HISTORY OF THE MEDICAL TEACHING
IN TRINITY COLLEGE DUBLIN
AND OF THE SCHOOL OF
PHYSIC IN IRELAND
OXFORD: HORACE HART
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY
TRINITY COLLEGE DUBLIN
AND OF THE
SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND
T. PERCY C. KIRKPATRICK, M.D., M.R.I.A.
FELLOW AND REGISTRAR OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF
PHYSICIANS OF IRELAND
HANNA AND NEALE
DEDICATED BY PERMISSION
LL.D., M.D., M.CH., D.L.
HON. FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF
IRELAND; HON. FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF
SURGEONS IN IRELAND J HON. LL.D. OF THE
UNIVERSITIES OF GLASGOW, ABERDEEN
AND ST. ANDREWS
THE FIRST MEDICAL PROVOST OF
TRINITY COLLEGE DUBLIN
IN preparing this record of the teaching of
Medicine in Trinity College and in the School
of Physic in Ireland, my chief object has been
to present an accurate narrative of the events in
the history of the School and in the lives of those
who have been responsible for its management.
To write a complete history of the Medical
School would involve a history of Medicine during
the past two hundred and fifty years. The limita-
tions imposed on me made the accomplishment of
such a task impossible, and consequently I have
contented myself with merely indicating some of
those points in which the work of the teachers in
the School has been in the van of medical pro-
gress. The time of the Professors was so fully
occupied with teaching, and with the details of
school management that little opportunity was
left them for original research. That so many
of them have been able to earn for themselves
places in the history of medicine proves that the
title of the ' silent sister ', so often given to Trinity
College, is not altogether justified in the case of
the School of Physic.
I am much indebted to the work of previous
writers who have treated of the different periods
embraced in this history, and so far as possible
I have acknowledged the sources of my informa-
tion in the text and in the notes. My thanks
are especially due to the Board of Trinity College
for having given me free access to the College
Registers and to the documents connected with
the school. Without this privilege much of the
book could not have been written. My thanks are
also due to Professor Beare and Mr. Percy Browne
for the English rendering of the Latin passages
given in the text. To Dr. Robert J. Rowlette
I am especially indebted for the trouble he has
taken in reading the manuscript, and for the
many valuable suggestions he has made. I wish
also to thank Mr. William Hodson, of the Regis-
trar's Office, Trinity College, for the care he has
taken in making transcripts from the Trinity
College Registers, and Mr. Robert J. Phelps,
Librarian of the Royal College of Physicians, for
similar kind offices in connexion with the Registers
of that College. To Miss Gertrude Thrift and to
Miss Sibyl Kirkpatrick I am indebted for their
patient researches in the Record Office.
T. PERCY C. KIRKPATRICK.
CHAPTER I PAGE
EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE . . 17
TRINITY HALL 32
THE CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY . . 49
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL ... 76
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 101
THE PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN . . 126
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT . . . 149
CHAPTER IX PAGE
CLOSING YEARS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 168
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 . . .189
JAMES MACARTNEY AND WHITLEY STOKES . . 216
THE NEW SCHOOL 234
SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. MACARTNEY'S RESIGNA-
SCHOOL REFORM GRAVES AND STOKES . . 266
MEDICAL LEGISLATION 285
THE SCHOOL STAFF 33
MODERN DEVELOPMENT 326
I. REFERENCES 340
II. THE MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE AND
OF THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND . 349
INDEX . ... 359
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
SOME OF THE SCHOOL BUILDINGS, 1912 Frontispiece
THE LIBRARY AND ANATOMY HOUSE, 1753 to face page 76
MEDICAL SCHOOL, OPENED IN 1825 . to face page 234
A SEARCH for the origin of medicine leads one
back to the earliest existence of primitive man.
In the first recorded code of laws which we now
possess, that of Hammurabi, which dates back to
2200 B.C., we find the position of the Mesopotamian
physicians well defined, and definite rules laid down
to regulate their remuneration and responsibilities.
Thus we read :
' If a doctor has cured the shattered limb of a gentleman,
or has cured the diseased bowel, the patient shall give
five shekels of silver to the doctor.' ' If a doctor has
treated a gentleman for severe wound with a lancet of
bronze and caused the gentleman to die, or has opened
an abscess of the eye for a gentleman with a bronze
lancet and caused the loss of the gentleman's eye, one
shall cut off his hands.' 1
In Egypt also medicine had reached a high state
of development at the earliest time of which we
have records. Of the Greeks, from whom most of
our Western medicine is derived, we know nothing
till many centuries after the date of the code of
Hammurabi, but at the siege of Troy, some five
or six centuries before the date of Hippocrates,
1 Johns, p. 46.
we find mention of Machaon and Podaleirios, the
sons of Asclepius, the son of Apollo, and later
worshipped as the god of healing. Though in
Homer we find the statement :
Irirpfc yap avyp TIO\\&V avrd^Los &\\q>v,
' A physician outweighs many other men ',
it is evident that Greek medicine at his time was
very far from being as highly developed as that
of Mesopotamia, some thousand years earlier.
With Hippocrates, who was born about 460 B.C.,
and died about 377 B.C., Greek medicine reached
its zenith, just as did the civilization of the people.
In Roman history a similar sequence of events
can be traced. At the time of Hippocrates there
was little medicine known at Rome, but at the
Christian era we find Celsus, between A.D. 25 and
35, writing his famous book, De Medicina, in
which, speaking of the liver, he says :
' Si vera jecur vomica laborat, eadem facienda sunt,
quae in caeteris interioribus suppurationibus. Quidam
etiam ultra id scalpello aperiunt, et ipsam vomicam
When we come to investigate the condition of
medicine in ancient Ireland we are met with the
difficulty that there are few, if any, authentic
records of the history of the people before the
Christian era. Tradition must here take the place
of history, and fortunately the tradition is fairly
full and well authenticated. Just as the Greeks
worshipped Asclepius, so the ancient Irish had
1 Celsus, bk. iv, cap. 8.
their medical deity, Diancecht. This Diancecht,
whose name means ' vehement power ', is stated
to have been a physician and one of the chief men
of the Tuatha de Danann in the time of King
Nuada of the Silver Hand, who is said to have
lived about the year 1272 B.C. It is related 1 that
in the great battle of Magh Tuireadh, between the
Tuatha de Danann and the Firbolgs, King Nuada,
though victorious, lost his arm, and this physical
defect was sufficient to debar him from holding
kingly office. A viceroy, however, was appointed,
and in seven years Diancecht, with the assistance
of Creidne, the great worker in metal, had not
only cured the king's wound, but fitted him with
a silver hand. Further, in the second battle of
Magh Tuireadh, fought some years later between
the Tuatha de Danann and the Fomorians, we
hear of Diancecht preparing a bath medicated
with herbs gathered in the Lus Mhagh, or ' Plain
of Herbs ', the present King's County. This bath
was presided over by Diancecht, with his daughter
Ochtrinil, and his two sons, Airmedh and Mioch.
The wounded of the de Danann were brought from
the field of battle and placed in this bath, and
coming out whole, were enabled to return to the
fight, and so bring victory to their side.
In the book of Genealogies of MacFirbis we read
of several other medical heroes of the Irish, such
as * Eaba the female physician '. O'Curry trans-
lates the passage as follows 2 :
' Thus saith the Ancient Authority : The first doctor,
1 O'Curry, MSS. Mat., p. 246. * Ibid., p. 221.
the first builder, and the first fisherman, that ever were
in Erinn were :
Capa, for the healing of the sick,
In his time was all-powerful ;
And Luasad, the cunning builder,
And Laighne", the fisherman.
' Edba, the female physician who accompanied the
lady Ceasair, was the second doctor ; Slanga, the son of
Partholan, was the third doctor that came into Erinn (with
Partholan) ; and Fergna, the grandson of Crithinbel, was
the fourth doctor who came into Erinn (with Nemed).
The doctors of the Firbolgs were, Dubhda Dubhlosach,
Condan Corinchisnech, and Fingin Fisiocdha Maine, the
son of Gressach, and Aongus Anternmach. The doctors of
the Tuatha De Danann were Diancecht, Airmedh, Miach,
Coming down to more recent times we have the
story of the tragic fate of Conchobhar Mac Nessa,
King of Ulster (obiit A.D. 37), which is preserved in
the Book of Leinster in the library of Trinity
College. The king was wounded in the head by
a missile from the sling of one of his enemies, and
was carried helpless from the field. O'Curry *
gives this translation of the account of the subse-
quent events :
' In the meantime his physician was brought to Con-
chobar, namely Fingen. He it was that could know by
the fume that arose from a house the number that was ill
in the house, and every disease that prevailed in the
house. " Good," said Fingen, " if the stone be taken out
of thy head, thou shalt be dead at once, if it is not taken
out of it, however, I would cure thee, but it would be
a blemish upon thee." " The blemish," said the Ulto-
1 O'Curry, MSS. Mat., pp. 453 and 637.
nians, " is better for us than his death." His head was
then healed, and it was stitched with thread of gold,
because the colour of Conchobar's hair was the same as
the colour of gold.
' And the doctor said to Conchobar that he should be
cautious, that is that he should not allow his anger to
come upon him, and that he should not go upon a horse,
and that he should not run.
' He continued then in that doubtful state as long as
he lived, namely, seven years, and was incapable of
action but to remain sitting only.'
The tradition is recorded in several writers *
that Josina, the ninth king of Scotland, and one
of the successors of Fergus, who died, as some say,
in 161 B. c., or according to others in 137 B. c., was
sent by his parents to Ireland to be educated
among the physicians and surgeons there. Such
a tradition suggests that the position and teaching
of the Irish physicians was acknowledged not only
at home but in foreign lands.
Besides these traditional reports which point to
a development of medical knowledge, inferior no
doubt to that of Hippocrates, but quite equal to
that of the time of the Trojan war, we have in the
Brehon Laws more authentic historical evidence of
the condition of Irish medicine.
The Brehon Laws, the ancient laws of Ireland,
have come down to us from prehistoric time.
They grew up in pagan Ireland, and about A. D. 438,
at the request of St. Patrick, they were codified to
their present form. It should be recognized that
at this time these laws, though brought into accord
1 Kennedy, Address ; Wilde, Census 1831.
with Christian ideas, were not new, and were not
materially added to, but were traditional in the
country. The two most important books of this
code which have been preserved are the Senchus
Mor (Great Code) and the Book of Aicill, and in
both of these we have several references to medical
matters, some of which, especially those dealing
with the remuneration and responsibilities of the
physician, remind us strongly of the code of Ham-
murabi. A few extracts from the published trans-
lation of the ancient laws will show with what
clearness the position of the physician is denned.
' Half " dire " fine with compensation. 1
' That is, from the unlawful physician if he has removed
a joint or a sinew without taking guarantee, without
warning of bad curing ; if he has done either of these,
it (the penalty] is one-fourth fine with compensation ; if
he has done both, he is exempt.
' Compensation is recoverable from the lawful physician
if he has removed a joint or sinew without taking
guarantee ; and if he has taken guarantee, he is exempt.
' The unlawful physician shall make compensation for
his blood-" letting " without taking guarantee, without
warning of bad curing ; if he has done both he is exempt.
' The lawful physician is exempt for blood-letting with-
out taking guarantee, or giving warning of bad curing.
The unlawful physician is bound to take guarantee only.
This is the case where there was no wound upon the body
before him (or when, though there was, he increased the
wound too much) if an impartial physician declares that it
could have been cured more lawfully. If there were wounds
on the body before him, and if he did not increase them, and
an impartial physician declares that they could not have
been cured more lawfully, he is exempt as regards them.'
1 Brehon Laws, vol. hi, p. 321.
' According to body-fine is calculated the physician's
share from kings and their co-grades, and from the
chieftain grades, and it is paid out of the allowance for
sick maintenance. Whichever of them is the smaller, the
body-fine for the wound or the allowance for sick main-
tenance, it is thereby it is calculated what the " Feini "
grades pay, and it is paid out of the allowance for sick
maintenance. It may be one-half, it may be one-third,
it may be one-fourth.
' The physicians share from these following ; it is one-
half from kings and their co-grades, it is one-third from
chieftain grades, and it is one-fourth from " Feini "
If one person wounded another the aggressor
had to pay a fine to the injured one as well as
provide him with sick maintenance and medical
care. If the wound broke out again within a cer-
tain time further provision had to be made for the
injured person, but the physician had to attend for
nothing. If, however, the recurrence of the trouble
' had been in consequence of bad curing, with the know-
ledge of the physician, there is no testing time to be taken
into consideration, but it (the penalty) is always to be
paid by the physician, just as if he had inflicted it (the
wound) with his own hand '. 2
In explanation of what is meant by ' sick main-
tenance ' we read in the Senchus Mor 3 :
' For providing him with proper bed furniture, i. e.,
plaids and bolsters, i. e., a suitable bed. For providing
him with a proper house, i. e., that it be not a dirty,
snail-besmeared house ; or that it be not one of the three
inferior houses, i. e., that there be four doors out of it,
1 Brehon Laws, vol. iii, p. 477. 2 Ibid., vol. iii, p. 535.
3 Ibid., vol. i, p. 131.
that the sick man may be seen from every side, and water
must run across the middle of it. For guarding against
the things prohibited by the physician, i. e., that the sick
man may not be injured, i. e., by women or dogs, i. e., that
fools and female scolds be not let into the house to him,
i. e., or that he may not be injured by forbidden food.'
Sullivan l tells us that as a rule the houses of
the ancient Irish had only one, or at most two
doors, but the house of the Irish Liag or Leech
was to have four doors, and also, that while the
ordinary householder, or Brughfer, was allowed to
have a spring of water in his house if he chose,
the physician was obliged to build his house over
a running stream.
It would appear that the physician was allowed
either to use his house as a hospital or to treat
the patient in his own home. Thus homes of
physicians came to be looked on as general hos-
pitals, and the forus tuaithe, or the ' territory
house ', mentioned in the laws is translated
' hospital '. 2 In the Senchus Mor the probe
(feaig) is mentioned, and is the only reference to
a medical instrument that we have met with in
these laws :
' As to the distraint of a physician : let his horsewhip
or his probe be taken up. If he have not the proper
number of such things, let a thread be tied about the
finger next to his little finger. If he does not cede justice,
it is the same as absconding on his part ; and let there be
notice served for every distress taken from them (the
1 O'Curry, M. and C., vol. i, p. 319, and p. 346.
* Brehon Laws, vol. iv, p. 303. ' Ibid., vol. ii, p. 119.
From the very earliest times the Irish physician
was attached to the clan or house of a chieftain,
and the profession of physic passed from father to
son just as did the profession of the other arts and
crafts in the country. This hereditary character
of the Irish physicians was not unknown in other
countries, as the oath of Hippocrates shows. In
Ireland, however, this characteristic appears to
have persisted until comparatively recent times,
and the names and records of many families of
hereditary physicians have come down to us.
Thus we have the O'Callenans of Desmond, the
O'Cassidys of Fermanagh, the O'Lees of Con-
naught, and the O'Hickeys, hereditary physicians
to the O'Briens of Thomond, to the O'Kennedys
of Ormond, and the Macnamaras of Clare. 1
We find one of this O'Hickey family appointed
in 1590 physician to the city of Dublin under the
following conditions : 2
' That Nicholas Hykie, doctor of physick, in considera-
tion that he shall henceforward dwell and make his abode
in Dublin, shall have and be paid by the hands of the
thresorer of this cittie out of the thresorie and revenewe
of the said cittie yearlie ten pounds, lawfull mony of
Irland, begynning from Maie next, during his good
behavior and usadge, and shall observe the orders and
dyrections following, that is to saie, taking for the vewe
and loking of eche passientes uryn without visitation, the
pacient being a cittezen, sixe pence sterling ; for every
visitation of such passient and vewe of his water, twelve
pence sterling ; item for eche visitation without viewe
of his water, twelve pence sterling, over and besyds
1 Joyce, vol. i, p. 600. * C. A. R., vol. ii, p. 147.
consideration that if he undertake to cure eny man
for a certayne som of mony, then he be at libertie to
agre with the saide partie ; also, that uppon lysence
of Mr. Mayor of this cittie for the tyme being, he may goo
threskore myles out of this cittie, so as he return agayne
within xn daies after, and that without lysence he
may goo no further then that he may retorne within
xxnii howres after ; and if the Mayor for the tyme
being shall send for hym at eny tyme he shall com to the
said Mr. Mayor presently, uppon payne of losing halfe
a yeares stipend.'
How these old physicians acquired a knowledge
of their profession cannot now be fully determined.
Many of them doubtless studied abroad, since at
the revival of learning many Irishmen of all pro-
fessions were found occupying distinguished posi-
tions in the various schools of Europe. In earlier
times it is probable that most of the teaching was
done by means of a system of pupilage, the
physician imparting his knowledge to his son or to
his immediate dependants, and so carrying on the
hereditary profession. The monastic institutions
of early Christian Ireland were homes of learning,
but in these places divinity and law were the two
faculties most cultivated, and we do not read
of any regular medical teaching. In the Middle
Ages, however, medicine was often studied as a
part of a liberal education, and it is more than
probable that many of the students in the monas-
teries, though chiefly occupied with the study of
divinity or philosophy, also studied medicine as
did the philosophers of Greece in the time of Plato
and Aristotle. The Brehon Laws, as we have seen,
draw a distinction between the qualified and un-
qualified physicians, but they do not tell us what
the distinction was.
Many medical manuscripts in the Irish language,
some dating as far back as the thirteenth century,
have been preserved, and some of these are known
to have been the treasured books of the old families
Though the earliest of these manuscripts does
not date earlier than the end of the thirteenth
century, some of them are undoubtedly copies of
earlier works. Very few of these writings have
been fully examined, but those that have are
chiefly translations of the Latin renderings of the
Arabian physicians and their commentaries on
the writings of Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen.
The existence of these manuscripts proves con-
clusively that the Irish physicians of the time
were fully conversant with the best medical
knowledge current in Europe, and it is probable
that it was to a study of such works, aided by
personal observation of the sick under their care,
that these men owed their skill as physicians.
Several of these manuscripts are to be found in
the libraries of the Royal Irish Academy and
of Trinity College, as well as in the libraries of
England and Scotland, and it is to be hoped that
translations of some at least of them will soon
be available for the students of medical history.
Dr. Norman Moore 1 has examined some of the
Irish medical manuscripts in the British Museum,
1 Moore, Med. in Ireland.
and finds that they are generally Irish transla-
tions of the Latin works. One of the most
celebrated of these, known as the Book of the
O'Hickeys, is a translation of the Lilium Medi-
cinae of Bernardus de Gordon, the celebrated
professor of Montpelier, who died in 1305. The
book was first printed in Naples in 1480, and then
at Ferrara in 1486, and twice in Venice before
1500. There is an excellent copy of the second,
or Ferrara, edition in the Worth Library at
Steevens' Hospital. Besides the manuscript of
this work in the British Museum there are several
others in the Irish language, notably one of
the fifteenth century in the Edinburgh Uni-
versity Library, which has been described by
Dr. Mackintosh. 1
The existence of hospitals for the care of the
sick is another feature of Irish medicine to which
reference must be made. It is doubtful how far,
if at all, these institutions were used for teaching
purposes. We have already seen from the Brehon
Laws that from very early times hospitals were
in use in Ireland, and were governed by rules
which appeal to us even in these days of advanced
hygiene. Though later on many of the hospitals
were attached to monastic institutions, and were
used not only for the sick but also for the aged
and infirm, yet secular hospitals were also common
in the country. Some of these institutions were
devoted specially to the care of those afflicted
with leprosy, a disease which was common in
1 Mackintosh, p. 170.
Ireland. One of these leper houses, the hospital
of St. Stephen at Waterford, is said to have been
founded by King John. It continued to be used
as a leper hospital till the beginning of the
eighteenth century, when it was converted to its
present use, ' As it was thought that a public
Infirmary would best answer the intent of the
pious benefactor : since leprosy is not a disease
now much complained of.' 1 Wilde tells us that
the last leper was treated in this hospital in
In Dublin there were several hospitals, of which
the most famous was perhaps that of St. John,
founded in the twelfth century by Alrued le
Palmer, outside the Newgate of the city, on the
site now occupied by the Church of SS. Augustine
and John in Thomas Street. Ware 2 tells us that
this hospital contained in the reign of Edward III
155 sick persons. The Hospital of St. Stephen, 3
founded in 1344, on the site of the present Mercer's
Hospital, was a leper house which was still in use
in the sixteenth century.
How far these monastic hospitals are comparable
with our modern hospitals it is now very difficult
to judge. We have no record of physicians or
surgeons being attached to them, or of such per-
sons using them for the study of disease. It
seems probable that they merely afforded a home
for the sick poor, who, while there, were fed and
attended by the brothers of the house. These
1 Wilde, Census 1851. * Ware, De Hibern., p. 143.
1 Evans, Irish Builder, October 15, 1896, p. 218.
I 4 INTRODUCTION
monks no doubt had considerable skill in medicine,
but they were not the regular practitioners of the
country, and the experience which they gained
from their contact with the sick added little to
the general stock of medical knowledge.
In the year 1542, when the Act of Henry VIII
was passed for the suppression of the monasteries,
most of these hospitals were closed, and in the
seventeenth century there were few, if any, civil
hospitals in active existence in Ireland.
The only medical corporation existing in Ireland
at this time of which we have any record was that
of the Barber-Surgeons in Dublin. 1 The Guild of
the Art of Barbers, or Guild of St. Mary Mag-
dalene, of the City of Dublin, was established by
Royal Charter on the i8th of October in the
twenty-fifth year of Henry VI (1446), for the
promotion and exercise of the art of Chirurgery.
This guild, consisting of both men and women,
continued its separate existence till the year 1576.
During this time there appears to have sprung up
a body of surgeons, for the Charter of Elizabeth
(1576) states : 2
' because there are now two distinct Societies practising
the said art & faculty in our city aforesaid, viz. : one of
barbers and the other of Chirurgeons, which said Society
of Chirurgeons is not yet constituted or incorporated into
any body politick ; and it being necessary to blend, joyn,
and reduce the said distinct and separate Societies of
barbers and Chirurgeons into one body, that in one close,
aggregate and connected fellowship the art and science
of chirurgery may flourish as well in theory as in practice.'
1 Moore, Hist. Pharm. * Ibid.
In a further Charter dated February 10, 1687,
the apothecaries and periwig-makers were united
to the barber-chirurgeons in the Guild of St. Mary
Magdalene and remained so connected till Sep-
tember 18, 1745, when the apothecaries obtained
a separate Charter incorporating them as the
Guild of St. Luke. The barbers and surgeons
continued united, in name at all events, till the
foundation in 1784 of the College of Surgeons. 1
In Ireland during the latter half of the six-
teenth century, progress in medicine had ceased,
and, indeed, like other branches of learning, the
study of medicine seems to have gone backward.
There is much difference of opinion as to the
part taken by the monasteries in Irish culture.
Mahaffy 2 in his Epoch in Irish History gives
weighty reasons for thinking that their share was
a small one, but he seems to have underrated it.
As teaching centres they may not have been very
active, but they secured a home for learned men,
and afforded a safe repository for the manuscripts
and other accumulations of a long line of scholars.
With the suppression of these houses the scholars
were scattered and many of them left the country
to seek a safer refuge in foreign universities. The
continuous fighting of the Irish among themselves
and with the English of the pale, left little time
or opportunity for studying the arts of peace.
The houses of the great chieftains could no longer
give shelter to learning, and no institution had
1 Cameron, Hist. R. C. S. I., p. 89.
* Mahaffy, Epoch, chap. i.
been founded to take their place. The art of
printing, introduced into Europe in the middle of
the fifteenth century, did not reach Ireland till
nearly a century later, and very few books were
printed in the country before iGoo. 1
The hereditary physicians still continued with
their clans, but they had little leisure to advance
the study of their profession, or even to keep
themselves acquainted with the advances which
were made elsewhere. We find no Irish manu-
scripts of the works of men like Vesalius, as we
do of the work of Bernard of Gordon, nor is there
any evidence of the presence in the country at
this time of printed copies of the works of the
great European physicians. The condition of
learning at the beginning of the seventeenth
century was bad, and there seemed to be little
ground for hope of improvement.
1 Dix, Part I, p. 9;
EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE
As the darkest period of the night is said to
be that which immediately precedes the dawn,
so when the outlook was blackest for Irish
learning Queen Elizabeth granted the Charter
founding the University of Dublin and Trinity
This Charter, which is dated March 3, 1591/2,
' Since it has been ascertained that the institution of
certain degrees in Arts and faculties have been of assis-
tance to learning we ordain by these presents that the
Students of this College of the Holy and Undivided
Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, shall have
liberty and power of obtaining the degrees of Bachelor,
Master and Doctor, each at its proper time in all arts and
Thus, though no special mention is made of the
faculty of medicine, it was undoubtedly intended
that it should be taught within the halls of the
College. Moreover, one of the first functions con-
nected with the University had a medical bearing.
In pursuance of the decision of the Corporation
of Dublin at their meeting on the ' Fourth Friday
after the 25 December, 1590 ', ' that the scite of
Alhallowes and the parkes thereof shalbe wholly
i8 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE
gyven for the erection of a College there/ J the
deed granting this site was drawn up and signed
on July 21, I592. 2 On March 13, 1592/3, the
first stone of the College buildings was laid by
the Mayor, Thomas Smith, Apothecary. This
Thomas Smith was a man of some repute in his
profession, for we find that in 1566 he was granted
a concordatum in the following terms : ' Smythe.
Thapothecaries Concordatum that evry Counsaillo
shall give hym a yerely Reward of XXs. and evry
of the Army i daies wags yerely.' 3 This grant,
or Concordatum, was a gift made by Order of
Council in cases when it was deemed right to give
assistance to some person or corporation, although
such person or corporation was not on the regular
establishment or pay-list of the country. The
early support which the College received from the
Government was largely granted in this way.
The foundation of Trinity College did not at
first effect any change in the medical teaching
or practice of the country. The record in the
Particular Book of the Concordatum of forty
pounds a year described as ' the Physician's pay '
has been regarded by many as the origin of the
medical professorship of the University. It has
also been suggested that the money was granted
to the College in order that the services of a
physician might be retained in the College, much
as the Concordatum was granted to Thomas Smith
in order that
1 C.A.R.. vol. ii, p. 240. Mahaffy, Epoch, p. 63.
' C. S. P. ; Gilbert, Hist., vol. i, p. 428.
EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 19
' he shoulde be reteyned and enhabeted from hencefurth
the better to provide from tyme to tyme during his
contynuance here fresshe and newe druggs and other
Apothecarye wares in plentifull maner to the nedefull and
good helpe of suche of the Englishe byrthe in this realme
resident and of the nobilitie and others of the graver and
civylier sorte of this realme wch shall covett the same
for their redye mony.' *
That such an office would be necessary in the
College is evident from a note in the Register in
June i6o4, 2 that ' the Colledg broke upp because
of the plague '. It is, however, almost certain
that the Concordatum of ' the Physician's pay '
had nothing whatever to say to either the teaching
of medicine or the remuneration of a medical man
in the College. The following description given
by Harris of this grant makes this matter quite
' Archbishop Loftus, who had been a great instrument
in the first foundation, was one of the lords justices in
1597 and 1598, in conjunction with sir Robert Gardiner,
chief justice of the queen's bench. These lords justices,
" in regard of the decay of the revenues of the college in
those times of rebellion, and as the same was of her
majesty's princely foundation, having no other means
of relief, granted to the college a concordatum of 40^.
sterling per annum, and also the allowance of six dead
payes out of such cheques as should be imposed upon her
majesty's army," and the earl of Essex, lord lieutenant
in 1599, reciting the said grant, by concordatum dated
the 3d of May that year, continued the same during
pleasure, and ordered the concordatum of 40^. a year to
be paid quarterly, and the dead payes, amounting to
1 Gilbert, Hist., vol. i, p. 427.
1 Reg., vol. i, p. 25 a.
20 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE
5/. I2s. a month to be paid monthly. In November the
same year archbishop Loftus and sir George Carey, being
then lords justices, the fellows and corporation of the
college petitioned them for " present relief, setting forth
the utter decay of the college rents in the then general
revolt, whereby they were fallen into great want, and
not able to hold their society together ". Upon which
petition they obtained a warrant on the 3Oth of that
month, for the payment of 405. a week out of the enter-
tainment appointed for a canoneer, to continue till the
vice-treasurer should receive warrant to the contrary.
On the 2Qth of January following, the lords justices and
council issued another concordatum in behalf of the
college, reciting, " that, forasmuch as by several lords
deputies, lords justices, and the late lord lieutenant,
there had been granted to the provost and some of the
fellows of Trinity college near Dublin, a concordatum
of 40/. sterl. yearly, for keeping a publick and standing
lecture unto the state, and that by the death of Matthias
Holmes, late fellow of the college, the same place is
fallen void ; they therefore order, that the said college
should have as her majesty's bounty, for the better
maintenance of the provost, and to the use before men-
tioned, the said sum of 40/. sterling yearly, to be paid
to them out of such fines, impost of wines, and other
casualties as should come to the vice-treasurer's hands,
to be paid quarterly, until contrary directions be issued".' 1
The Matthias Holmes here referred to was
elected a Fellow of the College in 1593, and he
is described by Ware z as ' Lecturer to the State
of Ireland for which he received forty pound per
Annum out of the concordatum '. Holmes died
in 1599 ; several tracts by him are preserved in
manuscript in the College Library.
| Harris. Hist, of Dublin, p. 399 ; Ware, vol. ii, p. 249.
Ware's Writers, bk. ii, p. 329.
EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 21
Further confirmation of this view of ' the Physi-
cian's pay ' is found in the following entries in
the Calendar of State Papers, Ireland :
' March 13, 1598/9. The Provost and Fellows of
Trinity College near Dublin, for the physician's fee
allowed unto them by the State, untill a physician shall
be appointed, viz., for a year, ended ultimo Septembris.
' Concordatums allowed from April 14, 1599 to 17 July
' To the society of Trinity College, for a half-year's
annuity ending ultimo March, zol?
' To the said society for six dead pays for four months
ending 10 Junii. 22/. 8s.
' Book of Concordatums granted beginning primo
Martii 1588/9 and ending decimo Novembris 1599.
' The Society of Trinity College near Dublin, for six
dead pays at 8d. le piece per diem for six months (and)
a half ending ultimo Septembris 1599. $61. 8s.
' The said Society for one year's fee ended eodem die
et anno ut supra. 40^.' 3
It was a common practice at this time for the
State grant to be described and denned as the
pay of some officer, and ' the physician's pay '
was evidently the pay of a physician, just as the
' 405. a week out of the entertainment appointed
for a canoneer ' was money which would other-
wise have been paid to ' Gunners who were then
out of ye Kingdom'. 4 The 'dead pays' were
evidently the pay of soldiers which had fallen to
the government on account of the death of the
1 C.S.P., 1598-9, p. 490. * Ibid., 1599-1600, p. 98.
* Ibid., 1599-1600, p. 240. * T.C.D. Cal. t p. 395.
22 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE
Later on, as we shall see in the history of the
College, the Professorship of Medicine was en-
dowed by the government when the grant was
made to John Stearne of 60 a year, and it was
evidently to this, and not to the Concordatum,
that Henry Styles, Professor of Laws in Trinity
College, refers in his petition to the king dated
October 24, 1668, when he says : l ' The Pro-
fessors of Divinity and Physic have encouragement
in their studies by salaries allowed, the former out
of Ancient College revenue, the other out of the
Exchequer,' and he goes on to ask that the Pro-
fessor of Law ' May have the same encouragement
as those of Divinity and Physic '.
The first Statutes of the University and the
College lay down regulations both for degrees in
medicine and also for establishing a medical
fellowship. In a copy of these statutes, partly
in the handwriting of Sir William Temple, Provost
between 1609 and 1627, and partly in that of
William Bedell, Provost between 1627 and 1629,
there is the following : *
Cap. XIII. De Doctoratu in Medicina.
' That which we require in the case of a student of Law
we likewise require in the case of a student of Medicine ;
namely that he shall be a Master of Arts, and that, after
taking the degree of Master, he shall have diligently
devoted seven years to the study of Medicine before
he comes forward to seek that degree.
' Moreover we require that he must on six occasions
prelect in the School of Physicians ; that he must be
1 C. S. P., 1666-9, P- 654. * Barrett Book, p. 313.
EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 23
present at three anatomical dissections ; that he must
on four occasions successfully carry to a conclusion the
cure of different diseases ; that after frequent attendance
in the laboratories of the apothecaries he must throughly
know and keep clearly in his mind all the simples and the
drugs compounded from those simples that are met with
in the laboratories ; and lastly that he must on three
occasions respond and as many times oppose in his faculty.
' When all these requirements have been fulfilled then
he can be dignified by the title of Doctor of Medicine.
' If some failure prevents the fulfilment of any one
of these requirements then the same course is to be
adopted as has been prescribed in the Statute concerning
the Doctors of Law.'
With regard to the position of Medical Fellow,
we find the following statute adopted by Provost
Bedell : '
De Admittendis in Collegium Professoribus Juris-
prudentiae et Medicinae. Cap. 17.
' Whereas the study of Jurisprudence and Medicine is
both in accordance with the Charter of the foundation
of the College and the current statutes of Colleges in
England, and in as much as it is not only a fitting distinc-
tion for any body of students into which it is admitted,
but also as it imparts a singular utility both to the
Church and the State ; Therefore our will and pleasure
is that it be lawful that one of the Fellows be specially
selected by the decision of the Provost and the majority
of the Senior Fellows for the teaching of Jurisprudence
and another for the study of Medicine, such appointment
to be entered upon immediately after election, or within
six months after taking out the degree of Master. But
if it happen that such appointment be made before
admission to that degree, our will is that the clause in the
1 Mahafiy, Epoch, p. 357.
24 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE
Oath (de fine studiorum) be omitted by him who is
elected ; or that the terms " Jurisprudence " or " Medi-
cine " be respectively inserted therein instead of the
term " Theology ". And as regards the duties required
of the Clerical Fellows during each term, it is our will
that such be not remitted in the case of the Professors
of Jurisprudence and of Medicine, but that such be duly
performed by them, just as if they were Commonplaces
or Theological Disputations. Moreover it is our will that
every Professor of Law and Medicine upon the comple-
tion of the first year of his Professorship deliver prelec-
tions in his faculty once in each term.'
Laud, in the Caroline Statutes, which were
given to the College in 1637, modifies this as
' But our Will is that no one be compelled to these
Studies against his Will, but that one be chosen who
makes choice of these Studies respectively, if such a one
can be found among the Fellows ; but if no one be
willing to quit Divinity, and apply himself to these
Studies, in that Case our Will is, that the Fellow who is
the youngest Master of Arts be always chosen ; and if he
who is so chosen refuses to take upon him that Profession,
he shall be ipso facto expelled from this our College.' 1
Though the first evidence we have of the statute
relating to the medical fellowship is in the time
of Bedell, it is certain that such a position existed
at a much earlier date. In the Barrett MSS., 2
under the date of October 24, 1618, it is stated :
' Sir Temple (probably John, afterwards Master
of the Rolls, and the Provost's son) and Sir Kelly
were chosen junior Fellows. The first of them
for the Physician's Place, the other for the Pro-
1 Bolton, Statutes, p. 80. Barrett Book, p. 151.
EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 25
fession of a Divine.' Again, on December 6, 1620,
Thomas Beere ' was chosen Fellow for the Physi-
cian's Place '.*
Neither Temple nor Beere, however, took medical
degrees in the University, and there is no evi-
dence that either of them had any medical
qualifications. Temple, who was born in 1600,
became Master of the Rolls in 1640, was created
Knight and Privy Councillor (Ireland), and sat as
M.P. for Chichester in the English Parliament,
and afterwards for Carlow in the Irish Parliament.
He was the author of the History of the Irish
Rebellion published in London in 1646. He was
the father of Sir William Temple, Bt., the cele-
brated statesman and grandfather of Henry,
first Viscount Palmerston, so created March 12,
1722. John Temple died November 14, 1677, and
was buried at the foot of the Provost's seat in
the old College Chapel. 2 Of Thomas Beere we
know little, except that he took his B.A. in the
summer of 1614, and his M.A. in i62o. 3
In spite of these regulations for medical studies
there seems to have been no graduate in medicine
in the University for many years. In a descrip-
tion of the public commencements held in 1616,
in St. Patrick's Cathedral, we are told that during
the twenty-three years since the foundation of
the University there had been one degree granted
in Physic, 4 but of this there is no record in the
1 Barrett Book, p. 151.
* Ware, vol. ii, p. 350 ; T. C. D. Cal.
Todd's Roll. * Taylor, Hist. T. C. D., p. 16.
26 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE
University Register, or in the Roll of Graduates
published by Todd.
The study of medicine in Ireland was not, how-
ever, lost sight of, as we may see by the letter
of Charles I, to the Lord Deputy Falkland, dated
Westminster, August 5, 1626. In this letter the
king speaks of the zeal which his father ' always
had to reduce the Kingdom of Ireland to civility,
and to an uniform manner of Government with
the realm of England ', and then goes on to say :
' Wee, therefore, in imitation of so Royall an example
have now taken into our consideration that the estab-
lishing and practice of Learning and humane Sciences
is not a little available thereunto ; and amongst others
that laudable and necessary art of Physick, the practise
whereof, as we are informed, is daily abused in that
our Kingdom by wandering, ignorant montebanks and
Empyricks, who for want of restraint do much abound to
the daily impaireing of the healths, and Hazarding of the
Lives in generall of our good Subjects there. For the
Reformation of which abuse, Wee think it fitt, upon your
recommendation, and hereby doe require and authorize
you, with the advice of some of our learned Councill
there, by Letters patents to be made and past from us,
our Heirs and successors, under the great seale of that our
Realme To erect in our Citty of Dublin, in that our
Kingdom, a colledge, society corporation of Physicians,
according to the Rule and forme of the Charter heretofore
granted to the Physicians in our Citty of London for the
incorporating of them.' x
The intended College was to be given power to
purchase lands to the annual value of forty pounds
1 Gilbert, Hist., vol. iii, p. 10 ; Smith, Origin Col. P., p. 89 ;
Belcher, Mem. Stearne, p. 18.
EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 27
Irish, and was to make laws for the government
of physicians practising in Dublin, or within
twenty miles thereof.
This matter also was engaging the attention of
Provost Bedell, as may be seen by the following
Writing from London, April i, 1628, to Archbishop
James Usher, concerning College affairs, he says :
' And shortly it seems to me, that with one labour, the
University might be brought into a more perfect form,
and yet without touching our Charter. At my being in
Dublin, there came to me one Dr. deLaune a Physician,
bred in Immanuel Colledg : Who in speech with me,
discovered their purpose to procure a Patent, like to that
which the Colledg of Physicians hath in London. I noted
the thing, and partly by that occasion, and partly also
the desire of the Fellows, to extend their time of stay in
the Colledg ; I have drawn a Plot of my Thoughts in that
behalf, which I send your Grace herewith. I have im-
parted the same generally to my Lord of Canterbury ;
who desireth that your Grace would seriously consider of
it, and, to use his own words, That it may be weighed with
Gold Weights ; and if it be found fit, will concur thereto
when the time shall be. I could have wished to have
been present with you at the survey of it, to have rendred
the reason of some things, which will now perhaps be e/>7j/xo
/3oTj077o-ai>ro? ; but your Wisdom, Experience, and Knowledg
of the Place, will easily pierce through, and disperse all
those Mists which perhaps overcloud my understanding ;
and howsoever I shall hereby, dare sapienti occasionem.'
Writing again to the Archbishop from ' Hornin-
gerth, April the I5th, 1628,' Bedell says :
' I suppose it hath been an Error all this while, to
neglect the Faculties of Law and Physick, and attend
1 Parr, p. 388.
28 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE
only to the ordering of one poor Colledg of Divines ;
whereas, with a little more labour, and a few Privileges
attained, a great many more good Wits might have been
allured to study, and seasoned with Piety, and made
Instruments for the bringing in Learning, Civility, and
Religion, into that Country. I did communicate the
Plat to my Lord of Canterbury, at my first being with
him, especially in that point of admitting all Students
that should be matriculated, though they lodg in Dublin
in private Houses ; and of the four Faculties, with their
several Promoters, &c., who seemed not to dislike it ;
but required it should be maturely thought of, by your
Grace and the University, and promised his assistance
if it were found fit. At the same time I left with him the
Statutes of our Colledg, which I had this Winter written
out with mine own hand, and caused to be fair bound.
He retained them with him till the very morning of my
departing from London. At the same time he signified
his good approbation of the whole ; only accounted that
too strait, for the Provost's absence but six weeks, whereas
many Causes there should be, which would require longer
discontinuance. I shewed his Grace, that Colledg-
Business was excepted, and that we had not innovated
any thing in that Statute, it being so before my Elec-
tion. Another Point he disliked, was, touching Students
wearing Gowns always in the Colledg, and if it might be
when they went into Town. Whereas that of all other
(said he) would have been provided for. I answered,
The Streets in Dublin are very foul, and that by the
Statutes, Scholars were not permitted to go ordinarily
into the Town, without their Tutors consent. He said,
they might, if the Streets were never so foul, take their
Gowns under their Arms. I told him that this was also
an old Statute, e're I came there.' *
Writing from ' Horningerth this ijih of January
1627/8 ', to ' Mr. Dr. Ward, Master of Sidney
1 Parr, p. 391.
EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 29
Colledge,' Bedell makes inquiries about the Uni-
versity of Cambridge, and asks :
' To what vse your matriculation money is put : and
how the Schooles were first founded, and are yet repaired,
if you haue vnderstood what summes of money Professors
of Law or Physick do pay to the University for their
chairs, and whether the Professors of Divinity do the
like or not. Whether the Physitians and lawiers do make
any Profession at their taking Degrees of Dr., as Divines
do. And the copy of the Profession of Divinity if you can
conveniently come by it.' l
Bedell, however, was appointed Bishop of Kil-
more in 1629, and at once resigned his position
as Provost, and nothing more seems to have come
of these proposals at the time. During the next
thirty years the College records are silent on
medical matters except for the mention made in
the Statutes of Charles I in 1637.
In the first fifty years of her existence Trinity
College had hardly justified the hopes formed at
her foundation as far as medicine was concerned.
Medicine was still much in the same condition as
it was when Bacon, writing in the beginning of
the seventeenth century, says of it :
' Medicine therefore (as we have seen) hitherto hath been
such, as hath been more professed, than laboured ; and
yet more laboured than advanced ; seeing the pains
bestowed thereon, hath been rather in a circle, than in
progression. For I find much Iteration but small Addition
in Writers of that Faculty."* 1
Dermod O'Meara, writing in 1619 to the Lord
Deputy, Sir Oliver St. John, gives us an interesting
1 Shuckburgh, p. 274. * Advan. of Learning, p. 121.
30 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE
glimpse of medical practice in Dublin at the time.
O'Meara, 1 a poet and a physician, was born in
the County Tipperary and educated at Oxford.
He says :
' There are certainly more persons in Dublin at the
present day practising the Art of Medicine than any other
art, yet there are very few of them who have the six
qualifications which Hippocrates requires in a Medical
Doctor. Here, not only cursed mountebanks, ignorant
barbers, and shameless quack compounders, but also
persons of every other craft whatsoever, loose women, and
those of the dregs of humanity who are either tired of their
own proper art and craft or inflammed with an unbridled
passion for making money, all have free leave to profane
the holy temple of Asculapius. Here might not one justly
exclaim in the words of the poet
Here are those
Who, groping in the dark, are licensed still
To rack the sick, and murder men at will.
Malpractice, indeed, takes place in every country in the
world, but not everywhere with impunity. In every well
governed city and state legal precaution is taken that
no one should essay medical practice unless one who is
duly qualified by the public certificate and authorisation
of some University. In these Cities and States no barber
dares to open a vein, no compounder dares to sell medi-
cines, much less to attend patients, without a medical
Doctor's prescription. Thrice happy were this royal city
of ours thrice happy our whole state had they the
benefit of such wise legal precautions.' 2
In contrast with this we may put the statement
of John Baptist van Helmont, who was born in
1577 an< 3 died in 1644. In the collected edition
1 Ware, p. 108. Gilbert, Hist., vol. i, p. 428.
EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 31
of his works, first published after his death in
1648, in the Confessio Authoris, we read : *
' For I remember that the Chieftains of Ireland used
each to give a piece of land to a ' healer ' who lived with
them not one who had come back trained from the
Universities, but one who could really make sick people
well. Each such healer, I may mention, has a book
crammed with specific remedies bequeathed to him by
his forefathers. Accordingly he who inherits the book
inherits also the piece of land. This book describes the
symptoms of ailments and the country remedies used for
each ; and the people of Ireland are cured more success-
fully when ill, and have generally far better health than
the people of Italy, who in the several village com-
munities have their practitioners living on the blood of
their unhappy patients. Therefore I said to myself :
' What foolish mistake has mislead you ; you may have
thought out what is destined to be a great moment for
your neighbour, although Universities have scoffed at your
poor dissertations and trampled them under foot ; and
even though it has not been for your own vain-glory's
sake that you have written them, still all efforts are vain
whose issue rests only in the hands of men."
The Rebellion in 1641, followed by the Civil
War in England and the Commonwealth, put an
end for the time to all hope of improvement, but
the seeds so carefully sown by Temple and Bedell
were to bear good fruit after the Restoration of
1 Op. omnia, 1682, p. 13.
IN the Assembly Rolls of the Corporation of
Dublin for ' the Second Friday after Easter, 1604 ',
Easter Day being on the 8th of April, 1604, there
is the following record : *
' Whereas Mr. Doctor Challinor, Mr. John King,
Mr. James Ware, and Mr. James Carroll did in last
Christmas assembly prefer a peticion to undertake to
build a Bridewell near this city, which is now in building ;
and whereas the same is a chargeable work, and is to be
furthered by everyone that hath a feeling of the good
which thereby will redound to the city in particular, and
generally to the whole kingdom : ordered, that, for the
above purpose, an estate in fee-simple be granted, under
the city seal, to three persons to be nominated by the
Mayor, and three by the petitioners, of so much land as
shall be thought convenient in the Hoggen Green, from the
gate in the north towards Tirrells Park in the south, and
from the wall leading from the gate in the west towards
the Butts eastward. The building to be named Bridewell,
and to be a place of punishment for offenders, and for
putting idle persons to work ; regulations to correspond
with those of London Bridewell ; master and officials
to be appointed by and under jurisdiction of Mayor,
Sheriffs, commons and citizens ; the building to be used
solely as a Bridewell. The ground, according to the
survey, contains in breadth one hundred and twelve yards,
in length thirty-three yards.'
1 C.A.R., vol. ii, p. 420.
TRINITY HALL 33
In the following January l the ' Undertakers of
the Newe Bridewell ' asked for an amendment of
the conditions agreed upon in ' the conveighans '
which was to be passed between them and the
city, and this was agreed to.
It would appear that the house was never used
for the purpose it was intended for, and the
builder, George Breddam, petitioned the Privy
Council for the repayment of the money he had
advanced on the building. The matter was re-
ferred to arbitrators, who decided that 40 should
be paid to Breddam, provided he handed over the
house in perfect order. A rehearing of the case
was however granted, and the Mayor and James
Ware were appointed arbitrators. They reported
that Breddam was content to take 32 in payment
of all his claims, but neither the Corporation nor
the original undertakers were willing to pay the
sum, and consequently the Lord Deputy offered
the place to Trinity College for so. 2
In pursuance of this offer we find in the Assembly
Rolls : 3
On the ' Fourth Friday after the 24 June, 1615 ' it
was agreed by the Corporation ' that the Provost and
felloes of the Trynity Colledge, near Dublin, at the
request of the right honorable the lord deputy, 4 and
in consyderacion of the remittall of the fyne of fyfty
powndes imposed uppon this city for the escape of
Thomas Russell, the younger, shall have the precincts of
the howse, called Bridewell uppon the Hogges Green, with
1 C.A.R., p. 433.
* Gilbert, Hist., vol. iii, p. 8 ; Smith, Origin Col. P., p. 87.
3 C. A. R., vol. iii, p. 57. * Sir Arthur Chichester.
34 TRINITY HALL
thappurtenances, at the yearly rent of two shillinges, to
be used and converted by them onely for a free schoole,
and not otherwyse, the said assurance to be made forth-
with. Provided that yf the said howse be, at any time
heerafter, without the privity and assent of the Maior,
Sheryfes, commons and cittizens of this citty, converted
to any other use than for a schoole howse, that then it
shall revert againe to the cittie in such manner as nowe
they have it, soe as they repaie the fyfty powndes soe
forgiven them for the said escape.'
This holding so granted to the College was then
named Trinity Hall. The exact site has not been
clearly defined, but it is figured as ' Bridewell ' in
Speed's map of Dublin, published in 1610, situated
on the south side of Dame Street, somewhere
between the present Exchequer Street and Trinity
Street. Gilbert x says that a portion of the site
was afterwards occupied by the Almshouse of
St. Andrew's parish.
Trinity Hall was then opened by the College as
a residence house for some of the students, for
whom there was insufficient room in the College
buildings, just as later, in 1629, Kildare Hall and
a house in Bride Street were opened for a similar
purpose. It was placed in charge of a Rector, and
the students were to attend in the College for
exercises, disputations, and meals. The plan does
not seem to have worked well, and at the time of
the Rebellion the Hall seems to have been almost
abandoned by the College. In the Register for
February 20, i66i, 2 it is stated that, ' In processe
1 Gilbert, Hist., vol. iii, p. 17.
' Reg., vol. iii, p. 65.
TRINITY HALL 35
of the wane the sd. Hall was by poore people
occupied and in a maner ruinated the sd. College
being not in a condition to looke after itt or wholley
When peace was restored during the Common-
wealth, the city fathers decided to resume posses-
sion of the Hall, ' because it was not imploy'd to
the use intended.'
The College authorities were then in a difficulty,
as they could not afford to repair the Hall them-
selves, but were anxious not to lose their title to
it from the city. In this difficulty a proposal * was
made about the year 1654 to the ' pretended '
Provost and Fellows for a lease from them of
Trinity Hall and the ground thereunto belonging
by Colonel Markham and Dr. John Kerdiff, who
promised to secure the title of the College ' against
the Citty & to repair the sd. Hall '. The Register
goes on to say :
' This motion was opposed by Dr. John Stearne and
was quash'd by his alledging and proving that to make
a lease of the premises would be more directly contrary
to the intent of the conveyance of the premises upon the
sd College, then any former either inability or neglect
& consequently give greater colour and advantage to the
Citty to prosecute theyer design.
' This motion being laid aside, the sd John Stearne
moves the sd pretended Provost & Fellowes that hee
might be by them constituted President of the sd Hall
during his naturall life & accomodated with certain
lodgings therein, upon several conditions, whereof three
were, to keep out the Citty, & to repair the sd Hall,
without charge to the College (which our college at that
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 65.
3 6 TRINITY HALL
time was not able to defray) and to convert the remainder
to what should bee unto him allotted for his own accomo-
dation, unto the sole and proper use of Physicians. Upon
acceptance of this proposall the sd John Stearne was
made President of the sd Hall by the then pretended
Provost & Fellowes and accomodated with a certaine
number of roomes therein, & the sd John Stearne took
of the Citty from persecuting theyer designe, laid out of
his own purse above an hundred pounds in repairing the
sd Hall, and procured disbursements from others for
accomodating Physicians with a convenient place to
meete in, in order to the erection of a College of Physicians
as soone as possibly itt could be effected. Thus the case
stood untill his Majesty's happy restoration.'
It should be remembered when dealing with the
period of the Commonwealth that the Provost and
Fellows of the College who had held office in the
time of the late king were all dispossessed, and
a new Provost and new Fellows appointed. At the
restoration of the King it was considered that
these persons had not been legally elected to the
offices they held, and they are always referred to
as the ' Pretended Provost and Fellows '. Those
of the Fellows who were continued in their places
at the Restoration were re-sworn, just as if they
had never been elected before.
John Stearne, one of the ' pretended Fellows ',
was the most remarkable man of his time in
Trinity College. Some record of his life has been
published in Harris's edition of Ware's Writers, by
Aquilla Smith in his Account of the Origin of the
College of Physicians, in Belcher's Records of the
College of Physicians, and by Professor Mahaffy in
TRINITY HALL 37
his sermon in the College Chapel on Trinity Mon-
day, 1907,* and in his Epoch of Irish History.
Stearne came of a stock whose members on both
sides were distinguished for learning. His father,
John Stearne, was a scion of the same family as
Richard Sterne, Archbishop of York, who died
at the age of 87 in 1683. This John Stearne came
to Ireland and married a daughter of Margaret
Birmingham, a sister of James Usher, who had
been elected Fellow of Trinity College in 1600 and
Archbishop of Armagh in 1624. James Usher's
connexion with the College was most intimate.
His mother was a daughter of James Stanihurst,
Speaker of the Irish House of Commons in the
reigns of Queens Mary and Elizabeth, who in the
latter reign had made the first motion in Parlia-
ment for the foundation of Trinity College. James
Usher's uncle, Henry Usher, was Archbishop of
Armagh in 1595, and was nominated the first
Fellow of the College in the Charter of Elizabeth.
This Henry Usher's son, Robert, succeeded Bedell
as Provost in 1629.
John Stearne was born on the 26th November,
1624, at Ardbraccan, in County Meath, at the
home of his grand-uncle, James Usher, who was
then Bishop of Meath. He tells us that as 2 a
' boy he was well and liberally educated but where
is not worth telling '. He entered Trinity College
at the age of fifteen on the 22nd May, 1639, and
was allowed a scholarship in 1641. There is no
record in the College of his having taken any further
1 Irish Times, May 28, 1907. * Mahaffy, Sermon.
38 TRINITY HALL
degrees there, and on the breaking out of the
Rebellion he left the country and went to Cam-
bridge, bringing with him a recommendation from
Archbishop Usher to Samuel Ward, the Master of
Sidney College. There he remained some years,
till, driven out by the troubles of the times, he
took refuge for a time in Oxford, where he was
received by Seth Ward, Fellow of Wadham College.
While in Cambridge Stearne must have studied
medicine, and he probably had every facility for
doing so in Sidney College, which was at the time
the College chiefly frequented by medical students.
Driven from Oxford as he had been from Cam-
bridge by the stress of the times, Stearne returned
to Dublin. It has been suggested that Stearne had
been elected a Fellow of Trinity College about the
year 1644 while he was at Cambridge, but of this
there is no direct evidence. It seems more prob-
able, as Dr. Mahaffy l suggests, that he was induced
to return by Samuel Winter, who was made
Provost about 1650 or 1651, and the way was
prepared for his return by the following Order
in Council, 2 dated ' Dub. 22d Octob 1651 ' :
' Ordered that Mr. John Stearne be admitted into
Trinity Colledge neere Dublin as One of the Fellowes
there for six monthes from the date hereof, in wch time the
said Mr Stearne is to produce Testimonialls of his former
carriage and good affection to the Parliamt from godly and
honest persons in England, either att Cambridge or in
Bedfordshire where the said Mr. Stearnes last abode was.'
' Mahafly, Sermon.
' Council Boohs of the Commonwealth, vol. xlii, Orders, 1651-3.
TRINITY HALL 39
At all events we have him signing the Register
of the College as ' Registrarius ', and therefore
a Senior Fellow, on September 3, 1652. There
was at this time a great epidemic of plague raging
in the city, and Stearne may have felt that his
medical skill would ensure him a cordial and re-
munerative welcome. He appears to have at once
entered on medical practice, for in the College
Register of the 22nd May, 1655, l there is the
following entry :
' We ye Provost & Senior ffellows of Trinity Collegdge
neere Dublin at ye request of John Stearne, senior ffellow
of ye sd Colledge, doe for, and in consideration of the sd
John Stearne his practice in physicke hereby give and
grante vnto the sd John Stearne full liberty to lye in
the Cyty of Dublin or els where, when so ever in his
discretion his physicall employments shall require his
absence any night from the Colledge.'
This minute is signed by the Provost, the Vice-
Provost, and three Senior Fellows.
On the 24th November, 1656, Stearne was
elected Professor of Hebrew. There was some dis-
pute between him and the Board about the salary
of this Professorship, and, in spite of a letter
from the Chancellor of the University, Henry
Cromwell, in favour of Stearne, the Board refused
to pay the full amount, and on the I7th November,
1659, "there is the following minute in the College
Register 2 : ' Memorandum, that Dr. John Stearne,
Dr. of Physique resigned his Fellowship.' It is
said that the prospect of the coming Restoration of
1 Reg., vol. ii, p. 84. * Ibid., vol. ii, p. 91.
4 o TRINITY HALL
the king had more to say to Stearne's resignation
than his dispute on the salary of the Hebrew
Professorship. At all events, in the king's letter,
dated 'Whitehall December 29 1660', we find
Stearne nominated Senior Fellow of the College,
but associated with him Nathaniel Hoyle as
Vice-Provost; Caesar Williamson, Public Orator;
Joshua Cowley, Jurist; each of whom had held
a fellowship during the Commonwealth.
On January 22, 1660/1, Stearne, with the others,
took the oath as a Senior Fellow, 1 and on January 29
following he was again elected Registrar. 2 Almost
immediately Stearne proceeded to carry out his
plan for establishing a Fraternity of Physicians in
Trinity Hall, and the Register 3 of February 18,
1660/1, contains the following proposals :
' The humble proposalls of John Steam unto the
worshipfull ye Provost & Sr. Fellows of Trinity Colledge
neere Dublin :
4 1. That Trinity Hall with the land thereunto belonging
may be set apart in perpetuum for the advancemt of
ye study of Physick in Ireland.
' 2. That in pursuance of ye sayd designe John Steam
bee constituted President of the sd Hall for and during
his naturall life.
' 3. That the nomination of a President of ye sayd Hall
upon vacancyes bee always in the Provost & Senr.
Fellows aforesd & their successours.
' 4. That the sd John Stearne may accomodate him-
sclfe with gardening upon the ground belonging to the
sd Hall, & with chambers out of the present building,
or out of such as hereafter shall be raised upon the
ground unto ye sd Hall appertaining.
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 49. Ibid., p. 52. * Ibid., p. 59.
TRINITY HALL 41
' 5. That the President of ye sd Hall shall call into
a fraternity able Physitians who together with him are
desired to endeavour to advance moneys for additional
buildings to ye sd Hall, & to procure a Charter for to be
a body Corporate with privileges.
' 6. That all the students of Physicke in ye sd Hall shall
until ye Presidente of the sd Hall, & the fraternity
thereof bee made a body corporate by chart, bee bound
to come to prayers in Trinity Colledge aforesd & to
performe exercises there according to their severall
' 7. That the President & Fraternity of ye sd Hall shall,
if demanded meet & consult upon the best means for the
recovery of ye Provost & Senior Fellows aforesd & their
successours, whensoever any of them shall happen to be
' 8. That no students be admitted into ye sd Hall, but
such as are first admitted or incorporated into ye Trinity
Colledge aforesd : John Stearn.
' These proposals were approved of by ye Provost &
Senr. Fellows of Trinity Colledge aforesd and it is by them
ordered that according to ye Tenor of ye sayd proposalls
an Instrument be drawne up in due forme of law.
' Thorn. Seele Prp. Nat. Hoyl Vice Prep.
' Joshua Cowley.
' Witt. Vincent.
