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Full text of "History of the medical teaching in Trinity college, Dublin and of the School of physic in Ireland"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



HISTORY OF THE MEDICAL TEACHING 

IN TRINITY COLLEGE DUBLIN 

AND OF THE SCHOOL OF 

PHYSIC IN IRELAND 



OXFORD: HORACE HART 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 




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HISTORY 

OF THE 

MEDICAL TEACHING 

IN 

TRINITY COLLEGE DUBLIN 

AND OF THE 

SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND 

BY 

T. PERCY C. KIRKPATRICK, M.D., M.R.I.A. 

FELLOW AND REGISTRAR OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF 
PHYSICIANS OF IRELAND 



DUBLIN 

HANNA AND NEALE 
1912 



I 



DEDICATED BY PERMISSION 

TO 

ANTHONY TRAILL 

LL.D., M.D., M.CH., D.L. 

HON. FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF 

IRELAND; HON. FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF 

SURGEONS IN IRELAND J HON. LL.D. OF THE 

UNIVERSITIES OF GLASGOW, ABERDEEN 

AND ST. ANDREWS 

THE FIRST MEDICAL PROVOST OF 
TRINITY COLLEGE DUBLIN 



809747 



PREFACE 

IN preparing this record of the teaching of 
Medicine in Trinity College and in the School 
of Physic in Ireland, my chief object has been 
to present an accurate narrative of the events in 
the history of the School and in the lives of those 
who have been responsible for its management. 

To write a complete history of the Medical 
School would involve a history of Medicine during 
the past two hundred and fifty years. The limita- 
tions imposed on me made the accomplishment of 
such a task impossible, and consequently I have 
contented myself with merely indicating some of 
those points in which the work of the teachers in 
the School has been in the van of medical pro- 
gress. The time of the Professors was so fully 
occupied with teaching, and with the details of 
school management that little opportunity was 
left them for original research. That so many 
of them have been able to earn for themselves 
places in the history of medicine proves that the 
title of the ' silent sister ', so often given to Trinity 
College, is not altogether justified in the case of 
the School of Physic. 



viii PREFACE 

I am much indebted to the work of previous 
writers who have treated of the different periods 
embraced in this history, and so far as possible 
I have acknowledged the sources of my informa- 
tion in the text and in the notes. My thanks 
are especially due to the Board of Trinity College 
for having given me free access to the College 
Registers and to the documents connected with 
the school. Without this privilege much of the 
book could not have been written. My thanks are 
also due to Professor Beare and Mr. Percy Browne 
for the English rendering of the Latin passages 
given in the text. To Dr. Robert J. Rowlette 
I am especially indebted for the trouble he has 
taken in reading the manuscript, and for the 
many valuable suggestions he has made. I wish 
also to thank Mr. William Hodson, of the Regis- 
trar's Office, Trinity College, for the care he has 
taken in making transcripts from the Trinity 
College Registers, and Mr. Robert J. Phelps, 
Librarian of the Royal College of Physicians, for 
similar kind offices in connexion with the Registers 
of that College. To Miss Gertrude Thrift and to 
Miss Sibyl Kirkpatrick I am indebted for their 
patient researches in the Record Office. 

T. PERCY C. KIRKPATRICK. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I PAGE 

INTRODUCTION i 

CHAPTER II 
EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE . . 17 

CHAPTER III 
TRINITY HALL 32 

CHAPTER IV 
THE CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY . . 49 

CHAPTER V 
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL ... 76 

CHAPTER VI 
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 101 

CHAPTER VII 
THE PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN . . 126 

CHAPTER VIII 
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT . . . 149 



x CONTENTS 

CHAPTER IX PAGE 

CLOSING YEARS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 168 

CHAPTER X 
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 . . .189 

CHAPTER XI 
JAMES MACARTNEY AND WHITLEY STOKES . . 216 

CHAPTER XII 
THE NEW SCHOOL 234 

CHAPTER XIII 

SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. MACARTNEY'S RESIGNA- 
TION 248 

CHAPTER XIV 
SCHOOL REFORM GRAVES AND STOKES . . 266 

CHAPTER XV 
MEDICAL LEGISLATION 285 

CHAPTER XVI 
THE SCHOOL STAFF 33 

CHAPTER XVII 
MODERN DEVELOPMENT 326 




XI 



PAGE 

I. REFERENCES 340 

II. THE MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE AND 

OF THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND . 349 

INDEX . ... 359 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

SOME OF THE SCHOOL BUILDINGS, 1912 Frontispiece 
THE LIBRARY AND ANATOMY HOUSE, 1753 to face page 76 
MEDICAL SCHOOL, OPENED IN 1825 . to face page 234 



CHAPTER I 
INTRODUCTION 

A SEARCH for the origin of medicine leads one 
back to the earliest existence of primitive man. 
In the first recorded code of laws which we now 
possess, that of Hammurabi, which dates back to 
2200 B.C., we find the position of the Mesopotamian 
physicians well defined, and definite rules laid down 
to regulate their remuneration and responsibilities. 
Thus we read : 

' If a doctor has cured the shattered limb of a gentleman, 
or has cured the diseased bowel, the patient shall give 
five shekels of silver to the doctor.' ' If a doctor has 
treated a gentleman for severe wound with a lancet of 
bronze and caused the gentleman to die, or has opened 
an abscess of the eye for a gentleman with a bronze 
lancet and caused the loss of the gentleman's eye, one 
shall cut off his hands.' 1 

In Egypt also medicine had reached a high state 
of development at the earliest time of which we 
have records. Of the Greeks, from whom most of 
our Western medicine is derived, we know nothing 
till many centuries after the date of the code of 
Hammurabi, but at the siege of Troy, some five 
or six centuries before the date of Hippocrates, 

1 Johns, p. 46. 
B 



2 INTRODUCTION 

we find mention of Machaon and Podaleirios, the 
sons of Asclepius, the son of Apollo, and later 
worshipped as the god of healing. Though in 
Homer we find the statement : 



Irirpfc yap avyp TIO\\&V avrd^Los &\\q>v, 
' A physician outweighs many other men ', 

it is evident that Greek medicine at his time was 
very far from being as highly developed as that 
of Mesopotamia, some thousand years earlier. 
With Hippocrates, who was born about 460 B.C., 
and died about 377 B.C., Greek medicine reached 
its zenith, just as did the civilization of the people. 
In Roman history a similar sequence of events 
can be traced. At the time of Hippocrates there 
was little medicine known at Rome, but at the 
Christian era we find Celsus, between A.D. 25 and 
35, writing his famous book, De Medicina, in 
which, speaking of the liver, he says : 

' Si vera jecur vomica laborat, eadem facienda sunt, 
quae in caeteris interioribus suppurationibus. Quidam 
etiam ultra id scalpello aperiunt, et ipsam vomicam 
adurunt.' x 

When we come to investigate the condition of 
medicine in ancient Ireland we are met with the 
difficulty that there are few, if any, authentic 
records of the history of the people before the 
Christian era. Tradition must here take the place 
of history, and fortunately the tradition is fairly 
full and well authenticated. Just as the Greeks 
worshipped Asclepius, so the ancient Irish had 

1 Celsus, bk. iv, cap. 8. 



INTRODUCTION 3 

their medical deity, Diancecht. This Diancecht, 
whose name means ' vehement power ', is stated 
to have been a physician and one of the chief men 
of the Tuatha de Danann in the time of King 
Nuada of the Silver Hand, who is said to have 
lived about the year 1272 B.C. It is related 1 that 
in the great battle of Magh Tuireadh, between the 
Tuatha de Danann and the Firbolgs, King Nuada, 
though victorious, lost his arm, and this physical 
defect was sufficient to debar him from holding 
kingly office. A viceroy, however, was appointed, 
and in seven years Diancecht, with the assistance 
of Creidne, the great worker in metal, had not 
only cured the king's wound, but fitted him with 
a silver hand. Further, in the second battle of 
Magh Tuireadh, fought some years later between 
the Tuatha de Danann and the Fomorians, we 
hear of Diancecht preparing a bath medicated 
with herbs gathered in the Lus Mhagh, or ' Plain 
of Herbs ', the present King's County. This bath 
was presided over by Diancecht, with his daughter 
Ochtrinil, and his two sons, Airmedh and Mioch. 
The wounded of the de Danann were brought from 
the field of battle and placed in this bath, and 
coming out whole, were enabled to return to the 
fight, and so bring victory to their side. 

In the book of Genealogies of MacFirbis we read 
of several other medical heroes of the Irish, such 
as * Eaba the female physician '. O'Curry trans- 
lates the passage as follows 2 : 

' Thus saith the Ancient Authority : The first doctor, 
1 O'Curry, MSS. Mat., p. 246. * Ibid., p. 221. 



4 INTRODUCTION 

the first builder, and the first fisherman, that ever were 
in Erinn were : 

Capa, for the healing of the sick, 

In his time was all-powerful ; 

And Luasad, the cunning builder, 

And Laighne", the fisherman. 

' Edba, the female physician who accompanied the 
lady Ceasair, was the second doctor ; Slanga, the son of 
Partholan, was the third doctor that came into Erinn (with 
Partholan) ; and Fergna, the grandson of Crithinbel, was 
the fourth doctor who came into Erinn (with Nemed). 
The doctors of the Firbolgs were, Dubhda Dubhlosach, 
Condan Corinchisnech, and Fingin Fisiocdha Maine, the 
son of Gressach, and Aongus Anternmach. The doctors of 
the Tuatha De Danann were Diancecht, Airmedh, Miach, 
&c.' 

Coming down to more recent times we have the 
story of the tragic fate of Conchobhar Mac Nessa, 
King of Ulster (obiit A.D. 37), which is preserved in 
the Book of Leinster in the library of Trinity 
College. The king was wounded in the head by 
a missile from the sling of one of his enemies, and 
was carried helpless from the field. O'Curry * 
gives this translation of the account of the subse- 
quent events : 

' In the meantime his physician was brought to Con- 
chobar, namely Fingen. He it was that could know by 
the fume that arose from a house the number that was ill 
in the house, and every disease that prevailed in the 
house. " Good," said Fingen, " if the stone be taken out 
of thy head, thou shalt be dead at once, if it is not taken 
out of it, however, I would cure thee, but it would be 
a blemish upon thee." " The blemish," said the Ulto- 

1 O'Curry, MSS. Mat., pp. 453 and 637. 



INTRODUCTION 5 

nians, " is better for us than his death." His head was 
then healed, and it was stitched with thread of gold, 
because the colour of Conchobar's hair was the same as 
the colour of gold. 

' And the doctor said to Conchobar that he should be 
cautious, that is that he should not allow his anger to 
come upon him, and that he should not go upon a horse, 
and that he should not run. 

' He continued then in that doubtful state as long as 
he lived, namely, seven years, and was incapable of 
action but to remain sitting only.' 

The tradition is recorded in several writers * 
that Josina, the ninth king of Scotland, and one 
of the successors of Fergus, who died, as some say, 
in 161 B. c., or according to others in 137 B. c., was 
sent by his parents to Ireland to be educated 
among the physicians and surgeons there. Such 
a tradition suggests that the position and teaching 
of the Irish physicians was acknowledged not only 
at home but in foreign lands. 

Besides these traditional reports which point to 
a development of medical knowledge, inferior no 
doubt to that of Hippocrates, but quite equal to 
that of the time of the Trojan war, we have in the 
Brehon Laws more authentic historical evidence of 
the condition of Irish medicine. 

The Brehon Laws, the ancient laws of Ireland, 
have come down to us from prehistoric time. 
They grew up in pagan Ireland, and about A. D. 438, 
at the request of St. Patrick, they were codified to 
their present form. It should be recognized that 
at this time these laws, though brought into accord 

1 Kennedy, Address ; Wilde, Census 1831. 
B3 



6 INTRODUCTION 

with Christian ideas, were not new, and were not 
materially added to, but were traditional in the 
country. The two most important books of this 
code which have been preserved are the Senchus 
Mor (Great Code) and the Book of Aicill, and in 
both of these we have several references to medical 
matters, some of which, especially those dealing 
with the remuneration and responsibilities of the 
physician, remind us strongly of the code of Ham- 
murabi. A few extracts from the published trans- 
lation of the ancient laws will show with what 
clearness the position of the physician is denned. 

' Half " dire " fine with compensation. 1 

' That is, from the unlawful physician if he has removed 
a joint or a sinew without taking guarantee, without 
warning of bad curing ; if he has done either of these, 
it (the penalty] is one-fourth fine with compensation ; if 
he has done both, he is exempt. 

' Compensation is recoverable from the lawful physician 
if he has removed a joint or sinew without taking 
guarantee ; and if he has taken guarantee, he is exempt. 

' The unlawful physician shall make compensation for 
his blood-" letting " without taking guarantee, without 
warning of bad curing ; if he has done both he is exempt. 

' The lawful physician is exempt for blood-letting with- 
out taking guarantee, or giving warning of bad curing. 
The unlawful physician is bound to take guarantee only. 
This is the case where there was no wound upon the body 
before him (or when, though there was, he increased the 
wound too much) if an impartial physician declares that it 
could have been cured more lawfully. If there were wounds 
on the body before him, and if he did not increase them, and 
an impartial physician declares that they could not have 
been cured more lawfully, he is exempt as regards them.' 

1 Brehon Laws, vol. hi, p. 321. 



INTRODUCTION 7 

' According to body-fine is calculated the physician's 
share from kings and their co-grades, and from the 
chieftain grades, and it is paid out of the allowance for 
sick maintenance. Whichever of them is the smaller, the 
body-fine for the wound or the allowance for sick main- 
tenance, it is thereby it is calculated what the " Feini " 
grades pay, and it is paid out of the allowance for sick 
maintenance. It may be one-half, it may be one-third, 
it may be one-fourth. 

' The physicians share from these following ; it is one- 
half from kings and their co-grades, it is one-third from 
chieftain grades, and it is one-fourth from " Feini " 
grades.' 1 

If one person wounded another the aggressor 
had to pay a fine to the injured one as well as 
provide him with sick maintenance and medical 
care. If the wound broke out again within a cer- 
tain time further provision had to be made for the 
injured person, but the physician had to attend for 
nothing. If, however, the recurrence of the trouble 

' had been in consequence of bad curing, with the know- 
ledge of the physician, there is no testing time to be taken 
into consideration, but it (the penalty) is always to be 
paid by the physician, just as if he had inflicted it (the 
wound) with his own hand '. 2 

In explanation of what is meant by ' sick main- 
tenance ' we read in the Senchus Mor 3 : 

' For providing him with proper bed furniture, i. e., 
plaids and bolsters, i. e., a suitable bed. For providing 
him with a proper house, i. e., that it be not a dirty, 
snail-besmeared house ; or that it be not one of the three 
inferior houses, i. e., that there be four doors out of it, 

1 Brehon Laws, vol. iii, p. 477. 2 Ibid., vol. iii, p. 535. 

3 Ibid., vol. i, p. 131. 



8 INTRODUCTION 

that the sick man may be seen from every side, and water 
must run across the middle of it. For guarding against 
the things prohibited by the physician, i. e., that the sick 
man may not be injured, i. e., by women or dogs, i. e., that 
fools and female scolds be not let into the house to him, 
i. e., or that he may not be injured by forbidden food.' 

Sullivan l tells us that as a rule the houses of 
the ancient Irish had only one, or at most two 
doors, but the house of the Irish Liag or Leech 
was to have four doors, and also, that while the 
ordinary householder, or Brughfer, was allowed to 
have a spring of water in his house if he chose, 
the physician was obliged to build his house over 
a running stream. 

It would appear that the physician was allowed 
either to use his house as a hospital or to treat 
the patient in his own home. Thus homes of 
physicians came to be looked on as general hos- 
pitals, and the forus tuaithe, or the ' territory 
house ', mentioned in the laws is translated 
' hospital '. 2 In the Senchus Mor the probe 
(feaig) is mentioned, and is the only reference to 
a medical instrument that we have met with in 
these laws : 

' As to the distraint of a physician : let his horsewhip 
or his probe be taken up. If he have not the proper 
number of such things, let a thread be tied about the 
finger next to his little finger. If he does not cede justice, 
it is the same as absconding on his part ; and let there be 
notice served for every distress taken from them (the 
physicians}.' 3 

1 O'Curry, M. and C., vol. i, p. 319, and p. 346. 

* Brehon Laws, vol. iv, p. 303. ' Ibid., vol. ii, p. 119. 



INTRODUCTION 9 

From the very earliest times the Irish physician 
was attached to the clan or house of a chieftain, 
and the profession of physic passed from father to 
son just as did the profession of the other arts and 
crafts in the country. This hereditary character 
of the Irish physicians was not unknown in other 
countries, as the oath of Hippocrates shows. In 
Ireland, however, this characteristic appears to 
have persisted until comparatively recent times, 
and the names and records of many families of 
hereditary physicians have come down to us. 
Thus we have the O'Callenans of Desmond, the 
O'Cassidys of Fermanagh, the O'Lees of Con- 
naught, and the O'Hickeys, hereditary physicians 
to the O'Briens of Thomond, to the O'Kennedys 
of Ormond, and the Macnamaras of Clare. 1 

We find one of this O'Hickey family appointed 
in 1590 physician to the city of Dublin under the 
following conditions : 2 

' That Nicholas Hykie, doctor of physick, in considera- 
tion that he shall henceforward dwell and make his abode 
in Dublin, shall have and be paid by the hands of the 
thresorer of this cittie out of the thresorie and revenewe 
of the said cittie yearlie ten pounds, lawfull mony of 
Irland, begynning from Maie next, during his good 
behavior and usadge, and shall observe the orders and 
dyrections following, that is to saie, taking for the vewe 
and loking of eche passientes uryn without visitation, the 
pacient being a cittezen, sixe pence sterling ; for every 
visitation of such passient and vewe of his water, twelve 
pence sterling ; item for eche visitation without viewe 
of his water, twelve pence sterling, over and besyds 

1 Joyce, vol. i, p. 600. * C. A. R., vol. ii, p. 147. 



io INTRODUCTION 

consideration that if he undertake to cure eny man 
for a certayne som of mony, then he be at libertie to 
agre with the saide partie ; also, that uppon lysence 
of Mr. Mayor of this cittie for the tyme being, he may goo 
threskore myles out of this cittie, so as he return agayne 
within xn daies after, and that without lysence he 
may goo no further then that he may retorne within 
xxnii howres after ; and if the Mayor for the tyme 
being shall send for hym at eny tyme he shall com to the 
said Mr. Mayor presently, uppon payne of losing halfe 
a yeares stipend.' 

How these old physicians acquired a knowledge 
of their profession cannot now be fully determined. 
Many of them doubtless studied abroad, since at 
the revival of learning many Irishmen of all pro- 
fessions were found occupying distinguished posi- 
tions in the various schools of Europe. In earlier 
times it is probable that most of the teaching was 
done by means of a system of pupilage, the 
physician imparting his knowledge to his son or to 
his immediate dependants, and so carrying on the 
hereditary profession. The monastic institutions 
of early Christian Ireland were homes of learning, 
but in these places divinity and law were the two 
faculties most cultivated, and we do not read 
of any regular medical teaching. In the Middle 
Ages, however, medicine was often studied as a 
part of a liberal education, and it is more than 
probable that many of the students in the monas- 
teries, though chiefly occupied with the study of 
divinity or philosophy, also studied medicine as 
did the philosophers of Greece in the time of Plato 
and Aristotle. The Brehon Laws, as we have seen, 



INTRODUCTION n 

draw a distinction between the qualified and un- 
qualified physicians, but they do not tell us what 
the distinction was. 

Many medical manuscripts in the Irish language, 
some dating as far back as the thirteenth century, 
have been preserved, and some of these are known 
to have been the treasured books of the old families 
of physicians. 

Though the earliest of these manuscripts does 
not date earlier than the end of the thirteenth 
century, some of them are undoubtedly copies of 
earlier works. Very few of these writings have 
been fully examined, but those that have are 
chiefly translations of the Latin renderings of the 
Arabian physicians and their commentaries on 
the writings of Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen. 
The existence of these manuscripts proves con- 
clusively that the Irish physicians of the time 
were fully conversant with the best medical 
knowledge current in Europe, and it is probable 
that it was to a study of such works, aided by 
personal observation of the sick under their care, 
that these men owed their skill as physicians. 
Several of these manuscripts are to be found in 
the libraries of the Royal Irish Academy and 
of Trinity College, as well as in the libraries of 
England and Scotland, and it is to be hoped that 
translations of some at least of them will soon 
be available for the students of medical history. 

Dr. Norman Moore 1 has examined some of the 
Irish medical manuscripts in the British Museum, 

1 Moore, Med. in Ireland. 



12 INTRODUCTION 

and finds that they are generally Irish transla- 
tions of the Latin works. One of the most 
celebrated of these, known as the Book of the 
O'Hickeys, is a translation of the Lilium Medi- 
cinae of Bernardus de Gordon, the celebrated 
professor of Montpelier, who died in 1305. The 
book was first printed in Naples in 1480, and then 
at Ferrara in 1486, and twice in Venice before 
1500. There is an excellent copy of the second, 
or Ferrara, edition in the Worth Library at 
Steevens' Hospital. Besides the manuscript of 
this work in the British Museum there are several 
others in the Irish language, notably one of 
the fifteenth century in the Edinburgh Uni- 
versity Library, which has been described by 
Dr. Mackintosh. 1 

The existence of hospitals for the care of the 
sick is another feature of Irish medicine to which 
reference must be made. It is doubtful how far, 
if at all, these institutions were used for teaching 
purposes. We have already seen from the Brehon 
Laws that from very early times hospitals were 
in use in Ireland, and were governed by rules 
which appeal to us even in these days of advanced 
hygiene. Though later on many of the hospitals 
were attached to monastic institutions, and were 
used not only for the sick but also for the aged 
and infirm, yet secular hospitals were also common 
in the country. Some of these institutions were 
devoted specially to the care of those afflicted 
with leprosy, a disease which was common in 

1 Mackintosh, p. 170. 



INTRODUCTION 13 

Ireland. One of these leper houses, the hospital 
of St. Stephen at Waterford, is said to have been 
founded by King John. It continued to be used 
as a leper hospital till the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, when it was converted to its 
present use, ' As it was thought that a public 
Infirmary would best answer the intent of the 
pious benefactor : since leprosy is not a disease 
now much complained of.' 1 Wilde tells us that 
the last leper was treated in this hospital in 

1775- 

In Dublin there were several hospitals, of which 

the most famous was perhaps that of St. John, 
founded in the twelfth century by Alrued le 
Palmer, outside the Newgate of the city, on the 
site now occupied by the Church of SS. Augustine 
and John in Thomas Street. Ware 2 tells us that 
this hospital contained in the reign of Edward III 
155 sick persons. The Hospital of St. Stephen, 3 
founded in 1344, on the site of the present Mercer's 
Hospital, was a leper house which was still in use 
in the sixteenth century. 

How far these monastic hospitals are comparable 
with our modern hospitals it is now very difficult 
to judge. We have no record of physicians or 
surgeons being attached to them, or of such per- 
sons using them for the study of disease. It 
seems probable that they merely afforded a home 
for the sick poor, who, while there, were fed and 
attended by the brothers of the house. These 

1 Wilde, Census 1851. * Ware, De Hibern., p. 143. 

1 Evans, Irish Builder, October 15, 1896, p. 218. 



I 4 INTRODUCTION 

monks no doubt had considerable skill in medicine, 
but they were not the regular practitioners of the 
country, and the experience which they gained 
from their contact with the sick added little to 
the general stock of medical knowledge. 

In the year 1542, when the Act of Henry VIII 
was passed for the suppression of the monasteries, 
most of these hospitals were closed, and in the 
seventeenth century there were few, if any, civil 
hospitals in active existence in Ireland. 

The only medical corporation existing in Ireland 
at this time of which we have any record was that 
of the Barber-Surgeons in Dublin. 1 The Guild of 
the Art of Barbers, or Guild of St. Mary Mag- 
dalene, of the City of Dublin, was established by 
Royal Charter on the i8th of October in the 
twenty-fifth year of Henry VI (1446), for the 
promotion and exercise of the art of Chirurgery. 
This guild, consisting of both men and women, 
continued its separate existence till the year 1576. 
During this time there appears to have sprung up 
a body of surgeons, for the Charter of Elizabeth 
(1576) states : 2 

' because there are now two distinct Societies practising 
the said art & faculty in our city aforesaid, viz. : one of 
barbers and the other of Chirurgeons, which said Society 
of Chirurgeons is not yet constituted or incorporated into 
any body politick ; and it being necessary to blend, joyn, 
and reduce the said distinct and separate Societies of 
barbers and Chirurgeons into one body, that in one close, 
aggregate and connected fellowship the art and science 
of chirurgery may flourish as well in theory as in practice.' 
1 Moore, Hist. Pharm. * Ibid. 



INTRODUCTION 15 

In a further Charter dated February 10, 1687, 
the apothecaries and periwig-makers were united 
to the barber-chirurgeons in the Guild of St. Mary 
Magdalene and remained so connected till Sep- 
tember 18, 1745, when the apothecaries obtained 
a separate Charter incorporating them as the 
Guild of St. Luke. The barbers and surgeons 
continued united, in name at all events, till the 
foundation in 1784 of the College of Surgeons. 1 

In Ireland during the latter half of the six- 
teenth century, progress in medicine had ceased, 
and, indeed, like other branches of learning, the 
study of medicine seems to have gone backward. 
There is much difference of opinion as to the 
part taken by the monasteries in Irish culture. 
Mahaffy 2 in his Epoch in Irish History gives 
weighty reasons for thinking that their share was 
a small one, but he seems to have underrated it. 
As teaching centres they may not have been very 
active, but they secured a home for learned men, 
and afforded a safe repository for the manuscripts 
and other accumulations of a long line of scholars. 
With the suppression of these houses the scholars 
were scattered and many of them left the country 
to seek a safer refuge in foreign universities. The 
continuous fighting of the Irish among themselves 
and with the English of the pale, left little time 
or opportunity for studying the arts of peace. 
The houses of the great chieftains could no longer 
give shelter to learning, and no institution had 

1 Cameron, Hist. R. C. S. I., p. 89. 
* Mahaffy, Epoch, chap. i. 



16 INTRODUCTION 

been founded to take their place. The art of 
printing, introduced into Europe in the middle of 
the fifteenth century, did not reach Ireland till 
nearly a century later, and very few books were 
printed in the country before iGoo. 1 

The hereditary physicians still continued with 
their clans, but they had little leisure to advance 
the study of their profession, or even to keep 
themselves acquainted with the advances which 
were made elsewhere. We find no Irish manu- 
scripts of the works of men like Vesalius, as we 
do of the work of Bernard of Gordon, nor is there 
any evidence of the presence in the country at 
this time of printed copies of the works of the 
great European physicians. The condition of 
learning at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century was bad, and there seemed to be little 
ground for hope of improvement. 

1 Dix, Part I, p. 9; 



CHAPTER II 
EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

As the darkest period of the night is said to 
be that which immediately precedes the dawn, 
so when the outlook was blackest for Irish 
learning Queen Elizabeth granted the Charter 
founding the University of Dublin and Trinity 
College. 

This Charter, which is dated March 3, 1591/2, 
states that 

' Since it has been ascertained that the institution of 
certain degrees in Arts and faculties have been of assis- 
tance to learning we ordain by these presents that the 
Students of this College of the Holy and Undivided 
Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, shall have 
liberty and power of obtaining the degrees of Bachelor, 
Master and Doctor, each at its proper time in all arts and 
faculties.' 

Thus, though no special mention is made of the 
faculty of medicine, it was undoubtedly intended 
that it should be taught within the halls of the 
College. Moreover, one of the first functions con- 
nected with the University had a medical bearing. 
In pursuance of the decision of the Corporation 
of Dublin at their meeting on the ' Fourth Friday 
after the 25 December, 1590 ', ' that the scite of 
Alhallowes and the parkes thereof shalbe wholly 



i8 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

gyven for the erection of a College there/ J the 
deed granting this site was drawn up and signed 
on July 21, I592. 2 On March 13, 1592/3, the 
first stone of the College buildings was laid by 
the Mayor, Thomas Smith, Apothecary. This 
Thomas Smith was a man of some repute in his 
profession, for we find that in 1566 he was granted 
a concordatum in the following terms : ' Smythe. 
Thapothecaries Concordatum that evry Counsaillo 
shall give hym a yerely Reward of XXs. and evry 
of the Army i daies wags yerely.' 3 This grant, 
or Concordatum, was a gift made by Order of 
Council in cases when it was deemed right to give 
assistance to some person or corporation, although 
such person or corporation was not on the regular 
establishment or pay-list of the country. The 
early support which the College received from the 
Government was largely granted in this way. 

The foundation of Trinity College did not at 
first effect any change in the medical teaching 
or practice of the country. The record in the 
Particular Book of the Concordatum of forty 
pounds a year described as ' the Physician's pay ' 
has been regarded by many as the origin of the 
medical professorship of the University. It has 
also been suggested that the money was granted 
to the College in order that the services of a 
physician might be retained in the College, much 
as the Concordatum was granted to Thomas Smith 
in order that 

1 C.A.R.. vol. ii, p. 240. Mahaffy, Epoch, p. 63. 

' C. S. P. ; Gilbert, Hist., vol. i, p. 428. 



EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 19 

' he shoulde be reteyned and enhabeted from hencefurth 
the better to provide from tyme to tyme during his 
contynuance here fresshe and newe druggs and other 
Apothecarye wares in plentifull maner to the nedefull and 
good helpe of suche of the Englishe byrthe in this realme 
resident and of the nobilitie and others of the graver and 
civylier sorte of this realme wch shall covett the same 
for their redye mony.' * 

That such an office would be necessary in the 
College is evident from a note in the Register in 
June i6o4, 2 that ' the Colledg broke upp because 
of the plague '. It is, however, almost certain 
that the Concordatum of ' the Physician's pay ' 
had nothing whatever to say to either the teaching 
of medicine or the remuneration of a medical man 
in the College. The following description given 
by Harris of this grant makes this matter quite 
clear : 

' Archbishop Loftus, who had been a great instrument 
in the first foundation, was one of the lords justices in 
1597 and 1598, in conjunction with sir Robert Gardiner, 
chief justice of the queen's bench. These lords justices, 
" in regard of the decay of the revenues of the college in 
those times of rebellion, and as the same was of her 
majesty's princely foundation, having no other means 
of relief, granted to the college a concordatum of 40^. 
sterling per annum, and also the allowance of six dead 
payes out of such cheques as should be imposed upon her 
majesty's army," and the earl of Essex, lord lieutenant 
in 1599, reciting the said grant, by concordatum dated 
the 3d of May that year, continued the same during 
pleasure, and ordered the concordatum of 40^. a year to 
be paid quarterly, and the dead payes, amounting to 

1 Gilbert, Hist., vol. i, p. 427. 
1 Reg., vol. i, p. 25 a. 



20 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

5/. I2s. a month to be paid monthly. In November the 
same year archbishop Loftus and sir George Carey, being 
then lords justices, the fellows and corporation of the 
college petitioned them for " present relief, setting forth 
the utter decay of the college rents in the then general 
revolt, whereby they were fallen into great want, and 
not able to hold their society together ". Upon which 
petition they obtained a warrant on the 3Oth of that 
month, for the payment of 405. a week out of the enter- 
tainment appointed for a canoneer, to continue till the 
vice-treasurer should receive warrant to the contrary. 
On the 2Qth of January following, the lords justices and 
council issued another concordatum in behalf of the 
college, reciting, " that, forasmuch as by several lords 
deputies, lords justices, and the late lord lieutenant, 
there had been granted to the provost and some of the 
fellows of Trinity college near Dublin, a concordatum 
of 40/. sterl. yearly, for keeping a publick and standing 
lecture unto the state, and that by the death of Matthias 
Holmes, late fellow of the college, the same place is 
fallen void ; they therefore order, that the said college 
should have as her majesty's bounty, for the better 
maintenance of the provost, and to the use before men- 
tioned, the said sum of 40/. sterling yearly, to be paid 
to them out of such fines, impost of wines, and other 
casualties as should come to the vice-treasurer's hands, 
to be paid quarterly, until contrary directions be issued".' 1 

The Matthias Holmes here referred to was 
elected a Fellow of the College in 1593, and he 
is described by Ware z as ' Lecturer to the State 
of Ireland for which he received forty pound per 
Annum out of the concordatum '. Holmes died 
in 1599 ; several tracts by him are preserved in 
manuscript in the College Library. 

| Harris. Hist, of Dublin, p. 399 ; Ware, vol. ii, p. 249. 
Ware's Writers, bk. ii, p. 329. 



EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 21 

Further confirmation of this view of ' the Physi- 
cian's pay ' is found in the following entries in 
the Calendar of State Papers, Ireland : 

' March 13, 1598/9. The Provost and Fellows of 
Trinity College near Dublin, for the physician's fee 
allowed unto them by the State, untill a physician shall 
be appointed, viz., for a year, ended ultimo Septembris. 
40/.' ! 

' Concordatums allowed from April 14, 1599 to 17 July 
following. 

' To the society of Trinity College, for a half-year's 
annuity ending ultimo March, zol? 

' To the said society for six dead pays for four months 
ending 10 Junii. 22/. 8s. 

' Book of Concordatums granted beginning primo 
Martii 1588/9 and ending decimo Novembris 1599. 

' The Society of Trinity College near Dublin, for six 
dead pays at 8d. le piece per diem for six months (and) 
a half ending ultimo Septembris 1599. $61. 8s. 

' The said Society for one year's fee ended eodem die 
et anno ut supra. 40^.' 3 

It was a common practice at this time for the 
State grant to be described and denned as the 
pay of some officer, and ' the physician's pay ' 
was evidently the pay of a physician, just as the 
' 405. a week out of the entertainment appointed 
for a canoneer ' was money which would other- 
wise have been paid to ' Gunners who were then 
out of ye Kingdom'. 4 The 'dead pays' were 
evidently the pay of soldiers which had fallen to 
the government on account of the death of the 
recipients. 

1 C.S.P., 1598-9, p. 490. * Ibid., 1599-1600, p. 98. 

* Ibid., 1599-1600, p. 240. * T.C.D. Cal. t p. 395. 

C3 



22 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

Later on, as we shall see in the history of the 
College, the Professorship of Medicine was en- 
dowed by the government when the grant was 
made to John Stearne of 60 a year, and it was 
evidently to this, and not to the Concordatum, 
that Henry Styles, Professor of Laws in Trinity 
College, refers in his petition to the king dated 
October 24, 1668, when he says : l ' The Pro- 
fessors of Divinity and Physic have encouragement 
in their studies by salaries allowed, the former out 
of Ancient College revenue, the other out of the 
Exchequer,' and he goes on to ask that the Pro- 
fessor of Law ' May have the same encouragement 
as those of Divinity and Physic '. 

The first Statutes of the University and the 
College lay down regulations both for degrees in 
medicine and also for establishing a medical 
fellowship. In a copy of these statutes, partly 
in the handwriting of Sir William Temple, Provost 
between 1609 and 1627, and partly in that of 
William Bedell, Provost between 1627 and 1629, 
there is the following : * 

Cap. XIII. De Doctoratu in Medicina. 

' That which we require in the case of a student of Law 
we likewise require in the case of a student of Medicine ; 
namely that he shall be a Master of Arts, and that, after 
taking the degree of Master, he shall have diligently 
devoted seven years to the study of Medicine before 
he comes forward to seek that degree. 

' Moreover we require that he must on six occasions 
prelect in the School of Physicians ; that he must be 

1 C. S. P., 1666-9, P- 654. * Barrett Book, p. 313. 



EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 23 

present at three anatomical dissections ; that he must 
on four occasions successfully carry to a conclusion the 
cure of different diseases ; that after frequent attendance 
in the laboratories of the apothecaries he must throughly 
know and keep clearly in his mind all the simples and the 
drugs compounded from those simples that are met with 
in the laboratories ; and lastly that he must on three 
occasions respond and as many times oppose in his faculty. 

' When all these requirements have been fulfilled then 
he can be dignified by the title of Doctor of Medicine. 

' If some failure prevents the fulfilment of any one 
of these requirements then the same course is to be 
adopted as has been prescribed in the Statute concerning 
the Doctors of Law.' 

With regard to the position of Medical Fellow, 
we find the following statute adopted by Provost 
Bedell : ' 

De Admittendis in Collegium Professoribus Juris- 
prudentiae et Medicinae. Cap. 17. 

' Whereas the study of Jurisprudence and Medicine is 
both in accordance with the Charter of the foundation 
of the College and the current statutes of Colleges in 
England, and in as much as it is not only a fitting distinc- 
tion for any body of students into which it is admitted, 
but also as it imparts a singular utility both to the 
Church and the State ; Therefore our will and pleasure 
is that it be lawful that one of the Fellows be specially 
selected by the decision of the Provost and the majority 
of the Senior Fellows for the teaching of Jurisprudence 
and another for the study of Medicine, such appointment 
to be entered upon immediately after election, or within 
six months after taking out the degree of Master. But 
if it happen that such appointment be made before 
admission to that degree, our will is that the clause in the 

1 Mahafiy, Epoch, p. 357. 



24 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

Oath (de fine studiorum) be omitted by him who is 
elected ; or that the terms " Jurisprudence " or " Medi- 
cine " be respectively inserted therein instead of the 
term " Theology ". And as regards the duties required 
of the Clerical Fellows during each term, it is our will 
that such be not remitted in the case of the Professors 
of Jurisprudence and of Medicine, but that such be duly 
performed by them, just as if they were Commonplaces 
or Theological Disputations. Moreover it is our will that 
every Professor of Law and Medicine upon the comple- 
tion of the first year of his Professorship deliver prelec- 
tions in his faculty once in each term.' 

Laud, in the Caroline Statutes, which were 
given to the College in 1637, modifies this as 
follows : 

' But our Will is that no one be compelled to these 
Studies against his Will, but that one be chosen who 
makes choice of these Studies respectively, if such a one 
can be found among the Fellows ; but if no one be 
willing to quit Divinity, and apply himself to these 
Studies, in that Case our Will is, that the Fellow who is 
the youngest Master of Arts be always chosen ; and if he 
who is so chosen refuses to take upon him that Profession, 
he shall be ipso facto expelled from this our College.' 1 

Though the first evidence we have of the statute 
relating to the medical fellowship is in the time 
of Bedell, it is certain that such a position existed 
at a much earlier date. In the Barrett MSS., 2 
under the date of October 24, 1618, it is stated : 
' Sir Temple (probably John, afterwards Master 
of the Rolls, and the Provost's son) and Sir Kelly 
were chosen junior Fellows. The first of them 
for the Physician's Place, the other for the Pro- 

1 Bolton, Statutes, p. 80. Barrett Book, p. 151. 



EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 25 

fession of a Divine.' Again, on December 6, 1620, 
Thomas Beere ' was chosen Fellow for the Physi- 
cian's Place '.* 

Neither Temple nor Beere, however, took medical 
degrees in the University, and there is no evi- 
dence that either of them had any medical 
qualifications. Temple, who was born in 1600, 
became Master of the Rolls in 1640, was created 
Knight and Privy Councillor (Ireland), and sat as 
M.P. for Chichester in the English Parliament, 
and afterwards for Carlow in the Irish Parliament. 
He was the author of the History of the Irish 
Rebellion published in London in 1646. He was 
the father of Sir William Temple, Bt., the cele- 
brated statesman and grandfather of Henry, 
first Viscount Palmerston, so created March 12, 
1722. John Temple died November 14, 1677, and 
was buried at the foot of the Provost's seat in 
the old College Chapel. 2 Of Thomas Beere we 
know little, except that he took his B.A. in the 
summer of 1614, and his M.A. in i62o. 3 

In spite of these regulations for medical studies 
there seems to have been no graduate in medicine 
in the University for many years. In a descrip- 
tion of the public commencements held in 1616, 
in St. Patrick's Cathedral, we are told that during 
the twenty-three years since the foundation of 
the University there had been one degree granted 
in Physic, 4 but of this there is no record in the 

1 Barrett Book, p. 151. 

* Ware, vol. ii, p. 350 ; T. C. D. Cal. 

Todd's Roll. * Taylor, Hist. T. C. D., p. 16. 



26 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

University Register, or in the Roll of Graduates 
published by Todd. 

The study of medicine in Ireland was not, how- 
ever, lost sight of, as we may see by the letter 
of Charles I, to the Lord Deputy Falkland, dated 
Westminster, August 5, 1626. In this letter the 
king speaks of the zeal which his father ' always 
had to reduce the Kingdom of Ireland to civility, 
and to an uniform manner of Government with 
the realm of England ', and then goes on to say : 

' Wee, therefore, in imitation of so Royall an example 
have now taken into our consideration that the estab- 
lishing and practice of Learning and humane Sciences 
is not a little available thereunto ; and amongst others 
that laudable and necessary art of Physick, the practise 
whereof, as we are informed, is daily abused in that 
our Kingdom by wandering, ignorant montebanks and 
Empyricks, who for want of restraint do much abound to 
the daily impaireing of the healths, and Hazarding of the 
Lives in generall of our good Subjects there. For the 
Reformation of which abuse, Wee think it fitt, upon your 
recommendation, and hereby doe require and authorize 
you, with the advice of some of our learned Councill 
there, by Letters patents to be made and past from us, 
our Heirs and successors, under the great seale of that our 
Realme To erect in our Citty of Dublin, in that our 
Kingdom, a colledge, society corporation of Physicians, 
according to the Rule and forme of the Charter heretofore 
granted to the Physicians in our Citty of London for the 
incorporating of them.' x 

The intended College was to be given power to 
purchase lands to the annual value of forty pounds 

1 Gilbert, Hist., vol. iii, p. 10 ; Smith, Origin Col. P., p. 89 ; 
Belcher, Mem. Stearne, p. 18. 



EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 27 

Irish, and was to make laws for the government 
of physicians practising in Dublin, or within 
twenty miles thereof. 

This matter also was engaging the attention of 
Provost Bedell, as may be seen by the following 
letters. 1 

Writing from London, April i, 1628, to Archbishop 
James Usher, concerning College affairs, he says : 

' And shortly it seems to me, that with one labour, the 
University might be brought into a more perfect form, 
and yet without touching our Charter. At my being in 
Dublin, there came to me one Dr. deLaune a Physician, 
bred in Immanuel Colledg : Who in speech with me, 
discovered their purpose to procure a Patent, like to that 
which the Colledg of Physicians hath in London. I noted 
the thing, and partly by that occasion, and partly also 
the desire of the Fellows, to extend their time of stay in 
the Colledg ; I have drawn a Plot of my Thoughts in that 
behalf, which I send your Grace herewith. I have im- 
parted the same generally to my Lord of Canterbury ; 
who desireth that your Grace would seriously consider of 
it, and, to use his own words, That it may be weighed with 
Gold Weights ; and if it be found fit, will concur thereto 
when the time shall be. I could have wished to have 
been present with you at the survey of it, to have rendred 
the reason of some things, which will now perhaps be e/>7j/xo 
/3oTj077o-ai>ro? ; but your Wisdom, Experience, and Knowledg 
of the Place, will easily pierce through, and disperse all 
those Mists which perhaps overcloud my understanding ; 
and howsoever I shall hereby, dare sapienti occasionem.' 

Writing again to the Archbishop from ' Hornin- 
gerth, April the I5th, 1628,' Bedell says : 

' I suppose it hath been an Error all this while, to 
neglect the Faculties of Law and Physick, and attend 
1 Parr, p. 388. 



28 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

only to the ordering of one poor Colledg of Divines ; 
whereas, with a little more labour, and a few Privileges 
attained, a great many more good Wits might have been 
allured to study, and seasoned with Piety, and made 
Instruments for the bringing in Learning, Civility, and 
Religion, into that Country. I did communicate the 
Plat to my Lord of Canterbury, at my first being with 
him, especially in that point of admitting all Students 
that should be matriculated, though they lodg in Dublin 
in private Houses ; and of the four Faculties, with their 
several Promoters, &c., who seemed not to dislike it ; 
but required it should be maturely thought of, by your 
Grace and the University, and promised his assistance 
if it were found fit. At the same time I left with him the 
Statutes of our Colledg, which I had this Winter written 
out with mine own hand, and caused to be fair bound. 
He retained them with him till the very morning of my 
departing from London. At the same time he signified 
his good approbation of the whole ; only accounted that 
too strait, for the Provost's absence but six weeks, whereas 
many Causes there should be, which would require longer 
discontinuance. I shewed his Grace, that Colledg- 
Business was excepted, and that we had not innovated 
any thing in that Statute, it being so before my Elec- 
tion. Another Point he disliked, was, touching Students 
wearing Gowns always in the Colledg, and if it might be 
when they went into Town. Whereas that of all other 
(said he) would have been provided for. I answered, 
The Streets in Dublin are very foul, and that by the 
Statutes, Scholars were not permitted to go ordinarily 
into the Town, without their Tutors consent. He said, 
they might, if the Streets were never so foul, take their 
Gowns under their Arms. I told him that this was also 
an old Statute, e're I came there.' * 

Writing from ' Horningerth this ijih of January 
1627/8 ', to ' Mr. Dr. Ward, Master of Sidney 

1 Parr, p. 391. 



EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 29 

Colledge,' Bedell makes inquiries about the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, and asks : 

' To what vse your matriculation money is put : and 
how the Schooles were first founded, and are yet repaired, 
if you haue vnderstood what summes of money Professors 
of Law or Physick do pay to the University for their 
chairs, and whether the Professors of Divinity do the 
like or not. Whether the Physitians and lawiers do make 
any Profession at their taking Degrees of Dr., as Divines 
do. And the copy of the Profession of Divinity if you can 
conveniently come by it.' l 

Bedell, however, was appointed Bishop of Kil- 
more in 1629, and at once resigned his position 
as Provost, and nothing more seems to have come 
of these proposals at the time. During the next 
thirty years the College records are silent on 
medical matters except for the mention made in 
the Statutes of Charles I in 1637. 

In the first fifty years of her existence Trinity 
College had hardly justified the hopes formed at 
her foundation as far as medicine was concerned. 
Medicine was still much in the same condition as 
it was when Bacon, writing in the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, says of it : 

' Medicine therefore (as we have seen) hitherto hath been 
such, as hath been more professed, than laboured ; and 
yet more laboured than advanced ; seeing the pains 
bestowed thereon, hath been rather in a circle, than in 
progression. For I find much Iteration but small Addition 
in Writers of that Faculty."* 1 

Dermod O'Meara, writing in 1619 to the Lord 
Deputy, Sir Oliver St. John, gives us an interesting 

1 Shuckburgh, p. 274. * Advan. of Learning, p. 121. 



30 EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

glimpse of medical practice in Dublin at the time. 
O'Meara, 1 a poet and a physician, was born in 
the County Tipperary and educated at Oxford. 
He says : 

' There are certainly more persons in Dublin at the 
present day practising the Art of Medicine than any other 
art, yet there are very few of them who have the six 
qualifications which Hippocrates requires in a Medical 
Doctor. Here, not only cursed mountebanks, ignorant 
barbers, and shameless quack compounders, but also 
persons of every other craft whatsoever, loose women, and 
those of the dregs of humanity who are either tired of their 
own proper art and craft or inflammed with an unbridled 
passion for making money, all have free leave to profane 
the holy temple of Asculapius. Here might not one justly 
exclaim in the words of the poet 

Here are those 

Who, groping in the dark, are licensed still 
To rack the sick, and murder men at will. 

Malpractice, indeed, takes place in every country in the 
world, but not everywhere with impunity. In every well 
governed city and state legal precaution is taken that 
no one should essay medical practice unless one who is 
duly qualified by the public certificate and authorisation 
of some University. In these Cities and States no barber 
dares to open a vein, no compounder dares to sell medi- 
cines, much less to attend patients, without a medical 
Doctor's prescription. Thrice happy were this royal city 
of ours thrice happy our whole state had they the 
benefit of such wise legal precautions.' 2 

In contrast with this we may put the statement 
of John Baptist van Helmont, who was born in 
1577 an< 3 died in 1644. In the collected edition 

1 Ware, p. 108. Gilbert, Hist., vol. i, p. 428. 



EARLY HISTORY OF TRINITY COLLEGE 31 

of his works, first published after his death in 
1648, in the Confessio Authoris, we read : * 

' For I remember that the Chieftains of Ireland used 
each to give a piece of land to a ' healer ' who lived with 
them not one who had come back trained from the 
Universities, but one who could really make sick people 
well. Each such healer, I may mention, has a book 
crammed with specific remedies bequeathed to him by 
his forefathers. Accordingly he who inherits the book 
inherits also the piece of land. This book describes the 
symptoms of ailments and the country remedies used for 
each ; and the people of Ireland are cured more success- 
fully when ill, and have generally far better health than 
the people of Italy, who in the several village com- 
munities have their practitioners living on the blood of 
their unhappy patients. Therefore I said to myself : 
' What foolish mistake has mislead you ; you may have 
thought out what is destined to be a great moment for 
your neighbour, although Universities have scoffed at your 
poor dissertations and trampled them under foot ; and 
even though it has not been for your own vain-glory's 
sake that you have written them, still all efforts are vain 
whose issue rests only in the hands of men." 

The Rebellion in 1641, followed by the Civil 
War in England and the Commonwealth, put an 
end for the time to all hope of improvement, but 
the seeds so carefully sown by Temple and Bedell 
were to bear good fruit after the Restoration of 
Charles II. 

1 Op. omnia, 1682, p. 13. 



CHAPTER III 
TRINITY HALL 

IN the Assembly Rolls of the Corporation of 
Dublin for ' the Second Friday after Easter, 1604 ', 
Easter Day being on the 8th of April, 1604, there 
is the following record : * 

' Whereas Mr. Doctor Challinor, Mr. John King, 
Mr. James Ware, and Mr. James Carroll did in last 
Christmas assembly prefer a peticion to undertake to 
build a Bridewell near this city, which is now in building ; 
and whereas the same is a chargeable work, and is to be 
furthered by everyone that hath a feeling of the good 
which thereby will redound to the city in particular, and 
generally to the whole kingdom : ordered, that, for the 
above purpose, an estate in fee-simple be granted, under 
the city seal, to three persons to be nominated by the 
Mayor, and three by the petitioners, of so much land as 
shall be thought convenient in the Hoggen Green, from the 
gate in the north towards Tirrells Park in the south, and 
from the wall leading from the gate in the west towards 
the Butts eastward. The building to be named Bridewell, 
and to be a place of punishment for offenders, and for 
putting idle persons to work ; regulations to correspond 
with those of London Bridewell ; master and officials 
to be appointed by and under jurisdiction of Mayor, 
Sheriffs, commons and citizens ; the building to be used 
solely as a Bridewell. The ground, according to the 
survey, contains in breadth one hundred and twelve yards, 
in length thirty-three yards.' 

1 C.A.R., vol. ii, p. 420. 



TRINITY HALL 33 

In the following January l the ' Undertakers of 
the Newe Bridewell ' asked for an amendment of 
the conditions agreed upon in ' the conveighans ' 
which was to be passed between them and the 
city, and this was agreed to. 

It would appear that the house was never used 
for the purpose it was intended for, and the 
builder, George Breddam, petitioned the Privy 
Council for the repayment of the money he had 
advanced on the building. The matter was re- 
ferred to arbitrators, who decided that 40 should 
be paid to Breddam, provided he handed over the 
house in perfect order. A rehearing of the case 
was however granted, and the Mayor and James 
Ware were appointed arbitrators. They reported 
that Breddam was content to take 32 in payment 
of all his claims, but neither the Corporation nor 
the original undertakers were willing to pay the 
sum, and consequently the Lord Deputy offered 
the place to Trinity College for so. 2 

In pursuance of this offer we find in the Assembly 
Rolls : 3 

On the ' Fourth Friday after the 24 June, 1615 ' it 
was agreed by the Corporation ' that the Provost and 
felloes of the Trynity Colledge, near Dublin, at the 
request of the right honorable the lord deputy, 4 and 
in consyderacion of the remittall of the fyne of fyfty 
powndes imposed uppon this city for the escape of 
Thomas Russell, the younger, shall have the precincts of 
the howse, called Bridewell uppon the Hogges Green, with 

1 C.A.R., p. 433. 

* Gilbert, Hist., vol. iii, p. 8 ; Smith, Origin Col. P., p. 87. 
3 C. A. R., vol. iii, p. 57. * Sir Arthur Chichester. 

D 



34 TRINITY HALL 

thappurtenances, at the yearly rent of two shillinges, to 
be used and converted by them onely for a free schoole, 
and not otherwyse, the said assurance to be made forth- 
with. Provided that yf the said howse be, at any time 
heerafter, without the privity and assent of the Maior, 
Sheryfes, commons and cittizens of this citty, converted 
to any other use than for a schoole howse, that then it 
shall revert againe to the cittie in such manner as nowe 
they have it, soe as they repaie the fyfty powndes soe 
forgiven them for the said escape.' 

This holding so granted to the College was then 
named Trinity Hall. The exact site has not been 
clearly defined, but it is figured as ' Bridewell ' in 
Speed's map of Dublin, published in 1610, situated 
on the south side of Dame Street, somewhere 
between the present Exchequer Street and Trinity 
Street. Gilbert x says that a portion of the site 
was afterwards occupied by the Almshouse of 
St. Andrew's parish. 

Trinity Hall was then opened by the College as 
a residence house for some of the students, for 
whom there was insufficient room in the College 
buildings, just as later, in 1629, Kildare Hall and 
a house in Bride Street were opened for a similar 
purpose. It was placed in charge of a Rector, and 
the students were to attend in the College for 
exercises, disputations, and meals. The plan does 
not seem to have worked well, and at the time of 
the Rebellion the Hall seems to have been almost 
abandoned by the College. In the Register for 
February 20, i66i, 2 it is stated that, ' In processe 

1 Gilbert, Hist., vol. iii, p. 17. 
' Reg., vol. iii, p. 65. 



TRINITY HALL 35 

of the wane the sd. Hall was by poore people 
occupied and in a maner ruinated the sd. College 
being not in a condition to looke after itt or wholley 
neglecting it.' 

When peace was restored during the Common- 
wealth, the city fathers decided to resume posses- 
sion of the Hall, ' because it was not imploy'd to 
the use intended.' 

The College authorities were then in a difficulty, 
as they could not afford to repair the Hall them- 
selves, but were anxious not to lose their title to 
it from the city. In this difficulty a proposal * was 
made about the year 1654 to the ' pretended ' 
Provost and Fellows for a lease from them of 
Trinity Hall and the ground thereunto belonging 
by Colonel Markham and Dr. John Kerdiff, who 
promised to secure the title of the College ' against 
the Citty & to repair the sd. Hall '. The Register 
goes on to say : 

' This motion was opposed by Dr. John Stearne and 
was quash'd by his alledging and proving that to make 
a lease of the premises would be more directly contrary 
to the intent of the conveyance of the premises upon the 
sd College, then any former either inability or neglect 
& consequently give greater colour and advantage to the 
Citty to prosecute theyer design. 

' This motion being laid aside, the sd John Stearne 
moves the sd pretended Provost & Fellowes that hee 
might be by them constituted President of the sd Hall 
during his naturall life & accomodated with certain 
lodgings therein, upon several conditions, whereof three 
were, to keep out the Citty, & to repair the sd Hall, 
without charge to the College (which our college at that 
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 65. 



3 6 TRINITY HALL 

time was not able to defray) and to convert the remainder 
to what should bee unto him allotted for his own accomo- 
dation, unto the sole and proper use of Physicians. Upon 
acceptance of this proposall the sd John Stearne was 
made President of the sd Hall by the then pretended 
Provost & Fellowes and accomodated with a certaine 
number of roomes therein, & the sd John Stearne took 
of the Citty from persecuting theyer designe, laid out of 
his own purse above an hundred pounds in repairing the 
sd Hall, and procured disbursements from others for 
accomodating Physicians with a convenient place to 
meete in, in order to the erection of a College of Physicians 
as soone as possibly itt could be effected. Thus the case 
stood untill his Majesty's happy restoration.' 

It should be remembered when dealing with the 
period of the Commonwealth that the Provost and 
Fellows of the College who had held office in the 
time of the late king were all dispossessed, and 
a new Provost and new Fellows appointed. At the 
restoration of the King it was considered that 
these persons had not been legally elected to the 
offices they held, and they are always referred to 
as the ' Pretended Provost and Fellows '. Those 
of the Fellows who were continued in their places 
at the Restoration were re-sworn, just as if they 
had never been elected before. 

John Stearne, one of the ' pretended Fellows ', 
was the most remarkable man of his time in 
Trinity College. Some record of his life has been 
published in Harris's edition of Ware's Writers, by 
Aquilla Smith in his Account of the Origin of the 
College of Physicians, in Belcher's Records of the 
College of Physicians, and by Professor Mahaffy in 



TRINITY HALL 37 

his sermon in the College Chapel on Trinity Mon- 
day, 1907,* and in his Epoch of Irish History. 

Stearne came of a stock whose members on both 
sides were distinguished for learning. His father, 
John Stearne, was a scion of the same family as 
Richard Sterne, Archbishop of York, who died 
at the age of 87 in 1683. This John Stearne came 
to Ireland and married a daughter of Margaret 
Birmingham, a sister of James Usher, who had 
been elected Fellow of Trinity College in 1600 and 
Archbishop of Armagh in 1624. James Usher's 
connexion with the College was most intimate. 
His mother was a daughter of James Stanihurst, 
Speaker of the Irish House of Commons in the 
reigns of Queens Mary and Elizabeth, who in the 
latter reign had made the first motion in Parlia- 
ment for the foundation of Trinity College. James 
Usher's uncle, Henry Usher, was Archbishop of 
Armagh in 1595, and was nominated the first 
Fellow of the College in the Charter of Elizabeth. 
This Henry Usher's son, Robert, succeeded Bedell 
as Provost in 1629. 

John Stearne was born on the 26th November, 
1624, at Ardbraccan, in County Meath, at the 
home of his grand-uncle, James Usher, who was 
then Bishop of Meath. He tells us that as 2 a 
' boy he was well and liberally educated but where 
is not worth telling '. He entered Trinity College 
at the age of fifteen on the 22nd May, 1639, and 
was allowed a scholarship in 1641. There is no 
record in the College of his having taken any further 

1 Irish Times, May 28, 1907. * Mahaffy, Sermon. 

D3 



38 TRINITY HALL 

degrees there, and on the breaking out of the 
Rebellion he left the country and went to Cam- 
bridge, bringing with him a recommendation from 
Archbishop Usher to Samuel Ward, the Master of 
Sidney College. There he remained some years, 
till, driven out by the troubles of the times, he 
took refuge for a time in Oxford, where he was 
received by Seth Ward, Fellow of Wadham College. 
While in Cambridge Stearne must have studied 
medicine, and he probably had every facility for 
doing so in Sidney College, which was at the time 
the College chiefly frequented by medical students. 
Driven from Oxford as he had been from Cam- 
bridge by the stress of the times, Stearne returned 
to Dublin. It has been suggested that Stearne had 
been elected a Fellow of Trinity College about the 
year 1644 while he was at Cambridge, but of this 
there is no direct evidence. It seems more prob- 
able, as Dr. Mahaffy l suggests, that he was induced 
to return by Samuel Winter, who was made 
Provost about 1650 or 1651, and the way was 
prepared for his return by the following Order 
in Council, 2 dated ' Dub. 22d Octob 1651 ' : 

' Ordered that Mr. John Stearne be admitted into 
Trinity Colledge neere Dublin as One of the Fellowes 
there for six monthes from the date hereof, in wch time the 
said Mr Stearne is to produce Testimonialls of his former 
carriage and good affection to the Parliamt from godly and 
honest persons in England, either att Cambridge or in 
Bedfordshire where the said Mr. Stearnes last abode was.' 

' Mahafly, Sermon. 

' Council Boohs of the Commonwealth, vol. xlii, Orders, 1651-3. 
p. 46. 



TRINITY HALL 39 

At all events we have him signing the Register 
of the College as ' Registrarius ', and therefore 
a Senior Fellow, on September 3, 1652. There 
was at this time a great epidemic of plague raging 
in the city, and Stearne may have felt that his 
medical skill would ensure him a cordial and re- 
munerative welcome. He appears to have at once 
entered on medical practice, for in the College 
Register of the 22nd May, 1655, l there is the 
following entry : 

' We ye Provost & Senior ffellows of Trinity Collegdge 
neere Dublin at ye request of John Stearne, senior ffellow 
of ye sd Colledge, doe for, and in consideration of the sd 
John Stearne his practice in physicke hereby give and 
grante vnto the sd John Stearne full liberty to lye in 
the Cyty of Dublin or els where, when so ever in his 
discretion his physicall employments shall require his 
absence any night from the Colledge.' 

This minute is signed by the Provost, the Vice- 
Provost, and three Senior Fellows. 

On the 24th November, 1656, Stearne was 
elected Professor of Hebrew. There was some dis- 
pute between him and the Board about the salary 
of this Professorship, and, in spite of a letter 
from the Chancellor of the University, Henry 
Cromwell, in favour of Stearne, the Board refused 
to pay the full amount, and on the I7th November, 
1659, "there is the following minute in the College 
Register 2 : ' Memorandum, that Dr. John Stearne, 
Dr. of Physique resigned his Fellowship.' It is 
said that the prospect of the coming Restoration of 

1 Reg., vol. ii, p. 84. * Ibid., vol. ii, p. 91. 



4 o TRINITY HALL 

the king had more to say to Stearne's resignation 
than his dispute on the salary of the Hebrew 
Professorship. At all events, in the king's letter, 
dated 'Whitehall December 29 1660', we find 
Stearne nominated Senior Fellow of the College, 
but associated with him Nathaniel Hoyle as 
Vice-Provost; Caesar Williamson, Public Orator; 
Joshua Cowley, Jurist; each of whom had held 
a fellowship during the Commonwealth. 

On January 22, 1660/1, Stearne, with the others, 
took the oath as a Senior Fellow, 1 and on January 29 
following he was again elected Registrar. 2 Almost 
immediately Stearne proceeded to carry out his 
plan for establishing a Fraternity of Physicians in 
Trinity Hall, and the Register 3 of February 18, 
1660/1, contains the following proposals : 

' The humble proposalls of John Steam unto the 
worshipfull ye Provost & Sr. Fellows of Trinity Colledge 
neere Dublin : 

4 1. That Trinity Hall with the land thereunto belonging 
may be set apart in perpetuum for the advancemt of 
ye study of Physick in Ireland. 

' 2. That in pursuance of ye sayd designe John Steam 
bee constituted President of the sd Hall for and during 
his naturall life. 

' 3. That the nomination of a President of ye sayd Hall 
upon vacancyes bee always in the Provost & Senr. 
Fellows aforesd & their successours. 

' 4. That the sd John Stearne may accomodate him- 
sclfe with gardening upon the ground belonging to the 
sd Hall, & with chambers out of the present building, 
or out of such as hereafter shall be raised upon the 
ground unto ye sd Hall appertaining. 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 49. Ibid., p. 52. * Ibid., p. 59. 



TRINITY HALL 41 

' 5. That the President of ye sd Hall shall call into 
a fraternity able Physitians who together with him are 
desired to endeavour to advance moneys for additional 
buildings to ye sd Hall, & to procure a Charter for to be 
a body Corporate with privileges. 

' 6. That all the students of Physicke in ye sd Hall shall 
until ye Presidente of the sd Hall, & the fraternity 
thereof bee made a body corporate by chart, bee bound 
to come to prayers in Trinity Colledge aforesd & to 
performe exercises there according to their severall 
capacityes. 

' 7. That the President & Fraternity of ye sd Hall shall, 
if demanded meet & consult upon the best means for the 
recovery of ye Provost & Senior Fellows aforesd & their 
successours, whensoever any of them shall happen to be 
sicke. 

' 8. That no students be admitted into ye sd Hall, but 
such as are first admitted or incorporated into ye Trinity 
Colledge aforesd : John Stearn. 

' These proposals were approved of by ye Provost & 
Senr. Fellows of Trinity Colledge aforesd and it is by them 
ordered that according to ye Tenor of ye sayd proposalls 
an Instrument be drawne up in due forme of law. 

' Thorn. Seele Prp. Nat. Hoyl Vice Prep. 
' Joshua Cowley. 
' Witt. Vincent. 
' Pat. Sheridan.' 

These proposals were accepted, and the Board 
of the College adopted the following resolution : l 

' Trinity Hall appropriated to the study of Physicke 
by an Instrument which is as followeth : 

"To all Christian people to whom this present 
writinge shall come. We, ye Provost, Fellowes and 
Scholars of the Colledge of ye Holy and vndivided 
Trinitye of Queene Elizabeth neere Dublin, send greetinge. 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 53. 



