COLUMBIA LIBRARIES OFFSITE HEALTH SCIENCES STANDARD HX641 05245 R285 .St4 The history of medic THE RECAP HISTOEY or MEDICIIE AND MEDICAL MEN OF c.iVM:DE:N ooxjisrTY, NEW JERSEY. BY JNO. R. STEVENSON, A. M., M. D PHILADELPHIA: L. J. RICHARDS & CO 1886. Columbia WiniUt^itf CoUcse of ^fjpsiicianfi anb ^urgeong 3aef erence Xibrar j> THE . HISTOKY OF MEDICINE AND MEDICAL MEN OF C^MDEIsT COXJISTTY, NEW JERSEY. "At the annual meeting of the Camden County Medical Society, held at Gloucester City on May 11, 1886, on motion it was Resolved, that Dr. John R. Stevenson, of Haddonfield, be appointed a Committee of one to prepare a History of Medicine and Medical Men in Camden County and report the same at the next semi-annual meeting in November." Two hundred years ago, in 1686, seven years after the first settlement in what is now Camden County, there was not a medical man in it. The few settlers were located along the shore of the Delaware River, and on Coopers, Newton and Little Timber Creeks, where the water formed the only means of easy communication with each other. There were no roads, no bridges to cross the streams, and the trail of the Indian was the only route through the wilderness. A few medicinal herbs brought from home had been transplanted into the gardens. With the virtues of these they were familiar. The new country abounded in native plants, whose healing powers had been for ages tested by the aborigines, and u knowledge of whose properties they conveyed to their white neighbors. Each autumn the careful house- wife collected the horehound, boneset, penny- royal, sassafras and other herbs to dry for future use. This custom is still pursued in the remote parts of the county, and to-day a visit to the garrets of many farm-houses will reveal the bunches of dried herbs, a knowl- edge of whose merits has been handed down from generation to generation, — a knowledge that has spread beyond its neighborhood, and has been incorporated in our Pharmacopoeias and Dispensatories. In each settlement there was some elderly matron of superior skill and experience in midwifery who kindly volunteered her ser- vice in presiding at the birth of a new cx)lonist. in the bark canoe around bv the water-way, or seated on a pillion strapped behind the saddle of the patient's messenger, riding double through the woods, this obstetrician would be conveyed from her own home to that of her suifering neighbor. When a wound was received or a bone broken, there was no surgeon to dress the former or set the latter- The wound, bound up as best it might be, was left for the cool water of the brook or spring to allay the pain and inflammation. The broken bone was placed at rest in that posi- tion least painful to the patient, to await the process of nature to make an indiflFerent cure. As soon as Philadelphia had grown suflficient- ly to attract physicians, one was called from there to attend important cases of surgical injuries, and as highways were opened and the settlers increased in wealth, the most thriving of them would send for the city doctor in other serious illness. This practice has continued even to our time. AN OLD-TIME DOCTOR. Such were the primitive means and methods of medication in Camden County at the beginning of the eighteenth century, when John Estaugh, arriving from England, married, in 1702, Elizabeth Haddou, the founder of Haddonlield. Although not a physician, he " had some skill in chemistry and medicine," and made himself useful in his neighborhood, especially by his attend- ance upon the poor. His first residence was upon the south side of Coopers Creek, about four miles from Camden, but in 1713 he removed to the vicinity of Haddonfield, where he died in 1742. The permission to practice medicine was a prerogative that belonged to the crown, under English law, and when a charter was granted in 1664, to the Duke of York for the prov- ince of New Jersey, this prerogative, im- plied or expressed, was granted to him and to his successors in the persons of the Gover- nors. On March 5, 1706, Governor Richard Ingolsby, at Burlington, issued the following license: "To Richard Smith, Gentleman, greeting ; Being well informed of your knowl- edge, skill and judgment in the practice of chirurgery and phesig, T do hereby license and authorize you to practice the said sciences of chirurgery and phesig within this her Majes- ty s province of New Jersey, for and during pleasure." On May 24, 1706, a similar license was granted to Nathaniel Wade. ' In 1772 the New Jersey State Medical Society procured the passage of an act, limit- ed to five years, which provided that all applicants to practice medicine in the State shall be examined by two judges of the Supreme Court (they calling to their assistance any skilled physician or surgeon), to whom they may issue a certificate. This law was re-enacted in 1784, and continued in force luitil 1816, when a new charter granted to the State society transferred the power of licensure to it. The first record of a physician in the county is in the "Town-Book" of Newton township, among the minutes of a meeting held on September 29, 1731. The record says, — "and to pay themselves ye sum of four pounds twelve shillings and two pence being due to them from the township upon acct. of the poor, and to pay Doctr. Kei'say for administg physic to sd. Hart. " Tlie person referred to here was one of the Drs. Kearsley, of Philadelphia. The elder. Dr. John Kearsley, was a native of England, and 1 Hon. John Clement's MSS. came to this country in 1711. He was the third physician to settle and practice medi- cine in Philadelphia, and was a prominent and able man, both as a practitioner and a citizen. He was a member of the Colonial Assembly and a popular orator. He died in 1732. There was a younger Dr. Kearsley, a nephew of the first-named, who succeeded to his uncle's practice. He espoused the cause of the proprietors and ci'own against the rights of colonists, a proceeding that made him very unpopular, and caused him to be subjected to such gross indignities as to induce chronic insanity. As Newton town- ship then embraced the territory bordering on the river-shore opposite to Philadelphia, it is probable that the practice of both these physicians extended across the river into this county. The next notice of a physician in Camden County is to be found in the '^ Registry of Wills," at Trenton. Under the date of 1 748 is recorded the will of " John Craig, Doctor of Physick, of Haddonfield." He evidently had practiced medicine there, but whence he came or how long he lived there cannot now b€S ascertained. There is no positive record of what were the prevalent diseases in early times in Camden County. Small-pox pre- vailed occasionally, and, after the discovery of inoculation in 1721, was combated by that method of treatment. Inflammatory diseases were common among a population exposed to the vicissitudes of an unaccus- tomed climate. Dysentery occurred in July and August. Although all the houses in early days were built on the streams, there is circumstantial evidence to show that malarial fevers were at first infrec^uent ; nor did they become prevalent until considerable extent of forest had been cleared away, and the soil of much new ground upturned by the plough. The first information on this sub- ject from a professional soun^e is furnished by Peter Kalm, a professor in the University of Arbo, in Sweden, who, by order of the Swedish government, visited, among other places, Gloucester County between 1747 and 1749. At Raccoon (Swedesboro') he found that fever and ague was more common than other diseases. It showed the same charac- teristics as are found to-day. It was quotid- ian, tertian and quartan, and prevailed in autumn and winter, and in low places more than in high ones ; some years it was preva- lent throughout the county (Camden County was then included in it), while in others there would be but very few cases. The remedies then employed to overcome it were Jesuit's (Peruvian) bark, bark of the yellow poplar and root of the dog-wood. Pleurisy was also very common, and was fatal with old people. Under this name were classed many cases of pneumonia, a disease not then well understood. In 1771 Kesiah Tonkins, widow of Joseph, who died in 1765, lived on a farm between Camden and Gloucester City, known as the " Mickle estate." Between that date and 1776 she married Dr. Benjamin Vanleer, who lived with her on this place. She was the daughter of Joseph Ellis, of Newton township. It is supposed that Dr. Vanleer practiced in the surrounding country, as he took an active part in the affairs of the peo- ple, being one of a " Committee of Corre- spondence " for Gloucester County in the year 1775, in relation to the troubles between the colonies and the mother government. He was a man of fashion, dressed in the Continental style, with knee-breeches, and was proud of his " handsome leg." He did not remain long in New Jersey. A Dr. Benjamin Vanleer residing, in 1783, on AVater Street, between Race and Vine, Phil- adelphia, is supposed to be the same person. Although this history is confined to that portion of Gloucester which is now Camden C'ounty, yet Dr. Thomas Hendry, of Wood- bury, ought to be classed among its physi- cians, because his field of practice included this section, and for the reason that his de- scendauts became practitioners in it. He was born in 1747, in Burlington County, of English parentage, his mother's name being Bowman, from whom her son received his surname. He served in the Revolutionary War, being commissioned superintendent of hospital April 3, 1777; surgeon Third Bat- talion, Gloucester. " Testimonials from Gen- eral Dickinson and General Heard, certifying that Dr. Hendry had served as a surgeon to a brigade of militia, that he had acted as a director and superintendent of a hospital, and recommending that he should be allowed a compensation adequate to such extraordinary services, was read and referred to the hon'- ble Congress." He took an active part in political affairs, and was once clerk of the county. He died September 12, 1822. The next physician in Camden County was Dr. Benjamin H. Tallman, who prac- ticed in Haddonfield. He probably located there about 1786, the year in which he was licensed to practice in New Jersey. From the year 1788 to 1793 he was the township physician, as it appears that in each of those years he was paid by it for his services in attending the poor. He was elected a mem- ber of the Friendship Fire Company of Haddonfield, September 6, 1792. On October 4, 1791, he read a paper before the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, on the sudden effects of an effusion of cold water in a case of tetanus. He died about 1796. Cotemporary with the above-named phy- sician was Dr. Evan Clement. He was the son of Samuel Clement, who married Beulah Evans in 1758. They had two children, Samuel and Evan.^ The latter was born in Haddonfield, but the exact date is not known, neither is there any record of when or where he studied medicine. He married, April 8, 1795, Anna, daughter of James and Eliza- beth Wills, and lived in the brick house at 1 Hon. John Clement' s M^. the corner of Main and Ellis Streets, re- cently purchased and taken down by Alfred W. Clement. Dr. Clement was in practice there in 1794, and died in 1798. He was the first native of the county to adopt the profession of medicine and practice it in his native place. It is a noteworthy circumstance that for a hundred years after the settlement of the county no one born in it had studied medi- cine. The poorer classes were unable to procure the means for acquiring the requisite education, while the wealthier ones altogether neglected it. It is true that prior to the found- ing of the University of Pennsyl van ia, i n 1 7 6 5, the only means of obtaining a knowledge of medicine was either to pursue a course ol study under some competent physician, where the student was apt to be considered half a servant, or else by attendance at a medical school in England. The prospects of pro- fessional or pecuniary success in the county were not flattering. But in addition to this, there was a sentiment in this community unfriendly to the medical profession as a calling. In sickness the ministrations of friends and relatives, with their teas and potions, and the quack remedies of popular charlatans, who flourished then as well as now, were deemed sufficient. If, after this medication, the patient died, it was attributed to a " wise dispensation of Providence." The midwives were considered to be adequate to manage obstetrical cases. There still lingered among the people the tradition of their English ancestors, that the red and white striped pole was the sign of the combined office of barber and surgeon. These preju- dices found expression in two diametrically opposite opinions. The stout, robust farmer and the active and alert merchant and me- chanic looked with contempt upon a youth who had aspirations for the life of a physi- cian as one who was too lazy to work. The women, whose remembrances of the midnight ride of the doctor through rains and snow and chilliDg winds, thought the liardships and exposure too great for their brothers and sons. These prejudices passed away but slowly. Dr. John Blackwood, who began his pro- fessional career in Haddonfield, became the successor of Dr. Evan Clement, not only by succeeding to his practice, but by marrying his widow in 1799. He was the sou of Joseph and Rebecca Blackwood, and was born at Blackwoodtown, July 28, 1772. His wife was a member of Friends' Meeting, but was disowned for marrying out of it. Dr. Blackwood remained but a short time in Haddonfield. He removed to Mount Holly, where he became prominent in public affairs, serving at one time as postmaster and also as judge of the Court of Common Pleas and Orphans' Court of Burlington County.^ He died in Mount Holly March 16, 1840. Up to the close of the eighteenth century Haddonfield may be considered as having been the medical centre of the territory of Camden County. It was not only the oldest town in it, but it was the third oldest in the State. All the physicians who had practiced within the limits of the county had either lived in Haddonfield or Newton township, of which it was the seat of authority. For nearly half a century later it still retained its pre-eminence, until the growth of Cam- den, and its becoming the seat of justice for the county, transferred the supremacy to the latter. In more recent times Haddonfield has had the doubtful honor of being the seat of one of the notorious John Buchanan's (of Phila- delphia) bogus medical colleges. Between 1870 and 1880 the doctor owned a farm on the Clement's Bridge road, about four miles from the place, upon which he spent a por- tion of his time. During this period diplo- mas of the mythical " University of Medi- cine and Surgery of Haddonfield, N. J.," IS. Wickes' History of Medicine in New Jersey. were offered for sale by his agents in Eu- rope. The period now being considered was a transition one for the nation, which was then being developed from the former colonies, through a confederation of independent States, into a great empire. The science and practice of medicine here participated in this change. At this time there appeared in Camden County a physician, who was des- tined to be its Hippocrates for forty years, and whose memory, though dead for half a century, is still preserved green in the farm- houses and hamlets of this county. This was Dr. Bowman Hendry, son of Dr. Thos. Hendry, of Woodbury. Dr. Bowman Hendry was born October 1, 1773. He was educated at the Woodbury Academy, pursuing his studies under a Mr. Hunter, a classical scholar and a man of high literary attainments. At the age of seventeen he commenced the study of medi- cine, under the preceptorship of his father, and then attended lectures at the University of Pennsylvania, residing, as a pupil, in the house of Dr, Duffield. When about twenty years of age, and still a student, the Whiskey Insurrection broke out in Pennsylvania, and troops being called out for its suppression, young Hendry joined the ranks as a private soldier, and marched with them to Lancas- ter. The influence of his father, with Pj'o- fessor James, the surgeon of the troops, se- cured his release from the ranks, a prema- ture examination at the University, which he successfully passed, and his appointment as assistant surgeon of the troops. This was a bloodless war, and soon ended. Dr. Hendry now began to look around for a field for practice, finally selecting Haddonfield. He began his active life as a physician in 1794, and upon the death of Doctors Tall man and Clement, and the removal of Dr. Blackwood to Mount Holly, he became the only doctor in the place. His practice now increased very rapidly, and stretched over a large ex- 6 tent of territory, extending from the Dela- ware River to the sea-shore, a distance of sixty miles. He was a man of indefatigable industry and indomitable perseverance in the pursuit of his calling. Kind-hearted and gen- erous, he possessed that suaviter in re which won the affection of his patrons. Many are the anecdotes that are recorded of him. For fifteen years he made his visits on horseback, having no carriage. At length he procured at a vendue an old sulky, which was only an ordinary chair placed upon wooden springs, without a top to protect him from the sun or rain. The price paid for the vehicle and harness was thirty dollars. An old " Friend " witnessing this extravagance, remarked, " Doctor, I fear thee is too fast in making this purchase. Thee will not be able to stand it, and make thy income meet thy expenses." This gives us an idea of the life of a physician in those days, and of the value of his services in the public estima- tion. In his journeys through the " Pines " on the Atlantic slope he would sometimes become lost at night, and be compelled to sleep in the woods, tying his horse to a tree. He was always prompt to answer every call, no matter whether the patient was rich or poor, and being a furious driver, he had been known, in cases of emergency, to break down a good horse in his hurry to quickly reach the bedside, and that, too, in a case where he knew that he would not receive any pay for his services. It has been estimated that, in the course of forty years, he wore out over two hundred horses. He risked his life and gave his services in all cases. A family of negroes, living seven miles from Haddon- tield, were attended by him for typhus fever, and, although warned that they were vaga- bonds, thieves and utterly worthless, yet he not only continued his visits, but gave them medicine and sent them provisions from a neighboring store. Notwithstanding the arduous duties of such an extensive private practice, Dr. Hen- dry found time to attend to public duties. For many years he had charge of the Glou- cester County Almshouse. He served as surgeon of Captain J. B. Cooper's volunteer cavalry in 1805, formed from the young men of Haddonfield and Woodbury. He took an active part in religious affairs. He was a member and vestryman of St. Mary's Pro- testant Episcopal Church, Colestown, until its congregation was drawn away from it by the building of new churches in the growing towns of Moorestown and Camden. Dr. Hendry was one of the originators of St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church in Cam- den, and was chairman of the first meeting held in the city hall, in that city, March 12, 1830, whereat the organization of this church was completed. At this meeting he was elected one of its vestrymen. Dr. Hendry was a physician of great abil- ity, and one who kept pace with the growth of knowledge in his profession. He stood pre-eminent in this county, both as a physi- cian and surgeon, and his services as a con- sultant were in frequent request. He pos- sessed those magnetic personal attributes which endeared him to the people to such an extent, that when his barn, horses and equip- ments were destroyed by an incendiary fire, they raised a subscription for him and quickly rebuilt the building and replaced the destroyed personal property. With these he combined the sterling qualities of the true physician. No doctor in this county has done more to elevate the practice of medicine from a trade to a profession. By his exam- ple he taught this community that there was attached to it a philanthropy and a benevo- lence that widely separates it from other oc- cupations, and, by dying a poor man, when so many opportunities offered to secure gain, he illustrated the fact that the services of such men cannot be measured by money. Dr. Hendry married, June 7, 1798, Eliz- abeth, daughter of Dr. Charles Dutfield, of Philadelphia, and had .seven daughters and two sons, — Charles H. and Bowman Hendry, both physicians in Camden County. Cotemporary with the early portion of Dr. Hendry's career, and located at C-olestown, three miles distant from him, was Dr. Sam- uel Bloomfield, who lived in a small hip-roof frame house on the road from Haddonfield to Moorestown, just north of the church. This house was torn down a few years since. Dr. Bloomfield, born in 1756, was the second son of Dr. Moses Bloomfield, of Woodbridge, N. J., and younger brother of Joseph, who became Governor of New Jersey. In 1790 the doctor applied for admission to the State Society, but did not press his application, and his name was dropped. It is not known how long he followed his profession here, but his practice must have been limited in consequence of his convivial habits, and the great popularity of his competitor. He died in 1806, and was buried in St. Mary's ' Churchyard, now Colestown Cemetery. Two of his sons who survived him fell in the War of 1812. There is no record of any physician hav- ing settled in Camden prior to the nineteenth century. Its proximity to Philadelphia seems to have made the village