(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The history of medicine and medical men of Camden County, New Jersey"

COLUMBIA LIBRARIES OFFSITE 
HEALTH SCIENCES STANDARD 



HX641 05245 
R285 .St4 The history of medic 




THE 



RECAP 



HISTOEY or MEDICIIE 



AND 



MEDICAL MEN 



OF 



c.iVM:DE:N ooxjisrTY, 



NEW JERSEY. 



BY 



JNO. R. STEVENSON, A. M., M. D 



PHILADELPHIA: 

L. J. RICHARDS & CO 

1886. 



Columbia WiniUt^itf 
CoUcse of ^fjpsiicianfi anb ^urgeong 




3aef erence Xibrar j> 



THE . 






HISTOKY OF MEDICINE 



AND 



MEDICAL MEN 



OF 



C^MDEIsT COXJISTTY, 

NEW JERSEY. 



"At the annual meeting of the Camden County Medical Society, held at Gloucester City on 
May 11, 1886, on motion it was Resolved, that Dr. John R. Stevenson, of Haddonfield, be appointed 
a Committee of one to prepare a History of Medicine and Medical Men in Camden County and 
report the same at the next semi-annual meeting in November." 



Two hundred years ago, in 1686, seven 
years after the first settlement in what is now 
Camden County, there was not a medical 
man in it. The few settlers were located 
along the shore of the Delaware River, and 
on Coopers, Newton and Little Timber 
Creeks, where the water formed the only 
means of easy communication with each other. 
There were no roads, no bridges to cross the 
streams, and the trail of the Indian was the 
only route through the wilderness. A few 
medicinal herbs brought from home had 
been transplanted into the gardens. With 
the virtues of these they were familiar. The 
new country abounded in native plants, 
whose healing powers had been for ages 
tested by the aborigines, and u knowledge of 



whose properties they conveyed to their white 
neighbors. Each autumn the careful house- 
wife collected the horehound, boneset, penny- 
royal, sassafras and other herbs to dry for 
future use. This custom is still pursued in 
the remote parts of the county, and to-day a 
visit to the garrets of many farm-houses will 
reveal the bunches of dried herbs, a knowl- 
edge of whose merits has been handed down 
from generation to generation, — a knowledge 
that has spread beyond its neighborhood, and 
has been incorporated in our Pharmacopoeias 
and Dispensatories. 

In each settlement there was some elderly 
matron of superior skill and experience in 
midwifery who kindly volunteered her ser- 
vice in presiding at the birth of a new cx)lonist. 



in the bark canoe around bv the water-way, 
or seated on a pillion strapped behind the 
saddle of the patient's messenger, riding double 
through the woods, this obstetrician would be 
conveyed from her own home to that of her 
suifering neighbor. When a wound was 
received or a bone broken, there was no 
surgeon to dress the former or set the latter- 
The wound, bound up as best it might be, 
was left for the cool water of the brook or 
spring to allay the pain and inflammation. The 
broken bone was placed at rest in that posi- 
tion least painful to the patient, to await the 
process of nature to make an indiflFerent cure. 
As soon as Philadelphia had grown suflficient- 
ly to attract physicians, one was called from 
there to attend important cases of surgical 
injuries, and as highways were opened and 
the settlers increased in wealth, the most 
thriving of them would send for the city 
doctor in other serious illness. This practice 
has continued even to our time. 




AN OLD-TIME DOCTOR. 



Such were the primitive means and 
methods of medication in Camden County at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
when John Estaugh, arriving from England, 
married, in 1702, Elizabeth Haddou, the 
founder of Haddonlield. Although not a 
physician, he " had some skill in chemistry 
and medicine," and made himself useful in 
his neighborhood, especially by his attend- 
ance upon the poor. His first residence 
was upon the south side of Coopers Creek, 
about four miles from Camden, but in 1713 



he removed to the vicinity of Haddonfield, 
where he died in 1742. 

The permission to practice medicine was a 
prerogative that belonged to the crown, under 
English law, and when a charter was granted 
in 1664, to the Duke of York for the prov- 
ince of New Jersey, this prerogative, im- 
plied or expressed, was granted to him and to 
his successors in the persons of the Gover- 
nors. On March 5, 1706, Governor Richard 
Ingolsby, at Burlington, issued the following 
license: "To Richard Smith, Gentleman, 
greeting ; Being well informed of your knowl- 
edge, skill and judgment in the practice of 
chirurgery and phesig, T do hereby license and 
authorize you to practice the said sciences of 
chirurgery and phesig within this her Majes- 
ty s province of New Jersey, for and during 
pleasure." On May 24, 1706, a similar 
license was granted to Nathaniel Wade. ' 
In 1772 the New Jersey State Medical 
Society procured the passage of an act, limit- 
ed to five years, which provided that all 
applicants to practice medicine in the State 
shall be examined by two judges of the 
Supreme Court (they calling to their assistance 
any skilled physician or surgeon), to whom 
they may issue a certificate. This law was 
re-enacted in 1784, and continued in force 
luitil 1816, when a new charter granted to 
the State society transferred the power of 
licensure to it. 

The first record of a physician in the 
county is in the "Town-Book" of Newton 
township, among the minutes of a meeting 
held on September 29, 1731. The record 
says, — "and to pay themselves ye sum of 
four pounds twelve shillings and two pence 
being due to them from the township upon 
acct. of the poor, and to pay Doctr. Kei'say 
for administg physic to sd. Hart. " Tlie 
person referred to here was one of the Drs. 
Kearsley, of Philadelphia. The elder. Dr. 
John Kearsley, was a native of England, and 

1 Hon. John Clement's MSS. 



came to this country in 1711. He was the 
third physician to settle and practice medi- 
cine in Philadelphia, and was a prominent 
and able man, both as a practitioner and a 
citizen. He was a member of the Colonial 
Assembly and a popular orator. He died in 
1732. There was a younger Dr. Kearsley, 
a nephew of the first-named, who succeeded 
to his uncle's practice. He espoused the 
cause of the proprietors and ci'own against 
the rights of colonists, a proceeding that 
made him very unpopular, and caused him to 
be subjected to such gross indignities as to 
induce chronic insanity. As Newton town- 
ship then embraced the territory bordering 
on the river-shore opposite to Philadelphia, 
it is probable that the practice of both these 
physicians extended across the river into this 
county. 

The next notice of a physician in Camden 
County is to be found in the '^ Registry of 
Wills," at Trenton. Under the date of 1 748 
is recorded the will of " John Craig, Doctor 
of Physick, of Haddonfield." He evidently 
had practiced medicine there, but whence he 
came or how long he lived there cannot now 
b€S ascertained. There is no positive record 
of what were the prevalent diseases in early 
times in Camden County. Small-pox pre- 
vailed occasionally, and, after the discovery 
of inoculation in 1721, was combated by 
that method of treatment. Inflammatory 
diseases were common among a population 
exposed to the vicissitudes of an unaccus- 
tomed climate. Dysentery occurred in July 
and August. Although all the houses in 
early days were built on the streams, there is 
circumstantial evidence to show that malarial 
fevers were at first infrec^uent ; nor did they 
become prevalent until considerable extent 
of forest had been cleared away, and the 
soil of much new ground upturned by the 
plough. The first information on this sub- 
ject from a professional soun^e is furnished 
by Peter Kalm, a professor in the University 
of Arbo, in Sweden, who, by order of the 



Swedish government, visited, among other 
places, Gloucester County between 1747 and 
1749. At Raccoon (Swedesboro') he found 
that fever and ague was more common than 
other diseases. It showed the same charac- 
teristics as are found to-day. It was quotid- 
ian, tertian and quartan, and prevailed in 
autumn and winter, and in low places more 
than in high ones ; some years it was preva- 
lent throughout the county (Camden County 
was then included in it), while in others 
there would be but very few cases. The 
remedies then employed to overcome it were 
Jesuit's (Peruvian) bark, bark of the yellow 
poplar and root of the dog-wood. Pleurisy 
was also very common, and was fatal with 
old people. Under this name were classed 
many cases of pneumonia, a disease not then 
well understood. 

In 1771 Kesiah Tonkins, widow of Joseph, 
who died in 1765, lived on a farm between 
Camden and Gloucester City, known as the 
" Mickle estate." Between that date and 
1776 she married Dr. Benjamin Vanleer, 
who lived with her on this place. She was 
the daughter of Joseph Ellis, of Newton 
township. It is supposed that Dr. Vanleer 
practiced in the surrounding country, as he 
took an active part in the affairs of the peo- 
ple, being one of a " Committee of Corre- 
spondence " for Gloucester County in the year 
1775, in relation to the troubles between 
the colonies and the mother government. 
He was a man of fashion, dressed in the 
Continental style, with knee-breeches, and 
was proud of his " handsome leg." He did 
not remain long in New Jersey. A Dr. 
Benjamin Vanleer residing, in 1783, on 
AVater Street, between Race and Vine, Phil- 
adelphia, is supposed to be the same person. 

Although this history is confined to that 
portion of Gloucester which is now Camden 
C'ounty, yet Dr. Thomas Hendry, of Wood- 
bury, ought to be classed among its physi- 
cians, because his field of practice included 
this section, and for the reason that his de- 



scendauts became practitioners in it. He 
was born in 1747, in Burlington County, of 
English parentage, his mother's name being 
Bowman, from whom her son received his 
surname. He served in the Revolutionary 
War, being commissioned superintendent of 
hospital April 3, 1777; surgeon Third Bat- 
talion, Gloucester. " Testimonials from Gen- 
eral Dickinson and General Heard, certifying 
that Dr. Hendry had served as a surgeon to 
a brigade of militia, that he had acted as a 
director and superintendent of a hospital, and 
recommending that he should be allowed a 
compensation adequate to such extraordinary 
services, was read and referred to the hon'- 
ble Congress." He took an active part in 
political affairs, and was once clerk of the 
county. He died September 12, 1822. 

The next physician in Camden County 
was Dr. Benjamin H. Tallman, who prac- 
ticed in Haddonfield. He probably located 
there about 1786, the year in which he was 
licensed to practice in New Jersey. From 
the year 1788 to 1793 he was the township 
physician, as it appears that in each of those 
years he was paid by it for his services in 
attending the poor. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the Friendship Fire Company of 
Haddonfield, September 6, 1792. On 
October 4, 1791, he read a paper before the 
College of Physicians of Philadelphia, on 
the sudden effects of an effusion of cold 
water in a case of tetanus. He died about 
1796. 

Cotemporary with the above-named phy- 
sician was Dr. Evan Clement. He was the 
son of Samuel Clement, who married Beulah 
Evans in 1758. They had two children, 
Samuel and Evan.^ The latter was born in 
Haddonfield, but the exact date is not known, 
neither is there any record of when or where 
he studied medicine. He married, April 8, 
1795, Anna, daughter of James and Eliza- 
beth Wills, and lived in the brick house at 

1 Hon. John Clement' s M^. 



the corner of Main and Ellis Streets, re- 
cently purchased and taken down by Alfred 
W. Clement. Dr. Clement was in practice 
there in 1794, and died in 1798. He was 
the first native of the county to adopt the 
profession of medicine and practice it in his 
native place. 

It is a noteworthy circumstance that for a 
hundred years after the settlement of the 
county no one born in it had studied medi- 
cine. The poorer classes were unable to 
procure the means for acquiring the requisite 
education, while the wealthier ones altogether 
neglected it. It is true that prior to the found- 
ing of the University of Pennsyl van ia, i n 1 7 6 5, 
the only means of obtaining a knowledge of 
medicine was either to pursue a course ol 
study under some competent physician, where 
the student was apt to be considered half a 
servant, or else by attendance at a medical 
school in England. The prospects of pro- 
fessional or pecuniary success in the county 
were not flattering. But in addition to this, 
there was a sentiment in this community 
unfriendly to the medical profession as a 
calling. In sickness the ministrations of 
friends and relatives, with their teas and 
potions, and the quack remedies of popular 
charlatans, who flourished then as well as 
now, were deemed sufficient. If, after this 
medication, the patient died, it was attributed 
to a " wise dispensation of Providence." The 
midwives were considered to be adequate to 
manage obstetrical cases. There still lingered 
among the people the tradition of their 
English ancestors, that the red and white 
striped pole was the sign of the combined 
office of barber and surgeon. These preju- 
dices found expression in two diametrically 
opposite opinions. The stout, robust farmer 
and the active and alert merchant and me- 
chanic looked with contempt upon a youth 
who had aspirations for the life of a physi- 
cian as one who was too lazy to work. The 
women, whose remembrances of the midnight 
ride of the doctor through rains and snow 



and chilliDg winds, thought the liardships 
and exposure too great for their brothers and 
sons. These prejudices passed away but 
slowly. 

Dr. John Blackwood, who began his pro- 
fessional career in Haddonfield, became the 
successor of Dr. Evan Clement, not only by 
succeeding to his practice, but by marrying 
his widow in 1799. He was the sou of 
Joseph and Rebecca Blackwood, and was 
born at Blackwoodtown, July 28, 1772. His 
wife was a member of Friends' Meeting, but 
was disowned for marrying out of it. Dr. 
Blackwood remained but a short time in 
Haddonfield. He removed to Mount Holly, 
where he became prominent in public affairs, 
serving at one time as postmaster and also as 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas and 
Orphans' Court of Burlington County.^ He 
died in Mount Holly March 16, 1840. 

Up to the close of the eighteenth century 
Haddonfield may be considered as having 
been the medical centre of the territory of 
Camden County. It was not only the oldest 
town in it, but it was the third oldest in the 
State. All the physicians who had practiced 
within the limits of the county had either 
lived in Haddonfield or Newton township, 
of which it was the seat of authority. For 
nearly half a century later it still retained 
its pre-eminence, until the growth of Cam- 
den, and its becoming the seat of justice for 
the county, transferred the supremacy to the 
latter. 

In more recent times Haddonfield has had 
the doubtful honor of being the seat of one 
of the notorious John Buchanan's (of Phila- 
delphia) bogus medical colleges. Between 
1870 and 1880 the doctor owned a farm on 
the Clement's Bridge road, about four miles 
from the place, upon which he spent a por- 
tion of his time. During this period diplo- 
mas of the mythical " University of Medi- 
cine and Surgery of Haddonfield, N. J.," 

IS. Wickes' History of Medicine in New Jersey. 



were offered for sale by his agents in Eu- 
rope. 

The period now being considered was a 
transition one for the nation, which was then 
being developed from the former colonies, 
through a confederation of independent 
States, into a great empire. The science and 
practice of medicine here participated in this 
change. At this time there appeared in 
Camden County a physician, who was des- 
tined to be its Hippocrates for forty years, 
and whose memory, though dead for half a 
century, is still preserved green in the farm- 
houses and hamlets of this county. This 
was Dr. Bowman Hendry, son of Dr. Thos. 
Hendry, of Woodbury. 

Dr. Bowman Hendry was born October 1, 
1773. He was educated at the Woodbury 
Academy, pursuing his studies under a Mr. 
Hunter, a classical scholar and a man of 
high literary attainments. At the age of 
seventeen he commenced the study of medi- 
cine, under the preceptorship of his father, 
and then attended lectures at the University 
of Pennsylvania, residing, as a pupil, in the 
house of Dr, Duffield. When about twenty 
years of age, and still a student, the Whiskey 
Insurrection broke out in Pennsylvania, and 
troops being called out for its suppression, 
young Hendry joined the ranks as a private 
soldier, and marched with them to Lancas- 
ter. The influence of his father, with Pj'o- 
fessor James, the surgeon of the troops, se- 
cured his release from the ranks, a prema- 
ture examination at the University, which he 
successfully passed, and his appointment as 
assistant surgeon of the troops. This was a 
bloodless war, and soon ended. Dr. Hendry 
now began to look around for a field for 
practice, finally selecting Haddonfield. He 
began his active life as a physician in 1794, 
and upon the death of Doctors Tall man and 
Clement, and the removal of Dr. Blackwood 
to Mount Holly, he became the only doctor 
in the place. His practice now increased 
very rapidly, and stretched over a large ex- 



6 



tent of territory, extending from the Dela- 
ware River to the sea-shore, a distance of 
sixty miles. He was a man of indefatigable 
industry and indomitable perseverance in the 
pursuit of his calling. Kind-hearted and gen- 
erous, he possessed that suaviter in re which 
won the affection of his patrons. Many are 
the anecdotes that are recorded of him. 

For fifteen years he made his visits on 
horseback, having no carriage. At length 
he procured at a vendue an old sulky, which 
was only an ordinary chair placed upon 
wooden springs, without a top to protect him 
from the sun or rain. The price paid for the 
vehicle and harness was thirty dollars. An 
old " Friend " witnessing this extravagance, 
remarked, " Doctor, I fear thee is too fast in 
making this purchase. Thee will not be 
able to stand it, and make thy income meet 
thy expenses." This gives us an idea of the 
life of a physician in those days, and of the 
value of his services in the public estima- 
tion. In his journeys through the " Pines " 
on the Atlantic slope he would sometimes 
become lost at night, and be compelled to 
sleep in the woods, tying his horse to a tree. 
He was always prompt to answer every call, 
no matter whether the patient was rich or 
poor, and being a furious driver, he had been 
known, in cases of emergency, to break down 
a good horse in his hurry to quickly reach 
the bedside, and that, too, in a case where he 
knew that he would not receive any pay for 
his services. It has been estimated that, in 
the course of forty years, he wore out over 
two hundred horses. He risked his life and 
gave his services in all cases. A family of 
negroes, living seven miles from Haddon- 
tield, were attended by him for typhus fever, 
and, although warned that they were vaga- 
bonds, thieves and utterly worthless, yet he 
not only continued his visits, but gave them 
medicine and sent them provisions from a 
neighboring store. 

Notwithstanding the arduous duties of 
such an extensive private practice, Dr. Hen- 



dry found time to attend to public duties. 
For many years he had charge of the Glou- 
cester County Almshouse. He served as 
surgeon of Captain J. B. Cooper's volunteer 
cavalry in 1805, formed from the young men 
of Haddonfield and Woodbury. He took 
an active part in religious affairs. He was a 
member and vestryman of St. Mary's Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church, Colestown, until 
its congregation was drawn away from it by 
the building of new churches in the growing 
towns of Moorestown and Camden. Dr. 
Hendry was one of the originators of St. 
Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church in Cam- 
den, and was chairman of the first meeting 
held in the city hall, in that city, March 12, 
1830, whereat the organization of this church 
was completed. At this meeting he was 
elected one of its vestrymen. 

Dr. Hendry was a physician of great abil- 
ity, and one who kept pace with the growth 
of knowledge in his profession. He stood 
pre-eminent in this county, both as a physi- 
cian and surgeon, and his services as a con- 
sultant were in frequent request. He pos- 
sessed those magnetic personal attributes 
which endeared him to the people to such an 
extent, that when his barn, horses and equip- 
ments were destroyed by an incendiary fire, 
they raised a subscription for him and 
quickly rebuilt the building and replaced the 
destroyed personal property. With these he 
combined the sterling qualities of the true 
physician. No doctor in this county has 
done more to elevate the practice of medicine 
from a trade to a profession. By his exam- 
ple he taught this community that there was 
attached to it a philanthropy and a benevo- 
lence that widely separates it from other oc- 
cupations, and, by dying a poor man, when 
so many opportunities offered to secure gain, 
he illustrated the fact that the services of 
such men cannot be measured by money. 

Dr. Hendry married, June 7, 1798, Eliz- 
abeth, daughter of Dr. Charles Dutfield, of 
Philadelphia, and had .seven daughters and 



two sons, — Charles H. and Bowman Hendry, 
both physicians in Camden County. 

Cotemporary with the early portion of Dr. 
Hendry's career, and located at C-olestown, 
three miles distant from him, was Dr. Sam- 
uel Bloomfield, who lived in a small hip-roof 
frame house on the road from Haddonfield 
to Moorestown, just north of the church. 
This house was torn down a few years since. 
Dr. Bloomfield, born in 1756, was the second 
son of Dr. Moses Bloomfield, of Woodbridge, 
N. J., and younger brother of Joseph, who 
became Governor of New Jersey. In 1790 
the doctor applied for admission to the State 
Society, but did not press his application, 
and his name was dropped. It is not known 
how long he followed his profession here, 
but his practice must have been limited in 
consequence of his convivial habits, and the 
great popularity of his competitor. He died 
in 1806, and was buried in St. Mary's ' 
Churchyard, now Colestown Cemetery. 
Two of his sons who survived him fell in 
the War of 1812. 