42 TRINITY HALL 

Whereas ye study of Physicke is found very necessary 
for ye publique good, and noe course hitherto hath been 
taken for ye advancemt. thereof in Ireland, know ye 
yt we the Provost Fellowes and Scholars aforesd being 
desireous to promote soe necessary a pointe of learninge 
in Ireland doe for our selves and our successours vnani- 
mously consent assent and agree and by these presents 
declare our will to be yt the messuage or house unto us 
belonging and now in our possession comonly knowne and 
called by the name of Trinity Hall scituate lyinge and 
beinge neere the City of Dublin in Hoggen Greene 
together with all the gardens orchards curtelages lands 
and all other the appurtenances thereunto belonginge be 
from henceforth for ever converted to ye sole and proper 
use and advantage of the study of Medicine and of such 
as shall therein studye or professe ye same. And for that 
end and purpose We doe hereby nominat constitute and 
appoint John Stearne Doctor in Physicke and Senr. 
Fellow of Trinity Colledge aforesaid President of ye said 
Hall for & dureinge his naturall life And doe further 
impower ye sd John Stearne to accomodate himselfe with 
gardening upon ye ground unto ye sd Hall belonginge 
and wth Chambers out of ye present buildinge or out of 
such buildings as hereafter shall be raysed upon ye 
ground unto ye sd Hall belonginge, reaservinge unto 
ourselves and successors for ever ye nomination of a 
President of ye said Hall upon vacancy of ye President- 
ship Provided always yt ye said John Stearne call unto 
a fraternity able Physitians who together wth him are 
hereby desired to endeavour to advance moneyes for 
additional building to ye said Hall and to procure a 
charter for to be a body corporate with priviledges And 
yt untill such time as ye President and Fraternity of ye 
sd Hall shall be made a body corporate All the students 
of ye sd Hall shall be bound to come to prayers in Trinity 
College aforesd and to performe exercises therein accord- 
inge to theire severall capacityes Provided alsoe that ye 
President and Fraternity of ye said Hall shall if demanded 



TRINITY HALL 43 

meete and consult upon the best meanes for ye recovery 
of ye Provost and Senior Fellowes of Trinity Colledge 
aforesd and theire successors whensoever they or any of 
them shall happen to be sicke And yt the President of ye 
sd Hall admitt noe students into ye sd Hall but such as 
are first admitted or incorporated into Trinity Colledge 
afforesaid. In witness whereof we have here unto sett our 
cofhon scale and subscribed our names this two and 
twentieth day of ffebruary one thousand six hundred and 
sixty. 

" Signed sealed & Tho : Seele prp : Memorandu that 
delivered in ye Nath. Hoyle Vice p. this above deed 
presence of Joshua Cowley. was cancelled, 

Arthur Parsons Will. Vincent. and with the ex- 

Arthur Bulkely. Pat. Sheridan. ception of what 

Locus sigilli. was set unto Mr. 

Sams, & some 
other small varia- 
tion, was renewed 
signed and sealed 
ye 22 of April, 
1661." ' 

On March the igth * the Board agreed that ' the 
sd John Stearne shall not be penally obliged to 
be present at College-prayers unlesse he be there- 
unto specially required. And that he receave his 
Commons in money.' 

On the 3rd June, i662, 2 Stearne was ' constituted 
and elected publiq professor of Medicine in the Uni- 
versity of Dublin for & during his naturall life'. 

Just before the Restoration we have the record 
of a medical degree granted by the University on 
' July 23 i66o. 3 Ordered by the Viceprovost & 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 54. ' Ibid., p. 68. 

* Ibid., vol. ii, p. 99. 



44 TRINITY HALL 

Sen. Fellows of Trin. Coll. Dublin that Mr. John 
Archer bee passed Dr. of Physicke in the house it 
being provided that he pay whatsoever fees are 
usual for such a degree and performe his acts when 
he shall be called thereunto.' 

Just a year previously, ' on June 20, 1659, 
John Tailor, seven years a student at Magdalen 
College, and John Clearke, also of Oxford are 
admitted M.D., being recommended by the Chan- 
cellor Henry Cromwell, in pleno Senatu Academical l 

Stearne was not slow to fulfil his obligations to 
' call into a fraternity able Physitians ', for on the 
26th January, i66o/i, 2 Johannes Cusacke was pro- 
moted and Drs. Bramhall, Halle, and Lamb 
Goughman were incorporated ' Doctores in Medi- 
cina ', Dr. Goughman, or Gougleman, was in 
accordance with the King's letter elected Senior 
Fellow three days later. 3 

Having succeeded in his enterprise with regard 
to Trinity Hall, Stearne then attempted to obtain 
a Royal Charter for the College, but in this he was 
not immediately successful. Under the date of 
January 28, 1665, there is in the Calendar of State 
Papers * the ' note of a letter to the Lord Lieu- 
tenant for a College of Physicians in Ireland ', but 
the charter was not granted till August 8, 1667. 
In this charter Stearne was nominated President 
for life, and after his death the Presidents were to 
be elected by the Provost, Fellows, and Scholars 
of Trinity College, subject to the approval of the 

1 Mahafiy, Epoch, p. 304. * Reg., vol. iii, p. 51. 

1 Keg. ibid., p. 52. c. S. P. 1663-5, P- 600. 



TRINITY HALL 45 

Lord-Lieutenant, and provided that Trinity Hall 
and the lands belonging thereto were settled on 
the newly incorporated College. On the applica- 
tion of Stearne, the Provost and Fellows executed 
a deed dated August 13, 1668, settling Trinity 
Hall on Matthew Barry and Launcelot Sandes, 
Esquires, in trust for the sole use of the College 
of Physicians. 

Thus was established the College of Physicians, 
which at its inception was an integral part of 
Trinity College, and which, ever since, has main- 
tained its connexion with the University. The 
Presidency of the College was in the hands of the 
University authorities, and no one was to be 
admitted a student within its walls until he had 
first been enrolled a student of Trinity College. 
As the Registrar of Trinity College records in the 
minutes : * 

' Trinity Hall is not alienated from Trinity College : 
but by this converted into the use intended. And it may 
be considered that, after the death of the said John 
Stearne, and perhaps before, there will be accomodation 
for Students of the Coll : of Physicians (and) they are as 
considerable a proportion of Scholars as any number of 
Undergraduates wherewith the said Hall was heretofore 
stored, and as useful to the whole Kingdom/ 

In 1663 2 the Lord-Lieutenant had forwarded to 
the King a letter for his signature, granting ' 60 
a year to Dr. Stearne by letters patent as Public 
Professor of Physic in the University of Dublin to 
be put upon the Establishment '. This letter was 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 65. * C. S. P. 1663-5, P- 39- 



46 TRINITY HALL 

accompanied by a note of recommendation from 
the Lord-Lieutenant, and on March 20 of the same 
year there is a letter from the King to the Lord- 
Lieutenant directing the pension of 60 a year 
given to Dr. Stearne, who was public Professor of 
Physic in the University of Dublin by patents 
passed on the i8th September, 1662, in con- 
sequence of letter dated i8th June, 1662, to be 
placed on the establishment. 1 

Stearne did not live long to enjoy the fruits of 
his work, or nurture the College in its early youth, 
for he died on the i8th November, 1669, at the 
early age of 45. 

The remaining facts in the life of Stearne, so 
far as they are known, can be told in a few words. 
We learn from the Register of Cambridge University 
that John Stearne matriculated as a pensioner 
there on July 8, 1642, and was in the same year 
admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and 
in 1646 to that of Master. It appears that his 
matriculation was deferred until he was in a 
position to proceed to the B.A. degree, a pro- 
cedure which was not unusual in the seventeenth 
century. There is no record in the Register of his 
having taken any degree in Dublin, though it is 
almost certain that he took his doctor's degree in 
both laws and medicine. In his published works 
he styles himself ' M. & J. U. D.', or ' Medicinae, 
ct Juris Utriusque, Doctor'. 

In 1659, just at the time of his dispute with 
the Board about his salary as Hebrew Lecturer, 

1 C. S. P., 1663-5, p. 4 6. 



TRINITY HALL 47 

Stearne married Miss Dorothy Ryves, daughter 
of Charles Ryves, Esq., and it was possibly this, 
and not either the dispute or the anticipation of 
the Restoration, which led to the resignation of his 
fellowship on November 17 of that year. The 
statute enforcing celibacy on the Fellows was not, 
however, at this time strictly enforced, and the 
Provost, Samuel Winter, was a married man. 
Belcher states * that at the Restoration Stearne 
was appointed Public Professor of Laws, but of this 
we can find no evidence in the College Register, and 
his name does not appear as such in the College 
Calendar. He was, however, re-elected Lecturer 
in Hebrew, for on December 17, 1667, we find 
a deputy appointed for him ' to execute the said 
office according to the Statutes '. 2 

Stearne had one son and two daughters who 
survived him. His son John was born in 1660, 
and was afterwards Dean of St. Patrick's and 
Bishop of Clogher. It is to the munificence of 
this John Stearne that Trinity College owes its 
printing-house, which he built in 1726 at a cost of 
1,000, and for which ten years later he gave 200 
to buy types. Stearne's eldest daughter, Bridget, 
married John Rotton, of Dublin, while l^'s second 
daughter, Mabell, married a Mr. Hall. 

Stearne's will, which is dated November 14, 
1669, is witnessed by the Provost, Thomas Seele, 
and his friend, Henry Dodwell, and in it he says : 
' I desire (if the Provost and Senior Fellows shall 
think fitt) that my body may be interred in 

1 Belcher, Memoirs, p. 20. * Reg., vol. iii, p. in. 



48 TRINITY HALL 

Trinity College Chapell, if not where my dear wife 
shall otherwise conceive meet without escuteon 
and other unnecessary charges.' This desire was 
carried out, and over him at the north side of the 
great altar l was erected a stone bearing a tribute 
to his memory, composed by his friend Henry 
Dodwell. 

Stearne's wife, Dorothy, survived him till 1700, 
and in her will, which is dated April 24, 1700, and 
was proved on the 27th of May following, she says : 
' I bequeath to Dr. Ralph Howard and Dr. John 
Madden, who tended me in my sickness, the sum 
of five pounds each as tokens of the mind I have 
of their kind care of me.' 

Few men have compressed into a short life of 
forty-five years so much learning and so much 
work as did John Stearne, and whether we judge 
him by his own learning and his own work, or 
by the benefit which that work has conferred on 
posterity, we must award him a high place. 
Trinity College may well be proud of her great 
son, and it is fitting that, at the bicentenary cele- 
bration of the foundation of the Medical School, 
an honoured place should be given to the memory 
of him who by his work made that foundation 
possible. 

' Epitaphium Marmori insculptum ad latus Boreale magni 
Altaris in Sacello Collcgii S.S. & Individ. Trinitatis Reginae 
Elizabethae juxta Dublin, ubi Sepultus jacet.' 

I'rcfixed to Stearne's De Obslinatione, by the editor, Henry 
Dodwell. who published it in 1672. 



CHAPTER IV 
THE CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

STEARNE being dead, the Medical Faculty of 
the University was left without its Professor 
and the College of Physicians without its Presi- 
dent. Almost immediately, November 25, 1669, 
George Walker, one of the Fellows, was elected 
' Medicus ', a post which seems to have been in 
abeyance since the time of Thomas Beere, who 
was appointed in 1620. In the College Calendar 
Stearne is given as ' Medicus ' in 1662, but there 
is no record of such appointment in the College 
Register. Walker died in less than a year, and 
was succeeded, October 26, 1670, by William 
Palliser, afterwards Archbishop of Cashel, and on 
September 9, 1671, George Mercer was ' chosen 
in medicum '. Neither Walker nor Palliser was 
a medical man, and Mercer did not take a medical 
degree till 1681. Thomas Margetson appears to 
have succeeded Stearne as Professor of Medicine, 
for though there is no direct mention in the 
College books of his appointment, we read x on 
April 2, 1674, that ' upon the death of Dr. Tho. 
Margetson Ralph Howard, Dr. of Physick, was 
elected Public Professor of Physic in his place 
and President of the College of Physicians '. 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 171. 




50 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

Howard held the office of Professor for thirty-six 
years, till he was succeeded in 1710 by Richard 
Steevens. Ralph Howard was the first Fellow of 
the College of Physicians elected under the Charter 
of Charles II. He graduated M.D. in the Uni- 
versity on October 22, 1667, and at the same 
time became a Fellow of the College of Physicians ; 
being elected President for the first time on 
April 2, 1674, and again elected in 1686, 1695, 1701, 
and 1707. Howard was born in Wicklow l in 
1638, and lived afterwards in Great Ship Street, 
Dublin. During the war of 1689-91 he left the 
country and resided in England. His son Hugh 
was an artist who, according to Horace Walpole, 
practised painting ' at least with applause '. 2 His 
other son, Robert, was a Senior Fellow of Trinity 
College, and afterwards became Bishop of Killala 
and then of Elphin. Sir Thomas Molyneux in 
1694 married one of Dr. Howard's daughters, 
and Anthony Dopping, Bishop of Ossory, the 
other. 

Thomas Margetson was an Englishman, the son 
of James Margetson of Yorkshire. 3 He entered 
Trinity College on May 5, 1647, but lert apparently 
without taking a degree. In the latter end of 
1650 he entered at St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, and 
from that college took the two degrees in Arts. 
On the loth March, 1656/7, he took the degree 
of Bachelor of Medicine at Montpelier, 4 and eight 



^DonoRhuc. Irish Ability, p. 62. Webb. 

Wood. Athcnae, vol. ii, p. 795. 
4 Munk's Roll, vol. i, p. 280. 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 51 

days later proceeded to that of Doctor of Medicine 
in the University of Orange. He was incorporated 
at Oxford on his doctor's degree on the I4th 
January, 1657/8, and on the 5th of April following 
was admitted a candidate of the London College 
of Physicians. 

The death of Stearne must have made a great 
difference in the affairs of the College of Physi- 
cians. He had been its President since its founda- 
tion, and, as we have seen, had lived in Trinity 
Hall. Difficulties no doubt arose after his death, 
and the Fellows had no precedent to guide them 
in their actions. It was not till the 25th January, 
1671/2, that we find them taking any steps to 
elect a new President. On that day ' Dr. Marget- 
son and Dr. Howard gave notice to the Provost 
in the name of the Corporation of Physicians 
that the Presidentshipp of the said Corporation 
is void by theyer Charter and desired that 
a new President might be elected V The Pro- 
vost and Senior-Fellows beeing legally & statut- 
ably mett ', nominated and elected ' Abraham 
Yarner Kt. & Dr. of Physicke President of the 
said College of Physicians ', and on Monday the 
I5th February following a formal document in 
Latin to this effect received the seal of Trinity 
College. 

Abraham Yarner seems to have been more of 
a soldier than a physician. We first meet with 
him in 1641, when on the 23rd December he 
signed a receipt for payment for Army service, 2 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 153. * C. S. P. 1633-47, p. 772. 



52 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

and again in the following January he is paid as 
' lieutenant of the Lord Lieutenant's horse troop '. x 
On the 28th October, 1643, a letter was written 
by the King to the Lords Justices of Ireland 
ordering that ' Capt. Abraham Yarner be ap- 
pointed Mustermaster General in Ireland if the 
post be void, and, if not, that he have a reversion 
of it '. On the 2gth June, 1646, the post was 
granted to him. On ' third Friday after 29 
September ', 1650, we find among the admissions 
to the franchise entered in the Assembly Rolls 
of the Dublin Corporation the entry z ' by Special 
Grace and on fines of a pair of gloves to the 
Maior, Abraham Yarner Doctor of Physick '. 
With the advent of the Commonwealth, he seems 
to have forsaken the battle-field for the study of 
physic. On the return of the King in 1660 we 
find him restored to his former appointment as 
Mustermaster-General and Clerk of the Check of 
the Armies and Garrison ; while at the same time 
he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. In the following year his son Abraham 
was associated with him in this office, in which 
he says 8 he hopes to ' be able to save the King 
some thousands a year and keep the Army con- 
stantly ready for service'. On August 4, 1663, 
his daughter Jane was married to Sir John Temple 
in St. Michan's Church by Bishop Parker, as is 
shown by the following entry in the Parish 
Register : * 

P-. '633-47, p. 77 8. C.A.R., vol. iii, p. 509. 

1 C. S. P., 1660-2. p. 391. St. Michan's Reg., p. 81. 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 53 

' 1663. Aug. 4. Married, Sir John Temple to Madam 
Jane Yarner daughter of Dr. Abraham Yarner, by 
Bishop Parker, Lord Bishop of Elphine, in this parish 
Church of St. Michan's by licence.' 

This John Temple, then Solicitor-General, was the 
son of Sir John Temple, Master of the Rolls, who 
had been chosen first ' Medicus ' of the University 
in 1618. 

We have no record where Yarner took his 
medical degrees, though we find his two sons, 
Abraham and John, graduating in Oxford from 
Queen's College, and afterwards entered as stu- 
dents in Lincoln's Inn. 1 Yarner was dubbed 
knight at Dublin in 1670 2 and died on the 28th 
July, 1677, and was buried next day in St. Michan's 
Church, ' close by the vestry door.' 3 In his will, 
in which he is described as M.D. and Muster- 
master-General of all his Majesty's forces in Ire- 
land, he leaves an annuity to his son-in-law, Sir 
John Temple, ' His Majesty's Solicitor General,' 
out of his lands in the County Wicklow which 
were ' given, granted, assigned, and allotted unto 
me by the Comrs. of the Court of Claymes in 
satisfaction of my services in the wars of this 
Kingdom '. He also speaks of his home in Oxman- 
town where he ' now dwells ', and he leaves his 
' Horses and Coaches ' to his dear wife, Lady 
Catherine, who was buried, as we read in the 
Parish Register, 4 ' in the first vault on the left 

1 Foster, Alumni Ox., vol. iv, p. 1699. 

* Knights, vol. ii, p. 245. * St. Michan's Reg., p. 217. 

4 Ibid., p. 396. 

E3 



54 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

hand in the Chancell' of St. Michan's on the 
20th January, 1691. 

It seems probable from the minutes of the 
Board of the 2nd April, 1674, already quoted, 
that Margetson was President of the College of 
Physicians up to his death, when he was succeeded 
by Howard, but of this there is no definite proof. 
Charles Willoughby signs D'Olin's Book in the 
College of Physicians, as President, on the 24th 
September, 1676, and on the 22nd October, 1677, 
the Board of Trinity College elected Dr. Robert 
Waller. Both these men had been educated 
abroad, the former in Padua and the latter at 
Ley den. Willoughby, the son of Sir Francis 
Willoughby, was a native of Cork, and had studied 
at Merton College, Oxford, where he became a 
Fellow. 1 He graduated in medicine in the Uni- 
versity of Padua, and his diploma for that degree 
is preserved in the library of Trinity College. In 
1663 he presented to the library of Merton College 
his ' herbarium vivum ' or ' hortus siccus ', a col- 
lection of dried plants which he had gathered at 
Padua, and on the 3ist March of the following 
year he was incorporated at Oxford in his doctor's 
degree. 1 

Willoughby was an active member of the Dublin 
Philosophical Society, being appointed the first 
Director on its establishment in 1683/4, and with 
Narcissus Marsh, Sir William Petty, and William 
Molyneux he was specially appointed to draw up 

1 Brodrick. Merton, p. 291. 
Wood, Athenae, vol. ii, p. 334. 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 55 

the rules for the conduct of the affairs of the 
Society. To the proceedings of the Society he 
contributed the following papers : 1 

1. On the Mirage seen at Rhegiumm in Italy. 

2. On Winds. 

3. On the lines of Longitude and Latitude. 

4. On Hermaphrodism. 

In 1857 Sir William Wilde printed a paper by 
Willoughby, 2 the manuscript of which he had just 
acquired, with the following title : ' Observations 
on the Bills of Mortality and the increase of people 
in Dublin : the Distempers Air and Climate of 
this Kingdom ; also of Medicine Physic Surgeons 
and Apothecary's, by Dr. Willoughby An eminent 
Physician in 1690.' Willoughby's death was an- 
nounced to the College of Physicians at the 
meeting on the i8th September, 1694. 

Robert Waller was born about 1620, and on 
the i7th July, 1650, ' was entered in the Physic 
line at Leyden.' 3 He graduated Doctor of Medi- 
cine at Leyden, and on that degree was incor- 
porated at Cambridge in 1652. He was admitted 
Fellow of the London College of Physicians on 
the 22nd December, 1662. In the summer of 
1664 he was incorporated M.D. in Trinity College 
from Cambridge. 

That the College of Physicians was at this time 
actively engaged is evident from a book of old 
accounts which has been preserved. Belcher be- 
lieved it to be in the handwriting of Dr. Crosby, 

1 Gilbert, Hist., vol. ii, p. iv. 

1 Proceedings R.I. A., vol. vi. * Munk's Roll, vol. i, p. 308. 



5 6 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

and it is dated 1676. Among the items of expendi- 
ture we find the following : 
' It. payd for the College dinn' the summe s. 
of three pounds two shill: 3 : 2 

It. to ye joyner for ye dissecting table the 

1 5th of March 6' - 6 s - 

It. to ye Cuttler for cleaning ye instrum* 8 : s. d. 

belonging to ye College 5" - 5 d 5 - 5 

It. for a warrant for ye body yt was dis- s. 
sected * 3 

It. to ye souldiers who kept ye body 4-6 

It. for ye Coffin for ye s d body 4-6. 

It. to ye souldiers who watched 9-0. 

for the said souldiers in drinke 3 - 10. 

The whole sum spent on ye same body being 
2-4-10. I delivered upon ye presi- 
dents note unto his man.' 

It was possibly this subject to which Dunton 
refers 1 when he tells us that he saw about the 
year 1700 : 

' the skin of one Ridley, a notorious Tory, which had been 
long ago executed ; he had been begged for an Anatomy 
and, being flayed, his skin was tanned and stuffed with 
straw. In this passive state he was assaulted by some 
mice and rats, not sneakingly behind his back, but boldly 
before his face, which they so much further mortified, 
even after death as to eat it up ; which loss has since 
been supplied by tanning the face of one Geoghegan, 
a Popish Priest, executed about six years ago for stealing ; 
which said face is put in the place of Ridley's.' 

It is recorded in the Register of Trinity College 
that on the 7th July, 1674,* 

' the special grace of the house for the degree of Batchelor 
of Physick was given to John Madden and Henry 
Nicholson.' 

1 Dunton. vol. ii, p. 624. * Reg., vol. iii, p. 173. 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 57 

This is the first record we have of the Bachelor's 
degree in Medicine being granted by the College, 
the next being those for Allen Mullin on the 27th 
February, 1678/9, and for John Foley on the 
igth February, 1679/80. 

Both Foley and Mullin had been students of 
Trinity College. Foley, 1 the son of Samuel Foley 
of Clonmel, entered as a Fellow-Commoner on the 
6th August, 1673, at the age of fourteen. His 
tutor was George Mercer, who had a grace for his 
M.D. degree on the nth July, 1681, and was 
elected Fellow of the College of Physicians the 
following year. 

Allen Mullin, 2 the son of Patrick Mullin of 
Ballicoulter, entered as a Sizar at the age of 
eighteen on the 27th February, 1671/2. He 
graduated B.A. in the summer of 1676, and M.D. 
in 1684, when he was also elected a Fellow of the 
College of Physicians. He was one of the most 
energetic members of the Dublin Philosophical 
Society, to the transactions of which he made 
many contributions. 3 On the iyth July, 1681, an 
elephant was burned to death in Dublin, and Sir 
William Petty secured the dissection of it for 
Mullin, who published in London in 1682 an 
account of this dissection, together with some new 
anatomical observations on the eyes of animals. 4 
This account of the anatomy of the elephant is 
still found to be accurate and is referred to by 

1 T. C. D. Ent. Bk. Ibid. 

8 Gilbert, Hist., vol. ii, p. iv ; vide App. 
* London, 1682, 4to, pp. 72 and two plates. 



5 8 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

later writers. Mullin practised in Dublin till 
1686, when he went to London, as we are told, 
' on account of a scandalous love intrigue, of which 
he was ashamed.' x He was elected a Fellow of 
the Royal Society, in the transactions of which 
several of his papers are published. In 1690 
Lord Inchiquin ' took him with him to his Govern- 
ment of Jamaica, he being desirous of that voyage 
having a mind to enquire after some mines which 
he heard were in those parts : But putting in at 
Barbadoes he met with some friends who made 
him drink hard, which threw him into a calenture 
of which he died '. 
Speaking of his work, Sprengel 2 says : 

' The quantity of the blood which circulated in the body 
had been arbitarilly valued by Harvey and by his followers. 
A Doctor of Trim in Ireland, Allen Mullen, undertook for 
the first time in 1687 to submit these results to exact 
calculation : but the results which he obtained depended 
on suppositions the truth of which may be doubted. He 
allowed the blood to flow from the vessels till the animal 
died and thought that he had thus obtained the total 
quantity of that which circulated in the body. He found 
that the weight of this mass amounts to one-twentieth 
of that of the entire body. Hence he concluded that 
same proportion exists in human beings, and that con- 
sequently a person who weighs one hundred and fifty 
pounds has not more than eight pounds of blood, and that 
if at each diastole the heart receives four ounces the total 
quantity in the body must pass through the organ one 
hundred and forty times an hour. Mullen did not con- 
sider that almost always there remains over a certain 
amount of blood and that the proportion taken as the 
base of his calculation varies greatly in different animals.' 

1 Ware. vol. ii, p. 206. ' Sprengel, torn, iv, p. 140. 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 59 

Mullin's work and discoveries in the anatomy 
of the eye have received the approbation of 
Albert von Haller. 1 

In the year 1680 the College of Physicians 
surrendered Trinity Hall to Trinity College, and 
new articles of agreement were entered into 
between the Colleges on bonds of 300 apiece. 
No trace of this agreement can now be found, but 
from a minute in the Register of Trinity College 
some years later we find it stated that 2 ' Upon 
the restoring of Trinity Hall in the year 1680, 
there were articles drawn up which required that 
"the Register of the College of Physitians should 
be one of those that should signify the election (of 
the President) to the Provost and Sen. Fellows "/ 
Another was, ' That Trinity College did oblige 
themselves to confirm the election of the College 
of Physitians provided the person elected were 
a Protestant of the Church of Ireland.' 

For a time this agreement seems to have worked 
well, and on the 24th June, i68i, 3 ' Dr. Patrick 
Dun was chosen President of the College of 
Physitians.' During the next few years several 
persons were admitted to the medical degrees of 
the University, and on the 25th June, 1687, the 
Provost and Senior Fellows decided that the 
kitchen garden of the College ' Should be made 
a Physic Garden at the charge of the College'. 4 
On the 26th October, i687, 5 Dr. Connor and 

1 Cameron, p. 9. * Reg., vol. iii, p. 267. 

* Ibid., p. 219. * Ibid., p. 264. 

' Ibid., p. 267. 



6o CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

Dr. Dunn came to the College to signify that the 
College of Physitians had chosen Dr. Crosby for 
their President, and did desire the Provost and 
Sen. Fellows to confirm their election.' This the 
Provost and Senior Fellows refused to do on the 
grounds that the information had not been brought 
to them by the Registrar as required by the agree- 
ment of 1680. ' And seeing that the Person whom 
they had elected was not a Protestant of the 
Church of Ireland, the Provost and Senior Fellows 
did not think it safe nor proper for them to con- 
firm the election of the said Dr. Crosby.' 

This Dr. Crosby had been elected a Fellow of 
the College of Physicians about the year 1674 ; 
he does not appear to have been a graduate of 
Trinity College, and we have no information as 
to where he took his medical degree. He was, 
however, a trusted Fellow of the College, of which 
he held the office of Treasurer as early as 1676, 
the earliest records of the College of Physicians 
now extant being in his handwriting. In view of 
the agreement with the College of Physicians the 
Provost and Senior Fellows were undoubtedly 
justified in their refusal to recognize Crosby as 
President, but in explanation of this refusal one 
must bear in mind the trend of contemporary 
events. King James was at this time engaged in 
attacking the ancient Universities and endeavour- 
ing by mandamus to foist on them persons who 
were ineligible according to the Statutes for the 
positions sought. The attacks of this nature on 
Magdalen College, Oxford, and on the University of 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 61 

Cambridge, are well known. On the 4th October, 
1686, Arthur Green, one of ' the King's con- 
verts ', who had graduated Bachelor of Physic in 
1684, presented to the Provost and Senior Fel- 
lows a King's Letter demanding that they should 
immediately elect him to the place and pay of the 
Lecturer in Irish. To this demand the following 
minute was made : 1 

' That whereas the groundwork, or supposition, whereon 
the King's grant was founded, was altogether fictitious, 
and untrue, no such foundation of any Irish Lecturership 
appearing in any of our Registeryes, nor any other way 
whatsoever . . . and that letters be sent to England . . . 
containing a humble representation of this whole matter 
& reasons why we cannot in this case do what the King 
requires wch might be showed to his Majesty if anyone 
offer 'd to accuse us of disobedience.' 

It was probably in view of this attempt on the 
part of the king that the Board did not ' think 
it safe nor proper to confirm the election of the 
said Dr. Crosby '. This caution was justified by 
subsequent events, for on the I3th February 
following, a mandamus from the king was pre- 
sented to the Board demanding the election as 
Fellow of the ' trusty and well-beloved Bernard 
Doyle '. This request was refused on the ground 
that Doyle refused to take the necessary oath as 
Fellow, and the character of the ' trusty and well- 
beloved ' Doyle is given in a subsequent minute. 2 

' His Excellency having sent an order to the Mayor of 
Drogheda, to take examinations of Mr. Doyle's behaviour 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 252. * T. C. D. Case and Conduct, p. 20. 



62 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

while he was usher of that school, and lived in the town, 
Mr. Downes went to Drogheda upon the 8th of March ; 
and upon the Qth, loth, I2th of the same month, deposi- 
tions of several witnesses on oath were taken, by which 
it was proved that the said Doyle had been guilty of 
fornication (having got two bastards) of thefts, drunken- 
ness, and other crimes.' 

In view of such a state of things it is quite 
obvious that the Provost and Fellows would be 
unwilling to make any appointment which was 
not strictly in accordance with both the letter 
and the spirit of their legal obligations, or which 
might be urged against them in subsequent pro- 
ceedings. 

To whatever cause we may attribute the decision 
of Trinity College in this election, there is no doubt 
about its effect. In November 1687 the College 
of Physicians proposed to the Board that the 
agreement made between the two Colleges in 1680 
should be cancelled, and the Provost and Senior 
Fellows agreed to this course provided that ' the 
College of Physicians will deliver up all the writings 
that relate to Trinity Hall which are in their 
custody, and also give a release of all former 
grants, and deeds made by Trinity College to the 
College of Physicians concerning the said Hall '. 
Trinity College also proposed, ' to set a lease of 
Trinity Hall for fifty years to the College of 
Physitians on such terms as shall be agreed on.' l 

On the igth May, 1688, the College of Physicians 
again asked why Trinity College ' refused to con- 
firm their President, Dr. Crosby ', and ' the same 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 268. 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 63 

answer was returned that was formerly given '. 
Matters then remained in this state between the 
two Colleges for the next few years. 

On the 8th June, 1687, ' a letter from the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin was presented to the Provost 
and Senior Fellows whereby it appeared that 
Dr. Mercer was married & so his fellowship was 
declared void.' Dr. Mercer had been appointed 
Medicus in 1671, and Vice-Provost on the I7th 
November, 1686. It was his daughter who in 
1734 bequeathed the money to found Mercer's 
Hospital. On the i8th June, 1687, Mr. Lloyd was 
chosen Medicus and was succeeded in the same 
year by Jeremy Allen. Allen resigned the post 
on the i8th September, 1687, and was succeeded 
by Arthur Blennerhasset, who held office till 1693. 
These were times of stress, when it was difficult 
to get the bare necessaries of life, and we find on 
the 24th of January, 1688/9, ^ became necessary 
to reduce the dietary of those living in the College. 
In September the College was seized for a garrison 
by the king's order, and was made a prison for 
the Protestant inhabitants of the city. 1 

' The Chapel was sprinkled, new consecrated, and Mass 
said in it : but afterwards being converted into a store- 
house for powder, it escaped all further damage. The 
Library and Gardens, and ye Provost's lodgings, were 
committed to the care of one M'Carthy, a priest, and 
Chaplain to the King, who preserved them from the 
violence of the souldiers ; but the chambers and all other 
things belonging to the College were miserably defaced 
and ruined.' 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 280. 



64 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

At this time many of the Fellows left the 
country, and of the four who remained Richard 
Acton, Vice-Provost, and Jeremy Allen, the late 
Medicus, both died of fever in December. George 
Thewles and John Hall also braved the storm and 
remained at their posts. Hall afterwards became 
Vice-Provost, but the tragic fate of Thewles is 
recorded in the following minute of the Board : 

' June 14 1690. King William landed at Carrickfergus 
and the same day Mr Thewles died of a fever.' l 

With the establishment of the government of 
William III things began to improve, and on the 
I5th July, 1690, the Fellows and Scholars returned 
to the College. On the i8th of October following 
' an instrument was sealed and signed by the 
Register to constitute Dr. Dun President of the 
College of Physicians for the year ensuing J . 2 The 
physicians then petitioned the Lord Deputy, pray- 
ing that a new charter might be granted to them 
similar to that of the London College, giving 
them more ample powers to check the practice of 
quackery in the country, and that some forfeited 
houses and lands in the city might be granted for 
a College Hall and Physic Garden. This petition 
was referred to Sir John Temple, then Attorney- 
General, who reported favourably on it, and on 
the 1 4th December, 1692, the old Charter was 
surrendered by Dr. Cumyng to the Lord Chan- 
cellor. The new Charter bearing the date of 
December 15, 1692, constituted the King and 

1 T. C. D. Case and Conduct, p. 41. 
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 283. 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 65 

Queen's College of Physicians with Sir Patrick 
Dun as President. 

There is little known of the history of Trinity 
Hall subsequent to the death of Stearne. It is 
probable that Mrs. Stearne continued to reside 
there as a tenant of the College for some time 
after Stearne's death, for in the account-book of 
the College of Physicians, dated 1676, there is the 
entry : 

' De Vidua Sterne pro reditu semi annuo domus hujusce 
03-01-03.' 

From the minute in the Register * of the Board 
of Trinity College, dated October 26, 1687, we 
learn accidentally that Trinity Hall was restored 
to Trinity College in the year 1680, though we 
find no further record of its use by that body till 
1694. On the gth July in that year the Register 
records that ' S r Smyth was chosen master of 
the school in Trinity Hall, and on the 28th of 
November following it was " Ordered that a lease 
of Trinity Hall and the land adjacent, reserving a 
place for a school be sett to Mr. Nathaniel Shaw 
for one and fourty years"/ 

On the 24th June, 1710, the Board perfected 
two leases of parts of the ground and part of 
Trinity Hall to the Rev. John Barton, Dean of 
Ardagh, in connexion with which there is the 
following minute : 2 

' It is agreed between ye within parties before ye per- 
fection of ye within lease, that ye door for ye school 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 267. * Ibid., p. 431. 



66 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

of Trinity Hall into ye yard shall be shutt up & y* ye 
within John Barton shall hold that part of ye building 
and yard not hereby demised (ye school excepted) with 
y l part hereby demised for so long as ye within Provost 
and Fellows and Scholars shall think fitt.' 

Gilbert x states, in his History of Dublin, that the 
original building disappeared in the early part of 
the eighteenth century, but Henry Dabzac, a 
Senior Fellow, in his evidence before a Committee 
of the House of Commons in 1783, stated that 
' Trinity Hall reverted to Senior Fellows and is 
now in the possession of ye University '. 2 

The first meeting of the College of Physicians 
under the new charter took place in the house of 
the President in the Inns Quay, and this sub- 
sequently became for many years the home of 
the College. 

Thus were the two Colleges formally separated, 
but separated only to become more closely united 
in their work and aims. On the 23rd June, 1693, 
there is the following minute in the Register of 
the Board : * 

' The College of Physicians, Dublin, having obtained 
of their Majesties a new Charter wth greater privileges 
than were before granted to ym. To preserve the right 
of this University and Colledge it is therein specified, 
That Trin. Coll. Dubl. are only to give notice to ye 
Professor of Physick, when any Acts are to be performed 
for any degree in that Faculty, to ye intent only, y* ye 
said Acts may be performed with greater solemnity. For 
it is likewise provided in their new Charter or Grant yt 

1 Gilbert. Hist., vol. iii, p. 17. 

' Bekher, Memoir Sir P. Dun, p. 37. Reg., vol. iii, p. 303. 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 67 

those who are admitted by our University to a Drs. 
degree in Physick are of course to be allowed to practice 
in ye same without any further examination of ye 
Colledge of Physicians ; they paying ye ordinary fees for 
ye same.' 

On the i2th May, 1693, ' Mr. William Carr was 
elected Physick Fellow,' l and on the 20th Novem- 
ber, 1694, ' had leave to perform Acts for the 
degree of Batchelour of Physick.' 2 On the $rd 
July, 1695, the minutes of the College of Physicians 
record that 

' he informed ye President yt he was to performe Acts in 
order to take his Bachelor of Physique's degree this next 
Commencement according to ye agreement between ye 
Colledge of Physitians & ye Colledge of Dublin & yt like- 
wise he gave him a copie of ye subject of his lectures & 
ye questions he was to dispute uppon/ 

On the 6th July he was given the grace for his 
degree. On the i6th January, 1696/7, it was 
reported to the College of Physicians that 

' Dr. Howard & Dr. Pratt being present at his performing 
his Acts, & they & several others of the Colledge being 
well satisfyed of his sufficiency therefore ; he performing 
all other requisites by the College required for a Candidate 
be admitted as such from the date hereof.' 

On the ist February, 1695/6, Carr resigned his 
Greek Lectures and presented a King's Letter 
granting him a Royal dispensation 3 ' to remain 
abroad during ye space of three years for his 
improvement in ye art of Physick ', without for- 
feiting his Fellowship. On the 6th March he was 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 300. * Ibid., p. 318. * Ibid., p. 335. 



68 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

co-opted a Senior Fellow, and on the 2ist January, 
1698/9, the ' Physick Fellowship ' was declared 
vacant by the death of Mr. Carr and ' Mr. Dennis 
was elected into it '. 

The agreement between the Colleges mentioned 
above is further stated in the minutes of the 
College of Physicians under the date 2nd October, 
1695, when 

' it was ordered yt whoever is to be a Fellow of this 
Society is first to be admitted Dr. of Physick in ye 
University of Dublin on account yt there is enterd in ye 
Registry of ye said University an order yt whoever likes a 
degree in ye Faculty of Physick do give timely notice to 
ye President and Fellows of ye King & Queen's Colledge 
of Physitiens yt they may be present at ye performance 
of their Exercises or Acts to make judgement accordingly 
whether they be duly qualified for such degrees.' 

On the 2ist July, 1697, the President and 
Fellows of the College of Physicians adopted the 
following resolution : 

' Ordered yt att all Candidate Drs. Acts of Disputation 
in Trinity Colledge ye Censrs for ye time being be ex- 
officio present as Opponents without being desir'd by ye 
Candidate soe yt they may be able to make a report to 
ye Colledge thereof under such penaltyes as the Colledge 
shall think fit.' 

At a subsequent meeting, September n, 1697, 
this penalty was fixed at a fine of ten shillings 
for each such omission, and it was decided that 
the Censor was to lose his power of voting in the 
College and was not to be met in consultation by 
any other Fellow of the College till the fine was 
paid. On the 3rd July, 1699, a grace was given 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 69 

to Mr. Samuel Massy for his degree of Doctor in 
Physic. In the minutes of the College of Physi- 
cians for the nth May, 1698, we read : 

' Mr. Massy shall choose two of the following questions 
to dispute on for his Batchelour's degree in Physick, 
and acquaint ye Presidt. & Censors how he will hold 
them : 

1. An Nervi aliquid deferunt praeter spiritus animales. 

2. An Pulmones inflantur quia Dilatantur. 

3. An Secretio Bilis sit in hepate tantum. 

4. An Sanguis nutriat. 

5. An dantur Particularia Vasa deferentia Urinam ad 

Vesicam praeter Ureteres. 

6. An Omne Animal generatur ex ovo.' 

This is the first example of a medical examination 
paper that has come down to us, but there is no 
record which of the questions Mr. Massy selected. 
The regulations for the examination of candi- 
date for the degrees of the University, in spite of 
the resolutions of the College of Physicians, do 
not appear to have been on a very satisfactory 
footing, and several degrees were granted without 
there being any record of the presence of the 
Censors of the College. At the meeting of the 
College of Physicians on the 23rd January, 1698/9, 
Dr. Howard and Dr. Molyneux were ordered ' to 
wait on ye Provost of Trinity Colledge, Dubl., 
& enquire what agreement relating to performing 
of acts for Doctors in Physick is concluded between 
ye sd Colledge & ye Colledge of Physitians in 
Ireland'. On the i5th February following Dr. 
Howard reported that the Provost said he ' would 
look for ye agreement made between ye said 

F3 



TO CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

Colledge and ye Colledge of Physicians in relation 
to ye candidates in Physick '. This matter was 
continually before the College until the meeting 
on the 23rd July, 1701, on which date the matter 
was brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and on 
August 24, 1701, the following resolution was 
entered in the Register of Trinity College : * 

' At a meeting of ye President & Fellows of ye King 
& Queens College of Physicians in Ireland 8ber 2d 1695 
Ordered, that whoever is to be a Fellow of this Society 
is first to be admitted Dr. of Physick in the University 
of Dublin, on account that there is enter'd in ye Registry 
of ye said University an order that who ever takes a 
degree in ye Faculty of Physick doe give timely notice 
to ye President & Fellows of ye King & Queens College 
of Physicians that they may be present at ye performance 
of their Exercises or Acts to make a judgement accordingly 
whether they be duely qualified for such degrees. 

Richard Steevens Register.' 

' 8*** 18, 1697. Ordered that ye four Censors after 
notice being given to them doe ex officio attend, and be 
ready to oppose at ye disputations of each candidate 
Doctor of Physick in ye University of Dublin and that 
each Censor who doth absent himself or is not ready 
to oppose ye said candidates shall for each omission pay 
ten shillings fine to ye use of ye College & whilst this fine 
is unpaid he shall loose his power of voting in ye meetings 
of ye said College, and that after ye aforesaid omission 
has been taken notice of at ye meetings of ye said College 
none of ye Fellows shall consult with him before he pay 
ye said fine and that whosoever consulteth with him before 
ye fine be pay'd ye same Fellow shall be liable to ye same 
fine and shall also loose his power of voting untill he pay 
ye said fine. 

Richard Steevens Regr.' 
1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 379. 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 71 

' The President and Fellows of ye King & Queens 
College of Physicians in Ireland having admitted a clause 
in their Charter that every Doctor of Physick of our 
University of due standing and performing full acts shall 
be admitted into their Society without Examination on 
paying ye usual fees. 

' The said President and Fellows having also made 
an order Octr. ye 2d, 1695, that noe Dr. of Physick of 
any foreigne University shall be admitted a Fellow of 
their Society unlesse he be first admitted ad eundem 
with us. 

' The aforesaid President and Fellows having alsoe 
made another order, Sept. 22d 1697. and January 24 
1697(78) that ye Censors of ye said College of Physicians 
for ye time being shall ex officio be present at ye Acts 
of each Candidate Doctor in Physick and oppose at ye 
disputations of each such Candidate (timely notice being 
first given to ye said Censors) and that under a severe 
penalty. We ye Provost and Fellows of Trinity College 
Dublin in consideration of ye foregoing articles doe 
order and appoint that henceforth each Candidate 
Doctor in Physick on obtaining our leave to perform his 
acts for ye said degree be obliged to give ye President and 
Censors of ye College of Physicians due notice of ye time 
and subject of his Acts and that he be obliged to furnish 
ye same in such time before ye commencement that ye 
said President, Censors & Fellows aforesaid may have 
a competent time to report unto us ye sufficiency or 
insufficiency of each said candidate ; we hereby promising 
not to give ye grace of ye house to any candidate Dr. in 
Physick whom ye President Censors & Fellows of ye 
College of Physitians shall solemnly report & declare under 
their hands to be not duly qualified for ye said degree 
of Dr. in Physick but that ye said candidate shall be 
deterred & stopt from ye said degree in that commence- 
ment only on account of ye certificate and report afore- 
said but that for any comencement following ye same 
person may have his degree at ye discretion of ye house.' 



72 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

We have given these agreements in full as they 
form an important landmark in the history of the 
colleges, and under the regulations thereby made 
the examinations for the degrees in medicine were 
conducted for the next fifty years. 

As we have seen, on the death of Dr. Carr, 
2Qth January, 1698/9, John Dennis was appointed 
Physic Fellow or Medicus. Dennis had been 
elected Junior Fellow 'upon Dr. Richardson's 
foundation ' pursuant to a letter of the King. 1 He 
was elected Scholar in 1693, graduated Bachelor 
in Arts in the spring of 1696, and Master in the 
summer of i697. 2 He resigned his Fellowship in 
June 1700, and became head master of the Portora 
Royal School, Enniskillen. In the spring of 1709 
he proceeded to the degree of Bachelor in Divinity 
and to that of Doctor in the summer of 1711. 
He was appointed Rector of Clunish in 1721, and 
died in 1745 . 8 

On the 8th June, 1700, ' Mr. Raymond was 
chosen Physic Fellow.' 4 He had been a Scholar 
in 1693, Bachelor in Arts in 1696, Fellow and 
Master in Arts in 1699, and in 1702 was appointed 
Vicar of Trim. He took his Bachelor and Doctor's 
degrees in Divinity in the summer of 1719. On 
the resignation of Mr. Raymond in 1702 William 
Lloyd appears to have been appointed Medicus. 
He had graduated in Arts in 1700, was elected 
Fellow in 1701, and Master in Arts in 1712, 
Bachelor in Divinity in 1712, and Doctor in 1714. 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 348. Todd's Roll. 

1 T. C. D. Col., p. 494. Reg., vol. iii, p. 367. 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 73 

He was co-opted Senior Fellow on the igth 
November, 1711, and died on the I2th November, 
1719. There is no record of Lloyd's appointment 
to the Physic Fellowship, but in the College 
Register for the 28th January, 1706/7, is the 
minute that ' upon Mr. Lloyd's resignation of ye 
Physic-fellow Mr. Helsham was chosen into it '.* 

The chief moving spirit in medical education 
in Ireland at this time was undoubtedly Patrick 
Dun, and though his connexion with the College 
of Physicians was closer than with the University, 
yet since his death his name has been intimately 
linked with the medical school of both bodies. 
The chief facts of his life have been related by 
the late Dr. Belcher in an admirable memoir pub- 
lished in 1866, and it is from this memoir that 
our facts are chiefly derived. 

Patrick Dun, the son of Charles Dun, litser, or 
dyer, and his wife Katherine Burnett, was born 
in Aberdeen in January 1642, and was the grand- 
nephew of Dr. Charles Dun, Principal of Marischal 
College, who died in 1631. It is probable that 
Patrick was educated first at the Aberdeen Gram- 
mar School and then at Marischal College, though 
no record in either of these places has been preserved 
to confirm the supposition. It is recorded that the 
wife of Dun's great-great-grandfather was burned 
as a witch at Aberdeen on the gth March, 1597. 

Dun graduated in Medicine at Aberdeen and 
then, as was the custom at the time, probably 
went abroad for study. 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 410. 



74 CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

In 1677/8 James, Duke of Ormonde, being 
Chancellor of the University of Oxford, it is 
recorded 1 that on 

' Feb. igth Patrick Dun Physitian in ord. to James Duke 
of Ormonde, L. Lieut, of Ireland, Doct. of Phys. of 
Aberdeen in Scotland, Valentia in Dauphiny and of 
Dublin in Ireland was declared (he being then absent) 
incorporated Doctor of the said faculty of this Univ. 
of Oxon,' and on the 23d of March following, ' a Diploma 
of his incorporation was sealed and sent to him.' 

We also hear of him in a letter written from 
Dublin Castle by Sir John Hill to John Forbes, 
of Culloden, in 1676, in which he says : 

' here is one Dr. Dun an Aberdeen man, who is Phisitian 
to the State, & to my Lord Lieut., desires to have his 
service remembered to your son, Duncan, with whom he 
had an acquaintance in Paris.' 

About this time Dun was elected a Fellow of 
the College of Physicians, and on June 24, 1681, 
he was for the first time chosen President of the 
College, and re-elected on St. Luke's Day, 1690. 
Dun was one of the founders of the Dublin Philo- 
sophical Society in 1682, and contributed a paper 
' on the Analysis of Mineral Waters ' to the pro- 
ceedings of that body. In the course of 1688 Dun 
was Physician to the Army in Ireland, and in that 
capacity saw active service in various parts of the 
country. In 1692 he entered the Irish Parliament 
as member for the borough of Killileagh, County 
Down, and was subsequently, in 1695 and 1703, 
elected member for Mullingar. On the nth 

1 Wood, Alhenae, vol. ii, p. 879. 



CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 75 

December, 1694, he married Mary, daughter of 
Colonel John Jephson, and their only son, Boyle, 
was baptised at St. Michan's on the 24th Novem- 
ber, 1697, and buried there on the 7th October, 
1700, ' in Mr. Becket's valt.' l On the 29th 
January, 1696, Dun was knighted by the Lords 
Justices, and in the year 1704 he represented that 
there was an hospital in Dublin for the sick and 
infirm of the army, and that no physician had 
been appointed to attend there since the queen's 
succession to the crown. In consequence of this 
representation the queen appointed him from Lady 
Day, 1705, Physician-General of the Army in 
Ireland with the usual salary of ten shillings a day. 2 

In 1711 Dun made his will and executed his 
celebrated deed concerning the Professor of Physic. 
On May 24, 1713, he died, and on the 27th was 
buried in St. Michan's. 

Dun's interest in the College of Physicians and 
medical education never flagged in spite of his 
numerous engagements, social, political, and pro- 
fessional. He was a constant attendant at the 
College meetings as late as April 20, 1713, and 
took a prominent part in all the important trans- 
actions of that body. Both his will and the 
scheme which he drew up for the foundation of 
a Professorship in Physic show the broad view 
which he took of medical education. Much of 
the subsequent credit and distinction of the Irish 
School of Medicine is due to his wise forethought 
and generosity. 

1 St. Michan's Reg. * Liber Mun., vol. i, part ii, p. 101. 



CHAPTER V 
THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 

ON the I4th of June, 1710, the Provost and 
Senior Fellows ' Ordered that ground be laid out 
at the South-East corner of ye Physic Garden 
sufficient for erecting a Laboratory and an Ana- 
tomical Theatre thereupon.' The same day it was 
' Ordered that the hundred pounds given by ye 
Widow Parsons for the maintenance of a poor 
scholar in ye College be applied to ye building of 
ye said Laboratory and Anatomical Theatre, and 
that the two Lecturers in Anatomy and Chymistry 
be charged with ye payment of six pounds for ye 
maintenance of ye said poor scholar during ye 
pleasure of ye house.' 1 

Such is the scanty account we have in the 
College Register of the foundation in Trinity College 
of the School of Medicine a school which was 
destined to become the largest within her walls. 
The situation of the physic garden, which had 
originally been the kitchen garden of the College, 
has not been accurately denned. It was some- 
where in the region of the present Library, extend- 
ing probably for some distance into the present 
Fellows' Garden. Stubbs 2 states that the physic 
garden occupied the site of the present Library, 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 431. Stubbs, Hist., p. 182. 




w 

B 
H 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 77 

but this can hardly be exact, since the Anatomy 
House, situated in the south-east corner of the 
garden, was some distance from the south-east 
corner of the Library. The present Library was 
built between 1712 and 1733, and in the plan of 
the College as it was in 1750, given in Rocque's 
map of Dublin, both buildings are shown. The 
Anatomy House occupied a position as nearly as 
possible corresponding to the present tool-house 
at the west end of the College park, and was con- 
nected with the adjacent end of the Library by 
a wall. The house now known as ' No. 22 ' was 
at first a double house, and extended across the 
pathway which at present separates it from the 
Library. In an old engraving of the College, pub- 
lished in 1753, one gets a view of the Anatomy 
House as it then stood. It was two stories high, 
and appears to have been built of brick, without 
any attempt at architectural beauty, as indeed one 
would expect when one considers the funds avail- 
able for its erection. 

The Board had not yet embarked on those ex- 
tensive architectural undertakings which, during 
the next fifty years, were to absorb so much money 
and to give to the College some of the finest of its 
present buildings. 

Of the details of the internal arrangements of 
the Anatomy House we have little information. 
We know that it contained rooms for a chemical 
laboratory, for a lecture-room, and, probably a 
dissecting-room, as well as an upstairs apartment, 
which was used as a museum. The rooms were 



78 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 

small, and in the dissecting-room in 1814 there 
was only accommodation for five tables, and there 
was no water-supply nor drainage. 1 

The building operations did not take long, and 
on the I5th August, 1711, the Board ordered that 
the sum of ' five guineas be given to Sr. Thompson 
in consideration of his labour in composing a poem 
agst. ye opening of ye laboratory.' On the follow- 
ing day, the i6th August, 1711, 

' the laboratory was opened ye Provost & fellows and 
many others being present, and several publick exercises 
were performed by ye several persons following : 2 

Sr. Thompson spoke a copy of verses. 

Dr. Helsham lectured in Natural Philosophy. 

Dr. Hoyle lectured in Anatomy. 

Dr. Nicholson lectured in Botany. 

Dr. Molyneux, Professor of Physick, lectured in 
Physicks. 

Dr. Griffith lectured in Chymistry.' 

This is the only record of the opening ceremony 
that has come down to us, and unfortunately no 
copy of the verses spoken by ' Sr. Thompson ' is 
known to exist. This ' Sr. Thompson ', or William 
Thompson, was elected a Scholar in 1707, and 
graduated B.A. in the spring of 1709. In 1713 he 
was elected Fellow, and he graduated B.D. and 
proceeded to the D.D. degree in the summer of 
1727. He was co-opted Senior Fellow on the 
I4th June, 1723, and being elected Rector of 
Aghalurcher on the i8th December, 1729, he re- 
signed his Fellowship on the 24th January follow- 
ing. He died on the 8th January, 1754. William 

1 Macalister. pp. 103 and 106. * Reg., vol. iii, p. 438. 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 79 

Thompson was one of the three Fellows of Trinity 
College who in 1725 volunteered to accompany 
Bishop Berkeley to the Bermudas to assist in the 
foundation of a College there ' for converting the 
savage Americans to Christianity V 

Of the other lecturers on this occasion, Helsham 
and Molyneux were perhaps the most distinguished. 
Richard Helsham, the son of John Helsham, was 
born and educated at Kilkenny, and entered 
Trinity College as a Pensioner at the age of 15, on 
June 18, i6g8. 2 He was elected Scholar in 1700, 
and graduated in Arts in the spring of 1702. Two 
years later he was elected Fellow, and took the 
Master's degree in Arts in 1705. In January, 
1706/7, he was elected Medicus on the resignation 
of Lloyd, and in February, 1709/10, proceeded to 
the degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Medicine. 
On the i8th October, 1710, he was admitted a 
candidate and Fellow of the King and Queen's 
College of Physicians. On the 26th January, 
1722/3, he was chosen ' Mathematic Lecturer ' in 
place of Dr. Claud Gilbert, on the foundation of 
Lord Donegall, and on the 2ist April, 1724, he 
was chosen the first Professor of Natural and 
Experimental Philosophy, a Chair then founded 
in accordance with the will of Erasmus Smith, 
though he had lectured on the subject since the 
opening of the School in 1711. 

The President and Fellows of the College of 
Physicians recognized the work of Helsham in 
this Chair by resolving, on April 13, 1724, 'that 

1 Berkeley's Life, vol. i, p. xi. * Entrance Book, T. C. D. 



Dr. Helshamhas deserved a gratuity from ye College 
of Physitians for his course of experimental philo- 
sophy.' l On October the 30th the ' Treasurer 
was ordered to pay Mr. Cope, the goldsmith, the 
sum of twenty three pounds for ye piece of plate 
given by the College to Dr. Helsham.' 

Helsham was co-opted a Senior Fellow of Trinity 
College on the 6th November, 1714, and he resigned 
on the i6th January, 1729/30, being elected Pro- 
fessor of Physic in the room of Sir Thomas Moly- 
neux on the loth November, 1733. In the College 
of Physicians he was elected President in 1716 
and again in 1725, being made Honorary Fellow 
on St. Luke's Day, 1735. Besides being a learned 
physician, Helsham took an active interest in the 
affairs of the city, and on August 29, 1737, in the 
Assembly Rolls of the Corporation 2 we read of 
a petition from ' certain of the Commons setting 
forth that Dr. Richard Helsham has on all occa- 
sions shown his readiness to assist this citty with 
respect to the being better supplied with pipe- 
water, & therefore prayed to have him presented 
with his freedom in a silver box. Whereupon it 
was ordered that Dr. Richard Helsham be pre- 
sented with the freedom of this citty in a silver 
box the value thereof not to exceed five pounds/ 

Helsham was a member of that group of friends 
who used to meet at Dr. Delany's house at Delville, 
which included Swift, Stella, Dr. Sheridan, and 
Mrs. Pendarvis, afterwards Dr. Delany's wife. 
Indeed Delville seems to have belonged in part to 

1 Col. P. Minutes. C.A.R., vol. iii, p. 182. 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 81 

Helsham, and it was for a long time known as 
Hel-Del-Ville, the name being derived from the 
initial syllables of the names of the joint owners. 1 
After Swift returned to Dublin as Dean of St. 
Patrick's, Helsham seems to have acted as his 
physician, and in a letter to the Dean dated London, 
December n, 1718, Arbuthnot says : ' Glad at my 
heart should I be if Dr. Helsham or I could do you 
any good. My service to Dr. Helsham ; he does 
not want my advice in the case.' 2 

In a letter to Pope dated 'Dublin, Feb. 13, 
1728/9', Swift gives the following description of 
Dr. Helsham: 

' Here is an ingenious good-humoured Physician, a fine 
gentleman, an excellent scholar, easy in his fortunes, kind 
to every Body, hath abundance of Friends, entertains 
them often and liberally, they pass the evening with him 
at cards, with plenty of good meat and wine, eight or 
a dozen together ; he loves them all, and they him ; he 
hath twenty of them at command, if one of them dies, it 
is no more than poor Tom I he getteth another, or taketh 
up with the rest, and is no more moved than at the loss 
of his cat ; he offendeth no Body, is easy with every Body, 
is not this the true happy man ? ' 3 

In a further letter Swift describes him as ' the 
most eminent Physician of this city and Kingdom '. 4 

Mrs. Delany, when Mrs. Pendarvis, in a letter to 
her sister, written from Dublin, January 24, 1732/3, 
says she met Helsham at Delville and describes 
him as 'a very ingenious entertaining man'. 5 

1 Craik, vol. ii, p. 180. 8 Swift's Letters, vol. ii, p. 192. 

3 Pope's Works, vol. ix, p. 94. 4 July 12, 1735. 

5 Autobiography, vol. i, p. 396. 

G 



82 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 

On December 16, 1730, about the time Helsham 
resigned his Fellowship, he married Jane, widow 
of Thomas Putland, who survived him. In the 
Gentleman's Magazine 1 for 1738 we find the fol- 
lowing notice of Helsham's death under the date 
of August of that year : 

' It was imagin'd that his disorder proceeded from 
a twisting of the guts, and he took quicksilver, which 
proved ineffectual. He desired that his body might be 
opened for the benefit of mankind, which being done 
there was found in one of his guts an excresence of three 
pieces of Flesh, the smallest as large as a hen's egg, and 
resembling the Flesh of the liver.' 

In his will, the codicil of which is dated the 
i6th of August, 1738, Helsham says : 

' As to my funeral it is my will (and I do adjure my 
executor not to fail in the execution of it) that before 
my coffin be nailed up my head be severed from my body 
and that my corps be carried to the place of burial by 
the light of one taper only at the dead of night without 
Herse or Pomp attended by my Domesticks only.' 

Helsham's lectures in natural philosophy were 
published in 1739 by his friend and pupil Bryan 
Robinson, being the first scientific work printed at 
the University Press. 2 Many subsequent editions 
of this book were issued, and it continued to be 
used as a text-book in the University for nearly 
a hundred years. As late as the year 1822 select 
parts of this work were issued by the University 
Press for the use of students in the College. 

Thomas Molyneux, son of Samuel Molyneux, 
who had served with distinction in the wars of 

1 Vol. viii, p. 491. Stubbs, Hist., p. 340. 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 83 

1641, and had been appointed Master Gunner for 
Ireland, was born in Dublin on the I4th April, 
1661. The family had been connected with Ire- 
land 1 from the time of Elizabeth, when one Sir 
Thomas Molyneux, Kt., held the office of Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, and in his will, dated 1592, 
he left 40 towards the building of Trinity College. 
His second son, Daniel, M.P. for Strabane (1613- 
32), was appointed Ulster King-of-Arms in 1597, 
and held the post till his death in 1632. 

Samuel Molyneux, the Master Gunner, was the 
third son of this Daniel, and is remarkable for 
having written a book on gunnery after he had 
reached the age of 70. Samuel Molyneux mar- 
ried a Miss Margret Dowdall, and had five sons 
and four daughters. Of these sons, William and 
Thomas occupy prominent positions in Irish his- 
tory. William Molyneux, born on the I7th April, 
1656, was a distinguished mathematician and scien- 
tist, being the first person to demonstrate by the 
aid of the microscope the circulation of the blood in 
reptiles. 2 He is, however, better known as the author 
of The Case of Ireland being bound by Acts of Parlia- 
ment made in England stated, which was published 
in Dublin in 1698, and was ordered by the English 
Parliament to be burned by the common hangman. 3 
He represented the University of Dublin in the 
Irish Parliament of 1692, and died at the early age 
of 42 on the nth November, 1698, having suffered 
for many years from a stone in his kidney. 4 

1 Irish Builder, April i, 1887. * Sprengel, tome iv, p. 140. 
* Webb, p. 343. * Ware's Writers, p. 259. 



84 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 

Thomas Molyneux, the younger brother of 
William, entered Trinity College as a Fellow Com- 
moner on the 5th September, 1675, at the age of 
15, and graduated B.A. in the spring of 1680. 

In 1683 he left Dublin for travel and study on 
the continent of Europe. He visited London, 
Cambridge, Oxford, and Amsterdam, and then 
settled down to study in the University of Ley den. 
In a series of letters written to his brother during 
this period, which were published in the Dublin 
University Magazine for 1841, Molyneux gives a 
most interesting account of his work and of the 
manners and customs of the various Universities 
he visited. 

At the end of April, 1687, Molyneux returned to 
Dublin, having visited Paris and spent almost 
a year in London before his return. On July 9, 
1687, ' the Grace of the House ' was given by the 
Board of Trinity College for the degree of Doctor 
of Physic to Thomas Molyneux, and in the same 
year he was elected Fellow of the College of 
Physicians. On the 3ist January, 1689/90, both 
William and Thomas Molyneux left Ireland at the 
desire of their parents, on account of the political 
troubles which had then reached an acute stage in 
Ireland. For two years they lived together near 
Chester, and there Thomas occupied himself with 
the practice of his profession. Immediately after 
the battle of the Boyne they returned to Dublin, 
and Thomas took up his residence and began 
practice in his father's house in Thomas Court. 
About a year after his father's death, which 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 85 

occurred in January, 1692, Thomas married 
Catherine, daughter of Ralph Howard, who was 
then Professor of Physic in the University. At 
this time he appears to have been in a large 
practice, for we find that before the close of the 
year 1693 he was able to purchase an estate worth 
100 per annum. 

Among his patients was the celebrated John 
Locke, whom he had met abroad, and from whom 
he received several letters. During this period he 
contributed many papers to the Philosophical 
Transactions, dealing with natural history and 
medical subjects, and he represented Ratoath in 
the Irish Parliament from 1695 to 1699. 

On the 1 6th October, 1701, Molyneux was elected 
President of the King and Queen's College of 
Physicians, having previously held the offices of 
Censor, Registrar, and Treasurer. He was re- 
elected President in the next year, and again in 
1709, 1713, and 1720, and was made an Hono- 
rary Fellow on the 28th October, 1728. In the 
year 1711 he built for himself, at an expense of 
2,310 45. 5j^., a house in Peter Street, which 
still remains, the furnishing of which, he tells us, 
came to 2,341 55. yd. 

On the 22nd February, 1711, Molyneux was 
chosen Professor of Physic in the University in ' the 
room of Dr. Richard Steevens lately deceased'. 1 
In July, 1715, he was named Physician to the State 
in Ireland, and on the i6th July, 1718, was, by 
Letters Patent, 2 appointed Physician-General of 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 435. * Liber Mun. 