dependent upon its neighbor for its medical attendance. It is probable that some doctor may have attempted to practice there for a short time, but, not succeeding, moved away, leaving no trace behind him, not even as much as did a Dr. Ellis, who, in 1809, had an office on Market Street, above Second. The only fact preserved of him is that in this year he dressed the wounded forearm of a child, but first bled the patient in the other arm before binding up the wound, yet the child recovered. Dr. Samuel Harris was the first physician to settle permanently in Camden. As he was the connecting link between the old- fashioned practitioners of the la.st century and the association known as the Camden County Medical Society he is worthy of especial consideration. His father was Dr. Isaac Harris, born in 1741, who studied medicine and practiced near <^^uibbletown, Piscataway township, Middlesex County, N. J. From there he removed to Pittsgrove, Salem County, about 1771. Here he pursued his profession successfully for many years, and died in 1808. He possessed a good medical library. While a resident in Middlesex he was one of the pioneers in the organization of the New Jersey State Medical Society, being the sixth signer to the " Instruments of Association," and became its president in 1792. In the Revolutionary War he was commissioned surgeon of General New- combe's brigade. His brother, Dr. Jacob Harris, also a surgeon in the same army, dressed the wounds of Count Donop, the Hessian commander, who was defeated and mortally wounded at the battle of Red Bank, and who died in an adjacent farm-house." Another brother. Dr. Benjamin Harris, practiced and died in Pittsgrove. Dr. Isaac Harris had two wives. The first Avas Mar- garet Pierson, of Morris or Essex County ; the second, Anna, daughter of Alexander Moore, of Bridgeton, Cimiberland County. By the first he had four children ; one, Isaac Jr., studied medicine and practiced in Sa- lem County. By the second wife he had nine children, one of whom, Samuel, is now under consideration. Dr. Samuel Harris was born January 6, 1781. He studied medicine with his father. It is said that he attended medical lectures at the University of Pennsylvania, but his name does not appear in the list of graduates of that institution. He began the practice of medicine in Philadelphia, at the northeast corner of Fourth Street and Williug's Alley, but indorsing for a relative, he lost all his property. He then determined to settle in Camden, and grow up with the place. He 1 Hon. John Clement's M.Sti. - Wicke's History of Medicine in New Jersey. located in 1811 in the old brick building on Cooper Street, above Front. While he jDrac- ticed medicine in Camden he still retained some of his patients in Philadelphia, and to visit them was compelled to cross the river in a row-boat, the only means of crossing at that time. In 1825 he purchased the large rough-cast house at the southeast corner of Second and Cooper Streets, which had been built by Edward Sharp. Here he kept his office and a small stock of drugs, it being at that time the only place in Camden where medicine could be purchased. Dr. Harris was a polished gentleman and a man of ability, and had a large practice in the town and in the surrounding country. He held to the religious faith of the Protestant Epis- copal Church, and was one of the founders of St. Paul's Church in 1830, and was a vestryman in it until his death. Dr. Harris married Anna, daughter of John and Keziah Kay, and granddaughter of Captain Joseph Thorne, of the army of the Revolution. He died November 25, 1843, and is buried in Newtown Cemetery. His widow died July 16, 1868. He had no children. He bequeathed his estate, which was large, to his adopted daughter and wife's niece, Miriam Kay Clement (now wife of Dr. Charles D. Maxwell, United States Navy), to niece Harriet (wife of Colonel Robert M. Arm- strong), to niece Anna M. (wife of Richard Wells) and to niece Eliza T. (wife of Rev. Thomas Ammerman). In 1812 Dr. Francis Hover settled in Camden, but remained only a short time. He was a native of Salem County and received his license to practice medicine June 4, 1794. He began his professional career in his native town ; from thence he removed to near Swedesboro', and then to Camden. From the latter place he returned to Swedes- boro'. In 1821 he changed his residence to Smyrna, Kent County, Del., where he died May 29, 1832.' 1 6. Wickes' History of .Medicine in New Jersey. For a few years Dr. John A. Elkinton was a co-laborer with Dr. Bowman Hendry in Haddonfield. He was a native of Port Elizabeth, Cumberland County, N. J., born October 19, 1801, and was the son of John and Rhoda Elkinton. Selecting the pro- fession of medicine, he attended lectures at the University of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated in 1822. He commenced the practice of medicine in Haddonfield, where he remained until 1828. Being an energetic and active man, this country place did not offer a wide enough field for him, so he removed to Manayunk, a suburb of Philadel- phia, where he resided for a short time. In the same year he moved into the city, where he continued in his profession. In the year 1832 he took an active part in combating the epidemic of cholera. He like- wise became interested in public affairs. For many years he was a member of the Phila- delphia Board of Health. In 1838 he was the projector of the Monument Cemetery in that city, and owned the ground upon which it was laid out. Afterward he was elected an alderman, when he gradually relinquished the practice of medicine. On October 5, 1830, he married Ann De Lamater. He died, December 15, 1853. Dr. Edward Edwards Gough practiced medicine in Tansboro' between 1826 and 1835. He was a native of Shropshire, Eng- land, in which country he acquired some knowledge of medicine. In 1824 he lived in Philadelphia, and there he married his wife, Elizabeth Dick. In 1826 he settled in Tansboro', and commenced the practice of medicine, his visits extending throughout the surroundino: countrv. While living there he attended medical lectures at the Jefferson Medical College, but he never graduated. He died in Tansboro' in 1835. His widow is still living, in Indiana. Camden County Medical Society. — Between the years 1844 and A 846 the phy- sicians of Camden Cbunty began to feel tlic 8a need of a closer union. Scattered as they were, they but occasionally met ; sometimes they would pass each other on the road ; sometimes, where their practices overlapped, they would meet each other at a patient's house in mutual consultation.' To accom- plish this desired object, a petition was drawn up and signed by the legal practitioners in the county for presentation to the New Jer- sey State Medical Society, asking for author- ity to organize a society. As the law then stood, no one was legally qualified to practice medicine, or capable of joining a medical so- ciety in New Jersey, unless he had passed an examination before a board of censors of the State Society, and received a license signed by the board. In the year 1846 the State Society met at New Brunswick. The petition of the phy- sicians in Camden County being laid before it, they issued a commission, dated May 12, 1846, authorizing the following legally qual- ified persons to form a society, namely : Drs. Jacob P. Thornton and Charles D. Hendry, of Haddonfield ; Dr. James C. Risley, of Berlin ; and Drs. Richard M. Cooper, Oth- niel H. Taylor and Isaac S. Mulford, of Camden. In accordance with this authority, the above-named gentlemen, with the excep- tion of Dr. Mulford, who was detained by sickness, met at the hotel of Joseph C. Shivers, in Haddonfield, on August 14, 1846, and organized a society under the title of " The District Medical Society of the County of Camden, in the State of New Jersey." Dr. James C. Risley was elected president; Dr. Othniel H. Taylor, vice-pres- ident ; Dr. Richard M. Cooper, secretary, and Dr. Jacob P. Thornton, treasurer. A con- stitution and by-laws were adopted similar to those of the State So(Mety. At this meeting Drs. Thornton, Hendry, Taylor and Cooper were elected delegates to the State Society. A notice of the formation of the society was iDr. R. M. Cooper's MSS., History of Camden County Society. ordered to be published in the county news- papers. Haddonfield was thus honored by having the first medical society in the county organ- ized within its limits. The rules of the State Society directed that county societies should hold their meetings at the county-seat, yet Haddonfield was not the seat of justice. The county of Camden had, in 1844, been set off from Gloucester County, and the courts of law were held in Camden, and the public records kept there, but the county- town had not been selected. The Legisla- ture had authorized an election to decide upon a permanent place for the public build- ings. The people were divided upon the subject. A most violent opposition had sprung up in the townships against their location in Camden, the majority of the people of the former desiring them to be built at Long-a-coming (now Berlin). It was during this contest that the society or- ganized, and Drs. Hendry and Risley, who had charge of the petition, had inserted in the commission the name of Haddonfield. The second meeting, which had been left subject to the call of the president, was also held in Haddonfield on March 30, 1847. At this meeting Dr. Mulford raised the question of the legality of the place of meeting, and a committee was thereupon appointed to lay the matter before the State Society, who de- cided that these meetings, although irregular, were not illegal, as the county-seat had not yet been definitely fixed) but directed that hereafter the meetings should be held in Cam- den. The third meeting of the society was a special one, called by the president, and was held on June 15, 1847, at English's Hotel, which was situated at the northeast corner of Cooper and Point Streets, a building which has since been torn down and dwellings erected upon the site. At this time it was decided to hold semi-annual meetings: the animal one on the third Tuesday in June, 8 b and the serai-annual on the third Tuesday in December. These were always punctually held until 1852, when, upon the motion of Dr. A. D. Woodruff, of Haddonfield, the semi-annual meeting in December was dis-. continued. On June 18, 1867, Dr. R. M. Cooper, chairman of the committee on by- laws, reported that the State Society having changed their day of assembling from Jan- uary to the third Tuesday in May, it would necessitate the election of delegates to that society eleven months before it met. The Camden County Society then changed the time of the annual meeting from June to the second Tuesday in May, and this rule still continues. For twenty years the semi-annual meetings had been discontinued, when, in May, 1873, Dr. N. B. Jennings, of Had- donfield, moved that they should be resumed. This was approved, and the second Tuesday in November named as the time for holding them. As the society increased in numbers and its proceedings became more interesting, the propriety of holding more frequent meet- ings began to be discussed, until, in 1884, Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, of Camden, proposed a third meeting, on the second Tuesday in February of each year. This was adopted in the succeeding year. At this, the third stated meeting of the society, in 1847, a resolution was passed that caused great excitement in the city and coun- ty of Camden. It read as follows : " Resolved, That the names of all the regularly licensed practitioners in Camden County be pub- lished in one of the papers of the county, to- gether with the twelfth section of the law incor- porating the Medical Society of New Jersey." This law imposed a fine and imprison- ment upon any one practicing medicine in the State without a license from the State Society. The insertion of this in a county paper caused the gravest anxiety among the few irregular practitioners and their patrons, and provoked from Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler a long communication in the Camden Demo- ocrat. Dr. Fisler, who had been practicing medicine in Camden since 1837, had not joined in organizing the County Medical Society, nor had he taken any part in it. He was a man of more than ordinary ability, active in public affairs and was at one time mayor of the city. He was a writer of considerable force. He took umbrage at be-, ing inferential ly placed in the illegal class, claiming that he had passed his examination before the board of censors of Salem County in 1825, and had received their certificate therefor, but had never presented it to the State Society for a license, and that the doc- ument had been mislaid or lost. Upon this the Camden County Society made inquiry of Dr. Charles Hannah, of the board of censors of Salem County. He replied that he had been a member of every board that had ever met in the county, and that Dr. Fisler had never received a license from it. The latter immediately went down to Port Elizabeth, Cumberland County, his native place, and among some old papers of his father's found the missing certificate, with Dr. Hannah's name among the signatures. After the dis- covery of this document the society held a special meeting on September 2, 1847, and prepared an address to the public,. explaining their reasons for falling into the error, and disclaiming any unfriendly feeling towards Dr. Fisler.^ Although the doctor obtained the required license from the State Society, he ever after held aloof from it, and never joined the Camden County Medical Society, In the year 1816 the New Jersey State Medical Society had obtained from the State a new charter, which gave them exclusive jurisdiction over the medical profession in it, with a power of license which alone (qualified a person to legally practice medicine. In ac- cordance with this enactment, the State So- ciety appointed boards of censors for differ- iDr. R. M.Cooper's MSS., History Camden County Medical Society. 8e ent districts. It was tlie duty of these boards to examine all applications for mem- bership in the society, and also to examine any one desiring a license to practice, as to his professional qnalifications, and if he passed successfully to issue to him a certificate. No one, not even graduates of medical col- leges, was exempt from this examination, un- til the year 1851, when the Legislature passed an amendment to the act of 1816, authorizing the graduates of certain colleges, which were named, to practice medicine in New Jersey by merely exhibiting their diplomas to the president of the State Society, who thereupon was directed to give them a license, which was complete upon its being- recorded in the clerk's office of the county wherein the recipient intended to practice, and upon the payment of a fee of five dollars. Du- ring the period between the organization of the Camden County Medical Society and the passage of this law its board of censors ex- amined thirteen physicians, some of whom were to practice elsewhere in New Jersey. Their names were, — Examined. Name. Location. 1848. Dr. Bowman Heudry, Camden County. 1848. Dr. A. Dickinson Woodruff, Camden County. 1848. Dr. Daniel M. Stout, Camden County. 1848. Dr. William Elmer, Cumberland County. 1848. Dr. T. Barron Potter, Cumberland County. 1848. Dr. Theophilus Patterson, Salem County. 1848. Dr. Edward J. Record, Camden County. 1849. Dr. Theodore Varrick, Hudson County. 1849. Dr. John J. Jessup, Atlantic County. 1849. Dr. John W. Snowden, Camden County. 1850. Dr. Thomas F. CuUen, Camden County. 1850. Dr. Sylvester Birdsell, Camden County. 1850. Dr. Jacob Grigg, Camden County. Another amendment was enacted by the Legislature in 1854, which permitted a grad- uate of any medical college to practice medi- cine in the State by merely filing his diplo- ma in the clerk's office of the county in which lie located. Upon the passage of this law the Camden County Society required, as an eligibility to membership, that the applicant should procure a diploma from the State So- ciety. This rule continued in force until 1866, the centennial aniversary of the latter society, which had the year previous surren- dered its old charter and obtained a new one which relinquished all powers of licensure. Since then and up to the present time any physician, a resident in the county one year, may apply for membership in the Camden County Medical Society. His application is referred to the board of censors, who report at the next meeting. If he is found to be of good moral character and possesses the professional qualifications required by the American Medical Association, he is recom- mended for election. The constitution of the society provided that the officers should be elected annually. It was intended to re-elect yearly those who were first placed in office. Dr. Risley was continued as president until a special meet- ing in 1849, when his office was declared va- cant in consequence of a tardiness in settling his financial accounts with the society. Al- though these were afterwards satisfactorily adjusted, he withdrew from it, and Dr. Isaac S. Mulford was elected to fill the vacancy. Dr. O. H. Taylor, who was the first vice- president, and Dr. R. M. Cooper, the first secretary, were continued until 1850. Dr. Jacob P. Thornton was the first treasurer but he does not appear to have attended the meetings regularly, and in 1848 Dr. Cooper was elected to fill his place. At the meeting held in June, 1850, Dr. Bowman Hendry moved that the president and vice-president be eligible for election for only two years in succession and the by-laws were so amended. In June, 1854, the words "two (2) years in succession " were erased and " one- year " substituted. This was done to open the of- fices to new and younger members ; conse- quently, since that date these two officials have held their position for one year, a plan that has proved to be satisfactory and still continues. Dr. Cooper, the first secretary and treasurer, held these offices until 1852, 8d when he was succeeded by Dr. Thomas F. Cullen, who occupied them for two years ; then Dr. Richard C. Dean filled them from 1855 to 1857; Dr. John V. Schenck, in 1858 ; and Dr. Henry Ackley from the latter date until 1861. At this time the society had be- come a permanent institution. It had never failed to hold a meeting at the appointed time. Valuable medical and historical pa- pers were accumulating and the want of a suitable person who would permanently take care of them was keenly felt. It was there- fore determined that while under the consti- tution the secretary must be elected annually, it would be well to re-elect him so long as he should satisfactorily perform his duties and would accept the office. Dr. H. Genet Taylor, a young graduate in medicine, who had joined the society the year previous, was elected, and has been continuously re-elected, faithfully performing the duties of his office for twenty-five years up to the present time. During the Civil War he was absent serving his country as surgeon in the Army of the Potomac in the years 1862 and 1863, and in 1865 he was president of the society, when his duties were performed by a secretary pro tempore. Dr. Taylor was treasurer as well as secretary until 1874, when the two offices were separated and Dr. Isaac B. Mulford was made treasurer. This he held until his death, in 1882, when Dr. Alexander Mecray, the present incumbent, was elected to fill the vacancy. In a few years after the formation of the society there arose a need of collecting each year the medical history of the people and the hygienic condition of the county. At a meeting held June 18, 1852, Dr. Edward J. Record made a motion that a committee of three be appointed " to report of the diseases incident in the county and also interesting cases that may come under their notice." The committee were Drs. O. H. Taylor, A. D. Woodruff and E. J. Record. At the next meeting, in 1853, the name of " Stand- ing Committee " was given to it and each member was requested to transmit to the chairman of it any interesting cases occurring in his practice. Dr. O. H. Taylor was its first chairman. The members of this com- mittee were frequently changed, its number remaining the same until 1875, when it was increased to five members. In 1878 Dr. John W. Snowden was elected chair- man and has been continued until now. The Camden County Medical Society is entitled to representation in the State Society by delegates to the number of three at large, and one additional for every ten members. It also sends delegates to the American Med- ical Association and to the neighboring dis- trict societies in this State, One of the most interesting proceedings of the early days of the society was the ordering, in 1851, of an enumeration of all the physi- cians practicing in the county. The com- mittee appointed for that purpose reported at the meeting held June 15, 1852, that the total number was twenty-seven. Of these, one was a botanical, or herb doctor, who was not entitled to, nor did he claim, the privi- leges of an educated physician. Two were homoeopaths, one of whom was a graduate of a regular college, and was a licentiate under the law of 1851. The remaining twenty- four were graduates of accepted medical col- leges, twenty-two of them holding licenses from the State Society, although five had ne- glected to register their names in the clerk's office, in accordance with the provisions of the new law. The names of all these doctors have not been preserved. In the year 1872 another census of the county was taken by direction of the society. A report made to it at the annual meeting held on the 14th of May, in that year, stated that the total num- ber of practicing physicians was fifty-three. (Jf this number, thirty-three were " regular graduates, practicing