There is no record of any physician hav- 
ing settled in Camden prior to the nineteenth 
century. Its proximity to Philadelphia 
seems to have made the village dependent 
upon its neighbor for its medical attendance. 
It is probable that some doctor may have 
attempted to practice there for a short time, 
but, not succeeding, moved away, leaving no 
trace behind him, not even as much as did a 
Dr. Ellis, who, in 1809, had an office on 
Market Street, above Second. The only fact 
preserved of him is that in this year he 
dressed the wounded forearm of a child, but 
first bled the patient in the other arm before 
binding up the wound, yet the child recovered. 

Dr. Samuel Harris was the first physician 
to settle permanently in Camden. As he 
was the connecting link between the old- 
fashioned practitioners of the la.st century and 
the association known as the Camden County 



Medical Society he is worthy of especial 
consideration. His father was Dr. Isaac 
Harris, born in 1741, who studied medicine 
and practiced near <^^uibbletown, Piscataway 
township, Middlesex County, N. J. From 
there he removed to Pittsgrove, Salem 
County, about 1771. Here he pursued his 
profession successfully for many years, and 
died in 1808. He possessed a good medical 
library. While a resident in Middlesex he 
was one of the pioneers in the organization 
of the New Jersey State Medical Society, 
being the sixth signer to the " Instruments 
of Association," and became its president in 
1792. In the Revolutionary War he was 
commissioned surgeon of General New- 
combe's brigade. His brother, Dr. Jacob 
Harris, also a surgeon in the same army, 
dressed the wounds of Count Donop, the 
Hessian commander, who was defeated and 
mortally wounded at the battle of Red Bank, 
and who died in an adjacent farm-house." 
Another brother. Dr. Benjamin Harris, 
practiced and died in Pittsgrove. Dr. Isaac 
Harris had two wives. The first Avas Mar- 
garet Pierson, of Morris or Essex County ; 
the second, Anna, daughter of Alexander 
Moore, of Bridgeton, Cimiberland County. 
By the first he had four children ; one, Isaac 
Jr., studied medicine and practiced in Sa- 
lem County. By the second wife he had nine 
children, one of whom, Samuel, is now under 
consideration. 

Dr. Samuel Harris was born January 6, 
1781. He studied medicine with his father. 
It is said that he attended medical lectures 
at the University of Pennsylvania, but his 
name does not appear in the list of graduates 
of that institution. He began the practice 
of medicine in Philadelphia, at the northeast 
corner of Fourth Street and Williug's Alley, 
but indorsing for a relative, he lost all his 
property. He then determined to settle in 
Camden, and grow up with the place. He 



1 Hon. John Clement's M.Sti. 



- Wicke's History of Medicine in New Jersey. 



located in 1811 in the old brick building on 
Cooper Street, above Front. While he jDrac- 
ticed medicine in Camden he still retained 
some of his patients in Philadelphia, and to 
visit them was compelled to cross the river 
in a row-boat, the only means of crossing at 
that time. In 1825 he purchased the large 
rough-cast house at the southeast corner of 
Second and Cooper Streets, which had been 
built by Edward Sharp. Here he kept his 
office and a small stock of drugs, it being at 
that time the only place in Camden where 
medicine could be purchased. Dr. Harris 
was a polished gentleman and a man of 
ability, and had a large practice in the town 
and in the surrounding country. He held 
to the religious faith of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church, and was one of the founders 
of St. Paul's Church in 1830, and was a 
vestryman in it until his death. Dr. Harris 
married Anna, daughter of John and Keziah 
Kay, and granddaughter of Captain Joseph 
Thorne, of the army of the Revolution. 
He died November 25, 1843, and is buried 
in Newtown Cemetery. His widow died 
July 16, 1868. He had no children. He 
bequeathed his estate, which was large, to his 
adopted daughter and wife's niece, Miriam 
Kay Clement (now wife of Dr. Charles D. 
Maxwell, United States Navy), to niece 
Harriet (wife of Colonel Robert M. Arm- 
strong), to niece Anna M. (wife of Richard 
Wells) and to niece Eliza T. (wife of Rev. 
Thomas Ammerman). 

In 1812 Dr. Francis Hover settled in 
Camden, but remained only a short time. 
He was a native of Salem County and 
received his license to practice medicine June 
4, 1794. He began his professional career 
in his native town ; from thence he removed 
to near Swedesboro', and then to Camden. 
From the latter place he returned to Swedes- 
boro'. In 1821 he changed his residence to 
Smyrna, Kent County, Del., where he died 
May 29, 1832.' 

1 6. Wickes' History of .Medicine in New Jersey. 



For a few years Dr. John A. Elkinton was 
a co-laborer with Dr. Bowman Hendry in 
Haddonfield. He was a native of Port 
Elizabeth, Cumberland County, N. J., born 
October 19, 1801, and was the son of John 
and Rhoda Elkinton. Selecting the pro- 
fession of medicine, he attended lectures at 
the University of Pennsylvania, from which 
he graduated in 1822. He commenced the 
practice of medicine in Haddonfield, where 
he remained until 1828. Being an energetic 
and active man, this country place did not 
offer a wide enough field for him, so he 
removed to Manayunk, a suburb of Philadel- 
phia, where he resided for a short time. 
In the same year he moved into the city, 
where he continued in his profession. In 
the year 1832 he took an active part in 
combating the epidemic of cholera. He like- 
wise became interested in public affairs. For 
many years he was a member of the Phila- 
delphia Board of Health. In 1838 he was 
the projector of the Monument Cemetery in 
that city, and owned the ground upon which 
it was laid out. Afterward he was elected 
an alderman, when he gradually relinquished 
the practice of medicine. On October 5, 
1830, he married Ann De Lamater. He died, 
December 15, 1853. 

Dr. Edward Edwards Gough practiced 
medicine in Tansboro' between 1826 and 
1835. He was a native of Shropshire, Eng- 
land, in which country he acquired some 
knowledge of medicine. In 1824 he lived in 
Philadelphia, and there he married his wife, 
Elizabeth Dick. In 1826 he settled in 
Tansboro', and commenced the practice of 
medicine, his visits extending throughout the 
surroundino: countrv. While living there he 
attended medical lectures at the Jefferson 
Medical College, but he never graduated. 
He died in Tansboro' in 1835. His widow 
is still living, in Indiana. 

Camden County Medical Society. — 
Between the years 1844 and A 846 the phy- 
sicians of Camden Cbunty began to feel tlic 



8a 



need of a closer union. Scattered as they 
were, they but occasionally met ; sometimes 
they would pass each other on the road ; 
sometimes, where their practices overlapped, 
they would meet each other at a patient's 
house in mutual consultation.' To accom- 
plish this desired object, a petition was drawn 
up and signed by the legal practitioners in 
the county for presentation to the New Jer- 
sey State Medical Society, asking for author- 
ity to organize a society. As the law then 
stood, no one was legally qualified to practice 
medicine, or capable of joining a medical so- 
ciety in New Jersey, unless he had passed an 
examination before a board of censors of the 
State Society, and received a license signed by 
the board. 

In the year 1846 the State Society met at 
New Brunswick. The petition of the phy- 
sicians in Camden County being laid before 
it, they issued a commission, dated May 12, 
1846, authorizing the following legally qual- 
ified persons to form a society, namely : Drs. 
Jacob P. Thornton and Charles D. Hendry, 
of Haddonfield ; Dr. James C. Risley, of 
Berlin ; and Drs. Richard M. Cooper, Oth- 
niel H. Taylor and Isaac S. Mulford, of 
Camden. In accordance with this authority, 
the above-named gentlemen, with the excep- 
tion of Dr. Mulford, who was detained by 
sickness, met at the hotel of Joseph C. 
Shivers, in Haddonfield, on August 14, 
1846, and organized a society under the 
title of " The District Medical Society of the 
County of Camden, in the State of New 
Jersey." Dr. James C. Risley was elected 
president; Dr. Othniel H. Taylor, vice-pres- 
ident ; Dr. Richard M. Cooper, secretary, and 
Dr. Jacob P. Thornton, treasurer. A con- 
stitution and by-laws were adopted similar to 
those of the State So(Mety. At this meeting 
Drs. Thornton, Hendry, Taylor and Cooper 
were elected delegates to the State Society. 
A notice of the formation of the society was 

iDr. R. M. Cooper's MSS., History of Camden County 
Society. 



ordered to be published in the county news- 
papers. 

Haddonfield was thus honored by having 
the first medical society in the county organ- 
ized within its limits. The rules of the 
State Society directed that county societies 
should hold their meetings at the county-seat, 
yet Haddonfield was not the seat of justice. 
The county of Camden had, in 1844, been 
set off from Gloucester County, and the 
courts of law were held in Camden, and the 
public records kept there, but the county- 
town had not been selected. The Legisla- 
ture had authorized an election to decide 
upon a permanent place for the public build- 
ings. The people were divided upon the 
subject. A most violent opposition had 
sprung up in the townships against their 
location in Camden, the majority of the 
people of the former desiring them to be 
built at Long-a-coming (now Berlin). It 
was during this contest that the society or- 
ganized, and Drs. Hendry and Risley, who 
had charge of the petition, had inserted in 
the commission the name of Haddonfield. 
The second meeting, which had been left 
subject to the call of the president, was also 
held in Haddonfield on March 30, 1847. At 
this meeting Dr. Mulford raised the question 
of the legality of the place of meeting, and 
a committee was thereupon appointed to lay 
the matter before the State Society, who de- 
cided that these meetings, although irregular, 
were not illegal, as the county-seat had not 
yet been definitely fixed) but directed that 
hereafter the meetings should be held in Cam- 
den. 

The third meeting of the society was a 
special one, called by the president, and was 
held on June 15, 1847, at English's Hotel, 
which was situated at the northeast corner of 
Cooper and Point Streets, a building which 
has since been torn down and dwellings 
erected upon the site. At this time it was 
decided to hold semi-annual meetings: the 
animal one on the third Tuesday in June, 



8 b 



and the serai-annual on the third Tuesday 
in December. These were always punctually 
held until 1852, when, upon the motion of 
Dr. A. D. Woodruff, of Haddonfield, the 
semi-annual meeting in December was dis-. 
continued. On June 18, 1867, Dr. R. M. 
Cooper, chairman of the committee on by- 
laws, reported that the State Society having 
changed their day of assembling from Jan- 
uary to the third Tuesday in May, it would 
necessitate the election of delegates to that 
society eleven months before it met. The 
Camden County Society then changed the 
time of the annual meeting from June to the 
second Tuesday in May, and this rule still 
continues. For twenty years the semi-annual 
meetings had been discontinued, when, in 
May, 1873, Dr. N. B. Jennings, of Had- 
donfield, moved that they should be resumed. 
This was approved, and the second Tuesday 
in November named as the time for holding 
them. As the society increased in numbers 
and its proceedings became more interesting, 
the propriety of holding more frequent meet- 
ings began to be discussed, until, in 1884, 
Dr. E. L. B. Godfrey, of Camden, proposed 
a third meeting, on the second Tuesday in 
February of each year. This was adopted 
in the succeeding year. 

At this, the third stated meeting of the 
society, in 1847, a resolution was passed that 
caused great excitement in the city and coun- 
ty of Camden. It read as follows : 

" Resolved, That the names of all the regularly 
licensed practitioners in Camden County be pub- 
lished in one of the papers of the county, to- 
gether with the twelfth section of the law incor- 
porating the Medical Society of New Jersey." 

This law imposed a fine and imprison- 
ment upon any one practicing medicine in 
the State without a license from the State 
Society. The insertion of this in a county 
paper caused the gravest anxiety among the 
few irregular practitioners and their patrons, 
and provoked from Dr. Lorenzo F. Fisler a 
long communication in the Camden Demo- 



ocrat. Dr. Fisler, who had been practicing 
medicine in Camden since 1837, had not 
joined in organizing the County Medical 
Society, nor had he taken any part in it. He 
was a man of more than ordinary ability, 
active in public affairs and was at one time 
mayor of the city. He was a writer of 
considerable force. He took umbrage at be-, 
ing inferential ly placed in the illegal class, 
claiming that he had passed his examination 
before the board of censors of Salem County 
in 1825, and had received their certificate 
therefor, but had never presented it to the 
State Society for a license, and that the doc- 
ument had been mislaid or lost. Upon this 
the Camden County Society made inquiry of 
Dr. Charles Hannah, of the board of censors 
of Salem County. He replied that he had 
been a member of every board that had ever 
met in the county, and that Dr. Fisler had 
never received a license from it. The latter 
immediately went down to Port Elizabeth, 
Cumberland County, his native place, and 
among some old papers of his father's found 
the missing certificate, with Dr. Hannah's 
name among the signatures. After the dis- 
covery of this document the society held a 
special meeting on September 2, 1847, and 
prepared an address to the public,. explaining 
their reasons for falling into the error, and 
disclaiming any unfriendly feeling towards 
Dr. Fisler.^ Although the doctor obtained 
the required license from the State Society, 
he ever after held aloof from it, and never 
joined the Camden County Medical Society, 
In the year 1816 the New Jersey State 
Medical Society had obtained from the State 
a new charter, which gave them exclusive 
jurisdiction over the medical profession in it, 
with a power of license which alone (qualified 
a person to legally practice medicine. In ac- 
cordance with this enactment, the State So- 
ciety appointed boards of censors for differ- 

iDr. R. M.Cooper's MSS., History Camden County 
Medical Society. 



8e 



ent districts. It was tlie duty of these 
boards to examine all applications for mem- 
bership in the society, and also to examine 
any one desiring a license to practice, as to 
his professional qnalifications, and if he 
passed successfully to issue to him a certificate. 
No one, not even graduates of medical col- 
leges, was exempt from this examination, un- 
til the year 1851, when the Legislature 
passed an amendment to the act of 1816, 
authorizing the graduates of certain colleges, 
which were named, to practice medicine in 
New Jersey by merely exhibiting their 
diplomas to the president of the State Society, 
who thereupon was directed to give them a 
license, which was complete upon its being- 
recorded in the clerk's office of the county 
wherein the recipient intended to practice, and 
upon the payment of a fee of five dollars. Du- 
ring the period between the organization of 
the Camden County Medical Society and the 
passage of this law its board of censors ex- 
amined thirteen physicians, some of whom 
were to practice elsewhere in New Jersey. 
Their names were, — 

Examined. Name. Location. 

1848. Dr. Bowman Heudry, Camden County. 

1848. Dr. A. Dickinson Woodruff, Camden County. 
1848. Dr. Daniel M. Stout, Camden County. 

1848. Dr. William Elmer, Cumberland County. 
1848. Dr. T. Barron Potter, Cumberland County. 
1848. Dr. Theophilus Patterson, Salem County. 

1848. Dr. Edward J. Record, Camden County. 

1849. Dr. Theodore Varrick, Hudson County. 
1849. Dr. John J. Jessup, Atlantic County. 

1849. Dr. John W. Snowden, Camden County. 

1850. Dr. Thomas F. CuUen, Camden County. 
1850. Dr. Sylvester Birdsell, Camden County. 
1850. Dr. Jacob Grigg, Camden County. 

Another amendment was enacted by the 
Legislature in 1854, which permitted a grad- 
uate of any medical college to practice medi- 
cine in the State by merely filing his diplo- 
ma in the clerk's office of the county in 
which lie located. Upon the passage of this 
law the Camden County Society required, as an 
eligibility to membership, that the applicant 
should procure a diploma from the State So- 



ciety. This rule continued in force until 
1866, the centennial aniversary of the latter 
society, which had the year previous surren- 
dered its old charter and obtained a new one 
which relinquished all powers of licensure. 
Since then and up to the present time any 
physician, a resident in the county one year, 
may apply for membership in the Camden 
County Medical Society. His application is 
referred to the board of censors, who report 
at the next meeting. If he is found to be 
of good moral character and possesses the 
professional qualifications required by the 
American Medical Association, he is recom- 
mended for election. 

The constitution of the society provided 
that the officers should be elected annually. 
It was intended to re-elect yearly those who 
were first placed in office. Dr. Risley was 
continued as president until a special meet- 
ing in 1849, when his office was declared va- 
cant in consequence of a tardiness in settling 
his financial accounts with the society. Al- 
though these were afterwards satisfactorily 
adjusted, he withdrew from it, and Dr. Isaac 
S. Mulford was elected to fill the vacancy. 
Dr. O. H. Taylor, who was the first vice- 
president, and Dr. R. M. Cooper, the first 
secretary, were continued until 1850. Dr. 
Jacob P. Thornton was the first treasurer 
but he does not appear to have attended the 
meetings regularly, and in 1848 Dr. Cooper 
was elected to fill his place. At the meeting 
held in June, 1850, Dr. Bowman Hendry 
moved that the president and vice-president 
be eligible for election for only two years in 
succession and the by-laws were so amended. 
In June, 1854, the words "two (2) years in 
succession " were erased and " one- year " 
substituted. This was done to open the of- 
fices to new and younger members ; conse- 
quently, since that date these two officials 
have held their position for one year, a plan 
that has proved to be satisfactory and still 
continues. Dr. Cooper, the first secretary 
and treasurer, held these offices until 1852, 



8d 



when he was succeeded by Dr. Thomas F. 
Cullen, who occupied them for two years ; 
then Dr. Richard C. Dean filled them from 
1855 to 1857; Dr. John V. Schenck, in 1858 ; 
and Dr. Henry Ackley from the latter date 
until 1861. At this time the society had be- 
come a permanent institution. It had never 
failed to hold a meeting at the appointed 
time. Valuable medical and historical pa- 
pers were accumulating and the want of a 
suitable person who would permanently take 
care of them was keenly felt. It was there- 
fore determined that while under the consti- 
tution the secretary must be elected annually, 
it would be well to re-elect him so long as 
he should satisfactorily perform his duties 
and would accept the office. Dr. H. Genet 
Taylor, a young graduate in medicine, who 
had joined the society the year previous, was 
elected, and has been continuously re-elected, 
faithfully performing the duties of his office 
for twenty-five years up to the present time. 
During the Civil War he was absent serving 
his country as surgeon in the Army of the 
Potomac in the years 1862 and 1863, and in 
1865 he was president of the society, when 
his duties were performed by a secretary pro 
tempore. Dr. Taylor was treasurer as well 
as secretary until 1874, when the two offices 
were separated and Dr. Isaac B. Mulford 
was made treasurer. This he held until his 
death, in 1882, when Dr. Alexander Mecray, 
the present incumbent, was elected to fill the 
vacancy. 

In a few years after the formation of the 
society there arose a need of collecting each 
year the medical history of the people and 
the hygienic condition of the county. At a 
meeting held June 18, 1852, Dr. Edward J. 
Record made a motion that a committee of 
three be appointed " to report of the diseases 
incident in the county and also interesting 
cases that may come under their notice." 
The committee were Drs. O. H. Taylor, A. 
D. Woodruff and E. J. Record. At the 
next meeting, in 1853, the name of " Stand- 



ing Committee " was given to it and each 
member was requested to transmit to the 
chairman of it any interesting cases occurring 
in his practice. Dr. O. H. Taylor was its 
first chairman. The members of this com- 
mittee were frequently changed, its number 
remaining the same until 1875, when it 
was increased to five members. In 1878 
Dr. John W. Snowden was elected chair- 
man and has been continued until now. 

The Camden County Medical Society is 
entitled to representation in the State Society 
by delegates to the number of three at large, 
and one additional for every ten members. 
It also sends delegates to the American Med- 
ical Association and to the neighboring dis- 
trict societies in this State, 

One of the most interesting proceedings of 
the early days of the society was the ordering, 
in 1851, of an enumeration of all the physi- 
cians practicing in the county. The com- 
mittee appointed for that purpose reported at 
the meeting held June 15, 1852, that the 
total number was twenty-seven. Of these, 
one was a botanical, or herb doctor, who was 
not entitled to, nor did he claim, the privi- 
leges of an educated physician. Two were 
homoeopaths, one of whom was a graduate of 
a regular college, and was a licentiate under 
the law of 1851. The remaining twenty- 
four were graduates of accepted medical col- 
leges, twenty-two of them holding licenses 
from the State Society, although five had ne- 
glected to register their names in the clerk's 
office, in accordance with the provisions of 
the new law. The names of all these doctors 
have not been preserved. In the year 1872 
another census of the county was taken by 
direction of the society. A report made to 
it at the annual meeting held on the 14th of 
May, in that year, stated that the total num- 
ber of practicing physicians was fifty-three. 
(Jf this number, thirty-three were " regular 
graduates, practicing as such, one regular, 
but practicing homoeopathy at times." There 
were thirteen professed homoeopaths and five 



eclectics. The regular physicians were lo- 
cated as follows : Twenty-one in Camden 
City, four in Haddoniield, three in Black- 
wood, three in Gloucester City, one near 
Waterford and one in Berlin. 