G3 



86 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 

the Army. By a Patent, 1 dated Dublin, July 4, 
1730, he was created the first medical baronet in 
Ireland. He died on the igth October, 1733. 
Molyneux was one of that large group of Irish 
graduates who by their work have shown them- 
selves to be masters in many branches of learning. 
Not only was he the leading physician of his 
time in Ireland, but he was also remarkable as 
a zoologist, a botanist, and an antiquarian, a 
fine classical scholar, a political economist, and 
a statesman of no mean ability. 

Of the other professors who took part in the 
opening of the school there is little to record. 
Richard Hoyle had entered Trinity College as a 
Pensioner at the age of 15 on the I3th November, 
1696? and graduated B.A. and M.B. in the spring 
of 1705, and M.D. in the summer of 1710, when he 
was also elected a Fellow of the King and Queen's 
College of Physicians. He was President of 
the College in 1715 and again in 1724. Hoyle 
continued Professor of Anatomy till 1716, and 
was again appointed on the I7th June, 1717, and 
continued in office till his death in August, 1730. 

Robert Griffith, who lectured in chemistry, was 
the son of George Griffith of Chester, and had 
entered Trinity College as a Sizar at the age of 21 
on July 12, 1684. He proceeded to the degree of 
M.A. in the spring of 1693, and of M.D. in the spring 
of 1699, being elected a Fellow of the King and 
Queen's College of Physicians on the I4th June of 
the following year. He held the office of President 

1 G. E. C., vol. v, p. 349. Entrance Book, T. C. D. 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 87 

of the College in the years 1706 and 1711, and in 
1717 was elected the first King's Professor of the 
Practice of Medicine under the will of Sir Patrick 
Dun. He died two years subsequently. 

Henry Nicholson, also a Sizar, entered Trinity 
College at the age of 17 on December 3, 1667, and 
proceeded to the degree of M.B. on July 7, 1674, 
being, as we stated, one of the first who is recorded 
as having taken this degree. On January 29, 
1711/12, he had leave to perform acts for the 
degree of M.D., and on the 5th of July following 
was admitted a candidate of the King and Queen's 
College of Physicians, but was never elected a 
Fellow. He is said l to have published in 1712 
a work entitled Methodus Plantarum in Hort. 
Dublin., but of it we have never seen a copy. He 
continued as Lecturer in Botany till 1732. 

Such was the teaching staff of the School of 
Medicine when its doors were first opened to 
students on the i6th August, 1711. Let us hope 
that to this building was transferred the stuffed 
skin of the ' Notorious Tory ', Ridley, which 
Dunton had seen in the library, and also the new 
skeleton which he describes as hanging at the west 
end of the chapel, near Dr. Chaloner's picture. 2 
This skeleton had been made up and given to the 
College by Dr. Gwither, and was probably that of 
the ' malefactor ' who was executed on February 18, 
1692/3, and ' demanded of the Sheriff of the Citty 
of Dublin by ane order of the president and five 
of the fellowes according to a priviledge granted 

1 T. C. D. Cal., vol. iii, p. 346. * Dunton, vol. ii, p. 625. 



88 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 

to the College of physicians.' 1 It was to this 
Dr. Gwither that Swift facetiously refers in the 
Taller 2 when he says : 

' It was then that an ingenious Physician, to the honour 
as well as Improvement of his Native Country, performed 
what the English had been so long attempting in vain. 
This learned Man, with the Hazard of his Life, made 
a Voyage to Liverpool, when he filled several Barrels 
with the choicest Spawn of Frogs that could be found 
in those parts. This Cargo he brought over very carefully 
and afterwards disposed of it in several warm Beds that 
he thought most capable of bringing it to Life. The 
Doctor was a very ingenious Physician, and a very good 
Protestant ; for which Reason, to show his Zeal against 
Popery, he placed some of the most promising Spawn 
in the very Fountain that is dedicated to the Saint, and 
known by the Name of St. Patrick's Well, where these 
Animals had the Impudence to make their first Appear- 
ance. They have since that time very much increased and 
multiplied in all the neighbourhood of this City.' 

On August 24, 1711, the President and Fellows 
of the King and Queen's College of Physicians 
appointed a committee consisting of Drs. Molyneux, 
Griffith, and Mitchell ' to meet on Monday next at 
7 in the evening at Derby's Coffee House to con- 
sider of a method for examining Candidate Drs. 
& Batchellors of Physick '. The report of this com- 
mittee was communicated to the Provost and 
Senior Fellows of Trinity College, who on February 
5th following resolved that 

' At the request of ye College of Physicians for ye pro- 
moting ye study of Physick, ordered by ye Provost and 
Senior Fellows that besides the usual Acts, every Can- 

1 Col. P. Minutes, February 18, 1692/3. * Taller, No. 236. 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 89 

didate Batchellor of Physick be examined in all ye parts 
of Anatomy relating to ye (Economia Animalis, and in all 
ye parts of Botany, Chymistry and Pharmacy. Every 
Candidate Doctor be examined as to ye aforesaid subjects 
and likewise in ye explication of Hippocrates's Aphorisms, 
& ye Theory & Cure of external & internal diseases, & 
ye President & Fellows of ye College of Physicians to 
examine.' 



i 



Sir Patrick Dun died, as we have seen, on the 
24th of May, 1713, and the President and Fellows 
of the College at once decided to 

' persue such measures as should make the good intentions 
and designs of the late Sir Patrick Dun, express'd hi his 
Will and several other papers for constituting a Professor 
of Physick in the City of Dublin, thoroughly effectual & 
usefuU to the Publick.' 2 

In pursuance of this resolution the College of 
Physicians obtained a Royal Charter from George I 
on the I5th October, 1715, appointing a ' King's 
Professor of Physick in the City of Dublin'. By 
this charter it was appointed that whenever the 
post of King's Professor was vacant the Provost 
(President) and two Senior Censors of the College 
should appoint a day for the examination of the 
candidates for the office, and should give at least 
a month's notice of such examination in the 
London and Dublin Gazettes, indicating that any 
Doctor of Physic of any University might be a 
candidate for the professorship. It was further 
ordered that 

' every such Candidate shall give in his name in writing 
to the Provost of Trinity College, near our said City of 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 440. * Col. P. Minutes, September 24, 1713. 



9 o THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 

Dublin, or in his absence to the Vice-Provost thereof, 
for the time being, eight days at least before the appointed 
time for such election by the publick notices aforesaid ; 
and shall present himself there certain days to be 
appointed by the said Provost, for the time being, of 
Trinity College, the Professor of Physick in the same, the 
President for the time being of the King & Queens College 
of Physicians in Ireland, and the two eldest Censors for 
the time being in the said College of Physicians, or any 
three of these so assembling and submit himself to such 
examination in, touching and concerning the several 
parts of Physick, as they or the major part of them so 
assembling shall think fit, such election to continue for 
the space of two hours in each of the three days at 
such time & place as shall be to that purpose directed and 
appointed by the said Examinators or any three of them 
so assembling.' 

It was further enjoined that each of the examina- 
tors should take a solemn oath 

' that they and every of them shall without favour, 
affection, hatred, or prejudice to any person or candidate 
impartially, diligently and faithfully proceed in such 
their examination of each & every of the said candidates 
and make true, just, and impartial report according to 
the best of their respective judgements and understandings 
of the skill, learning, knowledge & ability of each and 
every of the said candidates in the several parts of 
Physick, & of his and their respective fitness & qualifica- 
tions to be the King's Professor of Physic.' 

These examinators were to report the result of 
their judgement to the guardians, who included 
the Archbishop of Dublin, Viscount Skeffington, 
or his heirs male, Patrick Dun of Taerty, or his 
heirs male, as also the heirs male of the three 
sisters of Sir Patrick, Catherin Mitchell, Rachel 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 91 

More, and Elizabeth Anderson, and of John Jeph- 
son, nephew of Lady Dun, the Rev. William 
Joseph Jephson, brother of Lady Dun, and her 
brother-in-law, the Rev. Enoch Reader. Notice 
was to be given to these guardians by the examina- 
tors causing 

' a notice in writing under their hands of such an examina- 
tion having been made in order to fill up the said place 
of Professor of Physick and of the time and place where 
they shall be ready to declare their opinion of the persons 
standing Candidates to be fixed on the Tholsell in our 
said city of Dublin and on the gates of Trinity College 
near Dublin fourteen days at least before the time 
appointed to declare their said opinion.' 

Preference was to be given, other qualifications 
being equal, to the descendants of these guardians 
who were relations of Sir Patrick Dun, in the order 
above named, if any such happened to be can- 
didates. 

The emoluments of the professorship were to 
consist of the estates of Sir Patrick Dun after the 
death or re-marriage of his widow. The Professor 
was to have Dun's house on the Inns Quay, pay- 
ing the rent of the same and keeping it in order ; 
to the President and Fellows of the College of 
Physicians being reserved the right of a convenient 
room or hall in it for their meetings. The Professor 
was to be elected a Fellow of the College on the 
first vacancy, and was to give a bond of 2,000 
to the Master of the Rolls for the safe keeping of 
Dun's library. A catalogue in parchment was to 
be made of this library and annexed to the bond 



92 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 

given to the Master of the Rolls, while three copies 
of the catalogue were to be made, of which one 
was to be given to the Archbishop of Dublin, 
another to the President of the College, and the 
third annexed to the instrument appointing the 
Professor. 

The Professor was diligently to apply himself 
to reading public lectures on ' Osteology, bandage 
and the operations of Chirurgy and in reading 
public botanick lectures, and in the Materia Medica, 
and other parts of Physick, or dependent there- 
upon, and in making public anatomical dissections 
of the several parts of human bodies, and of the 
bodies of other animals, and shall publickly demon- 
strate plants for the information and instruction 
of students in Physick, Chirurgy, and Pharmacy, 
which lectures shall be read twice every week in 
term time.' 

Though Lady Dun was still alive, and there 
were consequently no emoluments for the Pro- 
fessor, notice was given in the Dublin Gazette of 
March 16, 1716/7, of an election, and Dr. Robert 
Griffith was appointed first King's Professor, the 
examinators being Benjamin Pratt, Provost ; 
Thomas Molyneux, Professor of Physic ; Richard 
Helsham, President of the College of Physicians ; 
and William Smyth and James Grattan, the Senior 
Censors. Dr. Griffith died in 1719, and was suc- 
ceeded as Professor by Dr. James Grattan, who 
remained in office till 1748. 

The management of Dun's estate was by no 
means settled by the charter of George I, and 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 93 

much litigation ensued, which was not settled till 
1740, when a decree was obtained from the Court 
of Chancery, with the consent of all parties. 

The appointment of the King's Professor does 
not seem to have made any difference in the 
medical teaching in Trinity College. As Lady 
Dun says in a letter to the Archbishop, dated l 
' May ye 3d 1716 ', ' As there is no present sallary : 
So there is no present business required from such 
a Professor.' The lecturers appointed to teach in 
Trinity College continued their work in the School, 
and the President and Fellows of the College of 
Physicians continued to examine the candidates 
for the degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Physic. 
On September 8, I7i6, 2 ' Dr. Robinson and 
Surgeon Green were by the Provost and Senior 
Fellows appointed to officiate in the Anatomy 
School as Lecturer and Anatomist,' but on the 
I7th of June following, ' Dr. Robinson was by a 
majority of voices turned out from being Anatomist 
& Dr. Hoyle elected to the same.' 3 

No further information is given in explanation 
of this curious resolution either in the Register of 
Trinity College or the Minutes of the College of 
Physicians. It has been suggested that Robinson 
was deprived of his office in consequence of a 
refusal to reside in Dublin in the neighbourhood 
of the School, a somewhat similar step having 
been taken by the authorities of Cambridge Uni- 
versity in the case of one of their Professors for 
this reason. We find, however, that Robinson was 

1 Belcher, p. 61. 2 Reg., vol. iii, p. 477. * Ibid., p. 480. 



94 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 

at this time a regular attendant of the meetings 
of the College of Physicians, which would be un- 
likely were he not living in the city. There may 
possibly have been some dispute as to the manage- 
ment of the School, for the next entry in the 
Register : ' Ordered that the Bursar pay sixty 
pounds to Surgeon Green in order to purchase 
preparations for illustrating several parts of the 
human body.' 

That discrimination was exercised in selecting 
those who were to get the degrees of the University 
is shown by the case of David Cockburn, Doctor 
of Physic of Edinburgh, who was on December 9, 
1721, l given leave ' to perform Acts for the degrees 
of Batchelor and Doctor in Physick '. On the 
2 ist of May following at the meeting of the College 
of Physicians, 

' Dr. Molyneux, being Professor of Physick & Censor, hath 
laid before the College the Preelection of Mr. Cockburn 
for his Batchelor of Physic's Degree, and that de Liene 
was read through, and found so deficient in the sense, 
being unintelligible in several parts, and in the Latin 
being not grammatical in many places, that we are of 
opinion that the Professor ought not to recommend him 
to the College for his Batchelor's degree in Physick. 

' Ordered, that the President and Fellows attend the 
Provost and make a report in relation to the Praelection 
that Mr. Cockburn has read for his Batchelor's degree in 
Physick.' 

As a result of this report we hear no more of 
Mr. David Cockburn in connexion with Trinity 
College. 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 513. 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 95 

The lectures in natural philosophy formed an 
important part of medical teaching, and on 
October 31, I722, 1 we find the Board deciding to 
expend the sum of 100, ' to buy such instruments 
as are necessary for the course of experimental 
Philosophy and that the Professors do pay the 
house yearly the sum of six pounds as interest for 
the same.' 

On February 14, I722/3, 2 the Board formally 
1 resolved that no person be admitted to take 
a degree in Physick or Laws unless he first com- 
mence a Batchelor in Arts.' 

About this time there were many changes in the 
staff of the Medical School. Richard Helsham, 
who had been appointed Medicus in January, 
1706/7, resigned his Senior Fellowship, probably 
on account of his marriage, on January 16, 1729/30. 
Edward Hudson was chosen Medicus in his place, 
but resigned a year later, and on February 8, 
1730/1, was succeeded by Edward Molloy. Both 
these Fellows were clergymen, and neither of them 
held a medical degree. Molloy resigned on May 23, 
1733, and was succeeded by William Clements, who 
continued as Medicus till his resignation in 1781. 

Richard Hoyle, who was the first Lecturer in 
Anatomy, and who had been re-appointed in place 
of Bryan Robinson in 1716, died in August, 1730. 
The Board at their meeting on the ist of October 
following appointed Thomas Madden Lecturer in 
Anatomy. This Thomas Madden was the son of 
John Madden, M.D., who had been elected a 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 523. * Ibid., p. 524. 



g6 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 

Fellow of the College of Physicians in 1684. It was 
a nephew of this John Madden, a son of Samuel 
Madden, who in 1798 bequeathed to the College the 
money to found the Madden Fellowship Prize. 1 

On the 22nd October, 1733, Mr. Vessy Shaw, 
surgeon, was elected ' Anatomist to assist the 
Anatomy Lecturer ', and on May 2ist following 
Francis Foreside was elected Lecturer in Anatomy. 

Foreside, an Englishman, 2 had entered College 
as a Sizar at the age of 20 on May 30, 1715, 
and graduated B.A. in 1720, taking his M.B. and 
M.D. in the summer of 1727 and 1730 respectively. 
He was admitted a Candidate and Fellow of the 
College of Physicians in April, 1735. He resigned 
the Lecturership in January, 1741/2, and in the 
following month succeeded Henry Cope as Pro- 
fessor of Physic. 3 He died in 1745. 

In 1717 Dr. William Smyth, senior, had suc- 
ceeded Dr. Griffith as Lecturer in Chemistry. 
William Smyth entered Trinity College on June 10, 
1684,* at the age of 19, and graduated M.B. in 
the spring of 1688, and M.D. in 1692. He was the 
son of the Rev. William Smyth of Armagh, and 
had been educated in that town. In the Charter 
of 1692 he was nominated one of the Fellows of 
the King and Queen's College of Physicians, and 
held the office of President of the College in the 
years 1704, 1708, 1719, and 1721. His son William 
Smyth, junior, was also a distinguished Fellow of 

1 Stubbs, Hist., p. 341 ; Webb, p. 322. 

* Entrance Book, T. C. D. Reg., vol. iv, p. 19. 

* Entrance Book, T. C. D. 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 97 

the College of Physicians. On February 27, 
1732/3, ' the Provost and Fellows chose William 
Stevens Lecturer in Chymistry in ye place of 
Dr. Smith deceased.' This William Stevens, or 
Stephens, as his name is more usually spelled, 
was no relative of Richard Steevens, Professor of 
Medicine in 1710, who had bequeathed money to 
found the hospital which still bears his name. 
William Stephens had graduated M.B. and M.D. 
in the spring of 1724, having three years previously 
been admitted a Candidate of the College of 
Physicians. He was elected Fellow of the College 
on St. Luke's Day, 1728, and filled the office of 
President in 1733 and again in 1742. He was one 
of the Trustees appointed by Mrs. Mary Mercer 
in the indenture by which she founded Mercer's 
Hospital on the 2Oth May, 1734. For many years 
he served as physician to that hospital, and was 
nominated as one of its medical governors by the 
Act of Parliament passed for its incorporation in 
1749. He was also for many years physician to 
Steevens' Hospital. There is no mention in the 
College records of Stephens having taught botany, 
yet in 1727 he published a small book of some 
fifty pages, entitled Botanical Elements for the 
use of the Botany School in the University of Dublin. 
This book he dedicated to the ' Learned Provost, 
Fellows and Scholars of Trinity College near 
Dublin ', and states that he published it ' to avoid 
the trouble of dictating yearly so many pages to 
the students in Botany'. It is possible that at 
this time Stephens was a demonstrator to the 

a 



98 THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 

lecturer in botany, or he may have been one of 
those private teachers or grinders who later assisted 
so much in College teaching. The book has no great 
merit, as may be judged from the following note on 
it kindly made by the present Professor of Botany : 

' The Botanical Elements is merely a much abridged out- 
line of Tournefort's elegant classification of Plants. The 
book exhibits neither originality nor critical faculty. At 
the time when it was written Ray's classification was avail- 
able, yet Stephens ignores it and the recent splendid work 
of Grew and Malpigi, selecting by preference Tournefort's 
highly artificial method. In one respect the author shows 
himself independent of Tournefort's influence, namely in 
admitting the sexual functions of the stamens and pistil 
which Tournefort denied.' 

Stephens continued to discharge the duties of 
Lecturer in Chemistry till his death in 1760. 

It appears that about the close of the year 1732, 
Dr. Henry Nicholson, the first Lecturer in Botany, 
died, and on March 4, I732/3, 1 the ' Provost and 
Fellows chose Dr. Chemys to be Professor of 
Botany '. This Charles Chemys, the son of Ludo- 
vicus Chemys or Kemys, was born in Dublin in 
1700. He entered Trinity College as a Pensioner 
at the age of 15, and was elected Scholar in 1717. 
In 1720 he graduated B.A., taking his M.B. in the 
spring of 1724, and M.A. in the summer of 1727. 
He was admitted a Candidate and elected a Fellow 
of the King and Queen's College of Physicians on 
December 14, 1730. Chemys only held the office 
of Lecturer in Botany for a few months, as on 
September 13, I733, 2 ' the Provost and Fellows 

1 Reg., voL iii, p. 601. Ibid., p. 604. 



THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 99 

chose Mr. Clements Lecturer in Botany in ye place 
of Dr. Chemys'. William Clement, or Clements, 
had, as we have seen, been elected ' into the Physic 
Fellowship ' in the room of Mr. Molloy on the 
26th May previously. He was destined for the next 
fifty years to occupy a very large place in College 
life. He entered College as a Pensioner on 
April 28, 1721, at the age of 14, being the son of 
Thomas Clements, merchant, and having been 
born at Carrickmacross, Co. Monaghan. In 1724 
he was elected Scholar, and he graduated B.A. in 
1726 and M.A. in 1731. In 1733 he was elected 
a Fellow, succeeding Mr. Molloy as Physic Fellow. 
In May, 1743, he was co-opted a Senior Fellow, 
and in January, 1744/5, succeeded Dr. Cartwright 
as Lecturer in Natural and Experimental Philosophy 
on the foundation of Erasmus Smith, which post 
he held till 1759. He graduated M.B. in 1747, and 
M.D. in the following year. He was Donegall 
Lecturer in Mathematics from 1750 to 1759, and 
was also Auditor, Librarian, and Vice-Provost of 
the College. On February I, 1761, he was elected 
Professor of Physic, and held that office till 
November 15, 1781. In 1761 he was also elected 
one of the representatives of the University in 
Parliament. During the Provostship of Hely 
Hutchinson there were many disputes among the 
Fellows, and the Provost was anxious to secure for 
himself the support of as many of the Senior and 
Junior Fellows as he could. There were at that 
time three Senior Fellows who were married, 
Dr. Clements, Dr. Leland, and Dr. Dabzac, and 



ioo THE FOUNDATION OF THE SCHOOL 

consequently liable to be deprived of their Fellow- 
ships. Hutchinson tried to persuade Lord Har- 
court to procure a dispensation for the two latter 
Fellows, but Lord Harcourt declined to do so 
unless the name of William Clements, Vice-Provost, 
was included in the list. The Provost strongly 
objected to this course, but Lord Harcourt insisted 
on extending the royal favour to the Vice-Provost. 1 
Clements resigned the Lectureship of Botany in 
1763, but continued Vice-Provost till his death on 
the i5th January, 1782. 

In November, 1729, the President and Fellows 
of the College of Physicians remodelled the regula- 
tions for conducting the examination for medical 
degrees in the University. It was then decided 
that a Candidate Bachelor should be examined in 
(i) Anatomy, (2) Materia Medica, Pharmacy, and 
Botany, (3) Chemistry, and (4) Pathology. The 
examination for the degree of Doctor or Licentiate 
in Physic was to include these four subjects, 
together with the therapeutic part or Methodus 
Medendi of Pathology, as well as ' practical cases 
in internal and external diseases to be proposed 
by the President, together with an explanation of 
Hippocrates's Aphorisms '. The President and the 
four Censors of the College were to conduct this 
examination, each taking a separate part. After 
this examination a report on the fitness of the 
candidate was made to the Board, on which 
depended the granting of a grace for his degree. 

1 Stubbs, Hist., p. 235. 



CHAPTER VI 
THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

THE litigation arising out of Sir Patrick Dun's 
will dragged on from trial to trial, till at length, 
in 1740, a decree was obtained from the Court of 
Chancery, with the consent of all parties, securing 
to the College of Physicians the reversion of the 
estate on the death of Lady Dun. The estate in 
Waterford bequeathed to the College at the time 
of Dun's death only produced a profit rent of 
58 a year, 1 but it was contemplated, even by 
Dun himself, that on the expiration of the leases, 
new leases of the lands might be granted which 
could produce a rent of at least 200 a year. This 
expectation was soon realized, the estates con- 
siderably improved in value, and there was good 
reason to believe that the improvement would 
continue. 

Under these circumstances the College decided 
to enlarge the scope of Dun's scheme by the 
appointment of three Professors instead of one. 
In order to effect this an Act of Parliament was 
obtained in the fifteenth year of George II (1741), 
' for vacating the Office of the King's Professor of 
Physick in Dublin upon the death or surrender 
of the present King's Professor, and for erecting 

1 Dun's deed. 
H3 



102 THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

three Professorships of Physick in the said City 
instead thereof.' 

This Act, though expressly declared to be a 
' Public Act ', is not printed in the Statutes of 
the Realm, and in subsequent Acts is referred to 
as of the twenty-first year of George II. Robert 
Perceval, in his Account of the Bequest of Sir 
Patrick Dun, 1 refers to this Act as printed in 1747, 
but no copy of this date is now known to exist. 
The Act was transcribed from the original existing 
in the Record Office, and in 1867 printed by Trinity 
College at the University Press. Its provisions 
are of the greatest importance in the history of 
the Medical School of Trinity College. Having 
recited the bequest of Sir Patrick Dun and detailed 
the subsequent enactments concerning it, the Act 
proceeded to state that since the estates were so 
much increased in value, and likely to increase 
further, it was considered that they were com- 
petent to provide for three Professorships instead 
of one as formerly. Further, since some of the 
subjects, for the teaching of which Dun made 
provision, were now taught in Trinity College by 
Professors appointed subsequent to the execution 
of Dun's deed, it would be of great advantage to 
the students of Medicine if three Professors were 
appointed to teach in the following subjects : 
(i) Theory and Practice of Medicine ; (2) Surgery 
and Midwifery ; and (3) Ancient and Modern 
Pharmacy and Materia Medica. In consequence 
of these advantages it seemed good to Parliament, 

1 Perceval, Account. 



THE KING'S PROFESSORS 103 

' at the suit of the President of the King and 
Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland and of 
Dr. James Grattan, King's Professor of Physick 
in the City of Dublin,' to recommend ' His Excel- 
lent Majesty ' to pass this Act. On the next 
vacancy in the King's Professorship, the Professor- 
ship was to be ' utterly dissolved, cease and to 
be void to all intents and purposes ', and in place 
of it three Professorships in the subjects named 
above were to be constituted, and come to have 
' perpetual continuance and succession '. The 
electors and the rules governing the elections 
were identical with those laid down in the Charter 
of George I, granted in 1715, the candidates being 
required to submit to examination on three 
separate days for two hours on each day. A 
similar preference to that given in the Charter of 
George I to the descendants of Sir Patrick Dun, 
was extended to those persons by this Act. It 
was, however, enacted ' that all Papists and per- 
sons professing the Popish religion, or who by any 
law in this kingdom are deemed Papists, shall be 
utterly incapable of being elected into any of the 
Professorships'. 

In this enactment we see the influence of that 
fear of Jacobitism which at the time was intro- 
ducing so much bitter religious feeling into the 
country, and was responsible for the penal laws 
that so long disgraced the Statute Book. A very 
wise provision was introduced into this Act, by 
which no person was allowed to hold at the same 
time more than one of the Professorships on 



104 THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

Dun's foundation, nor was such a Professor allowed 
to hold at the same time the chair of either 
Anatomy, Chemistry, or Botany, in Trinity Col- 
lege. The duty of the Professors was to read 
lectures in the Latin tongue in their respective 
subjects three times in each week from November 
to April during term, the lectures to be given in 
Trinity College. The appointment once made was 
for life, but any Professor might be deprived of 
his chair by the President and Fellows of the 
College of Physicians if it were proved on oath 
that he continued, after admonition, guilty of 
either neglect or misbehaviour in the performance 
of his duties. The whole of the personal and real 
estate of Sir Patrick Dun was, on the death of 
Lady Dun, to be vested in the College of Physicians 
for the support of these three Professors, each of 
whom was to receive an equal share of the residue 
after the payment of the necessary charges. The 
only exception to this was Dun's library, which 
was to be vested in the President and Fellows, 
who were, with the consent of the Archbishop and 
any two of the Professors, to deposit it ' in some 
convenient place in or near the City of Dublin 
for the use of the said College of Physicians and 
of all the said Professors and their successors'. 

Lady Dun died in January 1748/9, and was 
buried in St. Michan's Church beside her husband, 1 
and in the same year also Dr. James Grattan, the 
King's Professor of Physic, died, just as he had 
entered into the enjoyment of the emoluments of 

1 Belcher, Memoirs, p. 63. 



THE KING'S PROFESSORS 105 

his Professorship. On May 20, 1749, Richard 
Baldwin, Provost, Bryan Robinson, Professor of 
Physic, Robert Robinson, President of the College 
of Physicians, with Thomas Lloyd and John 
Anderson, the two eldest Censors, met in the 
Provost's house, Trinity College, and fixed Mon- 
day, Tuesday, and Wednesday, September 25, 26, 
and 27, at one o'clock in the afternoon, for the 
examination of candidates for the new Professor- 
ships. 1 They also drafted the form of advertise- 
ment which was to appear in the gazettes, in 
which, besides defining the duties of the Pro- 
fessorships according to the Act, it was stated 
that the present emolument of each Chair was 
expected to be 90 a year, with the likelihood 
of an increase. This notice was printed in the 
London Gazette between the 8th and i8th of 
July, and in the Dublin Gazette between July 4 
and September 23. 

A full description of the subsequent events con- 
nected with this election has been preserved in 
the College of Physicians in a manuscript known 
as the ' Book of Electors' Proceedings '. We read 
that the Examinators attended at the Anatomy 
School in Trinity College on Monday, the 25th 
of September, 1749, about one o'clock in the 
afternoon. The following candidates presented 
themselves William Stephens, M.D. Dublin ; 
Constantine Barbor, M.D. Dublin ; Anthony 
Rehlan, M.D. Dublin ; Henry Quin, M.D. Padua ; 
John M'Michan, M.D. Edinburgh ; and Nathaniel 

1 Book of Electors' Proceedings, Col. P. 



106 THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

Barry, M.D. Rheims. The Archbishop adminis- 
tered the oath to the Examinators, and on the 
first day Dr. Robert Robinson examined in Ana- 
tomy and Animal Oeconomy. On the 26th Dr. 
Lloyd examined in Surgery and Midwifery, and 
Dr. Anderson in Materia Medica. On the 27th 
Dr. Bryan Robinson examined in the Theory and 
Practice of Physic, and the Provost (Dr. Baldwin) 
in the Aphorisms of Hippocrates. On October 2, 
the Examinators met in the Provost's house and 
signed a report recommending Henry Quin for the 
Professorship of Physic, Dr. Nathaniel Barry for 
the Professorship of Chirurgery and Midwifery, 
and, with the Provost dissenting, Constantine 
Barbor for the Professorship of Materia Medica 
and Pharmacy. This report was published as 
required by the Act, and on October 25, the 
Examinators, with the exception of the Provost, 
met at the Archbishop's Palace to declare the elec- 
tion. As, however, none of the other Guardians 
attended, the Archbishop adjourned the meeting 
till November 4, when Archdeacon Reader attended 
and the election was declared. 

With the appointment of the King's Professors 
the teaching staff of the School was constituted 
as follows : 

UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS 

Public Professor of Physic . . Bryan Robinson 
Medicus and Lecturer in Botany . William Clements 
Lecturer in Chemistry . . William Stephens 
Lecturer in Anatomy . . Robert Robinson 

Anatomist .... George Whittingham 



THE KING'S PROFESSORS 107 

KING'S PROFESSORS 

Theory and Practice of Medicine . Henry Quin 
Chimrgery and Midwifery . . Nathaniel Barry 
Materia Medica .... Constantine Barbor 

The * Consuetudines seu Regulae Universitatis 
Dubliniensis pro Solenniori graduum Collatione ' 
are of uncertain date and origin, but were prob- 
ably drawn up in the time of Bedell's Provostship, 
or at latest at the Restoration. 1 MacDonnell in 
his edition of the Statutes in 1844 states that they 
were first printed in 1778, but Bolton gives a 
translation of them in his English edition of the 
Statutes in 1749. In these ' Regulae ' chapter x 
is entitled 'De Gradibus in Medicina Capessendis ' 2 
and of it Bolton gives the following translation : 3 

' No one shall be admitted to the Degree of Batchelor of 
Physic, who has not first taken the Degree of Batchelor 
in Arts, and who has not compleated three years (reckon- 
ing from the day of his admission to the Degree of 
Batchelor in Arts). Whoever applies for the Degree 
of Batchelor in Physic, shall, before he is proposed for 
the Grace of the College, solemnly in the publick Hall 
perform the Part once of Respondent and once of Oppo- 
nent in two Questions of Physic, from one of the Clock in 
the Afternoon to three : He shall moreover solemnly and 
publickly prelect twice on two several Days. No one 
shall be admitted to the Degree of Doctor in Physic, 
who has not compleated five years in the Study of 
Physic, from the time of his being admitted Batchelor ; 
and who shall not publickly and solemnly prelect four 
times on four several Days, from one of the Clock in the 
Afternoon till two. In which Prelections he shall explain 

1 T. C. D. CaL, 1833, p. 58. 

* Statutes T. C. D., vol. i, p. 172. ' Bolton, p. 150. 



io8 THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

some part of Hippocrates or Galen ; and shall moreover 
in the public Hall solemnly perform the Part once of 
Respondent and once of Opponent, in two Questions in 
Physic from one of the Clock in the Afternoon to three.' 

It was further ordained in the ' Supplicationum 
Formulae, Alio modo ' that the Degrees of Bachelor 
and Doctor in Physic may be applied for respec- 
tively after ' three several manners '. 

' For the Degree of Batchelor in Physic : * 

' ist. Whoever begins the study of Physic immediately 
on his admission into the College by Matriculation, may 
apply for his Degree after the completion of twenty-four 
Terms. 

' 2dly. If he begins from his being Batchelor in Arts, 
then after three years. 

' 3dly. If from the time of commencing Master, then 
after two years. 

' For the Degree of Doctor in Physic : 

' ist. Six years being compleated from his Batchelor's 
Degree in said Faculty, which was taken after twenty- 
four Terms, or six Years from his Matriculation. 

' 2dly. Five Years being compleated from his Batche- 
lor's Degree, which was taken, having been before 
admitted Batchelor of Arts. 

' 3dly. Four Years being compleated from his Batche- 
lor's Degree, which was taken, having been before 
admitted Master of Arts.' 

It is further stated that ' the Sum Total of 
Expences for each Degree ' is as follows : 

i s. d. 

A.B 05 :o7 :o6 

A.M 07 :i8 :o6 

M.B. . . . . .10:05:00 

M.D. . . . .18:19 :oo 

1 Bolton, p. 154. 



THE KING'S PROFESSORS 109 

The cost of the LL.B. and LL.D. Degrees was the 
same as the M.B. and M.D., while the B.D. cost 
12 los. and the D.D. 23 los. 

It is doubtful how far these ' Regulae ' were 
observed, or what evidence of study was required 
from the candidates for the medical degrees, but 
during the second quarter of the eighteenth cen- 
tury quite a number were examined by the Fellows 
of the College of Physicians and had degrees 
granted to them by the University. Stubbs in 
his History states that ' from 1724 to 1740 no 
Medical Degrees appear to have been conferred V 
but this is not in accord with either the Register 
of the Board or with the Roll of Graduates pub- 
lished by Todd. 

Bryan Robinson, who was at the head of the 
medical faculty in the University as Public Pro- 
fessor of Physic, was a man of considerable note 
in his day. We have already met with him as 
holding the Chair of Anatomy for a short period 
from September 8, 1716, to June 17, 1717, and 
as the editor of Helsham's Lectures in Natural 
Philosophy. He was the son of Christopher Robin- 
son, M.D., whose father Bryan is believed to have 
belonged to the family of Robinson of Newby 
Hall, Yorkshire. 2 Bryan was born in Dublin 
about the year 1680, but we have been unable to 
find any record of where he was educated. He 
is not mentioned in the entrance book of Trinity 
College, and we first meet with him on February 
3, 1708/9, when he was given leave ' to perform 

1 Stubbs, Hist., p. 319. * Irish Builder, February i, 1888. 



no THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

acts for ye degree of Batchelor of Physic '.* In 
Trinity College he graduated M.B. in the spring 
of that year, and M.D. in the summer of 1711. 
In August 1711 he was admitted a Candidate of 
the College of Physicians, was elected Fellow on 
May 5, 1712, and held the office of President 
in 1718, 1727, and 1739. In 1725 he published in 
Dublin an account of five children who were inocu- 
lated for small-pox on August 26 of that year. 
Robinson had been called in to see these children 
after the inoculation, and he describes the symp- 
toms of the illness from which two of them died. 
This book was published in London also in the 
same year. In 1732 he published his celebrated 
work on the Animal (Economy, which went through 
several editions, and which was violently attacked 
in a pamphlet by Thomas Morgan, to which 
Robinson replied in the same year. Robinson 
seems to have been fascinated with the Philosophy 
of Newton, and was anxious to apply the mathe- 
matical principles of that philosopher to the 
elucidation of medical problems. Sprengel 2 de- 
scribes Robinson as ' 1'un des plus celebres iatro- 
mathematiciens de son temps '. The fundamental 
proposition on which Robinson based his cele- 
brated calculation of the velocity of the circulation 
of the blood is stated as follows : 3 

' If a given fluid be moved through a cylindrical Pipe, 
made of a given sort of matter, by a Force acting constantly 
and uniformly during the whole Time of the Motion ; its 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 422. * Sprengel, torn, v, p. 173. 

1 Animal (Economy, 2nd edition, 1734, p. 2. 



THE KING'S PROFESSORS in 

velocity, setting aside the resistance of the Air, will be in a 
Ratio compounded of the subduplicate Ratio of the mov- 
ing Force directly, and of the subduplicate Ratio of the 
Diameter and Length of the Pipe taken together inversely. 
If F denote the moving Force, D and L the Diameter and 
Length of the Pipe, and V the Velocity with which the 
Fluid runs through the Pipe, then V will be proportional 
to rj- 

V DL.' 

The whole of this work forms a most interesting 
exposition of the application of mathematics to 
physiological problems, and would require for its 
just appreciation a much more intimate know- 
ledge of mathematics than is at the disposal of 
the writer. 

In the Act of Parliament establishing Steevens' 
Hospital, passed in 1729, Robinson is named a 
Governor, and on the opening of the Hospital in 
1733 he became one of the Physicians. On the 
I2th June, 1745, he was elected Public Professor 
of Physic in Trinity College in succession to Henry 
Cope, and held the post till his death in 1754. 

Beside the books already mentioned, Robinson 
wrote a Dissertation on the Aether of Sir Isaac 
Newton, 1 a Dissertation on the Food and Discharge 
of Human Bodies, 2 On the Operations and Virtues 
of Medicines, 3 and an essay on Coin 4 which was 
published by his sons after his death. 

An account of the case of the late Dr. Bryan 
Robinson was communicated to the Medical and 
Philosophical Society of Dublin by Sir Edward 

1 Dublin, 1743. * Ibid., 1747. 

* Ibid., 1753. * Ibid., 1757. 



H2 THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

Barry, and is preserved in the memoirs of that 
society. 1 In this account Barry says that Robin- 
son enjoyed good health till 1748, when he 
became paralytic. 

' He recovered from thence by reducing the bulk of his 
body and enjoyed good health for many years, but not 
with his usual clearness and vigour of mind. For two 
years before he died this deficiency in his memory and 
understanding became remarkable. His pulse frequently 
intermitted. After he had recovered by an exact regimen 
from the paralysis, he frequently indulged himself in 
the free use of Wine. He was naturally of a passionate 
Temper which now Increased, from even the slightest and 
frequently from no cause.' 

After death, Barry says, his heart was found to 
be ' of an uncommon size ', and he suggests that, 

' This condition of the Heart evidently accounts for 
the weak and afterwards intermitting Pulse, and from the 
Brain being liable, during the imperfect Motion of the 
fluids, to a Plenitude. Does not it likewise Account for 
the Passions of his mind after a repletion of Wine, which 
were chiefly mechanical and put the nervous System in 
such a Motion as became at last necessary.' 

Robert Robinson, who was the Lecturer in 
Anatomy and President of the College of Physi- 
cians, was the second son of Bryan Robinson. 
He does not appear to have been a graduate of 
Trinity College, and we have not been able to 
discover where he took his degrees in Medicine. 
He was admitted a Candidate and a Fellow of 
the College of Physicians on the 22nd July, 1740, 
and ' as being a son of a Fellow of this College, 

1 Medical and Philosophical Memoirs, vol. ii, p. 79. 



THE KING'S PROFESSORS 113 

was excused ye fees of admission to a fellowship 
and sworn '.* At the time of his election his father 
was President of the College. Robert Robinson 
was appointed State Physician by Patent dated 
igth February, I742, 2 and in 1741 he became 
Physician in Steevens' Hospital, being elected a 
Governor there on December 22, 1750. Robert's 
only child, Elizabeth, married on the 25th May, 
1785, Frederick Trench of Woodlawn, who in 1800 
was created Baron Ashtown. 3 

Henry Quin, the King's Professor of Medicine, 
had entered Trinity College as a Pensioner on 
July 17, 1733, at the age of fifteen, and was the 
son of Thomas Quin a Surgeon or Apothecary in 
Dublin. He graduated B.A. in the spring of 1737, 
M.B. in 1743, and M.D. in 1750. It is probable 
that he studied abroad and graduated M.D. in 
Padua between the time of his taking his Bache- 
lor's degree in Trinity and his appointment as 
Professor. He was admitted a Candidate of the 
College of Physicians on October 29, 1750, and 
elected Fellow on October 28, 1754. It is impor- 
tant to notice that he did not hold any position 
in the College till after his appointment as Pro- 
fessor. He was afterwards chosen President of 
the College seven times, in 1758, 1766, 1771, 1774, 
1779 (twice), and in 1781. Quin was a musician 
of considerable ability and used to take part in 
the fashionable concerts held in the Theatre, 
Fishamble Street, and he also had a private 

1 Col. P. Minutes. * Cameron, Hist., p. 105. 

* Irish Builder, February i, 1888. 

I 



ii4 THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

theatre in his house on the north side of Stephen's 
Green. He had considerable skill in imitating 
antique sculptured gems in coloured glass, and in 
this work he employed as his assistant James 
Tassie, whom he afterwards enabled to go to 
London, where he gained great wealth and reputa- 
tion by the practice of this art. A medal, with 
the bust of Henry Quin was engraved by William 
Mossop, sen., in 1783, at the order of Robert 
Watson Wade, First Clerk of the Treasury. Wade 
had been a patient of Quin's and under his care 
he had recovered from an illness which had pre- 
viously baffled the skill of many of the faculty. 
As a token of gratitude Wade had a copy of this 
medal struck in gold and presented to Quin. 
Dr. A. Smith states that he had seen an impres- 
sion in silver on the reverse of which were engraved 
these lines : 

The human frame is, Quin, thy debtor, 
None but the Maker knows it better. 1 

Quin died on the igth of February, 1791. 

Nathaniel Barry, the son of Sir Edward Barry, 
M.D., Bart., was born in Cork, and entered Trinity 
College as a Pensioner at the age of fifteen, on 
January 29, 1739/40. He proceeded to the degree 
of B.A. in the spring of 1744, and M.B. in 1748, 
being granted his M.D. in 1751. Like Quin, Barry 
was not admitted to the College of Physicians till 
after his appointment as King's Professor. He 
was admitted a Candidate on June 15, 1752, and 

1 Aquilla Smith, Cat. Museum Col. P., p. 12. 



THE KING'S PROFESSORS 115 

elected a Fellow on St. Luke's day 1758. He was 
President in the year 1767, and again in 1775. 
He took the M.D. degree of the University of 
Rheims, where he went to study after graduating 
in Dublin, Barry was appointed, jointly with his 
father, Sir Edward, Physician-General to the Army 
in Ireland on St. Patrick's day, 1749/50. In 1776, 
on the death of his father, he succeeded to the 
baronetcy and died about nine years later. 

Constantine Barbor was elected a Scholar of 
Trinity College in 1732, and graduated B.A. in 
the spring of 1734. Although he is described in 
the ' Book of Electors' Proceedings ' as M.D. of 
Dublin, we have not been able to trace either in 
the College Register or in Todd's Roll any entry 
of such a degree being granted to him. He was 
admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 
on the 26th February, 1742/3, and elected a Fellow 
on the 4th May, 1747. In 1754 he was first elected 
President, and he held that office again in 1764 
and 1769. 

In a poem descriptive of the Medical Faculty 
in Dublin, published by John Gilborne, M.D., in 
1775, the following lines are devoted to the King's 
Professors : * 

Peculiar Laurels the next Three have won, 
Professors Royal of Sir Patrick Dun ; 
A good Physician and a worthy Knight, 
To cure not kill was always his delight. 
If any Time he drew the trenchant Blade, 
The Hand that wounded heal'd the Wounds it made. 

1 Gilborne, p. 17. 



u6 THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

Ingenious Quin, with Erudition great, 
Averts the Blows of unrelenting Fate : 
He teaches Youth the Cure, the Remedies, 
And various Causes of all Maladies ; 
The speculative theoretic Rule, 
And the best Practice, in the Physic-school. 

The God-like Barry high in Learning soars, 
His prudent Skill the Sick to Health restores : 
He teaches Midwifes how to trace their Clews 
Thro' mazy Labyrinths, and how to use 
Their Instruments he shews Chirurgeons bold ; 
All this in College by the Sage is told. 

Wise Barbor can prolong the Days of Youth, 
By Maxims founded on undoubted Truth : 
With pharmaceutic Art he plainly shews 
How to prepare, preserve, compound, and chuse 
Drugs, and Materials medical, that will 
All Indications curative fulfil. 

With "the election of the three King's Professors 
affairs in the University School seemed to be 
settled on a satisfactory basis. A fairly complete 
teaching staff had been appointed, and the ex- 
amination of candidates for the degrees was, on 
the Liceat of the University, conducted by the 
heads of the College of Physicians. It was, how- 
ever, the custom of the University to give special 
Graces for degrees to certain individuals, appa- 
rently without any examination. Thus, on April 
u, 1748, ' the Grace of the house for a Doc 8 - 
degree in Physick was given to Henry Smyth, 
A.M., at the instance of his Royal Highness the 
Chancellor.' * 

1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 76. 



THE KING'S PROFESSORS 117 

The College of Physicians was at this time most 
jealous as to its privileges of licensing practitioners 
in both Medicine and Midwifery. The President 
and Fellows had, at their meeting on May 6, 1745, 
adopted a resolution that 

' Whereas it has been found that several persons 
licensed to practise midwifery only have notwithstanding 
presumed to practise physick in general ; we ye sub- 
scribing members of ye College of Physicians have 
unanimously agreed that we will not for the future 
consult with any of them as physicians, nor w h any 
other person, who is not a graduate or licensed physician 
of this College.' 

This resolution was signed by the President and 
all the Fellows of the College, as well as by nine 
of the Candidates and Licentiates. 

It should be remembered that the Charter of 
William and Mary had ordained that no person 
was entitled to practise physic in Dublin, or within 
a circuit of seven miles thereof, except he was 
licensed by the President and Fellows of the College 
of Physicians, provided always that graduates in 
Physic of the University of Dublin having performed 
their full acts be admitted into the College without 
further examination on the payment of the usual 
fee. The College of Physicians was also granted 
power to examine and license all midwives. It 
was in view of these provisions of the Charter 
that the University and the College had entered 
into an agreement whereby the College examined 
all medical candidates of the University before 
they were admitted to perform acts for their 

13 



n8 THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

degrees. This arrangement seems to have been 
a very fair one, but it is obvious that the admis- 
sion of candidates to the degrees of the University 
by Special Grace and without examination by the 
College of Physicians was likely sooner or later to 
lead to friction between the two bodies. On 
February 19, 1753, the President and Fellows 
adopted the following resolution : l 

' yt no graduate in Physic of ye University of Dublin 
who hath obtained, or shall obtain, his degree by special 
grace or favour shall for the future be admitted into ye 
College of Physicians, or licensed by ye College to Practise 
Physick.' 

At the same meeting at which the above resolu- 
tion was adopted the President and Fellows further 

' Ordered yt the College of Physicians shall not for the 
future examine any person who hath or does practise 
midwifery, for any degree in Physick, or a License in 
Physick.' 

Though the former resolution was one that 
would commend itself to many as just and fair, 
the same cannot be said of the latter, and it was 
this which ultimately led to trouble. 

At the meeting of the Board of Trinity College 
on February 15, 1753 : 

' A Batchelors degree in Arts was granted Speciali 
Gratia to Fielding Ould for the reasons in the underneath 
petition. Fielding Ould supplicates the Provost & 
Senior Fellows to grant him ye Degree of B.A. as a 
Qualifn. preparatory to his applying for Leave to perform 
his Degrees in Physic humbly hoping that ye folowg. 
Circumces. may in some measure recommend him. 

1 Col. P. Minutes. 



THE KING'S PROFESSORS 119 

' He has been 25 years in ye study & practice of 
Physick, five of wh. were almost intirely employed in 
disecting for the Any. Lecture of ye Colge. during wh. 
time he constly. attended ye N. Phily. Chymy. & Botany 
Lectures, was two years abroad for his furthr. improvemt., 
on his return was examd. by ye College of Physicians who 
certified for him yt He was singularly well qualified for 
ye Profession of Midwifery wh. he hath practised these 
15 years past & has published a treatise on yt subject 
with an approbation of ye Colge of Physicians thereto 
annexed.' 

On January 17, 1757, the College of Physicians 
passed a resolution : 

' that every person who is admitted a Fellow Candidate 
or Licentiate since May 6th, 1745, do sign the Resolution 
of that date relating to the Licentiates in Midwifery and 
that for the future every person that shall apply to be 
a Fellow or Licentiate shall before his admission sign the 
said resolution.' 

Still there was no rupture between the Colleges 
and the degree examinations were conducted under 
the former regulations. 

Nothing more was heard of any cause of dispute 
for a time. On September 30, 1758, Provost 
Baldwin died at the age of ninety-two, and in the 
following month Francis Andrews was admitted 
Provost. On June 2, 1759, the Board granted 
a Liceat to Fielding Ould for his Bachelor's degree 
in Physic, and on October 29, 1759, it was resolved 
at a meeting of the College of Physicians, 1 that : 

' Mr. Fielding Ould Licentiate in Midwifery having 
presented a Liceat from the University of Dublin to be 

1 Col. P. Minutes. 



120 THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

examined for a Batchelours Degree in Physic the College 
is unanimous in not admitting him to an Examination, 
as such an admission is contrary to their Laws.' 

On February 2, 1760, the Board of Trinity 
College made the following minute : 

' This day a Memorial of Fielding Ould was read setting 
forth that he had presented the Liceat granted by this 
Board for his Batchelor's degree in Physic to the President 
of the College of Physicians, and offered himself ready 
and willing to undergo their examination and praying 
that as they had declined examining him he might 
obtain leave to perform the usual Acts for his Batchelor's 
Degree in Physic, Ordered by the Board that Fielding 
Ould A.B. have leave to perform the usual Acts for a 
Batchelor's degree in Physic and that he acquaint the 
professor of Physic therewith and that he give the usual 
notice of the time and subject of his Acts.' 

Although this degree is not recorded in Todd's 
Roll, it was evidently granted, for on April 2, 1761, 
' Leave was given to S r Fielding Ould M.B. to 
perform for a Doctor's Degree in Medicine/ * and 
on June 29 the Grace was passed for this degree, 
which was conferred at the Summer Commence- 
ments. 

It was not to be expected that the College of 
Physicians would submit to this treatment with- 
out protest, for, whatever opinion we may now 
form of the refusal to examine Ould, the action 
had the unanimous support of the Fellows. Ac- 
cordingly, at their meeting on February 5, 1761, 
they unanimously adopted the following resolu- 
tion : 

1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 1 66. 



THE KING'S PROFESSORS 121 

' That the College of Dublin in conferring a degree in 
Physic on S r - Fielding Ould Licentiate in Midwifery only, 
has treated this college with very great and undeserved 
disrespect. 

' That the connexion subsisting between this Body and 
the College of Dublin by virtue of the agreement dated 
July 25 1701 be dissolved. 

' That the following letter be sent to the Provost : 

' S r * The President and Fellows of the College of Phy- 
sicians from their affection for the Society in which they 
were educated have for threescore years past submitted to 
considerable inconvenience solely to give credit and value 
to the degrees in Physic conferred by the University, at 
the head of which you have the honour to be placed. 

' They lament that of late their endeavours have been 
ineffectual to this purpose, and are justly apprehensive 
that they are likely to continue so, as your College has 
thought proper to grant a degree in our Faculty to 
a person, who had no Academic Education, and whom 
you know to be disqualified by his occupation for a License 
to practise in our Profession. 

' We therefore from the attention which we owe to the 
welfare of the publick & to ye reputation and ye dignity 
of our own Body, find ourselves under the necessity of 
breaking off that connexion which has hitherto subsisted 
between your Board and ours by agreement of January 
ye 25th, 1701, and we do hereby declare that for the 
future we will not examine your candidates nor officiate 
at the performance of their public acts ; and that we will 
receive into our College the graduates of other Univer- 
sities if sufficiently recommended by their learning and 
morals tho' not admitted ad eundem in yours.' 

In consequence of this letter the Board at their 
meeting on May 16 unanimously resolved : ' That 
a Previous examination of the Candidates for 
degrees in Medicine is absolutely necessary.' And 



122 THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

the following letter was written to the University 
Lecturers, June 9, 1761 : 

' Sir, I am directed by the Provost and Senior Fellows 
to acquaint you that they have resolved to commit the 
examination of candidates for Degrees in Medicine for ye 
future to their Praelectors in Chymistry & Anatomy, 
together with ye Professor of Medicine ; and that it is 
their intention that their Praelectors shall attend the 
Professor in all performances of Acts for Medical Degrees. 
It is also expected that the Praelectors will co-operate 
with the Professor in settling a scheme for the conduct of 
these Examinations & Performances in order to give 
them their due weight and credit ; which scheme is to 
be laid before the Board for their approbation. I am 
therefore directed to request that you would signify your 
sentiments to me with all convenient speed ; as the 
Provost and Senior Fellows mean to proceed to the final 
settlement of the manner and order of these Examinations 
and Performances ; and judge if necessary to carry their 
intentions into effectual execution without delay.' 

On June 29 the Board decided that : 

' Whereas the Board have unanimously resolved that for 
the future no candidate in Physic should be admitted 
to perform acts till he had been previously examined 
& returned duly qualified by the Professor of Physic, 
the Chymistry and Anatomy Lecturer and whereas Dr. 
Robert Robinson refuses to co-operate therein with the 
above gentlemen it is hereby ordered that another 
Anatomy Lecturer shall be chosen, and that the Board 
shall proceed to the election of a proper person to fill the 
said office on Tuesday the I4th of July next.' 

Thus in 1761 Robert Robinson was dismissed 
from the Chair of Anatomy just as his father 
Bryan had in 1717 been turned out ' by the 
majority of voices '. 



THE KING'S PROFESSORS 123 

Of the other Professors, Dr. Edward Barry had 
resigned the Professorship of Physic on February 
12, 1761, and on the 2ist Dr. Clements, Lecturer 
in Botany, and a Fellow of Trinity College, had 
been appointed in his stead. William Stephens, 
who had been Lecturer in Chemistry since 1732, 
had died in 1760, and on July 12 of that year 
Francis Hutcheson had been chosen in his place. 
Hutcheson, though a Licentiate, was not, at this 
time, a Fellow of the College of Physicians. 

Fielding Ould, who was the apparently inno- 
cent cause of this rupture between the Colleges, 
was a most distinguished man in his profession. 
Colonel Ould, the grandfather of Fielding, was 
a soldier in the army of King William, and com- 
manded the Royal Regiment of Welsh Fusileers 
in the Battle of the Boyne. His son, Captain 
Ould, also belonged to this regiment, and when 
quartered with it in Galway after the war, he 
married there a Miss Shawe. Two sons resulted 
from this marriage, Fielding, and Abraham, who 
afterwards became a Barrister. 

Fielding Ould was born about 1710, and on the 
death of his father, who was murdered in London 
shortly after his marriage, Quid's mother returned 
to her father's house in Galway, and there her 
two sons were educated. Ould, as he tells in his 
petition to the Board, acted for some time as 
prosector to the Lecturer in Anatomy and attended 
lectures in the School of Trinity College, though 
he does not appear to have been a Matriculated 
Student of the University. While abroad he 



124 THE KING'S PROFESSORS 

studied for some time in Paris, as he tells us in 
the preface of his book, and eventually settled in 
Dublin about 1736 or 1737. On August" 16, 1738, 
he was admitted a Licentiate of Midwifery of the 
College of Physicians, having, on examination, 
been ' found singularly well qualified '. 

In 1742 he published in Dublin * A Treatise of 
Midwifery in Three Parts ', which is dedicated to 
the ' President, Censors, & Fellows of the College 
of Physicians ', and bears the imprimatur of the 
College. This is the first of a long list of writings 
on obstetrics by Dublin men, writings which have 
added, and are still adding, no little lustre to the 
reputation of the Dublin School. M'Clintock, 1 
writing of Quid's book, says : 

' If we except the writings of Chapman and Sir Richard 
Manningham, it was in fact the first obstetric treatise 
having any pretentions to merit and originality which 
appeared in the English language. But, independently 
of this, the work possessed intrinsic merits of a superior 
kind, and contained many new observations of great 
importance : so much so that we would leave it to any 
impartial and competent reader to say whether it is not 
superior to any English obstetric treatise published 
before that of Smellie in 1752.' 

On the death in 1759 of Bartholomew Mosse, 
the founder and first Master of the Rotunda, Ould 
was appointed second Master of the Hospital, 
which post he filled for seven years, during which 
time 3,800 women were confined in the Hospital, 
with 48 deaths. In May 1760 he was knighted 
by the Duke of Bedford, the Lord Lieutenant of 

1 M'Clintock, Dub. School of Midwifery, p. 7. 



THE KING'S PROFESSORS 125 

Ireland, which honour gave rise to the following 
epigram : 

Sir Fielding Ould is made a Knight, 
He should have been a lord by right ; 
For then each Lady's prayer would be, 
O Lord, Good Lord, deliver me ! 

Ould lived for many years in 21 Frederick 
Street, and died there on November 29, 1789. 

It is not very easy to give a satisfactory explana- 
tion of the refusal of the College of Physicians to 
examine Fielding Ould. It is possible that it was 
as much the result of personal jealousy as a matter 
of principle. Whatever may have been the cause 
the College did not bear any permanent ill-feeling 
to Ould, as he was admitted a Licentiate on 
October 3, 1785. 



CHAPTER VII 
THE PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 

IN pursuance of the resolutions quoted in the 
last chapter the Board proceeded to the election 
of a new Lecturer in Anatomy, and on July 14, 
1761, George Cleghorn, the anatomist, was ap- 
pointed. The position of ' Anatomist ', or ' Uni- 
versity Anatomist ' as it is now called, is first 
mentioned in 1716, when, on September 8, Surgeon 
Green was appointed by the Board to officiate in 
that capacity. Of this William Green, ' of the 
City of Dublin Chirurgeon,' little is known, except 
that he continued as anatomist till his death in 
1733. In his will, which was signed on April the 
I2th of that year, and proved in June, he left one- 
third of his property to his ' dear wife Anne Green ', 
and the other two-thirds to be divided between 
his son and two daughters. Green was in office 
when Bryan Robinson was ' turned out from being 
Anatomist ', and on the same day the Board 
' ordered that the Bursar pay sixty pounds to 
Surgeon Green in order to purchase preparations 
for illustrating several parts of the human body '. 
Unfortunately no record remains of how this 
money was spent, or what sort of ' preparations ' 
were purchased. 1 On the death of Green the 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 480. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 127 

Board, on October 22, 1733, elected Mr. Vessy 
Shaw, surgeon, 'to assist the Anatomy Lecturer 1 . 1 
Shaw resigned his office on the I4th of June, 1743, 
and died three years later, his will being proved 
on the 4th of January, 1747/8. On Shaw's resig- 
nation, Mr. George Whittingham ' was chosen 
into his place ', which he resigned on the loth 
September, 1753. Whittingham, who lived in 
Grafton Street, was for many years one of the 
surgeons to Mercer's Hospital, and was nominated 
one of the Governors in the Act of Parliament 
incorporating that institution, which was passed 
in 1749. He died in July, 1773, and in his will, 
which was dated on the I5th of that month, and 
proved on the 6th of August, he left a bond of 
600 to Mercer's Hospital, provided his ' Appren- 
tice John Bell shall be allowed to attend the said 
Hospital as usual during the remainder of his 
apprenticeship '. 

Between 1730 and 1760 there were added to the 
Anatomical Museum of the College several interest- 
ing specimens which long attracted attention. Of 
these the most remarkable was the skeleton of 
William Clark, an excellent example of the con- 
dition known as Myositis ossificans. This man was 
born in Newmarket, Co. Cork, in 1677, and died 
in 1738, when his skeleton was procured by 
Sir Edward Barry, who afterwards presented it to 
the College. Smith in his history of Co. Cork, 
published in I75O, 2 gives an account of this man, 

1 Reg., vol. iii, p. 604. 

1 Smith, Cork, vol. ii, p. 426. 



128 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 

and states that Barry had ' composed a learned 
and accurate tract on the subject ', but this we 
believe was never published. 
Smith tells us that 

' his under jaws being fixed, he could never open his 
mouth, but his teeth, being broken by some accident, 
he sucked in spoon meat which was his chief est food. 
He spent the greater part of his time preparing his diet ; 
when he took any solid food he laid it on a large flat knife, 
and pressed it with a stick made for the purpose, and so 
forced it within his teeth. Though he was often in- 
toxicated with liquor, he never vomited but once, and 
was then very near being suffocated. When he walked, 
he was always obliged to step first with the right foot, 
which he did with much difficulty, he then dragged the 
left foot to the right heel. When he fell by accident, he 
was never able to rise without assistance. When he lay 
down, he had cavities made in his bed, in which he 
placed his hips, heels and elbows. In his youth he made 
a shift to creep with difficulty through the village of 
Newmarket ; but as he advanced in years, he grew more 
inactive, so that at last he could scarce go the length 
of Mr. Aldworth's kitchen, where he spent most of his 
time. That gentleman maintained him in charity while 
he lived ; the only use he was capable of being put to 
was that of watching the workmen, for when he was once 
fixed in his station, it was impossible for him to desert it. 
He generally stood in a kind of sentry-box with a board 
placed in a groove as high as his breast for him to lean 
upon. He had always a bony excrescence issuing out of 
his left heel, which sometimes grew to the length of about 
two inches, and when it shed, as a deer does its horns, it 
still continued to sprout as before.' 

Another specimen in the School was the skeleton 
of Cornelius Magrath, the Irish giant, who had 



PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 129 

suffered during life from acromegaly. He had 
exhibited himself as a giant in various cities in 
Ireland, England, and on the Continent, and died 
in College Green in May, 1760, at the age of 24. 
He was stated to be 7 feet 8 inches high, and his 
hands ' were as large as a middling shoulder of 
mutton '. Magrath, like Clark, came from Cork, 
though born in Tipperary, and he had been for 
some time cared for by the charitable Bishop 
Berkeley. It was afterwards stated that his 
abnormal stature was the result of experiments 
made on him by the good bishop. In the Philo- 
sophic Survey of the South of Ireland * the story is 
given as follows : 

' The Bishop had a strange fancy to know whether it 
was not in the power of art to increase the human stature. 
And this unhappy Orphan appeared to him a fit subject 
for trial. He made his essay according to his precon- 
ceived theory, whatever it might be, and the consequence 
was that he became seven feet high in his seventeenth 
year.' 

Macalister says that Doctor Beatty used to tell 
the story of how Magrath 's body was obtained for 
the College. 2 Beatty 's father was at the time of 
Magrath's death a student in the College, and he 
used to say that when Robinson heard of the 
giant's death, he addressed his class as follows : 
' Gentlemen, I have been told that some of you in 
your zeal have contemplated the carrying off of 
the body. I most earnestly beg of you not to 
think of such a thing : but if you should be so 

1 p. 187. * Macalister, Macartney, p. 16. 

K 



130 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 

carried away with your desire for knowledge that 
thus against my expressed wish you persist in 
doing so, I would have you remember that if you 
take only the body, there is no law whereby you 
can be touched, but if you take so much as a rag 
or a stocking with it it is a hanging matter.' The 
students took the hint, and attended the ' wake ' 
of the giant, and as the evening progressed, drugged 
the whisky used in the celebrations. The friends 
gradually dropped to sleep, and then a number of 
the students carried off the body unmolested to 
the College. When the robbery was discovered on 
the next morning, the friends came with indignant 
protests to the Provost, and demanded the return 
of the corpse. The Provost sent for Robinson, but 
the Professor assured him that so great was the 
diligence of the College students that the body 
was already dissected. Beatty said he had met 
Robinson on his way from the Provost's house, 
and that he stopped at intervals chuckling to 
himself, ' Divil a knife 's in him yet ! ' The Provost 
is said to have compounded handsomely with the 
angry friends, but the fact that an account of the 
giant's death and of the public lecture read on 
the dissection of the body was published in a Dublin 
newspaper rather throws discredit on the story. 