as such, one regular, but practicing homoeopathy at times." There were thirteen professed homoeopaths and five eclectics. The regular physicians were lo- cated as follows : Twenty-one in Camden City, four in Haddoniield, three in Black- wood, three in Gloucester City, one near Waterford and one in Berlin. The (kmden County Medical Society has always taken an active interest in such pub- lic affairs as legitimately came within its province, and were calculated to be of bene- fit to the county or State, and has never failed to throw its influence in behalf of whatever might conduce to the public wel- fare. As early as 1854 Dr. John W. Sriow- den introduced into the society a resolution " that the delegates of this society are hereby instructed to suggest at the next meeting of the State Society the propriety of an appli- cation to the next Legislature for such mod- ification of the present law as shall enforce the registration of all the marriages, births and deaths occurring in the State." This measure has since that time been acted upon by the Legislature of New Jersey, and an efficient system of recording these data is now in operation. The next public event that aroused the society was the breaking out of the great Rebellion in 1861, and the calling for troops by the government. To this call the response was prompt. Of the eighteen physicians whose names were registered on the roll of its members at the close of the Civil War, five had enlisted in the service of their country : Doctors Richard C. Dean and Henry Ackley had entered the navy, Doctors H. Genet Taylor and Bowman Hendry in the army, and Dr. John R. Stevenson, in the Provost Marshal General's Department, all as sur- geons. The two in the navy were still on its rolls, having engaged for a life-service. The three wlio had been in the volunteei' service all had honorable discharges. The society keeps a careful guardianship over its county interests. It having been reported, in 1879, that the Board of Chosen Freehold- ers had inadvertently appointed an incompe- tent man as resident physician of the County Insane Asylum, at a meeting held May 12th, of that year, Dr. James M. Ridge " moved the appointment of a committee to report what action is, in their opinion, advisable for this society to take in reference to the ap- pointment." Doctors James M. Ridge, Alexander Marcy, N. B. Jennings, D. Ben- jamin, E. B. Woolston, D. R. Pancoast and H. Genet Taylor were appointed. At the next meeting of the society, held November 11th, of that year, the committee reported that they had held a meeting upon June 4th, and had appointed a sub-committee, consist- ing of Doctors D. Benjamin and O. B. Gross, to attend the meeting of the committee of the Board of Freeholders at Blackwood, and that the latter had superseded the late medi- cal incumbent, and had appointed Dr. Jona J. Comfort, a former member of the society, as resident physician of the Insane Asylum. It also recommended that a number of phy- sicians, members of the society, be appointed to visit the asylum, in order that it might be more properly under their inspection. A vote of thanks was tendered to Director Isaac Nicholson, of the Board of Freeholders, and to the members connected with him, for their assistance in procuring the desired change. Dr. Henry E. Branin, of Blackwood, at present has charge of the County Asylum and Almshouse. A notable feature of the meetings of the Camden County Medical Society is the social gathering which accompanies them. The hour of assembling was, at one time, twelve o'clock, noon, but now it is eleven a.m. After the business is disposed of, a collation is par- taken of, at the expense of the society. It is the custom to invite to tliese a number of distinguished physicians from other places, who have previously joined in the discussions upon scientific and medical subjects, and have given the members the benefit of their knowl- edge and experience. The meetings have always been held at hotels, where suitable ac- / commodations could be obtained. As was previously stated, the first two were held at the house of Joseph C. Shivers, in Haddon- field. The next meeting was held at the hotel of Israel English, at the foot of Coop- er Street, and when Mr. English became the landlord of the West Jersey Hotel, the so- ciety followed him to it. Between 1855 and 1857, inclusive, they were transferred to the hotel of James Elwell, at the foot of Bridge Avenue. This building has been demolished, and the site is now occupied by the offices of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. The annual meeting of June 21, 1859, was held at the hotel at Ellisburg, then kept by Stacy Stockton. Returning to the West Jersey Hotel, this continued to be the favorite place until the retirement of Mr. English as host. Mr. Samuel Archer, who then kept the old house at Cooper's Point, having offered to provide a suitable entertainment, and the Camden and Atlantic Railroad Company proffering the use of their rooms adjoining, for meeting purposes, the society met there from 1873 to 1880. Since then the meetings have been held three times at Gloucester (Buena Vista House and Thompson's Ho- tel), but otherwise at the West Jersey Hotel. The expenses incurred by the society were met by an assessment upon each member for a pro-rata share of them, until the death of Dr. R. M. Cooper, in 1874. In his will, which was dated April 28, 1874, and pro- bated June 4th, of the same year, was the following clause, " I give and bequeath to the Camden County District Medical Society, of which I have been a member since its commencement, the sum of three thousand dollars, to be invested by the said Society in the loans of the United States, the State of New Jersey, or the City and County of Cam- den or some other public loan, and the in- terest of said sum to be used by the said So- ciety in the payment of the expenses ordina- rily incurred by the said Society. In case my executors should think proper to pay said legacy in any securities belonging to my estate, bearing interest at their market value, I do autliorize and direct them to pay said legacy in such securities instead of cash." To accept of this legacy, the society, at a meeting held May 10, 1875, determined to appoint two trustees, one for one year and one for two years, who, with the treasurer, should constitute a board of finance. These were elected the succeeding year, and were Dr. John V. Schenck for two years, Dr. Thomas F. Cullen for one year, and Dr. Isaac B. Mulford, treasurer. .Dr. Cooper's executors set aside three one thousand dollar seven per cent, bonds of the West Jersey Railroad Company, which were left with, and are still in the possession of, John W. Wright, who is one of them, who pays the interest as it becomes due. The New Jersey State Medical Society has three times met as the guests of the Camden County Society. The first time in 1849, when the semi-annual meeting of the former society convened at Elwell's Hotel, on November 13th of that year. The annual meeting, in January, 1864, was held in Camden, at Mor- gan's Hall, on the corner of Fourth and Mar- ket Streets. The reception committee were Drs. R. M. Cooper, T. F. Cullen, J. V. Schenck, O. H. Taylor and A. D. Woodruff. They found great difficulty in finding hotel accommodations for members, some of whom had to go to Philadelphia to secure them. The expenses incurred by the committee were paid by Dr. R. M. Cooper out of his private funds. In the year 1874 Atlantic City had become a favorite seaside resort, with several hotels each large enough to accommodate the whole State Society. There being no medical soci- ety in Atlantic County, it was determined by the Camden County Society to invite the first-named society to hold their next annual meeting there. A committee, consisting of Drs. J. W. Suowden, J. V. Schenck, J. Or- lando White, I. B. Heulings, J. R. Stevenson and T. F. CuUen, was appointed to make preparations. The meeting was held May 25, 1875. It was memorable for several rea- sons. It was the first time a county society had ever selected a place outside of its own jurisdiction to entertain its parent society. The Camden and Atlantic Railroad Company provided, free of expense, a special train to convey delegates and invited guests both ways, issuing tickets good for three days, on any train. As far as is known, this was the first instance in the United States where a railroad had offered such a courtesy to any body of medical men. For several years a few of the members had been accompanied by their wives and daughters to these meetings of the State Society, which hold for tw^o days. As the families of physicians enjoy but few op- portunities to join them in a holiday excur- sion, it was determined by the committee to offer the greatest inducements for the ladies to accompany the delegates to Atlantic City. Invitations were issued for them to attend and to partake of a banquet, which the Cam- den County Society had ordered for the eve- ning, and the minutest details of the shortest route to Camden and thence to the seaside were furnished them. The attendance, es- pecially of ladies, was larger than it had ever been at any previous meeting. The State Society, however, passed a resolution prohib- iting any county society from providing any banquet in the future, because of the burden it would entail on poorer societies. The cit- izens of Atlantic City did all in their power to give pleasure to their guests. Members of the Camden County Medical Society since its organization, — Date of admiBsioD. Name. Year of graduation. College where graduated. ■Remarks. 1846 .Jacob P. Thornton 1828 1839 1844 1832 1825 1822 1844 1846 1847 1828 1847 1848 1844 1848 1849 1843 1844 1848 1843 1852 1853 1854 1856 1854 1858 1860 1858 1862 1863 1861 1845 1852 1859 University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Jefferson Medical College Jefferson Medical College University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Removed West 1846 Richard M. Cooper Died Mav 24 1874. 1846 James C. Rislev Died Nov 26, 1866 1846 Charles D. Hendry Died April 29, 1869. Died Sept. 5, 1869. Died Feb. 17 1873. 1846 Othniel H. Taylor 1846 Isaac S. Mulford 1847 A. D. Woodruff. Died Jan 1 881 1847 Bowman Hendry Died June 8 1868 1847 Daniel M. Stout Present member. 1847 1848 Benj. W. Blackwood John V. Schenck Died Jan. 19, 1866. Died Julv 25, 1882. 1848 Edward J. Record Expelled. Present member. 1849 John W. Snowden University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College 1849 John J. Jessup Died 1S52 1849 1850 Robt. M. Smallwood Jacob Grigg University of Pennsylvauia University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Jefferson Medical College Jefferson Medical College University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Jefferson Medical College Pennsylvania Medical College ... .Jefferson Medical College University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania .Jefferson Medical College Died Feb. 8,1856. Removed to Burl'n Co. 1850 Thos. F. Cullen Died Nov. 21, 1878. 1850 Sylvester Birdsell Died Mav 29, 1S83. 1851 Ezekial C. Chew Removed West. 1852 B. Fullerton Miles Removed. 1854 G. W.Bartholomew Expelled. Honorarv member. 1854 Richard C. Dean 1857 N. B. Jennings Died April 17, 1885. Died Aug. 17, 1858. Died Dec. 1, 1865. 1857 W. G. Thomas 1859 Henry Ackley 1860 H. Genet Taylor Present member. 1860 1863 Henry E. Branin J. Gilbert Young Present member. Honorarv member. 1863 1864 1866 John R. Stevenson Alex. Marcy Joseph F. Garrison Present member. Present member. Honorary member. 1866 1866 .Tames M. Ridge .Jonathan J. Comfort Present member. Removed. 8h Date of admission Name. Year of gradnation. College where graduated. Remarks. 1867 18fi7 iPeterV. Schenck H. A. M. Smith Alex. M. Mecrav 1860 1864 1863 1867 1866 1858 1868 1869 1870 1860 1861 1859 1870 1871 University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Died March 12, 1885. Preseiit member 1867 University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Present member. 1867 iJ. Newton Achuff". It. J. Smith jJohn M Sullivan Died. 1867 1867 Univei'sity of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Removed in 1868. Removed. 1868 1870 !j. Orlando White I W Hewlings University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Present member. Honorary member. 1870 1871 iRandall W. Morgan jj. W. McCuUough John R. Hanev University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Died Oct. 20, 1884. Died March 5, 1881. 1871 University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Present member. 1871 D. Parrish Pancoast Present member. 1871 R. B. Okie Removed to Penna. 1871 Isaac B. Mulford Died Nov. 21, 1882. 1871 'Thomas Westcott Resigned. Present member. 1871 iW. H. Ireland 1867 1863 1872 1873 1875 1854 1875 1876 1861 1850 1874 1876 1876 1877 University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College 1871 ■Geo. W. Boughraan jEdwin Tomlinson ^C H Shivers Present member. 1872 Jefferson Medical College Present member. 1873 Jefferson Medical College Present member. 1875 1875 'jVIaximilliau West ■E B. Woolston. University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Rem. to Atlantic City. Present member. 1876 E. L. B. Godfrey W. P. Melcher.'. Present member. 1876 University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia College Rem. to Burlington Co. Died Oct. 30, 1885. Present member. 1876 1876 'James A. Armstrong Thomas G. Rowand ■E. J. Snitcher D. W. Blake W. 1. Davis 1876 Chicaofo Medical College Present member. 1876 Jefferson Medical College Present member. 1877 University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Present member. 1877 Dowling Benjamin Present member. 1877 !John S.Miller Removed. 1878 !J. F.Walsh 1876 1844 1870 1878 1878 1866 1879 1879 1872 1870 1881 1863 1882 1882 1876 1877 1880 1880 1884 1878 University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Present member. 1878 Is. B. Irwin IW. H. Iszard Onan B. Gross James H. Wroth Present member. 1879 Jefferson Medical College Present member. 1879 1879 University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Present member. Rem. to Xew Mexico. 1880 J. W. Donges Present member. 1881 C M. Schellinger Present member. 1881 jH. H. Davis C. G Garrison Jefferson Medical College Present member. 1881 University of Pennsylvania University of Maryland Honorary member. 1882 W. A. Hamilton H. F. Palm E. P. Townsend Conrad G. Hoell A. T. Dobson, Jr P. W. Beale Daniel Strock Present member. 1883 Jefferson Medical College Present member. 1883 Jefferson Medical College Present member. 1884 1884 1884 University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Present member. Present member. Present member. 1885 Jefferson Medical College Present member. 1885 1885 1886 i Joseph H. Wills Wm. Warnock Jesse J. Wills University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Jefferson Medical College Jefferson Medical College Present member. Present member. Present member. 1886 1 James A. Warasley Present member. PRESinENTS OF CAMDEN COVNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY. .James C. Risloy, 1846-47. Isaac S. Milford, 1848-51. Charles D. Hendry, 1852-53. A. Dickinson Woodruff, 1854. .lohn W. Snowden, 1855-75. Othniel H. Taylor, 1856. Thomas F. Cullen, 1857. Sylvester Birdsell, 1858. .lohn V. Sehenck, 1859-73. Bowman Hendry, 1860. Uapoleon B.Jennings, 1861. Henry E. Branin, 1862. .Tames M. Kidge, 1867. .Tonathan J. Comfort, 1868. Alexander M. Mecray, 1869. J. Orlando White, 1870. Richard M. Cooper, 1871-74. Isaac W. Heulings, 1872. Edwin Tomlinson, 1877. H. A. M. Smith, 1878. D. Parish Pancoast, 1879. C. H. Shivers, 1880. Isaac B. Slulfurd, 1881. K. L. B. Godfrey, 1882. J. Gilbert Young, 1863. John R. Stevenson, 1864. H. Genet Taylor, 1865. Alexander Marcy, 1866-76. John R. Haney, 1883. Dowling Benjamin, 1884. E. B. Woolstou, 1885. W. H. Ireland, 1886. Diseases and theie Remedies. — There is but little information concerning thedisea.'^es that prevailed in Camden County prior to the formation of its Medical Society. The limited number of physicians who practiced in it between 1 730 and 1S40 had but little 9 time to write any account of their observa- tions and experience, and still less opportunity to publish them. It is, therefore, from traditions that have been well preserved in this section, compared with the accounts of diseases and epidemics in other parts of this and adjacent colonies, that a knowledge of them can be best obtained. There is a widespread belief that the climate of this section has changed, and that diseases now are very different from what they were in early times. A hundred years ago the old were wont to lament the change and deterioration of the seasons, since the days of their youth, in the same strain as their descendants do now. A careful examination of weather notes shows that there has been no climatic variation since the early settle- ment of the county. There were then, as now, cycles of hot and dry summers, alter- nating with cool and moist ones ; cold, bleak winters with warm and wet ones. There was the chilly spring and the mild autumn. With the exception of a few maladies, like cholera, that have been imported from countries with which, in former times, there was only in- frequent and slow communication, there is no evidence that there are any diseases now that did not occur in early days. Their symptoms and courses have been greatly modified by a change in the habits and cus- toms of the people, and by improved medi- cation and sanitation. In colonial times the houses were nearly all built of wood, a few were log, but most of them were constructed of rough sawed boards, with board partitions, and 'without plaster. There were no carpets on the floor. The only mode of heating them was by a wood fire in an open fire-place, by which the family sat in the Arctic cold of winter, one side of the body alternately chilled and warmed as it was turned to or from the blazing logs. Their clothing was of ho»me- spun wool ; only on ceremonial displays did the well-to-do wear linen or silk shirts or 2 stockings. Underclothing was not worn until the present century, even after cotton cloth had been substituted for woolen stuffs. Overcoats were a rare luxury, but a few of the wealthier men possessed them. Bangups they were called, made of good imported cloth"; they were reserved for state occasions ; they were expected to last a life-time, and sometimes descended as an heirloom to the son. Rubber over-shoes and clothing were never dreamed of until within the present generation. The only mode of traveling was in the open boat or on horseback exposed to the weather. Their diet did not compare any more favorably with that of modern times than did their clothing. Vegetables were plentiful in the summer, but there was no method of preserving the perishable ones through the other nine months of the year. Their bread w^as made from rye, wheat having come into general use only within the last fifty years. The staple meats were salt pork and ham. In the earlier period of the settlement this was relieved by game, but as the country filled up, it became scarce and had a mercan- tile price ; then it was sold. Mutton was but little eaten. Prior to the Revolution sheep were so valuable that in old wills bequests are left to daughters of a ewe-lamb and feather-bed in lieu of any real estate. After the embargo laid upon wool during the war it became unpatriotic and disreputable to eat mutton, and this sentiment continued to pro- hibit its use long after the reason for it had been forgotten. It was only in the winter that they had fresh meat. When they wanted beef they fatted the oldest and most worthless cow on the farm, and when cold weather set in they killed it, and after the meat had been cooked to the indigestibility of leather, they ate it three times a day until jiutrcfaction commenced. It is not surprising that beef was not considered a wholesome food. One superlative article of food they possessed in abundance, whose value as a substitute for 10 any deficieucy in a diet is unsurpassed, but which has not been appreciated by either the medical profession or the laity, until recently. That was milk. This was not a salable commodity, and that is, perhaps, the reason why it was considered to be a plebeian drink. The dividing line between gentility and common people was milk. To have offered an invited guest at the table a glass of it would have been an un- pardonable offence. The family, including the children, at the first table had their tea and coffee ; the bound boy at the second table had an unstinted supply of milk. The result was that a quarter of a century afterwards the bound boy owned the farm. Alcoholic drinks were freely used. Apple- whiskey was in every one's house. Imported wines and brandies purchased by the wealthier people were reserved for special occasions. It was customary to take a drink of spirits be- fore breakfast to counteract the deleterious effects of fog and dampness. If a neighbor was visited, or the visit returned, the de- canter was set out as a mark of hospitality. It was not believed that any excessive labor, like haying and harvesting, could be done without it. The jug was taken to the mea- dow or field along with the water-bucket, and when the men had cut a number of swaths across the grass or grain, a halt was made to take a draught of the liquor. At social gatherings, at weddings, at funerals, and even at child-births the flowing bowl was passed around. The contrast between these early habits and customs and those of to-day is most marked. Without enumerating them, it will suffice to state that a temperance man in the eighteenth century was one who never got intoxicated ; now he is a total abstainer from alcoholic beverages. Now the well-filled de- canter is not only kept out of sight, but it is banished from the house. One township in