the ex- 
ception of Dr. O. B. Gross in the place of Dr. J. F. Walsh, and, 
also, those representing the contributors. The officers of the 
Board of Managers, the staff and district physicians and the 
pharmacist were re-elected. The contract with the city was 
renewed. During the year, Joseph B. Cooper, who had been 
identified with the management of the dispensary for seventeen 
years, eight of which he served as its treasurer, died and left a 
legacy of $500, of which the dispensary came into possession 
the following year. A legacy of $2,000 was also received, 
October 29th, from the estate of William B. Cooper, who was 
a strong factor in the support of the West Jersey Orphanage 
and also a member of the Board of Managers of the Dispensary 
and of The Cooper Hospital. 

Section II. — The Camden City Medical Society. 

[1885.] In the early portion of the year, but little 
interest was taken in the City Medical Society and the March 
meeting was not held. In April, however, the necessity for 
the organization of a board of health under State laws led to a 
special meeting of the society and the appointment of a 
committee, consisting of Doctors E. L. B. Godfrey, H. Genet 
Taylor, A. M. Mecray, O. B. Gross, H. H. Davis, J. F. Walsh 
and D. Benjamin, to request Dr. E. M. Hunt, secretary of the 
State Board of Health, and the sanitary committee of City 
Council to meet them in a conference concerning said organi- 
zation. On June 15th, the conference was held at the City Hall 
and measures for the organization of a board of health, under the 
State sanitary code of 1880, and its supplements, was adopted. 
At the annual meeting in September, a resolution was adopted, 



The Camden City Medical Society . 189 

which became a constitutional provision in 1887, providing for 
monthly meetings of the society at the dispensary ; for the 
appointment of an essayist by the president and for the serving 
of a collation after each meeting. This marked an era in the 
history of the society, and since then regular monthly meetings 
have been held, except during July and August, under the 
conditions named in the resolution. At this meeting, a paper 
on "Burns and Scalds" was read by Dr. D. Benjamin. Dr. J. 
F. Walsh was elected president ; Dr. O. B. Gross, vice-president, 
and Dr. W. A. Davis, secretary and treasurer. In November, 
Dr. A. M. Mecray read a paper on " Puerperal Convulsions" and, 
in December, Dr. H. F. Palm presented a paper on " Negative 
Points in Practice." Doctors Joseph H. Wills, an A. B. of 
Haverford College, 1868, A.M. of the same, 1871, M. D. of 
the University of Pennsylvania, 1880, and ex-resident physician 
and surgeon of the Pennsylvania and Orthopaedic Hospitals of 
Philadelphia; Jesse J. Wills, a graduate of Jefferson Medical 
College, 1884, George W. Henry and Philip W. Beale were 
elected members. 

[1886.] A spirit of progress was manifest in the society 
throughout the year. Papers were read by Prof. H. F. Formad, 
of Philadelphia, on "Criminal Abortion"; by Prof. John 
V. Shoemaker, of Philadelphia, on "Lupus"; by Dr. W. H. 
Iszard, on "Post-partum Hemorrhage," and Dr. C. G. Hoell, on 
"Quinine." Dr. O. B. Gross was elected president; Dr. W. A. 
Davis, secretary and treasurer; Doctors Taylor, Mecray, 
Godfrey, Gross, Benjamin, H. H. Davis, W. A. Davis and 
Walsh were elected as the representatives of the society in the 
Board of Managers of the City Dispensary, and Dr. John W. 
Donges, Dr. Daniel Strock, Dr. Nehemiah Davis, a graduate of 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 1878, and Jefferson Medical 
College, 1886; Dr. Alexander McAlister, Ph. G. of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 1882, and M. D. of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 1885 ; Dr. William S. Jones, 
a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 1878; Dr. Frank G. 
Stroud, Jefferson Medical College, 1885, and Dr. William 
R. Powell, Jefferson Medical College, 1877, were elected 
members. 



190 History Medical Profession Camden County. . 

[1887.] Regular monthly meetings were held at the 
City Dispensary (No. 46 North Third street), the upper room 
of which was furnished for the use of the society. The consti- 
tution and by-laws were revised by a committee, consisting of 
Doctors Townsend, Godfrey, Ireland, H. H. Davis, W. A. Davis 
and Benjamin, to provide for monthly meetings (except in July 
and August) ; for the election of officers and of honorary and 
contributing members and for the government of the society. 
The revision became operative in 1888. The following papers 
were read during the year: "The Cause of Cough," by Dr. W. 
S. Jones; "Croup and Diphtheria," by Dr. D. Benjamin; 
"The Removal of the Uterine Appendages, with Exhibition of 
Specimen," by Dr. Alexander McAlister; "The Treatment of 
Phthisis by Gaseous Enemata," by Dr. Joseph H. Wills ; 
"Ovariotomy," with a report of a case with recovery, by Dr. J. 
F.Walsh; "Ovariotomy," with a report of a case, by Dr. 
Alexander McAlister, and "Abdominal Section," with the 
report of a case, by Dr. J. F. Walsh. The election of the 
officers for the year is not recorded in the minutes of the 
society. Dr. William Shafer, a graduate of Eeesburg Academy, 
1872, and of Jefferson Medical College, 1884, and Dr. Robert 
Casperson, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 1884, and 
subsequently a student at London and Paris, were elected 
members, and Dr. Harry H. Sherk, of Cramer Hill, was elected 
a corresponding member of the society. 

[1888.] The revised constitution and by-laws provided 
for the election of the officers of the society in January. Dr. 
H. H. Davis was elected president ; Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, vice- 
president; Dr. W. A. Davis, secretary ; Dr. George T. 
Robinson, treasurer ; Dr. Daniel Strock, annual reporter ;. 
Dr. H. F. Palm, librarian ; Doctors H. Genet Taylor, A. M. 
Mecray and D. P. Pancoast were elected the standing com- 
mittee, and Doctors H. Genet Taylor, E. E. B. Godfrey, W. A. 
Davis, D. Benjamin, E. P. Townsend, H. H. Davis, A. M. 
Mecray and J. F. Walsh, the representatives in the manage- 
ment of the City Dispensary. The following papers were read 
during the year: "A Plea for Pure Milk," by Dr. Daniel 
Strock; "The Venom of Reptiles and Insects," by Dr. D. P. 



The Camden District Medical Society. 191 

Pancoast ; " Laparotomy for Plastic Peritonitis," by Dr. J. F. 
Walsh ; " Trichina Spiralis," by Dr. Joseph H. Wills, in which 
microscopical views of the parasite taken from cases in his 
practice were shown ; " Eeucorrhea," by Dr. W. H. Ireland ; 
"Infant Feeding," by Dr. William Shafer ; "Uterine Hemor- 
rhage," by Dr. E. P. Townsend; "Tetanus," by Dr. D. Strock. 
Prof. John V. Shoemaker, of the Medico-Chirurgical College 
of Philadelphia, was elected an honorary member and Dr. John 
F. Eeavitt, a graduate of the University of the City of New 
York, was elected to membership. 

[1889.] The first meeting of the society, for the year, 
was held January 10th, when the following officers were 
elected : President, Dr. E. E. B. Godfrey ; vice-president, Dr. 
Daniel Strock ; secretary, Dr. W. A. Davis ; treasurer, Dr. 
George T. Robinson ; annual reporter, Dr. Daniel Strock ; 
librarian, Dr. H. F. Palm ; standing committee, Doctors H. 
Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray and D. Benjamin; dispensary 
managers, Doctors A. M. Mecray, H. H. Davis, H. Genet 
Taylor, W. A. Davis, E. E. B. Godfrey, E. P. Townsend, O. B. 
Gross and D. Benjamin. Dr. O. W. Braymer was elected to 
membership. The following papers were read during the 
year: "Nasal Catarrh," by Dr. W. S. Jones; "The Cause of 
Typhoid Fever," by Dr. W. H. Ireland; " Typho-malarial 
Fever," by Dr. George T. Robinson; "Typhlitis," by Dr. 
W. A. Davis; "The Human Countenance in Health and 
Disease," by Dr. J. F. Eeavitt ; "Surgical Shock," by Dr. 
Harry Jarre tt; "Evolution of the Four-cavity Heart," by Dr. 
O. B. Gross. In June, Dr. J. F. Walsh resigned from active, 
and was elected to honorary, membership. 

Section III. — The Camden District Medical Society. 

[1885.] As previously arranged, a social meeting of the 
society was held February 10th, to which a large number of 
guests were invited. This was the first meeting of the society 
in February, and its success led to a change in the constitution, 
providing for its continuance. The meeting was under the 
care of Doctors E. E. B. Godfrey, H. Genet Taylor and A. M. 
Mecray, the committee of arrangements, who selected cholera 



192 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

as the subject for discussion, because of its prevalence in 
Europe, in epidemic form, during 1884. In that year, Koch 
discovered the comma bacillus, and claimed that it was always 
present in cholera, found in no other disease and afforded the 
only means of propagating the malady. The subject was of 
special interest, and Dr. John R. Stevenson, of Haddonfield, 
who had had experience with the disease in Camden in the 
epidemic of 1866, was selected to present it. The subject 
of his paper was "A Germ of Cholera in New Jersey." Prof. 
Peter D. Keyser, of Philadelphia, exhibited, at the same time, 
a specimen of the comma bacillus of Koch under the micro- 
scope. The subject was well presented and discussed. 
Cholera, however, did not gain a foothold in this country, 
because of quarantine restrictions. 

The annual meeting of the society was held at the West 
Jersey Hotel, Camden, May 12th. Dr. J. W. Snowden read 
the annual report and Dr. Alexander Marcy read a paper on 
diphtheria, advocating a mercurial treatment both locally and 
internally. A resolution was introduced and adopted, disquali- 
fying from membership any physician accepting " a profes- 
sional position or attending by the day, week, month or year 
any corporation, railroad company or any private or public 
society for a less consideration than the schedule of prices 
adopted by the society." The object of the resolution was to 
compel the surgeons of the Pennsylvania and the Camden and 
Atlantic Railroad Companies, and the physician to the Catholic 
societies of Camden, to resign their positions. To offset it, a 
counter-resolution was adopted " expressive of the great detri- 
ment to the medical profession and the society, for physicians 
owning drug-stores to prescribe medicines without charging 
legitimate fees, unless done in the spirit of charily*." The 
primary resolution was introduced by a physician operating a 
drug-store and, consequently, at the following semi-annual 
meeting, both resolutions were agreeably rescinded. The 
following were elected officers for the ensuing year : President, 
Dr. E. B. Woolston ; vice-president, Dr. W. H. Ireland ; secre- 
tary-, Dr. H. Genet Taylor ; treasurer, Dr. A. M. Mecray ; chair- 
man of the standing committee, Dr. J. W. Snowden ; censor 



The Camden District Medical Society . 193 

for five years, Dr. J. R. Stevenson. Doctors Daniel Strock and 
Joseph H. Wills were elected members. The amendment to 
the constitution, providing for a meeting of the society on the 
evening of the second Tuesday in February, introduced by 
Dr. Godfrey, was adopted. At the semi-annual meeting in 
November, Dr. J. W. Snowden made the report for the section 
on medicine and Dr. W. A. Davis reported for the section on 
obstetrics. 

[1886.] At the February meeting of the society, Dr. Wil- 
liam Pepper, of Philadelphia, read a paper on " Typhoid 
Fever," which was discussed with fervor by a number of the 
members and invited guests. . Its causative agent was not then 
believed to be a living entity and the nitrate-of-silver treatment 
was advocated by Dr. Pepper. 

At the annual meeting, May nth, Dr. B. B. Woolston 
presided ; Dr. J. W. Snowden read the annual report, reciting 
the appearance at the County Almshouse of three cases of 
typhus fever, which were quarantined and the further spread- 
ing of the disease checked. He also advocated the employ- 
ment of salicylic acid, then coming into use, in the treatment 
of rheumatism. Dr. Charles H. Shivers presented a paper on 
"Thrombosis Complicating Labor," and Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey 
spoke of the necessity for the appointment of an inspector of 
plumbing for Camden and of making the street-cleaning 
service a part of the public service, under the direct supervi- 
sion of a board of health. Dr. William H. Ireland was elected 
president ; Dr. O. B. Gross, vice-president ; Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor, secretary; Dr. A. M. Mecray, treasurer; Dr. Alexander 
Marcy, censor for five years ; Dr. J. W. Snowden, chairman of 
the standing committee, and Doctors Joseph E. Hurff, of 
Blackwood ; Jesse J. Wills, William Warnock and George T. 
Robinson, of Camden, and Dr. James A. Walmsley, of Glou- 
cester City, were elected members. Dr. G. W. Bough man, of 
Gloucester, resigned, because of his removal to Delaware. 
Delegates to the State and other Medical Societies were 
appointed. Dr. John R. Stevenson was appointed to prepare 
a "History of Medicine and Medical Men of the Society" for 
publication in Prowell's History of Camden County. 

13 



1 94 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

The November meeting was held on the 9th instant. The 
following papers were presented in the section on surgery, 
which was the only section to report: "Antiseptic Treatment 
of Wounds," by Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey; "Strangulated Hernia," 
by Dr. O. B. Gross; "Fracture of the Lower End of the 
Radius," by Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey. The medical history of 
Camden county, which Dr. Stevenson was appointed to prepare,, 
was presented and received with much favor and three hundred 
copies were ordered for distribution. A committee, consisting 
of Doctors John R. Stevenson, of Haddonfield ; H. E. Branin r 
of Blackwood; C. G. Garrison, of Merchantville ; H. A. M. 
Smith, - of Gloucester City, and E. P. Townsend, of Camden, 
were appointed to investigate and report on the present and 
prospective water-supply of the towns and cities of the county. 

[1887.] Dr. Thomas G. Morton delivered an address on 
"Antiseptic Surgery," at the February meeting, in which he 
illustrated the antiseptic principles of Dr. Joseph Lister and 
demonstrated, from the results of a series of surgical cases, that 
suppuration, erysipelas and pyaemia arise from pyogenic 
organisms. 

On May 10th, the annual meeting was held at Gloucester 
City. Dr. John W. Snowden read the annual report, with a 
report of the following special cases: "Scarlatina," by Dr. 
Alexander Marcy; "Tapping the Pleural Sac in Empyema, 
with Recover," by Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey; "The Treatment 
of Phthisis by Gaseous Enemata," by Dr. Joseph H. Wills, and 
"Traumatic Tetanus," by Dr. L. L. Glover, of Haddonfield. 
Dr. O. B. Gross was elected president ; Dr. William H. Iszard, 
vice-president; Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, secretary; Dr. A. M. 
Mecray, treasurer; Dr. E. P. Townsend, chairman of the 
standing committee; Dr. H. Genet Taylor, censor for five 
years, and the usual delegates were elected. Upon the volun- 
tary retirement of Dr. H. Genet Taylor from the secretaryship 
of the society, a committee, of which Dr. D. Benjamin was 
chairman, was appointed to procure a suitable testimonial 
expressive of the appreciation of the society for his long-con- 
tinued and faithful services. Dr. Taylor was elected secretary 
of the society in i860 and served until 1862, when he entered 



The Camden District Medical Society. 195 

the United States service as assistant surgeon of the Eighth 
Regiment, N. J. V. In 1864, upon his resignation from the 
army, he was re-elected to the position and served in that 
capacity until 1887, a quarter century of service. The follow- 
ing were elected members of the society: Dr. Lawrence L. 
Glover, of Haddonfleld, Jefferson Medical College, 1882, and 
Doctors William S. Jones, Alexander McAlister, Robert G. 
Taylor, George W. Henry and William Shafer, of Camden. 

At the semi-annual meeting, November 8th, Dr. E. L. B. 
Godfrey made the report for the surgical section and Dr. W. A. 
Davis for the obstetrical, during which the latter exhibited the 
obstetric forceps devised by Dr. D. Benjamin and stated that 
they possessed the combined virtues of a Hodge and a Simpson 
forceps and could be obtained of the surgical instrument 
makers in Philadelphia. Doctors W. H. Ireland, D. Benjamin, 
H. Genet Taylor, E. P. Townsend and E. h- B. Godfrey were 
appointed a committee to revise the constitution and by-laws. 
The committee on the water-supply of Camden county, 
appointed the previous year, made in substance the following 
report : 

Wells were almost exclusively the source of supply throughout the 
county until 1845, when water from the Delaware river was introduced into 
Camden. In 1883, in an effort to introduce water into Gloucester City from 
Newton creek, springs were found in digging the basin and proved of 
sufficient volume to supply the city. In 1886, water was introduced into 
Merchantville from springs along Pensaukin creek. In 1887, water was 
introduced into Haddonfield from springs along the north branch of Cooper's 
creek, in the vicinity of Ellisburg. Professor George H. Cook, State Geolo- 
gist, is authority for the statement that "the springs along Newton, Pen- 
saukin and Cooper's creeks arise from the lower sand strata interposed 
between the clay beds which underlie the marl beds." The committee 
condemned the use of wells as a source of supply, except at Blackwood, and 
stated " there seems to be an inexhaustible supply of good, wholesome water, 
for any future population, from the springs along the streams in Camden 
county and the springs should be guarded from an influx of sewage or surface 
drainage." 

Dr. William S. Long, of Haddonfield, a graduate of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 1878, ex-interne of the Philadel- 
phia Hospital, i879-'8o, visiting physician to St. Christopher's 
Hospital, 1882, surgeon to the Pennsylvania Railroad, Ken- 
sington Station, i88i-'85 ; Dr. John W. Marcy, of Merchant- 



196 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

ville, a student at Lafayette College and a graduate of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 1885 ; Dr. Guilford Gunter, and 
Dr. F. G. Stroud, of Camden, were elected members. Dr. 
Stroud resigned the following year and located at Moores- 
town, N. J. 

[1888.] The first meeting of the society for this year 
was held February 14th, with the following programme : 
" The Treatment of Typhoid Fever," by Dr. A. M. Mecray ; 
"The Treatment of Spermatorrhoea," by Dr. J. F. Walsh; 
" Intubation versus Tracheotomy," by Dr. W. S. Jones ; 
" Tedious Labor," by Dr. C. H. Shivers. 

The annual meeting was held at Gloucester City, May 
8th, with Dr. O. B. Gross in the chair, who delivered the 
annual address. The following papers were read : The annual 
report, by Dr. E. P. Townsend ; " Trichinosis," by Dr. Joseph 
H. Wills; "Sarcoma of the Kidney," with the report of a 
case in a child sixteen months old, by Dr. William S. Long ; 
" Eleven Broken Bones, with Compound Dislocation of 
Shoulder, with Recovery," by Dr. D. Benjamin ; "Sulphurous- 
acid Poisoning," by Dr. Daniel Strock. The position of 
historian of the society was created, on motion of Dr. 
Godfrey. Dr. William H. Iszard was elected president; Dr. 
W. A. Davis, vice-president ; Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, secretary ; 
Dr. A. M. Mecray, treasurer ; Dr. John R. Stevenson, his- 
torian ; Dr. J. W. Snowden, censor for five years, and Dr. E. 
P. Townsend, chairman of the standing committee. In 
accordance with the resolution adopted at the annual meeting, 
in 1887, the society presented ex-secretary H. Genet Taylor 
with a series of resolutions, engrossed and framed, and a silver 
cup and pitcher, as an expression of their regard for his 
faithful service for a quarter of a century. The presentation 
speech was made by Dr. D. Benjamin ; the reception, on 
behalf of Dr. Taylor, by Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey. 

The November meeting was held at the City Dispensary 
on the 13th inst. The revised constitution, as presented by 
the committee appointed the previous year, was adopted. The 
following papers were read : " The Treatment of Diphtheria," 
by Dr. E. P. Townsend; "The Treatment of Typhoid Fever," 



The Medical Society of New Jersey . 197 

by Dr. E. E. B. Godfrey; " Recent Advances in Surgery," by 
Dr. Alexander McAlister ; "Antiseptic and Aseptic Surgery," 
by Dr. J. F. Walsh. A section on hygiene was established. 
Dr. Robert Casperson and Dr. Harry H. Sherk were elected to 
membership. 

[1889.] The regular meeting of the society was held, in. 
February, with the following papers: "Empyema," by 
Dr. Alexander McAlister; "The Use of Quinine in Labor," by 
Dr. H. H. Sherk ; "Nervous Conditions," by Dr. H. E. Branin. 
Dr. John K. Bennett, of Gloucester City, a graduate of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 1878, and of Jefferson 
Medical College, 1887, was elected a member. 

The annual meeting of the society was held at Gloucester 
City, May 14th, with the president, Dr. William H. Iszard, in 
the chair, who delivered an address on " Expert Testimony." 
Dr. E. P. Townsend made the annual report and Dr. John R. 
Stevenson a report as historian. Dr. W T . A. Davis was elected 
president ; Dr. H. H. Davis, vice-president ; Dr. E. L. B. 
Godfrey, secretary ; Dr. A. M. Mecray, treasurer ; Dr. John R. 
Stevenson historian ; Dr. H. E. Branin, censor for five years,, 
and Dr. E. P. Townsend, chairman of the standing committee. 

The November meeting of the society was held at the 
West Jersey Hotel on the 12th inst. Reports were made from 
the sections on medicine, surgery, obstetrics, pathology and 
hygiene. The water-supply of Camden was made the subject 
of discussion and Doctors Ireland, Gross, Iszard, Benjamin, 
Strock, Townsend and Godfrey were appointed to present a 
report defining the position of the society in relation to it. 
Dr. Robert G. Taylor resigned from active membership and 
was elected an honorary member. 

Section IV. — The Medical Society of New Jersey. 

[1885.] The society met at Long Branch, with Doctors 
J. R. Stevenson, O. B. Gross, D. W. Blake, J. M. Ridge and 
E. L. B. Godfrey present as Camden's representatives, and 
Dr. J. W. Snowden as a Fellow and reporter. The by-laws and 
the rules of the society were revised. Dr. H. Genet Taylor 
was nominated third vice-president, on the first ballot. 



198 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

[1886.] During this year, the society met at Sea Girt, 
with the attendance, from Camden county, of Dr. J. W. 
Snowden as Fellow and reporter, Doctors W. A. Davis, H. H. 
Davis, D. Benjamin, E. L. B. Godfrey, H. A. M. Smith and 
J. R. Stevenson as delegates, and Dr. H. Genet Taylor as third 
vice-president. Dr. Taylor delivered an address on "Medical 
Education," in which he reviewed the legislative history of the 
society, with special reference to the medical enactments of 
1830, '51 and '54, in their relation to medical education, and 
claimed that medical education brought into existence the 
American Medical Association. Following his efforts in the 
interests of medical reform, made at the meeting of the 
American Medical Association in 1884, Dr. D. Benjamin intro- 
duced a resolution to the effect "that this society can con- 
sistently recommend only those medical colleges that compel a 
preliminary examination and at least a three years' course of 
study." The resolution was adopted and contributed, in a 
great measure, towards an extension of the curriculum of study 
in the medical colleges of Philadelphia and New York and 
made clear to many of the leading members of the medical 
profession in New Jersey, the need of a State Board of Medical 
Examiners. The society, however, subsequently refused to 
further the appointment of such a board. Dr. D. Benjamin 
was appointed essayist for the ensuing meeting ; Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor was elected second vice-president; Dr. D. Benjamin, a 
delegate to the American Medical Association ; Dr. W. A. 
Davis, to the Delaware State Medical Society, and Dr. E. L. B. 
Godfrey, a member of the committee of arrangements for the 
next meeting. 

[1887.] On June 14th, the society met at Beach Haven 
and, after a session of much interest, was elaborately enter- 
tained at a banquet given by C. F. Parry, owner of the Hotel 
Baldwin. Among the delegates, Doctors J. M. Ridge, C. G. 
Hoell, O. B. Gross, H. H. Davis, J. Orlando White, Alexander 
McAlister, W. H. Iszard, E. P. Townsend, J. R. Stevenson, 
H. E. Branin, J. F. Walsh, H. F. Palm, J. W. Walmsley, 
Alexander Marcy, Charles G. Garrison and Sophia Presley 
were present from Camden county. Dr. H. Genet Taylor 



The Medical Society of New Jersey . 199 

attended as second vice-president and Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey as 
a member of the committee of arrangements. Dr. D. 
Benjamin, essayist, read a paper on "The Present Position of 
Antiseptic Practice" and, after referring to the marvelous 
experiments and successes of M. Pasteur, and their application 
to surgery by Dr. Joseph Lister, said that "antiseptic practice 
is based upon the demonstration that putrefaction and decay 
are due to the presence and action of living germs, or micro- 
organisms, and that many, if not all, of the contagious or 
infectious diseases are also due to the same cause." He spoke 
of "the habitat and methods of distribution of germs," 
reviewed the recent growth of antiseptic practice and claimed 
that " the adoption of the system is absolutely necessary in 
private practice by any physician who assumes the responsi- 
bility of a case." Dr. H. Genet Taylor was elected first vice- 
president. 

[1888.] The society met at Schooley's Mountain, in 
June, with Doctors J. R. Stevenson, H. A. M. Smith, H. H. 
Davis, E. L. B. Godfrey, Daniel Strock, W. H. Iszard and 
W. A. Davis present as delegates from Camden. Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor was elected president ; Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, a member 
of the business committee and a delegate to the American 
Medical Association; Dr. W. H. Iszard, a delegate to the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, and Dr. W. A. Davis, to the 
Delaware Medical Society. 

[1889.] The society met, in June, at Asbury Park, with 
President H. Genet Taylor in the chair, who delivered an 
address on "Retrospection of the Medical Society of New 
Jersey, with some Suggestions as to its Improvement." After 
reviewing the organization of the society in 1766, the Colonial 
legislation of 1772, its re-enactment by the State in 1783, the 
incorporation of the society in 1790, its re-charter in 18 16 and 
renewal in 1830, and the medical enactments of 1851, '54 and 
'80, he suggested, for its advancement, the establishment of 
sections for the principal medical subjects, the journalizing of 
the Transactions and the founding of a medical library. The 
last suggestion was carried into effect and space has been pro- 
vided in the State Library, at Trenton, for the purposes of the 



200 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

society. The yearly Transactions of the different State Medical 
Societies are being added to it and the library numbers many 
hundred volumes at this time. As a mark of respect for the 
president, Dr. Taylor, Rutgers College conferred upon him the 
degree of Master of Arts, at its commencement in June. 
Among the more important subjects for the consideration of 
the society, at this meeting, was the report of the committee 
"On the Propriety of Establishing a State Board of Medical 
Examiners," which report Dr. John R. Stevenson, of Haddon- 
field, prepared. Dr. Stevenson presented an elaborate review 
of medical legislation within the United States* and considered 
with particularity that of New Jersey. The report of the com- 
mittee was adverse to the establishment of such a board and 
was adopted by a large majority vote of the society. In the 
following year, a State Board of Medical Examiners was estab- 
lished, independently of the society, and will be considered 
under its own section. Dr. D. Benjamin was made chairman 
of a committee to represent the society at the National Conven- 
tion for the revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia. The 
delegation from the Camden County Society, which at this time 
numbered forty-six members, consisted of Doctors D. Benjamin^ 
John R. Stevenson, E. L,. B. Godfrey, D. W. Blake, W. A. 
Davis, W. S. Jones and E. B. Woolston. Dr. Godfrey was 
appointed the essayist for the next meeting by President 
Taylor. 

Section V. — The New Jersey Sanitary Association. 

[1885.] The eleventh annual meeting of the association 
took place at Trenton, November 19th and 20th, with Rev. F. 
R. Brace, of Blackwood, and Doctors Dowling Benjamin and 
E. L. B. Godfrey present as members of the executive council. 
Dr. Joseph H. Raymond, of Brooklyn, N. Y., presented a paper 
on " The Collection and Final Disposal of Garbage," which 
was discussed by appointment, by Dr. Godfrey. 

[1886.] The session of 1886 was held at Trenton, 
November 12th. Rev. F. R. Brace discussed the paper of 

* Transactions of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 1889. 



The New Jersey Sanitary Association . 201 

Professor Charles Jacobus, of New Brunswick, on "Physical 
Restraint and Relaxation in the School-room," and Dr. Dow- 
ling Benjamin, that of Dr. Shippen Wallace, of Burlington, 
on " Preserved Foods." Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey was elected 
second vice-president and Dr. Benjamin was made chairman of 
the executive council. 

[1887.] The thirteenth annual meeting of the associa- 
tion was held at Trenton, October 28th. Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey 
delivered an address on " The Collection and Disposal of Gar- 
bage." As to the collection, the contract system and the 
system by which the supervision of the work devolves directly 
upon the municipal authorities were discussed, with the con- 
clusion that the latter offers the better results, if made a branch 
of the street-cleaning service, under the control of a superin- 
tendent, responsible to the executive or health authorities. 
The removal of garbage was considered also, both as to time 
and method, and galvanized iron or non-absorbent receptacles, 
and water-tight garbage carts, or water-tight barrels with 
covers, were recommended. Its disposal was considered from 
five stand-points : (1) Mixing with ashes and throwing upon 
vacant lots; (2) feeding to swine; (3) making into composts; 
(4) removal to sea ; (5) burning. The first was strongly 
condemned ; the second was regarded as objectionable ; the 
third, as non-remunerative in comparison with other similar 
waste ; the fourth, as a good method for cities bordering on the 
coast ; the fifth, as the best solution when garbage has no mar- 
ketable value, or cannot be carried out to sea. The general adop- 
tion of the cremation of garbage, for inland cities, was believed 
to be only a matter of time. Dr. Dowling Benjamin discussed a 
paper presented by Dr. Shippen Wallace, of Burlington, on 
"Poisons in Food of Animal Origin," dwelling especially on 
tyrotoxicon in milk. 

[1888.] The session of this year was held in the 
Assembly Chamber, at Trenton, on December 7th. The presi- 
dent, Dr. Henry Mitchell, occupied the chair. Dr. Daniel 
Strock read a paper on " Impure Milk as a Cause of Disease." 
After stating the general interest of the public in milk, because 
of its universal use, the quality of milk was discussed, the 



202 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

danger of tyrotoxicon poisoning and the transmission of the 
germs of typhoid fever, phthisis and other diseases were 
clearly defined and the conclusion reached that it is the duty 
of the State to protect its citizens against contaminated as 
well as adulterated milk. Dr. Dowling Benjamin was elected 
president and Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey was made a member of the 
executive council. 

[1889.] The fifteenth annual meeting of the association 
was held at the State House, Trenton, November 22nd and 
23rd, with the president, Dr. Dowling Benjamin, in the chair, 
who delivered an address on "The Thermometry of Hygiene." 
The subject had engaged the attention of Dr. Benjamin for a 
number of years and, from actual tests, he had ascertained the 
varied temperatures in different parts of the sick-room at the 
same time. He showed, by means of diagrams, the variations 
between the center and sides, floor and ceiling, of a room and 
between the vicinity of windows and the remote corners. His 
address was well received and extensively published by medical 
and sanitary journals. Dr. Daniel Strock and Dr. W. A. 
Davis discussed, by appointment, a paper on "The Climatic 
Treatment of Gastro-intestinal Diseases in Children," by 
Dr. Boardman Reed, of Atlantic City, and advocated the need 
of a change of climate, the sterilization of milk and water and 
hygienic methods of clothing. Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey discussed 
a paper presented by Dr. G. F. Wilbur, of Asbury Park, on 
" The Need of Medical Officers for School-districts," and 
advocated medical supervision over school interests, because it 
would best tend to prevent bad physical tendencies in school- 
children, and remove faulty construction in school-houses. 
Dr. Godfrey was elected second vice-president. 

Section VI. — The Board of Health of the City of 

Camden. 

[1885.] The "Act Concerning the Protection of the 
Public health and the Record of Vital Facts and Statistics," 
approved March n, 1880, and the "Act Relating to Local 
Eoards of Health," approved March 22, 1881, made mandatory 



The Board of Health of the City of Camden. 203 

the organization of boards of health in the townships and 
cities throughout the State. Notwithstanding these statutory 
laws, the City Council of Camden, the source of municipal 
authority, continued its sanitary administration through its 
sanitary committee until 1885. In April of that year, the 
Camden City Medical Society held a special meeting and 
appointed a committee, consisting of Doctors E. L. B. Godfrey, 
H. Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray, O. B. Gross, H. H. Davis, J. 
F. Walsh and Dowling Benjamin, to request the sanitary 
committee of Council to meet them in a conference, to which 
Dr. E. M. Hunt, of the State Board of Health, was invited, con- 
cerning the organization of a board of health for the city of 
Camden. A joint meeting was held at the City Hall, June 15th, 
at which Dr. John D. Leckner and Messrs. Mead, Ivins, Harman 
and James, of the sanitary committee of City Council, and 
Dr. E. M. Hunt and the special committee of the Camden 
City Medical Society were present. This conference resulted 
in the organization of a board of health, July 15th, under an 
ordinance of Council and the State laws, with the following 
members: Messrs. Leckner, Mead, James, Ivins, Harman, 
Thompson and Carman. A permanent organization was 
effected by the election of Dr. John D. Leckner, chairman, 
and D. Cooper Carman, secretary. The rules of the Paterson 
Board of Health were adopted and ordinances relating to 
contagious diseases, drainage and nuisances were enacted. 
On November nth, the annual meeting of the board was 
held and resulted in the election of Dr. John D. Leckner, 
president ; D. Cooper Carman, secretary ; J. Willard Morgan, 
solicitor, and Septimus Knight, inspector. The organization 
of this board and that of Newark, according to the report of 
the State Board of Health for 1885, "placed the State, as a 
whole, under special and definite laws for the protection of the 
public health, so that now each city and township has the plan 
of organization and the power for effective administration." 
A report to the State Board of Health was made by Septimus 
Knight, in which it was stated that " the laws regulating the 
public health are not very extensive, but that they are being 
enlarged for the maintenance of the health of the city." 



204 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

[1886.] An ordinance, relating to the establishment of a 
board of health for the City of Camden, was enacted May 
27, 1886, in accordance with the legislative Act concerning 
boards of health, approved April 27th. It provided that the 
board should consist of seven persons, who should be nomi- 
nated by the Mayor of the city and confirmed by Council, and 
that their appointment should be for a term of four years. The 
following appointments were made by the Mayor and subse- 
quently confirmed by Council : Dr. W. B. E. Miller, Charles 
Watson, William T. Mead, Dr. John D. Leckner, George F. 
Hammond, Herman W. Miller and Dr. John W. Donges. 
The board organized June 28, 1886, with the election of Dr. 
John D. Leckner as president ; D. Cooper Carman, secretary ; 
J. Willard Morgan, solicitor, and Septimus Knight, inspector. 
New rules were adopted ; monthly meetings were ordered and 
the annual meeting was set for the last Monday in June. This 
was a year of sanitary progress. The board took an active 
interest in city sanitation and rendered effective work, especially 
in preventing the dumping of mud along the water-front. 
School-houses, manufacturing establishments and other public 
buildings were inspected, the water-supply examined, the 
drainage of the city inquired into, nuisances abated, slaughter- 
houses removed, and garbage was more thoroughly collected. 
The report of the inspector to the State Board included these 
items together with a review of the general sanitary condition 
of the city. 