A full account of this skeleton has been published 
in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, by 
the late Professor Cunningham. 1 

Other specimens which attracted much attention 
were the celebrated ' wax- works '. These were life- 

1 Cunningham, Magrath. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 131 

size models of the human body in various stages 
of dissection. They had been modelled in wax 
on human skeletons, admirably articulated, by 
M. Denou6, Professor of Anatomy in the Academy 
of Sciences in Paris. It is said that the work occu- 
pied the Professor for nearly forty years. Macalister 1 
tells us that these wax models were brought to 
London by a sculptor named Rackstow, who, on 
the advice of a certain Dr. Scott, brought them to 
Dublin, where they were purchased by the Earl of 
Shelbourne, and given to the University in 1739. 
The tradition in the College was that Dean Swift 
had instigated the noble lord to this purchase, but 
of this we have no documentary evidence. Mac- 
alister gives as the authority for his statements 
an old catalogue, compiled in 1811, by a head 
porter of the College. Most of the guide-books to 
Dublin, describing these models, give the date of 
their presentation as about 1752. These wax 
models received rather bad usage at the time the 
old Anatomy house was replaced by the new 
Medical School in the beginning of the last century, 
but the fragmentary remains of them are still 
preserved in Trinity College. 

On the day of Whittingham's resignation of the 
' place of Anatomist ', Mr. George Cleghorn was 
chosen in his stead, and continued in office till he 
was promoted lecturer. The post of University 
Anatomist then appears to have been allowed to 
fall into abeyance for nearly a hundred years. 
There were at various times persons appointed to 

1 Macalister, Hist. Anal., p. 12. 



132 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 

assist the Professor, but they were no longer called 
1 the Anatomist '. 

Lying along the southern shore of the Frith of 
Forth, in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, is 
situated the parish of Cramond, and ' the farm 
of Granton in this parish was for a long series of 
years occupied by a worthy race of farmers of the 
name of Cleghorn '. l Of this stock and in this 
place George Cleghorn was born on the i8th of 
December, 1716, and three years later his father 
died, leaving a widow and five children. George, 
who was the youngest of the family, was educated 
in the parish school at Cramond, and at twelve 
years of age was sent to Edinburgh for further 
instruction in the classics and modern languages. 
After three years spent in this way he began the 
study of medicine, being placed under the tuition 
of Alexander Monro, and allowed to reside in his 
house. While a student in the University of 
Edinburgh, Cleghorn formed a close friendship 
with Fothergill, and was one of the five students 
who founded in Edinburgh the society afterwards 
known as the Royal Medical Society. In a letter 
of Dr. Cuming to Dr. Lettsom we read of the origin 
of this society, and are told that the paper which 
formed the agenda for the third meeting was read 
by Cleghorn, the subject being ' Epilepsy '.* 

Cleghorn appears to have been a most indus- 
trious student. He so gained the goodwill of his 
teachers that in 1736 he was, on the recommenda- 

1 Wood's Cramond, p. 121. 

* Pettigrew's Lettsom, vol. iii, p. 288. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 133 

tion of Dr. St. Clair, appointed surgeon to the 
22nd Regiment of Foot, then stationed at Minorca, 
under the command of General St. Clair. He 
remained for thirteen years on the island, and 
devoted his time to the study of his profession and 
the collection of materials for his work on the 
diseases of the island. It was during his stay at 
Minorca that his friend, Dr. Cuming, writing on 
August 14, 1742, says of him : 

' Thou wilt no doubt admire the industry of our friend 
Cleghorn who, situate in a corner of the world, has made 
greater progress than any of us who do not even want the 
proper aids of study. Let us therefore stimulate one 
another that we may follow his footsteps and become the 
worthy friends of so great a man.' * 

Cleghorn was at this time in constant corre- 
spondence with Fothergill, who kept him supplied 
from London with the books that he required for 
study. On leaving Minorca in 1749, Cleghorn 
came to Ireland with his regiment, but left shortly 
afterwards for London to superintend the publica- 
tion of his book on the Epidemic Diseases in 
Minorca from the year 1744 to 1749- This work 
was first published in London in 1751, and eventu- 
ally went through five English editions, the last 
being published in London in 1815. 2 In 1776 it 
was translated into German by T. C. G. Acker- 
mann, and published in Gotha. While in London 
Cleghorn attended the anatomical lectures of Dr. 
Hunter, and so prepared himself for his future 
life's work as Lecturer in Anatomy in Dublin. 

1 Lettsom, Fothergill, p. 98. * Irvine. 

K3 



134 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 

On the publication of his book Cleghorn returned 
to Dublin, and was, as we have seen, on the loth 
of September, 1753, elected as Anatomist to succeed 
Mr. Whittingham. In 1756 he published in Dublin 
a small octavo pamphlet, entitled Index of an 
Annual Course of Lectures by George Cleghorn, 
Anatomist to Trinity College, and Surgeon in Dublin. 
This is really a syllabus of his lectures, and is the 
first anatomical work published in connexion with 
the School. 

As we have seen, the dispute between the 
Colleges over the degree of Sir Fielding Ould led 
to the appointment, in July, 1761, of Cleghorn as 
Lecturer in Anatomy, and he seems to have at 
once entered on a large and lucrative practice as 
a surgeon in Dublin. In 1762 he sent a paper 
to the Medical Society of London, in which he 
describes how he extracted ' the third or fourth 
feather of a goose's wing ' from the throat of 
a young lady who had swallowed it. The instru- 
ment he used was a flexible whalebone with a 
spring and strings attached to it. He tells us that 
Mr.Tuckey of Dublin had, some years before, added 
the strings to this instrument. 1 

In 1765 he described to the same society a case 
of aneurysmal varix in the arm of a boy aged 17, 
which had resulted from a bleeding some years 
before. The patient, he tells us, was ' shown at 
the College to the Students who attend my 
lectures '. 2 

On September 9, 1768, the Board granted a 

1 Med. Obs., vol. Hi, p. 7. Ibid., p. no. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 135 

grace for a Doctor's degree in Physic to Cleghorn, 1 
and on the I3th of the same month his Grace the 
Duke of Bedford, Chancellor of the University, 
attended by the Provost, Fellows, and Professors, 
habited in their proper robes, visited the laboratory, 
Anatomy School, and waxworks. Under the in- 
fluence of Cleghorn the Medical School increased 
considerably as regards the numbers of students 
attending. We have not been able to get any 
records of the actual numbers, but there were 
sufficient students to make the lecture-room un- 
comfortably crowded. Writing in 1782 to his 
friend Dr. Cuming, Cleghorn says : z 

1 In the year 1772 increasing business and declining 
health obliged me to commit the chief care of my annual 
anatomical course for the instruction of students in 
Physic and Surgery to my favorite pupil, Dr. Purcell, 
who has not only kept it up ever since, but improved it 
so as to advance its reputation and his own ; yet still 
I continue to read, as I have done for upwards of twenty 
years, to a crowded audience, a short course of Lectures 
the design of which is to give to general scholars a com- 
prehensive view of the Animal Kingdom, and to point 
out to them the conduct of nature in forming their various 
tribes and fitting their several organs to their respective 
modes of life ; this affords me an opportunity of exciting 
in my hearers an eager desire for Anatomical knowledge, 
by shewing them a variety of elegant preparations and 
raising their minds from the creature to the Creator whose 
power, wisdom and goodness is nowhere displayed to 
greater advantage than in the formation of Animals.' 

On the 23rd March, 1775, the Board 3 'resolved 

1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 212. * Lettsom, Fothergill, 1786, p. 235. 
* Reg., vol. iv, p. 315. 



136 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 

that the present Anatomy house be taken down, 
and that another be built on the ground lying on 
the north-side of the Parliament Square ', but 
nothing seems to have come of this resolution at 
the time, any more than did of the request made 
to the Provost on the 2ist January previously, 
that he would ' look out for a piece of ground 
proper and convenient for a Botany Garden '- 1 

The Provost at this time was the Right Hon. 
John Hely Hutchinson, commonly known as ' the 
Prancer ', from his fondness for dancing. He 
seems to have been more anxious for the physical 
welfare of the students than for their medical 
studies, for on August 4, 1774, the Board had under 
consideration a scheme for hiring a riding house 
for the use of the students. 2 

About 1774 Cleghorn's only brother, John, died 
in Scotland, leaving his widow, Barbara, and nine 
children, and this family Cleghorn brought to 
Dublin in order that he might superintend their 
education. Three of these, William, James, and 
Thomas, were educated for the medical profession, 
and studied with their uncle in the Trinity College 
School, and subsequently in Edinburgh. William 
was born at Granton, on October 30, 1754, and 
graduated B.A. in Trinity College in the spring of 
1777. He then went to study in Edinburgh, and 
took his medical degree there in 1779, reading 
a thesis De Igne. For some time he travelled on 
the Continent, and on his return to Dublin the 
Board, on October 27, 1781, at the request of his 

1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 299. * Reg., vol. iv, p. 297. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 137 

uncle, ' Lecturer in Anatomy and Anatomist ', 
elected him into ' those places to hold them jointly 
with his said uncle V Young Cleghorn did not 
live long to assist his uncle in the Anatomy School, 
for he died, as the result of an attack of fever, on 
April 20, 1783. 2 Cleghorn had various assistants 
in the anatomical department, who, however, did 
not hold their appointments from the Board. 
Thus we have seen that he was in 1772 assisted 
by his favourite pupil, Dr. Purcell, and after the 
death of his nephew, William, he had for some 
years the assistance of Joseph Clarke, who had 
married his niece, Isobel. Joseph Clarke, the son 
of James Clarke, a farmer in the parish of Desertlin, 
in County Londonderry, was born on April 8, 1758. 
He was educated at the district school, and then 
in Glasgow, after which he studied medicine in 
Edinburgh, and graduated there in 1779, as he tells 
us, ' with great ease to myself and some reputa- 
tion ', reading a thesis De Putredine in Typho 
coercenda. He then came to Dublin to stay with 
his grand-uncle, Dr. Machonchy, an obstetrician 
with a considerable practice. In March following 
he left to travel on the Continent as medical 
attendant to the son of a Mr. Rowley, and was 
away for about fourteen months. Returning to 
Dublin, he made the acquaintance of Dr. Cleghorn, 
and on his advice entered as a pupil at the Rotunda 
Hospital, where he was appointed Assistant Master 
on the 28th March, 1783. In June of this year 
he again went abroad, this time in charge of 

1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 479. * Edn. Med. Com., vol. ix, p. 472. 



138 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 

a Mr. John Jacob, of County Tipperary. This 
visit, however, was a short one, for as he tells us, 
his patient was in love with a Miss Gahen, and 
therefore contrived to shorten his intended ab- 
sence, and Clarke was back again at his duties in 
the Rotunda by September. On April n, 1785, 
he was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians, and on the 7th of April of the next 
year he married Isobel Cleghorn, with whom he 
' got a fortune of fifteen hundred pounds '. On 
the 3rd of November of that year he was elected 
Master of the Rotunda Hospital. Very shortly 
after he settled in Dublin he became an assistant 
to Cleghorn, and from about 1784 he seems to 
have been practically in charge of the Anatomical 
department. In a letter written by Cleghorn to 
Clarke, and dated ' Kilcartey December 18 1787 ', 
he says : ' I shall always acknowledge my obliga- 
tion to you for the ready and willing assistance 
you gave me in carrying on the lectures for these 
three years past.' Clarke's last division of the 
profits of the Anatomical School was in July of 
1788, when he received as his share 60 75. yd. 1 Thus 
for about two years Clarke occupied what seems to 
us the very anomalous position of being at the same 
time the head of a great lying-in hospital, and chief 
working officer of an anatomical department. 

Clarke's connexion with the Rotunda is specially 
remarkable for two things, first for the reduction 
in the infant mortality consequent on the adop- 
tion of the methods suggested by him, and secondly 

1 Collins, p. 17. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 139 

that he was the first Master to publish a full 
report of the working of the hospital. From the 
time of the opening of the hospital to Clarke's 
appointment as Master, one out of every six 
children born alive had died of convulsions, or 
what were termed ' nine day fits '. Clarke attri- 
buted this mortality to bad ventilation in the 
wards, and advocated the adoption of measures l 

' which provided for a free and easy passage of fresh air 
at all times through the wards and which were executed 
in such a manner as not to leave it in the power of nurse- 
tenders or patients to control ; the number of beds, also, 
in the large wards was reduced, and several changes were 
made in their construction which rendered them more 
airy and more easily kept clean '. 

In the six years which followed these changes 
the mortality was reduced to I in 19-3, and in the 
twenty-five years, 1823-47, the mortality was 
further reduced to i in 108. In his report z of 
the hospital, which embraces the period between 
January i, 1787, and October i, 1793, there were, 
he reports, 10,387 women confined, of whom 125 
died. When Clarke was seeking the appointment 
of Master of the Rotunda he asked Cleghorn for 
a letter of recommendation, and received the 
following reply, 3 which gives one a good idea of 
the writer's character : 

' July 1786. 
' My DEAR CLARKE, 

' I received your letter, requesting one from me to 
Dr. Halliday. My stomach revolts against the usual 

1 Collins, p. 20. * Trans. Col. P., vol. i, p. 400. 

1 Collins, p. 23. 



140 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 

mode of extracting promises, and engaging votes, before 
the Governors can be sufficiently apprized of the merits 
of the candidates. It is founded on a supposition that all 
men are actuated by selfish motives, regardless of the 
public good, and that they never consider whether their 
friend be fit for the place he wishes for provided the place 
be fit for him. If you gain the election I hope it will be 
by means fair and honourable ; I would rather hear you 
had lost it, than that any others had been employed. 
The more a good character is inquired into, it will be so 
much the better for him that owns it ; you must, therefore, 
be the gainer by standing the election, even should you 
fail of success, provided you are not too anxious about the 
matter, and suffer your mind to be too much dejected 
by a disappointment which could not have happened had 
merit been regarded, and which, after all, may probably 
tend more to your advantage than success would have 
done. Read the tenth satire of Juvenal, and reflect on 
the vanity of human fears and wishes. 

Believe me ever yours etc., GEORGE CLEGHORN.' 

Clarke died in Edinburgh, where he had gone to 
attend a meeting of the British Association, on 
September n, 1834 

James Cleghorn having graduated B.A. in 
Trinity College in the summer of 1784, returned 
from travelling on the Continent and took his 
M.B. degree in Trinity College in the summer of 
1787, and the following year took charge, for his 
uncle, of the Anatomical School. George Cleg- 
horn at this time lived almost entirely at his 
country house, Kilcarty, in Co. Meath. He was 
then in bad health, as he tells Dr. Lettsom in 
a letter 1 dated ' Kilcartey ', December 29, 1786 : 

1 Pettigrew, Lettsom, vol. ii, p. 364. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 141 

' early in April asthmatic fits and swelled legs had obliged 
me to leave Dublin, and retire to the country with a fixed 
resolution never again to resume the practice of Physic 
in the metropolis, having learned by dear-bought experi- 
ence, that I was no longer able to climb up two or three 
pair of stairs to bed-chambers and nurseries, supporting 
a weighty corporation of nineteen stone and a half on 
a pair of oedematous legs, and panting like a broken 
winded horse, before I got half way up. ... About the 
middle of October I was under the disagreeable necessity 
of returning to Dublin, in order to begin the anatomical 
lectures which I was unwilling to give up, until my 
nephew should be further advanced in his studies, and 
have a better chance for the Professorship, when it shall 
be declared vacant. I went through the public lectures 
to the Gentlemen of the University as usual ; and opened 
the public course for Students of Medicine, with a few 
introductory lectures, and at the same time informed 
them that I meant to superintend the course. I could 
not promise constant attendance, and must trust this 
laborious task to the care of my two nephews, whose 
activity directed by my experience, I had good reason to 
believe would enable them to acquit themselves to the 
satisfaction of their pupils. Accordingly Dr. Clarke has 
gone through the general lectures and the osteology ; 
and we every day expect James's return to carry on the 
dissections pursuant to an advertisement in the news- 
papers, before my return to Dublin. I have steadily 
declined all business of my profession, out of doors 
(except that of the theatre), and only see such patients as 
come to my house on three days a week. I was glad to 
take the opportunity, which the holidays afford, of paying 
a visit of a few days to this retreat, which I consider as 
my home and where I have every conveniency that can 
contribute to my health and my amusement.' 

On November the 8th, 1784, Cleghorn was elected 
an Honorary Fellow of the College of Physicians, 



142 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 

having in 1777, on the foundation of the Royal 
Medical Society of Paris, been nominated a Fellow 
of that body. He was one of the original members 
of the Royal Irish Academy, but did not contribute 
any papers to its Transactions. He died at Kilcarty 
on Tuesday, December 22, 1789, and in the news- 
paper x account he is described as ' a gentleman 
where ever known esteemed and beloved, and where 
ever heard of respected. For a series of years sup- 
porting with singular honour one of the most dis- 
tinguished characters in his profession, he was the 
first person that established what could with any 
degree of propriety be called a school of anatomy 
in this Kingdom ; which long flourished with still 
increasing splendour and utility under his auspices 
and direction and remains a lasting monument of 
his industry, spirit, and genius '. 

In his will he left to his nephew George his 
estates in County Meath, and to his nephews, 
James and Thomas, ' to be equally divided be- 
tween them according as they shall agree, or as 
referees to be chosen by themselves shall award, 
all the Greek and Latin books in my library and 
all other my books and manuscripts relating to 
the study of nature, Philosophy and the different 
branches of Medicine as also the whole of my 
Anatomical apparatus and Chirurgical Instru- 
ments.' Thus passed from the School full of years 
and full of honour one who in his thirty-six years' 
service had spread its fame through the length 
and breadth of the land, and who had attracted 

1 Flyn's Hibernian Chronicle, Cork, December 28, 1789. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 143 

to his teaching students from beyond the seas. 
His name is rightly enrolled among those who 
have done the highest honour to the University, 
not only by the excellence of their own work, but 
by the high standard which their example has set 
to their successors. 

Of the other departments of the School there is 
little to record. The three King's Professors were 
supposed to lecture in the Theory of Medicine, the 
Institutes of Medicine, and in Materia Medica and 
Pharmacy, but in view of the evidence given 
before the Parliamentary Committees of 1756 and 
1783, it is doubtful if they ever did. 

Francis Hutcheson had on July 12, 1760, suc- 
ceeded to the Lectureship in Chemistry left vacant 
by the death of William Stephens. It is note- 
worthy that at this election the Board made an 
appointment tenable for seven years, a period 
which was subsequently adopted by Act of Par- 
liament, and still limits the tenure of most of 
the chairs in the Medical School. This Francis 
Hutcheson was the son of the Francis Hutcheson 
who had been appointed Professor of Moral Philo- 
sophy in the University of Glasgow on December 19, 
1729. The future chemist was educated in Glas- 
gow University, and graduated M.A. there in 1744, 
and M.D. in 1759. 1 We know little of Hutcheson 
from the time he took his M.A. in Glasgow 
till he was admitted Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians in January 1754, and was appointed 
Physician to the Meath Hospital. In 1755 he 

1 Scott's Hutcheson, p. 143. 



144 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 

published in Glasgow two volumes of his father's 
work on Moral Philosophy. On his appointment 
to the Chair of Chemistry, Hutcheson seems to 
have devoted considerable energy to the discharge 
of his duties, and on November 22, 1761, the 
Board granted him the degree of Doctor in Physic. 
In the Public Gazetteer, published in Dublin by 
W. Sleater on Monday, October 13, 1761, there 
appears the following advertisement : 

' Trinity College. General Lectures in Chemistry, 
Shewing its Connection with Natural Philosophy and 
Arts, will begin at the Laboratory on Monday the i6th 
of November, at one o'Clock and be continued every day 
Saturday and Sunday excepted. The Doors will be open 
to all Gentlemen who choose to attend. After these are 
finished which will be before Monday the yth of December, 
at the same Place will begin a Private Course of Experi- 
mental Chemistry, consisting of about Sixty Lectures, in 
which its Principles and Operations will be practically 
applied to Arts, Manufactures, Agriculture, and especially 
to Pharmacy and Medicine. Price Three Guineas. 
' By Francis Hutcheson M.D. Prelector of Chemistry 
in the University. Gentlemen who propose to attend 
the Private Course are expected to give in their names 
before the Public Lectures begin.' 

On November 3, 1767, Hutcheson resigned his 
post in Trinity College, having just completed 
his seven years' service in the Chair, and having on 
the day before been elected a Fellow of the College 
of Physicians. In 1777, and again in 1780, he 
was elected President of the College. He lived 
for many years in 32 Stafford Street. He married 
a Miss Sarah Card, by whom he had one son, 
Francis, and three daughters. His connexion with 



PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 145 

the Meath Hospital as Physician only lasted about 
a year, but he was for some time Physician 
to the Lock Hospital. He died in August 1784. 
Hutcheson has frequently been confused with a 
Francis Hutchinson, the son of the Rev. Samuel 
Hutchinson, of Co. Down, who graduated B.A. 
in Trinity College in 1745 and M.A. in I748. 1 

On the resignation of Hutcheson, James Span 
was elected to the Chair of Chemistry. He had 
on the 1 2th of February, 1763, been granted his 
degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Physic and 
elected Lecturer in Botany as successor to William 
Clements. Span affords the only example of an 
individual holding at the same time two of the 
teaching chairs in the Medical School, a condition 
of things which was strictly forbidden by sub- 
sequent Acts of Parliament. Span had been 
elected a scholar in 1752, and had taken his B.A. 
degree in the spring of 1754. He was admitted a 
Licentiate of the College of Physicians in September 
1768, and elected Fellow in the following May. He 
appears to have been popular with his colleagues in 
the profession, if one may judge by the following 
lines, published shortly after his death by Gilborne : 2 

James Span shakes off the mortuary Gloom, 
His bright endowments still retain their Bloom ; 
On Earth lamented, and admir'd above, 
His lovely Virtues made him dear to Jove : 
Daisies and Roses spring where'er He treads, 
Tulips and Lillies rear their drooping heads ; 
Nor do Plants sensitive his Touch avoid, 
Who for Man's good had all his Thoughts employ'd. 

1 Orrasby, p. 90. * Gilborne, Med. Rev., Hue 51. 

L 



146 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 

Span died in 1773, and his chairs were filled by 
the appointment on September 25, 1773, of James 
Thornton as Professor of Chemistry and of Edward 
Hill as Professor of Botany. 

James Thornton had entered Trinity College as 
early as 1735, and graduated B.A. in 1739, taking 
his M.B. in 1748, and his M.D. in 1773. On 
January 17, 1774, he was admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Physicians, and the same day was 
elected a Fellow. He resigned his Fellowship on 
September 20, 1781, and died two years later in 
1783. In connexion with the appointment of 
Thornton, Edward Hill, writing of Perceval in 
1805, makes the following statement : * 

' The Lecturership of Chemistry in Trinity College 
having become vacant on the decease of Dr. James Span 
in the year 1773, Doctor James Thornton, educated, no 
man knew where, and coming, no man knew from whence, 
presented himself as a candidate for that place ; Although 
he was neither a man of learning, nor a Chymist, his 
deficiency in those points constituted no impediment to 
his solicitation, and he was elected. He performed the 
duties of his appointment to the utmost of his abilities, 
and in undisturbed tranquillity, till the time of this 
Gentleman's return from his studies abroad, when he 
immediately commenced his artful practices upon the 
Members of the Board, who, on the ^oth of November in the 
year 1782, granted to Doctor Perceval the use of the Chemical 
Elaboratory, with the privilege of giving Lectures there. 
This Act of unprecedented supersession so shook the mind 
of the weak, irascible hypochondriac, that, on the iyth 
of the following May, he made his quietus, not with a 
bodkin, but with a copious dose of Opium.' 

1 Hill's Address (2), p. 38. 



PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 147 

He further suggests that ' Humanity created 
a powerful motive ' to Thornton's election, ' for 
the Salary of that Lecturership supplied the chief 
support of his life, as he drew no emolument for 
the exercise of his medical Profession.' 

Barrett refers to this unfortunate incident as 
follows : l 

' I perfectly remember the report of the College in 1783 
of quarrelling between Dr Thornton and Dr Perceval 
(whose friend Mr Hall had probably engaged in his 
favour some members of the Board) and I have learned 
from Dr Hill that it is perfectly well understood in the 
College of Physicians that Dr Thornton upon Dr Perceval 
informing him he should be displaced (and note Dr Thorn- 
ton was a man of no business, but depended chiefly for 
support on his place in College) went and purchased an 
ounce of the tincture of opium which he drank in whey 
and was found dead in his bed next morning. He told 
his servant not to be in a hurry to waken him next 
morning, for that he would sleep long enough.' 

We must remember, however, that at this time 
Hill was carrying on a bitter personal controversy 
with Perceval. For some time before his death 
Thornton seems to have been unable to attend to 
his lectures, and the resolution of the Board 
referred to by Hill was probably in consequence 
of this fact. The resolution of the Board was 2 

' That Mr. Robert Perceval, Physician, shall on the first 
opportunity be elected Lecturer in Chymistry and that in 
the mean time he shall have permission to read lectures 
in that Science in the College, and to make use of the 
Laboratory.' 

1 Barrett, Book, p. 92. * Reg., vol. iv, p. 480. 



148 PROFESSORSHIP OF GEORGE CLEGHORN 

In accordance with this resolution, on May 17 
following, Robert Perceval was elected Lecturer 
in Chemistry, and directed to ' furnish the Labora- 
tory with such requisites as he shall find necessary 
for the conduct of his lectures for this year, at the 
expence of the College V 

In the following November the Bursar was 
directed to provide cases for the chemical appara- 
tus, the ores and other minerals which had been 
presented to the College by Perceval. The Bursar 
was also to inform Dr. Perceval ' that the Board 
will agreeably to his desire as the circumstances 
of the College may permit, add from time to time 
to that collection, and give such other further aid 
to his very laudable endeavours to place that 
Lecture on a respectable footing '. 2 

Like Perceval, Hill too was an energetic Lec- 
turer, and on I2th March, 1774, the Board granted 
him the use of the Printing-house for five years. 
We are not told for what purpose this was given, 
but doubtless it was to relieve the overcrowding in 
the old Anatomy house. It was probably at Hill's 
instigation that the Provost was requested ' to 
look out for a piece of ground proper and con- 
venient for a Botany Garden '. The establishment 
of such a garden was, as we shall see later, 
a project very near the heart of Dr. Hill. 

1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 492. Ibid., p. 505. 



CHAPTER VIII 
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 

Ax the meeting of the Board of Trinity College, 
on May 6, 1783, the following letter from the 
College of Physicians was read : * 

' The College of Physicians desirous of concerting with 
the members of the University a plan conducive to the 
advancement of Science and the mutual Benefit of both 
Bodies have appointed their President Dr. Hill and 
Dr. Hutcheson for the purpose of conferring on that 
Subject with such members of the Board as they shall 
appoint, and request that the Board may appoint such 
Time and Place for the said Conference as to them shall 
seem expedient.' 

In reply to this letter the Board appointed 
Dr. Wilson and Dr. Ussher to meet the College 
of Physicians. Thomas Wilson had been elected 
a Fellow in 1753, and co-opted a Senior Fellow 
fourteen years later. He was a Doctor of Divinity, 
and had been Professor of Natural Philosophy from 
1769. Henry Ussher had been a Fellow since 1764, 
and had just been elected Professor of Astronomy 
on the foundation of Provost Andrews. 

Various circumstances were at this time urging 
the Colleges to set their school in order. Dr. Bar- 
bor, the King's Professor of Materia Medica and 
Pharmacy, had died on the I3th of March of this 

J Reg., vol. iv, p. 490. 



150 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 

year, and therefore, if change in the regulations 
of the School were admissible, the time was 
opportune. The rents of Sir Patrick Dun's estate 
had increased to over 900 a year, and it was 
felt that the trust was capable of supporting 
further Professorships, and thus of increasing the 
efficiency of the School. The Surgeons of Dublin, 
too, had on the 3rd May, 1781, petitioned for a 
Charter and for the constitution of a College. This 
petition was not granted until early in 1784, when 
the College of Surgeons was founded. Although 
there does not appear at first to have been any 
conflict of interests between the old and the 
new Colleges, yet it behoved the old to be in as 
efficient a state as possible to meet the new. 

We have no record of any direct report from 
the Committee of Conference, but on November 4, 
1783, the College of Physicians adopted the form of 
a petition to be presented to Parliament ' relative 
to a Change in the establishment of Sir Patrick 
Dun's Professorship '. This petition set forth the 
necessity of establishing a Complete School of 
Physic in this kingdom, and urged the importance 
of adding clinical lectures to those already given 
in the School. The petition was presented to the 
Irish House of Commons on November 20, 1783, 
and referred to ' a Committee appointed to inquire 
what may be the most effectual means for estab- 
lishing a Complete School of Physic in this king- 
dom '.* This Committee, of which the Right Hon. 
John Hely Hutchinson, Provost of Trinity College 

1 House of Commons Journals, vol. xxi, p. 329. 



THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 151 

and Secretary of State, was Chairman, met on 
Monday, December I, and ordered the proper 
officers forthwith to lay before them the Will of 
the late Sir Patrick Dun, and also the original 
deed of 1704, in which he proposed 'to establish 
two professorships of Physic in Dublin. And also 
that the proper officer do forthwith lay before 
them the Will of the late Doctor Steevens '.* 

The Committee adjourned, and at a meeting 
the following week Sir Patrick's will and deed were 
read. Dr. Cleghorn was examined, and stated 
that he had not heard of the King's Professors 
' being useful except that some Gen 8 , exerted their 
Industry and Ability in order to answer at the 
examinations '. He was of opinion that the plan 
was not complete enough, as it did not found 
degrees. The only College of Physicians which 
he knew of that gave degrees without personal 
examination and the presence of the candidates 
was St. Andrews, and there it was only done to 
prevent students going abroad. In his opinion, 
the only way to keep students at home was to 
give them their degrees ' upon as easy terms, and 
in as short a time ' as they could get them else- 
where. Access to a good library was very neces- 
sary to students of Physic, and this advantage 
the students of Trinity College had. He was of 
opinion that in Trinity College there were better 
facilities for the study and teaching of Medicine 
than anywhere else in Dublin, and it was to the 
honour of the University to have a good medical 

1 Committee Books, House oj Commons. 



152 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 

school. It was impossible to have a really good 
school, unconnected with a university, in that it 
would be impossible for such a school to confer 
degrees. On the whole he was of opinion that if 
the existing Professors ' exert themselves and you 
set about it in earnest you will soon have a good 
school '. Provided proper persons were elected to 
the Chairs and those persons did their duty, and 
there was proper control to see that they did so, 
medical teaching in the University would prosper. 
At this meeting Dr. Ussher laid before the Com- 
mittee a plan for a school of physic, which, how- 
ever, is not given in the report. From this plan 
it appeared that the University was prepared to 
support as hitherto their own Professors at an 
annual cost of 280, and the suggestion was made 
that the election to the chairs should be for ten 
years ; this Cleghorn approved, with the proviso 
that, at the end of their term of office, the Pro- 
fessors might be re-elected. 

At the next meeting, on the I2th December, 
Dr. Cullen presented on behalf of the College of 
Physicians some observations on the plan sug- 
gested by Dr. Ussher. He stated that from his 
experience in Edinburgh the proportion of students 
who desired degrees to those who did not was 
about 24 to 300. He would like to see some such 
union between the University and the College as 
existed in Edinburgh between the University and 
the Faculty. In Edinburgh the Faculty of Medi- 
cine was part of the University, and the Faculty 
could only confer degrees through the University. 



THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 153 

The College of Physicians of Edinburgh did not 
make part of the University, ' but as the faculty 
of medicine they did.' Further, in Edinburgh 
they did not insist on the Arts degree as essential 
to a medical degree, but the medical students 
had to be matriculated in the University. He 
described the mode of election of the Professors in 
Edinburgh, which he appeared to think better than 
the Dublin plan of examination. He then went 
on to speak of the clinical lectures which had 
formerly been given in the Royal Infirmary, but 
latterly were given by the Professors twice a week 
in their own apartments. The Professors, how- 
ever, visited the wards every day. Clinical lectures 
in Surgery were not given in Edinburgh, though 
he thought they would be useful. In Edinburgh 
' Clinical lectures are considered the most valuable 
part of the institution '. The Hospital for Incur- 
ables, or Mercer's Hospital, would, in his opinion, 
be suitable for clinical teaching. He insisted on 
the meaning of the word ' clinical ', which indi- 
cated that the lectures were originally given at 
the bedside. Dr. Harvey was examined, and 
recommended Steevens' Hospital for clinical teach- 
ing, provided the distance were not too great. 
He, as a medical officer of that institution, would 
not have any objection to such a plan, and did 
not think it would be attended with any great 
expense. Dr. Hill, who was also examined, in- 
sisted on the necessity of a ' Botany Garden ', 
which, to ' do honour to the institution ', should 
be of at least five acres in extent. 



154 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 

On the i6th of December the Committee again 
met and the Rev. Dr. Kearney submitted the 
reply of the Board of Trinity College to the objec- 
tions raised against their scheme by the College 
of Physicians. It was the opinion of the Board 
that the idea of the College of Physicians could 
not be carried out without infringing the rights of 
the University under her Charters. Dr. Hutche- 
son, described in the report as ' Doc Hutch ', also 
gave evidence, and stated that in his opinion the 
expense of clinical lectures would not be great if 
they were given in an existing hospital. The 
utilization of the Hospital for Incurables, how- 
ever, would involve considerable expense, ' there 
being nothing there except the bare walls.' Dr. 
Dabzac was examined, and produced the Registers 
of the University to show the history of medical 
teaching there. Such teaching appeared to him 
to date from about 1661. 

This seems to have been all the evidence that the 
Committee heard, and on Wednesday, March 3, 
1784, there is the note ' ordered to report '. In con- 
sequence of this report the Act of 1785, * drafted 
by Hely Hutchinson, 2 was passed by the Irish 
Parliament. 

This Act set out that the President and Fellows 
of the College of Physicians, with the consent of 
Sir Nathaniel Barry and Henry Quin, Esq., the 
two living King's Professors, had petitioned the 
House of Commons in connexion with the Act of 
Parliament passed in 1741. The petitioners stated 

1 25 George III, cap. xlii. * Perceval's Account. 



THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 155 

that difficulties had arisen in carrying out the 
provisions of that Act owing to the way it was 
framed. They were anxious, therefore, that the 
Act should be amended, and in order to establish 
a Complete School of Physic in Ireland it had 
seemed wise to appoint Professors to teach in the 
following subjects : Anatomy, Surgery, Institutes 
and Practice of Medicine, together with clinical 
lectures, Chemistry, Materia Medica, Botany, 
Natural History, and Pharmacy. Further, it 
seemed wise to alter the former mode of election 
of the Professors and also the times and manner 
of lecturing. In view of the necessity for these 
changes, and in order that the matter might be 
laid before Parliament, the examinators had not 
proceeded to an election to fill the place rendered 
vacant by the death on March 13, 1783, of 
Constantine Barbor, who had held the King's 
Professorship of Materia Medica and Pharmacy. 
The Act proceeded to state that furthermore Sir 
Nathaniel Barry, late King's Professor of Surgery 
and Midwifery, was now dead, and the estate of 
Sir Patrick Dun had amounted to an annual sum 
of 926. This income from the Dun Estate was 
sufficient to pay the salaries of a larger number 
of Professors than formerly. In view of all these 
circumstances Parliament decided to enact the 
following regulations in place of those contained 
in the Act of 1741 : 

That Professors, to be called King's Professors 
of the City of Dublin on the foundation of Sir 
Patrick Dun, be appointed in the following sub- 



156 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 

jects : Institutes of Medicine, Practice of Medicine, 
Materia Medica and Pharmacy, and Natural His- 
tory. Further, if at any time it seemed to 
the President and Fellows of the College that the 
estate could support another Professorship, they 
might then add to these Professorships one of 
Midwifery. The President and Fellows might at 
any time direct that more than one of these sub- 
jects be taught by the same Professor, but if this 
were done the Professor who was directed to do 
so must not receive any greater salary than the 
yearly sum of 100. The existing King's Pro- 
fessor, Henry Quin, was to continue for life to 
receive that share of the estate which would 
have come to him had the other two Professors 
continued to live and the Act not been passed. 
The new Professors during the life of Henry Quin 
were to have as remuneration ' a ratable distribu- 
tion among them of that part and proportion of 
the Estate of the late Sir Patrick Dun to which 
the said Constantine Barbor, deceased, late Pro- 
fessor of Pharmacy and Materia Medica, and the 
said Sir Nathaniel Barry, late Professor of Surgery 
and Midwifery, under the said Act, were respec- 
tively during their lives entitled '. On the death 
of Quin, or so soon as the profits of the estate 
applicable to the Professorship were sufficient for 
the purpose, ' then every such Professor shall 
receive a proportionable increase of salary, not 
exceeding in the whole to any one person, whether 
he shall hold one or more professorship, or pro- 
fessorships, the yearly sum of one hundred pounds.' 



THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 157 

As soon as there should be any surplus ' after 
paying the said yearly salaries ', that surplus was 
to be applied to the support of clinical lectures 
and to the purchase of medical books by the 
President and Fellows, with the approbation of 
the Chancellor, or Vice-Chancellor, of Trinity 
College, the Archbishop, the Provost, and the 
Professor of Physic of Trinity College, or any three 
of them. 

The University Lecturers in Anatomy and 
Surgery, Chemistry, and Botany were to be called 
Professors and to be paid by the University, the 
existing Lecturers being constituted Professors 
and continued in office under their existing tenure, 
that is to say, during good behaviour. The future 
University Professors were to be elected in the 
usual manner by the Provost and Senior Fellows. 
As regards the mode of election of the King's 
Professors, the President and Fellows of the 
College of Physicians were, on the day imme- 
diately preceding the holding of an election, to 
elect by ballot three of themselves, and these 
three persons so elected, together with the Provost 
and the Professor of Physic, were to elect the 
King's Professors after such previous examination 
as the electors, or the majority of them, should 
decide on. If there were an equality of voices 
among the electors, then the senior Doctor among 
the three Fellows elected by the College of Physi- 
cians was to have the casting voice. The three 
electors chosen by the College of Physicians were 
to remain in office till ' the day next preceding 



158 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 

the day of the next election ', and if any vacancy 
occurred during this time it was to be filled by 
the President and Fellows by ballot. No elector 
was to be eligible for election as a King's Pro- 
fessor. 

If a vacancy occurred either among the King's 
Professors, or the University Professors, unless it 
was thought proper to continue the same Pro- 
fessor, three months' notice of the vacancy was 
to be given in the London and Dublin Gazettes, 
such notice to be signed by the Registrars of the 
two Colleges. This notice was to set forth the 
vacancy, the emoluments of the chair, the time 
and place of the election, and to desire all candi- 
dates to send in their names, and to state where 
they were educated, in what university they had 
taken their medical degrees, and where they had 
practised. This information was to be laid before 
the President and Fellows of the College of Physi- 
cians by their Registrar, and before the Provost 
and Senior Fellows of Trinity College by the 
Registrar of that body, in order to enable inquiry 
to be made as to the merits of the candidates. 
The Professorships were to be open to Protestants 
of all nations, provided they had taken medical 
degrees, or received a licence to practise from the 
College of Physicians, in consequence of a testi- 
monium under the seal of Trinity College. The 
Act proceeded to give the form of oath to be 
taken by the electors both of the King's Pro- 
fessors and of the University Professors, the 
Provost being directed to administer the oath to 



THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 159 

the former electors and the President of the College 
of Physicians to the latter. The form of oath to 
be taken by the elected Professors was also set 
forth. All the Professorships were to become 
vacant at the end of every seventh year from the 
date of election, but a Professor might be re- 
elected. 

The President and Fellows of the College of 
Physicians were to make regulations governing 
the King's Professors, and the Provost and Senior 
Fellows were to do so for the University Pro- 
fessors, and each body was to communicate these 
regulations to the other. If there was a disagree- 
ment about such regulations, either College could 
appeal to the visitors of the other College, who 
were to decide the matter. 

If any of the Professors neglected their duties, 
they were to be admonished, or deprived of their 
office by the electors, in the case of the University 
Professors by the Provost and Senior Fellows, and 
in the case of the King's Professors by the electors 
nominated according to the Act. The Professors, 
however, had the right of appeal to the visitors 
of their respective Colleges. If either College were 
dissatisfied with the conduct of the Professors of 
the other College, and the matter could not be 
adjusted between them, the dispute was to be 
decided by the visitors of the College by which 
the Professors had been elected. 

The lectures of each Professor were to begin on 
the first Monday in November and to continue 
till the end of April, each Professor to lecture four 



160 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 

days a week. In the case of Botany, the lectures 
were to begin on the second Monday in May and 
to continue till the end of July, on four days in 
each week, unless it were otherwise ordered by 
the Provost and Senior Fellows. Unless specially 
directed to the contrary by their respective Col- 
leges, the Professors were to lecture in the English 
language, and rooms were to be provided by 
Trinity College for the lectures. 

The fees charged for the lectures were to be 
regulated by the respective Colleges, and every 
student of Physic was to be matriculated in the 
University of Dublin by having his name entered 
in a book kept for that purpose, for which entry 
he had to pay five shillings, but no student was to 
be compelled to have a tutor, or answer examina- 
tions, or attend any of the academical duties of 
the University. 

With regard to the Clinical Lectures, 'which 
are highly necessary for the success of a School 
of Physic/ they were to be given alternately by 
the several Professors as directed by their respec- 
tive Colleges, and until a Clinical Hospital could 
be provided for the purpose the President and 
Fellows of the College of Physicians were autho- 
rized to appoint their lectures to be given ' in 
such Hospital, or Hospitals, in the City of Dublin as 
shall be found most convenient for that purpose'. 

One-third of the profits of Dun's estate from 
the time of the death of Dr. Barbor to the time 
of the appointing of the new Professors was to be 
applied to the support of the clinical lectures. 



THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 161 

On the 5th December, 1785, the President and 
Fellows of the College of Physicians chose by 
ballot from among themselves Arthur Saunders, 
Francis Hopkins, and Patrick Plunket as electors 
for the King's Professorships under the new Act. 
The elections were appointed to be held the next 
day and the following candidates applied for the 
different Chairs : 

Institutes of Medicine : Stephen Dickson. 

John William Boyton. 
Practice of Medicine : Richard Harris. 

Edward Brereton. 

John Charles Fleury. 
Materia Medica : Edmund Cullen. 

When the electors met they decided that proper 
notice, such as was required by the Act, had not 
been given, and consequently they adjourned till 
the 2ist of March, and ordered an advertisement 
to be issued. The College on the 2oth of March 
appointed Charles Quin an elector instead of 
Hopkins, and the next day the examination of 
the candidates took place at the Provost's House. 
The candidates who presented themselves, with 
the exception of Fleury, whose place was taken 
by Francis Hopkins, were the same as before, and 
they were submitted to certain examinations by 
the Provost, the Professor of Physic, and the three 
College electors. As the result of this examination 
the electors recommended Dr. Dickson as Professor 
of the Institutes of Medicine, Dr. Brereton as Pro- 
fessor of the Practice of Medicine, and Dr. Cullen 
as Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy. 

M 



162 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 

The electors met at the palace of the Archbishop 
of Dublin on April 5, and the candidates recom- 
mended by the electors were declared elected. 

The staff of the School, as reconstituted under 
the Act of 1785, was as follows : 

UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS 

Medicus ..... Vacant. 

Professor of Physic . . . Edward Hill. 

Professor of Anatomy . . . George Cleghorn. 

Assistant ..... James Cleghorn. 

Professor of Botany . . . Edward Hill. 

Professor of Chemistry . . . Robert Perceval. 

KING'S PROFESSORS 

Institutes of Medicine . . . Stephen Dickson. 
Practice of Medicine . . . Edward Brereton. 
Materia Medica and Pharmacy . Edmund Cullen. 

Of the King's Professors Stephen Dickson had 
graduated M.D. in Edinburgh in September 1783, 
reading a thesis De Somno. He was admitted 
a Licentiate and elected a Fellow of the College 
of Physicians on June 14, 1784. Before going to 
Edinburgh he had graduated B.A. in Trinity 
College in the Summer of 1781, but did not take 
his M.B. or M.D. there till 1793. He proceeded 
to the degree of M.A. in 1800. On the death of 
Brereton in 1792, Dickson succeeded to the Pro- 
fessorship of the Practice of Medicine, having pre- 
viously resigned his other Chair ; on May 27, 1799, 
he was deprived of his Fellowship of the College of 
Physicians for having ' been absent from the meet- 
ings of the College for two years without leave '. 

Edward Brereton had graduated B.A. in Trinity 



THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 163 

College in 1774, and then, like Dickson, gone to 
study in Edinburgh. There he graduated M.D. 
in September 1778, reading a thesis De Scorbuto. 
He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians on the loth November, 1783, and 
elected a Fellow a fortnight later. Brereton died 
five years after his appointment as King's Pro- 
fessor on the loth December, 1791. * Both Brere- 
ton and Dickson were Physicians to the Dublin 
General Dispensary, which was started about 1785 
in the old Post Office yard, Temple Bar. 

Edmund Cullen, the Professor of Materia Medica 
and Pharmacy, was elected a Scholar of Trinity 
College in 1770, and graduated B.A. two years 
later. He studied for some time in Edinburgh, 
and graduated M.D. there in June 1781, reading 
a thesis De acre et imperio eius in corpore humano. 
In the summer of 1793 he graduated M.B. and 
M.D. in Dublin, having been admitted a Licentiate 
and elected a Fellow of the College of Physicians 
on the 28th July, 1782 ; he was chosen President 
in the years 1787, 1794, and 1799. In February 
1786 he was elected Physician to the Meath 
Hospital, but he resigned some two years later. 2 
At one time he lived in Exchequer Street, and after- 
wards in South King Street, and he died in 1804. 
In 1786 he published in Dublin a translation of the 
Physical and Chemical Essays of Baron Bergman. 3 

The University Professors, Edward Hill and 
Robert Perceval, were both destined to play a 

1 Cameron, Hist., p. 325. * Onnsby, p. 101. 

3 Cameron, Hist., p. 45. 



164 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 

very important part in the subsequent history of 
the School. 

Edward Hill, 1 the son of Thomas Hill of Bally- 
poreen in the County Tipperary, was born on the 
I4th May, 1741. His father died while Edward 
was still a boy, and the family then moved to 
the neighbourhood of Cashel, where for a time he 
attended school. He then went as a boarder to 
the Diocesan School of Clonmel, where the Rev. 
Mr. Harwood was Master. In 1760 he entered 
Trinity College and began a brilliant undergraduate 
career, being elected a Scholar in 1763, and gradu- 
ating B.A. in the spring of 1765. It is stated that 
Hill might easily have obtained a Fellowship had 
he wished to do so. He was noted for his beauti- 
ful writing, and he was asked by the Board to 
write out the testimonium of the Duke of Bedford. 
For this on January 7, 1766, the Board voted him 
five guineas. In the summer of 1771 Hill took 
his M.B. degree, the Board excusing him ' his 
commencement fees '. In 1773 he graduated M.D. 
and was admitted a Licentiate and elected a Fellow 
of the College of Physicians on November 6, 1775. 
In 1773 we have seen that he was appointed 
Lecturer in Botany, and the following year he 
was given the use of the printing house for five 
years, presumably in connexion with his botanical 
lectures. Ten years later, in 1784, he ' resigned 
the use of the Printing House & delivered up the 
Key ', 2 the head porter being ordered to take 
possession of it. In 1781 he succeeded William 

1 Wills, Irishmen, vol. vi, p. 469. * Reg., vol. v, p. 19. 



THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 165 

Clements as Professor of Physic, which office he 
held till his death, a period of forty-nine years. 
In 1761, before he had taken his degree in Medi- 
cine, Hill began the task of editing Milton's 
Paradise Lost. This task he never completed, 
but the manuscript, which contained a complete 
verbal index and a critical examination of the 
French translations, is still preserved in the College 
Library. 1 In 1814 Hill designed and made a model 
of an Ionic temple, which he submitted to the 
Committee for erecting a testimonial to the Duke 
of Wellington. It was proposed that this temple 
should be erected in Stephen's Green, but the 
Committee did not accept the design. Hill was 
elected President of the College of Physicians in 
1782, 1789, 1795, 1801, 1808, and 1813. In 1800 
he resigned his Professorship of Botany, as by the 
School of Physic Act, passed that year, he was 
incapacitated from holding two Professorships, 
but he continued, as we have said, Professor of 
Physic till his death on the 3ist October, 1830. 

Robert Perceval was the youngest son of William 
Perceval, who was a descendant of Sir Philip Per- 
ceval, and consequently a connexion of the Earls 
of Egmont. 2 He was born in Dublin on the 30th 
September, 1756, and entered Trinity College in 
1772, graduating B.A. in the spring of 1777. After 
this he went, like so many other Irish students of 
the time, to Edinburgh to study medicine, and 
graduated M.D. there on the 24th June, 1780. 
For the M.D. he read a thesis De corde, which 

1 Abbot, MSS. Cat., p. 104. * Vide D. N. B., vol. xv, p. 820. 

M3 



166 THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 

was subsequently published. Having taken his 
degree he travelled on the Continent, returning 
to Dublin in 1782, where he was, as we have seen, 
on November 30, granted leave to lecture in, and 
make use of the Chemical Laboratory in Trinity 
College. In May following, on the death of 
Thornton, he was elected Lecturer in Chemistry, 
and on the 24th of November was admitted a 
Licentiate and elected a Fellow of the College of 
Physicians. In 1785 he became Professor of 
Chemistry, the University Lecturers in that year 
being given the title of Professors by Act of 
Parliament. He resigned this professorship in 
February 1808. In 1785 he was associated with 
Cleghorn and others in the foundation of the Royal 
Irish Academy, and is mentioned in the Charter. 
For many years he acted as Secretary to the 
Academy, and contributed to its Proceedings some 
papers on subjects connected with Chemistry. He 
was also, at this time, one of the founders of the 
Dublin General Dispensary in Temple Bar, where 
he acted as one of the Physicians. In the summer 
of 1793 he commenced M.B. and M.D. in Trinity 
College, and on December 8, 1796, was elected 
a Governor of Steevens's Hospital. He attended 
regularly the meetings of the Board of this Hospital 
till his resignation in June 1832. It was mainly 
due to his influence that the Act of 1785 was 
repealed by the passing of the School of Physic 
Act of 1800, and his action in that matter gained 
for him the censure of the College of Physicians. 
He was elected President of the College on the 



THE FIRST SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT 167 

4th November, 1799, but had to resign both this 
and his Fellowship in consequence of a clause in 
the School of Physic Act, of 1800, forbidding Pro- 
fessors to hold the Fellowship. He was elected 
an Honorary Fellow on St. Luke's Day, 1800. 

Perceval took an active part in the work of the 
Prison Discipline Society, and he has been referred 
to as the ' Irish Howard '. In 1819 he was elected 
Physician-General to the Forces in Ireland, but 
he resigned the following year. In his later years 
he devoted himself to the study of Theology, and 
in 1821 he published ' An Essay to establish the 
Divinity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
on Scripture Grounds exclusively : With a Review 
of the Doctrine of the Trinity as it was held in 
the Earlier Ages of the Church '. l In this work 
he seems to follow the doctrines of Adam Clarke, 
and he maintains that he has proved by Scripture 
texts that Christ, though divine, is distinct from 
God who had delegated to him his divine attri- 
butes. In 1786 Perceval married Anne, daughter 
of W. Brereton of Rathgilbert, and he died of a 
lingering illness on the 3rd March, 1839. Though 
a Physician in considerable practice for many 
years, Perceval did not, so far as we are aware, 
publish any medical work, and his papers on 
Chemistry in the Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy do not add much lustre to his name. 
He will be remembered chiefly as being the prin- 
cipal mover in the passing of the School of Physic 
Act of 1800. 

1 Dublin, 1821, 8vo., pp. 302. 



CHAPTER IX 

CLOSING YEARS OF THE EIGHTEENTH 
CENTURY 

THE passing of the School of Physic Act, of 1785, 
should have placed the School on a satisfactory 
basis. A number of well-paid professional Chairs 
were established, and facilities had been granted 
for the development of medical teaching in a way 
never before possible in Dublin. The event, how- 
ever, was the opposite of what had been expected, 
and during the last decade of the eighteenth cen- 
tury the School reached almost the lowest level in 
its history. The establishment of clinical lectures 
proved an obstacle which the united wisdom of 
the Colleges was unable to overcome, and the effort 
to solve this difficulty resulted in open rupture 
among the Professors. 

The College of Physicians loyally endeavoured 
to carry out the provisions of the Act of Parlia- 
ment, and, as we have seen, on the 5th of April, 
1786, the three King's Professors were appointed. 
The provision of a place and material for the 
clinical teaching was not, however, such an easy 
matter. The funds at the disposal of the College 
must have been considerable, for, although the 
accounts of the estate were not, before 1786, kept 
separately from the College accounts, and con- 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 169 

sequently it is not possible to say what was the 
exact sum in the hands of the College, yet we can 
make a rough estimate of it. One-third of the 
profits of the estate from the time of Barbor's 
death till the passing of the Act should have 
amounted to about 600, and after deducting 
from the income the salaries of the new King's 
Professors, the salary of Dr. Quin, and the neces- 
sary charges on the estate, there should have been, 
as well as this capital sum, at least 200 a year 
available for the maintenance of clinical teaching. 
This sum, though considerable, was utterly in- 
adequate to warrant the College embarking in any 
extensive project of hospital building. 

Under these circumstances the College ap- 
proached the Governors of Mercer's Hospital with 
a request that some of the beds in that institution 
should be set apart for the purpose of clinical 
teaching, and the proposals were received by the 
hospital authorities in a most friendly manner. 
Dr. Hill and Dr. Hopkins were then the Physicians 
of Mercer's Hospital. Hopkins had been an un- 
successful candidate for the King's Professorship 
of the Practice of Medicine, and Hill tells us that * 
' in a fit of the spleen he frustrated the negotia- 
tions '. In this difficulty the College, in November 
1787, rented a small house in Clarendon Street 
and fitted it up with seventeen beds which were 
to be kept open for patients during the six months 
of the medical session. In this house the King's 
Professors attended, and ' publicly delivered re- 

1 Hill, Address (i), p. 27. 



170 CLOSING YEARS OF THE 

ports of the patients cases to the students, and 
afterwards adjourned to the medical lecture room 
in Trinity College in order that they might more 
particularly treat of the several disorders of the 
patients '. The King's Professors in doing so 
followed the example of the principal medical 
schools elsewhere established. 

In November 1789 the King's Professors sub- 
mitted a memorial to the College of Physicians 
in which they stated that they had each delivered 
a course of clinical lectures, but that the Uni- 
versity Professors had as yet given none, and 
asked that they might not be directed to lecture 
again till the University Professors should have 
done so. To this the College agreed and directed 
a copy of the memorial to be sent to the Board. 
This memorial was submitted to the Board at 
their meeting on November 14, I78Q, 1 and they 
at once directed that a copy of it should be sent 
to each of the University Professors, with a request 
that they would attend the Board on the following 
Saturday to consider the matter. The Registrar 
was also directed to request the attendance of 
the King's Professors. On the 2ist November, 
Dr. Hill and Dr. Perceval attended ; ' the atten- 
dance of ye Professor of Anatomy Dr. Cleghorn 
was not expected, he being in the country and in 
a very ill state of health.' The King's Professors 
declined to attend the meeting. Dr. Hill stated 
that the house in Clarendon Street had been taken 
' without his concurrence ' and ' he declined enter- 

1 Reg,, vol. v, p. 79. 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 171 

ing into any engagement to give clinical lectures 
on account of his state of health not permitting 
his attendance in an Hospital '. Dr. Perceval said 
that he considered the Hospital as quite unsuitable 
for lectures, but he would engage to deliver lectures 
' health permitting, however inconvenient or unfit 
for that purpose the afore mentioned small house 
in Clarendon Street were, provided the Board 
would agree to a certain Regulation of Fees 
proposed by him, and that they would give 
their countenance and protection to the found- 
ing of an hospital or perpetual establishment 
fit and convenient for the purpose of clinical 
lectures'. 

Perceval further stated that if the Board did 
not agree to these conditions, but made an order 
directing him to lecture, then he would reserve 
his right to give what answer seemed good to 
him. As a result of this meeting the Board sub- 
mitted a case to Counsel for an opinion as to 
whether they had power to direct the University 
Professors to give Clinical Lectures under the 
existing conditions. On December 19, Counsel's 
opinion was read to the Board and the Registrar 
was directed to inform the College of Physicians 
that the Provost and Senior Fellows were most 
desirous to direct the University Professors to 
give clinical lectures, but that they were advised 
by Counsel that they could not do so till the 
College of Physicians had appointed a hospital in 
the city of Dublin where such lectures were to be 
given. The Registrar was to state further that 



i;2 CLOSING YEARS OF THE 

lectures given in a room in the College could not 
be considered as clinical. 1 To this letter the 
College of Physicians replied that they had ap- 
pointed the Hospital in Clarendon Street as a 
convenient place for clinical lectures, and that the 
King's Professors had lectured there regularly, but 
if the Board required ' that the clinical lectures 
as well as the reports of the patients cases should 
be given in an Hospital the College of Physicians 
will appoint and they do hereby appoint the sd. 
Lectures in future to be given in the Hospital in 
Clarendon Street '. 2 

At the next meeting of the College of Physicians 
on January 14, 1790, Dr. Perceval signified his 
wish to give clinical lectures during that session 
if the College would support a Hospital for the 
purpose. The Treasurer was then asked to state 
what funds there were available for the purpose, 
and he stated that there were no funds in hand 
at the time and no rents expected till June. There 
was a small balance in the hands of the London 
agents arising from the 1,200 invested in English 
Funds, but necessary charges would absorb that 
balance with the exception of 2 8s. g\d. The 
College, however, decided that if ten students 
would enter for the clinical lectures during the 
remainder of the present winter, they would lend 
out of the College private funds, to be repaid out 
of the rents in June, enough money to support 
the hospital for the winter. 

This resolution the Board also submitted to 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 82 b. * Col. P. Minutes. 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 173 

Counsel, and by his advice directed the following 
letter to be sent to the College of Physicians : 

' Sir, I am directed to acquaint you that the resolu- 
tions of the College of Physicians of ye 28 Dec. last 
having been by direction of the Board laid before the 
College Counsel the Provost and Senr. Fellows are 
advised that they have no authority to direct the Uni- 
versity Professors to give Clinical Lectures in the house 
call'd in the said Resolutions the Clinical Hospital in 
Clarendon Street, the same not being an hospital within 
the Letter or Spirit of the Act of the 25th of the King 
for establishing a complete school of physic in this 
Kingdom. However the Board desirous to manifest an 
earnest wish to promote the success of the School of 
Physic shall recommend to the University Professors to 
give Clinical Lectures in said Hospital if they the said 
Professors shall find it practicable so to do. 

' Jan. gth, 1790. H. Dabzac, Reg. T. C. D.' 

The promise contained in the latter part of the 
letter was carried out, and the Registrar wrote in 
the name of the Board to the Professors, earnestly 
recommending them to give lectures in the house 
in Clarendon Street if they possibly could. Dr. 
Perceval agreed to begin a course of lectures on 
February i, and asked the Board for directions 
as to the fees to be charged to students. The 
Board replied that the fees were to be three 
guineas for each student, the Professor ' making 
such rateable abatement for the part of the session 
which has elapsed as he in his discretion shall 
think fit V 

The Hospital in Clarendon Street proved to be 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 86 b. 



174 CLOSING YEARS OF THE 

a most expensive undertaking. During the first 
year, according to Hill, 1 the cost per head was at 
the rate of iS each for the winter session, and 
during the second year 20, and this greatly ex- 
ceeded the expense incurred by other hospitals 
in the city. The hospital, too, was admitted on 
all sides to be unsatisfactory. This condition of 
affairs being reported to the College of Physicians 
on August 14, 1790, the lease of the house in 
Clarendon Street was forthwith surrendered. On 
July 9, 1791, the Board agreed to subscribe 150 
towards building a hospital in which clinical 
lectures might be given, and until that could be 
done they offered to the College of Physicians, at 
the yearly rent of 20, the house occupied by 
Mrs. Coombs, widow of the late head porter. We 
have no record of this offer being accepted, nor 
have we been able to identify the house which 
was occupied by Mrs. Coombs. 

Perceval urged the College of Physicians either 
to build or to buy a hospital for medical patients, 
which could be kept open during the entire year, 
and in which certain of the patients could be set 
apart during the winter session for purposes of 
clinical instruction. He stated that if this were 
done subscriptions would almost certainly be 
received from the public, the beds could be main- 
tained at a cost of 19 a year and, with the public 
subscriptions, the cost to Dun's estate would not 
amount to more than 15 a year for each bed. 
The College agreed to this plan, and the Provost, 

1 Hill, Address (i), p. 28. 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 175 

Hely Hutchinson, brought into Parliament a bill 
which was passed into law in 1791, the thirty-first 
year of the King, to enable this to be done. 

This Act set forth that on account of the diffi- 
culties which had arisen in the provision of a 
suitable place for the delivery of clinical lectures 
in any of the city hospitals, the annual surplus 
of Sir Patrick Dun's estate applicable to this 
purpose, which amounted to about 800 a year, 
remained unapplied. Parliament consequently 
decided that the President of the College of 
Physicians might, till a suitable clinical hospital 
was provided, take a house in the city of Dublin 
and furnish it with all necessaries for the care of 
patients, and that the house so provided was to 
be used for clinical lectures, and in it the Pro- 
fessors were to lecture alternately without any 
further allowance than their salary as Professor 
of 100 a year. The necessary expenses for this 
house were to be paid by the President, with the 
consent of the Trustees, out of the surplus of Dun's 
estate. The President, with such consent, was 
also to expend a part, not exceeding 1,000, of 
the annual surplus towards building or purchasing 
a suitable hospital for the purpose of clinical 
lectures. The house taken by the President was 
only to be used and paid for till it was possible 
to provide a hospital for the purpose, and all 
subscriptions to such a hospital were to be devoted 
towards its erection and annual expenses. 

In pursuance of this Act, Perceval secured a 
lease of a house on the Blind Quay, now Lower 



176 CLOSING YEARS OF THE 

Exchange Street, for which a rent of 40 a year 
was to be paid, provided 150 were spent on 
repairs, and on July 9, 1792, the College of Physi- 
cians ordered its seal to be affixed to the lease. 
This house was fitted up with thirty-one beds at 
a cost of 250, and the hospital was opened in 
November of that year. 1 This venture, however, 
did not prove more successful than the former. 
During the first year 253 persons were admitted, 
the average number of beds occupied being thirty 
during the winter half year, and ten during the 
summer, the total cost being 609 175. jd* During 
the winter session of this year Dr. Perceval gave 
clinical instruction in the hospital. During the 
second year, 1793-4, things were worse ; there 
were fewer patients, an average of twenty in the 
winter and ten in the summer six months, yet 
the expenditure rose to 722 for the year. During 
this year there were no clinical lectures delivered 
in the hospital at all, the defaulting Professor 
being apparently James Cleghorn, 3 the new Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy. During the year 1794-5 the 
average number of patients maintained during the 
winter session was reduced by the King's Pro- 
fessors to fourteen, and the expenditure reached 
29 a bed for the half year. 