this county has for fifteen years prohibited the sale of liquor within its limits. As might be expected, inflammatory dis- eases were formerly very frequent, and their symptoms violent. Pleurisy, bronchitis, pneumonia and rheumatism prevailed exten- sively, especially in years in which the thermometric changes favored their develop- ment. They were much oftener fatal than they are now. Cholera-morbus, dysentery and diarrhoea, which are rarely fatal now, then caused the death of many. Scarlet fever, measles and whooping-cough, which are the bane of childhood, exhibited the same infantile violence as the diseases of adult life. Sickness, especially epidemics, as far back as 1726, are noted as having been sthenic or asthenic, but there is no record of that popular word typhoid, as applied to depressed forms of illness, having been used in this county until 1855, when Dr. T. F. Cullen reported that malarious diseases had that year assumed a typhoid form. These facts would indicate that the changes in the mode of liv- ing of the people, which had been gradually improving up to the discovery of gold in California in 1848, and very rapidly since then, had produced a moiety of people of weak constitution, who, under the surround- ings of earlier days, invariably died young. Intermittent and remittent fevers were common on the Delaware slope of the county. In 1798 there is a record that they were prevalent on the high ground, while yellow bilious fever attacked those along the river- shore. In 1823 Dr. Charles F. Clarke, of Woodbury, in his notes, says that bilious fevers were epidemic, and so numerous were the case's, that as he rode along at night, farmers would keep a light burning as a signal for him that there was sickness in the house. The reports made to the Camden County Medical Society state that malarial fevers prevailed along the streams in 1848. After this little is said about them until 1856, when they again became frequent, and con- tinued to increase until 1862, when they were declared to be epidemic. Then they began 11 to decline, until in 1867, and for five years afterwards, they had so diminished that the j)hysicians congratulated themselves that these diseases were finally disappearing. In 1873 they reappeared, steadily increasing in num- ber and severity until 1877, when they were again pronounced to be epidemic ; since then they have been declining, and at present (1886) are quite infrequent. Professor Kalm, reporting to the Swedish government in 1748, concerning Gloucester (Camden included) County, says fevers and agues were more common than any other disease. In some years they ravaged the whole county, in others " scarcely a single person was taken ill." At the time that Kalm wrote, the Atlantic slope of the county, called the " Pines," was not inhabited, except by a few wood-chop- pers. From the earliest times this section has been popularly credited with great ex- emption from pulmonary and miasmatic dis- eases. More recently Dr. John W. Snowden, wdio has practiced medicine in that section for forty years, and who is the able chairman of the Standing Committee and reporter of the Camden County Medical Society, states that he never saw a case of intermittent or remittent fever originate there. He also confirms its reputation for freedom from pul- monary affections. Typhoid fever was not known as a distinct disease until it was investigated and de- scribed by Louis, a French physician, in the early part of the present century. There is no doubt but that cases of it occurred here so soon as the concretions from filth were suffi- cient to form a nidus for its growth. The milder forms of it were classed with obsti- nate remittent fever, and helped to swell its mortality list. In the tradition that has come down to us of the dreaded and fatal nervous fever, as it was called, may be found a description of a severe case of typhoid fever where the cerebral symptoms were promi- nent. In the reports of the medical society this disease is noted as occurring; more or less throughout the county every year, although in some seasons it is more frequent than in others, especially in Camden. Haddonfield seems to have had great immunity from it, as there is no record of any case happening there that was not contracted elsewhere. Typhus fever has been an infrequent dis- ease during the history of the county. There was an epidemic of it in Camden in 1812, in which a number lost their lives, but otherwise that city has beeu remarkably free from it. Dr. Bowman Hendry had some cases of it adjacent to the almshouse at Blackwood. At this institution it is occa- sionally introduced by vagrants, and in 1881 it became epidemic, there having been one hundred and three cases and thirty-three deaths from it. Dr. McCullough, one of the attending physicians, fell a victim to the disease. The proximity of Camden County to the port of Philadelphia has made it liable to be invaded by yellow fever. There is no record of its having become located within the county limits, although the lower end of Gloucester County, from which it was set off, has been charged with having reproduced it along the river-shore in 1747 and 1798. There were epidemics of yellow fever in Philadelphia in 1762; between the years 1793 and 1798 ; between 1802 and 1805 ; and in the years 1819 and 1820. At these peri- ods there were isolated cases contracted by visits to infected districts of that city. Dur- ing the epidemic of 1853 there does not ap- pear to have been any deaths from it in Camden County. In 1854 there was one case of yellow fever in Camden in the person of a sailor who, two days previous to his attack, had landed from a steamer sixty hours from Savannah, Ga. The insidious and obscure diseases of the kidneys observed and described by Dr. Bright, of England, in 1828, and after whom they are named, were not diagno.sed by phy- 12 sicians until chemistry and microscopy had advanced to such a state of progress as to offer the only means of detecting them. The first application of these sciences in Camden County for this purpose was made by a mem- ber of its Medical Society in 1865. Since that date Bright's disease is known to be the cause of a limited number of deaths here an- nually. Fatal results from some formerly obscure cases of dropsy are now known to be caused by this disease. There are some fam- ilies who have noticed that for two or three generations a number of their members have died of dropsy. Some of these deaths within the last twenty years have been the sequelae of Bright's disease. The inference is, there- fore, that the dropsy of former generations was produced by the same cause, and that, to a limited extent, Bright's disease is heredi- tary. In 1735-36 a terrible epidemic swept over the colonies, called the " throat distemper." In the accounts of it that have come down to us, and in the traditions of a not infrequent disease called, in this county, " putrid sore throat," may be discerned the modern diph- theria. Under the latter name the malady is but little mentioned in the records of the Medical Society until 1862, when Dr. Cullen reported that it had been seen occasionally during the year, but that he did not believe that it had ever been epidemic in Camden City. Since that date it has appeared more or less every year throughout the county, but not to any great extent. Small pox was a much dreaded disease in colonial times. The introduction of inocula- tion here, about 1750, robbed it of some of its terrors, and the discovery of vaccination, by Jenner, at the close of the last century, made it still more harmless. Yet it still lingers, and at times becomes epidemic. The Camden County Medical Society reported it to be so in Camden City in 1856, 1864, 1871 and 1880. In the latter year there were six hundred and eighty-eight cases and one hundred and thirty-four deaths from it. The number of gratuitous vaccinations made to check the disease was about eight thousand. Asiatic cholera is an imported disease in- digenous to Southern Asia. Its first appear- ance in Camden County was in 1832. The accounts of its ravages then are very meagre. Dr. Isaac S. Mulford, writing in 1855, says that it was not so violent as were the subse- quent epidemics of 1849 and 1854, all of which he witnessed. He also says that in the first-named year it possessed a sthenic char- acter. Among the papers of the late Dr. Charles F. Clarke, of Woodbury, is one stating that the people were greatly afraid of it, believing it to be contagious, and that he had helped to bury the bodies of the dead, which the people in their terror had thrown upon the river-shore. Its second appearance was in 1849, the first case occurring in Camden in the middle of June. At that time the city had a popu- lation of nine thousand people, many of whom fled ; yet between its advent and the commencement of cold weather, when it ceased, there were one hundred and nineteen cases and fifty deaths. In Winslow there were a number of deaths from cholera, but no account of them has been preserved. There were also a few isolated cases in the other townships. Camden was next visited by this disease in 1854, when the first person attacked died from it on June 25th. It did not assume an epidemic form until October, and ceased on November 23d. In this year there were ninety-four cases and fifty-seven deaths. During its continuance the Camden City Medical Society held several special meetings to consult about it, and the mem- bers exerted themselves to the utmost to check its ravages. In Haddonfield there was a single case that had been contracted in Camden. The susceptibility of the latter city to become a cholera centre, the virulence and the fatality of the scourge there, gave it a reputation for unhealthfulness that seriously 13 checked its growth, so that between 1849 and 1866 its population only increased from nine thousand to eighteen thousand. When it was reported, in 1865, that cholera was approaching the United States, the Camden City Medical Society, alert to the dangers to be apprehended from another visitation, at their stated meeting held Sep- tember 7th of that year, appointed Drs. John R. Stevenson, Isaac S. Mulford, Alexander Marcy and Thomas F. CuUen a committee to adopt measures to prevent an anticipated invasion of cholera. Their final report states that upon inspection they found Camden to be as filthy as any city of its size in the Union. The drainage was superficial and imperfect; garbage and coal ashes were thrown into the streets, but few of which were paved ; the cesspools, shallow in depth, were in many places overflowing upon the ground, and pig sties had been allowed to be erected in the yards of the poorer classes. The committee consulted with the City Council, who courteously received their sug- gestions, and through their sanitary commit- tee, of which John S. Lee was chairman and Colonel Joseph C. Nichols the efficient execu- tive officer, put in force the ordinances which were plenary. Before the summer of 1866 they had cleansed the city and abated all nuisances. In this year the first case of cholera occurred on June 25th, when the city authorities, having previously provided a stock of disinfectants, as recommended by the medical committee, virtually transferred the direction of sanitary measures to the latter, who investigated each case of the dis- ease, and had the premises and clothing of the sick promptly disinfected. There were in this year thirty-nine cases of cholera and thirty deaths. It did not become epidemic* as it only became located in two places, in both of which it was stamped out within thirty-six hours. Just beyond the city limits, in Newton township, there were twenty-seven cases, and twenty-five deaths in a negro hamlet. With the exception of one at Winslow, there were no others in Camden County. In the year 1873 there were three reported instances of cholera in Camden City, and in one person it proved fatal. The experience of 1866 in Camden and elsewhere demonstrated the po\ver and effi- ciency of well-directed sanitary measures in preventing the spread of infectious and con- tagious diseases, and subsequent observation confirmed it. In the year 1880 the Legislature of New Jersey passed an act creating a State Board of Health of nine members, which enact- ment provided that every city, town or borough shall have a Board of Health of not less than five nor more than seven members, of which the recorder of vital statistics, one city physician and the city health inspector shall be members. In each township, the township committee, the assessor and town- ship physician compose the Board of Health. Any city, borough or township which had a local Board of Health at the time of the passage of this act was exempt from its pro- visions. Camden was one of those exempted and did not accept the provisions of the health law until 1885. During the years 1884 and 1885, Dr. O. B. Gross acted as special inspector of that city for the State Board of Health.- The use of herbs as remedies has already been described. Cider, although a beverage, may be classed as a medicine. In former times it was drank hot at night as a cure for colds. The ground Jesuit's bark was mixed in it to make the dose more palatable, and it had the popular reputation of being "good for the liver." Every large farmer had his cider-mill, where he made his own cider, and which he loaned for the use of his less fortu • nate neiglibors. Scattered at convenient points throughout the district were farmers who added a still to their eider-mill, and who distilled tlie cider of their friends into apple whiskey on shares. At the present time there 14 are only a few cider-presses, and but two whiskey stills in the county. One still is owned by Joshua Peacock, near Haddonfield ; the other by Hugh Sharp, adjacent toMarlton. An early industry was the distillation of the essential oils of sassafras, pennyroyal, horse- mint, winter-green, spearmint, etc., from indigenous plants that were once very abun- dant. Their product was sold locally for use as liniments and rubefacients, and the surplus sent to the Philadelphia market. These oil-stills gradually fell into the hands of the negroes. Between 1840 and 1850 one was operated in Jordantowu by a colored man, Stephen Polk, and by his son Elzey. The last one in the county was owned by a colored man styled '*Dr. Thomas," residing near Marlton. This was abandoned about twenty years ago. About the year 1822, Nathan Willets be- gan the cultivation of the castor bean on the farm where he resided, on the Haddonfield and Clements Bridge road, two miles from Haddonfield. He also prepared the oil for market. He continued the business for some twenty years. Until the beginning of the present century physicians made their visits on horseback with a saddle-bag attached to it, in which were carried their medicines and the few in- struments they used. They prepared their own pills and potions. Among their prep- arations Avere those of mercury, a very an- cient remedy, which had been always in mod- erate use. Calomel came into repute in 1736 as an application for the throat dis- temper, but mercurials were not pushed to salivation until within the present century. This mode of medication continued up to 1850. Since then mercury has fallen into disuse by the medical profession, but when the great increase in the consumption of offic- inal and patent pills, most of which contain some compound of this metal, is taken into consideration, it is doubtfid if any less of it is taken by the people now than formerly, only the manner of administration has changed. Venesection began to be employed about 1750 and became so popular with physicians that it was employed in all cases, the lancet being their invariable accompaniment. Now, so completely has it fallen into discredit that but few of the present members of the Cam- den County Medical Society have ever bled a patient. Boerhaave, elected professor at Leyden in 1701, announced the doctrine that all dis- eases were the result of humors in the blood. This was accepted by physicians everywhere, who, in accordance with it, prohibited the use of cold drinks in sickness, but made their patients drink hot teas, keep the window closed to prevent the ingress of fresh air, and plied them with bed-covers to induce perspiration. There are old residents here who well remember the discomforts and mis- ery of such treatment. A few of the best-known old standard drugs and some popular nostrums were early sold by the country merchants. They are at this day to be found in the stock of the cross-roads stores in this section. The first drug store in Camden County was opened by Thomas Redman in November, 1735. He was the son of Dr. Thomas Redman, of Philadelphia, and was born March 31, 1714. He was educated an apothecary, and, having removed to Haddonfield, commenced busi- ness where now stands the dwelling of the late Samuel C. Smith. In addition to drugs he kept other merchandise, but the former was a special department, where prescriptions were compounded. This business and the knowledge of the preparation of medicines was transmitted to his son and grandson, who continued the same occupation in the same place until 1846. Charles S. Braddock, a graduate of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in the class of 1851, opened the first store in Haddonfield for the exclusive sale of drugs in the year 1853. This is still 15 continued by his son. R. Willard is the proprietor of the other store in this town. In Camden, Dr. Samuel Harris, in 1811, sold some medicines from his office. Be- tween the years 1812 and 1821, Freedom L. Shinn kept a drug store at the northeast corner of Second and Plum (Arch) Streets. After that there was no place other than at Dr. Harris' office where medicines could be purchased until 1832, when Dr. Sickler opened a drug store on Federal Street near the ferry. According to charges on his books, opium was worth fifty cents an ounce, and seven and one-half ounces of essence of peppermint eighty-seven and one-half cents. He also sold paints and oils. Paint oil was worth one dollar and ten cents per gallon ; putty seven cents a pound, and a light of glass, ten by twelve, cost seven cents. This store was discontinued in 1834. In the lat- ter year Drs. Joseph Kain and David Smith started a store of the same kind at the north- east corner of Third and Plum (Arch) Streets. Early in the year 1835, Dr. Smith retired and moved away. Shortly afterwards, in March of the same year, James Roberts, of Philadelphia, purchased the store from Dr. Smith, and six months subsequently sold it to Joseph C Delacour, who still continues the business, but he has removed his estab- lishment to the southwest corner of the same streets. The medical directory for 1885 enumerates thirty-six druggists in Camden. About the year 1855, Thomas Hallam added a drug department to his store in Gloucester City, where he compounded phy- sicians' prescriptions. This was the com- mencement of the apothecary business in that place, in which, at present, there are five pharmacies. One was opened in Merchant- ville in 1881 by C. H. Jennings, and another in Blackwood by Dr. J. E. Hurff in 1884. Camden City Medical Society. — The Camden City Medical Society was organized in the city of Camden, June 21, 1853, by Drs. L. F. Fisler, I. S. Mulford, O. H.Tay- lor, S. Birdsell, T. F. Cullen and J. V. Schenck. At this meeting a committee of three, consisting of Drs. O. H. Taylor, Bird- sell and Fisler, was appointed to draught a suitable constitution and by-laws. This meeting then adjourned to the 16th instant, when a constitution and by-la ws were adopted and an organization effected by the election of Dr. Isaac S. Mulford, president ; Dr. L. F. Fisler, vice-president ; Dr. J. V. Schenck, secretary and treasurer; and a standing com- mittee composed of Drs. Cooper, Birdsell and Cullen. The officers are elected yearly, at the annual meeting in September. The society is in effect, although not in fact, a subdivision of the County Society, composed of those members of the latter who practice medicine in the city of Camden. In the list of its members from the organization to the present time there are but seven who were not members of the other society. Their names are, — 'Dateof Eleo. Where gradu- ! Rg,„^,rks. ated. I Lorenzo F. Fisler 'June 16, 1853 Univ. of PennajDied 1871 Jesse S. Z. Sellers Sept. 7, 1854:IUniv. of Penna.lDied Keyuell Coates Dec. 5, 18G7iUniv. of Penua. Died 188G D. N.Mahone (honorary). Sept. 3,186SlUniv. of Peniia. Ues'd 1SG8 Charles F. Clarke June 3.1S69;ruiv. of Peuna. Died 1875 William G. Tavlor Mar. 4, 1ST5 Jeff. 3Ied. Col. Died 1877 Charles A. Baker iMar. 2, 187o'jeff. Med. Col. Removed It meets quarterly, in the evening, gener- ally at the house of one its members, but since the establishment of the Dispensary it occasionally meets there. Its meetings have never been discontinued, but sometimes have lapsed for want of a quorum. It has a super- vision over all medical matters that belong exclusively to Camden City, and which are not of special interest to the townships out- side of it. Reports made to it of the health of the city, of epidemics, of medical and other cases of special importance, are brought to the attention of the standing committee of the County Medical Society. Therefore, the transactions of the City Society, as far as re- lates to disease and its treatment, have already been given in the history of the former society. 