[1887.] During this year, the rules and regulations were 
enlarged and the sanitary code amended to perfect the work of 
the board, especially the duties of the inspector, who exhibited 
commendable energy in preventing the dumping of mud 
along the water-front of the city. Two thousand dollars were 
appropriated by City Council for the purpose of the board. 
A general vaccination was ordered and an effort was made 
to create a fund for the establishment of a municipal hospital, 
because of a threatened invasion of small-pox. On June 27th, 
the new board organized for the year with the election of 
Charles Watson- as president ; D. Cooper Carman, secretary ; 
Henry M. Snyder, solicitor; Dr. John D. Leckner, inspector, 



The New Jersey State Board of Health. 205 

and Septimus Knight as assistant inspector. Messrs. Thaddeus 
P. Varney and William T. Mead were appointed members of 
the board. 

[1888.] The sanitary code of the board was revised, 
with an increase of its powers, and a second unsuccessful effort 
was made to found a municipal hospital for the care of conta- 
gious diseases. In order that the inspector might become 
familiar with the exact location of contagious diseases, the 
board prepared a map of the city to mark them as they were 
reported. On June 25th, Dr. George R. Fortiner was appointed 
a member of the board, which consisted at this time of Charles 
Watson, George F. Hammond, Herman W. Miller, William 
T. Mead, Thaddeus P. Varney and Dr. John W. Donges. The 
board organized with the election of Charles Watson, presi- 
dent ; D. Cooper Carman, secretary ; Mahlon F. Ivins, treasurer, 
and Dr. John D. Leckner and Septimus Knight, inspectors. 

[1889.] The power and influence of the board were 
greatly extended during this year. A plumbing inspector was 
appointed and an ordinance passed, prescribing his duties. 
The cremation of garbage was discussed and Newark and 
other cities were visited and inspected in this particular ; but 
the appropriation of the board did not warrant the expenditure 
that a satisfactory cremating-plant would require. On June 
29th, the annual meeting was held and the following officers 
were elected: President, George F. Hammond; secretary, 
Thaddeus P. Varney ; medical inspector, Dr. John D. L,eckner ; 
plumbing inspector, Septimus Knight ; assistant secretary and 
assistant inspector, Eugene B. Roberts. Doctors John W. 
Donges and George R. Fortiner were members of the board. 

Section VII. — The New Jersey State Board of 
Health. 

[1885.] By the medical Act of 1883 (a supplement to the 
Act approved March 12, 1881), it was made the duty of practi- 
tioners of medicine and surgery, in New Jersey, to record their 
diplomas, with date and place of graduation, or a certificate in 
case of twenty years' practice, with the clerk of the county in 



206 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

which the practitioner lived. These names were required to- 
be indexed and forwarded to the State Board of Health by the 
county clerk, who transmitted this year the names of twenty- 
one physicians, graduates of the following colleges : Jefferson 
Medical College, ten ; University of Pennsylvania, six ; 
Hahnemann Medical College, three ; Ohio Medical College, 
one, and Howard College one. Reports to the State Board 
were made by Septimus Knight, of Camden ; Dr. F. E. 
Williams, of Delaware township ; Dr. Joseph E. Hurff, of 
Gloucester township ; J. Stokes Coles, of Haddon, and Dr. P. 
W. Beale, of Stockton. 

[1886.] Under the law relating to boards of health, local 
boards in cities, towns, townships, boroughs, etc., were required 
to make an annual report to the State Board of Health on or 
before the first day of October, and to answer any inquiries that 
might be addressed to them by the State Board. In accord- 
ance with this section of the law, reports were made from 
Camden by Inspector Septimus Knight ; Gloucester City, by 
Dr. James A. Walmsley ; Delaware township, by Joseph G. 
Evans ; Haddon, by Dr. F. E. Williams ; Merchantville, by 
William H. Moses. The medical registration for the year 
showed sixteen recorded diplomas from the following institu- 
tions : Jefferson Medical College, four ; Hahnemann Medical 
College, three ; one each' from Albany Medical College, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia University, College of 
Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, Michigan College of 
Medicine, Electropathic College, University of New York, 
Detroit Medical College and Pennsylvania Medical College. 

[1887.] During this year, twenty-four physicians regis- 
tered at the office of the county clerk, three of whom subse- 
quently became members of the County Medical Society. In 
accordance with the printed schedule sent, in October, to the 
local boards for their annual reports, responses were made by 
Septimus Knight, of Camden ; John H. Jackson, of Centre ; 
Dr. William S. Uong, of Delaware; J. Stokes Coles, of 
Haddon, and Edward C. Pedigree, of Stockton. 

[1888.] The board made an inspection of the charitable 
and penal institutions throughout the State, and presented a 



The New Jersey State Board of Health. 207 

detailed report to the Governor, in which defects in structure 
and sanitary management were set forth, and the needed alter- 
ations and improvements outlined. The visit to the Camden 
County Almshouse was made by Dr. E. M. Hunt, the secretary, 
on April 25 th. At this time, Dr. Henry E. Branin was the 
physician and Charles F. Adams the steward. Dr. Hunt 
stated that the structural arrangement and sanitary care were of 
the best. The County asylum was visited at the same time and 
its management was commended, except that classification of the 
insane was not enforced. The Camden jail was visited, March 
10th, and April 25th and condemned "as a disgrace to our 
common civilization and a menace to the health of the 
people." This report led to its reconstruction and enlarge- 
ment by the Board of Freeholders. The water-supplies of 
Camden, Gloucester City, Haddonfield and Merchantville were 
inspected. Camden was stated to contain a population of 
52,884, supplied with 5,000,000 gallons of water per day. Its 
source of supply, the Delaware river, was stated to be in 
danger of contamination. The water is pumped from the 
Delaware, at Pavonia, into a reservoir, thence into a stand- 
pipe one hundred and twenty-seven feet in height and five 
feet in diameter. The water-works at Gloucester City were 
erected in 1883, and the water is taken from springs and from 
Newton creek and pumped into a stand-pipe, with a capacity 
of 145,000 gallons, seventy-five feet in height and eighteen 
feet in diameter. The population of the city was 5,966. 
Haddonfield, with its population of 1,950, is supplied with 
water taken from springs along the north branch of Cooper's 
creek. The works have a pumping capacity of 700,000 
gallons per day and were erected in 1887 ; the stand-pipe is 
one hundred and ten feet in height, with a diameter of fifteen 
feet. The water-works of Merchantville were erected in 1887, 
and the supply is taken from thirteen springs along Pensauken 
creek, which flow into the basin. The stand-pipe is one 
hundred feet high, eight feet in diameter and has a capacity of 
40,000 gallons. 

In accordance with the State requirements, the printed 
schedule of questions, sent to local boards of health, was gener- 



208 History Medical Profession Camden Cotinty. 

ously responded to, and Inspector Knight made a report on the 
location, climate, soil, water-supply, streets, houses, lights, 
refuse, market-houses, slaughter-houses, manufacturing estab- 
lishments, schools, charitable institutions, cemeteries, health 
codes and vital statistics of Camden. Similar reports were made 
from Centre township, the board of which consisted of Ezra 
C. Bell, John Hutchingson, David H. Williams and C. C. 
Clark, with Dr. F. E. Williams as inspector; from Delaware 
township, with J. A. Meredith, William Graff, S. T. Coles and 
W. D. Coles as members, and Dr. W. S. Long as inspector ; 
from Gloucester City, with Dr. J. A. Walmsley, Dr. D. W. 
Blake, William J. Thompson, T. K. Costello and J. Edgar 
Parker as members, and Patrick Mealey as inspector ; from 
Gloucester township, with George Brewer, Charles Stevenson, 
Dr. J. E. Hurff, Seth C. Bishop and Joseph S. Steward as 
members; from Haddon township, with John Stoy, W. C. 
Nicholson, Samuel Wood and J. Stokes Coles, as members, and 
Dr. F. E. Williams as inspector ; from Stockton township, with 
George Molineaux, Benjamin Abbott, Frank Horner, Charles 
K. Seddenger and Dr. Jerome Artz as members ; from Wins- 
low township, with Josiah Albertson, H. M. Jewitt, E. A. 
Russell, Zober Venton and M. G. Burdsall as members. 

The medical registry of the year included thirty-four 
physicians, some of whom had registered during the previous 
year. During 1883, the quinquennial report of vital statistics 
was made by the board, and those relating to Camden county, 
Camden and Gloucester City were as follows : 

Camden county: — marriages, 433 ; births, 1,685; deaths, 1,598; popula- 
tion, 15,936 ; death-rate, 20.06. 

Camden : — marriages, 2,057 ! births, 3,690 ; deaths, 4,391 ; population, 
41,659; death-rate, 21.08. 

Gloucester City: — marriages, 184; births, 695 ; deaths, 481 ; population, 
5,347 ; death-rate, 17.99. 

The first decennial report of the board was made this 
year. For the ten years ending June 30, 1888, the death-rate 
per thousand was as follows : For the State, 19.15 ; for 
Camden county, 19 ; for Camden, 20 ; for Gloucester, 19. In 
the county, including Camden and Gloucester City, consump- 
tion ranked as the most common cause of death ; then followed, 



Camden Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary Association. 209 

in the order of statement, diarrhceal diseases, acute lung 
diseases, nervous diseases of children, adult brain and spinal 
diseases, diseases of the heart, croup and diphtheria and typhoid 
fever. Zymotic diseases have been a most prolific cause of 
death in the county. 

[1889.] The board made a report of the " Sewer Systems 
of New Jersey," including those of Camden and of Gloucester 
City, and, in October, transmitted twenty-three inquiries con- 
cerning health matters to the local boards. The Camden 
board made an exhaustive report and stated that typhoid fever 
and diphtheria were the most prevalent diseases of the year ; 
while the boards of Gloucester City, and of the townships, 
reported a healthful condition. The board of Gloucester City 
consisted of Dr. J. A. Walmsley, Dr. D. W. Blake, W. J. 
Thompson, E. J. Steer, Patrick Mealey and W. H. Grey, with 
Dr. J. K. Bennett as health inspector ; that of Centre town- 
ship was composed of B. C. Bell, J. M. Haines, D. A. Shreeve 
and J. H. Jackson, with Dr. W. B. Jennings as inspector ; that 
of Delaware township, of William Graff, W. D. Coles, E. W. 
Coffin, and John A. Merideth, with Dr. W. S. Long as inspec- 
tor ; that of Gloucester township, of George Brewer, S. C. 
Bishop, J. B. Sickler, Dr. J. E. Hurff and J. S. Stewart ; that 
of Stockton township, of Dr. Leolf Reese, B. P. Abbott, 
George Molineaux, Charles Pedigree and H. K. Eeddington ; 
that of Waterford township, of B. W. Bennett, John Hampton, 
William Haines, W. D. Walton, W. H. Norcross and Edward 
Stafford ; that of Winslow township, of H. M. Jewett, Elias 
Russell, Charles Albright and M. G. Burdsall. Sixty-five 
physicians registered at the office of the county clerk during 
the year, several of whom were from Philadelphia. 

Section VIII. — Camden Homoeopathic Hospital and 
Dispensary Association. 

[1885.] The necessity for a hospital in Camden, coupled 
with the delay in opening to the public the institution founded 
by the Cooper family, led to the soliciting of subscriptions, by 
a number of ladies, under the direction of Mrs. S. B. Northrop, 

14 



210 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

for the purpose of " establishing an institution where cases of 
sudden sickness or accident could be taken and temporarily 
cared for, and where homoeopathic treatment could be given to 
such worthy persons as were unable to employ a physician." 
The project was inaugurated in the early part of January and 
met with such general acceptance that a meeting of the 
subscribers was called, January 30th, and the Camden Homoeo- 
pathic Hospital and Dispensary Association was then organ- 
ized, with a membership comprising all of the homoeopathic 
physicians in Camden, and those persons who had contributed 
to the fund the amount of five dollars and upwards. A consti- 
tution and by-laws were adopted, and a board of trustees, 
consisting of twenty gentlemen, and a board of lady 
managers, comprising thirty ladies, were elected. Hon. E. 
Ambler Armstrong was elected president of the Board of 
Trustees ; James M. Stradling and B. Frank Sutton, vice- 
presidents ; Dr. Silas H. Quint, secretary ; Charles Watson, treas- 
urer ; and Dr. Purnell W. Andrews, Dr. Thomas R. Black- 
wood, Dr. J. K. Bryant, Charles P. Bowyer, John Campbell,. 
Jr., E. N. Cohn, G. W. Coles, S. S. E. Cowperthwaite, Harris 
Graffen, William Groves, C. M. Hogan, Charles Hollingshed, 
Dr. E. Melville Howard, Dr. Henry F. Hunt, D. G. Langen- 
dorf, Dr. M. F. Middleton, J. E. Roberts, H. S. Scull, Dr. A. 
E. Street and Dr. E. R. Tullis, members. The Board of Lady 
Managers consisted of Mesdames Purnell W. Andrews, J. K. 
Bryant, John Campbell, Jr., W. H. Chamberlain, George 
Dobbins, A. E. Griffith, J. R. Grubb, M. W. Hall, Charles 
Hollingshed, E. Melville Howard, Henry F. Hunt, Mahlon F. 
Ivins, Luther V. Kellum, D. G. Langendorf, J. C. Meteer, 
M. F. Middleton, S. B. Northrop, W. M. Patton, Silas H. 
Quint, John Rogers, Franklin Roop, Samuel Russell, H. S. 
Scull, J. M. Stradling, George E Taylor, E R. Tullis, S. H. 
Morrison, and the Misses E. Fayetta Jennings, S. E. Roberts, 
and Ada Peacock. On February 5th, a charter was procured \ 
the building at the northwest corner of Arch and Fourth 
streets was secured and, on March 2nd, two wards and an out- 
patient department were fitted up. The following medical 
and surgical staff was appointed: Surgeons, Doctors E. M. 



The Cooper Hospital. 211 

Howard, M. F. Middleton, S. H. Quint, J. D. Leckner and 
G. D. Woodward ; physicians, Doctors J. K. Bryant, P. W. 
Andrews, E. R. Tullis, J. R. Blackwood and Anna E. 
Griffith ; consulting surgeon, Dr. W. H. Van Lennep. The 
association secured the annual appropriation of the city for the 
care of the poor (Section I) amounting to $1,500 and thus 

started under favorable circumstances. In the follow- 
[1886.] ing year, the appropriation of City Council for the 

care of the indigent sick was increased to $1,800 
and evenly divided between the association and the Camden 
City Dispensary, and the city was divided into medical districts 
(Section I) under their care and supervision. 

The establishment of this hospital was the second effort 
of the kind in Camden ; the first having been made in 1867, 
when the managers of the Camden City Dispensary fitted a 
ward, for the care of accidents and other sickness, which they 
abandoned in 1869, because of the want of funds to maintain 
it. The Camden Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary 

Association, after two years of life under its primary 
[1887.] organization, was converted into a stock company. 

The management purchased the property on the 
southeast corner of West and Stevens streets, fitted it for hos- 
pital purposes and continued its work there until the fall of 
1890, when, owing to various causes, the association voted to 
close the hospital. Efforts were made during the following 
year to revive the work, but without success, and, through the 
advice of Dr. J. D. Leckner, the president of City Council, 
and others, measures were taken to organize the West Jersey 
Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary, in order to retain the 
part of the appropriation of Council, for the care of the 
indigent sick, which the former association had previously 
secured.* 

Section IX. — The Cooper Hospital. 

[1887.] The history of The Cooper Hospital has been 
referred to in Chapter VIII, Section VI. The hospital building 
was begun in 1875 an d completed in 1877, at a cos t of 

*From the minutes of the Camden Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary Association. 



212 History Medical Profession Camden Cotinty . 

$95,645.48. The original endowment of the sisters, Sarah W. 
and Elizabeth B. Cooper, was $200,000, exclusive of the land 
upon which the hospital stands, which was jointly donated by 
their brother, Alexander Cooper, and themselves, and was 
valued at $50,000. Deducting the cost of construction from 
the endowment fund, there was left a balance of $104,354.52, 
which, as an invested fund, the Board of Managers deemed 
insufficient "to support the hospital upon a scale commensu- 
rate with the probable demands upon its charity." The 
dedication of the hospital to the public was delayed, therefore, 
until August 11, 1887. During the ten years intervening 
between the completion and the dedication of the hospital, 
the income received from the invested endowment fund 
amounted to $80,924.65, which, together with $25,000 
bequeathed by Sarah W. Cooper, in 1880, and a supplementary 
gift of $25,000 from Elizabeth B. Cooper, increased the invested 
endowment fund to $235,279.17. This, added to the cost of 
constructing the building, and the value of the grounds upon 
which it stands, made the gift of the Cooper family to the 
hospital, up to the time of dedication, amount to $380,924.65.* 
Since the dedication of the hospital, the invested fund has 
been increased by liberal bequests from Mrs. Abigail M. 
Wright, a sister of the Coopers; from John W. Wright, 
her son (the first secretary and treasurer of the Board of 
Managers), and from Alexander Cooper, the first president 
of the institution. The Cooper Hospital was dedicated and 
opened to the public August 11, 1887, with formal ceremonies 
at the hospital, consisting of an historical address by Peter L. 
Voorhees, of the Board of Managers, and an address by 
Hon. E. A. Armstrong, president of the Camden Homoeopathic 
Hospital and Dispensary Association. Previously to the 
dedication, extensive alterations, repairs and improvements, 
amounting to $30,516.46 were made in the interest of sanita- 
tion, and the most advanced appliances in medicine and surgery 
were procured. The attending staff were afforded thorough 
aseptic and antiseptic facilities for the care of injuries and 
disease. In the interval referred to, a number of changes 

* By-laws and Rules of The Cooper Hospital, June 22, 1887. 



The Cooper Hospital. 213 

took place in the Board of Managers. Of the original trustees 
who subsequently became incorporators of the institution, 
Albert W. Markley, Charles P. Stratton .and Dr. Thomas F. 
Cullen had died, and were succeeded, respectively, by William B. 
Cooper, Richard H. Reeve and Dr. John V. Schenck.* In 
1882, Dr. Schenck died and was succeeded by David M. 
Chambers. At the time of the dedication of the hospital, the 
Board of Managers consisted of the following gentlemen : 
President, Alexander Cooper; secretary and treasurer, John W. 
Wright; managers, Peter L. Voorhees, Rudolphus Bingham, 
Joseph B. Cooper, Augustus Reeve, William B. Cooper, 
Richard H. Reeve and David M. Chambers. On June 2 2d, the 
managers appointed the following attending medical staff: 
Physicians, Doctors H. Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray, D. P. 
Pancoast and W. A. Davis ; surgeons, Doctors E. L. B. 
Godfrey, O. B. Gross, D. Benjamin and J. F. Walsh; patholo- 
gist, Dr. Joseph H. Wills; interne, Dr. Harry Jarrett. The 
staff held their first meeting, July 13th ; elected Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor chairman, and arranged the assignments for duty at the 
hospital as follows: During July, August and September, 
Dr. A. M. Mecray, attending physician, and Dr. D. Benjamin,, 
surgeon ; October, November and December, Dr. D. P. Pancoast, 
physician, and Dr. O. B. Gross, surgeon; January, February 
and March, Dr. W. A. Davis, physician, and Dr. J. F. Walsh, 
surgeon ; April, May and June, Dr. H. Genet Taylor, physician, 
and Dr. E. Iy. B. Godfrey, surgeon. A dispensary service was 
established, and an arrangement was made with the managers 
of the Camden City Dispensary for the compounding of 
prescriptions at the dispensary. The opening of The Cooper 
Hospital inaugurated a new era in the progress of medicine in 
Camden County. Previously to this, the greater portion of the 
surgical injuries occurring in Camden were attended at the 
Philadelphia hospitals, and, as soon as the wards of The Cooper 
Hospital were thrown open to patients, the members of the 
attending medical and surgical staff were confronted with the 
gravest medical and surgical problems, which were solved with 
almost unvarying success. 

* Address on the Origin, History and Purpose of The Cooper Hospital, bv Peter Iy. 
Voorhees. 



214 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

[1888.] From August 11, 1887, to December 31, ic 
there were treated three hundred and seventy patients within 
the wards of the hospital (one hundred and sixty-five of whom 
were medical and two hundred and five surgical), and one 
thousand, three hundred and twenty-five in the out-patient 
department. There were seventy surgical operations performed, 
including twenty amputations, one suprapubic hysterectomy, 
two exploratory laparotomies for carcinoma, one laparotomy 
for gunshot wound of the intestines and one for perityphlitis, 
two ovariotomies and one cystotomy. During 1888, Dr. Harry 
Jarrett was elected surgical interne and Dr. B. W. Macfarland 
medical interne. Upon the expiration of their respective 
terms of service, Dr. Jarrett began medical practice in Camden 
and Dr. Macfarland, in Bordentown. 

[1889.] During the year ending December 31st, three 
hundred and seventeen cases were treated in the wards; fifty- 
nine surgical operations were performed and one thousand, six 
hundred and forty-three patients were treated in the out-patient 
department of the hospital. Dr. William Martin, now of 
Bristol, Pa., and Dr. S. F. Ashcraft, of Mullica Hill, N. J., 
served as resident physicians. 

A. THE COOPER HOSPITAL TRAINING-SCHOOL FOR NURSES. 

[1887.] Following the opening of The Cooper Hospital, 
this training-school for nurses was inaugurated in 1887, and has 
contributed materially to the success of the institution. The 
period of study in the training-school covers a term of two 
years, including a probationary month, and, during this time, 
the pupil is lodged and boarded at the hospital and is paid nine 
dollars per month for the first year and twelve dollars per 
month during the second year. The ward-training includes 
nursing in accidents and emergencies; in surgical, medical, 
obstetrical and gynaecological cases; and a course of invalid 
cookery at the Drexel Institute, from February 1st to June 1st, 
of each year. The pupils also attend the course of lectures, 
given twice a week, by the attending staff of The Cooper 
Hospital. The following are the graduates of the school : In 
1890, Belle Neely, Kate Stow, Lily D. Baltz and Florence 



The Ninth International Medical Congress. 215 

Wise; 1891, M. S. Dare, Maud F. Reynolds, Charlotte S. 
Gibson and Eleanor Myers ; 1892, Laura B. Bunting, Emma 
E- Steelman, Arabella B. Hutton and Mary E. Johnson; 1893, 
Dessie Kimble, Catharine Butler, Annie T. Dunmire and 
Amelia Y. Richardson ; 1894, Charlotte E. Parke, Irene T. 
Fallon, Anna Cooper Campion and Jennie H. Stiles. 

In September, 1890, Miss Rachel Bourke, a graduate of the 
Training Schools of the Massachusetts General and McEean 
Hospitals, was elected chief nurse at The Cooper Hospital and 
placed in charge of the training-school. Under her direction, 
the course of instruction has been extended to two years and 
arrangements have been made with the Drexel Institute for a 
course in invalid cookery. Through the efforts of Miss Bourke, 
the school has attained marked success. 

Section X. — The Ninth International Medical 
Congress. 

[1887.] In response to an invitation, extended by the 
American Medical Association in May, 1884, to the Eighth 
International Medical Congress, assembled that year at Copen- 
hagen, Denmark, to hold its next meeting in America, in 
1887, the ninth congress assembled at Washington, D. C, 
September 6th, and remained in session for six days. The list 
of delegates and members embraced more than three thousand 
physicians, including many of the most distinguished practi- 
tioners of Europe, Asia and America. The congress was 
welcomed to the United States by President Cleveland and the 
Honorable Secretary of State, Thomas F. Bayard, after which 
the inaugural address was delivered by Dr. Nathan S. Davis, of 
Chicago, the president of the congress. The work of the 
congress was divided into eighteen sections, each in charge of 
a president, and the results were published in six large 
volumes, which were distributed, free of charge, to the 
members of the congress. Dr. E. E. B. Godfrey was appointed, 
"by the executive committee, a member of the Section on 
Public and International Hygiene, of which Dr. Joseph 
Jones, of New Orleans, was president. The preparations for 
the meeting of the congress excited much controversy 



216 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

and engendered much ill-feeling in the medical profession 
throughout the country. The invitation was extended, as has 
been stated, by the American Medical Association at its 
meeting in Washington, in 1 884. The committee, appointed 
by the association, visited Copenhagen, and formally extended 
the invitation with fraternal greetings to the Eighth Congress, 
which was accepted. At the meeting of the association, in 
New Orleans, in 1885, the committee submitted a report and 
a plan of action, without providing for representation by 
delegates from any medical society, national, state or county, 
limiting its membership to such persons as the executive 
committee should invite, and then proceeded to select from the 
larger cities officers for sections, without regard to their 
membership in the association or in other societies. The report 
aroused such antagonism in the association that it was not 
accepted, and the executive committee, appointed to arrange 
for the meeting of the congress, was enlarged to consist of one 
representative from each State and Territory, the District of 
Columbia, the Army, Navy and Marine Hospital Service. 
This committee was empowered to revise, alter and amend 
the plan of the original committee and to select a chairman 
and secretary. This action caused a general quarrel in the 
medical profession of the United States and occasioned the 
withdrawal of the original committee and their special 
appointees to the congress. The new committee met in New 
York, in September, and transferred the management of the 
congress to an executive committee, composed of the president 
of the congress, the secretary-general, the treasurer, the 
chairman of the finance committee, and the presidents of 
sections. This concession failed to harmonize, however, the 
original differences. The subject became one of professional 
comment throughout the country and, at the November meet- 
ing of the Camden County Medical Society, a resolution was 
adopted and forwarded to the County Medical Societies through- 
out the State, supporting the transference of the future man- 
agement of the congress to an executive committee, composed 
of the officers of the congress, and stating "that this action 
should be sufficient to silence criticism and to enlist the 



Camden County Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children. 217 

sympathies and support of the medical profession of the United 
States." In 1886, the American Medical Association met at 
St. Louis, when Doctors B. A. Watson, I. N. Quimby and 
E. L. B. Godfrey represented the Medical Society of New Jersey. 
The association gave further emphatic approval of the work of 
the general and the executive committees of the congress, in 
their efforts to popularize it among the medical fraternity, by 
extending membership in the congress to all regular physicians 
who should register and take out tickets of admission. The 
early interest manifested by the Camden County Medical 
Society in the work of the congress, led to a large represen- 
tation from Camden, consisting of Doctors H. Genet Taylor, 
James M. Ridge, John W. Snowden, J. W. Donges, H. H. 
Davis, O. B. Gross, Alexander McAlister, S. T. Banes, J. W. 
Sutton and E. L. B. Godfrey, all of whom registered and 
became members of the congress. 

Section XL — The Camden County Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Children. 

[1887.] Under the ' ' Act for the Incorporation of Societies 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children," approved April 18, 
1876, the Camden Society was organized January 26, 1887, 
with the following members: Alexander G. Cattell, E. A. 
Armstrong, Dr. S. H. Quint, H. D. Speakman, Wilbur F. 
Rose, F. W. Ayer, D. M. Chambers, B. C. Reeve, Samuel H. 
Grey, Dr. Joseph H. Wills, William Bettle, I. C. Martindale, 
Rev. W. C. Strickland, Dr. W. A. Davis, John W. Wright, 
John L- Westwood, H. M. Cooper, Edward Dudley, Peter L. 
Voorhees, Peter V. Voorhees, E. N. Cohn, John F. Starr, 
Watson Depuy, B. F. Archer, W. H. Davis, R. H. Reeve, 
William H. Allen, George Holl, V. G. Bennett, Dr. W. T. 
Collins, W. B. Tyler, A. McCully, John Farrell, J. Henry 
Hayes, Dr. H. Genet Taylor, Louis T. Derousse, G. Buck- 
waiter, J. R. Eastlack, Mrs. E. L. B. Godfrey and Mrs. A. R. 
Varney. The certificate of incorporation was filed in the 
office of the Secretary of State, Trenton, January 31, 1889. 
The object of the society is the prevention of cruelty to children 
in Camden county, and the enforcement of existing and 



2i8 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

prospective laws relating to their welfare. The society was 
formed largely through the efforts of Dr. Joseph H. Wills, 
-of Camden, and has accomplished much good. The Acts 
relating to the protection of children, approved March 4, 1880, 
January 30, 1883, and March 9, 1885, have increased the 
power and influence of the society. The officers for 1889 were 
Samuel H. Grey, president; Edward N. Cohn, and Isaac C. 
Martindale, vice-presidents; Wilbur F. Rose, treasurer; Abel 
Smith, secretary; Samuel H. Grey, Dr. Joseph H. Wills, 
Dr. S. H. Quint, Louis T. Derousse, F. W. Ayer, H. M. Cooper, 
D. M. Chambers, H. D. Speakman, J. Henry Hayes, I. C. 
Martindale, B. C. Reeve, and Wilbur F. Rose, managers; 
Hon. E. A. Armstrong and Charles R. Stevenson, solicitors, 
and Doctors Joseph H. Wills and S. H. Quint, surgeons. 
The society has grown in popular favor because it has extended 
a helping hand to children in need of protection and of the 
comforts of a home. The Camden City Dispensary has freely 
provided a room for the use of the officers of the society, since 
its formation. 

Section XII. — Military Interests. 

A. MEDICAL OFFICERS OF THE NATIONAL GUARD OF NEW 

JERSEY. 

On July 12, 1886, Brigadier-General and Surgeon-General 
Theodore R. Varick resigned, after a service of seventeen years 
in the State forces, and was succeeded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
John D. McGill, surgeon, First Brigade, N. G. N. J., who was 
commissioned Brigadier-General and Surgeon-General, July 13, 
1886. On June 28, 1888, First Lieutenant and Assistant 
Surgeon George T. Robinson resigned from the Sixth Regi- 
ment, National Guard, and was succeeded by Dr. Daniel 
Strock. 

B. THE MILITARY ORDER OF SURGEONS OF NEW JERSEY. 

[1889.] In response to a call issued May 12, 1889, by 
Major E. L. B. Godfrey, surgeon Sixth Regiment, N. G. N. J., 
and signed by a number of ex-surgeons of the United States 



Milita ry In teres ts . 2\g 

Volunteer Service and medical officers of the National Guard 
of New Jersey, The Military Order of Surgeons of New Jersey 
was organized at the Coleman House, Asbury Park, June 18, 
1889, with the election of the following officers: President, 
Surgeon-General John D. McGill, of Jersey City ; vice-presidents, 
Major J. H. H. Love, Montclair, and Major H. Genet Taylor, 
Camden ; secretary, Major E. L. B. Godfrey, Camden, and 
treasurer, Major Joseph D. Osborne, of Newark. The invita- 
tion to take part in the organization of the order was extended 
to those medical officers " who have served, and those who are 
now serving in the military service, under commissions issued 
by the Governors of New Jersey, and also those medical officers 
who served in the war of the Rebellion, under commissions of a 
corresponding rank issued by the war and navy departments of 
the government of the United States." The object of the order 
is the discussion of military surgery the promotion of friend- 
ship among the members of the order and the advancement of 
the interest of the medical officers in the National Guard of New 
Jersey. On July nth, an adjourned meeting of the order was 
held at the headquarters of the First Brigade, N. G. N. J., Sea 
Girt, when the organization was completed by the adoption of 
a constitution and of an insignia, consisting of a pendant and 
button. At this meeting, Lieutenant Daniel Strock, assistant 
surgeon, Sixth Regiment, N. G. N. J., was elected a member. 
In 1 89 1, the State Military Board officially approved of the 
institution of the order and, on June 29th, an order was 
issued from the Adjutant-General's office, Trenton, that "The 
Order of Military Surgeons of New Jersey may wear the 
insignia, which they have adopted, on dress or undress uni- 
form." During this year new officers were elected with 
the exception of the secretary who retained his position 
until 1893, when he was elected vice-president and Major 
Daniel Strock was elected secretary. In 1894, Lieutenant- 
Colonel E. L. B. Godfrey, Medical Inspector of the National 
Guard, was elected president; Major Daniel Strock was 
re-elected secretary, and First Lieutenants and Assistant 
Surgeons Orange W. Braymer and Wilson Gill Bailey, of the 
Sixth Regiment, were elected members. The order has 



220 History Medical Profession Camde?t County. 

assisted in perfecting the medical department of trie National 
Guard and in advancing- military surgery in New Jersey. 

C. THE ASSOCIATION OF MILITARY SURGEONS OF THE 
UNITED STATES. 

This association was organized at Chicago, largely through 
the influence of Surgeon-General Nicholas Senn, of Illinois, on 
September 17, 1891, for the purpose of advancing military and 
accidental surgery and the welfare of the civilian soldier. The 
association embraces in its membership medical officers of the 
United States Army and Navy and of the National Guard of 
the several States, and was, in a degree, the outgrowth of The 
Military Order of Surgeons of New Jersey, whose insignia, 
with slight modifications, was adopted. The second meeting 
of the association was held in St. Louis, in 1892, when 
Lieutenant-Colonel Godfrey and Major Strock were made 
members. The third meeting was held at Washington, D. C, 
the fourth at Chicago and the fifth at Buffalo. 

D. THE NEW JERSEY SOCIETY OF THE SONS OF THE AMERICAN 

REVOLUTION. 

[1889.] This society was founded April 30, 1889, for the 
purpose of keeping alive the patriotic spirit of the men who 
achieved American independence, and of collecting and 
preserving records and documents relating to the Revolution. 
Any male descendant of an ancestor engaged in establishing 
the independence of xAmerica is entitled to membership. The 
society has done much to collect and preserve the revolutionary 
annals of New Jersey, and valuable data, relating to the battles 
of Red Bank, Trenton, Springfield, Princeton and Monmouth, 
are in its possession. Among the members from Camden are 
Dr. Dowling Benjamin, who was admitted April 24, 1893 ; 
Dr. George R. Fortiner, admitted December 13, 1892, and 
Edward Francis Moody, Henry Samuel Fortiner and Charles 
Heath Heyl. 



Medical Enactmen is. 221 

Section XIII. — Medical Enactments. 

A. PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS. 

[1889.] On April 16th, a supplement to the medical Act 
of 1880 was approved, which, after prescribing the fines or 
imprisonment for practicing medicine without conforming to 
the medical Act of 1880, exempted from its provisions any 
physician who shall file with the county clerk an affidavit 
setting forth an experience of twenty years of medical practice 
in any one locality. 