The (kmden County Medical Society has 
always taken an active interest in such pub- 
lic affairs as legitimately came within its 
province, and were calculated to be of bene- 
fit to the county or State, and has never 
failed to throw its influence in behalf of 
whatever might conduce to the public wel- 
fare. As early as 1854 Dr. John W. Sriow- 
den introduced into the society a resolution 
" that the delegates of this society are hereby 
instructed to suggest at the next meeting of 
the State Society the propriety of an appli- 
cation to the next Legislature for such mod- 
ification of the present law as shall enforce 
the registration of all the marriages, births 
and deaths occurring in the State." This 
measure has since that time been acted upon 
by the Legislature of New Jersey, and an 
efficient system of recording these data is now 
in operation. 

The next public event that aroused the 
society was the breaking out of the great 
Rebellion in 1861, and the calling for troops 
by the government. To this call the response 
was prompt. Of the eighteen physicians 
whose names were registered on the roll of 
its members at the close of the Civil War, five 
had enlisted in the service of their country : 
Doctors Richard C. Dean and Henry Ackley 
had entered the navy, Doctors H. Genet 
Taylor and Bowman Hendry in the army, 
and Dr. John R. Stevenson, in the Provost 
Marshal General's Department, all as sur- 
geons. The two in the navy were still on 
its rolls, having engaged for a life-service. 
The three wlio had been in the volunteei' 
service all had honorable discharges. 

The society keeps a careful guardianship over 
its county interests. It having been reported, 
in 1879, that the Board of Chosen Freehold- 
ers had inadvertently appointed an incompe- 



tent man as resident physician of the County 
Insane Asylum, at a meeting held May 12th, 
of that year, Dr. James M. Ridge " moved 
the appointment of a committee to report 
what action is, in their opinion, advisable for 
this society to take in reference to the ap- 
pointment." Doctors James M. Ridge, 
Alexander Marcy, N. B. Jennings, D. Ben- 
jamin, E. B. Woolston, D. R. Pancoast and 
H. Genet Taylor were appointed. At the 
next meeting of the society, held November 
11th, of that year, the committee reported 
that they had held a meeting upon June 4th, 
and had appointed a sub-committee, consist- 
ing of Doctors D. Benjamin and O. B. Gross, 
to attend the meeting of the committee of the 
Board of Freeholders at Blackwood, and 
that the latter had superseded the late medi- 
cal incumbent, and had appointed Dr. Jona 
J. Comfort, a former member of the society, 
as resident physician of the Insane Asylum. 
It also recommended that a number of phy- 
sicians, members of the society, be appointed 
to visit the asylum, in order that it might be 
more properly under their inspection. A 
vote of thanks was tendered to Director Isaac 
Nicholson, of the Board of Freeholders, and 
to the members connected with him, for their 
assistance in procuring the desired change. 
Dr. Henry E. Branin, of Blackwood, at 
present has charge of the County Asylum 
and Almshouse. 

A notable feature of the meetings of the 
Camden County Medical Society is the social 
gathering which accompanies them. The 
hour of assembling was, at one time, twelve 
o'clock, noon, but now it is eleven a.m. After 
the business is disposed of, a collation is par- 
taken of, at the expense of the society. It 
is the custom to invite to tliese a number of 
distinguished physicians from other places, 
who have previously joined in the discussions 
upon scientific and medical subjects, and have 
given the members the benefit of their knowl- 
edge and experience. The meetings have 
always been held at hotels, where suitable ac- 



/ 



commodations could be obtained. As was 
previously stated, the first two were held at 
the house of Joseph C. Shivers, in Haddon- 
field. The next meeting was held at the 
hotel of Israel English, at the foot of Coop- 
er Street, and when Mr. English became the 
landlord of the West Jersey Hotel, the so- 
ciety followed him to it. Between 1855 and 
1857, inclusive, they were transferred to the 
hotel of James Elwell, at the foot of Bridge 
Avenue. This building has been demolished, 
and the site is now occupied by the offices of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. The 
annual meeting of June 21, 1859, was held 
at the hotel at Ellisburg, then kept by Stacy 
Stockton. Returning to the West Jersey 
Hotel, this continued to be the favorite place 
until the retirement of Mr. English as host. 
Mr. Samuel Archer, who then kept the old 
house at Cooper's Point, having offered to 
provide a suitable entertainment, and the 
Camden and Atlantic Railroad Company 
proffering the use of their rooms adjoining, 
for meeting purposes, the society met there 
from 1873 to 1880. Since then the meetings 
have been held three times at Gloucester 
(Buena Vista House and Thompson's Ho- 
tel), but otherwise at the West Jersey 
Hotel. 

The expenses incurred by the society were 
met by an assessment upon each member for 
a pro-rata share of them, until the death of 
Dr. R. M. Cooper, in 1874. In his will, 
which was dated April 28, 1874, and pro- 
bated June 4th, of the same year, was the 
following clause, " I give and bequeath to 
the Camden County District Medical Society, 
of which I have been a member since its 
commencement, the sum of three thousand 
dollars, to be invested by the said Society in 
the loans of the United States, the State of 
New Jersey, or the City and County of Cam- 
den or some other public loan, and the in- 
terest of said sum to be used by the said So- 
ciety in the payment of the expenses ordina- 
rily incurred by the said Society. In case 



my executors should think proper to pay 
said legacy in any securities belonging to my 
estate, bearing interest at their market value, 
I do autliorize and direct them to pay said 
legacy in such securities instead of cash." 
To accept of this legacy, the society, at a 
meeting held May 10, 1875, determined to 
appoint two trustees, one for one year and 
one for two years, who, with the treasurer, 
should constitute a board of finance. These 
were elected the succeeding year, and were 
Dr. John V. Schenck for two years, Dr. 
Thomas F. Cullen for one year, and Dr. 
Isaac B. Mulford, treasurer. .Dr. Cooper's 
executors set aside three one thousand dollar 
seven per cent, bonds of the West Jersey 
Railroad Company, which were left with, 
and are still in the possession of, John W. 
Wright, who is one of them, who pays the 
interest as it becomes due. 

The New Jersey State Medical Society has 
three times met as the guests of the Camden 
County Society. The first time in 1849, when 
the semi-annual meeting of the former society 
convened at Elwell's Hotel, on November 
13th of that year. The annual meeting, in 
January, 1864, was held in Camden, at Mor- 
gan's Hall, on the corner of Fourth and Mar- 
ket Streets. The reception committee were 
Drs. R. M. Cooper, T. F. Cullen, J. V. 
Schenck, O. H. Taylor and A. D. Woodruff. 
They found great difficulty in finding hotel 
accommodations for members, some of whom 
had to go to Philadelphia to secure them. 
The expenses incurred by the committee were 
paid by Dr. R. M. Cooper out of his private 
funds. 

In the year 1874 Atlantic City had become 
a favorite seaside resort, with several hotels 
each large enough to accommodate the whole 
State Society. There being no medical soci- 
ety in Atlantic County, it was determined by 
the Camden County Society to invite the 
first-named society to hold their next annual 
meeting there. A committee, consisting of 
Drs. J. W. Suowden, J. V. Schenck, J. Or- 



lando White, I. B. Heulings, J. R. Stevenson 
and T. F. CuUen, was appointed to make 
preparations. The meeting was held May 
25, 1875. It was memorable for several rea- 
sons. It was the first time a county society 
had ever selected a place outside of its own 
jurisdiction to entertain its parent society. 
The Camden and Atlantic Railroad Company 
provided, free of expense, a special train to 
convey delegates and invited guests both ways, 
issuing tickets good for three days, on any 
train. 

As far as is known, this was the first 
instance in the United States where a railroad 
had offered such a courtesy to any body of 
medical men. For several years a few of the 
members had been accompanied by their 
wives and daughters to these meetings of the 
State Society, which hold for tw^o days. As 
the families of physicians enjoy but few op- 



portunities to join them in a holiday excur- 
sion, it was determined by the committee to 
offer the greatest inducements for the ladies 
to accompany the delegates to Atlantic City. 
Invitations were issued for them to attend 
and to partake of a banquet, which the Cam- 
den County Society had ordered for the eve- 
ning, and the minutest details of the shortest 
route to Camden and thence to the seaside 
were furnished them. The attendance, es- 
pecially of ladies, was larger than it had ever 
been at any previous meeting. The State 
Society, however, passed a resolution prohib- 
iting any county society from providing any 
banquet in the future, because of the burden 
it would entail on poorer societies. The cit- 
izens of Atlantic City did all in their power 
to give pleasure to their guests. 

Members of the Camden County Medical 
Society since its organization, — 



Date of 
admiBsioD. 


Name. 


Year of 
graduation. 


College where graduated. 


■Remarks. 


1846 


.Jacob P. Thornton 


1828 
1839 
1844 
1832 
1825 
1822 
1844 
1846 
1847 
1828 
1847 
1848 
1844 
1848 
1849 
1843 
1844 
1848 
1843 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1856 
1854 
1858 
1860 
1858 
1862 
1863 
1861 
1845 
1852 
1859 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 

Jefferson Medical College 

Jefferson Medical College 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


Removed West 


1846 


Richard M. Cooper 


Died Mav 24 1874. 


1846 


James C. Rislev 


Died Nov 26, 1866 


1846 


Charles D. Hendry 


Died April 29, 1869. 
Died Sept. 5, 1869. 
Died Feb. 17 1873. 


1846 


Othniel H. Taylor 


1846 


Isaac S. Mulford 


1847 


A. D. Woodruff. 


Died Jan 1 881 


1847 


Bowman Hendry 


Died June 8 1868 


1847 


Daniel M. Stout 


Present member. 


1847 

1848 


Benj. W. Blackwood 

John V. Schenck 


Died Jan. 19, 1866. 
Died Julv 25, 1882. 


1848 


Edward J. Record 


Expelled. 
Present member. 


1849 


John W. Snowden 


University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


1849 


John J. Jessup 


Died 1S52 


1849 
1850 


Robt. M. Smallwood 

Jacob Grigg 


University of Pennsylvauia 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 

Jefferson Medical College 

Jefferson Medical College 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 

Jefferson Medical College 

Pennsylvania Medical College ... 

.Jefferson Medical College 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

.Jefferson Medical College 


Died Feb. 8,1856. 
Removed to Burl'n Co. 


1850 


Thos. F. Cullen 


Died Nov. 21, 1878. 


1850 


Sylvester Birdsell 


Died Mav 29, 1S83. 


1851 


Ezekial C. Chew 


Removed West. 


1852 


B. Fullerton Miles 


Removed. 


1854 


G. W.Bartholomew 


Expelled. 
Honorarv member. 


1854 


Richard C. Dean 


1857 


N. B. Jennings 


Died April 17, 1885. 
Died Aug. 17, 1858. 
Died Dec. 1, 1865. 


1857 


W. G. Thomas 


1859 


Henry Ackley 


1860 


H. Genet Taylor 


Present member. 


1860 
1863 


Henry E. Branin 

J. Gilbert Young 


Present member. 
Honorarv member. 


1863 
1864 
1866 


John R. Stevenson 

Alex. Marcy 

Joseph F. Garrison 


Present member. 
Present member. 
Honorary member. 


1866 
1866 


.Tames M. Ridge 

.Jonathan J. Comfort 


Present member. 
Removed. 









8h 



Date of 
admission 


Name. 


Year of 
gradnation. 


College where graduated. 


Remarks. 


1867 
18fi7 


iPeterV. Schenck 

H. A. M. Smith 

Alex. M. Mecrav 


1860 
1864 
1863 
1867 
1866 
1858 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1860 
1861 
1859 
1870 
1871 


University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


Died March 12, 1885. 
Preseiit member 


1867 


University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 


1867 


iJ. Newton Achuff". 

It. J. Smith 

jJohn M Sullivan 


Died. 


1867 
1867 


Univei'sity of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


Removed in 1868. 
Removed. 


1868 
1870 


!j. Orlando White 

I W Hewlings 


University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 
Honorary member. 


1870 
1871 


iRandall W. Morgan 

jj. W. McCuUough 

John R. Hanev 


University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


Died Oct. 20, 1884. 
Died March 5, 1881. 


1871 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 


Present member. 


1871 


D. Parrish Pancoast 


Present member. 


1871 


R. B. Okie 


Removed to Penna. 


1871 


Isaac B. Mulford 


Died Nov. 21, 1882. 


1871 


'Thomas Westcott 


Resigned. 
Present member. 


1871 


iW. H. Ireland 


1867 
1863 
1872 
1873 
1875 
1854 
1875 
1876 
1861 
1850 
1874 
1876 
1876 
1877 


University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


1871 


■Geo. W. Boughraan 

jEdwin Tomlinson 

^C H Shivers 


Present member. 


1872 


Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 


1873 


Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 


1875 
1875 


'jVIaximilliau West 

■E B. Woolston. 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


Rem. to Atlantic City. 
Present member. 


1876 


E. L. B. Godfrey 

W. P. Melcher.'. 


Present member. 


1876 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Philadelphia College 


Rem. to Burlington Co. 
Died Oct. 30, 1885. 
Present member. 


1876 
1876 


'James A. Armstrong 

Thomas G. Rowand 

■E. J. Snitcher 

D. W. Blake 

W. 1. Davis 


1876 


Chicaofo Medical College 


Present member. 


1876 


Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 


1877 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 


Present member. 


1877 


Dowling Benjamin 


Present member. 


1877 


!John S.Miller 


Removed. 


1878 


!J. F.Walsh 


1876 
1844 
1870 
1878 
1878 
1866 
1879 
1879 
1872 
1870 
1881 
1863 
1882 
1882 
1876 
1877 
1880 
1880 
1884 
1878 


University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 


1878 


Is. B. Irwin 

IW. H. Iszard 

Onan B. Gross 

James H. Wroth 


Present member. 


1879 


Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 


1879 
1879 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 
Rem. to Xew Mexico. 


1880 


J. W. Donges 


Present member. 


1881 


C M. Schellinger 


Present member. 


1881 


jH. H. Davis 

C. G Garrison 


Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 


1881 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Maryland 


Honorary member. 


1882 


W. A. Hamilton 

H. F. Palm 

E. P. Townsend 

Conrad G. Hoell 

A. T. Dobson, Jr 

P. W. Beale 

Daniel Strock 


Present member. 


1883 


Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 


1883 


Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 


1884 
1884 
1884 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 
Present member. 
Present member. 


1885 


Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 


1885 
1885 
1886 


i Joseph H. Wills 

Wm. Warnock 

Jesse J. Wills 


University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pennsylvania 

Jefferson Medical College 

Jefferson Medical College 


Present member. 
Present member. 
Present member. 


1886 


1 James A. Warasley 


Present member. 











PRESinENTS OF CAMDEN COVNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 



.James C. Risloy, 1846-47. 
Isaac S. Milford, 1848-51. 
Charles D. Hendry, 1852-53. 
A. Dickinson Woodruff, 1854. 
.lohn W. Snowden, 1855-75. 
Othniel H. Taylor, 1856. 
Thomas F. Cullen, 1857. 
Sylvester Birdsell, 1858. 
.lohn V. Sehenck, 1859-73. 
Bowman Hendry, 1860. 
Uapoleon B.Jennings, 1861. 
Henry E. Branin, 1862. 



.Tames M. Kidge, 1867. 
.Tonathan J. Comfort, 1868. 
Alexander M. Mecray, 1869. 
J. Orlando White, 1870. 
Richard M. Cooper, 1871-74. 
Isaac W. Heulings, 1872. 
Edwin Tomlinson, 1877. 
H. A. M. Smith, 1878. 
D. Parish Pancoast, 1879. 
C. H. Shivers, 1880. 
Isaac B. Slulfurd, 1881. 
K. L. B. Godfrey, 1882. 



J. Gilbert Young, 1863. 
John R. Stevenson, 1864. 
H. Genet Taylor, 1865. 
Alexander Marcy, 1866-76. 



John R. Haney, 1883. 
Dowling Benjamin, 1884. 
E. B. Woolstou, 1885. 
W. H. Ireland, 1886. 



Diseases and theie Remedies. — There 
is but little information concerning thedisea.'^es 
that prevailed in Camden County prior to 
the formation of its Medical Society. The 
limited number of physicians who practiced 
in it between 1 730 and 1S40 had but little 



9 



time to write any account of their observa- 
tions and experience, and still less opportunity 
to publish them. It is, therefore, from 
traditions that have been well preserved in 
this section, compared with the accounts of 
diseases and epidemics in other parts of this 
and adjacent colonies, that a knowledge of 
them can be best obtained. 

There is a widespread belief that the 
climate of this section has changed, and that 
diseases now are very different from what 
they were in early times. A hundred years 
ago the old were wont to lament the change 
and deterioration of the seasons, since the 
days of their youth, in the same strain as their 
descendants do now. A careful examination 
of weather notes shows that there has been 
no climatic variation since the early settle- 
ment of the county. There were then, as 
now, cycles of hot and dry summers, alter- 
nating with cool and moist ones ; cold, bleak 
winters with warm and wet ones. There was 
the chilly spring and the mild autumn. With 
the exception of a few maladies, like cholera, 
that have been imported from countries with 
which, in former times, there was only in- 
frequent and slow communication, there is 
no evidence that there are any diseases now 
that did not occur in early days. Their 
symptoms and courses have been greatly 
modified by a change in the habits and cus- 
toms of the people, and by improved medi- 
cation and sanitation. 

In colonial times the houses were nearly 
all built of wood, a few were log, but most 
of them were constructed of rough sawed 
boards, with board partitions, and 'without 
plaster. There were no carpets on the floor. 
The only mode of heating them was by a 
wood fire in an open fire-place, by which the 
family sat in the Arctic cold of winter, one 
side of the body alternately chilled and 
warmed as it was turned to or from the 
blazing logs. Their clothing was of ho»me- 
spun wool ; only on ceremonial displays did 
the well-to-do wear linen or silk shirts or 
2 



stockings. Underclothing was not worn 
until the present century, even after cotton 
cloth had been substituted for woolen stuffs. 
Overcoats were a rare luxury, but a few of 
the wealthier men possessed them. Bangups 
they were called, made of good imported 
cloth"; they were reserved for state occasions ; 
they were expected to last a life-time, and 
sometimes descended as an heirloom to the 
son. Rubber over-shoes and clothing were 
never dreamed of until within the present 
generation. The only mode of traveling was 
in the open boat or on horseback exposed to 
the weather. 

Their diet did not compare any more 
favorably with that of modern times than 
did their clothing. Vegetables were plentiful 
in the summer, but there was no method of 
preserving the perishable ones through the 
other nine months of the year. Their bread 
w^as made from rye, wheat having come into 
general use only within the last fifty years. 
The staple meats were salt pork and ham. 
In the earlier period of the settlement this 
was relieved by game, but as the country 
filled up, it became scarce and had a mercan- 
tile price ; then it was sold. Mutton was but 
little eaten. Prior to the Revolution sheep 
were so valuable that in old wills bequests 
are left to daughters of a ewe-lamb and 
feather-bed in lieu of any real estate. After 
the embargo laid upon wool during the war 
it became unpatriotic and disreputable to eat 
mutton, and this sentiment continued to pro- 
hibit its use long after the reason for it had 
been forgotten. It was only in the winter 
that they had fresh meat. When they wanted 
beef they fatted the oldest and most worthless 
cow on the farm, and when cold weather set 
in they killed it, and after the meat had been 
cooked to the indigestibility of leather, they 
ate it three times a day until jiutrcfaction 
commenced. It is not surprising that beef 
was not considered a wholesome food. One 
superlative article of food they possessed in 
abundance, whose value as a substitute for 



10 



any deficieucy in a diet is unsurpassed, but 
which has not been appreciated by either 
the medical profession or the laity, until 
recently. That was milk. This was not a 
salable commodity, and that is, perhaps, the 
reason why it was considered to be a plebeian 
drink. The dividing line between gentility 
and common people was milk. To have 
offered an invited guest at the table 
a glass of it would have been an un- 
pardonable offence. The family, including 
the children, at the first table had their tea 
and coffee ; the bound boy at the second table 
had an unstinted supply of milk. The result 
was that a quarter of a century afterwards 
the bound boy owned the farm. 

Alcoholic drinks were freely used. Apple- 
whiskey was in every one's house. Imported 
wines and brandies purchased by the wealthier 
people were reserved for special occasions. It 
was customary to take a drink of spirits be- 
fore breakfast to counteract the deleterious 
effects of fog and dampness. If a neighbor 
was visited, or the visit returned, the de- 
canter was set out as a mark of hospitality. 
It was not believed that any excessive labor, 
like haying and harvesting, could be done 
without it. The jug was taken to the mea- 
dow or field along with the water-bucket, and 
when the men had cut a number of swaths 
across the grass or grain, a halt was made to 
take a draught of the liquor. At social 
gatherings, at weddings, at funerals, and even 
at child-births the flowing bowl was passed 
around. 