16 Formerly a subject of frequent discussion in their meetings was the fee-bill or the rates to be charged for professional visits and cases of surgical injuries, it being desirable that a uniform price should be fixed upon by all its members for similar attendance upon the sick. The City Medical Society has always taken an active interest in all public measures that concerned the health or bodily welfare of the citizens of Camden. In 1857, at the request of the Philadelphia Board of Health, it ap- pointed delegates to meet in that city with those of similar societies on May ISth, for conference in relation to the establishment of a uniform system of quarantine laws. In the succeeding year another delegation was elected to attend a like convention in Balti- more. At the meeting held July 3, 1858, a com- mittee composed of Drs. Mulford, O. H. Taylor and Cullen was appointed to investi- gate and report upon the filthy condition of the hydrant water. The paper which they prepared condemned the management of the water -works. It was read at the next meet- ing of the society, and a synopsis of it was sent to the Public Ledger and to the directors of the company who then controlled the water supply of Camden. In 1859 a resolution was introduced into the society looking to the establishment of a Dispensary in Camden. This will be more fully described in the history of that institu- tion. In 1865 a committee was appointed to recommend measures for the prevention of an invasion of the city by cholera, an account of whose work is given in the sketch of cholera in Camden. This committee, in ad- dition to the duty assigned to it, was, at a meeting held August 9, 1866, requested to make inquiry as to the mode of registering deaths in Philadelphia, which having been done, the plan was recommended to City Council, with the request that they pass a similar ordinance. At the meeting held March 4, 1876, the family of the late Dr. Richard M. Cooper presented his library of medical works to the Camden City Medical Society. A committee was appointed to prepare an appropriate place for it, and to arrange a catalogue of it. The Dispensary was selected as a suitable building in which to deposit it. There never had been any coroner's physi- cian for Camden County. In case of sudden death, where the coroner desired an investiga- tion of its cause by a physician, he could call upon any one convenient to the inquest. The doctor's services were paid for in each indi- vidual case. There having arisen some dis- pute between the officials and the members of the Camden County Medical Society as to the value of the services rendered, a fee-bill was drawn up by the society and laid before the proper authorities. At the meeting held December 2, 1869, Dr. Thomas F. Cullen moved, '^ That members of the Camden City Society refuse to make or assist at any post- mortem examination as directed by the cor- oner or coroners of Camden County, or by any court or courts of said county, until the fee- bill as already presented to the Board of Chosen Freeholders, as agreed upon by this society, shall be accepted and agreed upon by them, and the Board of Chosen Freeholders be notified by the secretary of this society of the same." This resolution was adopted and copies were ordered to be sent to the Board of Freeholders and to the managers of the Dispensary. By this time it became apparent that the growth of population, with its increasing wants, demanded a physician clothed with the proper authority, and sufficiently remunerated to take charge of the physical interests of the public departments. The society having this object in view, at its meeting in March, 1874, adopted a motion, made by Dr. James M, Ridge, that a committee should be ap- pointed to " confer with the relief committee of City Council upon the appointment of a 17 city physician." The result of these repeated efforts of the profession to arouse the atten- tion of the officials to the needs of the com- munity was the appointment of a county physician. The Legislature of New Jersey, by an act approved April 21, 1876, created the office of county physician. The laws thus enacted and in force give the county physician pre- cedence and authority in all coroner's cases until he has given orders for a view or in- quest to a coroner or justice of the peace. He is obliged to assume the responsibility of all coroner's work. Besides this, he furnishes medical attendance and gives medicines to the inmates of the county jail. His salary is eight hundred dollars per annum, in lieu of all fees. Dr. Randall W. Morgan was county physician from 1876 to 1881 ; Dr. Wm. H. Ireland, from 1881 to 1884; and Dr. Gross, the present incumbent, since the latter date. Pexsiox Board. — In June, 1884, a United States Pension Board of Examining Surgeons was established in Camden. It is one of three assigned to New Jersey, the other two being respectively at Newark and Trenton. It was composed as follows, viz.: Dr. H. Genet Taylor, president ; Dr. James A. Armstrong, treasurer ; Dr. Onan B. Gross, secretary. Upon the change of ad- ministration of the government, the board was reorganized in July, 1885, by the ap- pointment of Dr. James M. Ridge, president ; Dr. John W. Donges, treasurer; and Dr. Onan B. Gross, secretary. The board meets every Wednesday at the Dispensary for the purpose of examining applications for pen- sions. Camden City Dispensary. — The first movement towards establishing a Dispensary in Camden was made in 1859. Dr. O. H. Taylor, when a young graduate in medicine, had been a visiting physician for the Phila- delphia Dispensary, and was impressed with the usefulness and the beneficent charity of such an institution in a young city. At the meeting of the Camden City Medical Society held March 3d, in that year, he brought to its attention the propriety of petitioning City Council for the establishment of a Dispensary. This was discussed and laid over until the next meeting, on June 2d, when a committee of three, composed of Drs. O. H. Taylor, R. M. Cooper and L. F. Fisler, was appointed " to frame a memorial to the City Council of Camden, in order to co-operate with the City Medical Society in the establishment of a City Dispensary." At the December meeting the committee read a report, and after considera- ble debate in regard to the encouragement likely to be extended by those appealed to for aid, the subject was indefinitely postponed. After the call of President Lincoln for three hundred thousand men was made, De- cember 19, 1864, it became evident that another conscription for troops would be en- forced in Camden. A number of men formed an association called " The North Ward Bounty Association," to insure such of its members as might be drafted against enforced mili- tary duty, by paying a bounty to volunteers to fill the places of those whose names might be drawn from the wheel. The drawing had been made in Camden, and part of its quota had been filled, when the surrender of Lee at Appomattox closed the war and stopped recruiting. During this month the members of the North Ward Bounty Associ- ation held a meeting and passed a resolution appropriating the sum left in the hands of Thomas IMcKean, treasurer, amounting to $3956.96, to charitable purposes. After consultation with Dr. Taylor and other members of the City Medical Society, Mr. McKean determined, with the committee of the association, to appropriate it toward the founding of a Dispensary. He and Samuel B. Garrison were selected as a com- mittee to make inquiries as to the manner and practicability of establishing the same. On May 4, 1865, a special meeting of the Med- 18 ical Society was convened for the purpose of taking " action in reference to a resolution passed at the last meeting of the North Ward Bounty Association, devoting funds on hand to the establishment of a Dispensary in the City of Camden." A committee was then appointed to confer with the above-named gentlemen, consisting of Drs. O. H. Taylor, Fisler, Cooper, Schenck and Cullen. Subsequently a minority of the members of the Bounty Fund Association became dissat- isfied with the disposition that had been made of the funds, and they held a meeting on May 24, 1865, and passed a resolution, ad- dressed to Messrs. McKean and Garrison, to distribute the money among the "contributors and drafted men." This action caused some litigation, which was decided by the court in favor of the Dispensary. At a meeting of the society held in December of the same year the committee on Dispensary reported that negotiations were in progress for the purchase of the Perseverance Hose-House, and that a gentleman had purchased twelve cots, which he designed presenting to the institution. At the next meeting, in March, 1866, it was reported that the hose-house on Third Street, below Market, had been purchased, and that a room was being fitted up for the meetings of the society, and that A. Browning, Esq., had offered his services gratuitously for pro- curing a charter for a corporate body. The committee w^ere instructed to organize the Dispensary in conjunction with such citizens as may be appointed to act with them, and the plan of organization drawn up by the society in 1859 was reported and accepted. Subscription books were ordered to be pre- pared for each member, for druggists and other citizens. On March 1 7th the keys of the Dispensary were handed to the society, with the request that it should carry on the insti- tution until a charter could be obtained from the next Legislature authorizing a board of mauasers. On March 21st the following visiting physicians were appointed : North Ward, Dr. H. Genet Taylor ; Middle Ward, Dr. John R. Stevenson ; and South AVard, Dr. A. Marcy. O. G. Taylor was elected druggist and superintendent. The consulting physi- cians, who were appointed at the next stated meeting in June, were Drs. R. M. Cooper, L. F. Fisler and Thomas F. Cullen. The Dispensary was opened immediately and managed by the medical committee until the procurement of the charter, approved February 5, 1867, in wdiich Drs. Isaac S. Mulford, O. H. Taylor, Richard M. Cooper, Lorenzo F. Fisler, Thomas F. Cullen, John V. Schenck, William S. Bishop, Bowman Hendry, James M. Ridge, H. Genet Taylor and John R. Stevenson were named as cor- porators. Under this charter an organization was effected March 7, 1867, by the election of Dr. Isaac S. Mulford, president ; Dr. L. F. Fisler, vice-president ; Dr. J. R. Stevenson, secretary ; and Dr. R. M. Cooper, treasurer. On the 1 2th . of December of the same year the Perseverance Hose-House was conveyed to the corporation, the consideration being two thousand dollars. The first annual meet- ing of the corporators and contributors, as pro- vided by the constitution and by-laws which had been adopted the 18th of April of the year previous, was held January 14, 1868, at which it was reported that the net amount received from the draft fund had been $3776.94, of which $2128.03 had been expended, leaving a balance on hand of $1648.91. Since the opening of the institution the cash contri- butions were one thousand one hundred and twenty-seven dollars, besides donations of various articles to the value of sixty dol- lars. Of this there was a balance of $3.33 on hand. The total number of patients pre- scribed for had been six hundred and eighty- two, and the total number of prescriptions compounded, two tliousand and twenty-three. On the 21st of January the reorganization of the Dispensary under the new charter took place, at which Drs. Thomas F. Cullen was elected president ; John V. Schenck, vice- 19 president ; R. M. Cooper, secretary and treas- urer. Dr. Culleu served as president until 1870, when Thomas A. Wilson was elected. He was succeeded in 1874 by John Morgan, who continued in office until his death, in 1881. The next president was Thomas Mc- Keen, who died in 1884, when Dr. Alexan- dei" Marcy, the present incumbent, was elected to fill the vacancy. Dr. John V. Schenck continued to be vice-president until his death, in 1883, when Dr. Alexander Marcy became vice-president, who, upon his election to be president in 1884, was succeeded by the pres- ent official, Maurice Browning. Upon the resignation and removal from the city of the secretary. Dr. John R. Stevenson, in 1867, Dr. E,. M. Cooper was appointed to the va- cancy, holding the combined office of secre- tary and treasurer until his death, in 1874, when Dr. H. Genet Taylor was elected secre- tary, a position he still holds, and Joseph B. Cooper became treasurer, but resigned in 1882. The present treasurer, R. H. Reeve, succeeded him. O. G. Taylor, the druggist and superintendent, elected March 21, 1865, served continuously for nearly twenty years, during which time he never made a mistake. His health failing, so that he was unable to perform his duties, he resigned January 10, 1886, and died shortly afterwards in the same year. Dr. H. F. Palm now fills the post. In the year 1868 City Council appropri- ated three hundred dollars a year to the Dis- pensary, in consideration of the services it rendered to the poor of the city. This ap- propriation continued until the year 1879, when an ordinance was passed authorizing its sanitary committee to divide the city into three districts and make a contract with the board of managers of the Dispensary to fur- nish medical attendance and medicines to the poor of the city for the sum of sixteen hun- dred dollars per annum. This agreement was ratified on June 1st of that year, and the following physicians were elected by the board of managers, viz.: For the First District, Dr. O. B. Gross ; Second District, Dr. C. M^ Schellinger ; Third District, Dr. M. West— with a salary of two hundred dollars a year for each. Prior to this time all the physi- cians who had attended to the Dispensary had given their services gratuitously. The younger members of the society had each, in their turn, filled these positions, serving until a new member — usually a young graduate in medicine — would relieve them from this duty. These physicians had been elected by the City Medical Society and were accountable to it, but when the officers became salaried, then their selection was transferred to the board of managers of the Dispensary. This contract with the city was renewed annually at the same price, until 1885, when the latter opened it to the lowest bidder. The board offi}red to- renew it at sixteen hundred dollars, which was not accepted ; consequently the election of the district physicians was abandoned, and the Medical Society again resumed its free attendance. When the Dispensary building was fitted up, the first floor was divided into two rooms, the front one being used as a pharmacy and the rear one as an office in which to examine patients. Meetings were also held here. During the winter of 1866 and 1867 a course of gratuitous medical lectures Avas de- livered here to the students of Rev. T. ]M. Reilly's Theological School. Dr. John R. Stevenson lectured on materia medica and practice of medicine, and Dr. H. Genet Tay- lor on anatomy and surgery to these young men, who M'ere preparing themselves for mis- sionary work in the Territories. In the year 1884 an additional room was built in the rear, to be used for holding consultations. At first the second floor was filled with hos- pital cots for the reception of persons who might receive accidental injuries ; but as suffi- cient means could not be raised to provide nurses and open a culinary department, the project Avas abandoned, and the beds were sold in 1869. In 1868 this room was rented 20 to Dr. Reynell Coates for five dollars a month, who lived in it until 1877. The Microscopical Society occupied it after 1878. The " Board of Pension Examining Sur- geons" rented it in 1885. When unoccupied it is used for holding special meetings of both the City and County Medical Societies. Miss Elizabeth Cooper, who died in 1884, left a bequest to the Dispensary of one thou- sand dollars. of establishing a hospital in West Jersey had been for some time contemplated by the brothers William D. and Dr. Richard M. Cooper, descendants of William Cooper, the first settler at Coopers Point, but dur- ing their lifetime they had taken no active steps in that direction. William D. Cooper, shortly before his death, which occurred in 1875, expressed a wish that fifty thousand dollars should be set apart from his estate COOPER HOSPITAL. During the year 1885 the attending physi- cian had treated one thousand one hundred and forty-seven medical and surgical cases, and four thousand two hundred and ninety- five prescriptions had been compounded. The cost of this was $1335.34, which left a balance of $242.80 out of receipts amounting to $1578.14. The Cooper Hospital. — The project and used for hospital purposes. The devisees of his estate, who were his sisters Sarah W. and Elizabeth B. Cooper, in accordance with their brother's wish, took the matter into consideration, and deeming fifty thousand dollars insufficient for the erection and main- tenance of such an institution, generously decided to contribute two hundred thousand dollars for that purpose. In addition to this. 21 they also, with their brother, Alexander Coo- per, conveyed the plot of ground on which the hospital now stands. The ground extends north and south from Mickle to Benson Streets and east and west from Sixth to Seventh Streets, and is valued at about fifty thousand dollars, making the total amount two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. In accordance with the desire of the donors a charter was obtained and the act of in- corporation provided that the corporators should constitute the board of managers, and that they should have exclusive control of the funds as set forth in the act, and in ac- cordance therewith, the two hundred thousand dollars was placed in their hands. The act provided for the construction of suitable buildings for hospital purposes on the grounds above mentioned, and also con- tains the following : " The object of said cor- poration shall be to afford gratuitous medical and surgical aid*, advice, remedies and care to such invalid or needy persons as under the rules and by-laws of said corporation shall be entitled to the same." The board of mana- gers commenced work on the erection of the hospital building in the latter part of 1875, but during the progress of the work many improvements not at first contemplated were made, so that when the structure was com- pleted, in 1877, the entire cost including laying out of the grounds had amounted to ninety-five thousand dollars, a much larger sum than was at first estimated would be required. This left a balance of one hun- dred and five thousand dollars for the pur- pose of an endowment fund, which was invested in New Jersey mortgages bearing seven per cent, interest. In 1878 the legal rate of interest was reduced to six per cent., which materially lessened the income to be used in defraying the operating expenses of the hospital, and the board of mana- gers, after taking into consideration the in- come thus unexpectedly reduced, concluded that the amount was not sufficient to main- tain the hospital as at first projected, and deemed it advisable to add the yearly income to the endowment fund until a sufficient sum was invested to guarantee the income neces- sary to support the institution. The man- agers believed that the delay in the opening thus caused would result to the benefit of the public in the larger accommodations which the increased fund would permanently secure. The sum now invested (1886) the board of mana-gers consider sufficient to warrant the opening of the institution. The building is constructed of Leiperville gray stone, with hollow walls lined with brick, three stories high. The entire depth is two hundred and twenty-four feet by an average width of forty-six feet. The front, or administration building, is fifty-six feet by forty-six feet, and contains rooms for offices, managers, physicians, matrons, apoth- ecary and operating rooms, stores, etc., and is connected with the hospital by a corridor twenty feet by fourteen, on each side of which are linen rooms for the use of the hospital. There is a male and female ward, each thirty-one by seventy-seven feet, connecting with sitting-rooms thirty by thirty-one feet. Adjoining and connected Avith these wards, are four small wards, each twelve by twenty- two feet ; there are also four wards in the administration building, each sixteen by eighteen feet ; the cubic air space is about two thousand four hundred feet, and the floor space about one hundred and seventy feet to each patient. The basement of the hospital building contains the dining-rooms and apartments for servants. Particular at- tention has been paid to the sanitary arrange- ments of the hospital. It is heated through- out with steam, besides having open fire- places in most of the wards and rooms ; the ventilation is effected by means of steam coils placed in two large aspirating shafts, connected with which are flues opening into the wards ; fresh air is supplied from aper- 22 tures in the ceilings leading outside. The boiler and laundry rooms are located in a .separate building connected with the main building by an under-ground passage. The hospital will be opened at first with about fifteen beds. Under the rules contemplated the medical staff will consist of consulting, visiting and resident physicians and surgeons. The board of managers are, — President, Alex- ander Cooper ; Secretary and Treasurer, John W. Wright ; Peter L. Voorhees, Rodolphus Bingham, Joseph B. Cooper, Augustus Reeve, William B. Cooper and Richard H. Reeve.