B. VETERINARY SURGEONS. 

On March 4, 1889, an "x\ctto Protect the Title of Veter- 
inary Surgeons, and to Regulate the Practice of Veterinary- 
Medicine" was approved. The Act provided that veterinary 
surgeons should be graduates from legally chartered veterinary- 
colleges ; for the registration of their diplomas with the clerk 
of the county in which they intended to practice ; for a fine or 
imprisonment for fraudulent registration of a diploma, and for 
the furnishing, each year, by the county clerk, of a registered 
list of practicing veterinarians to the State Board of Health. 
This Act re-enforced the law approved March 18, 1885, which 
provided for the promotion of veterinary science and the incor- 
poration of veterinary societies. Under this Act, the following 
registrations have been made in the office of the clerk for 
Camden county : Dr. W. B. E. Miller, a graduate of American 
Veterinary College of New York, 1879; Doctors A. T. 
Sellers, John Oliver George and Harry B. Cox, graduates of 
the same college in 1887, 1894 and 1895, respectively; 
Dr. Charles S. Williams, a graduate of the Veterinary Depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania, 1887 ; Doctors 
Edgar H. Landis, Leonard Pearson, John J. Maher and T. J. 
Kean, graduates of the University, 1890; Doctors Harry 
Walter and George A. Smith, graduates of the University, 
1892, and Dr. Enoch H. Moore, a graduate of 1894 ; Dr. James 
McCoart, a graduate of the Veterinary College of Philadelphia, 
1864; Dr. John Compton Kingston, a graduate of the Royal 
College of Veterinary Surgeons of London, 1877, and Dr. 
Thomas H. Ash, a graduate of the Ontario Veterinary College, 



222 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

1881. On February 5, 1884, the Veterinary Medical Asso- 
ciation of New Jersey was organized and incorporated, April 15,, 
1885. Dr. W. B. E. Miller, of Camden, was one of the 
corporate members and has held the position of president and 
trustee. The association has thrown a safeguard around the 
rights and privileges of the veterinarians of the State and has 
elevated the standard of the profession by scientific intercourse. 

Section XIV. — Medical Professorships and 
Lectureships. 

[1889.] The medical profession of Camden has furnished 
a number of professors and lecturers for the medical colleges 
of Philadelphia, and for the New Jersey Training School for 
Nurses. In 1859, Dr. Thomas G. Rowand was elected professor 
of Materia Medica, Pharmacy and General Therapeutics in 
Penn Medical University of Philadelphia, a position retained 
by him until the close of the college term in i860. In i860, 
Dr. George S. F. Pfeiffer was elected professor of Theory and 
Practice of Medicine in the same university, and retained the 
position until 1864, when he was commissioned an assistant 
surgeon in the United States Volunteer service; in 1880, 
Dr. H. M. Howard was elected lecturer on Botany in the 
Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia, afterwards made 
lecturer on Pharmacy, and subsequently promoted to the 
position of associate professor of Materia Medica, a position 
which he still retains; in 1887, Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey was 
elected lecturer on Fractures and Dislocations in the Medico- 
Chirurgical College of Philadelphia; in 1889, he was made 
lecturer on Gynaecology in the same college, and, at this time, 
clinics on Gynaecology were established at The Cooper Hospital,, 
under the control of Doctors W. A. Davis and E. L,. B. 
Godfrey. Dr. Dowling Benjamin succeeded Dr. Godfrey as 
lecturer on Fractures and Dislocations, which position he 
retained for three years. Dr. Godfrey resigned from the 
lectureship on Gynaecology, in 1893, after having been con- 
nected with the Medico-Chirurgical College for six years. In 
the New Jersey Training School for Nurses, Doctors Dowling 
Benjamin, W. A. Davis, O. B. Gross, Daniel Strock, Joseph H. 



Physicians. 223. 

Wills, George T. Robinson,* Joseph L. Nicholson, W. R. 
Powell, O. W. Braymer and E. L. B. Godfrey hold lectureships. 
Dr. W. S. Jones holds the position of chief of the department 
of Diseases of the Throat at the Jefferson Medical College 
Hospital. 

Section XV. — Physicians. 

[1885.] During this year, Dr. Alexander McAlister 
located in Camden ; Doctors Lawrence L. Glover and William S. 
Long, at Haddonfield, and Dr. John W. Marcy, at Merchant- 
ville. Dr. C. G. Hoell opened a drug-store on Federal street 
above Second ; Dr. N, Davis opened a drug-store at Broadway 
and Spruce streets, and Levi B. Hirst purchased the drug-store 
at the corner of Federal street and Haddon avenue. 
[1886.] In 1886, Dr. Howard G. Bonwill, a graduate of Jeffer- 
son Medical College of this year ; Doctors George D. 
Woodward, William R. Powell, Robert Casperson and Nehemiah 
Davis began medical practice in Camden, and Dr. Henry H. 
Sherk, a student at Lebanon College, a graduate of Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, 1880, and of Jefferson Medical 
College, 1886, located at Cramer Hill. George D. Borton, 
druggist, was appointed Collector for the Port of Camden, a 
position once held by Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler, and Dr. John R. 
Stevenson was elected a member of the New Jersey Historical 
Society and appointed on the genealogical committee. 
[1887.] In 1887, Dr. William T. Collins located in Camden, 
having moved from Smyrna, Delaware. Dr. Collins 
was graduated from Dickinson College in 1854, and from 
Jefferson Medical College in 1857. In 1863 and 1864, he 
served as a surgeon in the Rebellion, as has been noted ; 
in 1872, as a presidential elector from Delaware for General 
Grant; in 1876, as president of the Republican State Conven- 
tion of Delaware ; in 1877, as president of the Delaware State 
Medical Society, and in 1886, as president of the -Smyrna 
Board of Health. Dr. John G. Doron, an A. B. of Brown 
University, 1884, and M. D. of the University of Pennsylvania, 
1887, located in Camden, and Dr. George R. Fortiner, a 

* Deceased. 



224 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

graduate of Penn Medical University, 1879, was graduated from 
Hahnemann Medical College ; Stanley C. Muschamp, druggist, 
served as a member of the Board of Education, and was largely 

instrumental in the founding of the Manual Training 
[1888.] School. In 1888, Dr. S. Bryan Smith, a graduate 

of Hahnemann Medical College, located in Camden. 
During the year, Dr. Alexander Marcy, Sr., retired from 
medical practice. Dr. Marcy was educated at Amherst College, 
1859, an d University of Pennsylvania, 1861, and brought to 
the profession a mind well trained to grapple with the problems 
of life and death. Dr. Marcy was closely identified with the 
State, County and City Medical Societies, and with the Camden 
City Dispensary, of which he was one of the incorporators. 
He was the first physician to introduce the use of the hypo- 
dermatic syringe to the medical profession of Camden ; the first 
to employ strychnia, hypodermatically, in cases of collapse, and 

the first to administer mercury, locally and internally, 
[1889.] in the treatment of diphtheria. In 1889, Doctors 

Frederick M. Eaton, Allan S. Ironside and William 
S. Moslander were graduated from Hahnemann Medical College 
of Philadelphia, and located in Camden. Dr. Ironside had 
previously studied medicine at the Toronto School of Medicine, 
and practiced for a time at Florence, New Jersey. 

Section XVI. — Deaths. 

[1885.] During the period from 1885 to 1890, the 
profession was called to record the death of Doctors Alexander 
J. McKelway, Peter V. Schenck, Napoleon B. Jennings, James 
A. Armstrong, Reynell Coates, J. R. Haney, E. J. Snitcher, 
John R. Snowden. William Warnock and Pharmacist 0. H. 
Taylor. 

Dr. Alexander J. McKelway was graduated from Princeton 
in 183 1, and from the University of Pennsylvania, in 1834. He 
served with distinction as surgeon of the Eighth Regiment, 
N. J. V., during the Civil War, and rose to the position of 
division surgeon on the staff of Major-General Joseph Hooker. 
After the war, he located at Blackwood, but subsequently 



Deaths. 225 

removed to Williamstown, where he died, in 1885. He was 
not a member of the County Medical Society.* 

Dr. Peter V. Schenck, a brother of John V. Schenck, died 
March 12, 1885. He was graduated from the University of 
Pennsylvania in i860, and entered the regular army, as has 
been noted. In 1867, he was admitted a member of the 
Camden County and City Medical Societies. In 1868, he 
located at St. Louis, where he became distinguished in hospital 
and private practice. 

Dr. Napoleon B. Jennings died at his residence at Haddon- 
field, April 17, 1885, of phthisis. He was graduated from 
Jefferson Medical College, in 1856, and located at Haddonfield, 
where, by his skill and genial nature, he secured in an eminent 
degree the confidence of the community. He was president 
of the County Medical Society in 1861, and, in 1872, a 
charter member of Haddonfield Lodge, F. and A. M., and its 
second master. 

Dr. James A. Armstrong died November 1st, of apoplexy, at 
the bedside of a patient. He was a graduate of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, 1855, and of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1 86 1 ; surgeon of the Seventy-third and also of the 
Seventy-fifth Regiments Pennsylvania Volunteers, and partici- 
pated in many of the battles of the Army of the Potomac 
during the Civil War. After the war, he served on the surgical 
staff of Satterlee Hospital and subsequently located in Camden. 
In 187 1, he was elected coroner of Camden county and, in 
1 876, a member of the County Medical Society. Dr. Armstrong 
was actively interested in the Camden County Bible Society 
and was an elder in the First Presbyterian Church. 

[1886.] Dr. Reynell Coates was born in Philadelphia, 
December 10, 1802; graduated from the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1823, and went to India that year as surgeon of a 
trading-ship, beginning his practice in Philadelphia upon his 
return in the following year. In 1829, ne was elected professor 
of Natural Sciences in Allegheny College, Pa., a position he 
held one year, when he returned to Philadelphia. In 1834, he 
abandoned practice and turned his attention to literature, taking 

* Transactions of the Medical Society of New Jersey, 1885. 

15 



226 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

a front rank among American medical writers and exercising a 
powerful influence upon the medical policy of the day. He also^ 
became distinguished as a lecturer on medical subjects. As a 
lyric and dramatic poet ; as a political and scientific writer and 
as an editor and novelist, he was famous among his contem- 
poraries. Among his works are the following: "The 
Gambler's Wife," " The Exile of Connecticut," "The Mimic 
Chase," " Reminiscences of a Voyage to India," " Manners and 
Habits of Deep-Sea Fish," " The Battle of the Gold Fish," 
"The Lightning of the Waters," "Night at Sea," "The 
Heart's Best Dream," " We Part No More"; in poetry ^ 
"Through the Cave of Despair," "The Mountain Child," 
"Eighteen To-morrow," "The Grecian Maid," "The Nautilus," 
" The Island Lyre" ; on scientific subjects, "Popular Medicine," 
"First Lines in Physiology," "First Lines in Natural 
Philosophy," also monographs in The Cyclopedia of Practical 
Medicine, numerous contributions to the Journal of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the 
American Journal of Medical Sciences of Philadelphia, and an 
oration on " Medical Instruction in America," delivered before 
the Philadelphia Medical Society; in fiction, a novel, "The 
Fire-Doomed," and contributions in both prose and verse to 
the Western Literary Magazine of Cincinnati, "Friendship's 
Offering'''' and the Boudoir Annual of Boston, and the Leaflets 
of Memory, of which Dr. Coates was the editor.* 

Othniel G. Taylor died soon after his resignation from 
the dispensary, from inflammatory rheumatism. Mr. Taylor 
was a son of Dr. O. H. Taylor and brother of Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor. He was appointed pharmacist and superintendent of 
the Camden City Dispensary, March 21, 1865, and served 
continuously until his resignation in January, 1886, a period 
of twenty-one years. This unusually long term of service 
made him well known to the physicians of Camden, with 
whom he was very popular. 

[1887.] On August 27th, Dr. John R. Haney died at his 
residence on Kaighn's avenue, of Bright's disease. Dr. Haney 
was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1861 and 

*Dr. John S. Hart in Graham's Magazine of Literature and Art, October, 1846. 



Deaths. 227 

served as an acting assistant surgeon in a United States Army 
Hospital for several months. In 1870, he located in Camden 
and opened a drug-store on Kaighn's avenue, which he super- 
vised in connection with his practice. In 1883, he was elected 
president of the County Medical Society and, in 1884, he 
served as a member of the Board of Education. 

[1888.] Dr. Elijah J. Snitcher died of pneumonia on 
February 5th. Dr. Snitcher was a graduate of Exeter 
Academy, N. H., and of the Chicago Medical College, in 1874, 
after which he served as interne in St. Mary's Hospital, 
Chicago. He was a faithful and skillful servitor of his 
patients and possessed the respect and confidence of both the 
profession and the public. 

Dr. John W. Snowden died of cancer at his residence at 
Hammonton, May 28th. Dr. Snowden was graduated from 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1 844, and located at Ancora. 
He joined the Camden County Medical Society, in 1849, and 
was rarely absent in the thirty-nine years of his membership, 
serving as president in 1855, and also in 1875. In 1878, he 
was appointed chairman of the standing committee and served 
for nine years. In 1882, he was made president of the Medical 
Society of New Jersey, being the fifth physician from Camden 
county to hold that position. Dr. Snowden exerted a marked 
influence in the community on account of his skill and 
accomplishments. 

[1889.] Dr. William Warnock died of phthisis at 
Burlington, during the year. He was graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania, in 1880, and served for two years 
as surgeon on the Red Star Trans-continental line of steamers, 
after which he located in Camden. He served for a term as 
district physician of the Camden City Dispensary. 



CHAPTER XL 
THE PERIOD FROM 1890 TO 1895. 

Section i. — The Camden City Dispensary. 

[1890.] The annual meeting of the association was held 
January 14th, with President Maurice Browning in the chair. 
Nine hundred and fifteen medical and surgical cases were 
reported to have been treated and fifteen hundred and ninety- 
eight prescriptions compounded, from an expenditure of 
$3,307.72. Messrs. Maurice Browning, David M. Chambers, 
Richard H. Reeve, Henry B. Wilson, Peter V. Voorhees, 
Rudolphus W. Birdsall and Howard M. Cooper were elected 
members of the Board of Managers by the contributors of the 
dispensary, and Doctors H. Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray, W. A. 
Davis, O. B. Gross, H. H. Davis, E. P. Townsend, Dowling 
Benjamin and E. L. B. Godfrey, by the Camden City Medical 
Society. The board organized by electing Maurice Browning 
president ; David M. Chambers, vice-president ; Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor, secretary, and Richard H. Reeve, treasurer. The 
medical staff were re-elected. On February 27th, a special 
meeting was held to consider the sale of the dispensary build- 
ing and lot, No. 46 North Third street, to the West Jersey 
Title and Guarantee Company, for $4,500. The sale took 
place on March 12, 1890, for the sum named ; the building 
was removed and the vaults of the company were built upon 
the site. The dispensary service was then established at No. 
532 Market street, until a new building could be erected. On 
March 15th, the dispensary received a legacy of $500 from the 
estate of Joseph B. Cooper, and, on July 8th, the salary of 
Dr. H. F. Palm, interne and superintendent, was increased to 
$500 per annum. 

[1891.] The annual meeting was held January 13th. 

There was the same number of cases treated and of prescriptions 

compounded as in the previous year. The treasurer reported 

$7,773.90 in his possession from the following sources : Balance 

228 



The Camden City Dispensary . 229 

from 1890, $812.65 ; sale of dispensary building, $4,500 ; inter- 
est on invested funds, $637 ; rent from United States Pension 
Board, $60; appropriation from City Council, $1,200; legacy 
from Joseph B. Cooper, $500 ; total, $7,773.90. Those members 
of the Board of Managers, elected by the contributors, were 
re-elected, and Doctors H. Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray, 
W. A. Davis, H. H. Davis, W. H. Ireland, W. H. Iszard, E. P. 
Townsend and E. L. B. Godfrey represented the Camden City 
Medical Society in the board. The board organized with the 
re-election of its former officers. On May 19th, the vacant 
lots at 725, 727 and 729 Federal street were purchased for 
$2,859.50 for building purposes and, on June 30th, the building 
plans submitted by Moses and King, architects, were adopted 
by the board and a building committee was appointed, who at 
once began the construction of the present edifice. Up to this 
time, the pharmacist of the dispensary had been elected by the 
Camden City Medical Society, but, in order to place all officials 
of the institution under the supervision of the managers, the 
constitution and by-laws of the dispensary were revised to meet 
this need. The city appropriation of $1,200 for the indigent 
sick was again secured, and Dr. Joseph H. Wills was elected 
district physician for the First and Third wards, and Dr. O. W. 
Braymer for the Fifth and Sixth wards. A legacy of $500 
was received from Rachel Cooper, on December 5th. 

[1892.] Following the adoption of the plans for a new 
dispensary building, June 30th, 1891, the managers proceeded 
to erect the present building, which was completed and 
dedicated to the public use, January 8, 1892. The new edifice 
has a frontage of thirty-four feet and is eighty-six feet in 
depth. It is two stories in height ; built of brick with Indiana 
limestone trimmings ; the first floor arranged for dispensary, 
clinical and lecturing purposes, and the second for the use of 
the Camden City Medical Society, in whose rooms provisions 
have been made for the Cooper and Mulford libraries. The 
cost of construction was $8,323.03, which, added to the 
purchase price of the lots, $2,859.50, made the entire cost 
$11,182.53. The dedicatory ceremonies included an " Histor- 
ical Sketch of the Camden City Dispensary," by H. Genet 



230 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Taylor, A.M., M. D., and addresses by Hon. Christopher A. 
Bergen, M. C, and Rev. William Boyd. The annual meeting 
of the Board of Managers was held January 12th, with Presi- 
dent Browning in the chair. The representatives of the con- 
tributors were re-elected members of the board, and Doctors H. 
Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray, W. A. Davis, H. H. Davis, 0. B. 
Gross, D. Benjamin, E. P. Townsend and E. L. B. Godfrey 
were elected to the board from the City Medical Society. The 
officers of the preceding year were re-elected. The revised 
constitution was adopted and T. J. W. Phillips, Ph. G., was 
elected pharmacist in the place of Dr. H. F. Palm, resigned. 
The following consulting and attending staff were elected : 
Consulting physicians, H. Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray, William 
A. Davis and James M. Ridge ; consulting surgeons, O. B. Gross, 

E. L. B. Godfrey, D. Benjamin and Daniel Strock ; attending 
staff, — medicine, H. F. Palm, G. W. Henry, William Shafer 
and B. S. Lewis ; surgery, Alexander McAlister, J. H. Frick, 

F. L. Horning and John F. Eeavitt ; gynaecology, William H. 
Ireland, H. H. Davis, J. S. Baer and Milton M. Osmun ; eye 
and ear, E. P. Townsend, William R. Powell and Robert 
Caspersou ; diseases of the throat, William S. Jones; diseases 
of the skin and pathologist, George T. Robinson ; district 
physicians, Joseph H. Wills and O. W. Braymer ; microscopist, 
Albert P. Brown, Ph. G. ; pharmacist, Thomas J. W. Phillips, 
Ph.G. 

[1893.] The construction of a new building and the 
enlargement of the corps of physicians increased the work and 
usefulness of the dispensary . At the annual meeting, January 
17th, four thousand, three hundred and ninety-four cases were 
reported to have been treated, and ten thousand, one hundred 
and seventy-one prescriptions compounded. The lay members 
of the Board of Managers were re-elected, except that Samuel 
H. Grey succeeded Rudolphus W. Birdsall, who had removed 
from the city. Doctors H. Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray, 
W. A. Davis, O. B. Gross, Daniel Strock, W. H. Ireland, J. S. 
Baer and E. E- B. Godfrey represented the City Medical Society. 
The old officers were re-elected, with the exception that Hon. 
Henry B. Wilson was elected vice-president of the board in 



The Camden City Dispensary . 231 

place of David M. Chambers, declined, and, with few excep- 
tions, the medical staff were re-appointed. The appropriation 
of City Council for dispensary service was again renewed. 
The first appropriation of City Council to the Camden City 
Dispensary was made in 1868. The sum was $300, which was 
annually granted until 1879, when the amount was increased 
to $1,600; the city was divided into three districts, and physi- 
cians were appointed for each district. At this time, a salary 
of $200 per annum was granted each district physician. 
Previously to this, all dispensary work had been gratuitous on 
the part of its medical staff. The annual appropriation of 
$1,600 for the sick poor was continued until 1885, when the 
sanitary committee of City Council asked for a bid from the 
Board of Managers, because of the desire of the Camden 
Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary Association to compete 
for the work of caring for the indigent sick of the city. The 
managers refused to do this and the Homoeopathic Association 
secured the entire appropriation for that year. In 1886, City 
Council increased the appropriation to $2,400, and divided it 
equally between the two associations named, and, since then, 
each has received $1,200 per annum. 

[1894.] During this year, two thousand, eight hundred and 
forty-five cases were treated at the dispensary, and six hundred 
and thirty-six at their residences. The work of the institution 
for the year in the clinical rooms and outdoor service made a 
total of twelve thousand, nine hundred and eighty-four visits. 
The following managers were elected for the ensuing year : 
Maurice Browning, Henry B. Wilson, Richard H. Reeve, 
David M. Chambers, Samuel H. Grey, Peter V. Voorhees, 
Howard M. Cooper and Doctors H. Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray, 
W. A. Davis, O. B. Gross, D. Benjamin, W. R. Powell, J. G. 
Doron and E. L. B. Godfrey. Maurice Browning was elected 
president ; Henry B. Wilson, vice-president ; Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor, secretary, and Richard H. Reeve, treasurer. The 
following constituted the consulting and attending staff : Con- 
sulting physicians, H. Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray, E. L. B. 
Godfrey, W. A. Davis, J. M. Ridge and G. T. Robinson ; con- 
sulting surgeons, O. B. Gross, D. Benjamin, J. H. Wills, Daniel 



232 History Medical Profession Camden Cvunty. 

Strock and W. R. Powell ; attending staff, — medicine, J. G. 
Doron, A. H. Lippincott, E. A. Y. Schellenger and G. E. Kirk ; 
surgery, F. L. Horning, J. F. Stock, W. G. Bailey and W. I. 
Kelchner ; gynaecology, J. S. Baer, O. W. Braymer, W. S. Bray 
and S. Presley; eye and ear, Robert Casperson and C. B. 
Donges ; throat and skin, J. L- Nicholson, W. W. Kaighn, E. E. 
De Grofft and W. S. Miller ; pathologist, E. B. Hirst ; district 
physicians, W. H. Pratt and W. S. Miller ; microscopist, W. S. 
Bray ; pharmacist, Thomas J. W. Phillips. 

Section II. — The Camden City Medical Society. 

[1890.] The records of the society for the year are 
incomplete. At the annual meeting, January 9th, Dr. Daniel 
Strock was elected president ; Dr. Howard F. Palm, vice- 
president ; Dr. William A. Davis, secretary ; Dr. George T. 
Robinson, treasurer; Dr. Howard F. Palm, librarian ; Doctors 
H. Genet Taylor, Alexander M. Mecray and Dowling Benjamin 
were elected members of the standing committee, and Doctors 
Taylor, Mecray, Benjamin, Strock, W. A. Davis, H. H. Davis, 
Townsend and Godfrey, managers for the Camden City Dis- 
pensary. 

[189 1.] The annual meeting of the society was held 
January 8th, when the retiring president, Dr. Daniel Strock, 
delivered an address on "The Hygiene of Every- Day Life." 
Dr. Howard F. Palm was elected president; Dr. Alexander 
McAlister, vice-president ; Dr. Joseph H. Wills, secretary ; 
Dr. George T. Robinson, treasurer; Dr. Daniel Strock, his- 
torian ; Dr. Howard F. Palm, librarian ; Doctors H. Genet 
Taylor, A. M. Mecray and E. P. Townsend were elected 
members of the standing committee ; Doctors Taylor, Mecray ,, 
W. A. Davis, H. H. Davis, Townsend, Ireland and Godfrey, 
managers for the dispensary, and Dr. Benjamin S. Lewis was 
elected to membership. At the February meeting, a paper was- 
read by Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, on " Laceration of the Cervix 
Uteri " ; in March, one on " Artesian Wells," by Dr. Joseph H. 
Wills; in June, Dr. W. H. Ireland spoke on "The Manage- 
ment of the Secundi after Parturition and Abortion"; in 



The Camden City Medical Society. 233 

October, a paper on " Milk Sterilization " was read by Dr. 
Nehemiah Davis ; in November, one on "Diphtheria," by Dr. 
Daniel Strock, and in December, one on " Rectal Polypi," by 
Dr. Sophia Presley. Dr. Alexander Marcy, of Riverton ; Dr. 
John R. Stevenson, of Haddonfield; Dr. H. H. Sherk, of 
Cramer Hill, and Doctors H. A. M. Smith and D. W. Blake, 
of Gloucester City, were elected corresponding members, and 
Dr. J. Howard Frick and W. F. H. Osmun, the former a 
graduate of Jefferson Medical College in 1888 and the latter in 
1889, were elected active members of the society. 

[1892.] The annual meeting of the society was held in 
the new dispensary building, January 14th, in the rooms 
assigned to the society by the dispensary managers. Dr. H. 
F. Palm presided and delivered an address on " Ye have the 
Poor always with You," and Dr. D. Strock read an historical 
account of the society for the past year. Dr. Alexander 
McAlister was elected president ; Dr. George T. Robinson, 
vice-president and treasurer ; Dr. Joseph H. Wills, secretary ; 
Dr. H. F. Palm, librarian; Dr. Daniel Strock, historian; 
Doctors H. Genet Taylor, A. M. Mecray and E. P. Townsend 
were elected members of the standing committee, and Doctors 
Taylor, Mecray, Benjamin, Gross, W. A. Davis, H. H. Davis, 
Townsend and Godfrey, managers for the dispensary. At the 
February meeting, Dr. Joel W. Fithian, a graduate of South 
Jersey Institute and of Jefferson Medical College, 1887, and 
ex-interne of St. Luke's Hospital, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 
was elected to membership. Dr. Dowling Benjamin discussed 
the subject of " Ovarian Tumors" and exhibited a pathological 
specimen. In March, Dr. J. S. Baer read a paper on the 
" Diagnosis and Treatment of Uterine Fibroids" ; in April, 
Dr. James G. Stanton was elected a member and Dr. Henry F. 
Formad, of Philadelphia, exhibited a unique specimen of 
enlarged colon ; in May, Dr. Daniel Strock read a paper on 
"Emergencies in Labor" ; in June, Dr. Joel W. Fithian read 
a paper on "Diabetes Mellitus " ; Doctors Grant E. Kirk, 
Ph.G., and Walter S. Bray, the former a graduate of Jefferson 
Medical College, 1891, and the latter in 1887, and Rowland I. 
Haines, a former student at Swarthmore College and a graduate 



234 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

of the University of Pennsylvania, 1890, were elected mem- 
bers, .and Dr. William B. Jennings, of Haddonfield, corre- 
sponding member; in September, Dr. H. F. Palm, who had 
been appointed chairman of a committee on the registration of 
mid wives, reported that he had examined the records of 
births at the City Hall and fonnd that there were twenty-six 
rnidwives in active practice in Camden ; that they had attended 
about twenty-five per cent, of the cases reported; and that he 
had supplied them with a copy of the law requiring their 
registration at the office of the county clerk. Dr. J. Howard 
Frick read a paper on cholera and exhibited the comma 
bacillus. On September 16th, a special meeting of the society 
was called to consider what steps should be taken in the 
event of the appearance of cholera, then epidemic in various 
parts of Europe and present at the New York Quarantine, at 
Jersey City, and at New Brunswick, where one death occurred. 
Resolutions were adopted, reciting the contagious nature of 
the disease, its mode of transmission and the effects of thorough 
sanitation in its prevention and treatment, with the offer to 
assist the Board of Health, upon request, should the disease 
invade the city. Dr. Robert Casperson read a paper on 
" Abortion," at the October meeting, and Dr. Edward Phelan, 
a graduate of McGill University, Canada, was elected a corre- 
sponding member. On October 27th, a special meeting was 
held to hear a paper on the observations and discoveries by Dr. 
George T. Robinson, of the changes that take place in the 
blood during disease. Dr. Robinson claimed to be the first to 
discover certain changes that take place in the blood in acute 
diseases, particularly diphtheria, which can only be recognized 
by the spectroscope. In November, Dr. James M. Ridge dis- 
cussed "The Chemical Analysis and Microscopical Examina- 
tion of Water" ; in December, Dr. B. S. Lewis read a paper 
on "The City's Death-rate and Sanitary Plumbing," and Dr. 
Jacob F. Stock, Ph.G., and Dr. Wilson Gill Bailey, graduates 
of Jefferson Medical College, the former in 1890 and the latter 
in 1 89 1, and Dr. Sylvan G. Bushey, a graduate of Wyoming 
Seminary in 1887 and of Jefferson Medical College in 1891, 
were elected members. 



The Camden City Medical Society. 235 

[1893.] The annual meeting was held at the rooms of 
the society, January 12th. Dr. Alexander McAlister delivered 
the annual address on the " Dangers of Malt Liquors as Galac- 
tagogues " and Dr. Daniel Strock read the historical record for 
the past year. The treasurer reported the annual income of 
the society to be four hundred and forty-nine dollars and sixty- 
nine cents, and the constitution was amended to provide for 
the meeting of the society on the third Wednesday night, 
instead of Thursday, of each month. Dr. George T. Robinson 
was elected president ; Dr. Joseph H. Wills, vice-president and 
secretary; Dr. O. W. Bray mer, treasurer ; Dr. Daniel Strock, 
reporter ; Dr. H. F. Palm, librarian ; Doctors H. Genet Taylor, 
A. M. Mecray and J. M. Ridge were elected members of the 
standing committee and Doctors Taylor, Mecray, W. A. Davis, 
Gross, Strock, Ireland, Baer and Godfrey, managers of the 
dispensary. Dr. D. Benjamin exhibited a diseased ovary 
which he had recently removed. The stated meeting of 
February was held with an attendance of twenty-eight members. 
Dr. D. W. Blake read a paper on " Intestinal Hemorrhages in 
Typhoid Fever" ; in March, Dr. O. W. Braymer reported an 
operation of " Oophorectomy" ; in April, Dr. O. B. Gross read 
a paper on " Hemorrhoids " ; in May, Dr. W. S. Bray gave an 
illustration of " Hypnotism " ; in June, Dr. John R. Stevenson 
read an historical paper on " Our Fortieth Anniversary," and 
Dr. Ahab H. LJppincott, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 
1892, was elected a member; in September, Dr. J. S. Baer 
read a paper on " Ovariotomy." The constitution was 
amended to provide for a legislative committee of three mem- 
bers to make a report, at the regular, special or annual meetings, 
of all new medical laws. Dr. Eugene E. De Grofft, a graduate 
of Jefferson Medical College, 1875, and a member of Salem 
and Gloucester County Medical Societies, was elected a member ; 
in October, a painting called the "First Dissection" was 
presented to the society by Colonel John R. Johnston, the artist, 
through Dr. James M. Ridge, and accepted by Dr. O. B. Gross 
on behalf of the society. This was made the occasion of a 
special meeting which was followed by a banquet. Colonel 
Johnston had previously presented to the society the portraits of 



236 Histoiy Medical Profession Camden Comity. 

Dr. Thomas F. Cullen and Dr. James F. Ridge, which, with 
those of Doctors L. F. Fisler, Reynell Coates, Richard M. 
Cooper, Othniel H. Taylor and Colonel Thomas McKeen, now 
adorn the rooms of the society. In November, the subject of 
diphtheria was discussed by Dr. George T. Robinson ; Dr. Joseph 
ly. Nicholson, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, 
1890, and ex-resident of Cooper and Philadelphia Hospitals, 
was elected a member, and Dr. William W. Kain, Ph.G., a 
graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 1893, and Dr. William 
H. Pratt, Ph. G., a graduate of the Medico-Chirurgical College 
of Philadelphia, 1893, were elected corresponding members. 
In December, the nominations for officers for the ensuing year 
were made and Dr. E. A. Y. Schellenger, graduate of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 1892, and ex-resident physician of 
The Cooper Hospital, was elected a member. 

[1894.] At the annual meeting, January 10th, Dr. Joseph 
H. Wills was elected president ; Dr. O. W. Braymer, vice- 
president ; Dr. Sophia Presley, secretary ; Dr. A. H. Lippincott, 
treasurer ; Dr. Joseph L. Nicholson, librarian ; Dr. Daniel 
Strock, historian ; Doctors J. M. Ridge, G. E. Kirk and W. S. 
Bray were elected members of the standing committee ; Doctors 
George W. Henry and D. Benjamin, members of the legislative 
committee, and Doctors Taylor, Mecray, Baer, Robinson, W. 
A. Davis, Stock, Gross and Godfrey, representatives of the 
society in the Board of Managers of the Camden City Dispen- 
sary. The treasurer reported the income of the society to be 
$378.87 for the year. Dr. Daniel Strock presented a history 
of the society for the past year and Dr. George T. Robinson 
delivered the annual address. In February, Dr. H. H. Sherk 
read a paper on " La Grippe " ; in March, the society received 
the portrait of Dr. Reynell Coates, presented by Dr. D. 
Benjamin ; in April, no medical discussion took place ; in May, 
the " Present and Prospective Sources of the Water-supply of 
Camden" was discussed; in June, Dr. Benjamin read a paper 
on " Typhoid Fever in Camden " ; in September, Dr. O. B. 
Gross read a paper on " Lactic Acid as a Remedial Agent," and 
Doctors Edward Phelan and William I. Kelchner, the latter 
a former student at Schuylkill Seminary, Keystone State 



The Camden District Medical Society 237 

Normal School, and a graduate of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1893, were elected members; in October, Dr. J. Howard 
Frick read a paper on "Ophthalmia Neonatorum"; in 
November, Dr. Judson Daland, of Philadelphia, spoke on the 
"Diagnosis of Blood Diseases," and Dr. William H. Pratt was 
elected a member; in December, Dr. William W. Kain, Ph.G., 
and Dr. William E. Miller, Ph.G., the latter a graduate of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 1893, were elected members. At 
the annual meeting in January, 1895, Dr. Joseph H. Wills de- 
livered the annual address ; Dr. Daniel Strock read an historical 
sketch of the society for the past year ; Dr. O. W. Braymer was 
elected president ; Dr. William S. Jones, vice-president ; Dr. 
Sophia Presley, secretary; Dr. A. H. Lippincott, treasurer; Dr. 
Daniel Strock, historian ; Dr. S. G. Bushey, librarian; Doctors 
James M. Ridge, W. S. Bray and George T. Robinson were 
elected members of the standing committee ; Doctors E. E. De 
Grofft, J. W. Donges and Robert Casperson, members of the leg- 
islative committee, and Doctors Taylor, Mecray, W. A. Davis, 
Benjamin, Powell, Doron, Gross and Godfrey, managers to the 
dispensary. 

Section III. — The Camden District Medical Society. 

[1890.] The February meeting of the society was held 
on the nth instant, at the West Jersey Hotel. The following 
papers were read: "Pneumonia," by Dr. E. P. Townsend ; 
"Salpingitis," by Dr. Alexander McAlister, and "Puerperal 
Fever," by Dr. H. F. Palm. 