The contrast between these early habits 
and customs and those of to-day is most 
marked. Without enumerating them, it will 
suffice to state that a temperance man in the 
eighteenth century was one who never got 
intoxicated ; now he is a total abstainer from 
alcoholic beverages. Now the well-filled de- 
canter is not only kept out of sight, but it is 
banished from the house. One township in 
this county has for fifteen years prohibited 
the sale of liquor within its limits. 



As might be expected, inflammatory dis- 
eases were formerly very frequent, and their 
symptoms violent. Pleurisy, bronchitis, 
pneumonia and rheumatism prevailed exten- 
sively, especially in years in which the 
thermometric changes favored their develop- 
ment. They were much oftener fatal than 
they are now. Cholera-morbus, dysentery 
and diarrhoea, which are rarely fatal now, 
then caused the death of many. Scarlet 
fever, measles and whooping-cough, which 
are the bane of childhood, exhibited the same 
infantile violence as the diseases of adult life. 
Sickness, especially epidemics, as far back as 
1726, are noted as having been sthenic or 
asthenic, but there is no record of that 
popular word typhoid, as applied to depressed 
forms of illness, having been used in this 
county until 1855, when Dr. T. F. Cullen 
reported that malarious diseases had that year 
assumed a typhoid form. These facts would 
indicate that the changes in the mode of liv- 
ing of the people, which had been gradually 
improving up to the discovery of gold in 
California in 1848, and very rapidly since 
then, had produced a moiety of people of 
weak constitution, who, under the surround- 
ings of earlier days, invariably died young. 

Intermittent and remittent fevers were 
common on the Delaware slope of the county. 
In 1798 there is a record that they were 
prevalent on the high ground, while yellow 
bilious fever attacked those along the river- 
shore. In 1823 Dr. Charles F. Clarke, of 
Woodbury, in his notes, says that bilious 
fevers were epidemic, and so numerous were 
the case's, that as he rode along at night, 
farmers would keep a light burning as a 
signal for him that there was sickness in the 
house. The reports made to the Camden 
County Medical Society state that malarial 
fevers prevailed along the streams in 1848. 
After this little is said about them until 1856, 
when they again became frequent, and con- 
tinued to increase until 1862, when they were 
declared to be epidemic. Then they began 



11 



to decline, until in 1867, and for five years 
afterwards, they had so diminished that the 
j)hysicians congratulated themselves that these 
diseases were finally disappearing. In 1873 
they reappeared, steadily increasing in num- 
ber and severity until 1877, when they were 
again pronounced to be epidemic ; since then 
they have been declining, and at present 
(1886) are quite infrequent. Professor Kalm, 
reporting to the Swedish government in 1748, 
concerning Gloucester (Camden included) 
County, says fevers and agues were more 
common than any other disease. In some 
years they ravaged the whole county, in 
others " scarcely a single person was taken 
ill." 

At the time that Kalm wrote, the Atlantic 
slope of the county, called the " Pines," was 
not inhabited, except by a few wood-chop- 
pers. From the earliest times this section 
has been popularly credited with great ex- 
emption from pulmonary and miasmatic dis- 
eases. More recently Dr. John W. Snowden, 
wdio has practiced medicine in that section 
for forty years, and who is the able chairman 
of the Standing Committee and reporter of 
the Camden County Medical Society, states 
that he never saw a case of intermittent or 
remittent fever originate there. He also 
confirms its reputation for freedom from pul- 
monary affections. 

Typhoid fever was not known as a distinct 
disease until it was investigated and de- 
scribed by Louis, a French physician, in the 
early part of the present century. There is 
no doubt but that cases of it occurred here so 
soon as the concretions from filth were suffi- 
cient to form a nidus for its growth. The 
milder forms of it were classed with obsti- 
nate remittent fever, and helped to swell its 
mortality list. In the tradition that has 
come down to us of the dreaded and fatal 
nervous fever, as it was called, may be found 
a description of a severe case of typhoid fever 
where the cerebral symptoms were promi- 
nent. In the reports of the medical society 



this disease is noted as occurring; more or less 
throughout the county every year, although 
in some seasons it is more frequent than in 
others, especially in Camden. Haddonfield 
seems to have had great immunity from it, 
as there is no record of any case happening 
there that was not contracted elsewhere. 

Typhus fever has been an infrequent dis- 
ease during the history of the county. 
There was an epidemic of it in Camden in 
1812, in which a number lost their lives, but 
otherwise that city has beeu remarkably free 
from it. Dr. Bowman Hendry had some 
cases of it adjacent to the almshouse at 
Blackwood. At this institution it is occa- 
sionally introduced by vagrants, and in 1881 
it became epidemic, there having been one 
hundred and three cases and thirty-three 
deaths from it. Dr. McCullough, one of 
the attending physicians, fell a victim to the 
disease. 

The proximity of Camden County to the 
port of Philadelphia has made it liable to be 
invaded by yellow fever. There is no record 
of its having become located within the 
county limits, although the lower end of 
Gloucester County, from which it was set off, 
has been charged with having reproduced it 
along the river-shore in 1747 and 1798. 
There were epidemics of yellow fever in 
Philadelphia in 1762; between the years 
1793 and 1798 ; between 1802 and 1805 ; and 
in the years 1819 and 1820. At these peri- 
ods there were isolated cases contracted by 
visits to infected districts of that city. Dur- 
ing the epidemic of 1853 there does not ap- 
pear to have been any deaths from it in 
Camden County. In 1854 there was one 
case of yellow fever in Camden in the person 
of a sailor who, two days previous to his 
attack, had landed from a steamer sixty hours 
from Savannah, Ga. 

The insidious and obscure diseases of the 
kidneys observed and described by Dr. 
Bright, of England, in 1828, and after whom 
they are named, were not diagno.sed by phy- 



12 



sicians until chemistry and microscopy had 
advanced to such a state of progress as to 
offer the only means of detecting them. The 
first application of these sciences in Camden 
County for this purpose was made by a mem- 
ber of its Medical Society in 1865. Since 
that date Bright's disease is known to be the 
cause of a limited number of deaths here an- 
nually. Fatal results from some formerly 
obscure cases of dropsy are now known to be 
caused by this disease. There are some fam- 
ilies who have noticed that for two or three 
generations a number of their members have 
died of dropsy. Some of these deaths within 
the last twenty years have been the sequelae 
of Bright's disease. The inference is, there- 
fore, that the dropsy of former generations 
was produced by the same cause, and that, 
to a limited extent, Bright's disease is heredi- 
tary. 

In 1735-36 a terrible epidemic swept over 
the colonies, called the " throat distemper." 
In the accounts of it that have come down to 
us, and in the traditions of a not infrequent 
disease called, in this county, " putrid sore 
throat," may be discerned the modern diph- 
theria. Under the latter name the malady 
is but little mentioned in the records of the 
Medical Society until 1862, when Dr. Cullen 
reported that it had been seen occasionally 
during the year, but that he did not believe 
that it had ever been epidemic in Camden 
City. Since that date it has appeared more 
or less every year throughout the county, but 
not to any great extent. 

Small pox was a much dreaded disease in 
colonial times. The introduction of inocula- 
tion here, about 1750, robbed it of some of 
its terrors, and the discovery of vaccination, 
by Jenner, at the close of the last century, 
made it still more harmless. Yet it still 
lingers, and at times becomes epidemic. The 
Camden County Medical Society reported it 
to be so in Camden City in 1856, 1864, 1871 
and 1880. In the latter year there were six 
hundred and eighty-eight cases and one 



hundred and thirty-four deaths from it. The 
number of gratuitous vaccinations made to 
check the disease was about eight thousand. 

Asiatic cholera is an imported disease in- 
digenous to Southern Asia. Its first appear- 
ance in Camden County was in 1832. The 
accounts of its ravages then are very meagre. 
Dr. Isaac S. Mulford, writing in 1855, says 
that it was not so violent as were the subse- 
quent epidemics of 1849 and 1854, all of 
which he witnessed. He also says that in the 
first-named year it possessed a sthenic char- 
acter. Among the papers of the late Dr. 
Charles F. Clarke, of Woodbury, is one 
stating that the people were greatly afraid of 
it, believing it to be contagious, and that he 
had helped to bury the bodies of the dead, 
which the people in their terror had thrown 
upon the river-shore. 

Its second appearance was in 1849, the 
first case occurring in Camden in the middle 
of June. At that time the city had a popu- 
lation of nine thousand people, many of 
whom fled ; yet between its advent and the 
commencement of cold weather, when it 
ceased, there were one hundred and nineteen 
cases and fifty deaths. In Winslow there 
were a number of deaths from cholera, but 
no account of them has been preserved. 
There were also a few isolated cases in the 
other townships. Camden was next visited 
by this disease in 1854, when the first person 
attacked died from it on June 25th. It did 
not assume an epidemic form until October, 
and ceased on November 23d. In this year 
there were ninety-four cases and fifty-seven 
deaths. During its continuance the Camden 
City Medical Society held several special 
meetings to consult about it, and the mem- 
bers exerted themselves to the utmost to 
check its ravages. In Haddonfield there was 
a single case that had been contracted in 
Camden. The susceptibility of the latter 
city to become a cholera centre, the virulence 
and the fatality of the scourge there, gave it a 
reputation for unhealthfulness that seriously 



13 



checked its growth, so that between 1849 and 
1866 its population only increased from nine 
thousand to eighteen thousand. 

When it was reported, in 1865, that 
cholera was approaching the United States, 
the Camden City Medical Society, alert to the 
dangers to be apprehended from another 
visitation, at their stated meeting held Sep- 
tember 7th of that year, appointed Drs. John 
R. Stevenson, Isaac S. Mulford, Alexander 
Marcy and Thomas F. CuUen a committee 
to adopt measures to prevent an anticipated 
invasion of cholera. Their final report states 
that upon inspection they found Camden to 
be as filthy as any city of its size in the 
Union. The drainage was superficial and 
imperfect; garbage and coal ashes were 
thrown into the streets, but few of which 
were paved ; the cesspools, shallow in depth, 
were in many places overflowing upon the 
ground, and pig sties had been allowed to be 
erected in the yards of the poorer classes. 
The committee consulted with the City 
Council, who courteously received their sug- 
gestions, and through their sanitary commit- 
tee, of which John S. Lee was chairman and 
Colonel Joseph C. Nichols the efficient execu- 
tive officer, put in force the ordinances which 
were plenary. Before the summer of 1866 
they had cleansed the city and abated all 
nuisances. In this year the first case of 
cholera occurred on June 25th, when the 
city authorities, having previously provided 
a stock of disinfectants, as recommended by 
the medical committee, virtually transferred 
the direction of sanitary measures to the 
latter, who investigated each case of the dis- 
ease, and had the premises and clothing of 
the sick promptly disinfected. There were 
in this year thirty-nine cases of cholera and 
thirty deaths. It did not become epidemic* 
as it only became located in two places, in 
both of which it was stamped out within 
thirty-six hours. Just beyond the city limits, 
in Newton township, there were twenty-seven 
cases, and twenty-five deaths in a negro 



hamlet. With the exception of one at 
Winslow, there were no others in Camden 
County. In the year 1873 there were three 
reported instances of cholera in Camden 
City, and in one person it proved fatal. 

The experience of 1866 in Camden and 
elsewhere demonstrated the po\ver and effi- 
ciency of well-directed sanitary measures in 
preventing the spread of infectious and con- 
tagious diseases, and subsequent observation 
confirmed it. 

In the year 1880 the Legislature of New 
Jersey passed an act creating a State Board 
of Health of nine members, which enact- 
ment provided that every city, town or 
borough shall have a Board of Health of not 
less than five nor more than seven members, 
of which the recorder of vital statistics, one 
city physician and the city health inspector 
shall be members. In each township, the 
township committee, the assessor and town- 
ship physician compose the Board of Health. 
Any city, borough or township which had a 
local Board of Health at the time of the 
passage of this act was exempt from its pro- 
visions. Camden was one of those exempted 
and did not accept the provisions of the 
health law until 1885. During the years 
1884 and 1885, Dr. O. B. Gross acted as 
special inspector of that city for the State 
Board of Health.- 

The use of herbs as remedies has already 
been described. Cider, although a beverage, 
may be classed as a medicine. In former 
times it was drank hot at night as a cure for 
colds. The ground Jesuit's bark was mixed 
in it to make the dose more palatable, and it 
had the popular reputation of being "good 
for the liver." Every large farmer had his 
cider-mill, where he made his own cider, and 
which he loaned for the use of his less fortu • 
nate neiglibors. Scattered at convenient 
points throughout the district were farmers 
who added a still to their eider-mill, and who 
distilled tlie cider of their friends into apple 
whiskey on shares. At the present time there 



14 



are only a few cider-presses, and but two 
whiskey stills in the county. One still is 
owned by Joshua Peacock, near Haddonfield ; 
the other by Hugh Sharp, adjacent toMarlton. 
An early industry was the distillation of the 
essential oils of sassafras, pennyroyal, horse- 
mint, winter-green, spearmint, etc., from 
indigenous plants that were once very abun- 
dant. Their product was sold locally for 
use as liniments and rubefacients, and the 
surplus sent to the Philadelphia market. 
These oil-stills gradually fell into the hands 
of the negroes. Between 1840 and 1850 
one was operated in Jordantowu by a colored 
man, Stephen Polk, and by his son Elzey. 
The last one in the county was owned by a 
colored man styled '*Dr. Thomas," residing 
near Marlton. This was abandoned about 
twenty years ago. 

About the year 1822, Nathan Willets be- 
gan the cultivation of the castor bean on the 
farm where he resided, on the Haddonfield 
and Clements Bridge road, two miles from 
Haddonfield. He also prepared the oil for 
market. He continued the business for 
some twenty years. 

Until the beginning of the present century 
physicians made their visits on horseback 
with a saddle-bag attached to it, in which 
were carried their medicines and the few in- 
struments they used. They prepared their 
own pills and potions. Among their prep- 
arations Avere those of mercury, a very an- 
cient remedy, which had been always in mod- 
erate use. Calomel came into repute in 
1736 as an application for the throat dis- 
temper, but mercurials were not pushed to 
salivation until within the present century. 
This mode of medication continued up to 
1850. Since then mercury has fallen into 
disuse by the medical profession, but when 
the great increase in the consumption of offic- 
inal and patent pills, most of which contain 
some compound of this metal, is taken into 
consideration, it is doubtfid if any less of it 
is taken by the people now than formerly, 



only the manner of administration has 
changed. 

Venesection began to be employed about 
1750 and became so popular with physicians 
that it was employed in all cases, the lancet 
being their invariable accompaniment. Now, 
so completely has it fallen into discredit that 
but few of the present members of the Cam- 
den County Medical Society have ever bled 
a patient. 

Boerhaave, elected professor at Leyden in 
1701, announced the doctrine that all dis- 
eases were the result of humors in the blood. 
This was accepted by physicians everywhere, 
who, in accordance with it, prohibited the use 
of cold drinks in sickness, but made their 
patients drink hot teas, keep the window 
closed to prevent the ingress of fresh air, 
and plied them with bed-covers to induce 
perspiration. There are old residents here 
who well remember the discomforts and mis- 
ery of such treatment. 

A few of the best-known old standard 
drugs and some popular nostrums were early 
sold by the country merchants. They are at 
this day to be found in the stock of the 
cross-roads stores in this section. The first 
drug store in Camden County was opened 
by Thomas Redman in November, 1735. 
He was the son of Dr. Thomas Redman, of 
Philadelphia, and was born March 31, 1714. 
He was educated an apothecary, and, having 
removed to Haddonfield, commenced busi- 
ness where now stands the dwelling of the 
late Samuel C. Smith. In addition to drugs 
he kept other merchandise, but the former 
was a special department, where prescriptions 
were compounded. This business and the 
knowledge of the preparation of medicines 
was transmitted to his son and grandson, 
who continued the same occupation in the 
same place until 1846. Charles S. Braddock, 
a graduate of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy in the class of 1851, opened the 
first store in Haddonfield for the exclusive 
sale of drugs in the year 1853. This is still 



15 



continued by his son. R. Willard is the 
proprietor of the other store in this town. 

In Camden, Dr. Samuel Harris, in 1811, 
sold some medicines from his office. Be- 
tween the years 1812 and 1821, Freedom L. 
Shinn kept a drug store at the northeast 
corner of Second and Plum (Arch) Streets. 
After that there was no place other than at 
Dr. Harris' office where medicines could be 
purchased until 1832, when Dr. Sickler 
opened a drug store on Federal Street near 
the ferry. According to charges on his 
books, opium was worth fifty cents an ounce, 
and seven and one-half ounces of essence of 
peppermint eighty-seven and one-half cents. 
He also sold paints and oils. Paint oil was 
worth one dollar and ten cents per gallon ; 
putty seven cents a pound, and a light of 
glass, ten by twelve, cost seven cents. This 
store was discontinued in 1834. In the lat- 
ter year Drs. Joseph Kain and David Smith 
started a store of the same kind at the north- 
east corner of Third and Plum (Arch) 
Streets. Early in the year 1835, Dr. Smith 
retired and moved away. Shortly afterwards, 
in March of the same year, James Roberts, 
of Philadelphia, purchased the store from 
Dr. Smith, and six months subsequently sold 
it to Joseph C Delacour, who still continues 
the business, but he has removed his estab- 
lishment to the southwest corner of the same 
streets. The medical directory for 1885 
enumerates thirty-six druggists in Camden. 

About the year 1855, Thomas Hallam 
added a drug department to his store in 
Gloucester City, where he compounded phy- 
sicians' prescriptions. This was the com- 
mencement of the apothecary business in 
that place, in which, at present, there are five 
pharmacies. One was opened in Merchant- 
ville in 1881 by C. H. Jennings, and another 
in Blackwood by Dr. J. E. Hurff in 1884. 

Camden City Medical Society. — The 
Camden City Medical Society was organized 
in the city of Camden, June 21, 1853, by 
Drs. L. F. Fisler, I. S. Mulford, O. H.Tay- 



lor, S. Birdsell, T. F. Cullen and J. V. 
Schenck. At this meeting a committee of 
three, consisting of Drs. O. H. Taylor, Bird- 
sell and Fisler, was appointed to draught a 
suitable constitution and by-laws. This 
meeting then adjourned to the 16th instant, 
when a constitution and by-la ws were adopted 
and an organization effected by the election 
of Dr. Isaac S. Mulford, president ; Dr. L. F. 
Fisler, vice-president ; Dr. J. V. Schenck, 
secretary and treasurer; and a standing com- 
mittee composed of Drs. Cooper, Birdsell and 
Cullen. The officers are elected yearly, at 
the annual meeting in September. 

The society is in effect, although not in 
fact, a subdivision of the County Society, 
composed of those members of the latter who 
practice medicine in the city of Camden. In 
the list of its members from the organization 
to the present time there are but seven who 
were not members of the other society. Their 
names are, — 



'Dateof Eleo. 



Where gradu- ! Rg,„^,rks. 

ated. I 



Lorenzo F. Fisler 'June 16, 1853 Univ. of PennajDied 1871 

Jesse S. Z. Sellers Sept. 7, 1854:IUniv. of Penna.lDied 

Keyuell Coates Dec. 5, 18G7iUniv. of Penua. Died 188G 

D. N.Mahone (honorary). Sept. 3,186SlUniv. of Peniia. Ues'd 1SG8 

Charles F. Clarke June 3.1S69;ruiv. of Peuna. Died 1875 

William G. Tavlor Mar. 4, 1ST5 Jeff. 3Ied. Col. Died 1877 

Charles A. Baker iMar. 2, 187o'jeff. Med. Col. Removed 



It meets quarterly, in the evening, gener- 
ally at the house of one its members, but 
since the establishment of the Dispensary it 
occasionally meets there. Its meetings have 
never been discontinued, but sometimes have 
lapsed for want of a quorum. It has a super- 
vision over all medical matters that belong 
exclusively to Camden City, and which are 
not of special interest to the townships out- 
side of it. Reports made to it of the health 
of the city, of epidemics, of medical and other 
cases of special importance, are brought to the 
attention of the standing committee of the 
County Medical Society. Therefore, the 
transactions of the City Society, as far as re- 
lates to disease and its treatment, have already 
been given in the history of the former society. 



16 



Formerly a subject of frequent discussion 
in their meetings was the fee-bill or the rates 
to be charged for professional visits and cases 
of surgical injuries, it being desirable that a 
uniform price should be fixed upon by all its 
members for similar attendance upon the 
sick. 