The King's Professors, in November 1794, put 
forward a claim that they were entitled between 
them to two-thirds of the profits of the Trust 
Estate. It had always been considered that their 

1 Irish Builder, June 15, 1897. * Dickson's Letter, p. 72. 

1 Hill's Address (i), p. 32. 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 177 

salary was to be 100 a year each and no more, 
yet they now claimed, under section 5 of the 
Act, a rateable distribution of the money which 
was payable to Dr. Barbor and Sir Nathaniel 
Barry from the time of the new appointments till 
Dr. Quin's death. In this claim, which amounted 
to 2,426 6s. 8^., they were supported by eminent 
legal opinion, but the funds in the hands of the 
College only amounted to 2,478 155. yd. Con- 
sidering this state of the funds and the liability 
of the College for the maintenance of the clinical 
lectures and the library, the Professors agreed to 
be contented with a sum of 1,664 *& s - ^d., pro- 
vided the residue was applied to discharge the 
other liabilities of the estate. The College agreed 
to this proposal, but at the same time decided to 
fee Counsel for an opinion as to ' how far an 
amicable suit instituted by the Professors against 
the College may prevent the opposition of ill- 
advised or ill-disposed persons against the disposi- 
tion of Sir Patrick Dun's funds ' . These resolutions 
were ratified at the next meeting of the College, 
but at the following meeting on January 10, 1795, 
it was decided that these resolutions should not 
take effect till the question had been ' determined 
by a Court of Equity or by a reference, the award 
to be made a rule of Court V At the same time 
the College decided that all expenses incurred by 
such proceedings should be defrayed out of the 
funds of the trust estate, and that if a bill was 
not filed by the Professors within a space of two 

1 Col. P. Minutes. 

N 



178 CLOSING YEARS OF THE 

months all the resolutions agreed to in respect of 
the claim of the Professors on the estate were to 
be rescinded. The case came to trial in the Court 
of Chancery on May 8 and n, 1795, when the 
* Lord Chancellor was pleased to dismiss the bill'. 
An appeal was then taken to the House of Lords 
and tried there on February 8, 1796. Mr. Bursten 
and Mr. Saurin appeared for the King's Professors 
and stated the case very fully. The respondents, 
the President and Fellows of the College of Physi- 
cians, were represented by Mr. Frankland and 
Mr. W. C. Plunket, but they were not called to 
speak, and the Lord Chancellor, addressing the 
Law Lords, commented in very severe terms on 
the action of the Professors. He said, ' In my 
judgement this conduct on the part of the appel- 
lants must be considered in a Court of Equity, as 
a gross and shameless fraud : and whether the 
letter of the Act will bear them out in the attempt, 
or whether it will not, at any other tribunal, it 
seems to me to be most perfectly clear that they 
should be scouted from a Court of Equity with 
shame and disgrace.' The Lords came to the 
following judgement in the case, ' that the appeal 
be dismissed and the decree therein complained 
of affirmed and that the Appellants do pay to the 
Respondents 100 for their costs in respect of the 
appeal.' x 

In 1795 Dr. Perceval and Dr. James Cleghorn 
laid a complaint before the Board of the conduct 
of two of the King's Professors in regard to their 

1 Ridgeway, vol. iii, p. 433. 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 179 

management of the hospital during the previous 
winter. The Board expressed dissatisfaction at 
the conduct of the Professors, and submitted 
the controversy to the College of Physicians for 
judgement. The whole matter was considered 
very fully by the College of Physicians at their 
meeting on August 20. The documents were pro- 
duced, both Perceval and Cleghorn were heard in 
support of the complaint, and Dr. Cullen and 
Dr. Dickson defended themselves from the charges. 
The first complaint was that the Professors at no 
time during the past winter supported thirty 
patients in the hospital. To this the College 
replied that great latitude ought to be allowed to 
the attending Physician as to the number of 
patients he deemed requisite for his lectures. The 
second charge was that after the first of May 
there were no patients admitted to the hospital, 
with the result that the place fell into disrepair 
and the students who had entered for a year's 
hospital practice were deprived of the benefits of 
such attendance. To this the College replied that 
they could not, out of Dun's estate, support any 
patients who were not to be used for clinical 
instruction, and there were no funds arising from 
public subscriptions for their support. With re- 
gard to the students, the College received sufficient 
evidence that they did not expect to attend the 
hospital except during the medical session. The 
third count in the charge was that the King's 
Professors had not charged the students the three 
guineas which was to be given to the hospital 



i8o CLOSING YEARS OF THE 

funds, but had admitted students who merely paid 
the three guineas for clinical instruction. This 
omission to demand any fee for the general fund 
was greatly to the detriment of the hospital. The 
College stated that in acting thus the Professors 
were only carrying out instructions. The plan of 
enforcing the payment of six guineas by each 
student attending the hospital had been tried by 
the College for one year and appeared to excite 
much discontent among the students and occa- 
sioned a ' considerable diminution in their number '. 
On the whole, the College acquitted the Professors 
of any neglect and considered that they had dis- 
charged the duty they owed to their patients, their 
pupils, and themselves with credit and advantage 
to the general interests of the School. This reply 
did not satisfy the Board, who, on the 5th of 
November, referred the matter to the Visitors of 
the College of Physicians. The Visitors, however, 
did not consider the matter within their jurisdic- 
tion, and it was dropped. These various disputes 
seem to have wearied the Colleges of the subject 
of clinical lectures, and we read little more about 
them in the Registers for some time. 

Two alternative plans were suggested by Per- 
ceval for the establishment of a hospital. The 
first was that a plot of ground in the rear of 
Townsend Street should be taken for the purpose, 
but this had to be abandoned on account of the 
prohibitive ground-rent. The second was that the 
Board should grant a site in the neighbourhood of 
the east end of College Street, but this the Board re- 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 181 

fused to do on account of the danger to the students 
of the College from the proximity of an infectious 
hospital. The hospital in Exchange Street was 
rapidly falling into decay, and, in April 1799, was 
finally abandoned, the College of Physicians having 
in the previous November entered into negotia- 
tions with the Governors of Mercer's Hospital for 
clinical lectures to be delivered there. As a result 
of these negotiations an agreement was entered 
into for two years whereby, on January i, 1799, 
certain empty wards in Mercer's Hospital were to 
be set apart for the reception of patients for 
clinical instruction. The Governors of the Hospital 
undertook to support, for six months, thirty patients 
and nurses according to a specified dietary for 
a sum of 254 ios., the College supplying, in addi- 
tion to this sum, their own wine, groceries, and 
medicines. It was further agreed that if the 
College wished to build additional accommoda- 
tion, the Governors of the Hospital would place 
at their disposal a site adjoining the hospital. On 
the 2ist of January, 1799, the beds were reported 
as ready for the patients. The agreement thus 
entered into appeared to be a satisfactory solution 
of a difficulty which had been for almost fifteen 
years a source of continual vexation to the two 
Colleges. The relief, however, was of short dura- 
tion, for Perceval, finding himself foiled in his 
efforts to induce the College to build a large clinical 
hospital, sought the aid of the legislature, and in 
the following year was passed the celebrated School 
of Physic Act, of 1800, which finally took from the 



182 CLOSING YEARS OF THE 

College all discretionary power in the management 
of Dun's estate. 

This controversy about the clinical lectures was 
carried on with much bitterness between the two 
University Professors. Perceval seems to have 
determined to use every means in his power to 
establish a great hospital attached to the School. 
His ideal was the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 
and to attain his object he was ready to sacrifice 
every interest which stood in his way. Hill, on 
the other hand, was anxious to found a botanical 
garden, and believed that the funds of Dun's 
estate could more properly be applied to such an 
object than to the foundation of a hospital. Their 
objects were thus diametrically opposed, for if 
either succeeded the other must fail, and the dis- 
pute was carried on between them with a personal 
bitterness which ill became men supposed to be 
working for the good of a common cause the 
School of Physic. Perceval ultimately triumphed, 
owing to his influence with the Board and with 
Parliament, but the means which he used to 
attain this triumph do not redound to his credit. 

While the disputes were in progress many 
important changes were made by the Board in 
the regulations of the Medical School. On April 
1 6, 1790, at ' ten o'clock at night ', James Cleghorn 
was elected Professor of Anatomy in the room of 
his uncle, deceased. Cleghorn, 1 the only candidate 
for the Chair, stated that he had been educated 
in Trinity College, and had studied the ' different 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 162. 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 183 

branches of Medicine under the several Professors 
in the School of Physic in Ireland'. And also 
' that he had attended Clinical Lectures given in 
the City of Dublin '. He had also studied in 
London ' under an eminent surgeon, Mr. Hunter ', 
and visited the hospitals of Paris and Montpelier. 
Cleghorn had graduated B.A. in 1784, M.B. in the 
summer of 1787, and M.D. in 1793. He was 
admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
in January 1792, and elected Fellow in 1793. He 
was afterwards President of the College in the 
years 1805, 1806, 1811, and 1816. In 1797 he 
was elected State Physician, and he held the office 
till his death in 1826. Cleghorn does not seem to 
have inherited his uncle's love for Anatomy. He 
was re-elected Professor on May 6, 1797, but two 
years later Mr. Hartigan was appointed to assist 
him on account of his bad health, and on July 24, 
1802, his resignation of the Chair was accepted by 
the Board. 

On the 5th May, 1792, the Board received 
through Dr. Perceval a letter written by Dr. 
Andrew Duncan, in which he pointed out that the 
graduation fees for a Doctor in Physic of Edin- 
burgh University amounted to 13 8s. ' British ', 
along with the expense of printing and publishing 
an 'Inaugural Dissertation'. The fees in Trinity 
College amounted to 29 45., for a similar degree, 
and Perceval suggested that if they were reduced 
it ' would tend to the encouragement of the School 
of Physic in the City of Dublin '.* In consequence 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 218. 



184 CLOSING YEARS OF THE 

of this letter the Board ' resolved that the present 
fees, amounting to 29 45., be reduced to the sum 
of 14 I2s., and also that the sum of 6 i6s. 6d., 
be paid to the six Professors for their trouble 
in examining ; and further, that each person so 
commencing shall give in a printed copy of his 
Inaugural Dissertation to the Vice-Chancellor, 
the Provost, and each of the Senior Fellows of 
the University, to the President and Censors of 
the College of Physicians and each of the six 
Professors of Physic '. 

On the aQth June, 1792, the Board drew up new 
regulations relative to the conferring of medical 
degrees. These regulations were as follows : 

' Every Student in Medicine who has been matriculated 
into the University either in the usual mode or according 
to the form prescribed in the Act of 25 Geo. 3rd, producing 
to the Register of the College Testimonials of his having 
studied Medicine three years in some University where 
Medicine is publicly taught, and of his having attended 
the Clinical Hospital and one complete course of Clinical 
Lectures in Dublin, and also one complete course of each 
of the six Medical Professors of this University in their 
respective Department, shall receive from the Provost 
& Senior Fellows a Liceat ad examinandum directed to the 
Faculty of Medicine consisting of the said six Medical 
Professors. 

' The Faculty of Medicine will examine every student 
producing such Liceat ad examinandum, and if they find 
him qualified to obtain Medical Degrees, will certify the 
same to the Provost and Senior Fellows. Every student 
producing to the Register of the College such certificate, 
shall upon paying fees, amounting to 21 : 8 : 6, be admitted 
to perform the necessary Acts prescribed by the Statutes 
of the University to qualify him for obtaining the degrees 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 185 

of Bachelor and Doctor of Medicine and will receive 
a diploma . . . certified by the seal of the College.' l 

On June 15, 1793, the Board agreed to ' the 
following Scheme of the performances of Medical 
Degrees ' 

' Each Candidate for degrees in Medicine shall apply 
to the Register of the Faculty for a Certificate of his 
attendance on the several Professors, which is to entitle 
him to a Liceat ad examinandum from the Board. This 
he is to present to the Register of the Faculty, who shall 
within a fortnight of the time of receiving the Liceat 
appoint a time for the examination of the Candidate, 
a week's notice of the same being given to each member 
of the Faculty. Having passed the examination before 
the Faculty for the degree of M.B. or M.D., the Candidate 
shall present to some one of the Professors of the Faculty 
of Medicine an MS copy of a Thesis composed by him in 
Latin upon a subject relating to any department of 
Medicine he may choose, provided it shall have been 
approved by one of the Professors of Medicine in the 
University : When the Professor to whom the Thesis is 
presented, shall have specified his approbation thereof 
to the Faculty of Medicine, the Candidate shall receive 
from that body the following certificate signed by the 
Register of the Faculty Examinations habita apud 
Professores facultatis medicinae in Academia Dublinensi, 
A.B. Idoneum se praebuit qui admittatur ad praestanda 
exercitia pro gradibus Baccalauriatus et Doctoratus in 
Medicina. This certificate shall be presented to the 
Register of the University to be by him laid before the 
Board, and on leave being granted to perform, shall be 
returned to the Candidate, countersigned by the same 
Register. The Professor of Medicine in the University, 
on the certificate so signed and countersigned being 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 221. 



186 CLOSING YEARS OF THE 

presented to him shall appoint such days, as he shall chose 
for the performance of exercises for the degrees of M.B. 
and M.D., so as that the whole be completed within 
a month from the time of the Candidate's application. 
The Professor himself or one of the Professors of the 
Faculty, to be approved of by the Board as his locum 
tenens, shall preside at such Performances. Each Can- 
didate for the degree of M.B. is to dispute in the Hall 
of the University, upon the questions to be proposed by 
the Professor of Medicine or his locum tenens, according 
to the usages of the University, he is also to read two 
Praelections one upon an acute case, and the other 
upon a chronic case, to be also proposed by the Professor 
or his locum tenens. For the degree of M.D. he is to 
dispute upon two questions in like manner as before ; 
and also read four Praelections one or more of which 
shall form his Thesis (or Inaugural Dissertation) or such 
part thereof as may be agreed on by the Professor, who 
having on that occasion signified his approbation of the 
said Thesis shall authorize it to be printed and direct 
copies to be presented to the Vice-Chancellor of the 
University the Provost and each of the Senior- Fellows 
to the President and Censors of the College of Physicians 
and each of the six Professors of Physic.' x 

At the beginning of the winter session of 1795 
the Board ordered the University Professors to 
' lecture twice in the week during their atten- 
dance as Clinical Lecturers in Sir Patrick Dun's 
Hospital '. 2 On September 28, 1799, it was 
ordered, ' that Lectures in Anatomy should be 
given by the Professor on Tuesdays and Thurs- 
days, at half past one during the ensuing Term 
in the Physiology School ; and that he be allowed 
to charge the students a guinea and a half for 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 236. * Ibid., p. 279. 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 187 

tickets of admission to the course which is to be 
comprised in not less than ten Lectures.' 

The resolution of June 29, 1792, appears to be 
a direct departure from the usage of the Uni- 
versity which always required candidates for 
degrees in any of the Faculties to have first 
graduated in Arts. There was, however, no real 
departure from ancient custom, for the Board sub- 
sequently decreed * that this rule only related to 
the Medical Diplomas and not to Degrees, or as 
they say, ' the Diploma given to Medical Students 
not of the University who have qualified for M.D.' * 

No lists of the Medical Students of the Uni- 
versity prior to 1786 have been preserved, but 
since that time, in accordance with the first School 
of Physic Act, every student of Medicine who 
attended lectures in the School had to be matri- 
culated by having his name entered in a book 
kept for that purpose by the Senior Lecturer. 
These matriculation lists are still preserved in the 
College Library, 3 and from them we learn that 
the following numbers matriculated during the 
years 1786-1800 : 

1786, 6 entered. 1791, i entered. 1796, 4 entered. 

1787, 17 1792, 2 1797, i 

1788, 5 >, 1793. o 1798, 6 
I7 8 9> 3 1794, 5 ,. *799> 2 
1790, o 1795, 4 1800, 14 

During this period twenty-two persons were 
granted degrees in Medicine, and two were granted 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 400. * Ibid., p. 488. 

* Abbot, Cat. of MSS., T. C. D., No. 759. 



i88 EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

diplomas, a small proportion of those who matricu- 
lated in the School. Many of these students 
went to Edinburgh, which at that time was 
attracting medical students from all parts of 
the world. During the four years 1786-9, inclu- 
sive, there were at least forty-four Irishmen 
who graduated in Medicine in the Edinburgh 
University. 



CHAPTER X 
THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

WHEN the clinical lectures had been finally 
established in Mercer's Hospital, Perceval felt that 
it was hopeless for him to make any further 
attempt to induce the College of Physicians to 
expend the funds of Dun's estate in building 
a hospital. The arrangement with Mercer's had 
met with general approval, and promised to be 
a success, if those whose duty it was to lecture 
honestly and loyally fulfilled their obligations. 
Perceval was not, however, willing to accept defeat, 
nor would he submit to the decision of the majority 
of his colleagues, and feeling it impossible to con- 
vert them to his views by argument, he determined 
to compel them by the aid of the legislature. He 
seems to have had some influence with Lord Clare, 
the Lord Chancellor, and he persuaded him to have 
a Committee of the House of Lords appointed to 
report ' how far it is consistent with the public 
good and with the faithful discharge of the inten- 
tions of the testator that the said funds should 
remain longer in the College of Physicians'. The 
Earl of Altamont was appointed chairman of this 
Committee, and any of the Lords who wished 
were to attend as members. The Committee met 
on Tuesday, April 16, 1799, the Earl of Mayo 



190 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

and Lord Tullamore attending with the chairman. 
The first witness examined was Perceval, and his 
evidence displays the animus he felt against the 
College of which he was a Fellow. He made little 
of the efforts of the College to establish a hospital 
for clinical teaching, an establishment which had 
been undertaken at his instigation, and of which 
he was a governor. He accused the College of 
expending the trust funds to pay the law expenses 
of both sides in a case in which the College was 
defendant, though he admitted, on being pressed, 
that the whole sum so expended between Novem- 
ber 21, 1794, and November 20, 1798, amounted 
only to 333 145. lid., of which sum 221 2s. Sd. 
was paid out of the private fund of the College. 
When asked, ' Do you conceive that the trusts of 
the Will of Sir Patrick Dun, as explained and 
amended by subsequent Acts, have been carried 
on in the best and fairest manner, for the pur- 
poses of the institution, or in a just and faithful 
discharge of the trust ? ' he replied, ' They cer- 
tainly, in my opinion, have not been carried on in 
such a manner, and I am further of opinion that 
no provision exists for preventing many of the 
abuses which have existed from occurring again.' 
He stated further that he did not consider it to be 
in the interest of the public that the management 
of the funds of Sir Patrick Dun's estates should 
remain in the hands of the College of Physicians. 
In his opinion, the surplus funds from the estate, 
together with the fees to be paid by students 
attending the lectures at the hospital, would be 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 191 

sufficient ' for a great and highly useful national 
establishment '. To show the foresight exhibited 
in this remark one should remember that the most 
liberal estimates of the surplus funds did not 
place that sum higher than 1,000 ori,ioo a year, 
and, at three guineas apiece, fifty students would 
only contribute 157 ios. a year. Thus with an 
endowment of under 1,300 a year he proposed 
to build and support a hospital which would be 
' a great and highly useful national establishment '. 
At the next meeting of the Committee the Bishop 
of Ossory took the place of the Earl of Mayo, and 
Doctors Plunket, Hopkins, Cullen, and Harvey, 
Fellows of the College of Physicians, were examined. 
They all displayed considerable ignorance with 
regard to the history of the application of the trust, 
but generally were of an opinion unfavourable to 
the administration of the College. On April 18, 
1799, the Earl of Altamont, the Earl of Mayo, 
and Lord Tullamore again met as a Committee, 
and adopted the following report : 

' The Lords Committee appointed to examine into the 
application of the funds bequeathed by Sir Patrick Dun 
for the establishment of a hospital for clinical lectures, 
and to report the same, as they shall appear to them, to 
this house, have met and made a minute inquiry into the 
matter to them referred, and after an investigation of the 
books of the College of Physicians, and the examination 
of the most respectable members of said College, as well 
as of the Professors of Physic by them chosen, whose 
testimony is now submitted to your Lordships, it appears 
clearly that the intentions of Sir Patrick Dun, as explained 
by the Acts of the 25th and 3ist of the present reign, 



I 9 2 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

have not been carried into effect, and, by the unanimous 
admission of every witness examined, the trust confided 
in the said College of Physicians has been grossly misused. 

' It appears to your Committee that by the 3ist of the 
present King it is provided that salaries from the funds 
of Sir Patrick Dun shall be paid to the three Professors 
at the rate of one hundred pounds each, and no more, 
and that the surplus of the income of said estate, which 
exceeded one thousand pounds a-year after paying the 
said three professors, should be applied to the establish- 
ment and support of an hospital as the best means of 
extending the knowledge of medicine by uniting the 
practice to the theory of Physic. 

' It appears to your Committee that the salaries to the 
said three professors, at one hundred pounds a-year, 
and no more, had been regularly paid, but that though 
no hospital has been permanently established, nor any 
more than a small sum applied to the support of patients, 
the only balance of the said surplus now forthcoming is 
5 ' 9 : 3. though there might have been a Balance of many 
Thousand Pounds. 

' In searching for the cause of said deficiency it appears 
to your Committee that many considerable sums have 
been expended by said College of Physicians not at all 
warranted either by the intention of the Testator, or by 
the several acts of the legislature before alluded to for 
carrying the same into effect, and among the said items 
unwisely and unwarrantably expended, your Committee 
hold themselves bound to notice a present of Claret to 
the President of the College of Physicians annually, 
an immoderate purchase of Books, in some instances 
twice paid for, Law Suits carried on in which the said 
College were both Plaintiffs and Defendants, and actually 
paid from said Funds the expenses of both, and Loans 
to indigent members of said College, which were never 
repaid in many instances, and which with other charges 
equally foreign to the said trust have consumed the whole 
surplus Income of Sir Patrick Dun's estate which under 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 193 

wise and frugal management would have afforded means 
for a great and useful national establishment. 

' Your Committee being of opinion that there were 
funds abundantly sufficient for such establishment, ear- 
nestly hope that the wisdom of the Legislature will put 
them under such Regulations as will faithfully discharge 
the benign intention of the Testator and most extensively 
benefit the Public.' 

This is not the place to enter into a defence of 
the College of Physicians against the charges con- 
tained in the foregoing report, but it is right to 
say that a careful investigation of the accounts 
of the College does not bear out the truth of the 
allegations. With regard to the presents of claret, 
it is expressly stated in the College Minutes that 
this was to be paid for out of the private funds of 
the College, and there is no entry of such expendi- 
ture in the trust accounts. In explanation of this 
gift it should be remembered that the President 
for each year placed his house at the disposal of 
the College for their meetings and as a home for 
their property, there being at that time no other 
place appropriated to College purposes. In regard 
to the money spent on lawsuits, it has always been 
recognized that the legal expenses involved in the 
administration of a trust should be taken by the 
trustees from the trust funds. When the Professors 
put forward their claim, founded on the highest 
legal opinion, to two-thirds of the income of the 
trust estate, the College endeavoured to settle 
the claim by * an amicable suit ', the expenses of 
which should be borne by the trust estate, but 
when this was found to be impossible they resisted 

o 



194 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

the claim of the Professors in the courts, and two- 
thirds of the total legal expenses were borne by 
the private funds of the College. The Irish Parlia- 
ment at the time was, however, in no condition 
to judge of the honesty of any body or any 
corporation, as it was itself hopelessly corrupt. 
It was, however, in consequence of this report that 
the School of Physic Act l of 1800 was passed. 

This Act set forth that the Professors appointed 
were to be called the King's Professors of the City 
of Dublin on the foundation of Sir Patrick Dun, 
and to be as follows : 

Professor of the Institutes of Medicine, 
Professor of the Practice of Medicine, 
Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy, 
and when the President and Fellows of the College 
of Physicians should think fit, or the funds permit 
of it, a Professor of Midwifery was to be appointed. 
The existing Professors were to be continued in 
office. Each Professor was to have a salary of 
100 (Irish) a year, and no more, out of Dun's 
estate. After the payment of the three King's 
Professors it was estimated that there would be 
a surplus of about 900 a year. Out of this 
surplus, after deducting 70 a year for the salary 
of a librarian, the agent's fees, the expenses of 
advertising lectures, and other matters incident 
to the School of Physic, a sum not exceeding 150 
a year was to be paid as ground-rent for land on 
which to build a hospital. The surplus, after these 
charges had been paid, was to be devoted to 

1 40 George III, cap. Ixxxiv. 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 195 

building the hospital until it was of sufficient size 
to contain beds for thirty patients. This hospital 
was to be called Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital, and 
the governing body was to consist of the Visitors 
of the College of Physicians, the President, Vice- 
President, and Censors of the same, the Provost 
of Trinity College, and twelve other persons to be 
elected out of those who might become subscribers; 
but no physician or surgeon who attended patients 
in the hospital might become a governor. Eight 
Commissioners were named for the more speedy 
building of the hospital, and vacancies among 
these Commissioners were to be filled by the 
President and Fellows of the College of Physicians. 
All moneys and arrears belonging to the estate, as 
well as the 1,200 vested in the public funds, were 
to be handed to these Commissioners for building 
purposes. No clinical patients were to be main- 
tained out of the funds of Dun's estate till the 
hospital was built and had sufficient accommoda- 
tion for thirty patients. After that the clear 
residue, over and above that necessary to support 
the thirty patients, was to be applied to enlarging 
the hospital till it could accommodate one hundred 
patients and contain a room for a library and 
a lecture-room. When the hospital was completed, 
and after defraying the necessary charges arising 
from maintaining one hundred patients and the 
establishment of the hospital, which were not 
met by voluntary subscriptions, then the surplus 
was to be devoted first to paying a salary of 100 
to a Professor of Midwifery, and then to such 



196 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

other purposes connected with the School of 
Physic as should be approved by the Chancellor or 
Vice-Chancellor of the University, the Archbishop 
of Dublin, the Provost of Trinity College, and the 
Professor of Physic of the University. The King's 
Professors were to give clinical lectures on the 
patients in the hospital on two days a week during 
each session, without any extra salary, and the 
King's Professors and the University Professors 
were to ' read such lectures during the space of 
three months, in alternate succession, as had 
heretofore been practised, or in such order as they 
shall agree upon amongst themselves '. Each pupil 
was to pay a fee of three guineas for each three 
months' course. Before he was allowed to enter 
for such a course he was to enter his name with 
the treasurer of the hospital, and pay to him for 
the use of the hospital a fee of twenty guineas, 
unless he was a matriculated student of Dublin, 
or Oxford, or Cambridge University, and had con- 
tinued his studies in Arts under a tutor in one of 
these Universities for at least two years, in which 
case he was only to pay for the use of the hospital 
a fee of three guineas. This payment of twenty 
guineas or three guineas was to entitle the student 
to be admitted to any course during one year, but 
if he wished to enter for a further period he was 
to pay a further fee of twenty guineas or three 
guineas ' as the case may be by the year '. 

The President and Fellows were on St. Luke's 
Day to elect a librarian, who was to have control 
of the library, and receive a salary of 70 (Irish), 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 197 

provided he ' supplied fuel for the Library ' and 
medical lecture-room. Till the hospital was built 
the books were to be kept in a room provided by 
Trinity College, which room was to be under the 
inspection of the Provost. A general control of 
the library and the purchase of books was to 
be in the hands of the Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity, the Archbishop of Dublin, the Provost, and 
the Professor of Physic in Trinity College. The 
University Professors, as denned in the former 
Act, were to continue on the same footing as 
before. 

The election of the King's Professors was to be 
carried out as denned in the former Act, the method 
of choosing the electors, their powers, and the 
notice of the election being as before, and no elector 
was eligible for a Professorship. The King's Pro- 
fessorships were, however, thrown open to persons 
of ah 1 nations who professed ' their faith in Christ ', 
but the University Professorships were still con- 
fined to Protestants. The oath to be administered 
to the electors and the Professors was denned, 
and permission was given for a Quaker to affirm 
instead of taking the oath. The Professorships 
were all to become vacant every seventh year, 
permanence being given, however, to the existing 
holders of the University Professorships, during 
good behaviour. At the expiration of the seven 
years of office the Professor was eligible for re- 
election, and might be continued in office for 
a second period of seven years without formal 
election, provided that three months' notice was 

03 



198 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

given of the fact in a manner similar to that which 
was necessary if the election was to be held. The 
powers of the College to regulate these Professors 
were the same as before, with a similar power to 
appeal to the Visitors in case of a deadlock. The 
clauses relating to the admonishing of the Pro- 
fessors, and those defining their duties and times of 
lecturing were re-enacted. The clinical lectureswere 
to be given in English, unless otherwise directed by 
the Colleges, and a room was to be provided in 
Trinity College for them till the hospital was 
built. The regulations as regards the fees of 
students, for lectures other than the clinical 
lectures, were to be settled by the respective 
Colleges. The Professors were, when they had 
completed half the course of their lectures, to 
return to the Senior Lecturer of Trinity College 
a list of the pupils who had ' attended them 
during such part of said course of their respective 
lectures '. 

Till the hospital was built the President and 
Fellows might permit the clinical lectures to be 
given in any Dublin Hospital, where this was 
permitted by the Governors ' without expense to 
the Estate of Sir Patrick Dun '. 

The Act also appointed the Lord Chancellor 
of Ireland, the Lord Chief Justice of the King's 
Bench, the Lord Chief Justice of the Common 
Pleas, and the Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, 
all of the Kingdom of Ireland and for the time 
being, as Visitors of the College of Physicians. To 
these Visitors the President and Fellows were once 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 199 

in each year to ' render a true, just and full account 
of the receipts and expenditures of the issues and 
profits of the estates real and personal of the said 
Sir Patrick Dun '. 

It was further decided that any Fellow of the 
College of Physicians who was appointed a Pro- 
fessor, either University or King's Professor, was 
thereby to vacate his Fellowship. He might, how- 
ever, be elected, during the tenure of his Professor- 
ship, an Honorary Fellow of the College. Such 
Honorary Fellows were not to attend the meetings 
of the College or vote at them unless specially 
summoned by the President to consult in some 
matter ' regulating of the practice of Medicine in 
this City or Kingdom '. 

No University Professor or King's Professor was 
to be allowed to hold the office of 'the King's 
Professorship of Physic in the University of 
Dublin ', and no one was to be elected a Fellow of 
the College of Physicians unless he was a Bachelor 
or Master of Arts or Doctor of Physic of either 
Dublin, Oxford, or Cambridge University, unless 
the number of Fellows was reduced to six, in which 
case such qualification might be dispensed with. 
William Harvey, Patrick Plunket, and Daniel 
Bryan, who had recently vacated their Fellow- 
ships, were reinstated, and William Harvey was 
appointed President of the College. Persons pro- 
fessing the Roman Catholic religion were to be 
eligible for election as Fellows of the College 
of Physicians, provided they subscribed to the 
oath defined in 'An Act to enable his Majesty's 



200 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

Subjects, of whatever persuasion, to testify their 
allegiance to him ', and no other oath was to be 
administered to such persons. 

The clause in the Charter of William and Mary, 
which admitted all graduates in Physic of the 
University of Dublin to the College of Physicians 
without examination, was repealed, and the College 
was given permission to examine all such persons 
before admission, ' in the same manner as other 
persons are usually examined and to reject such 
of them as shall decline to submit to such examina- 
tion or shall upon examination appear to them to 
be unfit to be admitted.' 

This Act, which received the Royal Assent on 
August i, 1800, defined the statutory obligations 
of the School of Physic in clear and distinct terms, 
and under its provisions the School and Colleges 
are still largely governed. 

Shortly after the passing of the Act, James 
Cleghorn, who was in bad health and showed no 
aptitude for anatomical teaching, resigned his 
chair, and William Hartigan, his assistant, was 
elected in his place. The family of Hartigan, or 
O' Hartigan, is said to have been one of ancient 
Irish origin, whose members possessed estates in 
County Galway. 1 The first of this family we meet 
in Dublin was Edward Hartigan, apothecary, and 
member of the Guild of Barber Surgeons, who was 
admitted to the Freedom of the City of Dublin in 
1749. This Edward made his will on the 28th 
December, 1766, signing it with his mark, he ' not 

1 Cameron, Hist., p. 326. 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 201 

being able to use his right hand'. In this will, 
which was proved on the 24th January, 1767, he 
leaves the residue of his estate and effects to his 
son William and his daughter Mary when they 
should come to the age of 18. William Hartigan, 
born about the year 1766, was educated as a 
surgeon, and on March 2, 1784, at the first meeting 
of the College of Surgeons under their new charter, 
was elected a member of that body. On the 
30th October, 1789, he was elected to the Chair of 
Anatomy and Physiology in the College of Surgeons 
School, and in September of 1798 was appointed 
Professor of Surgery. Both these appointments 
he resigned in 1799, having in the year 1797 held 
the office of President of the College of Surgeons. 
On August 31, 1799, the Board granted the request 
of Professor James Cleghorn that he be allowed to 
employ ' Mr. Hartigan a Surgeon of eminence ' 
to assist him in his Anatomy lectures during the 
coming session, and this permission was repeated 
on the 27th of September in the following year. 
On July 24, 1802, Cleghorn resigned, and the 
Board appointed the 30th October following as 
the date of election of the new Professor. 1 This 
date was subsequently altered to November 6, in 
order to permit the statutory advertisements to 
appear, and on the latter date William Hartigan 
was elected, being apparently the only candidate 
for the post. Before the appointment the Board 
had decided that the Anatomy house should re- 
ceive temporary repair, provided the repairs were 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 393. 



202 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

necessary and the cost did not exceed 20. 
Cameron l states that he has in his possession 
tickets of admission to the anatomical course in 
Trinity College, dated November 1804, in which 
James Cleghorn is mentioned as Professor of 
Anatomy and Chirurgery, and William Hartigan 
as Lecturer in Anatomy. Such cards must, how- 
ever, have been merely remnants of the forms 
used previous to Cleghorn's resignation and Har- 
tigan's appointment. When Cleghorn resigned the 
Chair of Anatomy he claimed as his property the 
anatomical preparations which were exhibited in 
the school. These were probably the preparations 
made by his uncle. The Board, however, admitted 
the claim, but while doing so they adopted the 
following resolution : 

' That whatever preparations should henceforward be 
made by the Anatomy Professor they shall be considered 
as College property ; the College however to be at the 
expense of all the necessary ingredients for making such 
preparations.' * 

About the same time the Board appointed three 
of their number as a Committee to consider what 
money the College should allocate to enable the 
Professors of Botany, Chemistry, and Anatomy 
'to render their lectures more useful'. This com- 
mittee reported on February 12, 1803, that the 
claim of Dr. Cleghorn to almost all the prepara- 
tions in the Anatomical Theatre had been admitted 
by the Board, but the removal of these prepara- 
tions would interrupt the course of anatomical 

1 Cameron, Hist., p. 327. ' Reg., vol. v, p. 399. 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 203 

studies, and materially injure the reputation of 
the University. Under these circumstances the 
Committee recommended the Board to offer Dr. 
Cleghorn a sum of 250 for the entire collection. 
They further recommended that the Board should 
grant to the Professor of Anatomy a sum not 
exceeding 15 per annum ' to supply mercury, 
spirits and other materials for making and pre- 
serving such Anatomical Preparations '. Had the 
Board in the future rigidly adhered to these 
resolutions the College would have been saved the 
loss of many valuable anatomical and pathological 
specimens. On November 6, 1803, a list of the 
preparations in the Anatomical Theatre, signed 
by the late and present Professors of Anatomy, 
was submitted to the Board and ordered to be 
' laid up among the College Papers ' ; the where- 
abouts of this interesting document has not been 
discovered. 

Hartigan lived first in King Street, Stephen's 
Green, and then in No. 3, Kildare Street, a house 
afterwards famous as the residence of James 
William Cusack. It is probable that he was 
educated as an apprentice to a surgeon, for we 
have no record of his having taken a University 
degree till in 1802 he was granted an M.D. of 
Trinity College, honoris causa. He was twice 
married, first in December 1780,* to a Miss 
Isabella Steward, and secondly on August n, 
1787, to Anne Elizabeth Pollock, of Jervis Street. 2 
His eldest son, Edward, was for a time his appren- 

1 Cameron, Hist., p. 328. * Dub. Chronicle, 1787. 



204 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

tice, but eventually left surgery for the Church. 
Hartigan died of ' ossification of the heart ' on 
December 15, 1812. He had been unable to lecture 
during the winter session of that year, and at his 
request on the 3ist October, 1812, the Board had 
appointed Samuel Wilmot to lecture in his place. 1 
The Botany School, one of the original depart- 
ments of the Medical Faculty of the College 
founded in 1711, was for many years greatly 
hampered in its work by the want of a garden 
for teaching purposes. We have seen that as early 
as 1687 2 the kitchen garden of the College was to 
be made into a physic garden at the charge of 
the College, and at the building of the School in 
1711 ' the Laboratory and Anatomick Theatre ' 
were to be erected at the south-east corner of 
the ' Physick Garden '. With the building of the 
library, which was completed about 1733, this 
physic garden seems to have disappeared. At any 
rate we meet with no further mention of it in the 
College Registers, and its existence is not indicated 
in the plan of the College in Rocque's map in 

1750. 

William Clements, Lecturer in Botany from 1733 
to 1763, was for the last ten years of that period 
also Vice-Provost, and in that capacity had allotted 
to him a considerable tract of ground in the north- 
east corner of the College Park, which was long 
known as the Vice-Provost's garden. It is prob- 
able that Clements made use of this garden in 
obtaining supplies for his botanical lectures. James 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 72. * Reg., vol. iii, p. 264. 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 205 

Span, who in 1763 succeeded Clements as Lecturer 
in Botany, seems to have cultivated a small 
botanical garden, 1 but where it was situated we 
have not been able to discover. Edward Hill, who 
succeeded Span in 1773, was most anxious to 
establish a large and well-ordered garden, one 
which would be not only a credit but an ornament 
to the College. This he looked on as of far greater 
importance than the establishment of a hospital 
for clinical lectures, a form of teaching to which, 
as we have seen, he was not partial. At the time 
of Hill's appointment the present site of Botany 
Bay was the kitchen garden of the College, and 
towards the close of 1774 this ground was taken 
up for additional buildings for the accommodation 
of students. 2 It is possible that it was in this 
kitchen garden that Span grew the specimens with 
which he illustrated his lectures, and it is from 
the former use to which the site was put that the 
present square owes the name of ' Botany Bay '. 
On January 21, 1775, the Provost was asked to 
' look out for a piece of ground proper and con- 
venient for a Botany Garden ', 3 but he does not 
seem to have succeeded in finding such a place. 
Hill was bitterly disappointed that the School of 
Physic Act of 1785 did not contain permission 
for the establishment of a botanical garden, and 
he set himself at once to try to induce the Board 
and the College of Physicians jointly to establish 
such a place. He felt that the more money from 

1 Perceval, Account, p. 16. * Reg., vol. v, p. 298. 

1 Reg., vol. iv, p. 299. 



206 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

the Dun's estate which was spent on other pur- 
poses, such as the establishment of a hospital, the 
less was he likely to effect this object, and it is 
to this cause that we must largely attribute his 
quarrel with Perceval. 

About the year 1789 Hill applied to the Board 
for money to support a garden, and they authorized 
him to make a similar application to the College of 
Physicians, who on March the 25th of that year 
resolved that, since the Board were willing to set 
apart 70 a year for such a purpose, the College 
of Physicians would co-operate in the undertaking 
when the necessary estimates were prepared. Hill 
proposed that the Physicians should grant 100 
a year from the trust estate, and a resolution 
agreeing to this was passed as a first reading on 
April 15, 1793. In this year, 1793, an Act passed 
the Irish House of Commons granting the sum of 
5,000 to the Dublin Society, of which sum 1,300 
was to be applied ' towards providing and main- 
taining a botanic Garden ' and other purposes ; of 
this sum at least 300 was to be expended on the 
garden. 1 It was hoped that the Society and the 
Colleges might join in the support of this garden, 
but the Speaker of the House of Commons, when 
approached on the matter, said ' he would have 
nothing to do with the Colleges '.* Hill was so 
satisfied with the way things were progressing 
that in December, 1795, with the advice and 
consent of Provost Murray, he took the lease of 
a field, about six acres in extent, which he said he 

1 Statutes of the Realm, vol. xvi, p. 571. * Hill, Address (i), p. 17. 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 207 

would hold in trust for the University, and of 
which he agreed to pay one-half the rent until 
such time as the whole ground was required by 
the University for the purposes of a garden. On 
May 23, 1797, the College of Physicians passed as 
a second reading the resolution appropriating 100 
a year towards this garden. It was then suggested 
that such application of the funds was outside the 
powers of the Trustees, and a Committee, consist- 
ing of Drs. Perceval, Hill, and Harvey, was ap- 
pointed to confer with the Board and take legal 
opinion on the matter. This Committee reported 
on the agth of September, 1797, that Dr. Hill 
received as salary and for the support of a garden 
the sum of 160 a year, out of which 100 was 
annually appropriated to the support of a garden, 
and that the Committee would consider the arrange- 
ments for the support of this garden by the two 
Colleges as soon as the right of the College of 
Physicians to use the funds of Dun's estate for 
this purpose was established. Hill then produced 
to the College of Physicians counsel's opinion that 
such an application of the funds was quite legal, 
and the Committee was ordered to meet again and 
make final arrangements, Dr. Perceval to be the 
convener, but, before this Committee was sum- 
moned to meet, the College of Physicians on the 
I5th of January, 1798, had before them for the 
third reading the resolution granting the 100 
a year for the garden, which resolution was lost 
by the casting vote of the chairman. Hill then 
determined to devote his entire salary to the sup- 



208 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

port of his garden, but he got little or no encourage- 
ment from the University, and when the second 
School of Physic Act was passed he was com- 
pelled, on the nth of August, 1800, to resign 
his Professorship of Botany, and Robert Scott 
was appointed his successor. Hill afterwards 
endeavoured to recover from the Board the money 
he had spent on the garden, an attempt which led 
to considerable dispute, and though both parties 
agreed on July 4, 1801, to submit the matter to 
arbitration, eventually, in March, 1803, a case 
came to trial at the King's Bench, when a consent 
was made a rule of court by which the Board had 
to pay Hill the sum of 618 igs. gd., the garden 
and all the buildings in it being handed over to 
Hill absolutely. Each party was to pay its own 
costs in the action. 1 

While this dispute was in progress, on April n, 
1801, the Board decided that the Professor of 
Botany should be authorized to employ a gardener, 
' acquainted with the botanical arrangements of 
plants ', at a salary of 50, in order to assist in 
collecting plants to illustrate the botanical lec- 
tures. This gardener was to live in the house at 
Harold's Cross, built by Dr. Hill, and to superin- 
tend the ground there. The Committee appointed 
by the Board to report on the annual expenditure 
necessary to make the lectures of the medical 
professors more useful, recommended that the 
Professor of Botany should be allowed to spend 
100 a year for supplying and procuring plants. 

1 Hill, Address (i), p. 113. 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 209 

They were of opinion that Botany, * which as it 
is connected with general knowledge, and estab- 
lished as a public lecture for all students, ought 
to be patronised by the University.' They were 
further of the opinion that ' Dr. Scott's talents 
and exertions as Professor of Botany well deserve 
that he should receive from the students instead 
of 155. each, the sum of i 55. each.' x On March 9, 
1805, the Board increased the salary of the 
gardener to 130 a year, on condition that he 
employed two labourers throughout the year, and 
additional labourers from the month of March to 
December. 2 The next year, on July 5, the Board 
agreed 'to take a piece of land consisting of ... 
acres leased by Lord Fitzwilliam to the College for 
175 years at 15 guineas an acre for the purpose 
of a Botany Garden provided that Dr. Scott the 
Professor of Botany notify the ground to be in all 
respects fitted for that purpose.' 3 Thus was 
started the splendid garden at Ball's Bridge, which 
still remains such a useful and ornamental adjunct 
to the University. This garden the Board decided 
to enclose with a wall ten feet high, and on May 6, 
1807, a vote of thanks was passed to the Dublin 
Society ' for the assistance which the Society has 
voted to our new Botanic Gardens '. 4 It was 
decided on the 27th February, 1808, that the Pro- 
fessor of Botany was to lecture four times a week 
from the I5th of April to the I5th of July, ' pro- 
vided that if he chooses to conduct his pupils into 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 403. * Ibid., p. 433. 

3 Ibid., p. 452. * Ibid., p. 470. 



210 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

the country in order to examine the native plants 
once a week his doing so shall be considered as 
equivalent to a lecture.' * The first twelve lectures 
of the course were to be open to all students of 
the University, the remainder being confined to 
those who paid fees for attendance. Dr. Scott's 
term as Professor having expired, he was re-elected 
on the 25th March, 1808, Dr. Leahy and Dr. 
Halliday being also candidates. Scott, however, 
died a few months after this election, and on the 
i6th of January, 1809, William Allman was elected 
Professor. At this election, Dr. Harty, Dr. Litton, 
and Dr. Wade, were candidates, as well as Dr. 
Allman. 

The gardener who was appointed to assist the 
Professor was James Townsend Mackay, who 
proved himself afterwards a botanist of consider- 
able ability. He was on many occasions given 
special grants by the Board for the purpose of 
travelling in different parts of the country to 
collect specimens for the garden, and in 1836 he 
published his Flora Hibernica, which was long 
a standard work on the subject. In 1849 the 
Board granted him the degree of LL.D., honoris 
causa, and he continued in charge of the garden 
till his death on February 25, 1862, at the age of 
85. During his tenure of office the gardens were 
considerably increased in size, and laid out much 
in their present form. 

The fees to be charged for botany lectures were 
several times regulated by the Board. On the 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 480. 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 211 

5th April, 1791, the Professor was authorized to 
charge 15s. 1 to each of the senior freshman class 
for these lectures, and we have seen that in 1803 
this fee was raised by los. Again on July 13, 
1811, the fee was raised to i ios., and at this it 
remained for many years after. 

The chemical laboratory, which had been in 
active use since the foundation of the School, 
appears to have been developed considerably 
during the Professorship of Perceval, who, what- 
ever may be thought of him otherwise, was un- 
doubtedly most active in the discharge of the duties 
of his chair. In 1801 the Board set out the 
vacations which were to be observed by the 
Professor of Chemistry. 2 He was not allowed 
much relaxation during the winter session, as the 
vacations were to be ' from the Friday before 
Christmas Day to the Monday next preceding the 
feast of the Epiphany. Easter vacation from 
Good Friday to the Monday next succeeding 
Easter Monday. Shrovetide vacation, Shrove Tues- 
day and Ash Wednesday. Days of Public Thanks- 
giving or Humiliation ; and the days of Quarterly 
Examinations/ We are not told whether these 
holidays were fixed in the interests of the students, 
or to compel the attendance of the Professor, but 
we may hope it was not necessary for the latter 
purpose. During the next winter session Dr. 
Perceval was permitted to employ Dr. Francis 
Barker to assist him with the chemistry lectures 
by giving a private course in the laboratory, and 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 187. * Ibid., p. 367. 



212 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

on the 3rd July, 1802, ' twenty guineas was granted 
to Dr. Barker going to Paris for the purpose of 
buying fossils.' x 

On February 12, 1803, Perceval reported ' that 
in order to fit up the Chemical laboratory, in 
a manner adapted to the perfect state of Natural 
Science, with permanent apparatus, a sum of 
nearly 150 should be allotted, which will render 
the University lectures a branch of Education 
suited to the advanced state of Science and pro- 
ductive of that impressive effect which excites the 
attention of the youthful mind.' 2 It was con- 
sidered that if this money were granted the course 
in Chemistry would not involve the College in any 
annual expenditure. Some months later, in Decem- 
ber, Perceval handed to the Board a catalogue of 
the minerals in the laboratory which were to be 
looked on as College property. During this period 
Barker continued to assist the Professor, and on 
the 2ist of December, 1805, the Board resolved 
' that in consideration of Dr. Barker's extraordinary 
exertions in the different courses of Chemistry 
which he has given he be empowered to furnish 
the Bursar with Bills of his expenses for the course 
of the current year not exceeding 50 sterling and 
certified by the Professor.' 3 

At the meeting of the Board on February 6, 
1808, the Provost announced Dr. Perceval's resig- 
nation of the Professorship of Chemistry, and it 
was resolved ' that the Provost be requested to 
convey to Dr. Perceval the lively sense which the 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 392. * Ibid., p. 403. * Ibid., p. 441. 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 213 

Board entertain of the long and laborious services 
in that Professorship, of the zeal and ability with 
which he has discharged his duties & the important 
effect of his meritorious exertions in exciting & 
directing the attention of the Country and of the 
University in particular to the pursuit of chemical 
knowledge.' l The Professorship was then adver- 
tised, and on May 16, 1808, Dr. Barker was 
unanimously elected. He continued in office for 
forty-one years. 2 

Almost immediately after the passing of the 
School of Physic Act the Board admitted the prin- 
ciple of extern clinical lectures. Had this principle 
been recognized fifteen years earlier, it would have 
saved much wrangling, would have rendered the 
Act of 1800 unnecessary, and would have per- 
mitted the money which was spent on the clinical 
hospital to be devoted to the development of the 
academic teaching in the School. On October 18, 
1800, Perceval applied to the Board for permission 
to employ Dr. Crampton to give, in place of him, 
clinical lectures in Dr. Steevens' Hospital. This 
permission the Board granted, subject to approval 
by the Governors of the Hospital. Crampton had 
been appointed assistant at Dr. Steevens' Hospital 
in the previous February, and at the meeting of the 
Governors of the hospital held in the chambers of the 
Right Hon. the Lord Chancellor at the Four Courts 
on the zgth November, 1800, it was resolved : 

' That Dr. Crampton be permitted by the Governors 
of Dr. Steevens' Hospital to give reports on the cases 
1 Reg., vol. v, p. 480. * Ibid., p. 490. 

P3 



214 THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 

of the medical patients whom he visits in said Hospital 
during the Winter half-year ending May ist, 1801, to 
pupils attested by the Senior Lecturer of Trinity College 
to be regularly matriculated in the School of Physic in 
Dublin and none others. Said pupils paying for said 
attendance on said reports six guineas to the Register 
of the Hospital and to Dr. Crampton for reports and 
lectures on said reports, five guineas, which lectures are 
to be delivered in Trinity College.' 

' Resolved : that admission cards be provided and 
signed by the Register and that he make out a list 
of pupils to be transmitted to the Provost and Senior 
Fellows of Trinity College who have agreed to allow the 
attendance on said course for the present Medical Session 
as one of the Qualifications for Medical Degrees.' * 

This is the first admission of the principle of 
clinical instruction in the general hospitals of 
Dublin, a principle which was afterwards to be so 
much developed, and to become one of the chief 
features of the Dublin School. This permission 
was renewed in the following winter session and 
again in 1802, but the practice was stopped in 
1803, as Steevens Hospital was for two years prac- 
tically in the hands of the military authorities 
during alterations in the Royal Infirmary. 

In 1803 the Board gave leave to Dr. Stokes ' to 
lend one of his rooms to the gentlemen giving 
clinical lectures on the cases of the patients in the 
Meath Hospital for the space of one fortnight and 
no longer, unless the College of Physicians recom- 
mend to us the acceptance of attendance on these 
lectures as a qualification for a Medical Diploma.' z 
The College of Physicians replied at once ' that 

1 Minutes, Steevens Hospital. * Reg., vol. v, p. 418. 



THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC ACT, 1800 215 

attendance on a course of clinical lectures to be 
delivered by Dr. Stokes at the Meath Hospital for 
six months, will be considered by the College of 
Physicians as an adequate qualification for medical 
degrees so far as the attendance on Clinical lectures 
constitutes such a qualification*. 

In 1805 the Board again extended recognition 
to the lectures of Dr. Crampton at Steevens 
Hospital, and this is the last we hear of special 
permission for such lectures. The present building 
of Dun's Hospital was sufficiently advanced to 
accommodate thirty beds in 1808, and no doubt 
the clinical instruction was given there. Jonathan 
Osborne, writing in 1844 of Dun's Hospital, states 
that ' the professors Clinical Courses have been 
uninterruptedly delivered during the medical ses- 
sions for the last twenty-three years ', a statement 
which suggests that previous to 1820 there was 
little teaching there. 

In July, 1821, Robert James Graves was 
appointed Physician to the Meath Hospital, and 
a few years later he was joined by William Stokes. 
It was these two physicians who made the name 
of the Meath Hospital famous in medical history, 
and raised the standard of clinical teaching to 
a height which had never before been known in 
Dublin. 



CHAPTER XI 
JAMES MACARTNEY AND WHITLEY STOKES 

THE death of William Hartigan, ' the late 
respectable and lamented Professor of Anatomy,' l 
was to prove an event of great moment in the 
history of the School of Physic, for on June 21, 
1813, James Macartney was appointed his suc- 
cessor. 2 Macartney, whose name must ever be 
remembered with honour in Trinity College, was 
born in Armagh on the 8th March, 1770, where his 
father, also James, owned some property and 
enjoyed life as a gentleman farmer. The elder 
James Macartney was a man of some literary taste 
and had married in 1760 Mary Maxwell, daughter 
of the Rev. John Maxwell, a Presbyterian minister 
and a close friend of Francis Hutcheson, the 
Glasgow Professor. As a boy the future anatomist 
was kept under a rigid discipline by his father, and 
being a delicate child, he received little teaching 
till he was nearly nine years old. He tells us that 
at the age of eight years he suffered from a severe 
attack of ophthalmia which made him almost 
blind for a year, and it was not till he had recovered 
from this attack that he learned to read. At the 
age of ten years he was enrolled in the Armagh 
Corps of Irish Volunteers, a division of that great 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 81. J Ibid., p. 98. 



WHITLEY STOKES 217 

citizen army of the north which at one time seemed 
likely to change the history of Ireland. At the age 
of twelve he was sent to the Classical Endowed 
School of Armagh, but he only remained there 
for a short period, and his preliminary education 
was completed at home under the care of a private 
tutor. In 1788, on the death of his mother, he 
went as a clerk to the business establishment of 
his cousins Andrew and Hugh Carlile, linen mer- 
chants of Newry, but his stay there was short, as 
in 1790 his father died and he returned home to 
live with his brothers. 

While at home he spent his time farming, and 
he seems to have revived his boyish interest in the 
political movements of the time, for in 1792 he 
joined the Society of United Irishmen, and in the 
following year took part in organizing a branch in 
Armagh. The Society of United Irishmen was at 
first more a social than a political organization, but 
it soon lost its original purpose and came under 
the ban of the Government. Macartney did not 
approve all the tendencies of the Society he had 
joined, and in consequence his relations with the 
more ardent members became greatly strained. 
Just at this time, too, he fell very much in love 
with a Miss Mary Ekenhead, and on her refusing 
his suit, he suffered from lovesickness, and, as he 
tells us, he determined to adopt the profession of 
a Surgeon to harden his heart. 

To carry out this intention, and probably also 
to escape the trying position in which his political 
opinions had involved him, he came to Dublin in 



2i8 JAMES MACARTNEY AND 

1794. In March of that year he was bound as 
apprentice to Hartigan, then Professor of Anatomy 
in the College of Surgeons' School, and devoted 
himself with great energy to the study of Anatomy. 
He also attended the lectures on Chemistry by 
Perceval in the School of Physic, the only part 
of his course which he took in that School. While 
a student in Dublin he became a close friend of 
many of the leaders of the United Irishmen then 
in the city, and though never actually sworn a 
member he was present at many of the Council 
Meetings. In Dublin, as previously in Armagh, his 
refusal to take the oath, and his objection to the 
more violent measures advocated by some of the 
members of the Society, aroused suspicion, and in 
1795 he left Dublin and returned to Armagh. The 
strenuous life he had led in Dublin seems to have 
told on his health, and when Miss Ekenhead saw 
him, she feared that he was still suffering from the 
heart trouble which her refusal of him had caused 
the year before. The intervention of mutual 
friends brought about a renewal of the suit, and 
on April 10, 1795, James Macartney and Mary 
Ekenhead were married. At the beginning of the 
following winter session Macartney returned to 
his medical studies in Dublin, but early in the 
year 1796, with the full permission of Hartigan, 
he left for London. During the next three years 
he devoted himself to study with great energy, 
attending classes at Guy's, St. Thomas's and 
St. Bartholomew's Hospitals, as well as at the 
Great Windmill Street School. In 1798 he was 



WHITLEY STOKES 219 

appointed Demonstrator in Anatomy to Abernethy 
at St. Bartholomew's School, and on February 6, 
1800, he passed as a Member of the Royal College 
of Surgeons, London. Almost immediately after 
obtaining this qualification he was appointed 
Lecturer in Comparative Anatomy at St. Bartholo- 
mew's, and he continued to discharge the duties of 
this office till the spring of 1811. About the time 
of his appointment to the Chair of Comparative 
Anatomy he gave up his post as Demonstrator, 
apparently as the result of some dispute with 
Abernethy. In his new position his relations with 
his colleagues were not quite harmonious, for 
shortly after his appointment he had a dispute with 
the Hospital authorities as to the ownership of some 
preparations he had made to illustrate his lectures. 
This dispute was eventually submitted to arbitra- 
tion and decided against Macartney. These pre- 
parations had been prepared partly at the Hospital 
expense, and Macartney immediately began to 
prepare a duplicate set entirely at his own expense. 
The question of the ownership of these new speci- 
mens was also raised, but Macartney refused ' to 
part with the absolute and uncontrolled property 
of these preparations '.* These disputes did not 
tend to make Macartney's relations with his 
colleagues more cordial, and though he continued 
to lecture regularly every year, he does not seem 
to have taken any other part in the School work. 
In the spring of 1803 he was appointed Surgeon 
to the Royal Radnor Militia and remained with 

1 Macalister, Macartney, p. 59. 



220 JAMES MACARTNEY AND 

the regiment for a period of nine years till it was 
disembodied in 1812, obtaining leave each spring 
to deliver his lectures in London. In March, 1811, 
he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and 
in August of that year he came with his regiment 
to Ireland. On the termination of his military 
duties in 1812, Macartney determined to remain in 
Ireland and to seek the Chair of Anatomy in 
Trinity College, on the death of Hartigan, who was 
known to be seriously ill and not expected ever to 
lecture again. Although Macartney came to this 
determination early in 1812, he did not make 
any movement to seek for the post till after the 
announcement of Hartigan's death in December 
of that year. He got little encouragement in his 
canvass from Mrs. Hartigan, who wrote telling him 
that her husband before his death had recom- 
mended Wilmot for the chair, and went on to say 
that ' the exertions of the College of Surgeons to 
draw all the pupils they could to their School, as 
also the number of Junior Lecturers, reduce our 
income very much, and these three last years they 
did not produce above one hundred pounds per 
annum. If I were to advise you as a friend it would 
be never to wear out your lungs for such a paltry 
sum '.* It appears that Wilmot, who had been 
Hartigan's deputy and was a candidate for the 
post, had promised, if he were elected Professor, 
to hand over to Mrs. Hartigan the whole of 
the salary of the public course of lectures, so 
Mrs. Hartigan's advice to Macartney cannot be 

1 Macalister, Macartney, p. 91. 



WHITLEY STOKES 221 

considered quite disinterested. At all events the 
advice had no influence on Macartney, who at 
once began a vigorous canvass. He obtained 
testimonials from all the leading teachers in 
London, and in May took the M.D. degree of 
St. Andrews University. 

The election was originally fixed for the 3rd of 
May, but in consequence of a mistake the adver- 
tisement, though paid for, was not inserted in the 
London Gazette in proper time, and on February 9 
the Board postponed the date of election till 
June. 

Immediately after the death of Hartigan, the 
College of Physicians had appointed a Committee, 
consisting of Dr. Hopkins, Dr. Leahy, and Dr. 
Todderick, to draw up a recommendation to be 
forwarded to the Board of Trinity College on the 
subject of the vacant Professorship of Anatomy. 
This Committee urged the Board to appoint a 
Physician as Professor, since one of the principal 
duties of the chair was the delivery of clinical 
lectures at Dun's Hospital. The Committee went 
on to state that Medicine and Surgery were now 
quite separate branches of the profession, and that 
the students the Professor would have to teach 
were students of Medicine as distinct from Surgery. 
It seemed impossible to them for a man to teach 
Medicine properly who devoted his life entirely 
to the practice and study of Surgery. This recom- 
mendation the College stated was made without 
partiality for any individual, and without any 
knowledge of who were likely to be candidates for 



222 JAMES MACARTNEY AND 

the vacant office. The Committee pointed out that 
the late Professor had uniformly refused to give 
any Clinical lectures, and that the College of 
Physicians would have drawn the attention of the 
Board to this matter before ' had they not been 
restrained by tenderness towards the feelings of the 
late respectable Professor '. This report was sub- 
mitted to the Board at their meeting on January 2, 
1813, but they declined to consider the recom- 
mendations, stating that the election must be 
governed solely by the regulations of the School 
of Physic Act. 1 

Just before the election the Board passed the 
following resolution, 2 which was to govern the 
election of a Professor : 

' if more votes shall appear for one candidate than for 
any other, tho' not a majority of the entire votes, such 
candidate shall be elected. If an equal number of votes 
shall appear for two or more candidates greater than for 
any other and the Provost shall be among the voters for 
one of the said candidates the candidate for whom the 
Provost has so voted shall be elected. But if the Provost 
has not voted for any of the said two or more candidates 
it shall be deemed that no election has taken place.' 

On June 21 the Board met to elect the Professor 3 
and 

' read over the memorials of all the candidates who had 
presented memorials and lodged their testimonials and 
documents according to the provisions of the Act of 
Parliament, viz. of Dr. Samuel Wilmot, Dr. James 
Macartney, Sir Thomas Moriarty, M.D., Dr. Peter Edward 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 84. * Ibid., p. 96. ' Ibid., p. 96. 



WHITLEY STOKES 223 

M'Loughlin, and Dr. Richard Ryan. The votes were then 
taken, when there appeared for Dr. M'Loughlin one vote, 
viz. Dr. Prior ; for Dr. Wilmot one vote, viz. Dr. Phipps ; 
and the Provost and the five remaining Senior Fellows 
for Dr. James Macartney, who was declared duly elected 
and, being called in, took the Oath prescribed by the 
Act and was admitted into the Professorship.' 

At the following Summer Commencements Mac- 
artney was given by the University the degree of 
M.D., honoris causa. 

Of the unsuccessful candidates at this election 
Samuel Wilmot had perhaps the strongest claims 
on the electors. He had taken Hartigan's place 
during his illness, and the Board had appointed 
him, on Hartigan's death, to continue the lectures 
till the new Professor was appointed, though 
in doing so they expressly informed him ' that 
this Permission is not to give him any peculiar 
claim to the Professorship of Anatomy '- 1 After 
the election the Board voted him the sum of 
one hundred guineas as a testimony of their 
approbation of the way he had performed his 
duties. 

Peter M'Loughlin was a graduate in Arts and 
Medicine of the University, and a Fellow of the 
College of Physicians, and he seems to have had 
the support of that body in his candidature. 
Sir Thomas Moriarty had been knighted in 
November, i8io, 2 but neither he nor Ryan seems 
to have had any substantial claim to the Pro- 
fessorship. 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 81. * Knights, vol. ii, p. 310. 



224 JAMES MACARTNEY AND 

Macartney's colleagues on the staff of the School 
at the time of his appointment were : 

UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS 

Medicus Whitley Stokes. 

Regius Professor of Medicine . Edward Hill. 

Professor of Botany .... William Allman. 

Professor of Chemistry . . . Francis Barker. 

KING'S PROFESSORS 

Practice of Medicine . . . Martin Tuomy. 
Institutes of Medicine . . . John William Boy ton. 
Materia Medica and Pharmacy . John Crampton. 

Of these men by far the most distinguished was 
Whitley Stokes, who, besides being Medicus, had 
held the King's Professorship of the Practice of 
Medicine from 1798 to 1812. 

Whitley Stokes, the son of the Rev. Gabriel 
Stokes, an ex-Fellow of Trinity College, was born in 
Waterford in 1763. His grandfather, also Gabriel, 
was a distinguished scientific instrument maker 
and engineer, and had held the office of Deputy 
Surveyor-General of Ireland. Whitley entered 
Trinity College in 1778, was elected a Scholar in 
1781, and commencing B.A. in the spring of 1783, 
was elected a Fellow four years later in 1787, being 
on July i, 1789, at his own request, elected into 
the medical Fellowship. 1 On June 22, 1793, having 
laid before the Board the necessary certificates of 
his attendance on the several Professors of Medi- 
cine, he was granted a Liceat ad examinandum, 
and the degrees of M.B. and M.D. were conferred 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 77. 



WHITLEY STOKES 225 

on him at the Summer Commencements. In 
November 1795 he was admitted a Licentiate of the 
College of Physicians without examination, having 
in that year succeeded Thomas Elrington as 
Donegall Professor of Mathematics in the Uni- 
versity. In the March previous he had received 
a grant of 50 from the Board ' for the purpose of 
Prosecuting his Studies in Edinburgh '. l Stokes, 
like Macartney, became implicated in the United 
Irishmen movement, and was actually a captain 
in one of the corps of that body. Like Macartney, 
too, he did not approve the whole tendency of 
the movement, and in 1791 he seems to have 
largely withdrawn himself from the society. In 
April 1798 the Lord Chancellor, Lord Clare, and 
Dr. Duigenan, acting as Visitors of the University, 
held a visitation to inquire as to the existence of 
seditious and treasonable societies among the 
students of the College. Stokes was one of the 
principal men put on trial. He denied that he 
knew of the existence of any society of United 
Irishmen, or of any illegal or secret societies in the 
College. He admitted having been a member of 
that body himself prior to 1791, and that he had 
recently attended as physician a man who was 
known to be a member, but he pleaded as his 
excuse that the man was sick and very poor. 
Many witnesses testified in Stokes's favour, and 
stated that his influence among the students was 
always used for the best. Lord Clare, however, 
was implacable, and Stokes was adjudged unfit 

1 Reg., voL'v, p. 269. 
Q 



226 JAMES MACARTNEY AND 

to hold the office of College tutor, and was not to 
be allowed to be elected a Senior Fellow for three 
years. Subsequently a very strong memorial was 
sent to Lord Clare in favour of Stokes, and drew 
from the noble Lord the following letter : 1 

' Berkeley Square, 

' Nov. 15, 1799. 