The forty-fourth annual meeting of the society was held 
at Gloucester City, May 15th, with the president, Dr. William A. 
Davis, in the chair, who delivered an address on "The Anti- 
septic Treatment of Typhoid Fever." The society at this time 
numbered forty-three members. Dr. John R. Stevenson read 
the historical record of the society during the past year, and 
Dr. E. P. Townsend reported for the standing committee that 
Camden county had had less than the usual amount of sick- 
ness, aside from the prevalence of the epidemic of la grippe, 
which will be considered subsequently. The advisability of 



238 History Medical Profession Camden County . 

establishing a State Board of Medical Examiners was com- 
mented upon adversely by a number of the members. Dr. H. H. 
Davis was elected president ; Dr. D. W. Blake, vice-president ; 
Dr. E. E. B. Godfrey, secretary; Dr. A. M. Mecray, treasurer; 
Dr. John R. Stevenson, historian ; Dr. E. P. Townsend, chair- 
man of the standing committee, and Doctors Stevenson, Marcy, 
Branin, Smith and Taylor were elected censors. The usual 
delegates to the State Medical and corresponding societies were 
appointed. Dr. E. L,. B. Godfrey declined re-election to the 
secretaryship, because of pressure of work, and Dr. H. F. Palm 
was elected to succeed him. Dr. A. M. Mecray, for the same 
reason, declined re-election as treasurer, and Dr. George T. 
Robinson was elected to fill the vacancy. Doctors Sophia 
Presley and Harry Jarrett were elected members, and Dr. D. P. 
Pancoast resigned because of removal from the county. 
Dr. Presley was graduated from the Granville Female Seminary, 
Ohio, in i860; from the Woman's Medical College of Philadel- 
phia, in 1879; served as resident physician in the Hospital for 
Women and Children, Philadelphia, for one year, and then 
located in Camden. She was the first female physician elected 
a member of the society. Dr. Harry Jarrett was graduated from 
Jefferson Medical College, 1887, and served as medical and 
surgical interne in The Cooper Hospital for two years. The 
November meeting was held at the West Jersey Hotel, on the 
nth, when the following papers were presented: "Antiseptic 
Midwifery," by Dr. William H. Ireland; "Rib Presentation," 
by Dr. J. F. Leavitt ; " Retroflexion of the Uterus," by 
Dr. E. Iy. B. Godfrey; "Tetanus," by Dr. H. H. Sherk; 
"Abdominal Surgery," by Dr. O. B. Gross. Doctors Orange 
W. Braymer and Frank L. Horning were elected members. 
Dr. Braymer was graduated from Allegheny College, in 1886, 
with the degree of A. B., and from Jefferson Medical College, 
in 1888. In 1889, Allegheny College conferred on him the 
degree of A. M. and, in 1892, the degree of Ph. D. Dr. Horning 
was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1889. 

[1891.] The February meeting of the society was held 
at the West Jersey Hotel, on the 10th instant. Dr. Daniel 
Strock read a paper on "A Report of the Hyderabad Chloro- 



The Camden District Medical Society. 239 

form Commission".; Dr. Alexander McAlister, a paper on 
"A Case of Volvulus of the Ileum," and Dr. Joseph H. Wills, 
a paper on "Artesian Wells as a Source of Drinking- Water." 
Dr. Benjamin S. Lewis and Dr. Joseph S. Baer, graduates of 
Jefferson Medical College, 1888, were elected members. 

The forty-fifth annual meeting of the society was held at 
Westville, May 12th. This was the first time the annual 
meeting was held beyond the county limits. Dr. John R. 
Stevenson presented the history of the society, and Dr. E. P. 
Townsend read the report of the standing committee and 
considered the prevalence of la grippe and other diseases. 
The president omitted the annual address. Dr. Duncan W. 
Blake was elected president ; Dr. Howard F. Palm, vice-presi- 
dent ; Dr. A. T. Dobson, secretary ; Dr. George T. Robinson, 
treasurer; Dr. John R. Stevenson, historian; Dr. E. P. Towns- 
end, chairman of the standing committee, and Doctors H. Genet 
Taylor, Alexander Marcy, H. E. Branin, J. R. Stevenson and 
H. A. M. Smith were elected censors. Delegates were elected 
to the State Medical and other societies. 

The November meeting was held at Haddonfield for the 
first time since 1849. Dr. O. W. Braymer read a paper on 
"Diphtheria"; Dr. Dowling Benjamin, a paper on "Abdominal 
Section for Ventral Hernia," and one on "Ligation of the 
Femoral Artery for Popliteal Aneurism " ; Dr. Harry Jarrett, 
one on " Intra-capsular Fracture"; Dr. James M. Walmsley, 
one on " Hygiene of Public Schools," and Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, 
one on "The Physician in Literature." Doctors W. F. H. 
Osmun, of Camden; Charles H. Jennings, of Merchantville, 
and William H. Kensinger, of Cramer Hill, graduates of 
Jefferson Medical College, 1889, were elected members. 

[1892.] The February meeting was held at the Camden 
City Dispensary building, on the 9th instant, with Dr. D. W. 
Blake in the chair. Dr. William H. Iszard read a paper on 
"La Grippe." There were a number of distinguished guests 
present, including Doctors W. P. Melcher and R. H. Parsons, 
of Mt. Holly, and Professors H. A. Hare and J. V. Shoemaker, 
of Philadelphia. Doctors William T. Collins, William R. 
Powell, Ph. G. ; James G. Stanton, Nehemiah Davis, Ph. G., 



240 History Medical Profession Camden County . 

and John J. Haley, Ph. G. (a former student at Swarthmore 
College and a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 1890), 
were elected members. 

The annual meeting was held at Westville, May 10th. 
Dr. E. P. Townsend, in the report of the standing committee, 
said in substance that la grippe, with the various sequelae, was 
generally prevalent ; that diphtheria had occurred in all parts 
of the county, and that scarlet fever had prevailed extensively 
in Camden. Dr. John R. Stevenson read the history of the 
society during the past year and Dr. Sophia Presley a paper on 
"Puerperal Fever." Dr. Howard F. Palm was elected 
president ; Dr. E. P. Townsend, vice-president ; Dr. A. T. 
Dobson, secretary; Dr. George T. Robinson, treasurer; 
Dr. John R. Stevenson, historian; Dr. E. P. Townsend, 
chairman of the standing committee ; Doctors Ridge and 
Marcy were elected permanent delegates to the State Medical 
Society and Dr. Joel W. Fithian was made a member. 

The regular November meeting was not held, because of 
the failure of the secretary to call it, and a special meeting was 
appointed in consequence, November 15th, when Dr. A. M. 
Mecray, from the section on practice of medicine, read a paper 
on " Cholera " ; Dr. Alexander McAlister, a paper on "Appen- 
dicitis" ; Dr. Joseph H. Wills, one on "Tumors of the Jaw," 
and Dr. James M. Ridge, one on " Intestinal Obstruction." 
Dr. John G. Doron was elected a member. The medical 
census of the county was taken during the year and showed 
that there were one hundred and seventeen practicing 
physicians located as follows : In Camden, sixty-five regular, 
twenty homoeopathic and five eclectic physicians, total ninety ; 
in Haddonfield, five regular and two homoeopathic, total seven ; 
in Gloucester City, six regular and two homoeopathic, total 
eight ; in Berlin, three regular ; in Merchantville, two regular 
and two homoeopathic, total four ; in Atco, one homoeopathic ; 
in Blackwood, two regular; in Mt. Ephraim, one homoeo- 
pathic ; in Marl ton, one regular physician, making the entire 
number one hundred and seventeen, of which eighty-four were 
regular, twenty-eight homoeopathic and five eclectic prac- 
titioners. The medical census of 1852 (Chapter III, Section 



The Camden District Medical Society. 241 

II) shows that there were twenty-seven practitioners, and that 
of 1872 (Chapter VII, Section III), fifty-two within the comity. 

[1893]. The February meeting of the society was held 
on the 15th inst., with a large attendance. Dr. B. S. Lewis 
read a paper on " Asiatic Cholera " and Dr. John V. Shoemaker, 
of Philadelphia, addressed the members on " Cerebrin." 

The forty-seventh annual meeting was held at the West 
Jersey Hotel, May 9th, with Dr. Howard F. Palm in the chair. 
The society numbered at this time fifty-six members. Dr. John 
R. Stevenson presented the historical record for the year ;, 
Dr. Daniel Strock read the annual report and gave a brief r&sume 
of the prevailing diseases and Dr. H. F. Palm delivered the 
annual address. Dr. Augustus T. Dobson was elected presi- 
dent ; Dr. Henry H. Sherk, vice-president; Dr. Benjamin S. 
Lewis, secretary; Dr. George T. Robinson, treasurer; Dr. John 
R. Stevenson, historian ; Dr. H. A. M. Smith, senior censor, 
and Dr. Daniel Strock, chairman of the standing committee. 
The usual delegates to the State Medical and corresponding 
societies were appointed . Dr. J. Orlando White resigned from 
the society, because of discontinuing the practice of medicine. 

The November meeting of the society was held at the 
rooms of the Camden City Medical Society on the 14th instant, 
with Dr. H. H. Sherk, vice-president, in the chair. The society 
officially inspected The Cooper Hospital, by invitation of its 
Board of Managers and Attending Staff, and were entertained 
at a lunch. Upon re-assembling, the following papers were 
presented through their respective sections: "The Antisepsis 
of Midwifery," by Dr. J. S. Baer; "Salpingitis," by 
Dr. Alexander McAlister; " The Treatment of Diphtheria," by 
Dr. E. L. B.Godfrey; "Tetanus," by Dr. Daniel Strock; 
"Amputations," by Dr. O. B. Gross; "Compound Fractures of 
the Skull," by Dr. Joseph H. Wills. Dr. John R. Stevenson, 
chairman of the Board of Censors, presented the resignation of 
Dr. A. T. Dobson from the presidency of the society, and 
Doctors -S. G. Bushey, J. F. Stock and Wilson Gill Bailey 
. were elected members. 

[1894.] The February meeting of the society was held in 
the rooms of the Camden City Medical Society, on the 13th 

16 



242 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

instant, with Dr. H. H. Sherk in the chair. Dr. H. Augustus 
Wilson, of Philadelphia, read a paper entitled "Can a Physician 
Honorably Accept the Commissions Frequently Offered by 
Orthopaedic-Instrument Manufacturers?" which was pointedly 
discussed. Dr. Frederick W. Marcy, a graduate of the Univer- 
sity 7 of Pennsylvania, 1891, and ex-resident physician of The 
Cooper Hospital, and Dr. Ahab H. Lippincott were elected 
members. 

The forty-eighth annual meeting of the society was held 
May 8th, Dr. H. H. Sherk presiding. The membership of the 
society included sixty-three physicians, and among the corre- 
sponding delegates were Doctors Franklin Gauntt, of Burling- 
ton ; George E. Reading, of Woodbury ; James Hunter, of 
Westville; L. M. Halsey, of Williamstown, and H. A. Stout, 
of Wenonah. Dr. John R. Stevenson presented the historian's 
report, and Dr. Daniel Strock the annual report, in which an 
exhaustive review of the diseases incident to the past year was 
made, and the therapeutic virtues of a number of new remedies 
were considered. Dr. Strock submitted reports of medical 
cases from Doctors Taylor, Ridge, Davis, Mecray, Baer, 
McAlister, Braymer, Palm, Gross, Bailey and Godfrey, of 
Camden ; Doctors Stevenson and Jennings, of Haddonfield ; 
Dr. Hurff, of Blackwood, and Dr. Blake, of Gloucester City, 
and the following list of surgical operations : Laparotomy for 
plastic peritonitis, and amputation of the thigh, by Dr. Gross ; 
five coeliotomies for tubo-ovarian disease, by Dr. Baer; vaginal 
hysterectomy, by Drs. Goodell and Mecray ; three abdominal 
sections, by Dr. McAlister; removal of a goitre, by Dr. Bailey; 
three cases of compound fracture of the skull, with recovery, 
by Dr. Wills ; suprapubic cystotomy, litholapaxy, amputation 
of thigh, by Dr. Strock ; hysterectomy, by Dr. Godfrey. Ever 
since the annual meeting was held, in 1891, at Westville 
(beyond the county limits), exception had been taken to its 
legality, and, in order to ascertain the correctness of this, 
the opinion of Judge David J. Pancoast was obtained, which 
was "that the business meetings of the society cannot be 
held lawfully outside of the county." The following officers 
were elected : President, Dr. H. H. Sherk ; vice-president, 



The Medical Society of New Jersey. 243 

Dr. Alexander McAlister; secretary, Dr. Benjamin S. Lewis; 
treasurer, Dr. John G. Doron ; historian, Dr. John R. Steven- 
son ; chairman of the standing committee, Dr. Daniel Strock ; 
senior censor, Dr. H. E. Branin. The usual delegates were 
appointed. 

The November meeting of the society was held on the 
13th, with Dr. H. H. Sherk in the chair and Doctors Thomas J. 
Smith, of Bridgeton, Levi B. Hirst, Joseph L. Nicholson, 
William H. Pratt, Paul Mecray, Milton Osmun and G. E. Kirk, 
of Camden, present as visiting members. Doctors Edward 
Phelan, E. A. Y. Schellenger and E. E. De Grofft were elected 
members. The following papers were read: "A Case of 
Prolapse of the Laryngeal Ventricle," by Dr. William S. 
Jones; "A Case of Strontium Poisoning," by Dr. H. H. 
Sherk; "Scarlet Fever," by Dr. Joseph E. Hurff; "Epithe- 
lioma," by Dr. Alexander McAlister; "Gunshot Wounds of 
the Intestines," by Dr. O. B. Gross; "Fracture of the Skull," 
by Dr. Joseph H. Wills; "The Pathology of Insanity," by 
Dr. J. M. Ridge; "Antiseptic Properties of Creolin," by 
Dr. George T. Robinson; "Eclampsia," by Dr. W. H. Ireland, 
and "Obstetrical Blunders," by Dr. H. F. Palm. 

Section IV. — The Medical Society of New Jersey. 

[1890.] The one hundred and twenty-fourth annual 
meeting of the society convened at the Heath House, 
Schooley's Mountain, June 10, 1890, with Dr. B. A. Watson, 
of Jersey City, in the chair. A summary of the membership 
of the district societies of New Jersey, for the last two 
decades, showed three hundred and fifty-three members 
in 1870, four hundred and ninety-nine in 1880, and six 
hundred and seventy-six in 1890. Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, the 
appointed essayist, read a paper on "Endometritis," and 
considered the acute and chronic forms of the disease, as it 
affects either or both the neck and body of the uterus, and 
outlined the treatment. Dr. Dowling Benjamin presented a 
report of the convention for the revision of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia, held at Washington, D. C, May 6th, and 



244 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

stated, in substance, that strong influences from wholesale 
drug-houses were brought to bear on delegates to favor certain 
specialties, but the Pharmacopoeia of 1890 would be in advance 
of that of 1880. Dr. H. Genet Taylor presented the report of 
the committee on the Fellows' Prize Essay. The Camden 
District Medical Society was represented by Doctors W. H. 
Iszard, D. Benjamin, O. B. Gross, W. A. Davis, E. P. 
Townsend and E. E- B. Godfrey. Dr. E. P. Townsend was 
elected a member of the standing committee, being the fourth 
delegate from Camden county to hold this position. The 
standing committee was first instituted in 1820. Doctors 
Isaac S. Mulford, Richard M. Cooper and Bowman Hendry 
constituted the committee in 1854, aim ^ r - R- M. Cooper served 
as a member in 1856 and 1857. Dr. H. Genet Taylor was 
made a member of the business committee and of the committee 
on honorary membership ; Doctors Alexander Marcy and O. B. 
Gross were appointed delegates to the Pennsylvania Medical 
Society ; Dr. W. A. Davis was appointed to the Delaware State 
Medical Society ; Dr. D. Benjamin, to the American Medical 
Association, and Dr. E. E. B. Godfrey, a member of the 
committee of arrangements. 

[189 1.] The one hundred and twenty-fifth annual 
meeting was held at Eong Branch, June 23d. Dr. E. J. Ill, of 
Newark, read a paper entitled "An Attempt to Show what 
New Jersey Surgeons have Done in Abdominal Surgery." He 
reported one hundred cases of abdominal section in his own 
practice and referred to similar operations performed by 
Doctors Benjamin, Gross, Strock, McAlister, Ireland, Palm, 
Taylor, Donges and Godfrey. The by-laws of the society were 
amended to provide for the election of permanent delegates by 
district societies, one for each thirty members, once in three 
years, provided that each permanent delegate shall have been 
a member of a district society for five years, and in good 
standing. Doctors E. E. B. Godfrey, Daniel Strock, H. E. 
Branin, D. Benjamin, Alexander McAlister and D. W. Blake 
comprised the Camden delegation. Dr. E. P. Townsend was 
re-elected a member of the standing committee ; Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor, a member of the honorary committee ; Dr. E. E. B. 



The Medical Society of New Jersey . 245 

Godfrey was elected a member of the committee on Fellows' 
Prize Essay, and, with Dr. D. W. Blake, a member of the 
committee of arrangements for the next meeting. 

[1892.] The one hundred and twenty-sixth annual 
meeting was held at Atlantic City, June 28th, with Dr. E. J. 
Marsh in the chair. The meeting was of unusual interest 
because of the large number of delegates and visiting physicians 
present. The committee of arrangements, appointed at the 
preceding meeting, were empowered to add to their number, 
and the following physicians comprised the committee : 
Doctors Dowling Benjamin, W. A. Davis and E. L. B. Godfrey, 
of Camden ; Boardman Reed, T. B. Thompson and W. M. 
Pollard, of Atlantic City ; D. W. Blake, of Gloucester City, 
and Joseph C. Marshall, of Tuckahoe. Dr. Godfrey was 
elected chairman. A special, complimentary train, over the 
Philadelphia and Atlantic City railroad, from Camden to 
Atlantic City and return, was tendered to the committee 
of arrangements for the delegates and invited guests ; a 
special, complimentary train, over the Camden and Atlantic 
City railroad, from Atlantic City to Longport and return, 
was tendered by Mr. A. O. Dayton, and free yacht excur- 
sions on the ocean were given by Colonel John E. Mehr. 
Doctors W. H. Ireland, George T. Robinson, P. W. Beale, 
H. F. Palm and W. H. Iszard comprised the Camden delegates ; 
Dr. H. Genet Taylor was present as a Fellow ; Dr. E. P. 
Townsend, as a member of the standing committee ; Doctors 
James M. Ridge and Alexander Marcy attended as permanent 
delegates, and Doctors D. Benjamin, W. A. Davis, D. W. 
Blake and E. E. B. Godfrey, as members of the committee of 
arrangements. The society was welcomed in addresses by 
Dr. Willard Wright, Mayor of Atlantic City ; Dr. Boardman 
Reed and Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey. A number of important 
papers were read. Dr. E. P. Townsend was re-elected a 
member of the standing committee; Dr. Daniel Strock was 
elected a delegate to the Pennsylvania Medical Society ; Dr. H. 
Genet Taylor, to the Rhode Island Society; Dr. W. H. Osmun, 
to the American Medical Society, and Dr. E. E. B. Godfrey 
was elected corresponding secretary of the society. This 



246 History Medical Profession Camde?i County. 

position was instituted in 1807, and Dr. Godfrey was the first 
physician from Camden county to hold the office. 

[1893.] The one hundred and twenty-seventh annual 
meeting was held at Asbury Park with president George T. 
Welch in the chair. Doctors W. H. Ireland, H. H. Sherk, 
Joel W. Fithian, W. H. Iszard, William Kensinger and 
D. Benjamin were reported as the delegate representatives from 
Camden. Dr. H. Genet Taylor was present as a Fellow ; 
Dr. Daniel Strock, as a reporter ; Doctors Alexander Marcy 
and J. M. Ridge attended as permanent delegates and Dr. E. L. 
B. ' Godfrey as corresponding secretary. Dr. D. Benjamin, in 
discussing the report of the standing committee, said, in 
substance, that typhoid fever had become milder in character 
since the adoption of intestinal antiseptics as the basis of treat- 
ment, and that during the past two years the mortality from 
the fever had been reduced to two per cent, in The Cooper 
Hospital. Dr. W. B. E. Miller, veterinary surgeon of Camden, 
discussed the subject of bovine and human tuberculosis ; 
expressed his belief in their relationship and advocated the 
necessity of the inspection of dairy herds by veterinarians. 
Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey was re-elected corresponding secretary; 
Dr. William H. Iszard was elected a member of the standing 
committee, in the place of Dr. Townsend ; Dr. Alexander 
McAlister was elected a delegate to the American Medical 
Association and Doctors Daniel Strock and E. L- B. Godfrey 
were appointed by the president to represent, with others, the 
society in the Pan-American Medical Congress. 

[1894.] The one hundred and twenty-eighth annual 
meeting was held at Hotel Breslin, Lake Hopatcong, June 
26th, with Dr. John G. Ryerson in the chair. Doctors William 
B. Jennings, B. S. Lewis, D. W. Blake, Alexander McAlister, 
D. Benjamin, John W. Marcy and Joseph W. Hurff were 
recorded as delegates ; James M. Ridge and Alexander Marcy 
as permanent delegates; Daniel Strock as reporter from 
Camden county and E. L. B. Godfrey as corresponding 
secretary. Dr. W. H. Iszard was re-elected a member of the 
standing committee and Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, as corre- 
sponding secretary and a member of the business committee ; 



New Jersey Sanitary Association . 247 

Dr. Alexander McAlister was elected a delegate to the American 
Medical Association; Dr. J. S. Baer, to the New Jersey 
Pharmaceutical Society; Doctors D. W. Blake and W. H. 
Ireland were elected delegates to the Pennsylvania Medical 
Society, and Dr. B. S. Lewis was made a member of the 
committee of arrangements. Dr. John R. Stevenson pre- 
sented a paper on "La Grippe in Haddonfield." 

Section V. — New Jersey Sanitary Association. 

[1890.] The sixteenth annual meeting of the association 
was held at Trenton, December 12th, with Colonel George P. 
Olcutt in the chair. Important papers were read by Colonel 
George E. Waring, Dr. E. M. Hunt, Prof. J. C. Smock and 
others. James Owen, C.E., presented a paper on "The Death- 
rate of Different Localities in New Jersey" and stated that 
the death-rate throughout New Jersey depended more upon the 
conditions under which populations live than on the location 
of their territory. In quoting the death-rate of sixteen cities, 
he placed that of Camden at 19.4. Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey 
discussed by appointment a paper on "Gymnastics, Past and 
Present," presented by Prof. C. H. Raymond, of Lawrence- 
ville, and discountenanced the old system of physical training, 
claiming that it is not muscular hardness but muscular adapta- 
bility and pliability that is most to be desired. Dr. Godfrey 
was elected first vice-president of the association. 

[189 1.] The seventeenth annual meeting of the associa- 
tion was held at Trenton, December 5th. Important papers 
were read by a number of sanitarians. Dr. Daniel Strock 
discussed the question of tuberculosis; advocated its commu- 
nicability and the necessity of teaching the public this fact. 
Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey read a paper on "The Removal and 
Disposal of Garbage." Dr. Godfrey was elected president and 
Dr. Strock and Richard H. Reeve of Camden were elected 
members of the executive council. 

[1892.] The eighteenth annual meeting of the associa- 
tion convened at the Laurel House, Lakewood, December 9th, 
with the president, Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, in the chair. The 



248 History Medical Profession Camden County . 

attendance was unusually large and twenty new members were 
enrolled. Among those present were Doctors H. Genet Taylor, 
D. Benjamin, Daniel Strock, W. A. Davis, Henry F. Hunt, B. 
S. Lewis, W. B. E. Miller, and A. T. Sellers, and Messrs. 
Richard H. Reeve and Henry B. Francis, of Camden, and 
Arnold H. Moses, of Merchantville. Dr. E. 0. Shakespeare, 
Port Physician of Philadelphia ; Dr. Joseph F. Edwards, of the 
Pennsylvania State Board of Health ; Dr. William B. Atkinson, 
secretary of the American Medical Association, and Dr. Peter 
D. Keyser, of the Philadelphia Board of Health were present 
by invitation of the president. Among the papers read were 
"Architecture in Relation to Sanitation," by Arnold H. Moses, 
and "The Cause and Prevention of Diphtheria," by Dr. Daniel 
Strock. Dr. Strock reviewed the efforts of Pasteur, Klebs 
and Lceffler, and the laws governing the propagation and 
growth of the bacillus of diphtheria, and discussed its pre- 
vention and treatment from the stand-point of its bacillary 
origin ; Doctors Benjamin and Miller discussed " Sanitary 
Milk-control" and Dr. B. S. Lewis and Mr. Henry B. Francis 
spoke on the subjects of plumbing and drainage. Dr. Godfrey 
delivered an address on "The Progress of Sanitation in New 
Jersey" and reviewed the sanitary Acts of 1799 and 181 2 ; 
the work of the State Sanitary Commission of 1866; the 
Public Health Commission of 1874; the organization of the 
New Jersey Sanitary Association in 1875, and the establish- 
ment of the State Board of Health in 1877. Dr. Daniel 
Strock was re-elected a member of the executive council and 
Dr. Godfrey was made an honorary member of the council. 

[1893.] The annual meeting of the association was held 
at Lakewood. Dr. Daniel Strock and Henry B. Francis were 
present from Camden and took an active part in the pro- 
ceedings. 

[1894.] The twentieth annual meeting convened at 
Trenton, December 8th. with Dr. A. B. Pollard in the chair. 
Mr. Henry B. Francis discussed the ventilation of school- 
houses and of public sewers and Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey spoke 
concerning special legislation for the prevention of the spread 
of consumption. Dr. Daniel Strock was elected recording 



New Jersey State and Local Boards of Health. 249 

secretary of the society and Mr. Henry B. Francis was made a 
member of the executive council. 



Section VI. — New Jersey State and Local Boards of 

Health. 

[1890.] The chief objects for which the State Board of 
Health has labored, since its establishment in 1877, are the 
centralization of information relating to the public health and 
its diffusion among local authorities to enable them to render 
effective sanitary service. This has been accomplished by 
means of its annual reports, its inspectors' guide, its public 
circulars, its printed inquiries to local boards and its publi- 
cation of the vital statistics of the State. In October of each 
year, the board transmits a printed schedule of inquiries to local 
boards of health, in the various townships and cities of the 
State, relating to health matters, which, under the law, must 
be annually reported. With the work of these boards and 
their reports, the physicians of the county have been closely 
connected. The report from Camden for this year, made by 
Eugene B. Roberts, health inspector, considered the subjects of 
water-supply, diseases of animals and slaughter-houses, and 
stated that typhoid fever, scarlet fever and diphtheria were the 
most prevalent diseases of the year. The following officers and 
members comprised the Camden board : George F. Hammond, 
president ; T. P. Varney, secretary ; H. M. Snyder, solicitor ;. 
Dr. J. D. Leckner, medical inspector ; and Herman W. Miller, 
Dr. John W. Donges, Charles Watson, Dr. George R. Fortiner 
and Frank B. Delaplaine. 

[189 1.] In 1 89 1, the same officers and members comprised 
the Camden board, except that Frank H. Burdsall succeeded 
T. P. Varney, and M. F. Ivins was elected treasurer. The 
water-supply, sewage, school-houses and general inspection of 
the city were reported, with the statement that six hundred 
cases of scarlet fever and diphtheria occurred in the city duiing 
the year. 

[1892.] In 1892, Frank H. Burdsall served as president 
of the board ; T. P. Varney, secretary ; M. F. Ivins, treasurer ;. 



250 History Medical Professio?i Camden Comity. 

Dr. J. D. Leckner, medical inspector; and H. B. Francis, 
plumbing inspector. Allen C. Wood, George F. Hammond, 
Charles Watson, Dr. William S. Moslander, Dr. Benjamin S. 
Lewis and Dr. George R. Fortiner served as members. 
Considerable progress was made in municipal sanitation. The 
office of nuisance inspector was created, and effective work 
was accomplished by the medical, plumbing and nuisance 
inspectors. The city was reported to have thirty-seven miles 
of sewers, nineteen school-houses, one hospital, two dispensaries, 
two homes for friendless children and five cemeteries. A total 
of eight hundred and sixty-two cases of typhoid fever, scarlet 
fever and diphtheria was reported. 

[1893.] In 1893, Dr. George R. Fortiner served as 
president of the board, with George F. Hammond, Charles 
Watson, Frank H. Burdsall, Allen C. Wood, Dr. William S. 
Moslander and Dr. Benjamin S. Lewis as members, and Dr. 
John D. Leckner as medical inspector. An elaborate report to 
the State Board was made for the year, including six hundred 
and seventy-three cases of contagious disease, two hundred and 
twenty-two of which were typhoid fever, one hundred and 
thirty-six were scarlet fever and three hundred and fifteen 
diphtheria. 

[1894.] In 1894, Dr. William S. Moslander was elected 
president, with Charles Watson, Allen C. Wood, George F. 
Hammond, Dr. Benjamin S. Lewis, Dr. William Shafer and 
Dr. M. F. Middleton as members ; Dr. John D. Leckner, 
medical inspector, and H. B. Francis, plumbing inspector. 
The number of inspectors was increased by the additional 
appointment of Dr. W. B. E. Miller as inspector for meat and 
food. 

[1895.] In 1895, Dr. William S. Moslander was 
re-appointed a member of the board by Mayor J. Leighton 
Westcott and Dr. S. G. Bushey was appointed in the place 
of Dr. William Shafer. 

[i890-'95.] The Gloucester City Board of Health for 
1890 comprised the following members : Doctors J. A. Walms- 
ley and D. W. Blake, Messrs. H. M. Horley, E. J. Steer, 
Patrick Mealey, W. A. Ginz and D. F. Lane, and Dr. J. K. 



New Jersey State a?id Local Boards of Health. 25 1 

Bennett, inspector. Improvements in the water-supply made 
by driving four artesian wells, and the expenditure of $20,000 
on sewers and inlets lessened in a marked degree the malaria 
in the city. In 1891, Dr. D. W. Blake was elected president ; 
D. F. Lane, secretary, and Dr. J. K. Bennett, inspector. In 
1892, Dr. D. W. Blake served as a member of the board with 
Dr. John J. Haley, inspector. Extensive improvements were 
made in drainage and the whole city was inspected by order of 
the board. In 1893, John W. Warner was elected president 
of the board ; Dr. John J. Haley, inspector, and Dr. D. W. 
Blake served as a member. Ten artesian wells were driven, 
from seventy-five to two hundred feet in depth, and the 
general health of the city was improved. In 1894, John W. 
Warner served as president ; Dr. D. W. Blake, as chairman of 
the sanitary committee, and Dr. John J. Haley, as inspector. 
"The water-supply from artesian wells proved an important 
factor in the health of the city. 

[1891-95.] The Haddonfield Board of Health was organ- 
ized in 1 89 1. At this time there were no physicians on the 
board. In 1893, George D. Stewart was elected president; 
Dr. John R. Stevenson, secretary, and Dr. William B. Jennings, 
inspector. Dr. Stevenson made an exhaustive report to the 
State Board of Health on the location, water-supply, dwell- 
ings and natural' drainage of Haddonfield and of the con- 
tagious diseases. In 1894, Doctors Stevenson and Jennings 
were re-appointed to their respective positions. 

[1892-95.] In 1892, the Merchantville Board of Health 
was reorganized and Doctors D. H. Bartine and John W. 
Marcy were made members. Merchantville was reported to 
the State Board as being located on a ridge of sandy soil, 
ninety-nine feet above high-water mark and one mile in width, 
sloping on the north to the Delaware river and on the south 
and east to Cooper's creek valley. In 1893, Dr. D. W. Bartine 
was elected president and Dr. John W. Marcy, medical 
inspector; both were re-elected in 1894. 

[1890-95.] In the Boards of Health for Centre, Dela- 
ware and Haddon townships, Dr. William B. Jennings, of 
Haddonfield, served as medical inspector for the period from 



252 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

1890 to 1895 ; in the Gloucester township board, Dr. Joseph E. 
Hurff, of Blackwood, served as a member during the same 
period; in the Stockton township board, Dr. J. A. George 
served as a member in 1890, Dr. Jerome Artz in 1892 and Dr. 
L. Reese in 1893. In the Boards of Health of Waterford, 
Winslow and Pensaukin townships, no physicians served as 
members during this period. 

The report of the New Jersey State Board of Health on 
the vital statistics of Camden county shows the average death- 
rate of the county for five years (July 1, 1888, to June 30, 
1893) to have been 19.72 per cent, per thousand and due in a 
great measure to diarrhceal diseases, from which there were 
thirteen hundred and forty-seven deaths; to consumption,. 
from which there were eleven hundred and thirty-five deaths j 
diphtheria and croup, six hundred and seventy-three deaths; 
typhoid fever, three hundred and forty-two deaths; scarlet 
fever, ninety-two deaths, and remittent fever, fifty-seven deaths, 
Diarrhceal diseases furnished the most common cause of death, 
especially in infants and children, during the statistical period 
mentioned. This was due to high atmospheric temperature, 
absence of rain-fall, impure water and milk supply, adultera- 
tion of food, etc. Consumption stands second in the list of the 
death-causes of the county. It is the most prevalent and fatal 
malady that affects mankind and causes about one-seventh of 
the deaths in the State. It is a communicable and preventable 
disease, conveyed by the bacillus tuberculosis, first demonstrated 
by Koch, of Germany, who claimed it to be invariably asso- 
ciated with the disease. The bacilli are discharged from the 
lungs in the expectoration and, becoming dry, are blown 
about and thus reproduce consumption in susceptible subjects. 
All tuberculous discharge should be destroyed and, in this 
matter, health authorities can render an incalculable service by 
educating the public. In 1890, Koch announced the dis- 
covery of tuberculin and claimed it capable of curing a large 
percentage of consumption. 

Diphtheria stands third in the list and should engage the 
attention of health officers, because it is largely spread through 
the medium of the public schools. The bacillus diphtherise is 



The State Board of Medical Examiners . 253 

not infrequently present on the subject after the recovery from 
the disease, and, hence, domiciliary quarantine, cleanliness and 
disinfection should be rigidly enforced. Of the common and 
often fatal prevalence of typhoid fever, which stands next on 
the list, health authorities are agreed. It ranks among the 
most serious of prevailing diseases, especially in Camden. The 
bacillus of Eberth is believed to be its causa causans ,- and, 
since it is most generally diffused by excremental filth and , 
carried in water, the appearance of the fever should especially 
engage the attention of health officers. The fever bears a dis- 
tinctive relationship to polluted water, and also to the milk- 
supply of cities; so that its prevention and limitation is the 
duty of local government. Scarlet fever is a contagious and, 
in a great degree, a preventable disease and calls for segre- 
gation and isolation of cases and subsequent disinfection of the 
premises in which it occurred. Epidemics not infrequently 
arise in the vicinity of slaughter-houses. Remittent fever has 
markedly diminished in prevalence in the county within the 
last twenty-five years. In the early history of the county, the 
great areas of wet and undrained land, and the exposure of 
new strata of soil to the fermenting influence of heat and 
moisture, made it one of the chief enemies of the inhabitants. 
With the extended and continuous cultivation of the soil, the 
disease has decreased in prevalence and has become more 
amenable to treatment. 

Section VII. — The State Board of Medical Examiners. 