' Pat. Sheridan.'
These proposals were accepted, and the Board
of the College adopted the following resolution : l
' Trinity Hall appropriated to the study of Physicke
by an Instrument which is as followeth :
"To all Christian people to whom this present
writinge shall come. We, ye Provost, Fellowes and
Scholars of the Colledge of ye Holy and vndivided
Trinitye of Queene Elizabeth neere Dublin, send greetinge.
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 53.
42 TRINITY HALL
Whereas ye study of Physicke is found very necessary
for ye publique good, and noe course hitherto hath been
taken for ye advancemt. thereof in Ireland, know ye
yt we the Provost Fellowes and Scholars aforesd being
desireous to promote soe necessary a pointe of learninge
in Ireland doe for our selves and our successours vnani-
mously consent assent and agree and by these presents
declare our will to be yt the messuage or house unto us
belonging and now in our possession comonly knowne and
called by the name of Trinity Hall scituate lyinge and
beinge neere the City of Dublin in Hoggen Greene
together with all the gardens orchards curtelages lands
and all other the appurtenances thereunto belonginge be
from henceforth for ever converted to ye sole and proper
use and advantage of the study of Medicine and of such
as shall therein studye or professe ye same. And for that
end and purpose We doe hereby nominat constitute and
appoint John Stearne Doctor in Physicke and Senr.
Fellow of Trinity Colledge aforesaid President of ye said
Hall for & dureinge his naturall life And doe further
impower ye sd John Stearne to accomodate himselfe with
gardening upon ye ground unto ye sd Hall belonginge
and wth Chambers out of ye present buildinge or out of
such buildings as hereafter shall be raysed upon ye
ground unto ye sd Hall belonginge, reaservinge unto
ourselves and successors for ever ye nomination of a
President of ye said Hall upon vacancy of ye President-
ship Provided always yt ye said John Stearne call unto
a fraternity able Physitians who together wth him are
hereby desired to endeavour to advance moneyes for
additional building to ye said Hall and to procure a
charter for to be a body corporate with priviledges And
yt untill such time as ye President and Fraternity of ye
sd Hall shall be made a body corporate All the students
of ye sd Hall shall be bound to come to prayers in Trinity
College aforesd and to performe exercises therein accord-
inge to theire severall capacityes Provided alsoe that ye
President and Fraternity of ye said Hall shall if demanded
TRINITY HALL 43
meete and consult upon the best meanes for ye recovery
of ye Provost and Senior Fellowes of Trinity Colledge
aforesd and theire successors whensoever they or any of
them shall happen to be sicke And yt the President of ye
sd Hall admitt noe students into ye sd Hall but such as
are first admitted or incorporated into Trinity Colledge
afforesaid. In witness whereof we have here unto sett our
cofhon scale and subscribed our names this two and
twentieth day of ffebruary one thousand six hundred and
" Signed sealed & Tho : Seele prp : Memorandu that
delivered in ye Nath. Hoyle Vice p. this above deed
presence of Joshua Cowley. was cancelled,
Arthur Parsons Will. Vincent. and with the ex-
Arthur Bulkely. Pat. Sheridan. ception of what
Locus sigilli. was set unto Mr.
Sams, & some
other small varia-
tion, was renewed
signed and sealed
ye 22 of April,
On March the igth * the Board agreed that ' the
sd John Stearne shall not be penally obliged to
be present at College-prayers unlesse he be there-
unto specially required. And that he receave his
Commons in money.'
On the 3rd June, i662, 2 Stearne was ' constituted
and elected publiq professor of Medicine in the Uni-
versity of Dublin for & during his naturall life'.
Just before the Restoration we have the record
of a medical degree granted by the University on
' July 23 i66o. 3 Ordered by the Viceprovost &
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 54. ' Ibid., p. 68.
* Ibid., vol. ii, p. 99.
44 TRINITY HALL
Sen. Fellows of Trin. Coll. Dublin that Mr. John
Archer bee passed Dr. of Physicke in the house it
being provided that he pay whatsoever fees are
usual for such a degree and performe his acts when
he shall be called thereunto.'
Just a year previously, ' on June 20, 1659,
John Tailor, seven years a student at Magdalen
College, and John Clearke, also of Oxford are
admitted M.D., being recommended by the Chan-
cellor Henry Cromwell, in pleno Senatu Academical l
Stearne was not slow to fulfil his obligations to
' call into a fraternity able Physitians ', for on the
26th January, i66o/i, 2 Johannes Cusacke was pro-
moted and Drs. Bramhall, Halle, and Lamb
Goughman were incorporated ' Doctores in Medi-
cina ', Dr. Goughman, or Gougleman, was in
accordance with the King's letter elected Senior
Fellow three days later. 3
Having succeeded in his enterprise with regard
to Trinity Hall, Stearne then attempted to obtain
a Royal Charter for the College, but in this he was
not immediately successful. Under the date of
January 28, 1665, there is in the Calendar of State
Papers * the ' note of a letter to the Lord Lieu-
tenant for a College of Physicians in Ireland ', but
the charter was not granted till August 8, 1667.
In this charter Stearne was nominated President
for life, and after his death the Presidents were to
be elected by the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars
of Trinity College, subject to the approval of the
1 Mahafiy, Epoch, p. 304. * Reg., vol. iii, p. 51.
1 Keg. ibid., p. 52. c. S. P. 1663-5, P- 600.
TRINITY HALL 45
Lord-Lieutenant, and provided that Trinity Hall
and the lands belonging thereto were settled on
the newly incorporated College. On the applica-
tion of Stearne, the Provost and Fellows executed
a deed dated August 13, 1668, settling Trinity
Hall on Matthew Barry and Launcelot Sandes,
Esquires, in trust for the sole use of the College
Thus was established the College of Physicians,
which at its inception was an integral part of
Trinity College, and which, ever since, has main-
tained its connexion with the University. The
Presidency of the College was in the hands of the
University authorities, and no one was to be
admitted a student within its walls until he had
first been enrolled a student of Trinity College.
As the Registrar of Trinity College records in the
minutes : *
' Trinity Hall is not alienated from Trinity College :
but by this converted into the use intended. And it may
be considered that, after the death of the said John
Stearne, and perhaps before, there will be accomodation
for Students of the Coll : of Physicians (and) they are as
considerable a proportion of Scholars as any number of
Undergraduates wherewith the said Hall was heretofore
stored, and as useful to the whole Kingdom/
In 1663 2 the Lord-Lieutenant had forwarded to
the King a letter for his signature, granting ' 60
a year to Dr. Stearne by letters patent as Public
Professor of Physic in the University of Dublin to
be put upon the Establishment '. This letter was
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 65. * C. S. P. 1663-5, P- 39-
46 TRINITY HALL
accompanied by a note of recommendation from
the Lord-Lieutenant, and on March 20 of the same
year there is a letter from the King to the Lord-
Lieutenant directing the pension of 60 a year
given to Dr. Stearne, who was public Professor of
Physic in the University of Dublin by patents
passed on the i8th September, 1662, in con-
sequence of letter dated i8th June, 1662, to be
placed on the establishment. 1
Stearne did not live long to enjoy the fruits of
his work, or nurture the College in its early youth,
for he died on the i8th November, 1669, at the
early age of 45.
The remaining facts in the life of Stearne, so
far as they are known, can be told in a few words.
We learn from the Register of Cambridge University
that John Stearne matriculated as a pensioner
there on July 8, 1642, and was in the same year
admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and
in 1646 to that of Master. It appears that his
matriculation was deferred until he was in a
position to proceed to the B.A. degree, a pro-
cedure which was not unusual in the seventeenth
century. There is no record in the Register of his
having taken any degree in Dublin, though it is
almost certain that he took his doctor's degree in
both laws and medicine. In his published works
he styles himself ' M. & J. U. D.', or ' Medicinae,
ct Juris Utriusque, Doctor'.
In 1659, just at the time of his dispute with
the Board about his salary as Hebrew Lecturer,
1 C. S. P., 1663-5, p. 4 6.
TRINITY HALL 47
Stearne married Miss Dorothy Ryves, daughter
of Charles Ryves, Esq., and it was possibly this,
and not either the dispute or the anticipation of
the Restoration, which led to the resignation of his
fellowship on November 17 of that year. The
statute enforcing celibacy on the Fellows was not,
however, at this time strictly enforced, and the
Provost, Samuel Winter, was a married man.
Belcher states * that at the Restoration Stearne
was appointed Public Professor of Laws, but of this
we can find no evidence in the College Register, and
his name does not appear as such in the College
Calendar. He was, however, re-elected Lecturer
in Hebrew, for on December 17, 1667, we find
a deputy appointed for him ' to execute the said
office according to the Statutes '. 2
Stearne had one son and two daughters who
survived him. His son John was born in 1660,
and was afterwards Dean of St. Patrick's and
Bishop of Clogher. It is to the munificence of
this John Stearne that Trinity College owes its
printing-house, which he built in 1726 at a cost of
1,000, and for which ten years later he gave 200
to buy types. Stearne's eldest daughter, Bridget,
married John Rotton, of Dublin, while l^'s second
daughter, Mabell, married a Mr. Hall.
Stearne's will, which is dated November 14,
1669, is witnessed by the Provost, Thomas Seele,
and his friend, Henry Dodwell, and in it he says :
' I desire (if the Provost and Senior Fellows shall
think fitt) that my body may be interred in
1 Belcher, Memoirs, p. 20. * Reg., vol. iii, p. in.
48 TRINITY HALL
Trinity College Chapell, if not where my dear wife
shall otherwise conceive meet without escuteon
and other unnecessary charges.' This desire was
carried out, and over him at the north side of the
great altar l was erected a stone bearing a tribute
to his memory, composed by his friend Henry
Stearne's wife, Dorothy, survived him till 1700,
and in her will, which is dated April 24, 1700, and
was proved on the 27th of May following, she says :
' I bequeath to Dr. Ralph Howard and Dr. John
Madden, who tended me in my sickness, the sum
of five pounds each as tokens of the mind I have
of their kind care of me.'
Few men have compressed into a short life of
forty-five years so much learning and so much
work as did John Stearne, and whether we judge
him by his own learning and his own work, or
by the benefit which that work has conferred on
posterity, we must award him a high place.
Trinity College may well be proud of her great
son, and it is fitting that, at the bicentenary cele-
bration of the foundation of the Medical School,
an honoured place should be given to the memory
of him who by his work made that foundation
' Epitaphium Marmori insculptum ad latus Boreale magni
Altaris in Sacello Collcgii S.S. & Individ. Trinitatis Reginae
Elizabethae juxta Dublin, ubi Sepultus jacet.'
I'rcfixed to Stearne's De Obslinatione, by the editor, Henry
Dodwell. who published it in 1672.
THE CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
STEARNE being dead, the Medical Faculty of
the University was left without its Professor
and the College of Physicians without its Presi-
dent. Almost immediately, November 25, 1669,
George Walker, one of the Fellows, was elected
' Medicus ', a post which seems to have been in
abeyance since the time of Thomas Beere, who
was appointed in 1620. In the College Calendar
Stearne is given as ' Medicus ' in 1662, but there
is no record of such appointment in the College
Register. Walker died in less than a year, and
was succeeded, October 26, 1670, by William
Palliser, afterwards Archbishop of Cashel, and on
September 9, 1671, George Mercer was ' chosen
in medicum '. Neither Walker nor Palliser was
a medical man, and Mercer did not take a medical
degree till 1681. Thomas Margetson appears to
have succeeded Stearne as Professor of Medicine,
for though there is no direct mention in the
College books of his appointment, we read x on
April 2, 1674, that ' upon the death of Dr. Tho.
Margetson Ralph Howard, Dr. of Physick, was
elected Public Professor of Physic in his place
and President of the College of Physicians '.
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 171.
50 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
Howard held the office of Professor for thirty-six
years, till he was succeeded in 1710 by Richard
Steevens. Ralph Howard was the first Fellow of
the College of Physicians elected under the Charter
of Charles II. He graduated M.D. in the Uni-
versity on October 22, 1667, and at the same
time became a Fellow of the College of Physicians ;
being elected President for the first time on
April 2, 1674, and again elected in 1686, 1695, 1701,
and 1707. Howard was born in Wicklow l in
1638, and lived afterwards in Great Ship Street,
Dublin. During the war of 1689-91 he left the
country and resided in England. His son Hugh
was an artist who, according to Horace Walpole,
practised painting ' at least with applause '. 2 His
other son, Robert, was a Senior Fellow of Trinity
College, and afterwards became Bishop of Killala
and then of Elphin. Sir Thomas Molyneux in
1694 married one of Dr. Howard's daughters,
and Anthony Dopping, Bishop of Ossory, the
Thomas Margetson was an Englishman, the son
of James Margetson of Yorkshire. 3 He entered
Trinity College on May 5, 1647, but lert apparently
without taking a degree. In the latter end of
1650 he entered at St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, and
from that college took the two degrees in Arts.
On the loth March, 1656/7, he took the degree
of Bachelor of Medicine at Montpelier, 4 and eight
^DonoRhuc. Irish Ability, p. 62. Webb.
Wood. Athcnae, vol. ii, p. 795.
4 Munk's Roll, vol. i, p. 280.
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 51
days later proceeded to that of Doctor of Medicine
in the University of Orange. He was incorporated
at Oxford on his doctor's degree on the I4th
January, 1657/8, and on the 5th of April following
was admitted a candidate of the London College
The death of Stearne must have made a great
difference in the affairs of the College of Physi-
cians. He had been its President since its founda-
tion, and, as we have seen, had lived in Trinity
Hall. Difficulties no doubt arose after his death,
and the Fellows had no precedent to guide them
in their actions. It was not till the 25th January,
1671/2, that we find them taking any steps to
elect a new President. On that day ' Dr. Marget-
son and Dr. Howard gave notice to the Provost
in the name of the Corporation of Physicians
that the Presidentshipp of the said Corporation
is void by theyer Charter and desired that
a new President might be elected V The Pro-
vost and Senior-Fellows beeing legally & statut-
ably mett ', nominated and elected ' Abraham
Yarner Kt. & Dr. of Physicke President of the
said College of Physicians ', and on Monday the
I5th February following a formal document in
Latin to this effect received the seal of Trinity
Abraham Yarner seems to have been more of
a soldier than a physician. We first meet with
him in 1641, when on the 23rd December he
signed a receipt for payment for Army service, 2
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 153. * C. S. P. 1633-47, p. 772.
52 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
and again in the following January he is paid as
' lieutenant of the Lord Lieutenant's horse troop '. x
On the 28th October, 1643, a letter was written
by the King to the Lords Justices of Ireland
ordering that ' Capt. Abraham Yarner be ap-
pointed Mustermaster General in Ireland if the
post be void, and, if not, that he have a reversion
of it '. On the 2gth June, 1646, the post was
granted to him. On ' third Friday after 29
September ', 1650, we find among the admissions
to the franchise entered in the Assembly Rolls
of the Dublin Corporation the entry z ' by Special
Grace and on fines of a pair of gloves to the
Maior, Abraham Yarner Doctor of Physick '.
With the advent of the Commonwealth, he seems
to have forsaken the battle-field for the study of
physic. On the return of the King in 1660 we
find him restored to his former appointment as
Mustermaster-General and Clerk of the Check of
the Armies and Garrison ; while at the same time
he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-
colonel. In the following year his son Abraham
was associated with him in this office, in which
he says 8 he hopes to ' be able to save the King
some thousands a year and keep the Army con-
stantly ready for service'. On August 4, 1663,
his daughter Jane was married to Sir John Temple
in St. Michan's Church by Bishop Parker, as is
shown by the following entry in the Parish
Register : *
P-. '633-47, p. 77 8. C.A.R., vol. iii, p. 509.
1 C. S. P., 1660-2. p. 391. St. Michan's Reg., p. 81.
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 53
' 1663. Aug. 4. Married, Sir John Temple to Madam
Jane Yarner daughter of Dr. Abraham Yarner, by
Bishop Parker, Lord Bishop of Elphine, in this parish
Church of St. Michan's by licence.'
This John Temple, then Solicitor-General, was the
son of Sir John Temple, Master of the Rolls, who
had been chosen first ' Medicus ' of the University
We have no record where Yarner took his
medical degrees, though we find his two sons,
Abraham and John, graduating in Oxford from
Queen's College, and afterwards entered as stu-
dents in Lincoln's Inn. 1 Yarner was dubbed
knight at Dublin in 1670 2 and died on the 28th
July, 1677, and was buried next day in St. Michan's
Church, ' close by the vestry door.' 3 In his will,
in which he is described as M.D. and Muster-
master-General of all his Majesty's forces in Ire-
land, he leaves an annuity to his son-in-law, Sir
John Temple, ' His Majesty's Solicitor General,'
out of his lands in the County Wicklow which
were ' given, granted, assigned, and allotted unto
me by the Comrs. of the Court of Claymes in
satisfaction of my services in the wars of this
Kingdom '. He also speaks of his home in Oxman-
town where he ' now dwells ', and he leaves his
' Horses and Coaches ' to his dear wife, Lady
Catherine, who was buried, as we read in the
Parish Register, 4 ' in the first vault on the left
1 Foster, Alumni Ox., vol. iv, p. 1699.
* Knights, vol. ii, p. 245. * St. Michan's Reg., p. 217.
4 Ibid., p. 396.
54 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
hand in the Chancell' of St. Michan's on the
20th January, 1691.
It seems probable from the minutes of the
Board of the 2nd April, 1674, already quoted,
that Margetson was President of the College of
Physicians up to his death, when he was succeeded
by Howard, but of this there is no definite proof.
Charles Willoughby signs D'Olin's Book in the
College of Physicians, as President, on the 24th
September, 1676, and on the 22nd October, 1677,
the Board of Trinity College elected Dr. Robert
Waller. Both these men had been educated
abroad, the former in Padua and the latter at
Ley den. Willoughby, the son of Sir Francis
Willoughby, was a native of Cork, and had studied
at Merton College, Oxford, where he became a
Fellow. 1 He graduated in medicine in the Uni-
versity of Padua, and his diploma for that degree
is preserved in the library of Trinity College. In
1663 he presented to the library of Merton College
his ' herbarium vivum ' or ' hortus siccus ', a col-
lection of dried plants which he had gathered at
Padua, and on the 3ist March of the following
year he was incorporated at Oxford in his doctor's
Willoughby was an active member of the Dublin
Philosophical Society, being appointed the first
Director on its establishment in 1683/4, and with
Narcissus Marsh, Sir William Petty, and William
Molyneux he was specially appointed to draw up
1 Brodrick. Merton, p. 291.
Wood, Athenae, vol. ii, p. 334.
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 55
the rules for the conduct of the affairs of the
Society. To the proceedings of the Society he
contributed the following papers : 1
1. On the Mirage seen at Rhegiumm in Italy.
2. On Winds.
3. On the lines of Longitude and Latitude.
4. On Hermaphrodism.
In 1857 Sir William Wilde printed a paper by
Willoughby, 2 the manuscript of which he had just
acquired, with the following title : ' Observations
on the Bills of Mortality and the increase of people
in Dublin : the Distempers Air and Climate of
this Kingdom ; also of Medicine Physic Surgeons
and Apothecary's, by Dr. Willoughby An eminent
Physician in 1690.' Willoughby's death was an-
nounced to the College of Physicians at the
meeting on the i8th September, 1694.
Robert Waller was born about 1620, and on
the i7th July, 1650, ' was entered in the Physic
line at Leyden.' 3 He graduated Doctor of Medi-
cine at Leyden, and on that degree was incor-
porated at Cambridge in 1652. He was admitted
Fellow of the London College of Physicians on
the 22nd December, 1662. In the summer of
1664 he was incorporated M.D. in Trinity College
That the College of Physicians was at this time
actively engaged is evident from a book of old
accounts which has been preserved. Belcher be-
lieved it to be in the handwriting of Dr. Crosby,
1 Gilbert, Hist., vol. ii, p. iv.
1 Proceedings R.I. A., vol. vi. * Munk's Roll, vol. i, p. 308.
5 6 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
and it is dated 1676. Among the items of expendi-
ture we find the following :
' It. payd for the College dinn' the summe s.
of three pounds two shill: 3 : 2
It. to ye joyner for ye dissecting table the
1 5th of March 6' - 6 s -
It. to ye Cuttler for cleaning ye instrum* 8 : s. d.
belonging to ye College 5" - 5 d 5 - 5
It. for a warrant for ye body yt was dis- s.
sected * 3
It. to ye souldiers who kept ye body 4-6
It. for ye Coffin for ye s d body 4-6.
It. to ye souldiers who watched 9-0.
for the said souldiers in drinke 3 - 10.
The whole sum spent on ye same body being
2-4-10. I delivered upon ye presi-
dents note unto his man.'
It was possibly this subject to which Dunton
refers 1 when he tells us that he saw about the
year 1700 :
' the skin of one Ridley, a notorious Tory, which had been
long ago executed ; he had been begged for an Anatomy
and, being flayed, his skin was tanned and stuffed with
straw. In this passive state he was assaulted by some
mice and rats, not sneakingly behind his back, but boldly
before his face, which they so much further mortified,
even after death as to eat it up ; which loss has since
been supplied by tanning the face of one Geoghegan,
a Popish Priest, executed about six years ago for stealing ;
which said face is put in the place of Ridley's.'
It is recorded in the Register of Trinity College
that on the 7th July, 1674,*
' the special grace of the house for the degree of Batchelor
of Physick was given to John Madden and Henry
1 Dunton. vol. ii, p. 624. * Reg., vol. iii, p. 173.
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 57
This is the first record we have of the Bachelor's
degree in Medicine being granted by the College,
the next being those for Allen Mullin on the 27th
February, 1678/9, and for John Foley on the
igth February, 1679/80.
Both Foley and Mullin had been students of
Trinity College. Foley, 1 the son of Samuel Foley
of Clonmel, entered as a Fellow-Commoner on the
6th August, 1673, at the age of fourteen. His
tutor was George Mercer, who had a grace for his
M.D. degree on the nth July, 1681, and was
elected Fellow of the College of Physicians the
Allen Mullin, 2 the son of Patrick Mullin of
Ballicoulter, entered as a Sizar at the age of
eighteen on the 27th February, 1671/2. He
graduated B.A. in the summer of 1676, and M.D.
in 1684, when he was also elected a Fellow of the
College of Physicians. He was one of the most
energetic members of the Dublin Philosophical
Society, to the transactions of which he made
many contributions. 3 On the iyth July, 1681, an
elephant was burned to death in Dublin, and Sir
William Petty secured the dissection of it for
Mullin, who published in London in 1682 an
account of this dissection, together with some new
anatomical observations on the eyes of animals. 4
This account of the anatomy of the elephant is
still found to be accurate and is referred to by
1 T. C. D. Ent. Bk. Ibid.
8 Gilbert, Hist., vol. ii, p. iv ; vide App.
* London, 1682, 4to, pp. 72 and two plates.
5 8 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
later writers. Mullin practised in Dublin till
1686, when he went to London, as we are told,
' on account of a scandalous love intrigue, of which
he was ashamed.' x He was elected a Fellow of
the Royal Society, in the transactions of which
several of his papers are published. In 1690
Lord Inchiquin ' took him with him to his Govern-
ment of Jamaica, he being desirous of that voyage
having a mind to enquire after some mines which
he heard were in those parts : But putting in at
Barbadoes he met with some friends who made
him drink hard, which threw him into a calenture
of which he died '.
Speaking of his work, Sprengel 2 says :
' The quantity of the blood which circulated in the body
had been arbitarilly valued by Harvey and by his followers.
A Doctor of Trim in Ireland, Allen Mullen, undertook for
the first time in 1687 to submit these results to exact
calculation : but the results which he obtained depended
on suppositions the truth of which may be doubted. He
allowed the blood to flow from the vessels till the animal
died and thought that he had thus obtained the total
quantity of that which circulated in the body. He found
that the weight of this mass amounts to one-twentieth
of that of the entire body. Hence he concluded that
same proportion exists in human beings, and that con-
sequently a person who weighs one hundred and fifty
pounds has not more than eight pounds of blood, and that
if at each diastole the heart receives four ounces the total
quantity in the body must pass through the organ one
hundred and forty times an hour. Mullen did not con-
sider that almost always there remains over a certain
amount of blood and that the proportion taken as the
base of his calculation varies greatly in different animals.'
1 Ware. vol. ii, p. 206. ' Sprengel, torn, iv, p. 140.
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 59
Mullin's work and discoveries in the anatomy
of the eye have received the approbation of
Albert von Haller. 1
In the year 1680 the College of Physicians
surrendered Trinity Hall to Trinity College, and
new articles of agreement were entered into
between the Colleges on bonds of 300 apiece.
No trace of this agreement can now be found, but
from a minute in the Register of Trinity College
some years later we find it stated that 2 ' Upon
the restoring of Trinity Hall in the year 1680,
there were articles drawn up which required that
"the Register of the College of Physitians should
be one of those that should signify the election (of
the President) to the Provost and Sen. Fellows "/
Another was, ' That Trinity College did oblige
themselves to confirm the election of the College
of Physitians provided the person elected were
a Protestant of the Church of Ireland.'
For a time this agreement seems to have worked
well, and on the 24th June, i68i, 3 ' Dr. Patrick
Dun was chosen President of the College of
Physitians.' During the next few years several
persons were admitted to the medical degrees of
the University, and on the 25th June, 1687, the
Provost and Senior Fellows decided that the
kitchen garden of the College ' Should be made
a Physic Garden at the charge of the College'. 4
On the 26th October, i687, 5 Dr. Connor and
1 Cameron, p. 9. * Reg., vol. iii, p. 267.
* Ibid., p. 219. * Ibid., p. 264.
' Ibid., p. 267.
6o CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
Dr. Dunn came to the College to signify that the
College of Physitians had chosen Dr. Crosby for
their President, and did desire the Provost and
Sen. Fellows to confirm their election.' This the
Provost and Senior Fellows refused to do on the
grounds that the information had not been brought
to them by the Registrar as required by the agree-
ment of 1680. ' And seeing that the Person whom
they had elected was not a Protestant of the
Church of Ireland, the Provost and Senior Fellows
did not think it safe nor proper for them to con-
firm the election of the said Dr. Crosby.'
This Dr. Crosby had been elected a Fellow of
the College of Physicians about the year 1674 ;
he does not appear to have been a graduate of
Trinity College, and we have no information as
to where he took his medical degree. He was,
however, a trusted Fellow of the College, of which
he held the office of Treasurer as early as 1676,
the earliest records of the College of Physicians
now extant being in his handwriting. In view of
the agreement with the College of Physicians the
Provost and Senior Fellows were undoubtedly
justified in their refusal to recognize Crosby as
President, but in explanation of this refusal one
must bear in mind the trend of contemporary
events. King James was at this time engaged in
attacking the ancient Universities and endeavour-
ing by mandamus to foist on them persons who
were ineligible according to the Statutes for the
positions sought. The attacks of this nature on
Magdalen College, Oxford, and on the University of
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 61
Cambridge, are well known. On the 4th October,
1686, Arthur Green, one of ' the King's con-
verts ', who had graduated Bachelor of Physic in
1684, presented to the Provost and Senior Fel-
lows a King's Letter demanding that they should
immediately elect him to the place and pay of the
Lecturer in Irish. To this demand the following
minute was made : 1
' That whereas the groundwork, or supposition, whereon
the King's grant was founded, was altogether fictitious,
and untrue, no such foundation of any Irish Lecturership
appearing in any of our Registeryes, nor any other way
whatsoever . . . and that letters be sent to England . . .
containing a humble representation of this whole matter
& reasons why we cannot in this case do what the King
requires wch might be showed to his Majesty if anyone
offer 'd to accuse us of disobedience.'
It was probably in view of this attempt on the
part of the king that the Board did not ' think
it safe nor proper to confirm the election of the
said Dr. Crosby '. This caution was justified by
subsequent events, for on the I3th February
following, a mandamus from the king was pre-
sented to the Board demanding the election as
Fellow of the ' trusty and well-beloved Bernard
Doyle '. This request was refused on the ground
that Doyle refused to take the necessary oath as
Fellow, and the character of the ' trusty and well-
beloved ' Doyle is given in a subsequent minute. 2
' His Excellency having sent an order to the Mayor of
Drogheda, to take examinations of Mr. Doyle's behaviour
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 252. * T. C. D. Case and Conduct, p. 20.
62 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
while he was usher of that school, and lived in the town,
Mr. Downes went to Drogheda upon the 8th of March ;
and upon the Qth, loth, I2th of the same month, deposi-
tions of several witnesses on oath were taken, by which
it was proved that the said Doyle had been guilty of
fornication (having got two bastards) of thefts, drunken-
ness, and other crimes.'
In view of such a state of things it is quite
obvious that the Provost and Fellows would be
unwilling to make any appointment which was
not strictly in accordance with both the letter
and the spirit of their legal obligations, or which
might be urged against them in subsequent pro-
To whatever cause we may attribute the decision
of Trinity College in this election, there is no doubt
about its effect. In November 1687 the College
of Physicians proposed to the Board that the
agreement made between the two Colleges in 1680
should be cancelled, and the Provost and Senior
Fellows agreed to this course provided that ' the
College of Physicians will deliver up all the writings
that relate to Trinity Hall which are in their
custody, and also give a release of all former
grants, and deeds made by Trinity College to the
College of Physicians concerning the said Hall '.
Trinity College also proposed, ' to set a lease of
Trinity Hall for fifty years to the College of
Physitians on such terms as shall be agreed on.' l
On the igth May, 1688, the College of Physicians
again asked why Trinity College ' refused to con-
firm their President, Dr. Crosby ', and ' the same
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 268.
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 63
answer was returned that was formerly given '.
Matters then remained in this state between the
two Colleges for the next few years.
On the 8th June, 1687, ' a letter from the Arch-
bishop of Dublin was presented to the Provost
and Senior Fellows whereby it appeared that
Dr. Mercer was married & so his fellowship was
declared void.' Dr. Mercer had been appointed
Medicus in 1671, and Vice-Provost on the I7th
November, 1686. It was his daughter who in
1734 bequeathed the money to found Mercer's
Hospital. On the i8th June, 1687, Mr. Lloyd was
chosen Medicus and was succeeded in the same
year by Jeremy Allen. Allen resigned the post
on the i8th September, 1687, and was succeeded
by Arthur Blennerhasset, who held office till 1693.
These were times of stress, when it was difficult
to get the bare necessaries of life, and we find on
the 24th of January, 1688/9, ^ became necessary
to reduce the dietary of those living in the College.
In September the College was seized for a garrison
by the king's order, and was made a prison for
the Protestant inhabitants of the city. 1
' The Chapel was sprinkled, new consecrated, and Mass
said in it : but afterwards being converted into a store-
house for powder, it escaped all further damage. The
Library and Gardens, and ye Provost's lodgings, were
committed to the care of one M'Carthy, a priest, and
Chaplain to the King, who preserved them from the
violence of the souldiers ; but the chambers and all other
things belonging to the College were miserably defaced
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 280.
64 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
At this time many of the Fellows left the
country, and of the four who remained Richard
Acton, Vice-Provost, and Jeremy Allen, the late
Medicus, both died of fever in December. George
Thewles and John Hall also braved the storm and
remained at their posts. Hall afterwards became
Vice-Provost, but the tragic fate of Thewles is
recorded in the following minute of the Board :
' June 14 1690. King William landed at Carrickfergus
and the same day Mr Thewles died of a fever.' l
With the establishment of the government of
William III things began to improve, and on the
I5th July, 1690, the Fellows and Scholars returned
to the College. On the i8th of October following
' an instrument was sealed and signed by the
Register to constitute Dr. Dun President of the
College of Physicians for the year ensuing J . 2 The
physicians then petitioned the Lord Deputy, pray-
ing that a new charter might be granted to them
similar to that of the London College, giving
them more ample powers to check the practice of
quackery in the country, and that some forfeited
houses and lands in the city might be granted for
a College Hall and Physic Garden. This petition
was referred to Sir John Temple, then Attorney-
General, who reported favourably on it, and on
the 1 4th December, 1692, the old Charter was
surrendered by Dr. Cumyng to the Lord Chan-
cellor. The new Charter bearing the date of
December 15, 1692, constituted the King and
1 T. C. D. Case and Conduct, p. 41.
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 283.
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 65
Queen's College of Physicians with Sir Patrick
Dun as President.
There is little known of the history of Trinity
Hall subsequent to the death of Stearne. It is
probable that Mrs. Stearne continued to reside
there as a tenant of the College for some time
after Stearne's death, for in the account-book of
the College of Physicians, dated 1676, there is the
' De Vidua Sterne pro reditu semi annuo domus hujusce
From the minute in the Register * of the Board
of Trinity College, dated October 26, 1687, we
learn accidentally that Trinity Hall was restored
to Trinity College in the year 1680, though we
find no further record of its use by that body till
1694. On the gth July in that year the Register
records that ' S r Smyth was chosen master of
the school in Trinity Hall, and on the 28th of
November following it was " Ordered that a lease
of Trinity Hall and the land adjacent, reserving a
place for a school be sett to Mr. Nathaniel Shaw
for one and fourty years"/
On the 24th June, 1710, the Board perfected
two leases of parts of the ground and part of
Trinity Hall to the Rev. John Barton, Dean of
Ardagh, in connexion with which there is the
following minute : 2
' It is agreed between ye within parties before ye per-
fection of ye within lease, that ye door for ye school
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 267. * Ibid., p. 431.
66 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
of Trinity Hall into ye yard shall be shutt up & y* ye
within John Barton shall hold that part of ye building
and yard not hereby demised (ye school excepted) with
y l part hereby demised for so long as ye within Provost
and Fellows and Scholars shall think fitt.'
Gilbert x states, in his History of Dublin, that the
original building disappeared in the early part of
the eighteenth century, but Henry Dabzac, a
Senior Fellow, in his evidence before a Committee
of the House of Commons in 1783, stated that
' Trinity Hall reverted to Senior Fellows and is
now in the possession of ye University '. 2
The first meeting of the College of Physicians
under the new charter took place in the house of
the President in the Inns Quay, and this sub-
sequently became for many years the home of
Thus were the two Colleges formally separated,
but separated only to become more closely united
in their work and aims. On the 23rd June, 1693,
there is the following minute in the Register of
the Board : *
' The College of Physicians, Dublin, having obtained
of their Majesties a new Charter wth greater privileges
than were before granted to ym. To preserve the right
of this University and Colledge it is therein specified,
That Trin. Coll. Dubl. are only to give notice to ye
Professor of Physick, when any Acts are to be performed
for any degree in that Faculty, to ye intent only, y* ye
said Acts may be performed with greater solemnity. For
it is likewise provided in their new Charter or Grant yt
1 Gilbert. Hist., vol. iii, p. 17.
' Bekher, Memoir Sir P. Dun, p. 37. Reg., vol. iii, p. 303.
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 67
those who are admitted by our University to a Drs.
degree in Physick are of course to be allowed to practice
in ye same without any further examination of ye
Colledge of Physicians ; they paying ye ordinary fees for
On the i2th May, 1693, ' Mr. William Carr was
elected Physick Fellow,' l and on the 20th Novem-
ber, 1694, ' had leave to perform Acts for the
degree of Batchelour of Physick.' 2 On the $rd
July, 1695, the minutes of the College of Physicians
' he informed ye President yt he was to performe Acts in
order to take his Bachelor of Physique's degree this next
Commencement according to ye agreement between ye
Colledge of Physitians & ye Colledge of Dublin & yt like-
wise he gave him a copie of ye subject of his lectures &
ye questions he was to dispute uppon/
On the 6th July he was given the grace for his
degree. On the i6th January, 1696/7, it was
reported to the College of Physicians that
' Dr. Howard & Dr. Pratt being present at his performing
his Acts, & they & several others of the Colledge being
well satisfyed of his sufficiency therefore ; he performing
all other requisites by the College required for a Candidate
be admitted as such from the date hereof.'
On the ist February, 1695/6, Carr resigned his
Greek Lectures and presented a King's Letter
granting him a Royal dispensation 3 ' to remain
abroad during ye space of three years for his
improvement in ye art of Physick ', without for-
feiting his Fellowship. On the 6th March he was
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 300. * Ibid., p. 318. * Ibid., p. 335.
68 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
co-opted a Senior Fellow, and on the 2ist January,
1698/9, the ' Physick Fellowship ' was declared
vacant by the death of Mr. Carr and ' Mr. Dennis
was elected into it '.
The agreement between the Colleges mentioned
above is further stated in the minutes of the
College of Physicians under the date 2nd October,
' it was ordered yt whoever is to be a Fellow of this
Society is first to be admitted Dr. of Physick in ye
University of Dublin on account yt there is enterd in ye
Registry of ye said University an order yt whoever likes a
degree in ye Faculty of Physick do give timely notice to
ye President and Fellows of ye King & Queen's Colledge
of Physitiens yt they may be present at ye performance
of their Exercises or Acts to make judgement accordingly
whether they be duly qualified for such degrees.'
On the 2ist July, 1697, the President and
Fellows of the College of Physicians adopted the
following resolution :
' Ordered yt att all Candidate Drs. Acts of Disputation
in Trinity Colledge ye Censrs for ye time being be ex-
officio present as Opponents without being desir'd by ye
Candidate soe yt they may be able to make a report to
ye Colledge thereof under such penaltyes as the Colledge
shall think fit.'
At a subsequent meeting, September n, 1697,
this penalty was fixed at a fine of ten shillings
for each such omission, and it was decided that
the Censor was to lose his power of voting in the
College and was not to be met in consultation by
any other Fellow of the College till the fine was
paid. On the 3rd July, 1699, a grace was given
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 69
to Mr. Samuel Massy for his degree of Doctor in
Physic. In the minutes of the College of Physi-
cians for the nth May, 1698, we read :
' Mr. Massy shall choose two of the following questions
to dispute on for his Batchelour's degree in Physick,
and acquaint ye Presidt. & Censors how he will hold
1. An Nervi aliquid deferunt praeter spiritus animales.
2. An Pulmones inflantur quia Dilatantur.
3. An Secretio Bilis sit in hepate tantum.
4. An Sanguis nutriat.
5. An dantur Particularia Vasa deferentia Urinam ad
Vesicam praeter Ureteres.
6. An Omne Animal generatur ex ovo.'
This is the first example of a medical examination
paper that has come down to us, but there is no
record which of the questions Mr. Massy selected.
The regulations for the examination of candi-
date for the degrees of the University, in spite of
the resolutions of the College of Physicians, do
not appear to have been on a very satisfactory
footing, and several degrees were granted without
there being any record of the presence of the
Censors of the College. At the meeting of the
College of Physicians on the 23rd January, 1698/9,
Dr. Howard and Dr. Molyneux were ordered ' to
wait on ye Provost of Trinity Colledge, Dubl.,
& enquire what agreement relating to performing
of acts for Doctors in Physick is concluded between
ye sd Colledge & ye Colledge of Physitians in
Ireland'. On the i5th February following Dr.
Howard reported that the Provost said he ' would
look for ye agreement made between ye said
TO CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
Colledge and ye Colledge of Physicians in relation
to ye candidates in Physick '. This matter was
continually before the College until the meeting
on the 23rd July, 1701, on which date the matter
was brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and on
August 24, 1701, the following resolution was
entered in the Register of Trinity College : *
' At a meeting of ye President & Fellows of ye King
& Queens College of Physicians in Ireland 8ber 2d 1695
Ordered, that whoever is to be a Fellow of this Society
is first to be admitted Dr. of Physick in the University
of Dublin, on account that there is enter'd in ye Registry
of ye said University an order that who ever takes a
degree in ye Faculty of Physick doe give timely notice
to ye President & Fellows of ye King & Queens College
of Physicians that they may be present at ye performance
of their Exercises or Acts to make a judgement accordingly
whether they be duely qualified for such degrees.
Richard Steevens Register.'
' 8*** 18, 1697. Ordered that ye four Censors after
notice being given to them doe ex officio attend, and be
ready to oppose at ye disputations of each candidate
Doctor of Physick in ye University of Dublin and that
each Censor who doth absent himself or is not ready
to oppose ye said candidates shall for each omission pay
ten shillings fine to ye use of ye College & whilst this fine
is unpaid he shall loose his power of voting in ye meetings
of ye said College, and that after ye aforesaid omission
has been taken notice of at ye meetings of ye said College
none of ye Fellows shall consult with him before he pay
ye said fine and that whosoever consulteth with him before
ye fine be pay'd ye same Fellow shall be liable to ye same
fine and shall also loose his power of voting untill he pay
ye said fine.
Richard Steevens Regr.'
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 379.
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 71
' The President and Fellows of ye King & Queens
College of Physicians in Ireland having admitted a clause
in their Charter that every Doctor of Physick of our
University of due standing and performing full acts shall
be admitted into their Society without Examination on
paying ye usual fees.
' The said President and Fellows having also made
an order Octr. ye 2d, 1695, that noe Dr. of Physick of
any foreigne University shall be admitted a Fellow of
their Society unlesse he be first admitted ad eundem
' The aforesaid President and Fellows having alsoe
made another order, Sept. 22d 1697. and January 24
1697(78) that ye Censors of ye said College of Physicians
for ye time being shall ex officio be present at ye Acts
of each Candidate Doctor in Physick and oppose at ye
disputations of each such Candidate (timely notice being
first given to ye said Censors) and that under a severe
penalty. We ye Provost and Fellows of Trinity College
Dublin in consideration of ye foregoing articles doe
order and appoint that henceforth each Candidate
Doctor in Physick on obtaining our leave to perform his
acts for ye said degree be obliged to give ye President and
Censors of ye College of Physicians due notice of ye time
and subject of his Acts and that he be obliged to furnish
ye same in such time before ye commencement that ye
said President, Censors & Fellows aforesaid may have
a competent time to report unto us ye sufficiency or
insufficiency of each said candidate ; we hereby promising
not to give ye grace of ye house to any candidate Dr. in
Physick whom ye President Censors & Fellows of ye
College of Physitians shall solemnly report & declare under
their hands to be not duly qualified for ye said degree
of Dr. in Physick but that ye said candidate shall be
deterred & stopt from ye said degree in that commence-
ment only on account of ye certificate and report afore-
said but that for any comencement following ye same
person may have his degree at ye discretion of ye house.'
72 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
We have given these agreements in full as they
form an important landmark in the history of the
colleges, and under the regulations thereby made
the examinations for the degrees in medicine were
conducted for the next fifty years.
As we have seen, on the death of Dr. Carr,
2Qth January, 1698/9, John Dennis was appointed
Physic Fellow or Medicus. Dennis had been
elected Junior Fellow 'upon Dr. Richardson's
foundation ' pursuant to a letter of the King. 1 He
was elected Scholar in 1693, graduated Bachelor
in Arts in the spring of 1696, and Master in the
summer of i697. 2 He resigned his Fellowship in
June 1700, and became head master of the Portora
Royal School, Enniskillen. In the spring of 1709
he proceeded to the degree of Bachelor in Divinity
and to that of Doctor in the summer of 1711.
He was appointed Rector of Clunish in 1721, and
died in 1745 . 8
On the 8th June, 1700, ' Mr. Raymond was
chosen Physic Fellow.' 4 He had been a Scholar
in 1693, Bachelor in Arts in 1696, Fellow and
Master in Arts in 1699, and in 1702 was appointed
Vicar of Trim. He took his Bachelor and Doctor's
degrees in Divinity in the summer of 1719. On
the resignation of Mr. Raymond in 1702 William
Lloyd appears to have been appointed Medicus.
He had graduated in Arts in 1700, was elected
Fellow in 1701, and Master in Arts in 1712,
Bachelor in Divinity in 1712, and Doctor in 1714.
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 348. Todd's Roll.
1 T. C. D. Col., p. 494. Reg., vol. iii, p. 367.
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 73
He was co-opted Senior Fellow on the igth
November, 1711, and died on the I2th November,
1719. There is no record of Lloyd's appointment
to the Physic Fellowship, but in the College
Register for the 28th January, 1706/7, is the
minute that ' upon Mr. Lloyd's resignation of ye
Physic-fellow Mr. Helsham was chosen into it '.*
The chief moving spirit in medical education
in Ireland at this time was undoubtedly Patrick
Dun, and though his connexion with the College
of Physicians was closer than with the University,
yet since his death his name has been intimately
linked with the medical school of both bodies.
The chief facts of his life have been related by
the late Dr. Belcher in an admirable memoir pub-
lished in 1866, and it is from this memoir that
our facts are chiefly derived.
Patrick Dun, the son of Charles Dun, litser, or
dyer, and his wife Katherine Burnett, was born
in Aberdeen in January 1642, and was the grand-
nephew of Dr. Charles Dun, Principal of Marischal
College, who died in 1631. It is probable that
Patrick was educated first at the Aberdeen Gram-
mar School and then at Marischal College, though
no record in either of these places has been preserved
to confirm the supposition. It is recorded that the
wife of Dun's great-great-grandfather was burned
as a witch at Aberdeen on the gth March, 1597.
Dun graduated in Medicine at Aberdeen and
then, as was the custom at the time, probably
went abroad for study.
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 410.
74 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
In 1677/8 James, Duke of Ormonde, being
Chancellor of the University of Oxford, it is
recorded 1 that on
' Feb. igth Patrick Dun Physitian in ord. to James Duke
of Ormonde, L. Lieut, of Ireland, Doct. of Phys. of
Aberdeen in Scotland, Valentia in Dauphiny and of
Dublin in Ireland was declared (he being then absent)
incorporated Doctor of the said faculty of this Univ.
of Oxon,' and on the 23d of March following, ' a Diploma
of his incorporation was sealed and sent to him.'
We also hear of him in a letter written from
Dublin Castle by Sir John Hill to John Forbes,
of Culloden, in 1676, in which he says :
' here is one Dr. Dun an Aberdeen man, who is Phisitian
to the State, & to my Lord Lieut., desires to have his
service remembered to your son, Duncan, with whom he
had an acquaintance in Paris.'
About this time Dun was elected a Fellow of
the College of Physicians, and on June 24, 1681,
he was for the first time chosen President of the
College, and re-elected on St. Luke's Day, 1690.
Dun was one of the founders of the Dublin Philo-
sophical Society in 1682, and contributed a paper
' on the Analysis of Mineral Waters ' to the pro-
ceedings of that body. In the course of 1688 Dun
was Physician to the Army in Ireland, and in that
capacity saw active service in various parts of the
country. In 1692 he entered the Irish Parliament
as member for the borough of Killileagh, County
Down, and was subsequently, in 1695 and 1703,
elected member for Mullingar. On the nth
1 Wood, Alhenae, vol. ii, p. 879.
CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 75
December, 1694, he married Mary, daughter of
Colonel John Jephson, and their only son, Boyle,
was baptised at St. Michan's on the 24th Novem-
ber, 1697, and buried there on the 7th October,
1700, ' in Mr. Becket's valt.' l On the 29th
January, 1696, Dun was knighted by the Lords
Justices, and in the year 1704 he represented that
there was an hospital in Dublin for the sick and
infirm of the army, and that no physician had
been appointed to attend there since the queen's
succession to the crown. In consequence of this
representation the queen appointed him from Lady
Day, 1705, Physician-General of the Army in
Ireland with the usual salary of ten shillings a day. 2
In 1711 Dun made his will and executed his
celebrated deed concerning the Professor of Physic.
On May 24, 1713, he died, and on the 27th was
buried in St. Michan's.
Dun's interest in the College of Physicians and
medical education never flagged in spite of his
numerous engagements, social, political, and pro-
fessional. He was a constant attendant at the
College meetings as late as April 20, 1713, and
took a prominent part in all the important trans-
actions of that body. Both his will and the
scheme which he drew up for the foundation of
a Professorship in Physic show the broad view
which he took of medical education. Much of
the subsequent credit and distinction of the Irish
School of Medicine is due to his wise forethought
1 St. Michan's Reg. * Liber Mun., vol. i, part ii, p. 101.
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL
ON the I4th of June, 1710, the Provost and
Senior Fellows ' Ordered that ground be laid out
at the South-East corner of ye Physic Garden
sufficient for erecting a Laboratory and an Ana-
tomical Theatre thereupon.' The same day it was
' Ordered that the hundred pounds given by ye
Widow Parsons for the maintenance of a poor
scholar in ye College be applied to ye building of
ye said Laboratory and Anatomical Theatre, and
that the two Lecturers in Anatomy and Chymistry
be charged with ye payment of six pounds for ye
maintenance of ye said poor scholar during ye
pleasure of ye house.' 1
Such is the scanty account we have in the
College Register of the foundation in Trinity College
of the School of Medicine a school which was
destined to become the largest within her walls.
The situation of the physic garden, which had
originally been the kitchen garden of the College,
has not been accurately denned. It was some-
where in the region of the present Library, extend-
ing probably for some distance into the present
Fellows' Garden. Stubbs 2 states that the physic
garden occupied the site of the present Library,
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 431. Stubbs, Hist., p. 182.
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 77
but this can hardly be exact, since the Anatomy
House, situated in the south-east corner of the
garden, was some distance from the south-east
corner of the Library. The present Library was
built between 1712 and 1733, and in the plan of
the College as it was in 1750, given in Rocque's
map of Dublin, both buildings are shown. The
Anatomy House occupied a position as nearly as
possible corresponding to the present tool-house
at the west end of the College park, and was con-
nected with the adjacent end of the Library by
a wall. The house now known as ' No. 22 ' was
at first a double house, and extended across the
pathway which at present separates it from the
Library. In an old engraving of the College, pub-
lished in 1753, one gets a view of the Anatomy
House as it then stood. It was two stories high,
and appears to have been built of brick, without
any attempt at architectural beauty, as indeed one
would expect when one considers the funds avail-
able for its erection.
The Board had not yet embarked on those ex-
tensive architectural undertakings which, during
the next fifty years, were to absorb so much money
and to give to the College some of the finest of its
Of the details of the internal arrangements of
the Anatomy House we have little information.
We know that it contained rooms for a chemical
laboratory, for a lecture-room, and, probably a
dissecting-room, as well as an upstairs apartment,
which was used as a museum. The rooms were
78 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL
small, and in the dissecting-room in 1814 there
was only accommodation for five tables, and there
was no water-supply nor drainage. 1
The building operations did not take long, and
on the I5th August, 1711, the Board ordered that
the sum of ' five guineas be given to Sr. Thompson
in consideration of his labour in composing a poem
agst. ye opening of ye laboratory.' On the follow-
ing day, the i6th August, 1711,
' the laboratory was opened ye Provost & fellows and
many others being present, and several publick exercises
were performed by ye several persons following : 2
Sr. Thompson spoke a copy of verses.
Dr. Helsham lectured in Natural Philosophy.
Dr. Hoyle lectured in Anatomy.
Dr. Nicholson lectured in Botany.
Dr. Molyneux, Professor of Physick, lectured in
Dr. Griffith lectured in Chymistry.'
This is the only record of the opening ceremony
that has come down to us, and unfortunately no
copy of the verses spoken by ' Sr. Thompson ' is
known to exist. This ' Sr. Thompson ', or William
Thompson, was elected a Scholar in 1707, and
graduated B.A. in the spring of 1709. In 1713 he
was elected Fellow, and he graduated B.D. and
proceeded to the D.D. degree in the summer of
1727. He was co-opted Senior Fellow on the
I4th June, 1723, and being elected Rector of
Aghalurcher on the i8th December, 1729, he re-
signed his Fellowship on the 24th January follow-
ing. He died on the 8th January, 1754. William
1 Macalister. pp. 103 and 106. * Reg., vol. iii, p. 438.
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 79
Thompson was one of the three Fellows of Trinity
College who in 1725 volunteered to accompany
Bishop Berkeley to the Bermudas to assist in the
foundation of a College there ' for converting the
savage Americans to Christianity V
Of the other lecturers on this occasion, Helsham
and Molyneux were perhaps the most distinguished.
Richard Helsham, the son of John Helsham, was
born and educated at Kilkenny, and entered
Trinity College as a Pensioner at the age of 15, on
June 18, i6g8. 2 He was elected Scholar in 1700,
and graduated in Arts in the spring of 1702. Two
years later he was elected Fellow, and took the
Master's degree in Arts in 1705. In January,
1706/7, he was elected Medicus on the resignation
of Lloyd, and in February, 1709/10, proceeded to
the degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Medicine.
On the i8th October, 1710, he was admitted a
candidate and Fellow of the King and Queen's
College of Physicians. On the 26th January,
1722/3, he was chosen ' Mathematic Lecturer ' in
place of Dr. Claud Gilbert, on the foundation of
Lord Donegall, and on the 2ist April, 1724, he
was chosen the first Professor of Natural and
Experimental Philosophy, a Chair then founded
in accordance with the will of Erasmus Smith,
though he had lectured on the subject since the
opening of the School in 1711.
The President and Fellows of the College of
Physicians recognized the work of Helsham in
this Chair by resolving, on April 13, 1724, 'that
1 Berkeley's Life, vol. i, p. xi. * Entrance Book, T. C. D.
Dr. Helshamhas deserved a gratuity from ye College
of Physitians for his course of experimental philo-
sophy.' l On October the 30th the ' Treasurer
was ordered to pay Mr. Cope, the goldsmith, the
sum of twenty three pounds for ye piece of plate
given by the College to Dr. Helsham.'
Helsham was co-opted a Senior Fellow of Trinity
College on the 6th November, 1714, and he resigned
on the i6th January, 1729/30, being elected Pro-
fessor of Physic in the room of Sir Thomas Moly-
neux on the loth November, 1733. In the College
of Physicians he was elected President in 1716
and again in 1725, being made Honorary Fellow
on St. Luke's Day, 1735. Besides being a learned
physician, Helsham took an active interest in the
affairs of the city, and on August 29, 1737, in the
Assembly Rolls of the Corporation 2 we read of
a petition from ' certain of the Commons setting
forth that Dr. Richard Helsham has on all occa-
sions shown his readiness to assist this citty with
respect to the being better supplied with pipe-
water, & therefore prayed to have him presented
with his freedom in a silver box. Whereupon it
was ordered that Dr. Richard Helsham be pre-
sented with the freedom of this citty in a silver
box the value thereof not to exceed five pounds/
Helsham was a member of that group of friends
who used to meet at Dr. Delany's house at Delville,
which included Swift, Stella, Dr. Sheridan, and
Mrs. Pendarvis, afterwards Dr. Delany's wife.
Indeed Delville seems to have belonged in part to
1 Col. P. Minutes. C.A.R., vol. iii, p. 182.
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 81
Helsham, and it was for a long time known as
Hel-Del-Ville, the name being derived from the
initial syllables of the names of the joint owners. 1
After Swift returned to Dublin as Dean of St.
Patrick's, Helsham seems to have acted as his
physician, and in a letter to the Dean dated London,
December n, 1718, Arbuthnot says : ' Glad at my
heart should I be if Dr. Helsham or I could do you
any good. My service to Dr. Helsham ; he does
not want my advice in the case.' 2
In a letter to Pope dated 'Dublin, Feb. 13,
1728/9', Swift gives the following description of
' Here is an ingenious good-humoured Physician, a fine
gentleman, an excellent scholar, easy in his fortunes, kind
to every Body, hath abundance of Friends, entertains
them often and liberally, they pass the evening with him
at cards, with plenty of good meat and wine, eight or
a dozen together ; he loves them all, and they him ; he
hath twenty of them at command, if one of them dies, it
is no more than poor Tom I he getteth another, or taketh
up with the rest, and is no more moved than at the loss
of his cat ; he offendeth no Body, is easy with every Body,
is not this the true happy man ? ' 3
In a further letter Swift describes him as ' the
most eminent Physician of this city and Kingdom '. 4
Mrs. Delany, when Mrs. Pendarvis, in a letter to
her sister, written from Dublin, January 24, 1732/3,
says she met Helsham at Delville and describes
him as 'a very ingenious entertaining man'. 5
1 Craik, vol. ii, p. 180. 8 Swift's Letters, vol. ii, p. 192.
3 Pope's Works, vol. ix, p. 94. 4 July 12, 1735.
5 Autobiography, vol. i, p. 396.
82 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL
On December 16, 1730, about the time Helsham
resigned his Fellowship, he married Jane, widow
of Thomas Putland, who survived him. In the
Gentleman's Magazine 1 for 1738 we find the fol-
lowing notice of Helsham's death under the date
of August of that year :
' It was imagin'd that his disorder proceeded from
a twisting of the guts, and he took quicksilver, which
proved ineffectual. He desired that his body might be
opened for the benefit of mankind, which being done
there was found in one of his guts an excresence of three
pieces of Flesh, the smallest as large as a hen's egg, and
resembling the Flesh of the liver.'
In his will, the codicil of which is dated the
i6th of August, 1738, Helsham says :
' As to my funeral it is my will (and I do adjure my
executor not to fail in the execution of it) that before
my coffin be nailed up my head be severed from my body
and that my corps be carried to the place of burial by
the light of one taper only at the dead of night without
Herse or Pomp attended by my Domesticks only.'
Helsham's lectures in natural philosophy were
published in 1739 by his friend and pupil Bryan
Robinson, being the first scientific work printed at
the University Press. 2 Many subsequent editions
of this book were issued, and it continued to be
used as a text-book in the University for nearly
a hundred years. As late as the year 1822 select
parts of this work were issued by the University
Press for the use of students in the College.
Thomas Molyneux, son of Samuel Molyneux,
who had served with distinction in the wars of
1 Vol. viii, p. 491. Stubbs, Hist., p. 340.
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 83
1641, and had been appointed Master Gunner for
Ireland, was born in Dublin on the I4th April,
1661. The family had been connected with Ire-
land 1 from the time of Elizabeth, when one Sir
Thomas Molyneux, Kt., held the office of Chan-
cellor of the Exchequer, and in his will, dated 1592,
he left 40 towards the building of Trinity College.
His second son, Daniel, M.P. for Strabane (1613-
32), was appointed Ulster King-of-Arms in 1597,
and held the post till his death in 1632.
Samuel Molyneux, the Master Gunner, was the
third son of this Daniel, and is remarkable for
having written a book on gunnery after he had
reached the age of 70. Samuel Molyneux mar-
ried a Miss Margret Dowdall, and had five sons
and four daughters. Of these sons, William and
Thomas occupy prominent positions in Irish his-
tory. William Molyneux, born on the I7th April,
1656, was a distinguished mathematician and scien-
tist, being the first person to demonstrate by the
aid of the microscope the circulation of the blood in
reptiles. 2 He is, however, better known as the author
of The Case of Ireland being bound by Acts of Parlia-
ment made in England stated, which was published
in Dublin in 1698, and was ordered by the English
Parliament to be burned by the common hangman. 3
He represented the University of Dublin in the
Irish Parliament of 1692, and died at the early age
of 42 on the nth November, 1698, having suffered
for many years from a stone in his kidney. 4
1 Irish Builder, April i, 1887. * Sprengel, tome iv, p. 140.
* Webb, p. 343. * Ware's Writers, p. 259.
84 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL
Thomas Molyneux, the younger brother of
William, entered Trinity College as a Fellow Com-
moner on the 5th September, 1675, at the age of
15, and graduated B.A. in the spring of 1680.
In 1683 he left Dublin for travel and study on
the continent of Europe. He visited London,
Cambridge, Oxford, and Amsterdam, and then
settled down to study in the University of Ley den.