' Dear Sir, I am favoured with your letter and a 
memorial, very respectably signed by some of the Fellows 
of Trinity College in favour of Dr. Stokes. It is quite 
unnecessary, I hope, to assure you that it will always 
give me great pleasure to comply with any request which 
may come so forcibly urged to me. In the present 
instance, however, the thing is impossible, as what has 
been done at the last Visitation is, in my opinion, irre- 
vocable ; and even if it were not, I am sorry to be obliged 
to state to you that, from my knowledge of Dr. Stokes, 
he is a most improper person to be entrusted in any 
degree with the government or direction of any College. 
If I had been at liberty to act at the last Visitation on 
perfectly well-grounded private conviction, I must have 
expelled him. 

' I am, very truly, your faithful, humble Servant, 

' CLARE.' 

Every action of Stokes throughout his long life 
shows him to be a man whom Lord Clare could 
neither buy nor bully, and this may perhaps be 
urged in extenuation of the harsh sentence passed 
by the Visitors. 

Wolfe Tone in his Journal, writing in reference 
to this incident on May 20, 1798, forms a fairer 
opinion of Stokes when he says : 

1 Stubbs, p. 300. 



WHITLEY STOKES 227 

' With regard to Stokes, I know he is acting rigidly on 
principle, for I know he is incapable of acting otherwise ; 
but I fear very much that his very metaphysical unbend- 
ing purity, which can accommodate itself neither to 
man, tune, nor circumstances, will always prevent his 
being of any service to his country, which is a thousand 
pities ; for I know no man whose virtues and whose 
talents I more sincerely reverence. I see only one place 
fit for him, and, after all, if Ireland were independent, 
I believe few enlightened Irishmen would oppose his 
being placed there I mean at the head of a system 
of national education. I hope this last specimen of 
FitzGibbon's moderation may give him a little of that 
political energy which he wants ; for I have often heard 
him observe himself that nothing sharpened men's 
patriotism more than a reasonable quantity of insult and 
ill-usage ; he may now be a living instance and justify 
his doctrine by his practice.' 1 

The place designed for Stokes by Tone was never 
to be his, but instead, for many years to come, he 
was to occupy the most prominent position as 
a medical teacher in the two great Schools of the 
country. In consequence of the decision of the 
Visitors, the Board were compelled on March 3, 
1800, to pass over Stokes when a vacancy occurred 
among the Senior Fellows, 2 but on June 10, 1805, 
he was admitted into the Senior Fellowship vacant 
by the death of Dr. Browne. 3 We have seen that 
during the winter session of 1803-4, Stokes was 
authorized to give clinical lectures in the Meath 
Hospital, of which place he subsequently, in 1818, 
became Physician. For many years he acted as 
Curator of the University Museum, for which 

1 Wolfe Tone, vol. ii, p. 315. * Reg., vol. v, p. 346. 

' Ibid., p. 435. 



228 JAMES MACARTNEY AND 

service he received a small salary from the Board, 
and on several occasions was thanked by them for 
the additions which he had made to the Museum. 
On June 21, 1806, he received permission from the 
Board to deliver lectures on Natural History, 
provided such lectures did not interfere with the 
other duties of the students. These lectures were 
to be delivered in the Law School at two o'clock 
in the afternoon, but though they were continued 
for several years they are not to be looked on as 
instituting a professorship, as this subject was for 
many years deemed part of the province of the 
Professor of Anatomy. 

In 1810 Stokes's energies were directed into a 
new channel, for on July 14 of that year the Board 
appointed him to superintend the mines which had 
been found on the College estates. This appoint- 
ment was to last for seven years, and Stokes was 
' to receive half the clear profit arising from the 
mines during that period V 

From the foundation of Trinity College the 
statute enforcing celibacy on the Fellows had been 
nominally in force, but, as we have seen, it was 
as often honoured in the breach as in the observ- 
ance. A custom seems to have grown up, whereby 
it was considered that the statute need only be 
enforced in those cases in which its breach was 
brought officially to the cognizance of the Board. 
Towards the close of the year 1811, however, the 
Board obtained a King's Letter enforcing the 
Statute of Celibacy on the Fellows, but freeing 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 532. 



WHITLEY STOKES 229 

from censure any of those Fellows who, within 
two months of the promulgation of the Statute, 
declared themselves to be married before the 
'royal will became expressly declared'. 1 Stokes 
petitioned against any of the College money being 
expended on procuring this Letter, on the grounds 
that the governing part of the College had not been 
consulted on its expediency, and ' because the 
restraints on marriage contained in this Statute 
appear to me likely to injure the morals of this 
College and to give countenance to the formation 
of convents in Ireland'. 2 His protest was, how- 
ever, of no avail, and on January 4, 1812, he gave 
notice to the Provost that on July 28, 1796, he had 
married Mary Anne Picknell. 3 

On February 4, 1798, Stokes was appointed 
King's Professor of the Practice of Medicine in 
place of Stephen Dickson. Dickson had been 
appointed King's Professor of Materia Medica and 
Pharmacy in 1786, but on the death of Edward 
Brereton, having resigned this appointment, he 
was, on the 27th March, 1792, elected King's 
Professor of the Practice of Medicine. In 1797 
Dickson was admonished by the electors for neglect 
of duty and for persistence of this neglect he 
was, on December 4, 1797, deprived of his office. 
Stokes' s second term of seven years as Professor 
ended on February 6, 1812, and on that day 
Martin Tuomy was appointed his successor. No 
reason has been assigned for this displacement 

1 T. C. D. Statutes, vol. i, p. 241. * Reg., vol. vi, p. 31. 

' Ibid., p. 33. 

Q3 



230 JAMES MACARTNEY AND 

of Stokes, and that it did not meet with his 
approval is evident from the fact that he con- 
templated taking legal action against the electors 
on the ground of insufficient notice. 1 The Col- 
lege of Physicians, however, obtained Counsel's 
opinion that three lunar months', not three 
calendar months', notice was all that was re- 
quired by the Act, and Stokes had to remain 
satisfied with this. On April n following he 
obtained leave from the Board to deliver a course 
of lectures on the Practice of Medicine in the 
Medical Lecture Room No. 22, Trinity College. 
A similar leave was given in the next year, and 
Stokes continued to lecture on Medicine in the 
University for some time, though he did not 
hold any medical professorship. 

It has been stated that Stokes resigned his 
Senior Fellowship on account of conscientious 
scruples, 2 he having joined the religious sect 
known as the ' Walkerites ', but this statement is 
not borne out by the Register of the Board. The 
sect of the Walkerites had been founded about 
1804 by John Walker, a Fellow of Trinity College. 
Walker held, among other opinions, that all 
Christians should practise the advice of St. Paul, 
and ' salute one another with a holy kiss '. A 
Chapel of the sect was opened in Stafford Street, 
and the congregation soon became large, but 
dissensions arose as to the necessity of observance 
of St. Paul's advice in public assemblies. 3 The 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 36. * Cameron, Hist., p. 503. 

' Ibid., p. 486. 



WHITLEY STOKES 231 

two sub-sects resulting from this division were 
termed at the time the ' Osculists ' and the ' Anti- 
Osculists '. Whether Stokes adopted these opinions 
or not, or if he did which of the sub-sects he joined, 
we have been unable to discover, but his own 
letter leaves us in no doubt that it was for an 
entirely different reason he resigned his Fellowship. 

In 1814 the Board had under consideration the 
establishment of a Chair of Natural History. It 
was decided that such a Chair should be instituted 
and offered to Stokes, if he resigned his Fellowship. 
The Chair was to be worth 800 a year, but was 
not at any time ( to be tenable with a Fellowship ' ; 
The Professor was to deliver at least twenty-six 
lectures each year in the months of May and June, 
and was to be allowed to charge fees for such 
lectures to any students not on the College books 
who wished to attend. The appointment was for 
life, subject to the control of the Board ' in like 
manner, and under like penalties, as are settled 
with respect to the Professor of Divinity by the 
Statutes '. l In consequence of this appointment 
Stokes handed to the Board the following written 
statement : ' In consequence of my having been 
elected to the Lecturership of Natural History 
by the Resolution in the Registry of the 3oth 
of May last, and in Reliance on the same, I do 
hereby resign my Senior Fellowship in Trinity 
College Dublin.' 2 

This action of the Board in so richly endowing 
a Chair of Natural History has been the subject 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 173. * Ibid., p. 179. 



232 JAMES MACARTNEY AND 

of some comment, but it must be remembered that 
in their appointment of Stokes they were securing 
his services as a teacher at a smaller salary than 
he might justly have expected as a mere adminis- 
trative officer in the College. 

On January 15, 1816, Stokes was elected an 
Honorary Fellow of the College of Physicians, and 
on December 14, 1818, he was elected Physician 
to the Meath Hospital in the place of Thomas 
Egan, deceased, and on the I5th June following he 
was elected Professor of Medicine in the College 
of Surgeons School as successor to John Cheyne. 
His appointment as Physician to the Meath he 
resigned in favour of his son the great William 
Stokes in 1826, but he continued his lectures in the 
College of Surgeons till 1829, an d on November 13, 
1830, he succeeded Hill as Regius Professor of 
Medicine. 

In one of the letters of ' Erinensis ' to the Lancet, 
which Cameron l attributes to Dr. Herries Greene, 
a very pleasant picture is drawn of Stokes as 
a lecturer. In this description the writer tells us 
that ' besides the excellence of the matter in his 
discourses, the composition is invariably correct, 
sometimes beautiful and sublime as the subject 
admits ', and again, ' having concluded his lecture 
he lays aside the didactic formality of their 
Profession ; the elevation of the naturalist sub- 
sides into the dignified familiarity of the com- 
panion ; seated upon the end of his table he is 
surrounded by his pupils, and inculcates by a 

1 Cameron, Hist., p. 339. 



WHITLEY STOKES 233 

practical illustration those amenities of life of 
which he is so warm an advocate, and so perfect 
an example.' * 

In this courtesy of demeanour, Stokes seems to 
have differed from many of his contemporaries. 
Graves, speaking in 1821, contrasts the manners 
of Irish physicians with those of French, very much 
to the disadvantage of the former. He speaks of 
the ' laudable curiosity on the part of the student 
suppressed by a forbidding demeanour or an 
uncourteous answer from his teacher '. And again 
of French physicians, ' we do not find them 
indulging in coarse, harsh, and even vulgar 
expressions to their hospital patients ; we do not 
find them with two vocabularies one for the rich, 
and another for the poor.' z 

Stokes did not write much on medical matters. 
In 1793 he published in Latin his thesis for the 
M.D. degree, taking as his subject ' Respiration '. 
In 1817 he published a small pamphlet on the 
subject of contagion, in which he advocated 
advanced views on the necessity of isolation of the 
sick and disinfection of their houses. He also 
published an English-Irish Dictionary, a reply to 
Paine's Age of Reason, and a booklet combating the 
views of Malthus on Population. On April the 
I3th, 1845, he died at his house in Harcourt Street 
at the age of eighty-two ; he was survived by his 
wife for just three years. 

1 Lancet, vol. iii, 1824, p. 58. 

* Graves Lectures, 1864, pp. 6 and 7. 



CHAPTER XII 
THE NEW SCHOOL 

As knowledge of anatomy is the foundation of 
all study of medicine, so an efficient Anatomical 
Department is essential to the success of a School 
of Medicine. With the appointment of Macartney 
the School of Physic was to enter on a period of 
activity which had hardly been dreamed of before. 
Macartney, fresh from the London Schools, full of 
vigour and energy, determined to make the School 
of Physic in Ireland equal if not superior to the 
great schools of London and Edinburgh. The 
duties of the Professor of Anatomy consisted in 
delivering a course of twelve Public Lectures, open 
to all students of the University, and also a course 
of Systematic Lectures on five days in the week, 
together with superintending the work in the 
dissecting-room. Besides this he had to deliver in 
his turn clinical lectures in the Hospital to the 
students of the School. This latter duty almost 
at once caused some friction, for since Macartney 
had no licence to practise Physic from the College 
of Physicians the Fellows of that College were not 
permitted to consult with him. This anomalous 
position of a teacher of clinical medicine, not him- 
self licensed to practise the subject which he 
taught, Macartney seems to have made no effort 




"O 
N 

CO 



O 
O 

O 

in 



THE NEW SCHOOL 235 

to alter, as he did not apply to the College of 
Physicians for a licence. Had he done so there 
can be no doubt that such a licence would have 
been granted to him as a graduate of medicine of 
St. Andrews, and an honorary graduate of Dublin. 
On the i6th of August, 1824, the Fellows of the 
College of Physicians themselves removed the 
difficulty by electing him an Honorary Fellow. 

On November i, 1813, Macartney delivered his 
first introductory lecture in Trinity College, taking 
as his subject the importance of anatomy in 
medical education. In that year fifty-three 
students entered for the systematic course and 
twenty-one for dissections. This session was so 
occupied by teaching and preparing specimens 
for the Museum, and by lecture-room duties, that 
Macartney had little time left to originate any 
administrative reform in the School. 

The procedure at the final examination for 
medical degrees was at the time unsatisfactory. 
The student having finished his course of study 
presented a certificate to that effect to the Board, 
who granted him a Liceat ad examinandum. This 
the candidate presented to the Examiners, and at 
the examination, which was conducted in Latin, 
each of the Professors in turn examined him 
orally for fifteen minutes. If the Examiners con- 
sidered the knowledge shown at this examination 
sufficient, the Board granted the candidate leave 
to perform acts, after which he had a grace for his 
degree. Macartney was anxious to increase the 
efficiency of the Professors' examination by intro- 



236 THE NEW SCHOOL 

ducing practical tests, and to effect this he sug- 
gested to his colleagues that they should in the 
case of each candidate hold a private examination 
in English, and if the candidate did not pass this 
examination satisfactorily, he was to be dissuaded 
from applying for a Liceat. This plan did not meet 
with the approval of the King's Professors, who 
met to make representations on the subject to the 
College of Physicians. Boyton and Tuomy drew 
up a report which was submitted to the College 
of Physicians at their meeting on October I, 1814, 
in which they stated that this departure from 
ancient custom would tend to lower the standing 
of the Profession and make the examination held 
under the Liceat a mere formal procedure with- 
out dignity. Crampton, the Professor of Materia 
Medica, wrote stating that he was not present 
at the meeting at which this report was drawn up, 
and that he had refused to sign it as it did not 
meet with his approval. The College, however, 
adopted the view of the two Professors contained 
in the report, and passed a resolution directing the 
King's Professors that they were not ' to be 
present at any examination for medical degrees, 
in which any question might be put or answer 
received in the English language '* They also 
resolved that all the clinical lectures in Dun's 
Hospital and the reports of the cases taken there, 
were to be in the Latin tongue. This resolution 
was sent to the Board of Trinity College, who 
forwarded a copy of it to Hill, the Regius Professor 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 138. 



THE NEW SCHOOL 237 

of Physic, with a request that he would inform 
them whether the examinations for degrees held 
under the Liceat ad examinandum were conducted 
in Latin. Hill replied as follows : 

' Examinations in English as introductory to a learned 
Profession are so absolutely contrary to the conceptions 
which I entertain of a literary education, as to render it 
impossible that I would tolerate them in any case in 
which I possessed any influence. No instance of the kind 
has ever happened to me, and in the examinations of 
Medical Candidates under a Liceat ad examinandum how 
could I in any possibility be satisfied thro' such examina- 
tion of the Candidates being Doctrina idoneum.' 1 

In extenuation of this opinion we must remem- 
ber that Hill, himself an excellent classical scholar, 
was at the time seventy-two years old. A com- 
promise was eventually effected through the inter- 
vention of Provost Elrington, whereby the pre- 
liminary examination, as well as the examination 
under the Liceat were both conducted in Latin. 

At this time the number attending lectures in the 
School rose rapidly, and the old Anatomy House 
was no longer sufficient for their accommodation. 
To give more space to the Professor of Anatomy 
the Board, on January 24, 1815, directed that the 
' wax-works ' should be removed to the top story 
of the house, and that an additional building 
should be ' erected in the garden adjacent to the 
Anatomy House ' . 2 In the folio wing year the Natural 
Philosophy School was appropriated to Anatomy, 
the instruments in it being ' removed to the Room 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 138. * Ibid., p. 157 a. 



238 THE NEW SCHOOL 

over the Ante dining Hall V Macartney was not 
content with merely delivering his own course of 
lectures in the School, but was anxious that the 
most complete facilities for education should be 
afforded to students. With this object he applied 
to the Board for leave for Arthur Jacob to deliver 
lectures in the Anatomy Theatre on the construc- 
tion and diseases of the Eye, and permission for 
this was granted in April i8i8. 2 In the following 
September he obtained permission for Dr. Pent- 
land to deliver a complete course of lectures on 
Midwifery. This subject was not at the time 
taught in the School of Physic. The Board had, on 
October i, 1803, permitted Francis Hopkins ' to 
read the introductory lectures of his course of 
Midwifery in the Medical lecture room in the 
College ', but a Chair in Midwifery was not 
established till many years later. As there was 
a Professor of Midwifery in the School of the 
College of Surgeons, and the Master of the Rotunda 
Hospital gave regular courses of lectures in the 
subject, it was obviously to the advantage of the 
School of Physic that the students should not be 
compelled to seek teaching in this important 
subject in rival institutions. 

In 1820 the number of students studying 
medicine in the School of Physic reached 303, and 
the problem to find accommodation for them became 
urgent. Macartney was compelled to repeat his 
lectures twice each day as there was not room for 
the entire class in the theatre at one time, and, to 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 203. * Ibid., p. 218. 



THE NEW SCHOOL 239 

add to the difficulties, the floors in the old Anatomy 
House were found to be in a very dangerous state. 
Under these circumstances the Board, on Septem- 
ber 27, 1820, resolved ' that for the present the use 
of the Building No. 22, is granted for the purpose 
of holding the lectures in Anatomy and Chirur- 
gery ', and that ' a plan for building a new House 
for those purposes is to be furnished by the 
Architect to the Bursar'. 1 Macalister 2 states 
that this permission was accompanied by the 
condition that no dead body be brought into the 
room, but the resolution of the Board, as given in 
the Register, contains no such proviso. 

Nothing more was done about the new building 
during this session, and in March 1821 Macartney 
wrote urging the Board to proceed with the new 
building. In reply to this request the Board 
informed him that when the Professors and the 
architect would agree as to the plans the Board 
were prepared to obtain estimates, and they ap- 
pointed a committee consisting of Doctors Phipps, 
Lloyd, and Wilson, Senior Fellows, ' to determine 
on the best site.' 3 This proved a matter of con- 
siderable difficulty, and various suggestions were 
put forward. Macartney wanted a building on 
the site at present occupied by the Pathological 
Laboratory and Dental Hospital, with openings 
into Lincoln Place and into the College. The 
Provost suggested that the site of the old Anatomy 
House should be selected, but eventually it was 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 280. * Macalister, Macartney, p. 131. 

* Reg., vol. vi, p. 299. 



240 THE NEW SCHOOL 

decided that the building should be ' on the 
ground heretofore the Bowling Green V 

The College park at that time presented a very 
different appearance from what it does at present. 
When the College was founded its southern 
boundary was formed by a badly-made road, 
known as St. Patrick's Well Lane, so called from 
the holy well of St. Patrick which was situated 
in the College ground almost opposite the end 
of the present Dawson Street. About 1682, the 
old Danish mound, or Thingmote, which occupied 
the present position of St. Andrew's Church, was 
removed, and the earth of which it was composed 
was deposited in St. Patrick's Well Lane, so as 
to raise this considerably above the level of the 
College ground. The new road thus formed was 
called Nassau Street, after the Prince of Orange, 
and the Board of Trinity College built a high brick 
wall separating their property from the street. 
About the same time the Board gave permission for 
a bowling green to be laid down in the park, and 
allowed as a subscription towards the undertaking 
the sum received from ' the last Commencement 
supper fees'. 2 The park was to a certain extent 
laid out and planted in 1722, but it remained, 
especially towards its eastern end, more or less 
of a marsh where, even as late as the end of the 
eighteenth century, snipe might sometimes be found. 
In this condition the park continued till in 1842 the 
old boundary wall was replaced by the present rail- 
ings, and in 1852 the ground was drained. 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 342. * Reg., vol. iii, p. 241. 



THE NEW SCHOOL 241 

In April 1823 the Board advertised for estimates 
for the new Medical School buildings, according to 
the plans of Mr. Morrison, the College architect. 
Several estimates, varying from 3,980 to 5,350, 
were received, and that of Messrs. Bergin, 
M'Kenna and Woods 1 was accepted, and the 
work was commenced in May. Macalister takes 
the Board to task for not having insisted that the 
plans of the building should satisfy the Professors. 
It would appear, however, that the plans, as sub- 
mitted by the architect, were sent by the Board 
to Macartney for his criticism, and the architect 
was directed to modify his plans in accordance with 
these criticisms before the Board advertised for 
estimates. It is always a difficult matter for a 
body like the Board to adjudicate in a professional 
matter of the kind, and one does not see what 
more they could have done than accept the plans 
of the architect prepared under such conditions. 
Macartney seems to have felt himself aggrieved 
that he was not given a free hand in the matter, 
but just as subsequent events failed to justify his 
objection to the site selected, so probably he was 
not infallible in his ideas as to the architectural 
details. There was, it is true, some difficulty 
about light, but when the attention of the Board 
was directed to this, they immediately ordered 
that the required alteration should be made, and 
voted a sum of 100 for the purpose. 2 

There were other troubles connected with the 
building, besides those connected with the plans, 

1 Reg,, vol. vi, p. 342. * Ibid., p. 352. 

R 



242 THE NEW SCHOOL 

for in the Register, on the I4th of February, 1824, 
we read that ' it appearing that a violent assault 
had been made on the workmen employed at the 
new Anatomy House by journeymen carpenters 
in combination, it was agreed that the Bursar 
be directed to offer a reward of 100 for the dis- 
covery of those concerned '.* The reward, however, 
does not appear ever to have been claimed. One 
day when Macartney was inspecting the building 
just before its completion, he met the architect 
and expressed his opinion of the work in very 
plain terms. Words led to blows, and the meeting 
ended by Macartney breaking his umbrella over 
Morrison's head. An action at law was started in 
consequence, but peace was made between the 
parties by the Provost. 2 On November i, 1825, 
Macartney delivered his inaugural lecture in the 
new School, and stated that ' The Board of Trinity 
College have bestowed a more valuable gift upon 
the community by building this house than if they 
had founded ten hospitals '. 3 

During this session a most serious charge was 
brought against Macartney, involving not only 
his character, but that of the School. It appears 
that a youth named Clements, who had attended 
lectures in the School, when dying of fever, had 
refused the ministrations of the Church, avowing 
himself an Atheist. This youth protested that 
any one who studied physiology would naturally 
come to adopt such views. As Macartney taught 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 354. * Macalister, Macartney, p. 164. 

1 Ibid., p. 1 66. 



THE NEW SCHOOL 243 

physiology in the School his enemies were only 
too glad to fix on him the responsibility for 
this youth's opinions, and a charge of teaching 
materialism was formulated against the Professor. 
At the instance of the Archbishop of Dublin, the 
Board cited Macartney and his accusers to appear 
before them, in order that the charges might be 
investigated, and, after a very full hearing of the 
evidence Macartney was honourably acquitted of 
the charges by the unanimous vote of the Board. 
This accusation attracted considerable attention 
at the time, not only in England, but also in 
Europe, and Macartney received many letters 
congratulating him on his acquittal. 

It was during the early part of Macartney's 
tenure of the Professorship that a Society of 
Medical Students, the forerunner of the present 
Biological Association, came into active existence. 
As early as May 2, 1801, permission had been 
granted for ' a Medical Society under the control 
of the Board ' * to meet within the College, but this 
Society does not seem to have flourished and we 
hear nothing more of it. On November 26, i8i4 > 
the Board granted their permission to a Society 
of Medical Students to hold their meetings in the 
lecture-room in No. 22 Trinity College. 2 This per- 
mission was, however, withdrawn in January 1823 3 
and afterwards the Society seems to have languished, 
if it did not actually expire. It was revived again 
in 1853 by Robert Ball, under the name of the 
Dublin University Zoological and Botanical Asso- 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 371. * Ibid., vol. vi, p. 44. * Ibid., p. 336. 



244 THE NEW SCHOOL 

ciation, and in 1859 published a volume of Trans- 
actions, after which we again lose sight of it till 
it was revived later in its present form. 

At this time another trouble which was seriously 
to menace the prosperity of the School was coming 
into prominence. In the early days of medical 
teaching in Ireland there seems to have been no 
difficulty in procuring an adequate supply of 
material for anatomical dissections. It did not 
need a large supply to satisfy the requirements 
of the five dissecting tables in the old school, 
and prior to the establishment of the school of 
the College of Surgeons in 1784, the Anatomical 
Theatre in Trinity College was the only public 
dissecting-room in Dublin. In the eighteenth cen- 
tury the supply of subjects was obtained by the 
removal of recently buried bodies from the city 
graveyards, for though the College of Physicians 
had the right of demanding the bodies of a certain 
number of executed criminals each year for the 
purpose of dissection this privilege does not seem 
to have been exercised. The method of procuring 
anatomical material by robbing graves sometimes 
got the students into trouble. In the Dublin 
Gazette for September 4, 1750, we read : 

' Last Fryday evening some young Surgeons went in 
a Coach to Doneybrook to take up the corpse of a child 
who had been buried in that Churchyard the night before : 
While they were digging open the grave, the father of the 
child got information of it, and assembling some of his neigh- 
bours, came to the place by the time they had got the body 
up ; when they fell on them, took the corpse back again, 
and severely chastised the young gentlemen for their pains.' 



THE NEW SCHOOL 245 

In the same paper for October 2, 1750, there is 
published a letter from one William Smith, ' now 
under sentence of death in Newgate/ in which he 
says : 

' As to my corporal frame, I know it is unworthy of 
material notice ; but for the sake of that reputable family 
from which I am descended, I cannot refrain from anxiety 
when I think how easily this poor body in my friendless 
and necessitous condition, may fall into the possession of 
the Surgeons and perpetuate my disgrace beyond the 
severity of the law.' 

On these grounds he prays the ' humane ' to supply 
him with funds to enable him to have his body 
decently buried in consecrated ground. 

The difficulty of getting subjects in Edinburgh, 
and the high price they commanded, culminated 
in 1828 in the atrocities of Burke and Hare, 
who systematically murdered persons and sold 
their bodies to the Schools. The discovery of 
the crimes committed by these men created a 
popular outburst throughout the kingdom against 
the methods of the resurrectionists and led to many 
riots, in one of which the dissecting-room of 
Dr. Alexander Moir in Glasgow was burned by the 
mob. Macartney was fearful for the safety of his 
own department in the College, especially as at 
that time the neighbourhood of Lincoln Place, 
or Park Street, as it was then called, was in- 
habited by a very undesirable population. There 
was trouble, too, with the Porter, Cuddy, who 
appears to have tried on several occasions to stir 
up the people against the Professor and the School. 

R3 



246 THE NEW SCHOOL 

Under these circumstances Macartney wrote a 
letter to the papers in which he says : 

' I do not think that the upper and middle class have 
understood the effects of their own conduct when they 
take part in impeding the progress of dissection, nor does 
it seem wise to discountenance the practice by which 
many of them are supplied with artificial teeth and hair. 
Very many of the upper ranks carry in their mouths 
teeth which have been buried in the Hospital Fields.' 

We do not know what weight this appeal had, but 
it does not seem calculated to lead to the open 
support, at all events, of the practice of the 
resurrection-men. In 1828 he adopted a better 
method, and drew up the following document, 
which he signed himself, and induced many other 
notable persons to sign : 

' We whose names are hereunto affixed, being convinced 
that the study of Anatomy is of the utmost value to 
mankind, inasmuch as it illustrates various branches 
of Natural and Moral Science, and constitutes the very 
basis of the healing art ; and believing that the erroneous 
opinions and vulgar prejudices which prevail, with 
regard to dissections, will be most effectually removed by 
practical example ; do hereby deliberately and solemnly 
express our desire that, at the usual period after death, 
our bodies, instead of being interred, should be devoted 
by our surviving friends to the more rational, benevolent, 
and honourable purpose of explaining the structure, 
functions, and diseases of the human body.' l 

Macartney took an active part in the legisla- 
tion which eventually led to the passing of the 
Anatomy Act of 1832. He gave evidence before 
the Parliamentary Committee, and though he 

1 Lond. Med. Gazette, vol. i, p. 637. 



THE NEW SCHOOL 247 

did not approve all the provisions of the Bill, he 
gave it his general support, believing that some 
legislation was necessary to remove the difficulties 
and restraints under which teachers of Anatomy 
laboured. 

In Dublin there does not seem ever to have been 
an actual shortage of anatomical material before 
the passing of the Anatomy Act, such as existed in 
other places, but the constant worry and danger 
involved in procuring material told heavily on the 
anatomical teachers and threatened at any time to 
ruin both them and the School in which they 
taught. 



CHAPTER XIII 

SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. MACARTNEY'S 
RESIGNATION 

IN addition to the dissecting-room and chemical 
laboratory, lecture-rooms had been provided in the 
new Medical School for the Professors of Anatomy 
and Chemistry. The three University Professors 
of Anatomy, Chemistry, and Botany lectured there, 
the two former in the winter session, from Novem- 
ber till the end of April, and the latter in the 
summer session, from May till July. The other 
lectures of the School, in the theory and practice 
of Medicine, in the institutes of Medicine, and in 
Materia Medica and Pharmacy, together with the 
Clinical lectures, were delivered in Sir Patrick 
Dun's Hospital. These six Professors, with their 
various departments, constituted the School of 
Physic in Ireland, which, being partly housed and 
paid for by the University and partly by the 
College of Physicians, was under the joint control 
of the two Colleges. It is important to remember 
that at this time the School of Physic was not 
looked on as the Medical School of Trinity College, 
any more than it was the School of the College of 
Physicians. 

The charge has often been brought against 
Trinity College that she neglected her School of 



SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 249 

Medicine, and looked on it as something apart from 
the University and unworthy her care till its very 
success forced recognition. History, however, does 
not warrant such a charge, and sufficient answer 
to it is found in the readiness with which the Board 
sanctioned the expenditure of over 4,000 on the 
new school buildings, besides taxing their revenues 
with a considerable sum yearly for the support of 
the various Professors and their departments. 
True, the new Medical School was walled off from 
the rest of the College, and entrance to it from 
the College park forbidden, but in explanation of 
this we must remember that the majority of the 
students there were not students of Trinity College, 
and not directly under the control of the Fellows. 

The students of the School were divided into 
two classes, those who took the Arts course in the 
University, and those who, in accordance with the 
provisions of the School of Physic Act, had merely 
matriculated in the School, and of the whole class 
the latter division supplied by far the greater 
number. Though the control of the School was 
equally divided, there was one function over which 
Trinity College had undivided authority that of 
conferring degrees, or qualifications on the students 
who had completed their courses. Over this func- 
tion of the University the College of Physicians had 
no control. The College of Physicians had, it is 
true, the right given them by the 45th Section 
of the School of Pnysic Act, to examine all can- 
didates who sought their licence, and in accordance 
with the Charter of the College no one could 



250 SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 

practise Physic within a radius of seven miles of 
Dublin who did not possess this licence ; still the 
privilege gave the College little real control over 
the qualifications of medical practitioners. Com- 
paratively few took the licence of the College of 
Physicians, and licentiates of both the Royal 
College of Surgeons and the Apothecaries' Hall 
practised with impunity, though they were not 
entitled to call themselves physicians. 

We have seen that on the 2Qth June, 1792,* the 
Board adopted a form of diploma which was to be 
given to all Medical students who had matricu- 
lated in the School, on completing their course of 
medical study and passing a prescribed examina- 
tion. This diploma was identical for those who 
had graduated in Arts and for those who had not, 
but on the latter the Board would not confer a 
degree. This caused some discontent among the 
students, who considered that the diploma held 
out the promise of a degree, which promise the 
Board refused to fulfil. To remove this discontent 
the King's Professors submitted to the College of 
Physicians for their approval a form of diploma 
which left out all reference to a degree, merely 
stating that after due study ' iudicamus eum 
habilem atque idoneum qui Medicinam exerceat* . 
The College approved this diploma and stated that 
they would examine for licence any one presenting 
it. The diploma was then submitted to the Board, 
and on May 3, 1817, it was adopted. 2 The College 
of Physicians were, however, not satisfied with the 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 221. * Reg., vol. vi, p. 200. 



SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 251 

medical curriculum, and on September 14, 1820, 
they received a report from a committee which 
had been appointed ' to consider what changes in 
the system of medical education should be laid 
before the Board of Trinity College '. This report 
recommended that the period of study should be 
lengthened to five years, and that during the third 
year students should be compelled to attend the 
Clinical lectures in Dun's Hospital, and that during 
the fourth year they should attend Clinical lectures 
' in some Capital or University out of Ireland 
where medicine is publickly taught '. This, how- 
ever, was an admission which would have been 
fatal to the School, for there would be no justifica- 
tion for its existence and its power to license 
medical men, were it not in a position to teach 
them without compelling them to attend at some 
other school. The report was, however, modified, 
and on October 2, 1820, it was ordered that the 
following letter should be sent to the Board of 
Trinity College. 1 

' The President and Fellows of the King and Queen's 
College of Physicians in Ireland feel it their duty to 
address you on a subject of great importance, not only 
to the profession over which they preside, but to the 
community at large. The manner in which the diplomas 
in Medicine are conferred in the School of Physic has been 
found to occasion serious injury to the public by tending 
to encourage as Medical Practitioners persons who are 
in no respect qualified to be recognised as such. It appears 
to the College most strange that while the Surgeon is 
obliged by law to have an apprenticeship of five and an 

1 Col. P. Minutes. 



252 SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 

Apothecary of seven years, the Physician, whose profes- 
sional studies are more extensive than either, and whose 
literary attainments ought to be more general, should 
obtain a diploma in the short space of three years only. 

' The Academic Degrees of M.B. cannot be procured 
until the completion of the seventh year after the period 
of entrance into the University. The College are of 
opinion that a period of at least five years study ought 
to be required from those who are candidates for the 
diploma. They would further submit to the Provost and 
Board of Trinity College that no person be permitted to 
matriculate until he should have completed his eighteenth 
year, and that it be considered imperative on each 
Medical student to attend annually two Professors, and 
the Hospital and Clinical lectures during the last two 
years. The College further beg leave to submit to the 
Board the propriety of coming to a determination on the 
subject as speedily as may be convenient.' 

This letter was received by the Board at their 
meeting on October 5, 1820, and ' the Register 
was directed to communicate to the College their 
approbation of the principle and to invite them 
to suggest a detailed plan '.* This the College of 
Physicians at once proceeded to do and presented 
the following report to the Board. 

' That the principal defects in the present system of 
medical education are 

' i. The too easy admission of Students many of whom 
commence their Medical Education without those previous 
classical acquirements which are indispensable for the 
study of a learned profession. 

' 2. The facility afforded by the very rapid attainment 
of medical honours, thus legalising practice resting on no 
solid basis, on the product of a crude and undigested mass 
of information. 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 280. 



SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 253 

' 3. The Committee therefore think that if the following 
regulations, suggested for the adoption of Trinity College, 
were enacted the errors complained of would be remedied 
as far as can be expected at present. 

' These proposed regulations it will be observed differ 
somewhat from the first submitted but preserve their spirit. 

' I. That no person shall be admissible as a medical 
student of the University until he shall have undergone 
a Classical Examination in the courses required for 
entrance into Trinity College. 

' 2. That Certificates of Medical Study for five Sessions 
(authenticated by the proper officer) at any University 
or Universities where residence is enforced, shall be 
required previous to examination for a diploma, and that 
the said Certificate shall set forth that the Candidate has 
during the above mentioned period attended lectures on 
Anatomy, Chemistry, Materia Medica, the theory and 
practice of Physic, two courses of Clinical lectures in 
two separate Sessions (one whereof shall have been 
delivered in Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital) and has dissected 
for one Session.' 

This important and comprehensive document 
was sent to the Board who, on November 25, 1820, 
resolved that 

' Such Medical Students as apply for Matriculation be 
informed by the present Senior Lecturer, that a new 
arrangement is under consideration respecting the 
period of medical studies to which they must be subject '- 1 

The outlook was distinctly hopeful, and on 
June n, 1821, the Registrar of the College of 
Physicians communicated to that body the sub- 
stance of a correspondence he had had with the 
Registrar of Trinity College. Time passed, how- 
ever, without anything being done, and on 

1 Reg., vol. vi, p. 288. 



254 SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 

September 26, 1822, the College of Physicians 
resolved that the negotiations with Trinity College, 
respecting medical education, should be revived. 
Objections were raised by the Board to the sug- 
gested scheme, and on the 28th October, 1822, 
the College of Physicians offered, ' if the Board 
object to the trouble of examining the candidates 
for matriculation ', to appoint Examiners them- 
selves. Even this did not bring matters to a head, 
and on April 12, 1823, the College of Physicians 
learned from the Royal College of Physicians of 
London that ' they do not consider the Diploma 
of the School of Physic in Ireland a sufficient 
qualification on which to grant an examination for 
license '. Subsequently the College got Counsel's 
opinion that they were not bound to recognize the 
diploma of Trinity College but only the degree, 
yet in spite of this nothing was done to rectify 
matters till many years later. The College of 
Physicians did what they could, and on January 17, 
1825, directed their Professors ' that they for the 
future shall call a roll of their respective classes 
on each day of lecture, and that they shall withhold 
certificates from such pupils as shall not have 
attended one-half of the lectures during the present 
session and three-fourths in succeeding sessions '. 
On February 22, 1834, the Board of Trinity 
College unanimously adopted the following regula- 
tions for Medical Students : 1 

' A Bachelor in Arts shall be entitled to a Liceat ad 
Examinandum for the Degree of Bachelor of Medicine 

1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 87. 



SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 255 

on his producing Certificates of his having attended the 
following courses, if the Certificates show that during 
each of four Sessions he attended one and not more than 
three of the courses which begin in November. 

' The Degree may be conferred at the July Commence- 
ments of his middle Bachelor year.' 

The courses of lectures consisted of those 
delivered by the six Professors of the School of 
Physic, the course in Midwifery delivered by the 
Professor of Midwifery of the College of Physicians, 
together with ' one year's attendance on the 
practice of Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital including 
six months' Clinical lectures in that Hospital '. 
No increase was made in the length of time to be 
spent in study, and nothing was arranged with 
regard to students who did not graduate in Arts. 
On May 7, 1836, the restriction as to the middle 
Bachelor year was withdrawn and candidates 
were allowed to proceed to the M.B., at the Com- 
mencements next after that at which they 
graduated A.B. 1 

Not only was there difficulty with the diplomas 
but soon the degrees were not above suspicion. 
Thus on April 21, 1838, the College of Physicians 
drew the attention of the Board to the fact that 
' a full medical degree was without any reason 
recently conferred ' on a Student of the School who 
had not graduated in Arts. The Board replied 
that the degree in question was ' conferred by 
inadvertence and a misconception as to the facts ', 
but at the same time promised that ' such mistake 
will furnish matter of future caution and not of 

1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 119. 



256 SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 

precedent V One can picture the joy of the 
student in thus outwitting the Board, but such 
a state of things was eminently unsatisfactory. 
No matter what regulations were made by the 
School Authorities as to the instruction to be given 
by the Professors, it was competent for the Board 
of Trinity College, without consultation with the 
College of Physicians, to qualify all and sundry 
who might apply to them for that purpose. That 
the standard of education was kept as high as it 
was is greatly to the credit of the University. 
There was at the time no medical man among the 
Senior Fellows. The position of Medicus remained 
vacant from the resignation of Whitley Stokes in 
1816, till the appointment of John Toleken in 
1838. The Board consequently were entirely 
dependent on outside advice for information on 
medical matters. Even so, no great difficulty 
would have arisen, had the medical faculty, 
consisting of the Regius Professor and the six 
Professors, worked harmoniously together. They 
did not do so, and this want of harmony led to 
many troubles. Hill, the Regius Professor of 
Physic, at the time an old man, seems to have 
taken little interest in the working of the School, 
and we do not find from the Registers that he 
afforded the Board any assistance in harmonizing 
the work of the other Professors. Allman, who 
was Professor of Botany, and Barker, Professor of 
Chemistry and Registrar of the Faculty, seem to 
have been content to pursue their way in peace, but 

1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 145. 



SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 257 

Macartney, the Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, 
undoubtedly the most attractive lecturer in the 
School, was by no means content to let things 
take their own way. His activity and anxiety for 
reform continually led him into conflict with his 
colleagues, especially the King's Professors, who 
were not a little jealous that one who was a 
mere surgeon should presume to dictate to them. 
We have seen how, in the matter of the Latin 
examination, though he had the support of 
Crampton, the Professor of Materia Medica, he 
was opposed by Boyton and 1 uomy, the Professors 
of the Institutes and Practice of Medicine. A 
further difficulty arose in connexion with the 
Hospital. Macartney was in the habit of making 
post mortem examinations on the patients who 
died in the Hospital, being actuated by the 
double motive of teaching Pathology to the 
students, and of obtaining specimens for his 
museum. The King's Professors objected to this 
procedure, doubtless feeling that it was not con- 
sonant with either their dignity or reputation that 
their clinical diagnosis should be revised by the 
post mortem findings of an unsympathetic colleague. 
They may have been of the opinion of the dis- 
tinguished Dublin clinician of later days who 
expressed intense dislike to post mortem examina- 
tions, since they so often upset his diagnoses. 
From what we know of Macartney, we feel sure 
that he would not hesitate to tell the students 
exactly the conditions he found, no matter what 
opinion might have been formed during the 



258 MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION 

patient's life by the attending physician. Macart- 
ney appealed to the College of Physicians for 
permission to continue these examinations. The 
College was of course unable to grant it, and while 
they expressed a desire that nothing would be 
done by their Professors to limit the Pathological 
material available for the students and the museum, 
they informed Macartney that in their opinion the 
right to direct a post mortem examination rested 
with the physician in charge of the patient at 
the time of death, subject of course to the regula- 
tions of the Board of the Hospital. The Board of 
Governors decided the matter by resolving that 
the physician who had been in attendance on each 
patient, and no one else, should make the post 
mortem examination in case of death. 1 

The next difficulty was more serious, for it ulti- 
mately resulted in Macartney severing his connexion 
with the School. The hours fixed for the various 
lectures during the winter session beginning Monday, 
November 7, 1814, were advertised as follows : 

' At 9 o'Clock the Patients will be visited at Sir Patrick 
Dun's Hospital by the Clinical Lecturer. 

' At ii o'Clock Dr. Boyton will lecture on the Institutes 
of Medicine. 

' At 12 o'Clock Dr. Crampton will lecture on Materia 
Medica and Pharmacy. 

' At i o'Clock Dr. Macartney will lecture on Anatomy, 
Physiology, and Surgery. 

' At 2 o'Clock Dr. Barker will lecture on Chemistry. 

' At 3 o'Clock Dr. Tuomy will lecture on the Practice of 
Medicine. 

1 Macalister, Macartney, p. 192. 



MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION 259 

* The lectures on the Practice of Medicine, the Institutes 
of Medicine and Materia Medica will be delivered at Sir 
Patrick Dun's Hospital those on Anatomy and Chemistry 
in Trinity College.' 

This was a pretty full day's work, but the 
students had three years in which to take out the 
lectures, the only regulation being that they should 
take at least one course and not more than three 
each year. It was left entirely to the option of 
the student what order he should take the lec- 
tures in, and consequently there was of necessity 
considerable overlapping. The first difficulty arose 
in 1822 over the hour for the Clinical lectures, as 
three of the Professors wished the hour changed 
to eleven o'clock and two of them to twelve 
o'clock. Under the circumstances the College of 
Physicians refused to make any alteration during 
that session. Then later on Crampton wrote to the 
College of Physicians complaining that Professor 
Macartney insisted on giving anatomical demon- 
strations during his lecture hour. Macartney 
stated that attendance on the demonstrations was 
purely optional for the student. The matter was 
referred to the Board, who however declined to 
interfere. These matters were adjusted, but later 
on, when the requirements of Edinburgh University 
necessitated the attendance on separate courses 
of lectures on Surgery and Anatomy, further diffi- 
culties arose. In order to comply with these 
requirements, Macartney, in 1832, obtained the 
sanction of the Provost to divide his course of 
lectures, taking Anatomy at one o'clock five days 



260 MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION 

a week, and Surgery at three o'clock on four days. 
Macalister says that this arrangement was sanc- 
tioned by the Board on September 29, 1832, but 
we can find no entry of such sanction in the 
Register. On October n, 1832, there is a minute l 
stating that 

' The Board directed the Registrar to communicate 
to Dr. Macartney that nine o'Clock in the morning is the 
only time open for his delivering his extra lectures.' 

Macartney, however, appears to have adopted 
the two hours of one and three o'clock for his lec- 
tures. This latter hour was the one appropriated 
to the lecture of Dr. Charles Lendrick, who had 
that year been appointed King's Professor of the 
Practice of Medicine. On November 9, 1833, the 
Board 

' Resolved, that the Registrar be directed to write to 
Dr. Lendrick to inform him that the only lecture given 
from three to four o'Clock, which will be recognised by 
the Board as a qualification for a liceat ad examinandum 
is that given by the Professor of the Practice of Medicine.' z 

No open rupture had as yet occurred, and on 
July 29, 1834, Macartney was, according to the 
Register of the Board, unanimously elected 
Professor of Anatomy for seven years. 3 On 
December 13, 1834, the Board again approached 
Macartney on the subject of the hours of his 
lectures, writing to him the following letter : 4 

' Sir, I am directed by the Provost and Senior 
Fellows to direct you to refrain from lecturing at one of 

1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 40. * Ibid., p. 79. 

* Ibid., p. 94. Ibid., p. 98. 



MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION 261 

those hours which have been already appropriated to the 
lectures of another Professor of the School of Physic.' 

To this letter Macartney replied, pointing out the 
difficulties involved by obedience to the order of 
the Board, and on December 20, the following 
reply was sent to him : l 

' Sir, I have read your letter to the Board and am 
desired to inform you that they will not require you to 
refrain from lecturing at the hour of three o'clock for 
the remainder of the present Session ; but they will not 
extend this indulgence beyond that period.' 

On October 13, 1835, a letter was read to the 
Board from Lendrick, in which it was stated that 
Dr. Macartney had published an advertisement in 
the newspaper whereby it appeared that he did not 
intend ' to comply with the directions given to 
him to refrain from lecturing from three to four 
o'clock '. The Registrar was directed to send the 
following letter to Macartney : 2 

' Sir, I am directed by the Board to communicate to 
you their order of this day which is as follows : Ordered 
Dr. Macartney shall not lecture at the hour from three 
to four o'clock, that having been already assigned to 
another of the Professors in the School of Physic.' 

On the I7th of November the Board noted that 
Macartney had absolutely ignored their order, 
and so decided to take Counsel's opinion as to the 
best method of enforcing it. On November 28, 
there being still no sign of obedience on the part 
of the Professor, the Board ordered ' that the 

1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 98. * Ibid., p. 108. 

S3 



262 MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION 

Anatomy House be closed every day from three 
to four o'clock '. 

On the 2 ist of December it was ordered that 
' the closing of the doors of the Anatomy House 
is to be discontinued as Dr. Macartney gives up 
his three o'clock lecture '.* Matters were now 
hurrying to a conclusion, and in April 1836 
Macartney published an advertisement that for the 
future he would deliver four lectures each week, 
two in Surgery and two in Anatomy. Such a 
course was hopelessly inadequate, as the University 
of Edinburgh required five lectures in each subject 
each week. This state of affairs was brought to 
the notice of the Board on April 28, 1836, and 
Stephen Sandes, then a Senior Fellow and after- 
wards Bishop of Cashel, undertook to communicate 
with Macartney ' in hope that he may change his 
intention '.* 

On April 28, Sandes reported to the Board his 
failure to move Macartney, and it was decided again 
to take Counsel's opinion. On November 26 the 
Board made an order that the Professor of Anatomy 
was to lecture in the Anatomy Theatre at one 
o'clock on five days a week during the medical 
session from the ist of November to the end of 
April, ' and that this order be esteemed a Bye-law 
agreeable to the 26th Sect, of 4oth of Geo. 3d.' 8 
The next entry in the Register with reference to 
Macartney is on July 13, 1837,* ' Dr. Macartney 
having resigned his Professorship of Anatomy and 

1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 173. * Ibid., p. 118. 

' Ibid., p. 127. Ibid., p. 134. 



MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION 263 

Surgery the Board resolved to elect a Successor 
on the 2 ist of October.' 

We have given the details of this important 
dispute as fully as possible from the Register of the 
Board, for Macalister, presenting the matter from 
Macartney's point of view has, we think, not been 
quite just to the College. Whatever opinion may 
be formed as to the wisdom of thwarting a Pro- 
fessor like Macartney who had done so much for 
the School, there can be no doubt that the Board 
gave him ample notice of their intention not to 
allow him to lecture between three and four 
o'clock. Macartney absolutely disregarded the 
orders of the Board till, by the closure of the 
School, he was compelled to desist from lecturing. 
Obedience having been forced by such drastic 
measures Macartney seems to have determined to 
avenge himself, and his proposal to lecture only 
four times a week was one that could not be 
tolerated. The Board tried persuasion, and only 
resorted to compulsion when that failed, and we 
cannot see that there was any other course open 
to them than to accept the resignation of an 
officer who so openly flouted their authority. 

Macartney was undoubtedly one of the ablest 
teachers who had ever held a Professorship in the 
School of Physic, and besides being a great teacher 
he was a great reformer. With his pupils, whom he 
treated with severity but with fairness, he was 
popular, but he seems never to have got on well 
with his colleagues. Conscientious and hard 
working himself he could not and would not 



264 MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION 

tolerate inefficiency in others, and he never 
hesitated to express his opinion in the plainest 
terms of those, no matter what position they 
occupied, who appeared to him to deserve his 
censure. 

Like all great reformers he was bound to meet 
with some unpopularity, but Macartney seems 
rather to have looked for it than avoided it. When, 
during the fourth period of his tenure of the 
Professorship he looked back on the work that 
he had accomplished, he seems to have felt himself 
absolutely essential to the School and in a position 
to dictate to every one and to obey none. Such 
a condition of affairs was impossible, and as 
Macartney would not give way, there was no 
alternative but to dispense with his services. 
Thus while we yield to none in our admiration of 
the work he did for the School, we cannot but feel 
that he was himself responsible for his downfall. 

The great museum of anatomical and patho- 
logical preparations which he had collected in 
Dublin was sold to Cambridge in 1836, for an 
annuity of 100 a year for ten years, and in the 
museum of that University many of the prepara- 
tions still remain. 

The year after his resignation of the Chair of 
Anatomy, Macartney published in London his 
classical work on Inflammation, which a re- 
viewer in the Lancet stated was ' the most original 
medical work that has appeared since the days of 
John Hunter '. During the last few years of his 
life he occupied himself chiefly with problems of 



MACARTNEY'S RESIGNATION 265 

the reform of medical education, and advocated 
views which afterwards were largely adopted. On 
Monday morning, March 9, 1843, he was found 
dead in his study, where he had gone to finish 
a paper which he was writing for the meeting of 
the Association of Fellows and Licentiates of the 
College of Physicians. The last words he wrote 
before the pen dropped from his hand in death 
may form his epitaph, for though he is dead his 
work in the School lives on : 

All forms that perish other forms supply 
(By turns we catch the vital breath and die), 
Like bubbles on the sea of matter borne, 
They rise, they break, and to that sea return. 



CHAPTER XIV 
SCHOOL REFORM GRAVES AND STOKES 

AFTER Macartney's resignation of the Professor- 
ship of Anatomy the Board met, and on October 24, 
1837, out of eight candidates who applied for the 
Professorship, elected Robert Harrison. Guided 
by their previous experience, they insisted on 
Harrison signing the following declaration : l 

1 The Board of Trinity College Dublin, having elected 
me into the Professorship of Anatomy and Surgery in the 
University of Dublin, I do hereby promise and engage to 
perform the duties of the said professorship with Diligence 
and Regularity according to the usages heretofore of the 
said Professorship and conformably to the instructions 
of the Board, and I fully accede to the regulations made 
by the Board that all preparations made by the Professor 
shall be the property of the College, but the expenses 
attending them to be defrayed by the College.' 

Robert Harrison, an Englishman and native of 
Cumberland, was born in 1796* In 1814 he 
graduated in Arts in Trinity College, having 
previously been indentured as an apprentice to 
Abraham Colles. In 1815 he obtained the diploma 
of the London College of Surgeons, and in the 
following year of the Dublin College, being elected 
a member of that body on June 9, 1818. In 1817 
he was appointed Demonstrator of Anatomy in 

1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 136. * Cameron, Hist., p. 398. 



GRAVES AND STOKES 267 

the College of Surgeons School. He was for a time 
a pupil of Macartney in the School of Physic, and 
in the summer of 1824 took his M.A. and M.B. 
degrees, proceeding to the degree of M.D. in the 
spring of 1837. On August 4, 1827, he had been 
elected Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in 
the College of Surgeons, and he therefore came to 
the School of Physic with considerable experience 
as a teacher. 

Some ten years before the appointment of 
Harrison the staff of the School had been 
strengthened by two notable additions in the per- 
sons of Robert James Graves as King's Professor 
of the Institutes of Medicine, and William F. Mont- 
gomery, appointed Professor of Midwifery by the 
College of Physicians on October n, 1827. Harri- 
son got over the difficulty of the hours for his 
lectures by getting the sanction of the Board for 
himself and Montgomery to give evening lectures. 
This solution of the difficulty Macartney had 
always refused to adopt, for he maintained that 
the entrance to the School from Park Street was 
not a fit place for students at night time. 

The Board granted 100 to the Professor of 
Anatomy to be ' expended on articles for com- 
mencing an extensive collection for a museum for 
the Anatomy House Y and allowed him 30 a year 
as a salary for an assistant and curator. They 
also gave him 15 to be given at his discretion in 
prizes at an annual examination to be held by 
him in the subjects of his course. 2 

1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 137. * Ibid., p. 176. 



268 SCHOOL REFORM 

On January 19, 1839, a very important memorial 
was submitted to the Board by the Professors of 
the School of Physic, 

' praying for a lessening of the number of examinations 
necessary for a degree in Arts to medical students attend- 
ing with diligence two of the courses of the medical 
Professors during each year of the undergraduate course.' * 

The Board, however, replied that they 'cannot 
perceive any way in which they can meet their 
wishes ', but asked for information as to the prac- 
tice in the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and 
Edinburgh. In consequence of the information 
they received the Board approved a new set of 
regulations for medical graduates. 2 

' The times for graduation are Shrove Tuesday and 
the first Tuesday in July. The Medical Examinations 
terminate on the Tuesday of the preceding week. Can- 
didates must previously have completed their medical 
education, and produce a chart testifying to the details 
of the same and subscribed by the Registrar to the 
Professors of the School of Physic, as well as the persons 
signing the certificates. 

' Medical students may obtain the degree of Bachelor 
of Medicine in two ways : 

' ist. Candidates who have graduated in Arts may 
obtain the Degree of Bachelor of Medicine at any of the 
ensuing half yearly periods of graduation provided the 
requisite Medical Education and Examinations shall 
have been accomplished. The payment at entrance 
is J 5- The fees for the Study in Arts during the four 
years are 7 ios., each half year, and the fees for 
graduation in Arts 8 iys. 6d. 

' 2nd. Candidates are admissible to the Degree of 

1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 180. * Ibid., p. 240. 



GRAVES AND STOKES 269 

Bachelor of Medicine without previous graduation in 
Arts at the end of five years from the July following the 
Hilary Examination of the first undergraduate year, 
provided the usual Education and Examination in Arts 
of the first two years of the undergraduate course shall 
have been completed, as also the Medical Education and 
Examinations as in the case of other candidates. The 
fees for the two years' study in Arts (besides the usual 
entrance payment of 15) are 7 los. each. 

' The graduation fees for the Degree of Bachelor of 
Medicine are 11 155. The testimonium of the M.B. 
degree will contain the following certificate : 

' Testamur . . . sedulam operam medicinae narrasse et 
examinationes coram professoribus feliciter sustinuisse.' 

' The Medical Education of a Bachelor of Medicine 
comprises attendance on the following courses of lectures 
(of which three at the discretion of the candidate may be 
attended at the University of Edinburgh) in the School of 
Physic established by Act of Parliament. His attendance 
must be distributed through four Anni Medici, so that 
he must get credit for one course at least, and not for 
more than three courses in any one session. 

' The courses are on Anatomy and Surgery, Chemistry, 
Botany, Materia Medica and Pharmacy, Institutes of 
Medicine, Practice of Medicine, Midwifery (by the Pro- 
fessor of the College of Physicians), Clinical lectures at 
Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital during at least one session of 
six months, as delivered by the Professors in the School 
of Physic, the attendance on such Clinical lectures by the 
Professors to be extended to three additional months of 
another session, unless the practice of the Hospital be 
certified by the ordinary Physicians of the Institution to 
have been attended from the ist of May till the ist of 
November following the session. 

' The fees for attendance on the Clinical lectures are 
regulated by Act of Parliament. They amount to 
3 3$. to the Professors for each three months' attendance 
and (provided the student be of two years' standing in the 



270 SCHOOL REFORM 

University) 3 35. to the Treasurer of the Hospital for 
the first year, with a proportionate sum for any longer 
period. The fees for each of the other courses are four 
guineas. 

' The Examinations for the Degree of Bachelor of 
Medicine are conducted by the Regius Professor of the 
University, the six Professors of the School of Physic, and 
the Professor of Midwifery to the College of Physicians. 

' No further examination is requisite for the Degree 
of Doctor of Medicine, which may be taken at the expira- 
tion of three years from taking the Degree of M.B., 
provided the candidate shall have graduated in Arts. 
The fees for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine, which 
entitles the possessor to the same election privileges as the 
degree of Master of Arts, are 22. 

' P.S. The first undergraduate year may be saved by 
attending the October Examination of that year by a 
student who has entered not later than the first Monday 
after July of the same year and who has completed the 
payments previously made by his class.' 

On November 16, 1839, the Board further re- 
solved : x ' That in future students shall not be 
admitted to the degree of M.B., having passed (in 
conformity with the late medical regulations) the 
Senior Freshman year, except that they pay fees 
for the half-year in which the final examination of 
that year takes place.' 

By these regulations greatly increased privi- 
leges were granted to medical students, while, at 
the same time, the course of study was made 
more stringent. The diploma previously given 
to students who had merely matriculated, and 
which was so much objected to by the College of 

1 Reg., vol. vii, p. 236. 



GRAVES AND STOKES 271 

Physicians, disappeared, and instead students were 
compelled to take two years of the Arts course, 
unless they availed themselves of the privilege 
of saving a year. At the same time the degree of 
Bachelor of Medicine was opened to those who did 
not graduate in Arts. A difference was always 
held to exist between those who took this degree 
after graduating in Arts and those who did not so 
graduate, the latter being described as Bachelors 
in Medicine by diploma, and not being permitted 
to proceed to the M.D. degree unless they graduated 
in Arts. Very few of these degrees by diploma 
were granted, there being only one in the three 
years 1842-44. In spite of this there was con- 
siderable objection to the practice, and in 1842 
proposals 1 were received by the Board from the 
Professors urging that the regulation should be 
rescinded. On July 14, 1846, the Board resolved 
to rescind that part of the regulations made in 
July 1839 by which students were allowed to 
take the degree of M.B. without previous gradua- 
tion in Arts. 2 The regulations as regards clinical 
lectures were also modified, and in 1841 the Board 
decided that the students were to attend the course 
of clinical lectures given during the summer session 
in Dun's Hospital. This attendance was to take 
the place either of hospital attendance under the 
ordinary physicians, or of the additional course of 
clinical lectures which was formerly required, but 
was to be in addition to the ordinary winter 
course. 

1 Reg., vol. vii, pp. 97 and 99. Ibid., p. 318. 



272 SCHOOL REFORM 

The Board of Trinity College and the College of 
Physicians, though they disputed about the medical 
curriculum, still remained on the most friendly 
terms, and on July 8, 1839, the Board offered to 
admit to the Honorary Degree of M.D. any six 
medical men whom the College of Physicians 
might recommend, even though they had not 
graduated in Arts. The College expressed their 
gratitude for the honourable privilege conferred on 
them, and suggested the names of Robert Reid, 
M.D., Edin. ; John Mollan, M.D., Edin. ; Robert 
Collins, M.D., Glasgow ; William Stokes, M.D., 
Edin. ; Evory Kennedy, M.D., Edin. ; and Aquilla 
Smith, L.K. & Q. C.P.I. These degrees were con- 
ferred at the Summer Commencements, and the 
subsequent careers of the recipients quite justified 
the selection made by the College. 

Having succeeded in introducing lectures on 
midwifery into the medical course, the College of 
Physicians was most anxious to add to the curri- 
culum the study of Medical Jurisprudence, and 
with this view informed the Board on i7th October, 
1839, that Thomas Brady had been elected Pro- 
fessor of that subject, and asked that attendance 
on his lectures should be made compulsory on 
those seeking medical degrees. This request the 
Board referred to the Medical Faculty of the 
School, who reported that they considered it 
inexpedient to increase the number of lectures 
necessary for the students. The College of 
Physicians was not satisfied with this reply, and 
in the following May again wrote to the Board 



GRAVES AND STOKES 273 

saying that the University of Edinburgh had 
agreed to recognize Professor Brady's lectures, 
provided Trinity College, in the event of their 
requiring such a course, would also do so. The 
Board, however, declined to make any conditional 
promise. The College of Physicians did not cease 
to urge on the Board the importance of this sub- 
ject. Twice in the year 1842 a deputation of the 
physicians waited on the Board, but it was not 
till November 15, 1845, that the Board consented 
to a conditional promise to recognize the lectures 
if teaching in the subject was made obligatory. 
On March 3, 1849, the following new curriculum 

was adopted : 1 

Course. Duration. 

1. Botany ...... 3 months. 

2. Chemistry . . . . . . 6 

3. Practical Chemistry under the Professor 

of Chemistry . . . . . 3 

4. Anatomy and Physiology . . .6 

5. Practical Anatomy and Anatomical 

demonstrations under the superinten- 
dence of the Professor of Anatomy .6 

6. Materia Medica . . . . . 6 

7. Institutes of Medicine . . . .6 

8. Practice of Medicine . . . .6 ,, 

9. Theory and Practice of Surgery by a 

Professor to be appointed by the Board 6 

10. Medical Jurisprudence by the Professor of 

the College of Physicians . . .3 

11. Midwifery by the Professor of the College 

of Physicians . . . . 6 ,, 

The Student not to be required to attend both the 
courses of practical Chemistry and Medical Jurisprudence, 
1 Reg., vol. ix, p. 92. 
T 



274 SCHOOL REFORM 

but it is to be left to his option to select which of these 
courses he will attend. 

12. Twelve months' attendance on Sir Patrick Dun's 
Hospital with nine months' attendance on the Clinical 
lectures at that Hospital. 

13. Six months' attendance on the practice of some 
general Hospital approved by the Board of Trinity 
College, together with Clinical lectures on Surgery. 

The whole course of medical study to occupy four years, 
one at least of the courses of lectures and not more than 
three of those which are not optional, to be attended 
during each year. 

Besides the recognition of Medical Jurispru- 
dence this curriculum involved some very impor- 
tant changes, the most notable of which was the 
separation of Surgery from the Chair of Anatomy. 
In June of 1842 Harrison had suggested this 
separation to the Board, but it was not till these 
new regulations were adopted that his suggestion 
was carried out, and Robert W. Smith appointed 
Professor of Surgery at a salary of 100 per 
annum. This opened the way for the subsequent 
granting, first of diplomas, and then of degrees in 
surgery. The recognition of teaching in hospitals 
other than that of Sir Patrick Dun was also an 
innovation. The systematic lectures were all 
delivered in Trinity College instead of partly in 
Dun's Hospital, in accordance with the resolutions 
of the Board of the 4th October, 1841, and 25th 
July, 1846. 