The history of medical legislation in New Jersey began in 
1665, when the Duke of York, the proprietor of the province, 
promulgated a code of medical laws, known as the "Duke's 
Laws," which remained in force until 1772. During this 
period of one hundred and seven years, the founding of Prince- 
ton College in 1746, the first president of which was Dr. 
Jonathan Dickinson ; the outbreak of the French and Indian 
war in 1758; the establishment of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1765; the formation of the Medical Society of New 
Jersey in 1766, and the organization of a medical school 



254 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

in New York in 1767 enlarged the opportunities for medical 
study and advanced the cause of medical practice and legisla- 
tion within the Colony of New Jersey. In 1772, through the 
influence of the Medical Society of New Jersey, the Colonial 
Assembly enacted a law governing the practice of medicine, 
the provisions of which have been considered. This was the 
second law enacted in New Jersey concerning medical practice 
and it expired by limitation in 1777. In 1775, the Revolution 
arrested further efforts towards medical legislation, but, in 
1783, the society secured there-enactment of the colonial law 
of 1772. This law remained in force until 1816, when the 
society was re-incorporated and provisions were made for 
examinations, preliminary to medical licensure, by censors 
of the State Medical Society, instead of by Judges of the 
Supreme Court, as the laws of 1772 and 1783 provided. 

The restraining law of 1816 remained operative until the 
medical enactments of 185 1 and 1854, because of which the 
State Medical Society voluntarily surrendered its examining 
and licensing privileges, in 1866.* From 1866 to 1880, no 
legal restrictions were exercised over the practice of medi- 
cine in New Jersey. In 1880, an Act governing medical 
practice was passed by the Legislature, which was further 
supplemented by a restraining measure in 1883^ But this 
enactment proved worthless to prevent the registration of 
fraudulent diplomas and to protect the public and the medical 
profession from charlatans and quacks. The establishment of 
a State Board of Medical Examiners, charged with the exam- 
ining, licensing and registration of physicians, became a 
necessity. 

[1890.] On May 12, 1890, "An Act to regulate the 
practice of medicine and surgery, to license physicians and 
surgeons and to punish persons violating the provisions there- 
of" was passed by the Legislature and approved, which pro- 
vided for the appointment by the Governor of " five old-school 
physicians, three homoeopathic physicians and one eclectic 
physician" to constitute the State Board of Medical Exam- 

* Chapter VI, Section I. 
t Chapter IX, Section VI. 



The State Board of Medical Examiners. 255 

iners. The powers and duties of the board were denned in the 
Act, which went into effect July 4, 1890. The board organized 
September 7th; elected Dr. William L. Newell, of Millville, 
president; Dr. W. P. Watson, of Jersey City, secretary, and Dr. 
A. H. Worthington, of Trenton, treasurer, and formulated 
regulations for conducting examinations. The first examina- 
tions were held October 8, 1890, and between that and 
[189 1.] the corresponding date in 1891 one hundred and one 
candidates were examined, but only eighty-two were 
licensed to practice medicine within the State. In com- 
parison with previous years, the number of registered physi- 
cians within the State was greatly diminished; a condition 
of affairs that offered food for reflection for the medical colleges 
of adjoining States. The board also secured the revocation of 
the charter of the Medical and Surgical College of New Jersey, 
located at Jersey City. Dr. Rowland I. Haines, of Camden, 
was licensed by the board during the year. 

[1892.] During the fiscal year ending October 12, 1892, 
the board examined one hundred and forty-three candidates 
and issued one hundred and eleven licenses to practice medi- 
cine within the State, including licenses to Doctors Duncan 
W. Blake, Jr., of Collingswood ; Oscar L. Grumbrecht, of 
Cramer Hill, and Samuel G. Bushey, Clarence B. Donges, 
Mary Anna Howell, Grant E. Kirk, Henry A. Lacey, Ahab 
H. Lippincott, Edward D. Phelan, George H. Richardson, 
Edward A. Y. Schellenger and Charles T. Shinn, of 
Camden. On March 28, 1892, the passage of an " Act to 
regulate the practice of midwifery in the State of New Jersey" 
was secured by the board, which provided for the examination, 
licensing and registration of midwives and placed them on a 
professional basis under the direct supervision of the board. 
Under this Act, certificates to practice midwifery were issued, 
during the year, to Elizabeth Burns, Margaret Buttner, Jane 
Countryman, Mary Gilmore, Priscilla Green, Mary A. Gunby, 
Anna E. Jennings, Cornelia S. Kaighn, Elizabeth Moseley, 
Susan Sweeten and Theresa Tokarska, of Camden. Amend- 
ments to the medical Act of 1890 were secured which exempted 
surgeons of the United States Army, Navy and Marine Hos- 



256 History Medical Profession Camden Cou?ity. 

pital Service ; consulting physicians from other States and 
internes in hospitals and asylums within the State, while 
acting as such, from the provisions of the law. 

[1893.] During the fiscal year ending October nth, one 
hundred and fifty applicants for medical license were examined 
and certificates to practice medicine within the State were 
issued to one hundred and fifteen physicians, among whom 
were Doctors Wilson Gill Bailey, Lawrence R. Grier, William 
W. Kain, William I. Kelchner, William W. Knowlton, Fred- 
erick W. Marcy, William H. Pratt, William H. Slocum and 
Wendell P. Wingender, of Camden, and Dr. James Winter 
Walmsley, of Gloucester City. Thirty women were licensed to 
practice midwifery, among whom was Caroline T. Dougherty, 
of Camden. 

[1894.] Although the law establishing a State Board of 
Medical Examiners had advanced the standard of medical 
education among the incoming members of the medical pro- 
fession to a higher grade than ever before attained, and though 
the practice of midwifery had been regulated within the State, 
its provisions were found to be insufficient, and, in con- 
sequence, the board secured the passage of a new law, which 
was approved May 22, 1894, that still further advanced its 
powers and privileges and the common interests of the medical 
profession. Its provisions became operative July 4th. This 
law provided for the appointment, by the Governor, of a State 
Board of Medical Examiners, to consist of nine members 
of recognized professional ability and honor, including "five 
old-school physicians, three homoeopaths and one eclectic"; 
empowered the board to elect its officers, to hold meetings at 
the capitol on the third Tuesday of June and September of 
each year, to examine applicants for the practice of medicine 
within the State, to issue certificates, to revoke licenses for 
cause and to punish unlawful practitioners. Doctors Edwin 
de Baun, of Passaic; F. B. Lane, of East Orange; A. H. 
Worthington, of Trenton ; A. K. Baldwin, of Newark ; E. L. 
B. Godfrey, of Camden ; G. F. Wilbur, of ilsbury Park ; Win. 
L. Newell, of Millville; A. Uebelacker, of Morristown, and 
Wm. Perry Watson, of Jersey City, were appointed members of 



The Cooper Hospital. 257 

the board by Governor George T. Werts. Dr. Godfrey was 
made examiner in obstetrics and gynaecology. Requirements 
for license to practice medicine and surgery within the State 
of New Jersey and rules for conducting medical examinations 
were issued by the board. During the year ending July 3, 
1894, one hundred and thirty candidates were examined and 
one hundred and ten certificates were issued. During these four 
years of the existence of the board, five hundred and twenty- 
four candidates were examined and four hundred and seventeen 
were licensed to practice medicine and surgery. The rejected 
applicants comprised 18.81 per cent, in 1891, 24.47 per cent, in 
1892, and 22 per cent, in 1893. Among those licensed during 
the year were Doctors Emerson P. McGeorge, William E. Miller, 
Marcus K. Mines, Milton M. Osmun, Paul M. Mecray and 
Levi B. Hirst, of Camden; Dr. George W. McKensie, Jr., 
of Haddonfield, and Dr. Joseph W. Martindale, of Cramer 
Hill. Mrs. Betty Stern was granted a license as a midwife. 

Section VIII. — The Cooper Hospital. 

[i890-'95.] The work of The Cooper Hospital steadily 
increased and rendered manifold service to the community in 
the period under consideration. Situated at the junction of 
the great railroads centering in Camden, its doors have swung 
widely open to receive accident cases from any part of the 
State, and most of those occurring between Trenton and Cape 
May have found help and comfort within its wards. Not less 
attention has been paid to those seeking relief from diseases 
of a strictly medical nature. From the opening of the 
hospital, August 11, 1887, to December 31, 1894, two thous- 
and, nine hundred and twenty-seven patients were treated 
within its wards, and sixteen thousand, nine hundred and fifty- 
eight within its out-patient departments. The latter patients 
made, during the period, thirty thousand, six hundred and 
thirty-two visits. There were five hundred and eight surgical 
operations performed, including one hundred and seventy-two 
amputations, also laparotomies for Caesarian section, hysterec- 
tomy, extra-uterine pregnancy, ovarian tumors, abscess, intes- 
tinal adhesions, stab wounds of the abdomen, chronic periton- 

17 



258 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

itis, carcinoma, appendicitis, gun-shot wounds of the abdomen y 
cystic ovaries, hernia, pyosalpinx and atresia of the rectum. 
Neurectomy, lithotomy, internal urethrotomy, resection of the 
lower jaw and a great variety of major operations should be 
added to the list. 

Since the dedication of the hospital,, a number of changes 
have taken place in the Board of Managers and in the attend- 
ing and resident staff. Of the Board of Managers, William B. 
Cooper, Joseph B. Cooper, John W. Wright and Alexander 
Cooper have died. Both William B. and Joseph B. Cooper 
served on the Board of Managers of the Camden City Dispen- 
sary, as well as that of the hospital, and contributed to the 
success of each by their active interest and generous donations. 
John W. Wright, a nephew of Dr. Richard M. Cooper, was 
the first secretary and treasurer of the institution and gave 
so much of his time and money to its establishment that his 
name has been perpetuated upon an enduring tablet placed 
within the room of the managers* Alexander Cooper, a 
brother of the founders of the great charity, was its first 
president. From the incorporation of the hospital, he took 
the heartiest interest in its welfare and T at his death (1893), 
supplemented his former munificence by a generous legacy. 
Harry Genet Taylor, Jr., and Richard Cooper Taylor, sons of 
Dr. H. Genet Taylor, are grandsons of Alexander Cooper. The 
present Board of Managers consists of the following gentlemen : 
President, Augustus Reeve ; secretary and treasurer, Richard 
H. Reeve ; managers, Peter L. Voorhees, Rudolphus Bingham,, 
David M. Chambers, Alexander C. Wood, Peter V. Voorhees, 
Richard M. Cooper and Dr. H. Genet Taylor. 

A number of changes have taken place in the attending 
staff since their appointment in 1887 (Chapter X, Section IX). 
In June, 1889, Dr. J. F. Walsh resigned from the surgical staff 
and was succeeded by Dr. Daniel Strock ; in September of the 
same year, Dr. D. P. Pancoast resigned from the medical staff 
and was succeeded, in October, by Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, trans- 
ferred from the surgical staff; in February, 1890, Dr. Joseph 
H. Wills, pathologist, was appointed to the surgical vacancy 
and Dr. George T. Robinson was appointed pathologist ; in 



The New Jersey Training School for Nurses. 259 

June, 1894, Dr. Dowling Benjamin resigned from the surgical 
staff and was appointed obstetrician to the hospital. Dr. Ben- 
jamin was succeeded by Dr. Joseph L. Nicholson. Near the 
close of the year, Dr. William R. Powell was appointed ophthal- 
mologist to the hospital. The attending staff is as follows : 
Physicians, H. Genet Taylor, Alexander M. Mecray, William 
A. Davis and E. L. B. Godfrey ; surgeons, Onan B. Gross, 
Daniel Strock, Joseph H. Wills and Joseph L,. Nicholson ; 
obstetrician, Dr. Dowling Benjamin ; ophthalmologist, Dr. 
William R. Powell ; pathologist, Dr. George T. Robinson.* 
Dr. Paul M. Mecray has since succeeded Dr. Robinson, as pathol- 
ogist. 

The following changes have taken place in the resident 
staff of the hospital : Dr. Harry Jarrett was appointed resident 
physician in 1887 ; Doctors Harry Jarrett and B. W. Macfar- 
land were appointed resident physicians in 1888; Doctors 
William Martin and S. F. Ashcraft, in 1889 ; Doctors Joseph 
L,. Nicholson and Morris B. Miller, in 1890; Doctors A. H. 
Scofield and F. W. Marcy, in 1891 ; Doctors E. A. Y. Schell- 
enger and Paul M. Mecray, in 1892 ; Doctors Paul M. Mecray 
and J. K. F. Stites, in 1893, and Doctors J. R. Noel and J„ 
Winter Walmsley, in 1894. In 1890, Mrs. J. S. Wilson, 
appointed matron at the opening of the hospital, was succeeded 
by Thomas Waring as superintendent and Anna Waring as 
matron, and Miss Rachel Bourke was appointed chief nurse of 
the hospital and superintendent of its training school for 
nurses. 

Section IX. — The New Jersey Training School For 

Nurses. 

[1889-90.] Recognizing the necessity for trained and 
skillful nurses to execute with loyalty and obedience the direc- 
tions of the physician in the sick-room, the attending staff of 
The Cooper Hospital resolved to supply this deficiency by 
organizing a training school for nurses. On September 7, 
1889, the Camden Training School for Nurses, which subse- 
quently became the New Jersey Training School for Nurses, 

* Deceased. 



260 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

was organized at The Cooper Hospital, under the care of its 
attending- staff, and was chartered during the following month. 
Since then, the system of nursing has been revolutionized in 
West Jersey ; the monthly nurse has been relegated to the 
past; aseptic and antiseptic methods of nurse practice, and 
what to observe and record in the progress of disease, have 
been inculcated. The management of the school was vested 
in a Board of Trustees, consisting of Doctors H. Genet Taylor, 
Alexander M. Mecray, E. L. B. Godfrey, Dowling Benjamin, 
William A. Davis, Onan B. Gross, Daniel Strock and Joseph 
H. Wills. Dr. Taylor was elected president; Dr. Mecray, 
vice-president ; Dr. Strock, secretary, and Dr. Davis, treasurer. 
A course of didactic and clinical instruction, covering the fall 
and spring months through a period of two years, was 
arranged and the following lecturers were appointed : Medical 
nursing, Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey ; surgical nursing, Dr. Dowling 
Benjamin ; obstetrical nursing, Dr. William A. Davis ; anatomy 
and physiology, Dr. O. B. Gross ; dietetics, Dr. Daniel Strock, 
and hygiene, Dr. Joseph H. Wills. The school was formally 
opened at The Cooper Hospital, October n, 1889, with intro- 
ductory addresses by Dr. William Pepper and the president, 
Dr. H. Genet Taylor. There were a number of students enrolled 
and lectures were regularly given during the school year. On 
February nth, Dr. George T. Robinson was elected a member 
of the faculty and of the Board of Trustees, and lecturer on 
general nursing. 

[i8o,o-'9i.] The second year of the school was inaugu- 
rated, September 30th, under the same managers and faculty, 
and with twenty-three matriculants. Introductory addresses 
were made by Dr. H. Genet Taylor, Dr. William H. Parrish, 
of Philadelphia, and Rev. J. R. Westwood, of Camden. 
Lectures were regularly given during the school year. On 
June 1st, the first commencement was held at Morgan's Hall, 
when the president conferred the diploma of the school on the 
following graduates: Lottie M. Evans, Carrie Haberstroh, 
Jessie F. Haberstroh, Grace E. Powell, Emma M. Richardson, 
K. E. S. Waugh and Thomas A. J. Williams, of Camden ; Mary 
E. Ketchum, of Montclair, N. J., and Rachel C. Wildman, of 



The New Jersey Training School for Nurses. 261 

Media, Pa. The address to the graduates was delivered by E. L. 

B. Godfrey, A. M., M. D., and the president's prize, consisting of 
a gold cross, lettered with the name of the recipient and the 
following inscription, "Presented by the Camden Training 
School for Nurses for Passing the Best General Examination," 
was presented to Mrs. Emma M. Richardson by Hon. 
Christopher A. Bergen, M. C, with honorable mention of Mrs. 
Grace E. Powell and Miss Lottie M. Evans. 

[i89i-'92.] The third year of the school opened with 
an increased number of matriculants and with enlarged oppor- 
tunities for instruction through the removal of the classes for 
didactic teaching to the lecture-room in the new building of 
the Camden City Dispensary, where the first lecture was given 
in March. Medical, surgical and gynaecological clinics were 
continued at The Cooper Hospital. On May 18th, the lecture- 
ship on general nursing was abolished and Dr. Robinson was 
assigned to the lectureship on physiology, the change taking 
place at the close of the school year. The second annual 
commencement was held in the First Presbyterian Church, 
June 6, 1892, when the diploma of the school was conferred 
on Alliher E. Kimper, Charlotte A. Ogden, Catherine Piatt, 
May E. Stebbins, Ruth Evans Sheppard and Maggie D. Wrif- 
ford, of Camden ; Laura B. Bunting, of New York, and Lucy 

C. Mann, of Philadelphia. The address to the graduates was 
delivered by Dowling Benjamin, M.D., and the president's 
prize was presented to Miss May E. Stebbins by Judge Charles 
G. Garrison, with honorable mention of Miss Laura B. 
Bunting. 

[i892-'93.] The fourth year of the school was inaug- 
urated in October, with twenty-four matriculants and with an 
increased curriculum and staff of instructors. Miss May E. 
Stebbins and Miss Ruth E. Sheppard were elected demon- 
strators. Scarlet and white were adopted as the colors of the 
school. In February, 1893, a legislative Act was passed, 
empowering any training school for nurses in New Jersey to 
confer the degree of Medical and Surgical Nurse (M. S. N.), 
provided that instruction be given in medical, surgical and 
obstetrical nursing, and in anatomy, physiology, dietetics and 



262 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

hygiene. Following this (March 30, 1893), the name and title 
of the school was changed to the New Jersey Training School 
for Nurses ; a new constitution was adopted ; the Board of 
Managers was increased to fifteen members (nine of whom 
must be members of the faculty), and the teaching force was 
enlarged by the election of five instructors. The privilege of 
holding clinics at the Camden Count}- Insane Asylum, and at 
the Camden Home for Friendless Children, was secured. 
Under the new constitution, which provided for the annual 
meeting in iVpril, Gen. William J. Sewell, Hon. Edward Bettle, 
Hon. Henry B. Wilson, A. G. Dawson, D. D., Peter V. 
Voorhees, Esq., and Rudolphus Bingham were elected additional 
managers ; Dr. William R. Powell was elected instructor in the 
care of diseases of the eye ; Dr. Orange W. Braymer, in surgical 
nursing; Dr. J. S. Baer, in gynaecological nursing; Dr. H. C. 
Branin, in nervous diseases, and Dr. J. G. Doron, in medical 
nursing. The officers and the original managers were re-elected 
and the curriculum of study was extended from the first week 
in October to the last week in May. The third annual com- 
mencement of the school was held in the First Baptist Church, 
June 6th, when the diploma of the school, w T ith the degree of 
M. S. N., was conferred upon Jennie H. Derousse, Lillian F. 
Patterson, Clorinda H. Simmons and Naomi B. Watson, of 
Camden ; Carolyn A. Borden, Florence E. Revell and Alicia 
B. Thompson, of Philadelphia, and Margaret W. Satterthwaite, 
of Crosswicks, N. J. The honorary degree of M. S. N. was 
conferred on Florence Nightingale. The address to the grad- 
uates was delivered by William A. Davis, M.D., and the presi- 
dent's prize was presented by Samuel H. Grey, Esq., to Margaret 
W. Satterthwaite, with honorable mention of Mrs. Clorinda H. 
Simmons. The degree of M. S. N. was also conferred on all 
former graduates. 

[1893-94.] The Training School increased in popular 
favor and many improvements were made during the year. 
Class-rooms in the dispensary were leased; a free maternity 
service was established ; extra appliances for demonstration pro- 
cured ; the curriculum enlarged ; the number of instructors 
increased and quiz classes and a post-graduate course estab- 



The New Jersey Training School for Nurses. 263 

lished. The introductory lecture was given by Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor, and an increased number of pupils was enrolled. 
Lectures were regularly given and, before the close of the 
year, the teaching force numbered nineteen, including, besides 
those previously named, Doctors Eugene E. De Grofft, J. 
Howard Frick, E. A. Y. Schellenger and William H. Pratt, 
who were elected instructors, and Miss Mattie A. Fox, 
M. S. N., as demonstrator in the place of Miss Ruth E. Shep- 
pard, M. S. N., who resigned at the close of the term. 
Dr. O. W. Braymer, instructor in surgical nursing, and Dr. J. 
S. Baer, instructor in gynsecological nursing, also resigned at 
the close of the yean A prize, conferred by the faculty for the 
best thesis on a subject pertaining to nursing and called " The 
Faculty Prize," was established. The fourth annual com- 
mencement was held in the First Methodist Church, May 28, 
1894. The address to the graduates was delivered by O. B. 
Gross, M. D., and the degree of M. S. N. was conferred on Kate 
A. Baldwin, Ida Fricke, Mattie A. Fox, Linda L. Fortiner, 
Harriet E. Keys, Sallie J. Miller and Amelia Y. Richardson, 
of Camden ; Annie H. Collins, of Cramer Hill ; Mary L. 
Connell, of Philadelphia, and Marie Ernestine Welch, of 
Tacoma, Washington. The president's prize was presented 
to Miss Mattie A Fox by J. B. Graw, D. D., with honorable 
mention of Miss Ida Fricke, and the faculty prize was 
presented by James William Marshall, D. D., to Mrs. Marie E. 
Welch, with distinguished mention of Miss Mattie A. Fox and 
Miss Linda L. Fortiner. 

[1894-95,] The prosperity of the school still con- 
tinued. The opportunity to obtain thorough instruction in 
nursing, without the necessity of spending an apprenticeship 
in a hospital, proved a popular innovation. Young women 
were quick to see that the course of instruction offered 
unusual advantages to those desiring a knowledge of anatomy, 
physiology, hygiene and dietetics, as well as the principles of 
nursing, and also enabled them to meet with greater intel- 
ligence and skill the many duties of the home. The faculty, 
instructors and demonstrators of the school consisted of the 
following: Dr. H. Genet Taylor, A.M., M.D., lecturer on 



264 History Medical Profession Camden County . 

ethics of nursing ; Alexander M. Mecray, M. D., clinical 
lecturer on medical nursing; E. L. B. Godfrey, A.M., M. D., 
lecturer on medical nursing; William A. Davis, M. D., clinical 
lecturer on gynaecological nursing ; Onan B. Gross, M. D., 
lecturer on anatomy ; Daniel Strock, M. D., lecturer on dietet- 
ics ; Joseph H. Wills, A. M., M. D., lecturer on hygiene and 
massage ; George T. Robinson, M. D., lecturer on physiology; 
Joseph L. Nicholson, M. D., lecturer on surgical nursing ; 
Henry E. Branin, M. D., instructor in nursing in nervous 
diseases; John G. Doron, A. B., M. D., instructor in medical 
nursing ; William R. Powell, M. D., instructor in care of the 
eye and ear ; Eugene E. De Grofft, M. D., instructor in surgical 
nursing ; J. Howard Frick, M. D., E. A. Y. Schellenger, 
M. D., and William H. Pratt, M. D., quiz class instructors ; 
Miss May E. Stebbins, M. S. N., demonstrator of invalid cook- 
ing ; Miss Mattie A. Fox, M. S. N., demonstrator of bathing, 
bed-making, etc. 

The introductory lecture was given October 1, 1894, to a 
large class of matriculants, by Dr. John B. Roberts, of Phila- 
delphia, and regular didactic and clinical lectures were con- 
tinued throughout the year at The Cooper Hospital, the City 
Dispensary, the Children's Home and the County Insane 
Asylum. The commencement exercises of the school were 
held in the North Baptist Church, Monday evening, June 3d, 
when the degree of M. S. N. was conferred on the following 
graduates: Kathleen Holloway, Cornelia M. Kreh and S. 
Virginia Levis, of Philadelphia; Jesse E. Huston, Ida Virginia 
Tains and Florence L. Treen, of Camden ; Edith M. Robinson, 
of New York City ; Estelle Noble Keilholtz, of Baltimore, Md.; 
Clara I. Lewis, of Binghampton, N. Y., and Maty Carpenter 
Smith, of Salem, N. J. The valedictory address was delivered 
by Daniel Strock, M. D.; the president's prize was presented 
by Charles Van Dyke Joline, A.M., to Estelle Noble Keilholtz, 
of Baltimore, for having passed the best general examination 
in all branches, with honorable mention of S. Virginia. Levis, 
of Philadelphia, and the faculty prize was presented by Albert 
G. Lawson, D. D., to S. Virginia Levis, for having written the 
best thesis on " Nursing in Typhoid Fever," with honorable 
mention of Jessie E. Huston. 



The New Jersey Training School for Nurses. 265 

A. ALUMNI AND ALUMN4 ASSOCIATION OF THE NEW JERSEY 
TRAINING SCHOOL FOR NURSES. 

[1892-95.] The Association of Alumni and Alumnae 
of the New Jersey Training School for Nurses was organized 
September 20, 1892, for "the purpose of promoting the pros- 
perity of the school and the maintenance of kindly feeling and 
interest between its members." At this time, Miss Charlotte 
A. Ogden, M. S. N., '92, was elected president; Miss May E. 
Stebbins, M. S. N., '92, vice-president; Miss Ruth E. Sheppard, 
M. S. N., '92, secretary, and Miss Margaret D. Wrifford, 
M. S. N., '92, treasurer. A constitution and by-laws were 
adopted ; a distinctive uniform and badge were decided on and 
the motto " Nisi Dominus Frusta" was voted to be the motto 
and guide of the association. The first meeting of the associa- 
tion during commencement week was held Monday evening, 
June 5, 1893, when the annual address was delivered by Charles 
Van Dyke Joline, Esq. On September 20, 1893, Mrs. Emma 
M. Richardson, M. S. N., '91, was elected president; Miss Ruth 
E. Sheppard, M. S. N., vice-president; Miss May E. Stebbins, 
M. S. N., secretary, and Miss Margaret D. Wrifford, M. S. N., 
treasurer. On May 25, 1894, Judge Howard Carrow delivered 
the annual address before the association, and, at the September 
meeting, Miss May E. Stebbins, M. S. N., was elected presi- 
dent; Miss Charlotte A. Ogden, M. S. N., vice-president; Miss 
Margaret D. Wrifford, M. S. N., secretary, and Mrs. Alliher 
E. Kimper, M. S. N., '92, treasurer. On May 31, 1895, Board- 
man Reed, M. D., of Atlantic City, delivered the annual address 
before the association. Miss Mattie A. Fox, M. S. N., '94, was 
elected president; Mrs. Clorinda H. Simmons, M. S. N., '93, 
vice-president; Miss May E. Stebbins, M. S. N., secretary, and 
Miss Margaret D. Wrifford, M. S. N., treasurer. 

B. THE CAMDEN NURSE DIRECTORY. 

[1891.] The Camden Nurse Directory was established at 
the Camden City Dispensary, November, 1891, by the faculty 
of the New Jersey Training School for Nurses, for the con- 
venience and protection of graduated and trained nurses and 



266 History Medical Profession Camden County . 

for the purpose of furnishing the citizens of West Jersey with 
competent and reliable nurses at short notice. The directory 
is governed by rules, formulated by the faculty of the school, 
and founded upon the common and accepted interests of physi- 
cians, nurses and patients. It is under the direction of a 
superintendent, T. J. W. Phillips, pharmacist and superintendent 
of the dispensary, where a register of the names, addresses, 
terms and engagements of nurses is kept. 

Section X. — The Camden Day Nursery Association. 

[1890-91.] In the early part of 1890, the Camden 
Day Nursery Association was organized to provide the working 
mothers of Camden with daily shelter and food for children 
too young to leave untended and alone. Two public meetings 
were held; the first, at Trinity Baptist Church, on April 5th, 
when Miss Jane Addams, of the Northern Day Nursery of 
Philadelphia, gave an address explaining the work ; the 
second, at the rooms of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, on April 14th, when Mrs. S. B. Northrop presided, and 
the Camden Day Nursery Association was formally organized. 
For the first six months, the work was experimental and the 
organization was temporary. Sufficient funds were collected 
in this interval to warrant the founding of a nursery and, on 
July 14th, the institution was opened at 214 Benson street. A 
special effort was made to enlist the churches in the work and 
eleven, representing five denominations, formed contributing 
auxiliaries and furnished thirty-one managers. In October, 
the first annual meeting was held ; a Board of Managers was 
elected, on a basis of three from each church containing an 
auxiliary, and the following officers were elected by the board 
to serve for the year ending October, 1891 : President, Mrs. 
E. L. B. Godfrey; vice-presidents, Mrs. S. B. Northrop, Mrs. 
Charles S. Dunham, Mrs. Thomas A. Tidball ; treasurer, Mrs. 
Howard R. Sharp ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Richard 
Twelves ; recording secretary, Mrs. Eva M. Holmes ; secretary 
of donations, Mrs. W. H. Brooks ; consulting physicians, 
Doctors Dowling Benjamin and S. Bryan Smith ; advisory 



The Camden Day Nursery Association. 267 

board, Wilson H. Jenkins, Esq. ; T. B. Harned, Esq. ; W. A. 
Davis, M. D. ; E. M. Howard, M. D. ; Colonel John Hood and 
Frank H. Burdsall. 

Subscriptions of one dollar, or more, entitled the donor to 
membership in the association, and the total receipts from 
April, 1890, to October, 1891, when the first financial year 
closed, were $1,112.92. The cost of maintaining the nursery 
for the same period was $814.12. This provided a comfortable 
house, a matron and assistant and three meals per day for the 
children. The mothers were taxed six cents per day for each 
child, to prevent the charity from encouraging pauperism. 
The total attendance for the year was one thousand, nine 
hundred and twenty-nine children. 

The managers for the year, in addition to the officers 
named, were : Mesdames Dowling Benjamin, William E. 
Clement, Theodore B. Culver, William A. Davis, E. A. Downs, 
Kate Goodwin, Thomas H. Harris, Thomas B. Harned, P. W. 
Hirst, E. M. Howard, Carrie Jefferies, Hannah Jackson, Wilson 
H. Jenkins, John W. Johnson, Charles H. Knowlton, Elmer 
Morton, J. H. Rorer, William Reed, Charles Samson, John .F. 
Starr, Jr., C. R. A. Van Valin, Richard Wells, Charles E. 
Young, and the Misses Hannah R. Hood, A. Morris, Ida 
Northrop and Jennie Nesbitt. 

[1892.] During this year, the number of churches con- 
tributing through auxiliaries increased to fourteen ; the 
subscription list more than doubled itself and numbered nearly 
seven hundred, and the total receipts were $1,108.41. The 
total number of children cared for was two thousand, eight 
hundred and forty-nine, and the cost of maintenance was 
$1,032.23. The officers were the same as last year, excepting 
that the third vice-president, Mrs. Thomas A. Tidball, resigned 
on account of removal to Philadelphia. In the Board of 
Managers there were several changes. Mesdames J. C. Bailey, 
George Finlaw, Israel Fish, L,. E. Farnham, May I. Felton, 
Harry L. Jones, J. H. Knerr, Harry Knight, R. R. Longland, 
William C. Eore, George I. Lewis, Oscar C. Molan, Alexander 
Milliette, William E. Needham, Martha E. Nixon, Frederick 
A. Rex, J. Ridgeway and John Stiles replaced Mesdames 



268 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

Benjamin, Clement, Culver, Davis, Goodwin and Miss Morris, 
who had resigned. 

[1893.] The receipts for this year were $1,133.60 and 
the expenses were $1,234.20. Two thousand, five hundred 
and seventy children were cared for. The institution was 
removed in May from 214 Benson street to 426 Steven street, 
where it obtained much larger and more comfortable quarters. 
Owing to the removal from Camden of Mrs. T. A. Tidball, 
third vice-president, and Mrs. Eva Holmes, recording secretary, 
their places were filled, respectively, by Mrs. Charles H. Knowl- 
ton and Mrs. Charles Samson. The other officers remained the 
same as in previous years. The changes in the Board of 
Managers were as follows: Mesdames H. B. Hanford, A. L,. 
Hurff, W. Haco Cooper, C. G. Thompson, Elmer J. Carll, 
Josiah S. Hackett, Charles L. Prince, G. R. Underhill, A. E. 
Gausler, W. T. Waters, A. R. Hillaker and Miss Anna Smith 
replaced Mesdames Jones, Needham, Nixon, Ridgeway, Van 
Valin and the Misses Hood and Northrop, who had resigned, 
or whose term of office had expired, and Mrs. E. A. Downs and 
Mrs. J. H. Rorer, who died during the year. Mr. F. Way land 
Ayer was elected to the advisory board in place of Mr. Frank 
H. Burdsall, resigned. The consulting physicians were 
re-elected. 

[1894.] The year ending October, 1894, the Day Nursery 
closed its book with a balance in bank, though it had 
received only $950.74 in subscriptions and donations. The 
location of the nursery was changed in May from 426 
Stevens street to 319 Washington street. Mrs. E. L,. B. 
Godfrey, who had served as president since the organization of 
the nursery, declined re-election on account of ill-health and 
was made honorary president ; Mrs. Charles S. Dunham was 
elected president; Mrs. Charles H. Knowlton, Mrs. George 
Finlaw and Mrs. John F. Starr, Jr., vice-presidents; Mrs. 
Howard R. Sharp, treasurer ; Mrs. Charles Samson, recording 
secretary ; Mrs. Richard Twelves, corresponding secretary ; 
Mrs. W. H. Brooks, superintendent of donations, and Miss 
Anna Smith, assistant. The consulting physicians and advisory 
board were the same as last year. In the Board of Managers, 



The Medical Department of the N. G. N.J. 269 

Mesdames A. E. Emery, E. E. De Grofft, C. S. Holdcraft, Eva 
M. Holmes, Emily Fenner, C. H. Davis, and J. C. Russell 
replaced Mesdames 0. C. Molan, George I. Lewis and Elmer 
Morton, whose terms had expired, and Mrs. S. B. Northrop, 
who had resigned on account of removal to New York City. 
Mesdames William J. Sewell, Richard T. Miller, George A. 
Vroom, Samuel D. Bergen, Walter Zimmerman, John A. Seeds, 
S. G. Bailey, Thomas E. Mulford and Miss Amanda Heyl were 
elected managers-at-large. The total number of officers and 
managers was fifty-nine. The churches containing auxiliaries 
were St. Paul's and St. John's Protestant Episcopal ; Centenary, 
Broadway, Tabernacle and First Methodist ; First and Second 
Presbyterian; North, Trinity, Tabernacle, Linden and First 
Baptist, and the Unitarian auxiliary. The public schools 
which specially contributed to the nursery are the John S. 
Read, E. A. Stevens, Linden, I. S. Mulford, George Genge, 
< Broadway, Central, Northeast, C. K. Evered and C. S. Bergen.* 

Section XL — The Medical Department of the 
National Guard of New Jersey. 