In a series of letters written to his brother during
this period, which were published in the Dublin
University Magazine for 1841, Molyneux gives a
most interesting account of his work and of the
manners and customs of the various Universities
At the end of April, 1687, Molyneux returned to
Dublin, having visited Paris and spent almost
a year in London before his return. On July 9,
1687, ' the Grace of the House ' was given by the
Board of Trinity College for the degree of Doctor
of Physic to Thomas Molyneux, and in the same
year he was elected Fellow of the College of
Physicians. On the 3ist January, 1689/90, both
William and Thomas Molyneux left Ireland at the
desire of their parents, on account of the political
troubles which had then reached an acute stage in
Ireland. For two years they lived together near
Chester, and there Thomas occupied himself with
the practice of his profession. Immediately after
the battle of the Boyne they returned to Dublin,
and Thomas took up his residence and began
practice in his father's house in Thomas Court.
About a year after his father's death, which
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 85
occurred in January, 1692, Thomas married
Catherine, daughter of Ralph Howard, who was
then Professor of Physic in the University. At
this time he appears to have been in a large
practice, for we find that before the close of the
year 1693 he was able to purchase an estate worth
100 per annum.
Among his patients was the celebrated John
Locke, whom he had met abroad, and from whom
he received several letters. During this period he
contributed many papers to the Philosophical
Transactions, dealing with natural history and
medical subjects, and he represented Ratoath in
the Irish Parliament from 1695 to 1699.
On the 1 6th October, 1701, Molyneux was elected
President of the King and Queen's College of
Physicians, having previously held the offices of
Censor, Registrar, and Treasurer. He was re-
elected President in the next year, and again in
1709, 1713, and 1720, and was made an Hono-
rary Fellow on the 28th October, 1728. In the
year 1711 he built for himself, at an expense of
2,310 45. 5j^., a house in Peter Street, which
still remains, the furnishing of which, he tells us,
came to 2,341 55. yd.
On the 22nd February, 1711, Molyneux was
chosen Professor of Physic in the University in ' the
room of Dr. Richard Steevens lately deceased'. 1
In July, 1715, he was named Physician to the State
in Ireland, and on the i6th July, 1718, was, by
Letters Patent, 2 appointed Physician-General of
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 435. * Liber Mun.
86 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL
the Army. By a Patent, 1 dated Dublin, July 4,
1730, he was created the first medical baronet in
Ireland. He died on the igth October, 1733.
Molyneux was one of that large group of Irish
graduates who by their work have shown them-
selves to be masters in many branches of learning.
Not only was he the leading physician of his
time in Ireland, but he was also remarkable as
a zoologist, a botanist, and an antiquarian, a
fine classical scholar, a political economist, and
a statesman of no mean ability.
Of the other professors who took part in the
opening of the school there is little to record.
Richard Hoyle had entered Trinity College as a
Pensioner at the age of 15 on the I3th November,
1696? and graduated B.A. and M.B. in the spring
of 1705, and M.D. in the summer of 1710, when he
was also elected a Fellow of the King and Queen's
College of Physicians. He was President of
the College in 1715 and again in 1724. Hoyle
continued Professor of Anatomy till 1716, and
was again appointed on the I7th June, 1717, and
continued in office till his death in August, 1730.
Robert Griffith, who lectured in chemistry, was
the son of George Griffith of Chester, and had
entered Trinity College as a Sizar at the age of 21
on July 12, 1684. He proceeded to the degree of
M.A. in the spring of 1693, and of M.D. in the spring
of 1699, being elected a Fellow of the King and
Queen's College of Physicians on the I4th June of
the following year. He held the office of President
1 G. E. C., vol. v, p. 349. Entrance Book, T. C. D.
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 87
of the College in the years 1706 and 1711, and in
1717 was elected the first King's Professor of the
Practice of Medicine under the will of Sir Patrick
Dun. He died two years subsequently.
Henry Nicholson, also a Sizar, entered Trinity
College at the age of 17 on December 3, 1667, and
proceeded to the degree of M.B. on July 7, 1674,
being, as we stated, one of the first who is recorded
as having taken this degree. On January 29,
1711/12, he had leave to perform acts for the
degree of M.D., and on the 5th of July following
was admitted a candidate of the King and Queen's
College of Physicians, but was never elected a
Fellow. He is said l to have published in 1712
a work entitled Methodus Plantarum in Hort.
Dublin., but of it we have never seen a copy. He
continued as Lecturer in Botany till 1732.
Such was the teaching staff of the School of
Medicine when its doors were first opened to
students on the i6th August, 1711. Let us hope
that to this building was transferred the stuffed
skin of the ' Notorious Tory ', Ridley, which
Dunton had seen in the library, and also the new
skeleton which he describes as hanging at the west
end of the chapel, near Dr. Chaloner's picture. 2
This skeleton had been made up and given to the
College by Dr. Gwither, and was probably that of
the ' malefactor ' who was executed on February 18,
1692/3, and ' demanded of the Sheriff of the Citty
of Dublin by ane order of the president and five
of the fellowes according to a priviledge granted
1 T. C. D. Cal., vol. iii, p. 346. * Dunton, vol. ii, p. 625.
88 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL
to the College of physicians.' 1 It was to this
Dr. Gwither that Swift facetiously refers in the
Taller 2 when he says :
' It was then that an ingenious Physician, to the honour
as well as Improvement of his Native Country, performed
what the English had been so long attempting in vain.
This learned Man, with the Hazard of his Life, made
a Voyage to Liverpool, when he filled several Barrels
with the choicest Spawn of Frogs that could be found
in those parts. This Cargo he brought over very carefully
and afterwards disposed of it in several warm Beds that
he thought most capable of bringing it to Life. The
Doctor was a very ingenious Physician, and a very good
Protestant ; for which Reason, to show his Zeal against
Popery, he placed some of the most promising Spawn
in the very Fountain that is dedicated to the Saint, and
known by the Name of St. Patrick's Well, where these
Animals had the Impudence to make their first Appear-
ance. They have since that time very much increased and
multiplied in all the neighbourhood of this City.'
On August 24, 1711, the President and Fellows
of the King and Queen's College of Physicians
appointed a committee consisting of Drs. Molyneux,
Griffith, and Mitchell ' to meet on Monday next at
7 in the evening at Derby's Coffee House to con-
sider of a method for examining Candidate Drs.
& Batchellors of Physick '. The report of this com-
mittee was communicated to the Provost and
Senior Fellows of Trinity College, who on February
5th following resolved that
' At the request of ye College of Physicians for ye pro-
moting ye study of Physick, ordered by ye Provost and
Senior Fellows that besides the usual Acts, every Can-
1 Col. P. Minutes, February 18, 1692/3. * Taller, No. 236.
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 89
didate Batchellor of Physick be examined in all ye parts
of Anatomy relating to ye (Economia Animalis, and in all
ye parts of Botany, Chymistry and Pharmacy. Every
Candidate Doctor be examined as to ye aforesaid subjects
and likewise in ye explication of Hippocrates's Aphorisms,
& ye Theory & Cure of external & internal diseases, &
ye President & Fellows of ye College of Physicians to
Sir Patrick Dun died, as we have seen, on the
24th of May, 1713, and the President and Fellows
of the College at once decided to
' persue such measures as should make the good intentions
and designs of the late Sir Patrick Dun, express'd hi his
Will and several other papers for constituting a Professor
of Physick in the City of Dublin, thoroughly effectual &
usefuU to the Publick.' 2
In pursuance of this resolution the College of
Physicians obtained a Royal Charter from George I
on the I5th October, 1715, appointing a ' King's
Professor of Physick in the City of Dublin'. By
this charter it was appointed that whenever the
post of King's Professor was vacant the Provost
(President) and two Senior Censors of the College
should appoint a day for the examination of the
candidates for the office, and should give at least
a month's notice of such examination in the
London and Dublin Gazettes, indicating that any
Doctor of Physic of any University might be a
candidate for the professorship. It was further
' every such Candidate shall give in his name in writing
to the Provost of Trinity College, near our said City of
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 440. * Col. P. Minutes, September 24, 1713.
9 o THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL
Dublin, or in his absence to the Vice-Provost thereof,
for the time being, eight days at least before the appointed
time for such election by the publick notices aforesaid ;
and shall present himself there certain days to be
appointed by the said Provost, for the time being, of
Trinity College, the Professor of Physick in the same, the
President for the time being of the King & Queens College
of Physicians in Ireland, and the two eldest Censors for
the time being in the said College of Physicians, or any
three of these so assembling and submit himself to such
examination in, touching and concerning the several
parts of Physick, as they or the major part of them so
assembling shall think fit, such election to continue for
the space of two hours in each of the three days at
such time & place as shall be to that purpose directed and
appointed by the said Examinators or any three of them
It was further enjoined that each of the examina-
tors should take a solemn oath
' that they and every of them shall without favour,
affection, hatred, or prejudice to any person or candidate
impartially, diligently and faithfully proceed in such
their examination of each & every of the said candidates
and make true, just, and impartial report according to
the best of their respective judgements and understandings
of the skill, learning, knowledge & ability of each and
every of the said candidates in the several parts of
Physick, & of his and their respective fitness & qualifica-
tions to be the King's Professor of Physic.'
These examinators were to report the result of
their judgement to the guardians, who included
the Archbishop of Dublin, Viscount Skeffington,
or his heirs male, Patrick Dun of Taerty, or his
heirs male, as also the heirs male of the three
sisters of Sir Patrick, Catherin Mitchell, Rachel
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 91
More, and Elizabeth Anderson, and of John Jeph-
son, nephew of Lady Dun, the Rev. William
Joseph Jephson, brother of Lady Dun, and her
brother-in-law, the Rev. Enoch Reader. Notice
was to be given to these guardians by the examina-
' a notice in writing under their hands of such an examina-
tion having been made in order to fill up the said place
of Professor of Physick and of the time and place where
they shall be ready to declare their opinion of the persons
standing Candidates to be fixed on the Tholsell in our
said city of Dublin and on the gates of Trinity College
near Dublin fourteen days at least before the time
appointed to declare their said opinion.'
Preference was to be given, other qualifications
being equal, to the descendants of these guardians
who were relations of Sir Patrick Dun, in the order
above named, if any such happened to be can-
The emoluments of the professorship were to
consist of the estates of Sir Patrick Dun after the
death or re-marriage of his widow. The Professor
was to have Dun's house on the Inns Quay, pay-
ing the rent of the same and keeping it in order ;
to the President and Fellows of the College of
Physicians being reserved the right of a convenient
room or hall in it for their meetings. The Professor
was to be elected a Fellow of the College on the
first vacancy, and was to give a bond of 2,000
to the Master of the Rolls for the safe keeping of
Dun's library. A catalogue in parchment was to
be made of this library and annexed to the bond
92 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL
given to the Master of the Rolls, while three copies
of the catalogue were to be made, of which one
was to be given to the Archbishop of Dublin,
another to the President of the College, and the
third annexed to the instrument appointing the
The Professor was diligently to apply himself
to reading public lectures on ' Osteology, bandage
and the operations of Chirurgy and in reading
public botanick lectures, and in the Materia Medica,
and other parts of Physick, or dependent there-
upon, and in making public anatomical dissections
of the several parts of human bodies, and of the
bodies of other animals, and shall publickly demon-
strate plants for the information and instruction
of students in Physick, Chirurgy, and Pharmacy,
which lectures shall be read twice every week in
Though Lady Dun was still alive, and there
were consequently no emoluments for the Pro-
fessor, notice was given in the Dublin Gazette of
March 16, 1716/7, of an election, and Dr. Robert
Griffith was appointed first King's Professor, the
examinators being Benjamin Pratt, Provost ;
Thomas Molyneux, Professor of Physic ; Richard
Helsham, President of the College of Physicians ;
and William Smyth and James Grattan, the Senior
Censors. Dr. Griffith died in 1719, and was suc-
ceeded as Professor by Dr. James Grattan, who
remained in office till 1748.
The management of Dun's estate was by no
means settled by the charter of George I, and
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 93
much litigation ensued, which was not settled till
1740, when a decree was obtained from the Court
of Chancery, with the consent of all parties.
The appointment of the King's Professor does
not seem to have made any difference in the
medical teaching in Trinity College. As Lady
Dun says in a letter to the Archbishop, dated l
' May ye 3d 1716 ', ' As there is no present sallary :
So there is no present business required from such
a Professor.' The lecturers appointed to teach in
Trinity College continued their work in the School,
and the President and Fellows of the College of
Physicians continued to examine the candidates
for the degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Physic.
On September 8, I7i6, 2 ' Dr. Robinson and
Surgeon Green were by the Provost and Senior
Fellows appointed to officiate in the Anatomy
School as Lecturer and Anatomist,' but on the
I7th of June following, ' Dr. Robinson was by a
majority of voices turned out from being Anatomist
& Dr. Hoyle elected to the same.' 3
No further information is given in explanation
of this curious resolution either in the Register of
Trinity College or the Minutes of the College of
Physicians. It has been suggested that Robinson
was deprived of his office in consequence of a
refusal to reside in Dublin in the neighbourhood
of the School, a somewhat similar step having
been taken by the authorities of Cambridge Uni-
versity in the case of one of their Professors for
this reason. We find, however, that Robinson was
1 Belcher, p. 61. 2 Reg., vol. iii, p. 477. * Ibid., p. 480.
94 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL
at this time a regular attendant of the meetings
of the College of Physicians, which would be un-
likely were he not living in the city. There may
possibly have been some dispute as to the manage-
ment of the School, for the next entry in the
Register : ' Ordered that the Bursar pay sixty
pounds to Surgeon Green in order to purchase
preparations for illustrating several parts of the
That discrimination was exercised in selecting
those who were to get the degrees of the University
is shown by the case of David Cockburn, Doctor
of Physic of Edinburgh, who was on December 9,
1721, l given leave ' to perform Acts for the degrees
of Batchelor and Doctor in Physick '. On the
2 ist of May following at the meeting of the College
' Dr. Molyneux, being Professor of Physick & Censor, hath
laid before the College the Preelection of Mr. Cockburn
for his Batchelor of Physic's Degree, and that de Liene
was read through, and found so deficient in the sense,
being unintelligible in several parts, and in the Latin
being not grammatical in many places, that we are of
opinion that the Professor ought not to recommend him
to the College for his Batchelor's degree in Physick.
' Ordered, that the President and Fellows attend the
Provost and make a report in relation to the Praelection
that Mr. Cockburn has read for his Batchelor's degree in
As a result of this report we hear no more of
Mr. David Cockburn in connexion with Trinity
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 513.
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 95
The lectures in natural philosophy formed an
important part of medical teaching, and on
October 31, I722, 1 we find the Board deciding to
expend the sum of 100, ' to buy such instruments
as are necessary for the course of experimental
Philosophy and that the Professors do pay the
house yearly the sum of six pounds as interest for
On February 14, I722/3, 2 the Board formally
1 resolved that no person be admitted to take
a degree in Physick or Laws unless he first com-
mence a Batchelor in Arts.'
About this time there were many changes in the
staff of the Medical School. Richard Helsham,
who had been appointed Medicus in January,
1706/7, resigned his Senior Fellowship, probably
on account of his marriage, on January 16, 1729/30.
Edward Hudson was chosen Medicus in his place,
but resigned a year later, and on February 8,
1730/1, was succeeded by Edward Molloy. Both
these Fellows were clergymen, and neither of them
held a medical degree. Molloy resigned on May 23,
1733, and was succeeded by William Clements, who
continued as Medicus till his resignation in 1781.
Richard Hoyle, who was the first Lecturer in
Anatomy, and who had been re-appointed in place
of Bryan Robinson in 1716, died in August, 1730.
The Board at their meeting on the ist of October
following appointed Thomas Madden Lecturer in
Anatomy. This Thomas Madden was the son of
John Madden, M.D., who had been elected a
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 523. * Ibid., p. 524.
g6 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL
Fellow of the College of Physicians in 1684. It was
a nephew of this John Madden, a son of Samuel
Madden, who in 1798 bequeathed to the College the
money to found the Madden Fellowship Prize. 1
On the 22nd October, 1733, Mr. Vessy Shaw,
surgeon, was elected ' Anatomist to assist the
Anatomy Lecturer ', and on May 2ist following
Francis Foreside was elected Lecturer in Anatomy.
Foreside, an Englishman, 2 had entered College
as a Sizar at the age of 20 on May 30, 1715,
and graduated B.A. in 1720, taking his M.B. and
M.D. in the summer of 1727 and 1730 respectively.
He was admitted a Candidate and Fellow of the
College of Physicians in April, 1735. He resigned
the Lecturership in January, 1741/2, and in the
following month succeeded Henry Cope as Pro-
fessor of Physic. 3 He died in 1745.
In 1717 Dr. William Smyth, senior, had suc-
ceeded Dr. Griffith as Lecturer in Chemistry.
William Smyth entered Trinity College on June 10,
1684,* at the age of 19, and graduated M.B. in
the spring of 1688, and M.D. in 1692. He was the
son of the Rev. William Smyth of Armagh, and
had been educated in that town. In the Charter
of 1692 he was nominated one of the Fellows of
the King and Queen's College of Physicians, and
held the office of President of the College in the
years 1704, 1708, 1719, and 1721. His son William
Smyth, junior, was also a distinguished Fellow of
1 Stubbs, Hist., p. 341 ; Webb, p. 322.
* Entrance Book, T. C. D. Reg., vol. iv, p. 19.
* Entrance Book, T. C. D.
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 97
the College of Physicians. On February 27,
1732/3, ' the Provost and Fellows chose William
Stevens Lecturer in Chymistry in ye place of
Dr. Smith deceased.' This William Stevens, or
Stephens, as his name is more usually spelled,
was no relative of Richard Steevens, Professor of
Medicine in 1710, who had bequeathed money to
found the hospital which still bears his name.
William Stephens had graduated M.B. and M.D.
in the spring of 1724, having three years previously
been admitted a Candidate of the College of
Physicians. He was elected Fellow of the College
on St. Luke's Day, 1728, and filled the office of
President in 1733 and again in 1742. He was one
of the Trustees appointed by Mrs. Mary Mercer
in the indenture by which she founded Mercer's
Hospital on the 2Oth May, 1734. For many years
he served as physician to that hospital, and was
nominated as one of its medical governors by the
Act of Parliament passed for its incorporation in
1749. He was also for many years physician to
Steevens' Hospital. There is no mention in the
College records of Stephens having taught botany,
yet in 1727 he published a small book of some
fifty pages, entitled Botanical Elements for the
use of the Botany School in the University of Dublin.
This book he dedicated to the ' Learned Provost,
Fellows and Scholars of Trinity College near
Dublin ', and states that he published it ' to avoid
the trouble of dictating yearly so many pages to
the students in Botany'. It is possible that at
this time Stephens was a demonstrator to the
98 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL
lecturer in botany, or he may have been one of
those private teachers or grinders who later assisted
so much in College teaching. The book has no great
merit, as may be judged from the following note on
it kindly made by the present Professor of Botany :
' The Botanical Elements is merely a much abridged out-
line of Tournefort's elegant classification of Plants. The
book exhibits neither originality nor critical faculty. At
the time when it was written Ray's classification was avail-
able, yet Stephens ignores it and the recent splendid work
of Grew and Malpigi, selecting by preference Tournefort's
highly artificial method. In one respect the author shows
himself independent of Tournefort's influence, namely in
admitting the sexual functions of the stamens and pistil
which Tournefort denied.'
Stephens continued to discharge the duties of
Lecturer in Chemistry till his death in 1760.
It appears that about the close of the year 1732,
Dr. Henry Nicholson, the first Lecturer in Botany,
died, and on March 4, I732/3, 1 the ' Provost and
Fellows chose Dr. Chemys to be Professor of
Botany '. This Charles Chemys, the son of Ludo-
vicus Chemys or Kemys, was born in Dublin in
1700. He entered Trinity College as a Pensioner
at the age of 15, and was elected Scholar in 1717.
In 1720 he graduated B.A., taking his M.B. in the
spring of 1724, and M.A. in the summer of 1727.
He was admitted a Candidate and elected a Fellow
of the King and Queen's College of Physicians on
December 14, 1730. Chemys only held the office
of Lecturer in Botany for a few months, as on
September 13, I733, 2 ' the Provost and Fellows
1 Reg., voL iii, p. 601. Ibid., p. 604.
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 99
chose Mr. Clements Lecturer in Botany in ye place
of Dr. Chemys'. William Clement, or Clements,
had, as we have seen, been elected ' into the Physic
Fellowship ' in the room of Mr. Molloy on the
26th May previously. He was destined for the next
fifty years to occupy a very large place in College
life. He entered College as a Pensioner on
April 28, 1721, at the age of 14, being the son of
Thomas Clements, merchant, and having been
born at Carrickmacross, Co. Monaghan. In 1724
he was elected Scholar, and he graduated B.A. in
1726 and M.A. in 1731. In 1733 he was elected
a Fellow, succeeding Mr. Molloy as Physic Fellow.
In May, 1743, he was co-opted a Senior Fellow,
and in January, 1744/5, succeeded Dr. Cartwright
as Lecturer in Natural and Experimental Philosophy
on the foundation of Erasmus Smith, which post
he held till 1759. He graduated M.B. in 1747, and
M.D. in the following year. He was Donegall
Lecturer in Mathematics from 1750 to 1759, and
was also Auditor, Librarian, and Vice-Provost of
the College. On February I, 1761, he was elected
Professor of Physic, and held that office till
November 15, 1781. In 1761 he was also elected
one of the representatives of the University in
Parliament. During the Provostship of Hely
Hutchinson there were many disputes among the
Fellows, and the Provost was anxious to secure for
himself the support of as many of the Senior and
Junior Fellows as he could. There were at that
time three Senior Fellows who were married,
Dr. Clements, Dr. Leland, and Dr. Dabzac, and
ioo THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL
consequently liable to be deprived of their Fellow-
ships. Hutchinson tried to persuade Lord Har-
court to procure a dispensation for the two latter
Fellows, but Lord Harcourt declined to do so
unless the name of William Clements, Vice-Provost,
was included in the list. The Provost strongly
objected to this course, but Lord Harcourt insisted
on extending the royal favour to the Vice-Provost. 1
Clements resigned the Lectureship of Botany in
1763, but continued Vice-Provost till his death on
the i5th January, 1782.
In November, 1729, the President and Fellows
of the College of Physicians remodelled the regula-
tions for conducting the examination for medical
degrees in the University. It was then decided
that a Candidate Bachelor should be examined in
(i) Anatomy, (2) Materia Medica, Pharmacy, and
Botany, (3) Chemistry, and (4) Pathology. The
examination for the degree of Doctor or Licentiate
in Physic was to include these four subjects,
together with the therapeutic part or Methodus
Medendi of Pathology, as well as ' practical cases
in internal and external diseases to be proposed
by the President, together with an explanation of
Hippocrates's Aphorisms '. The President and the
four Censors of the College were to conduct this
examination, each taking a separate part. After
this examination a report on the fitness of the
candidate was made to the Board, on which
depended the granting of a grace for his degree.
1 Stubbs, Hist., p. 235.
THE KING'S PROFESSORS
THE litigation arising out of Sir Patrick Dun's
will dragged on from trial to trial, till at length,
in 1740, a decree was obtained from the Court of
Chancery, with the consent of all parties, securing
to the College of Physicians the reversion of the
estate on the death of Lady Dun. The estate in
Waterford bequeathed to the College at the time
of Dun's death only produced a profit rent of
58 a year, 1 but it was contemplated, even by
Dun himself, that on the expiration of the leases,
new leases of the lands might be granted which
could produce a rent of at least 200 a year. This
expectation was soon realized, the estates con-
siderably improved in value, and there was good
reason to believe that the improvement would
Under these circumstances the College decided
to enlarge the scope of Dun's scheme by the
appointment of three Professors instead of one.
In order to effect this an Act of Parliament was
obtained in the fifteenth year of George II (1741),
' for vacating the Office of the King's Professor of
Physick in Dublin upon the death or surrender
of the present King's Professor, and for erecting
1 Dun's deed.
102 THE KING'S PROFESSORS
three Professorships of Physick in the said City
This Act, though expressly declared to be a
' Public Act ', is not printed in the Statutes of
the Realm, and in subsequent Acts is referred to
as of the twenty-first year of George II. Robert
Perceval, in his Account of the Bequest of Sir
Patrick Dun, 1 refers to this Act as printed in 1747,
but no copy of this date is now known to exist.
The Act was transcribed from the original existing
in the Record Office, and in 1867 printed by Trinity
College at the University Press. Its provisions
are of the greatest importance in the history of
the Medical School of Trinity College. Having
recited the bequest of Sir Patrick Dun and detailed
the subsequent enactments concerning it, the Act
proceeded to state that since the estates were so
much increased in value, and likely to increase
further, it was considered that they were com-
petent to provide for three Professorships instead
of one as formerly. Further, since some of the
subjects, for the teaching of which Dun made
provision, were now taught in Trinity College by
Professors appointed subsequent to the execution
of Dun's deed, it would be of great advantage to
the students of Medicine if three Professors were
appointed to teach in the following subjects :
(i) Theory and Practice of Medicine ; (2) Surgery
and Midwifery ; and (3) Ancient and Modern
Pharmacy and Materia Medica. In consequence
of these advantages it seemed good to Parliament,
1 Perceval, Account.
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 103
' at the suit of the President of the King and
Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland and of
Dr. James Grattan, King's Professor of Physick
in the City of Dublin,' to recommend ' His Excel-
lent Majesty ' to pass this Act. On the next
vacancy in the King's Professorship, the Professor-
ship was to be ' utterly dissolved, cease and to
be void to all intents and purposes ', and in place
of it three Professorships in the subjects named
above were to be constituted, and come to have
' perpetual continuance and succession '. The
electors and the rules governing the elections
were identical with those laid down in the Charter
of George I, granted in 1715, the candidates being
required to submit to examination on three
separate days for two hours on each day. A
similar preference to that given in the Charter of
George I to the descendants of Sir Patrick Dun,
was extended to those persons by this Act. It
was, however, enacted ' that all Papists and per-
sons professing the Popish religion, or who by any
law in this kingdom are deemed Papists, shall be
utterly incapable of being elected into any of the
In this enactment we see the influence of that
fear of Jacobitism which at the time was intro-
ducing so much bitter religious feeling into the
country, and was responsible for the penal laws
that so long disgraced the Statute Book. A very
wise provision was introduced into this Act, by
which no person was allowed to hold at the same
time more than one of the Professorships on
104 THE KING'S PROFESSORS
Dun's foundation, nor was such a Professor allowed
to hold at the same time the chair of either
Anatomy, Chemistry, or Botany, in Trinity Col-
lege. The duty of the Professors was to read
lectures in the Latin tongue in their respective
subjects three times in each week from November
to April during term, the lectures to be given in
Trinity College. The appointment once made was
for life, but any Professor might be deprived of
his chair by the President and Fellows of the
College of Physicians if it were proved on oath
that he continued, after admonition, guilty of
either neglect or misbehaviour in the performance
of his duties. The whole of the personal and real
estate of Sir Patrick Dun was, on the death of
Lady Dun, to be vested in the College of Physicians
for the support of these three Professors, each of
whom was to receive an equal share of the residue
after the payment of the necessary charges. The
only exception to this was Dun's library, which
was to be vested in the President and Fellows,
who were, with the consent of the Archbishop and
any two of the Professors, to deposit it ' in some
convenient place in or near the City of Dublin
for the use of the said College of Physicians and
of all the said Professors and their successors'.
Lady Dun died in January 1748/9, and was
buried in St. Michan's Church beside her husband, 1
and in the same year also Dr. James Grattan, the
King's Professor of Physic, died, just as he had
entered into the enjoyment of the emoluments of
1 Belcher, Memoirs, p. 63.
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 105
his Professorship. On May 20, 1749, Richard
Baldwin, Provost, Bryan Robinson, Professor of
Physic, Robert Robinson, President of the College
of Physicians, with Thomas Lloyd and John
Anderson, the two eldest Censors, met in the
Provost's house, Trinity College, and fixed Mon-
day, Tuesday, and Wednesday, September 25, 26,
and 27, at one o'clock in the afternoon, for the
examination of candidates for the new Professor-
ships. 1 They also drafted the form of advertise-
ment which was to appear in the gazettes, in
which, besides defining the duties of the Pro-
fessorships according to the Act, it was stated
that the present emolument of each Chair was
expected to be 90 a year, with the likelihood
of an increase. This notice was printed in the
London Gazette between the 8th and i8th of
July, and in the Dublin Gazette between July 4
and September 23.
A full description of the subsequent events con-
nected with this election has been preserved in
the College of Physicians in a manuscript known
as the ' Book of Electors' Proceedings '. We read
that the Examinators attended at the Anatomy
School in Trinity College on Monday, the 25th
of September, 1749, about one o'clock in the
afternoon. The following candidates presented
themselves William Stephens, M.D. Dublin ;
Constantine Barbor, M.D. Dublin ; Anthony
Rehlan, M.D. Dublin ; Henry Quin, M.D. Padua ;
John M'Michan, M.D. Edinburgh ; and Nathaniel
1 Book of Electors' Proceedings, Col. P.
106 THE KING'S PROFESSORS
Barry, M.D. Rheims. The Archbishop adminis-
tered the oath to the Examinators, and on the
first day Dr. Robert Robinson examined in Ana-
tomy and Animal Oeconomy. On the 26th Dr.
Lloyd examined in Surgery and Midwifery, and
Dr. Anderson in Materia Medica. On the 27th
Dr. Bryan Robinson examined in the Theory and
Practice of Physic, and the Provost (Dr. Baldwin)
in the Aphorisms of Hippocrates. On October 2,
the Examinators met in the Provost's house and
signed a report recommending Henry Quin for the
Professorship of Physic, Dr. Nathaniel Barry for
the Professorship of Chirurgery and Midwifery,
and, with the Provost dissenting, Constantine
Barbor for the Professorship of Materia Medica
and Pharmacy. This report was published as
required by the Act, and on October 25, the
Examinators, with the exception of the Provost,
met at the Archbishop's Palace to declare the elec-
tion. As, however, none of the other Guardians
attended, the Archbishop adjourned the meeting
till November 4, when Archdeacon Reader attended
and the election was declared.
With the appointment of the King's Professors
the teaching staff of the School was constituted
as follows :
Public Professor of Physic . . Bryan Robinson
Medicus and Lecturer in Botany . William Clements
Lecturer in Chemistry . . William Stephens
Lecturer in Anatomy . . Robert Robinson
Anatomist .... George Whittingham
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 107
Theory and Practice of Medicine . Henry Quin
Chimrgery and Midwifery . . Nathaniel Barry
Materia Medica .... Constantine Barbor
The * Consuetudines seu Regulae Universitatis
Dubliniensis pro Solenniori graduum Collatione '
are of uncertain date and origin, but were prob-
ably drawn up in the time of Bedell's Provostship,
or at latest at the Restoration. 1 MacDonnell in
his edition of the Statutes in 1844 states that they
were first printed in 1778, but Bolton gives a
translation of them in his English edition of the
Statutes in 1749. In these ' Regulae ' chapter x
is entitled 'De Gradibus in Medicina Capessendis ' 2
and of it Bolton gives the following translation : 3
' No one shall be admitted to the Degree of Batchelor of
Physic, who has not first taken the Degree of Batchelor
in Arts, and who has not compleated three years (reckon-
ing from the day of his admission to the Degree of
Batchelor in Arts). Whoever applies for the Degree
of Batchelor in Physic, shall, before he is proposed for
the Grace of the College, solemnly in the publick Hall
perform the Part once of Respondent and once of Oppo-
nent in two Questions of Physic, from one of the Clock in
the Afternoon to three : He shall moreover solemnly and
publickly prelect twice on two several Days. No one
shall be admitted to the Degree of Doctor in Physic,
who has not compleated five years in the Study of
Physic, from the time of his being admitted Batchelor ;
and who shall not publickly and solemnly prelect four
times on four several Days, from one of the Clock in the
Afternoon till two. In which Prelections he shall explain
1 T. C. D. CaL, 1833, p. 58.
* Statutes T. C. D., vol. i, p. 172. ' Bolton, p. 150.
io8 THE KING'S PROFESSORS
some part of Hippocrates or Galen ; and shall moreover
in the public Hall solemnly perform the Part once of
Respondent and once of Opponent, in two Questions in
Physic from one of the Clock in the Afternoon to three.'
It was further ordained in the ' Supplicationum
Formulae, Alio modo ' that the Degrees of Bachelor
and Doctor in Physic may be applied for respec-
tively after ' three several manners '.
' For the Degree of Batchelor in Physic : *
' ist. Whoever begins the study of Physic immediately
on his admission into the College by Matriculation, may
apply for his Degree after the completion of twenty-four
' 2dly. If he begins from his being Batchelor in Arts,
then after three years.
' 3dly. If from the time of commencing Master, then
after two years.
' For the Degree of Doctor in Physic :
' ist. Six years being compleated from his Batchelor's
Degree in said Faculty, which was taken after twenty-
four Terms, or six Years from his Matriculation.
' 2dly. Five Years being compleated from his Batche-
lor's Degree, which was taken, having been before
admitted Batchelor of Arts.
' 3dly. Four Years being compleated from his Batche-
lor's Degree, which was taken, having been before
admitted Master of Arts.'
It is further stated that ' the Sum Total of
Expences for each Degree ' is as follows :
i s. d.
A.B 05 :o7 :o6
A.M 07 :i8 :o6
M.B. . . . . .10:05:00
M.D. . . . .18:19 :oo
1 Bolton, p. 154.
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 109
The cost of the LL.B. and LL.D. Degrees was the
same as the M.B. and M.D., while the B.D. cost
12 los. and the D.D. 23 los.
It is doubtful how far these ' Regulae ' were
observed, or what evidence of study was required
from the candidates for the medical degrees, but
during the second quarter of the eighteenth cen-
tury quite a number were examined by the Fellows
of the College of Physicians and had degrees
granted to them by the University. Stubbs in
his History states that ' from 1724 to 1740 no
Medical Degrees appear to have been conferred V
but this is not in accord with either the Register
of the Board or with the Roll of Graduates pub-
lished by Todd.
Bryan Robinson, who was at the head of the
medical faculty in the University as Public Pro-
fessor of Physic, was a man of considerable note
in his day. We have already met with him as
holding the Chair of Anatomy for a short period
from September 8, 1716, to June 17, 1717, and
as the editor of Helsham's Lectures in Natural
Philosophy. He was the son of Christopher Robin-
son, M.D., whose father Bryan is believed to have
belonged to the family of Robinson of Newby
Hall, Yorkshire. 2 Bryan was born in Dublin
about the year 1680, but we have been unable to
find any record of where he was educated. He
is not mentioned in the entrance book of Trinity
College, and we first meet with him on February
3, 1708/9, when he was given leave ' to perform
1 Stubbs, Hist., p. 319. * Irish Builder, February i, 1888.
no THE KING'S PROFESSORS
acts for ye degree of Batchelor of Physic '.* In
Trinity College he graduated M.B. in the spring
of that year, and M.D. in the summer of 1711.
In August 1711 he was admitted a Candidate of
the College of Physicians, was elected Fellow on
May 5, 1712, and held the office of President
in 1718, 1727, and 1739. In 1725 he published in
Dublin an account of five children who were inocu-
lated for small-pox on August 26 of that year.
Robinson had been called in to see these children
after the inoculation, and he describes the symp-
toms of the illness from which two of them died.
This book was published in London also in the
same year. In 1732 he published his celebrated
work on the Animal (Economy, which went through
several editions, and which was violently attacked
in a pamphlet by Thomas Morgan, to which
Robinson replied in the same year. Robinson
seems to have been fascinated with the Philosophy
of Newton, and was anxious to apply the mathe-
matical principles of that philosopher to the
elucidation of medical problems. Sprengel 2 de-
scribes Robinson as ' 1'un des plus celebres iatro-
mathematiciens de son temps '. The fundamental
proposition on which Robinson based his cele-
brated calculation of the velocity of the circulation
of the blood is stated as follows : 3
' If a given fluid be moved through a cylindrical Pipe,
made of a given sort of matter, by a Force acting constantly
and uniformly during the whole Time of the Motion ; its
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 422. * Sprengel, torn, v, p. 173.
1 Animal (Economy, 2nd edition, 1734, p. 2.
THE KING'S PROFESSORS in
velocity, setting aside the resistance of the Air, will be in a
Ratio compounded of the subduplicate Ratio of the mov-
ing Force directly, and of the subduplicate Ratio of the
Diameter and Length of the Pipe taken together inversely.
If F denote the moving Force, D and L the Diameter and
Length of the Pipe, and V the Velocity with which the
Fluid runs through the Pipe, then V will be proportional
The whole of this work forms a most interesting
exposition of the application of mathematics to
physiological problems, and would require for its
just appreciation a much more intimate know-
ledge of mathematics than is at the disposal of
In the Act of Parliament establishing Steevens'
Hospital, passed in 1729, Robinson is named a
Governor, and on the opening of the Hospital in
1733 he became one of the Physicians. On the
I2th June, 1745, he was elected Public Professor
of Physic in Trinity College in succession to Henry
Cope, and held the post till his death in 1754.
Beside the books already mentioned, Robinson
wrote a Dissertation on the Aether of Sir Isaac
Newton, 1 a Dissertation on the Food and Discharge
of Human Bodies, 2 On the Operations and Virtues
of Medicines, 3 and an essay on Coin 4 which was
published by his sons after his death.
An account of the case of the late Dr. Bryan
Robinson was communicated to the Medical and
Philosophical Society of Dublin by Sir Edward
1 Dublin, 1743. * Ibid., 1747.
* Ibid., 1753. * Ibid., 1757.
H2 THE KING'S PROFESSORS
Barry, and is preserved in the memoirs of that
society. 1 In this account Barry says that Robin-
son enjoyed good health till 1748, when he
' He recovered from thence by reducing the bulk of his
body and enjoyed good health for many years, but not
with his usual clearness and vigour of mind. For two
years before he died this deficiency in his memory and
understanding became remarkable. His pulse frequently
intermitted. After he had recovered by an exact regimen
from the paralysis, he frequently indulged himself in
the free use of Wine. He was naturally of a passionate
Temper which now Increased, from even the slightest and
frequently from no cause.'
After death, Barry says, his heart was found to
be ' of an uncommon size ', and he suggests that,
' This condition of the Heart evidently accounts for
the weak and afterwards intermitting Pulse, and from the
Brain being liable, during the imperfect Motion of the
fluids, to a Plenitude. Does not it likewise Account for
the Passions of his mind after a repletion of Wine, which
were chiefly mechanical and put the nervous System in
such a Motion as became at last necessary.'
Robert Robinson, who was the Lecturer in
Anatomy and President of the College of Physi-
cians, was the second son of Bryan Robinson.
He does not appear to have been a graduate of
Trinity College, and we have not been able to
discover where he took his degrees in Medicine.
He was admitted a Candidate and a Fellow of
the College of Physicians on the 22nd July, 1740,
and ' as being a son of a Fellow of this College,
1 Medical and Philosophical Memoirs, vol. ii, p. 79.
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 113
was excused ye fees of admission to a fellowship
and sworn '.* At the time of his election his father
was President of the College. Robert Robinson
was appointed State Physician by Patent dated
igth February, I742, 2 and in 1741 he became
Physician in Steevens' Hospital, being elected a
Governor there on December 22, 1750. Robert's
only child, Elizabeth, married on the 25th May,
1785, Frederick Trench of Woodlawn, who in 1800
was created Baron Ashtown. 3
Henry Quin, the King's Professor of Medicine,
had entered Trinity College as a Pensioner on
July 17, 1733, at the age of fifteen, and was the
son of Thomas Quin a Surgeon or Apothecary in
Dublin. He graduated B.A. in the spring of 1737,
M.B. in 1743, and M.D. in 1750. It is probable
that he studied abroad and graduated M.D. in
Padua between the time of his taking his Bache-
lor's degree in Trinity and his appointment as
Professor. He was admitted a Candidate of the
College of Physicians on October 29, 1750, and
elected Fellow on October 28, 1754. It is impor-
tant to notice that he did not hold any position
in the College till after his appointment as Pro-
fessor. He was afterwards chosen President of
the College seven times, in 1758, 1766, 1771, 1774,
1779 (twice), and in 1781. Quin was a musician
of considerable ability and used to take part in
the fashionable concerts held in the Theatre,
Fishamble Street, and he also had a private
1 Col. P. Minutes. * Cameron, Hist., p. 105.
* Irish Builder, February i, 1888.
ii4 THE KING'S PROFESSORS
theatre in his house on the north side of Stephen's
Green. He had considerable skill in imitating
antique sculptured gems in coloured glass, and in
this work he employed as his assistant James
Tassie, whom he afterwards enabled to go to
London, where he gained great wealth and reputa-
tion by the practice of this art. A medal, with
the bust of Henry Quin was engraved by William
Mossop, sen., in 1783, at the order of Robert
Watson Wade, First Clerk of the Treasury. Wade
had been a patient of Quin's and under his care
he had recovered from an illness which had pre-
viously baffled the skill of many of the faculty.
As a token of gratitude Wade had a copy of this
medal struck in gold and presented to Quin.
Dr. A. Smith states that he had seen an impres-
sion in silver on the reverse of which were engraved
these lines :
The human frame is, Quin, thy debtor,
None but the Maker knows it better. 1
Quin died on the igth of February, 1791.
Nathaniel Barry, the son of Sir Edward Barry,
M.D., Bart., was born in Cork, and entered Trinity
College as a Pensioner at the age of fifteen, on
January 29, 1739/40. He proceeded to the degree
of B.A. in the spring of 1744, and M.B. in 1748,
being granted his M.D. in 1751. Like Quin, Barry
was not admitted to the College of Physicians till
after his appointment as King's Professor. He
was admitted a Candidate on June 15, 1752, and
1 Aquilla Smith, Cat. Museum Col. P., p. 12.
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 115
elected a Fellow on St. Luke's day 1758. He was
President in the year 1767, and again in 1775.
He took the M.D. degree of the University of
Rheims, where he went to study after graduating
in Dublin, Barry was appointed, jointly with his
father, Sir Edward, Physician-General to the Army
in Ireland on St. Patrick's day, 1749/50. In 1776,
on the death of his father, he succeeded to the
baronetcy and died about nine years later.
Constantine Barbor was elected a Scholar of
Trinity College in 1732, and graduated B.A. in
the spring of 1734. Although he is described in
the ' Book of Electors' Proceedings ' as M.D. of
Dublin, we have not been able to trace either in
the College Register or in Todd's Roll any entry
of such a degree being granted to him. He was
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians
on the 26th February, 1742/3, and elected a Fellow
on the 4th May, 1747. In 1754 he was first elected
President, and he held that office again in 1764
In a poem descriptive of the Medical Faculty
in Dublin, published by John Gilborne, M.D., in
1775, the following lines are devoted to the King's
Professors : *
Peculiar Laurels the next Three have won,
Professors Royal of Sir Patrick Dun ;
A good Physician and a worthy Knight,
To cure not kill was always his delight.
If any Time he drew the trenchant Blade,
The Hand that wounded heal'd the Wounds it made.
1 Gilborne, p. 17.
u6 THE KING'S PROFESSORS
Ingenious Quin, with Erudition great,
Averts the Blows of unrelenting Fate :
He teaches Youth the Cure, the Remedies,
And various Causes of all Maladies ;
The speculative theoretic Rule,
And the best Practice, in the Physic-school.
The God-like Barry high in Learning soars,
His prudent Skill the Sick to Health restores :
He teaches Midwifes how to trace their Clews
Thro' mazy Labyrinths, and how to use
Their Instruments he shews Chirurgeons bold ;
All this in College by the Sage is told.
Wise Barbor can prolong the Days of Youth,
By Maxims founded on undoubted Truth :
With pharmaceutic Art he plainly shews
How to prepare, preserve, compound, and chuse
Drugs, and Materials medical, that will
All Indications curative fulfil.
With "the election of the three King's Professors
affairs in the University School seemed to be
settled on a satisfactory basis. A fairly complete
teaching staff had been appointed, and the ex-
amination of candidates for the degrees was, on
the Liceat of the University, conducted by the
heads of the College of Physicians. It was, how-
ever, the custom of the University to give special
Graces for degrees to certain individuals, appa-
rently without any examination. Thus, on April
u, 1748, ' the Grace of the house for a Doc 8 -
degree in Physick was given to Henry Smyth,
A.M., at the instance of his Royal Highness the
1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 76.
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 117
The College of Physicians was at this time most
jealous as to its privileges of licensing practitioners
in both Medicine and Midwifery. The President
and Fellows had, at their meeting on May 6, 1745,
adopted a resolution that
' Whereas it has been found that several persons
licensed to practise midwifery only have notwithstanding
presumed to practise physick in general ; we ye sub-
scribing members of ye College of Physicians have
unanimously agreed that we will not for the future
consult with any of them as physicians, nor w h any
other person, who is not a graduate or licensed physician
of this College.'
This resolution was signed by the President and
all the Fellows of the College, as well as by nine
of the Candidates and Licentiates.
It should be remembered that the Charter of
William and Mary had ordained that no person
was entitled to practise physic in Dublin, or within
a circuit of seven miles thereof, except he was
licensed by the President and Fellows of the College
of Physicians, provided always that graduates in
Physic of the University of Dublin having performed
their full acts be admitted into the College without
further examination on the payment of the usual
fee. The College of Physicians was also granted
power to examine and license all midwives. It
was in view of these provisions of the Charter
that the University and the College had entered
into an agreement whereby the College examined
all medical candidates of the University before
they were admitted to perform acts for their
n8 THE KING'S PROFESSORS
degrees. This arrangement seems to have been
a very fair one, but it is obvious that the admis-
sion of candidates to the degrees of the University
by Special Grace and without examination by the
College of Physicians was likely sooner or later to
lead to friction between the two bodies. On
February 19, 1753, the President and Fellows
adopted the following resolution : l
' yt no graduate in Physic of ye University of Dublin
who hath obtained, or shall obtain, his degree by special
grace or favour shall for the future be admitted into ye
College of Physicians, or licensed by ye College to Practise
At the same meeting at which the above resolu-
tion was adopted the President and Fellows further
' Ordered yt the College of Physicians shall not for the
future examine any person who hath or does practise
midwifery, for any degree in Physick, or a License in
Though the former resolution was one that
would commend itself to many as just and fair,
the same cannot be said of the latter, and it was
this which ultimately led to trouble.
At the meeting of the Board of Trinity College
on February 15, 1753 :
' A Batchelors degree in Arts was granted Speciali
Gratia to Fielding Ould for the reasons in the underneath
petition. Fielding Ould supplicates the Provost &
Senior Fellows to grant him ye Degree of B.A. as a
Qualifn. preparatory to his applying for Leave to perform
his Degrees in Physic humbly hoping that ye folowg.
Circumces. may in some measure recommend him.
1 Col. P. Minutes.
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 119
' He has been 25 years in ye study & practice of
Physick, five of wh. were almost intirely employed in
disecting for the Any. Lecture of ye Colge. during wh.
time he constly. attended ye N. Phily. Chymy. & Botany
Lectures, was two years abroad for his furthr. improvemt.,
on his return was examd. by ye College of Physicians who
certified for him yt He was singularly well qualified for
ye Profession of Midwifery wh. he hath practised these
15 years past & has published a treatise on yt subject
with an approbation of ye Colge of Physicians thereto
On January 17, 1757, the College of Physicians
passed a resolution :
' that every person who is admitted a Fellow Candidate
or Licentiate since May 6th, 1745, do sign the Resolution
of that date relating to the Licentiates in Midwifery and
that for the future every person that shall apply to be
a Fellow or Licentiate shall before his admission sign the
Still there was no rupture between the Colleges
and the degree examinations were conducted under
the former regulations.
Nothing more was heard of any cause of dispute
for a time. On September 30, 1758, Provost
Baldwin died at the age of ninety-two, and in the
following month Francis Andrews was admitted
Provost. On June 2, 1759, the Board granted
a Liceat to Fielding Ould for his Bachelor's degree
in Physic, and on October 29, 1759, it was resolved
at a meeting of the College of Physicians, 1 that :
' Mr. Fielding Ould Licentiate in Midwifery having
presented a Liceat from the University of Dublin to be
1 Col. P. Minutes.
120 THE KING'S PROFESSORS
examined for a Batchelours Degree in Physic the College
is unanimous in not admitting him to an Examination,
as such an admission is contrary to their Laws.'
On February 2, 1760, the Board of Trinity
College made the following minute :
' This day a Memorial of Fielding Ould was read setting
forth that he had presented the Liceat granted by this
Board for his Batchelor's degree in Physic to the President
of the College of Physicians, and offered himself ready
and willing to undergo their examination and praying
that as they had declined examining him he might
obtain leave to perform the usual Acts for his Batchelor's
Degree in Physic, Ordered by the Board that Fielding
Ould A.B. have leave to perform the usual Acts for a
Batchelor's degree in Physic and that he acquaint the
professor of Physic therewith and that he give the usual
notice of the time and subject of his Acts.'
Although this degree is not recorded in Todd's
Roll, it was evidently granted, for on April 2, 1761,
' Leave was given to S r Fielding Ould M.B. to
perform for a Doctor's Degree in Medicine/ * and
on June 29 the Grace was passed for this degree,
which was conferred at the Summer Commence-
It was not to be expected that the College of
Physicians would submit to this treatment with-
out protest, for, whatever opinion we may now
form of the refusal to examine Ould, the action
had the unanimous support of the Fellows. Ac-
cordingly, at their meeting on February 5, 1761,
they unanimously adopted the following resolu-
1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 1 66.
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 121
' That the College of Dublin in conferring a degree in
Physic on S r - Fielding Ould Licentiate in Midwifery only,
has treated this college with very great and undeserved
' That the connexion subsisting between this Body and
the College of Dublin by virtue of the agreement dated
July 25 1701 be dissolved.
' That the following letter be sent to the Provost :
' S r * The President and Fellows of the College of Phy-
sicians from their affection for the Society in which they
were educated have for threescore years past submitted to
considerable inconvenience solely to give credit and value
to the degrees in Physic conferred by the University, at
the head of which you have the honour to be placed.
' They lament that of late their endeavours have been
ineffectual to this purpose, and are justly apprehensive
that they are likely to continue so, as your College has
thought proper to grant a degree in our Faculty to
a person, who had no Academic Education, and whom
you know to be disqualified by his occupation for a License
to practise in our Profession.
' We therefore from the attention which we owe to the
welfare of the publick & to ye reputation and ye dignity
of our own Body, find ourselves under the necessity of
breaking off that connexion which has hitherto subsisted
between your Board and ours by agreement of January
ye 25th, 1701, and we do hereby declare that for the
future we will not examine your candidates nor officiate
at the performance of their public acts ; and that we will
receive into our College the graduates of other Univer-
sities if sufficiently recommended by their learning and
morals tho' not admitted ad eundem in yours.'
In consequence of this letter the Board at their
meeting on May 16 unanimously resolved : ' That
a Previous examination of the Candidates for
degrees in Medicine is absolutely necessary.' And
122 THE KING'S PROFESSORS
the following letter was written to the University
Lecturers, June 9, 1761 :
' Sir, I am directed by the Provost and Senior Fellows
to acquaint you that they have resolved to commit the
examination of candidates for Degrees in Medicine for ye
future to their Praelectors in Chymistry & Anatomy,
together with ye Professor of Medicine ; and that it is
their intention that their Praelectors shall attend the
Professor in all performances of Acts for Medical Degrees.
It is also expected that the Praelectors will co-operate
with the Professor in settling a scheme for the conduct of
these Examinations & Performances in order to give
them their due weight and credit ; which scheme is to
be laid before the Board for their approbation. I am
therefore directed to request that you would signify your
sentiments to me with all convenient speed ; as the
Provost and Senior Fellows mean to proceed to the final
settlement of the manner and order of these Examinations
and Performances ; and judge if necessary to carry their
intentions into effectual execution without delay.'
On June 29 the Board decided that :
' Whereas the Board have unanimously resolved that for
the future no candidate in Physic should be admitted
to perform acts till he had been previously examined
& returned duly qualified by the Professor of Physic,
the Chymistry and Anatomy Lecturer and whereas Dr.
Robert Robinson refuses to co-operate therein with the
above gentlemen it is hereby ordered that another
Anatomy Lecturer shall be chosen, and that the Board
shall proceed to the election of a proper person to fill the
said office on Tuesday the I4th of July next.'
Thus in 1761 Robert Robinson was dismissed
from the Chair of Anatomy just as his father
Bryan had in 1717 been turned out ' by the
majority of voices '.
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 123
Of the other Professors, Dr. Edward Barry had
resigned the Professorship of Physic on February
12, 1761, and on the 2ist Dr. Clements, Lecturer
in Botany, and a Fellow of Trinity College, had
been appointed in his stead. William Stephens,
who had been Lecturer in Chemistry since 1732,
had died in 1760, and on July 12 of that year
Francis Hutcheson had been chosen in his place.
Hutcheson, though a Licentiate, was not, at this
time, a Fellow of the College of Physicians.
Fielding Ould, who was the apparently inno-
cent cause of this rupture between the Colleges,
was a most distinguished man in his profession.
Colonel Ould, the grandfather of Fielding, was
a soldier in the army of King William, and com-
manded the Royal Regiment of Welsh Fusileers
in the Battle of the Boyne. His son, Captain
Ould, also belonged to this regiment, and when
quartered with it in Galway after the war, he
married there a Miss Shawe. Two sons resulted
from this marriage, Fielding, and Abraham, who
afterwards became a Barrister.
Fielding Ould was born about 1710, and on the
death of his father, who was murdered in London
shortly after his marriage, Quid's mother returned
to her father's house in Galway, and there her
two sons were educated. Ould, as he tells in his
petition to the Board, acted for some time as
prosector to the Lecturer in Anatomy and attended
lectures in the School of Trinity College, though
he does not appear to have been a Matriculated
Student of the University. While abroad he
124 THE KING'S PROFESSORS
studied for some time in Paris, as he tells us in
the preface of his book, and eventually settled in
Dublin about 1736 or 1737. On August" 16, 1738,
he was admitted a Licentiate of Midwifery of the
College of Physicians, having, on examination,
been ' found singularly well qualified '.
In 1742 he published in Dublin * A Treatise of
Midwifery in Three Parts ', which is dedicated to
the ' President, Censors, & Fellows of the College
of Physicians ', and bears the imprimatur of the
College. This is the first of a long list of writings
on obstetrics by Dublin men, writings which have
added, and are still adding, no little lustre to the
reputation of the Dublin School. M'Clintock, 1
writing of Quid's book, says :
' If we except the writings of Chapman and Sir Richard
Manningham, it was in fact the first obstetric treatise
having any pretentions to merit and originality which
appeared in the English language. But, independently
of this, the work possessed intrinsic merits of a superior
kind, and contained many new observations of great
importance : so much so that we would leave it to any
impartial and competent reader to say whether it is not
superior to any English obstetric treatise published
before that of Smellie in 1752.'
On the death in 1759 of Bartholomew Mosse,
the founder and first Master of the Rotunda, Ould
was appointed second Master of the Hospital,
which post he filled for seven years, during which
time 3,800 women were confined in the Hospital,
with 48 deaths. In May 1760 he was knighted
by the Duke of Bedford, the Lord Lieutenant of
1 M'Clintock, Dub. School of Midwifery, p. 7.
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 125
Ireland, which honour gave rise to the following
Sir Fielding Ould is made a Knight,
He should have been a lord by right ;
For then each Lady's prayer would be,
O Lord, Good Lord, deliver me !
Ould lived for many years in 21 Frederick
Street, and died there on November 29, 1789.
It is not very easy to give a satisfactory explana-
tion of the refusal of the College of Physicians to
examine Fielding Ould. It is possible that it was
as much the result of personal jealousy as a matter
of principle. Whatever may have been the cause
the College did not bear any permanent ill-feeling
to Ould, as he was admitted a Licentiate on
October 3, 1785.
THE PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN
IN pursuance of the resolutions quoted in the
last chapter the Board proceeded to the election
of a new Lecturer in Anatomy, and on July 14,
1761, George Cleghorn, the anatomist, was ap-
pointed. The position of ' Anatomist ', or ' Uni-
versity Anatomist ' as it is now called, is first
mentioned in 1716, when, on September 8, Surgeon
Green was appointed by the Board to officiate in
that capacity. Of this William Green, ' of the
City of Dublin Chirurgeon,' little is known, except
that he continued as anatomist till his death in
1733. In his will, which was signed on April the
I2th of that year, and proved in June, he left one-
third of his property to his ' dear wife Anne Green ',
and the other two-thirds to be divided between
his son and two daughters. Green was in office
when Bryan Robinson was ' turned out from being
Anatomist ', and on the same day the Board
' ordered that the Bursar pay sixty pounds to
Surgeon Green in order to purchase preparations
for illustrating several parts of the human body '.
Unfortunately no record remains of how this
money was spent, or what sort of ' preparations '
were purchased. 1 On the death of Green the
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 480.
PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 127
Board, on October 22, 1733, elected Mr. Vessy
Shaw, surgeon, 'to assist the Anatomy Lecturer 1 . 1
Shaw resigned his office on the I4th of June, 1743,
and died three years later, his will being proved
on the 4th of January, 1747/8. On Shaw's resig-
nation, Mr. George Whittingham ' was chosen
into his place ', which he resigned on the loth
September, 1753. Whittingham, who lived in
Grafton Street, was for many years one of the
surgeons to Mercer's Hospital, and was nominated
one of the Governors in the Act of Parliament
incorporating that institution, which was passed
in 1749. He died in July, 1773, and in his will,
which was dated on the I5th of that month, and
proved on the 6th of August, he left a bond of
600 to Mercer's Hospital, provided his ' Appren-
tice John Bell shall be allowed to attend the said
Hospital as usual during the remainder of his
Between 1730 and 1760 there were added to the
Anatomical Museum of the College several interest-
ing specimens which long attracted attention. Of
these the most remarkable was the skeleton of
William Clark, an excellent example of the con-
dition known as Myositis ossificans. This man was
born in Newmarket, Co. Cork, in 1677, and died
in 1738, when his skeleton was procured by
Sir Edward Barry, who afterwards presented it to
the College. Smith in his history of Co. Cork,
published in I75O, 2 gives an account of this man,
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 604.
1 Smith, Cork, vol. ii, p. 426.
128 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN
and states that Barry had ' composed a learned
and accurate tract on the subject ', but this we
believe was never published.
Smith tells us that
' his under jaws being fixed, he could never open his
mouth, but his teeth, being broken by some accident,
he sucked in spoon meat which was his chief est food.
He spent the greater part of his time preparing his diet ;
when he took any solid food he laid it on a large flat knife,
and pressed it with a stick made for the purpose, and so
forced it within his teeth. Though he was often in-
toxicated with liquor, he never vomited but once, and
was then very near being suffocated. When he walked,
he was always obliged to step first with the right foot,
which he did with much difficulty, he then dragged the
left foot to the right heel. When he fell by accident, he
was never able to rise without assistance. When he lay
down, he had cavities made in his bed, in which he
placed his hips, heels and elbows. In his youth he made
a shift to creep with difficulty through the village of
Newmarket ; but as he advanced in years, he grew more
inactive, so that at last he could scarce go the length
of Mr. Aldworth's kitchen, where he spent most of his
time. That gentleman maintained him in charity while
he lived ; the only use he was capable of being put to
was that of watching the workmen, for when he was once
fixed in his station, it was impossible for him to desert it.