^ BIOGRAPHIES OF PHYSICIANS Who practiced Medicine in Camden County since the or- ganization of the Camden County Medical Society in 1846, who are deceased or have removed : Isaac Skillman Mulpoed was the son of Henry and Sarah Mulford, and was born at Alloway's Creek, Salem County, N. J., on December 31, 1799. Selecting the profes- sion of medicine, he entered the office of Dr. Joseph Parrish, of Philadelphia, as a student in 1819, and in the same year he attended medical lectures at the University of Penn- sylvania, from which institution he grad- uated in 1822. He served for one year as resident physician in the Pennsylvania Hos- pital and in 1823 began the practice of med- icine in Camden, then a mere village, popu- larly known as the " Ferry," in which, at that date, Dr. Samuel Harris was the only physician. His practice grew as Camden in- creased in population until he became a lead- ing physician, a position he retained for the whole of his career of fifty years of profes- sional labor. He was noted for his skill in the diagnosis of disease, a faculty that seemed to be intuitive with him. Dr. Mulford was a pioneer in the organi- 2;ation of Camden County and City Medical Societies and City Dispensary, and he served as president of all of them. His keen insight into the needs of the people and his accurate 1 Transactions New Jersey State Medical Society, 1885. judgment and precision in all technical de- tails were valuable aids in laying the firm foundations upon which those superstructures were erected. He attained an enviable pre- eminence in the community for the honesty, the firmness and the correctness of his convic- tions, both in professional and secular affairs. Although never an office-seeker, such was the confidence of his fellow-citizens in his patriotism and public spirit that, when meet- ings were held upon any important civic oc- casions, such as the firing upon Fort Sumter at the commencement of the Rebellion, he would be called upon to preside over and to address them. His speeches were delivered with a logical force that was convincing, and with a rhetoric that rose at times into eloquence. He was greatly interested in the establishment of the pub- lic-school system in New Jersey and his ser- vices in its behalf were rewarded by the Ex- ecutive of the State by an appointment after its adoption as a member of the State School Board of Education. He was frequently elected a member of the School Board in Camden. He was also one of the visitors ot the State Insane Asylum. He was an occa- sional lecturer upon medical and scientific subjects and was also the author of a number of papers upon them published in the medi- cal journals. In the year 1848 he issued from the press the " Civil and Political His- tory of New Jersey," a work which has be- come a standard book of reference. Dr. Mulford married, in 1830, Rachel, daughter of Isaac and Sarah Mickle, of Gloucester (now Camden) County. Shortly afterwards he joined the Society of Friends and became a prominent member of the New- town Meeting, of which he was an elder un- til his decease. His residence was upon the south side of Federal Street, between Second and Third, in the building now occupied by the Camden Safe Deposit and Trust Com- pany. He died February 10, 1873, and is buried in Newtown Cemetery. He left three 23 daughters still surviving — Emmaj who mar- ried Henry Palmer ; Mary, the wife of Colonel James M. Scovel; and Anna, wife of Dr. Richard C. Dean, United States Navy. Benjamin Whitall Blackwood Avas a descendant of John BJackwood, the founder of the town of Blackwood, in this county. His father, John Blackwood, who atone time w"as associate judge of the Gloucester Coun- ty Court, married Ann Mickle. Dr. Black- wood was born January 1 6, 1 800, on a farm on the north side of Newtown Creek, about a mile from its mouth. He studied medicine under Dr. Samuel Howell, of Woodbury, af- terwards of Princeton, N. J., and graduated from the University of Pennsylvania March 27, 1828. He began the practice of medi- cine in Haddonfield in that year, but did not procure his license from the New Jersey State Medical Society until June 12, 1830. He left Haddonfield, and for a short time practiced in Philadelphia, but soon returned to his former residence. He joined the Cam- den County Medical Society in 1847, but re- signed June 18, 1853, in consequence of his affiliation with homoeopathy, w^iich was con- trary to the code of ethics of the society. He married Mary Ann Hopkins, of Had- donfield, November 24, 1824, and died Jan- uary 19, 1866. His widow survived him six years. He had six children, three of whom are living ; two daughters still live in his residence, which he built about 1846. Dr. Blackwood was a member of the Society of Friends and a man of exemplary life. Jacob P. Thornton was a native of Bucks County, in Pennsylvania, and his early life was spent on the farm of his parents. In 1828 he graduated in the Medical Depart- ment of the University of Pennsylvania and located in Haddonfield, N. J., in the same year. He obtained considerable practice and remained there until 1849. He was one of the corporators of the Medical Society of Camden County in 1846 and acted as the first treasurer for two years. At the meeting of the society January 16, 1849, he resigned his membership " on ac- count of the expense attending the meetings." He soon after removed to the State of Ohio, where he is still living. His practice here covered a large extent of territory and in many instances with indiiferent pay. His attendance on his patients was faithful and conscientious, always discharging that duty to the best of his ability. He was cotemporary with Dr. Charles D. Hendry and their professional intercourse was always pleasant, his senior extending to him the assistance and advice arising therefrom. Charles D. Hendry^ was the descend- ant of physicians on both the maternal and paternal line, and if particular characteristics be transmitted from father to son, then he had the advantage of two generations on either side to strengthen and qualify him for the healing art. He was the son of Dr. Bowman Hendry, pf Haddonfield, who was a son of Dr. Thomas Hendry, of Woodbury, both prac- ticing and successful physicians. His mother was Elizabeth Duffield, a daughter of Dr. Charles Duffield, who was a son of Dr. Duffield, both of Philadelphia, whose lives were spent in the practice of medicine. ■ He was born in Haddonfield May 8, 1809, where his parents then resided and where his father was in active practice. From his earliest recollection he was fiimiliar with his father's laboratory and, no doubt, often kept his father busy answering questions relating to the use and application of medicines. The skeletons there standing had no terror for him as a boy, but he then saw the anatomy of the human system, of so much use to him in after-years. The diagnosis of difficult cases he often heard discussed when studying his lessons for school, and in his youth there was instilled into his mind things that he found advantageous in his profession. 1 By Hon. John Clement. 24 To show that his father intended he should follow him, at the age of sixteen he was placed in a drug store in Philadelphia, and graduated in pharmacy in 1830. He then took his place in the classes of the Univer- sity of Pennsylvania and won his diploma in 1832. He had scarcely attained his majority be- fore his father required him to ride and see his patients, and kept him under his personal supervision for several years. As the prac- tice of medicine was at that time undergoing many changes, the father differed widely from the notions of the son in adopting the new ideas. Many amusing anecdotes were related by Dr. Charles of the the persistency of Dr. Bowman for the old practice. On several occasions when Charles was sent to see patients, and had packed his rem- edies in his pocket, his father would put his man on. a horse with the traditional medicine- chest to follow him, supposing he had for- gotten the ever needful attendants of a prac- titioner of the " old school." The old gentle- man would often insist on certain rules being followed as only conducive to success, and assure his son that he would lose his cases and position if he departed from them. With all due respect for his experience, old theories gradually passed away, and at his death (April 23, 1838) Charles had succeeded to the practice with advanced and popular ideas. Following the religious views of his fam- ily, he did much toward the building of an Episcopal Church in Haddonfield, and was elected one of the vestrymen April 20, 1843, and so remained until his death. Believing that much advantage would be derived from more frequent intercourse among physicians in the county, and after consider- able effort on his part, the Camden County Medical Society was organized August 14, 1846. This was mutually beneficial, and soon became very popular in the profession. In 1849 he was selected to represent the society in the American Medical Association, which sat at Boston, Mass., showing that his standing as a practitioner was appreciated among his constituents. He acted as presi- dent of the county society in 1852 and 1853, but in 1865 he removed to Philadelphia, and in that year (June 20th) resigned his membership. He practiced medicine in his native town and neighborhood for about thirty-three years, associated with others who settled there as the increase of population warranted it. In the early part of his ser- vice the work was exposing and laborious, presenting to him diseases in every phase and under every condition. Being of an affable and pleasant address, and generally reaching a correct diagnosis of the case before him, he soon became popular, and secured the confidence of the community. His care of and attention to his patients was proverbial, and he seldom allowed stormy weather, bad roads or dark nights to break in upon this rule. His operations in surgery were limited, and in difficult cases he always obtained the assistance of experts. He gave considerable attention to climatic changes and miasmatic influences as control- ling the health of the neighborhood, and drawing the attention of his associates to these important, but then little understood, subjects. Being the victim of hereditary gout, aggra- vated by his frequent exposure to storms and cold, his health gradually declined, and in 1865 he abandoned his practice and removed to Philadelphia. He afterwards returned to Camden, and was often consulted by those who regarded his experience and skill as superior to all others. He died April 25, 1869, and lies buried in the cemetery at Colestown, beside the remains of his ances- tors. John Rowan Sickler. — There were sev- eral physicians who practiced within the territory of Camden County who never were members of its medical society. One of the most prominent of these was Dr. 25 John R. Sickler. He was a native of the county, having been born at Chews Land- ing September 20, 1800. He was the son of Christopher and Sarah Sickler. At the age of eighteen he entered the office of Ben- jamin B. Cooper to learn surveying and con- veyancing, an occupation he followed for several years. Having a natural fondness for the profession of medicine, he, when twenty-six years of age, entered the office of Dr. McClellan, father of General Geo. B. McClellan, as a student, and graduated at the Jefferson Medical College March 18, 1829. The next day, at his home in Chews Landing, he paid his first professional visit to James D. Dotterer. He continued in practice here for four years, a place where, according to the doctor's books, the people were remarkable for being good pay. On the 25th of March, 1832, he removed to Camden and opened a drug-store on Federal Street, near the ferry, in which he sold a general assortment of drugs, in- cluding paints and oils. It was the only store of the kind then in that city. Dr. Sickler still retained part of his county prac- tice. After living in Camden a little over two years, and his health failing, he relin- quished his drug business, and on April 14, 1834, returned to Chews Landing. On No- vember 13th of the same year he moved to Woodbury. Here he remained until March 25,, 1836, when he located at Car- penters Landing (now Mantua) where he spent the remainder of his days. He took an active part in public affairs. In 1825 he was a justice of the peace for Gloucester township, and between 1828 aud 1865 he was associate judge of the Courts of Common Pleas of Glou- cester County, which, up to 1844, included in it Camden County. In the latter year he was a member of the Constitutional Conven- tion of the State. He was a member of the Board of Chosen Freeholders of Gloucester from 1859 to 1871. Several times he was a school trustee. He was one of the building committee that erected the Gloucester County 3 Almshouse, and was its first treasurer. Be- sides attending to these official duties, he joined in the State, county and district con- ventions of the Democratic party, of which he was a member. During all these years of public life he pursued the practice of medi- cine with skill and success. He took much interest in the Gloucester County Medical and State Medical Societies, being a member of both, and at one time president of the latter. In the year 1876, when seventy-six years old, he retired from business. He died April 11, 1886. Myles and Martin Synott were broth- ers. Their father was Irish and their mother American. They were natives of Mays Landing. The elder brother, Myles, was born in 1806, and the younger, Martin, April 8, 1812. The former studied with Dr. Ja- cob Fisler, who afterward married the Drs. Synott's mother. He graduated at the Jef- ferson Medical College in 1831 and com- menced the practice of medicine in Chews Landing in 1833. He remained here until 1841, when he removed to Glassboro', Glou- cester County, where he died February 9, 1867. He was noted for his wit. He was very strict concerning his instructions to his patients, and once blistered a man's feet be- cause he refused to stay in the house when ordered to do so.^ He married Harriet Whitney, of Glassboro', in 1843, aud left three children, still living. Dr. Martin Synott studied medicine with his brother and graduated at the Jefferson Medical College in 1839. He also located at Chews Landing, where he practiced until 1845, when he removed to Blackwood, where he died April 8, 1877. He was a man of tact and skill in his profession. He married Rebecca Jaggard, February 12, 1844. Two daughters survive him. Joseph Axdersox Stout, was the son of Benjamin and Grace Stout, of Attleborough ^ Dr. Somers' " Medical History of Atlantic County," 26 (Langhorne), Bucks County, Pa., where he was born in 1807. He studied medicine under Dr. Boil, and graduated in New York in 1831. Some time afterwards he located in Long-a-Coming (now Berlin), Camden Coun- ty, his practice extending to Winslow, Water- ford and the surrounding country. In 1838 he removed to Tuckahoe, Cape May County. From thence he went to Somers Point, At- lantic County, succeeding Dr. Lewis S. Somers, who had removed to Philadelphia. While in Tuckahoe he married, in 1839, Miss M. S. Godfrey, a sister of Hon. John Godfrey, who, after the death of Dr. Stout, married a Mr. Ogden. Dr. Stout died at Somers Point April 11, 1848, and was buried in Zion Churchyard, at Bargaintown. He was a believer in the faith of universal salvation. He left four sons, but one of whom is living.^ LoREXZO F. FiSLER was born on a farm in the upper end of Cumberland County, near Fislerville, on the 20th of April, 1797. He was the son of Dr. Benjamin and Catha- rine Fisler. He studied medicine with his father, who then practiced medicine in Port Elizabeth, and as early as 1815 he assisted the latter in his profession. Dr. Fisler at- tended lectures at the University of Penn- sylvania and graduated therefrom in 1819. He had two brothers, physicians, — Samuel, his twin brother, and Jacob who practiced in Mays Landing, Atlantic County. Dr. Lo- renzo F. Fisler began his professional career with his brother Benjamin in the latter place, where, being a good speaker, he occasionally preached in the Methodist Church. He re- mained here only a short time. He removed to Woodstown, in Salem County, and in 1825 he passed his examination before the board of censors of that county. In 1832 he re- turned to Port Elizabeth, and in 1836 he lo- cated in Camden, his office being on Second Street below Market. In this (iity he- soon 1 Dr. Somers' "Medical History of Atlantic County." secured a good practice, at the same time joining actively in- public affairs. He was mayor of the city seven times. Dr. Fisler was a clear and logical writer, and was the author of a pamphlet history of Camden, published in 1858. As a public lecturer he was noted for his pleasing address and hu- morous satire, and he was frequently invited to deliver addresses before associations of a benevolent or charitable character. He never joined either the State or County Medical So- cieties, but he was one of the organizers and a most efficient member of the Camden City Medical Society. Dr. Fisler died in Cam- den, March 31, 1871. He married Anna Maria, daughter of Richard Somers and Rachael Risley, of Woodstown, who, with five children, are still living. William Paeham was one of the physi- cians in Camden County who never joined its medical society. He was born in 1803, in Jerusalem, Va. He studied medicine in Lexington, Ky., and began its practice in Alabama. From there he went to Central America and was a surgeon in a battle in Yucatan. After that he returned to the United States, and remained for a time in Philadelphia. He then selected Tom's River, in Ocean County, JST. J., as a field for practice, but in 1836 he removed to Tansboro'? in Camden County, from which place his professional visits extended to the adjacent towns of Waterford and AVinslow. In a few years Dr. Parham removed to Williamstown, and thence in 1846 to Blackwood. He con- tinued to practice medicine here until his death, which occurred April 2, 1855. He married, at Barnegat, Ocean County, Febru- ary 28, 1833, Juliana, daughter of Dr. Bugbee, who was a native of Vermont. They had no children. George Barrows was an Englishman and received his medical education in his native country. With a wife and one child he landed penniless in New York in 1836. Accidentally meeting in that city with Sooy 27 Thompson, of Pleasant Mills, Atlantic County, N. J., he ^vas induced by him to settle in the latter place, where he boarded with Mr. Thompson until he could procure a home for himself. Here he diligently ap- plied himself to the practice of his profession.^ Between the years 1840 and 1844 he re- moved to Tansboro', in Camden County. At a meeting of the Camden Coimty Medical Society held December 21, 1847, a committee was ap- pointed to investigate the credentials of Dr. Barrows. They reported that there was on file in the clerk's office a certified copy of a diploma granted to him in 1836 by Dr. Henry Vanderveer, president of the New Jersey State Medical Society. It does not appear that he ever applied for admission to membership in the County Medical Society. He removed to Philadelphia, where he died in 1852. Richard Matlack Cooper. — William Cooper, of Coleshill, England, located land at Burlington, N. J., in 1678. On June 12, 1682, he had surveyed to him the land at Pyne, now Coopers Point, Cam- den, to which he then removed. Daniel Cooper, the youngest son of William, mar- ried twice. By the first wife he had one child, William, from whom is descended the family which by inheritance and pur- chase acquired a large part of what is now the city of Camden, much of it still being in their possession. Of this family was Dr. Richard M. Cooper, the son of Richard M. and Mary Cooper, born in Camden August 30, 1816. His father, who was a man of distinc- tion, gave his son a liberal education. After a course of study at a preparatory school he entered the Department of Arts of the University of Pennsylvania in 1832, and graduated from it in 1836. Heat once com- menced the study of medicine with Professor George B.Wood, of the Medical Department 1 Dr. Somers' Medical " History of Atlantic County. " of the same University, and after attending three courses of lectures there, received from it his degree of M.D. in 1839. At this date the lower part of Camden, called South Camden, was being settled by negroes and poor whites. Among these Dr. Cooper began the practice of his profession, gratuitously dispensing necessary medicines. His colleagues in the profession were Drs. Samuel Harris, Isaac S. Mulford and Loren- zo F. Fisler, all men of ability and exper- ience, with whom he soon took an equal rank as a skilful practitioner. Dr. Cooper took an active interest in the organization of the Camden County Medical Society in 1846, being one of its corpora- tors, its first secretary and subsequently its treasurer. He was a member of its board of censors from the time of their appointment, in 1847, until 1851, and as such it was his duty to examine into the qualifications of all physicians desiring to practice medicine in the district. Professionally, Dr. Cooper appears to have attained almost the station of the ideal phy- sician, for he had a broad love for humanity as well as an enthusiasm for the healing art. " He was distinguished," says one who knew him, " for that gentle and cheerful demeanor in a sick-room which not only inspired faith in his patient, but assuaged the pangs of many an aching heart. Such was the esteem in which he was held, that many seemed to believe that his presence in a sick-room would relieve the sufferer. His skill and constant studious research in his profession, however, gave him a success which inspired this confidence ; and practicing, because he loved to practice, gave him an experience which increased his knowledge. ... A man cast in such a mold would naturally find pleasure in forwarding works of charity and benevolence. It was so in this case." One of Doctor Cooper's characteristics was his modesty. He would not permit his name to be proposed for president of the County 28 Medical Society until 1871, because he was unwilling to stand in the way of the promo- tion of its younger members. For the same reason he accepted the appointment of dele- gate to the American Medical Association only when its meetings were held at a dis- tance, because he could spare the time occu- pied, and the expense incurred in its attend- ance, better than his fellow-members. In 1871 he read before the Society a history of