[1892.] In the reorganization of the National Guard of 
New Jersey, in 1869, the surgeon-general was given "general 
supervision over the medical department of the State forces 
and empowered to issue from time to time such regulations, 
subject to the approval of the commander-in-chief, as the 
necessities of the case may require." Professional examina- 
tions were made a preliminary condition to the issuing of a 
commission to medical officers of the National Guard, and, 
consequently, the medical department has constantly maintained 
the respect and confidence of the State forces. Through the 
efforts of Surgeon-General John D. McGill, the department has 
been brought to a high degree of excellence. The first step in 
this direction was the organization of The Military Order of 
Surgeons of New Jersey (Chapter X, Section XII). In 1892, 
a supplement to the Act for the reorganization of the National 
Guard (1869) was enacted by the Legislature, approved March 
23, 1892, and issued from the office of the adjutant-general, 
March 31st, providing for the establishment of the medical 

* Reports of the Camdeii Day Nursery Association. 



270 History Medical Profession Camden County . 

department as a separate department ; for the commissioning of 
two medical inspectors, each with the rank and emoluments 
of lieutenant-colonel, and for the formation of a hospital and 
ambulance corps of twenty-four men. All medical officers and 
hospital stewards, as well as the hospital and ambulance corps, 
were placed under the direction and control of the surgeon- 
general. Under this Act, Major Mortimer Lampson, of the 
Fourth Regiment, N. G., and Major E. L. B. Godfrey, of the 
Sixth Regiment, N. G., were each promoted and commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel and medical inspector on the staff of Surgeon- 
General McGill, March 23, 1892. Following the promotion of 
Major Godfrey to an inspectorship, Lieutenant Daniel Strock, 
who was commissioned first lieutenant and assistant surgeon of 
the Sixth Regiment, N. G., February 1, 1890, was promoted 
major and surgeon of the Sixth Regiment and commissioned 
May 24, 1892. 

[1893.] In 1893, the Sixth Regiment was divided into 
two battalions, and, on July 1st, Dr. Orange W. Braymer was 
commissioned first lieutenant and battalion assistant surgeon of 
the first battalion, and, on September 2d, Dr. Wilson Gill Bailey 
was commissioned first lieutenant and battalion assistant surgeon 
of the second battalion. On March 17, 1893, the Act, approved 
March 23, 1892, "establishing the medical department of the 
National Guard as a separate department," was modified by a 
supplement providing for the enlistment of a hospital and 
ambulance corps for each brigade of the National Guard, under 
the immediate control of the brigade surgeons and under the 
general medical control of the surgeon-general ; for the profes- 
sional examination of surgeons and assistant surgeons before 
being commissioned, and of hospital stewards before being 
warranted. In March, 1894, Charles S. Ogden, Ph.G., was 
warranted hospital steward of the first battalion, Sixth Regi- 
ment, N. G., and in July, Dr. Eugene E. De Grofft was 
warranted hospital steward in the second battalion, both 
succeeding Dr. Levi B. Hirst, who was honorably discharged 
by reason of expiration of service. 

[1895.] In 1895, the powers and prerogatives of the 
medical department were further enlarged by legislative enact- 



The Epidemic of La Grippe. 271 

merit. The office of assistant surgeon-general was created; 
the hospital and ambulance corps was increased to two officers 
and sixty men ; the office of medical inspector was continued, 
and all surgeons, assistant surgeons, hospital stewards and the 
hospital corps were made a part of the department and subject 
to the orders of the surgeon-general. Under this Act, L,ieu- 
tenant-Colonel E. h. B. Godfrey, medical inspector, was 
promoted colonel and assistant surgeon-general, and was com- 
missioned April 13, 1895. 

Section XII. — The Epidemic of La Grippe. 

[1890.] The most wide-spread epidemic that has ever 
visited Camden county, or, in fact, the United States, made its 
first appearance in the latter part of December, 1890. The 
disease was generally known as influenza. It was called by 
the French La Grippe and by the Germans, Blitz-catarrh, but 
became finally known in this country as the "Grippe." 
It was first observed at St. Petersburg about October 15th, and 
spread over European Russia within a month. In November, 
it appeared in Germany, France and other Continental States, 
visiting England and the United States in December and 
extending to China and Japan. It was a true pandemic 
disease. It made its appearance in Camden during the last 
week of December and, before the close of February, afflicted, 
more or less severely, seventy-five per cent, of the population of 
the city. According to Dr. William Pepper, "three out of every 
four of the eleven hundred thousand people of Philadelphia, 
suffered from influenza in a greater or less extent." The sickness- 
rate was far in excess of the death-rate, but the malady not 
infrequently left depressing and often fatal sequelae in its train. 
The deaths in Camden numbered one hundred and seventy- 
seven for January, 1890, while those for January, 1889, 
numbered ninety-five. The etiology of influenza was due to a 
bacillus and the constitutional symptoms arose from the absorp- 
tion of influenza-toxin. It was an infectious disease, but this 
does not account for simultaneous outbreaks in widely-separated 
countries. The disease began with a chill, followed by fever, 



272 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

headache, pains throughout the body and extremities and 
catarrhal affection of the air-passages, frequently leading to 
pneumonia, while in other instances it would expend itself 
on the nervous system or within the gastro-intestinal track. 
Albuminuria was frequently a concomitant condition. The 
epidemic re-appeared in the winters of 1891-92, i892-'93 
and 1 894-' 95, but became milder in form and less general in 
extent at each re-appearance. 

Section XIII. — The West Jersey Homceopathic Dispen- 
sary and Hospital Association. 

[189 1.] The articles of incorporation of this association 
were signed May 15, 1891, by Walter M. Patton, George R. 
Danenhower, Frank H. Burdsall, John T. Cox, Leander W. 
Goldy, Clayton W. Nichols, Theodore B. Culver, Robert T. 
Lacey, Samuel G. Rudderow, Edward W. Sharp and Bmelius 
Senseman, and filed with the clerk of the county under the 
"Act for the Incorporation of Hospitals and Charitable Institu- 
tions," approved March 9, 1877. The incorporators were 
empowered to manage the affairs of the association for the first 
year. The constitution adopted by the association provided 
that its membership shall consist of those who annually con- 
tribute five dollars or more for its maintenance, except 
that a contribution of one hundred dollars or more shall consti- 
tute the donor a life member ; that it shall be governed by a 
Board of Trustees, one third of whom shall be elected at the 
annual meeting ; that no physician shall be eligible for election 
on the board; that the trustees shall appoint a staff of 
physicians, of such number as shall be deemed best, who shall 
constitute the professional board which shall have full control 
of the medical management of the association, and shall also 
appoint a Board of Lady Managers who shall take charge of 
the household matters of the association. On May 15th, the 
Board of Trustees organized, with the election of Walter M. 
Patton, president ; George R. Danenhower, vice-president ; 
John T. Cox, secretary, and S. G. Rudderow, treasurer. The 
building, No. 3 North Fifth street, was rented and fitted for 



West Jersey Homeopathic Dispensary and Hospital Asso. 273 

dispensary purposes and the following professional board was 
appointed : Medical director, Thomas R. Blackwood ; surgeons, 
George D. Woodward and E. M. Howard ; diseases of women, 
Anna E. Griffith and Willis H. Hunt; eye and ear, E. M. 
Howard and F. M. Eaton; nose, throat and lungs, J. M. 
Hinson; heart and kidneys, P. W. Andrews and W. C. 
Williams. Daily clinics were established and, on October 19th, 
the following changes were made in the professional board: 
Gynaecology, George D. Woodward ; diseases of women and 
children, T. R. Blackwood; medical treatment of women, 
Anna E. Griffith; skin diseases, W. C. Williams; heart and 
kidneys, O. L. Grumbrecht ; eye and ear, F. M. Eaton and E. 
M. Howard ; nose, throat and lungs, J. M. Hinson and O. L, 
Grumbrecht. The following ladies' advisor}- committee on 
ways and means was appointed, which led to the organization 
of a Eady Board of Managers : Mesdames S. B. Northrop, J. C. 
Meeteer, W. M. Patton, L. V. Kellum, Charles L. Prince, Harry 
Hollinshed, Alfred S. Freeman, John F. Starr, Jr., J. H. Shel- 
mire, L. W. Goldy, George A. Munger, G. W. Wakefield and 
Miss E. Fayetta Jennings. Frank H. Burdsall resigned from 
the Board of Trustees and D. G. Langendorf was elected to fill 
the vacancy. Eighty-seven cases were reported to have been 
treated since the opening of the dispensary, June 4th. 

[1892.] The second year of the association opened with 
bright prospects. A part of the appropriation of City Council 
for the care of the indigent sick was secured and the property 
of the Camden Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary Asso- 
ciation, located at the corner of West and Steven streets, was 
purchased and opened to the public, March 25th. City physi- 
cians were appointed in accordance with the requirements of 
the city appropriation, and Dr. Oscar L. Grumbrecht was 
assigned to the northern and Dr. F. M. Eaton to the southern 
district. Dr. A. S. Ironside was elected a member of the 
professional board. The annual meeting of the association 
was held May 9th, when D. G. Langendorf, S. M. Rudderow 
and E. W. Sharp were elected members of the Board of 
Trustees for three years and the officers of the board were 
re-elected. The professional board reported that five hundred 

iS 



274 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

and sixty-five cases had been treated since the opening of the 
dispensary; that two thousand one hundred and thirty-five 
prescriptions had been compounded and that Dr. C. M, 
Williams had resigned from the board, because of his removal 
from the city. The Lady Board of Managers reported the 
hospital to be divided into two well-equipped wards, con- 
taining six beds and one cot and three private rooms, well 
furnished. Their officers were as follows : President, Mrs. S- 
B. Northrop ; first vice-president, Mrs. J. C. Meeteer ; second 
vice-president, Mrs. C. E. Prince ; treasurer, Mrs. John F. Starr, 
Jr., and secretary, Mrs. A. S. Freeman. In October, an obstet- 
rical ward was established in the hospital and placed under the 
care of Doctors T. R. Blackwood and Anna E. Griffith ;. 
Doctors F. M. Baton and O. E. Grumbrecht were appointed on 
the professional board and Dr. A. S. Ironside was elected city 
physician in place of Dr. Grumbrecht. 

[1893.] The annual meeting of the association was held 
May 2 2d. The professional board reported eight thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-two cases treated in the dispensary ; 
thirteen thousand prescriptions compounded ; forty-nine cases 
admitted to the hospital since March, 1892, and seventy-nine 
surgical operations performed. The hospital staff was consti- 
tuted as follows: Surgeons, G. D. Woodward and E. M. 
Howard ; physicians, O. E. Grumbrecht and F. M. Eaton ; 
obstetricians, Anna E. Griffith, T. R. Blackwood and W. W T . 
Knowlton. Dispensary staff: Medical director, T. R. Black- 
wood ; gynaecologists, G. D. Woodward, Anna E. Griffith and 
O. L. Grumbrecht; surgeons, G. D. Woodward and E. M. 
Howard ; oculists and aurists, E. M. Howard and F. M. Eaton ; 
nose and throat, J. M. Hinson ; chronic diseases, A. S. 
Ironside; general medicine, O. E. Grumbrecht and W. W. 
Knowlton ; city physicians, F. M. Eaton and A. S. Ironside. 
Consultants : Surgical, W. B. Van Eennep ; medical, Wallace 
McGeorge. Walter M. Patton was elected president of 
the association ; George R. Danenhower, vice-president ; 
S. G. Rudderow, treasurer ; John T. Cox, secretary, and 
Robert T. Eacey, Clayton W. Nichols and John T. Cox, mem- 
bers of the Board of Trustees for three years, and T. I. 



Miscellaneous Interests. 275 

Gifford for the unexpired term of E. W. Sharp. The board 
elected Dr. W. W. Knowlton city physician for the first 
district and Dr. F. M. Eaton for the second district. In 
November, M. F. Ivins was elected a member of the Board of 
Trustees for the unexpired term of W. E. Anthony. 

[1894.] The annual meeting of the association was 
held May 14th, with the election of the following officers and 
members of the Board of Trustees : President, Walter M. 
Patton ; vice-president, Clayton W. Nichols; secretary, W. M. 
Kaighn; treasurer, D. G. Eangendorf, and Walter M. Patton, 
M. F. Ivins and W. M. Kaighn, members of the board for 
three years. The professional board submitted the following 
report : The number of cases treated in the hospital and 
dispensary for the year ending April 30th was five thousand, 
nine hundred and fifty-seven ; prescriptions compounded, four- 
teen thousand, one hundred and twenty-six ; visits made by 
city physicians, four thousand and sixty-three ; surgical opera- 
tions performed, sixty-seven ; obstetrical cases attended, eight. 
The Board of Lady Managers submitted a report of donations 
secured, and other work accomplished, that evidenced their 
helpfulness to the association. 

Section XIV.— Miscellaneous Interests. 

A. THE PAN-AMERICAN MEDICAL CONGRESS. 

[1893.] At the meeting of the American Medical Associa- 
tion in Washington, D. C, 1891, a resolution was adopted 
extending an invitation to the medical profession of the 
Western Hemisphere to assemble in the United States in an 
Inter-Continental American Medical Congress and a committee, 
consisting of one member from each state and territory and 
one each from the army, navy and marine hospital service, was 
appointed to effect a permanent organization of the proposed 
congress, and to determine the time and place at which the same 
should be held. Dr. E. J. Marsh, of Paterson, was appointed 
on the committee as the representative from New Jersey. The 
committee prosecuted their work diligently ; named the con- 
gress the "Pan-American Medical Congress"; decided to hold 



276 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

the same at Washington, D. C, September 5, 6, 7 and 8, 1893, 
and secured the adoption of a joint resolution from the Senate 
of the United States and the House of Representatives, 
authorizing and requesting the President to invite the several 
governments of the Western Hemisphere to send official dele- 
gates to the congress. The resolution met with executive 
approval, July 18, 1892, and invitations were accordingly sent 
and promptly responded to. The committee formulated general 
and special regulations for the government of the congress ; 
established twenty-two sections for professional work ; appointed 
a number of sub-committees and elected Dr. William Pepper, 
of Philadelphia, president of the congress, and Dr. Edward J. 
Ill, of Newark, vice-president for New Jersey. Like other States, 
New Jersey was entitled to one delegate for each District or 
County Medical Society, as well as State delegates. Dr. E. L. 
B. Godfrey was appointed one of the delegates to represent the 
Medical Society of New Jersey with Dr. Daniel Strock as his 
alternate. Dr. Godfrey was also detailed by the surgeon- 
general of the State to represent the medical department of 
the National Guard in the section of military surgery. The 
proceedings of the congress did much to promote the interest 
of the medical profession in this and other countries, especially 
in hygiene, quarantine and kindred questions of inter-state 
interests. 

B. THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Since the organization of the American Medical Associa- 
tion in 1846, the physicians of Camden county have frequently 
represented, through a delegated relationship, the County and 
State Medical Societies in its deliberations. All delegates are 
made permanent members of the association upon the filing and 
approval of their credentials and are continued as such so long 
as they remain members of their local societies and pay their 
annual dues to the association. The following members of the 
Camden County Medical Society have become permanent 
members of the association : Doctors Richard M. Cooper and 
Othniel H. Taylor, 1847; John V. Schenck and Charles D. 
Hendry, 1849; Isaac S. Mulford, 1850; Thomas F. Cullen, 



Miscellaneous Interests. 277 

1855; A Dickenson Woodruff, 1858 ; H. Genet Taylor, 1870; 
John W. Snowden, 1872 ; Onan B. Gross and N. B. Jennings, 
1880; Isaac B. Mulford and E. L,. B. Godfrey, 1881 ; D. P. 
Pancoast, 1883; Dowling Benjamin, W. A. Davis, J. W. 
Donges and W. H. Ireland, 1884 ; Alexander McAlister, 1885 ; 
O. W. Braymer, 1891 ; Henry E. Branin, 1892 and J. M. Ridge, 
H. F. Palm and John F. Leavitt, in 1893. 

C. THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL HOME. 

[1890.] The preliminary steps for the organization of 
the home were taken in 1888 and, after a series of meetings, 
the organization was effected and the home formally opened in 
Camden, April 15, 1890. The constitution states that the 
object of the home shall be " to provide for the aged and 
infirm members of the Methodist Episcopal Church a com- 
fortable home, with clothing, employment, medical aid and 
other necessary attendance and religious privileges," and 
directs that the management shall be vested in two boards ; 
viz., a Board of Trustees and a Board of Managers, the former 
consisting of nine gentlemen and the latter of ladies repre- 
senting the Methodist Episcopal churches of Camden county. 
The organization was effected by the election of George 
R. Danenhower president of the Board of Trustees; J. T. 
Seymour, secretary ; Frank Wells, treasurer, and Dr. A. E. 
Street, J. R. Carson, Joseph E. Roberts and B. Plumber as 
members. Mrs. David Baird was elected president of the 
Board of Managers; Mesdames Daniel Erdman and John 
Gourley, vice-presidents ; Miss Lida Mayhew, recording secre- 
tary ; Mrs. J. S. Baer, corresponding secretary, and Miss 
Harriet M. King, treasurer, with a standing committee from 
the different Methodist churches. Doctors J. H. Frick, J. S. 
Baer, Sophia Presley, W. S. Moslander and E. L,. B. Godfrey 
were appointed medical attendants. Nine inmates were ad- 
mitted during the year. 

[189 1.] During 1891, a site for the home was secured at 
Collingswood and the corner-stone of the present structure 
was laid July 9, 1891. The enterprise has proved of great 
usefulness in this community, not alone in affording a home to 



278 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

the aged and infirm, but also in cementing, into closer unity, 
the membership of the various Methodist churches of the 
county. The officers of the Board of Trustees were re-elected, 
with the exception that Thomas Hollinshed and D. S. Risley 
were elected in the place of Joseph E. Roberts and B. Plumber. 
In the Board of Managers, Mrs. W. T. Collins succeeded Mrs. 
John Gourley as one of the vice-presidents ; Miss Clara M. 
Doughty succeeded Mrs. J. S. Baer as corresponding secretary ; 
Mrs. George E. Fry succeeded Miss Harriet M. King as 
treasurer, and the office of financial secretary was established 
and Mrs. Anna Parker elected to fill it. With these excep- 
tions, the officers and members of the Board of Managers 
remained unchanged. The medical advisers of the preceding 
year were succeeded by Dr. Eli R. Tullis. After 1891, no 
medical appointments were made by the board, but in 
the reports of 1892, '93 and '94, the committee on sick 
express obligations to Doctors William Shafer, E. R. Tullis, 
S. Bryan Smith, Wallace McGeorge, F. M. Eaton, W. S. 
Moslander, S. H. Quint and H. C. Garrison for gratuitous 
professional services, and to Dr. B. S. Lewis and Messrs. R. S. 
Justice, U. F. Richards and George J. Pechin for donations of 
medicine. 

D. THE HADDONFIELD TRAINING SCHOOL FOR BACKWARD 

CHILDREN. 

The establishment of the Haddonfield Training School for 
Backward Children, in 1883, testifies in an eminent degree the 
good that can be accomplished by woman, when actuated 
and urged forward by the love of her kind. This school was 
founded by Margaret Bancroft, of Philadelphia, whose experi- 
ence as a teacher in the public schools impressed her with the 
great need of patient, individual instruction in order to develop 
the indifferent and sluggish minds of backward children to the 
degree of proficiency of which they are capable. In order to 
accomplish this work, Miss Bancroft resigned her position and 
opened the training school at Haddonfield. From its inception 
the school has been a success, and the method of instruction 
employed and the results yielded have attracted national 



Miscellaneous Interests. 279 

attention. Dr. W. W. Keen and Mr. Charles Lippincott, of 
Philadelphia, have materially aided Miss Bancroft in her efforts, 
.and Dr. Bowman H. Shivers, of Haddonfield, has been the 
medical supervisor of the school since 1883. In 1888, Miss 
Jean M. Cox became associated with Miss Bancroft in the 
work.* 

E. THE CAMDEN CITY MEDICAL AND SURGICAL SOCIETY. 

[1891-95.] The Camden City Medical and Surgical 
Society was organized November 16, 1891, for the purpose of 
furthering the scientific and professional interests of the physi- 
cians of Camden. The constitution and by-laws provide for 
reports, at each regular, monthly meeting, from sections on 
practice of medicine, surgery, pathology, chemistry, therapeu- 
tics, hygiene and dietetics, and thus afford a broad field for 
medical discussion and improvement. This is further supple- 
mented by a question-box, a feature that has frequently given 
rise to interesting debates. At the organization of the society, 
Dr. E. P. Townsend was elected president; Dr. W. H. Iszard, 
vice-president; Dr. W. F. H. Osmun, secretary, and Dr. J. S. 
Baer, treasurer. 

The officers for 1892 were as follows: President, Dr. W. 
H. Ireland ; vice-president, Dr. W. H. Iszard ; secretary, 
Dr. W. F. H. Osmun; treasurer, Dr. Alexander McAlister: 
For 1893 '■> president, Dr. W. H. Iszard ; vice-president, Dr. D. 
W. Blake; secretary, Dr. S. G. Bushey; treasurer, Dr. J. S. 
Baer: For 1894; president, Dr. D. W. Blake; vice-president, 
Dr. H. F. Palm; secretary, Dr. H. H. Sherk, and treasurer, 
Dr. J. F. Leavitt. In addition to the physicians named, 
Doctors J. W. Fithian, A. H. Lippincott, W. B. Jennings, B. S. 
Lewis, P. W. Beale, Harry Jarrett, George T. Robinson, A. M. 
Mecray, C. M. Schellenger, Edwin Tomlinson, William Shafer, 
J. H. Frick, Sophia Presley, G. W. Henry, F. G. Stroud, C. B. 
Donges, G. E. Kirk, Edward Phelan, W. H. Kensinger, 
Charles Jennings, and W. P. Wingender are members of the 
society.! 

* Woman's Progress, for August, 1893. 
t M.S. Notes of Dr. A. H. Lippincott. 



280 History Medical Profession Camden Coninly.. 

F. POLITICAL INTERESTS. 

Since the erection of Camden county, the medical profes- 
sion has been prominently represented in national, state, 
county and municipal politics. Dr. Reynell Coates was a 
candidate for vice-president of the United States in 1852 
(Chapter V, Section IV) ; Dr. William H. Iszard served in the 
Legislature of 1873-74 as a representative from Gloucester 
county; George D. Borton, Ph. G., of Camden, served as a 
member of the Legislature in 1883, and Dr. George W. Henry, 
of Camden, in the Legislature of 1893. Doctors Thomas G. 
Rowand, Duncan W. Blake, James A. Armstrong, William H. 
Iszard, John D. Leckner, P. W. Beale, Edwin Tomlinson, H. 
H. Davis, George W. Henry, James G. Stanton and E. R. 
Smiley (Chapter III, Section IV) have filled the office of 
coroner. Dr. L. F. Fisler held the position of Mayor of 
Camden seven terms (Chapter VII, Section VII). Dr. John 
W. Donges served as president of City Council in 1883, 
Dr. J. D. Leckner in 1887 and Dr. W. B. E. Miller, D. V. S., 
in 1892; Doctors L. F. Fisler, Frederick P. Pfeiffer, C. W. 
Sartori, William S. Jones, B. S. Lewis and P. W. Beale have 
also served as members of that body. Dr. L. F. Fisler and 
George D. Borton served as collector of customs for the Port of 
Camden. In the Board of Education, Doctors Isaac S. Mulford,, 
Sylvester Birdsell, Thomas W. Rowand, Charles W. Sartori, J. 
H. Austin, James M. Ridge, Max. West, John R. Haney r 
Alexander M. Mecray, J. D. Leckner, Dowling Benjamin, H„ 
H. Davis and M. F. Middleton and druggists J. C. De La Cour, 
Herman Miller, Stanley C. Muschamp and Richard S. Justice 
have served as members. 

G. PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS. 

[i890-'95.] Among the physicians who located in Cam- 
den during the period from 1890 to 1895 are the following : 
Dr. Clarence B. Donges and Dr. Grant E. Kirk, Ph.G., gradu- 
ates of Jefferson Medical College, 1891, and Dr. Henry A. 
Lacey, a graduate of Hahnemann Medical College, 1891 ; Dr. 
Nathan A. Cohen, a graduate of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, 1886, the Veterinary Department of the University 



Miscellaneous hite rests. 281 

of Pennsylvania, 1890, and of Jefferson Medical College, 1892 ; 
Dr. Marcus K. Mines, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 
1892 ; Dr. William E. Miller, Ph. G., a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, 1893, and Dr. Rowland I. Haines, of the 
same University, 1890; Dr. Wendell P. Wingender, Ph. G., a 
graduate of Jefferson Medical College, 1893 ; Dr. William W. 
Knowlton, a graduate of Hahnemann Medical College, 1893 ; 
Dr. Levi B. Hirst, Ph. G., and Dr. Milton M. Osmun, Ph. G., 
graduates of Jefferson Medical College, 1894; Dr. Emerson P. 
McGeorge, a graduate of Hahnemann Medical College, 1894, 
and Dr. William B. Christine, a student at Pennington Sem- 
inary and a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, 1877. 
Dr. Leolf Reese, a graduate of Penn Medical University, 1862, 
and of the Medico-Chirurgical College of Philadelphia, 1882 ; 
Dr. Oscar L. Grumbrecht, a graduate of Hahnemann Medical 
College, 1890; Dr. Jerome L. Artz, a graduate of Cleveland 
Medical College, Ohio, and Dr. Joseph W. Martindale, a graduate 
of Jefferson Medical College, 1894, located at Cramer Hill. 

In 1893, Dr. Wallace McGeorge began the practice of 
medicine in Camden. Dr. McGeorge was graduated from Hah- 
nemann Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1868, and has been 
identified the greater part of his professional life with public 
interests. In 1868, he began medical practice at Hightstown; 
moved to Woodbury in 1872 and to Camden in 1893. He was 
one of the organizers of the New Jersey State Homoeopathic 
Medical Society in 1869, one of its incorporators in 1870, and 
has held the office of treasurer, secretary and president, and is 
now its corresponding secretary. He has also been actively 
identified with the American Institute of Homoeopathy and 
with the West Jersey Homoeopathic Medical Society, of which 
he has served as president. In 1877, he was elected Mayor of 
Woodbury ; in 1879, a member of the Common Council of 
Woodbury; in 1886, coroner of Gloucester county. He also 
served as school trustee, commissioner of deeds and notary public 
in Gloucester county, besides being an active member in the 
Order of Odd Fellows, Sons of Temperance, Red Men, 
Knights of Pythias, Legion of the Red Cross and other 
associations. 



282 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

In 1890, Bucknell University conferred the honorary 
degree of A. M. on Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, and, in 1893 and 
1894, he was elected vice-president of the Alumni Association 
of Jefferson Medical College. 

H. MAJOR SURGICAL OPERATIONS. 

Previously to the opening of The Cooper Hospital, in 1887, 
a large percentage of the major operations in Camden county 
were performed in Philadelphia hospitals, but most of the sur- 
gical cases resulting from railroad accidents were attended by Dr. 
Dowling Benjamin, surgeon to the Camden and Amboy Rail- 
road and by Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, surgeon to the Camden and 
Atlantic Railroad. Cases occurring along the line of the roads 
were brought into Camden for surgical treatment. With the 
opening of The Cooper Hospital, the majority of surgical acci- 
dents, as well as cases requiring operative treatment, were 
removed to the hospital. 

Of the major operations, amputations of the hip-joint have 
been performed by Doctors O. B. Gross and Daniel Strock; 
amputation of the thigh, by Dr. George D. Woodward and 
others; amputations of the shoulder-joint, by Doctors Dowl- 
ing Benjamin, O. B. Gross and E. L. B. Godfrey ; knee-joint, 
by Doctors Benjamin, Gross, Strock and Godfrey ; extra- 
uterine pregnancy, by Doctors Gross, Strock and Godfrey ; 
hysterectomy, by Doctors Benjamin, Braymer and Godfrey; 
Caesarian section, by Dr. Benjamin ; abdominal section, by 
Doctors J. F. Walsh, Alexander McAlister, Dowling Benjamin, 
O. B. Gross, Daniel Strock, J. S. Baer, Joseph L,. Nicholson, O. 
W. Braymer, H. H. Sherk and E. h. B. Godfrey; suprapubic 
cystotomy, by Doctors Walsh, McAlister and Strock ; litho- 
lapaxy, by Doctors Benjamin and Strock, and exsection of 
part of the small intestines, by Dr. Gross. Most of these 
operations were performed at The Cooper Hospital under 
the most thorough antiseptic and aseptic conditions. 

Several physicians of Camden have contributed to the 
list of surgical inventions. Dr. Dowling Benjamin has 
invented an obstetric forceps, manufactured by Snowden, of 
Philadelphia; an axis-traction instrument, uterine cervix 



Miscellaneous Interests. 283 

"holders, plaster-of-Paris bandage roller, and an improvement 
on Day's extension splint ; Dr. J. S. Baer has invented tissue- 
forceps, an aseptic obstetric case and a bivalve speculum. 
This latter instrument is made by Gemrig, of Philadelphia, 
and contains a ratchet attachment and a French lock, in place 
of the ordinary screw, that admits of its separation for aseptic 
purposes. Dr. Joseph H. Wills has invented a needle-forceps, 
and an ether-bottle which is used in the Pennsylvania Hos- 
pital. 

I. DEATHS OF PROMINENT PHYSICIANS. 

[1894.] Joseph F. Garrison, M.D., D.D., died in Camden, 
January 30, 1894. Dr. Garrison was graduated from Princeton 
College in 1842, from the University of Pennsylvania in 1845 
and began the practice of medicine at Swedesboro, where his 
father, Dr. Charles Garrison, had practiced many years. In 
1855, Dr. Garrison abandoned the profession of medicine and 
was ordained a minister in the Episcopal Church. During the 
year, he was installed as rector of St. Paul's Church, Camden, 
where he remained until 1884, a period of twenty-nine years, 
when he resigned to accept the chair of Canon Law in the 
Philadelphia Divinity School. During the period of his 
rectorship, he was elected an honorary member of the Camden 
County Medical Society, in which he kept an active interest. 
Dr. Garrison was an acknowledged authority in church and 
masonic history. 

Dr. Jesse J. Wills died in Camden, May 20, 1894. Dr. 
Wills was graduated from Jefferson Medical College in 1884, 
opened an office in Camden and became a member of the City 
Medical Society in 1885 and of the County Medical Society in 
1886. 

J. THE COOPER MEDICAL CLUB. 

[i894-'95.] The Cooper Medical Club was organized 
January 13, 1894, by the attending staff of The Cooper 
Hospital, for the purpose of perpetuating the name of Dr. 
Richard M. Cooper, and of cultivating the professional and 
social interests of its members. The membership of the club 
is limited to those physicians who have been, are now, or who 



284 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

may hereafter be, officially connected with The Cooper 
Hospital. The first meeting of the club was held March 27, 
1894, at which a banquet was served and Doctors H. Genet 
Taylor, A. M. Mecray, William A. Davis, Dowling Benjamin, 
O. B. Gross, Daniel Strock, Joseph H. Wills, George T, 
Robinson, D. P. Pancoast, J. F. Walsh, Harry Jarrett, B. W. 
MacFarland, G. Hudson McCuen, E. A. Y. Schellenger, William 
Martin, J. C. Farrar, J. H. Frick, S. F. Ashcraft, F. W. Marcy,. 
J. L. Nicholson, P. M. Mecray and E. L. B. Godfrey became 
members. Dr. H. Genet Taylor was elected president ; Dr. A. 
M. Mecray, vice-president ; Dr. Harry Jarrett, secretary, and 
Dr. F. W. Marcy, treasurer. 

The annual meeting and banquet of the club was held at 
Rudolph's Cafe, February, 1895. Dr. A. M. Mecray was elected 
president ; Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, vice-president ; Dr. E. A. Y, 
Schellenger, secretary; Dr. O. B. Gross, treasurer, and Doctors 
Paul M. Mecray, J. L. Nicholson, J. D. Farrar, D. Benjamin 
and G. Hudson McCuen, members of the executive committee. 

K. COLLEGE AFFILIATIONS OF PHYSICIANS. 

One hundred and ninety-six physicians have been identified 
with the medical profession of Camden county since its organi- 
zation. Of this number, forty-six have taken degrees in the 
arts, sciences or philosophy, or have pursued partial or special 
courses at scientific or literary colleges. Twenty were graduated 
from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and twenty-six 
were either graduated, took a partial course or received honor- 
ary degrees from the following institutions : Three from Buck- 
nell University ; two each from Princeton, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Lafayette, Swathmore and Philadelphia High School ; 
one each from Allegheny, Amherst, Brown, Cornell, Dicken- 
son, Haverford, Lebanon, Peddie Institute, Rutgers, U. S. Naval 
Academy, Waterville, Williams and Yale. 

Twenty medical institutions are represented by alumni 
among the physicians of the county, past and present. Seventy- 
seven practitioners were graduated from Jefferson College; sixty- 
three from the Medical Department of the University of Pennsyl- 



Miscellaneous Interests. 285 

vania ; twenty-seven from Hahnemann College* ; four from 
Penn Medical University ; three from Pennsylvania Medical 
College ; two each from the Medico-Chirurgical College of 
Philadelphia and the University of New York ; one each from 
Chicago Medical College, Cleveland Medical College, College 
of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, Dartmouth Medical 
College, Eclectic College of Philadelphia, Georgetown Medical 
College, McGill University, New York Homoeopathic Medical 
College and Hospital for Women, Philadelphia College of 
Medicine, Philadelphia University of Medicine and Surgery, 
University of Maryland and Woman's Medical College of 
Pennsylvania. 

The veterinarians of Camden county are graduates of the 
following institutions : Eight from the Veterinary Department 
of the University of Pennsylvania; four from the American 
Veterinary College of New York and one each from Veterinary 
College of Philadelphia, the Ontario Veterinary College and 
the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, London. 

The dentists of Camden county are graduates of dental 
colleges and are registered under the State Board of Examina- 
tion and Registration in Dentistry. 



In closing this review of the medical profession of Camden 
county, the high honor the profession has reflected on the 
county and the incalculable benefit it has rendered its citizens 
are clearly obvious. Erected near the close of the first half of 
the present century, the county required but few active medical 
practitioners at that time, because of its comparatively sparse 
population. The Medical Society of New Jersey then governed 
medical practice throughout the State and its diploma alone 
gave legal standing to the physician and surgeon. With the 
beginning of the latter half of the century, the licensure of 
the society was practically abrogated by legislative enactment, 
and equal rights and privileges in medical practice were ac- 
corded to the graduates of all legally incorporated medical 

* The Hahnemann Medical College was consolidated with the Homoeopathic Medical 
College of Philadelphia, in 1869 (Scharf and Westcott's History of Philadelphia) and the 
graduates of the latter college are classed with those of the former. 