He generally stood in a kind of sentry-box with a board
placed in a groove as high as his breast for him to lean
upon. He had always a bony excrescence issuing out of
his left heel, which sometimes grew to the length of about
two inches, and when it shed, as a deer does its horns, it
still continued to sprout as before.'
Another specimen in the School was the skeleton
of Cornelius Magrath, the Irish giant, who had
PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 129
suffered during life from acromegaly. He had
exhibited himself as a giant in various cities in
Ireland, England, and on the Continent, and died
in College Green in May, 1760, at the age of 24.
He was stated to be 7 feet 8 inches high, and his
hands ' were as large as a middling shoulder of
mutton '. Magrath, like Clark, came from Cork,
though born in Tipperary, and he had been for
some time cared for by the charitable Bishop
Berkeley. It was afterwards stated that his
abnormal stature was the result of experiments
made on him by the good bishop. In the Philo-
sophic Survey of the South of Ireland * the story is
given as follows :
' The Bishop had a strange fancy to know whether it
was not in the power of art to increase the human stature.
And this unhappy Orphan appeared to him a fit subject
for trial. He made his essay according to his precon-
ceived theory, whatever it might be, and the consequence
was that he became seven feet high in his seventeenth
Macalister says that Doctor Beatty used to tell
the story of how Magrath 's body was obtained for
the College. 2 Beatty 's father was at the time of
Magrath's death a student in the College, and he
used to say that when Robinson heard of the
giant's death, he addressed his class as follows :
' Gentlemen, I have been told that some of you in
your zeal have contemplated the carrying off of
the body. I most earnestly beg of you not to
think of such a thing : but if you should be so
1 p. 187. * Macalister, Macartney, p. 16.
130 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN
carried away with your desire for knowledge that
thus against my expressed wish you persist in
doing so, I would have you remember that if you
take only the body, there is no law whereby you
can be touched, but if you take so much as a rag
or a stocking with it it is a hanging matter.' The
students took the hint, and attended the ' wake '
of the giant, and as the evening progressed, drugged
the whisky used in the celebrations. The friends
gradually dropped to sleep, and then a number of
the students carried off the body unmolested to
the College. When the robbery was discovered on
the next morning, the friends came with indignant
protests to the Provost, and demanded the return
of the corpse. The Provost sent for Robinson, but
the Professor assured him that so great was the
diligence of the College students that the body
was already dissected. Beatty said he had met
Robinson on his way from the Provost's house,
and that he stopped at intervals chuckling to
himself, ' Divil a knife 's in him yet ! ' The Provost
is said to have compounded handsomely with the
angry friends, but the fact that an account of the
giant's death and of the public lecture read on
the dissection of the body was published in a Dublin
newspaper rather throws discredit on the story.
A full account of this skeleton has been published
in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, by
the late Professor Cunningham. 1
Other specimens which attracted much attention
were the celebrated ' wax- works '. These were life-
1 Cunningham, Magrath.
PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 131
size models of the human body in various stages
of dissection. They had been modelled in wax
on human skeletons, admirably articulated, by
M. Denou6, Professor of Anatomy in the Academy
of Sciences in Paris. It is said that the work occu-
pied the Professor for nearly forty years. Macalister 1
tells us that these wax models were brought to
London by a sculptor named Rackstow, who, on
the advice of a certain Dr. Scott, brought them to
Dublin, where they were purchased by the Earl of
Shelbourne, and given to the University in 1739.
The tradition in the College was that Dean Swift
had instigated the noble lord to this purchase, but
of this we have no documentary evidence. Mac-
alister gives as the authority for his statements
an old catalogue, compiled in 1811, by a head
porter of the College. Most of the guide-books to
Dublin, describing these models, give the date of
their presentation as about 1752. These wax
models received rather bad usage at the time the
old Anatomy house was replaced by the new
Medical School in the beginning of the last century,
but the fragmentary remains of them are still
preserved in Trinity College.
On the day of Whittingham's resignation of the
' place of Anatomist ', Mr. George Cleghorn was
chosen in his stead, and continued in office till he
was promoted lecturer. The post of University
Anatomist then appears to have been allowed to
fall into abeyance for nearly a hundred years.
There were at various times persons appointed to
1 Macalister, Hist. Anal., p. 12.
132 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN
assist the Professor, but they were no longer called
1 the Anatomist '.
Lying along the southern shore of the Frith of
Forth, in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, is
situated the parish of Cramond, and ' the farm
of Granton in this parish was for a long series of
years occupied by a worthy race of farmers of the
name of Cleghorn '. l Of this stock and in this
place George Cleghorn was born on the i8th of
December, 1716, and three years later his father
died, leaving a widow and five children. George,
who was the youngest of the family, was educated
in the parish school at Cramond, and at twelve
years of age was sent to Edinburgh for further
instruction in the classics and modern languages.
After three years spent in this way he began the
study of medicine, being placed under the tuition
of Alexander Monro, and allowed to reside in his
house. While a student in the University of
Edinburgh, Cleghorn formed a close friendship
with Fothergill, and was one of the five students
who founded in Edinburgh the society afterwards
known as the Royal Medical Society. In a letter
of Dr. Cuming to Dr. Lettsom we read of the origin
of this society, and are told that the paper which
formed the agenda for the third meeting was read
by Cleghorn, the subject being ' Epilepsy '.*
Cleghorn appears to have been a most indus-
trious student. He so gained the goodwill of his
teachers that in 1736 he was, on the recommenda-
1 Wood's Cramond, p. 121.
* Pettigrew's Lettsom, vol. iii, p. 288.
PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 133
tion of Dr. St. Clair, appointed surgeon to the
22nd Regiment of Foot, then stationed at Minorca,
under the command of General St. Clair. He
remained for thirteen years on the island, and
devoted his time to the study of his profession and
the collection of materials for his work on the
diseases of the island. It was during his stay at
Minorca that his friend, Dr. Cuming, writing on
August 14, 1742, says of him :
' Thou wilt no doubt admire the industry of our friend
Cleghorn who, situate in a corner of the world, has made
greater progress than any of us who do not even want the
proper aids of study. Let us therefore stimulate one
another that we may follow his footsteps and become the
worthy friends of so great a man.' *
Cleghorn was at this time in constant corre-
spondence with Fothergill, who kept him supplied
from London with the books that he required for
study. On leaving Minorca in 1749, Cleghorn
came to Ireland with his regiment, but left shortly
afterwards for London to superintend the publica-
tion of his book on the Epidemic Diseases in
Minorca from the year 1744 to 1749- This work
was first published in London in 1751, and eventu-
ally went through five English editions, the last
being published in London in 1815. 2 In 1776 it
was translated into German by T. C. G. Acker-
mann, and published in Gotha. While in London
Cleghorn attended the anatomical lectures of Dr.
Hunter, and so prepared himself for his future
life's work as Lecturer in Anatomy in Dublin.
1 Lettsom, Fothergill, p. 98. * Irvine.
134 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN
On the publication of his book Cleghorn returned
to Dublin, and was, as we have seen, on the loth
of September, 1753, elected as Anatomist to succeed
Mr. Whittingham. In 1756 he published in Dublin
a small octavo pamphlet, entitled Index of an
Annual Course of Lectures by George Cleghorn,
Anatomist to Trinity College, and Surgeon in Dublin.
This is really a syllabus of his lectures, and is the
first anatomical work published in connexion with
As we have seen, the dispute between the
Colleges over the degree of Sir Fielding Ould led
to the appointment, in July, 1761, of Cleghorn as
Lecturer in Anatomy, and he seems to have at
once entered on a large and lucrative practice as
a surgeon in Dublin. In 1762 he sent a paper
to the Medical Society of London, in which he
describes how he extracted ' the third or fourth
feather of a goose's wing ' from the throat of
a young lady who had swallowed it. The instru-
ment he used was a flexible whalebone with a
spring and strings attached to it. He tells us that
Mr.Tuckey of Dublin had, some years before, added
the strings to this instrument. 1
In 1765 he described to the same society a case
of aneurysmal varix in the arm of a boy aged 17,
which had resulted from a bleeding some years
before. The patient, he tells us, was ' shown at
the College to the Students who attend my
lectures '. 2
On September 9, 1768, the Board granted a
1 Med. Obs., vol. Hi, p. 7. Ibid., p. no.
PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 135
grace for a Doctor's degree in Physic to Cleghorn, 1
and on the I3th of the same month his Grace the
Duke of Bedford, Chancellor of the University,
attended by the Provost, Fellows, and Professors,
habited in their proper robes, visited the laboratory,
Anatomy School, and waxworks. Under the in-
fluence of Cleghorn the Medical School increased
considerably as regards the numbers of students
attending. We have not been able to get any
records of the actual numbers, but there were
sufficient students to make the lecture-room un-
comfortably crowded. Writing in 1782 to his
friend Dr. Cuming, Cleghorn says : z
1 In the year 1772 increasing business and declining
health obliged me to commit the chief care of my annual
anatomical course for the instruction of students in
Physic and Surgery to my favorite pupil, Dr. Purcell,
who has not only kept it up ever since, but improved it
so as to advance its reputation and his own ; yet still
I continue to read, as I have done for upwards of twenty
years, to a crowded audience, a short course of Lectures
the design of which is to give to general scholars a com-
prehensive view of the Animal Kingdom, and to point
out to them the conduct of nature in forming their various
tribes and fitting their several organs to their respective
modes of life ; this affords me an opportunity of exciting
in my hearers an eager desire for Anatomical knowledge,
by shewing them a variety of elegant preparations and
raising their minds from the creature to the Creator whose
power, wisdom and goodness is nowhere displayed to
greater advantage than in the formation of Animals.'
On the 23rd March, 1775, the Board 3 'resolved
1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 212. * Lettsom, Fothergill, 1786, p. 235.
* Reg., vol. iv, p. 315.
136 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN
that the present Anatomy house be taken down,
and that another be built on the ground lying on
the north-side of the Parliament Square ', but
nothing seems to have come of this resolution at
the time, any more than did of the request made
to the Provost on the 2ist January previously,
that he would ' look out for a piece of ground
proper and convenient for a Botany Garden '- 1
The Provost at this time was the Right Hon.
John Hely Hutchinson, commonly known as ' the
Prancer ', from his fondness for dancing. He
seems to have been more anxious for the physical
welfare of the students than for their medical
studies, for on August 4, 1774, the Board had under
consideration a scheme for hiring a riding house
for the use of the students. 2
About 1774 Cleghorn's only brother, John, died
in Scotland, leaving his widow, Barbara, and nine
children, and this family Cleghorn brought to
Dublin in order that he might superintend their
education. Three of these, William, James, and
Thomas, were educated for the medical profession,
and studied with their uncle in the Trinity College
School, and subsequently in Edinburgh. William
was born at Granton, on October 30, 1754, and
graduated B.A. in Trinity College in the spring of
1777. He then went to study in Edinburgh, and
took his medical degree there in 1779, reading
a thesis De Igne. For some time he travelled on
the Continent, and on his return to Dublin the
Board, on October 27, 1781, at the request of his
1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 299. * Reg., vol. iv, p. 297.
PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 137
uncle, ' Lecturer in Anatomy and Anatomist ',
elected him into ' those places to hold them jointly
with his said uncle V Young Cleghorn did not
live long to assist his uncle in the Anatomy School,
for he died, as the result of an attack of fever, on
April 20, 1783. 2 Cleghorn had various assistants
in the anatomical department, who, however, did
not hold their appointments from the Board.
Thus we have seen that he was in 1772 assisted
by his favourite pupil, Dr. Purcell, and after the
death of his nephew, William, he had for some
years the assistance of Joseph Clarke, who had
married his niece, Isobel. Joseph Clarke, the son
of James Clarke, a farmer in the parish of Desertlin,
in County Londonderry, was born on April 8, 1758.
He was educated at the district school, and then
in Glasgow, after which he studied medicine in
Edinburgh, and graduated there in 1779, as he tells
us, ' with great ease to myself and some reputa-
tion ', reading a thesis De Putredine in Typho
coercenda. He then came to Dublin to stay with
his grand-uncle, Dr. Machonchy, an obstetrician
with a considerable practice. In March following
he left to travel on the Continent as medical
attendant to the son of a Mr. Rowley, and was
away for about fourteen months. Returning to
Dublin, he made the acquaintance of Dr. Cleghorn,
and on his advice entered as a pupil at the Rotunda
Hospital, where he was appointed Assistant Master
on the 28th March, 1783. In June of this year
he again went abroad, this time in charge of
1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 479. * Edn. Med. Com., vol. ix, p. 472.
138 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN
a Mr. John Jacob, of County Tipperary. This
visit, however, was a short one, for as he tells us,
his patient was in love with a Miss Gahen, and
therefore contrived to shorten his intended ab-
sence, and Clarke was back again at his duties in
the Rotunda by September. On April n, 1785,
he was admitted a Licentiate of the College of
Physicians, and on the 7th of April of the next
year he married Isobel Cleghorn, with whom he
' got a fortune of fifteen hundred pounds '. On
the 3rd of November of that year he was elected
Master of the Rotunda Hospital. Very shortly
after he settled in Dublin he became an assistant
to Cleghorn, and from about 1784 he seems to
have been practically in charge of the Anatomical
department. In a letter written by Cleghorn to
Clarke, and dated ' Kilcartey December 18 1787 ',
he says : ' I shall always acknowledge my obliga-
tion to you for the ready and willing assistance
you gave me in carrying on the lectures for these
three years past.' Clarke's last division of the
profits of the Anatomical School was in July of
1788, when he received as his share 60 75. yd. 1 Thus
for about two years Clarke occupied what seems to
us the very anomalous position of being at the same
time the head of a great lying-in hospital, and chief
working officer of an anatomical department.
Clarke's connexion with the Rotunda is specially
remarkable for two things, first for the reduction
in the infant mortality consequent on the adop-
tion of the methods suggested by him, and secondly
1 Collins, p. 17.
PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 139
that he was the first Master to publish a full
report of the working of the hospital. From the
time of the opening of the hospital to Clarke's
appointment as Master, one out of every six
children born alive had died of convulsions, or
what were termed ' nine day fits '. Clarke attri-
buted this mortality to bad ventilation in the
wards, and advocated the adoption of measures l
' which provided for a free and easy passage of fresh air
at all times through the wards and which were executed
in such a manner as not to leave it in the power of nurse-
tenders or patients to control ; the number of beds, also,
in the large wards was reduced, and several changes were
made in their construction which rendered them more
airy and more easily kept clean '.
In the six years which followed these changes
the mortality was reduced to I in 19-3, and in the
twenty-five years, 1823-47, the mortality was
further reduced to i in 108. In his report z of
the hospital, which embraces the period between
January i, 1787, and October i, 1793, there were,
he reports, 10,387 women confined, of whom 125
died. When Clarke was seeking the appointment
of Master of the Rotunda he asked Cleghorn for
a letter of recommendation, and received the
following reply, 3 which gives one a good idea of
the writer's character :
' July 1786.
' My DEAR CLARKE,
' I received your letter, requesting one from me to
Dr. Halliday. My stomach revolts against the usual
1 Collins, p. 20. * Trans. Col. P., vol. i, p. 400.
1 Collins, p. 23.
140 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN
mode of extracting promises, and engaging votes, before
the Governors can be sufficiently apprized of the merits
of the candidates. It is founded on a supposition that all
men are actuated by selfish motives, regardless of the
public good, and that they never consider whether their
friend be fit for the place he wishes for provided the place
be fit for him. If you gain the election I hope it will be
by means fair and honourable ; I would rather hear you
had lost it, than that any others had been employed.
The more a good character is inquired into, it will be so
much the better for him that owns it ; you must, therefore,
be the gainer by standing the election, even should you
fail of success, provided you are not too anxious about the
matter, and suffer your mind to be too much dejected
by a disappointment which could not have happened had
merit been regarded, and which, after all, may probably
tend more to your advantage than success would have
done. Read the tenth satire of Juvenal, and reflect on
the vanity of human fears and wishes.
Believe me ever yours etc., GEORGE CLEGHORN.'
Clarke died in Edinburgh, where he had gone to
attend a meeting of the British Association, on
September n, 1834
James Cleghorn having graduated B.A. in
Trinity College in the summer of 1784, returned
from travelling on the Continent and took his
M.B. degree in Trinity College in the summer of
1787, and the following year took charge, for his
uncle, of the Anatomical School. George Cleg-
horn at this time lived almost entirely at his
country house, Kilcarty, in Co. Meath. He was
then in bad health, as he tells Dr. Lettsom in
a letter 1 dated ' Kilcartey ', December 29, 1786 :
1 Pettigrew, Lettsom, vol. ii, p. 364.
PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 141
' early in April asthmatic fits and swelled legs had obliged
me to leave Dublin, and retire to the country with a fixed
resolution never again to resume the practice of Physic
in the metropolis, having learned by dear-bought experi-
ence, that I was no longer able to climb up two or three
pair of stairs to bed-chambers and nurseries, supporting
a weighty corporation of nineteen stone and a half on
a pair of oedematous legs, and panting like a broken
winded horse, before I got half way up. ... About the
middle of October I was under the disagreeable necessity
of returning to Dublin, in order to begin the anatomical
lectures which I was unwilling to give up, until my
nephew should be further advanced in his studies, and
have a better chance for the Professorship, when it shall
be declared vacant. I went through the public lectures
to the Gentlemen of the University as usual ; and opened
the public course for Students of Medicine, with a few
introductory lectures, and at the same time informed
them that I meant to superintend the course. I could
not promise constant attendance, and must trust this
laborious task to the care of my two nephews, whose
activity directed by my experience, I had good reason to
believe would enable them to acquit themselves to the
satisfaction of their pupils. Accordingly Dr. Clarke has
gone through the general lectures and the osteology ;
and we every day expect James's return to carry on the
dissections pursuant to an advertisement in the news-
papers, before my return to Dublin. I have steadily
declined all business of my profession, out of doors
(except that of the theatre), and only see such patients as
come to my house on three days a week. I was glad to
take the opportunity, which the holidays afford, of paying
a visit of a few days to this retreat, which I consider as
my home and where I have every conveniency that can
contribute to my health and my amusement.'
On November the 8th, 1784, Cleghorn was elected
an Honorary Fellow of the College of Physicians,
142 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN
having in 1777, on the foundation of the Royal
Medical Society of Paris, been nominated a Fellow
of that body. He was one of the original members
of the Royal Irish Academy, but did not contribute
any papers to its Transactions. He died at Kilcarty
on Tuesday, December 22, 1789, and in the news-
paper x account he is described as ' a gentleman
where ever known esteemed and beloved, and where
ever heard of respected. For a series of years sup-
porting with singular honour one of the most dis-
tinguished characters in his profession, he was the
first person that established what could with any
degree of propriety be called a school of anatomy
in this Kingdom ; which long flourished with still
increasing splendour and utility under his auspices
and direction and remains a lasting monument of
his industry, spirit, and genius '.
In his will he left to his nephew George his
estates in County Meath, and to his nephews,
James and Thomas, ' to be equally divided be-
tween them according as they shall agree, or as
referees to be chosen by themselves shall award,
all the Greek and Latin books in my library and
all other my books and manuscripts relating to
the study of nature, Philosophy and the different
branches of Medicine as also the whole of my
Anatomical apparatus and Chirurgical Instru-
ments.' Thus passed from the School full of years
and full of honour one who in his thirty-six years'
service had spread its fame through the length
and breadth of the land, and who had attracted
1 Flyn's Hibernian Chronicle, Cork, December 28, 1789.
PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 143
to his teaching students from beyond the seas.
His name is rightly enrolled among those who
have done the highest honour to the University,
not only by the excellence of their own work, but
by the high standard which their example has set
to their successors.
Of the other departments of the School there is
little to record. The three King's Professors were
supposed to lecture in the Theory of Medicine, the
Institutes of Medicine, and in Materia Medica and
Pharmacy, but in view of the evidence given
before the Parliamentary Committees of 1756 and
1783, it is doubtful if they ever did.
Francis Hutcheson had on July 12, 1760, suc-
ceeded to the Lectureship in Chemistry left vacant
by the death of William Stephens. It is note-
worthy that at this election the Board made an
appointment tenable for seven years, a period
which was subsequently adopted by Act of Par-
liament, and still limits the tenure of most of
the chairs in the Medical School. This Francis
Hutcheson was the son of the Francis Hutcheson
who had been appointed Professor of Moral Philo-
sophy in the University of Glasgow on December 19,
1729. The future chemist was educated in Glas-
gow University, and graduated M.A. there in 1744,
and M.D. in 1759. 1 We know little of Hutcheson
from the time he took his M.A. in Glasgow
till he was admitted Licentiate of the College of
Physicians in January 1754, and was appointed
Physician to the Meath Hospital. In 1755 he
1 Scott's Hutcheson, p. 143.
144 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN
published in Glasgow two volumes of his father's
work on Moral Philosophy. On his appointment
to the Chair of Chemistry, Hutcheson seems to
have devoted considerable energy to the discharge
of his duties, and on November 22, 1761, the
Board granted him the degree of Doctor in Physic.
In the Public Gazetteer, published in Dublin by
W. Sleater on Monday, October 13, 1761, there
appears the following advertisement :
' Trinity College. General Lectures in Chemistry,
Shewing its Connection with Natural Philosophy and
Arts, will begin at the Laboratory on Monday the i6th
of November, at one o'Clock and be continued every day
Saturday and Sunday excepted. The Doors will be open
to all Gentlemen who choose to attend. After these are
finished which will be before Monday the yth of December,
at the same Place will begin a Private Course of Experi-
mental Chemistry, consisting of about Sixty Lectures, in
which its Principles and Operations will be practically
applied to Arts, Manufactures, Agriculture, and especially
to Pharmacy and Medicine. Price Three Guineas.
' By Francis Hutcheson M.D. Prelector of Chemistry
in the University. Gentlemen who propose to attend
the Private Course are expected to give in their names
before the Public Lectures begin.'
On November 3, 1767, Hutcheson resigned his
post in Trinity College, having just completed
his seven years' service in the Chair, and having on
the day before been elected a Fellow of the College
of Physicians. In 1777, and again in 1780, he
was elected President of the College. He lived
for many years in 32 Stafford Street. He married
a Miss Sarah Card, by whom he had one son,
Francis, and three daughters. His connexion with
PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 145
the Meath Hospital as Physician only lasted about
a year, but he was for some time Physician
to the Lock Hospital. He died in August 1784.
Hutcheson has frequently been confused with a
Francis Hutchinson, the son of the Rev. Samuel
Hutchinson, of Co. Down, who graduated B.A.
in Trinity College in 1745 and M.A. in I748. 1
On the resignation of Hutcheson, James Span
was elected to the Chair of Chemistry. He had
on the 1 2th of February, 1763, been granted his
degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Physic and
elected Lecturer in Botany as successor to William
Clements. Span affords the only example of an
individual holding at the same time two of the
teaching chairs in the Medical School, a condition
of things which was strictly forbidden by sub-
sequent Acts of Parliament. Span had been
elected a scholar in 1752, and had taken his B.A.
degree in the spring of 1754. He was admitted a
Licentiate of the College of Physicians in September
1768, and elected Fellow in the following May. He
appears to have been popular with his colleagues in
the profession, if one may judge by the following
lines, published shortly after his death by Gilborne : 2
James Span shakes off the mortuary Gloom,
His bright endowments still retain their Bloom ;
On Earth lamented, and admir'd above,
His lovely Virtues made him dear to Jove :
Daisies and Roses spring where'er He treads,
Tulips and Lillies rear their drooping heads ;
Nor do Plants sensitive his Touch avoid,
Who for Man's good had all his Thoughts employ'd.
1 Orrasby, p. 90. * Gilborne, Med. Rev., Hue 51.
146 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN
Span died in 1773, and his chairs were filled by
the appointment on September 25, 1773, of James
Thornton as Professor of Chemistry and of Edward
Hill as Professor of Botany.
James Thornton had entered Trinity College as
early as 1735, and graduated B.A. in 1739, taking
his M.B. in 1748, and his M.D. in 1773. On
January 17, 1774, he was admitted a Licentiate of
the College of Physicians, and the same day was
elected a Fellow. He resigned his Fellowship on
September 20, 1781, and died two years later in
1783. In connexion with the appointment of
Thornton, Edward Hill, writing of Perceval in
1805, makes the following statement : *
' The Lecturership of Chemistry in Trinity College
having become vacant on the decease of Dr. James Span
in the year 1773, Doctor James Thornton, educated, no
man knew where, and coming, no man knew from whence,
presented himself as a candidate for that place ; Although
he was neither a man of learning, nor a Chymist, his
deficiency in those points constituted no impediment to
his solicitation, and he was elected. He performed the
duties of his appointment to the utmost of his abilities,
and in undisturbed tranquillity, till the time of this
Gentleman's return from his studies abroad, when he
immediately commenced his artful practices upon the
Members of the Board, who, on the ^oth of November in the
year 1782, granted to Doctor Perceval the use of the Chemical
Elaboratory, with the privilege of giving Lectures there.
This Act of unprecedented supersession so shook the mind
of the weak, irascible hypochondriac, that, on the iyth
of the following May, he made his quietus, not with a
bodkin, but with a copious dose of Opium.'
1 Hill's Address (2), p. 38.
PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 147
He further suggests that ' Humanity created
a powerful motive ' to Thornton's election, ' for
the Salary of that Lecturership supplied the chief
support of his life, as he drew no emolument for
the exercise of his medical Profession.'
Barrett refers to this unfortunate incident as
follows : l
' I perfectly remember the report of the College in 1783
of quarrelling between Dr Thornton and Dr Perceval
(whose friend Mr Hall had probably engaged in his
favour some members of the Board) and I have learned
from Dr Hill that it is perfectly well understood in the
College of Physicians that Dr Thornton upon Dr Perceval
informing him he should be displaced (and note Dr Thorn-
ton was a man of no business, but depended chiefly for
support on his place in College) went and purchased an
ounce of the tincture of opium which he drank in whey
and was found dead in his bed next morning. He told
his servant not to be in a hurry to waken him next
morning, for that he would sleep long enough.'
We must remember, however, that at this time
Hill was carrying on a bitter personal controversy
with Perceval. For some time before his death
Thornton seems to have been unable to attend to
his lectures, and the resolution of the Board
referred to by Hill was probably in consequence
of this fact. The resolution of the Board was 2
' That Mr. Robert Perceval, Physician, shall on the first
opportunity be elected Lecturer in Chymistry and that in
the mean time he shall have permission to read lectures
in that Science in the College, and to make use of the
1 Barrett, Book, p. 92. * Reg., vol. iv, p. 480.
148 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN
In accordance with this resolution, on May 17
following, Robert Perceval was elected Lecturer
in Chemistry, and directed to ' furnish the Labora-
tory with such requisites as he shall find necessary
for the conduct of his lectures for this year, at the
expence of the College V
In the following November the Bursar was
directed to provide cases for the chemical appara-
tus, the ores and other minerals which had been
presented to the College by Perceval. The Bursar
was also to inform Dr. Perceval ' that the Board
will agreeably to his desire as the circumstances
of the College may permit, add from time to time
to that collection, and give such other further aid
to his very laudable endeavours to place that
Lecture on a respectable footing '. 2
Like Perceval, Hill too was an energetic Lec-
turer, and on I2th March, 1774, the Board granted
him the use of the Printing-house for five years.
We are not told for what purpose this was given,
but doubtless it was to relieve the overcrowding in
the old Anatomy house. It was probably at Hill's
instigation that the Provost was requested ' to
look out for a piece of ground proper and con-
venient for a Botany Garden '. The establishment
of such a garden was, as we shall see later,
a project very near the heart of Dr. Hill.
1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 492. Ibid., p. 505.
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT
Ax the meeting of the Board of Trinity College,
on May 6, 1783, the following letter from the
College of Physicians was read : *
' The College of Physicians desirous of concerting with
the members of the University a plan conducive to the
advancement of Science and the mutual Benefit of both
Bodies have appointed their President Dr. Hill and
Dr. Hutcheson for the purpose of conferring on that
Subject with such members of the Board as they shall
appoint, and request that the Board may appoint such
Time and Place for the said Conference as to them shall
In reply to this letter the Board appointed
Dr. Wilson and Dr. Ussher to meet the College
of Physicians. Thomas Wilson had been elected
a Fellow in 1753, and co-opted a Senior Fellow
fourteen years later. He was a Doctor of Divinity,
and had been Professor of Natural Philosophy from
1769. Henry Ussher had been a Fellow since 1764,
and had just been elected Professor of Astronomy
on the foundation of Provost Andrews.
Various circumstances were at this time urging
the Colleges to set their school in order. Dr. Bar-
bor, the King's Professor of Materia Medica and
Pharmacy, had died on the I3th of March of this
J Reg., vol. iv, p. 490.
150 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT
year, and therefore, if change in the regulations
of the School were admissible, the time was
opportune. The rents of Sir Patrick Dun's estate
had increased to over 900 a year, and it was
felt that the trust was capable of supporting
further Professorships, and thus of increasing the
efficiency of the School. The Surgeons of Dublin,
too, had on the 3rd May, 1781, petitioned for a
Charter and for the constitution of a College. This
petition was not granted until early in 1784, when
the College of Surgeons was founded. Although
there does not appear at first to have been any
conflict of interests between the old and the
new Colleges, yet it behoved the old to be in as
efficient a state as possible to meet the new.
We have no record of any direct report from
the Committee of Conference, but on November 4,
1783, the College of Physicians adopted the form of
a petition to be presented to Parliament ' relative
to a Change in the establishment of Sir Patrick
Dun's Professorship '. This petition set forth the
necessity of establishing a Complete School of
Physic in this kingdom, and urged the importance
of adding clinical lectures to those already given
in the School. The petition was presented to the
Irish House of Commons on November 20, 1783,
and referred to ' a Committee appointed to inquire
what may be the most effectual means for estab-
lishing a Complete School of Physic in this king-
dom '.* This Committee, of which the Right Hon.
John Hely Hutchinson, Provost of Trinity College
1 House of Commons Journals, vol. xxi, p. 329.
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 151
and Secretary of State, was Chairman, met on
Monday, December I, and ordered the proper
officers forthwith to lay before them the Will of
the late Sir Patrick Dun, and also the original
deed of 1704, in which he proposed 'to establish
two professorships of Physic in Dublin. And also
that the proper officer do forthwith lay before
them the Will of the late Doctor Steevens '.*
The Committee adjourned, and at a meeting
the following week Sir Patrick's will and deed were
read. Dr. Cleghorn was examined, and stated
that he had not heard of the King's Professors
' being useful except that some Gen 8 , exerted their
Industry and Ability in order to answer at the
examinations '. He was of opinion that the plan
was not complete enough, as it did not found
degrees. The only College of Physicians which
he knew of that gave degrees without personal
examination and the presence of the candidates
was St. Andrews, and there it was only done to
prevent students going abroad. In his opinion,
the only way to keep students at home was to
give them their degrees ' upon as easy terms, and
in as short a time ' as they could get them else-
where. Access to a good library was very neces-
sary to students of Physic, and this advantage
the students of Trinity College had. He was of
opinion that in Trinity College there were better
facilities for the study and teaching of Medicine
than anywhere else in Dublin, and it was to the
honour of the University to have a good medical
1 Committee Books, House oj Commons.
152 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT
school. It was impossible to have a really good
school, unconnected with a university, in that it
would be impossible for such a school to confer
degrees. On the whole he was of opinion that if
the existing Professors ' exert themselves and you
set about it in earnest you will soon have a good
school '. Provided proper persons were elected to
the Chairs and those persons did their duty, and
there was proper control to see that they did so,
medical teaching in the University would prosper.
At this meeting Dr. Ussher laid before the Com-
mittee a plan for a school of physic, which, how-
ever, is not given in the report. From this plan
it appeared that the University was prepared to
support as hitherto their own Professors at an
annual cost of 280, and the suggestion was made
that the election to the chairs should be for ten
years ; this Cleghorn approved, with the proviso
that, at the end of their term of office, the Pro-
fessors might be re-elected.
At the next meeting, on the I2th December,
Dr. Cullen presented on behalf of the College of
Physicians some observations on the plan sug-
gested by Dr. Ussher. He stated that from his
experience in Edinburgh the proportion of students
who desired degrees to those who did not was
about 24 to 300. He would like to see some such
union between the University and the College as
existed in Edinburgh between the University and
the Faculty. In Edinburgh the Faculty of Medi-
cine was part of the University, and the Faculty
could only confer degrees through the University.
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 153
The College of Physicians of Edinburgh did not
make part of the University, ' but as the faculty
of medicine they did.' Further, in Edinburgh
they did not insist on the Arts degree as essential
to a medical degree, but the medical students
had to be matriculated in the University. He
described the mode of election of the Professors in
Edinburgh, which he appeared to think better than
the Dublin plan of examination. He then went
on to speak of the clinical lectures which had
formerly been given in the Royal Infirmary, but
latterly were given by the Professors twice a week
in their own apartments. The Professors, how-
ever, visited the wards every day. Clinical lectures
in Surgery were not given in Edinburgh, though
he thought they would be useful. In Edinburgh
' Clinical lectures are considered the most valuable
part of the institution '. The Hospital for Incur-
ables, or Mercer's Hospital, would, in his opinion,
be suitable for clinical teaching. He insisted on
the meaning of the word ' clinical ', which indi-
cated that the lectures were originally given at
the bedside. Dr. Harvey was examined, and
recommended Steevens' Hospital for clinical teach-
ing, provided the distance were not too great.
He, as a medical officer of that institution, would
not have any objection to such a plan, and did
not think it would be attended with any great
expense. Dr. Hill, who was also examined, in-
sisted on the necessity of a ' Botany Garden ',
which, to ' do honour to the institution ', should
be of at least five acres in extent.
154 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT
On the i6th of December the Committee again
met and the Rev. Dr. Kearney submitted the
reply of the Board of Trinity College to the objec-
tions raised against their scheme by the College
of Physicians. It was the opinion of the Board
that the idea of the College of Physicians could
not be carried out without infringing the rights of
the University under her Charters. Dr. Hutche-
son, described in the report as ' Doc Hutch ', also
gave evidence, and stated that in his opinion the
expense of clinical lectures would not be great if
they were given in an existing hospital. The
utilization of the Hospital for Incurables, how-
ever, would involve considerable expense, ' there
being nothing there except the bare walls.' Dr.
Dabzac was examined, and produced the Registers
of the University to show the history of medical
teaching there. Such teaching appeared to him
to date from about 1661.
This seems to have been all the evidence that the
Committee heard, and on Wednesday, March 3,
1784, there is the note ' ordered to report '. In con-
sequence of this report the Act of 1785, * drafted
by Hely Hutchinson, 2 was passed by the Irish
This Act set out that the President and Fellows
of the College of Physicians, with the consent of
Sir Nathaniel Barry and Henry Quin, Esq., the
two living King's Professors, had petitioned the
House of Commons in connexion with the Act of
Parliament passed in 1741. The petitioners stated
1 25 George III, cap. xlii. * Perceval's Account.
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 155
that difficulties had arisen in carrying out the
provisions of that Act owing to the way it was
framed. They were anxious, therefore, that the
Act should be amended, and in order to establish
a Complete School of Physic in Ireland it had
seemed wise to appoint Professors to teach in the
following subjects : Anatomy, Surgery, Institutes
and Practice of Medicine, together with clinical
lectures, Chemistry, Materia Medica, Botany,
Natural History, and Pharmacy. Further, it
seemed wise to alter the former mode of election
of the Professors and also the times and manner
of lecturing. In view of the necessity for these
changes, and in order that the matter might be
laid before Parliament, the examinators had not
proceeded to an election to fill the place rendered
vacant by the death on March 13, 1783, of
Constantine Barbor, who had held the King's
Professorship of Materia Medica and Pharmacy.
The Act proceeded to state that furthermore Sir
Nathaniel Barry, late King's Professor of Surgery
and Midwifery, was now dead, and the estate of
Sir Patrick Dun had amounted to an annual sum
of 926. This income from the Dun Estate was
sufficient to pay the salaries of a larger number
of Professors than formerly. In view of all these
circumstances Parliament decided to enact the
following regulations in place of those contained
in the Act of 1741 :
That Professors, to be called King's Professors
of the City of Dublin on the foundation of Sir
Patrick Dun, be appointed in the following sub-
156 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT
jects : Institutes of Medicine, Practice of Medicine,
Materia Medica and Pharmacy, and Natural His-
tory. Further, if at any time it seemed to
the President and Fellows of the College that the
estate could support another Professorship, they
might then add to these Professorships one of
Midwifery. The President and Fellows might at
any time direct that more than one of these sub-
jects be taught by the same Professor, but if this
were done the Professor who was directed to do
so must not receive any greater salary than the
yearly sum of 100. The existing King's Pro-
fessor, Henry Quin, was to continue for life to
receive that share of the estate which would
have come to him had the other two Professors
continued to live and the Act not been passed.
The new Professors during the life of Henry Quin
were to have as remuneration ' a ratable distribu-
tion among them of that part and proportion of
the Estate of the late Sir Patrick Dun to which
the said Constantine Barbor, deceased, late Pro-
fessor of Pharmacy and Materia Medica, and the
said Sir Nathaniel Barry, late Professor of Surgery
and Midwifery, under the said Act, were respec-
tively during their lives entitled '. On the death
of Quin, or so soon as the profits of the estate
applicable to the Professorship were sufficient for
the purpose, ' then every such Professor shall
receive a proportionable increase of salary, not
exceeding in the whole to any one person, whether
he shall hold one or more professorship, or pro-
fessorships, the yearly sum of one hundred pounds.'
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 157
As soon as there should be any surplus ' after
paying the said yearly salaries ', that surplus was
to be applied to the support of clinical lectures
and to the purchase of medical books by the
President and Fellows, with the approbation of
the Chancellor, or Vice-Chancellor, of Trinity
College, the Archbishop, the Provost, and the
Professor of Physic of Trinity College, or any three
The University Lecturers in Anatomy and
Surgery, Chemistry, and Botany were to be called
Professors and to be paid by the University, the
existing Lecturers being constituted Professors
and continued in office under their existing tenure,
that is to say, during good behaviour. The future
University Professors were to be elected in the
usual manner by the Provost and Senior Fellows.
As regards the mode of election of the King's
Professors, the President and Fellows of the
College of Physicians were, on the day imme-
diately preceding the holding of an election, to
elect by ballot three of themselves, and these
three persons so elected, together with the Provost
and the Professor of Physic, were to elect the
King's Professors after such previous examination
as the electors, or the majority of them, should
decide on. If there were an equality of voices
among the electors, then the senior Doctor among
the three Fellows elected by the College of Physi-
cians was to have the casting voice. The three
electors chosen by the College of Physicians were
to remain in office till ' the day next preceding
158 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT
the day of the next election ', and if any vacancy
occurred during this time it was to be filled by
the President and Fellows by ballot. No elector
was to be eligible for election as a King's Pro-
If a vacancy occurred either among the King's
Professors, or the University Professors, unless it
was thought proper to continue the same Pro-
fessor, three months' notice of the vacancy was
to be given in the London and Dublin Gazettes,
such notice to be signed by the Registrars of the
two Colleges. This notice was to set forth the
vacancy, the emoluments of the chair, the time
and place of the election, and to desire all candi-
dates to send in their names, and to state where
they were educated, in what university they had
taken their medical degrees, and where they had
practised. This information was to be laid before
the President and Fellows of the College of Physi-
cians by their Registrar, and before the Provost
and Senior Fellows of Trinity College by the
Registrar of that body, in order to enable inquiry
to be made as to the merits of the candidates.
The Professorships were to be open to Protestants
of all nations, provided they had taken medical
degrees, or received a licence to practise from the
College of Physicians, in consequence of a testi-
monium under the seal of Trinity College. The
Act proceeded to give the form of oath to be
taken by the electors both of the King's Pro-
fessors and of the University Professors, the
Provost being directed to administer the oath to
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 159
the former electors and the President of the College
of Physicians to the latter. The form of oath to
be taken by the elected Professors was also set
forth. All the Professorships were to become
vacant at the end of every seventh year from the
date of election, but a Professor might be re-
The President and Fellows of the College of
Physicians were to make regulations governing
the King's Professors, and the Provost and Senior
Fellows were to do so for the University Pro-
fessors, and each body was to communicate these
regulations to the other. If there was a disagree-
ment about such regulations, either College could
appeal to the visitors of the other College, who
were to decide the matter.
If any of the Professors neglected their duties,
they were to be admonished, or deprived of their
office by the electors, in the case of the University
Professors by the Provost and Senior Fellows, and
in the case of the King's Professors by the electors
nominated according to the Act. The Professors,
however, had the right of appeal to the visitors
of their respective Colleges. If either College were
dissatisfied with the conduct of the Professors of
the other College, and the matter could not be
adjusted between them, the dispute was to be
decided by the visitors of the College by which
the Professors had been elected.
The lectures of each Professor were to begin on
the first Monday in November and to continue
till the end of April, each Professor to lecture four
160 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT
days a week. In the case of Botany, the lectures
were to begin on the second Monday in May and
to continue till the end of July, on four days in
each week, unless it were otherwise ordered by
the Provost and Senior Fellows. Unless specially
directed to the contrary by their respective Col-
leges, the Professors were to lecture in the English
language, and rooms were to be provided by
Trinity College for the lectures.
The fees charged for the lectures were to be
regulated by the respective Colleges, and every
student of Physic was to be matriculated in the
University of Dublin by having his name entered
in a book kept for that purpose, for which entry
he had to pay five shillings, but no student was to
be compelled to have a tutor, or answer examina-
tions, or attend any of the academical duties of
With regard to the Clinical Lectures, 'which
are highly necessary for the success of a School
of Physic/ they were to be given alternately by
the several Professors as directed by their respec-
tive Colleges, and until a Clinical Hospital could
be provided for the purpose the President and
Fellows of the College of Physicians were autho-
rized to appoint their lectures to be given ' in
such Hospital, or Hospitals, in the City of Dublin as
shall be found most convenient for that purpose'.
One-third of the profits of Dun's estate from
the time of the death of Dr. Barbor to the time
of the appointing of the new Professors was to be
applied to the support of the clinical lectures.
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 161
On the 5th December, 1785, the President and
Fellows of the College of Physicians chose by
ballot from among themselves Arthur Saunders,
Francis Hopkins, and Patrick Plunket as electors
for the King's Professorships under the new Act.
The elections were appointed to be held the next
day and the following candidates applied for the
different Chairs :
Institutes of Medicine : Stephen Dickson.
John William Boyton.
Practice of Medicine : Richard Harris.
John Charles Fleury.
Materia Medica : Edmund Cullen.
When the electors met they decided that proper
notice, such as was required by the Act, had not
been given, and consequently they adjourned till
the 2ist of March, and ordered an advertisement
to be issued. The College on the 2oth of March
appointed Charles Quin an elector instead of
Hopkins, and the next day the examination of
the candidates took place at the Provost's House.
The candidates who presented themselves, with
the exception of Fleury, whose place was taken
by Francis Hopkins, were the same as before, and
they were submitted to certain examinations by
the Provost, the Professor of Physic, and the three
College electors. As the result of this examination
the electors recommended Dr. Dickson as Professor
of the Institutes of Medicine, Dr. Brereton as Pro-
fessor of the Practice of Medicine, and Dr. Cullen
as Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy.
162 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT
The electors met at the palace of the Archbishop
of Dublin on April 5, and the candidates recom-
mended by the electors were declared elected.
The staff of the School, as reconstituted under
the Act of 1785, was as follows :
Medicus ..... Vacant.
Professor of Physic . . . Edward Hill.
Professor of Anatomy . . . George Cleghorn.
Assistant ..... James Cleghorn.
Professor of Botany . . . Edward Hill.
Professor of Chemistry . . . Robert Perceval.
Institutes of Medicine . . . Stephen Dickson.
Practice of Medicine . . . Edward Brereton.
Materia Medica and Pharmacy . Edmund Cullen.
Of the King's Professors Stephen Dickson had
graduated M.D. in Edinburgh in September 1783,
reading a thesis De Somno. He was admitted
a Licentiate and elected a Fellow of the College
of Physicians on June 14, 1784. Before going to
Edinburgh he had graduated B.A. in Trinity
College in the Summer of 1781, but did not take
his M.B. or M.D. there till 1793. He proceeded
to the degree of M.A. in 1800. On the death of
Brereton in 1792, Dickson succeeded to the Pro-
fessorship of the Practice of Medicine, having pre-
viously resigned his other Chair ; on May 27, 1799,
he was deprived of his Fellowship of the College of
Physicians for having ' been absent from the meet-
ings of the College for two years without leave '.
Edward Brereton had graduated B.A. in Trinity
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 163
College in 1774, and then, like Dickson, gone to
study in Edinburgh. There he graduated M.D.
in September 1778, reading a thesis De Scorbuto.
He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of
Physicians on the loth November, 1783, and
elected a Fellow a fortnight later. Brereton died
five years after his appointment as King's Pro-
fessor on the loth December, 1791. * Both Brere-
ton and Dickson were Physicians to the Dublin
General Dispensary, which was started about 1785
in the old Post Office yard, Temple Bar.
Edmund Cullen, the Professor of Materia Medica
and Pharmacy, was elected a Scholar of Trinity
College in 1770, and graduated B.A. two years
later. He studied for some time in Edinburgh,
and graduated M.D. there in June 1781, reading
a thesis De acre et imperio eius in corpore humano.
In the summer of 1793 he graduated M.B. and
M.D. in Dublin, having been admitted a Licentiate
and elected a Fellow of the College of Physicians
on the 28th July, 1782 ; he was chosen President
in the years 1787, 1794, and 1799. In February
1786 he was elected Physician to the Meath
Hospital, but he resigned some two years later. 2
At one time he lived in Exchequer Street, and after-
wards in South King Street, and he died in 1804.
In 1786 he published in Dublin a translation of the
Physical and Chemical Essays of Baron Bergman. 3
The University Professors, Edward Hill and
Robert Perceval, were both destined to play a
1 Cameron, Hist., p. 325. * Onnsby, p. 101.
3 Cameron, Hist., p. 45.
164 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT
very important part in the subsequent history of
Edward Hill, 1 the son of Thomas Hill of Bally-
poreen in the County Tipperary, was born on the
I4th May, 1741. His father died while Edward
was still a boy, and the family then moved to
the neighbourhood of Cashel, where for a time he
attended school. He then went as a boarder to
the Diocesan School of Clonmel, where the Rev.
Mr. Harwood was Master. In 1760 he entered
Trinity College and began a brilliant undergraduate
career, being elected a Scholar in 1763, and gradu-
ating B.A. in the spring of 1765. It is stated that
Hill might easily have obtained a Fellowship had
he wished to do so. He was noted for his beauti-
ful writing, and he was asked by the Board to
write out the testimonium of the Duke of Bedford.
For this on January 7, 1766, the Board voted him
five guineas. In the summer of 1771 Hill took
his M.B. degree, the Board excusing him ' his
commencement fees '. In 1773 he graduated M.D.
and was admitted a Licentiate and elected a Fellow
of the College of Physicians on November 6, 1775.
In 1773 we have seen that he was appointed
Lecturer in Botany, and the following year he
was given the use of the printing house for five
years, presumably in connexion with his botanical
lectures. Ten years later, in 1784, he ' resigned
the use of the Printing House & delivered up the
Key ', 2 the head porter being ordered to take
possession of it. In 1781 he succeeded William
1 Wills, Irishmen, vol. vi, p. 469. * Reg., vol. v, p. 19.
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 165
Clements as Professor of Physic, which office he
held till his death, a period of forty-nine years.
In 1761, before he had taken his degree in Medi-
cine, Hill began the task of editing Milton's
Paradise Lost. This task he never completed,
but the manuscript, which contained a complete
verbal index and a critical examination of the
French translations, is still preserved in the College
Library. 1 In 1814 Hill designed and made a model
of an Ionic temple, which he submitted to the
Committee for erecting a testimonial to the Duke
of Wellington. It was proposed that this temple
should be erected in Stephen's Green, but the
Committee did not accept the design. Hill was
elected President of the College of Physicians in
1782, 1789, 1795, 1801, 1808, and 1813. In 1800
he resigned his Professorship of Botany, as by the
School of Physic Act, passed that year, he was
incapacitated from holding two Professorships,
but he continued, as we have said, Professor of
Physic till his death on the 3ist October, 1830.
Robert Perceval was the youngest son of William
Perceval, who was a descendant of Sir Philip Per-
ceval, and consequently a connexion of the Earls
of Egmont. 2 He was born in Dublin on the 30th
September, 1756, and entered Trinity College in
1772, graduating B.A. in the spring of 1777. After
this he went, like so many other Irish students of
the time, to Edinburgh to study medicine, and
graduated M.D. there on the 24th June, 1780.
For the M.D. he read a thesis De corde, which
1 Abbot, MSS. Cat., p. 104. * Vide D. N. B., vol. xv, p. 820.
166 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT
was subsequently published. Having taken his
degree he travelled on the Continent, returning
to Dublin in 1782, where he was, as we have seen,
on November 30, granted leave to lecture in, and
make use of the Chemical Laboratory in Trinity
College. In May following, on the death of
Thornton, he was elected Lecturer in Chemistry,
and on the 24th of November was admitted a
Licentiate and elected a Fellow of the College of
Physicians. In 1785 he became Professor of
Chemistry, the University Lecturers in that year
being given the title of Professors by Act of
Parliament. He resigned this professorship in
February 1808. In 1785 he was associated with
Cleghorn and others in the foundation of the Royal
Irish Academy, and is mentioned in the Charter.
For many years he acted as Secretary to the
Academy, and contributed to its Proceedings some
papers on subjects connected with Chemistry. He
was also, at this time, one of the founders of the
Dublin General Dispensary in Temple Bar, where
he acted as one of the Physicians. In the summer
of 1793 he commenced M.B. and M.D. in Trinity
College, and on December 8, 1796, was elected
a Governor of Steevens's Hospital. He attended
regularly the meetings of the Board of this Hospital
till his resignation in June 1832. It was mainly
due to his influence that the Act of 1785 was
repealed by the passing of the School of Physic
Act of 1800, and his action in that matter gained
for him the censure of the College of Physicians.
He was elected President of the College on the
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 167
4th November, 1799, but had to resign both this
and his Fellowship in consequence of a clause in
the School of Physic Act, of 1800, forbidding Pro-
fessors to hold the Fellowship. He was elected
an Honorary Fellow on St. Luke's Day, 1800.
Perceval took an active part in the work of the
Prison Discipline Society, and he has been referred
to as the ' Irish Howard '. In 1819 he was elected
Physician-General to the Forces in Ireland, but
he resigned the following year. In his later years
he devoted himself to the study of Theology, and
in 1821 he published ' An Essay to establish the
Divinity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ,
on Scripture Grounds exclusively : With a Review
of the Doctrine of the Trinity as it was held in
the Earlier Ages of the Church '. l In this work
he seems to follow the doctrines of Adam Clarke,
and he maintains that he has proved by Scripture
texts that Christ, though divine, is distinct from
God who had delegated to him his divine attri-
butes. In 1786 Perceval married Anne, daughter
of W. Brereton of Rathgilbert, and he died of a
lingering illness on the 3rd March, 1839. Though
a Physician in considerable practice for many
years, Perceval did not, so far as we are aware,
publish any medical work, and his papers on
Chemistry in the Transactions of the Royal Irish
Academy do not add much lustre to his name.
He will be remembered chiefly as being the prin-
cipal mover in the passing of the School of Physic
Act of 1800.
1 Dublin, 1821, 8vo., pp. 302.
CLOSING YEARS OF THE EIGHTEENTH
THE passing of the School of Physic Act, of 1785,
should have placed the School on a satisfactory
basis. A number of well-paid professional Chairs
were established, and facilities had been granted
for the development of medical teaching in a way
never before possible in Dublin. The event, how-
ever, was the opposite of what had been expected,
and during the last decade of the eighteenth cen-
tury the School reached almost the lowest level in
its history. The establishment of clinical lectures
proved an obstacle which the united wisdom of
the Colleges was unable to overcome, and the effort
to solve this difficulty resulted in open rupture
among the Professors.
The College of Physicians loyally endeavoured
to carry out the provisions of the Act of Parlia-
ment, and, as we have seen, on the 5th of April,
1786, the three King's Professors were appointed.
The provision of a place and material for the
clinical teaching was not, however, such an easy
matter. The funds at the disposal of the College
must have been considerable, for, although the
accounts of the estate were not, before 1786, kept
separately from the College accounts, and con-
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 169
sequently it is not possible to say what was the
exact sum in the hands of the College, yet we can
make a rough estimate of it. One-third of the
profits of the estate from the time of Barbor's
death till the passing of the Act should have
amounted to about 600, and after deducting
from the income the salaries of the new King's
Professors, the salary of Dr. Quin, and the neces-
sary charges on the estate, there should have been,
as well as this capital sum, at least 200 a year
available for the maintenance of clinical teaching.
This sum, though considerable, was utterly in-
adequate to warrant the College embarking in any
extensive project of hospital building.
Under these circumstances the College ap-
proached the Governors of Mercer's Hospital with
a request that some of the beds in that institution
should be set apart for the purpose of clinical
teaching, and the proposals were received by the
hospital authorities in a most friendly manner.
Dr. Hill and Dr. Hopkins were then the Physicians
of Mercer's Hospital. Hopkins had been an un-
successful candidate for the King's Professorship
of the Practice of Medicine, and Hill tells us that *
' in a fit of the spleen he frustrated the negotia-
tions '. In this difficulty the College, in November
1787, rented a small house in Clarendon Street
and fitted it up with seventeen beds which were
to be kept open for patients during the six months
of the medical session. In this house the King's
Professors attended, and ' publicly delivered re-
1 Hill, Address (i), p. 27.
170 CLOSING YEARS OF THE
ports of the patients cases to the students, and
afterwards adjourned to the medical lecture room
in Trinity College in order that they might more
particularly treat of the several disorders of the
patients '. The King's Professors in doing so
followed the example of the principal medical
schools elsewhere established.
In November 1789 the King's Professors sub-
mitted a memorial to the College of Physicians
in which they stated that they had each delivered
a course of clinical lectures, but that the Uni-
versity Professors had as yet given none, and
asked that they might not be directed to lecture
again till the University Professors should have
done so. To this the College agreed and directed
a copy of the memorial to be sent to the Board.
This memorial was submitted to the Board at
their meeting on November 14, I78Q, 1 and they
at once directed that a copy of it should be sent
to each of the University Professors, with a request
that they would attend the Board on the following
Saturday to consider the matter. The Registrar
was also directed to request the attendance of
the King's Professors. On the 2ist November,
Dr. Hill and Dr. Perceval attended ; ' the atten-
dance of ye Professor of Anatomy Dr. Cleghorn
was not expected, he being in the country and in
a very ill state of health.' The King's Professors
declined to attend the meeting. Dr. Hill stated
that the house in Clarendon Street had been taken
' without his concurrence ' and ' he declined enter-
1 Reg,, vol. v, p. 79.
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 171
ing into any engagement to give clinical lectures
on account of his state of health not permitting
his attendance in an Hospital '. Dr. Perceval said
that he considered the Hospital as quite unsuitable
for lectures, but he would engage to deliver lectures
' health permitting, however inconvenient or unfit
for that purpose the afore mentioned small house
in Clarendon Street were, provided the Board
would agree to a certain Regulation of Fees
proposed by him, and that they would give
their countenance and protection to the found-
ing of an hospital or perpetual establishment
fit and convenient for the purpose of clinical
Perceval further stated that if the Board did
not agree to these conditions, but made an order
directing him to lecture, then he would reserve
his right to give what answer seemed good to
him. As a result of this meeting the Board sub-
mitted a case to Counsel for an opinion as to
whether they had power to direct the University
Professors to give Clinical Lectures under the
existing conditions. On December 19, Counsel's
opinion was read to the Board and the Registrar
was directed to inform the College of Physicians
that the Provost and Senior Fellows were most
desirous to direct the University Professors to
give clinical lectures, but that they were advised
by Counsel that they could not do so till the
College of Physicians had appointed a hospital in
the city of Dublin where such lectures were to be
given. The Registrar was to state further that
i;2 CLOSING YEARS OF THE
lectures given in a room in the College could not
be considered as clinical. 1 To this letter the
College of Physicians replied that they had ap-
pointed the Hospital in Clarendon Street as a
convenient place for clinical lectures, and that the
King's Professors had lectured there regularly, but
if the Board required ' that the clinical lectures
as well as the reports of the patients cases should
be given in an Hospital the College of Physicians
will appoint and they do hereby appoint the sd.
Lectures in future to be given in the Hospital in
Clarendon Street '. 2
At the next meeting of the College of Physicians
on January 14, 1790, Dr. Perceval signified his
wish to give clinical lectures during that session
if the College would support a Hospital for the
purpose. The Treasurer was then asked to state
what funds there were available for the purpose,
and he stated that there were no funds in hand
at the time and no rents expected till June. There
was a small balance in the hands of the London
agents arising from the 1,200 invested in English
Funds, but necessary charges would absorb that
balance with the exception of 2 8s. g\d. The
College, however, decided that if ten students
would enter for the clinical lectures during the
remainder of the present winter, they would lend
out of the College private funds, to be repaid out
of the rents in June, enough money to support
the hospital for the winter.
This resolution the Board also submitted to
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 82 b. * Col. P. Minutes.
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 173
Counsel, and by his advice directed the following
letter to be sent to the College of Physicians :
' Sir, I am directed to acquaint you that the resolu-
tions of the College of Physicians of ye 28 Dec. last
having been by direction of the Board laid before the
College Counsel the Provost and Senr. Fellows are
advised that they have no authority to direct the Uni-
versity Professors to give Clinical Lectures in the house
call'd in the said Resolutions the Clinical Hospital in
Clarendon Street, the same not being an hospital within
the Letter or Spirit of the Act of the 25th of the King
for establishing a complete school of physic in this
Kingdom. However the Board desirous to manifest an
earnest wish to promote the success of the School of
Physic shall recommend to the University Professors to
give Clinical Lectures in said Hospital if they the said
Professors shall find it practicable so to do.
' Jan. gth, 1790. H. Dabzac, Reg. T. C. D.'
The promise contained in the latter part of the
letter was carried out, and the Registrar wrote in
the name of the Board to the Professors, earnestly
recommending them to give lectures in the house
in Clarendon Street if they possibly could. Dr.
Perceval agreed to begin a course of lectures on
February i, and asked the Board for directions
as to the fees to be charged to students. The
Board replied that the fees were to be three
guineas for each student, the Professor ' making
such rateable abatement for the part of the session
which has elapsed as he in his discretion shall
think fit V
The Hospital in Clarendon Street proved to be
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 86 b.
174 CLOSING YEARS OF THE
a most expensive undertaking. During the first
year, according to Hill, 1 the cost per head was at
the rate of iS each for the winter session, and
during the second year 20, and this greatly ex-
ceeded the expense incurred by other hospitals
in the city. The hospital, too, was admitted on
all sides to be unsatisfactory. This condition of
affairs being reported to the College of Physicians
on August 14, 1790, the lease of the house in
Clarendon Street was forthwith surrendered. On
July 9, 1791, the Board agreed to subscribe 150
towards building a hospital in which clinical
lectures might be given, and until that could be
done they offered to the College of Physicians, at
the yearly rent of 20, the house occupied by
Mrs. Coombs, widow of the late head porter. We
have no record of this offer being accepted, nor
have we been able to identify the house which
was occupied by Mrs. Coombs.