it from its incorporation, the MSS. of which are preserved in the archives. He was fre- quently chairman of the standing committee, and wrote the medical reports made to the New Jersey State Medical Society, which were marked by a comprehensive knowledge of the diseases of his native county. He be- came president of the latter society in 1856. " Engrossed, as Dr. Cooper was, by the on- erous duties of an exacting profession, which were discharged with' a fidelity, skill and self- abnegation worthy of the man, he found time, amid all these, to intimately acquaint himself with what was passing in the busy world around him. There seemed to be no subject, national, state, county or municipal, that escaped his notice, or that he did not ex- ercise his impartial judgment in properly considering and criticising. Those measures which involved the vital concerns of the country, when torn asunder for the time by fratricidal strife, awakened his deepest thought, and when drawn out, he would discuss them with that unconscious ability characteristic of the man. He displayed the same cogent reasoning and methods of thought in reaching satisfactory conclusions when giving expression to his views in regard to the more intimate concerns of his State. Laws affecting its policy or the interests of the people seldom escaped his observation, or failed to provoke his favorable or ad- verse criticism, and no one could listen without being instructed as well as sur- prised at the large fund of general infor- mation always at hand to draw from in illus- trating a point or in enforcing an argument. But it was in home affairs that Dr. Cooper showed his greatest interest and his thorough acquaintance with everything connected with the public welfare. He scrutinized with the greatest care every action of the local author- ities involving the city's welfare, never withholding his approval where the step to be taken was warranted by the city's finances and demanded for the public good. Dr. Cooper was never indifferent to his responsibility as a citizen, and it was this that led those who knew him best to seek his advice and counsel when matters of public interest required the mature delibera- tion of one so prudent, unselfish and dis- criminating." Dr. Cooper was one of the originators of the Camden City Medical Society, and was a most efficient member. He was a corpor- ator of the Camden City Dispensary, and its treasurer from its incorporation until his death. The Cooper Hospital, described elsewhere, was a project of his, in conjunction with his brother, Wm. D. Cooper, which, although not commenced in the lifetime of the projectors was, after their decease, established and en- dowed by their sisters Sarah W. and Eliza- beth B. Cooper, who with their brother, Alexander Cooper, also conveyed the land upon which the buildings are located. For many years Dr. Cooper was a sufferer from hereditary gout, from the consequences of which, superadded to the labors of a very extensive practice, he died May 24, 1874, while, for a second time, president of his favorite, the Camden County Medical Society, to which he bequeathed, in his will, the sum of three thousand dollars, the interest of which was to be used in defraying its ex- penses. He M^as a member of the Society of Friends, whose faith had been the religion of his ancestors. He was never married. EzEKiEL Cooper Che^v commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Bowman Hendry, 29 of Haddon field, and completed his education at the Jefferson Medical College in 1843. He was the son of Nathaniel and Mary Chew, of Greenwich (now Mantua) township, Glouces- ter County, and was born January 17, 1822. He first engaged in the practice of medicine in Blackwood, and joined the Camden County Medical Society in 1851. He had been a member about two years, when he left this county and removed to Iowa, and sub- sequently settled in Indiana, where he was still living three years ago. Dr. Chew was a man of commanding appearance and had a fine physique. He married Miss Caroline Bishop Woolston, of Vincentown, Burlington County, N. J., and had fourteen children, of whom seven sons and three daughters are living, and four sons are dead. Othniel Hart Taylor was born in Philadelphia May 4, 1803. His father was William Taylor, Jr., who married Mary E. Gazzam, both of Cambridge, England, whence they removed to Philadelphia, in which city Mr. Taylor was engaged in an ex- tensive mercantile business for more than forty years. The early life of his son Othniel was occu- pied mainly in attendance upon schools of elementary instruction in Philadelphia and Holmesburg, Pa., and in Baskenridge, N. J. In 1818 he entered the Literary Department of the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1820 he became a medical student in the of- fice of that distinguished physician and sur- geon, Thomas T. Hewson, M.D,, at the same time attending a course of medical instruction in the University of Pennsylvania. He com- pleted his studies there in 1826 and grad- uated with the class of that year. After his graduation, Dr. Taylor entered upon the practice of medicine in the city of Philadel- phia, where he was very soon appointed one of tlie physicians to the City Dispensary, in which capacity he served many years, and about the same time he was elected out-door physician to the Pennsylvania Hospital, a position he held for eight years. During the year 1832 the Asiatic cholera made its first appearance in this continent, and Dr. Taylor distinguished himself by volunteering to serve in the city hospitals which were estab- lished in the emergency by the municipal au- thorities, while he was at the same time act- ing as one of the Committee of Physicians appointed by the City Councils as consulting physicians to their sanitary board. The hospital which was especially in his charge was known as St. Augustine Hos- pital, in Crown Street, and the number of cholera patients reported by him as under treatment in that hospital was five hundred and twelve. He was also elected as one of a commission of medical men who were sent to Montreal, in Canada, to study the charac- ter and treatment of cholera on its out- break in that city, and before its appearance in our cities ; but being unable to accompany the commission, he declined in favor of Dr. Charles D. Meigs, who, with Drs. Richard Harlan and Samuel Jackson, made the visit and report. Upon the closing of the hospi- tals after the disappearance of the cholera, Dr. Taylor, with seven other physicians who had been in charge of cholera hospitals, re- ceived, by vote of the City Council, a testi- monial of their appreciation of the services which they had rendered to the city, each of thera being presented with a service of silver bearing inscription that it was given " as a token of regard for intrepid and disinterested services." In consequence of impaired health. Dr. Taylor, in 1838, relinquished the practice of medicine in Philadelphia and removed to Abington, Pa. ; thence he went, in 1841, to Caldwell, Essex County, N. J., and in 1844 he located himself in Camden, continuing actively in the practice of medicine there during the remainder of his life.^ Dr. Taylor was one of the three physicians 1 Transactions New .Jersey State Medical Society, 1870. 30 of Camden City whose names appear in the list of corporators of the Camden County Medical Society in 1846, and he was its first vice-president, holding the office for four years. In 1856 he became its president. For twenty-three years he was one of its most attentive, active and efficient members, his learning and experience rendering his ser- vices invaluable in committee work. He was elected vice-president of the State Medi- cal Society successively in 1849, 1850 and 1851, and president of that society in 1852. He was one of the organizers of the City Medical Society and had filled its most im- portant offices ; and he introduced into it the resolution for the founding of a City Dispen- sary, of which, when eventually it was estab- lished, he was orie of the corporators and a manager until ill health compelled his retire- ment. Dr. Taylor was the author of quite a num- ber of valuable articles and addresses upon medicine and related subjects which were published in the medical and other journals. In addition to this, he was frequently a lec- turer before lyceums and other societies, and this contributed much to the intellectual de- velopment of Camden. He was a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church and in 1847 he was elected a warden of St. Paul's Church, Camden, and at the time of his death he was senior warden of that parish. In 1832, Dr. Taylor married Evelina C, daughter of Jehu and Anna Burrough, of Gloucester (now Camden County). During his residence in Camden he lived in the house on Market Street, above Third, built by Mrs. Burrough in 1809, where the doctor died of pneumonic phthisis September 5, 1869. His widow survived until September 18, 1878, leaving three sons — Dr. H. Genet Taylor, Marmaduke B. Taylor (a lawyer in Camden) and O. G. Taylor (deceased), who for nearly twenty years was apothecary and superinten- dent of the Camden Dispensary. William C. Mulford was a pioneer physician in Gloucester City, having re- moved to it from Pittsgrove, Salem County, in 1845, soon after the first mill was erected in the former place. He was the son of William and Ann JVtulford, and was born July 17, 1808, in Salem City. Commencing the study of medicine under Dr. Beasley, he attended medical lectures at the Jefferson Medical College, and graduated in 1830. He practiced medicine in Pittsgrove, Salem County, where he married his wife, Emily Dare, on March 28, 1833. Upon his re- moval to Gloucester City he was appointed its first postmaster, the post-office being in a corner room of the factory. Dr. Mulford continued practicing his profession here until 1862, when he was commissioned an assistant surgeon in the Third New York Cavalry, serving with it for six months, when he was detailed for hospital duty in Rhode Island, and then in Washington. He was on duty at and witnessed the execu- tion of Mrs. Surratt. He was honorably discharged from the service in April, 1866, when he recommenced the practice of medi- cine in Gloucester City, and continued there until 1870. In that year he removed to a farm he had purchased in Charles City County, Va., where he died December 3, 1878. He never joined either of the medical societies. Reynell Coates moved to Camden in 1845, where he attended an occasional pa- tient during the earlier years of his residence in it. He belonged to an old Philadelphia family, and was born in that city j)ecem- ber 10, 1802. His father, Samuel Coates, sent him to the well-known Friends' School at Westtown. Afterwards he attended med- ical lectures at the University of Penn- sylvania, where he graduated in 1823. Dr. Coates was a man of the most brilliant and erratic genius, and a poet of considerable reputation. He was a well-known author upon medical, scientific and political sub- jects, and some of his works have been 31 translated into other languages; a list of them may be found in Allibone's " Dictionary of Authors." He likewise for a time took an active part in politics, and in 1852 was the candidate for Vice President on the Native American ticket. Before he came to Cam- den he had separated from his wife, with whom he had lived but one year. In this city he was very poor at times and depend- ent upon- the assistance of his relatives in Philadelphia. Sometimes he boarded, but frequently he lived entirely alone, doing his own cooking. In 1867 he was elected a member of the Camden City Medical So- ciety. Dr. Coates was the anonymous author of a biography of Dr. Bowman Hendry, of Haddonfield, published in pamphlet form in 1848. He died in Camden April 27, 1886. Aarox Dickinson Woodruff was the first member to join the Camden County Medical Society after its incorporation, which he did in 1847. His grandfather, A. D. Woodruff, was attorney-general of New Jersey from 1800 to 1818. Dr. Woodruff was the son of Elias Decou Woodruif and Abigail Ellis Whitall, and was born in Woodbury, N. J., May 4, 1818. Upon the death of his father, in 1824, his mother re- moved to Georgetown, D. C, and thence, in 1829, to Philadelphia. Dr. Woodruff was educated at the academy of Samuel Jones. At sixteen he entered the drug store of Charles Ellis, and graduated at the College of Pharmacy in 1838. In 1840 he went to Woodville, Miss., to take charge of a drug store, but commencing the study of medicine, he returned, in 1842, to Philadelphia, and pursued his studies under Dr. Thomas Mut- ter, professor of surgery in the Jefferson Medical College, from which school he grad- uated in 1844. He spent a few months in the Peimsylvania Hospital, and then com- menced the practice of medicine in Haddon- field, where he soon won the confidence of the people aiid secured an extensive practice. In 1865, in consequence of impaired health from overwork. Dr. Woodruff retired from practice and removed to Philadelphia. He resigned from the Medical Society in 1871, upon his removal to his farm in Princess Anne, Md., but was elected an honorary member of it. He died in Philadelphia in January, 1881. He was an elder in the Presbyterian Church. Dr. Woodruff mar- ried Miss Anne Davidson, of Georgetown, D. C, but left no issue. James C, Risley was one of the corpor- ators and first president of the Camden County Medical Society, being at that time a practitioner of medicine at Long-a-Coming (Berlin), where he remained until 1849. He was the son of Judge James Risley, of Wood&town, Salem County, born in June, 1817. He studied medicine with Dr. J. Hunt, and was licensed by the board of censors of the New Jersey State Medical Society in June, 1838, but he did not attend medical lectures until some years later, finally graduatine in 1844 at the Jefferson Medical College. In the mean time he had practiced medicine at Port Elizabeth until 1842, when he returned to Woodstown. After his gradu- ation he located in Camden County. From here, in 1849, he went to Columbia, Pa., and remained there until 1856, when he removed to Muscatine, Iowa. He returned to Penn- sylvania in 1861, and opened an office at New Brighton, continuing here until 1864, when, his health being impaired, he went back to his home in Woodstown, where he died November 21, 1866.^ Dr. Risley was a man of commanding appearance and pleasing ad- dress, with colloquial powers that won for him a quick appreciation from his patrons. He married Miss Caroline Crompton, of Port Elizabeth, who survived him. Bow:man Hendry, Jr., was the son ot Dr. Bowman Hendry, and was born in Hud- donfield May 4, 1820. His father dying when his son was a youth, young Hendry 1 Transactions New Jersey State Medical Society, 1867. 32 studied medicine with his brother Charles, and graduated from the Jefferson College in 1846. For a few months he practiced medicine in Iladdonfield, and then removed to Gloucester City, a place that had just been started as a manufacturing town. After the outbreak of the Civil War Dr. Hendry entered the army and was appointed assistant surgeon of the Sixth New Jersey Regiment, and continued with it until the regiment was mustered out of service, September 7, 1864. Next he was attached to the Mower Hospital, at German- town, Pa., where he remained until the close of the war. He then located in Camden City, where he practiced medicine until his death, June 8, 1868. Dr. Hendry was a member of the Camden City and Camden County Medical Societies, having joined the latter in 1847, and was its president in 1860. He took an active part in both, and read before the City Society a valuable paper upon the Mower Hospital. He married, February 24, 1850, Helen A, Sarchet, of Gloucester City, who, with one daughter, resides in Camden. Charles W. Sartoei was born in Tren- ton, N. J., September 6, 1806. His father, John Baptiste Sartori, a native of E,ome, Italy, came to the United States in 1791. He returned to Rome as United States con- sul from 1795 to 1800, when he came back to the United States as consul for the Papal States. Dr. Sartori's mother was Henrietta, daughter of Chevalier De Woopoin, a French officer, who acquired large estates in San Domingo, but was killed in the negro in- surrection in that island. Dr. Sartori was educated at Georgetown, D. C. He studied medicine and graduated at the Jefferson Medical College in 1829. Commencing the practice of medicine in Port Republic, At- lantic County, he remained there until 1839, when he removed to Tuckerton, Burlington County, and practiced there until 1843. Be- tween this date and 1849 he was again in At- lantic County, at Pleasant Mills, Atsion, Batsto, and in the latter year located at Black- wood, Camden County, where he stayed only a short time, removing from thence to Cam- den. He never practiced medicine in Cam- den, although it was his residence until his death, on October 4, 1875. On May 10, 1861, he was appointed acting assistant sur- geon in the United States Navy, and was assigned to the United States steamer " Flag," his brother, Louis C. Sartori, now commodore on the retired list United States Navy, being commander of that vessel. In 1863 he was transferred to the United States steamer " Wyalusing," from which vessel he resigned July 19, 1864. In 1833 Dr. Sartori married Ann L., widow of Captain Robert D. Giberson, of Port Republic. He was never a member of either of the Medical Societies in Camden County. John Yooehees Schenck belonged to an old East Jersey family, who have had a number of representatives in the medical profession. He was the son of Dr. Ferdi- nand S. and Leah Voorhees Schenck, and was born in Somerset County, N. J., Novem- ber 17, 1824. The elder Dr. Schenck represented his district in Congress for four years, and between 1845 and 1851 he was one of the judges of the Court of Errors and Appeals. Dr. John V. Schenck received his academical education at Rutgers College, from which he obtained his diploma in 1844. Then he attended medical lectures at the Uni- versity of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1847. At first he assisted his father in his practice in his native place, but soon re- moved to Monmouth County, where he re- mained but a short time. In 1848 he located in Camden and gradually secured probably the most extensive practice, especially in obstetrics, of any physician who ever prac- ticed there. He was the elevenlth member admitted (1848) to the Camden County Med- ical Society, and became its secretary and treasurer in 1856, and its president in 1859. He was one of the organizers of the Camden 33 City Medical Society, and a corporator of the Camden City Dispensary, and was secretary of the former from its commencement until 1859. He was also a member of the New Jersey State Medical Society and its presi- dent in 1876. His health becoming impaired by overwork, he visited Europe for a few months. Returning somewhat benefited, he resumed the practice of medicine. He died July 25, 1882, while on a short sojourn at Atlantic City. He was a member of the First Presbyterian Church. Dr. Schenck married Martha McLeod, daughter of Henry McKeen, of Philadelphia. He left a widow and two daughters, one of whom is the wife of Major Franklin C. Woolman, of Camden. Dr. Peter Voorhees Schenck was a younger brother of Dr. J. V. Schenck and was born May 23, 1838. He was a student at Princeton College, but retired in conse- quence of impaired health. Upon his recov- ery he matriculated in medicine at the Uni- versity of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated in 1860. He began the practice of his profession in West Philadelphia, but upon the breaking out of the Civil War, in 1861, he entered the regular army and served until the close of the war, when he resigned. In 1867 he joined his brother in Camden and was admitted a member of both of the medical societies. In the succeeding year he removed to St. Louis, Mo., and en- gaged in the practice of medicine. He was at one time the health officer of St. Louis and physician-in-chief of the female depart- ment of the City Hospital. He married Ruth Anna, daughter of John and Ruth Anna McCuue, of St. Louis. He died March 12, 1885, leaving a widow and four children. Thomas F. Cullex was one of the few members of the Camden County Medical So- ciety who passed an examination before its board of censors, receiving his license June 18, 1850. He was elected a member of the society in the following December. He was the son of Captain Thomas Cullen, of the Philadelphia merchant marine, and was born in that city September 3, 1822. He received his scholastic education in Mount Holly, N. J., to which place his parents had removed. Dr. Cullen studied medicine with Dr. Heber Chase, a surgeon of Philadelphia, and gradu- ated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1844. His first field of practice was in New- ark, Delaware, but in 1849 he removed to Camden. Here his great natural abilities and careful training brought him promihently forward, especially as a surgeon, in which branch of the profession he became so skilled and successful that for the first time in its history Camden became independent of its neighbor across the Delaware for the per- formance of a capital surgical operation. He was an active member of the medical socie- ties, serving as president of the city and county societies, and of the State society in 1869. While a member of the former two, no com- mittee was complete without him. He was one of the corporators of the Camden Dis- pensary and Cooper Hospital. Of the former, he was two years its president, and a director of the latter until his death. He died No- vember 21, 1877. He left no issue. Jacob Grigg is of English descent. His grandfather. Rev. Jacob Grigg, was a Baptist missionary, sent from England to Sierra Leone, Africa, but his health failing, he sailed for America. His son, Dr. John R. Grigg, the father of Dr. Jacob Grigg, practiced med- icine at White Marsh, Pennsylvania, where the latter was born, June 23, 1821. Reread medicine with his father, and received his diploma from the University of Pennsylva- nia in 1843. In the same year he married Mary, daughter of John Bruner, of Mont- gomery County, in that State, in the mean- while practicing medicine in conjunction with his fiither. In 1 844 Dr. Jacob Grigg removed to Bucks County, and from thence, in 1849, to Blackwood, in Camden County, New Jer- sey. On June 18, 1849, the board of censors of the Camden County Medical Society re- 34 ported that Dr. Grigg had passed a successful examination and had received a license to practice in the State. At the serai-annual meeting of the society, held December 19th of that year, he was elected a member. He was burned out in 1852 and removed to Pennsylvania, at which time his name was dropped from the roll of the society. Re- turning in a few months to Camden County, he remained until 1857, when he left this county* and settled in the adjoining one of Burlington. His present residence is Mt. Holly. Robert M. Smallivood belonged to an old Gloucester County family. He was the son of John C. and Mary Smallwood, of Woodbury, and was born August 20, 1827. Adopting the profession of medicine, he en- tered the University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1849. He at once located in Chews Landing and continued in practice there fortwo years. He joined the Camden County Medical Society June 19, 1849. In the year 1851 he entered the United States Navy, and in 1852 was assigned to duty upon the ship " Levant" and sailed for the Mediterra- nean. While upon this cruise his health failed him, and returning home, he died of phthisis, February 8, 1856. He married Mrs. Mary A. F. Gest in 1850, and had four children. John I. Jessup. — At a meeting of the Camden County Medical Society held at Camden, June 19, 1849, the society adjourned for a few hours to give the " board of censors an opportunity to examine candidates for a license to practice medicine in the State." At half-past two o'clock Dr. Isaac S. Mulford, president of the board, reported that after a satisfactory examination they had granted licenses to " Dr. Theodore H. Varick, of Hudson County ; Dr. John I. Jessup, of At- lantic County ; and Dr. John W. Snowden, of Camden County." At the semi-annual meeting, held on December 18th, of this year. Dr. Jessup was elected a member of the society. He was a grandson of Josiah Albert- son, who kept the old hotel in Blue Anchor from 1812 until the Camden and Atlantic Railroad was built, in 1852. Dr. Jessup graduated at the Jeiferson Med- ical College in 1848, and seems to have prac- ticed for a short time in Camden County. Soon after joining its society he removed to Somers Point, in Atlantic County. In 1852 he became prostrated by phthisis, which caused him to return to Blue Anchor, where he soon afterwards died.