286 History Medical Profession Camden County. 

colleges. The number of physicians steadily multiplied and, 
in consequence of this and the proximity of Camden county to 
the medical schools of Philadelphia, the profession has always 
kept abreast of the great advance in medical thought. From 
the discovery of anaesthetics, in the year of the organization 
of the Camden County Medical Society, to the adoption of 
the latest methods of aseptic and antiseptic medical practice 
and the recent claims of serum-therapy, there has not been a 
discovery in medical science, which in any degree mitigates the 
pangs of disease, that has not been adopted by the medical 
profession of Camden county. In the International Medical 
Congress, the American Medical Association, the American 
Academy of Medicine, the Medical Society of New Jersey, the 
New Jersey Sanitary Association, the New Jersey State Boards 
of Health and Medical Examiners, the New Jersey Historical 
Society, the Military Order of Surgeons of New Jersey, The 
Cooper Hospital, the Camden County Insane Asylum and 
Hospital and the Camden City Dispensary, the profession has 
rendered distinguished service. Not alone in strictly profes- 
sional work have Camden county physicians brought character 
and reputation to the profession and honor and fame to the 
county, but in the domain of politics, literature, education and 
in the military service of both State and Nation, they have 
enriched the sum of human endeavor. In politics, the profes- 
sion has furnished a candidate for Vice-president of the United 
States, members of the State Legislature and county and 
municipal officials ; in literature, it has provided a State his- 
torian, local historians, a poet and novelist, a dramatist and a 
musical composer and numerous writers on scientific and medical 
subjects; in educational matters, it has furnished professors and 
lecturers in four of the most prominent medical colleges of 
Philadelphia, in the New Jersey Training School for Nurses, and 
members of the educational boards of the state, city and county ; 
in the military service it has furnished medical officers for the 
United States Army and Navy, the Marine Hospital Service 
and the National Guard of the State. 

The homoeopathic physicians of Camden county have 
rendered honorable and efficient service to the county and the 



The Closing Review. 287 

principles in medicine for which they contend. They have 
been closely identified with the World's Congress of Homoeo- 
pathic Physicians, the American Institute of Homoeopathy, 
and the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia ; while 
the organization of the West Jersey Homoeopathic Medical 
Society, the incorporation of the New Jersey State Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Society and the founding of the West Jersey 
Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary were largely effected 
through their efforts. They have furnished members of the 
City Council of Camden and the Camden Boards of Health and 
of Education, and have liberally contributed to the literature 
of their professional creed. 

The kindred professions of dentistry and pharmacy have 
won honorable recognition in both state and county; the 
former, through the New Jersey State Dental Society, and the 
latter, through the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, the New 
Jersey State Board of Pharmacy and the New Jersey Pharma- 
ceutical Society. 

In estimating the good accomplished by the rapid strides 
of medical science and the wide diffusion of medical and 
sanitary knowledge, a large share of credit for the great 
advance made in the physical welfare of the citizens of Camden 
county, and the establishment of her charitable institutions, 
must be accorded to the medical profession of the county. 



Index. 



K PAGE 

Abbott, Benjamin, 208 

Abels, William , 130 

Academy : 

Exeter, 227 

U. vS. Naval 108 

West Jersey,.... 108 

Achuff, Dr. J. Newton,... 88, 91, 93, 99 
Ackley, Dr. Henry, 52, 54, 60, 82, 103 

Act, Conscription , 76 

Adams, Charles F., 207 

Aikman, John, 102 

Albertson , Josiah , 208 

Albright, Charles, 209 

Alexander, Mrs. H., 102 

Allen, Elizabeth, 142 

Allen, Dr. Harrison, 74 

Allen, Dr. S. E-, 100 

Allen, William H., 217 

Allis, Dr. Oscar H., 157 

Almshouse, Camden County, 

158, 168, 180, 193, 207 

Amputations, 257 

Hip-joint, 282 

Knee-joint, 282 

Shoulder-joint, 282 

Andrews, Dr. John R., 8, 29, 43, 66 

Andrews, Dr. Purnell W., 

84, 100, 117, 210, 273 

Andrews, Mrs. Purnell W., 210 

Anthony, W. E., 275 

Antitoxin 143 

Apprentices, Medical, 3, 4, 21, 24 

Appropriations, Camden City Council, 

92, 107, 129, 130, 151, 185, 204, 211, 

231, 273 

Archer, Benjamin F., 68, 95, 217 

Archer, Mrs. George F., 102 

Armstrong, E. Ambler, 

103, 210, 212, 217 
Armstrong, Dr. James A., 

25. 39. 79. !32, 134. 146, 178, 225 

Army, United States, 27, 67 

Medical Department of, 69,71, 78, 88 

Artery, Ligation of Femoral, 239 

Artz, Dr. Jerome L., 

99, 101, 117,119, 208, 252, 281 
Ashcraft, Dr. S. F., 214, 259, 284 



Association : page 
Alumni and Alumnse, N. J. Train- 
ing School, 265 

American Medical, 

23, 24, 35, 49, 62, 63, 158, 276 

Members of, 24, 276 

American Medical Colleges, 35, 159 

Camden Day Nursery, 266 

Camden Druggists, 180 

Camden Homoeopathic Hospital and 

Dispensary, 209 

Camden Literary and Library,.... 122 

Military Surgeons of U. S., 220 

N. J. Pharmaceutical, 123 

N. J. Sanitary, 139, 147, 173, 200, 

247 

Members of, 140 

Officers of, 140, 249 

N.J. Veterinary, 222 

North Ward Bounty, 89, 92 

W.J. Dental, 118 

W. J. Homoeopathic Dispensary and 

Hospital 272 

Young Men's Christian 176 

Asylum, Camden County Insane, 

136, 207, 262 

Atkinson , J. Earl , 1 02 

Atkinson, Thomas B., 102 

Atkinson, Dr. William B., 63, 248 

Austin, Dr. John H., 

56, 82, 99, 100, 120, 122 

Ayer, F. W., 187, 217, 268 

Ayer, Mrs. F. W 102 

B 
Bacillus : 

Comma, 192, 234 

Diphtherias, 252 

Tuberculosis, 252 

Typhosus, 213 

Baer, Dr. B. F 154 

Baer, Dr. J. S., 

144, 230, 239, 242, 262, 263, 277, 279, 
282, 283 

Baer, Mrs. J. S., 277 

Bailey, Dr. George W., 142 

Bailey, Mrs. J. C, 267 

Bailey, Mrs. S. G., 269 



19 



290 



History Medical Profession Camde?i Cotmty. 



PAGE 

Bailey, Dr. Wilson G., 

219, 232, 234, 241, 242, 256, 270 

Baird, Mrs. David, 277 

Baker, Dr. Charles A., 108 

Baldwin, Dr. A. K 256 

Baldwin, Kate A., 263 

Balear, Dr. Ezra, 6 

Baltz, Lilly T., 214 

Bancroft, Dr. E. R., 100 

Bancroft, Margaret, 278 

Banes, Dr. S. T., 146, 217 

Barrows, Dr. George, 8, 45 

Bartholomew, Dr. G. W., 34, 50 

Bartine, Dr. D. H., 

79, 96, 106, 119, 251 
Beale, Dr. Philip W., 

39, 98, 119, 144, 158, 170, 175, 176, 
178, 180, 206, 279 

Belden, Dr. O. S., 72 

Bell, Ezra, C, 170, 208 

Benjamin, Dr. Dowling, 

56, 120, 136, 140, 144, 153, 158, 159, 

171, 174, 177, 180, 187, 195, 198, 199, 

200, 202, 213, 220, 222, 228, 230, 245, 

248, 259, 260, 266, 277, 282, 284 

Benjamin, Mrs. Dowling, 267 

Bennett, B. W., 209 

Bennett, Dr. John K., 178, 197, 209, 

251 

Bennett, Volney G., 217 

Bergen, Hon. C. A 230,261 

Bergen, Mrs. S. D., 269 

Beringer, George M., 45 

Bettle, Edward, 103, 262 

Bettle, William, 142,217 

Bingham, Rudolphus, 

97, 129, 141, 151, 213, 258, 262 

Birdsell, Rudolph W, 187, 228, 230 

Birdsell, Dr. Sylvester, 

32, 40, 44, 52, 54, 56, 66, 83, 97, 182 

Bishop, Seth W...... 208 

Bishop, Dr. William S., 

28, 81, 91, 93 104 
Blackwood, Dr. Benjamin W. , 

8, 15, 34, 43 

Blackwood, Dr. John, 5 

Blackwood Dr. Thomas R., 

99, 100, 117, 119, 175, 211, 273 
Blake, Dr. Duncan W. Sr.. 

39. 78, 83, 134, 208, 233. 239, 245, 
246, 250, 279 

Blake, Dr. Duncan W. Jr., 255 

Blanc, Dr. William 118 

Bloomfield, Dr. Samuel, 5 

Board. U.S. Pension, 177 

Boker, William H., 170 

Bonsall, Henry L,., 66, 140 

Bonwill, Dr. Howard G., 223 

Borden, Carolyn A., 262 

Borton, George D., 56, 123, 180, 223 



PAGE 

Bottomley, John T., 103 

Bottomley, Mrs. John T., 102 

Boughman, Dr. George W.....H3, 193 

Bourke, Rachel 215, 259 

Bourquin, Frederick, 122, 140 

Bowden, Charles F., 146 

Bower, Dr. Elmer E., u& 

Bowyer, Charles P., 210 

Brace, Rev. F. R., 25, 140, 174, 200 

Brackett, Prof. C. F., 148, 169 

Braddock, Charles S., 45 

Braddock, William H., 175, 180 

Braker, Benjamin F., 66 

Branin, Dr Henry E., 

57. 58, 63, 64, 98, 119, 136, 140, 158, 
169, 181, 262, 277 

Bray, Dr. W. S., 232, 233 

Braymer, Dr Orange W., 

103, 119, 120, 144, 191, 219, 223, 229, 
235, 237, 238, 262, 263, 270, 277, 282 

Brewer , George , 208 

Brick, P. C, 102 

Bridges, 164 

Brigade : 

First Brigade, N. J. V., 6S 

Second Brigade, N. J. V., 69 

N J. Brigade, 67, 68 

Brooks, Sarah, 100 

Brooks, Mrs. William H 266 

Brown, Albert P., 45, 124, 146, 180 

Brown, Dr. L,. W., 100 

Browning, Benjamin H., 102 

Browning, G. Genge, 146 

Browning, Maurice, 

103, 129, 151, 187, 22S 

Bryant, Dr. J. Kemper, 83, 101, 210 

Buckwalter, Geoffrey, 187, 217 

Budd, Hiram E., 170 

Bunting, DauraB., 215, 261 

Burdsall, Frank H., 

187, 249, 268, 272, 273 

Burdsall, M. G 20S 

Burling, Col. George C, 73 

Burlington , 1 

Burn s , Elizabeth , 255 

Bushey, Dr. S. G., 

234, 241, 250, 255, 279 

Butcher, Mrs. Elizabeth 103 

Butler, Catharine, 215 

Buttner, Margaret, 255 

C 

Camden, City of, 

9, 10, 37, 38, 44, 53. 54. 55. 62, 109, 
122, 125, 250 

Campbell, John, Jr 210 

Campbell, Mrs. John, Jr., 210 

Campion, Anna Cooper, 215 

Carles, Dr. Samuel, 43, 57, 66 

Carll, Mrs. Elmer J., 268 



Index. 



291 



PAGE 

Carman, D. Cooper, 203 

Carpenter, Thomas P., 91, 102 

Carrow, Howard, 103, 265 

Carson, J. R., 277 

Carter, Hannah F., 142 

Casperson, Dr. Robert, 190, 197, 230 

Cattell, Alexander G., 217 

Cattell, Elijah G., 102 

Census, Medical of Camden County, 
15. 33. I", 113, 154, 163, 165, 240 

Censors, N. J. State Medical, 21 

Centennial , The, 144 

Chamberlain, Mrs. W. H., 210 

Chambers, David M., 

67, 103, 152, 187, 213, 217, 228, 258 

Chambre, Rev. A. St. John, 71 

Chew, Dr. Ezekiel C, 8, 32 

Chew, Dr. Henry F.,...8o, 96, 118, 120 
Children, Camden Home for Friendless, 

102, 262 
Cholera, 

25, 43, 46, 52, 86, 87, 94, no, 139, 
192, 234 

Christine, Dr. William B., 119, 281 

Church, St. Paul's P. E-, 8, 106 

Clark, Dr. C. F., 6, 149 

Clawson, Dr. J. E., 153 

Clement, Dr. Evan, 5 

Clement, Maria M., 143 

Clement, Mrs. William E-, 267 

Clinics, Medical, 130, 186, 273 

Club, Cooper Medical, 283 

Coates, Dr. Reynell, 

38, 66, 88, 109, 119, 122, 225 

Cochran , Samuel , 45 

Cceliotomy, 242 

Coffin, E. W., 209 

Cohen, Dr. J. Solis, 157 

Cohen, Dr. Nathan A 118, 280 

Cohn, E. N., 210, 217 

Coles, Dr. Abram, 86 

Coles, George W., 210 

Coles, J. Stokes, 170, 206 

Coles, S. T., 208 

Coles, W. D., 208 

College : 

Allegheny, 225, 238 

Amherst, 62 

Dickinson , 223 

Lafayette , 1 96 

Lebanon, 223 

Princeton , 1 08 , 253 

Rutgers 16, 200 

Swarthmore, 175, 233, 240 

Waterville, 131 

Williams, 88 

Yale, 34 

Colleges : 

Literary, 284 

Medical , 99 , 284 

Veterinary , 2 84 



Collins, Mrs. Annie H., 263 

Collins, Dr. William T., 

80, 119, 123, 217, 223, 239 

Collins, Mrs. William T., 278 

Comfort, Dr. J. J., 93.94. 13 6 

Commission, State Health, 127, 139 

Commission, State Sanitary,.... 95, 139 

Company, West Jersey Title, 228 

Congress : 

Fifth International Medical, 

138, 144 

Homoeopathic Medical, 145 

Ninth International Medical, 215 

Pan-American Medical , 275 

Connell, Mary L., 263 

Consumption, 60, 190, 194, 252 

Convention , Geneva, 78 

Cooper, Alexander,... 141, 212, 213, 258 
Cooper, Dr. Clark J.,. 98, 100, 117, 120 

Cooper, David E. , 142 

Cooper, Elizabeth B., 141, 212 

Cooper, Esther L-, 129 

Cooper, Howard M., 142, 217, 228 

Cooper, Dr. Isaac, 100 

Cooper, John , 142 

Cooper, Joseph B., 

107, 129, 141, 151, 152, 187, 188, 213, 
228, 258 

Cooper, Joseph W. , 107 

Cooper, Mrs. Lucy S., 142 

Cooper, Rachel , 229. 

Cooper, Dr. Richard M. , 

8, 11, 16, 17, 18, 24, 30, 31, 40, 46,. 

52, 58, 85, 91, 95, 107, 112, 115, 126,. 
129, 139, 141, 276 

Cooper, Richard M., 258 

Cooper, Sarah W 141, 214 

Cooper, William B.,... 152, 188, 213, 258 

Cooper, William D., 141 

Cooper, Col. William H., 121, 177 

Cooper, William J. , 142 

Cooper, Mrs. W. Haco, 268 

Coroners, Camden County,... 39, 56, 280 
Corps, Hospital and Ambulance, 

70, 78, 270 

Costello, T. K., 208 

Council, Camden City, 

166, 167, 171, 172, 188, 203 

Officers and Members,... 178, 211, 280 

Countryman , Jane, 255 

County, Atlantic, 2, 58 

County, Camden, 2, 9 

County, Old Gloucester, 1, 2 

Cowan, N. F., 103, 146 

Cowperthwaite, S. S. E., 210 

Cow-pox, 173 

Cox, Harry B., 221 

Cox, Jean M., 279 

Cox, John T , 272 

Coxe, Dr. Daniel, 2, 3 

Coxe, Col. Daniel, 98 



2g: 



History Medical Professioii Camden County. 



PAGE 

Craig, Dr John, 5 

Cross, The Red, 78 

Cullen, Dr. Thomas F., 

32, 34, 40, 44, 53, 59, 63, 68, 87, 91, 92, 
98, 115, 129, 141, 150, 213, 276 

Culver, T. B., 272 

Culver, Mrs. T. B., 267 

Curtis, George W. N., 102 

Cystotomy, 214, 242, 282 

D 

Daland, Dr. Judson, 237 

Danenhower, George R., 272, 277 

Dare, Mrs. M. S., 215 

Davis, Dr. H. H., 

39, 56, 98, 103, 120, 143, 144. I5i» 154, 
155, 178, 187, 190, 217, 228, 230, 238 
Davis, Dr. Nehemiah, 

175, 189, 223, 233, 239 
Davis, Dr. William A., 

98, 132, 140, 144, 152, 153, 176, 187, 
189, 197, 202, 213, 217, 222, 228, 230, 
232, 245, 248, 259, 260, 267, 277, 284 

Davis, Mrs. William A., 267 

Dayton, A. O 245 

Dayton, William C, 187 

Dean, Dr. Richard C, 34, 50, 56, 81 

Death-rate : 

Camden , 247 

Camden County, 252 

New Jersey, 247 

DeBaun, Dr Edwin 256 

DeGrofft, Dr. E E-, 

119, 179, 232, 235, 243, 263, 270 
DeLaCour, Joseph C, 

56, 92, 102, 107, 122, 124 

DeLaCour, Joseph L-, 124, 146, 180 

Delaplaine, Frank B., 249 

Delegates, Permanent, 240, 244 

Delinquent Patients, 40, 89 

Dentists, Camden County, 118, 285 

Dentistry, N.J. State Board of, 118 

Depuy, Watson, 217 

Derousse, Jennie H., 262 

Derousse, Louis T., 

103, 140, 146, 169, 174, 217 

Diarrhoea, 25 2 

Diarrhoea, Kensington, 61 

Diphtheria, 135, 143, 155, 192, 250, 252 
Diploma, N. J. State Medical Society, 

85 

Directory, Camden Nurse, 265 

Dispensary, City, 54 

Dispensary, Camden City, 

41, 87, 89, 107, 129, 151, 166, 185, 228 

Dissection, The First 235 

Districts, Medical, 21, 186 

Dobbins, Mrs. George, 210 

Dobson, Dr. A T.,....i52, 158, 239, 241 
Donges, Dr Clarence B., ...232, 255, 279 



PAGE 

Donges, Dr. John W., 

80, 119, 130, 143, 151, 154, 166, 167, 
178, 189, 204, 217, 249, 277 
Doron, Dr. John G., 

103, 176, 223, 230, 240, 243, 262 

Dougherty, Caroline T., 256 

Doughty, Clara M , 278 

Downs, Mrs. E. A , 267 

Drowning, Resuscitation of the, — 132 
Druggists, Camden, 

44, 97> 143. J 74, 180 
DuBois, Dr. William G. ,....101, 117, 175 

Dudley, Edward 217 

Duffield, Dr. J. E., 118 

Dunham, Mrs. Charles S., 266 

Dunmire, Annie T., 215 

Dysentery, 41, 52, 54, 113 



Eastlack, J. R., 217 

Eaton, Dr. Frederick M., 

101, 117, 224, 273, 278 

Eclectics, 113 

Education, Camden Board of, 

56, 83, 97, 126, 280 

Education, N. J. State Board of 126 

Education, Medical, 

21, 23, 35, 36, 159, 198 
Educational Interests, 

55> 56, 83, 97, 122, 144 

Edwards, Dr. Joseph F., 248 

Edwards, Dr. Joseph G., 100 

Elector, Presidential, 223 

EUisburg, ...52 

Elmer, Dr. William, 58 

Elverson, Mrs Joseph, 102 

Empyema, 194, 197 

Enactments, Medical,. ..35, 41, 162, 221 
Epidemics, 

25, 43, 46, 51, 52, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 87, 

94, no, 112, 114, 122, 135, 139, 143, 

155. 165, 192, 271 

Erdman, Mrs. Daniel, 277 

Essayists, Medical, 

59, 60, 86, 139, 198, 200, 243 

Ether-bottle, Will's, 283 

Ethics, Code of, 

16, 23, 40, 100, no, 192 

Evans, Hettie G., 142 

Evans, Joseph G., 206 

Evans, Lottie M., 260 

Evans, William J., 142 

Examinations, Medical, 

24, 29, 35, 42, 160 

Examination, Post-mortem, 88, 89 

Examiners, N. J. State Board of 

Medical, 160, 198, 200, 238, 253 

Experts, Medical, 115, 156 

Eyre, Mary E., 142 



Index. 



293 



Fair, The Sanitary, 78 

Fallon, Irene T., 215 

Farnham, Mrs. L. E-, 267 

Farr, Edward L-, 142 

Farrar, Dr. J. C, 284 

Farrell, John, 217 

Fee-bill, 16 

Fees : 

Censors, 16 

Diploma, 19 

Emergency , 32 

Licentiate, 34 

Obstetric, 62, 88, 109 

Professional , 62 , 109 

Fellows, N. J. State Medical Society, 

31.47 

Felton, Mrs. George G.,...: 102 

Felton, Mrs. May I., 267 

Fevers : 

Intermittent, 41, 65, 112 

Malarial, 51, 64, 135 

Remitting, 33, 41, 254 

Scarlet, 112, 155, 249, 254 

Spotted, 62, 65 

Typhoid, 41, 135, 193, 246, 249, 

252, 254 

Typhus, 155, 168, 180, 193 

Yellow, 41, 51, 131 

Few Smith, Eliza L., 102 

Fines, 92 

Finlaw, Mrs. George, 267 

Fish, Mrs. Israel, 267 

Fisler, Dr. Lorenzo F., 

6, 13, 17, 19, 25, 38, 40, 54, 78, 87, 91, 
94, 124, 178 
Fithiau, Dr. Joel W., 

123, 233, 240, 279 

Fithian, Dr. Joseph, 6 

Fitzwater, Sarah, 102 

Forceps : 

Baer 's 283 

Benjamin's Obstetrical, 195, 283 

Obstetric, 116 

Will's, 283 

Formad, Dr. Henry F., 169 

Fortiner, Dr. B. E 118 

Fortiner, Dr. George R. , 

98, 99, 101, 117, 144, 146, 205, 220, 
223, 249, 250 

Fortiner, H. S., 146, 220 

Fortiner, Dr. Ida, 99. 117, 144 

Fortiner, Mrs. Linda L 263 

Foster, Dr. J. J., 56 

Fox, J. B 187 

Fox, Mattie A., 263, 265 

Francis, Henry B., 140, 248, 250 

Freeman, Mrs. Alfred S., 273 

French, Margaret B., 142 

Frick, Dr. J. Howard, 

230, 233, 263, 277, 279, 284 



Fricke, Ida, 263 

Friends, Society of, 2, 13, 142 

Fry, Mrs. George E., 278 



Gamble, William H., 114 

Garbage, Collection of, .....201, 205 

Gardiner, Dr. D. E., 100 

Gardiner, Dr. D. R., 100 

Gardiner, Dr. J. W., 175 

Gardiner, Dr. Richard, 100 

Gardiner, Dr. William G., 101 

Garrison, Dr. Charles G ,...120,155,261 

Garrison, Dr. H. C, 101, 278 

Garrison, Dr. Joseph F., 

57, 68, 89, 93, 120, 283 

Garrison, Samuel B., 87, 89 

Gauntt, Dr. Franklin,. ..77, 114, 169,242 

Gausler, Mrs. A. E., 268 

Gelston, Dr. William H., 118 

George, Dr James A., 101, 117, 252 

George, Dr. John Oliver, 221 

Gibbon, Dr. Quinton, 76 

Gibson, Charlotte S., 215 

Gifford, T. I., 275 

Gill, John, 142, 169 

Gilmore, Mary, 255 

Gloucester City, 2, 155, 157 

Gloucester, Medical Profession of Old, 

2, 8, 10 

Glover, Elisha V., T02 

Glover, Mrs. George, 102 

Glover, Dr. Lawrence L-, 

121, 194, i95> 22 3 
Godfrey, Dr. E. L. B., 

120, 130, 132, 134, 140, 144, 146, I47> 
156, 161, 167, 173, 177, 186, 191, 194, 
200, 201, 213, 215, 219, 220, 222, 228, 
230, 238, 243, 247, 256, 259, 260, 270, 
276, 277, 282, 284 

Godfrey, Mrs. E. L. B., 217, 266 

Goitre, Removal of, 242 

Goldsmith, Martin, 82, 98, 124 

Goldy, Leander, W., 272 

Goldy, Mrs. Leander W., 102, 273 

Goodell, Dr. William, 114 

Gourley, Mrs. John, 277 

Graff, William, 208 

Graffen, Harris 210 

Graham, John R., 102 

Graw, Rev. Dr. J. B., 263 

Green, Dr. C. M., 154, 155 

Green , Priscilla, 255 

Grey, Samuel H., 

67, 103, 187, 217, 230, 267 

Grey, Mrs. Samuel H., 102 

Grey, W. H., .-. 209 

Grier, Dr. Lawrence R 256 

Griffith, Dr. Anna, E., 

99, 100, 117, 123, 210, 273 



294 



History Medical Professio?i Camden Coimty. 



PAGE 

Grigg, Dr. Jacob, 32 

Griscom, Sarah C., 143 

Gross, Dr. O. B., 

120, 131, 132, 136, 137, 144, 147, 151, 
172, 178, ii>8, 189, 194, 213, 217, 222, 
228, 230, 242, 259, 260, 277, 282, 284 

Gross, Dr. S. D., in 

Groves, William, 210 

Grubb, Mrs. John R., 210 

Grumbrecht, Dr. Oscar L,., 

101, 255, 273, 281 
Guard, N. J. National. 

67. 96, 97, 121, 177, 269, 276 

Gumby, Mary A., 255 

Gunter, Dr. Guilford, 175, 196 

Gynecology 134, 222, 273 

H 

Haberstroh, Mrs. Carrie, 260 

Haberstroh, Jessie F., 260 

Hackett. Mrs. Josiah S., 268 

Haddonfield, 2, 11, 12 

Hahnemann, Dr. Samuel, 99 

Haines, Caroline S., 142 

Haines, J. M 209 

Haines, Dr. Rowland I., 

98, 119, 143, 233, 255, 281 

Haines, Susan S., 142 

Haines, William, 209 

Haley, Dr. John J., 177, 240, 251 

Hall, Mrs. M. W., 210 

Halsey, Dr. L. M., 242 

Hamilton, Dr. William A., T53, 156 

Hammoni, George F., 204, 249 

Hampton , Jobn , 209 

Haney, Dr. John R., 

108, 113, 122, 123, 157, 226 

Hanford, H. B., 103 

Hanford, Mrs. H. B 268 

Hare, Dr. Hobart A., 239 

Harned, John F., 122 

Harned, Thomas B., 267 

Harned, Mrs. Thomas B., 267 

Harris, Dr. Jacob, 5 

Harris, Dr. Samuel, 4, 7 

Harris, Mrs. Thomas H., 267 

Hatton, Dr. Louis, 83 

Hayes, J. Henry, 217 

Health, Boards of: 

Camden City, 158, 171, 188, 202, 249 

Gloucester City 171, 250 

Haddonfield , 25 1 

Merchantville, 171, 251 

Centre Township 171, 251 

Delaware Town ship. 171,251 

Gloucester Township, 171, 252 

Haddon Township, 171, 251 

Pensaukin Township, 252 

Stockton Township, 171, 252 

Waterford Township, 252 



PAGE 

Health Boards of: 

Winslow Township, 171, 252 

Health, N. J. State Board of, 

147, 165, 169, 170, 172, 203, 205, 249 

Hendry, Dr. Bowman, 6, 7, 55 

Hendry, Dr. Bowman, 2d., 

12, 19, 30, 63, 73, 77, 87, 91, 104 

Hendry, Dr. Bowman, 3d, 73, 77 

Hendry, Dr. Charles D., 

8, 11, 17, 24, 32, 34, 104, 276 

Hendry, Dr. Thomas 5, 6 

Henry, Dr. George W., 

39, 119, 174, 180, 189, 195, 230, 279 

Hernia, 60 

Heulings, Dr. I. W., in, 114, 158 

Heyl, Amanda, 269 

Heyl, Charles H., 220 

Hillman, Abel, 170 

Hillman, Alfred, 170 

Hinson, Dr. Jacob M., 101, 117, 273 
Hirst, Dr. Levi B., 

119, 120, 177, 223, 232, 257, 281 

Hirst, Mrs. P. W., 267 

Historian : 

City Medical Society, 232 

County Medical Society, 196 

History of Camden, Fisler's, 54 

History of Camden City Dispensary, 

Taylor's, 229 

History, Camden County Med. Society, 

Cooper's, 112 

History, Camden County Med. Society, 

Stevenson's, 7, 193, 194 

History, Cooper Hospital, Voorhees, 141 
History of New Jersey, Mulford's, 25 
Hoell, Dr. Conrad G., 

98, 119, 153, 158, 223 

Hoffecker, G. S. 175 

Hogan, C. M., 210 

Holl, George, 217 

Hollingshed, Charles, 210 

Hollingshed, Mrs. Charles, ....102, 210 

Hollingshed, Mrs Harry, 273 

Hollingshed , Thomas , 2 78 

Holloway, Kathleen, 264 

Holmes, Mrs. Eva M., 266 

Home, Methodist Episcopal, 277 

Homoeopathy, 

33, 34, 43, 50, 99, «3i n 7, 165, 286 

Homoeopathy, American Institute of, 

23, 43, 99, 100, 101 

Hood, Col. John, 267 

Hood , Hannah, 267 

Hoover, Dr. Francis, 6, 8 

Horner, Frank , 208 

Horner, John , 170 

Horning, Dr. Frank L-, 230, 238 

Horley, H. M 250 

Hospital : 

Beverly, U. S. A., 77 



Index. 



>95 



PAGE 

Hospital : 

Camden County, 169 

Camden Homoeopathic, 185, 208 

The Cooper, 

129, 141, 211, 236, 238, 24I, 242, 257, 

282, 283 

Women and Children, 238 

Military, 78 

Mower, U. S. A., 79, 92 

Municipal, 204 

Orthopedic, 189 

Pennsylvania, 189 

Philadelphia, 1 95 , 236 

Presbyterian , 132 

Rhode Island, 132 

Satterlee, U. S. A., 79, 80 

Small-pox, 122, 166 

St. Christopher's, 195 

St. Joseph's 106 

St. Luke's, 233 

St. Mary's, 226 

W. J. Homoeopathic, 272 

U. S. Marine 132 

Howard, Dr. E. M., 

99, 101, 117, 140, 144, 176, 210, 222, 
267, 273 

Howard, Mrs. E- M., 210, 267 

Howell, Dr. Benjamin P., 6, 76 

Howell, Dr. Mary Anna, 255 

House, Perseverance Hose, 90, 92 

Hufty, Col. S. C, 146 

Hugg, Dr. I. N., 80, 106 

Hunt, Dr. Ezra M., 

95, 139. 147. 166, 169 
Hunt, Dr. Henry F., 

83. 98, 99, 100, 117, 145, 210, 248 

Hunt, Mrs. Henry F., 210 

Hunt, Dr. Willis H., 117, 120, 144, 273 

Hunter, Dr. James 242 

Hurff, Dr. Joseph E., 

119, 170, 171, 175, 181, 193, 206, 246, 

252 

Hurff, Mrs. A. D., 267 

Huston, Jessie E. , 264 

Hutchingson, John, 208 

Hutton, Arabella B., 215 

Hydrophobia, 52 

Hygiene : 

Section of, 197 

Thermometry of, 202 

Hypodermics, 93 

Hysterectomy , 214, 282 

I 

111, Dr. E. J., 244, 276 

Ingersoll, Dr. D. B., 161 

Inoculation , 4 

Inspector : 

City Sanitary, 204, 250 

Meat, 250 



PAGE 

Inspector : 

Medical, N. G. N. J., 270 

Nuisance, 250 

Plumbing, 204, 250 

State Sanitary, 172 

Institute : 

. Peddie, 132 

Philotechnic, 97 

South Jersey, 233 

Insurrection, Whiskey, 7 

Internes, Hospital , 256 

Intestines, Exsections of, 282 

Inventions, Surgical,.... 195, 282 

Ireland, Dr. William H., 

108, 113, 123, 130, 147, 193, 229, 230, 
277, 279 

Ironside, Dr. Allen S., 101, 224, 273 

Irwin, Dr. A., 118 

Irwin, Dr. Samuel B., 25, 132, 135 

Iszard, Dr. William H., 

39, 80, 119, 133, 137, 140, 147, 154, 
196, 229, 246, 279 

Ivins, Mahlon F., 205, 249, 275 

Ivins, Mrs. M. F., 210 

J 

Jackson, Major E. J., 97 

Jackson, Mrs. Hannah, 267 

Jackson, John H. , 206 

Jail , Camden , 207 

Jarrett, Dr. Harry, 

98, 120, 213, 238, 259, 279, 284 

Jefferies, Mrs. Carrie, 267 

Jenkins, Wilson H., 267 

Jenkins, Mrs. Wilson H., 267 

Jenner, Dr. Edward, 167 

Jennings, Anna E-, 255 

Jennings, E. Fayetta, 102, 210, 273 

Jennings, Dr. Charles H., 99, 239, 279 
Jennings, Dr. Napoleon B., 

51, 57. 64, 99. ii4. 120, 225, 277 
Jennings, Dr. W. B., 

209, 234, 246, 251, 279 

Jessup, Dr. John J., 17, 27, 45 

Jewett, H. M., 208 

Johnson, Mrs. John W., 267 

Johnson, Mary L., 215 

Johnston, Col. John R. 235 

Joline, C. V. D., 264, 265 

Joline, Mrs. C. V. D., 102 

Jones, Mrs. Harry L., 267- 

Jones, Dr. George H., 175 

Jones, Dr. William S., 

147, 178, 189, 195, 223, 230 
Jurisprudence, Medical,... 116, 155, 156 
Justice, Richard S.,....56, 144, 180, 278 

K 

Kaighn , Cornelia S. , 255 

Kaighn, W. M 275 

Kain, C. Henry, 140, 146 



>g6 



History Medical Profession Camden Coitnty. 