Perceval urged the College of Physicians either
to build or to buy a hospital for medical patients,
which could be kept open during the entire year,
and in which certain of the patients could be set
apart during the winter session for purposes of
clinical instruction. He stated that if this were
done subscriptions would almost certainly be
received from the public, the beds could be main-
tained at a cost of 19 a year and, with the public
subscriptions, the cost to Dun's estate would not
amount to more than 15 a year for each bed.
The College agreed to this plan, and the Provost,
1 Hill, Address (i), p. 28.
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 175
Hely Hutchinson, brought into Parliament a bill
which was passed into law in 1791, the thirty-first
year of the King, to enable this to be done.
This Act set forth that on account of the diffi-
culties which had arisen in the provision of a
suitable place for the delivery of clinical lectures
in any of the city hospitals, the annual surplus
of Sir Patrick Dun's estate applicable to this
purpose, which amounted to about 800 a year,
remained unapplied. Parliament consequently
decided that the President of the College of
Physicians might, till a suitable clinical hospital
was provided, take a house in the city of Dublin
and furnish it with all necessaries for the care of
patients, and that the house so provided was to
be used for clinical lectures, and in it the Pro-
fessors were to lecture alternately without any
further allowance than their salary as Professor
of 100 a year. The necessary expenses for this
house were to be paid by the President, with the
consent of the Trustees, out of the surplus of Dun's
estate. The President, with such consent, was
also to expend a part, not exceeding 1,000, of
the annual surplus towards building or purchasing
a suitable hospital for the purpose of clinical
lectures. The house taken by the President was
only to be used and paid for till it was possible
to provide a hospital for the purpose, and all
subscriptions to such a hospital were to be devoted
towards its erection and annual expenses.
In pursuance of this Act, Perceval secured a
lease of a house on the Blind Quay, now Lower
176 CLOSING YEARS OF THE
Exchange Street, for which a rent of 40 a year
was to be paid, provided 150 were spent on
repairs, and on July 9, 1792, the College of Physi-
cians ordered its seal to be affixed to the lease.
This house was fitted up with thirty-one beds at
a cost of 250, and the hospital was opened in
November of that year. 1 This venture, however,
did not prove more successful than the former.
During the first year 253 persons were admitted,
the average number of beds occupied being thirty
during the winter half year, and ten during the
summer, the total cost being 609 175. jd* During
the winter session of this year Dr. Perceval gave
clinical instruction in the hospital. During the
second year, 1793-4, things were worse ; there
were fewer patients, an average of twenty in the
winter and ten in the summer six months, yet
the expenditure rose to 722 for the year. During
this year there were no clinical lectures delivered
in the hospital at all, the defaulting Professor
being apparently James Cleghorn, 3 the new Pro-
fessor of Anatomy. During the year 1794-5 the
average number of patients maintained during the
winter session was reduced by the King's Pro-
fessors to fourteen, and the expenditure reached
29 a bed for the half year.
The King's Professors, in November 1794, put
forward a claim that they were entitled between
them to two-thirds of the profits of the Trust
Estate. It had always been considered that their
1 Irish Builder, June 15, 1897. * Dickson's Letter, p. 72.
1 Hill's Address (i), p. 32.
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 177
salary was to be 100 a year each and no more,
yet they now claimed, under section 5 of the
Act, a rateable distribution of the money which
was payable to Dr. Barbor and Sir Nathaniel
Barry from the time of the new appointments till
Dr. Quin's death. In this claim, which amounted
to 2,426 6s. 8^., they were supported by eminent
legal opinion, but the funds in the hands of the
College only amounted to 2,478 155. yd. Con-
sidering this state of the funds and the liability
of the College for the maintenance of the clinical
lectures and the library, the Professors agreed to
be contented with a sum of 1,664 *& s - ^d., pro-
vided the residue was applied to discharge the
other liabilities of the estate. The College agreed
to this proposal, but at the same time decided to
fee Counsel for an opinion as to ' how far an
amicable suit instituted by the Professors against
the College may prevent the opposition of ill-
advised or ill-disposed persons against the disposi-
tion of Sir Patrick Dun's funds ' . These resolutions
were ratified at the next meeting of the College,
but at the following meeting on January 10, 1795,
it was decided that these resolutions should not
take effect till the question had been ' determined
by a Court of Equity or by a reference, the award
to be made a rule of Court V At the same time
the College decided that all expenses incurred by
such proceedings should be defrayed out of the
funds of the trust estate, and that if a bill was
not filed by the Professors within a space of two
1 Col. P. Minutes.
178 CLOSING YEARS OF THE
months all the resolutions agreed to in respect of
the claim of the Professors on the estate were to
be rescinded. The case came to trial in the Court
of Chancery on May 8 and n, 1795, when the
* Lord Chancellor was pleased to dismiss the bill'.
An appeal was then taken to the House of Lords
and tried there on February 8, 1796. Mr. Bursten
and Mr. Saurin appeared for the King's Professors
and stated the case very fully. The respondents,
the President and Fellows of the College of Physi-
cians, were represented by Mr. Frankland and
Mr. W. C. Plunket, but they were not called to
speak, and the Lord Chancellor, addressing the
Law Lords, commented in very severe terms on
the action of the Professors. He said, ' In my
judgement this conduct on the part of the appel-
lants must be considered in a Court of Equity, as
a gross and shameless fraud : and whether the
letter of the Act will bear them out in the attempt,
or whether it will not, at any other tribunal, it
seems to me to be most perfectly clear that they
should be scouted from a Court of Equity with
shame and disgrace.' The Lords came to the
following judgement in the case, ' that the appeal
be dismissed and the decree therein complained
of affirmed and that the Appellants do pay to the
Respondents 100 for their costs in respect of the
In 1795 Dr. Perceval and Dr. James Cleghorn
laid a complaint before the Board of the conduct
of two of the King's Professors in regard to their
1 Ridgeway, vol. iii, p. 433.
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 179
management of the hospital during the previous
winter. The Board expressed dissatisfaction at
the conduct of the Professors, and submitted
the controversy to the College of Physicians for
judgement. The whole matter was considered
very fully by the College of Physicians at their
meeting on August 20. The documents were pro-
duced, both Perceval and Cleghorn were heard in
support of the complaint, and Dr. Cullen and
Dr. Dickson defended themselves from the charges.
The first complaint was that the Professors at no
time during the past winter supported thirty
patients in the hospital. To this the College
replied that great latitude ought to be allowed to
the attending Physician as to the number of
patients he deemed requisite for his lectures. The
second charge was that after the first of May
there were no patients admitted to the hospital,
with the result that the place fell into disrepair
and the students who had entered for a year's
hospital practice were deprived of the benefits of
such attendance. To this the College replied that
they could not, out of Dun's estate, support any
patients who were not to be used for clinical
instruction, and there were no funds arising from
public subscriptions for their support. With re-
gard to the students, the College received sufficient
evidence that they did not expect to attend the
hospital except during the medical session. The
third count in the charge was that the King's
Professors had not charged the students the three
guineas which was to be given to the hospital
i8o CLOSING YEARS OF THE
funds, but had admitted students who merely paid
the three guineas for clinical instruction. This
omission to demand any fee for the general fund
was greatly to the detriment of the hospital. The
College stated that in acting thus the Professors
were only carrying out instructions. The plan of
enforcing the payment of six guineas by each
student attending the hospital had been tried by
the College for one year and appeared to excite
much discontent among the students and occa-
sioned a ' considerable diminution in their number '.
On the whole, the College acquitted the Professors
of any neglect and considered that they had dis-
charged the duty they owed to their patients, their
pupils, and themselves with credit and advantage
to the general interests of the School. This reply
did not satisfy the Board, who, on the 5th of
November, referred the matter to the Visitors of
the College of Physicians. The Visitors, however,
did not consider the matter within their jurisdic-
tion, and it was dropped. These various disputes
seem to have wearied the Colleges of the subject
of clinical lectures, and we read little more about
them in the Registers for some time.
Two alternative plans were suggested by Per-
ceval for the establishment of a hospital. The
first was that a plot of ground in the rear of
Townsend Street should be taken for the purpose,
but this had to be abandoned on account of the
prohibitive ground-rent. The second was that the
Board should grant a site in the neighbourhood of
the east end of College Street, but this the Board re-
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 181
fused to do on account of the danger to the students
of the College from the proximity of an infectious
hospital. The hospital in Exchange Street was
rapidly falling into decay, and, in April 1799, was
finally abandoned, the College of Physicians having
in the previous November entered into negotia-
tions with the Governors of Mercer's Hospital for
clinical lectures to be delivered there. As a result
of these negotiations an agreement was entered
into for two years whereby, on January i, 1799,
certain empty wards in Mercer's Hospital were to
be set apart for the reception of patients for
clinical instruction. The Governors of the Hospital
undertook to support, for six months, thirty patients
and nurses according to a specified dietary for
a sum of 254 ios., the College supplying, in addi-
tion to this sum, their own wine, groceries, and
medicines. It was further agreed that if the
College wished to build additional accommoda-
tion, the Governors of the Hospital would place
at their disposal a site adjoining the hospital. On
the 2ist of January, 1799, the beds were reported
as ready for the patients. The agreement thus
entered into appeared to be a satisfactory solution
of a difficulty which had been for almost fifteen
years a source of continual vexation to the two
Colleges. The relief, however, was of short dura-
tion, for Perceval, finding himself foiled in his
efforts to induce the College to build a large clinical
hospital, sought the aid of the legislature, and in
the following year was passed the celebrated School
of Physic Act, of 1800, which finally took from the
182 CLOSING YEARS OF THE
College all discretionary power in the management
of Dun's estate.
This controversy about the clinical lectures was
carried on with much bitterness between the two
University Professors. Perceval seems to have
determined to use every means in his power to
establish a great hospital attached to the School.
His ideal was the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh,
and to attain his object he was ready to sacrifice
every interest which stood in his way. Hill, on
the other hand, was anxious to found a botanical
garden, and believed that the funds of Dun's
estate could more properly be applied to such an
object than to the foundation of a hospital. Their
objects were thus diametrically opposed, for if
either succeeded the other must fail, and the dis-
pute was carried on between them with a personal
bitterness which ill became men supposed to be
working for the good of a common cause the
School of Physic. Perceval ultimately triumphed,
owing to his influence with the Board and with
Parliament, but the means which he used to
attain this triumph do not redound to his credit.
While the disputes were in progress many
important changes were made by the Board in
the regulations of the Medical School. On April
1 6, 1790, at ' ten o'clock at night ', James Cleghorn
was elected Professor of Anatomy in the room of
his uncle, deceased. Cleghorn, 1 the only candidate
for the Chair, stated that he had been educated
in Trinity College, and had studied the ' different
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 162.
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 183
branches of Medicine under the several Professors
in the School of Physic in Ireland'. And also
' that he had attended Clinical Lectures given in
the City of Dublin '. He had also studied in
London ' under an eminent surgeon, Mr. Hunter ',
and visited the hospitals of Paris and Montpelier.
Cleghorn had graduated B.A. in 1784, M.B. in the
summer of 1787, and M.D. in 1793. He was
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians
in January 1792, and elected Fellow in 1793. He
was afterwards President of the College in the
years 1805, 1806, 1811, and 1816. In 1797 he
was elected State Physician, and he held the office
till his death in 1826. Cleghorn does not seem to
have inherited his uncle's love for Anatomy. He
was re-elected Professor on May 6, 1797, but two
years later Mr. Hartigan was appointed to assist
him on account of his bad health, and on July 24,
1802, his resignation of the Chair was accepted by
On the 5th May, 1792, the Board received
through Dr. Perceval a letter written by Dr.
Andrew Duncan, in which he pointed out that the
graduation fees for a Doctor in Physic of Edin-
burgh University amounted to 13 8s. ' British ',
along with the expense of printing and publishing
an 'Inaugural Dissertation'. The fees in Trinity
College amounted to 29 45., for a similar degree,
and Perceval suggested that if they were reduced
it ' would tend to the encouragement of the School
of Physic in the City of Dublin '.* In consequence
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 218.
184 CLOSING YEARS OF THE
of this letter the Board ' resolved that the present
fees, amounting to 29 45., be reduced to the sum
of 14 I2s., and also that the sum of 6 i6s. 6d.,
be paid to the six Professors for their trouble
in examining ; and further, that each person so
commencing shall give in a printed copy of his
Inaugural Dissertation to the Vice-Chancellor,
the Provost, and each of the Senior Fellows of
the University, to the President and Censors of
the College of Physicians and each of the six
Professors of Physic '.
On the aQth June, 1792, the Board drew up new
regulations relative to the conferring of medical
degrees. These regulations were as follows :
' Every Student in Medicine who has been matriculated
into the University either in the usual mode or according
to the form prescribed in the Act of 25 Geo. 3rd, producing
to the Register of the College Testimonials of his having
studied Medicine three years in some University where
Medicine is publicly taught, and of his having attended
the Clinical Hospital and one complete course of Clinical
Lectures in Dublin, and also one complete course of each
of the six Medical Professors of this University in their
respective Department, shall receive from the Provost
& Senior Fellows a Liceat ad examinandum directed to the
Faculty of Medicine consisting of the said six Medical
' The Faculty of Medicine will examine every student
producing such Liceat ad examinandum, and if they find
him qualified to obtain Medical Degrees, will certify the
same to the Provost and Senior Fellows. Every student
producing to the Register of the College such certificate,
shall upon paying fees, amounting to 21 : 8 : 6, be admitted
to perform the necessary Acts prescribed by the Statutes
of the University to qualify him for obtaining the degrees
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 185
of Bachelor and Doctor of Medicine and will receive
a diploma . . . certified by the seal of the College.' l
On June 15, 1793, the Board agreed to ' the
following Scheme of the performances of Medical
' Each Candidate for degrees in Medicine shall apply
to the Register of the Faculty for a Certificate of his
attendance on the several Professors, which is to entitle
him to a Liceat ad examinandum from the Board. This
he is to present to the Register of the Faculty, who shall
within a fortnight of the time of receiving the Liceat
appoint a time for the examination of the Candidate,
a week's notice of the same being given to each member
of the Faculty. Having passed the examination before
the Faculty for the degree of M.B. or M.D., the Candidate
shall present to some one of the Professors of the Faculty
of Medicine an MS copy of a Thesis composed by him in
Latin upon a subject relating to any department of
Medicine he may choose, provided it shall have been
approved by one of the Professors of Medicine in the
University : When the Professor to whom the Thesis is
presented, shall have specified his approbation thereof
to the Faculty of Medicine, the Candidate shall receive
from that body the following certificate signed by the
Register of the Faculty Examinations habita apud
Professores facultatis medicinae in Academia Dublinensi,
A.B. Idoneum se praebuit qui admittatur ad praestanda
exercitia pro gradibus Baccalauriatus et Doctoratus in
Medicina. This certificate shall be presented to the
Register of the University to be by him laid before the
Board, and on leave being granted to perform, shall be
returned to the Candidate, countersigned by the same
Register. The Professor of Medicine in the University,
on the certificate so signed and countersigned being
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 221.
186 CLOSING YEARS OF THE
presented to him shall appoint such days, as he shall chose
for the performance of exercises for the degrees of M.B.
and M.D., so as that the whole be completed within
a month from the time of the Candidate's application.
The Professor himself or one of the Professors of the
Faculty, to be approved of by the Board as his locum
tenens, shall preside at such Performances. Each Can-
didate for the degree of M.B. is to dispute in the Hall
of the University, upon the questions to be proposed by
the Professor of Medicine or his locum tenens, according
to the usages of the University, he is also to read two
Praelections one upon an acute case, and the other
upon a chronic case, to be also proposed by the Professor
or his locum tenens. For the degree of M.D. he is to
dispute upon two questions in like manner as before ;
and also read four Praelections one or more of which
shall form his Thesis (or Inaugural Dissertation) or such
part thereof as may be agreed on by the Professor, who
having on that occasion signified his approbation of the
said Thesis shall authorize it to be printed and direct
copies to be presented to the Vice-Chancellor of the
University the Provost and each of the Senior- Fellows
to the President and Censors of the College of Physicians
and each of the six Professors of Physic.' x
At the beginning of the winter session of 1795
the Board ordered the University Professors to
' lecture twice in the week during their atten-
dance as Clinical Lecturers in Sir Patrick Dun's
Hospital '. 2 On September 28, 1799, it was
ordered, ' that Lectures in Anatomy should be
given by the Professor on Tuesdays and Thurs-
days, at half past one during the ensuing Term
in the Physiology School ; and that he be allowed
to charge the students a guinea and a half for
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 236. * Ibid., p. 279.
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 187
tickets of admission to the course which is to be
comprised in not less than ten Lectures.'
The resolution of June 29, 1792, appears to be
a direct departure from the usage of the Uni-
versity which always required candidates for
degrees in any of the Faculties to have first
graduated in Arts. There was, however, no real
departure from ancient custom, for the Board sub-
sequently decreed * that this rule only related to
the Medical Diplomas and not to Degrees, or as
they say, ' the Diploma given to Medical Students
not of the University who have qualified for M.D.' *
No lists of the Medical Students of the Uni-
versity prior to 1786 have been preserved, but
since that time, in accordance with the first School
of Physic Act, every student of Medicine who
attended lectures in the School had to be matri-
culated by having his name entered in a book
kept for that purpose by the Senior Lecturer.
These matriculation lists are still preserved in the
College Library, 3 and from them we learn that
the following numbers matriculated during the
years 1786-1800 :
1786, 6 entered. 1791, i entered. 1796, 4 entered.
1787, 17 1792, 2 1797, i
1788, 5 >, 1793. o 1798, 6
I7 8 9> 3 1794, 5 ,. *799> 2
1790, o 1795, 4 1800, 14
During this period twenty-two persons were
granted degrees in Medicine, and two were granted
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 400. * Ibid., p. 488.
* Abbot, Cat. of MSS., T. C. D., No. 759.
i88 EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
diplomas, a small proportion of those who matricu-
lated in the School. Many of these students
went to Edinburgh, which at that time was
attracting medical students from all parts of
the world. During the four years 1786-9, inclu-
sive, there were at least forty-four Irishmen
who graduated in Medicine in the Edinburgh
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
WHEN the clinical lectures had been finally
established in Mercer's Hospital, Perceval felt that
it was hopeless for him to make any further
attempt to induce the College of Physicians to
expend the funds of Dun's estate in building
a hospital. The arrangement with Mercer's had
met with general approval, and promised to be
a success, if those whose duty it was to lecture
honestly and loyally fulfilled their obligations.
Perceval was not, however, willing to accept defeat,
nor would he submit to the decision of the majority
of his colleagues, and feeling it impossible to con-
vert them to his views by argument, he determined
to compel them by the aid of the legislature. He
seems to have had some influence with Lord Clare,
the Lord Chancellor, and he persuaded him to have
a Committee of the House of Lords appointed to
report ' how far it is consistent with the public
good and with the faithful discharge of the inten-
tions of the testator that the said funds should
remain longer in the College of Physicians'. The
Earl of Altamont was appointed chairman of this
Committee, and any of the Lords who wished
were to attend as members. The Committee met
on Tuesday, April 16, 1799, the Earl of Mayo
190 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
and Lord Tullamore attending with the chairman.
The first witness examined was Perceval, and his
evidence displays the animus he felt against the
College of which he was a Fellow. He made little
of the efforts of the College to establish a hospital
for clinical teaching, an establishment which had
been undertaken at his instigation, and of which
he was a governor. He accused the College of
expending the trust funds to pay the law expenses
of both sides in a case in which the College was
defendant, though he admitted, on being pressed,
that the whole sum so expended between Novem-
ber 21, 1794, and November 20, 1798, amounted
only to 333 145. lid., of which sum 221 2s. Sd.
was paid out of the private fund of the College.
When asked, ' Do you conceive that the trusts of
the Will of Sir Patrick Dun, as explained and
amended by subsequent Acts, have been carried
on in the best and fairest manner, for the pur-
poses of the institution, or in a just and faithful
discharge of the trust ? ' he replied, ' They cer-
tainly, in my opinion, have not been carried on in
such a manner, and I am further of opinion that
no provision exists for preventing many of the
abuses which have existed from occurring again.'
He stated further that he did not consider it to be
in the interest of the public that the management
of the funds of Sir Patrick Dun's estates should
remain in the hands of the College of Physicians.
In his opinion, the surplus funds from the estate,
together with the fees to be paid by students
attending the lectures at the hospital, would be
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 191
sufficient ' for a great and highly useful national
establishment '. To show the foresight exhibited
in this remark one should remember that the most
liberal estimates of the surplus funds did not
place that sum higher than 1,000 ori,ioo a year,
and, at three guineas apiece, fifty students would
only contribute 157 ios. a year. Thus with an
endowment of under 1,300 a year he proposed
to build and support a hospital which would be
' a great and highly useful national establishment '.
At the next meeting of the Committee the Bishop
of Ossory took the place of the Earl of Mayo, and
Doctors Plunket, Hopkins, Cullen, and Harvey,
Fellows of the College of Physicians, were examined.
They all displayed considerable ignorance with
regard to the history of the application of the trust,
but generally were of an opinion unfavourable to
the administration of the College. On April 18,
1799, the Earl of Altamont, the Earl of Mayo,
and Lord Tullamore again met as a Committee,
and adopted the following report :
' The Lords Committee appointed to examine into the
application of the funds bequeathed by Sir Patrick Dun
for the establishment of a hospital for clinical lectures,
and to report the same, as they shall appear to them, to
this house, have met and made a minute inquiry into the
matter to them referred, and after an investigation of the
books of the College of Physicians, and the examination
of the most respectable members of said College, as well
as of the Professors of Physic by them chosen, whose
testimony is now submitted to your Lordships, it appears
clearly that the intentions of Sir Patrick Dun, as explained
by the Acts of the 25th and 3ist of the present reign,
I 9 2 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
have not been carried into effect, and, by the unanimous
admission of every witness examined, the trust confided
in the said College of Physicians has been grossly misused.
' It appears to your Committee that by the 3ist of the
present King it is provided that salaries from the funds
of Sir Patrick Dun shall be paid to the three Professors
at the rate of one hundred pounds each, and no more,
and that the surplus of the income of said estate, which
exceeded one thousand pounds a-year after paying the
said three professors, should be applied to the establish-
ment and support of an hospital as the best means of
extending the knowledge of medicine by uniting the
practice to the theory of Physic.
' It appears to your Committee that the salaries to the
said three professors, at one hundred pounds a-year,
and no more, had been regularly paid, but that though
no hospital has been permanently established, nor any
more than a small sum applied to the support of patients,
the only balance of the said surplus now forthcoming is
5 ' 9 : 3. though there might have been a Balance of many
' In searching for the cause of said deficiency it appears
to your Committee that many considerable sums have
been expended by said College of Physicians not at all
warranted either by the intention of the Testator, or by
the several acts of the legislature before alluded to for
carrying the same into effect, and among the said items
unwisely and unwarrantably expended, your Committee
hold themselves bound to notice a present of Claret to
the President of the College of Physicians annually,
an immoderate purchase of Books, in some instances
twice paid for, Law Suits carried on in which the said
College were both Plaintiffs and Defendants, and actually
paid from said Funds the expenses of both, and Loans
to indigent members of said College, which were never
repaid in many instances, and which with other charges
equally foreign to the said trust have consumed the whole
surplus Income of Sir Patrick Dun's estate which under
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 193
wise and frugal management would have afforded means
for a great and useful national establishment.
' Your Committee being of opinion that there were
funds abundantly sufficient for such establishment, ear-
nestly hope that the wisdom of the Legislature will put
them under such Regulations as will faithfully discharge
the benign intention of the Testator and most extensively
benefit the Public.'
This is not the place to enter into a defence of
the College of Physicians against the charges con-
tained in the foregoing report, but it is right to
say that a careful investigation of the accounts
of the College does not bear out the truth of the
allegations. With regard to the presents of claret,
it is expressly stated in the College Minutes that
this was to be paid for out of the private funds of
the College, and there is no entry of such expendi-
ture in the trust accounts. In explanation of this
gift it should be remembered that the President
for each year placed his house at the disposal of
the College for their meetings and as a home for
their property, there being at that time no other
place appropriated to College purposes. In regard
to the money spent on lawsuits, it has always been
recognized that the legal expenses involved in the
administration of a trust should be taken by the
trustees from the trust funds. When the Professors
put forward their claim, founded on the highest
legal opinion, to two-thirds of the income of the
trust estate, the College endeavoured to settle
the claim by * an amicable suit ', the expenses of
which should be borne by the trust estate, but
when this was found to be impossible they resisted
194 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
the claim of the Professors in the courts, and two-
thirds of the total legal expenses were borne by
the private funds of the College. The Irish Parlia-
ment at the time was, however, in no condition
to judge of the honesty of any body or any
corporation, as it was itself hopelessly corrupt.
It was, however, in consequence of this report that
the School of Physic Act l of 1800 was passed.
This Act set forth that the Professors appointed
were to be called the King's Professors of the City
of Dublin on the foundation of Sir Patrick Dun,
and to be as follows :
Professor of the Institutes of Medicine,
Professor of the Practice of Medicine,
Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy,
and when the President and Fellows of the College
of Physicians should think fit, or the funds permit
of it, a Professor of Midwifery was to be appointed.
The existing Professors were to be continued in
office. Each Professor was to have a salary of
100 (Irish) a year, and no more, out of Dun's
estate. After the payment of the three King's
Professors it was estimated that there would be
a surplus of about 900 a year. Out of this
surplus, after deducting 70 a year for the salary
of a librarian, the agent's fees, the expenses of
advertising lectures, and other matters incident
to the School of Physic, a sum not exceeding 150
a year was to be paid as ground-rent for land on
which to build a hospital. The surplus, after these
charges had been paid, was to be devoted to
1 40 George III, cap. Ixxxiv.
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 195
building the hospital until it was of sufficient size
to contain beds for thirty patients. This hospital
was to be called Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital, and
the governing body was to consist of the Visitors
of the College of Physicians, the President, Vice-
President, and Censors of the same, the Provost
of Trinity College, and twelve other persons to be
elected out of those who might become subscribers;
but no physician or surgeon who attended patients
in the hospital might become a governor. Eight
Commissioners were named for the more speedy
building of the hospital, and vacancies among
these Commissioners were to be filled by the
President and Fellows of the College of Physicians.
All moneys and arrears belonging to the estate, as
well as the 1,200 vested in the public funds, were
to be handed to these Commissioners for building
purposes. No clinical patients were to be main-
tained out of the funds of Dun's estate till the
hospital was built and had sufficient accommoda-
tion for thirty patients. After that the clear
residue, over and above that necessary to support
the thirty patients, was to be applied to enlarging
the hospital till it could accommodate one hundred
patients and contain a room for a library and
a lecture-room. When the hospital was completed,
and after defraying the necessary charges arising
from maintaining one hundred patients and the
establishment of the hospital, which were not
met by voluntary subscriptions, then the surplus
was to be devoted first to paying a salary of 100
to a Professor of Midwifery, and then to such
196 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
other purposes connected with the School of
Physic as should be approved by the Chancellor or
Vice-Chancellor of the University, the Archbishop
of Dublin, the Provost of Trinity College, and the
Professor of Physic of the University. The King's
Professors were to give clinical lectures on the
patients in the hospital on two days a week during
each session, without any extra salary, and the
King's Professors and the University Professors
were to ' read such lectures during the space of
three months, in alternate succession, as had
heretofore been practised, or in such order as they
shall agree upon amongst themselves '. Each pupil
was to pay a fee of three guineas for each three
months' course. Before he was allowed to enter
for such a course he was to enter his name with
the treasurer of the hospital, and pay to him for
the use of the hospital a fee of twenty guineas,
unless he was a matriculated student of Dublin,
or Oxford, or Cambridge University, and had con-
tinued his studies in Arts under a tutor in one of
these Universities for at least two years, in which
case he was only to pay for the use of the hospital
a fee of three guineas. This payment of twenty
guineas or three guineas was to entitle the student
to be admitted to any course during one year, but
if he wished to enter for a further period he was
to pay a further fee of twenty guineas or three
guineas ' as the case may be by the year '.
The President and Fellows were on St. Luke's
Day to elect a librarian, who was to have control
of the library, and receive a salary of 70 (Irish),
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 197
provided he ' supplied fuel for the Library ' and
medical lecture-room. Till the hospital was built
the books were to be kept in a room provided by
Trinity College, which room was to be under the
inspection of the Provost. A general control of
the library and the purchase of books was to
be in the hands of the Chancellor of the Univer-
sity, the Archbishop of Dublin, the Provost, and
the Professor of Physic in Trinity College. The
University Professors, as denned in the former
Act, were to continue on the same footing as
The election of the King's Professors was to be
carried out as denned in the former Act, the method
of choosing the electors, their powers, and the
notice of the election being as before, and no elector
was eligible for a Professorship. The King's Pro-
fessorships were, however, thrown open to persons
of ah 1 nations who professed ' their faith in Christ ',
but the University Professorships were still con-
fined to Protestants. The oath to be administered
to the electors and the Professors was denned,
and permission was given for a Quaker to affirm
instead of taking the oath. The Professorships
were all to become vacant every seventh year,
permanence being given, however, to the existing
holders of the University Professorships, during
good behaviour. At the expiration of the seven
years of office the Professor was eligible for re-
election, and might be continued in office for
a second period of seven years without formal
election, provided that three months' notice was
198 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
given of the fact in a manner similar to that which
was necessary if the election was to be held. The
powers of the College to regulate these Professors
were the same as before, with a similar power to
appeal to the Visitors in case of a deadlock. The
clauses relating to the admonishing of the Pro-
fessors, and those defining their duties and times of
lecturing were re-enacted. The clinical lectureswere
to be given in English, unless otherwise directed by
the Colleges, and a room was to be provided in
Trinity College for them till the hospital was
built. The regulations as regards the fees of
students, for lectures other than the clinical
lectures, were to be settled by the respective
Colleges. The Professors were, when they had
completed half the course of their lectures, to
return to the Senior Lecturer of Trinity College
a list of the pupils who had ' attended them
during such part of said course of their respective
Till the hospital was built the President and
Fellows might permit the clinical lectures to be
given in any Dublin Hospital, where this was
permitted by the Governors ' without expense to
the Estate of Sir Patrick Dun '.
The Act also appointed the Lord Chancellor
of Ireland, the Lord Chief Justice of the King's
Bench, the Lord Chief Justice of the Common
Pleas, and the Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer,
all of the Kingdom of Ireland and for the time
being, as Visitors of the College of Physicians. To
these Visitors the President and Fellows were once
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 199
in each year to ' render a true, just and full account
of the receipts and expenditures of the issues and
profits of the estates real and personal of the said
Sir Patrick Dun '.
It was further decided that any Fellow of the
College of Physicians who was appointed a Pro-
fessor, either University or King's Professor, was
thereby to vacate his Fellowship. He might, how-
ever, be elected, during the tenure of his Professor-
ship, an Honorary Fellow of the College. Such
Honorary Fellows were not to attend the meetings
of the College or vote at them unless specially
summoned by the President to consult in some
matter ' regulating of the practice of Medicine in
this City or Kingdom '.
No University Professor or King's Professor was
to be allowed to hold the office of 'the King's
Professorship of Physic in the University of
Dublin ', and no one was to be elected a Fellow of
the College of Physicians unless he was a Bachelor
or Master of Arts or Doctor of Physic of either
Dublin, Oxford, or Cambridge University, unless
the number of Fellows was reduced to six, in which
case such qualification might be dispensed with.
William Harvey, Patrick Plunket, and Daniel
Bryan, who had recently vacated their Fellow-
ships, were reinstated, and William Harvey was
appointed President of the College. Persons pro-
fessing the Roman Catholic religion were to be
eligible for election as Fellows of the College
of Physicians, provided they subscribed to the
oath defined in 'An Act to enable his Majesty's
200 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
Subjects, of whatever persuasion, to testify their
allegiance to him ', and no other oath was to be
administered to such persons.
The clause in the Charter of William and Mary,
which admitted all graduates in Physic of the
University of Dublin to the College of Physicians
without examination, was repealed, and the College
was given permission to examine all such persons
before admission, ' in the same manner as other
persons are usually examined and to reject such
of them as shall decline to submit to such examina-
tion or shall upon examination appear to them to
be unfit to be admitted.'
This Act, which received the Royal Assent on
August i, 1800, defined the statutory obligations
of the School of Physic in clear and distinct terms,
and under its provisions the School and Colleges
are still largely governed.
Shortly after the passing of the Act, James
Cleghorn, who was in bad health and showed no
aptitude for anatomical teaching, resigned his
chair, and William Hartigan, his assistant, was
elected in his place. The family of Hartigan, or
O' Hartigan, is said to have been one of ancient
Irish origin, whose members possessed estates in
County Galway. 1 The first of this family we meet
in Dublin was Edward Hartigan, apothecary, and
member of the Guild of Barber Surgeons, who was
admitted to the Freedom of the City of Dublin in
1749. This Edward made his will on the 28th
December, 1766, signing it with his mark, he ' not
1 Cameron, Hist., p. 326.
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 201
being able to use his right hand'. In this will,
which was proved on the 24th January, 1767, he
leaves the residue of his estate and effects to his
son William and his daughter Mary when they
should come to the age of 18. William Hartigan,
born about the year 1766, was educated as a
surgeon, and on March 2, 1784, at the first meeting
of the College of Surgeons under their new charter,
was elected a member of that body. On the
30th October, 1789, he was elected to the Chair of
Anatomy and Physiology in the College of Surgeons
School, and in September of 1798 was appointed
Professor of Surgery. Both these appointments
he resigned in 1799, having in the year 1797 held
the office of President of the College of Surgeons.
On August 31, 1799, the Board granted the request
of Professor James Cleghorn that he be allowed to
employ ' Mr. Hartigan a Surgeon of eminence '
to assist him in his Anatomy lectures during the
coming session, and this permission was repeated
on the 27th of September in the following year.
On July 24, 1802, Cleghorn resigned, and the
Board appointed the 30th October following as
the date of election of the new Professor. 1 This
date was subsequently altered to November 6, in
order to permit the statutory advertisements to
appear, and on the latter date William Hartigan
was elected, being apparently the only candidate
for the post. Before the appointment the Board
had decided that the Anatomy house should re-
ceive temporary repair, provided the repairs were
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 393.
202 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
necessary and the cost did not exceed 20.
Cameron l states that he has in his possession
tickets of admission to the anatomical course in
Trinity College, dated November 1804, in which
James Cleghorn is mentioned as Professor of
Anatomy and Chirurgery, and William Hartigan
as Lecturer in Anatomy. Such cards must, how-
ever, have been merely remnants of the forms
used previous to Cleghorn's resignation and Har-
tigan's appointment. When Cleghorn resigned the
Chair of Anatomy he claimed as his property the
anatomical preparations which were exhibited in
the school. These were probably the preparations
made by his uncle. The Board, however, admitted
the claim, but while doing so they adopted the
following resolution :
' That whatever preparations should henceforward be
made by the Anatomy Professor they shall be considered
as College property ; the College however to be at the
expense of all the necessary ingredients for making such
About the same time the Board appointed three
of their number as a Committee to consider what
money the College should allocate to enable the
Professors of Botany, Chemistry, and Anatomy
'to render their lectures more useful'. This com-
mittee reported on February 12, 1803, that the
claim of Dr. Cleghorn to almost all the prepara-
tions in the Anatomical Theatre had been admitted
by the Board, but the removal of these prepara-
tions would interrupt the course of anatomical
1 Cameron, Hist., p. 327. ' Reg., vol. v, p. 399.
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 203
studies, and materially injure the reputation of
the University. Under these circumstances the
Committee recommended the Board to offer Dr.
Cleghorn a sum of 250 for the entire collection.
They further recommended that the Board should
grant to the Professor of Anatomy a sum not
exceeding 15 per annum ' to supply mercury,
spirits and other materials for making and pre-
serving such Anatomical Preparations '. Had the
Board in the future rigidly adhered to these
resolutions the College would have been saved the
loss of many valuable anatomical and pathological
specimens. On November 6, 1803, a list of the
preparations in the Anatomical Theatre, signed
by the late and present Professors of Anatomy,
was submitted to the Board and ordered to be
' laid up among the College Papers ' ; the where-
abouts of this interesting document has not been
Hartigan lived first in King Street, Stephen's
Green, and then in No. 3, Kildare Street, a house
afterwards famous as the residence of James
William Cusack. It is probable that he was
educated as an apprentice to a surgeon, for we
have no record of his having taken a University
degree till in 1802 he was granted an M.D. of
Trinity College, honoris causa. He was twice
married, first in December 1780,* to a Miss
Isabella Steward, and secondly on August n,
1787, to Anne Elizabeth Pollock, of Jervis Street. 2
His eldest son, Edward, was for a time his appren-
1 Cameron, Hist., p. 328. * Dub. Chronicle, 1787.
204 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
tice, but eventually left surgery for the Church.
Hartigan died of ' ossification of the heart ' on
December 15, 1812. He had been unable to lecture
during the winter session of that year, and at his
request on the 3ist October, 1812, the Board had
appointed Samuel Wilmot to lecture in his place. 1
The Botany School, one of the original depart-
ments of the Medical Faculty of the College
founded in 1711, was for many years greatly
hampered in its work by the want of a garden
for teaching purposes. We have seen that as early
as 1687 2 the kitchen garden of the College was to
be made into a physic garden at the charge of
the College, and at the building of the School in
1711 ' the Laboratory and Anatomick Theatre '
were to be erected at the south-east corner of
the ' Physick Garden '. With the building of the
library, which was completed about 1733, this
physic garden seems to have disappeared. At any
rate we meet with no further mention of it in the
College Registers, and its existence is not indicated
in the plan of the College in Rocque's map in
William Clements, Lecturer in Botany from 1733
to 1763, was for the last ten years of that period
also Vice-Provost, and in that capacity had allotted
to him a considerable tract of ground in the north-
east corner of the College Park, which was long
known as the Vice-Provost's garden. It is prob-
able that Clements made use of this garden in
obtaining supplies for his botanical lectures. James
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 72. * Reg., vol. iii, p. 264.
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 205
Span, who in 1763 succeeded Clements as Lecturer
in Botany, seems to have cultivated a small
botanical garden, 1 but where it was situated we
have not been able to discover. Edward Hill, who
succeeded Span in 1773, was most anxious to
establish a large and well-ordered garden, one
which would be not only a credit but an ornament
to the College. This he looked on as of far greater
importance than the establishment of a hospital
for clinical lectures, a form of teaching to which,
as we have seen, he was not partial. At the time
of Hill's appointment the present site of Botany
Bay was the kitchen garden of the College, and
towards the close of 1774 this ground was taken
up for additional buildings for the accommodation
of students. 2 It is possible that it was in this
kitchen garden that Span grew the specimens with
which he illustrated his lectures, and it is from
the former use to which the site was put that the
present square owes the name of ' Botany Bay '.
On January 21, 1775, the Provost was asked to
' look out for a piece of ground proper and con-
venient for a Botany Garden ', 3 but he does not
seem to have succeeded in finding such a place.
Hill was bitterly disappointed that the School of
Physic Act of 1785 did not contain permission
for the establishment of a botanical garden, and
he set himself at once to try to induce the Board
and the College of Physicians jointly to establish
such a place. He felt that the more money from
1 Perceval, Account, p. 16. * Reg., vol. v, p. 298.
1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 299.
206 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
the Dun's estate which was spent on other pur-
poses, such as the establishment of a hospital, the
less was he likely to effect this object, and it is
to this cause that we must largely attribute his
quarrel with Perceval.
About the year 1789 Hill applied to the Board
for money to support a garden, and they authorized
him to make a similar application to the College of
Physicians, who on March the 25th of that year
resolved that, since the Board were willing to set
apart 70 a year for such a purpose, the College
of Physicians would co-operate in the undertaking
when the necessary estimates were prepared. Hill
proposed that the Physicians should grant 100
a year from the trust estate, and a resolution
agreeing to this was passed as a first reading on
April 15, 1793. In this year, 1793, an Act passed
the Irish House of Commons granting the sum of
5,000 to the Dublin Society, of which sum 1,300
was to be applied ' towards providing and main-
taining a botanic Garden ' and other purposes ; of
this sum at least 300 was to be expended on the
garden. 1 It was hoped that the Society and the
Colleges might join in the support of this garden,
but the Speaker of the House of Commons, when
approached on the matter, said ' he would have
nothing to do with the Colleges '.* Hill was so
satisfied with the way things were progressing
that in December, 1795, with the advice and
consent of Provost Murray, he took the lease of
a field, about six acres in extent, which he said he
1 Statutes of the Realm, vol. xvi, p. 571. * Hill, Address (i), p. 17.
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 207
would hold in trust for the University, and of
which he agreed to pay one-half the rent until
such time as the whole ground was required by
the University for the purposes of a garden. On
May 23, 1797, the College of Physicians passed as
a second reading the resolution appropriating 100
a year towards this garden. It was then suggested
that such application of the funds was outside the
powers of the Trustees, and a Committee, consist-
ing of Drs. Perceval, Hill, and Harvey, was ap-
pointed to confer with the Board and take legal
opinion on the matter. This Committee reported
on the agth of September, 1797, that Dr. Hill
received as salary and for the support of a garden
the sum of 160 a year, out of which 100 was
annually appropriated to the support of a garden,
and that the Committee would consider the arrange-
ments for the support of this garden by the two
Colleges as soon as the right of the College of
Physicians to use the funds of Dun's estate for
this purpose was established. Hill then produced
to the College of Physicians counsel's opinion that
such an application of the funds was quite legal,
and the Committee was ordered to meet again and
make final arrangements, Dr. Perceval to be the
convener, but, before this Committee was sum-
moned to meet, the College of Physicians on the
I5th of January, 1798, had before them for the
third reading the resolution granting the 100
a year for the garden, which resolution was lost
by the casting vote of the chairman. Hill then
determined to devote his entire salary to the sup-
208 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
port of his garden, but he got little or no encourage-
ment from the University, and when the second
School of Physic Act was passed he was com-
pelled, on the nth of August, 1800, to resign
his Professorship of Botany, and Robert Scott
was appointed his successor. Hill afterwards
endeavoured to recover from the Board the money
he had spent on the garden, an attempt which led
to considerable dispute, and though both parties
agreed on July 4, 1801, to submit the matter to
arbitration, eventually, in March, 1803, a case
came to trial at the King's Bench, when a consent
was made a rule of court by which the Board had
to pay Hill the sum of 618 igs. gd., the garden
and all the buildings in it being handed over to
Hill absolutely. Each party was to pay its own
costs in the action. 1
While this dispute was in progress, on April n,
1801, the Board decided that the Professor of
Botany should be authorized to employ a gardener,
' acquainted with the botanical arrangements of
plants ', at a salary of 50, in order to assist in
collecting plants to illustrate the botanical lec-
tures. This gardener was to live in the house at
Harold's Cross, built by Dr. Hill, and to superin-
tend the ground there. The Committee appointed
by the Board to report on the annual expenditure
necessary to make the lectures of the medical
professors more useful, recommended that the
Professor of Botany should be allowed to spend
100 a year for supplying and procuring plants.
1 Hill, Address (i), p. 113.
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 209
They were of opinion that Botany, * which as it
is connected with general knowledge, and estab-
lished as a public lecture for all students, ought
to be patronised by the University.' They were
further of the opinion that ' Dr. Scott's talents
and exertions as Professor of Botany well deserve
that he should receive from the students instead
of 155. each, the sum of i 55. each.' x On March 9,
1805, the Board increased the salary of the
gardener to 130 a year, on condition that he
employed two labourers throughout the year, and
additional labourers from the month of March to
December. 2 The next year, on July 5, the Board
agreed 'to take a piece of land consisting of ...
acres leased by Lord Fitzwilliam to the College for
175 years at 15 guineas an acre for the purpose
of a Botany Garden provided that Dr. Scott the
Professor of Botany notify the ground to be in all
respects fitted for that purpose.' 3 Thus was
started the splendid garden at Ball's Bridge, which
still remains such a useful and ornamental adjunct
to the University. This garden the Board decided
to enclose with a wall ten feet high, and on May 6,
1807, a vote of thanks was passed to the Dublin
Society ' for the assistance which the Society has
voted to our new Botanic Gardens '. 4 It was
decided on the 27th February, 1808, that the Pro-
fessor of Botany was to lecture four times a week
from the I5th of April to the I5th of July, ' pro-
vided that if he chooses to conduct his pupils into
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 403. * Ibid., p. 433.
3 Ibid., p. 452. * Ibid., p. 470.
210 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
the country in order to examine the native plants
once a week his doing so shall be considered as
equivalent to a lecture.' * The first twelve lectures
of the course were to be open to all students of
the University, the remainder being confined to
those who paid fees for attendance. Dr. Scott's
term as Professor having expired, he was re-elected
on the 25th March, 1808, Dr. Leahy and Dr.
Halliday being also candidates. Scott, however,
died a few months after this election, and on the
i6th of January, 1809, William Allman was elected
Professor. At this election, Dr. Harty, Dr. Litton,
and Dr. Wade, were candidates, as well as Dr.
The gardener who was appointed to assist the
Professor was James Townsend Mackay, who
proved himself afterwards a botanist of consider-
able ability. He was on many occasions given
special grants by the Board for the purpose of
travelling in different parts of the country to
collect specimens for the garden, and in 1836 he
published his Flora Hibernica, which was long
a standard work on the subject. In 1849 the
Board granted him the degree of LL.D., honoris
causa, and he continued in charge of the garden
till his death on February 25, 1862, at the age of
85. During his tenure of office the gardens were
considerably increased in size, and laid out much
in their present form.
The fees to be charged for botany lectures were
several times regulated by the Board. On the
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 480.
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 211
5th April, 1791, the Professor was authorized to
charge 15s. 1 to each of the senior freshman class
for these lectures, and we have seen that in 1803
this fee was raised by los. Again on July 13,
1811, the fee was raised to i ios., and at this it
remained for many years after.
The chemical laboratory, which had been in
active use since the foundation of the School,
appears to have been developed considerably
during the Professorship of Perceval, who, what-
ever may be thought of him otherwise, was un-
doubtedly most active in the discharge of the duties
of his chair. In 1801 the Board set out the
vacations which were to be observed by the
Professor of Chemistry. 2 He was not allowed
much relaxation during the winter session, as the
vacations were to be ' from the Friday before
Christmas Day to the Monday next preceding the
feast of the Epiphany. Easter vacation from
Good Friday to the Monday next succeeding
Easter Monday. Shrovetide vacation, Shrove Tues-
day and Ash Wednesday. Days of Public Thanks-
giving or Humiliation ; and the days of Quarterly
Examinations/ We are not told whether these
holidays were fixed in the interests of the students,
or to compel the attendance of the Professor, but
we may hope it was not necessary for the latter
purpose. During the next winter session Dr.
Perceval was permitted to employ Dr. Francis
Barker to assist him with the chemistry lectures
by giving a private course in the laboratory, and
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 187. * Ibid., p. 367.
212 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
on the 3rd July, 1802, ' twenty guineas was granted
to Dr. Barker going to Paris for the purpose of
buying fossils.' x
On February 12, 1803, Perceval reported ' that
in order to fit up the Chemical laboratory, in
a manner adapted to the perfect state of Natural
Science, with permanent apparatus, a sum of
nearly 150 should be allotted, which will render
the University lectures a branch of Education
suited to the advanced state of Science and pro-
ductive of that impressive effect which excites the
attention of the youthful mind.' 2 It was con-
sidered that if this money were granted the course
in Chemistry would not involve the College in any
annual expenditure. Some months later, in Decem-
ber, Perceval handed to the Board a catalogue of
the minerals in the laboratory which were to be
looked on as College property. During this period
Barker continued to assist the Professor, and on
the 2ist of December, 1805, the Board resolved
' that in consideration of Dr. Barker's extraordinary
exertions in the different courses of Chemistry
which he has given he be empowered to furnish
the Bursar with Bills of his expenses for the course
of the current year not exceeding 50 sterling and
certified by the Professor.' 3
At the meeting of the Board on February 6,
1808, the Provost announced Dr. Perceval's resig-
nation of the Professorship of Chemistry, and it
was resolved ' that the Provost be requested to
convey to Dr. Perceval the lively sense which the
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 392. * Ibid., p. 403. * Ibid., p. 441.
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 213
Board entertain of the long and laborious services
in that Professorship, of the zeal and ability with
which he has discharged his duties & the important
effect of his meritorious exertions in exciting &
directing the attention of the Country and of the
University in particular to the pursuit of chemical
knowledge.' l The Professorship was then adver-
tised, and on May 16, 1808, Dr. Barker was
unanimously elected. He continued in office for
forty-one years. 2
Almost immediately after the passing of the
School of Physic Act the Board admitted the prin-
ciple of extern clinical lectures. Had this principle
been recognized fifteen years earlier, it would have
saved much wrangling, would have rendered the
Act of 1800 unnecessary, and would have per-
mitted the money which was spent on the clinical
hospital to be devoted to the development of the
academic teaching in the School. On October 18,
1800, Perceval applied to the Board for permission
to employ Dr. Crampton to give, in place of him,
clinical lectures in Dr. Steevens' Hospital. This
permission the Board granted, subject to approval
by the Governors of the Hospital. Crampton had
been appointed assistant at Dr. Steevens' Hospital
in the previous February, and at the meeting of the
Governors of the hospital held in the chambers of the
Right Hon. the Lord Chancellor at the Four Courts
on the zgth November, 1800, it was resolved :
' That Dr. Crampton be permitted by the Governors
of Dr. Steevens' Hospital to give reports on the cases
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 480. * Ibid., p. 490.
214 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800
of the medical patients whom he visits in said Hospital
during the Winter half-year ending May ist, 1801, to
pupils attested by the Senior Lecturer of Trinity College
to be regularly matriculated in the School of Physic in
Dublin and none others. Said pupils paying for said
attendance on said reports six guineas to the Register
of the Hospital and to Dr. Crampton for reports and
lectures on said reports, five guineas, which lectures are
to be delivered in Trinity College.'
' Resolved : that admission cards be provided and
signed by the Register and that he make out a list
of pupils to be transmitted to the Provost and Senior
Fellows of Trinity College who have agreed to allow the
attendance on said course for the present Medical Session
as one of the Qualifications for Medical Degrees.' *
This is the first admission of the principle of
clinical instruction in the general hospitals of
Dublin, a principle which was afterwards to be so
much developed, and to become one of the chief
features of the Dublin School. This permission
was renewed in the following winter session and
again in 1802, but the practice was stopped in
1803, as Steevens Hospital was for two years prac-
tically in the hands of the military authorities
during alterations in the Royal Infirmary.
In 1803 the Board gave leave to Dr. Stokes ' to
lend one of his rooms to the gentlemen giving
clinical lectures on the cases of the patients in the
Meath Hospital for the space of one fortnight and
no longer, unless the College of Physicians recom-
mend to us the acceptance of attendance on these
lectures as a qualification for a Medical Diploma.' z
The College of Physicians replied at once ' that
1 Minutes, Steevens Hospital. * Reg., vol. v, p. 418.
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 215
attendance on a course of clinical lectures to be
delivered by Dr. Stokes at the Meath Hospital for
six months, will be considered by the College of
Physicians as an adequate qualification for medical
degrees so far as the attendance on Clinical lectures
constitutes such a qualification*.
In 1805 the Board again extended recognition
to the lectures of Dr. Crampton at Steevens
Hospital, and this is the last we hear of special
permission for such lectures. The present building
of Dun's Hospital was sufficiently advanced to
accommodate thirty beds in 1808, and no doubt
the clinical instruction was given there. Jonathan
Osborne, writing in 1844 of Dun's Hospital, states
that ' the professors Clinical Courses have been
uninterruptedly delivered during the medical ses-
sions for the last twenty-three years ', a statement
which suggests that previous to 1820 there was
little teaching there.
In July, 1821, Robert James Graves was
appointed Physician to the Meath Hospital, and
a few years later he was joined by William Stokes.
It was these two physicians who made the name
of the Meath Hospital famous in medical history,
and raised the standard of clinical teaching to
a height which had never before been known in
JAMES MACARTNEY AND WHITLEY STOKES
THE death of William Hartigan, ' the late
respectable and lamented Professor of Anatomy,' l
was to prove an event of great moment in the
history of the School of Physic, for on June 21,
1813, James Macartney was appointed his suc-
cessor. 2 Macartney, whose name must ever be
remembered with honour in Trinity College, was
born in Armagh on the 8th March, 1770, where his
father, also James, owned some property and
enjoyed life as a gentleman farmer. The elder
James Macartney was a man of some literary taste
and had married in 1760 Mary Maxwell, daughter
of the Rev. John Maxwell, a Presbyterian minister
and a close friend of Francis Hutcheson, the
Glasgow Professor. As a boy the future anatomist
was kept under a rigid discipline by his father, and
being a delicate child, he received little teaching
till he was nearly nine years old. He tells us that
at the age of eight years he suffered from a severe
attack of ophthalmia which made him almost
blind for a year, and it was not till he had recovered
from this attack that he learned to read. At the
age of ten years he was enrolled in the Armagh
Corps of Irish Volunteers, a division of that great
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 81. J Ibid., p. 98.
WHITLEY STOKES 217
citizen army of the north which at one time seemed
likely to change the history of Ireland. At the age
of twelve he was sent to the Classical Endowed
School of Armagh, but he only remained there
for a short period, and his preliminary education
was completed at home under the care of a private
tutor. In 1788, on the death of his mother, he
went as a clerk to the business establishment of
his cousins Andrew and Hugh Carlile, linen mer-
chants of Newry, but his stay there was short, as
in 1790 his father died and he returned home to
live with his brothers.
While at home he spent his time farming, and
he seems to have revived his boyish interest in the
political movements of the time, for in 1792 he
joined the Society of United Irishmen, and in the
following year took part in organizing a branch in
Armagh. The Society of United Irishmen was at
first more a social than a political organization, but
it soon lost its original purpose and came under
the ban of the Government. Macartney did not
approve all the tendencies of the Society he had
joined, and in consequence his relations with the
more ardent members became greatly strained.
Just at this time, too, he fell very much in love
with a Miss Mary Ekenhead, and on her refusing
his suit, he suffered from lovesickness, and, as he
tells us, he determined to adopt the profession of
a Surgeon to harden his heart.
To carry out this intention, and probably also
to escape the trying position in which his political
opinions had involved him, he came to Dublin in
2i8 JAMES MACARTNEY AND
1794. In March of that year he was bound as
apprentice to Hartigan, then Professor of Anatomy
in the College of Surgeons' School, and devoted
himself with great energy to the study of Anatomy.
He also attended the lectures on Chemistry by
Perceval in the School of Physic, the only part
of his course which he took in that School. While
a student in Dublin he became a close friend of
many of the leaders of the United Irishmen then
in the city, and though never actually sworn a
member he was present at many of the Council
Meetings. In Dublin, as previously in Armagh, his
refusal to take the oath, and his objection to the
more violent measures advocated by some of the
members of the Society, aroused suspicion, and in
1795 he left Dublin and returned to Armagh. The
strenuous life he had led in Dublin seems to have
told on his health, and when Miss Ekenhead saw
him, she feared that he was still suffering from the
heart trouble which her refusal of him had caused
the year before. The intervention of mutual
friends brought about a renewal of the suit, and
on April 10, 1795, James Macartney and Mary
Ekenhead were married. At the beginning of the
following winter session Macartney returned to
his medical studies in Dublin, but early in the
year 1796, with the full permission of Hartigan,
he left for London. During the next three years
he devoted himself to study with great energy,
attending classes at Guy's, St. Thomas's and
St. Bartholomew's Hospitals, as well as at the
Great Windmill Street School. In 1798 he was
WHITLEY STOKES 219
appointed Demonstrator in Anatomy to Abernethy
at St. Bartholomew's School, and on February 6,
1800, he passed as a Member of the Royal College
of Surgeons, London. Almost immediately after
obtaining this qualification he was appointed
Lecturer in Comparative Anatomy at St. Bartholo-
mew's, and he continued to discharge the duties of
this office till the spring of 1811. About the time
of his appointment to the Chair of Comparative
Anatomy he gave up his post as Demonstrator,
apparently as the result of some dispute with
Abernethy. In his new position his relations with
his colleagues were not quite harmonious, for
shortly after his appointment he had a dispute with
the Hospital authorities as to the ownership of some
preparations he had made to illustrate his lectures.
This dispute was eventually submitted to arbitra-
tion and decided against Macartney. These pre-
parations had been prepared partly at the Hospital
expense, and Macartney immediately began to
prepare a duplicate set entirely at his own expense.
The question of the ownership of these new speci-
mens was also raised, but Macartney refused ' to
part with the absolute and uncontrolled property
of these preparations '.* These disputes did not
tend to make Macartney's relations with his
colleagues more cordial, and though he continued
to lecture regularly every year, he does not seem
to have taken any other part in the School work.
In the spring of 1803 he was appointed Surgeon
to the Royal Radnor Militia and remained with
1 Macalister, Macartney, p. 59.
220 JAMES MACARTNEY AND
the regiment for a period of nine years till it was
disembodied in 1812, obtaining leave each spring
to deliver his lectures in London. In March, 1811,
he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and
in August of that year he came with his regiment
to Ireland. On the termination of his military
duties in 1812, Macartney determined to remain in
Ireland and to seek the Chair of Anatomy in
Trinity College, on the death of Hartigan, who was
known to be seriously ill and not expected ever to
lecture again. Although Macartney came to this
determination early in 1812, he did not make
any movement to seek for the post till after the
announcement of Hartigan's death in December
of that year. He got little encouragement in his
canvass from Mrs. Hartigan, who wrote telling him
that her husband before his death had recom-
mended Wilmot for the chair, and went on to say
that ' the exertions of the College of Surgeons to
draw all the pupils they could to their School, as
also the number of Junior Lecturers, reduce our
income very much, and these three last years they
did not produce above one hundred pounds per
annum. If I were to advise you as a friend it would
be never to wear out your lungs for such a paltry
sum '.* It appears that Wilmot, who had been
Hartigan's deputy and was a candidate for the
post, had promised, if he were elected Professor,
to hand over to Mrs. Hartigan the whole of
the salary of the public course of lectures, so
Mrs. Hartigan's advice to Macartney cannot be
1 Macalister, Macartney, p. 91.
WHITLEY STOKES 221
considered quite disinterested. At all events the
advice had no influence on Macartney, who at
once began a vigorous canvass. He obtained
testimonials from all the leading teachers in
London, and in May took the M.D. degree of
St. Andrews University.
The election was originally fixed for the 3rd of
May, but in consequence of a mistake the adver-
tisement, though paid for, was not inserted in the
London Gazette in proper time, and on February 9
the Board postponed the date of election till
Immediately after the death of Hartigan, the
College of Physicians had appointed a Committee,
consisting of Dr. Hopkins, Dr. Leahy, and Dr.
Todderick, to draw up a recommendation to be
forwarded to the Board of Trinity College on the
subject of the vacant Professorship of Anatomy.
This Committee urged the Board to appoint a
Physician as Professor, since one of the principal
duties of the chair was the delivery of clinical
lectures at Dun's Hospital. The Committee went
on to state that Medicine and Surgery were now
quite separate branches of the profession, and that
the students the Professor would have to teach
were students of Medicine as distinct from Surgery.