The City Medical Society has always taken 
an active interest in all public measures that 
concerned the health or bodily welfare of the 
citizens of Camden. In 1857, at the request 
of the Philadelphia Board of Health, it ap- 
pointed delegates to meet in that city with 
those of similar societies on May ISth, for 
conference in relation to the establishment of 
a uniform system of quarantine laws. In 
the succeeding year another delegation was 
elected to attend a like convention in Balti- 
more. 

At the meeting held July 3, 1858, a com- 
mittee composed of Drs. Mulford, O. H. 
Taylor and Cullen was appointed to investi- 
gate and report upon the filthy condition of 
the hydrant water. The paper which they 
prepared condemned the management of the 
water -works. It was read at the next meet- 
ing of the society, and a synopsis of it was 
sent to the Public Ledger and to the directors 
of the company who then controlled the 
water supply of Camden. 

In 1859 a resolution was introduced into 
the society looking to the establishment of a 
Dispensary in Camden. This will be more 
fully described in the history of that institu- 
tion. In 1865 a committee was appointed to 
recommend measures for the prevention of 
an invasion of the city by cholera, an account 
of whose work is given in the sketch of 
cholera in Camden. This committee, in ad- 
dition to the duty assigned to it, was, at a 
meeting held August 9, 1866, requested to 
make inquiry as to the mode of registering 
deaths in Philadelphia, which having been 
done, the plan was recommended to City 
Council, with the request that they pass a 
similar ordinance. 



At the meeting held March 4, 1876, the 
family of the late Dr. Richard M. Cooper 
presented his library of medical works to the 
Camden City Medical Society. A committee 
was appointed to prepare an appropriate place 
for it, and to arrange a catalogue of it. The 
Dispensary was selected as a suitable building 
in which to deposit it. 

There never had been any coroner's physi- 
cian for Camden County. In case of sudden 
death, where the coroner desired an investiga- 
tion of its cause by a physician, he could call 
upon any one convenient to the inquest. The 
doctor's services were paid for in each indi- 
vidual case. There having arisen some dis- 
pute between the officials and the members of 
the Camden County Medical Society as to 
the value of the services rendered, a fee-bill 
was drawn up by the society and laid before 
the proper authorities. At the meeting held 
December 2, 1869, Dr. Thomas F. Cullen 
moved, '^ That members of the Camden City 
Society refuse to make or assist at any post- 
mortem examination as directed by the cor- 
oner or coroners of Camden County, or by any 
court or courts of said county, until the fee- 
bill as already presented to the Board of 
Chosen Freeholders, as agreed upon by this 
society, shall be accepted and agreed upon by 
them, and the Board of Chosen Freeholders 
be notified by the secretary of this society of 
the same." This resolution was adopted and 
copies were ordered to be sent to the Board 
of Freeholders and to the managers of the 
Dispensary. 

By this time it became apparent that the 
growth of population, with its increasing 
wants, demanded a physician clothed with the 
proper authority, and sufficiently remunerated 
to take charge of the physical interests of the 
public departments. The society having 
this object in view, at its meeting in March, 
1874, adopted a motion, made by Dr. James 
M, Ridge, that a committee should be ap- 
pointed to " confer with the relief committee 
of City Council upon the appointment of a 



17 



city physician." The result of these repeated 
efforts of the profession to arouse the atten- 
tion of the officials to the needs of the com- 
munity was the appointment of a county 
physician. 

The Legislature of New Jersey, by an act 
approved April 21, 1876, created the office 
of county physician. The laws thus enacted 
and in force give the county physician pre- 
cedence and authority in all coroner's cases 
until he has given orders for a view or in- 
quest to a coroner or justice of the peace. 
He is obliged to assume the responsibility of 
all coroner's work. Besides this, he furnishes 
medical attendance and gives medicines to 
the inmates of the county jail. His salary 
is eight hundred dollars per annum, in lieu 
of all fees. 

Dr. Randall W. Morgan was county 
physician from 1876 to 1881 ; Dr. Wm. H. 
Ireland, from 1881 to 1884; and Dr. Gross, 
the present incumbent, since the latter date. 

Pexsiox Board. — In June, 1884, a 
United States Pension Board of Examining 
Surgeons was established in Camden. It is 
one of three assigned to New Jersey, the 
other two being respectively at Newark and 
Trenton. It was composed as follows, viz.: 
Dr. H. Genet Taylor, president ; Dr. James 
A. Armstrong, treasurer ; Dr. Onan B. 
Gross, secretary. Upon the change of ad- 
ministration of the government, the board 
was reorganized in July, 1885, by the ap- 
pointment of Dr. James M. Ridge, president ; 
Dr. John W. Donges, treasurer; and Dr. 
Onan B. Gross, secretary. The board meets 
every Wednesday at the Dispensary for the 
purpose of examining applications for pen- 
sions. 

Camden City Dispensary. — The first 
movement towards establishing a Dispensary 
in Camden was made in 1859. Dr. O. H. 
Taylor, when a young graduate in medicine, 
had been a visiting physician for the Phila- 
delphia Dispensary, and was impressed with 
the usefulness and the beneficent charity of 



such an institution in a young city. At the 
meeting of the Camden City Medical Society 
held March 3d, in that year, he brought to 
its attention the propriety of petitioning City 
Council for the establishment of a Dispensary. 
This was discussed and laid over until the 
next meeting, on June 2d, when a committee 
of three, composed of Drs. O. H. Taylor, R. 
M. Cooper and L. F. Fisler, was appointed 
" to frame a memorial to the City Council of 
Camden, in order to co-operate with the City 
Medical Society in the establishment of a City 
Dispensary." At the December meeting the 
committee read a report, and after considera- 
ble debate in regard to the encouragement 
likely to be extended by those appealed to for 
aid, the subject was indefinitely postponed. 

After the call of President Lincoln for 
three hundred thousand men was made, De- 
cember 19, 1864, it became evident that 
another conscription for troops would be en- 
forced in Camden. A number of men formed an 
association called " The North Ward Bounty 
Association," to insure such of its members 
as might be drafted against enforced mili- 
tary duty, by paying a bounty to volunteers 
to fill the places of those whose names might 
be drawn from the wheel. The drawing 
had been made in Camden, and part of its 
quota had been filled, when the surrender of 
Lee at Appomattox closed the war and 
stopped recruiting. During this month the 
members of the North Ward Bounty Associ- 
ation held a meeting and passed a resolution 
appropriating the sum left in the hands of 
Thomas IMcKean, treasurer, amounting to 
$3956.96, to charitable purposes. After 
consultation with Dr. Taylor and other 
members of the City Medical Society, Mr. 
McKean determined, with the committee 
of the association, to appropriate it toward 
the founding of a Dispensary. He and 
Samuel B. Garrison were selected as a com- 
mittee to make inquiries as to the manner 
and practicability of establishing the same. On 
May 4, 1865, a special meeting of the Med- 



18 



ical Society was convened for the purpose of 
taking " action in reference to a resolution 
passed at the last meeting of the North Ward 
Bounty Association, devoting funds on hand 
to the establishment of a Dispensary in the 
City of Camden." A committee was then 
appointed to confer with the above-named 
gentlemen, consisting of Drs. O. H. Taylor, 
Fisler, Cooper, Schenck and Cullen. 

Subsequently a minority of the members of 
the Bounty Fund Association became dissat- 
isfied with the disposition that had been 
made of the funds, and they held a meeting 
on May 24, 1865, and passed a resolution, ad- 
dressed to Messrs. McKean and Garrison, to 
distribute the money among the "contributors 
and drafted men." This action caused some 
litigation, which was decided by the court in 
favor of the Dispensary. At a meeting of 
the society held in December of the same year 
the committee on Dispensary reported that 
negotiations were in progress for the purchase 
of the Perseverance Hose-House, and that a 
gentleman had purchased twelve cots, which 
he designed presenting to the institution. At 
the next meeting, in March, 1866, it was 
reported that the hose-house on Third Street, 
below Market, had been purchased, and that 
a room was being fitted up for the meetings 
of the society, and that A. Browning, Esq., 
had offered his services gratuitously for pro- 
curing a charter for a corporate body. The 
committee w^ere instructed to organize the 
Dispensary in conjunction with such citizens 
as may be appointed to act with them, and 
the plan of organization drawn up by the 
society in 1859 was reported and accepted. 
Subscription books were ordered to be pre- 
pared for each member, for druggists and 
other citizens. On March 1 7th the keys of the 
Dispensary were handed to the society, with 
the request that it should carry on the insti- 
tution until a charter could be obtained from 
the next Legislature authorizing a board of 
mauasers. On March 21st the following 
visiting physicians were appointed : North 



Ward, Dr. H. Genet Taylor ; Middle Ward, 
Dr. John R. Stevenson ; and South AVard, Dr. 
A. Marcy. O. G. Taylor was elected druggist 
and superintendent. The consulting physi- 
cians, who were appointed at the next stated 
meeting in June, were Drs. R. M. Cooper, L. 
F. Fisler and Thomas F. Cullen. 

The Dispensary was opened immediately 
and managed by the medical committee until 
the procurement of the charter, approved 
February 5, 1867, in wdiich Drs. Isaac S. 
Mulford, O. H. Taylor, Richard M. Cooper, 
Lorenzo F. Fisler, Thomas F. Cullen, John 
V. Schenck, William S. Bishop, Bowman 
Hendry, James M. Ridge, H. Genet Taylor 
and John R. Stevenson were named as cor- 
porators. Under this charter an organization 
was effected March 7, 1867, by the election 
of Dr. Isaac S. Mulford, president ; Dr. L. F. 
Fisler, vice-president ; Dr. J. R. Stevenson, 
secretary ; and Dr. R. M. Cooper, treasurer. 
On the 1 2th . of December of the same year 
the Perseverance Hose-House was conveyed 
to the corporation, the consideration being 
two thousand dollars. The first annual meet- 
ing of the corporators and contributors, as pro- 
vided by the constitution and by-laws which 
had been adopted the 18th of April of the year 
previous, was held January 14, 1868, at which 
it was reported that the net amount received 
from the draft fund had been $3776.94, of 
which $2128.03 had been expended, leaving 
a balance on hand of $1648.91. Since the 
opening of the institution the cash contri- 
butions were one thousand one hundred and 
twenty-seven dollars, besides donations of 
various articles to the value of sixty dol- 
lars. Of this there was a balance of $3.33 
on hand. The total number of patients pre- 
scribed for had been six hundred and eighty- 
two, and the total number of prescriptions 
compounded, two tliousand and twenty-three. 
On the 21st of January the reorganization of 
the Dispensary under the new charter took 
place, at which Drs. Thomas F. Cullen was 
elected president ; John V. Schenck, vice- 



19 



president ; R. M. Cooper, secretary and treas- 
urer. Dr. Culleu served as president until 
1870, when Thomas A. Wilson was elected. 
He was succeeded in 1874 by John Morgan, 
who continued in office until his death, in 

1881. The next president was Thomas Mc- 
Keen, who died in 1884, when Dr. Alexan- 
dei" Marcy, the present incumbent, was elected 
to fill the vacancy. Dr. John V. Schenck 
continued to be vice-president until his death, 
in 1883, when Dr. Alexander Marcy became 
vice-president, who, upon his election to be 
president in 1884, was succeeded by the pres- 
ent official, Maurice Browning. Upon the 
resignation and removal from the city of the 
secretary. Dr. John R. Stevenson, in 1867, 
Dr. E,. M. Cooper was appointed to the va- 
cancy, holding the combined office of secre- 
tary and treasurer until his death, in 1874, 
when Dr. H. Genet Taylor was elected secre- 
tary, a position he still holds, and Joseph B. 
Cooper became treasurer, but resigned in 

1882. The present treasurer, R. H. Reeve, 
succeeded him. O. G. Taylor, the druggist 
and superintendent, elected March 21, 1865, 
served continuously for nearly twenty years, 
during which time he never made a mistake. 
His health failing, so that he was unable to 
perform his duties, he resigned January 10, 
1886, and died shortly afterwards in the same 
year. Dr. H. F. Palm now fills the post. 

In the year 1868 City Council appropri- 
ated three hundred dollars a year to the Dis- 
pensary, in consideration of the services it 
rendered to the poor of the city. This ap- 
propriation continued until the year 1879, 
when an ordinance was passed authorizing 
its sanitary committee to divide the city into 
three districts and make a contract with the 
board of managers of the Dispensary to fur- 
nish medical attendance and medicines to the 
poor of the city for the sum of sixteen hun- 
dred dollars per annum. This agreement 
was ratified on June 1st of that year, and 
the following physicians were elected by the 
board of managers, viz.: For the First District, 



Dr. O. B. Gross ; Second District, Dr. C. M^ 
Schellinger ; Third District, Dr. M. West— 
with a salary of two hundred dollars a year 
for each. Prior to this time all the physi- 
cians who had attended to the Dispensary had 
given their services gratuitously. The younger 
members of the society had each, in their 
turn, filled these positions, serving until a 
new member — usually a young graduate in 
medicine — would relieve them from this duty. 
These physicians had been elected by the City 
Medical Society and were accountable to it, 
but when the officers became salaried, then 
their selection was transferred to the board of 
managers of the Dispensary. This contract 
with the city was renewed annually at the 
same price, until 1885, when the latter opened 
it to the lowest bidder. The board offi}red to- 
renew it at sixteen hundred dollars, which 
was not accepted ; consequently the election 
of the district physicians was abandoned, and 
the Medical Society again resumed its free 
attendance. 

When the Dispensary building was fitted 
up, the first floor was divided into two rooms, 
the front one being used as a pharmacy and 
the rear one as an office in which to examine 
patients. Meetings were also held here. 
During the winter of 1866 and 1867 a 
course of gratuitous medical lectures Avas de- 
livered here to the students of Rev. T. ]M. 
Reilly's Theological School. Dr. John R. 
Stevenson lectured on materia medica and 
practice of medicine, and Dr. H. Genet Tay- 
lor on anatomy and surgery to these young 
men, who M'ere preparing themselves for mis- 
sionary work in the Territories. In the year 
1884 an additional room was built in the 
rear, to be used for holding consultations. 
At first the second floor was filled with hos- 
pital cots for the reception of persons who 
might receive accidental injuries ; but as suffi- 
cient means could not be raised to provide 
nurses and open a culinary department, the 
project Avas abandoned, and the beds were 
sold in 1869. In 1868 this room was rented 



20 



to Dr. Reynell Coates for five dollars a 
month, who lived in it until 1877. The 
Microscopical Society occupied it after 1878. 
The " Board of Pension Examining Sur- 
geons" rented it in 1885. When unoccupied 
it is used for holding special meetings of 
both the City and County Medical Societies. 
Miss Elizabeth Cooper, who died in 1884, 
left a bequest to the Dispensary of one thou- 
sand dollars. 



of establishing a hospital in West Jersey 
had been for some time contemplated by 
the brothers William D. and Dr. Richard 
M. Cooper, descendants of William Cooper, 
the first settler at Coopers Point, but dur- 
ing their lifetime they had taken no active 
steps in that direction. William D. Cooper, 
shortly before his death, which occurred in 
1875, expressed a wish that fifty thousand 
dollars should be set apart from his estate 




COOPER HOSPITAL. 



During the year 1885 the attending physi- 
cian had treated one thousand one hundred 
and forty-seven medical and surgical cases, 
and four thousand two hundred and ninety- 
five prescriptions had been compounded. 
The cost of this was $1335.34, which left a 
balance of $242.80 out of receipts amounting 
to $1578.14. 

The Cooper Hospital. — The project 



and used for hospital purposes. The devisees 
of his estate, who were his sisters Sarah W. 
and Elizabeth B. Cooper, in accordance with 
their brother's wish, took the matter into 
consideration, and deeming fifty thousand 
dollars insufficient for the erection and main- 
tenance of such an institution, generously 
decided to contribute two hundred thousand 
dollars for that purpose. In addition to this. 



21 



they also, with their brother, Alexander Coo- 
per, conveyed the plot of ground on which 
the hospital now stands. The ground extends 
north and south from Mickle to Benson 
Streets and east and west from Sixth to 
Seventh Streets, and is valued at about fifty 
thousand dollars, making the total amount 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. In 
accordance with the desire of the donors 
a charter was obtained and the act of in- 
corporation provided that the corporators 
should constitute the board of managers, and 
that they should have exclusive control of 
the funds as set forth in the act, and in ac- 
cordance therewith, the two hundred thousand 
dollars was placed in their hands. 

The act provided for the construction of 
suitable buildings for hospital purposes on 
the grounds above mentioned, and also con- 
tains the following : " The object of said cor- 
poration shall be to afford gratuitous medical 
and surgical aid*, advice, remedies and care to 
such invalid or needy persons as under the 
rules and by-laws of said corporation shall be 
entitled to the same." The board of mana- 
gers commenced work on the erection of the 
hospital building in the latter part of 1875, 
but during the progress of the work many 
improvements not at first contemplated were 
made, so that when the structure was com- 
pleted, in 1877, the entire cost including 
laying out of the grounds had amounted to 
ninety-five thousand dollars, a much larger 
sum than was at first estimated would be 
required. This left a balance of one hun- 
dred and five thousand dollars for the pur- 
pose of an endowment fund, which was 
invested in New Jersey mortgages bearing 
seven per cent, interest. In 1878 the legal 
rate of interest was reduced to six per cent., 
which materially lessened the income to be 
used in defraying the operating expenses 
of the hospital, and the board of mana- 
gers, after taking into consideration the in- 
come thus unexpectedly reduced, concluded 
that the amount was not sufficient to main- 



tain the hospital as at first projected, and 
deemed it advisable to add the yearly income 
to the endowment fund until a sufficient sum 
was invested to guarantee the income neces- 
sary to support the institution. The man- 
agers believed that the delay in the opening 
thus caused would result to the benefit of the 
public in the larger accommodations which 
the increased fund would permanently secure. 
The sum now invested (1886) the board of 
mana-gers consider sufficient to warrant the 
opening of the institution. 

The building is constructed of Leiperville 
gray stone, with hollow walls lined with 
brick, three stories high. The entire depth 
is two hundred and twenty-four feet by an 
average width of forty-six feet. The front, 
or administration building, is fifty-six feet 
by forty-six feet, and contains rooms for 
offices, managers, physicians, matrons, apoth- 
ecary and operating rooms, stores, etc., and 
is connected with the hospital by a corridor 
twenty feet by fourteen, on each side of 
which are linen rooms for the use of the 
hospital. 

There is a male and female ward, each 
thirty-one by seventy-seven feet, connecting 
with sitting-rooms thirty by thirty-one feet. 
Adjoining and connected Avith these wards, 
are four small wards, each twelve by twenty- 
two feet ; there are also four wards in the 
administration building, each sixteen by 
eighteen feet ; the cubic air space is about 
two thousand four hundred feet, and the 
floor space about one hundred and seventy 
feet to each patient. The basement of the 
hospital building contains the dining-rooms 
and apartments for servants. Particular at- 
tention has been paid to the sanitary arrange- 
ments of the hospital. It is heated through- 
out with steam, besides having open fire- 
places in most of the wards and rooms ; 
the ventilation is effected by means of steam 
coils placed in two large aspirating shafts, 
connected with which are flues opening into 
the wards ; fresh air is supplied from aper- 



22 



tures in the ceilings leading outside. The 
boiler and laundry rooms are located in a 
.separate building connected with the main 
building by an under-ground passage. The 
hospital will be opened at first with about 
fifteen beds. Under the rules contemplated 
the medical staff will consist of consulting, 
visiting and resident physicians and surgeons. 
The board of managers are, — President, Alex- 
ander Cooper ; Secretary and Treasurer, John 
W. Wright ; Peter L. Voorhees, Rodolphus 
Bingham, Joseph B. Cooper, Augustus Reeve, 
William B. Cooper and Richard H. Reeve.^ 

BIOGRAPHIES OF PHYSICIANS 

Who practiced Medicine in Camden County since the or- 
ganization of the Camden County Medical Society 
in 1846, who are deceased or have removed : 

Isaac Skillman Mulpoed was the son 
of Henry and Sarah Mulford, and was born 
at Alloway's Creek, Salem County, N. J., on 
December 31, 1799. Selecting the profes- 
sion of medicine, he entered the office of Dr. 
Joseph Parrish, of Philadelphia, as a student 
in 1819, and in the same year he attended 
medical lectures at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, from which institution he grad- 
uated in 1822. He served for one year as 
resident physician in the Pennsylvania Hos- 
pital and in 1823 began the practice of med- 
icine in Camden, then a mere village, popu- 
larly known as the " Ferry," in which, at 
that date, Dr. Samuel Harris was the only 
physician. His practice grew as Camden in- 
creased in population until he became a lead- 
ing physician, a position he retained for the 
whole of his career of fifty years of profes- 
sional labor. He was noted for his skill in 
the diagnosis of disease, a faculty that seemed 
to be intuitive with him. 