Kain, Dr. W. W.,„98, 232, 236, 237, 256 

Kean, Dr. T. J., 221 

Keen, Dr. W. W., 157, 279 

Keilholtz, Estelle Noble, 264 

Kelchner, Dr. William I., 

119, 232, 236, 256 

Kellum, Mrs. Luther V., 210, 273 

Kemble, Elwood W., 130 

Kensinger, Dr. William, 239,279 

Ketchum, Mary E., 260 

Keys, Harriett E., 263 

Keyser, Dr. Peter D., 96, 192, 248 

Kimble, Dessie , 215 

Kimper, Mrs. AlliherE., 261, 265 

King, Harriet M., 277 

Kirk, Dr. Grant E. , 

119, 232, 233, 255, 279,280 

Kirkpatrick, Dr. Alexander, 100 

Knerr, Mrs J. H., 267 

Knight, Mrs. Harry, 267 

Knight, Septimus, 203, 206 

Knowlton, Mrs Charles H., 267 

Knowlton, Dr. William W., 

101, 117, 256, 274, 281 
Kreh, Cornelia M., 264 



Lacey, Dr. Henry A., 99, 255, 280 

Lacey, Robert T., 272 

La Grippe, 271 

Lampson, Dr. Mortimer, 270 

Landis, Dr. Edgar H., 221 

Dane, D. F., 250 

Lane, Dr. F. B., 256 

Langendorf, D. G 210, 273, 275 

Langendorf, Mrs. D. G, 2 to 

Laparotomy, 191, 214, 242, 257, 282 

Laws .Dental , 118 

Laws, Medical : 

^665) 3, 4 

1772) 4, 21, 160, 254 

;i783) 5 

;i786) 5 

(1790) 5 

^1816) 6, 21, 254 

;i8i8) 6, 22 

[1823) 31 

[1830) 22, 28, 60 

[1851) 20, 28,35 

[1854) 20, 31, 34, 41, 43, 46, 49, 50, 
59, 85, 160 

'1864) 60, 85 

1866) 43, 50,85, 170 

1870) '. 117 

1876) 146 

1877) 147. 272 

1878) 147 

1879) 147 

1880) 43, 156, 160, 162, 164, 250 

1881) 164 



Laws, Medical : 

(1882) 164 

(1883) 160. 162, 164, 205 

(1884) ' 117, 165 

(1885) 146, 162 

(1889).. 221 

(1890) 160, 254 

(1892) 255 

(1894) 256 

Laws : 

Midwifery, 255 

Medico-Military, 269 

Nurses, 261 

Pharmaceutical, 124 

Quarantine, 53 

Sanitary, '. 202, 248 

Veterin ary , 221 

Lawson, Rev. Dr. A. G., 262, 264 

Learning, Dr. Jonathan, 76 

Leavitt, Dr. JohnF.,...i9i, 230, 277, 279 
Leckner, Dr. John D., 

39. 5 6 , 98, 101, 117, 120, 142, 144, 178, 

203, 204, 2JCI, 249 

Lectureships, Medical, 146, 182,222 

Ledington, H. K., 209 

Lee, Emmor H., 124, 143 

Legacies : 

Alexander Cooper , 258 

Elizabeth B. Cooper, 141, 185 

Esther L. Cooper, 108, 129 

Joseph B. Cooper, 188, 228 

Rachel Cooper, 229 

Dr. Richard M. Cooper, 

108, 115, 128, 129, 133, 141 

Sarah W. Cooper 141 

William B. Cooper, 188 

John Morgan, 152, 181, 185 

Legion, Order of Loyal, 96, 145 

Legislature, Members of, 280 

Lehman, J. E., 123, 180 

Lewis, Dr. Benjamin S., 

119, 140, 178, 230, 232, 239, 241, 247, 
248, 250, 278, 279 

Lewis, Clara I., 264 

Lewis. Mrs. George I., 267 

Levis, S. Virginia 264 

Librarian, City Medical Society,... 190 
Libraries : 

R. M. Cooper Medical, 128 

I. B. Mulford Medical 182 

Medical Society of N. J., 199 

Lippincott, Dr A. H, 

98, 234, 235, 236, 242, 255, 279 

Lippincott, Helen, 142 

Literature, The Physician in,.. .86, 239 

Litholapaxy , 242 , 282 

Long, Dr. William S., 

119, 195, 196, 206, 223 

Longland, Mrs. R. R., 267 

Lore, Mrs W. C, 267 



Inde: 



297 



Love, Dr. J. H. H. ( 2 i 9 

Lowe, Isaac L., I02 

Lucas, John, "j,, 

Lummis, Dr. Dayton , 5 6 



an 

Macfarland, Dr. B. W., 214 259 284 

MacPherson, Frank S...... i 4 2 

Maher, Dr. John J., 221 

Malaria, 5I ^V """ '' 

Malin, Dr. H. H., ?..'.. .*[$ So 

Mann, Lucy C, 261 

Marcy, Dr. Alexander, 

59, 62, 65, 66, 83, 88, 91, 93, 98, 107, 
"3. 130, 134, 151, 185, 224, 233, 240, 

246 
Marcy, Dr. Frederick W., 



Marcy, Dr. John W., 



242, 256, 259, 284 



™ 1 , .,, "' J 95- 223. 246, 251 

Markley, Albert W., i 4I 213 

Markley, Major Hamilton, ' 96 

Marsh, Dr. F. J., 148, 245, 27s 

Marshall, Dr. J. C, 24s 

Marshall, Rev. Dr. J. W., 263 

Martin, Dr. William, .....U^^g, 284 

Martindale, Isaac C, 122, 146' 217 

Martindale, Dr. Joseph W.,...'..2 5 7' 281 

Masonry, 98> 9g> „ 4j I2Q 

Mayor of Camden, 

M , T . , IO > 38, 125, 250, 280 

Mayhew, Lida, 277 

Mead, William T., '.'" 2o i 

Mealy, Patrick, 2o 9 ,"25o 

Mecray, Dr. Alexander M., 
56, 80, 88, 93, 94, 98, 99, 106, 107, 120, 
122, 129, 131, 151, i 54) ^7, 213, 228, 
230, 238, 259, 260, 279, 284 

Mecray, Dr. Paul M., 257, 259, 284 

Mehr, Col. John F., ......„.!. 245 

Medicine, American Academy of, 14^ 
Meeteer, Mrs. Joseph C...... 210 273 

Melcher, Dr. William P., 

J 3°i I3Ij 132, 134, 137, 2-?q 

Merchantville „.....„. Si 

Meredith, J. A., ' 2 o8 

Michellon, Frank F., ^67 

Michellon, James P., 167 

Middleton, Dr. M. F., 

56, 98, 99, 100, 117, 122, 144, 146, 178, 

2IO 2^0 

Middleton, Mrs. M. F., !.2io 

Midwives, 7 2 -<a 2^ 

Miles, Dr. B. Fullerton^.'.!'.!...'...^:.' 32 
Military,... 2, 4, 27, 56, 67, 81, 96, 121, 

^•,1 t x 7 6 » 177. 218 
Milk, Impure 201 

Miller, Herman W., 122/204, 240 

Miller, Dr. John S., 1,0 i» 

Miller, Col. Mathew, . ' 68 

Miller, Dr. Morris B., 259 



Miller, Mrs. R. T., 269 

Miller, SallieJ., ' 2 6z 

Miller, Dr. W. B. E., 

80, 140, 178, 204, 221, 246, 248, 250 
Miller, Dr. William E., 

232, 237, 257, 281 

Milliette, A. J., 130, 167, 170 

Milliette, Mrs. A. J., 267 

Mills, Dr. Charles K., i 57 

Mines, Dr. Marcus K., 257, 281 

Missionary , 1 4 g 

Mitchell, Dr. Henry, ".'.'"""201 

Mitchell, Dr. S. B. W. 96 

Molan, Mrs. 0. C, 267 

Molineaux, George, 209 

Monstrosity, 1? 7 

Moody, Edward F., 220 

Moore, Dr. Enoch H., 221 

Morgan, John, 92, 107, 129, 151, 181 

Morgan, J. Willard, 130,203 

Morgan, Dr. Randal W., 

108, in, 122, 123, 147, 1S4 

Morgan, Dr W. W., 118 

Morrison, Mrs. S. H., 210 

Morton, Mrs. Elmer, 267 

Morton, Dr. Thomas G., .194 

Moses, Arnold H., 133, 248 

Moses, William H., '.206 

Moslander, Dr. William S. , 

98, 101, 117, 224, 250, 277 

Mosley, Elizabeth, 255 

Mulford, Dr. Isaac B., 

108, no, 113, 121, 130, 132, 133, 143, 

144. 151. 155. 177, 189, 277 
Mulford, Dr. IsaacS., 

6, 8, 9, 16, 17, 25, 30, 31, 40, 41, 45, 
4 6 . 55. 67. 87, 91, no, 125, 276 

Mulford, Dr. W. C, 8, 98, 123 

Mulford, Mrs. Thomas E , 269 

Munger, George A., 103 

Munger, Mrs. George A., 273 

Muschamp, Stanley C, 

56, 143, 180, 224 

Myers, Elinor, 215 

McAlister, Dr. Alexander, 

103, 142, 143, 186, 189, 195, 217, 223, 
2 3°> 233, 242, 246, 279, 282 

McCuen, Dr. G. Hudson, 284 

McCullough, Dr. Joseph W., 

79 ' II3, x 54> 158, 169, 180 

McCully, A ....217 

McGeorge, Dr. Emerson P., 

ior, 257 281 
McGeorge, Dr. Wallace, 

99, 100, 117, 119, 142, 274, 278, 281 

McGill, Dr. E. K., ..101, 117 

McGill, Dr. John D 218, 219, 269 

McGrath , Dr. John M. , 96 

McKeen, Col. Thomas, 

68, 87,89, 107, 114, 129, 151, 152, 183 



298 



History Medical Profession Camden County. 



McKelway, Dr. A. J., 71-77, 224 

McKensie, Dr. G. W., Jr., 257 

N 

Narcotism, 116 

Navy, U. S. 27,56,81 

Navy, Medical Department, 55 

Neall, Dr. D. W., 118 

Neeley, Belle, 214 

Nesbitt, Jennie, 267 

Newell, Dr. William L.,----74, 255, 256 

Newkirk, Matthew, 102 

New Jersey : 

Colony of, 2, 4 

Constitution of, 10 

East and West, 2 

Governor of, 47 

State of, 2 

Nichols, Clayton W., 272, 275 

Nicholson, Dr. Joseph L., 

103, 222, 232, 236, 259, 282, 284 

Nicholson, Mrs. Joseph L. , 102 

Nicholson, W. C, 208 

Nixon, Mrs. M. E 267 

Noel, Dr. J. R., 259 

Northrop, Ida 267 

Northrop, Mrs. S. E., 209, 266, 273 

Nurses : 

Cooper Hospital Training School, 

214 
N.J. Training School, 103, 259 

O 

Oakley, Dr. Lewis W., 97 

Obstetrics, 62, 88, 109, 116, 133, 182 

Odd Fellows, 59, 119 

Ogden, Charles S , 270 

Ogden, Charlotte A., 261, 265 

Okie, Dr. R. B., 108, 113 

Olcutt, Col. George P., 247 

Operations, Major Surgical, 282 

Orphanage, West Jersey,.. 142 

Osborne, Dr. Joseph D., 219 

Osmun, Dr. Milton M.....230, 257, 280 

Osmun, Dr. W. F. H., 232 239, 279 

Ossium, Fragilitas, 88 

Otto, Dr. Bodo, 5 

Ovariotomy, 190, 214, 282 

Owen , James, 247 

F= 
Palm, Dr. Howard F., 

151, 154, 157, 175, 178. 186, 228, 230, 
232, 238, 240, 277, 279 
Pancoast, Dr. D. P., 

79, 98, 108, no, 113, 123, 129, 131, 
J 36, 151, 180, 213, 277, 284 

Pancoast, Dr. Joseph, in 

Parham, Dr. William, 8, 57 

Parish, Dr. W. H., 260 

Parker, Mrs. Anna, 278 

Parker, Charlotte E., 215 



Parker, J. Edgar 208 

Parsons, Dr. R. H., 239 

Party : 

Democratic 66 

Free Soil, 39, 66 

Native American, 38, 66 

Republican, 39, 66 

Whig, 66 

Patterson, Lillian F., 262 

Patton, Walter M., 272 

Patton, Mrs. W. M., 210, 273 

Peacock, Ada, 210 

Peacock, Dr. Robert H., 101, 175 

Pearson, Dr. Leonard, 221 

Pechin, GeorgeJ 98, 278 

Pedigree, Edward C, 206 

Pedigree, Charles, 209 

Pepper, Dr. William, 

169, 193, 260, 274, 276 

Perkins, Dr. C. W., 100 

Pfeiffer, Dr. Frederick P., 

80, 98, 106, 120, 167, 178 
Pfeiffer, Dr. G. S. F., 

45, 77, 100, 146, 176, 183, 222 

Pharmacopcea, U. S 243 

Pharmacy : 

College of, 284 

N.J. State Board of, 124, 287 

Phelan, Dr. Edward, 

234, 236, 243, 255, 279 

Phillips, Dr. E. K., 100 

Phillips, T. J. W., 230, 266 

Philosophy : 

Bachelor of, 132 

Doctor of, 184, 238 

Physician, County, 146 

Pierson, Dr. William, Sr., 86 

Pierson, Dr. William, Jr., 86 

Piatt, Catherine, 261 

Plumber, B...... 277 

Pneumonia, 133 

Politics, 

9, 37. 55, 58. 61, 63, 65, 178, 2S0 

Port, Collector of, 223 

Portraits, Medical , 236 

Potts, Robert B., 102 

Poverty, Society for Relief of, 187 

Powell, Mrs. Grace E., 260 

Powell, Dr. William R., 

98, 103, 120, 189, 223, 230, 239, 259, 

262 
Pratt, Dr William H., 

103, 232, 236, 237, 256, 263 
Pregnancy, Extra-uterine, 

88, 113, 257, 282 
Presley, Dr. Sophia, 

142, 143, 175, 232, 236, 238, 277, 279 

Prince, Mrs. Charles L-, 268, 273 

Professorships, Medical, 183, 222 



Index. 



299 



Pugh, Dr. J. Howard, 77 

Pvothorax, 158 

Q 

Quinby, Dr. I. N., 217 

Quint, Dr. Silas, H., 

101, 117, 120, 123, 136, 210, 217, 278 
Quint, Mrs. Silas H., 210 

F2 

Railroads : 

Camden and Atlantic, 

133. !37, 245. 282 

Camden and Amboy, 282 

Philadelphia and Atlantic City, 245 

West Jersey, 138 

Raughley, Dr. William C, 175 

Read, Edmund E., 102 

Read, E. E.,Jr., 140, 146, 187 

Read, Joseph J., 91, 103 

Read, Mrs. Joseph J., 102 

Read, Mrs. W. T., 267 

Reading, Dr. George E., 242 

Record, Dr. E. J., 16, 34, 43 

Red Bank, Battleof, 5 

Reed, Dr. Boardman, 161, 245, 265 

Reese, Dr. Eeolf, 209, 252, 281 

Reeve, Augustus, 141, 142, 213, 258 

Reeve, Benjamin C, 142, 187, 217 

Reeve, Elizabeth C, 143 

Reeve, Mary R. C, 143 

Reeve, Rebecca C , 142 

Reeve, Rebecca C. W., 142 

Reeve, Rebecca H. C, 143 

Reeve, Richard H., 

140, 142, 152, 185, 213, 217, 228, 247, 

258 
Regiments : 

Eighth, N.J. V., 71, 79 

Fifth, N.J. V. 72, 79 

Fourth, N.J. V., 72, 79 

Second, N.J. V., 68 

Sixth, N. J. V. 73, 79 

Sixth, N. G. N. J., 121, 218, 270 

Twenty-fourth, N.J. V., 74, 79 

Registration, Medical, 

156, 162, 165, 205, 20S, 284 

Reinboth, Joseph D. , 102 

Reporter, N. J. Medical and Surgical, 

49 

Republic,' Grand Army of the 145 

Revell, Florence E., 262 

Revolution : 

Sons of the American, 220 

War of the 2, 5 

Rex, Mrs. F. A., 267 

Reynolds, Maud F., 215 

Rheumatism , 1 93 

Rhoads , Charles , 103 

Rhoads, Mrs. Charles, 102 

Richards, U. F., 122, 278 



PAGE 

Richardson, Amelia Y., 215, 263 

Richardson, Mrs. Emma R 260, 265 

Rickards, Dr. Jennie, 175 

Ridge, Dr. James M., 

56, 57. 83. 86, 88, 91, 93- 107, 119, 

122, 129, 136, 138, 144, 145. 148, 178, 

217, 230, 240, 246 

Ringel, Simeon T. , 83, 124, 180 

Risley, D. Somers, 278 

Risley, Dr. James C, 8, 11, 16, 17 

Roberts, Eugene B., 205, 249 

Roberts, Dr. John B., 264 

Roberts, J. E., 210, 277 

Roberts, S. E., 210 

Robinson, Edith M 264 

Robinson, Dr. George T., 

98, 103, 146, 152, 153, 177, 186, 193, 

218, 222, 230, 232, 234, 235, 238, 259, 

260, 279, 284 

Rogers, Mrs. John C. 210 

Roop, Mrs. Franklin, 210 

Rorer, Mrs. J. H., 267 

Rose, Wilbur F., 167, 187, 217 

Rowand, Dr. Thomas G., 

39,45,56, 67, 74, 97, 99, no, 134. 
146, 222 

Rudderow, Samuel G., 272 

Russell, E. A., 208 

Russell, Mrs. Samuel, 210 

Ryerson, Dr. John G., 247 

S 

Salem, 1 

Samson, Mrs Charles, 267 

Sanitation, Camden City, 166, 204 

Sanitation in New Jersey, 95, 139, 248 
Sartori, Dr. Charles W., 

56, 82, 98, 121, 122, 148 

Satterthwaite, Margaret W., 262 

Saunders, Dr. T. J 6 

Schellenger, Dr. C. M., 

98, 131, 151, 154, 155. 166, 279 
Schellenger, Dr. E. A. Y., 

103, 232, 236, 243, 255, 259, 263, 284 
Schenck, Dr. John V., 

16, 24, 40, 51, 52, 54, 65, 86, 88, 91, 
107, 114, 116, 129, 138, 151, 181,213, 

276 

Schenck. Dr. Peter V., 69, 93, 225 

Schofield, Dr. A. H., 259 

Schools : 

Harvard Medical, 144 

Haddonfield Training, 278 

Philadelphia High, 62, 65 

Public 55. 97. 202 

Scovel, Col. James M., 7 6 > I21 

Scull, Mrs L,aura W. 143 

Scull, H. S., 210 

Scull, Mrs. H. S., 210 

Secretary, N. J. Med. Society, Corres- 
ponding, 245 



300 



History Medical Profession Camden County. 



Section : 

Abdominal, 190, 242, 244, 282 

Caesarian, 257, 282 

Seddinger, Charles K., 208 

Seeds, Mrs. John A., 269 

Sellers, Dr A. T , 221, 248 

Sellers, Dr. Jesse, 41 

Seminary, Pennington, 12, 152 

Senn, Dr. Nicholas, 220 

Senseman , Emelius , 272 

Settlements : 

Dutch, 1 

English 1 

Swedish, 1 

Severns, William, 103 

Sewell, Gen. William J., 

75, 96, 121, 161, 177, 178, 187, 262 

Sewell, Mrs. W. J., 269 

Seymour, J. F., 277 

Shafer, Dr. William, 

140, 175, 190. 195, 230, 250, 278, 279 

Shakspeare, Dr. E O., 248 

Sharp, Mrs. Annie S., 142 

Sharp, Dr. Edgar B , 101, 119, 144 

Sharp, Edward W., 272 

Sharp, Mrs. Horace M., 102 

Sharp, Mrs. Howard R., 266, 268 

Sharp, Dr. L. L., 98, 120 

Sharpless, Harvey, 142 

Shelmire, Mrs. J. H., 273 

Sheppard, Ruth E 261, 263, 265 

Sherk, Dr. Harry H., 

190, 197, 223, 233, 242, 279, 282 

Shinn, Dr. Charles T., 255 

Shivers, Dr. Bowman H., 

57, 83, 99, 100, 117, 279 
Shivers, Dr. Charles H., 

114, 121. 123, 154, 196 
Shoemaker, Dr. John V., 

i57> T 9 r > 2 39. 2 4i 

Shreeve, D A., 209 

Shreve, Dr. Joseph, 100 

Sickler, J. B., 209 

Sickler, Dr. J. R., 6, 8, 10, 58 

Simmerman, Mathias, 170 

Simmons, Mrs. Clorinda H., 262, 265 

Skull. Fracture of, 156, 242 

Slavery, 65-67 

Slocum, Dr. W. H., 256 

Slough, Charles E., 180 

Small- pox, 

61, 63, 64, 107, 114, 122, 155, 165, 

168, 173, 204 

Smallwood, Dr. R. M.....I7, 28, 34, 56 

Smiley, Dr. E. R., 39, 175 

Smith, Abel 187 

Smith, Dr. Frederick M., 118 

Smith, Dr. George A., 221 

Smith, Dr. H. A. M.,„93, 135, 233, 241 

Sm ith, Jeremiah, 91 

Smith, Mary Carpenter, 264 



Smith, Dr. S. Bryan, 

99, 101, 117, 224, 266, 278 
Smith, Dr. Thomas J.,... 88, 91, 93, 243 

Smock, J. C, 247 

Snitcher, Dr. Elijah J., 

123, 131, 132, 134, 152, 153, 227 
Snowden, Dr. John W., 

17, 27, 50, 133, 154, 161, 227, 277 

Snyder, Henry M., 204, 249 

Society, Camden City Medical, 

40, 52, 60, 87, 108, 131, 153, 165, 
188, 232 

In Cholera Epidemic, 94 

Constitution, 40, 190 

Essayist, 189 

Fee-Bill, 54 

Fees, 62, 88, 109 

Honorary Members, 89, 191 

Limitation of Membership, 40 

Monthly Meetings, 189 

Organization of City Board of 

Health, 188, 203 

Organization of the Camden 

City Dispensary , 90 

Re-organization , 109, 153 

Rooms of the Society, 90 

Suspension of Meetings, 153 

Voluntary Organization, 41 

Society, Camden City Medical and 

Surgical, 279 

Society, Camden County Bible, 25 

Society Camden District Medical, 

10, 31, 50, 63, 92, no, 133, 154, 
163, 179, 191, 216, 237 

Annual Meeting, 12, 134 

Banquet to N. J. Med. Society, 

133. *37 

Censors, 18, 22, 46, 58, 134, 154 

Code of Ethics, 16 

Committee of Arrangements, 135 

Complimentary Trains, 

133, i37> 138 
Constitution, 

n, 31, 34, 93, 134, 195, 196 

Cooper Legacy, 115, 128 

Cor responding Societies, 113 

Dues, 16, 92 

Expulsion of Members, 50 

February Meeting, 

158, 191 ; 193, 196 

Fee-Bill 16 

Fees, 34 

History, 15. 94 

Honorary Members, 

93, in, 113, 155, 158, 197 

Limitation of Membership, 34 

Medical Census, 

15. 32, 33. 112, 113, 154, 163 

Meetings outside of County, 242 

Office of President declared 
vacant, 16 



Index. 



301 



Society, Camden District Medical : 

Organization 10-12, 18 

Permanent President, 115 

Sections, 133 , 197 

Semi-Annual Meeting, 

„ ,. I2 > 32, 114. 134 

Standing Committee, 33, 134, 135 

Term of Office 31 

Society, Camden Microscopical, 146 

Society, Delaware State Medical, ...223 
Society, Gloucester District Medical, 6 
Society, Medical, of New Jersey, 

17, 27, 46, 58, 85, 115, 137, 160, 

IQ 7. 199. 2 43 
Censors, 

18, 21-23, 27, 46, 49, 58, 60, 85 

Centennial Anniversary, 85 

Complimentary R. R. Trains, 

133. I 37, 138. 245 

Corresponding Secretary , 245 

Corresponding State Societies, 58 

Diploma, 19, 27, 30, 85 

District Societies, 6, 18, 21, 22, 86 

Essayists, 

59, 60, 86, 139, 198, 200, 243 

Fellows, 31, 47 

1 ncorporation , 5 , 85 

Incorporators,. 5 , 7 

Licentiate Fees, 34, 49 

Medical Degree 85 

Meetings at Atlantic City, 

116, 137, 161, 245 
Meetings in Camden, 19, 59, 62, 63, 65 

Meetings at Cape May, 138, 162 

Nominating Committee, 49 

Organization, 4, 21, 85 

Permanent Delegates, 240, 244 

Presidents 29, 46, 115, 138 

Re-incorporation, 21, 85 

Re-organization, 60, 85 

Semi-Annual Meetings, 18, 29 

Special Meeting 31, 34 

Standing Committee. 

18, 30, 58, 244, 246 

Suspended Meetings, 5 

Transactions 49 , 1 99 

Society, N.J. Historical, 223 

Society, N.J. Pharmaceutical 180 

Society, N. J. State Dental 118 

Society, N. J. State Homoeopathic 

Medical, 43, 100, 145 

Society, Philadelphia County Medical, 

r 79 
Society, Prevention of Cruelty to 

Children 217 

Society , Relief of Poverty , 1 87 

Society, Relief of Widows and 

Orphans of Medical Men, 19, 179 

Society, N. J. Homoeopathic 

Medical 100, 112, 117 

Speakman, H. D., 217 



PAGE 

Spectroscope , 234 

Speculum, Baer's, 233 

Stanton, Dr. James G-, 39, 175, 239 

Stanton, Dr. James H., 175 

Starr, Jesse W. , 102 

Starr, Hon. John F. , 76, 103 

Starr, Mrs. John F., 102, 217 

Starr, Mrs. John F. Jr., 267, 273 

Statistics, Vital, 208, 252 

Stebbins, May E 261, 265 

Steelman, Emma L., 215 

Steer, E. J-, 250 

Stern, Mrs. Betty, 257 

Stevens, James H., 102 

Stevenson, Charles, 208 

Stevenson, Charles R., 217 

Stevenson, Dr. John R., 

59. 62, 65, 76, 78, 83, 87, 91, 94, 146, 

!92, 193, 197, 200, 223, 233, 242, 

247, 251 

Stevenson, R. B., 170 

Stevenson, Richard G., 144 

Steward , Hospital , 270 

Steward, Joseph S . , 208 

Stewart, George D., 251 

Stiles, Jennie H., 215 

Stimson, S. M., 102 

Stites, Dr. J. K. F., 259 

Stock, Dr. J. F., 45, 232, 234, 241 

Stout, Dr. Daniel M......I2, 19, 83, 163 

Stout, Dr. H. A., 242 

Stowe, Kate, 214 

Stoy, John, 208 

Stradling, J. M., 210 

Stradling, Mrs. J. M., 210 

Stratton, Charles P., 141, 2(3 

Stratton, Dr. James, 5, 10 

Street, Dr. A. E., 118, 176, 210,277 

Street, Dr. Charles W., 11S 

Street, Dr. Christopher S., 118 

Street, Dr. T. G., 100 

Street, L. H., 180 

Street, Dr. Marvin A., 118 

Strickland, Rev. W. C, ..217 

Strock, Dr Daniel, 

140, 175, 189, 193, 201, 218, 219, 220, 

222, 230, 232, 241, 242, 246, 247, 248, 

2 58> 2 59. 260, 270, 276, 282, 284 

Stroud, Dr. F. G., 186, 189, 196, 279 

Sullivan, Dr. John I,., 93 

Surgeons : 

National Guard, N. J., 97, 121, 177, 

269 

N. J. Military, Order of, 218, 269 

Railroad , 1 92 , 1 95 

Revolutionary, 5 

U. S. Army, 69, 77, 255 

U. S. Navy, 81 

U. S. Pension, 177 

Veterinary, 221 



302 



History Medical Profession Camden County. 



Surgeon General of N.J. ,..97, 218, 269 
Surgeon General of N. J., Assistant, 

271 
Surgery : 

Abdominal, 244 

Antiseptic, 190, 194, 199 

Major, 282 

Sutton, B. Frank, 210 

Sutton, Dr. John H., 175, 217 

Sweeten, Susan, 255 

Synnott, Dr. Martin S., 8, 149 

Synnott, Thomas W., 142 

T 

Tallman, Dr. Benjamin, 5 

Tarns, Mrs. Ida Virginia, 264 

Taylor, George E., 103 

Taylor, Mrs. George E., 210 

Taylor, Dr. H. Genet, 

58, 60, 61, 63, 65, 70, 77, 83, 91, 93, 
9 6 > 97. 98. 103, 107, 108, 120, 121, 
127, 129, 133, 138, 139, 145, 146, 151, 
154, 161, 177, 178, 185, 194, 196, 197, 
J 99. 2I 3> 2I 7> 2 I9) 228, 230, 258, 259, 
260, 277, 284 

Taylor, H. Genet, Jr., 258 

Taylor, Marmaduke B., 106 

Taylor, Othniel G.,....92, 124, 186, 226 
Taylor, Dr. Othniel H., 

8, 11, 16, 17, 19, 24, 25, 27, 29, 31, 
38, 40, 51, 53, 89, 91, 104, 115, 276 

Taylor, Richard Cooper, 258 

Taylor, Dr. Robert G. , 

66, 83, 131, 149, 195. 197 
Taylor, Dr. William G.,...io8, 129, 131 

Tenotomy, 87 

Test, Richard W., 91, 107, 124, 180 

Thacker a , Dan iel , 142 

Thoman, F. G., 124 

Thomas, Dr. W. G., 45, 51,54 

Thompson, Alicia B., 262 

Thompson, Mrs. C. G., 268 

Thompson, Dr. T. B. 245 

Thompson, William J., 208 

Thompsonians, 13 

Thornton, Dr. Jacob P., 8, 11, 17 

Tidball , Mrs". Thomas A. , 266 

Tokarska, Theresa, 255 

Tomlinson, Dr. Edwin, 

39, 114, 134, 163, 279 
Townsend, Dr. E. P., 

154, 157. 178, 186, 244, 279 

Treen, Florence I,., 264 

Trichina, 191 

Troth .Henry, 142 

Troth, Mary L-, 143 

Truscott, J. Lynn, 187 

Tuberculin, 252 

Tuberculosis, 246 , 247 

Tullis, Dr. Eli R., 

101, 117, 120, 144, 210, 278 



Tullis, Mrs. E. R., 210 

Tuttle, Dr. C. P 118 

Twelves, Mrs. Richard, 266 

Tyler, W. B., 217 

Ty rotoxicon , 201 

Tyson, Dr. James, 169 

\J 

Uebelacker, Dr. A., 256 

Underhill, Mrs. G. R., 268 

University : 

Brown 223 

Bucknell, ..108, 114, 282 

Cornell, 144 

Pennsylvania 4, 253 

Uterus, Rupture of, 112 

Vaccination, 166. 167, 173, 204 

Van Benschoten, George, 172 

Van Leer, Dr. Benjamin, 5 

Van Lennep, Dr. W. H., 211, 274 

Van Valin, Mrs. C. R. A., 267 

Vansant, J. A., 103 

Vansant, Mrs. J. A., 102 

Varick, Dr. Theodore R.....97, 148, 218 

Variola 51 

Varioloid, 51 

Varney, Mrs. A. R., 217 

Varney, Thaddeus P., 205, 249 

Ven ton , Zober , 208 

Veterans, Sons of, 145, 176 

Veterinarians 221, 285 

Voorhets, Peter, L., 

102, 141, 212, 213, 217, 258 
Voorhees, Peter V. , 

187, 217, 228, 258, 262 
Vroom, Mrs. George A., 269 

ML 

Wakefield, Mrs. G. W., 273 

Wallace, Dr. C. J., 101 

Wallace, Dr. Shippen, 201 

Wallace, Dr. S. G., 118 

Wallins, Dr. M. W., 100 

Walmsley, Dr. James A., 

98, 119, 140, 144, 193, 206, 250 

Walmsley Dr. J. Winter, 256, 259 

Walsh, Dr. J. F., 

I3 1 , J 32, 135. 146, 186, 189, 191, 213, 
258, 282, 284 

Walter, Dr. Harry, 221 

Wars : 

Civil, 62, 63, 67, 89 

French and Indian, 4, 253 

" 1812," 5 

Mexican, 10 

Revolutionary, 2, 5 

Ward, E. A., 169 

Ward, Dr. Walter, 100 



hid ex. 



303 



Waring, Anna, 143, 259 

Waring, Thomas, 259 

Warner, Dr. J. C, 6 

Warner, J. W., 251 

Warnock, Dr. William, 

I 75» 187, 193, 227 
Water-supply : 

Camden, 53, 62, 119, 194, 195, 207 

Gloucester City, 195, 207, 251 

Haddonfield, 195, 207 

Merchantville, 195, 207 

Waters, Mrs. W. T., 268 

Watson, Dr B. A., 217 

Watson, Charles, 204, 210, 249 

Watson, Mrs. Joseph H., .' 102 

Watson, Naomi B , 262 

Watson, Dr. W. P 255, 256 

Waugh, Mrs. K. E. S., 260 

Weatherby, Dr. J. C 6 

Weatherby, Joseph P., 187 

Welch, Dr. George T., 246 

Welch, Mrs. Marie E., 263 

Wells, Frank, 277 

Wells, Mrs. Richard, 267 

Wentz, Thomas, 169 

West, Dr. B. R., n8 

West, Dr. Maximilian , 

98, 131, 132, 133, 134 

Westcott, Hon. J. Deighton, 250 

Westcott, Dr. Thomas D., 108, 113 

Westcott, Dr. William A., 175 

Westville , 242 

Westwood, Rev. John R., 260 

White, Dr. J. Orlando, 

88, 94, 107, 108, in, 121, 131, 153, 

241 

Wickes, Dr. Stephen, 140 

Wilbur, Dr. G F.,- 256 

Wilcox, Rev. Moses, 187 

Wildman, Rachel C, 260 

Wiley, Dr. John, 73 

Wilkinson, Dr. R M 101 

Williams, Dr. Alban, 74 

Williams, Dr. Charles S., 221 

Williams, David H., 208 

Williams, Dr. F. E-, 

99, 101, 117, 144, 171, 206 

Williams, Thomas A. J., 260 

Williams. Dr. W. C, 117 273 



Wills, Dr. Daniel, 3 

Wills, Dr. Jesse J., 186, 189, 193, 283 
Wills, Dr, Joseph H., 

!75. 179, 186, 189, 193, 194, 213, 217, 
222, 229, 232, 236, 242, 259, 260, 283, 

284 

Wilson, George E., 96 

Wilson, Mrs. George E., 102 

Wilson, Dr. H. Augustus, 242 

Wilson, Henry B., 

103, 187, 228, 2 o, 262 

Wilson, Mrs. Henry B., 102 

Wilson, Isaac P., 169 

Wilson, Lewis H., 143 

Wilson, Thomas A., 91, 107 

Wingender, Dr. W. P. ,....256, 279, 281 

Wise, Florence, 215 

Wistar , Josiah , 142 

Wood, Alexander C. ,...'. 142, 258 

Wood, Allan C, 250 

Wood, Dr. J. B., 118 

Wood, Mary Emma S , 142 

Wood, Samuel, 208 

Wood. Susan S., 142 

Woodhull, John T., 146 

Woodruff, Dr. A. D.,..8, 12, 19, 34, 113 
Woodward, Dr. George D., 

99, 101, 117, 175, 211, 223, 273, 282 
Woolston, Dr. Elijah B., 

57, 68, 77, 134, 192 

Worrell, Dr. M. F., 118 

Worthington, Dr. A. H., 255, 256 

Wright, Mrs. Abigail M., 212 

Wright, John W., 

141, 212, 213, 217, 258 

Wright, Dr. Willard, 161, 245 

Wroth, Dr. J. H., 

133, 137. 146, 151, 157 
Wynn, Dr. E. S., 98 

V 

York , Duke of, 1,3 

Young, Mrs. Charles E., 267 

Young, Dr. I. Gilbert,. ..59, 65, 83, 158 



Zell, Col. T. Elwood, 96 

Zimmerman, Mrs. Walter, 269