During the ten years between 1840 and 1850 
the Board made very liberal allowances towards 
increasing the collections in the various museums 



GRAVES AND STOKES 275 

of the College. These grants were made in addi- 
tion to the sums set aside annually for the upkeep 
of the departments of Anatomy and Chemistry, 
and show the interest taken in the teaching of 
Natural Science. On i5th June, 1840, Dr. Coulter 
offered his herbarium to the College, provided he 
was elected curator of the botanical part of the 
Museum at a salary of 100 a year. This offer 
was accepted, and during the next four years sums 
amounting to 1,164 IOS - were given to purchase 
shells, plants, and books for the collection. Of 
this sum 300 ' was given to the Rev. J. D. Sirr * 
on January 30, 1841, for his late father's collec- 
tion of shells ', and a year later 410 to Coulter for 
a similar collection made by him. 2 In addition to 
this Coulter was allowed 50 a year to purchase 
specimens for the Herbarium, and 50 a year for 
specimens of zoology. Dr. Coulter died in 1843, 
and the following year William Allman, who had 
been the Professor of Botany since 1809, resigned, 
receiving 100 a year as a retiring allowance. 
George J. Allman, who on March 26, 1844, suc- 
ceeded William Allman as Professor, offered to set 
aside 150 per annum out of his salary to pay 
a curator of the Herbarium. The Board agreed to 
deduct only the sum of 100 from the salary of 
the Professor for this purpose, and to add 50 
a year from their own funds. At the same time 
that Allman made this offer, William Henry Harvey 
offered his collection of 10,000 specimens to be 
added to the Herbarium, provided the College 

1 Reg., vol. viii, p. 30. * Ibid., p. 78. 



276 SCHOOL REFORM 

would elect him to the curatorship, and guarantee 
to pay him 300 for his collection if he were dis- 
missed from the office. 1 This offer the Board 
accepted, and allowed him first 10, and after- 
wards 30 a year to be spent in purchasing addi- 
tions to the collection. Besides this yearly allow- 
ance several payments were made for special 
additions, such as collections of Hungarian plants, 
and rooms were fitted up in No. 40, Trinity College, 
for the Herbarium. 2 

Harvey afterwards, in 1856, succeeded Allman 
as Professor of Botany, and was one of the most 
distinguished occupants of the Chair. 

In 1844 yet another collection of specimens was 
offered to the College by Robert Ball, on con- 
dition that he was appointed curator of the 
Museum at a salary of 200 a year. Besides pre- 
senting his collection, which he valued at a low 
estimate at 500, Ball proposed to attend regularly 
at the Museum and lecture on its contents, and he 
also proposed to pay an assistant who would, 
without additional expense to the College, be able 
to mount many of the specimens. He stated that 
his object would be to make the Museum useful 
as a teaching establishment rather than a mere 
collection of rarities. Ball was appointed Curator 
on April 27, 1844, and it is to his exertions that the 
present Zoological Museum is chiefly due. While 
he filled this post Ball, in the year 1853, started 
the Dublin University Zoological and Botanical 
Society. In 1850 the Board conferred on him 

1 Reg., vol. viii, p. 206, ' Ibid., p. 241. 



GRAVES AND STOKES 277 

the degree of LL.D., Honoris Causa, and in 1851 
he was elected secretary of the new Queen's 
University, but was allowed by the Board to con- 
tinue as Director of the Museum. 1 Ball died on 
the 30th March, 1857 ; his son, Sir Charles Ball, 
is the present Regius Professor of Surgery. 

The School of Physic was fortunate in having 
on its staff during this period of its career two of 
the most distinguished men to be found in the 
long roll of Irish physicians. The names of Graves 
and Stokes are written large on the pages of 
Medical History, and the reputation of the Dublin 
School owes to these two men a debt the extent 
of which it is difficult to overestimate. 

Robert James Graves was the son of Richard 
Graves, Senior Fellow of Trinity College and 
Regius Professor of Divinity, and Eliza, daughter 
of James Drought, also a Fellow of Trinity College. 
Born in Dublin on March 27, 1797, Graves was 
educated in Trinity College, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1815, and M.B. in 1818. He then spent 
three years in foreign travel and study, visiting 
the great schools of London, Edinburgh, France, 
Germany, and Italy, and while in the latter 
country formed an intimate acquaintance with 
the great artist Turner. Returning to Dublin, he 
was, on the 27th November, 1820, admitted a 
Licentiate of the King and Queen's College of 
Physicians, and on July 31 following was elected 
Physician to the Meath Hospital. At the beginning 
of the winter session of that year Graves delivered 

1 Proc. Zoolog. and Bot, Assoc., p. 7. 



278 SCHOOL REFORM 

his first introductory lecture to the students of the 
hospital, and pointed out those broad principles 
of medical education which were destined to 
change the clinical teaching not only of the Dublin 
School but of the Medical Schools throughout the 
world. The keynote of this method was the 
personal observation of disease by the student 
under the guidance of a sympathetic teacher. 
' From the very commencement the student ought 
to witness the progress and effects of sickness, and 
ought to persevere in the daily observation of 
disease during the whole period of his studies.' 
In this lecture Graves gives a graphic picture of 
the method of clinical teaching then in vogue, 
and from it we can understand how great was the 
difference between his method and that in general 
use in the hospitals. Under the old method the 
majority of the students never came in contact 
with the patients at all, but had ' to trust solely 
to their ears for information '. This information, 
too, in Dun's Hospital, was, till the year 1831, 
given in Latin, or, as Graves says, ' I have called 
the language Latin, in compliance with the gener- 
ally received opinion of its nature.' On April 7, 
1823, Graves was chosen a Fellow of the College 
of Physicians, and on October 2, 1827, was elected 
King's Professor of the Institutes of Medicine. 
From this time till his resignation in 1841, Graves 
taught in the School of Physic and Dun's Hospital, 
while at the same time he continued his clinical 
lectures in the Meath. In 1838 he took a leading 
part in the foundation of the Dublin Pathological 



GRAVES AND STOKES 279 

Society, and was its first President. This Society, 
the first Pathological Society established in the 
United Kingdom, 1 continued its separate exis- 
tence till, with the other medical societies of 
Dublin, it was merged in the Royal Academy of 
Medicine in Ireland. In 1843 Graves published 
his System of Clinical Medicine, which contained 
his celebrated clinical lectures. These lectures 
had previously been published in the medical 
papers of the day, and in 1838 an edition of them 
had been issued in Philadelphia in Dunglison's 
American Medical Library. Of this work it is 
unnecessary that we should speak in detail. The 
teaching contained in it on such subjects as 
nursing, the treatment of fevers and consumption, 
represents the basis of our present practice. 2 
Trousseau, writing of the work, says : 

' For many years I have spoken of Graves in my 
Clinical lectures ; I recommend the perusal of his work ; 
I entreat those of my pupils who understand English to 
consider it as their breviary ; I say and repeat that, of all 
the practical works published in our time, I am acquainted 
with none more useful, more intellectual.' 3 

In 1827, on his election as King's Professor, 
Graves had to vacate his Fellowship of the College 
of Physicians, but was immediately admitted as 
an Honorary Fellow, and on his resignation of the 
Professorship he was reinstated, and elected Presi- 
dent in the years 1843 and 1844. In the former 
year he resigned his physiciancy to the Meath 

1 Hurry, p. 7. * Walsh, p. 174. 

3 Graves, Lectures, 1864, p. vii. 



2 8o SCHOOL REFORM 

Hospital, ' in consequence ', as he says, ' of finding 
that I could no longer discharge my duties to the 
patients and pupils in a satisfactory manner.' x In 
1849 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
and he was also a member of many of the learned 
societies of Europe. He died on March 20, 1853, 
after a protracted and painful illness, which was 
borne with courage and patience. 2 As an obituary 
notice published at the time says : ' By his death 
the Irish School has lost one of its brightest orna- 
ments ; one whose labours had made his name 
familiar in every European and American School.' 3 
The life of the great William Stokes has been 
told so well and so often by different writers 4 that 
it is only necessary to give the briefest outline of 
it here. William, the son of Whitley Stokes, was 
born in Dublin in July 1804. His early education 
was conducted at home under the eye of his 
father, his tutor being John Walker, ex- Fellow of 
Trinity College, and founder of the Walkerite sect 
already referred to. At first Stokes seemed to be 
an indolent, if not a stupid, pupil, but later on he 
devoted himself to study with that energy which 
characterized his later life. In his early days he 
was the constant companion of his father, and for 
some time assisted him in his lectures on natural 
history in Trinity College. After some short pre- 
liminary study in the school of the College of 

1 Ormsby, p. 125. * Studies in Physiology, p. Ixxxiii. 

* Med. Times and Gazette, March 26, 1853. 

4 Stokes, Life ; Acland, Memoir ; Dub. Univ. Mag., August 
1874. 



GRAVES AND STOKES 281 

Surgeons and in the School of Physic, William 
Stokes went to Glasgow, where he chiefly worked 
at chemistry in the laboratory of Professor Thomp- 
son. Leaving Glasgow he proceeded to Edinburgh, 
where he graduated M.D. in 1825, reading a thesis 
De Ascite. Before he graduated in Edinburgh he 
published a small octavo book of 239 pages, en- 
titled An Introduction to the use of the Stethoscope ; 
with its application to the Diagnosis in Diseases of 
the Thoracic Viscera including the Pathology of these 
various Affections. For this work, which was one 
of the first on the subject published in the English 
language, he received the sum of 70. After 
taking his degree in Edinburgh, Stokes returned 
to Dublin, and was at once appointed one of the 
physicians to the Dublin General Dispensary, and 
in the following year, on the resignation of his 
father, he was appointed Physician to the Meath 
Hospital. There he began his lifelong friendship 
with Graves, and there the two great physicians 
together developed that clinical teaching which 
has made the name of the Meath Hospital famous 
in the annals of medicine. On December 3, 1825, 
Stokes was admitted Licentiate of the College of 
Physicians, and was elected Honorary Fellow on 
St. Luke's Day, 1828, having in that year published 
Two Lectures on the Use of the Stethoscope. In 1826, 
Whitley Stokes, then Professor of Medicine at the 
College of Surgeons, asked the Royal College of 
Surgeons that his son William might be associated 
with him in his lectures in order that the students 
might enjoy the benefit of his clinical teaching 



282 SCHOOL REFORM 

at the Meath. 1 The request was refused, and in 
1829 William Stokes succeeded Henry Marsh as 
Lecturer in Medicine in the Park Street School, 
which post he held till 1842. In 1837 he pub- 
lished his work on the Diseases of the Lungs and 
Windpipe, a work which immediately placed him 
in the forefront of medical thinkers of his time, 
and which still remains one of the classics in the 
literature of our profession. On October 12, 1840, 
Whitley Stokes resigned the Regius Professorship 
of Medicine in the University, and William was 
immediately elected to that office for the period 
of his father's lifetime. 2 On the death of Whitley 
Stokes the Regius Professorship became vacant, 
the Board had the difficult problem of deciding 
between Graves and Stokes, who became can- 
didates for the post. On May 3, 1845, Stokes was 
elected, receiving four votes, while Graves received 
three. 3 Though the subsequent career of Stokes 
fully justified this choice, one cannot help regretting 
that Graves was not elected, as then the roll of 
Regius Professors might have included the names 
of both these men. 

During the thirty-eight years that Stokes held 
the Professorship he worked with a whole-hearted 
devotion to the interests of the School and Uni- 
versity. Almost every page of the Registers of the 
Board bear testimony to the work he did in watch- 
ing the interests of the University and guiding the 
development of the School. In the negotiations 

1 Cameron, Hist., p. 449. * Reg., vol. viii, p. 15. 

J Ibid., p. 259. 



GRAVES AND STOKES 283 

which led to the passing of the Medical Act of 
1858, he acted as the ambassador of the Board, 
and, on the formation of the General Medical 
Council under that Act, Stokes was nominated 
Crown representative for Ireland. Every one of 
the reforms in the School of Physic during Stokes's 
tenure of office bear his impress, and many were 
entirely due to his exertion and influence. 

In 1854 appeared his work on the Diseases of 
the Heart and Aorta, which was really the second 
part of his former publication. Besides these 
formal works the contributions from his pen to 
the medical papers were numerous, so many 
indeed that a mere enumeration of them occupies 
nearly five pages in the volume of his life which 
was published by his son in 1898. It was in this 
work on the Diseases of the Heart and the Aorta 
that he describes that form of respiration associ- 
ated with his name and that of another great Irish 
physician, John Cheyne. The passage is so admir- 
able as a piece of descriptive writing that we give 
it in full : * 

' A form of respiratory distress, peculiar to this affection 
(fatty degeneration of the heart) consisting of a period of 
apparently perfect Apnoea, succeeded by feeble and short 
inspirations, which gradually increase in strength and 
depth until the respiratory act is carried to the highest 
pitch of which it seems capable, when the respirations 
pursuing a descending scale, regularly diminish until the 
commencement of another apnoeal period. During the 
height of the paroxysm the vesicular murmur becomes 
intensely puerile.' 

1 Heart and Aorta, p. 336. 



284 SCHOOL REFORM 

During his long life Stokes received honours 
from many societies and corporations. In 1836 
he was one of the six men on whom, at the recom- 
mendation of the College of Physicians, the 
Dublin University conferred the degree of M.D. 
Honoris Causa, and in the October of that year 
the College of Physicians elected him a Fellow, 
choosing him as their President in the years 1849 
and 1850. In 1861 he received the honorary 
degree of LL.D. of Edinburgh, in 1865 the D.C.L. 
of Oxford, and in 1874 the LL.D. of Cambridge. 
In 1862 he was appointed Physician in Ordinary to 
the Queen in Ireland, and in the following year 
was elected Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1867 
he was President of the British Medical Associa- 
tion, and in 1874 of the Royal Irish Academy. 
Thus did men delight to honour our great Regius 
Professor, and honouring him did honour to 
themselves. In 1876 illness compelled Stokes to 
withdraw from active work, and he retired to his 
home, Carrig Breacc, at Howth, where he died 
peacefully on January 6, 1878. 



CHAPTER XV 
MEDICAL LEGISLATION 

WHILE Stokes was Regius Professor of Medicine 
several Acts dealing with medical matters were 
passed by the English Parliament, and many 
changes were also made in the regulations of the 
School of Physic. The agitation which eventually 
resulted in the passing of the Medical Act of 1858, 
was noticeable as early as 1841 in the deliberations 
about the School, and the Board of Trinity College 
took an active part in the preliminary inquiries 
concerning the Bill. On several occasions both 
the Regius Professor and Dr. Montgomery, the 
Professor of Midwifery, represented the Board in 
London at these inquiries. The College of Physi- 
cians on January 4, 1845, 1 wrote to the Board 
stating that they had learned that the University 
of Dublin proposed to enter into a concordat with 
the London College of Physicians, and with the 
Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Edinburgh, 
for the purpose of establishing a conjoint final 
examination in Medicine. The College of Physicians 
desired to join in this concordat, and to this pro- 
posal the Board expressed their agreement. This 
proposal was never carried out, but it is interest- 
ing in view of the more recent suggestion of a one- 
portal system for medical qualification. 

1 Reg., vol. viii, p. 263. 



286 MEDICAL LEGISLATION 

The election of Robert W. Smith as Professor 
of Surgery, in pursuance of the resolution of the 
Board on March 3, 1849, caused considerable 
annoyance to the Council of the Royal College of 
Surgeons, who applied to the Board for the recog- 
nition of the curriculum of their School in the case 
of students seeking degrees. With a view to giving 
effect to such an arrangement, the Board on 
November 12, 1850, adopted new regulations with 
regard to the Medical School. By these regula- 
tions any candidate for the M.B. degree might 
take his courses in the College of Surgeons School, 
provided such courses were equivalent to those of 
the School of Physic, and provided also he attended 
one Annus Medicus in the School of Physic. 1 
Students in Arts, whose names were on the College 
books, were to be allowed free attendance on 
one course of each of the University Professors' 
lectures, while medical students in the Junior 
Sophister year were to be allowed credit for the 
terms and term examinations of that year. 
Students were also to be permitted to take the 
Bachelor degree in Medicine at the same commence- 
ments at which they took the B.A. Licentiates of 
the College of Surgeons who were graduates in 
Arts, were to be permitted to present themselves 
for the examination for the M.B. degree as soon 
as they had finished one Annus Medicus in the 
School of Physic. This latter regulation was not 
to take effect unless the College of Surgeons 
agreed to admit Bachelors of Medicine of the 

1 Reg., vol. ix, p. 293. 



MEDICAL LEGISLATION 287 

University of Dublin to the Licence of the College 
on their producing certificates of having attended 
two courses in the School of that College, or in 
some school recognized by that College. The 
Board further decided that an Annus Medicus in 
the School of Physic could be kept in any one of 
the four following ways : 

1. Two professional courses of six months each 

2. One six months' course and two courses of three 

months each. 

3. Three three months' courses of clinical lectures at 

Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital and further a Pro- 
fessor's course of six months. 

4. A similar attendance on the clinical lectures with an 

attendance on two of the Professors' courses of 
three months each. 

These regulations were submitted to the Council 
of the College of Surgeons, who replied on Decem- 
ber 7, I85O, 1 that they were most anxious to 
encourage their licentiates to become graduates 
of Trinity College, and consequently were prepared 
to admit to their examinations all graduates in 
Arts of the University who produced certificates 
of surgical education required by the by-laws of 
the College, of which certificates those required 
for the M.B. degree might be considered part. 
The Board replied that they would require all the 
certificates of all the Professors of the School of 
Physic to be recognized by the College of Surgeons 
if any plan of reciprocity was to be established. 
This, in view of the establishment in the School of 

1 Reg., vol. ix, p. 307. 



288 MEDICAL LEGISLATION 

Physic of surgical lectures, the College of Surgeons 
refused to do, and the negotiations fell through. 

On February 22, 1851, the Board received 
a memorial from the medical students of the 
School praying for the establishment of a School 
of Surgery. 1 The Regius Professor was sent to 
London to confer with the Medical Boards of the 
Navy and Army, to see whether a diploma, if 
granted by the University, would be recognized. 
The reply was favourable, and the Professors of 
the School suggested that the curriculum for such 
a diploma should extend over four years, during 
which time the following courses should be taken 
out : 

Anatomy and Physiology ) 

Demonstrations and Dissections'- of each three courses. 

Theory and Practice of Surgery ) 

Chemistry \ 

Practice of Medicine , , 

,,. , ., >-of each one course. 

Midwifery 

Materia Medica I 

Also a three months' course of Practical Chemis- 
try, Botany, and Medical Jurisprudence, and 
attendance for three sessions, each of nine months' 
duration, at the practice of a general hospital 
approved by the Board, with attendance on the 
clinical lectures on medicine and surgery there 
delivered. Of the twenty-seven months' hospital 
attendance, six might be passed at a lying-in 
hospital approved by the Board, but not more 
than three of the six months' courses of lectures 

1 Reg., vol. ix, p. 344. 



MEDICAL LEGISLATION 289 

were to be taken in any one year. The surgical 
diploma was to be given to any student who had 
completed his full surgical curriculum, and had 
taken out one year's Arts study. After the com- 
pletion of this one year's Arts study it was not 
to be necessary for the student to keep his name 
on the College books. 1 The Colleges of Surgeons 
of both Dublin and London protested against this 
scheme of the University. They declared that it 
was a violation of the rights of their Colleges, and 
a degradation of the profession of surgery. The 
medical papers of the time were flooded with 
letters and articles intended to prove that the 
University had no capacity to teach surgeons, and 
no authority to license them. The College of 
Surgeons in Ireland went so far as to write to 
Primate Beresford, who was the Chancellor of the 
University, but the Primate contented himself 
with forwarding the letter to the Board. The 
Board, however, satisfied with the correctness of 
their attitude, answered all and sundry who com- 
plained, and on January 24, 1852, proceeded to 
the election of a University Professor of Surgery, 
who was to hold office for a period of five years 
at a salary of 100 per annum, and whose duty 
was to conduct the examinations for the surgery 
diploma. There were two candidates, James 
William Cusack, M.D., and Robert Adams, M.D. ; 
the former was elected by four votes to three. 2 
The Board further agreed to charge the sum of 
2 i os. for the surgery diploma. 

1 Reg., vol. x, p. 63. * Ibid., p. 112. 

u 



2QO MEDICAL LEGISLATION 

While the Board and the College of Surgeons 
were wrangling over the validity of the surgical 
diploma, the President and Fellows of the College 
of Physicians were associating themselves more 
closely with the School of Physic. They approved 
the surgical diplomas of the University, and ex- 
pressed satisfaction at the attention which the 
Board was paying ' to the important object of 
raising the standard of medical and surgical 
education.' * On September 3, 1852, the College 
of Physicians agreed to admit to the licence of the 
College, without examination, all graduates of 
the University of Dublin who had performed their 
full acts, provided such candidates paid the neces- 
sary fees and fulfilled the by-laws of the College. 2 
This privilege was conditional on the President 
and Censors of the College being permitted to 
take part in the examinations and vote on the 
admission of all candidates for medical graduation. 
The Board accepted this condition, and thus, after 
a lapse of a hundred years, the President and 
Censors of the College of Physicians again became 
ex officio examiners for the medical degrees of the 
University. The scheme, however, did not last 
long, for on March u, 1854, the College suggested 
to the Board further regulations as to the sum- 
moning of the College of Physicians to the examina- 
tions, and suggested that a fee of a guinea should 
be paid for the attendance. The Board agreed to 
the suggestions, but professed themselves unable 
to discover any fund from which the fee was to 

* Reg., vol. x, p. 91. * Ibid., p. 163. 



MEDICAL LEGISLATION 291 

be derived. On April 26, 1856, the Professors of 
the University discussed this arrangement for the 
final examination, but at the time were unable to 
come to any conclusion. On June 14 a new plan 
for conducting these examinations was finally 
agreed to, in which the co-operation of the College 
of Physicians was not included. 1 Under the new 
scheme the candidates were to be examined 'on 
the usual Academic plan, i.e. that they be examined 
in Class and all on the same days '. The examina- 
tion was to take place in the College Hall, and 
occupy two days. The professors were to be sum- 
moned to the examination, and the summons was 
to contain the names of the candidates who were 
to be examined. The examination was to be 
partly by printed and partly by oral questions ; 
the written part taking place on the first day 
from 10 to 12 a.m., and from 3 to 5 p.m., the 
viva voce on the second day, each candidate being 
examined for a quarter of an hour. At the end 
of the examination the Professors were to meet 
in the hall and decide who had passed the examina- 
tion, and declare the results. These regulations 
were adopted by the Board, but, though there 
was no function left for the President and Censors 
of the College of Physicians in the examination, 
their official connexion with it did not terminate 
till two years later, when on July 31, 1858, the 
Board was informed that the College did not 
intend for the future to send examiners to the 
degree examinations. The Board referred this 

1 Reg., vol. xi, p. 37. 



292 MEDICAL LEGISLATION 

communication to the Professors of the School, 
who replied that they thought ' that the system 
in question has had sufficient trial, without pro- 
ducing the beneficial results expected from it V 
and in this opinion the Board concurred. 

On August 2, 1858, the first Medical Act received 
the Royal Assent. The General Council of Medical 
Education and Registration established by this 
Act was empowered to form a Register of all duly 
qualified medical men. The qualifications of those 
entitled to be entered in this Register, besides 
men in practice before August i, 1815, were defined 
in the Schedule. The registrable qualifications in 
Ireland were the Fellowship and Licence of the 
Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, the Licence 
of the Apothecaries' Hall, as well as the degrees 
of Doctor and Bachelor, and the Licence in 
Medicine and the Mastership of Surgery of any 
University in the United Kingdom. The General 
Council was given power to require evidence as 
to the course of study of persons who sought 
registration, and also to inspect the examinations 
of those bodies who were authorized by the 
Schedule to issue registrable qualifications. The 
Council were to report to the Privy Council any 
defects which they might thus discover, and 
the Privy Council might refuse registration to the 
persons qualified by the defaulting corporation. 
The Act also empowered the Council to strike off 
the Register persons adjudged guilty of conduct 
infamous in a professional respect. Duly qualified 

1 Reg., vol. xi, p. 256. 



MEDICAL LEGISLATION 293 

persons were defined as persons registered under 
the Act, and those not so registered were deprived 
of certain privileges. This Act remains sub- 
stantially in force at the present day, though 
some eleven amending Acts have since been 
passed. 

By one of these amending Acts, passed in 1860, 
the licence and diploma in Surgery of any Uni- 
versity of Ireland was recognized as a registrable 
qualification, and in 1876 a further amendment 
made the degree of Bachelor of Surgery a regis- 
trable qualification, and opened the Register to 
women. It was not till the amending Act of 1886 
was passed that a triple qualification in Medicine, 
Surgery, and Midwifery was made an essential 
condition of registration. 

Almost immediately after the passing of the 
Act, on October n, 1858, the Board again modi- 
fied the regulations for the medical degrees. On 
that date a decree passed the Senate modifying 
the University Statutes. 1 Chapter X of the new 
Statutes repealed the old Statute, De gradibus in 
medicina capessendis, and replaced it by one which 
made it necessary for a candidate for the M.B. 
degree to be a graduate in Arts, to have completed 
four years' study of Medicine, and on examination 
by the medical Professors to have been found 
idoneum. In order to proceed to the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine the candidate must have been 
qualified to take his M.B. for three full years. 
He must then make two solemn praelections 

1 Statutes, vol. ii, p. 172. 
U3 



294 MEDICAL LEGISLATION 

before the Regius Professor of Medicine dealing 
with some medical subject. By the supplementary 
portion of this decree, the rules for the M.B. were 
made also to apply to the degree of M.Ch. These 
regulations were further modified by the Statute 
of June 22, 1872, the chief change then introduced 
being the granting permission to hold an examina- 
tion before the Regius Professor for the M.D. 
degree, if that course seemed good. 1 On July 18, 
1860, the Senate decreed that a licence in Medicine 
or Surgery might be granted to those who had 
completed their professional courses but had only 
taken one year of the Arts course, 2 and on Decem- 
ber 12, 1863, this licence was made free to those 
who satisfied the requirements of the Board, even 
though they had not completed one year's Arts. 8 
Previous to 1860, medical students of the 
University had only been subjected to one exami- 
nation during the time of their medical study, 
viz. the degree examination, but on November 3 of 
that year the Board decided that in future there 
should be two. The first or ' previous ' medical 
examination was to be held at the end of the 
second year, ' the other, as heretofore, after the 
full curriculum of medical study is completed.' 
At the previous medical examination the students 
were to be examined in Anatomy and Physiology ; 
Botany and Materia Medica ; Chemistry, theo- 
retical and practical, with Chemical Physics. This 
examination, though adopted in 1860, was not 
to become compulsory till the year 1863. At 

1 Statutes, vol. ii, p. 294. * Ibid., p. 208. * Ibid., p. 237. 



MEDICAL LEGISLATION 295 

the same time the Board decided to offer for 
competition two medical scholarships, tenable for 
two years at twenty pounds per annum. The 
examination for these scholarships was to be held 
at the end of the second year of medical study; 
candidates were required to be of at least Senior 
Freshman standing, and to have kept one Annus 
Medicus in the School. 1 The first of these scholar- 
ships was awarded in June, 1861, to William 
Faussett Smith, there being no ' qualified candi- 
date for the second *. 2 

During the nineteenth century there had sprung 
up in Dublin a number of Medical Schools which, 
though they had no power to grant licences to 
their students, possessed in many cases complete 
teaching staffs. In some instances these private 
schools had only an ephemeral existence, depen- 
dent on their founder, who, if a good teacher, 
was quickly absorbed into the staff either of the 
School of Physic or of the College of Surgeons. 
In other cases, however, the schools had a more 
permanent existence. The Richmond or Car- 
michael School and the Ledwich School have only 
recently been amalgamated with the School of 
the College of Surgeons, and the Catholic Uni- 
versity School has become the medical school of 
the National University. Beside these three, the 
Park Street School and the Steevens's Hospital 
School were the most important. The former was 
founded in 1824 in Park Street, or Lincoln Place 
as it is now called, in the building which was 

1 Reg., vol. xi, p. 422. * Ibid., p. 449. 



296 MEDICAL LEGISLATION 

afterwards used for St. Mark's Hospital. The 
staff consisted of such men as James William 
Cusack, Sir Henry Marsh, James Apjohn, and 
Arthur Jacob. This school continued in active 
existence till 1849, and was a formidable rival to 
the School of Physic. In that year the principal 
proprietor, Hugh Carlyle, formerly one of Macart- 
ney's demonstrators, was appointed Professor of 
Anatomy in the Queen's College, Belfast, and the 
school was closed. The Steevens's Hospital School, 
founded in 1857 in pursuance of the report of 
the Dublin Hospital Commissioners, continued to 
attract quite a large class of students till it was 
closed by order of the Governors twenty-three 
years later. 

In January 1859 the negotiations with the 
Royal College of Surgeons, which had been broken 
off in the year 1850, were again brought forward, 
and the Board decided to receive the certificates 
of the Professors of the Royal College of Surgeons 
' as qualifications for all students applying for the 
Liceat ad examinandum, provided they had kept 
an annus medicus in the School of Physic and 
complied with the other regulations in the Medical 
School'. 1 

It was almost essential for the success of any 
private school that its certificates should be recog- 
nized by both the College of Surgeons and Trinity 
College. On February 4, 1859, the teachers of 
the private schools applied for such recognition, 
offering to give the Board the right of inspection 

1 Reg., vol. xi, p. 315. 



MEDICAL LEGISLATION 297 

of the schools, and also a veto upon the election 
of their Professors. 1 The Medical Professors re- 
commended a limited recognition, but the Board 
declined to recognize ' any Private Schools '. To- 
wards the end of this year, however, other counsels 
prevailed, and on October 12, 1859, recognition 
was extended to Steevens's Hospital School, the 
Carmichael School, and the Ledwich School, on 
' condition that duly certified returns of atten- 
dance on not less than three-fourths of the entire 
number of lectures in each course be regularly 
furnished to the Senior Lecturer '* The Board 
were most anxious to insist on a bona fide atten- 
dance on three-fourths of the lectures delivered, 
but it was found difficult to enforce such a rule 
even in the case of the School of Physic, and 
much more so in the case of the private schools. 

In 1865 the Board again insisted on the rule, 
and threatened that if it were not strictly obeyed 
they would cease to recognize these lectures alto- 
gether. 3 

On April 5, 1867, the School of Physic Act 
Amendment Act became law. This Act contains 
the only alteration which has been made in the 
School of Physic Act of 1800, and although by it 
some of the worst features of the former Act have 
been repealed, there remains much that could 
with benefit be modified. The first section of this 
Act removed the religious disabilities of the Pro- 
fessors of the School of Physic and opened these 

1 Reg., vol. xi, p. 324. * Ibid., p. 368. 

* Reg., vol. xii, p. 158. 



298 MEDICAL LEGISLATION 

offices to persons of all nations, whether they held 
a medical degree from any University or not. 
The second section repealed that part of the former 
Act which governed the election of the King's 
Professors, placing that election in the hands 
of the President and Fellows of the College of 
Physicians, and permitting the Fellows to become 
candidates for the Professorships. The Professors 
of Chemistry and Botany were relieved from their 
duties as clinical lecturers in Sir Patrick Dun's 
Hospital, these duties being assigned instead 
to the Professor of Surgery and the University 
Anatomist. If either the University Professors or 
the King's Professors neglected their duties at the 
Hospital, then it was to be competent for their 
respective Colleges to appoint a deputy to deliver 
the clinical lectures. Section XXXI of the former 
Act, which regulated the time of the systematic 
lectures in the School, was repealed and the 
Colleges were empowered to make regulations 
governing these lectures. A King's Professor of 
Midwifery was to be appointed on an equal footing 
with the other King's Professors, and was to give 
instruction in the subject at Sir Patrick Dun's 
Hospital. Section VII altered the arrangements 
made in the former Act concerning the Library, 
and set aside from the funds of the estate 70 as 
a salary for the Librarian, 30 for the purchase 
of books, and 6 6s. for a library porter. The 
purchase of books and the management of the 
library were also entrusted to the College of 
Physicians. The King's Professors, who by the 



MEDICAL LEGISLATION 299 

former Act had on their appointment to resign 
their Fellowships, were relieved of this disability. 
This Act is commonly known as ' Haughton's 
Act ', since it was mainly due to the energy 
of Dr. Samuel Haughton, then Registrar of the 
School of Physic, that it was placed on the Statute 
book. 

On May 28, 1870, the Board by decree decided 
to establish a diploma in State Medicine and sanc- 
tioned the curriculum for this diploma that had 
been recommended by the Professors of the School 
of Physic. The establishment of this diploma, the 
first of the kind in the United Kingdom, was due 
to the initiative of William Stokes, Regius Pro- 
fessor of Medicine. It was not till 1875 that the 
Universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh followed 
the lead given them by Dublin University, 1 so 
that in this important department of medical 
study Trinity College has shown the way to every 
other licensing body in the kingdom. By the 
Medical Act of 1886 this diploma was made a 
registrable qualification. 

At the same time that the Board decided to 
institute a diploma of State Medicine, the Pro- 
fessors of the School recommended that a degree 
of Bachelor of Surgery should be established. 
Since the establishment in 1858 of the Master's 
degree in Surgery it had been on a similar footing 
to the degree of M.B., but since the institution 
in 1872 of the Bachelor's degree, that of Master 
has come to be looked on as a higher qualification. 

1 Rivington, p. 399. 



300 MEDICAL LEGISLATION 

In 1876 an amending Medical Act was passed 
which made the Bachelor's degree in Surgery 
a registrable qualification. 

In 1876 the Board established the degree of 
Master in Obstetrics on a similar footing to the 
original degree of Master in Surgery. 1 In 1887 
they added the degree of Bachelor of Obstetrics, 
thus completing the medical curriculum in its 
present form. 

A new departure of great importance to the 
School of Physic was made by the Board on 
June 30, 1863, in the appointment of Samuel 
Haughton as Registrar of the School. 2 Haughton 
had graduated in Arts and been elected a Fellow 
in 1844, in 1851 had been elected Professor of 
Geology. In the following year he took his M.A. 
degree, and in 1862 was admitted M.B. and M.D. 

During the fifteen years that Haughton acted 
as Registrar he was closely identified with every 
movement for reform in the School of Physic, and 
it was mainly due to his influence that the School 
of Physic Act of 1800 was amended by the Act 
of 1867. With the appointment of a Medical 
Registrar there also came into being the Medical 
School Committee, consisting of the Professors of 
the School with the Registrar as Secretary. This 
Committee met frequently, and considered all 
matters connected with the School and made 
recommendations to the Board. Though at times 
there were differences of opinion, and the Com- 
mittee resented the authority assumed by the 

1 Reg., vol. xiii, p. 327. * Reg., vol. xii, p. 67. 



MEDICAL LEGISLATION 301 

Registrar, yet on the whole they worked most 
harmoniously and loyally for the good of the 
School. The Board had the advantage of the 
advice of this Committee on all matters of impor- 
tance in the School, and it was no longer possible, 
as it was in the closing years of the eighteenth 
century, for one man, through his influence with 
the Board, to direct the fortunes of the School 
into those channels which seemed most suitable 
to his own ideas. 

On January n, 1879, Haughton resigned 1 the 
Registrarship, and was nominated by the Board 
as Chairman of the Committee, his place as Regis- 
trar being filled on January 25 by the appointment 
of the present holder of the office, Mr. Henry W. 
Mackintosh. Many honours fell to the lot of 
Haughton during his long and brilliant career. 
In 1858 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society, in 1868 he was created D.C.L. of Oxford, 
in 1880 he was granted the LL.D. of Cambridge, 
in 1881 he was elected a Senior Fellow of Trinity 
College, and in 1884 he was made LL.D. of Edin- 
burgh. He was elected Vice-President of the 
Royal Irish Academy in 1877, and was a member 
of many of the learned and scientific bodies of 
the kingdom. 

In the management of Sir Patrick Dun's 
Hospital he took an active interest, and it was 
due to his influence that in 1864 the Hospital was 
opened to surgical as well as medical patients. 
He was also the active agent in establishing in 

1 Reg., vol. xiv, p. 50. 



302 MEDICAL LEGISLATION 

the Hospital the modern system of trained nursing. 
In the Hospital his memory is honoured by the 
presentation each year of a silver Medal in Clinical 
Medicine and Surgery. From 1869 till his death 
in October, 1897, Haughton presented these medals 
himself, and since then they are provided by a 
fund which he bequeathed to the Hospital for the 
purpose. 



CHAPTER XVI 
THE SCHOOL STAFF 

WHILE the changes detailed in the last chapter 
were in progress, the personnel of the teaching 
staff in the School underwent considerable altera- 
tion. The first notable change occurred in June 
1840, on the death of John Crampton, who had 
been King's Professor of Materia Medica since 
1804. 

Having graduated M.D. at Edinburgh in 1793, 
with a thesis De Amaurosi, Crampton returned to 
Dublin, and, as we have seen, was in 1800 per- 
mitted by the Board to deliver clinical lectures to 
the students of the School in Steevens's Hospital. 
He was at that time Assistant Physician to the 
Hospital, and nineteen years later he succeeded 
William Harvey as full Physician ; he also held 
the post of Physician to the House of Industry 
Hospitals, and to Swift's Asylum. As a lecturer 
in Materia Medica Crampton does not appear to 
have been a great success. Writing of him in 
the London Medical Gazette, 1 ' Eblanensis ' says : 

' He goes through the business of lecturing like one who 
is bound to the performance of a heavy task. . . . His mode 
of delivery, which is generally cold and spiritless, is 
occasionally varied by being dry and sour. With chemical 

1 Vol. i, p. 533, 1828. 



304 THE SCHOOL STAFF 

experiments he would seem to have nothing whatever 
to do ; he seems to have a great contempt for that science 
in general : it is evidently too troublesome and too 
productive of dirt and annoyance to be permitted to 
interfere with his concerns. . . . The samples and specimens 
which he daily sends round by way of illustration are 
already venerable specimens of the antique, worthy of 
a distinguished niche in some great national museum 
of the curious relics of former times. They are the very 
same musty articles which he has been exhibiting for the 
last twenty years, and it is not a little laughable to hear 
him reiterating every session his eternal apologies for 
their imperfections.' 

On the death of Crampton in 1840, Jonathan 
Osborne succeeded him, and occupied the Chair 
of Materia Medica with credit and distinction for 
twenty-four years. He was a good scholar, an 
energetic worker, and the author of many papers 
on both medical and historical subjects. In 1862 
he described an instrument which he called 
' an animal heat thermometer Y with which he 
proposed to estimate the effect of different 
atmospheric conditions on the human body by 
the length of time that it took the thermometer 
to cool from the body temperature to that of 
the air. This time varied with the temperature, 
moisture, and movement of the air, and the 
quicker the cooling took place the more effect the 
change had on the human body. The instrument 
was ingenious, but the results obtained from it 
were not sufficiently practical to be of much value. 
Osborne died on January 26, 1864, at the age of 

1 Dub. Quar. Journ. Med. Science, vol. xxxiii, p. 273. 



THE SCHOOL STAFF 305 

seventy years. Aquilla Smith, who succeeded him, 
had been a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 
since 1833, and was one of the six men selected 
by the College in 1839 to receive the degree of 
M.D. honoris causa from the University. Smith 
was associated with his colleague, James Apjohn, 
in the preparation of the Dublin Pharmacopoeia, 
which was published in 1850. His writings on 
medical subjects were not numerous, but he wrote 
many papers on the history of Irish medicine, 
to which frequent reference has been made in 
these pages. For twenty-nine years he acted as 
Representative of the College of Physicians on 
the General Medical Council, where, with William 
Stokes and James Apjohn, he watched over the 
interests of the School of Physic. His lectures, 
though models of careful preparation, in later life 
were not altogether successful, and during the 
summer session of 1881 the disturbance in his 
class attracted the attention of the Board. The 
students complained that the lectures were in- 
audible to the majority of the members of the 
class, and the Board requested him to appoint 
a locum tenens for the remainder of the session. 
Order was restored and Smith continued to lec- 
ture till the end of the session, but resigned his 
appointment on the ist July following. His son, 
Dr. Walter George Smith, the present occupant 
of the chair, was elected in his place. Aquilla 
Smith died at the age of eighty-four on March 23, 
1890. 

Robert Law, who had on October 12, 1841, 

x 



306 THE SCHOOL STAFF 

succeeded Graves as Professor of the Institutes 
of Medicine, was a distinguished graduate of 
Trinity College, having been elected Scholar in 
1817 and admitted M.B. in 1822. He continued 
in office till the close of 1873, when, owing to 
serious illness, which resulted in a complete loss 
of voice, he was compelled to resign. He was 
succeeded in February of the following year by 
John Mallet Purser, who had graduated B.A. in 
1860 and M.B. in 1863. In 1869 Purser had been 
appointed lecturer in ophthalmology at Steevens's 
Hospital, and Professor of Anatomy and Physio- 
logy in the Carmichael School. We have not been 
able to identify accurately what interpretation 
the previous Professors put on the term Institutes 
of Medicine, but it was not Physiology as we now 
understand it. Law for many years had lectured 
on Pathology and the Practice of Medicine. 1 The 
term Institutiones Medicinae had been in common 
use at all events since the end of the sixteenth 
century, when Joh. Heurius published at Ley den 
in 1592 his Institutiones medicinae, ace. Modus 
ratioque Studendi eorum qui medicinae operam 
dicarunt? In the School of Physic it was cus- 
tomary for the Professor of Anatomy to include 
Physiology in his lectures, and as late as 1879 it 
was considered the duty of that Professor to sign 
the certificates of students ' in Anatomia et Physio- 
logia '. Purser, however, from the very start 
lectured in Physiology, and at the beginning of 

1 Med. Press and Circular, November 4, 1872, p. 402. 
1 Haller, vol. ii, p. 272. 



THE SCHOOL STAFF 307 

the winter session of 1874, on the recommendation 
of the Professors, the Board and the College of 
Physicians decided that a three months' course 
of lectures on Animal Histology, given by the 
Professor of the Institutes of Medicine, should be 
compulsory on all candidates for the M.B. degree. 
At the same time the Board authorized the 
expenditure of 110 for the purchase of instru- 
ments for teaching this subject. 1 In 1878 it was 
decided that Institutes of Medicine, Physiology, 
should be a winter course, and Institutes of Medi- 
cine, Practical Histology, a summer course. 2 The 
establishing of such courses was not of much use 
so long as the Professor had no satisfactory 
accommodation for lecturing, and consequently 
on June 28, 1879, Haughton, as Chairman of the 
Medical Committee, laid before the Board a recom- 
mendation that a Histological Laboratory should 
be built. 3 In this recommendation it was stated 
that there were at the time ' sixty-eight medical 
students in Trinity College studying Histology 
with very imperfect appliances for the purpose '. 
It was further urged that, as a new laboratory 
had recently been built for the Carmichael School, 
unless such accommodation were supplied in 
Trinity College students would be drawn away 
from the School. The Board resolved ' that the 
Bursar be authorized to obtain tenders for the 
erection of the proposed Histological Laboratory 
in accordance with the plans and specifications of 

1 Reg., vol. xiii, p. 195. ! Reg., vol. xiv, p. 33. 

8 Ibid., p. 84. 



308 THE SCHOOL STAFF 

the College Architect', and an expenditure of 
2,700 was subsequently authorized for this pur- 
pose. 1 At the beginning of the winter session 
of 1881 the Board further granted the sum of 
225 xos. for appliances for the new laboratory, 
and an annual grant of 100 for maintenance, 
Dr. Purser intimating to them that he intended 
' to transfer the whole contents of his private 
laboratory to the new institute '. 2 On December 
17, 1881, the Board accepted with thanks the 
proposal made by Dr. Purser that he should give 
an extra course of lectures on Pathology to those 
students who had entered for his course in His- 
tology. 3 Thus was begun that splendid course of 
lectures on Practical Pathology which was con- 
tinued uninterruptedly by Dr. Purser till, in 1895, 
the Board appointed a special lecturer in the sub- 
ject. On the resignation of Professor Purser in 1901, 
Dr. William H. Thompson, the present holder of the 
chair, was appointed by the College of Physicians 
as King's Professor of the Institutes of Medicine. 

Charles Richard Lendrick, King's Professor of 
the Practice of Medicine, whose dispute about the 
hour of lecturing led to Macartney's resignation 
of the Professorship of Anatomy, died in 1841, 
and was succeeded, on the 7th of October, by 
George Greene. Greene had originally intended 
to devote himself to Surgery, and in 1823 had 
graduated B.A. and been admitted a Licentiate of 
the College of Surgeons. He was one of the first 
demonstrators of Anatomy appointed on the 

' Reg., vol. xiv, p. 90. * Ibid., p. 143. ' Ibid., p. 213. 



THE SCHOOL STAFF 309 

opening of the Park Street Medical School, where 
he showed great aptitude for teaching. In 1828 he 
met with a gun accident, which resulted in the 
loss of his right hand at the wrist-joint, and in 
consequence he was compelled to abandon Ana- 
tomy and Surgery. In 1829 he graduated M.B., 
and the following year was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians, being elected Fellow 
on St. Luke's Day, 1832. In 1831 he was elected 
Lecturer in Medicine in the Carmichael School, 
and just before his election to the King's Professor- 
ship he was appointed Physician to the House of 
Industry Hospitals. Greene did not live long to 
enjoy his Professorship, for on April 5, 1846, he 
died of typhus fever at his home in Fitzwilliam 
Square. He was succeeded by John Creery Fer- 
guson, who had been Professor of Medicine in the 
Apothecaries' Hall from 1837. Ferguson resigned 
the Professorship in 1849, being appointed Pro- 
fessor of Medicine in Queen's College, Belfast, 
which position he filled till his death on June 24, 
1865. He was succeeded on December 18, 1849, 
by John Thomas Banks, who occupied the chair 
for twenty years till his resignation in 1869. 

On February i, 1868, the Board of Trinity 
College adopted the following resolution : l f That 
in future no University Professor of the School 
of Physic shall be allowed to hold an appoint- 
ment to any clinical hospital other than that of 
Sir Patrick Dun. This resolution not to apply 
to existing arrangements.' On February 21 the 

1 Reg., vol. xii, p. 296. 

X3 



310 THE SCHOOL STAFF 

College of Physicians adopted a similar resolution 
with regard to the King's Professors, and Banks, 
who had been appointed Physician to the House 
of Industry Hospitals on December 2, 1843, 
felt that he could not, in accordance with the 
wishes of the College, hold both appointments, 
and consequently resigned his Professorship. Pre- 
vious to this time it was usual for teachers to hold 
appointments in two or more clinical hospitals, 
a practice which both the Board and the College 
of Physicians felt was detrimental to the best 
interests of the School. It was easier, however, 
to condemn the practice than to end it, and an 
effort to enforce the rule led, as we shall see, to 
serious difficulties with the Professor of Anatomy. 
The Board steadily declined to recognize the 
clinical teaching of other hospitals on the same 
footing as that of Sir Patrick Dun's till that 
hospital secured the exclusive services of its staff, 
and eventually, when existing interests had gradu- 
ally died out, the rule became general that no 
physician or surgeon should be on the staff of 
more than one clinical hospital. 

On the resignation of William Stokes the Board, 
on February 16, 1878, elected Alfred Hudson 
Regius Professor of Medicine. 1 Hudson, the son 
of a Congregational clergyman in Staffordshire, 
was born in 1808, and began his medical educa- 
tion as an apprentice to a general practitioner in 
his native town. 2 As a student it was his ambition 

1 Reg., vol. xiv, p. 10. 

* Dub. Journ. Med. Science, July 1882. 



THE SCHOOL STAFF 311 

to become a Fellow of the London College of 
Physicians, for which a necessary qualification was 
that he should be a Doctor of Medicine of either 
Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin University. Being 
a Nonconformist the English Universities were 
closed to him, so in 1830 he entered Trinity 
College. There he graduated M.B. in 1834 and 
M.D. in 1861. After taking his degree he studied 
for a winter session in Edinburgh, and then 
returned to his native town, where he engaged 
in practice for a short time, during which he be- 
came a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
England. In 1836 Dr. Gilroy, of Navan, whose 
daughter Hudson was about to marry, had a stroke 
of paralysis, which incapacitated him from further 
practice, and Hudson decided to settle in Navan 
and take up his work. Shortly after he was 
appointed Physician to the Fever Hospital in the 
town, and he continued to practise there till 
the death of Dr. Gilroy nineteen years later. This 
event, coupled with his failure to secure the 
appointment as Surgeon to the County Infirmary, 
decided Hudson to come to Dublin, where, in 
1854, he started practice, taking a large house 
in Merrion Square. In 1856 he was appointed 
Physician to the Adelaide Hospital, a post which 
he resigned in 1861 on his appointment to the 
Meath Hospital. There he worked as the colleague 
of Stokes till 1871, when increasing private practice 
compelled him to resign his hospital duties. In 
this year he was elected President of the College 
of Physicians, to which he had been admitted a 



3 i2 THE SCHOOL STAFF 

Fellow in 1857. In 1878 he was appointed Physi- 
cian in Ordinary to the Queen in Ireland, as well 
as Regius Professor, and Crown Representative on 
the General Medical Council. On September 29, 
1880, he resigned the Regius Professorship, 1 and 
died on the 2Qth of the following November. 

On November 13, 1880, John Thomas Banks 
was elected Regius Professor, a position which he 
filled with honour and credit to himself and to 
the University till failing health compelled him 
to resign in 1898. During his long life Banks was 
the recipient of many honours. Born in 1815, he 
graduated B.A. and M.B. in 1837, and, having 
become a Candidate of the College of Surgeons 
the previous year, he was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians in 1841, and elected 
a Fellow three years later. In 1869 and 1870 he 
was President of the College, and in 1889 was made 
a K.C.B. On several occasions Banks was offered a 
knighthood, but this title he always refused, and 
on one of these occasions Punch attributed to him 
the following telegraphic correspondence : 

' Nolo Equescopari.' 
' To Dr. Banks 

Wilt join the ranks 

Of Knights ? ' 
' From Banks 

' Declined with Thanks.' 

Translation. I will not be made a Knight. This is 
canine-ical and not canonical Latin. 2 

He died on July 16, 1908. 

1 Reg., vol. xiv, p. 142. 

1 Punch, July 28, 1883 ; Cameron, Hist., p. 567. 



THE SCHOOL STAFF 313 

Banks was succeeded in the King's Professor- 
ship of the Practice of Medicine by William Moore, 
who had in 1861 been appointed Lecturer in 
Medicine at the Ledwich School. He in turn was 
succeeded in 1882 by Dr. John Magee Finny, 
who held the office till his resignation in 1910, 
when Dr. James Craig, the present Professor, was 
appointed. 

The first occupant of the Chair of Midwifery, 
established by the College of Physicians in 1827, 
was William Fetherston-H. Montgomery. He had 
been elected a Scholar of Trinity College in 1820, 
and had graduated B.A. in 1822 and M.B. in 
1825, in which year he was admitted a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians. All through his long 
career as Professor, till his resignation in 1856, 
Montgomery was a most active member of the 
School staff, and took a keen interest in every- 
thing that affected the welfare of the School. It 
was mainly due to his exertions that the Chair of 
Midwifery was established, and it may be safely 
said that it was never filled by a more brilliant 
occupant. In 1837 he published his classic work 
entitled An exposition of the Signs and Symptoms 
of Pregnancy, the Period of Human Gestation, 
and the Signs of Delivery? which reached a 
second edition in 1856. On December 21, 1859, 
Montgomery died, leaving behind him, as Dr. 
Arneth, of Vienna, said, a name which ' is known 
and honoured wherever Midwifery is practised \ z 

1 Lond., 1837. 

* Med. Times and Gazette, December 31, 1859. 



3 I4 THE SCHOOL STAFF 

He had collected a valuable museum of obstetrics, 
gynaecology, and embryology, which he sold 
shortly before his death to the Queen's College, 
Galway, where it is still preserved. 

Fleetwood Churchill, who succeeded Mont- 
gomery in 1856, was a graduate of Edinburgh, 
and M.D. honoris causa of Dublin. He was 
a voluminous writer, and published many works 
dealing with obstetrics, gynaecology, and the 
diseases of children. He resigned the Chair in 
1867, and shortly afterwards retired to his home 
at Ardtree in Co. Tyrone, where he died on 
January 31, 1879. 

In 1867 the Chair of Midwifery was, by the 
School of Physic Act Amendment Act, raised to the 
dignity of a King's Professorship, and in that year 
Edward Burrowes Sinclair succeeded Churchill. 
In 1869 Sinclair started in Dun's Hospital an 
institution for training soldiers' wives as mid- 
wives, and in recognition of this service he was 
knighted on December 16, iSSo. 1 On his death, 
which took place on March 24, 1882, he was suc- 
ceeded by John Rutherfoord Kirkpatrick, who 
was in turn succeeded in 1889 by Arthur Vernon 
Macan. 

Francis Barker, who had been appointed Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry in 1809, continued to hold 
office till the expiration of his sixth term of seven 
years, when he was retired on a pension of 150 
per annum, which he enjoyed till his death, at 
eighty-six years of age, on October 8, 1859. On 

1 Knights, vol. ii, p. 372. 



THE SCHOOL STAFF 315 

June 8, 1850, James Apjohn, Vice-President of 
the Royal Irish Academy and Fellow of the 
College of Physicians, was elected Professor of 
Chemistry. In 1844 Apjohn had been appointed 
Professor of Applied Chemistry, and in the follow- 
ing year Professor of Mineralogy, chairs which 
were connected with the Engineering rather than 
with the Medical School. Apjohn had started 
originally as a science lecturer in the Cork Institu- 
tion, and afterwards was Lecturer in Chemistry 
in the Park Street School. In 1828 he had been 
elected Professor of Chemistry in the College of 
Surgeons School, and in 1832 he was one of the 
founders of the City of Dublin Hospital. On the 
passing of the Medical Act of 1858, he was ap- 
pointed the Representative of the University on 
the General Medical Council, and he continued to 
serve in that capacity for twenty years. 

On the resignation of Apjohn, Dr. James Emer- 
son Reynolds was appointed Professor. Reynolds 
had been for some time Professor of Analytical 
Chemistry in the Royal Dublin Society, and in 
1873 had been appointed to the Chair of Chemistry 
in the College of Surgeons School. In 1880 he 
published a text-book of Experimental Chemistry, 
which for many years satisfied the requirements 
of the students of the School. It was during 
Apjohn's tenure of the chair that the Professors of 
Chemistry and Botany were relieved by the Act of 
1867 of their duties in Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital, 
and Reynolds never lectured there. On his resigna- 
tion in 1903 Dr. Sydney Young was elected. 



3 i6 THE SCHOOL STAFF 

William Allman, who had been appointed Pro- 
fessor of Botany in the same year as Barker 
had been appointed to the Chair in Chemistry, 
resigned in 1844, and was succeeded by William 
James Allman. In 1854 Allman the younger was 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, 1 and in 
1855 he was appointed Regius Professor of Natural 
History in the University of Edinburgh, which 
chair he held till 1870, when he retired and 
devoted himself to original work on Zoology. 
Allman's work on the Hydrozoa is ' the most 
important systematic work dealing with the group 
of Coelenterata that has ever been produced *. 2 
He died at the age of eighty-six on November 24, 
1898. When Allman was promoted to Edinburgh, 
his place in the School of Physic was filled by the 
appointment, in 1856, of William Henry Harvey, 
M.D., who had been Colonial Treasurer 3 in Cape- 
town from 1836 to 1842. He was chiefly noted 
for his work on the Algae, and is memorable in 
the School as the founder of the Herbarium. In 
1866 he was succeeded by Alexander Dickson, 
who in 1868 was appointed Professor of Botany 
in Glasgow University, and in 1879 transferred to 
Edinburgh, where he was also Regius Keeper of 
the Botanic Garden till his death in 1887. Dickson 
was succeeded in 1869 by Edward Perceval Wright, 
who in 1858 had been elected Professor of Zoology. 
Wright held the Chair of Botany till 1904, when 
he was succeeded by Mr. Henry Horatio Dixon, 
the present Professor. Though Wright resigned 

1 D. N. B. Obit. Roy. Soc., 1901, p. 14. D. N. B. 



THE SCHOOL STAFF 317 

the Professorship in 1904, he continued as keeper 
of the Herbarium till his death on March 4, 1910. 
Many graduates of the University remember the 
kindness of ' Botany Wright ', a quality which 
never seemed to desert him except during the 
stress of the ' Previous Medical Examination in 
Botany and Zoology '. His work is so well known 
and has been so recently described that it is 
unnecessary to mention it here. 

Robert Harrison, who had succeeded Macartney 
in the Chair of Anatomy and Chirurgery, had 
previous to his election in Trinity College been 
Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in the College 
of Surgeons, and while there had published his 
works on The Surgical Anatomy of the Arteries and 
The Dublin Dissector, both of which had reached 
a second edition in 1829. These works enjoyed 
considerable reputation, and the latter continued 
as the anatomical text-book of the Dublin School 
for over fifty years. It was also issued as A Text- 
book of Anatomy by Robert Watts, M.D., in New 
York in 1848, and was the favourite students' 
manual in the American schools for many years. 
Professor Macalister, writing of this work, describes 
it as ' that dreary book compiled from Cruveilhier 
and Cloquet ', and states that the knowledge of 
the author ' never rose even to the level of his 
text-book '.* Others, however, speak of the book 
and its writer more highly, and bear testimony to 
his ability as a teacher. Harrison died suddenly 
on April 23, 1858, having on the previous day 

1 Macalister, Macartney, p. 256. 



3 i8 THE SCHOOL STAFF 

attended to his duties as usual, and on October 9 
the Board elected Benjamin George M'Dowel as 
his successor. 

M'Dowel was perhaps one of the most brilliant 
men who held the Chair of Anatomy in Trinity 
College, but he has left little mark on the sands 
of time to testify to his great abilities. At the 
time of his appointment to the Professorship he 
was Physician to the House of Industry Hospitals, 
having been appointed there on April 13, 1846. 
Sir Charles Cameron l tells us that Chief Justice 
Doherty had interested himself to obtain an ap- 
pointment for M'Dowel from the Lord Lieutenant, 
and by mistake M'Dowel had been gazetted 
to a lucrative ecclesiastical position. When the 
mistake was discovered the Lord Lieutenant ap- 
pointed him to the House of Industry Hospitals 
instead. As a teacher M'Dowel showed extra- 
ordinary ability, but his attendance to his College 
duties was very irregular. He seems, indeed, to 
have had an extraordinary facility for forgetting 
his engagements, and many stories are still current 
of how his coachman used to insist on his visiting 
his various patients before he returned home each 
day. In the School, too, he often completely 
forgot that he was due to lecture, and many com- 
plaints were made to the Board of the neglect of 
his duties. His extraordinary personality, how- 
ever, surmounted all difficulties, and no matter 
how serious the complaint he was always able to 
give an explanation which seemed to satisfy every 

1 Cameron, Hist., p. 624. 



THE SCHOOL STAFF 319 

one. With his duties as Professor in the School 
and Physician to the Whitworth Hospital, together 
with an exceptionally large private practice, we 
cannot wonder that his attendance at Sir Patrick 
Dun's was irregular, and it was this that first 
caused serious trouble. Previous to the election 
of M 'Dowel for the second septennial period, the 
Board wished to make it a condition of the elec- 
tion that the Professor would give up private 
practice. This he would not do, but suggested 
new regulations for the management of the dis- 
secting room which the Board finally agreed to. 
On July 16, 1867, the Board decided formally to 
' admonish ' 1 the Professor for neglect, but in 
spite of this, at the opening of the following winter 
session the dissecting room was found to be wholly 
unprovided with subjects. As usual, however, a 
satisfactory explanation was forthcoming and was 
accepted. On February i, 1868, the Board passed 
the resolution already referred to with reference to 
the Professors holding appointments in hospitals 
other than Sir Patrick Dun's, and at the same 
time decided that the University Anatomist was to 
receive the fees for dissections, and lodge them 
to the credit of the Bursar, who had undertaken 
to distribute them. 2 This latter regulation had 
been suggested by Haughton, but was strongly 
objected to by the Professor and the University 
Anatomist, who complained that they had not 
been consulted before its adoption. Under the 
circumstances the Board in the following month 

1 Reg., vol. xii, p. 272. * Ibid., p. 294. 



320 THE SCHOOL STAFF 

withdrew the regulation. On May 22, 1869, the 
Board again requested the Professor to explain 
his irregularity in attending to his duties in the 
School, but contented themselves with saying 
that ' they could not consider his explanation 
satisfactory V In the following September the 
Governors of Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital wrote 
to the Board complaining of the irregularity of 
M'Dowel's attendance at the Hospital, and the 
Board offered to nominate a surgeon to take his 
place there if the Governors wished. M'Dowel 
demanded an inquiry, but this demand the Board 
ignored, and on October 30, 1869, Thomas Evelyn 
Little was appointed Surgeon to the Hospital in 
his place. 2 This matter created considerable stir 
in Dublin at the time, and much sympathy was 
felt with M'Dowel. The students held a meeting 
at which they decided to present him with an 
address. This, however, was contrary to the 
Statutes of the College, and the Board would 
not allow the matter to be proceeded with. On 
October 24, 1872, the Board decided to appoint 
a Professor of Comparative Anatomy, who should 
lecture on that subject instead of the Professor of 
Anatomy. This new Professor was to attend the 
dissecting room daily, and besides his salary of 
100 a year was to receive half the fees derived 
from the dissecting room. Two days later Dr. 
M'Dowel was re-elected Professor of Anatomy, 
and Edward Hallaran Bennett University Ana- 
tomist. The Board wrote to M'Dowel, pointing 

1 Reg., vol. xii, p. 355. ' Ibid., p. 370. 



THE SCHOOL STAFF 321 

out that it would be necessary for him, in com- 
pliance with their resolution, to resign his post 
as Physician to the Whitworth Hospital. M'Dowel 
replied by resigning into the hands of the Board 
the post of Clinical Surgeon to Dun's, but this the 
Board would not accept, and refused to allow him 
to be sworn into the Professorship till he resigned 
his other post. M'Dowel appealed to the Visitors, 
and the matter came to trial in February 1873, 
before the Vice-Chancellor, Sir Thomas Napier, 
and George Battersby, acting for the Archbishop 
of Dublin. There were two counts in the trial : 
first, as to the legality of the resolution of the 
Board calling on M'Dowel to resign his post 
as Physician to the Whitworth Hospital, and, 
secondly, as to the power of the Board to divide, 
as they had done, the fees of the dissecting room. 
The Visitors decided against the Board on the 
first count, and in their favour on the second. 
The Board then resolved that during the present 
term of office the Professor might continue as 
Physician to the Whitworth Hospital, but he must 
also act as Surgeon to Dun's. In 1879, when the 
term of office was drawing to a close, M'Dowel wrote, 
stating that if the conditions of appointment for 
the future were to be the same as they had been 
he would not seek re-election. The Board replied 
that the conditions would be the same, and that 
they accepted his intimation as a resignation of 
the Professorship. On October 14, 1879, Dr. 
Alexander Macalister was appointed Professor on 
the condition that he should not take private 

Y 



322 THE SCHOOL STAFF 

practice, that he should resign all the posts which 
he held in the College with the exception of the 
Professorship of Comparative Anatomy, and that 
he would agree to devote his whole time to his 
duties in Trinity College. On October 15, 1881, 
Macalister was ' relieved from duty at Sir Patrick 
Dun's ', and Charles Bent Ball was appointed as 
his locum tenens. 1 Since then the Professor of 
Anatomy has never been asked to undertake the 
duties of a clinical lecturer. In 1883 Macalister 
left Dublin on his appointment to the Professor- 
ship of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, 
a position which he still adorns. On the resigna- 
tion of Macalister, Daniel John Cunningham was 
appointed his successor on September 29, i883, 2 
and continued in office for twenty years, till 
in 1903 he was appointed Professor of Anatomy in 
the University of Edinburgh. The splendid work 
which Cunningham did for the University and for 
the School of Physic are well remembered, and the 
unveiling of a bronze bust of him in the School 
of Physic will form an important part of the 
bicentenary celebrations. In 1903 Dr. Andrew 
Francis Dixon, the present occupant of the chair, 
succeeded Cunningham. 

The office of University Anatomist, which had 
been in abeyance since the appointment of 
Cleghorn to the Professorship in 1761, was revived, 
though not directly in name, by the appointment 
on May 18, 1861, of Dr. John Kellock Barton as 
University Lecturer in Practical Anatomy. 8 In 

1 Reg., vol. xiv, p. 197. * Ibid., p. 300. * Ibid., vol. xi, p. 445. 



THE SCHOOL STAFF 323 

1864 Barton resigned this appointment, and on 
October 29 of that year Edward Hallaran Bennett 
was, on the nomination of M'Dowel, appointed 
his successor. In 1865 the office was definitely 
referred to as that of the University Anatomist, 
and in the School of Physic Act Amendment Act 
of 1867 this title is used. Bennett continued 
as University Anatomist until his appointment as 
Professor of Surgery on November 8, 1873, when 
he was succeeded by Thomas Evelyn Little. Little 
held the post till his death in 1891, when Henry 
St. John Brooks, Senior Demonstrator^ was ap- 
pointed. Brooks resigned in 1895, and Mr. Charles 
Bent Ball was appointed. With this latter 
appointment all functions of the University Ana- 
tomist, except the surgeoncy to Dun's Hospital, 
disappeared, and since that time the Professor of 
Anatomy has had the undivided control of the 
Anatomical Department. 