Dr. Mulford was a pioneer in the organi- 
2;ation of Camden County and City Medical 
Societies and City Dispensary, and he served 
as president of all of them. His keen insight 
into the needs of the people and his accurate 

1 Transactions New Jersey State Medical Society, 
1885. 



judgment and precision in all technical de- 
tails were valuable aids in laying the firm 
foundations upon which those superstructures 
were erected. He attained an enviable pre- 
eminence in the community for the honesty, 
the firmness and the correctness of his convic- 
tions, both in professional and secular affairs. 
Although never an office-seeker, such was 
the confidence of his fellow-citizens in his 
patriotism and public spirit that, when meet- 
ings were held upon any important civic oc- 
casions, such as the firing upon Fort Sumter 
at the commencement of the Rebellion, he 
would be called upon to preside over 
and to address them. His speeches were 
delivered with a logical force that was 
convincing, and with a rhetoric that rose 
at times into eloquence. He was greatly 
interested in the establishment of the pub- 
lic-school system in New Jersey and his ser- 
vices in its behalf were rewarded by the Ex- 
ecutive of the State by an appointment after 
its adoption as a member of the State School 
Board of Education. He was frequently 
elected a member of the School Board in 
Camden. He was also one of the visitors ot 
the State Insane Asylum. He was an occa- 
sional lecturer upon medical and scientific 
subjects and was also the author of a number 
of papers upon them published in the medi- 
cal journals. In the year 1848 he issued 
from the press the " Civil and Political His- 
tory of New Jersey," a work which has be- 
come a standard book of reference. 

Dr. Mulford married, in 1830, Rachel, 
daughter of Isaac and Sarah Mickle, of 
Gloucester (now Camden) County. Shortly 
afterwards he joined the Society of Friends 
and became a prominent member of the New- 
town Meeting, of which he was an elder un- 
til his decease. His residence was upon the 
south side of Federal Street, between Second 
and Third, in the building now occupied by 
the Camden Safe Deposit and Trust Com- 
pany. He died February 10, 1873, and is 
buried in Newtown Cemetery. He left three 



23 



daughters still surviving — Emmaj who mar- 
ried Henry Palmer ; Mary, the wife of Colonel 
James M. Scovel; and Anna, wife of Dr. 
Richard C. Dean, United States Navy. 

Benjamin Whitall Blackwood Avas a 
descendant of John BJackwood, the founder 
of the town of Blackwood, in this county. 
His father, John Blackwood, who atone time 
w"as associate judge of the Gloucester Coun- 
ty Court, married Ann Mickle. Dr. Black- 
wood was born January 1 6, 1 800, on a farm 
on the north side of Newtown Creek, about 
a mile from its mouth. He studied medicine 
under Dr. Samuel Howell, of Woodbury, af- 
terwards of Princeton, N. J., and graduated 
from the University of Pennsylvania March 
27, 1828. He began the practice of medi- 
cine in Haddonfield in that year, but did not 
procure his license from the New Jersey 
State Medical Society until June 12, 1830. 
He left Haddonfield, and for a short time 
practiced in Philadelphia, but soon returned 
to his former residence. He joined the Cam- 
den County Medical Society in 1847, but re- 
signed June 18, 1853, in consequence of his 
affiliation with homoeopathy, w^iich was con- 
trary to the code of ethics of the society. 
He married Mary Ann Hopkins, of Had- 
donfield, November 24, 1824, and died Jan- 
uary 19, 1866. His widow survived him 
six years. He had six children, three of 
whom are living ; two daughters still live 
in his residence, which he built about 1846. 
Dr. Blackwood was a member of the Society 
of Friends and a man of exemplary life. 

Jacob P. Thornton was a native of 
Bucks County, in Pennsylvania, and his early 
life was spent on the farm of his parents. In 
1828 he graduated in the Medical Depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania and 
located in Haddonfield, N. J., in the same 
year. He obtained considerable practice and 
remained there until 1849. He was one of 
the corporators of the Medical Society of 
Camden County in 1846 and acted as the 
first treasurer for two years. 



At the meeting of the society January 16, 
1849, he resigned his membership " on ac- 
count of the expense attending the meetings." 

He soon after removed to the State of 
Ohio, where he is still living. His practice 
here covered a large extent of territory and 
in many instances with indiiferent pay. His 
attendance on his patients was faithful and 
conscientious, always discharging that duty 
to the best of his ability. 

He was cotemporary with Dr. Charles D. 
Hendry and their professional intercourse was 
always pleasant, his senior extending to him 
the assistance and advice arising therefrom. 

Charles D. Hendry^ was the descend- 
ant of physicians on both the maternal and 
paternal line, and if particular characteristics 
be transmitted from father to son, then he 
had the advantage of two generations on 
either side to strengthen and qualify him for 
the healing art. 

He was the son of Dr. Bowman Hendry, 
pf Haddonfield, who was a son of Dr. 
Thomas Hendry, of Woodbury, both prac- 
ticing and successful physicians. His mother 
was Elizabeth Duffield, a daughter of Dr. 

Charles Duffield, who was a son of Dr. 

Duffield, both of Philadelphia, whose lives 
were spent in the practice of medicine. ■ 

He was born in Haddonfield May 8, 1809, 
where his parents then resided and where 
his father was in active practice. From his 
earliest recollection he was fiimiliar with his 
father's laboratory and, no doubt, often kept 
his father busy answering questions relating 
to the use and application of medicines. The 
skeletons there standing had no terror for 
him as a boy, but he then saw the anatomy 
of the human system, of so much use to him 
in after-years. The diagnosis of difficult 
cases he often heard discussed when studying 
his lessons for school, and in his youth there 
was instilled into his mind things that he 
found advantageous in his profession. 

1 By Hon. John Clement. 



24 



To show that his father intended he should 
follow him, at the age of sixteen he was 
placed in a drug store in Philadelphia, and 
graduated in pharmacy in 1830. He then 
took his place in the classes of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania and won his diploma in 
1832. 

He had scarcely attained his majority be- 
fore his father required him to ride and see 
his patients, and kept him under his personal 
supervision for several years. As the prac- 
tice of medicine was at that time undergoing 
many changes, the father differed widely 
from the notions of the son in adopting the 
new ideas. Many amusing anecdotes were 
related by Dr. Charles of the the persistency 
of Dr. Bowman for the old practice. 

On several occasions when Charles was 
sent to see patients, and had packed his rem- 
edies in his pocket, his father would put his 
man on. a horse with the traditional medicine- 
chest to follow him, supposing he had for- 
gotten the ever needful attendants of a prac- 
titioner of the " old school." The old gentle- 
man would often insist on certain rules being 
followed as only conducive to success, and 
assure his son that he would lose his cases 
and position if he departed from them. With 
all due respect for his experience, old theories 
gradually passed away, and at his death 
(April 23, 1838) Charles had succeeded to 
the practice with advanced and popular ideas. 

Following the religious views of his fam- 
ily, he did much toward the building of an 
Episcopal Church in Haddonfield, and was 
elected one of the vestrymen April 20, 1843, 
and so remained until his death. 

Believing that much advantage would be 
derived from more frequent intercourse among 
physicians in the county, and after consider- 
able effort on his part, the Camden County 
Medical Society was organized August 14, 
1846. This was mutually beneficial, and 
soon became very popular in the profession. 
In 1849 he was selected to represent the 
society in the American Medical Association, 



which sat at Boston, Mass., showing that his 
standing as a practitioner was appreciated 
among his constituents. He acted as presi- 
dent of the county society in 1852 and 1853, 
but in 1865 he removed to Philadelphia, 
and in that year (June 20th) resigned his 
membership. He practiced medicine in his 
native town and neighborhood for about 
thirty-three years, associated with others who 
settled there as the increase of population 
warranted it. In the early part of his ser- 
vice the work was exposing and laborious, 
presenting to him diseases in every phase 
and under every condition. Being of an 
affable and pleasant address, and generally 
reaching a correct diagnosis of the case 
before him, he soon became popular, and 
secured the confidence of the community. 
His care of and attention to his patients was 
proverbial, and he seldom allowed stormy 
weather, bad roads or dark nights to break 
in upon this rule. His operations in surgery 
were limited, and in difficult cases he always 
obtained the assistance of experts. 

He gave considerable attention to climatic 
changes and miasmatic influences as control- 
ling the health of the neighborhood, and 
drawing the attention of his associates to 
these important, but then little understood, 
subjects. 

Being the victim of hereditary gout, aggra- 
vated by his frequent exposure to storms and 
cold, his health gradually declined, and in 
1865 he abandoned his practice and removed 
to Philadelphia. He afterwards returned to 
Camden, and was often consulted by those 
who regarded his experience and skill as 
superior to all others. He died April 25, 
1869, and lies buried in the cemetery at 
Colestown, beside the remains of his ances- 
tors. 

John Rowan Sickler. — There were sev- 
eral physicians who practiced within the 
territory of Camden County who never 
were members of its medical society. One 
of the most prominent of these was Dr. 



25 



John R. Sickler. He was a native of the 
county, having been born at Chews Land- 
ing September 20, 1800. He was the son 
of Christopher and Sarah Sickler. At the 
age of eighteen he entered the office of Ben- 
jamin B. Cooper to learn surveying and con- 
veyancing, an occupation he followed for 
several years. Having a natural fondness 
for the profession of medicine, he, when 
twenty-six years of age, entered the office of 
Dr. McClellan, father of General Geo. B. 
McClellan, as a student, and graduated at the 
Jefferson Medical College March 18, 1829. 
The next day, at his home in Chews Landing, 
he paid his first professional visit to James 
D. Dotterer. He continued in practice here 
for four years, a place where, according to the 
doctor's books, the people were remarkable for 
being good pay. On the 25th of March, 1832, 
he removed to Camden and opened a drug-store 
on Federal Street, near the ferry, in which 
he sold a general assortment of drugs, in- 
cluding paints and oils. It was the only 
store of the kind then in that city. Dr. 
Sickler still retained part of his county prac- 
tice. After living in Camden a little over 
two years, and his health failing, he relin- 
quished his drug business, and on April 14, 
1834, returned to Chews Landing. On No- 
vember 13th of the same year he moved 
to Woodbury. Here he remained until 
March 25,, 1836, when he located at Car- 
penters Landing (now Mantua) where he 
spent the remainder of his days. He took an 
active part in public affairs. In 1825 he was 
a justice of the peace for Gloucester township, 
and between 1828 aud 1865 he was associate 
judge of the Courts of Common Pleas of Glou- 
cester County, which, up to 1844, included in 
it Camden County. In the latter year he 
was a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of the State. He was a member of the 
Board of Chosen Freeholders of Gloucester 
from 1859 to 1871. Several times he was a 
school trustee. He was one of the building 
committee that erected the Gloucester County 
3 



Almshouse, and was its first treasurer. Be- 
sides attending to these official duties, he 
joined in the State, county and district con- 
ventions of the Democratic party, of which 
he was a member. During all these years of 
public life he pursued the practice of medi- 
cine with skill and success. He took much 
interest in the Gloucester County Medical 
and State Medical Societies, being a member 
of both, and at one time president of the 
latter. In the year 1876, when seventy-six 
years old, he retired from business. He 
died April 11, 1886. 

Myles and Martin Synott were broth- 
ers. Their father was Irish and their mother 
American. They were natives of Mays 
Landing. The elder brother, Myles, was 
born in 1806, and the younger, Martin, April 
8, 1812. The former studied with Dr. Ja- 
cob Fisler, who afterward married the Drs. 
Synott's mother. He graduated at the Jef- 
ferson Medical College in 1831 and com- 
menced the practice of medicine in Chews 
Landing in 1833. He remained here until 
1841, when he removed to Glassboro', Glou- 
cester County, where he died February 9, 
1867. He was noted for his wit. He was 
very strict concerning his instructions to his 
patients, and once blistered a man's feet be- 
cause he refused to stay in the house when 
ordered to do so.^ He married Harriet 
Whitney, of Glassboro', in 1843, aud left 
three children, still living. 

Dr. Martin Synott studied medicine with 
his brother and graduated at the Jefferson 
Medical College in 1839. He also located 
at Chews Landing, where he practiced until 
1845, when he removed to Blackwood, where 
he died April 8, 1877. He was a man of 
tact and skill in his profession. He married 
Rebecca Jaggard, February 12, 1844. Two 
daughters survive him. 

Joseph Axdersox Stout, was the son of 
Benjamin and Grace Stout, of Attleborough 

^ Dr. Somers' " Medical History of Atlantic County," 



26 



(Langhorne), Bucks County, Pa., where he 
was born in 1807. He studied medicine 
under Dr. Boil, and graduated in New York 
in 1831. Some time afterwards he located in 
Long-a-Coming (now Berlin), Camden Coun- 
ty, his practice extending to Winslow, Water- 
ford and the surrounding country. In 1838 
he removed to Tuckahoe, Cape May County. 
From thence he went to Somers Point, At- 
lantic County, succeeding Dr. Lewis S. 
Somers, who had removed to Philadelphia. 
While in Tuckahoe he married, in 1839, 
Miss M. S. Godfrey, a sister of Hon. John 
Godfrey, who, after the death of Dr. Stout, 
married a Mr. Ogden. Dr. Stout died at 
Somers Point April 11, 1848, and was 
buried in Zion Churchyard, at Bargaintown. 
He was a believer in the faith of universal 
salvation. He left four sons, but one of 
whom is living.^ 

LoREXZO F. FiSLER was born on a farm 
in the upper end of Cumberland County, 
near Fislerville, on the 20th of April, 1797. 
He was the son of Dr. Benjamin and Catha- 
rine Fisler. He studied medicine with his 
father, who then practiced medicine in Port 
Elizabeth, and as early as 1815 he assisted 
the latter in his profession. Dr. Fisler at- 
tended lectures at the University of Penn- 
sylvania and graduated therefrom in 1819. 
He had two brothers, physicians, — Samuel, 
his twin brother, and Jacob who practiced in 
Mays Landing, Atlantic County. Dr. Lo- 
renzo F. Fisler began his professional career 
with his brother Benjamin in the latter place, 
where, being a good speaker, he occasionally 
preached in the Methodist Church. He re- 
mained here only a short time. He removed 
to Woodstown, in Salem County, and in 1825 
he passed his examination before the board 
of censors of that county. In 1832 he re- 
turned to Port Elizabeth, and in 1836 he lo- 
cated in Camden, his office being on Second 
Street below Market. In this (iity he- soon 

1 Dr. Somers' "Medical History of Atlantic County." 



secured a good practice, at the same time 
joining actively in- public affairs. He was 
mayor of the city seven times. Dr. Fisler 
was a clear and logical writer, and was the 
author of a pamphlet history of Camden, 
published in 1858. As a public lecturer he 
was noted for his pleasing address and hu- 
morous satire, and he was frequently invited 
to deliver addresses before associations of a 
benevolent or charitable character. He never 
joined either the State or County Medical So- 
cieties, but he was one of the organizers and 
a most efficient member of the Camden City 
Medical Society. Dr. Fisler died in Cam- 
den, March 31, 1871. He married Anna 
Maria, daughter of Richard Somers and 
Rachael Risley, of Woodstown, who, with 
five children, are still living. 

William Paeham was one of the physi- 
cians in Camden County who never joined 
its medical society. He was born in 1803, 
in Jerusalem, Va. He studied medicine in 
Lexington, Ky., and began its practice in 
Alabama. From there he went to Central 
America and was a surgeon in a battle in 
Yucatan. After that he returned to the 
United States, and remained for a time in 
Philadelphia. He then selected Tom's River, 
in Ocean County, JST. J., as a field for 
practice, but in 1836 he removed to Tansboro'? 
in Camden County, from which place his 
professional visits extended to the adjacent 
towns of Waterford and AVinslow. In a few 
years Dr. Parham removed to Williamstown, 
and thence in 1846 to Blackwood. He con- 
tinued to practice medicine here until his 
death, which occurred April 2, 1855. He 
married, at Barnegat, Ocean County, Febru- 
ary 28, 1833, Juliana, daughter of Dr. 
Bugbee, who was a native of Vermont. They 
had no children. 

George Barrows was an Englishman 
and received his medical education in his 
native country. With a wife and one child 
he landed penniless in New York in 1836. 
Accidentally meeting in that city with Sooy 



27 



Thompson, of Pleasant Mills, Atlantic 
County, N. J., he ^vas induced by him to 
settle in the latter place, where he boarded 
with Mr. Thompson until he could procure 
a home for himself. Here he diligently ap- 
plied himself to the practice of his profession.^ 
Between the years 1840 and 1844 he re- 
moved to Tansboro', in Camden County. At a 
meeting of the Camden Coimty Medical Society 
held December 21, 1847, a committee was ap- 
pointed to investigate the credentials of Dr. 
Barrows. They reported that there was on 
file in the clerk's office a certified copy of a 
diploma granted to him in 1836 by Dr. 
Henry Vanderveer, president of the New 
Jersey State Medical Society. It does not 
appear that he ever applied for admission to 
membership in the County Medical Society. 
He removed to Philadelphia, where he died 
in 1852. 

Richard Matlack Cooper. — William 
Cooper, of Coleshill, England, located land 
at Burlington, N. J., in 1678. On June 
12, 1682, he had surveyed to him the 
land at Pyne, now Coopers Point, Cam- 
den, to which he then removed. Daniel 
Cooper, the youngest son of William, mar- 
ried twice. By the first wife he had one 
child, William, from whom is descended 
the family which by inheritance and pur- 
chase acquired a large part of what is now 
the city of Camden, much of it still being 
in their possession. 

Of this family was Dr. Richard M. 
Cooper, the son of Richard M. and Mary 
Cooper, born in Camden August 30, 1816. 
His father, who was a man of distinc- 
tion, gave his son a liberal education. After 
a course of study at a preparatory school 
he entered the Department of Arts of the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1832, and 
graduated from it in 1836. Heat once com- 
menced the study of medicine with Professor 
George B.Wood, of the Medical Department 

1 Dr. Somers' Medical " History of Atlantic County. " 



of the same University, and after attending 
three courses of lectures there, received from 
it his degree of M.D. in 1839. 

At this date the lower part of Camden, 
called South Camden, was being settled by 
negroes and poor whites. Among these Dr. 
Cooper began the practice of his profession, 
gratuitously dispensing necessary medicines. 
His colleagues in the profession were Drs. 
Samuel Harris, Isaac S. Mulford and Loren- 
zo F. Fisler, all men of ability and exper- 
ience, with whom he soon took an equal rank 
as a skilful practitioner. 

Dr. Cooper took an active interest in the 
organization of the Camden County Medical 
Society in 1846, being one of its corpora- 
tors, its first secretary and subsequently its 
treasurer. He was a member of its board of 
censors from the time of their appointment, 
in 1847, until 1851, and as such it was his 
duty to examine into the qualifications of all 
physicians desiring to practice medicine in 
the district. 

Professionally, Dr. Cooper appears to have 
attained almost the station of the ideal phy- 
sician, for he had a broad love for humanity 
as well as an enthusiasm for the healing art. 
" He was distinguished," says one who knew 
him, " for that gentle and cheerful demeanor 
in a sick-room which not only inspired faith 
in his patient, but assuaged the pangs of 
many an aching heart. Such was the esteem 
in which he was held, that many seemed to 
believe that his presence in a sick-room 
would relieve the sufferer. His skill and 
constant studious research in his profession, 
however, gave him a success which inspired 
this confidence ; and practicing, because he 
loved to practice, gave him an experience 
which increased his knowledge. ... A man 
cast in such a mold would naturally find 
pleasure in forwarding works of charity and 
benevolence. It was so in this case." 