^ Sylvester Birdsell's parentage was of Pennsylvania origin. His father, James Birdsell, married Mary Pyle, both of Ches- ter County, in that State. Their son Syl- vester was, however, born in Baltimore, JNId., August 21, 1824. He was of a studious turn of mind, and taught school while at- tending medical lectures at the Jefferson Medical College, from which he graduated in 1848. Dr. Birdsell commenced the prac- tice of medicine at Point Pleasant, Bucks County, Pa. In 1850 he moved to what was then known as South Camden, N. J., where he opened a drug store and began practicing medicine. In the same year he joined the County Medical Society, becoming its presi- dent in 1858. He was one of the organizers of the city society. His knowledge aiid ability secured for him a professorship in the "Woman's Medical College " of Philadel- phia, a position he held for some time. Dr. Birdsell married Jane B. Laird, whose death preceded by several years his own, which oc- curred May 29, 1883. He was buried in Evergreen Cemetery. He left two daugh- ters and one son, Rudolph W. Birdsell, who for a long time has been connected with the Camden Fii"e Insurance Association. William G. Thomas was born in Phila- delphia, January 16, 1826. He was the son of Stephen and Sallie Thomas. He com- menced the study of medicine in Columbia, 1 Somers' " Medical History of Atlantic County." 35 Lancaster County, Pa,, under Dr. Filbert, of that place, and attended medical lectures at the Pennsylvania Medical College, in Phila- delphia, from which he graduated in 1854. Although the law did not then require it, he passed an examination before the board of censors of the New Jersey State Medical Society, at Trenton, on May 14, 1854, and then began the practice of medicine in Cam- den, He became a member of the Camden County Medical Society in 1857. He had joined the city society upon his location in Camden and had taken an active interest in its proceedings. Dr. Thomas died of dysen- tery August 17, 1858. He had a hard strug- gle during his short professional career in Camden and after his death the city society paid his funeral expenses. He married, February 7, 1854, Margaret Cramsie, of Phil- adelphia, and left one child. The three following physicians all practiced in Blackwood, but none of them were ever connected with either the Camden County or City Medical Societies. Dr. WillIam Holmes located there between 1845 and 1847. Although he is said to have graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, his name is not in the list of graduates of that institution. He removed to Greenwich, IST. J. Dr. F. RiDGELEY Graham was a physician in the same town between 1850 and 1858. He was a native of Chillicothe, O., where he began the study of medicine, completing his education at the Jefferson Medical College, from which he graduated in 1850. He removed to Ches- ter, Pa. The third one was Dr. Alex- ander J. McKelway, son of Dr. John McKelway, of Trenton, N. J., who was born in Scotland December 6, 1813. He graduat- ed at the Jeiferson Medical College in 1834. Between the years 1858 and 1861 he pursued his profession in Blackwood. On September 14th of the latter year he entered the volun- teer service as surgeon of the Eighth New Jersey Regiment and continued with it until April 7, 1864, when he. resigned. He died at Williamstown, Gloucester County, X. J., November 8, 1885. Within the same decade Dr. Jesse S. Zane Sellers, son of Jesse and Rebecca Sellers, of Philadelphia, opened an office in Camden. He had received his medical education at the University of Pennsylvania, from which institution he graduated in 1852. He be- came a member of the Camden City Medical Society in September, 1854, and faithfully served through the cholera epidemic of that autumn. Soon afterward he removed to Minnesota and engaged in mining. He lived only a few years after his removal to the West. Napoleon Bonaparte Jennings was twenty-eight years a member of the Camden County Medical Society and was its president in 1861. He died of phthisis at Haddon- field, April 17, 1885. The doctor was the son of Stacy and Sarah Jennings, and was born at Manahawkin, N. J., April 22, 1831. He was educated at the Woodstock Academy, Connecticut, and then entered the office of Dr. Budd, of Medford, N. J,, to pursue the study of medicine, and graduated at the Jef- ferson Medical College, of Philadelphia, in 1856. He immediately entered upon the practice of medicine in Haddonfield, where he soon gained the confidence of the com- munity by his professional attainments and his excellent social qualities. He was pos- sessed of a singularly genial nature, which overflowed in kindness to all and gained for him the universal good will of the communi- ty in which he lived and practiced for nearly thirty years, and attained for him one of the largest practices ever secured by a physician in West Jersey. He married Mary, daughter of Joshua P. and Amelia Browning, of Haddonfield, who survives him with a family of seven children. He was a consistent member of the Protest- ant Episcopal Church. Henry Ackley virtually belonged to Camden, although born in Philadelphia, Jan- 36 uaiy 29, 1837. His grandfather, Thomas Ackley, as early as 1800, kept the old store at the foot of Federal Street, which was demolished a few years ago. His mother, nee Barclay, the widow of Lieutenant-Comman- der McCauley, United States Navy, married Thomas Ackley, cashier of the State Bank at Camden. Dr. Ackley received a liberal education, and studied medicine with Pro- fessors E. Wallace and William Keating, of Philadelphia, and graduated at the Jefferson Medical College in 1858. He began prac- tice in Camden and joined the county and city societies, and was secretary of the former in 1859 and 1860. At the commencement of the Civil War he entered the United States Navy, as surgeon, on July 20, 1861, and was assigned to duty in the Philadelphia Navy- Yard. Towards the close of the year he was ordered to the United States ship "Wissahickon," of the East Gulf Blockad- ing Squadron, and served under Admiral Porter in the capture of New Orleans and in the campaign against Vicksburg. In 1863 he was transferred to the flag-ship " San Jacinto," and was acting surgeon-in- chief of the squadron. While on this vessel he was attacked with yellow fever, which so impaired his naturally feeble constitution that he was ordered to the United States receiving ship " Vermont," at New York, in 1864. He died in Camden, of phthisis, December 1, 1865. The year previous he married Sallie, daughter of Hon. Richard Wilkins, of Camden. He left one son, who died in infancy. William S. Bishop, surgeon of the United States Navy, an honorary member of the Camden County Medical Society, died De- cember 28, 1868. Dr. Bishop was connected with the navy from an early period of his professional life. He had seen service in most parts of the globe. Several years ago, while on duty with the squadron on the coast of Africa, he suffered from a severe at- tack of coast fever, from the effects of which he never entirely recovered. He was pro nounced by a medical commission unfit for further sea service, but was employed on shore duty at the various naval stations. At the breaking out of the Rebellion Dr. Bishop was on duty at the navy -yard at Pensacola, Fla., where, in common with the other naval officers, he was obliged to give his parole not to engage in service against the Confederacy before he was permitted to return North. When not employed in service, he resided in Camden for a number of years previous to his death. Shortly after his return to the latter place he was ordered to the navy-yard at Mare Island, in California, where he re- mained during the whole period of the war. He came home much impaired in health, but was employed again on naval medical com- missions of great responsibility ; he was finally ordered to the United States Naval Asylum, at Philadelphia, as chief surgeon, at which post he died on December 28, 1868, of a complication of diseases, ending in general dropsy.^ Dr. Bishop was a member of the Camden City Society as well as the County Society. Thomas J. Smith became a member of the Camden County Medical Society on June 18, 1867. He was born in Salem, N. J., April 21, 1841, and is the son of Peter and Elizabeth Smith. He was educated at Williams College, Massachusetts, graduating in 1862. He attended medical lectures in the University of Pennsylvania, and received his degree of M.D. in March, 1866. He began the practice of medicine in Camden. He joined the Camden City Medical Society in March, 1867, and became its secretary the same year, continuing in office until his re- moval to Bridgeton, early in the year 1868. Dr. Smith is a member of the New Jersey State Medical Society and is chairman of its standing committee. He married, March 28, 1871, Mary L., daughter of Rev. Elisha V. 1 Transactions of New Jersey State Medical Society, 1869. 37 and Matilda B. Glover, of Haddonfield. Dr. Smith is a prominent practitioner in Bridge- ton. Joseph W. McCullough fell a victim to the severest epidemic of typhus fever that ever attacked the almshouse in Blackwood, Camden County, literally dying at his post of duty, of that disease, March 15, 1881, after a service of nine years as attending physician at that institution. He was the son of Andrew and Eunice McCullough, and was born in Wilmington, Del., August 12, 1837. He studied medicine with Dr. Chand- ler, of that city, and graduated at the Jeffer- son Medical College in 1860. When the Civil War broke out, in 1861, he was one of the first to offer his services to the govern- ment, and was appointed surgeon of the First Delaware Regiment. After the close of the war he joined the regular army, and was sent to New Orleans, and thence to Alabama. In consequence of impaired health he resign- ed, and in 1866 located as a practitioner of medicine at Blackwood. In 1880 he and Dr. Brannin, his co-laborer, were appointed phy- sicians to the County Insane Asylum. Dr. McCullough joined the Camden County Medical Society in 1871. He married, March 9, 1876, Sarah E., only daughter of Richard C. Stevenson, of Blackwood. His widow and two children survive him. Charles F. Clarke practiced medicine for over forty years in Gloucester County. He retired in 1868 and moved to Camden, becoming an honorary member of the City Societv in 1869 and continuing: his connec- tion with it until his death, in 1875. He was born near Paulsboro', Gloucester County, N. J., August 12, 1800. He was educated at Woodbury and at Burlington, and then entered the counting-room of Mr. Hollings- head, in Philadelphia. In the year 1820, being in poor health, he went as supercargo to the West Indies : returning, he commenced the study of medicine and graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1823. In connection with his cousin, Dr. John Y. Clarke, of Philadelphia, he opened a drug store at the corner of Fifth and Race Streets, in that city. This he soon abandoned, and then began the practice of medicine in Clarksboro', Gloucester County, N. J., thence he went to Paulsboro', and in 1835 to Wood- bury, in the same county, where he lived for thirty-two years and attended to the largest practice in that section of the county. Dr. Clarke accumulated a considerable fortune. One of his daughters, Eva C, married Dr. Randall W. Morgan, His son, Dr. Henry C. Clarke, succeeded to his father's practice and is one of the leading physicians in Gloucester County. Randal W. Morgan was born near Black woodtown, Camden County, June 5, 1848, and was a son of Randal E. and Mary (Willard) Morgan. He attended the West Jersey Academy, at Bridgeton, and later the University of Lewisburgh, Pa. In 1864 he was appointed midshipman at the Naval Academy at Annapolis, which position he was obliged to resign because of an attack of typhoid fever, from which he never fully re- covered. Shortly afterward he commenced his medical studies under Dr. Brannin, of Blackwood town, continuing them at the University of Pennsylvania, and graduating from that institution in 1870. Two years later he took the degree of Doctor of Phil- osophy. In 1877 he was elected county physician, an office he held for five years. During the small-pox epidemic, in 1872, he had charge of the small-pox hospital, and labored unselfishly among the victims of that disease. In 1881, much broken in health, he sailed for Europe, and was much benefited by his sojourn there ; but upon returning to practice soon succumbed again to ill health, and in August, 1883, was obliged to re- linquish the duties of his profession. He sailed again for Europe in 1884, intending, while there, to visit some of the hospitals in the cholera-infested portions of France and 38 Italy, but, owing to aggravation of his mala- dies, abandoned the project, and sailing for home, died when three days out from Liver- pool, October 20, 1884. Dr. Morgan was a very active man, dili- gent in the practice of his profession, studious and quite successful. Speaking of his skillful management of the small-pox hos- pital, heretofore alluded to, Dr. R. M. Cooper, in his report to the Xew Jersey State Medical Society, said : " We have obtained (from Dr. Morgan) some valuable statistics in regard to the disease and its mode of treatment ; and it is but just to him to State tiiat the ratio of mortality of the cases under his care compare very favorably with other small-pox hospitals." He carried on for several years a drug- store, and was a member of both the Camden County and Camden City Medical Societies. He was married January 15, 1876, to Eva, daughter of Dr. Charles F. Clarke, late of Camden, who survives him. James A. Aemstroxg was born in Phila- delphia, June 12, 1835, and was the son of James and Mary Armstrong. He was edu- cated in the public schools, and graduated from the Philadelphia High School. He eno;aged in the drug business and obtained a diploma from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1855, and then purchased a drug store at the corner of Fourth and Thompson Streets, in his native city. Subse- quently he studied medicine, graduating from the University of Pennsylvania in 1861. In September of the latter year Dr. Armstrong was appointed assistant surgeon in a Penn- sylvania regiment, and was assigned to the Army of the Potomac, in Virginia. After three years of military duty in the field he returned home, and was attached to the Satterlee Hospital until the close of the war. He then removed to Camden, and purchased a drug store on Federal Street, above Third, which he afterwards moved to Market, above the same street. In a few years he relin- quished the drug business, began the practice of medicine and joined the Camden County Medical Society in 1876. He was surgical examiner for pensions in Camden since the close of the war, and when the United States Board of Pensions was established in that city, in 1884, he was appointed one of its three members. In 1871 he was coroner of Camden City. Dr. Armstrong was an elder in the Presbyterian Church. He died of apoplexy on October 30, 1885, leaving a widow and three daughters. J. Xewtox Achuff was a native of Germantown, Pa. He commenced his medi- cal education with Dr. Lemuel J. Deal, of Philadelphia, and completed it at the Jeffer- son Medical College, graduating in 1867. He at once commenced the practice of his profession in South Camden, and in the same year (1867) joined both the Camden City and County Societies. He was at once appointed a visiting physician of the Camden City Dis- pensary. In the year 1869 he left Camden and entered the service of the government as a contract surgeon, and was assigned to duty in Alaska, and subsequently in California, in which State he died about 1872. James H. Wroth is the son of the late James W. Wroth, of Camden, whose widow and her family have removed from the city. Dr. Wroth obtained his medical education at the University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1878. He commenced the practice of medicine in Camden, and in 1879 attached himself to both the Camden City and County Societies. While an interne of the Camden City Dispensary the small- pox epidemic of 1880 occurred in that city, during which Dr. Wroth distinguished liim- self by his attendance upon the sick (poor) with that disease. He is now a resident of Xew Mexico. Isaac B. Mulford belonged to an old and influential family in South Jersey. He was born in Millville, X. J., in 1843. He was educated at the West Jersey Academy, 39 at Bridgeton, at Monticello Seminary, New York, and at Princeton College, from which he graduated with honor in the class of 1865. He studied medicine with Dr. William Hunt, of Philadelphia, and attended lectures at the University of Pennsylvania. His studies being interrupted by severe illness, he could not receive his degree of Doctor of Medicine until 1871. He began the practice of medi- cine ill Camden, and became a member of both the Camden County and Camden City Medical Societies, and was elected treasurer of the former in 1874, and president in 1881. For several years prior to his death he was surgeon of the Sixth Regiment National Guards of New Jersey. He was also phy- sician of the West Jersey Orphanage, a mem- ber of the New Jersey Sanitary Association and the Camden Microscopical Society.^ Dr. IMulford and the Rev. Joseph F. Garri- .sou, honorary member of the Camden County Society, were the only resident physicians in the coimty who were ever graduates of the College of New Jersey. Dr. Mulford died in Camden, November 21, 1882. He left a fine library of medical works to the Camden City Dispensary. 1 Transactions New Jersey State Medical Society, 1883. William G. Taylor, a former mem- ber of the Camden City Medical Society, was the son of Dr. R. G. and Eleonora Tay- lor, of Camden. He was born in Philadel- phia, July 20, 1851, and was educated in the public schools in Camden. At the age of seventeen he entered the drug-store of Jo- seph Riley and attended two courses of lec- tures at the Philadelphia College of Phar- macy. He then commenced the study of medicine and graduated at the Jefferson Medical College in 1873. For a short time he was one of the visiting physicians for the Dispensary, but he had been preparing for the work of a missionary under the auspices of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Mis- sions. On June 11, 1873, he sailed from New York for Africa. His station was Ga- boon, on the west coast, and his duty was to visit monthly, or oftener if called upon, the stations between it and Benita, a point one hundred miles north. The mode of travel- ling was by sea in an open boat, five and one-half feet wide by twenty-six feet long. This exposed life and repeated attacks of Af- rican fever broke down his health, and after two years' labor there he returned home, and died April 8, 1877. He was buried in Ever- green Cemetery.