With regard to the Chair of Surgery, there is 
little to add to what has already been told. On 
March 3, 1849, the Board decided to establish 
a Professorship of Surgery, and on October 13 
Robert William Smith was elected. 1 Smith was 
a prolific writer, and his works on Fractures in 
the vicinity of Joints * and Neuroma 3 are still 
consulted with profit. He died on October 28, 
1873, and early in the following November, 
Edward Hallaran Bennett, the University Ana- 
tomist, was appointed as his successor. It is to 

1 Statutes T. C. D., vol. ii, p. 231. 

2 Dublin, 1847. * Ibid., 1849. 



324 THE SCHOOL STAFF 

his exertions that the University owes the splendid 
museum of surgical pathology in which is pre- 
served one of the finest collections of fractures to 
be seen in the kingdom. In 1904 failing health 
compelled Bennett to ask for help in the delivery 
of his lectures, and Mr. Edward H. Taylor was 
appointed his deputy. On Bennett's resignation 
in 1906 Taylor succeeded to the chair. Bennett 
died on June 21, 1907. 

On January 24, 1852, the Board decided to 
create a new Professorship of Surgery, to be called 
the University Professorship of Surgery. The first 
Professor was James William Cusack. His duties 
were mainly connected with the examinations in 
Surgery, and he never seems to have been called 
on to lecture. Cusack died on September 25, 
1 86 1, and on October 26 following Robert Adams 
was appointed. By a Queen's letter dated Sep- 
tember 8, 1868, this Professorship was raised 
to the same rank as the Regius Professorship of 
Medicine, and Adams was nominated the first 
Regius Professor. He died on January 16, 1875, 
and in the following March William Colles, son 
of the more distinguished Abraham Colles, was 
elected. In 1891 William Porter succeeded Colles, 
and in 1895 was in turn succeeded by the present 
Regius Professor and University Anatomist, Sir 
Charles Bent Ball. 

After the opening of beds in Dun's Hospital 
for the treatment of surgical patients, Haughton 
suggested to the Board that they should appoint 
a special teacher in Surgery at the Hospital. He 



THE SCHOOL STAFF 325 

had at the same time succeeded in inducing 
Richard George Butcher, then Surgeon to Mercer's 
Hospital, to offer himself as a candidate for the 
post. Butcher was at the time one of the leading 
surgeons in Dublin, having been in 1866 elected 
President of the Royal College of Surgeons. On 
February 29, 1868, the Board appointed him 
* teacher in operative and practical surgery at Sir 
Patrick Dun's Hospital ' at a salary of 100 per 
annum. 1 This position he continued to hold till 
1884, but, though appointed by the Board, his 
duties were confined to the teaching at Dun's 
Hospital, and he did not lecture in the School 
of Physic. 

1 Reg., vol. xiv, p. 299. 



CHAPTER XVII 
MODERN DEVELOPMENT 

DURING the past twenty years the course of the 
School has been one of steady progress in all 
departments. The buildings erected in the time 
of Macartney have been almost entirely replaced, 
there being only a small portion of his School 
left, at present occupied by the Bone Room and 
part of the Chemical Laboratories. As early as 
February 20, 1864, the Board decided to procure 
estimates for new buildings to provide additional 
accommodation for teaching Anatomy, and in 
June following 700 was voted for this purpose. 
This sum was added to in October in order to 
provide for a porch and additional lighting and 
heating. 

On April 7, 1866, the College Architect, Mr. 
M'Curdy, was directed to prepare plans and esti- 
mates for new buildings in connexion with the 
School of Chemistry. In December 1873, the 
Board approved the plans for the new Anatomical 
Museum, 1 which was to be erected between the 
Park and the Medical School buildings, and on 
January 16, 1874, a sum of 500 was voted to 
buy the osteological collection of Robert Smith, 
late Professor of Surgery, for this museum. 2 On 

1 Reg., vol. xiii, p. 153. * Ibid., p. 160. 



MODERN DEVELOPMENT 327 

March 28, 1874, an estimate of 8,300 was accepted 
from Messrs. W. & A. Roberts for this building. 
These contractors, however, afterwards declined 
to undertake the contract, and in the following 
May it was given to Thomas Pemberton, of East 
Hanover Street, 1 the sum being fixed at 8,276, 
the contractor agreeing to a fine of 25 a week if 
the building were not finished within two years. 
This contract was subsequently amended, the sum 
being fixed at 8,386, and on October 12, 1876, it 
was reported that the museum was ' completed 
and ready for occupation ', the builders being 
stated to be Messrs. J. & W. Beckett. 2 This hand- 
some building, looking west, with a frontage of 
150 feet, and a depth of 42 feet, is one of the 
most ornamental of the School buildings. In it 
are lodged the Zoological collections, and it also 
contains rooms for the Professor of Comparative 
Anatomy and Zoology. At the northern end of 
the building is the Anthropometric Laboratory, 
fitted up some years later by means of a grant 
from the Royal Irish Academy. Running east- 
ward, at a right angle to the northern extremity 
of the museum, is the laboratory for Histology, 
built in the year 1880. Originally this building 
was separated from the museum, but a few years 
ago the two were joined by a new building, and 
an entrance to the lecture-room opened through 
the door at the north end of the museum. 

In 1885 the Board embarked on a most exten- 
sive scheme for increasing the accommodation in 

1 Reg., vol. xiii, p. 178. * Ibid., p. 324. 



328 MODERN DEVELOPMENT 

the Medical School, and on igth September of 
that year accepted the estimate of George Moyers 
for new buildings at the cost of 9,050.* The 
plans for these buildings were made by Mr. 
M 'Curdy, the College Architect, but on his death 
in the following year the supervision of the work 
was entrusted to Mr. Thomas Drew. The plans 
and estimates were subsequently modified in 
various ways, chiefly with a view to enlarging 
and improving the dissecting-room. The old wall, 
which had shut off the Medical School from the 
College Park since the time of Macartney, was 
removed by an order of the Board on October 29, 
1887, an d on November I, Professor Haughton 
delivered in the Chemical Theatre an address in 
honour of the formal opening of the new build- 
ings. Beside an almost complete renovation of the 
apartments for Anatomy and Chemistry, the new 
buildings contained on the ground floor rooms for 
the Professors and Registrar, as well as two rooms 
for the students. The second floor was occupied 
by two new lecture theatres, and a laboratory 
and museum for the Professor of Materia Medica. 
On the top story were placed the rooms of the 
Professor of Surgery, as well as the museum of 
Surgical Pathology. 

In 1895 the School buildings were again added 
to, the Board, on November 23, accepting an 
estimate for building a Pathological laboratory at 
the cost of 9,000. The Medical School Committee 
had suggested that the old Physiology laboratory 

1 Reg., vol. xv, p. 8. 



MODERN DEVELOPMENT 329 

should be devoted to Pathology and a new labora- 
tory built for Physiology, but this suggestion was 
not adopted. 

In 1903 an appeal was issued by the heads of 
the University asking for subscriptions to erect 
and to equip Science laboratories in Trinity 
College. A very liberal response was made, and 
Lord Iveagh, a graduate of the University, and 
now Chancellor, undertook to provide funds to 
build and to furnish all or any of those labora- 
tories for the endowment of which the friends of 
the College subscribed the necessary funds. As 
a result of this generous offer the new Physics 
laboratory was erected in 1905, at a cost of 16,500, 
and two years later the new Botanical laboratory 
was completed at a cost of 8,000. These two 
laboratories form a notable addition to the Medical 
School buildings, and afford the accommodation 
so much needed for the development of research 
work in these subjects. Beside this valuable asset 
which the College obtained in these new buildings 
a sum of nearly 19,000 was subscribed as an 
endowment fund, the interest on which is to be 
spent annually on these departments. 1 

While the housing of the School was being thus 
cared for, close attention was also paid to what 
was more important, the development of its teach- 
ing functions. In 1895 Mr. Alexander Charles 
O 'Sullivan, one of the Fellows of Trinity College, 
was appointed Lecturer in Pathology, and the 
department over which he presides is now one of 

1 B. M. Journ., October 26, 1907. 



330 MODERN DEVELOPMENT 

the most important in the School. The establish- 
ment of a School of Tropical Medicine in con- 
nexion with this department is at present under 
consideration, and it is hoped that in the near 
future facilities will be afforded in the School for 
the study of this important branch of medicine. 

In June 1903, the Senate of the University 
decided by a large majority to admit women to 
Trinity College, and in the winter session, 1904-5, 
the first woman student entered for the medical 
classes in the School of Physic. The Board pro- 
vided a special dissecting-room for women, but 
they were admitted to the same lectures with the 
men students. In spite of many prophecies to 
the contrary the plan has worked well, and though 
the women students are not yet numerous, the 
numbers are increasing year by year, and are 
likely to increase more quickly in the future. 

As early as 1888 the School authorities began to 
recognize the claims of dental students, but for 
many years there were no applicants for a licence 
in dentistry from the University. In 1904 the 
Board decided to establish degrees in this subject 
open to those students who had graduated in Arts. 
In 1910 a complete dental school was established, 
and special lecturers have been appointed by 
the Board, to teach those subjects not already 
included in the medical curriculum. 

One of the most important features of the 
School at the present day is the students' society, 
the Dublin University Biological Association. We 
have seen that as early as May 2, 1801, the Board 



MODERN DEVELOPMENT 331 

decided, ' that a medical society under the control 
of the Board may be permitted to meet in the 
College.' * I have not been able to trace any 
records of the work or constitution of this society, 
and do not know how long it continued in exist- 
ence. Shortly after Macartney was appointed 
Professor of Anatomy the Board again extended 
privileges to a medical society, and on November 26, 
1814, the following minute was made : ' A Society 
for Medical Students (under the sanction of the 
Professor) having applied for permission to hold 
their meetings in the Lecture Room in No. 22. 
The Terms were granted to them during pleasure.' 2 
On January 18, 1822, this permission was with- 
drawn, though in the minutes no reason is assigned 
for the change. 3 In spite of this decision of the 
Board the society seems to have lived some years 
longer. Dr. Macalister 4 tells us that it continued 
in active existence for fourteen years, and only 
gradually died out during the troubles which came 
on Macartney during the later years of his pro- 
fessorship. There is, however, no further mention 
of the society in the Register of the Board. In 
January 1853, Robert Ball, then Curator of the 
Zoological Museum, founded in Trinity College, 
under the patronage of the Provost and Senior 
Fellows, a society which was originally restricted 
to the study of Zoology. Shortly afterwards its 
scope was enlarged, and it was called the ' Dublin 
University Zoological and Botanical Association '. 

1 Reg., vol. v, p. 371. * Reg., vol. vi, p. 144. 

* Ibid., p. 336. * Macalister, Macartney, p. 104. 



332 MODERN DEVELOPMENT 

The object of this society was ' the advancement 
and diffusion of Zoological and Botanical Science 
in general, and to encourage and promote the 
study of Natural History among the Students of 
the University V The ordinary members were to 
be graduates of Dublin, Oxford, or Cambridge, 
and undergraduates of Trinity College who had 
their names on the College books. The subscrip- 
tion for members over the standing of M.A. was 
i, and for others half a guinea a year. The meet- 
ings were to be held on the third Friday of each 
month during term in the rooms of the Association 
in No. 5, Trinity College. This society can scarcely 
be looked on as a revival of the Medical Students' 
Society of 1814. It was really a new society, and 
though its membership roll contained the names 
of some undergraduates, they were very few as 
compared with the graduates. Most of the papers, 
too, were read by graduates. In 1859 the associa- 
tion published the first and only volume of its 
Proceedings, an octavo volume of some three 
hundred pages, ' with thirty-one lithographic 
Plates '. Of the sixty-six ordinary members on 
the roll in 1859, seven only were undergraduates, 
and nineteen were medical men. 

William Stokes, Regius Professor of Medicine, 
delivered an opening address to this Association 
on January 24, 1862, in which he gives a most 
interesting history of the study of natural science 
in the University. 2 The Association does not 
seem to have flourished, and no further volumes 

1 Rules, 1859. * Medical Press, March 26, 1862. 



MODERN DEVELOPMENT 333 

of Proceedings were published. On November 9, 
1867, ' Dr. Haughton recommended that the Board 
would accede to the request of the Medical Students 
to be permitted to meet for the discussion of 
Medical Questions ', which recommendation the 
Board agreed to, ' the regulation of such meetings 
to be previously submitted to the Board for their 
approbation.' x A week later, on the application 
of Dr. Bennett, the Board granted the sum of 
50 to the medical library. Subsequently the 
Board made a similar grant to this library, but 
on January 26, 1878, they ordered the reading- 
room to be closed on account of some misuse of 
it by the students. 2 In December 1879, the room 
was again opened to the students on the applica- 
tion of Professor Bennett. 

Four societies devoted to the study of Medicine 
had long existed in Dublin, of which the oldest 
was the Surgical Society established by the College 
of Surgeons in 1831. The Medical Society of the 
College of Physicians was originally started in 
1816, but after a time it came to an end, and 
was not revived till 1864. The Pathological and 
Obstetrical Societies were both established in 
1838, and to the former of these students were 
admitted. 

On January 6, 1872, a number of men met 
together in No. 30, Trinity College, and decided 
to form a scientific club. This, the Biological Club, 
contained on its membership roll the names of 
several men intimately connected with the School 

1 Reg., vol. xii, p. 280. * Reg., vol. xiv, p. 5. 



334 MODERN DEVELOPMENT 

of Physic. For three sessions this Club met in the 
College, and then moved to a room in Brunswick 
Street, where it continued to meet till, in December 
1881, it moved to its present quarters in the Royal 
College of Physicians. 1 

On March 14, 1874, the Board granted permis- 
sion to the University Medical Society to meet on 
alternate Wednesdays in one of the lecture-rooms 
of the new building, ' provided that Dr. Bennett 
becomes responsible for the proper use of the 
room.' 2 It is from the permission thus granted 
that the Dublin University Biological Association 
dates its birth, or as the early notices state, ' this 
Society was established in 1874 to encourage the 
study of Biology in all its Branches/ 3 From the 
very beginning this was essentially a students' 
association, the subscription being fixed at the 
modest sum of 55. a year. The early records 
of the Association have disappeared, and conse- 
quently it is not possible to give its history in 
detail. In 1876 Samuel Haughton was President, 
and in the following year he was succeeded by 
Dr. Alexander Macalister, who held office for four 
years, and under his fostering care the Association 
developed considerably. Later, between the years 
1890 and 1892, the Association declined greatly, 
and in the latter year it seemed doomed to imme- 
diate extinction. From that year on, however, 
its fortunes began to mend and now the average 
attendance at its meetings exceeds that of any 
other society in the College. 

1 Foot. ' Reg., vol. xiv, p. 170. * Medical Directory. 



MODERN DEVELOPMENT 335 

The prizes for students in the School of Physic 
are neither so numerous nor so valuable as one 
could wish. On October 20, 1860, the Board 
resolved to establish two medical Scholarships, 
' tenable for two years with a Salary of 20 per 
annum '.* They were to be awarded at the 
examination held at the end of the second year of 
medical study, on the condition that the scholars 
proceeded regularly with their medical studies in 
the University. The subjects of this examination 
were Anatomy and Physiology ; Botany and 
Materia Medica ; Chemistry, Theoretical and Prac- 
tical, with Chemical Physics. It was later decided 
that the candidates for these prizes must be at 
least of Senior Freshman standing, and have kept 
one annus medicus in the School of Physic. In 
March 1880 the regulations were modified, one 
Scholarship being given for Physics, Chemistry, 
Botany, and Materia Medica, and the other for 
Anatomy and the Institutes of Medicine. In 1884 
Comparative Anatomy took the place of Materia 
Medica, to give place in turn in 1893 to Zoology. 
At the present time students may not compete 
for the Scholarship in Anatomy and the Institutes 
of Medicine after the completion of their third 
year, or for the other Scholarship after the com- 
pletion of their second year, and no student may 
hold the two Scholarships at the same time. 

In 1884 a sum of money was bequeathed to the 
College by Henry Hutchinson Stewart to found 
Scholarships in Literature and Medicine. These 

1 Reg,, vol. xi, p. 420. 



336 MODERN DEVELOPMENT 

Scholarships of the value of 10 per annum are 
awarded from time to time to the second best 
answerers in the Medical Scholarship Examina- 
tion. A Scholarship in Mental Disease of the 
value of about 50 per annum, tenable for three 
years, is also awarded from this fund from time 
to time. A bronze medal, founded by the past 
pupils of John Mallet Purser, in commemoration 
of his twenty-five years' tenure of the Professor- 
ship of the Institutes of Medicine, is awarded 
annually to the student who obtains the highest 
marks in Physiology and Histology at part one 
of the Intermediate Medical Examination held in 
June. A similar medal, founded as a memorial 
of the late Professor Daniel John Cunningham, 
is awarded under similar conditions to the 
candidate who obtains the highest marks in 
Anatomy. 

On March 20, 1869, the Board decided to award 
two prizes of 50 each, ' one to the best answerer 
in practical medicine, and the other to the best 
answerer in practical surgery.' 1 By this resolu- 
tion the Board founded the two most important 
prizes in the School, the Medical and Surgical 
Travelling Prizes. In 1878 these two prizes were 
joined together, one prize of 100 being awarded 
each year, alternately in Medicine and Surgery. 2 
The winner of this prize must spend three months 
in the study of Medicine or Surgery in Berlin, 
Paris, or Vienna, and must satisfy the Senior 
Lecturer that he ' possesses sufficient knowledge 

1 Reg., vol. xii, p. 345. Reg., vol. xiv, p. 6. 



MODERN DEVELOPMENT 337 

of a Continental Language to derive benefit from 
same V 

In connexion with the Travelling Prizes two 
medals were founded in 1907. The Banks Medal, 
founded by Sir John Thomas Banks, formerly 
King's Professor of Medicine, and for eighteen 
years Regius Professor of Medicine, is awarded to 
the winner of the Medical Travelling Prize, a sum 
of 15 being given to the second best candidate. 
The Edward Hallaran Bennett Medal was founded 
by the past pupils of Professor Bennett, who was 
for nine years University Anatomist and for thirty- 
three years Professor of Surgery. This medal is 
awarded to the winner of the Surgical Travelling 
Prize, a money prize being given to the second 
best candidate. 

In 1892 Mrs. Fitzpatrick presented to the Board 
the sum of 1,000 to found a Scholarship in the 
Medical School in memory of her husband, Thomas 
Fitzpatrick, M.D. The interest derived from this 
sum is given as a prize annually to the student who 
obtains the highest aggregate marks at Part II 
of the Intermediate, and Parts I and II of the 
final examination. This Scholarship has been 
awarded regularly since 1902. 

In 1905 the Board received the bequest of 
William Chapman Begley and Mrs. Jane Begley, 
amounting to 5,655 us. 8^., for the endowment 
of four Medical Studentships. The sum available 
from this bequest is about 148 per annum, and 
the Studentships are open to all Undergraduates 

1 Reg., vol. xiv, p. 298. 
Z 



338 MODERN DEVELOPMENT 

who have completed the final examination of their 
Senior Freshman year, irrespective of the time at 
which they entered the Medical School. 

It is a matter of much regret that there are no 
Scholarships for endowing research work in the 
School of Physic, and it is to be hoped that some 
prizes of this kind may be founded in the near 
future. In no way is the vitality of the Medical 
School more surely gauged than by the quantity 
and quality of the original work done in its 
laboratories. 

While the College was lavishly spending money 
for the housing of the School of Physic it was 
at the same time assuming more and more 
control of its affairs. Prior to the passing of the 
School of Physic Act Amendment Act in 1867, 
the advertisements of the School Lectures were 
paid for out of Dun's estate, and the notices 
published annually were signed by the Registrar 
of the College of Physicians. That Act, however, 
contained no permission for such expenditure, and 
the College of Physicians ceased to issue the School 
notices. Subsequently these were issued by Trinity 
College, and from 1875 were signed by the Regis- 
trar of the Medical School, an officer appointed by 
Trinity College. At the same time the internal 
management of the School passed more and more 
into the hands of the members of the Medical 
School Committee, who were responsible to the 
Board but not to the College of Physicians. 

On February 4, 1888, the Board decided that in 
future Medical Jurisprudence should be taught in 



MODERN DEVELOPMENT 339 

the School by a Lecturer appointed by the Board. 1 
On the death of Robert Travers, who had held 
the chair since 1864, Dr. Henry Theodore Bewley 
was, on April 7, 1888, elected the first University 
Lecturer in that subject. In this arrangement 
the College of Physicians fully acquiesced. 

The establishment by the Colleges of Physicians 
and Surgeons in 1886 of the Conjoint Board for the 
purpose of examining students seeking registra- 
tion in virtue of the licences of the Colleges, gave 
to the College of Physicians a greater interest in 
the School of the College of Surgeons than in the 
School of Physic. Thus in the course of develop- 
ment the functions of the College of Physicians in 
the School of Physic have one by one lapsed into 
the hands of the University authorities, and the 
School has almost become, in everything except in 
name, the Medical School of Trinity College. The 
change has been effected so gradually and so 
naturally that it has produced no resentment 
among those thus deprived of their authority, and 
the relations between the Colleges are now as 
cordial as they have been at any time during their 
long connexion. Whatever changes the future may 
bring forth, it is to be hoped that these friendly 
relations will continue, and that these great cor- 
porations will continue to work harmoniously for 
the advancement of Science and for the welfare of 
their country. 

1 Reg., vol. xv, p. 177. 



APPENDIX I 
REFERENCES 

Abbott, MSS. Cat. A Catalogue of the MSS. in the Library 
of Trinity CoUege, Dublin. By T. K. Abbott, D.Litt. 

Dublin, 1900. 

Acland, Mem. A Treatise on the Diagnosis and Treatment 
of Diseases of the Chest. By William Stokes. Edited 
by Alfred Hudson, M.D. With a Memoir by Dr. Acland. 

London, New Sydenham Society, 1882. 
Advan. of Learning. Of the Advancement and Proficiencie 
of Learning. By Francis Bacon. Interpreted by Gilbert 
Wats. 

London, 1674. 

Autobiography. The Autobiography and Correspondence of 
Mrs. Delany. Edited by the Rt. Hon. Lady Landover. 
Vol. i-vi. 

London, 1861. 

Belcher. Records of the King and Queen's College of Physi- 
cians in Ireland : Including a Memoir of Sir Patrick Dun ; 
a Memoir of Dr. Stearne ; The Register of the College 
of 1866 ; The Two Charters ; and other important Docu- 
ments concerning the Profession of Physic in Ireland. 
By T. W. Belcher, M.D. 

Dublin, 1866. 

Berkeley. The Works of George Berkeley, D.D., with An 
Account of his Life. Vols. i and ii. 

Dublin, 1784. 

Bolton, Statutes. A translation of the Charter and Statutes 
of Trinity College, Dublin. By Robert Bolton. 

Dublin, 1749. 

Brehon Laws. Ancient Laws and Institutions of Ireland. 
Vol. i-vi. 

Dublin, 1865-1901. 



REFERENCES 341 

Brodrick, Merlon. Memorials of Merton College. By the 
Rt. Hon. George C. Brodrick. 

Oxford, 1885. 

Cameron, Hist. History of the Royal College of Surgeons in 
Ireland, and of the Irish Schools of Medicine. By Sir 
Charles A. Cameron. 

Dublin, 1886. 

Campbell. A Philosophical Survey of the South of Ireland in 
a series of Letters to John Wilkinson, M.D. 

Dublin, 1778. 

C.A.R. Calendar of the Ancient Records of Dublin. Edited 
by John T. Gilbert. Vol. i-xiv. 

Dublin, 1889-1909. 

Celsus. Aur. Cor. Celsi, De Medicina, Libri octo. Cura et 
Studio Th. J. ab Almeloveen. 

Patavii, 1722. 

Chambers, Scotsmen. Lives of illustrious and distinguished 
Scotsmen. By Robert Chambers. 

Glasgow, 1836. 

Collins. A Short Sketch of the Life and Writings of Joseph 
Clarke, M.D. By Robert Collins, M.D. 

London, 1849. 
Col. P. Minutes. The Minutes of the King and Queen's 

(Royal) College of Physicians in (of) Ireland. MSS. 
Craik. The Life of Jonathan Swift. By Henry Craik. 
2nd Edition. Vol. i-ii. 

London, 1894. 

C. S. P. Calendar of State Papers, Ireland. 
Cunningham, Magrath. The Skeleton of the Irish Giant 
Cornelius Magrath. Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy. Vol. xxix. Part xvi. 

Dublin, 1891. 

Dickson's Letter. A Letter from Dr. Dickson to his Medical 
Brethren relative to the School of Physic in this Kingdom. 

Dublin, 1795. 

Diseases of the Chest. A Treatise on the Diagnosis and Treat- 
ment of Diseases of the Chest. By William Stokes. 
Dublin, 1837. 

Z3 



342 REFERENCES 

Dix. Books printed in Dublin in the Seventeenth Century. 
List compiled by E. R. M'C. Dix, with Introduction and 
Notes by C. W. Dugan. Parts i-iv. 

Dublin, 1898-1905. 

D. N. B. Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by 
Sidney Lee. Reissue. 
London, 1908-9. 
Dunton. The Life and Errors of John Dunton. Vol. i-ii. 

London, 1818. 
Ed. Med. Com. The Edinburgh Medical Commentaries. 

London and Edinburgh, 1774-95. 

Evans. The History of the Dublin Hospitals and Infirmaries 
from 1188 to the Present Time. By Edward Evans. 

Irish Builder. Dublin, 1896-7. 

Foot. Reminiscences of the Biological Club. By Arthur 
Wynne Foot, M.D. 
Dublin, 1892. 
G. E. C. Complete Baronetage. Edited by G. E. C. 

Exeter, 1906. 

Gilbert, Hist. A History of the City of Dublin. By J. T. 
Gilbert. Vol. i-iii. 

Dublin, 1854-9. 

Gilborne, Med. Rev. The Medical Review, A Poem. Being 
a Panegyric on the Faculty of Dublin ; Physicians, 
Surgeons, and Apothecaries, marching in Procession to 
the Temple of Fame. By John Gilborne, M.D. 

Dublin, 1775. 

Graves, Lectures, 1864. Clinical Lectures on the Practice of 
Medicine. By Robert James Graves. Reprinted from 
the 2nd Edition. Edited by the late John Moore 
Neligan. 

Dublin, 1864. 

Guide to Dublin. An Historical Guide to Ancient and Modern 
Dublin. By G. N. Wright. 

London, 1821. 

Harris, Hist, of Dublin. The History and Antiquities of the 
City of Dublin. By Walter Harris. 
Dublin, 1766. 



REFERENCES 343 

Heart and Aorta. Diseases of the Heart and Aorta. By 
William Stokes. 

Dublin, 1854. 

Hill's Address I. An Address to the Students of Physic 
relative to the Present State of the School of Physic in 
this Kingdom. By Edward Hill, M.D. 

Dublin, 1803. 

Hill's Address 2. An Address to the President and Fellows of 
the King and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland. 
By Edward Hill, M.D. 

Dublin, 1805. 

Hurry. A History of the Reading Pathological Society. By 
Jamieson B. Hurry, M.D. 

London, 1909. 

Irvine. A Concise View of the Military Medical Literature in this 
Country, being a Chronological Arrangement of Authors with 
Critical Remarks on their Works. By James Irvine, M.D. 

Edinburgh Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. Ixiii, 1845. 
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Edinburgh, 1903. 

Joyce. A Social History of Ancient Ireland. By P. W. Joyce, 
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Kennedy Address. Introductory Address delivered at the first 
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November 14, 1838. By Evory Kennedy, M.D. 
Dublin Journ. Med. Science, vol. xv, 1839. 
Knights. The Knights of England. By William A. Shaw. 
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London, 1906. 

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Macalister, Hist, of Anat. A Sketch of the History of Anatomy 
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Dublin Journ. Med. Science, vol. Ixxvii, 1884. 
Macalister, Macartney. James Macartney, M.D. A Memoir. 
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London, 1900. 

Mackintosh. An Ancient Gaelic Medical MS. No. 21 of the 
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Caledonian Medical Journal, vol. vii. Glasgow, 

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M'Clintock, Dublin School of Midwifery. On the Rise of the 

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xxv. 1858. 

Mahaffy, Epoch. An Epoch in Irish History. Trinity College, 
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By John Pentland Mahaffy, D.D. 

London, 1903. 

Med. Obs. Medical Observations and Enquiries by a Society 
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Moore, Hist. Pharm. An outline of the History of Pharmacy in 
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Dublin, 1848. 

Moore, Med. in Ireland. An Essay on the History of Medicine 
in Ireland founded on an examination of some MSS. in 
the British Museum. By Norman Moore, M.D. 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital Reports, vol. ix. London, 

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Association, vol. ix, 1909. 



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London, 1878. 

O'Curry, M. and C. On the Manners and Customs of the 
Ancient Irish. By Eugene O'Curry, M.R.I.A. Intro- 
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London, 1873. 

O'Curry, MS. Mat. Lectures on the Manuscript Materials of 
Ancient Irish History. By Eugene O'Curry, M.R.I.A. 

Dublin, 1861. 

O'Donoghue, Irish Ability. A Geographical Distribution of 
Irish Ability. By D. J. O'Donoghue. 

Dublin, 1906. 

Ormsby. Medical History of the Meath Hospital. By Lam- 
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Dublin, 1888. 

Obit. R. S. Obituary Notices of the Fellows of the Royal 
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London, 1901. 

Parr. A Collection of three hundred Letters written between 
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Perceval, Account. An Account of the Bequest of Sir Patrick 
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Foundation of an Hospital Establishment subservient to 
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Dublin, 1804. 

Pettigrew, Lettsom. Memoirs of the Life and Writings of 
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London, 1817. 

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Dublin, 1752. 

Proc. Zool. and Botan. Assoc. Proceedings of the Dublin 
University Zoological and Botanical Association. Vol. i. 

Dublin, 1859. 

Reg. The Register of Trinity College, Dublin. MS. 
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in the High Court of Parliament, Ireland. By William 
Ridgeway, LL.D. Vol. i-iii. 

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Rivington, Carmichael Essay. The Carmichael Prize Essay, 
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Dublin, 1879. 

Rivington. The Medical Profession in the United Kingdom. 
By Walter Rivington, M.B. 

Dublin, 1887. 

Scott's Hutcheson. Francis Hutcheson. His Life, Teaching, 
and Position in the History of Philosophy. By William 
Robert Scott. 

Cambridge, 1900. 

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E. S. Shuckburgh. 

Cambridge, 1902. 

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Smith's Cork. The Ancient and Present State of the County 
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Dublin, 1750. 

Smith, Origin of Coll. P. Some account of the Origin and Early 
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Dublin, 1869. 



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Wood's Cramond. The Ancient and Modern state of the Parish 
of Cramond. By John Philip Wood. 
Edinburgh, 1794. 



APPENDIX II 

THE MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE AND 
OF THE SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND 

' MEDICUS '. 

John Temple, M.A. Elected October 24, 1618. 

Thomas Beere, MA. Elected December 6, 1620. 

John Steame, M.D. President of the College of Physicians. 

Elected Fellow October 22, 1651. Resigned November 17, 

1659. Reappointed by King's Letter, December 29, 1660. 

Not mentioned as ' Medicus ', but given the privileges. 
George Walker. Elected November 25, 1669. Died 1670. 
William Palliser, D.D. Elected October 29, 1670. 
George Mercer, M.D. Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected September 9, 1671. Vice-Provost. Dispossessed 

of Fellowship on account of marriage, June 8, 1687. 
Owen Lloyd. Elected June 10, 1687. 
Jeremiah Allen, M.A. Election as ' Medicus ' not given, but 

it is stated on September 18, 1688, that Mr. Allen ' resigned 

the place of Medicus '. 
Arthur Blennerhassett, B.D. Elected September 18, 1688. 

Died July 4, 1696. 
William Carr, M.B. Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

May 12, 1693. Died January 16, 1698/9. 
John Dennis, D.D. Elected January 21, 1698/9. Resigned 

June 8, 1700. 
Anthony Raymond, D.D. Elected June 8, 1700. Resigned 

1702. 
William Lloyd, D.D. Election not stated, probably 1702. 

Resigned ' Medicus ' January 28, 1706/7. 
Richard Helsham, M.D. Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected January 28, 1706/7. Resigned January 16, 

1729/30. 



350 MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

Edward Hudson, B.D. Elected January 26, 1729/30. Re- 
signed February 8, 1730/1. 

Edward Molloy, M.A. Elected February 8, 1730/1. Resigned 
May 28, 1733. 

William Clements, M.D., Vice-Provost. Elected May 28, 
1733. Died January 15, 1782. 

Whitley Stokes, M.D. Hon. Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected July 18, 1789. Resigned June 22, 1816. 

John Toleken, M.D. Elected July I, 1837. Resigned May i, 
1880. Died December 13, 1887. 

REGIUS PROFESSORS OF PHYSIC 

John Stearne, M.D., President of the College of Physicians. 

Elected November 24, 1656. Resigned November 17, 

1659. Re-elected June 3, 1662. Died November 18, 

1669. 
Thomas Margetson, M.D., Fellow of the College of Physicians. 

Elected successor to Stearne, but date not recorded. 

Died 1674. 
Ralph Howard, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

April 2, 1674. Died 1710. 
Richard Steevens, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected September 19, 1710. Died December 15, 1710. 
Thomas Molyneux, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected January 22, 1711. Died October 19, 1733. 
Richard Helsham, M.D., Fellow of Trinity College and of 

College of Physicians. Elected November 10, 1733- 

Died August, 1738. 
Henry Cope, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

successor to Helsham, date not recorded. Died January, 

I742/3- 
Francis Foreside, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected February 2, 1742/3. Died 1745. 
Bryan Robinson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected June 12, 1745. Died January, 1754. 
Edward Barry, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

January 28, 1754. Resigned February 12, 1761. 



AND SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND 351 

William Clements, M.D., Vice-Provost of Trinity College and 

Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected February 21, 

1761. Resigned November 15, 1781. 
Edward Hill, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

November 15, 1781. Died October 31, 1830. 
Whitley Stokes, M.D., Fellow of Trinity College and Hon. 

Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected November 13, 

1830. Resigned October 12, 1840. 
William Stokes, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

October 12, 1840. Died January 6, 1878. 
Alfred Hudson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

February 16, 1878. Resigned September 29, 1880. 
John Thomas Banks, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected November 13, 1880. Resigned October 15, 1898. 
James Little, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

December 16, 



REGIUS PROFESSORS OF SURGERY 

James William Cusack, M.D. Elected January 24, 1852. 

Died September 25, 1861. 
Robert Adams, M.D. Elected October 26, 1861. Died 

January 16, T.875- 1 
William Colles, M.D. Elected March 6, 1875. Resigned 

April 18, 1891. 
George Hornidge Porter, M.D. Elected October 14, 1891. 

Died June 16, 1895. 
Charles Bent Ball, M.D. Elected November 20, 1895. 

LECTURERS IN ANATOMY AND CHIRURGERY 

Richard Hoyle, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

August 1711. Discontinued 1716. 
Bryan Robinson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected September 8, 1716. Dismissed June 17, 1717. 
Richard Hoyle, M.D. Re-elected June 17, 1717. Died 

August 1730. 

1 The Professorship was raised to the dignity of Regius by 
Letters Patent dated September 29, 1868. 



352 MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

Thomas Madden, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected October i, 1730. Probably died 1734. 
Francis Foreside, M.D., Fellow of the College of Physicians. 

Elected May 21, 1734. Resigned January n, 1741/2. 
Robert Robinson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected January 16, 1741/2. Dismissed June 29, 1761. 
George Cleghorn, M.D., Hon. Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected June 29, 1761. Continued Professor by Act 25, 

Geo. Ill, 1785. 

PROFESSORS OF ANATOMY AND CHIRURGERY 

George Cleghorn, M.D. Elected Lecturer June 29, 1761, 

created Professor by Act 25, Geo. Ill, 1785. Died 

December 22, 1789. 
James Cleghorn, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected April 16, 1790. Resigned July 24, 1802. 
William Hartigan, M.D. Elected November 6, 1802. Died 

December 15, 1812. 
James Macartney, M.D. Elected June 21, 1813. Resigned 

July 13, 1837. 
Robert Harrison, M.D. Elected October 24, 1837. Died 

April 23, 1858. 
Benjamin George McDowel, M.D. Elected October 8, 1858. 

Resigned June 22, 1879. 
Alexander Macalister, M.D. Elected October 14, 1879. 

Resigned June 16, 1883. 
Daniel John Cunningham, M.D. Elected September 29, 1883. 

Resigned February 14, 1903. 
Andrew Francis Dixon, Sc.D. Elected June 20, 1903. 

UNIVERSITY ANATOMISTS 
William Green, Surgeon. Elected September 8, 1716. Died 

I732/3. 
Vessy Shaw, Surgeon. Elected October 22, 1733. Resigned 

June 14, 1743. 
George Whittingham, Surgeon. Elected June 14, 1743- 

Resigned September 10, 1753. 



AND SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND 353 

George Cleghorn, M.D. Elected September 10, 1753. Resigned 
on appointment as Lecturer in Anatomy June 29, 1761. 

John Kellock Barton, M.D. Elected May 18, 1861. Resigned 
October 22, 1864. 

Edward Hallaran Bennett, M.D. Elected October 29, 1864. 
Resigned on election as Professor of Surgery November 8, 

1873- 
Thomas Evelyn Little, M.D. Elected November 15, 1873. 

Died November 1891. 
Henry St. John Brooks, M.D. Elected November 14, 1891. 

Resigned March 31, 1895. 
Charles Bent Ball, M.D. Elected April 19, 1895. 

LECTURERS IN CHEMISTRY 

Robert Griffith, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 
August 1711. Vacated on appointment as Dun's Pro- 
fessor of Medicine August 29, 1717. 

William Smith, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 
December 17, 1717. Died 1732. 

William Stephens, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected February 17, 1732/3. Died 1760. 

Francis Hutcheson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected July 12, 1760. Resigned November 3, 1767. 

James Span, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 
November 12, 1767. Died 1773. 

James Thornton, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected September 25, 1773. Died May 17, 1783. 

Robert Perceval, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected May 17, 1783. Continued as Professor by Act 25, 
Geo. Ill, 1785. 

PROFESSORS OF CHEMISTRY 

Robert Perceval, M.D. Elected Lecturer May 17, 1783, and 
continued as Professor by Act 25, Geo. Ill, 1785. Re- 
signed February 6, 1809. 

Francis Barker, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 
May 16, 1809. Superannuated February 4, 1850. 
A a 



354 MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

James Apjohn, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

June 8, 1850. Resigned October 3, 1874. 
James Emerson Reynolds, M.D. Elected February 6, 1875. 

Resigned June 18, 1903. 
Sydney Young, Sc.D. Elected October 20, 1903. 

LECTURERS IN BOTANY 
Henry Nicholson, M.D. Elected August 1711. Probably died 

1732/3. 
Charles Chemeys, or Kemeys, M.D., Fellow of College of 

Physicians. Elected March 4, 1732/3. Probably died 

same year. 
William Clements, M.D., Vice-Provost. Elected September 13, 

1733. Resigned 1763. 
James Span, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

February 12, 1763. Died 1773. 
Edward Hill, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

September 25, 1773. Continued as Professor by Act 25, 

Geo. Ill, 1785. 

PROFESSORS OF BOTANY 

Edward Hill, M.D. Continued as Professor by Act 25, Geo. Ill, 

1785. Resigned August n, 1800. 

Robert Scott, M.D. Elected November 24, 1800. Died 1808. 
William Allman, M.D., Hon. Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected January 16, 1809. Superannuated March 4, 1844. 
George James Allman, M.D. Elected March 26, 1844. 

Resigned on appointment to Edinburgh January 1856. 
William Henry Harvey, M.D. Elected May 3, 1856. Died 

May 15, 1866. 
Alexander Dickson, M.D. Elected December 22, 1866. 

Resigned on appointment as Professor at Glasgow 1868. 
Edward Perceval Wright, M.D. Elected January 23, 1869. 

Resigned 1904. 
Henry Horatio Dixon, Sc.D. Elected April 16, 1904. 



AND SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND 355 

PROFESSORS OF SURGERY 

Robert William Smith, M.D. Elected October 13, 1849. Died 

October 28, 1873. 
Edward Hallaran Bennett, M.D. Elected November 8, 1873. 

Resigned active work October 29, 1904. Died June 21, 

1907. 
Edward Henry Taylor, M.D. Elected December i, 1906. He 

had been elected Deputy for Professor October 29, 1904. 

LECTURERS IN ZOOLOGY 

Robert Harrison, M.D. Elected November 29, 1856. Died 

April 23, 1858. 
Edward Perceval Wright, M.D. Elected March 7, 1868. 

Resigned on appointment as Professor of Botany, 

January 6, 1869. 

Alexander Macalister, M.D. Elected July 3, 1869! 
William Henry Mackintosh, M.A. Elected November 29, 

1879. 

PROFESSORS OF COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 

Alexander Macalister, M.D. Elected January n, 1872. 
Resigned June 16, 1883. 

William Henry Mackintosh, M.A. Elected December 22, 
1883. Continued as Professor of Zoology and Com- 
parative Anatomy. 

PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY AND COMPARATIVE 
ANATOMY 2 

William Henry Mackintosh, M.A. Elected March 13, 1895. 

1 On December 9, 1871, this Lectureship was raised to the 
rank of a Professorship. 

1 The Professorships of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy 
were united into one Professorship by a Decree of the Board on 
March 13, 1895. 



A a 2 



356 MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

LECTURERS IN MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE 

Thomas Brady, Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

July 22, 1839. Died March 16, 1864. 
Robert Travers, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

April i, 1864. Died 1888. 
Henry Theodore Bewley, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected April 7, I888. 1 

LECTURER IN PATHOLOGY 

Alexander Charles O'Sullivan, M.D., Fellow of Trinity College 
and the College of Physicians. Elected June 22, 1895. 

KING'S PROFESSORS 
PROFESSORS OF THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE 

Robert Griffith, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 
August 29, 1717. Died 1719. 

James Grattan, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 
1719. Died 1747. 

Henry Quin, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 
November 4, 1749. Died February n, 1791. 

Edward Brereton, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected April 5, 1786. Died December 10, 1791. 

Stephen Dickson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected April 13, 1792. Deprived after being ' admon- 
ished ' December 4, 1797. 

Whitley Stokes, M.D., Fellow of Trinity College and Hon. 
Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected February 8, 
1798. Discontinued October 28, 1811. 

Martin Tuomy, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 
February 6, 1812. Discontinued May 5, 1828. 

Richard Grattan, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected June 10, 1828. Discontinued by Visitors Decem- 
ber 16, 1828. 

1 Both Dr. Brady and Dr. Travers were elected by the College 
of Physicians, Dr. Bewley by the Board of Trinity College. 



AND SCHOOL OF PHYSIC IN IRELAND 357 

John James Leahy, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected May 26, 1829. Died September 1832. 

Charles Richard Alexander Lendrick, M.D., Fellow of College 
of Physicians. Elected December 18, 1832. Died 1841. 

George Greene, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 
October 7, 1841. Died April 2, 1846. 

John Creery Ferguson, M.B., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected July 23, 1846. Resigned on appointment as Pro- 
fessor of Medicine to the Queen's College, Belfast, 1849. 

John Thomas Banks, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected December 14, 1849. Resigned April 13, 1868. 

William Moore, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 
July 24, 1868. Resigned April 28, 1882. 

John Magee Finny, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected July 7, 1882. Resigned July 8, 1910. 

James Craig, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 
July 8, 1910. 

PROFESSORS OF THE INSTITUTES OF MEDICINE 

Stephen Dickson, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected April 5, 1786. Resigned March 27, 1792. 
John William Boyton, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected July 10, 1792. Died 1826. 
William Stack, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

October 17, 1826. Died 1827. 
Robert James Graves, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected October 2, 1827. Resigned February 6, 1841. 
Robert Law, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

October 12, 1841. Resigned November 1873. 
John Mallet Purser, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected February 13, 1874. Resigned September 27, 1901. 
William Henry Thompson, M.D. Elected January 10, 1902. 

PROFESSORS OF MATERIA MEDICA AND 
PHARMACY 

Constantine Barbor, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected November 4, 1749. Died March 13, 1783. 



358 MEDICAL STAFF OF TRINITY COLLEGE 

Edmund Cullen, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

April 5, 1786. Died 1804. 
John Crampton, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

July 21, 1804. Died 1840. 
Jonathan Osborne, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected October 13, 1840. Died January 23, 1864. 
Aquilla Smith, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 

May 14, 1864. Resigned July I, 1881. 
Walter George Smith, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 

Elected October 18, 1881. 

PROFESSOR OF CHIRURGERY AND MIDWIFERY 

Nathaniel Barry, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected November 4, 1749. Died March 1785. 

PROFESSORS OF MIDWIFERY 

William Fetherston-H. Montgomery, M.D., Fellow of College 
of Physicians. Elected October 18, 1827. Resigned 
October 4, 1856. 

Fleetwood Churchill, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected November 5, 1856. Resigned July 29, 1864. 

Edward Burrowes Sinclair, M.D., Fellow of College of Physi- 
cians. Elected July 29, 1864. Died March 24, T.882. 1 

John Rutherfoord Kirkpatrick, M.D., Fellow of College of 
Physicians. Elected July 7, 1882. Died April 16, 1889. 

Arthur Vernon Macan, M.A.O., Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected July 24, 1889. Died September 26, 1908. 

Henry Jellett, M.D., Fellow of College of Physicians. Elected 
October 18, 1909. Resigned December 2, 1910. 

Henry Thomas Wilson, Fellow of College of Physicians. 
Elected March 10, 1911. 

1 By Act of Parliament in 1867 this Professorship was raised 
to the rank of a King's Professorship. 



INDEX 

Heavier type denotes the pages on which biographical 
notices appear. 



Acton, Richard, 64. 

Adams, Robert, 289, 324, 351. 

Allen, Jeremy, 63, 64. 

Allman, Wm., 210, 224, 256, 
275. 3i6, 354. 

George J., 275, 276, 354. 

Wm. James, 316. 

Altamont, Earl of, 189, 191. 

Anatomical material, the pro- 
curing of, 244-247. 

Museum, new building, 

326, 327. 

Anderson, John, 105, 106. 
Andrews, Francis, 119. 
Anthropometric Laboratory, 

3.27- 
Apjohn, James, 296, 305, 315, 

354- 
Archer, John, 44. 

Baldwin, Richard, 105, 106, 119. 
Ball, Robert, 243, 276, 331. 
Sir Charles B., 277, 322 

324, 351, 353- 
Banks, Sir John T., 309, 310, 

312, 313, 337, 351, 357. 
Barber - Surgeons in Dublin, 

Guild of, 14. 
Barbor, Constantino, 105-107, 

115, 116, 149, 155, 156, 160, 

177. 357- 
Barker, Francis, 211-213, 224, 

258, 3M. 3i6, 353. 
Barry, Sir Edward, in, 112, 

114, 115, 123, 127, 128, 350. 
Matthew, 45. 

Sir Nathaniel, 105-107, 

114,115,1 16,154-1 56, 177,358. 

Barton, John, Dean of Armagh, 
65, 66. 

John K., 322, 323, 353. 

Battersby, George, 321. 
Beatty, Dr., 129. 



Bedell, Wm., D.D., 22, 23, 27- 

29, 3i- 

Bedford, Duke of, 135. 
Beere, Thomas, 25, 49, 349. 
Begley, Wm. C., 337. 

Mrs. Jane, 337. 

Belcher, Dr., 73. 

Bell, John, 127. 

Bennett, Edward H., 320, 323, 

324. 333. 334. 337. 353. 355- 
Beresford, Lord Primate, 289. 
Berkeley, Bishop, 79, 129. 
Bernardus de Gordon, 12, 16. 
Bewley, Henry T., 339, 356. 
Biological Association, 330, 333, 

334- 

Blennerhasset, Arthur, 63, 349. 

Book of Aicill, 6. 

Botanical Laboratory com- 
pleted, 329. 

' Botany Bay ', 205. 

' Garden ', 148, 153, 182, 

204-210. 

Boyton, John Wm., 161, 224, 
236, 257, 258, 357. 

Brady, Thomas, 272, 273, 356. 

Bramhall, Dr., 44. 

Brehon Laws, 5-12. 

Brereton, Edward, 161, 162, 
163, 229, 356. 

Bridewell, Dublin, 32-35. 

Brooks, H. St. J., 323, 353. 

Browne, Dr., 227. 

Bryan, Daniel, 199. 

Butcher, Richard G., 325. 

Carlyle, Hugh, 296. 
Carmichael School, 295, 297, 

37. 309- 

Carr, Wm., 67, 68, 72, 349. 
Cartwright, Dr., 99. 
Catholic University School, 295. 
Chemical Laboratory, 211-213. 



360 



INDEX 



Chemistry, School of, 326. 
Chemys, Charles, 98, 354. 
Cheyne, John, 232, 283. 
Churchill, Fleetwood, 314, 358. 
City of Dublin Hospital, 315. 
Clare, Lord, 189, 225, 226. 
Clark, Wm., skeleton of, 127, 

128. 

Clarke, Joseph, 137-141. 
Clearke, John, 44. 
Cleghorn, George, 126-148, 151, 

152, 162, 166, 170, 322, 352, 

353- 

James, 136, 140-143, 162, 

176-179, 182, 183, 200-203, 
352. 

Thomas, 136, 142. 

William, 136, 137. 



Clements, Wm. f 95, 99, 100, 
106, 123, 145, 165, 204, 350, 

35L 354- 

Cockburn, David, 94. 
College of Physicians, 168-186, 

207. 
and estate of Sir Patrick 

Dun, 190-199, 298. 
become ex officio examiners 

for degrees, 290. 

desire to join Concordat 

with Universities, 285. 

early history of, 49-75. 

its privileges, 117-125. 

new charter granted, 66. 

petition for complete 
School of Physic in Ireland, 

ISO- 
College of Physicians, Edin- 
burgh, 153. 

College of Surgeons founded, 
150. 

negotiations with, 296. 

and Board of Medical 

School, 286-292. 

Colles, Abraham, 266, 324. 

- Wm., 324, 351. 
Collins, Robert, 272. 
Conchobar, 4, 5. 
Conjoint Board for examining 

students established, 339. 
Connor, Dr., 59. 
Cope, Henry, 96, 1 1 1, 350. 
Coulter, Dr., 275. 
Cowley, Joshua, 40. 



Craig, James, 313, 357. 
Crampton, John, 213-215, 224, 

236, 257-259, 303, 304, 358. 
Crosby, Dr., 55, 60-63. 
Cullen, Edmund, 152, 161, 162, 

163, 179, 191, 358. 
Cuming, Dr., 132, 133, 135. 
Cumyng, Dr., 64. 
Cunningham, Daniel J., 322, 

336, 352. 
Cusack, James Wm., 203, 289, 

296, 324, 351. 
Cusacke, Johannes, 44. 

Dabzac, Henry, 66, 99, 154, 173. 

Degree of Bachelor of Surgery 
established, 299. 

Degrees in Obstetrics estab- 
lished, 300. 

Degrees, 268-274, 286-302. 

Course of study for, 

lengthened, 252-256. 

Medical, new regulations, 



184-187. 
Delany, Dr., 80. 
de Laune, Dr., 27. 
Dennis, John, 68, 72, 349. 
Denou6's wax models, 131. 
Dental School established, 330. 
Diancecht, 3. 
Dickson, Alex., 316, 354. 

Stephen, 161, 162, 179, 

229, 356, 357. 

Diploma in State Medicine 

established, 299. 
Dixon, Andrew F., 322, 352. 

- Henry H., 316, 354. 
D'Olin's book, 54. 
Donegall, Lord, 79. 
Doyle, Bernard, 61, 62. 
Dublin Society, grant of ^5,000 

by Irish House of Commons 

to, 206. 

Duigenan, Dr., 225. 
Dun, Sir Patrick, 59, 64, 65, 

73-75, 89-92, 115. 

estate of, 101-104, 150, 

151, 156, 175, 177, 179, 182, 
190-199, 206, 207, 298, 338. 

- Lady, 92, 93. 

's Hospital, 186, 195, 215, 

236. 248, 258, 259, 271, 274, 
298, 309, 31. 320, 325. 



INDEX 



361 



Dun's Hospital opened to surgi- 
cal patients, 301, 324. 

, institution for train- 
ing soldiers' wives as mid wives 
started, 314. 

library, 104, 298. 



Duncan, Andrew, 183. 

Egan, Thomas, 232. 
Ekenhead, Miss Mary, 217, 218. 
Ellington, Thomas, 225, 237. 

Ferguson, John Creery, 309, 

357- 

Finny, John Magee, 313, 357. 
Fitzpatrick, Thomas, 337. 

Mrs. Thomas, 337. 
Fleury, John Charles, 161. 
Foreside, Francis, 96, 350, 352. 

General Council of Medical 

Education and Registration 

established, 292. 
Gilbert, Claud, 79. 
Gilborne, John, 115, 145. 
Gilroy, Dr., 311. 
Goughman, Lamb, 44. 
Grattan, James, 92, 103, 104, 

356. 

Richard, 356. 

Graves, Robert J., 215, 233, 

267, 277-281, 282, 306, 357. 
Green, Arthur, 61. 

Wm., 93, 94, 126, 352. 

Greene, George, 308, 309, 357. 

Herries, 232. 

Griffith, Robert, 78, 86, 88, 92, 

353, 356. 
Guilds, Medical, in Ireland, 

14. IS- 
Gwither, Dr., 87, 88. 

Hall, John, Vice-Provost, 64. 
Halle, Dr., 44. 
Halliday, Dr., 139, 210. 
Harcourt, Lord, 100. 
Harris, Richard, 161. 
Harrison, Robert, 266, 267, 

274. 317. 352, 355- 
Hartigan, Edward, 200. 
Wm., 183, 200-204, 216, 

2l8, 220, 223, 352. 

Edward, jun., 203. 



Harty, Dr., 210. 

Harvey, Wm., 153, 191, 199, 

207, 303. 
Wm. Henry, 275, 276, 

3i6, 354. 
Haughton, Samuel, 300-302, 

307, 319. 328, 333, 334. 
Helsham, Richard, 73, 78, 79, 

79-82, 92, 95, 349, 35<>- 
Herbarium, the, additions to, 

276, 277. 
Hill, Sir John, 74. 

Edward, 146-149, 153, 



162, 163, 164, 165, 169, 170, 

174, 182, 205, 207, 208, 224, 

236, 256, 351, 354. 
Hippocrates, i, 2, 9, n, 30. 
Histological Laboratory built, 

307, 308, 327. 
Holmes, Matthias, 20. 
Hopkins, Francis, 161, 169, 

191, 221, 238. 

Hospital, City of Dublin, 315. 
House of Industry, 303, 

318. 

Meath, 214, 215, 281. 

Mercer's, 13, 63, 153, 169, 

181, 189. 

St. Mark's, 296. 

of St. Stephen, Dublin, 13, 



in. 



Waterford, 13. 



Steevens's, 12, 153, 213, 
215, 295-297. 

Sir Patrick Dun's, see 



Dun. 
House of Industry Hospitals, 

303, 3i8. 
Howard, Ralph, 49-51, 67, 69, 

350- 
Robert, Bishop of Elphin, 

50. 
Hoyle, Nathaniel, 40. 

Richard,78,86,93, 95, 351. 

Hudson, Edward, 95, 350. 

Alfred, 310-312, 351. 
Hunter, Dr., 133. 
Hutcheson, Francis, 123, 143 

145, 149, 154. 353- 
Hutchinson, Rt. Hon. John 

Hely-, 99, 100, 136, 150, 154, 

175- 
Hykie, Nicholas, 9. 



362 



INDEX 



Iveagh, Lord, 329. 

Jacob, Arthur, 238, 296. 
Jellett, Henry, 358. 
Josina, King of Scotland, 5. 

Kearney, Rev. Dr., 154. 
Kelly, Sir , 24. 
Kennedy, Evory, 272. 
Kirkpatrick, John R., 314, 358. 

Laud, Archbp., 24. 

Law, Robert, 305, 306, 357. 

Leahy, John J., 210, 221, 357. 

Ledwich School, 295, 297. 

Leland, Dr., 99. 

Lendrick, Charles R. A., 260, 

261, 308, 357. 

Leper Hospitals in Ireland, 13. 
Little, James, 351. 

Thomas E., 320, 323, 353. 

Litton, Dr., 210. 
Lloyd, Dr., 239. 

Owen, 349. 

Thomas, 105, 106. 

Wm., 63, 72, 73, 79, 349. 
Loftus, Archbp., 19, 20. 

Macan, Arthur Vernon, 314, 358. 
Macalister, Alex., 321, 322, 334, 

352, 355- 

Macartney, James, 216-221, 
222, 223, 225, 234, 235, 238, 
239, 241-243, 245-247, 257- 
267, 296, 308, 317, 326, 328, 
331, 352. 

M'Dowel, Benjamin G., 318, 
319, 320, 321, 323, 352. 

Machonchy, Dr., 137. 

Mackay, James T., 210. 

Mackintosh, Wm. H., 301, 355. 

M'Loughlin, Peter Edward, 223. 

M'Michan, John, 105. 

Madden, John, 56, 95, 96, 
- Thomas, 95, 352. 

Samuel, 96. 
Magrath, Cornelius, 128-130. 
Margetson, Thomas, 49-51, 54, 

350. 
Marsh, Narcissus, 54. 

Sir Henry, 282, 296. 
Massey, Samuel, 69. 



Meath Hospital, 214, 215, 281. 
Medical Act of 1858, 283, 292. 

amending Acts, 1860 and 

1876, 293, 300. 

Library, 333. 

Scholarships, 295, 335, 



336. 



School Committee, 300, 
328, 338. 

School, New Buildings, 
241, 328. 

Schools, Private, in Ire- 
land, established, 295, 297. 

Society of Coll. of Phy- 



sicians, 333. 
Students' Society, 331- 



334- 
Mercer, George, 49, 57, 63, 349. 

Mrs. Mary, 97. 

's Hospital, 13, 63, 153, 

169, 181, 189. 
Midwifery, Chair of, established, 

313. 3M- 
Mitchell, Dr., 88. 
Mollan, John, 272. 
Molloy, Edward, 95, 99, 350. 
Molyneux, Daniel, 83. 

Samuel, 83. 

Thomas, 78, 79, 80, 83-86, 

88, 92, 94, 350. 

Wm., 54, 69, 83, 84. 



Monro, Alexander, 132. 
Montgomery, Wm. F. H., 267, 

285, 313, 314, 358. 
Moore, Norman, n, 12. 

Wm., 313, 357. 

Morgan, Thomas, no. 
Moriarty, Sir Thomas, 222, 223. 
Mosse, Bartholomew, 124. 
Mullin, Allen, 57-59. 
Murray, Provost, 206. 

Napier, Sir Thomas, 321. 
Natural History, Chair of, 

established, 231. 
Nicholson, Henry, 56, 87, 98, 

354- 

O'Callenans of Desmond, 9. 
O'Cassidys of Fermanagh, 9. 
O'Hickeys, The, 9. 

Book of the, 12. 

O'Lees of Connaught, 9. 



INDEX 



363 



O'Meara, Dermod, 29, 30. 
Osborne, Jonathan, 215, 304, 

358. 

O'Sullivan, Alex. C., 329, 356. 
Ould, Sir Fielding, 119-122, 

123-125, 134. 

Palliser, Wm., 49, 349. 
Parsons, Widow, 76. 
Pathological Society founded, 

276. 
and Obstetrical Societies, 

333- 

Pendarvis, Mrs., 80, 81. 
Pentland, Dr., 238. 
Perceval, Robert, 146-148, 162, 

163, 165-167, 171-173, 175, 

178-183, 190, 207, 211, 212, 

213, 218, 353. 
Petty, Sir Wm., 54, 57. 
Phipps, Dr., 223, 239. 
Plunket, Patrick, 161, 191, 199. 
Porter, George H., 351. 

Wm., 324. 

Pratt, Benjamin, 67, 92. 

Prior, Dr., 223. 

Prizes for medical students, 

335-337- 

Purcell, Dr., 135, 137. 
Purser, John Mallet, 306-308, 

336, 357- 

Quin, Charles, 161, 169, 177. 

Henry, 105, 106, 107, 

113, 114, 116, 154, 156, 356. 

Raymond, Anthony, 72, 349. 
Reader, Archdeacon, 106. 
Rehlan, Anthony, 105. 
Reid, Robert, 272. 
Religious disabilities of pro- 
fessors removed, 297, 298. 
Reynolds, James Emerson, 315, 

354- 
Robinson, Bryan, 82, 93, 95, 

105, 106, 109-112, 122, 126, 

350, 351. 

Robert, 105, 106, 112, 113, 

122, 129, 352. 
Ryan, Richard, 223. 

St. Mark's Hospital, 296. 
St. Patrick's Well, 240. 



Sandes, Launcelot, 45. 

Stephen, Bishop of Cashel, 



262. 

Saunders, Arthur, 161. 

School of Physic Acts, 297, 300, 
323, 338. 

School of Surgery, establish- 
ment of, 288, 289. 

Science laboratories erected, 

329- 

Scott, Robert, 208-210, 354. 
Shaw, Nathaniel, 65. 

Vessy, 96, 127, 352. 



Shelbourne, Earl of, 131. 

Sheridan, Dr., 80. 

Sinclair, Edward B., 314, 358. 

Sirr, Rev. J. D., 275. 

Smith, Aquilla, 272, 305, 358. 

Erasmus, 79. 

Robert Wm., 274, 286, 

323, 326, 355. 

Thomas, Mayor of Dublin, 



18, 19. 
Walter G., 305, 358. 
Wm. F., 295. 



Smyth, Henry, 116. 

William, 92, 96, 353. 

William, Jun., 96, 97. 



Span, James, 145, 146, 205, 353, 

354- 

Stack, Wm., 357. 
Stearne, John, 22, 35, 36-48, 49, 

5 1 . 65, 349, 350. 
Steevens, Dr. Richard, 50, 70, 

85. 151, 350. 
Steevens's Hospital, 12, 153, 

213, 215. 

School, 295-297. 

Stephens, Wm., 97, 98, 105, 

106, 123, 143, 353. 
Stokes, Whitley, 214, 215, 

224-233, 256, 281, 350, 351, 

356. 
Wm., 215, 232, 272, 277, 

280-284, 285, 305, 310, 311, 

332, 351. 

Styles, Henry, 22. 
Surgery, 274, 323, 324. 
Surgical Pathology, Museum of, 

328. 

Society established, 333. 

Swift, Dean, 80, 81, 88, 131. 
's Asylum, 303. 



364 



INDEX 



Tailor, John, 44. 

Tassie, James, 114. 

Taylor, Edward H., 324, 355. 

Temple, Sir John, 24, 25, 52, 53, 

64, 349- 

Sir Wm., 22. 

Thewles, George, 64. 
' Thingmote, The,' 240. 
Thompson, Wm., 78. 

- Prof., Glasgow, 281. 

- Wm. H., 308, 357. 
Thornton, James, 146, 166, 353. 
Todderick, Dr., 221. 
Toleken, John, 256, 350. 
Tone, Wolfe, 226, 227. 
Travers, Robert, 339, 356. 
Tuomy, Martin, 224, 229, 236, 

257. 258, 356. 

United Irishmen, Society of, 

217, 218, 225. 
Usher, James, Archbishop of 

Armagh, 27. 
Robert, 37. 
Ussher, Henry, 149, 152. 

Van Helmont, John Baptist, 
30, 31- 

Wade, Robert W., 114. 
Dr., 210. 



Walker, George, 49. 

John, 230, 280, 349. 

Waller, Robert, 54, 55. 
Ward, Dr., Cambridge, 28, 29, 

38. 
' Wax-works ' in Medical School, 

130, 237. 
Whittingham, George, 106, 127, 

131. 134. 352. 
Wilde, Sir Wm., 55. 
Williamson, Caesar, 40. 
Willoughby, Charles, 54, 55. 
Wilmot, Samuel, 204, 220, 222, 

223. 

Wilson, Henry T., 358. 

Thomas, 149. 

Dr., 239. 

Winter, Samuel, 38, 47. 

Women admitted to registra- 
tion, 293. 

Trinity College, 

330. 

Wright, Edward Perceval, 316, 

354. 355- 

Yarner, Sir Abraham, 51, 52. 
Young, Sydney, 315, 354. 

Zoological Museum, 276, 327. 

and Botanical Association, 

277. 331- 



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