One of Doctor Cooper's characteristics was 
his modesty. He would not permit his name 
to be proposed for president of the County 



28 



Medical Society until 1871, because he was 
unwilling to stand in the way of the promo- 
tion of its younger members. For the same 
reason he accepted the appointment of dele- 
gate to the American Medical Association 
only when its meetings were held at a dis- 
tance, because he could spare the time occu- 
pied, and the expense incurred in its attend- 
ance, better than his fellow-members. In 
1871 he read before the Society a history of 
it from its incorporation, the MSS. of which 
are preserved in the archives. He was fre- 
quently chairman of the standing committee, 
and wrote the medical reports made to the 
New Jersey State Medical Society, which 
were marked by a comprehensive knowledge 
of the diseases of his native county. He be- 
came president of the latter society in 1856. 
" Engrossed, as Dr. Cooper was, by the on- 
erous duties of an exacting profession, which 
were discharged with' a fidelity, skill and self- 
abnegation worthy of the man, he found 
time, amid all these, to intimately acquaint 
himself with what was passing in the busy 
world around him. There seemed to be no 
subject, national, state, county or municipal, 
that escaped his notice, or that he did not ex- 
ercise his impartial judgment in properly 
considering and criticising. Those measures 
which involved the vital concerns of the 
country, when torn asunder for the time 
by fratricidal strife, awakened his deepest 
thought, and when drawn out, he would 
discuss them with that unconscious ability 
characteristic of the man. He displayed 
the same cogent reasoning and methods of 
thought in reaching satisfactory conclusions 
when giving expression to his views in regard 
to the more intimate concerns of his State. 
Laws affecting its policy or the interests of 
the people seldom escaped his observation, 
or failed to provoke his favorable or ad- 
verse criticism, and no one could listen 
without being instructed as well as sur- 
prised at the large fund of general infor- 
mation always at hand to draw from in illus- 



trating a point or in enforcing an argument. 
But it was in home affairs that Dr. Cooper 
showed his greatest interest and his thorough 
acquaintance with everything connected with 
the public welfare. He scrutinized with the 
greatest care every action of the local author- 
ities involving the city's welfare, never 
withholding his approval where the step 
to be taken was warranted by the city's 
finances and demanded for the public good. 
Dr. Cooper was never indifferent to his 
responsibility as a citizen, and it was 
this that led those who knew him best to 
seek his advice and counsel when matters of 
public interest required the mature delibera- 
tion of one so prudent, unselfish and dis- 
criminating." 

Dr. Cooper was one of the originators of 
the Camden City Medical Society, and was 
a most efficient member. He was a corpor- 
ator of the Camden City Dispensary, and its 
treasurer from its incorporation until his 
death. 

The Cooper Hospital, described elsewhere, 
was a project of his, in conjunction with his 
brother, Wm. D. Cooper, which, although not 
commenced in the lifetime of the projectors 
was, after their decease, established and en- 
dowed by their sisters Sarah W. and Eliza- 
beth B. Cooper, who with their brother, 
Alexander Cooper, also conveyed the land 
upon which the buildings are located. 
For many years Dr. Cooper was a sufferer 
from hereditary gout, from the consequences 
of which, superadded to the labors of a very 
extensive practice, he died May 24, 1874, 
while, for a second time, president of his 
favorite, the Camden County Medical Society, 
to which he bequeathed, in his will, the sum 
of three thousand dollars, the interest of 
which was to be used in defraying its ex- 
penses. He M^as a member of the Society of 
Friends, whose faith had been the religion of 
his ancestors. He was never married. 

EzEKiEL Cooper Che^v commenced the 
study of medicine with Dr. Bowman Hendry, 



29 



of Haddon field, and completed his education 
at the Jefferson Medical College in 1843. He 
was the son of Nathaniel and Mary Chew, of 
Greenwich (now Mantua) township, Glouces- 
ter County, and was born January 17, 1822. 
He first engaged in the practice of medicine 
in Blackwood, and joined the Camden 
County Medical Society in 1851. He had 
been a member about two years, when he left 
this county and removed to Iowa, and sub- 
sequently settled in Indiana, where he was 
still living three years ago. Dr. Chew was a 
man of commanding appearance and had a 
fine physique. He married Miss Caroline 
Bishop Woolston, of Vincentown, Burlington 
County, N. J., and had fourteen children, of 
whom seven sons and three daughters are 
living, and four sons are dead. 

Othniel Hart Taylor was born in 
Philadelphia May 4, 1803. His father was 
William Taylor, Jr., who married Mary E. 
Gazzam, both of Cambridge, England, 
whence they removed to Philadelphia, in 
which city Mr. Taylor was engaged in an ex- 
tensive mercantile business for more than 
forty years. 

The early life of his son Othniel was occu- 
pied mainly in attendance upon schools of 
elementary instruction in Philadelphia and 
Holmesburg, Pa., and in Baskenridge, N. J. 
In 1818 he entered the Literary Department 
of the University of Pennsylvania, and in 
1820 he became a medical student in the of- 
fice of that distinguished physician and sur- 
geon, Thomas T. Hewson, M.D,, at the same 
time attending a course of medical instruction 
in the University of Pennsylvania. He com- 
pleted his studies there in 1826 and grad- 
uated with the class of that year. After his 
graduation, Dr. Taylor entered upon the 
practice of medicine in the city of Philadel- 
phia, where he was very soon appointed one 
of tlie physicians to the City Dispensary, in 
which capacity he served many years, and 
about the same time he was elected out-door 
physician to the Pennsylvania Hospital, a 



position he held for eight years. During the 
year 1832 the Asiatic cholera made its first 
appearance in this continent, and Dr. Taylor 
distinguished himself by volunteering to 
serve in the city hospitals which were estab- 
lished in the emergency by the municipal au- 
thorities, while he was at the same time act- 
ing as one of the Committee of Physicians 
appointed by the City Councils as consulting 
physicians to their sanitary board. 

The hospital which was especially in his 
charge was known as St. Augustine Hos- 
pital, in Crown Street, and the number of 
cholera patients reported by him as under 
treatment in that hospital was five hundred 
and twelve. He was also elected as one of 
a commission of medical men who were sent 
to Montreal, in Canada, to study the charac- 
ter and treatment of cholera on its out- 
break in that city, and before its appearance 
in our cities ; but being unable to accompany 
the commission, he declined in favor of Dr. 
Charles D. Meigs, who, with Drs. Richard 
Harlan and Samuel Jackson, made the visit 
and report. Upon the closing of the hospi- 
tals after the disappearance of the cholera, 
Dr. Taylor, with seven other physicians who 
had been in charge of cholera hospitals, re- 
ceived, by vote of the City Council, a testi- 
monial of their appreciation of the services 
which they had rendered to the city, each of 
thera being presented with a service of silver 
bearing inscription that it was given " as a 
token of regard for intrepid and disinterested 
services." 

In consequence of impaired health. Dr. 
Taylor, in 1838, relinquished the practice of 
medicine in Philadelphia and removed to 
Abington, Pa. ; thence he went, in 1841, to 
Caldwell, Essex County, N. J., and in 1844 
he located himself in Camden, continuing 
actively in the practice of medicine there 
during the remainder of his life.^ 

Dr. Taylor was one of the three physicians 

1 Transactions New .Jersey State Medical Society, 
1870. 



30 



of Camden City whose names appear in the 
list of corporators of the Camden County 
Medical Society in 1846, and he was its first 
vice-president, holding the office for four 
years. In 1856 he became its president. 
For twenty-three years he was one of its 
most attentive, active and efficient members, 
his learning and experience rendering his ser- 
vices invaluable in committee work. He 
was elected vice-president of the State Medi- 
cal Society successively in 1849, 1850 and 
1851, and president of that society in 1852. 
He was one of the organizers of the City 
Medical Society and had filled its most im- 
portant offices ; and he introduced into it the 
resolution for the founding of a City Dispen- 
sary, of which, when eventually it was estab- 
lished, he was orie of the corporators and a 
manager until ill health compelled his retire- 
ment. 

Dr. Taylor was the author of quite a num- 
ber of valuable articles and addresses upon 
medicine and related subjects which were 
published in the medical and other journals. 
In addition to this, he was frequently a lec- 
turer before lyceums and other societies, and 
this contributed much to the intellectual de- 
velopment of Camden. He was a member 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church and in 
1847 he was elected a warden of St. Paul's 
Church, Camden, and at the time of his 
death he was senior warden of that parish. 

In 1832, Dr. Taylor married Evelina C, 
daughter of Jehu and Anna Burrough, of 
Gloucester (now Camden County). During 
his residence in Camden he lived in the house 
on Market Street, above Third, built by Mrs. 
Burrough in 1809, where the doctor died of 
pneumonic phthisis September 5, 1869. His 
widow survived until September 18, 1878, 
leaving three sons — Dr. H. Genet Taylor, 
Marmaduke B. Taylor (a lawyer in Camden) 
and O. G. Taylor (deceased), who for nearly 
twenty years was apothecary and superinten- 
dent of the Camden Dispensary. 

William C. Mulford was a pioneer 



physician in Gloucester City, having re- 
moved to it from Pittsgrove, Salem County, 
in 1845, soon after the first mill was erected 
in the former place. He was the son of 
William and Ann JVtulford, and was born 
July 17, 1808, in Salem City. Commencing 
the study of medicine under Dr. Beasley, he 
attended medical lectures at the Jefferson 
Medical College, and graduated in 1830. 
He practiced medicine in Pittsgrove, Salem 
County, where he married his wife, Emily 
Dare, on March 28, 1833. Upon his re- 
moval to Gloucester City he was appointed 
its first postmaster, the post-office being in a 
corner room of the factory. Dr. Mulford 
continued practicing his profession here 
until 1862, when he was commissioned an 
assistant surgeon in the Third New York 
Cavalry, serving with it for six months, 
when he was detailed for hospital duty in 
Rhode Island, and then in Washington. 
He was on duty at and witnessed the execu- 
tion of Mrs. Surratt. He was honorably 
discharged from the service in April, 1866, 
when he recommenced the practice of medi- 
cine in Gloucester City, and continued there 
until 1870. In that year he removed to a 
farm he had purchased in Charles City 
County, Va., where he died December 3, 
1878. He never joined either of the medical 
societies. 

Reynell Coates moved to Camden in 
1845, where he attended an occasional pa- 
tient during the earlier years of his residence 
in it. He belonged to an old Philadelphia 
family, and was born in that city j)ecem- 
ber 10, 1802. His father, Samuel Coates, 
sent him to the well-known Friends' School 
at Westtown. Afterwards he attended med- 
ical lectures at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, where he graduated in 1823. Dr. 
Coates was a man of the most brilliant and 
erratic genius, and a poet of considerable 
reputation. He was a well-known author 
upon medical, scientific and political sub- 
jects, and some of his works have been 



31 



translated into other languages; a list of them 
may be found in Allibone's " Dictionary of 
Authors." He likewise for a time took an 
active part in politics, and in 1852 was the 
candidate for Vice President on the Native 
American ticket. Before he came to Cam- 
den he had separated from his wife, with 
whom he had lived but one year. In this 
city he was very poor at times and depend- 
ent upon- the assistance of his relatives in 
Philadelphia. Sometimes he boarded, but 
frequently he lived entirely alone, doing his 
own cooking. In 1867 he was elected a 
member of the Camden City Medical So- 
ciety. Dr. Coates was the anonymous author 
of a biography of Dr. Bowman Hendry, of 
Haddonfield, published in pamphlet form 
in 1848. He died in Camden April 27, 1886. 
Aarox Dickinson Woodruff was the 
first member to join the Camden County 
Medical Society after its incorporation, which 
he did in 1847. His grandfather, A. 
D. Woodruff, was attorney-general of New 
Jersey from 1800 to 1818. Dr. Woodruff 
was the son of Elias Decou Woodruif and 
Abigail Ellis Whitall, and was born in 
Woodbury, N. J., May 4, 1818. Upon the 
death of his father, in 1824, his mother re- 
moved to Georgetown, D. C, and thence, in 
1829, to Philadelphia. Dr. Woodruff was 
educated at the academy of Samuel Jones. 
At sixteen he entered the drug store of 
Charles Ellis, and graduated at the College 
of Pharmacy in 1838. In 1840 he went to 
Woodville, Miss., to take charge of a drug 
store, but commencing the study of medicine, 
he returned, in 1842, to Philadelphia, and 
pursued his studies under Dr. Thomas Mut- 
ter, professor of surgery in the Jefferson 
Medical College, from which school he grad- 
uated in 1844. He spent a few months in 
the Peimsylvania Hospital, and then com- 
menced the practice of medicine in Haddon- 
field, where he soon won the confidence of 
the people aiid secured an extensive practice. 
In 1865, in consequence of impaired health 



from overwork. Dr. Woodruff retired from 
practice and removed to Philadelphia. He 
resigned from the Medical Society in 1871, 
upon his removal to his farm in Princess 
Anne, Md., but was elected an honorary 
member of it. He died in Philadelphia in 
January, 1881. He was an elder in the 
Presbyterian Church. Dr. Woodruff mar- 
ried Miss Anne Davidson, of Georgetown, 
D. C, but left no issue. 

James C, Risley was one of the corpor- 
ators and first president of the Camden 
County Medical Society, being at that time 
a practitioner of medicine at Long-a-Coming 
(Berlin), where he remained until 1849. He 
was the son of Judge James Risley, of 
Wood&town, Salem County, born in June, 
1817. He studied medicine with Dr. J. 
Hunt, and was licensed by the board of 
censors of the New Jersey State Medical 
Society in June, 1838, but he did not attend 
medical lectures until some years later, finally 
graduatine in 1844 at the Jefferson Medical 
College. In the mean time he had practiced 
medicine at Port Elizabeth until 1842, when 
he returned to Woodstown. After his gradu- 
ation he located in Camden County. From 
here, in 1849, he went to Columbia, Pa., and 
remained there until 1856, when he removed 
to Muscatine, Iowa. He returned to Penn- 
sylvania in 1861, and opened an office at 
New Brighton, continuing here until 1864, 
when, his health being impaired, he went back 
to his home in Woodstown, where he died 
November 21, 1866.^ Dr. Risley was a man 
of commanding appearance and pleasing ad- 
dress, with colloquial powers that won for 
him a quick appreciation from his patrons. 
He married Miss Caroline Crompton, of Port 
Elizabeth, who survived him. 

Bow:man Hendry, Jr., was the son ot 
Dr. Bowman Hendry, and was born in Hud- 
donfield May 4, 1820. His father dying 
when his son was a youth, young Hendry 

1 Transactions New Jersey State Medical Society, 
1867. 



32 



studied medicine with his brother Charles, and 
graduated from the Jefferson College in 1846. 
For a few months he practiced medicine in 
Iladdonfield, and then removed to Gloucester 
City, a place that had just been started as a 
manufacturing town. After the outbreak of 
the Civil War Dr. Hendry entered the army 
and was appointed assistant surgeon of the 
Sixth New Jersey Regiment, and continued 
with it until the regiment was mustered out 
of service, September 7, 1864. Next he was 
attached to the Mower Hospital, at German- 
town, Pa., where he remained until the close 
of the war. He then located in Camden 
City, where he practiced medicine until his 
death, June 8, 1868. Dr. Hendry was a 
member of the Camden City and Camden 
County Medical Societies, having joined the 
latter in 1847, and was its president in 1860. 
He took an active part in both, and read before 
the City Society a valuable paper upon the 
Mower Hospital. He married, February 
24, 1850, Helen A, Sarchet, of Gloucester 
City, who, with one daughter, resides in 
Camden. 

Charles W. Sartoei was born in Tren- 
ton, N. J., September 6, 1806. His father, 
John Baptiste Sartori, a native of E,ome, 
Italy, came to the United States in 1791. 
He returned to Rome as United States con- 
sul from 1795 to 1800, when he came back 
to the United States as consul for the Papal 
States. Dr. Sartori's mother was Henrietta, 
daughter of Chevalier De Woopoin, a French 
officer, who acquired large estates in San 
Domingo, but was killed in the negro in- 
surrection in that island. Dr. Sartori was 
educated at Georgetown, D. C. He studied 
medicine and graduated at the Jefferson 
Medical College in 1829. Commencing the 
practice of medicine in Port Republic, At- 
lantic County, he remained there until 1839, 
when he removed to Tuckerton, Burlington 
County, and practiced there until 1843. Be- 
tween this date and 1849 he was again in At- 
lantic County, at Pleasant Mills, Atsion, 



Batsto, and in the latter year located at Black- 
wood, Camden County, where he stayed only 
a short time, removing from thence to Cam- 
den. He never practiced medicine in Cam- 
den, although it was his residence until his 
death, on October 4, 1875. On May 10, 
1861, he was appointed acting assistant sur- 
geon in the United States Navy, and was 
assigned to the United States steamer 
" Flag," his brother, Louis C. Sartori, now 
commodore on the retired list United States 
Navy, being commander of that vessel. In 
1863 he was transferred to the United States 
steamer " Wyalusing," from which vessel he 
resigned July 19, 1864. In 1833 Dr. Sartori 
married Ann L., widow of Captain Robert 
D. Giberson, of Port Republic. He was 
never a member of either of the Medical 
Societies in Camden County. 

John Yooehees Schenck belonged to 
an old East Jersey family, who have had a 
number of representatives in the medical 
profession. He was the son of Dr. Ferdi- 
nand S. and Leah Voorhees Schenck, and 
was born in Somerset County, N. J., Novem- 
ber 17, 1824. The elder Dr. Schenck 
represented his district in Congress for four 
years, and between 1845 and 1851 he was 
one of the judges of the Court of Errors and 
Appeals. Dr. John V. Schenck received his 
academical education at Rutgers College, 
from which he obtained his diploma in 1844. 
Then he attended medical lectures at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, where he graduated 
in 1847. At first he assisted his father in 
his practice in his native place, but soon re- 
moved to Monmouth County, where he re- 
mained but a short time. In 1848 he located 
in Camden and gradually secured probably 
the most extensive practice, especially in 
obstetrics, of any physician who ever prac- 
ticed there. He was the elevenlth member 
admitted (1848) to the Camden County Med- 
ical Society, and became its secretary and 
treasurer in 1856, and its president in 1859. 
He was one of the organizers of the Camden 



33 



City Medical Society, and a corporator of the 
Camden City Dispensary, and was secretary 
of the former from its commencement until 
1859. He was also a member of the New 
Jersey State Medical Society and its presi- 
dent in 1876. His health becoming impaired 
by overwork, he visited Europe for a few 
months. Returning somewhat benefited, he 
resumed the practice of medicine. He died 
July 25, 1882, while on a short sojourn at 
Atlantic City. He was a member of the 
First Presbyterian Church. Dr. Schenck 
married Martha McLeod, daughter of Henry 
McKeen, of Philadelphia. He left a widow 
and two daughters, one of whom is the wife 
of Major Franklin C. Woolman, of Camden. 

Dr. Peter Voorhees Schenck was a 
younger brother of Dr. J. V. Schenck and 
was born May 23, 1838. He was a student 
at Princeton College, but retired in conse- 
quence of impaired health. Upon his recov- 
ery he matriculated in medicine at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, from which he 
graduated in 1860. He began the practice 
of his profession in West Philadelphia, but 
upon the breaking out of the Civil War, in 
1861, he entered the regular army and 
served until the close of the war, when he 
resigned. In 1867 he joined his brother in 
Camden and was admitted a member of both 
of the medical societies. In the succeeding 
year he removed to St. Louis, Mo., and en- 
gaged in the practice of medicine. He was 
at one time the health officer of St. Louis 
and physician-in-chief of the female depart- 
ment of the City Hospital. He married Ruth 
Anna, daughter of John and Ruth Anna 
McCuue, of St. Louis. He died March 12, 
1885, leaving a widow and four children. 

Thomas F. Cullex was one of the few 
members of the Camden County Medical So- 
ciety who passed an examination before its 
board of censors, receiving his license June 
18, 1850. He was elected a member of the 
society in the following December. He was 
the son of Captain Thomas Cullen, of the 



Philadelphia merchant marine, and was born 
in that city September 3, 1822. He received 
his scholastic education in Mount Holly, N. 
J., to which place his parents had removed. 
Dr. Cullen studied medicine with Dr. Heber 
Chase, a surgeon of Philadelphia, and gradu- 
ated at the University of Pennsylvania in 
1844. His first field of practice was in New- 
ark, Delaware, but in 1849 he removed to 
Camden. Here his great natural abilities and 
careful training brought him promihently 
forward, especially as a surgeon, in which 
branch of the profession he became so skilled 
and successful that for the first time in its 
history Camden became independent of its 
neighbor across the Delaware for the per- 
formance of a capital surgical operation. He 
was an active member of the medical socie- 
ties, serving as president of the city and county 
societies, and of the State society in 1869. 
While a member of the former two, no com- 
mittee was complete without him. He was 
one of the corporators of the Camden Dis- 
pensary and Cooper Hospital. Of the former, 
he was two years its president, and a director 
of the latter until his death. He died No- 
vember 21, 1877. He left no issue. 

Jacob Grigg is of English descent. His 
grandfather. Rev. Jacob Grigg, was a Baptist 
missionary, sent from England to Sierra 
Leone, Africa, but his health failing, he sailed 
for America. His son, Dr. John R. Grigg, 
the father of Dr. Jacob Grigg, practiced med- 
icine at White Marsh, Pennsylvania, where 
the latter was born, June 23, 1821. Reread 
medicine with his father, and received his 
diploma from the University of Pennsylva- 
nia in 1843. In the same year he married 
Mary, daughter of John Bruner, of Mont- 
gomery County, in that State, in the mean- 
while practicing medicine in conjunction with 
his fiither. In 1 844 Dr. Jacob Grigg removed 
to Bucks County, and from thence, in 1849, 
to Blackwood, in Camden County, New Jer- 
sey. On June 18, 1849, the board of censors 
of the Camden County Medical Society re- 



34 



ported that Dr. Grigg had passed a successful 
examination and had received a license to 
practice in the State. At the serai-annual 
meeting of the society, held December 19th 
of that year, he was elected a member. He 
was burned out in 1852 and removed to 
Pennsylvania, at which time his name was 
dropped from the roll of the society. Re- 
turning in a few months to Camden County, 
he remained until 1857, when he left this 
county* and settled in the adjoining one 
of Burlington. His present residence is Mt. 
Holly. 