It seemed impossible to them for a man to teach
Medicine properly who devoted his life entirely
to the practice and study of Surgery. This recom-
mendation the College stated was made without
partiality for any individual, and without any
knowledge of who were likely to be candidates for
222 JAMES MACARTNEY AND
the vacant office. The Committee pointed out that
the late Professor had uniformly refused to give
any Clinical lectures, and that the College of
Physicians would have drawn the attention of the
Board to this matter before ' had they not been
restrained by tenderness towards the feelings of the
late respectable Professor '. This report was sub-
mitted to the Board at their meeting on January 2,
1813, but they declined to consider the recom-
mendations, stating that the election must be
governed solely by the regulations of the School
of Physic Act. 1
Just before the election the Board passed the
following resolution, 2 which was to govern the
election of a Professor :
' if more votes shall appear for one candidate than for
any other, tho' not a majority of the entire votes, such
candidate shall be elected. If an equal number of votes
shall appear for two or more candidates greater than for
any other and the Provost shall be among the voters for
one of the said candidates the candidate for whom the
Provost has so voted shall be elected. But if the Provost
has not voted for any of the said two or more candidates
it shall be deemed that no election has taken place.'
On June 21 the Board met to elect the Professor 3
' read over the memorials of all the candidates who had
presented memorials and lodged their testimonials and
documents according to the provisions of the Act of
Parliament, viz. of Dr. Samuel Wilmot, Dr. James
Macartney, Sir Thomas Moriarty, M.D., Dr. Peter Edward
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 84. * Ibid., p. 96. ' Ibid., p. 96.
WHITLEY STOKES 223
M'Loughlin, and Dr. Richard Ryan. The votes were then
taken, when there appeared for Dr. M'Loughlin one vote,
viz. Dr. Prior ; for Dr. Wilmot one vote, viz. Dr. Phipps ;
and the Provost and the five remaining Senior Fellows
for Dr. James Macartney, who was declared duly elected
and, being called in, took the Oath prescribed by the
Act and was admitted into the Professorship.'
At the following Summer Commencements Mac-
artney was given by the University the degree of
M.D., honoris causa.
Of the unsuccessful candidates at this election
Samuel Wilmot had perhaps the strongest claims
on the electors. He had taken Hartigan's place
during his illness, and the Board had appointed
him, on Hartigan's death, to continue the lectures
till the new Professor was appointed, though
in doing so they expressly informed him ' that
this Permission is not to give him any peculiar
claim to the Professorship of Anatomy '- 1 After
the election the Board voted him the sum of
one hundred guineas as a testimony of their
approbation of the way he had performed his
Peter M'Loughlin was a graduate in Arts and
Medicine of the University, and a Fellow of the
College of Physicians, and he seems to have had
the support of that body in his candidature.
Sir Thomas Moriarty had been knighted in
November, i8io, 2 but neither he nor Ryan seems
to have had any substantial claim to the Pro-
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 81. * Knights, vol. ii, p. 310.
224 JAMES MACARTNEY AND
Macartney's colleagues on the staff of the School
at the time of his appointment were :
Medicus Whitley Stokes.
Regius Professor of Medicine . Edward Hill.
Professor of Botany .... William Allman.
Professor of Chemistry . . . Francis Barker.
Practice of Medicine . . . Martin Tuomy.
Institutes of Medicine . . . John William Boy ton.
Materia Medica and Pharmacy . John Crampton.
Of these men by far the most distinguished was
Whitley Stokes, who, besides being Medicus, had
held the King's Professorship of the Practice of
Medicine from 1798 to 1812.
Whitley Stokes, the son of the Rev. Gabriel
Stokes, an ex-Fellow of Trinity College, was born in
Waterford in 1763. His grandfather, also Gabriel,
was a distinguished scientific instrument maker
and engineer, and had held the office of Deputy
Surveyor-General of Ireland. Whitley entered
Trinity College in 1778, was elected a Scholar in
1781, and commencing B.A. in the spring of 1783,
was elected a Fellow four years later in 1787, being
on July i, 1789, at his own request, elected into
the medical Fellowship. 1 On June 22, 1793, having
laid before the Board the necessary certificates of
his attendance on the several Professors of Medi-
cine, he was granted a Liceat ad examinandum,
and the degrees of M.B. and M.D. were conferred
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 77.
WHITLEY STOKES 225
on him at the Summer Commencements. In
November 1795 he was admitted a Licentiate of the
College of Physicians without examination, having
in that year succeeded Thomas Elrington as
Donegall Professor of Mathematics in the Uni-
versity. In the March previous he had received
a grant of 50 from the Board ' for the purpose of
Prosecuting his Studies in Edinburgh '. l Stokes,
like Macartney, became implicated in the United
Irishmen movement, and was actually a captain
in one of the corps of that body. Like Macartney,
too, he did not approve the whole tendency of
the movement, and in 1791 he seems to have
largely withdrawn himself from the society. In
April 1798 the Lord Chancellor, Lord Clare, and
Dr. Duigenan, acting as Visitors of the University,
held a visitation to inquire as to the existence of
seditious and treasonable societies among the
students of the College. Stokes was one of the
principal men put on trial. He denied that he
knew of the existence of any society of United
Irishmen, or of any illegal or secret societies in the
College. He admitted having been a member of
that body himself prior to 1791, and that he had
recently attended as physician a man who was
known to be a member, but he pleaded as his
excuse that the man was sick and very poor.
Many witnesses testified in Stokes's favour, and
stated that his influence among the students was
always used for the best. Lord Clare, however,
was implacable, and Stokes was adjudged unfit
1 Reg., voL'v, p. 269.
226 JAMES MACARTNEY AND
to hold the office of College tutor, and was not to
be allowed to be elected a Senior Fellow for three
years. Subsequently a very strong memorial was
sent to Lord Clare in favour of Stokes, and drew
from the noble Lord the following letter : 1
' Berkeley Square,
' Nov. 15, 1799.
' Dear Sir, I am favoured with your letter and a
memorial, very respectably signed by some of the Fellows
of Trinity College in favour of Dr. Stokes. It is quite
unnecessary, I hope, to assure you that it will always
give me great pleasure to comply with any request which
may come so forcibly urged to me. In the present
instance, however, the thing is impossible, as what has
been done at the last Visitation is, in my opinion, irre-
vocable ; and even if it were not, I am sorry to be obliged
to state to you that, from my knowledge of Dr. Stokes,
he is a most improper person to be entrusted in any
degree with the government or direction of any College.
If I had been at liberty to act at the last Visitation on
perfectly well-grounded private conviction, I must have
' I am, very truly, your faithful, humble Servant,
Every action of Stokes throughout his long life
shows him to be a man whom Lord Clare could
neither buy nor bully, and this may perhaps be
urged in extenuation of the harsh sentence passed
by the Visitors.
Wolfe Tone in his Journal, writing in reference
to this incident on May 20, 1798, forms a fairer
opinion of Stokes when he says :
1 Stubbs, p. 300.
WHITLEY STOKES 227
' With regard to Stokes, I know he is acting rigidly on
principle, for I know he is incapable of acting otherwise ;
but I fear very much that his very metaphysical unbend-
ing purity, which can accommodate itself neither to
man, tune, nor circumstances, will always prevent his
being of any service to his country, which is a thousand
pities ; for I know no man whose virtues and whose
talents I more sincerely reverence. I see only one place
fit for him, and, after all, if Ireland were independent,
I believe few enlightened Irishmen would oppose his
being placed there I mean at the head of a system
of national education. I hope this last specimen of
FitzGibbon's moderation may give him a little of that
political energy which he wants ; for I have often heard
him observe himself that nothing sharpened men's
patriotism more than a reasonable quantity of insult and
ill-usage ; he may now be a living instance and justify
his doctrine by his practice.' 1
The place designed for Stokes by Tone was never
to be his, but instead, for many years to come, he
was to occupy the most prominent position as
a medical teacher in the two great Schools of the
country. In consequence of the decision of the
Visitors, the Board were compelled on March 3,
1800, to pass over Stokes when a vacancy occurred
among the Senior Fellows, 2 but on June 10, 1805,
he was admitted into the Senior Fellowship vacant
by the death of Dr. Browne. 3 We have seen that
during the winter session of 1803-4, Stokes was
authorized to give clinical lectures in the Meath
Hospital, of which place he subsequently, in 1818,
became Physician. For many years he acted as
Curator of the University Museum, for which
1 Wolfe Tone, vol. ii, p. 315. * Reg., vol. v, p. 346.
' Ibid., p. 435.
228 JAMES MACARTNEY AND
service he received a small salary from the Board,
and on several occasions was thanked by them for
the additions which he had made to the Museum.
On June 21, 1806, he received permission from the
Board to deliver lectures on Natural History,
provided such lectures did not interfere with the
other duties of the students. These lectures were
to be delivered in the Law School at two o'clock
in the afternoon, but though they were continued
for several years they are not to be looked on as
instituting a professorship, as this subject was for
many years deemed part of the province of the
Professor of Anatomy.
In 1810 Stokes's energies were directed into a
new channel, for on July 14 of that year the Board
appointed him to superintend the mines which had
been found on the College estates. This appoint-
ment was to last for seven years, and Stokes was
' to receive half the clear profit arising from the
mines during that period V
From the foundation of Trinity College the
statute enforcing celibacy on the Fellows had been
nominally in force, but, as we have seen, it was
as often honoured in the breach as in the observ-
ance. A custom seems to have grown up, whereby
it was considered that the statute need only be
enforced in those cases in which its breach was
brought officially to the cognizance of the Board.
Towards the close of the year 1811, however, the
Board obtained a King's Letter enforcing the
Statute of Celibacy on the Fellows, but freeing
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 532.
WHITLEY STOKES 229
from censure any of those Fellows who, within
two months of the promulgation of the Statute,
declared themselves to be married before the
'royal will became expressly declared'. 1 Stokes
petitioned against any of the College money being
expended on procuring this Letter, on the grounds
that the governing part of the College had not been
consulted on its expediency, and ' because the
restraints on marriage contained in this Statute
appear to me likely to injure the morals of this
College and to give countenance to the formation
of convents in Ireland'. 2 His protest was, how-
ever, of no avail, and on January 4, 1812, he gave
notice to the Provost that on July 28, 1796, he had
married Mary Anne Picknell. 3
On February 4, 1798, Stokes was appointed
King's Professor of the Practice of Medicine in
place of Stephen Dickson. Dickson had been
appointed King's Professor of Materia Medica and
Pharmacy in 1786, but on the death of Edward
Brereton, having resigned this appointment, he
was, on the 27th March, 1792, elected King's
Professor of the Practice of Medicine. In 1797
Dickson was admonished by the electors for neglect
of duty and for persistence of this neglect he
was, on December 4, 1797, deprived of his office.
Stokes' s second term of seven years as Professor
ended on February 6, 1812, and on that day
Martin Tuomy was appointed his successor. No
reason has been assigned for this displacement
1 T. C. D. Statutes, vol. i, p. 241. * Reg., vol. vi, p. 31.
' Ibid., p. 33.
230 JAMES MACARTNEY AND
of Stokes, and that it did not meet with his
approval is evident from the fact that he con-
templated taking legal action against the electors
on the ground of insufficient notice. 1 The Col-
lege of Physicians, however, obtained Counsel's
opinion that three lunar months', not three
calendar months', notice was all that was re-
quired by the Act, and Stokes had to remain
satisfied with this. On April n following he
obtained leave from the Board to deliver a course
of lectures on the Practice of Medicine in the
Medical Lecture Room No. 22, Trinity College.
A similar leave was given in the next year, and
Stokes continued to lecture on Medicine in the
University for some time, though he did not
hold any medical professorship.
It has been stated that Stokes resigned his
Senior Fellowship on account of conscientious
scruples, 2 he having joined the religious sect
known as the ' Walkerites ', but this statement is
not borne out by the Register of the Board. The
sect of the Walkerites had been founded about
1804 by John Walker, a Fellow of Trinity College.
Walker held, among other opinions, that all
Christians should practise the advice of St. Paul,
and ' salute one another with a holy kiss '. A
Chapel of the sect was opened in Stafford Street,
and the congregation soon became large, but
dissensions arose as to the necessity of observance
of St. Paul's advice in public assemblies. 3 The
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 36. * Cameron, Hist., p. 503.
' Ibid., p. 486.
WHITLEY STOKES 231
two sub-sects resulting from this division were
termed at the time the ' Osculists ' and the ' Anti-
Osculists '. Whether Stokes adopted these opinions
or not, or if he did which of the sub-sects he joined,
we have been unable to discover, but his own
letter leaves us in no doubt that it was for an
entirely different reason he resigned his Fellowship.
In 1814 the Board had under consideration the
establishment of a Chair of Natural History. It
was decided that such a Chair should be instituted
and offered to Stokes, if he resigned his Fellowship.
The Chair was to be worth 800 a year, but was
not at any time ( to be tenable with a Fellowship ' ;
The Professor was to deliver at least twenty-six
lectures each year in the months of May and June,
and was to be allowed to charge fees for such
lectures to any students not on the College books
who wished to attend. The appointment was for
life, subject to the control of the Board ' in like
manner, and under like penalties, as are settled
with respect to the Professor of Divinity by the
Statutes '. l In consequence of this appointment
Stokes handed to the Board the following written
statement : ' In consequence of my having been
elected to the Lecturership of Natural History
by the Resolution in the Registry of the 3oth
of May last, and in Reliance on the same, I do
hereby resign my Senior Fellowship in Trinity
College Dublin.' 2
This action of the Board in so richly endowing
a Chair of Natural History has been the subject
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 173. * Ibid., p. 179.
232 JAMES MACARTNEY AND
of some comment, but it must be remembered that
in their appointment of Stokes they were securing
his services as a teacher at a smaller salary than
he might justly have expected as a mere adminis-
trative officer in the College.
On January 15, 1816, Stokes was elected an
Honorary Fellow of the College of Physicians, and
on December 14, 1818, he was elected Physician
to the Meath Hospital in the place of Thomas
Egan, deceased, and on the I5th June following he
was elected Professor of Medicine in the College
of Surgeons School as successor to John Cheyne.
His appointment as Physician to the Meath he
resigned in favour of his son the great William
Stokes in 1826, but he continued his lectures in the
College of Surgeons till 1829, an d on November 13,
1830, he succeeded Hill as Regius Professor of
In one of the letters of ' Erinensis ' to the Lancet,
which Cameron l attributes to Dr. Herries Greene,
a very pleasant picture is drawn of Stokes as
a lecturer. In this description the writer tells us
that ' besides the excellence of the matter in his
discourses, the composition is invariably correct,
sometimes beautiful and sublime as the subject
admits ', and again, ' having concluded his lecture
he lays aside the didactic formality of their
Profession ; the elevation of the naturalist sub-
sides into the dignified familiarity of the com-
panion ; seated upon the end of his table he is
surrounded by his pupils, and inculcates by a
1 Cameron, Hist., p. 339.
WHITLEY STOKES 233
practical illustration those amenities of life of
which he is so warm an advocate, and so perfect
an example.' *
In this courtesy of demeanour, Stokes seems to
have differed from many of his contemporaries.
Graves, speaking in 1821, contrasts the manners
of Irish physicians with those of French, very much
to the disadvantage of the former. He speaks of
the ' laudable curiosity on the part of the student
suppressed by a forbidding demeanour or an
uncourteous answer from his teacher '. And again
of French physicians, ' we do not find them
indulging in coarse, harsh, and even vulgar
expressions to their hospital patients ; we do not
find them with two vocabularies one for the rich,
and another for the poor.' z
Stokes did not write much on medical matters.
In 1793 he published in Latin his thesis for the
M.D. degree, taking as his subject ' Respiration '.
In 1817 he published a small pamphlet on the
subject of contagion, in which he advocated
advanced views on the necessity of isolation of the
sick and disinfection of their houses. He also
published an English-Irish Dictionary, a reply to
Paine's Age of Reason, and a booklet combating the
views of Malthus on Population. On April the
I3th, 1845, he died at his house in Harcourt Street
at the age of eighty-two ; he was survived by his
wife for just three years.
1 Lancet, vol. iii, 1824, p. 58.
* Graves Lectures, 1864, pp. 6 and 7.
THE NEW SCHOOL
As knowledge of anatomy is the foundation of
all study of medicine, so an efficient Anatomical
Department is essential to the success of a School
of Medicine. With the appointment of Macartney
the School of Physic was to enter on a period of
activity which had hardly been dreamed of before.
Macartney, fresh from the London Schools, full of
vigour and energy, determined to make the School
of Physic in Ireland equal if not superior to the
great schools of London and Edinburgh. The
duties of the Professor of Anatomy consisted in
delivering a course of twelve Public Lectures, open
to all students of the University, and also a course
of Systematic Lectures on five days in the week,
together with superintending the work in the
dissecting-room. Besides this he had to deliver in
his turn clinical lectures in the Hospital to the
students of the School. This latter duty almost
at once caused some friction, for since Macartney
had no licence to practise Physic from the College
of Physicians the Fellows of that College were not
permitted to consult with him. This anomalous
position of a teacher of clinical medicine, not him-
self licensed to practise the subject which he
taught, Macartney seems to have made no effort
THE NEW SCHOOL 235
to alter, as he did not apply to the College of
Physicians for a licence. Had he done so there
can be no doubt that such a licence would have
been granted to him as a graduate of medicine of
St. Andrews, and an honorary graduate of Dublin.
On the i6th of August, 1824, the Fellows of the
College of Physicians themselves removed the
difficulty by electing him an Honorary Fellow.
On November i, 1813, Macartney delivered his
first introductory lecture in Trinity College, taking
as his subject the importance of anatomy in
medical education. In that year fifty-three
students entered for the systematic course and
twenty-one for dissections. This session was so
occupied by teaching and preparing specimens
for the Museum, and by lecture-room duties, that
Macartney had little time left to originate any
administrative reform in the School.
The procedure at the final examination for
medical degrees was at the time unsatisfactory.
The student having finished his course of study
presented a certificate to that effect to the Board,
who granted him a Liceat ad examinandum. This
the candidate presented to the Examiners, and at
the examination, which was conducted in Latin,
each of the Professors in turn examined him
orally for fifteen minutes. If the Examiners con-
sidered the knowledge shown at this examination
sufficient, the Board granted the candidate leave
to perform acts, after which he had a grace for his
degree. Macartney was anxious to increase the
efficiency of the Professors' examination by intro-
236 THE NEW SCHOOL
ducing practical tests, and to effect this he sug-
gested to his colleagues that they should in the
case of each candidate hold a private examination
in English, and if the candidate did not pass this
examination satisfactorily, he was to be dissuaded
from applying for a Liceat. This plan did not meet
with the approval of the King's Professors, who
met to make representations on the subject to the
College of Physicians. Boyton and Tuomy drew
up a report which was submitted to the College
of Physicians at their meeting on October I, 1814,
in which they stated that this departure from
ancient custom would tend to lower the standing
of the Profession and make the examination held
under the Liceat a mere formal procedure with-
out dignity. Crampton, the Professor of Materia
Medica, wrote stating that he was not present
at the meeting at which this report was drawn up,
and that he had refused to sign it as it did not
meet with his approval. The College, however,
adopted the view of the two Professors contained
in the report, and passed a resolution directing the
King's Professors that they were not ' to be
present at any examination for medical degrees,
in which any question might be put or answer
received in the English language '* They also
resolved that all the clinical lectures in Dun's
Hospital and the reports of the cases taken there,
were to be in the Latin tongue. This resolution
was sent to the Board of Trinity College, who
forwarded a copy of it to Hill, the Regius Professor
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 138.
THE NEW SCHOOL 237
of Physic, with a request that he would inform
them whether the examinations for degrees held
under the Liceat ad examinandum were conducted
in Latin. Hill replied as follows :
' Examinations in English as introductory to a learned
Profession are so absolutely contrary to the conceptions
which I entertain of a literary education, as to render it
impossible that I would tolerate them in any case in
which I possessed any influence. No instance of the kind
has ever happened to me, and in the examinations of
Medical Candidates under a Liceat ad examinandum how
could I in any possibility be satisfied thro' such examina-
tion of the Candidates being Doctrina idoneum.' 1
In extenuation of this opinion we must remem-
ber that Hill, himself an excellent classical scholar,
was at the time seventy-two years old. A com-
promise was eventually effected through the inter-
vention of Provost Elrington, whereby the pre-
liminary examination, as well as the examination
under the Liceat were both conducted in Latin.
At this time the number attending lectures in the
School rose rapidly, and the old Anatomy House
was no longer sufficient for their accommodation.
To give more space to the Professor of Anatomy
the Board, on January 24, 1815, directed that the
' wax-works ' should be removed to the top story
of the house, and that an additional building
should be ' erected in the garden adjacent to the
Anatomy House ' . 2 In the folio wing year the Natural
Philosophy School was appropriated to Anatomy,
the instruments in it being ' removed to the Room
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 138. * Ibid., p. 157 a.
238 THE NEW SCHOOL
over the Ante dining Hall V Macartney was not
content with merely delivering his own course of
lectures in the School, but was anxious that the
most complete facilities for education should be
afforded to students. With this object he applied
to the Board for leave for Arthur Jacob to deliver
lectures in the Anatomy Theatre on the construc-
tion and diseases of the Eye, and permission for
this was granted in April i8i8. 2 In the following
September he obtained permission for Dr. Pent-
land to deliver a complete course of lectures on
Midwifery. This subject was not at the time
taught in the School of Physic. The Board had, on
October i, 1803, permitted Francis Hopkins ' to
read the introductory lectures of his course of
Midwifery in the Medical lecture room in the
College ', but a Chair in Midwifery was not
established till many years later. As there was
a Professor of Midwifery in the School of the
College of Surgeons, and the Master of the Rotunda
Hospital gave regular courses of lectures in the
subject, it was obviously to the advantage of the
School of Physic that the students should not be
compelled to seek teaching in this important
subject in rival institutions.
In 1820 the number of students studying
medicine in the School of Physic reached 303, and
the problem to find accommodation for them became
urgent. Macartney was compelled to repeat his
lectures twice each day as there was not room for
the entire class in the theatre at one time, and, to
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 203. * Ibid., p. 218.
THE NEW SCHOOL 239
add to the difficulties, the floors in the old Anatomy
House were found to be in a very dangerous state.
Under these circumstances the Board, on Septem-
ber 27, 1820, resolved ' that for the present the use
of the Building No. 22, is granted for the purpose
of holding the lectures in Anatomy and Chirur-
gery ', and that ' a plan for building a new House
for those purposes is to be furnished by the
Architect to the Bursar'. 1 Macalister 2 states
that this permission was accompanied by the
condition that no dead body be brought into the
room, but the resolution of the Board, as given in
the Register, contains no such proviso.
Nothing more was done about the new building
during this session, and in March 1821 Macartney
wrote urging the Board to proceed with the new
building. In reply to this request the Board
informed him that when the Professors and the
architect would agree as to the plans the Board
were prepared to obtain estimates, and they ap-
pointed a committee consisting of Doctors Phipps,
Lloyd, and Wilson, Senior Fellows, ' to determine
on the best site.' 3 This proved a matter of con-
siderable difficulty, and various suggestions were
put forward. Macartney wanted a building on
the site at present occupied by the Pathological
Laboratory and Dental Hospital, with openings
into Lincoln Place and into the College. The
Provost suggested that the site of the old Anatomy
House should be selected, but eventually it was
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 280. * Macalister, Macartney, p. 131.
* Reg., vol. vi, p. 299.
240 THE NEW SCHOOL
decided that the building should be ' on the
ground heretofore the Bowling Green V
The College park at that time presented a very
different appearance from what it does at present.
When the College was founded its southern
boundary was formed by a badly-made road,
known as St. Patrick's Well Lane, so called from
the holy well of St. Patrick which was situated
in the College ground almost opposite the end
of the present Dawson Street. About 1682, the
old Danish mound, or Thingmote, which occupied
the present position of St. Andrew's Church, was
removed, and the earth of which it was composed
was deposited in St. Patrick's Well Lane, so as
to raise this considerably above the level of the
College ground. The new road thus formed was
called Nassau Street, after the Prince of Orange,
and the Board of Trinity College built a high brick
wall separating their property from the street.
About the same time the Board gave permission for
a bowling green to be laid down in the park, and
allowed as a subscription towards the undertaking
the sum received from ' the last Commencement
supper fees'. 2 The park was to a certain extent
laid out and planted in 1722, but it remained,
especially towards its eastern end, more or less
of a marsh where, even as late as the end of the
eighteenth century, snipe might sometimes be found.
In this condition the park continued till in 1842 the
old boundary wall was replaced by the present rail-
ings, and in 1852 the ground was drained.
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 342. * Reg., vol. iii, p. 241.
THE NEW SCHOOL 241
In April 1823 the Board advertised for estimates
for the new Medical School buildings, according to
the plans of Mr. Morrison, the College architect.
Several estimates, varying from 3,980 to 5,350,
were received, and that of Messrs. Bergin,
M'Kenna and Woods 1 was accepted, and the
work was commenced in May. Macalister takes
the Board to task for not having insisted that the
plans of the building should satisfy the Professors.
It would appear, however, that the plans, as sub-
mitted by the architect, were sent by the Board
to Macartney for his criticism, and the architect
was directed to modify his plans in accordance with
these criticisms before the Board advertised for
estimates. It is always a difficult matter for a
body like the Board to adjudicate in a professional
matter of the kind, and one does not see what
more they could have done than accept the plans
of the architect prepared under such conditions.
Macartney seems to have felt himself aggrieved
that he was not given a free hand in the matter,
but just as subsequent events failed to justify his
objection to the site selected, so probably he was
not infallible in his ideas as to the architectural
details. There was, it is true, some difficulty
about light, but when the attention of the Board
was directed to this, they immediately ordered
that the required alteration should be made, and
voted a sum of 100 for the purpose. 2
There were other troubles connected with the
building, besides those connected with the plans,
1 Reg,, vol. vi, p. 342. * Ibid., p. 352.
242 THE NEW SCHOOL
for in the Register, on the I4th of February, 1824,
we read that ' it appearing that a violent assault
had been made on the workmen employed at the
new Anatomy House by journeymen carpenters
in combination, it was agreed that the Bursar
be directed to offer a reward of 100 for the dis-
covery of those concerned '.* The reward, however,
does not appear ever to have been claimed. One
day when Macartney was inspecting the building
just before its completion, he met the architect
and expressed his opinion of the work in very
plain terms. Words led to blows, and the meeting
ended by Macartney breaking his umbrella over
Morrison's head. An action at law was started in
consequence, but peace was made between the
parties by the Provost. 2 On November i, 1825,
Macartney delivered his inaugural lecture in the
new School, and stated that ' The Board of Trinity
College have bestowed a more valuable gift upon
the community by building this house than if they
had founded ten hospitals '. 3
During this session a most serious charge was
brought against Macartney, involving not only
his character, but that of the School. It appears
that a youth named Clements, who had attended
lectures in the School, when dying of fever, had
refused the ministrations of the Church, avowing
himself an Atheist. This youth protested that
any one who studied physiology would naturally
come to adopt such views. As Macartney taught
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 354. * Macalister, Macartney, p. 164.
1 Ibid., p. 1 66.
THE NEW SCHOOL 243
physiology in the School his enemies were only
too glad to fix on him the responsibility for
this youth's opinions, and a charge of teaching
materialism was formulated against the Professor.
At the instance of the Archbishop of Dublin, the
Board cited Macartney and his accusers to appear
before them, in order that the charges might be
investigated, and, after a very full hearing of the
evidence Macartney was honourably acquitted of
the charges by the unanimous vote of the Board.
This accusation attracted considerable attention
at the time, not only in England, but also in
Europe, and Macartney received many letters
congratulating him on his acquittal.
It was during the early part of Macartney's
tenure of the Professorship that a Society of
Medical Students, the forerunner of the present
Biological Association, came into active existence.
As early as May 2, 1801, permission had been
granted for ' a Medical Society under the control
of the Board ' * to meet within the College, but this
Society does not seem to have flourished and we
hear nothing more of it. On November 26, i8i4 >
the Board granted their permission to a Society
of Medical Students to hold their meetings in the
lecture-room in No. 22 Trinity College. 2 This per-
mission was, however, withdrawn in January 1823 3
and afterwards the Society seems to have languished,
if it did not actually expire. It was revived again
in 1853 by Robert Ball, under the name of the
Dublin University Zoological and Botanical Asso-
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 371. * Ibid., vol. vi, p. 44. * Ibid., p. 336.
244 THE NEW SCHOOL
ciation, and in 1859 published a volume of Trans-
actions, after which we again lose sight of it till
it was revived later in its present form.
At this time another trouble which was seriously
to menace the prosperity of the School was coming
into prominence. In the early days of medical
teaching in Ireland there seems to have been no
difficulty in procuring an adequate supply of
material for anatomical dissections. It did not
need a large supply to satisfy the requirements
of the five dissecting tables in the old school,
and prior to the establishment of the school of
the College of Surgeons in 1784, the Anatomical
Theatre in Trinity College was the only public
dissecting-room in Dublin. In the eighteenth cen-
tury the supply of subjects was obtained by the
removal of recently buried bodies from the city
graveyards, for though the College of Physicians
had the right of demanding the bodies of a certain
number of executed criminals each year for the
purpose of dissection this privilege does not seem
to have been exercised. The method of procuring
anatomical material by robbing graves sometimes
got the students into trouble. In the Dublin
Gazette for September 4, 1750, we read :
' Last Fryday evening some young Surgeons went in
a Coach to Doneybrook to take up the corpse of a child
who had been buried in that Churchyard the night before :
While they were digging open the grave, the father of the
child got information of it, and assembling some of his neigh-
bours, came to the place by the time they had got the body
up ; when they fell on them, took the corpse back again,
and severely chastised the young gentlemen for their pains.'
THE NEW SCHOOL 245
In the same paper for October 2, 1750, there is
published a letter from one William Smith, ' now
under sentence of death in Newgate/ in which he
' As to my corporal frame, I know it is unworthy of
material notice ; but for the sake of that reputable family
from which I am descended, I cannot refrain from anxiety
when I think how easily this poor body in my friendless
and necessitous condition, may fall into the possession of
the Surgeons and perpetuate my disgrace beyond the
severity of the law.'
On these grounds he prays the ' humane ' to supply
him with funds to enable him to have his body
decently buried in consecrated ground.
The difficulty of getting subjects in Edinburgh,
and the high price they commanded, culminated
in 1828 in the atrocities of Burke and Hare,
who systematically murdered persons and sold
their bodies to the Schools. The discovery of
the crimes committed by these men created a
popular outburst throughout the kingdom against
the methods of the resurrectionists and led to many
riots, in one of which the dissecting-room of
Dr. Alexander Moir in Glasgow was burned by the
mob. Macartney was fearful for the safety of his
own department in the College, especially as at
that time the neighbourhood of Lincoln Place,
or Park Street, as it was then called, was in-
habited by a very undesirable population. There
was trouble, too, with the Porter, Cuddy, who
appears to have tried on several occasions to stir
up the people against the Professor and the School.
246 THE NEW SCHOOL
Under these circumstances Macartney wrote a
letter to the papers in which he says :
' I do not think that the upper and middle class have
understood the effects of their own conduct when they
take part in impeding the progress of dissection, nor does
it seem wise to discountenance the practice by which
many of them are supplied with artificial teeth and hair.
Very many of the upper ranks carry in their mouths
teeth which have been buried in the Hospital Fields.'
We do not know what weight this appeal had, but
it does not seem calculated to lead to the open
support, at all events, of the practice of the
resurrection-men. In 1828 he adopted a better
method, and drew up the following document,
which he signed himself, and induced many other
notable persons to sign :
' We whose names are hereunto affixed, being convinced
that the study of Anatomy is of the utmost value to
mankind, inasmuch as it illustrates various branches
of Natural and Moral Science, and constitutes the very
basis of the healing art ; and believing that the erroneous
opinions and vulgar prejudices which prevail, with
regard to dissections, will be most effectually removed by
practical example ; do hereby deliberately and solemnly
express our desire that, at the usual period after death,
our bodies, instead of being interred, should be devoted
by our surviving friends to the more rational, benevolent,
and honourable purpose of explaining the structure,
functions, and diseases of the human body.' l
Macartney took an active part in the legisla-
tion which eventually led to the passing of the
Anatomy Act of 1832. He gave evidence before
the Parliamentary Committee, and though he
1 Lond. Med. Gazette, vol. i, p. 637.
THE NEW SCHOOL 247
did not approve all the provisions of the Bill, he
gave it his general support, believing that some
legislation was necessary to remove the difficulties
and restraints under which teachers of Anatomy
In Dublin there does not seem ever to have been
an actual shortage of anatomical material before
the passing of the Anatomy Act, such as existed in
other places, but the constant worry and danger
involved in procuring material told heavily on the
anatomical teachers and threatened at any time to
ruin both them and the School in which they
SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. MACARTNEY'S
IN addition to the dissecting-room and chemical
laboratory, lecture-rooms had been provided in the
new Medical School for the Professors of Anatomy
and Chemistry. The three University Professors
of Anatomy, Chemistry, and Botany lectured there,
the two former in the winter session, from Novem-
ber till the end of April, and the latter in the
summer session, from May till July. The other
lectures of the School, in the theory and practice
of Medicine, in the institutes of Medicine, and in
Materia Medica and Pharmacy, together with the
Clinical lectures, were delivered in Sir Patrick
Dun's Hospital. These six Professors, with their
various departments, constituted the School of
Physic in Ireland, which, being partly housed and
paid for by the University and partly by the
College of Physicians, was under the joint control
of the two Colleges. It is important to remember
that at this time the School of Physic was not
looked on as the Medical School of Trinity College,
any more than it was the School of the College of
The charge has often been brought against
Trinity College that she neglected her School of
SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 249
Medicine, and looked on it as something apart from
the University and unworthy her care till its very
success forced recognition. History, however, does
not warrant such a charge, and sufficient answer
to it is found in the readiness with which the Board
sanctioned the expenditure of over 4,000 on the
new school buildings, besides taxing their revenues
with a considerable sum yearly for the support of
the various Professors and their departments.
True, the new Medical School was walled off from
the rest of the College, and entrance to it from
the College park forbidden, but in explanation of
this we must remember that the majority of the
students there were not students of Trinity College,
and not directly under the control of the Fellows.
The students of the School were divided into
two classes, those who took the Arts course in the
University, and those who, in accordance with the
provisions of the School of Physic Act, had merely
matriculated in the School, and of the whole class
the latter division supplied by far the greater
number. Though the control of the School was
equally divided, there was one function over which
Trinity College had undivided authority that of
conferring degrees, or qualifications on the students
who had completed their courses. Over this func-
tion of the University the College of Physicians had
no control. The College of Physicians had, it is
true, the right given them by the 45th Section
of the School of Pnysic Act, to examine all can-
didates who sought their licence, and in accordance
with the Charter of the College no one could
250 SCHOOL MANAGEMENT
practise Physic within a radius of seven miles of
Dublin who did not possess this licence ; still the
privilege gave the College little real control over
the qualifications of medical practitioners. Com-
paratively few took the licence of the College of
Physicians, and licentiates of both the Royal
College of Surgeons and the Apothecaries' Hall
practised with impunity, though they were not
entitled to call themselves physicians.
We have seen that on the 2Qth June, 1792,* the
Board adopted a form of diploma which was to be
given to all Medical students who had matricu-
lated in the School, on completing their course of
medical study and passing a prescribed examina-
tion. This diploma was identical for those who
had graduated in Arts and for those who had not,
but on the latter the Board would not confer a
degree. This caused some discontent among the
students, who considered that the diploma held
out the promise of a degree, which promise the
Board refused to fulfil. To remove this discontent
the King's Professors submitted to the College of
Physicians for their approval a form of diploma
which left out all reference to a degree, merely
stating that after due study ' iudicamus eum
habilem atque idoneum qui Medicinam exerceat* .
The College approved this diploma and stated that
they would examine for licence any one presenting
it. The diploma was then submitted to the Board,
and on May 3, 1817, it was adopted. 2 The College
of Physicians were, however, not satisfied with the
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 221. * Reg., vol. vi, p. 200.
SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 251
medical curriculum, and on September 14, 1820,
they received a report from a committee which
had been appointed ' to consider what changes in
the system of medical education should be laid
before the Board of Trinity College '. This report
recommended that the period of study should be
lengthened to five years, and that during the third
year students should be compelled to attend the
Clinical lectures in Dun's Hospital, and that during
the fourth year they should attend Clinical lectures
' in some Capital or University out of Ireland
where medicine is publickly taught '. This, how-
ever, was an admission which would have been
fatal to the School, for there would be no justifica-
tion for its existence and its power to license
medical men, were it not in a position to teach
them without compelling them to attend at some
other school. The report was, however, modified,
and on October 2, 1820, it was ordered that the
following letter should be sent to the Board of
Trinity College. 1
' The President and Fellows of the King and Queen's
College of Physicians in Ireland feel it their duty to
address you on a subject of great importance, not only
to the profession over which they preside, but to the
community at large. The manner in which the diplomas
in Medicine are conferred in the School of Physic has been
found to occasion serious injury to the public by tending
to encourage as Medical Practitioners persons who are
in no respect qualified to be recognised as such. It appears
to the College most strange that while the Surgeon is
obliged by law to have an apprenticeship of five and an
1 Col. P. Minutes.
252 SCHOOL MANAGEMENT
Apothecary of seven years, the Physician, whose profes-
sional studies are more extensive than either, and whose
literary attainments ought to be more general, should
obtain a diploma in the short space of three years only.
' The Academic Degrees of M.B. cannot be procured
until the completion of the seventh year after the period
of entrance into the University. The College are of
opinion that a period of at least five years study ought
to be required from those who are candidates for the
diploma. They would further submit to the Provost and
Board of Trinity College that no person be permitted to
matriculate until he should have completed his eighteenth
year, and that it be considered imperative on each
Medical student to attend annually two Professors, and
the Hospital and Clinical lectures during the last two
years. The College further beg leave to submit to the
Board the propriety of coming to a determination on the
subject as speedily as may be convenient.'
This letter was received by the Board at their
meeting on October 5, 1820, and ' the Register
was directed to communicate to the College their
approbation of the principle and to invite them
to suggest a detailed plan '.* This the College of
Physicians at once proceeded to do and presented
the following report to the Board.
' That the principal defects in the present system of
medical education are
' i. The too easy admission of Students many of whom
commence their Medical Education without those previous
classical acquirements which are indispensable for the
study of a learned profession.
' 2. The facility afforded by the very rapid attainment
of medical honours, thus legalising practice resting on no
solid basis, on the product of a crude and undigested mass
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 280.
SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 253
' 3. The Committee therefore think that if the following
regulations, suggested for the adoption of Trinity College,
were enacted the errors complained of would be remedied
as far as can be expected at present.
' These proposed regulations it will be observed differ
somewhat from the first submitted but preserve their spirit.
' I. That no person shall be admissible as a medical
student of the University until he shall have undergone
a Classical Examination in the courses required for
entrance into Trinity College.
' 2. That Certificates of Medical Study for five Sessions
(authenticated by the proper officer) at any University
or Universities where residence is enforced, shall be
required previous to examination for a diploma, and that
the said Certificate shall set forth that the Candidate has
during the above mentioned period attended lectures on
Anatomy, Chemistry, Materia Medica, the theory and
practice of Physic, two courses of Clinical lectures in
two separate Sessions (one whereof shall have been
delivered in Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital) and has dissected
for one Session.'
This important and comprehensive document
was sent to the Board who, on November 25, 1820,
' Such Medical Students as apply for Matriculation be
informed by the present Senior Lecturer, that a new
arrangement is under consideration respecting the
period of medical studies to which they must be subject '- 1
The outlook was distinctly hopeful, and on
June n, 1821, the Registrar of the College of
Physicians communicated to that body the sub-
stance of a correspondence he had had with the
Registrar of Trinity College. Time passed, how-
ever, without anything being done, and on
1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 288.
254 SCHOOL MANAGEMENT
September 26, 1822, the College of Physicians
resolved that the negotiations with Trinity College,
respecting medical education, should be revived.
Objections were raised by the Board to the sug-
gested scheme, and on the 28th October, 1822,
the College of Physicians offered, ' if the Board
object to the trouble of examining the candidates
for matriculation ', to appoint Examiners them-
selves. Even this did not bring matters to a head,
and on April 12, 1823, the College of Physicians
learned from the Royal College of Physicians of
London that ' they do not consider the Diploma
of the School of Physic in Ireland a sufficient
qualification on which to grant an examination for
license '. Subsequently the College got Counsel's
opinion that they were not bound to recognize the
diploma of Trinity College but only the degree,
yet in spite of this nothing was done to rectify
matters till many years later. The College of
Physicians did what they could, and on January 17,
1825, directed their Professors ' that they for the
future shall call a roll of their respective classes
on each day of lecture, and that they shall withhold
certificates from such pupils as shall not have
attended one-half of the lectures during the present
session and three-fourths in succeeding sessions '.
On February 22, 1834, the Board of Trinity
College unanimously adopted the following regula-
tions for Medical Students : 1
' A Bachelor in Arts shall be entitled to a Liceat ad
Examinandum for the Degree of Bachelor of Medicine
1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 87.
SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 255
on his producing Certificates of his having attended the
following courses, if the Certificates show that during
each of four Sessions he attended one and not more than
three of the courses which begin in November.
' The Degree may be conferred at the July Commence-
ments of his middle Bachelor year.'
The courses of lectures consisted of those
delivered by the six Professors of the School of
Physic, the course in Midwifery delivered by the
Professor of Midwifery of the College of Physicians,
together with ' one year's attendance on the
practice of Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital including
six months' Clinical lectures in that Hospital '.
No increase was made in the length of time to be
spent in study, and nothing was arranged with
regard to students who did not graduate in Arts.
On May 7, 1836, the restriction as to the middle
Bachelor year was withdrawn and candidates
were allowed to proceed to the M.B., at the Com-
mencements next after that at which they
graduated A.B. 1
Not only was there difficulty with the diplomas
but soon the degrees were not above suspicion.
Thus on April 21, 1838, the College of Physicians
drew the attention of the Board to the fact that
' a full medical degree was without any reason
recently conferred ' on a Student of the School who
had not graduated in Arts. The Board replied
that the degree in question was ' conferred by
inadvertence and a misconception as to the facts ',
but at the same time promised that ' such mistake
will furnish matter of future caution and not of
1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 119.
256 SCHOOL MANAGEMENT
precedent V One can picture the joy of the
student in thus outwitting the Board, but such
a state of things was eminently unsatisfactory.
No matter what regulations were made by the
School Authorities as to the instruction to be given
by the Professors, it was competent for the Board
of Trinity College, without consultation with the
College of Physicians, to qualify all and sundry
who might apply to them for that purpose. That
the standard of education was kept as high as it
was is greatly to the credit of the University.
There was at the time no medical man among the
Senior Fellows. The position of Medicus remained
vacant from the resignation of Whitley Stokes in
1816, till the appointment of John Toleken in
1838. The Board consequently were entirely
dependent on outside advice for information on
medical matters. Even so, no great difficulty
would have arisen, had the medical faculty,
consisting of the Regius Professor and the six
Professors, worked harmoniously together. They
did not do so, and this want of harmony led to
many troubles. Hill, the Regius Professor of
Physic, at the time an old man, seems to have
taken little interest in the working of the School,
and we do not find from the Registers that he
afforded the Board any assistance in harmonizing
the work of the other Professors. Allman, who
was Professor of Botany, and Barker, Professor of
Chemistry and Registrar of the Faculty, seem to
have been content to pursue their way in peace, but
1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 145.
SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 257
Macartney, the Professor of Anatomy and Surgery,
undoubtedly the most attractive lecturer in the
School, was by no means content to let things
take their own way. His activity and anxiety for
reform continually led him into conflict with his
colleagues, especially the King's Professors, who
were not a little jealous that one who was a
mere surgeon should presume to dictate to them.
We have seen how, in the matter of the Latin
examination, though he had the support of
Crampton, the Professor of Materia Medica, he
was opposed by Boyton and 1 uomy, the Professors
of the Institutes and Practice of Medicine. A
further difficulty arose in connexion with the
Hospital. Macartney was in the habit of making
post mortem examinations on the patients who
died in the Hospital, being actuated by the
double motive of teaching Pathology to the
students, and of obtaining specimens for his
museum. The King's Professors objected to this
procedure, doubtless feeling that it was not con-
sonant with either their dignity or reputation that
their clinical diagnosis should be revised by the
post mortem findings of an unsympathetic colleague.
They may have been of the opinion of the dis-
tinguished Dublin clinician of later days who
expressed intense dislike to post mortem examina-
tions, since they so often upset his diagnoses.
From what we know of Macartney, we feel sure
that he would not hesitate to tell the students
exactly the conditions he found, no matter what
opinion might have been formed during the
258 MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION
patient's life by the attending physician. Macart-
ney appealed to the College of Physicians for
permission to continue these examinations. The
College was of course unable to grant it, and while
they expressed a desire that nothing would be
done by their Professors to limit the Pathological
material available for the students and the museum,
they informed Macartney that in their opinion the
right to direct a post mortem examination rested
with the physician in charge of the patient at
the time of death, subject of course to the regula-
tions of the Board of the Hospital. The Board of
Governors decided the matter by resolving that
the physician who had been in attendance on each
patient, and no one else, should make the post
mortem examination in case of death. 1
The next difficulty was more serious, for it ulti-
mately resulted in Macartney severing his connexion
with the School. The hours fixed for the various
lectures during the winter session beginning Monday,
November 7, 1814, were advertised as follows :
' At 9 o'Clock the Patients will be visited at Sir Patrick
Dun's Hospital by the Clinical Lecturer.
' At ii o'Clock Dr. Boyton will lecture on the Institutes
' At 12 o'Clock Dr. Crampton will lecture on Materia
Medica and Pharmacy.
' At i o'Clock Dr. Macartney will lecture on Anatomy,
Physiology, and Surgery.
' At 2 o'Clock Dr. Barker will lecture on Chemistry.
' At 3 o'Clock Dr. Tuomy will lecture on the Practice of
1 Macalister, Macartney, p. 192.
MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION 259
* The lectures on the Practice of Medicine, the Institutes
of Medicine and Materia Medica will be delivered at Sir
Patrick Dun's Hospital those on Anatomy and Chemistry
in Trinity College.'
This was a pretty full day's work, but the
students had three years in which to take out the
lectures, the only regulation being that they should
take at least one course and not more than three
each year. It was left entirely to the option of
the student what order he should take the lec-
tures in, and consequently there was of necessity
considerable overlapping. The first difficulty arose
in 1822 over the hour for the Clinical lectures, as
three of the Professors wished the hour changed
to eleven o'clock and two of them to twelve
o'clock. Under the circumstances the College of
Physicians refused to make any alteration during
that session. Then later on Crampton wrote to the
College of Physicians complaining that Professor
Macartney insisted on giving anatomical demon-
strations during his lecture hour. Macartney
stated that attendance on the demonstrations was
purely optional for the student. The matter was
referred to the Board, who however declined to
interfere. These matters were adjusted, but later
on, when the requirements of Edinburgh University
necessitated the attendance on separate courses
of lectures on Surgery and Anatomy, further diffi-
culties arose. In order to comply with these
requirements, Macartney, in 1832, obtained the
sanction of the Provost to divide his course of
lectures, taking Anatomy at one o'clock five days
260 MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION
a week, and Surgery at three o'clock on four days.
Macalister says that this arrangement was sanc-
tioned by the Board on September 29, 1832, but
we can find no entry of such sanction in the
Register. On October n, 1832, there is a minute l
' The Board directed the Registrar to communicate
to Dr. Macartney that nine o'Clock in the morning is the
only time open for his delivering his extra lectures.'
Macartney, however, appears to have adopted
the two hours of one and three o'clock for his lec-
tures. This latter hour was the one appropriated
to the lecture of Dr. Charles Lendrick, who had
that year been appointed King's Professor of the
Practice of Medicine. On November 9, 1833, the
' Resolved, that the Registrar be directed to write to
Dr. Lendrick to inform him that the only lecture given
from three to four o'Clock, which will be recognised by
the Board as a qualification for a liceat ad examinandum
is that given by the Professor of the Practice of Medicine.' z
No open rupture had as yet occurred, and on
July 29, 1834, Macartney was, according to the
Register of the Board, unanimously elected
Professor of Anatomy for seven years. 3 On
December 13, 1834, the Board again approached
Macartney on the subject of the hours of his
lectures, writing to him the following letter : 4
' Sir, I am directed by the Provost and Senior
Fellows to direct you to refrain from lecturing at one of
1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 40. * Ibid., p. 79.
* Ibid., p. 94. Ibid., p. 98.
MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION 261
those hours which have been already appropriated to the
lectures of another Professor of the School of Physic.'
To this letter Macartney replied, pointing out the
difficulties involved by obedience to the order of
the Board, and on December 20, the following
reply was sent to him : l
' Sir, I have read your letter to the Board and am
desired to inform you that they will not require you to
refrain from lecturing at the hour of three o'clock for
the remainder of the present Session ; but they will not
extend this indulgence beyond that period.'
On October 13, 1835, a letter was read to the
Board from Lendrick, in which it was stated that
Dr. Macartney had published an advertisement in
the newspaper whereby it appeared that he did not
intend ' to comply with the directions given to
him to refrain from lecturing from three to four
o'clock '. The Registrar was directed to send the
following letter to Macartney : 2
' Sir, I am directed by the Board to communicate to
you their order of this day which is as follows : Ordered
Dr. Macartney shall not lecture at the hour from three
to four o'clock, that having been already assigned to
another of the Professors in the School of Physic.'
On the I7th of November the Board noted that
Macartney had absolutely ignored their order,
and so decided to take Counsel's opinion as to the
best method of enforcing it. On November 28,
there being still no sign of obedience on the part
of the Professor, the Board ordered ' that the
1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 98. * Ibid., p. 108.
262 MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION
Anatomy House be closed every day from three
to four o'clock '.
On the 2 ist of December it was ordered that
' the closing of the doors of the Anatomy House
is to be discontinued as Dr. Macartney gives up
his three o'clock lecture '.* Matters were now
hurrying to a conclusion, and in April 1836
Macartney published an advertisement that for the
future he would deliver four lectures each week,
two in Surgery and two in Anatomy. Such a
course was hopelessly inadequate, as the University
of Edinburgh required five lectures in each subject
each week. This state of affairs was brought to
the notice of the Board on April 28, 1836, and
Stephen Sandes, then a Senior Fellow and after-
wards Bishop of Cashel, undertook to communicate
with Macartney ' in hope that he may change his
On April 28, Sandes reported to the Board his
failure to move Macartney, and it was decided again
to take Counsel's opinion. On November 26 the
Board made an order that the Professor of Anatomy
was to lecture in the Anatomy Theatre at one
o'clock on five days a week during the medical
session from the ist of November to the end of
April, ' and that this order be esteemed a Bye-law
agreeable to the 26th Sect, of 4oth of Geo. 3d.' 8
The next entry in the Register with reference to
Macartney is on July 13, 1837,* ' Dr. Macartney
having resigned his Professorship of Anatomy and
1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 173. * Ibid., p. 118.
' Ibid., p. 127. Ibid., p. 134.
MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION 263
Surgery the Board resolved to elect a Successor
on the 2 ist of October.'
We have given the details of this important
dispute as fully as possible from the Register of the
Board, for Macalister, presenting the matter from
Macartney's point of view has, we think, not been
quite just to the College. Whatever opinion may
be formed as to the wisdom of thwarting a Pro-
fessor like Macartney who had done so much for
the School, there can be no doubt that the Board
gave him ample notice of their intention not to
allow him to lecture between three and four
o'clock. Macartney absolutely disregarded the
orders of the Board till, by the closure of the
School, he was compelled to desist from lecturing.
Obedience having been forced by such drastic
measures Macartney seems to have determined to
avenge himself, and his proposal to lecture only
four times a week was one that could not be
tolerated. The Board tried persuasion, and only
resorted to compulsion when that failed, and we
cannot see that there was any other course open
to them than to accept the resignation of an
officer who so openly flouted their authority.
Macartney was undoubtedly one of the ablest
teachers who had ever held a Professorship in the
School of Physic, and besides being a great teacher
he was a great reformer. With his pupils, whom he
treated with severity but with fairness, he was
popular, but he seems never to have got on well
with his colleagues. Conscientious and hard
working himself he could not and would not
264 MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION
tolerate inefficiency in others, and he never
hesitated to express his opinion in the plainest
terms of those, no matter what position they
occupied, who appeared to him to deserve his
Like all great reformers he was bound to meet
with some unpopularity, but Macartney seems
rather to have looked for it than avoided it. When,
during the fourth period of his tenure of the
Professorship he looked back on the work that
he had accomplished, he seems to have felt himself
absolutely essential to the School and in a position
to dictate to every one and to obey none. Such
a condition of affairs was impossible, and as
Macartney would not give way, there was no
alternative but to dispense with his services.
Thus while we yield to none in our admiration of
the work he did for the School, we cannot but feel
that he was himself responsible for his downfall.
The great museum of anatomical and patho-
logical preparations which he had collected in
Dublin was sold to Cambridge in 1836, for an
annuity of 100 a year for ten years, and in the
museum of that University many of the prepara-
tions still remain.
The year after his resignation of the Chair of
Anatomy, Macartney published in London his
classical work on Inflammation, which a re-
viewer in the Lancet stated was ' the most original
medical work that has appeared since the days of
John Hunter '. During the last few years of his
life he occupied himself chiefly with problems of
MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION 265
the reform of medical education, and advocated
views which afterwards were largely adopted. On
Monday morning, March 9, 1843, he was found
dead in his study, where he had gone to finish
a paper which he was writing for the meeting of
the Association of Fellows and Licentiates of the
College of Physicians. The last words he wrote
before the pen dropped from his hand in death
may form his epitaph, for though he is dead his
work in the School lives on :
All forms that perish other forms supply
(By turns we catch the vital breath and die),
Like bubbles on the sea of matter borne,
They rise, they break, and to that sea return.
SCHOOL REFORM GRAVES AND STOKES
AFTER Macartney's resignation of the Professor-
ship of Anatomy the Board met, and on October 24,
1837, out of eight candidates who applied for the
Professorship, elected Robert Harrison. Guided
by their previous experience, they insisted on
Harrison signing the following declaration : l
1 The Board of Trinity College Dublin, having elected
me into the Professorship of Anatomy and Surgery in the
University of Dublin, I do hereby promise and engage to
perform the duties of the said professorship with Diligence
and Regularity according to the usages heretofore of the
said Professorship and conformably to the instructions
of the Board, and I fully accede to the regulations made
by the Board that all preparations made by the Professor
shall be the property of the College, but the expenses
attending them to be defrayed by the College.'
Robert Harrison, an Englishman and native of
Cumberland, was born in 1796* In 1814 he
graduated in Arts in Trinity College, having
previously been indentured as an apprentice to
Abraham Colles. In 1815 he obtained the diploma
of the London College of Surgeons, and in the
following year of the Dublin College, being elected
a member of that body on June 9, 1818. In 1817
he was appointed Demonstrator of Anatomy in
1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 136. * Cameron, Hist., p. 398.
GRAVES AND STOKES 267
the College of Surgeons School. He was for a time
a pupil of Macartney in the School of Physic, and
in the summer of 1824 took his M.A. and M.B.
degrees, proceeding to the degree of M.D. in the
spring of 1837. On August 4, 1827, he had been
elected Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in
the College of Surgeons, and he therefore came to
the School of Physic with considerable experience
as a teacher.
Some ten years before the appointment of
Harrison the staff of the School had been
strengthened by two notable additions in the per-
sons of Robert James Graves as King's Professor
of the Institutes of Medicine, and William F. Mont-
gomery, appointed Professor of Midwifery by the
College of Physicians on October n, 1827. Harri-
son got over the difficulty of the hours for his
lectures by getting the sanction of the Board for
himself and Montgomery to give evening lectures.
This solution of the difficulty Macartney had
always refused to adopt, for he maintained that
the entrance to the School from Park Street was
not a fit place for students at night time.
The Board granted 100 to the Professor of
Anatomy to be ' expended on articles for com-
mencing an extensive collection for a museum for
the Anatomy House Y and allowed him 30 a year
as a salary for an assistant and curator. They
also gave him 15 to be given at his discretion in
prizes at an annual examination to be held by
him in the subjects of his course. 2
1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 137. * Ibid., p. 176.
268 SCHOOL REFORM
On January 19, 1839, a very important memorial
was submitted to the Board by the Professors of
the School of Physic,
' praying for a lessening of the number of examinations
necessary for a degree in Arts to medical students attend-
ing with diligence two of the courses of the medical
Professors during each year of the undergraduate course.' *
The Board, however, replied that they 'cannot
perceive any way in which they can meet their
wishes ', but asked for information as to the prac-
tice in the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and
Edinburgh. In consequence of the information
they received the Board approved a new set of
regulations for medical graduates. 2
' The times for graduation are Shrove Tuesday and
the first Tuesday in July. The Medical Examinations
terminate on the Tuesday of the preceding week. Can-
didates must previously have completed their medical
education, and produce a chart testifying to the details
of the same and subscribed by the Registrar to the
Professors of the School of Physic, as well as the persons
signing the certificates.
' Medical students may obtain the degree of Bachelor
of Medicine in two ways :
' ist. Candidates who have graduated in Arts may
obtain the Degree of Bachelor of Medicine at any of the
ensuing half yearly periods of graduation provided the
requisite Medical Education and Examinations shall
have been accomplished. The payment at entrance
is J 5- The fees for the Study in Arts during the four
years are 7 ios., each half year, and the fees for
graduation in Arts 8 iys. 6d.
' 2nd. Candidates are admissible to the Degree of
1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 180. * Ibid., p. 240.
GRAVES AND STOKES 269
Bachelor of Medicine without previous graduation in
Arts at the end of five years from the July following the
Hilary Examination of the first undergraduate year,
provided the usual Education and Examination in Arts
of the first two years of the undergraduate course shall
have been completed, as also the Medical Education and
Examinations as in the case of other candidates. The
fees for the two years' study in Arts (besides the usual
entrance payment of 15) are 7 los. each.
' The graduation fees for the Degree of Bachelor of
Medicine are 11 155. The testimonium of the M.B.
degree will contain the following certificate :
' Testamur . . . sedulam operam medicinae narrasse et
examinationes coram professoribus feliciter sustinuisse.'
' The Medical Education of a Bachelor of Medicine
comprises attendance on the following courses of lectures
(of which three at the discretion of the candidate may be
attended at the University of Edinburgh) in the School of
Physic established by Act of Parliament. His attendance
must be distributed through four Anni Medici, so that
he must get credit for one course at least, and not for
more than three courses in any one session.
' The courses are on Anatomy and Surgery, Chemistry,
Botany, Materia Medica and Pharmacy, Institutes of
Medicine, Practice of Medicine, Midwifery (by the Pro-
fessor of the College of Physicians), Clinical lectures at
Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital during at least one session of
six months, as delivered by the Professors in the School
of Physic, the attendance on such Clinical lectures by the
Professors to be extended to three additional months of
another session, unless the practice of the Hospital be
certified by the ordinary Physicians of the Institution to
have been attended from the ist of May till the ist of
November following the session.