Robert M. Smallivood belonged to an 
old Gloucester County family. He was the 
son of John C. and Mary Smallwood, of 
Woodbury, and was born August 20, 1827. 
Adopting the profession of medicine, he en- 
tered the University of Pennsylvania, where 
he graduated in 1849. He at once located in 
Chews Landing and continued in practice there 
fortwo years. He joined the Camden County 
Medical Society June 19, 1849. In the 
year 1851 he entered the United States Navy, 
and in 1852 was assigned to duty upon the 
ship " Levant" and sailed for the Mediterra- 
nean. While upon this cruise his health 
failed him, and returning home, he died of 
phthisis, February 8, 1856. He married Mrs. 
Mary A. F. Gest in 1850, and had four 
children. 

John I. Jessup. — At a meeting of the 
Camden County Medical Society held at 
Camden, June 19, 1849, the society adjourned 
for a few hours to give the " board of censors 
an opportunity to examine candidates for a 
license to practice medicine in the State." At 
half-past two o'clock Dr. Isaac S. Mulford, 
president of the board, reported that after a 
satisfactory examination they had granted 
licenses to " Dr. Theodore H. Varick, of 
Hudson County ; Dr. John I. Jessup, of At- 
lantic County ; and Dr. John W. Snowden, 
of Camden County." At the semi-annual 
meeting, held on December 18th, of this 
year. Dr. Jessup was elected a member of the 



society. He was a grandson of Josiah Albert- 
son, who kept the old hotel in Blue Anchor 
from 1812 until the Camden and Atlantic 
Railroad was built, in 1852. 

Dr. Jessup graduated at the Jeiferson Med- 
ical College in 1848, and seems to have prac- 
ticed for a short time in Camden County. 
Soon after joining its society he removed to 
Somers Point, in Atlantic County. In 1852 
he became prostrated by phthisis, which 
caused him to return to Blue Anchor, where 
he soon afterwards died.^ 

Sylvester Birdsell's parentage was of 
Pennsylvania origin. His father, James 
Birdsell, married Mary Pyle, both of Ches- 
ter County, in that State. Their son Syl- 
vester was, however, born in Baltimore, JNId., 
August 21, 1824. He was of a studious 
turn of mind, and taught school while at- 
tending medical lectures at the Jefferson 
Medical College, from which he graduated 
in 1848. Dr. Birdsell commenced the prac- 
tice of medicine at Point Pleasant, Bucks 
County, Pa. In 1850 he moved to what was 
then known as South Camden, N. J., where 
he opened a drug store and began practicing 
medicine. In the same year he joined the 
County Medical Society, becoming its presi- 
dent in 1858. He was one of the organizers 
of the city society. His knowledge aiid 
ability secured for him a professorship in the 
"Woman's Medical College " of Philadel- 
phia, a position he held for some time. Dr. 
Birdsell married Jane B. Laird, whose death 
preceded by several years his own, which oc- 
curred May 29, 1883. He was buried in 
Evergreen Cemetery. He left two daugh- 
ters and one son, Rudolph W. Birdsell, who 
for a long time has been connected with the 
Camden Fii"e Insurance Association. 

William G. Thomas was born in Phila- 
delphia, January 16, 1826. He was the son 
of Stephen and Sallie Thomas. He com- 
menced the study of medicine in Columbia, 

1 Somers' " Medical History of Atlantic County." 



35 



Lancaster County, Pa,, under Dr. Filbert, of 
that place, and attended medical lectures at 
the Pennsylvania Medical College, in Phila- 
delphia, from which he graduated in 1854. 
Although the law did not then require it, he 
passed an examination before the board of 
censors of the New Jersey State Medical 
Society, at Trenton, on May 14, 1854, and 
then began the practice of medicine in Cam- 
den, He became a member of the Camden 
County Medical Society in 1857. He had 
joined the city society upon his location in 
Camden and had taken an active interest in its 
proceedings. Dr. Thomas died of dysen- 
tery August 17, 1858. He had a hard strug- 
gle during his short professional career in 
Camden and after his death the city society 
paid his funeral expenses. He married, 
February 7, 1854, Margaret Cramsie, of Phil- 
adelphia, and left one child. 

The three following physicians all practiced 
in Blackwood, but none of them were ever 
connected with either the Camden County 
or City Medical Societies. Dr. WillIam 
Holmes located there between 1845 and 
1847. Although he is said to have graduated 
at the University of Pennsylvania, his name 
is not in the list of graduates of that institution. 
He removed to Greenwich, IST. J. Dr. F. 
RiDGELEY Graham was a physician in the 
same town between 1850 and 1858. He was 
a native of Chillicothe, O., where he began 
the study of medicine, completing his education 
at the Jefferson Medical College, from which 
he graduated in 1850. He removed to Ches- 
ter, Pa. The third one was Dr. Alex- 
ander J. McKelway, son of Dr. John 
McKelway, of Trenton, N. J., who was born 
in Scotland December 6, 1813. He graduat- 
ed at the Jeiferson Medical College in 1834. 
Between the years 1858 and 1861 he pursued 
his profession in Blackwood. On September 
14th of the latter year he entered the volun- 
teer service as surgeon of the Eighth New 
Jersey Regiment and continued with it until 
April 7, 1864, when he. resigned. He died 



at Williamstown, Gloucester County, X. J., 
November 8, 1885. 

Within the same decade Dr. Jesse S. Zane 
Sellers, son of Jesse and Rebecca Sellers, of 
Philadelphia, opened an office in Camden. 
He had received his medical education at the 
University of Pennsylvania, from which 
institution he graduated in 1852. He be- 
came a member of the Camden City Medical 
Society in September, 1854, and faithfully 
served through the cholera epidemic of that 
autumn. Soon afterward he removed to 
Minnesota and engaged in mining. He lived 
only a few years after his removal to the 
West. 

Napoleon Bonaparte Jennings was 
twenty-eight years a member of the Camden 
County Medical Society and was its president 
in 1861. He died of phthisis at Haddon- 
field, April 17, 1885. The doctor was the 
son of Stacy and Sarah Jennings, and was 
born at Manahawkin, N. J., April 22, 1831. 
He was educated at the Woodstock Academy, 
Connecticut, and then entered the office of 
Dr. Budd, of Medford, N. J,, to pursue the 
study of medicine, and graduated at the Jef- 
ferson Medical College, of Philadelphia, in 
1856. He immediately entered upon the 
practice of medicine in Haddonfield, where 
he soon gained the confidence of the com- 
munity by his professional attainments and 
his excellent social qualities. He was pos- 
sessed of a singularly genial nature, which 
overflowed in kindness to all and gained for 
him the universal good will of the communi- 
ty in which he lived and practiced for nearly 
thirty years, and attained for him one of the 
largest practices ever secured by a physician 
in West Jersey. 

He married Mary, daughter of Joshua P. 
and Amelia Browning, of Haddonfield, who 
survives him with a family of seven children. 
He was a consistent member of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church. 

Henry Ackley virtually belonged to 
Camden, although born in Philadelphia, Jan- 



36 



uaiy 29, 1837. His grandfather, Thomas 
Ackley, as early as 1800, kept the old store 
at the foot of Federal Street, which was 
demolished a few years ago. His mother, nee 
Barclay, the widow of Lieutenant-Comman- 
der McCauley, United States Navy, married 
Thomas Ackley, cashier of the State Bank 
at Camden. Dr. Ackley received a liberal 
education, and studied medicine with Pro- 
fessors E. Wallace and William Keating, of 
Philadelphia, and graduated at the Jefferson 
Medical College in 1858. He began prac- 
tice in Camden and joined the county and 
city societies, and was secretary of the former 
in 1859 and 1860. At the commencement 
of the Civil War he entered the United States 
Navy, as surgeon, on July 20, 1861, and 
was assigned to duty in the Philadelphia 
Navy- Yard. Towards the close of the year 
he was ordered to the United States ship 
"Wissahickon," of the East Gulf Blockad- 
ing Squadron, and served under Admiral 
Porter in the capture of New Orleans and 
in the campaign against Vicksburg. In 
1863 he was transferred to the flag-ship 
" San Jacinto," and was acting surgeon-in- 
chief of the squadron. While on this vessel 
he was attacked with yellow fever, which so 
impaired his naturally feeble constitution 
that he was ordered to the United States 
receiving ship " Vermont," at New York, 
in 1864. He died in Camden, of phthisis, 
December 1, 1865. The year previous he 
married Sallie, daughter of Hon. Richard 
Wilkins, of Camden. He left one son, who 
died in infancy. 

William S. Bishop, surgeon of the 
United States Navy, an honorary member of 
the Camden County Medical Society, died De- 
cember 28, 1868. Dr. Bishop was connected 
with the navy from an early period of his 
professional life. He had seen service in 
most parts of the globe. Several years ago, 
while on duty with the squadron on the 
coast of Africa, he suffered from a severe at- 
tack of coast fever, from the effects of which 



he never entirely recovered. He was pro 
nounced by a medical commission unfit for 
further sea service, but was employed on 
shore duty at the various naval stations. At 
the breaking out of the Rebellion Dr. Bishop 
was on duty at the navy -yard at Pensacola, 
Fla., where, in common with the other naval 
officers, he was obliged to give his parole not 
to engage in service against the Confederacy 
before he was permitted to return North. 
When not employed in service, he resided in 
Camden for a number of years previous to 
his death. Shortly after his return to the 
latter place he was ordered to the navy-yard 
at Mare Island, in California, where he re- 
mained during the whole period of the war. 
He came home much impaired in health, but 
was employed again on naval medical com- 
missions of great responsibility ; he was 
finally ordered to the United States Naval 
Asylum, at Philadelphia, as chief surgeon, at 
which post he died on December 28, 1868, of 
a complication of diseases, ending in general 
dropsy.^ Dr. Bishop was a member of the 
Camden City Society as well as the County 
Society. 

Thomas J. Smith became a member of 
the Camden County Medical Society on June 
18, 1867. He was born in Salem, N. J., 
April 21, 1841, and is the son of Peter and 
Elizabeth Smith. He was educated at 
Williams College, Massachusetts, graduating 
in 1862. He attended medical lectures in the 
University of Pennsylvania, and received his 
degree of M.D. in March, 1866. He began 
the practice of medicine in Camden. He 
joined the Camden City Medical Society in 
March, 1867, and became its secretary the 
same year, continuing in office until his re- 
moval to Bridgeton, early in the year 1868. 
Dr. Smith is a member of the New Jersey 
State Medical Society and is chairman of its 
standing committee. He married, March 28, 
1871, Mary L., daughter of Rev. Elisha V. 

1 Transactions of New Jersey State Medical Society, 
1869. 



37 



and Matilda B. Glover, of Haddonfield. Dr. 
Smith is a prominent practitioner in Bridge- 
ton. 

Joseph W. McCullough fell a victim 
to the severest epidemic of typhus fever that 
ever attacked the almshouse in Blackwood, 
Camden County, literally dying at his post 
of duty, of that disease, March 15, 1881, 
after a service of nine years as attending 
physician at that institution. He was the 
son of Andrew and Eunice McCullough, and 
was born in Wilmington, Del., August 12, 
1837. He studied medicine with Dr. Chand- 
ler, of that city, and graduated at the Jeffer- 
son Medical College in 1860. When the 
Civil War broke out, in 1861, he was one of 
the first to offer his services to the govern- 
ment, and was appointed surgeon of the First 
Delaware Regiment. After the close of the 
war he joined the regular army, and was 
sent to New Orleans, and thence to Alabama. 
In consequence of impaired health he resign- 
ed, and in 1866 located as a practitioner of 
medicine at Blackwood. In 1880 he and Dr. 
Brannin, his co-laborer, were appointed phy- 
sicians to the County Insane Asylum. Dr. 
McCullough joined the Camden County 
Medical Society in 1871. He married, 
March 9, 1876, Sarah E., only daughter of 
Richard C. Stevenson, of Blackwood. His 
widow and two children survive him. 

Charles F. Clarke practiced medicine 
for over forty years in Gloucester County. 
He retired in 1868 and moved to Camden, 
becoming an honorary member of the City 
Societv in 1869 and continuing: his connec- 
tion with it until his death, in 1875. He was 
born near Paulsboro', Gloucester County, 
N. J., August 12, 1800. He was educated 
at Woodbury and at Burlington, and then 
entered the counting-room of Mr. Hollings- 
head, in Philadelphia. In the year 1820, 
being in poor health, he went as supercargo 
to the West Indies : returning, he commenced 
the study of medicine and graduated at the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1823. In 



connection with his cousin, Dr. John Y. 
Clarke, of Philadelphia, he opened a drug 
store at the corner of Fifth and Race Streets, 
in that city. This he soon abandoned, and 
then began the practice of medicine in 
Clarksboro', Gloucester County, N. J., thence 
he went to Paulsboro', and in 1835 to Wood- 
bury, in the same county, where he lived for 
thirty-two years and attended to the largest 
practice in that section of the county. Dr. 
Clarke accumulated a considerable fortune. 
One of his daughters, Eva C, married Dr. 
Randall W. Morgan, His son, Dr. Henry 
C. Clarke, succeeded to his father's practice 
and is one of the leading physicians in 
Gloucester County. 

Randal W. Morgan was born near 
Black woodtown, Camden County, June 5, 
1848, and was a son of Randal E. and Mary 
(Willard) Morgan. He attended the West 
Jersey Academy, at Bridgeton, and later the 
University of Lewisburgh, Pa. In 1864 he 
was appointed midshipman at the Naval 
Academy at Annapolis, which position he 
was obliged to resign because of an attack of 
typhoid fever, from which he never fully re- 
covered. Shortly afterward he commenced 
his medical studies under Dr. Brannin, of 
Blackwood town, continuing them at the 
University of Pennsylvania, and graduating 
from that institution in 1870. Two years 
later he took the degree of Doctor of Phil- 
osophy. In 1877 he was elected county 
physician, an office he held for five years. 
During the small-pox epidemic, in 1872, he 
had charge of the small-pox hospital, and 
labored unselfishly among the victims of that 
disease. In 1881, much broken in health, 
he sailed for Europe, and was much benefited 
by his sojourn there ; but upon returning to 
practice soon succumbed again to ill health, 
and in August, 1883, was obliged to re- 
linquish the duties of his profession. He 
sailed again for Europe in 1884, intending, 
while there, to visit some of the hospitals in 
the cholera-infested portions of France and 



38 



Italy, but, owing to aggravation of his mala- 
dies, abandoned the project, and sailing for 
home, died when three days out from Liver- 
pool, October 20, 1884. 

Dr. Morgan was a very active man, dili- 
gent in the practice of his profession, 
studious and quite successful. Speaking of his 
skillful management of the small-pox hos- 
pital, heretofore alluded to, Dr. R. M. 
Cooper, in his report to the Xew Jersey State 
Medical Society, said : " We have obtained 
(from Dr. Morgan) some valuable statistics 
in regard to the disease and its mode of 
treatment ; and it is but just to him to State 
tiiat the ratio of mortality of the cases under 
his care compare very favorably with other 
small-pox hospitals." 

He carried on for several years a drug- 
store, and was a member of both the Camden 
County and Camden City Medical Societies. 

He was married January 15, 1876, to Eva, 
daughter of Dr. Charles F. Clarke, late of 
Camden, who survives him. 

James A. Aemstroxg was born in Phila- 
delphia, June 12, 1835, and was the son of 
James and Mary Armstrong. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools, and graduated 
from the Philadelphia High School. He 
eno;aged in the drug business and obtained a 
diploma from the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy in 1855, and then purchased a 
drug store at the corner of Fourth and 
Thompson Streets, in his native city. Subse- 
quently he studied medicine, graduating from 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1861. In 
September of the latter year Dr. Armstrong 
was appointed assistant surgeon in a Penn- 
sylvania regiment, and was assigned to the 
Army of the Potomac, in Virginia. After 
three years of military duty in the field he 
returned home, and was attached to the 
Satterlee Hospital until the close of the war. 
He then removed to Camden, and purchased 
a drug store on Federal Street, above Third, 
which he afterwards moved to Market, above 
the same street. In a few years he relin- 



quished the drug business, began the practice 
of medicine and joined the Camden County 
Medical Society in 1876. He was surgical 
examiner for pensions in Camden since the 
close of the war, and when the United States 
Board of Pensions was established in that 
city, in 1884, he was appointed one of its 
three members. In 1871 he was coroner of 
Camden City. Dr. Armstrong was an elder 
in the Presbyterian Church. He died of 
apoplexy on October 30, 1885, leaving a 
widow and three daughters. 

J. Xewtox Achuff was a native of 
Germantown, Pa. He commenced his medi- 
cal education with Dr. Lemuel J. Deal, of 
Philadelphia, and completed it at the Jeffer- 
son Medical College, graduating in 1867. 
He at once commenced the practice of his 
profession in South Camden, and in the same 
year (1867) joined both the Camden City and 
County Societies. He was at once appointed 
a visiting physician of the Camden City Dis- 
pensary. In the year 1869 he left Camden 
and entered the service of the government as 
a contract surgeon, and was assigned to duty 
in Alaska, and subsequently in California, in 
which State he died about 1872. 

James H. Wroth is the son of the late 
James W. Wroth, of Camden, whose widow 
and her family have removed from the city. 
Dr. Wroth obtained his medical education at 
the University of Pennsylvania, where he 
graduated in 1878. He commenced the 
practice of medicine in Camden, and in 
1879 attached himself to both the Camden 
City and County Societies. While an interne 
of the Camden City Dispensary the small- 
pox epidemic of 1880 occurred in that city, 
during which Dr. Wroth distinguished liim- 
self by his attendance upon the sick (poor) 
with that disease. He is now a resident of 
Xew Mexico. 

Isaac B. Mulford belonged to an old 
and influential family in South Jersey. He 
was born in Millville, X. J., in 1843. He 
was educated at the West Jersey Academy, 



39 



at Bridgeton, at Monticello Seminary, New 
York, and at Princeton College, from which 
he graduated with honor in the class of 1865. 
He studied medicine with Dr. William Hunt, 
of Philadelphia, and attended lectures at the 
University of Pennsylvania. His studies 
being interrupted by severe illness, he could 
not receive his degree of Doctor of Medicine 
until 1871. He began the practice of medi- 
cine ill Camden, and became a member of 
both the Camden County and Camden City 
Medical Societies, and was elected treasurer of 
the former in 1874, and president in 1881. 
For several years prior to his death he was 
surgeon of the Sixth Regiment National 
Guards of New Jersey. He was also phy- 
sician of the West Jersey Orphanage, a mem- 
ber of the New Jersey Sanitary Association 
and the Camden Microscopical Society.^ 
Dr. IMulford and the Rev. Joseph F. Garri- 
.sou, honorary member of the Camden County 
Society, were the only resident physicians in 
the coimty who were ever graduates of the 
College of New Jersey. Dr. Mulford died 
in Camden, November 21, 1882. He left a 
fine library of medical works to the Camden 
City Dispensary. 

1 Transactions New Jersey State Medical Society, 
1883. 



William G. Taylor, a former mem- 
ber of the Camden City Medical Society, 
was the son of Dr. R. G. and Eleonora Tay- 
lor, of Camden. He was born in Philadel- 
phia, July 20, 1851, and was educated in the 
public schools in Camden. At the age of 
seventeen he entered the drug-store of Jo- 
seph Riley and attended two courses of lec- 
tures at the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy. He then commenced the study of 
medicine and graduated at the Jefferson 
Medical College in 1873. For a short time 
he was one of the visiting physicians for the 
Dispensary, but he had been preparing for 
the work of a missionary under the auspices 
of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions. On June 11, 1873, he sailed from 
New York for Africa. His station was Ga- 
boon, on the west coast, and his duty was to 
visit monthly, or oftener if called upon, the 
stations between it and Benita, a point one 
hundred miles north. The mode of travel- 
ling was by sea in an open boat, five and 
one-half feet wide by twenty-six feet long. 
This exposed life and repeated attacks of Af- 
rican fever broke down his health, and after 
two years' labor there he returned home, and 
died April 8, 1877. He was buried in Ever- 
green Cemetery.