' The fees for attendance on the Clinical lectures are
regulated by Act of Parliament. They amount to
3 3$. to the Professors for each three months' attendance
and (provided the student be of two years' standing in the
270 SCHOOL REFORM
University) 3 35. to the Treasurer of the Hospital for
the first year, with a proportionate sum for any longer
period. The fees for each of the other courses are four
' The Examinations for the Degree of Bachelor of
Medicine are conducted by the Regius Professor of the
University, the six Professors of the School of Physic, and
the Professor of Midwifery to the College of Physicians.
' No further examination is requisite for the Degree
of Doctor of Medicine, which may be taken at the expira-
tion of three years from taking the Degree of M.B.,
provided the candidate shall have graduated in Arts.
The fees for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine, which
entitles the possessor to the same election privileges as the
degree of Master of Arts, are 22.
' P.S. The first undergraduate year may be saved by
attending the October Examination of that year by a
student who has entered not later than the first Monday
after July of the same year and who has completed the
payments previously made by his class.'
On November 16, 1839, the Board further re-
solved : x ' That in future students shall not be
admitted to the degree of M.B., having passed (in
conformity with the late medical regulations) the
Senior Freshman year, except that they pay fees
for the half-year in which the final examination of
that year takes place.'
By these regulations greatly increased privi-
leges were granted to medical students, while, at
the same time, the course of study was made
more stringent. The diploma previously given
to students who had merely matriculated, and
which was so much objected to by the College of
1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 236.
GRAVES AND STOKES 271
Physicians, disappeared, and instead students were
compelled to take two years of the Arts course,
unless they availed themselves of the privilege
of saving a year. At the same time the degree of
Bachelor of Medicine was opened to those who did
not graduate in Arts. A difference was always
held to exist between those who took this degree
after graduating in Arts and those who did not so
graduate, the latter being described as Bachelors
in Medicine by diploma, and not being permitted
to proceed to the M.D. degree unless they graduated
in Arts. Very few of these degrees by diploma
were granted, there being only one in the three
years 1842-44. In spite of this there was con-
siderable objection to the practice, and in 1842
proposals 1 were received by the Board from the
Professors urging that the regulation should be
rescinded. On July 14, 1846, the Board resolved
to rescind that part of the regulations made in
July 1839 by which students were allowed to
take the degree of M.B. without previous gradua-
tion in Arts. 2 The regulations as regards clinical
lectures were also modified, and in 1841 the Board
decided that the students were to attend the course
of clinical lectures given during the summer session
in Dun's Hospital. This attendance was to take
the place either of hospital attendance under the
ordinary physicians, or of the additional course of
clinical lectures which was formerly required, but
was to be in addition to the ordinary winter
1 Reg., vol. vii, pp. 97 and 99. Ibid., p. 318.
272 SCHOOL REFORM
The Board of Trinity College and the College of
Physicians, though they disputed about the medical
curriculum, still remained on the most friendly
terms, and on July 8, 1839, the Board offered to
admit to the Honorary Degree of M.D. any six
medical men whom the College of Physicians
might recommend, even though they had not
graduated in Arts. The College expressed their
gratitude for the honourable privilege conferred on
them, and suggested the names of Robert Reid,
M.D., Edin. ; John Mollan, M.D., Edin. ; Robert
Collins, M.D., Glasgow ; William Stokes, M.D.,
Edin. ; Evory Kennedy, M.D., Edin. ; and Aquilla
Smith, L.K. & Q. C.P.I. These degrees were con-
ferred at the Summer Commencements, and the
subsequent careers of the recipients quite justified
the selection made by the College.
Having succeeded in introducing lectures on
midwifery into the medical course, the College of
Physicians was most anxious to add to the curri-
culum the study of Medical Jurisprudence, and
with this view informed the Board on i7th October,
1839, that Thomas Brady had been elected Pro-
fessor of that subject, and asked that attendance
on his lectures should be made compulsory on
those seeking medical degrees. This request the
Board referred to the Medical Faculty of the
School, who reported that they considered it
inexpedient to increase the number of lectures
necessary for the students. The College of
Physicians was not satisfied with this reply, and
in the following May again wrote to the Board
GRAVES AND STOKES 273
saying that the University of Edinburgh had
agreed to recognize Professor Brady's lectures,
provided Trinity College, in the event of their
requiring such a course, would also do so. The
Board, however, declined to make any conditional
promise. The College of Physicians did not cease
to urge on the Board the importance of this sub-
ject. Twice in the year 1842 a deputation of the
physicians waited on the Board, but it was not
till November 15, 1845, that the Board consented
to a conditional promise to recognize the lectures
if teaching in the subject was made obligatory.
On March 3, 1849, the following new curriculum
was adopted : 1
1. Botany ...... 3 months.
2. Chemistry . . . . . . 6
3. Practical Chemistry under the Professor
of Chemistry . . . . . 3
4. Anatomy and Physiology . . .6
5. Practical Anatomy and Anatomical
demonstrations under the superinten-
dence of the Professor of Anatomy .6
6. Materia Medica . . . . . 6
7. Institutes of Medicine . . . .6
8. Practice of Medicine . . . .6 ,,
9. Theory and Practice of Surgery by a
Professor to be appointed by the Board 6
10. Medical Jurisprudence by the Professor of
the College of Physicians . . .3
11. Midwifery by the Professor of the College
of Physicians . . . . 6 ,,
The Student not to be required to attend both the
courses of practical Chemistry and Medical Jurisprudence,
1 Reg., vol. ix, p. 92.
274 SCHOOL REFORM
but it is to be left to his option to select which of these
courses he will attend.
12. Twelve months' attendance on Sir Patrick Dun's
Hospital with nine months' attendance on the Clinical
lectures at that Hospital.
13. Six months' attendance on the practice of some
general Hospital approved by the Board of Trinity
College, together with Clinical lectures on Surgery.
The whole course of medical study to occupy four years,
one at least of the courses of lectures and not more than
three of those which are not optional, to be attended
during each year.
Besides the recognition of Medical Jurispru-
dence this curriculum involved some very impor-
tant changes, the most notable of which was the
separation of Surgery from the Chair of Anatomy.
In June of 1842 Harrison had suggested this
separation to the Board, but it was not till these
new regulations were adopted that his suggestion
was carried out, and Robert W. Smith appointed
Professor of Surgery at a salary of 100 per
annum. This opened the way for the subsequent
granting, first of diplomas, and then of degrees in
surgery. The recognition of teaching in hospitals
other than that of Sir Patrick Dun was also an
innovation. The systematic lectures were all
delivered in Trinity College instead of partly in
Dun's Hospital, in accordance with the resolutions
of the Board of the 4th October, 1841, and 25th
During the ten years between 1840 and 1850
the Board made very liberal allowances towards
increasing the collections in the various museums
GRAVES AND STOKES 275
of the College. These grants were made in addi-
tion to the sums set aside annually for the upkeep
of the departments of Anatomy and Chemistry,
and show the interest taken in the teaching of
Natural Science. On i5th June, 1840, Dr. Coulter
offered his herbarium to the College, provided he
was elected curator of the botanical part of the
Museum at a salary of 100 a year. This offer
was accepted, and during the next four years sums
amounting to 1,164 IOS - were given to purchase
shells, plants, and books for the collection. Of
this sum 300 ' was given to the Rev. J. D. Sirr *
on January 30, 1841, for his late father's collec-
tion of shells ', and a year later 410 to Coulter for
a similar collection made by him. 2 In addition to
this Coulter was allowed 50 a year to purchase
specimens for the Herbarium, and 50 a year for
specimens of zoology. Dr. Coulter died in 1843,
and the following year William Allman, who had
been the Professor of Botany since 1809, resigned,
receiving 100 a year as a retiring allowance.
George J. Allman, who on March 26, 1844, suc-
ceeded William Allman as Professor, offered to set
aside 150 per annum out of his salary to pay
a curator of the Herbarium. The Board agreed to
deduct only the sum of 100 from the salary of
the Professor for this purpose, and to add 50
a year from their own funds. At the same time
that Allman made this offer, William Henry Harvey
offered his collection of 10,000 specimens to be
added to the Herbarium, provided the College
1 Reg., vol. viii, p. 30. * Ibid., p. 78.
276 SCHOOL REFORM
would elect him to the curatorship, and guarantee
to pay him 300 for his collection if he were dis-
missed from the office. 1 This offer the Board
accepted, and allowed him first 10, and after-
wards 30 a year to be spent in purchasing addi-
tions to the collection. Besides this yearly allow-
ance several payments were made for special
additions, such as collections of Hungarian plants,
and rooms were fitted up in No. 40, Trinity College,
for the Herbarium. 2
Harvey afterwards, in 1856, succeeded Allman
as Professor of Botany, and was one of the most
distinguished occupants of the Chair.
In 1844 yet another collection of specimens was
offered to the College by Robert Ball, on con-
dition that he was appointed curator of the
Museum at a salary of 200 a year. Besides pre-
senting his collection, which he valued at a low
estimate at 500, Ball proposed to attend regularly
at the Museum and lecture on its contents, and he
also proposed to pay an assistant who would,
without additional expense to the College, be able
to mount many of the specimens. He stated that
his object would be to make the Museum useful
as a teaching establishment rather than a mere
collection of rarities. Ball was appointed Curator
on April 27, 1844, and it is to his exertions that the
present Zoological Museum is chiefly due. While
he filled this post Ball, in the year 1853, started
the Dublin University Zoological and Botanical
Society. In 1850 the Board conferred on him
1 Reg., vol. viii, p. 206, ' Ibid., p. 241.
GRAVES AND STOKES 277
the degree of LL.D., Honoris Causa, and in 1851
he was elected secretary of the new Queen's
University, but was allowed by the Board to con-
tinue as Director of the Museum. 1 Ball died on
the 30th March, 1857 ; his son, Sir Charles Ball,
is the present Regius Professor of Surgery.
The School of Physic was fortunate in having
on its staff during this period of its career two of
the most distinguished men to be found in the
long roll of Irish physicians. The names of Graves
and Stokes are written large on the pages of
Medical History, and the reputation of the Dublin
School owes to these two men a debt the extent
of which it is difficult to overestimate.
Robert James Graves was the son of Richard
Graves, Senior Fellow of Trinity College and
Regius Professor of Divinity, and Eliza, daughter
of James Drought, also a Fellow of Trinity College.
Born in Dublin on March 27, 1797, Graves was
educated in Trinity College, where he graduated
B.A. in 1815, and M.B. in 1818. He then spent
three years in foreign travel and study, visiting
the great schools of London, Edinburgh, France,
Germany, and Italy, and while in the latter
country formed an intimate acquaintance with
the great artist Turner. Returning to Dublin, he
was, on the 27th November, 1820, admitted a
Licentiate of the King and Queen's College of
Physicians, and on July 31 following was elected
Physician to the Meath Hospital. At the beginning
of the winter session of that year Graves delivered
1 Proc. Zoolog. and Bot, Assoc., p. 7.
278 SCHOOL REFORM
his first introductory lecture to the students of the
hospital, and pointed out those broad principles
of medical education which were destined to
change the clinical teaching not only of the Dublin
School but of the Medical Schools throughout the
world. The keynote of this method was the
personal observation of disease by the student
under the guidance of a sympathetic teacher.
' From the very commencement the student ought
to witness the progress and effects of sickness, and
ought to persevere in the daily observation of
disease during the whole period of his studies.'
In this lecture Graves gives a graphic picture of
the method of clinical teaching then in vogue,
and from it we can understand how great was the
difference between his method and that in general
use in the hospitals. Under the old method the
majority of the students never came in contact
with the patients at all, but had ' to trust solely
to their ears for information '. This information,
too, in Dun's Hospital, was, till the year 1831,
given in Latin, or, as Graves says, ' I have called
the language Latin, in compliance with the gener-
ally received opinion of its nature.' On April 7,
1823, Graves was chosen a Fellow of the College
of Physicians, and on October 2, 1827, was elected
King's Professor of the Institutes of Medicine.
From this time till his resignation in 1841, Graves
taught in the School of Physic and Dun's Hospital,
while at the same time he continued his clinical
lectures in the Meath. In 1838 he took a leading
part in the foundation of the Dublin Pathological
GRAVES AND STOKES 279
Society, and was its first President. This Society,
the first Pathological Society established in the
United Kingdom, 1 continued its separate exis-
tence till, with the other medical societies of
Dublin, it was merged in the Royal Academy of
Medicine in Ireland. In 1843 Graves published
his System of Clinical Medicine, which contained
his celebrated clinical lectures. These lectures
had previously been published in the medical
papers of the day, and in 1838 an edition of them
had been issued in Philadelphia in Dunglison's
American Medical Library. Of this work it is
unnecessary that we should speak in detail. The
teaching contained in it on such subjects as
nursing, the treatment of fevers and consumption,
represents the basis of our present practice. 2
Trousseau, writing of the work, says :
' For many years I have spoken of Graves in my
Clinical lectures ; I recommend the perusal of his work ;
I entreat those of my pupils who understand English to
consider it as their breviary ; I say and repeat that, of all
the practical works published in our time, I am acquainted
with none more useful, more intellectual.' 3
In 1827, on his election as King's Professor,
Graves had to vacate his Fellowship of the College
of Physicians, but was immediately admitted as
an Honorary Fellow, and on his resignation of the
Professorship he was reinstated, and elected Presi-
dent in the years 1843 and 1844. In the former
year he resigned his physiciancy to the Meath
1 Hurry, p. 7. * Walsh, p. 174.
3 Graves, Lectures, 1864, p. vii.
2 8o SCHOOL REFORM
Hospital, ' in consequence ', as he says, ' of finding
that I could no longer discharge my duties to the
patients and pupils in a satisfactory manner.' x In
1849 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society,
and he was also a member of many of the learned
societies of Europe. He died on March 20, 1853,
after a protracted and painful illness, which was
borne with courage and patience. 2 As an obituary
notice published at the time says : ' By his death
the Irish School has lost one of its brightest orna-
ments ; one whose labours had made his name
familiar in every European and American School.' 3
The life of the great William Stokes has been
told so well and so often by different writers 4 that
it is only necessary to give the briefest outline of
it here. William, the son of Whitley Stokes, was
born in Dublin in July 1804. His early education
was conducted at home under the eye of his
father, his tutor being John Walker, ex- Fellow of
Trinity College, and founder of the Walkerite sect
already referred to. At first Stokes seemed to be
an indolent, if not a stupid, pupil, but later on he
devoted himself to study with that energy which
characterized his later life. In his early days he
was the constant companion of his father, and for
some time assisted him in his lectures on natural
history in Trinity College. After some short pre-
liminary study in the school of the College of
1 Ormsby, p. 125. * Studies in Physiology, p. Ixxxiii.
* Med. Times and Gazette, March 26, 1853.
4 Stokes, Life ; Acland, Memoir ; Dub. Univ. Mag., August
GRAVES AND STOKES 281
Surgeons and in the School of Physic, William
Stokes went to Glasgow, where he chiefly worked
at chemistry in the laboratory of Professor Thomp-
son. Leaving Glasgow he proceeded to Edinburgh,
where he graduated M.D. in 1825, reading a thesis
De Ascite. Before he graduated in Edinburgh he
published a small octavo book of 239 pages, en-
titled An Introduction to the use of the Stethoscope ;
with its application to the Diagnosis in Diseases of
the Thoracic Viscera including the Pathology of these
various Affections. For this work, which was one
of the first on the subject published in the English
language, he received the sum of 70. After
taking his degree in Edinburgh, Stokes returned
to Dublin, and was at once appointed one of the
physicians to the Dublin General Dispensary, and
in the following year, on the resignation of his
father, he was appointed Physician to the Meath
Hospital. There he began his lifelong friendship
with Graves, and there the two great physicians
together developed that clinical teaching which
has made the name of the Meath Hospital famous
in the annals of medicine. On December 3, 1825,
Stokes was admitted Licentiate of the College of
Physicians, and was elected Honorary Fellow on
St. Luke's Day, 1828, having in that year published
Two Lectures on the Use of the Stethoscope. In 1826,
Whitley Stokes, then Professor of Medicine at the
College of Surgeons, asked the Royal College of
Surgeons that his son William might be associated
with him in his lectures in order that the students
might enjoy the benefit of his clinical teaching
282 SCHOOL REFORM
at the Meath. 1 The request was refused, and in
1829 William Stokes succeeded Henry Marsh as
Lecturer in Medicine in the Park Street School,
which post he held till 1842. In 1837 he pub-
lished his work on the Diseases of the Lungs and
Windpipe, a work which immediately placed him
in the forefront of medical thinkers of his time,
and which still remains one of the classics in the
literature of our profession. On October 12, 1840,
Whitley Stokes resigned the Regius Professorship
of Medicine in the University, and William was
immediately elected to that office for the period
of his father's lifetime. 2 On the death of Whitley
Stokes the Regius Professorship became vacant,
the Board had the difficult problem of deciding
between Graves and Stokes, who became can-
didates for the post. On May 3, 1845, Stokes was
elected, receiving four votes, while Graves received
three. 3 Though the subsequent career of Stokes
fully justified this choice, one cannot help regretting
that Graves was not elected, as then the roll of
Regius Professors might have included the names
of both these men.
During the thirty-eight years that Stokes held
the Professorship he worked with a whole-hearted
devotion to the interests of the School and Uni-
versity. Almost every page of the Registers of the
Board bear testimony to the work he did in watch-
ing the interests of the University and guiding the
development of the School. In the negotiations
1 Cameron, Hist., p. 449. * Reg., vol. viii, p. 15.
J Ibid., p. 259.
GRAVES AND STOKES 283
which led to the passing of the Medical Act of
1858, he acted as the ambassador of the Board,
and, on the formation of the General Medical
Council under that Act, Stokes was nominated
Crown representative for Ireland. Every one of
the reforms in the School of Physic during Stokes's
tenure of office bear his impress, and many were
entirely due to his exertion and influence.
In 1854 appeared his work on the Diseases of
the Heart and Aorta, which was really the second
part of his former publication. Besides these
formal works the contributions from his pen to
the medical papers were numerous, so many
indeed that a mere enumeration of them occupies
nearly five pages in the volume of his life which
was published by his son in 1898. It was in this
work on the Diseases of the Heart and the Aorta
that he describes that form of respiration associ-
ated with his name and that of another great Irish
physician, John Cheyne. The passage is so admir-
able as a piece of descriptive writing that we give
it in full : *
' A form of respiratory distress, peculiar to this affection
(fatty degeneration of the heart) consisting of a period of
apparently perfect Apnoea, succeeded by feeble and short
inspirations, which gradually increase in strength and
depth until the respiratory act is carried to the highest
pitch of which it seems capable, when the respirations
pursuing a descending scale, regularly diminish until the
commencement of another apnoeal period. During the
height of the paroxysm the vesicular murmur becomes
1 Heart and Aorta, p. 336.
284 SCHOOL REFORM
During his long life Stokes received honours
from many societies and corporations. In 1836
he was one of the six men on whom, at the recom-
mendation of the College of Physicians, the
Dublin University conferred the degree of M.D.
Honoris Causa, and in the October of that year
the College of Physicians elected him a Fellow,
choosing him as their President in the years 1849
and 1850. In 1861 he received the honorary
degree of LL.D. of Edinburgh, in 1865 the D.C.L.
of Oxford, and in 1874 the LL.D. of Cambridge.
In 1862 he was appointed Physician in Ordinary to
the Queen in Ireland, and in the following year
was elected Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1867
he was President of the British Medical Associa-
tion, and in 1874 of the Royal Irish Academy.
Thus did men delight to honour our great Regius
Professor, and honouring him did honour to
themselves. In 1876 illness compelled Stokes to
withdraw from active work, and he retired to his
home, Carrig Breacc, at Howth, where he died
peacefully on January 6, 1878.
WHILE Stokes was Regius Professor of Medicine
several Acts dealing with medical matters were
passed by the English Parliament, and many
changes were also made in the regulations of the
School of Physic. The agitation which eventually
resulted in the passing of the Medical Act of 1858,
was noticeable as early as 1841 in the deliberations
about the School, and the Board of Trinity College
took an active part in the preliminary inquiries
concerning the Bill. On several occasions both
the Regius Professor and Dr. Montgomery, the
Professor of Midwifery, represented the Board in
London at these inquiries. The College of Physi-
cians on January 4, 1845, 1 wrote to the Board
stating that they had learned that the University
of Dublin proposed to enter into a concordat with
the London College of Physicians, and with the
Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Edinburgh,
for the purpose of establishing a conjoint final
examination in Medicine. The College of Physicians
desired to join in this concordat, and to this pro-
posal the Board expressed their agreement. This
proposal was never carried out, but it is interest-
ing in view of the more recent suggestion of a one-
portal system for medical qualification.
1 Reg., vol. viii, p. 263.
286 MEDICAL LEGISLATION
The election of Robert W. Smith as Professor
of Surgery, in pursuance of the resolution of the
Board on March 3, 1849, caused considerable
annoyance to the Council of the Royal College of
Surgeons, who applied to the Board for the recog-
nition of the curriculum of their School in the case
of students seeking degrees. With a view to giving
effect to such an arrangement, the Board on
November 12, 1850, adopted new regulations with
regard to the Medical School. By these regula-
tions any candidate for the M.B. degree might
take his courses in the College of Surgeons School,
provided such courses were equivalent to those of
the School of Physic, and provided also he attended
one Annus Medicus in the School of Physic. 1
Students in Arts, whose names were on the College
books, were to be allowed free attendance on
one course of each of the University Professors'
lectures, while medical students in the Junior
Sophister year were to be allowed credit for the
terms and term examinations of that year.
Students were also to be permitted to take the
Bachelor degree in Medicine at the same commence-
ments at which they took the B.A. Licentiates of
the College of Surgeons who were graduates in
Arts, were to be permitted to present themselves
for the examination for the M.B. degree as soon
as they had finished one Annus Medicus in the
School of Physic. This latter regulation was not
to take effect unless the College of Surgeons
agreed to admit Bachelors of Medicine of the
1 Reg., vol. ix, p. 293.
MEDICAL LEGISLATION 287
University of Dublin to the Licence of the College
on their producing certificates of having attended
two courses in the School of that College, or in
some school recognized by that College. The
Board further decided that an Annus Medicus in
the School of Physic could be kept in any one of
the four following ways :
1. Two professional courses of six months each
2. One six months' course and two courses of three
3. Three three months' courses of clinical lectures at
Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital and further a Pro-
fessor's course of six months.
4. A similar attendance on the clinical lectures with an
attendance on two of the Professors' courses of
three months each.
These regulations were submitted to the Council
of the College of Surgeons, who replied on Decem-
ber 7, I85O, 1 that they were most anxious to
encourage their licentiates to become graduates
of Trinity College, and consequently were prepared
to admit to their examinations all graduates in
Arts of the University who produced certificates
of surgical education required by the by-laws of
the College, of which certificates those required
for the M.B. degree might be considered part.
The Board replied that they would require all the
certificates of all the Professors of the School of
Physic to be recognized by the College of Surgeons
if any plan of reciprocity was to be established.
This, in view of the establishment in the School of
1 Reg., vol. ix, p. 307.
288 MEDICAL LEGISLATION
Physic of surgical lectures, the College of Surgeons
refused to do, and the negotiations fell through.
On February 22, 1851, the Board received
a memorial from the medical students of the
School praying for the establishment of a School
of Surgery. 1 The Regius Professor was sent to
London to confer with the Medical Boards of the
Navy and Army, to see whether a diploma, if
granted by the University, would be recognized.
The reply was favourable, and the Professors of
the School suggested that the curriculum for such
a diploma should extend over four years, during
which time the following courses should be taken
Anatomy and Physiology )
Demonstrations and Dissections'- of each three courses.
Theory and Practice of Surgery )
Practice of Medicine , ,
,,. , ., >-of each one course.
Materia Medica I
Also a three months' course of Practical Chemis-
try, Botany, and Medical Jurisprudence, and
attendance for three sessions, each of nine months'
duration, at the practice of a general hospital
approved by the Board, with attendance on the
clinical lectures on medicine and surgery there
delivered. Of the twenty-seven months' hospital
attendance, six might be passed at a lying-in
hospital approved by the Board, but not more
than three of the six months' courses of lectures
1 Reg., vol. ix, p. 344.
MEDICAL LEGISLATION 289
were to be taken in any one year. The surgical
diploma was to be given to any student who had
completed his full surgical curriculum, and had
taken out one year's Arts study. After the com-
pletion of this one year's Arts study it was not
to be necessary for the student to keep his name
on the College books. 1 The Colleges of Surgeons
of both Dublin and London protested against this
scheme of the University. They declared that it
was a violation of the rights of their Colleges, and
a degradation of the profession of surgery. The
medical papers of the time were flooded with
letters and articles intended to prove that the
University had no capacity to teach surgeons, and
no authority to license them. The College of
Surgeons in Ireland went so far as to write to
Primate Beresford, who was the Chancellor of the
University, but the Primate contented himself
with forwarding the letter to the Board. The
Board, however, satisfied with the correctness of
their attitude, answered all and sundry who com-
plained, and on January 24, 1852, proceeded to
the election of a University Professor of Surgery,
who was to hold office for a period of five years
at a salary of 100 per annum, and whose duty
was to conduct the examinations for the surgery
diploma. There were two candidates, James
William Cusack, M.D., and Robert Adams, M.D. ;
the former was elected by four votes to three. 2
The Board further agreed to charge the sum of
2 i os. for the surgery diploma.
1 Reg., vol. x, p. 63. * Ibid., p. 112.
2QO MEDICAL LEGISLATION
While the Board and the College of Surgeons
were wrangling over the validity of the surgical
diploma, the President and Fellows of the College
of Physicians were associating themselves more
closely with the School of Physic. They approved
the surgical diplomas of the University, and ex-
pressed satisfaction at the attention which the
Board was paying ' to the important object of
raising the standard of medical and surgical
education.' * On September 3, 1852, the College
of Physicians agreed to admit to the licence of the
College, without examination, all graduates of
the University of Dublin who had performed their
full acts, provided such candidates paid the neces-
sary fees and fulfilled the by-laws of the College. 2
This privilege was conditional on the President
and Censors of the College being permitted to
take part in the examinations and vote on the
admission of all candidates for medical graduation.
The Board accepted this condition, and thus, after
a lapse of a hundred years, the President and
Censors of the College of Physicians again became
ex officio examiners for the medical degrees of the
University. The scheme, however, did not last
long, for on March u, 1854, the College suggested
to the Board further regulations as to the sum-
moning of the College of Physicians to the examina-
tions, and suggested that a fee of a guinea should
be paid for the attendance. The Board agreed to
the suggestions, but professed themselves unable
to discover any fund from which the fee was to
* Reg., vol. x, p. 91. * Ibid., p. 163.
MEDICAL LEGISLATION 291
be derived. On April 26, 1856, the Professors of
the University discussed this arrangement for the
final examination, but at the time were unable to
come to any conclusion. On June 14 a new plan
for conducting these examinations was finally
agreed to, in which the co-operation of the College
of Physicians was not included. 1 Under the new
scheme the candidates were to be examined 'on
the usual Academic plan, i.e. that they be examined
in Class and all on the same days '. The examina-
tion was to take place in the College Hall, and
occupy two days. The professors were to be sum-
moned to the examination, and the summons was
to contain the names of the candidates who were
to be examined. The examination was to be
partly by printed and partly by oral questions ;
the written part taking place on the first day
from 10 to 12 a.m., and from 3 to 5 p.m., the
viva voce on the second day, each candidate being
examined for a quarter of an hour. At the end
of the examination the Professors were to meet
in the hall and decide who had passed the examina-
tion, and declare the results. These regulations
were adopted by the Board, but, though there
was no function left for the President and Censors
of the College of Physicians in the examination,
their official connexion with it did not terminate
till two years later, when on July 31, 1858, the
Board was informed that the College did not
intend for the future to send examiners to the
degree examinations. The Board referred this
1 Reg., vol. xi, p. 37.
292 MEDICAL LEGISLATION
communication to the Professors of the School,
who replied that they thought ' that the system
in question has had sufficient trial, without pro-
ducing the beneficial results expected from it V
and in this opinion the Board concurred.
On August 2, 1858, the first Medical Act received
the Royal Assent. The General Council of Medical
Education and Registration established by this
Act was empowered to form a Register of all duly
qualified medical men. The qualifications of those
entitled to be entered in this Register, besides
men in practice before August i, 1815, were defined
in the Schedule. The registrable qualifications in
Ireland were the Fellowship and Licence of the
Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, the Licence
of the Apothecaries' Hall, as well as the degrees
of Doctor and Bachelor, and the Licence in
Medicine and the Mastership of Surgery of any
University in the United Kingdom. The General
Council was given power to require evidence as
to the course of study of persons who sought
registration, and also to inspect the examinations
of those bodies who were authorized by the
Schedule to issue registrable qualifications. The
Council were to report to the Privy Council any
defects which they might thus discover, and
the Privy Council might refuse registration to the
persons qualified by the defaulting corporation.
The Act also empowered the Council to strike off
the Register persons adjudged guilty of conduct
infamous in a professional respect. Duly qualified
1 Reg., vol. xi, p. 256.
MEDICAL LEGISLATION 293
persons were defined as persons registered under
the Act, and those not so registered were deprived
of certain privileges. This Act remains sub-
stantially in force at the present day, though
some eleven amending Acts have since been
By one of these amending Acts, passed in 1860,
the licence and diploma in Surgery of any Uni-
versity of Ireland was recognized as a registrable
qualification, and in 1876 a further amendment
made the degree of Bachelor of Surgery a regis-
trable qualification, and opened the Register to
women. It was not till the amending Act of 1886
was passed that a triple qualification in Medicine,
Surgery, and Midwifery was made an essential
condition of registration.
Almost immediately after the passing of the
Act, on October n, 1858, the Board again modi-
fied the regulations for the medical degrees. On
that date a decree passed the Senate modifying
the University Statutes. 1 Chapter X of the new
Statutes repealed the old Statute, De gradibus in
medicina capessendis, and replaced it by one which
made it necessary for a candidate for the M.B.
degree to be a graduate in Arts, to have completed
four years' study of Medicine, and on examination
by the medical Professors to have been found
idoneum. In order to proceed to the degree of
Doctor of Medicine the candidate must have been
qualified to take his M.B. for three full years.
He must then make two solemn praelections
1 Statutes, vol. ii, p. 172.
294 MEDICAL LEGISLATION
before the Regius Professor of Medicine dealing
with some medical subject. By the supplementary
portion of this decree, the rules for the M.B. were
made also to apply to the degree of M.Ch. These
regulations were further modified by the Statute
of June 22, 1872, the chief change then introduced
being the granting permission to hold an examina-
tion before the Regius Professor for the M.D.
degree, if that course seemed good. 1 On July 18,
1860, the Senate decreed that a licence in Medicine
or Surgery might be granted to those who had
completed their professional courses but had only
taken one year of the Arts course, 2 and on Decem-
ber 12, 1863, this licence was made free to those
who satisfied the requirements of the Board, even
though they had not completed one year's Arts. 8
Previous to 1860, medical students of the
University had only been subjected to one exami-
nation during the time of their medical study,
viz. the degree examination, but on November 3 of
that year the Board decided that in future there
should be two. The first or ' previous ' medical
examination was to be held at the end of the
second year, ' the other, as heretofore, after the
full curriculum of medical study is completed.'
At the previous medical examination the students
were to be examined in Anatomy and Physiology ;
Botany and Materia Medica ; Chemistry, theo-
retical and practical, with Chemical Physics. This
examination, though adopted in 1860, was not
to become compulsory till the year 1863. At
1 Statutes, vol. ii, p. 294. * Ibid., p. 208. * Ibid., p. 237.
MEDICAL LEGISLATION 295
the same time the Board decided to offer for
competition two medical scholarships, tenable for
two years at twenty pounds per annum. The
examination for these scholarships was to be held
at the end of the second year of medical study;
candidates were required to be of at least Senior
Freshman standing, and to have kept one Annus
Medicus in the School. 1 The first of these scholar-
ships was awarded in June, 1861, to William
Faussett Smith, there being no ' qualified candi-
date for the second *. 2
During the nineteenth century there had sprung
up in Dublin a number of Medical Schools which,
though they had no power to grant licences to
their students, possessed in many cases complete
teaching staffs. In some instances these private
schools had only an ephemeral existence, depen-
dent on their founder, who, if a good teacher,
was quickly absorbed into the staff either of the
School of Physic or of the College of Surgeons.
In other cases, however, the schools had a more
permanent existence. The Richmond or Car-
michael School and the Ledwich School have only
recently been amalgamated with the School of
the College of Surgeons, and the Catholic Uni-
versity School has become the medical school of
the National University. Beside these three, the
Park Street School and the Steevens's Hospital
School were the most important. The former was
founded in 1824 in Park Street, or Lincoln Place
as it is now called, in the building which was
1 Reg., vol. xi, p. 422. * Ibid., p. 449.
296 MEDICAL LEGISLATION
afterwards used for St. Mark's Hospital. The
staff consisted of such men as James William
Cusack, Sir Henry Marsh, James Apjohn, and
Arthur Jacob. This school continued in active
existence till 1849, and was a formidable rival to
the School of Physic. In that year the principal
proprietor, Hugh Carlyle, formerly one of Macart-
ney's demonstrators, was appointed Professor of
Anatomy in the Queen's College, Belfast, and the
school was closed. The Steevens's Hospital School,
founded in 1857 in pursuance of the report of
the Dublin Hospital Commissioners, continued to
attract quite a large class of students till it was
closed by order of the Governors twenty-three
In January 1859 the negotiations with the
Royal College of Surgeons, which had been broken
off in the year 1850, were again brought forward,
and the Board decided to receive the certificates
of the Professors of the Royal College of Surgeons
' as qualifications for all students applying for the
Liceat ad examinandum, provided they had kept
an annus medicus in the School of Physic and
complied with the other regulations in the Medical
It was almost essential for the success of any
private school that its certificates should be recog-
nized by both the College of Surgeons and Trinity
College. On February 4, 1859, the teachers of
the private schools applied for such recognition,
offering to give the Board the right of inspection
1 Reg., vol. xi, p. 315.
MEDICAL LEGISLATION 297
of the schools, and also a veto upon the election
of their Professors. 1 The Medical Professors re-
commended a limited recognition, but the Board
declined to recognize ' any Private Schools '. To-
wards the end of this year, however, other counsels
prevailed, and on October 12, 1859, recognition
was extended to Steevens's Hospital School, the
Carmichael School, and the Ledwich School, on
' condition that duly certified returns of atten-
dance on not less than three-fourths of the entire
number of lectures in each course be regularly
furnished to the Senior Lecturer '* The Board
were most anxious to insist on a bona fide atten-
dance on three-fourths of the lectures delivered,
but it was found difficult to enforce such a rule
even in the case of the School of Physic, and
much more so in the case of the private schools.
In 1865 the Board again insisted on the rule,
and threatened that if it were not strictly obeyed
they would cease to recognize these lectures alto-
On April 5, 1867, the School of Physic Act
Amendment Act became law. This Act contains
the only alteration which has been made in the
School of Physic Act of 1800, and although by it
some of the worst features of the former Act have
been repealed, there remains much that could
with benefit be modified. The first section of this
Act removed the religious disabilities of the Pro-
fessors of the School of Physic and opened these
1 Reg., vol. xi, p. 324. * Ibid., p. 368.
* Reg., vol. xii, p. 158.
298 MEDICAL LEGISLATION
offices to persons of all nations, whether they held
a medical degree from any University or not.
The second section repealed that part of the former
Act which governed the election of the King's
Professors, placing that election in the hands
of the President and Fellows of the College of
Physicians, and permitting the Fellows to become
candidates for the Professorships. The Professors
of Chemistry and Botany were relieved from their
duties as clinical lecturers in Sir Patrick Dun's
Hospital, these duties being assigned instead
to the Professor of Surgery and the University
Anatomist. If either the University Professors or
the King's Professors neglected their duties at the
Hospital, then it was to be competent for their
respective Colleges to appoint a deputy to deliver
the clinical lectures. Section XXXI of the former
Act, which regulated the time of the systematic
lectures in the School, was repealed and the
Colleges were empowered to make regulations
governing these lectures. A King's Professor of
Midwifery was to be appointed on an equal footing
with the other King's Professors, and was to give
instruction in the subject at Sir Patrick Dun's
Hospital. Section VII altered the arrangements
made in the former Act concerning the Library,
and set aside from the funds of the estate 70 as
a salary for the Librarian, 30 for the purchase
of books, and 6 6s. for a library porter. The
purchase of books and the management of the
library were also entrusted to the College of
Physicians. The King's Professors, who by the
MEDICAL LEGISLATION 299
former Act had on their appointment to resign
their Fellowships, were relieved of this disability.
This Act is commonly known as ' Haughton's
Act ', since it was mainly due to the energy
of Dr. Samuel Haughton, then Registrar of the
School of Physic, that it was placed on the Statute
On May 28, 1870, the Board by decree decided
to establish a diploma in State Medicine and sanc-
tioned the curriculum for this diploma that had
been recommended by the Professors of the School
of Physic. The establishment of this diploma, the
first of the kind in the United Kingdom, was due
to the initiative of William Stokes, Regius Pro-
fessor of Medicine. It was not till 1875 that the
Universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh followed
the lead given them by Dublin University, 1 so
that in this important department of medical
study Trinity College has shown the way to every
other licensing body in the kingdom. By the
Medical Act of 1886 this diploma was made a
At the same time that the Board decided to
institute a diploma of State Medicine, the Pro-
fessors of the School recommended that a degree
of Bachelor of Surgery should be established.
Since the establishment in 1858 of the Master's
degree in Surgery it had been on a similar footing
to the degree of M.B., but since the institution
in 1872 of the Bachelor's degree, that of Master
has come to be looked on as a higher qualification.
1 Rivington, p. 399.
300 MEDICAL LEGISLATION
In 1876 an amending Medical Act was passed
which made the Bachelor's degree in Surgery
a registrable qualification.
In 1876 the Board established the degree of
Master in Obstetrics on a similar footing to the
original degree of Master in Surgery. 1 In 1887
they added the degree of Bachelor of Obstetrics,
thus completing the medical curriculum in its
A new departure of great importance to the
School of Physic was made by the Board on
June 30, 1863, in the appointment of Samuel
Haughton as Registrar of the School. 2 Haughton
had graduated in Arts and been elected a Fellow
in 1844, in 1851 had been elected Professor of
Geology. In the following year he took his M.A.
degree, and in 1862 was admitted M.B. and M.D.
During the fifteen years that Haughton acted
as Registrar he was closely identified with every
movement for reform in the School of Physic, and
it was mainly due to his influence that the School
of Physic Act of 1800 was amended by the Act
of 1867. With the appointment of a Medical
Registrar there also came into being the Medical
School Committee, consisting of the Professors of
the School with the Registrar as Secretary. This
Committee met frequently, and considered all
matters connected with the School and made
recommendations to the Board. Though at times
there were differences of opinion, and the Com-
mittee resented the authority assumed by the
1 Reg., vol. xiii, p. 327. * Reg., vol. xii, p. 67.
MEDICAL LEGISLATION 301
Registrar, yet on the whole they worked most
harmoniously and loyally for the good of the
School. The Board had the advantage of the
advice of this Committee on all matters of impor-
tance in the School, and it was no longer possible,
as it was in the closing years of the eighteenth
century, for one man, through his influence with
the Board, to direct the fortunes of the School
into those channels which seemed most suitable
to his own ideas.
On January n, 1879, Haughton resigned 1 the
Registrarship, and was nominated by the Board
as Chairman of the Committee, his place as Regis-
trar being filled on January 25 by the appointment
of the present holder of the office, Mr. Henry W.
Mackintosh. Many honours fell to the lot of
Haughton during his long and brilliant career.
In 1858 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal
Society, in 1868 he was created D.C.L. of Oxford,
in 1880 he was granted the LL.D. of Cambridge,
in 1881 he was elected a Senior Fellow of Trinity
College, and in 1884 he was made LL.D. of Edin-
burgh. He was elected Vice-President of the
Royal Irish Academy in 1877, and was a member
of many of the learned and scientific bodies of
In the management of Sir Patrick Dun's
Hospital he took an active interest, and it was
due to his influence that in 1864 the Hospital was
opened to surgical as well as medical patients.
He was also the active agent in establishing in
1 Reg., vol. xiv, p. 50.
302 MEDICAL LEGISLATION
the Hospital the modern system of trained nursing.
In the Hospital his memory is honoured by the
presentation each year of a silver Medal in Clinical
Medicine and Surgery. From 1869 till his death
in October, 1897, Haughton presented these medals
himself, and since then they are provided by a
fund which he bequeathed to the Hospital for the
THE SCHOOL STAFF
WHILE the changes detailed in the last chapter
were in progress, the personnel of the teaching
staff in the School underwent considerable altera-
tion. The first notable change occurred in June
1840, on the death of John Crampton, who had
been King's Professor of Materia Medica since
Having graduated M.D. at Edinburgh in 1793,
with a thesis De Amaurosi, Crampton returned to
Dublin, and, as we have seen, was in 1800 per-
mitted by the Board to deliver clinical lectures to
the students of the School in Steevens's Hospital.
He was at that time Assistant Physician to the
Hospital, and nineteen years later he succeeded
William Harvey as full Physician ; he also held
the post of Physician to the House of Industry
Hospitals, and to Swift's Asylum. As a lecturer
in Materia Medica Crampton does not appear to
have been a great success. Writing of him in
the London Medical Gazette, 1 ' Eblanensis ' says :
' He goes through the business of lecturing like one who
is bound to the performance of a heavy task. . . . His mode
of delivery, which is generally cold and spiritless, is
occasionally varied by being dry and sour. With chemical
1 Vol. i, p. 533, 1828.
304 THE SCHOOL STAFF
experiments he would seem to have nothing whatever
to do ; he seems to have a great contempt for that science
in general : it is evidently too troublesome and too
productive of dirt and annoyance to be permitted to
interfere with his concerns. . . . The samples and specimens
which he daily sends round by way of illustration are
already venerable specimens of the antique, worthy of
a distinguished niche in some great national museum
of the curious relics of former times. They are the very
same musty articles which he has been exhibiting for the
last twenty years, and it is not a little laughable to hear
him reiterating every session his eternal apologies for
On the death of Crampton in 1840, Jonathan
Osborne succeeded him, and occupied the Chair
of Materia Medica with credit and distinction for
twenty-four years. He was a good scholar, an
energetic worker, and the author of many papers
on both medical and historical subjects. In 1862
he described an instrument which he called
' an animal heat thermometer Y with which he
proposed to estimate the effect of different
atmospheric conditions on the human body by
the length of time that it took the thermometer
to cool from the body temperature to that of
the air. This time varied with the temperature,
moisture, and movement of the air, and the
quicker the cooling took place the more effect the
change had on the human body. The instrument
was ingenious, but the results obtained from it
were not sufficiently practical to be of much value.
Osborne died on January 26, 1864, at the age of
1 Dub. Quar. Journ. Med. Science, vol. xxxiii, p. 273.
THE SCHOOL STAFF 305
seventy years. Aquilla Smith, who succeeded him,
had been a Licentiate of the College of Physicians
since 1833, and was one of the six men selected
by the College in 1839 to receive the degree of
M.D. honoris causa from the University. Smith
was associated with his colleague, James Apjohn,
in the preparation of the Dublin Pharmacopoeia,
which was published in 1850. His writings on
medical subjects were not numerous, but he wrote
many papers on the history of Irish medicine,
to which frequent reference has been made in
these pages. For twenty-nine years he acted as
Representative of the College of Physicians on
the General Medical Council, where, with William
Stokes and James Apjohn, he watched over the
interests of the School of Physic. His lectures,
though models of careful preparation, in later life
were not altogether successful, and during the
summer session of 1881 the disturbance in his
class attracted the attention of the Board. The
students complained that the lectures were in-
audible to the majority of the members of the
class, and the Board requested him to appoint
a locum tenens for the remainder of the session.
Order was restored and Smith continued to lec-
ture till the end of the session, but resigned his
appointment on the ist July following. His son,
Dr. Walter George Smith, the present occupant
of the chair, was elected in his place. Aquilla
Smith died at the age of eighty-four on March 23,
Robert Law, who had on October 12, 1841,
306 THE SCHOOL STAFF
succeeded Graves as Professor of the Institutes
of Medicine, was a distinguished graduate of
Trinity College, having been elected Scholar in
1817 and admitted M.B. in 1822. He continued
in office till the close of 1873, when, owing to
serious illness, which resulted in a complete loss
of voice, he was compelled to resign. He was
succeeded in February of the following year by
John Mallet Purser, who had graduated B.A. in
1860 and M.B. in 1863. In 1869 Purser had been
appointed lecturer in ophthalmology at Steevens's
Hospital, and Professor of Anatomy and Physio-
logy in the Carmichael School. We have not been
able to identify accurately what interpretation
the previous Professors put on the term Institutes
of Medicine, but it was not Physiology as we now
understand it. Law for many years had lectured
on Pathology and the Practice of Medicine. 1 The
term Institutiones Medicinae had been in common
use at all events since the end of the sixteenth
century, when Joh. Heurius published at Ley den
in 1592 his Institutiones medicinae, ace. Modus
ratioque Studendi eorum qui medicinae operam
dicarunt? In the School of Physic it was cus-
tomary for the Professor of Anatomy to include
Physiology in his lectures, and as late as 1879 it
was considered the duty of that Professor to sign
the certificates of students ' in Anatomia et Physio-
logia '. Purser, however, from the very start
lectured in Physiology, and at the beginning of
1 Med. Press and Circular, November 4, 1872, p. 402.
1 Haller, vol. ii, p. 272.
THE SCHOOL STAFF 307
the winter session of 1874, on the recommendation
of the Professors, the Board and the College of
Physicians decided that a three months' course
of lectures on Animal Histology, given by the
Professor of the Institutes of Medicine, should be
compulsory on all candidates for the M.B. degree.
At the same time the Board authorized the
expenditure of 110 for the purchase of instru-
ments for teaching this subject. 1 In 1878 it was
decided that Institutes of Medicine, Physiology,
should be a winter course, and Institutes of Medi-
cine, Practical Histology, a summer course. 2 The
establishing of such courses was not of much use
so long as the Professor had no satisfactory
accommodation for lecturing, and consequently
on June 28, 1879, Haughton, as Chairman of the
Medical Committee, laid before the Board a recom-
mendation that a Histological Laboratory should
be built. 3 In this recommendation it was stated
that there were at the time ' sixty-eight medical
students in Trinity College studying Histology
with very imperfect appliances for the purpose '.
It was further urged that, as a new laboratory
had recently been built for the Carmichael School,
unless such accommodation were supplied in
Trinity College students would be drawn away
from the School. The Board resolved ' that the
Bursar be authorized to obtain tenders for the
erection of the proposed Histological Laboratory
in accordance with the plans and specifications of
1 Reg., vol. xiii, p. 195. ! Reg., vol. xiv, p. 33.
8 Ibid., p. 84.
308 THE SCHOOL STAFF
the College Architect', and an expenditure of
2,700 was subsequently authorized for this pur-
pose. 1 At the beginning of the winter session
of 1881 the Board further granted the sum of
225 xos. for appliances for the new laboratory,
and an annual grant of 100 for maintenance,
Dr. Purser intimating to them that he intended
' to transfer the whole contents of his private
laboratory to the new institute '. 2 On December
17, 1881, the Board accepted with thanks the
proposal made by Dr. Purser that he should give
an extra course of lectures on Pathology to those
students who had entered for his course in His-
tology. 3 Thus was begun that splendid course of
lectures on Practical Pathology which was con-
tinued uninterruptedly by Dr. Purser till, in 1895,
the Board appointed a special lecturer in the sub-
ject. On the resignation of Professor Purser in 1901,
Dr. William H. Thompson, the present holder of the
chair, was appointed by the College of Physicians
as King's Professor of the Institutes of Medicine.
Charles Richard Lendrick, King's Professor of
the Practice of Medicine, whose dispute about the
hour of lecturing led to Macartney's resignation
of the Professorship of Anatomy, died in 1841,
and was succeeded, on the 7th of October, by
George Greene. Greene had originally intended
to devote himself to Surgery, and in 1823 had
graduated B.A. and been admitted a Licentiate of
the College of Surgeons. He was one of the first
demonstrators of Anatomy appointed on the
' Reg., vol. xiv, p. 90. * Ibid., p. 143. ' Ibid., p. 213.
THE SCHOOL STAFF 309
opening of the Park Street Medical School, where
he showed great aptitude for teaching. In 1828 he
met with a gun accident, which resulted in the
loss of his right hand at the wrist-joint, and in
consequence he was compelled to abandon Ana-
tomy and Surgery. In 1829 he graduated M.B.,
and the following year was admitted a Licentiate
of the College of Physicians, being elected Fellow
on St. Luke's Day, 1832. In 1831 he was elected
Lecturer in Medicine in the Carmichael School,
and just before his election to the King's Professor-
ship he was appointed Physician to the House of
Industry Hospitals. Greene did not live long to
enjoy his Professorship, for on April 5, 1846, he
died of typhus fever at his home in Fitzwilliam
Square. He was succeeded by John Creery Fer-
guson, who had been Professor of Medicine in the
Apothecaries' Hall from 1837. Ferguson resigned
the Professorship in 1849, being appointed Pro-
fessor of Medicine in Queen's College, Belfast,
which position he filled till his death on June 24,
1865. He was succeeded on December 18, 1849,
by John Thomas Banks, who occupied the chair
for twenty years till his resignation in 1869.
On February i, 1868, the Board of Trinity
College adopted the following resolution : l f That
in future no University Professor of the School
of Physic shall be allowed to hold an appoint-
ment to any clinical hospital other than that of
Sir Patrick Dun. This resolution not to apply
to existing arrangements.' On February 21 the
1 Reg., vol. xii, p. 296.
310 THE SCHOOL STAFF
College of Physicians adopted a similar resolution
with regard to the King's Professors, and Banks,
who had been appointed Physician to the House
of Industry Hospitals on December 2, 1843,
felt that he could not, in accordance with the
wishes of the College, hold both appointments,
and consequently resigned his Professorship. Pre-
vious to this time it was usual for teachers to hold
appointments in two or more clinical hospitals,
a practice which both the Board and the College
of Physicians felt was detrimental to the best
interests of the School. It was easier, however,
to condemn the practice than to end it, and an
effort to enforce the rule led, as we shall see, to
serious difficulties with the Professor of Anatomy.
The Board steadily declined to recognize the
clinical teaching of other hospitals on the same
footing as that of Sir Patrick Dun's till that
hospital secured the exclusive services of its staff,
and eventually, when existing interests had gradu-
ally died out, the rule became general that no
physician or surgeon should be on the staff of
more than one clinical hospital.
On the resignation of William Stokes the Board,
on February 16, 1878, elected Alfred Hudson
Regius Professor of Medicine. 1 Hudson, the son
of a Congregational clergyman in Staffordshire,
was born in 1808, and began his medical educa-
tion as an apprentice to a general practitioner in
his native town. 2 As a student it was his ambition
1 Reg., vol. xiv, p. 10.
* Dub. Journ. Med. Science, July 1882.
THE SCHOOL STAFF 311
to become a Fellow of the London College of
Physicians, for which a necessary qualification was
that he should be a Doctor of Medicine of either
Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin University. Being
a Nonconformist the English Universities were
closed to him, so in 1830 he entered Trinity
College. There he graduated M.B. in 1834 and
M.D. in 1861. After taking his degree he studied
for a winter session in Edinburgh, and then
returned to his native town, where he engaged
in practice for a short time, during which he be-
came a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons,
England. In 1836 Dr. Gilroy, of Navan, whose
daughter Hudson was about to marry, had a stroke
of paralysis, which incapacitated him from further
practice, and Hudson decided to settle in Navan
and take up his work. Shortly after he was
appointed Physician to the Fever Hospital in the
town, and he continued to practise there till
the death of Dr. Gilroy nineteen years later. This
event, coupled with his failure to secure the
appointment as Surgeon to the County Infirmary,
decided Hudson to come to Dublin, where, in
1854, he started practice, taking a large house
in Merrion Square. In 1856 he was appointed
Physician to the Adelaide Hospital, a post which
he resigned in 1861 on his appointment to the
Meath Hospital. There he worked as the colleague
of Stokes till 1871, when increasing private practice
compelled him to resign his hospital duties. In
this year he was elected President of the College
of Physicians, to which he had been admitted a
3 i2 THE SCHOOL STAFF
Fellow in 1857. In 1878 he was appointed Physi-
cian in Ordinary to the Queen in Ireland, as well
as Regius Professor, and Crown Representative on
the General Medical Council. On September 29,
1880, he resigned the Regius Professorship, 1 and
died on the 2Qth of the following November.
On November 13, 1880, John Thomas Banks
was elected Regius Professor, a position which he
filled with honour and credit to himself and to
the University till failing health compelled him
to resign in 1898. During his long life Banks was
the recipient of many honours. Born in 1815, he
graduated B.A. and M.B. in 1837, and, having
become a Candidate of the College of Surgeons
the previous year, he was admitted a Licentiate
of the College of Physicians in 1841, and elected
a Fellow three years later. In 1869 and 1870 he
was President of the College, and in 1889 was made
a K.C.B. On several occasions Banks was offered a
knighthood, but this title he always refused, and
on one of these occasions Punch attributed to him
the following telegraphic correspondence :
' Nolo Equescopari.'
' To Dr. Banks
Wilt join the ranks
Of Knights ? '
' From Banks
' Declined with Thanks.'
Translation. I will not be made a Knight. This is
canine-ical and not canonical Latin. 2
He died on July 16, 1908.
1 Reg., vol. xiv, p. 142.
1 Punch, July 28, 1883 ; Cameron, Hist., p. 567.
THE SCHOOL STAFF 313
Banks was succeeded in the King's Professor-
ship of the Practice of Medicine by William Moore,
who had in 1861 been appointed Lecturer in
Medicine at the Ledwich School. He in turn was
succeeded in 1882 by Dr. John Magee Finny,
who held the office till his resignation in 1910,
when Dr. James Craig, the present Professor, was
The first occupant of the Chair of Midwifery,
established by the College of Physicians in 1827,
was William Fetherston-H. Montgomery. He had
been elected a Scholar of Trinity College in 1820,
and had graduated B.A. in 1822 and M.B. in
1825, in which year he was admitted a Licentiate
of the College of Physicians. All through his long
career as Professor, till his resignation in 1856,
Montgomery was a most active member of the
School staff, and took a keen interest in every-
thing that affected the welfare of the School. It
was mainly due to his exertions that the Chair of
Midwifery was established, and it may be safely
said that it was never filled by a more brilliant
occupant. In 1837 he published his classic work
entitled An exposition of the Signs and Symptoms
of Pregnancy, the Period of Human Gestation,
and the Signs of Delivery? which reached a
second edition in 1856. On December 21, 1859,
Montgomery died, leaving behind him, as Dr.
Arneth, of Vienna, said, a name which ' is known
and honoured wherever Midwifery is practised \ z
1 Lond., 1837.
* Med. Times and Gazette, December 31, 1859.
3 I4 THE SCHOOL STAFF
He had collected a valuable museum of obstetrics,
gynaecology, and embryology, which he sold
shortly before his death to the Queen's College,
Galway, where it is still preserved.
Fleetwood Churchill, who succeeded Mont-
gomery in 1856, was a graduate of Edinburgh,
and M.D. honoris causa of Dublin. He was
a voluminous writer, and published many works
dealing with obstetrics, gynaecology, and the
diseases of children. He resigned the Chair in
1867, and shortly afterwards retired to his home
at Ardtree in Co. Tyrone, where he died on
January 31, 1879.
In 1867 the Chair of Midwifery was, by the
School of Physic Act Amendment Act, raised to the
dignity of a King's Professorship, and in that year
Edward Burrowes Sinclair succeeded Churchill.
In 1869 Sinclair started in Dun's Hospital an
institution for training soldiers' wives as mid-
wives, and in recognition of this service he was
knighted on December 16, iSSo. 1 On his death,
which took place on March 24, 1882, he was suc-
ceeded by John Rutherfoord Kirkpatrick, who
was in turn succeeded in 1889 by Arthur Vernon
Francis Barker, who had been appointed Pro-
fessor of Chemistry in 1809, continued to hold
office till the expiration of his sixth term of seven
years, when he was retired on a pension of 150
per annum, which he enjoyed till his death, at
eighty-six years of age, on October 8, 1859. On
1 Knights, vol. ii, p. 372.
THE SCHOOL STAFF 315
June 8, 1850, James Apjohn, Vice-President of
the Royal Irish Academy and Fellow of the
College of Physicians, was elected Professor of
Chemistry. In 1844 Apjohn had been appointed
Professor of Applied Chemistry, and in the follow-
ing year Professor of Mineralogy, chairs which
were connected with the Engineering rather than
with the Medical School. Apjohn had started
originally as a science lecturer in the Cork Institu-
tion, and afterwards was Lecturer in Chemistry
in the Park Street School. In 1828 he had been
elected Professor of Chemistry in the College of
Surgeons School, and in 1832 he was one of the
founders of the City of Dublin Hospital. On the
passing of the Medical Act of 1858, he was ap-
pointed the Representative of the University on
the General Medical Council, and he continued to
serve in that capacity for twenty years.
On the resignation of Apjohn, Dr. James Emer-
son Reynolds was appointed Professor. Reynolds
had been for some time Professor of Analytical
Chemistry in the Royal Dublin Society, and in
1873 had been appointed to the Chair of Chemistry
in the College of Surgeons School. In 1880 he
published a text-book of Experimental Chemistry,
which for many years satisfied the requirements
of the students of the School. It was during
Apjohn's tenure of the chair that the Professors of
Chemistry and Botany were relieved by the Act of
1867 of their duties in Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital,
and Reynolds never lectured there. On his resigna-
tion in 1903 Dr. Sydney Young was elected.
3 i6 THE SCHOOL STAFF
William Allman, who had been appointed Pro-
fessor of Botany in the same year as Barker
had been appointed to the Chair in Chemistry,
resigned in 1844, and was succeeded by William
James Allman. In 1854 Allman the younger was
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, 1 and in
1855 he was appointed Regius Professor of Natural
History in the University of Edinburgh, which
chair he held till 1870, when he retired and
devoted himself to original work on Zoology.
Allman's work on the Hydrozoa is ' the most
important systematic work dealing with the group
of Coelenterata that has ever been produced *. 2
He died at the age of eighty-six on November 24,
1898. When Allman was promoted to Edinburgh,
his place in the School of Physic was filled by the
appointment, in 1856, of William Henry Harvey,
M.D., who had been Colonial Treasurer 3 in Cape-
town from 1836 to 1842. He was chiefly noted
for his work on the Algae, and is memorable in
the School as the founder of the Herbarium. In
1866 he was succeeded by Alexander Dickson,
who in 1868 was appointed Professor of Botany
in Glasgow University, and in 1879 transferred to
Edinburgh, where he was also Regius Keeper of
the Botanic Garden till his death in 1887. Dickson
was succeeded in 1869 by Edward Perceval Wright,
who in 1858 had been elected Professor of Zoology.
Wright held the Chair of Botany till 1904, when
he was succeeded by Mr. Henry Horatio Dixon,
the present Professor. Though Wright resigned
1 D. N. B. Obit. Roy. Soc., 1901, p. 14. D. N. B.
THE SCHOOL STAFF 317
the Professorship in 1904, he continued as keeper
of the Herbarium till his death on March 4, 1910.
Many graduates of the University remember the
kindness of ' Botany Wright ', a quality which
never seemed to desert him except during the
stress of the ' Previous Medical Examination in
Botany and Zoology '. His work is so well known
and has been so recently described that it is
unnecessary to mention it here.
Robert Harrison, who had succeeded Macartney
in the Chair of Anatomy and Chirurgery, had
previous to his election in Trinity College been
Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in the College
of Surgeons, and while there had published his
works on The Surgical Anatomy of the Arteries and
The Dublin Dissector, both of which had reached
a second edition in 1829. These works enjoyed
considerable reputation, and the latter continued
as the anatomical text-book of the Dublin School
for over fifty years. It was also issued as A Text-
book of Anatomy by Robert Watts, M.D., in New
York in 1848, and was the favourite students'
manual in the American schools for many years.
Professor Macalister, writing of this work, describes
it as ' that dreary book compiled from Cruveilhier
and Cloquet ', and states that the knowledge of
the author ' never rose even to the level of his
text-book '.* Others, however, speak of the book
and its writer more highly, and bear testimony to
his ability as a teacher. Harrison died suddenly
on April 23, 1858, having on the previous day
1 Macalister, Macartney, p. 256.
3 i8 THE SCHOOL STAFF
attended to his duties as usual, and on October 9
the Board elected Benjamin George M'Dowel as
M'Dowel was perhaps one of the most brilliant
men who held the Chair of Anatomy in Trinity
College, but he has left little mark on the sands
of time to testify to his great abilities. At the
time of his appointment to the Professorship he
was Physician to the House of Industry Hospitals,
having been appointed there on April 13, 1846.
Sir Charles Cameron l tells us that Chief Justice
Doherty had interested himself to obtain an ap-
pointment for M'Dowel from the Lord Lieutenant,
and by mistake M'Dowel had been gazetted
to a lucrative ecclesiastical position. When the
mistake was discovered the Lord Lieutenant ap-
pointed him to the House of Industry Hospitals
instead. As a teacher M'Dowel showed extra-
ordinary ability, but his attendance to his College
duties was very irregular. He seems, indeed, to
have had an extraordinary facility for forgetting
his engagements, and many stories are still current
of how his coachman used to insist on his visiting
his various patients before he returned home each
day. In the School, too, he often completely
forgot that he was due to lecture, and many com-
plaints were made to the Board of the neglect of
his duties. His extraordinary personality, how-
ever, surmounted all difficulties, and no matter
how serious the complaint he was always able to
give an explanation which seemed to satisfy every
1 Cameron, Hist., p. 624.
THE SCHOOL STAFF 319
one. With his duties as Professor in the School
and Physician to the Whitworth Hospital, together
with an exceptionally large private practice, we
cannot wonder that his attendance at Sir Patrick
Dun's was irregular, and it was this that first
caused serious trouble. Previous to the election
of M 'Dowel for the second septennial period, the
Board wished to make it a condition of the elec-
tion that the Professor would give up private
practice. This he would not do, but suggested
new regulations for the management of the dis-
secting room which the Board finally agreed to.
On July 16, 1867, the Board decided formally to
' admonish ' 1 the Professor for neglect, but in
spite of this, at the opening of the following winter
session the dissecting room was found to be wholly
unprovided with subjects. As usual, however, a
satisfactory explanation was forthcoming and was
accepted. On February i, 1868, the Board passed
the resolution already referred to with reference to
the Professors holding appointments in hospitals
other than Sir Patrick Dun's, and at the same
time decided that the University Anatomist was to
receive the fees for dissections, and lodge them
to the credit of the Bursar, who had undertaken
to distribute them. 2 This latter regulation had
been suggested by Haughton, but was strongly
objected to by the Professor and the University
Anatomist, who complained that they had not
been consulted before its adoption. Under the
circumstances the Board in the following month
1 Reg., vol. xii, p. 272. * Ibid., p. 294.
320 THE SCHOOL STAFF
withdrew the regulation. On May 22, 1869, the
Board again requested the Professor to explain
his irregularity in attending to his duties in the
School, but contented themselves with saying
that ' they could not consider his explanation
satisfactory V In the following September the
Governors of Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital wrote
to the Board complaining of the irregularity of
M'Dowel's attendance at the Hospital, and the
Board offered to nominate a surgeon to take his
place there if the Governors wished. M'Dowel
demanded an inquiry, but this demand the Board
ignored, and on October 30, 1869, Thomas Evelyn
Little was appointed Surgeon to the Hospital in
his place. 2 This matter created considerable stir
in Dublin at the time, and much sympathy was
felt with M'Dowel. The students held a meeting
at which they decided to present him with an
address. This, however, was contrary to the
Statutes of the College, and the Board would
not allow the matter to be proceeded with. On
October 24, 1872, the Board decided to appoint
a Professor of Comparative Anatomy, who should
lecture on that subject instead of the Professor of
Anatomy. This new Professor was to attend the
dissecting room daily, and besides his salary of
100 a year was to receive half the fees derived
from the dissecting room. Two days later Dr.
M'Dowel was re-elected Professor of Anatomy,
and Edward Hallaran Bennett University Ana-
tomist. The Board wrote to M'Dowel, pointing
1 Reg., vol. xii, p. 355. ' Ibid., p. 370.
THE SCHOOL STAFF 321
out that it would be necessary for him, in com-
pliance with their resolution, to resign his post
as Physician to the Whitworth Hospital. M'Dowel
replied by resigning into the hands of the Board
the post of Clinical Surgeon to Dun's, but this the
Board would not accept, and refused to allow him
to be sworn into the Professorship till he resigned
his other post. M'Dowel appealed to the Visitors,
and the matter came to trial in February 1873,
before the Vice-Chancellor, Sir Thomas Napier,
and George Battersby, acting for the Archbishop
of Dublin. There were two counts in the trial :
first, as to the legality of the resolution of the
Board calling on M'Dowel to resign his post
as Physician to the Whitworth Hospital, and,
secondly, as to the power of the Board to divide,
as they had done, the fees of the dissecting room.
The Visitors decided against the Board on the
first count, and in their favour on the second.
The Board then resolved that during the present
term of office the Professor might continue as
Physician to the Whitworth Hospital, but he must
also act as Surgeon to Dun's. In 1879, when the
term of office was drawing to a close, M'Dowel wrote,
stating that if the conditions of appointment for
the future were to be the same as they had been
he would not seek re-election. The Board replied
that the conditions would be the same, and that
they accepted his intimation as a resignation of
the Professorship. On October 14, 1879, Dr.
Alexander Macalister was appointed Professor on
the condition that he should not take private
322 THE SCHOOL STAFF
practice, that he should resign all the posts which
he held in the College with the exception of the
Professorship of Comparative Anatomy, and that
he would agree to devote his whole time to his
duties in Trinity College. On October 15, 1881,
Macalister was ' relieved from duty at Sir Patrick
Dun's ', and Charles Bent Ball was appointed as
his locum tenens. 1 Since then the Professor of
Anatomy has never been asked to undertake the
duties of a clinical lecturer. In 1883 Macalister
left Dublin on his appointment to the Professor-
ship of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge,
a position which he still adorns. On the resigna-
tion of Macalister, Daniel John Cunningham was
appointed his successor on September 29, i883, 2
and continued in office for twenty years, till
in 1903 he was appointed Professor of Anatomy in
the University of Edinburgh. The splendid work
which Cunningham did for the University and for
the School of Physic are well remembered, and the
unveiling of a bronze bust of him in the School
of Physic will form an important part of the
bicentenary celebrations. In 1903 Dr. Andrew
Francis Dixon, the present occupant of the chair,
The office of University Anatomist, which had
been in abeyance since the appointment of
Cleghorn to the Professorship in 1761, was revived,
though not directly in name, by the appointment
on May 18, 1861, of Dr. John Kellock Barton as
University Lecturer in Practical Anatomy. 8 In
1 Reg., vol. xiv, p. 197. * Ibid., p. 300. * Ibid., vol. xi, p. 445.
THE SCHOOL STAFF 323
1864 Barton resigned this appointment, and on
October 29 of that year Edward Hallaran Bennett
was, on the nomination of M'Dowel, appointed
his successor. In 1865 the office was definitely
referred to as that of the University Anatomist,
and in the School of Physic Act Amendment Act
of 1867 this title is used. Bennett continued
as University Anatomist until his appointment as
Professor of Surgery on November 8, 1873, when
he was succeeded by Thomas Evelyn Little. Little
held the post till his death in 1891, when Henry
St. John Brooks, Senior Demonstrator^ was ap-
pointed. Brooks resigned in 1895, and Mr. Charles
Bent Ball was appointed. With this latter
appointment all functions of the University Ana-
tomist, except the surgeoncy to Dun's Hospital,
disappeared, and since that time the Professor of
Anatomy has had the undivided control of the
With regard to the Chair of Surgery, there is
little to add to what has already been told. On
March 3, 1849, the Board decided to establish
a Professorship of Surgery, and on October 13
Robert William Smith was elected. 1 Smith was
a prolific writer, and his works on Fractures in
the vicinity of Joints * and Neuroma 3 are still
consulted with profit. He died on October 28,
1873, and early in the following November,
Edward Hallaran Bennett, the University Ana-
tomist, was appointed as his successor. It is to
1 Statutes T. C. D., vol. ii, p. 231.
2 Dublin, 1847. * Ibid., 1849.
324 THE SCHOOL STAFF
his exertions that the University owes the splendid
museum of surgical pathology in which is pre-
served one of the finest collections of fractures to
be seen in the kingdom. In 1904 failing health
compelled Bennett to ask for help in the delivery
of his lectures, and Mr. Edward H. Taylor was
appointed his deputy. On Bennett's resignation
in 1906 Taylor succeeded to the chair. Bennett
died on June 21, 1907.
On January 24, 1852, the Board decided to
create a new Professorship of Surgery, to be called
the University Professorship of Surgery. The first
Professor was James William Cusack. His duties
were mainly connected with the examinations in
Surgery, and he never seems to have been called
on to lecture. Cusack died on September 25,
1 86 1, and on October 26 following Robert Adams
was appointed. By a Queen's letter dated Sep-
tember 8, 1868, this Professorship was raised
to the same rank as the Regius Professorship of
Medicine, and Adams was nominated the first
Regius Professor. He died on January 16, 1875,
and in the following March William Colles, son
of the more distinguished Abraham Colles, was
elected. In 1891 William Porter succeeded Colles,
and in 1895 was in turn succeeded by the present
Regius Professor and University Anatomist, Sir
Charles Bent Ball.
After the opening of beds in Dun's Hospital
for the treatment of surgical patients, Haughton
suggested to the Board that they should appoint
a special teacher in Surgery at the Hospital. He
THE SCHOOL STAFF 325
had at the same time succeeded in inducing
Richard George Butcher, then Surgeon to Mercer's
Hospital, to offer himself as a candidate for the
post. Butcher was at the time one of the leading
surgeons in Dublin, having been in 1866 elected
President of the Royal College of Surgeons. On
February 29, 1868, the Board appointed him
* teacher in operative and practical surgery at Sir
Patrick Dun's Hospital ' at a salary of 100 per
annum. 1 This position he continued to hold till
1884, but, though appointed by the Board, his
duties were confined to the teaching at Dun's
Hospital, and he did not lecture in the School
1 Reg., vol. xiv, p. 299.
DURING the past twenty years the course of the
School has been one of steady progress in all
departments. The buildings erected in the time
of Macartney have been almost entirely replaced,
there being only a small portion of his School
left, at present occupied by the Bone Room and
part of the Chemical Laboratories. As early as
February 20, 1864, the Board decided to procure
estimates for new buildings to provide additional
accommodation for teaching Anatomy, and in
June following 700 was voted for this purpose.
This sum was added to in October in order to
provide for a porch and additional lighting and
On April 7, 1866, the College Architect, Mr.
M'Curdy, was directed to prepare plans and esti-
mates for new buildings in connexion with the
School of Chemistry. In December 1873, the
Board approved the plans for the new Anatomical
Museum, 1 which was to be erected between the
Park and the Medical School buildings, and on
January 16, 1874, a sum of 500 was voted to
buy the osteological collection of Robert Smith,
late Professor of Surgery, for this museum. 2 On
1 Reg., vol. xiii, p. 153. * Ibid., p. 160.
MODERN DEVELOPMENT 327
March 28, 1874, an estimate of 8,300 was accepted
from Messrs. W. & A. Roberts for this building.
These contractors, however, afterwards declined
to undertake the contract, and in the following
May it was given to Thomas Pemberton, of East
Hanover Street, 1 the sum being fixed at 8,276,
the contractor agreeing to a fine of 25 a week if
the building were not finished within two years.
This contract was subsequently amended, the sum
being fixed at 8,386, and on October 12, 1876, it
was reported that the museum was ' completed
and ready for occupation ', the builders being
stated to be Messrs. J. & W. Beckett. 2 This hand-
some building, looking west, with a frontage of
150 feet, and a depth of 42 feet, is one of the
most ornamental of the School buildings. In it
are lodged the Zoological collections, and it also
contains rooms for the Professor of Comparative
Anatomy and Zoology. At the northern end of
the building is the Anthropometric Laboratory,
fitted up some years later by means of a grant
from the Royal Irish Academy. Running east-
ward, at a right angle to the northern extremity
of the museum, is the laboratory for Histology,
built in the year 1880. Originally this building
was separated from the museum, but a few years
ago the two were joined by a new building, and
an entrance to the lecture-room opened through
the door at the north end of the museum.
In 1885 the Board embarked on a most exten-
sive scheme for increasing the accommodation in
1 Reg., vol. xiii, p. 178. * Ibid., p. 324.
328 MODERN DEVELOPMENT
the Medical School, and on igth September of
that year accepted the estimate of George Moyers
for new buildings at the cost of 9,050.* The
plans for these buildings were made by Mr.
M 'Curdy, the College Architect, but on his death
in the following year the supervision of the work
was entrusted to Mr. Thomas Drew. The plans
and estimates were subsequently modified in
various ways, chiefly with a view to enlarging
and improving the dissecting-room. The old wall,
which had shut off the Medical School from the
College Park since the time of Macartney, was
removed by an order of the Board on October 29,
1887, an d on November I, Professor Haughton
delivered in the Chemical Theatre an address in
honour of the formal opening of the new build-
ings. Beside an almost complete renovation of the
apartments for Anatomy and Chemistry, the new
buildings contained on the ground floor rooms for
the Professors and Registrar, as well as two rooms
for the students. The second floor was occupied
by two new lecture theatres, and a laboratory
and museum for the Professor of Materia Medica.
On the top story were placed the rooms of the
Professor of Surgery, as well as the museum of
In 1895 the School buildings were again added
to, the Board, on November 23, accepting an
estimate for building a Pathological laboratory at
the cost of 9,000. The Medical School Committee
had suggested that the old Physiology laboratory
1 Reg., vol. xv, p. 8.
MODERN DEVELOPMENT 329
should be devoted to Pathology and a new labora-
tory built for Physiology, but this suggestion was
In 1903 an appeal was issued by the heads of
the University asking for subscriptions to erect
and to equip Science laboratories in Trinity
College. A very liberal response was made, and
Lord Iveagh, a graduate of the University, and
now Chancellor, undertook to provide funds to
build and to furnish all or any of those labora-
tories for the endowment of which the friends of
the College subscribed the necessary funds. As
a result of this generous offer the new Physics
laboratory was erected in 1905, at a cost of 16,500,
and two years later the new Botanical laboratory
was completed at a cost of 8,000. These two
laboratories form a notable addition to the Medical
School buildings, and afford the accommodation
so much needed for the development of research
work in these subjects. Beside this valuable asset
which the College obtained in these new buildings
a sum of nearly 19,000 was subscribed as an
endowment fund, the interest on which is to be
spent annually on these departments. 1
While the housing of the School was being thus
cared for, close attention was also paid to what
was more important, the development of its teach-
ing functions. In 1895 Mr. Alexander Charles
O 'Sullivan, one of the Fellows of Trinity College,
was appointed Lecturer in Pathology, and the
department over which he presides is now one of
1 B. M. Journ., October 26, 1907.
330 MODERN DEVELOPMENT
the most important in the School. The establish-
ment of a School of Tropical Medicine in con-
nexion with this department is at present under
consideration, and it is hoped that in the near
future facilities will be afforded in the School for
the study of this important branch of medicine.
In June 1903, the Senate of the University
decided by a large majority to admit women to
Trinity College, and in the winter session, 1904-5,
the first woman student entered for the medical
classes in the School of Physic. The Board pro-
vided a special dissecting-room for women, but
they were admitted to the same lectures with the
men students. In spite of many prophecies to
the contrary the plan has worked well, and though
the women students are not yet numerous, the
numbers are increasing year by year, and are
likely to increase more quickly in the future.
As early as 1888 the School authorities began to
recognize the claims of dental students, but for
many years there were no applicants for a licence
in dentistry from the University. In 1904 the
Board decided to establish degrees in this subject
open to those students who had graduated in Arts.
In 1910 a complete dental school was established,
and special lecturers have been appointed by
the Board, to teach those subjects not already
included in the medical curriculum.
One of the most important features of the
School at the present day is the students' society,
the Dublin University Biological Association. We
have seen that as early as May 2, 1801, the Board
MODERN DEVELOPMENT 331
decided, ' that a medical society under the control
of the Board may be permitted to meet in the
College.' * I have not been able to trace any
records of the work or constitution of this society,
and do not know how long it continued in exist-
ence. Shortly after Macartney was appointed
Professor of Anatomy the Board again extended
privileges to a medical society, and on November 26,
1814, the following minute was made : ' A Society
for Medical Students (under the sanction of the
Professor) having applied for permission to hold
their meetings in the Lecture Room in No. 22.
The Terms were granted to them during pleasure.' 2
On January 18, 1822, this permission was with-
drawn, though in the minutes no reason is assigned
for the change. 3 In spite of this decision of the
Board the society seems to have lived some years
longer. Dr. Macalister 4 tells us that it continued
in active existence for fourteen years, and only
gradually died out during the troubles which came
on Macartney during the later years of his pro-
fessorship. There is, however, no further mention
of the society in the Register of the Board. In
January 1853, Robert Ball, then Curator of the
Zoological Museum, founded in Trinity College,
under the patronage of the Provost and Senior
Fellows, a society which was originally restricted
to the study of Zoology. Shortly afterwards its
scope was enlarged, and it was called the ' Dublin
University Zoological and Botanical Association '.
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 371. * Reg., vol. vi, p. 144.
* Ibid., p. 336. * Macalister, Macartney, p. 104.
332 MODERN DEVELOPMENT
The object of this society was ' the advancement
and diffusion of Zoological and Botanical Science
in general, and to encourage and promote the
study of Natural History among the Students of
the University V The ordinary members were to
be graduates of Dublin, Oxford, or Cambridge,
and undergraduates of Trinity College who had
their names on the College books. The subscrip-
tion for members over the standing of M.A. was
i, and for others half a guinea a year. The meet-
ings were to be held on the third Friday of each
month during term in the rooms of the Association
in No. 5, Trinity College. This society can scarcely
be looked on as a revival of the Medical Students'
Society of 1814. It was really a new society, and
though its membership roll contained the names
of some undergraduates, they were very few as
compared with the graduates. Most of the papers,
too, were read by graduates. In 1859 the associa-
tion published the first and only volume of its
Proceedings, an octavo volume of some three
hundred pages, ' with thirty-one lithographic
Plates '. Of the sixty-six ordinary members on
the roll in 1859, seven only were undergraduates,
and nineteen were medical men.
William Stokes, Regius Professor of Medicine,
delivered an opening address to this Association
on January 24, 1862, in which he gives a most
interesting history of the study of natural science
in the University. 2 The Association does not
seem to have flourished, and no further volumes
1 Rules, 1859. * Medical Press, March 26, 1862.
MODERN DEVELOPMENT 333
of Proceedings were published. On November 9,
1867, ' Dr. Haughton recommended that the Board
would accede to the request of the Medical Students
to be permitted to meet for the discussion of
Medical Questions ', which recommendation the
Board agreed to, ' the regulation of such meetings
to be previously submitted to the Board for their
approbation.' x A week later, on the application
of Dr. Bennett, the Board granted the sum of
50 to the medical library. Subsequently the
Board made a similar grant to this library, but
on January 26, 1878, they ordered the reading-
room to be closed on account of some misuse of
it by the students. 2 In December 1879, the room
was again opened to the students on the applica-
tion of Professor Bennett.
Four societies devoted to the study of Medicine
had long existed in Dublin, of which the oldest
was the Surgical Society established by the College
of Surgeons in 1831. The Medical Society of the
College of Physicians was originally started in
1816, but after a time it came to an end, and
was not revived till 1864. The Pathological and
Obstetrical Societies were both established in
1838, and to the former of these students were
On January 6, 1872, a number of men met
together in No. 30, Trinity College, and decided
to form a scientific club. This, the Biological Club,
contained on its membership roll the names of
several men intimately connected with the School
1 Reg., vol. xii, p. 280. * Reg., vol. xiv, p. 5.
334 MODERN DEVELOPMENT
of Physic. For three sessions this Club met in the
College, and then moved to a room in Brunswick
Street, where it continued to meet till, in December
1881, it moved to its present quarters in the Royal
College of Physicians. 1
On March 14, 1874, the Board granted permis-
sion to the University Medical Society to meet on
alternate Wednesdays in one of the lecture-rooms
of the new building, ' provided that Dr. Bennett
becomes responsible for the proper use of the
room.' 2 It is from the permission thus granted
that the Dublin University Biological Association
dates its birth, or as the early notices state, ' this
Society was established in 1874 to encourage the
study of Biology in all its Branches/ 3 From the
very beginning this was essentially a students'
association, the subscription being fixed at the
modest sum of 55. a year. The early records
of the Association have disappeared, and conse-
quently it is not possible to give its history in
detail. In 1876 Samuel Haughton was President,
and in the following year he was succeeded by
Dr. Alexander Macalister, who held office for four
years, and under his fostering care the Association
developed considerably. Later, between the years
1890 and 1892, the Association declined greatly,
and in the latter year it seemed doomed to imme-
diate extinction. From that year on, however,
its fortunes began to mend and now the average
attendance at its meetings exceeds that of any
other society in the College.
1 Foot. ' Reg., vol. xiv, p. 170. * Medical Directory.
MODERN DEVELOPMENT 335
The prizes for students in the School of Physic
are neither so numerous nor so valuable as one
could wish. On October 20, 1860, the Board
resolved to establish two medical Scholarships,
' tenable for two years with a Salary of 20 per
annum '.* They were to be awarded at the
examination held at the end of the second year of
medical study, on the condition that the scholars
proceeded regularly with their medical studies in
the University. The subjects of this examination
were Anatomy and Physiology ; Botany and
Materia Medica ; Chemistry, Theoretical and Prac-
tical, with Chemical Physics. It was later decided
that the candidates for these prizes must be at
least of Senior Freshman standing, and have kept
one annus medicus in the School of Physic. In
March 1880 the regulations were modified, one
Scholarship being given for Physics, Chemistry,
Botany, and Materia Medica, and the other for
Anatomy and the Institutes of Medicine. In 1884
Comparative Anatomy took the place of Materia
Medica, to give place in turn in 1893 to Zoology.
At the present time students may not compete
for the Scholarship in Anatomy and the Institutes
of Medicine after the completion of their third
year, or for the other Scholarship after the com-
pletion of their second year, and no student may
hold the two Scholarships at the same time.
In 1884 a sum of money was bequeathed to the
College by Henry Hutchinson Stewart to found
Scholarships in Literature and Medicine. These
1 Reg,, vol. xi, p. 420.
336 MODERN DEVELOPMENT
Scholarships of the value of 10 per annum are
awarded from time to time to the second best
answerers in the Medical Scholarship Examina-
tion. A Scholarship in Mental Disease of the
value of about 50 per annum, tenable for three
years, is also awarded from this fund from time
to time. A bronze medal, founded by the past
pupils of John Mallet Purser, in commemoration
of his twenty-five years' tenure of the Professor-
ship of the Institutes of Medicine, is awarded
annually to the student who obtains the highest
marks in Physiology and Histology at part one
of the Intermediate Medical Examination held in
June. A similar medal, founded as a memorial
of the late Professor Daniel John Cunningham,
is awarded under similar conditions to the
candidate who obtains the highest marks in
On March 20, 1869, the Board decided to award
two prizes of 50 each, ' one to the best answerer
in practical medicine, and the other to the best
answerer in practical surgery.' 1 By this resolu-
tion the Board founded the two most important
prizes in the School, the Medical and Surgical
Travelling Prizes. In 1878 these two prizes were
joined together, one prize of 100 being awarded
each year, alternately in Medicine and Surgery. 2
The winner of this prize must spend three months
in the study of Medicine or Surgery in Berlin,
Paris, or Vienna, and must satisfy the Senior
Lecturer that he ' possesses sufficient knowledge
1 Reg., vol. xii, p. 345. Reg., vol. xiv, p. 6.
MODERN DEVELOPMENT 337
of a Continental Language to derive benefit from
In connexion with the Travelling Prizes two
medals were founded in 1907. The Banks Medal,
founded by Sir John Thomas Banks, formerly
King's Professor of Medicine, and for eighteen
years Regius Professor of Medicine, is awarded to
the winner of the Medical Travelling Prize, a sum
of 15 being given to the second best candidate.
The Edward Hallaran Bennett Medal was founded
by the past pupils of Professor Bennett, who was
for nine years University Anatomist and for thirty-
three years Professor of Surgery. This medal is
awarded to the winner of the Surgical Travelling
Prize, a money prize being given to the second
In 1892 Mrs. Fitzpatrick presented to the Board
the sum of 1,000 to found a Scholarship in the
Medical School in memory of her husband, Thomas
Fitzpatrick, M.D. The interest derived from this
sum is given as a prize annually to the student who
obtains the highest aggregate marks at Part II
of the Intermediate, and Parts I and II of the
final examination. This Scholarship has been
awarded regularly since 1902.
In 1905 the Board received the bequest of
William Chapman Begley and Mrs. Jane Begley,
amounting to 5,655 us. 8^., for the endowment
of four Medical Studentships. The sum available
from this bequest is about 148 per annum, and
the Studentships are open to all Undergraduates
1 Reg., vol. xiv, p. 298.
338 MODERN DEVELOPMENT
who have completed the final examination of their
Senior Freshman year, irrespective of the time at
which they entered the Medical School.
It is a matter of much regret that there are no
Scholarships for endowing research work in the
School of Physic, and it is to be hoped that some
prizes of this kind may be founded in the near
future. In no way is the vitality of the Medical
School more surely gauged than by the quantity
and quality of the original work done in its
While the College was lavishly spending money
for the housing of the School of Physic it was
at the same time assuming more and more
control of its affairs. Prior to the passing of the
School of Physic Act Amendment Act in 1867,
the advertisements of the School Lectures were
paid for out of Dun's estate, and the notices
published annually were signed by the Registrar
of the College of Physicians. That Act, however,
contained no permission for such expenditure, and
the College of Physicians ceased to issue the School
notices. Subsequently these were issued by Trinity
College, and from 1875 were signed by the Regis-
trar of the Medical School, an officer appointed by
Trinity College. At the same time the internal
management of the School passed more and more
into the hands of the members of the Medical
School Committee, who were responsible to the
Board but not to the College of Physicians.
On February 4, 1888, the Board decided that in
future Medical Jurisprudence should be taught in
MODERN DEVELOPMENT 339
the School by a Lecturer appointed by the Board. 1
On the death of Robert Travers, who had held
the chair since 1864, Dr. Henry Theodore Bewley
was, on April 7, 1888, elected the first University
Lecturer in that subject. In this arrangement
the College of Physicians fully acquiesced.
The establishment by the Colleges of Physicians
and Surgeons in 1886 of the Conjoint Board for the
purpose of examining students seeking registra-
tion in virtue of the licences of the Colleges, gave
to the College of Physicians a greater interest in
the School of the College of Surgeons than in the
School of Physic. Thus in the course of develop-
ment the functions of the College of Physicians in
the School of Physic have one by one lapsed into
the hands of the University authorities, and the
School has almost become, in everything except in
name, the Medical School of Trinity College. The
change has been effected so gradually and so
naturally that it has produced no resentment
among those thus deprived of their authority, and
the relations between the Colleges are now as
cordial as they have been at any time during their
long connexion. Whatever changes the future may
bring forth, it is to be hoped that these friendly
relations will continue, and that these great cor-
porations will continue to work harmoniously for
the advancement of Science and for the welfare of
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Walsh. Makers of Modern Medicine. By James J. Walsh,
New York, 1907.
Ware. The Whole Works of Sir James Ware concerning
Ireland revised and improved. By Walter Harris.
Ware, De Hibern. De Hiberniae et Antiquitatibus ejus,
Disquisitiones. Authore Jacobo Waraeo.
Webb. A Compendium of Irish Biography. By Alfred Webb.
Whitelaw and Walsh. History of the City of Dublin. By
J. Warburton, J. Whitelaw, and Robert Walsh. Vol. i-ii.
Wilde, Census. The Irish Census. Report upon the Tables
of Deaths. By William R. Wilde.
Ibid., Dublin, 1851.
Wills, Irishmen. Lives of illustrious and distinguished Irish-
men. Edited by James Wills. Vol. i-vi.
Wolfe Tone. The Autobiography of Theodore Wolfe Tone,
1763-1798. Edited by R. Barry O'Brien. Vol. i-ii.
Wood, Athenae. Athenae Oxonienses. By Anthony Wood.
Wood's Cramond. The Ancient and Modern state of the Parish
of Cramond. By John Philip Wood.
THE MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE AND
OF THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND
' MEDICUS '.
John Temple, M.A. Elected October 24, 1618.
Thomas Beere, MA. Elected December 6, 1620.
John Steame, M.D. President of the College of Physicians.
Elected Fellow October 22, 1651. Resigned November 17,
1659. Reappointed by King's Letter, December 29, 1660.
Not mentioned as ' Medicus ', but given the privileges.
George Walker. Elected November 25, 1669. Died 1670.
William Palliser, D.D. Elected October 29, 1670.
George Mercer, M.D. Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected September 9, 1671. Vice-Provost. Dispossessed
of Fellowship on account of marriage, June 8, 1687.
Owen Lloyd. Elected June 10, 1687.
Jeremiah Allen, M.A. Election as ' Medicus ' not given, but
it is stated on September 18, 1688, that Mr. Allen ' resigned
the place of Medicus '.
Arthur Blennerhassett, B.D. Elected September 18, 1688.
Died July 4, 1696.
William Carr, M.B. Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
May 12, 1693. Died January 16, 1698/9.
John Dennis, D.D. Elected January 21, 1698/9. Resigned
June 8, 1700.
Anthony Raymond, D.D. Elected June 8, 1700. Resigned
William Lloyd, D.D. Election not stated, probably 1702.
Resigned ' Medicus ' January 28, 1706/7.
Richard Helsham, M.D. Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected January 28, 1706/7. Resigned January 16,
350 MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE
Edward Hudson, B.D. Elected January 26, 1729/30. Re-
signed February 8, 1730/1.
Edward Molloy, M.A. Elected February 8, 1730/1. Resigned
May 28, 1733.
William Clements, M.D., Vice-Provost. Elected May 28,
1733. Died January 15, 1782.
Whitley Stokes, M.D. Hon. Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected July 18, 1789. Resigned June 22, 1816.
John Toleken, M.D. Elected July I, 1837. Resigned May i,
1880. Died December 13, 1887.
REGIUS PROFESSORS OF PHYSIC
John Stearne, M.D., President of the College of Physicians.
Elected November 24, 1656. Resigned November 17,
1659. Re-elected June 3, 1662. Died November 18,
Thomas Margetson, M.D., Fellow of the College of Physicians.
Elected successor to Stearne, but date not recorded.
Ralph Howard, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
April 2, 1674. Died 1710.
Richard Steevens, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected September 19, 1710. Died December 15, 1710.
Thomas Molyneux, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected January 22, 1711. Died October 19, 1733.
Richard Helsham, M.D., Fellow of Trinity College and of
College of Physicians. Elected November 10, 1733-
Died August, 1738.
Henry Cope, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
successor to Helsham, date not recorded. Died January,
Francis Foreside, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected February 2, 1742/3. Died 1745.
Bryan Robinson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected June 12, 1745. Died January, 1754.
Edward Barry, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
January 28, 1754. Resigned February 12, 1761.
AND SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND 351
William Clements, M.D., Vice-Provost of Trinity College and
Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected February 21,
1761. Resigned November 15, 1781.
Edward Hill, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
November 15, 1781. Died October 31, 1830.
Whitley Stokes, M.D., Fellow of Trinity College and Hon.
Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected November 13,
1830. Resigned October 12, 1840.
William Stokes, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
October 12, 1840. Died January 6, 1878.
Alfred Hudson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
February 16, 1878. Resigned September 29, 1880.
John Thomas Banks, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected November 13, 1880. Resigned October 15, 1898.
James Little, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
REGIUS PROFESSORS OF SURGERY
James William Cusack, M.D. Elected January 24, 1852.
Died September 25, 1861.
Robert Adams, M.D. Elected October 26, 1861. Died
January 16, T.875- 1
William Colles, M.D. Elected March 6, 1875. Resigned
April 18, 1891.
George Hornidge Porter, M.D. Elected October 14, 1891.
Died June 16, 1895.
Charles Bent Ball, M.D. Elected November 20, 1895.
LECTURERS IN ANATOMY AND CHIRURGERY
Richard Hoyle, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
August 1711. Discontinued 1716.
Bryan Robinson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected September 8, 1716. Dismissed June 17, 1717.
Richard Hoyle, M.D. Re-elected June 17, 1717. Died
1 The Professorship was raised to the dignity of Regius by
Letters Patent dated September 29, 1868.
352 MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE
Thomas Madden, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected October i, 1730. Probably died 1734.
Francis Foreside, M.D., Fellow of the College of Physicians.
Elected May 21, 1734. Resigned January n, 1741/2.
Robert Robinson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected January 16, 1741/2. Dismissed June 29, 1761.
George Cleghorn, M.D., Hon. Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected June 29, 1761. Continued Professor by Act 25,
Geo. Ill, 1785.
PROFESSORS OF ANATOMY AND CHIRURGERY
George Cleghorn, M.D. Elected Lecturer June 29, 1761,
created Professor by Act 25, Geo. Ill, 1785. Died
December 22, 1789.
James Cleghorn, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected April 16, 1790. Resigned July 24, 1802.
William Hartigan, M.D. Elected November 6, 1802. Died
December 15, 1812.
James Macartney, M.D. Elected June 21, 1813. Resigned
July 13, 1837.
Robert Harrison, M.D. Elected October 24, 1837. Died
April 23, 1858.
Benjamin George McDowel, M.D. Elected October 8, 1858.
Resigned June 22, 1879.
Alexander Macalister, M.D. Elected October 14, 1879.
Resigned June 16, 1883.
Daniel John Cunningham, M.D. Elected September 29, 1883.
Resigned February 14, 1903.
Andrew Francis Dixon, Sc.D. Elected June 20, 1903.
William Green, Surgeon. Elected September 8, 1716. Died
Vessy Shaw, Surgeon. Elected October 22, 1733. Resigned
June 14, 1743.
George Whittingham, Surgeon. Elected June 14, 1743-
Resigned September 10, 1753.
AND SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND 353
George Cleghorn, M.D. Elected September 10, 1753. Resigned
on appointment as Lecturer in Anatomy June 29, 1761.
John Kellock Barton, M.D. Elected May 18, 1861. Resigned
October 22, 1864.
Edward Hallaran Bennett, M.D. Elected October 29, 1864.
Resigned on election as Professor of Surgery November 8,
Thomas Evelyn Little, M.D. Elected November 15, 1873.
Died November 1891.
Henry St. John Brooks, M.D. Elected November 14, 1891.
Resigned March 31, 1895.
Charles Bent Ball, M.D. Elected April 19, 1895.
LECTURERS IN CHEMISTRY
Robert Griffith, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
August 1711. Vacated on appointment as Dun's Pro-
fessor of Medicine August 29, 1717.
William Smith, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
December 17, 1717. Died 1732.
William Stephens, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected February 17, 1732/3. Died 1760.
Francis Hutcheson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected July 12, 1760. Resigned November 3, 1767.
James Span, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
November 12, 1767. Died 1773.
James Thornton, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected September 25, 1773. Died May 17, 1783.
Robert Perceval, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected May 17, 1783. Continued as Professor by Act 25,
Geo. Ill, 1785.
PROFESSORS OF CHEMISTRY
Robert Perceval, M.D. Elected Lecturer May 17, 1783, and
continued as Professor by Act 25, Geo. Ill, 1785. Re-
signed February 6, 1809.
Francis Barker, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
May 16, 1809. Superannuated February 4, 1850.
354 MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE
James Apjohn, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
June 8, 1850. Resigned October 3, 1874.
James Emerson Reynolds, M.D. Elected February 6, 1875.
Resigned June 18, 1903.
Sydney Young, Sc.D. Elected October 20, 1903.
LECTURERS IN BOTANY
Henry Nicholson, M.D. Elected August 1711. Probably died
Charles Chemeys, or Kemeys, M.D., Fellow of College of
Physicians. Elected March 4, 1732/3. Probably died
William Clements, M.D., Vice-Provost. Elected September 13,
1733. Resigned 1763.
James Span, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
February 12, 1763. Died 1773.
Edward Hill, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
September 25, 1773. Continued as Professor by Act 25,
Geo. Ill, 1785.
PROFESSORS OF BOTANY
Edward Hill, M.D. Continued as Professor by Act 25, Geo. Ill,
1785. Resigned August n, 1800.
Robert Scott, M.D. Elected November 24, 1800. Died 1808.
William Allman, M.D., Hon. Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected January 16, 1809. Superannuated March 4, 1844.
George James Allman, M.D. Elected March 26, 1844.
Resigned on appointment to Edinburgh January 1856.
William Henry Harvey, M.D. Elected May 3, 1856. Died
May 15, 1866.
Alexander Dickson, M.D. Elected December 22, 1866.
Resigned on appointment as Professor at Glasgow 1868.
Edward Perceval Wright, M.D. Elected January 23, 1869.
Henry Horatio Dixon, Sc.D. Elected April 16, 1904.
AND SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND 355
PROFESSORS OF SURGERY
Robert William Smith, M.D. Elected October 13, 1849. Died
October 28, 1873.
Edward Hallaran Bennett, M.D. Elected November 8, 1873.
Resigned active work October 29, 1904. Died June 21,
Edward Henry Taylor, M.D. Elected December i, 1906. He
had been elected Deputy for Professor October 29, 1904.
LECTURERS IN ZOOLOGY
Robert Harrison, M.D. Elected November 29, 1856. Died
April 23, 1858.
Edward Perceval Wright, M.D. Elected March 7, 1868.
Resigned on appointment as Professor of Botany,
January 6, 1869.
Alexander Macalister, M.D. Elected July 3, 1869!
William Henry Mackintosh, M.A. Elected November 29,
PROFESSORS OF COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
Alexander Macalister, M.D. Elected January n, 1872.
Resigned June 16, 1883.
William Henry Mackintosh, M.A. Elected December 22,
1883. Continued as Professor of Zoology and Com-
PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY AND COMPARATIVE
William Henry Mackintosh, M.A. Elected March 13, 1895.
1 On December 9, 1871, this Lectureship was raised to the
rank of a Professorship.
1 The Professorships of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy
were united into one Professorship by a Decree of the Board on
March 13, 1895.
A a 2
356 MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE
LECTURERS IN MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE
Thomas Brady, Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
July 22, 1839. Died March 16, 1864.
Robert Travers, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
April i, 1864. Died 1888.
Henry Theodore Bewley, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected April 7, I888. 1
LECTURER IN PATHOLOGY
Alexander Charles O'Sullivan, M.D., Fellow of Trinity College
and the College of Physicians. Elected June 22, 1895.
PROFESSORS OF THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE
Robert Griffith, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
August 29, 1717. Died 1719.
James Grattan, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
1719. Died 1747.
Henry Quin, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
November 4, 1749. Died February n, 1791.
Edward Brereton, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected April 5, 1786. Died December 10, 1791.
Stephen Dickson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected April 13, 1792. Deprived after being ' admon-
ished ' December 4, 1797.
Whitley Stokes, M.D., Fellow of Trinity College and Hon.
Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected February 8,
1798. Discontinued October 28, 1811.
Martin Tuomy, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
February 6, 1812. Discontinued May 5, 1828.
Richard Grattan, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected June 10, 1828. Discontinued by Visitors Decem-
ber 16, 1828.
1 Both Dr. Brady and Dr. Travers were elected by the College
of Physicians, Dr. Bewley by the Board of Trinity College.
AND SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND 357
John James Leahy, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected May 26, 1829. Died September 1832.
Charles Richard Alexander Lendrick, M.D., Fellow of College
of Physicians. Elected December 18, 1832. Died 1841.
George Greene, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
October 7, 1841. Died April 2, 1846.
John Creery Ferguson, M.B., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected July 23, 1846. Resigned on appointment as Pro-
fessor of Medicine to the Queen's College, Belfast, 1849.
John Thomas Banks, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected December 14, 1849. Resigned April 13, 1868.
William Moore, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
July 24, 1868. Resigned April 28, 1882.
John Magee Finny, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected July 7, 1882. Resigned July 8, 1910.
James Craig, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
July 8, 1910.
PROFESSORS OF THE INSTITUTES OF MEDICINE
Stephen Dickson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected April 5, 1786. Resigned March 27, 1792.
John William Boyton, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected July 10, 1792. Died 1826.
William Stack, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
October 17, 1826. Died 1827.
Robert James Graves, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected October 2, 1827. Resigned February 6, 1841.
Robert Law, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
October 12, 1841. Resigned November 1873.
John Mallet Purser, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected February 13, 1874. Resigned September 27, 1901.
William Henry Thompson, M.D. Elected January 10, 1902.
PROFESSORS OF MATERIA MEDICA AND
Constantine Barbor, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected November 4, 1749. Died March 13, 1783.
358 MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE
Edmund Cullen, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
April 5, 1786. Died 1804.
John Crampton, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
July 21, 1804. Died 1840.
Jonathan Osborne, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected October 13, 1840. Died January 23, 1864.
Aquilla Smith, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
May 14, 1864. Resigned July I, 1881.
Walter George Smith, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected October 18, 1881.
PROFESSOR OF CHIRURGERY AND MIDWIFERY
Nathaniel Barry, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected November 4, 1749. Died March 1785.
PROFESSORS OF MIDWIFERY
William Fetherston-H. Montgomery, M.D., Fellow of College
of Physicians. Elected October 18, 1827. Resigned
October 4, 1856.
Fleetwood Churchill, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected November 5, 1856. Resigned July 29, 1864.
Edward Burrowes Sinclair, M.D., Fellow of College of Physi-
cians. Elected July 29, 1864. Died March 24, T.882. 1
John Rutherfoord Kirkpatrick, M.D., Fellow of College of
Physicians. Elected July 7, 1882. Died April 16, 1889.
Arthur Vernon Macan, M.A.O., Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected July 24, 1889. Died September 26, 1908.
Henry Jellett, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected
October 18, 1909. Resigned December 2, 1910.
Henry Thomas Wilson, Fellow of College of Physicians.
Elected March 10, 1911.
1 By Act of Parliament in 1867 this Professorship was raised
to the rank of a King's Professorship.
Heavier type denotes the pages on which biographical
Acton, Richard, 64.
Adams, Robert, 289, 324, 351.
Allen, Jeremy, 63, 64.
Allman, Wm., 210, 224, 256,
275. 3i6, 354.
George J., 275, 276, 354.
Wm. James, 316.
Altamont, Earl of, 189, 191.
Anatomical material, the pro-
curing of, 244-247.
Museum, new building,
Anderson, John, 105, 106.
Andrews, Francis, 119.
Apjohn, James, 296, 305, 315,
Archer, John, 44.
Baldwin, Richard, 105, 106, 119.
Ball, Robert, 243, 276, 331.
Sir Charles B., 277, 322
324, 351, 353-
Banks, Sir John T., 309, 310,
312, 313, 337, 351, 357.
Barber - Surgeons in Dublin,
Guild of, 14.
Barbor, Constantino, 105-107,
115, 116, 149, 155, 156, 160,
Barker, Francis, 211-213, 224,
258, 3M. 3i6, 353.
Barry, Sir Edward, in, 112,
114, 115, 123, 127, 128, 350.
Sir Nathaniel, 105-107,
114,115,1 16,154-1 56, 177,358.
Barton, John, Dean of Armagh,
John K., 322, 323, 353.
Battersby, George, 321.
Beatty, Dr., 129.
Bedell, Wm., D.D., 22, 23, 27-
Bedford, Duke of, 135.
Beere, Thomas, 25, 49, 349.
Begley, Wm. C., 337.
Mrs. Jane, 337.
Belcher, Dr., 73.
Bell, John, 127.
Bennett, Edward H., 320, 323,
324. 333. 334. 337. 353. 355-
Beresford, Lord Primate, 289.
Berkeley, Bishop, 79, 129.
Bernardus de Gordon, 12, 16.
Bewley, Henry T., 339, 356.
Biological Association, 330, 333,
Blennerhasset, Arthur, 63, 349.
Book of Aicill, 6.
Botanical Laboratory com-
' Botany Bay ', 205.
' Garden ', 148, 153, 182,
Boyton, John Wm., 161, 224,
236, 257, 258, 357.
Brady, Thomas, 272, 273, 356.
Bramhall, Dr., 44.
Brehon Laws, 5-12.
Brereton, Edward, 161, 162,
163, 229, 356.
Bridewell, Dublin, 32-35.
Brooks, H. St. J., 323, 353.
Browne, Dr., 227.
Bryan, Daniel, 199.
Butcher, Richard G., 325.
Carlyle, Hugh, 296.
Carmichael School, 295, 297,
Carr, Wm., 67, 68, 72, 349.
Cartwright, Dr., 99.
Catholic University School, 295.
Chemical Laboratory, 211-213.
Chemistry, School of, 326.
Chemys, Charles, 98, 354.
Cheyne, John, 232, 283.
Churchill, Fleetwood, 314, 358.
City of Dublin Hospital, 315.
Clare, Lord, 189, 225, 226.
Clark, Wm., skeleton of, 127,
Clarke, Joseph, 137-141.
Clearke, John, 44.
Cleghorn, George, 126-148, 151,
152, 162, 166, 170, 322, 352,
James, 136, 140-143, 162,
176-179, 182, 183, 200-203,
Thomas, 136, 142.
William, 136, 137.
Clements, Wm. f 95, 99, 100,
106, 123, 145, 165, 204, 350,
Cockburn, David, 94.
College of Physicians, 168-186,
and estate of Sir Patrick
Dun, 190-199, 298.
become ex officio examiners
for degrees, 290.
desire to join Concordat
with Universities, 285.
early history of, 49-75.
its privileges, 117-125.
new charter granted, 66.
petition for complete
School of Physic in Ireland,
College of Physicians, Edin-
College of Surgeons founded,
negotiations with, 296.
and Board of Medical
Colles, Abraham, 266, 324.
- Wm., 324, 351.
Collins, Robert, 272.
Conchobar, 4, 5.
Conjoint Board for examining
students established, 339.
Connor, Dr., 59.
Cope, Henry, 96, 1 1 1, 350.
Coulter, Dr., 275.
Cowley, Joshua, 40.
Craig, James, 313, 357.
Crampton, John, 213-215, 224,
236, 257-259, 303, 304, 358.
Crosby, Dr., 55, 60-63.
Cullen, Edmund, 152, 161, 162,
163, 179, 191, 358.
Cuming, Dr., 132, 133, 135.
Cumyng, Dr., 64.
Cunningham, Daniel J., 322,
Cusack, James Wm., 203, 289,
296, 324, 351.
Cusacke, Johannes, 44.
Dabzac, Henry, 66, 99, 154, 173.
Degree of Bachelor of Surgery
Degrees in Obstetrics estab-
Degrees, 268-274, 286-302.
Course of study for,
Medical, new regulations,
Delany, Dr., 80.
de Laune, Dr., 27.
Dennis, John, 68, 72, 349.
Denou6's wax models, 131.
Dental School established, 330.
Dickson, Alex., 316, 354.
Stephen, 161, 162, 179,
229, 356, 357.
Diploma in State Medicine
Dixon, Andrew F., 322, 352.
- Henry H., 316, 354.
D'Olin's book, 54.
Donegall, Lord, 79.
Doyle, Bernard, 61, 62.
Dublin Society, grant of ^5,000
by Irish House of Commons
Duigenan, Dr., 225.
Dun, Sir Patrick, 59, 64, 65,
73-75, 89-92, 115.
estate of, 101-104, 150,
151, 156, 175, 177, 179, 182,
190-199, 206, 207, 298, 338.
- Lady, 92, 93.
's Hospital, 186, 195, 215,
236. 248, 258, 259, 271, 274,
298, 309, 31. 320, 325.
Dun's Hospital opened to surgi-
cal patients, 301, 324.
, institution for train-
ing soldiers' wives as mid wives
library, 104, 298.
Duncan, Andrew, 183.
Egan, Thomas, 232.
Ekenhead, Miss Mary, 217, 218.
Ellington, Thomas, 225, 237.
Ferguson, John Creery, 309,
Finny, John Magee, 313, 357.
Fitzpatrick, Thomas, 337.
Mrs. Thomas, 337.
Fleury, John Charles, 161.
Foreside, Francis, 96, 350, 352.
General Council of Medical
Education and Registration
Gilbert, Claud, 79.
Gilborne, John, 115, 145.
Gilroy, Dr., 311.
Goughman, Lamb, 44.
Grattan, James, 92, 103, 104,
Graves, Robert J., 215, 233,
267, 277-281, 282, 306, 357.
Green, Arthur, 61.
Wm., 93, 94, 126, 352.
Greene, George, 308, 309, 357.
Griffith, Robert, 78, 86, 88, 92,
Guilds, Medical, in Ireland,
Gwither, Dr., 87, 88.
Hall, John, Vice-Provost, 64.
Halle, Dr., 44.
Halliday, Dr., 139, 210.
Harcourt, Lord, 100.
Harris, Richard, 161.
Harrison, Robert, 266, 267,
274. 317. 352, 355-
Hartigan, Edward, 200.
Wm., 183, 200-204, 216,
2l8, 220, 223, 352.
Edward, jun., 203.
Harty, Dr., 210.
Harvey, Wm., 153, 191, 199,
Wm. Henry, 275, 276,
Haughton, Samuel, 300-302,
307, 319. 328, 333, 334.
Helsham, Richard, 73, 78, 79,
79-82, 92, 95, 349, 35<>-
Herbarium, the, additions to,
Hill, Sir John, 74.
Edward, 146-149, 153,
162, 163, 164, 165, 169, 170,
174, 182, 205, 207, 208, 224,
236, 256, 351, 354.
Hippocrates, i, 2, 9, n, 30.
Histological Laboratory built,
307, 308, 327.
Holmes, Matthias, 20.
Hopkins, Francis, 161, 169,
191, 221, 238.
Hospital, City of Dublin, 315.
House of Industry, 303,
Meath, 214, 215, 281.
Mercer's, 13, 63, 153, 169,
St. Mark's, 296.
of St. Stephen, Dublin, 13,
Steevens's, 12, 153, 213,
Sir Patrick Dun's, see
House of Industry Hospitals,
Howard, Ralph, 49-51, 67, 69,
Robert, Bishop of Elphin,
Hoyle, Nathaniel, 40.
Richard,78,86,93, 95, 351.
Hudson, Edward, 95, 350.
Alfred, 310-312, 351.
Hunter, Dr., 133.
Hutcheson, Francis, 123, 143
145, 149, 154. 353-
Hutchinson, Rt. Hon. John
Hely-, 99, 100, 136, 150, 154,
Hykie, Nicholas, 9.
Iveagh, Lord, 329.
Jacob, Arthur, 238, 296.
Jellett, Henry, 358.
Josina, King of Scotland, 5.
Kearney, Rev. Dr., 154.
Kelly, Sir , 24.
Kennedy, Evory, 272.
Kirkpatrick, John R., 314, 358.
Laud, Archbp., 24.
Law, Robert, 305, 306, 357.
Leahy, John J., 210, 221, 357.
Ledwich School, 295, 297.
Leland, Dr., 99.
Lendrick, Charles R. A., 260,
261, 308, 357.
Leper Hospitals in Ireland, 13.
Little, James, 351.
Thomas E., 320, 323, 353.
Litton, Dr., 210.
Lloyd, Dr., 239.
Thomas, 105, 106.
Wm., 63, 72, 73, 79, 349.
Loftus, Archbp., 19, 20.
Macan, Arthur Vernon, 314, 358.
Macalister, Alex., 321, 322, 334,
Macartney, James, 216-221,
222, 223, 225, 234, 235, 238,
239, 241-243, 245-247, 257-
267, 296, 308, 317, 326, 328,
M'Dowel, Benjamin G., 318,
319, 320, 321, 323, 352.
Machonchy, Dr., 137.
Mackay, James T., 210.
Mackintosh, Wm. H., 301, 355.
M'Loughlin, Peter Edward, 223.
M'Michan, John, 105.
Madden, John, 56, 95, 96,
- Thomas, 95, 352.
Magrath, Cornelius, 128-130.
Margetson, Thomas, 49-51, 54,
Marsh, Narcissus, 54.
Sir Henry, 282, 296.
Massey, Samuel, 69.
Meath Hospital, 214, 215, 281.
Medical Act of 1858, 283, 292.
amending Acts, 1860 and
1876, 293, 300.
Scholarships, 295, 335,
School Committee, 300,
School, New Buildings,
Schools, Private, in Ire-
land, established, 295, 297.
Society of Coll. of Phy-
Students' Society, 331-
Mercer, George, 49, 57, 63, 349.
Mrs. Mary, 97.
's Hospital, 13, 63, 153,
169, 181, 189.
Midwifery, Chair of, established,
Mitchell, Dr., 88.
Mollan, John, 272.
Molloy, Edward, 95, 99, 350.
Molyneux, Daniel, 83.
Thomas, 78, 79, 80, 83-86,
88, 92, 94, 350.
Wm., 54, 69, 83, 84.
Monro, Alexander, 132.
Montgomery, Wm. F. H., 267,
285, 313, 314, 358.
Moore, Norman, n, 12.
Wm., 313, 357.
Morgan, Thomas, no.
Moriarty, Sir Thomas, 222, 223.
Mosse, Bartholomew, 124.
Mullin, Allen, 57-59.
Murray, Provost, 206.
Napier, Sir Thomas, 321.
Natural History, Chair of,
Nicholson, Henry, 56, 87, 98,
O'Callenans of Desmond, 9.
O'Cassidys of Fermanagh, 9.
O'Hickeys, The, 9.
Book of the, 12.
O'Lees of Connaught, 9.
O'Meara, Dermod, 29, 30.
Osborne, Jonathan, 215, 304,
O'Sullivan, Alex. C., 329, 356.
Ould, Sir Fielding, 119-122,
Palliser, Wm., 49, 349.
Parsons, Widow, 76.
Pathological Society founded,
and Obstetrical Societies,
Pendarvis, Mrs., 80, 81.
Pentland, Dr., 238.
Perceval, Robert, 146-148, 162,
163, 165-167, 171-173, 175,
178-183, 190, 207, 211, 212,
213, 218, 353.
Petty, Sir Wm., 54, 57.
Phipps, Dr., 223, 239.
Plunket, Patrick, 161, 191, 199.
Porter, George H., 351.
Pratt, Benjamin, 67, 92.
Prior, Dr., 223.
Prizes for medical students,
Purcell, Dr., 135, 137.
Purser, John Mallet, 306-308,
Quin, Charles, 161, 169, 177.
Henry, 105, 106, 107,
113, 114, 116, 154, 156, 356.
Raymond, Anthony, 72, 349.
Reader, Archdeacon, 106.
Rehlan, Anthony, 105.
Reid, Robert, 272.
Religious disabilities of pro-
fessors removed, 297, 298.
Reynolds, James Emerson, 315,
Robinson, Bryan, 82, 93, 95,
105, 106, 109-112, 122, 126,
Robert, 105, 106, 112, 113,
122, 129, 352.
Ryan, Richard, 223.
St. Mark's Hospital, 296.
St. Patrick's Well, 240.
Sandes, Launcelot, 45.
Stephen, Bishop of Cashel,
Saunders, Arthur, 161.
School of Physic Acts, 297, 300,
School of Surgery, establish-
ment of, 288, 289.
Science laboratories erected,
Scott, Robert, 208-210, 354.
Shaw, Nathaniel, 65.
Vessy, 96, 127, 352.
Shelbourne, Earl of, 131.
Sheridan, Dr., 80.
Sinclair, Edward B., 314, 358.
Sirr, Rev. J. D., 275.
Smith, Aquilla, 272, 305, 358.
Robert Wm., 274, 286,
323, 326, 355.
Thomas, Mayor of Dublin,
Walter G., 305, 358.
Wm. F., 295.
Smyth, Henry, 116.
William, 92, 96, 353.
William, Jun., 96, 97.
Span, James, 145, 146, 205, 353,
Stack, Wm., 357.
Stearne, John, 22, 35, 36-48, 49,
5 1 . 65, 349, 350.
Steevens, Dr. Richard, 50, 70,
85. 151, 350.
Steevens's Hospital, 12, 153,
Stephens, Wm., 97, 98, 105,
106, 123, 143, 353.
Stokes, Whitley, 214, 215,
224-233, 256, 281, 350, 351,
Wm., 215, 232, 272, 277,
280-284, 285, 305, 310, 311,
Styles, Henry, 22.
Surgery, 274, 323, 324.
Surgical Pathology, Museum of,
Society established, 333.
Swift, Dean, 80, 81, 88, 131.
's Asylum, 303.
Tailor, John, 44.
Tassie, James, 114.
Taylor, Edward H., 324, 355.
Temple, Sir John, 24, 25, 52, 53,
Sir Wm., 22.
Thewles, George, 64.
' Thingmote, The,' 240.
Thompson, Wm., 78.
- Prof., Glasgow, 281.
- Wm. H., 308, 357.
Thornton, James, 146, 166, 353.
Todderick, Dr., 221.
Toleken, John, 256, 350.
Tone, Wolfe, 226, 227.
Travers, Robert, 339, 356.
Tuomy, Martin, 224, 229, 236,
257. 258, 356.
United Irishmen, Society of,
217, 218, 225.
Usher, James, Archbishop of
Ussher, Henry, 149, 152.
Van Helmont, John Baptist,
Wade, Robert W., 114.
Walker, George, 49.
John, 230, 280, 349.
Waller, Robert, 54, 55.
Ward, Dr., Cambridge, 28, 29,
' Wax-works ' in Medical School,
Whittingham, George, 106, 127,
131. 134. 352.
Wilde, Sir Wm., 55.
Williamson, Caesar, 40.
Willoughby, Charles, 54, 55.
Wilmot, Samuel, 204, 220, 222,
Wilson, Henry T., 358.
Winter, Samuel, 38, 47.
Women admitted to registra-
Wright, Edward Perceval, 316,
Yarner, Sir Abraham, 51, 52.
Young, Sydney, 315, 354.
Zoological Museum, 276, 327.
and Botanical Association,
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