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Mendocino and Lake 



Biographical S/^etches 


The Leading Men and Women of the Counties who have 

been Identified with their G?vivth and 

Development from the Early 

Days to the Present 


AuRELius O. Carpenter and Percy H. Millberry 








Organization and Legislative History of Mendocino County 17 

Topography of the county — Assessed valuation — Soil — Spanish grants — 
Boundary settlements — First county officers elected — Division into super- 
visorial districts — Bonds issued for purchase of bridges — Appropriations for 
support of institutions — Resources — Rain abundant — Crops plentiful — Early 
real estate transactions — State and county officers. 


Anderson Township 37 

Comprises the watershed of Navarro river — Area — Climate and products — 
Early settlement — Township heavily timbered — Sawmills — Access to town- 
ship — Yorkville, Boonville, Philo, Hermitage — Lodges — Notable citizens of 
former days. 


Arena Township 41 

Location and area — Products — Timber outlook — Point Arena the chief town 
— Early settlement — Gualala, Bourne's Landing, Fish Rock, Manchester, 
Bridgeport — First mill in the township — Other mills — Secret societies — 
Building of the lighthouse — Newspapers — Chronology. 


Big River Township 50 

Township boundaries — Rivers and streams — Early settlement — Mendocino 
the chief town — Business houses and newspapers — Secret societies — The 
liarbor — Salmon Creek, Albion, Little River and Caspar — Chronology. 


Ten JIile Township _ 61 

Township heavily timbered — One of the longest beaches in the county — 
Story of township centers around Fort Bragg — Early history and settle- 
ment of the township — Business enterprises — Chronology — Cleone, New- 
port and Glen Blair — Banks — Secret societies. 


Ukiah Township ^ . 69 

Lies in valley of Russian River — Soil and climate — Products — Early settle- 
ment — First deed placed on record — Newspapers — First store and first 
church — Ukiah incorporated — Banks — Chronology — Mendocino State Hos- 
pital for the Insane — Watering places and liealth resorts — County farm — 
Fraternal orders. 


Potter Valley Township 83 

Location and general characteristics — Incorporation of Potter Vallej- — 
First settlers in the valley — Early happenings — Snow Mountain Water and 
Power Company — Soil and Products — Fraternal orders. 



Sanel Township 88 

Lies on tributaries of Russian River — Soil and Climate — To%vnship formerly 
covered by grant — Hermitage and Hopland — Railroad facilities. 


Round Valley Township 92 

Takes its name from the valley — Early settlement — First sawmill — Nome 
culture station — Covelo — Lodges — Features of interest outside of valley 


Long Valley Township 99 

Boundaries and shape — First settlers — Cahto and Laj'tonville — A bear 
story — Mud Springs. 


Cupfet's Cove Township 103 

Origin of name — Navarro River and other streams — Greenwood — The L. E. 
White lumber interests — Beneficial societies — Navarro. 


Little Lake Township 108 

Area of township — Early settlers — Town started on the Baechtel Ranch — 
Sawmills in the township — Willits — Secret societies — Willits visited by 
fire — Chronolog}-. 


Westport Township 116 

Nature of soil and climate — Beginnings of the town of Westport — Milling 
interests — Game abundant. 


Eakly History of Lake County 120 

This county often referred to as Switzerland of America — Topographical 
features — Early Lidian inhabitants — Legend of Konocti — Mexican land 


First White Settlers in Lake County 124 

Salvador Vallejo first settler— .Adventurous career of Stone and Kelsey— .\ 
night attack upon the Indians — The massacre of Stone and Kelsey — Govern- 
ment punishes tlie Indians— First permanent settlement — Establishment of 


Org.vnization op the County 131 

Act defining boundaries and providing for organization of county — Peregri- 
nation of the county seat — Lower Lake Township— Destruction of Cache 
Creek dam — Vigilance committee seize officers and tear out dam — Water 
company sues the county. 



Lakeport and Other Towns 137 

First store in Lakeport — Clear Lake College instituted — Clear Lake Union 
High School — Banks — Newspapers — Lakeport incorporated in 1888 — 
Kelseyville — Upper Lake — Bean canning — Middletown. 


Some op the Resources of Lake County 143 

The Sulphur Banks Quicksilver mine — Mineral springs — Roads — Fruit 
growing — Clear Lake water utilization — The Central Counties Land Com- 
pany bubble — The Yolo Water and Power Company operations — County 
development — Railroad projects. 


Officials, Schools, Churches and Fraternities 151 

Officials who have served Lake County since its organization — History of 
schools in the county — Methodist Episcopal the pioneer ctiurch — Odd 
Fellow and Masonic organizations. 



Abramson, John 882 

Adamson, Edward F 582 

Adamson, John M 416 

Akins, Augustus M 181 

Albonico, Lorenzo 900 

Aldrich, Charles A 746 

Allen, W. Ivy 266 

Alley, Samuel H 1010 

Allison, Lorence E 201 

Anderson, George P 736 

Anderson, Hans 347 

Anderson, Rush M 929 

Andreani, James 669 

Anker, Neil 340 

Annette, James W 511 

Armstrong, Louis 516 

Armstrong, William J 403 

Aulin, Frank F 811 


Babcock, Lyman W 259 

Baechtel. Gordon 440 

Baechtel, Luther S 849 

Baechtel, Samuel S 936 

Baker. .Martin V 329 

Balderston, Thomas D 365 

Balfour, William C 956 

Ball. Dreeme L 842 

Bank of Willits 839 

Banks, John R 749 

Barnard. Leonard 262 

Barnes, Thomas L 540 

Bartlett, Nathan 688 

Baylis, Percy C 250 

Beggs, Thomas H 924 

Behr, Capt. John 1007 

Belio & AUue 989 

Berkowitz, Harman 915 

Bernhard, Clarence A 477 

Berrettini. Pietro 902 

Berry, John E 985 

Berryhill. Joseph T 308 

Biaggi, Bartholomew 675 

Biggar, George M 930 

Biggar, William J 942 

Biggerstaff, Mrs. Harriet C 298 

Biggerstaff. William J 791 

Bingham. Charles W 701 

Bishop, Howard 81.S 

Bittenbender. Stephen K 852 

Blosser, Daniel J 655 

Blosser. Jacob 587 

Blosser, John A 654 

Blosser, J. Tobias 640 

Blue Lake School District 881 

Roardman, Wilfred L 824 

Boggs. James W 964 

Lilburn H 345 

s, Hon. Lilburn W 314 

Boggs, William F 633 

Bond, John T 351 

Bonham, John W 893 

Bonham, Richard D 994 

Boone, Peter T 285 

Bourns, Richard 848 

Bourns, Richard T 848 

Boyd, George A 1012 

Boyle, Thomas E 409 

Bradford, Christopher W 410 

Brandon, David 833 

Branscomb, Benjamin F 1022 

Branscomb, Charles W 665 

Brennan, Rev. Sebastian 886 

Brett, James 993 

Brien, John :... 612 

Briggs, Moses C 270 

Briggs, Ulysses N 579 

Broback, Clarence W 748 

Broback, Fernando W....;. 591 

Brookes, Samuel E 627 

Brower, John D 621 

Brower, Joseph T 687 

Brown, Edward E : 342 

Brown, Lloyd W 892 

Brubeck, P. W 1014 

Brundige, Joseph A 382 

Brush, Dennie A 927 

Bruton, Josiah J 775 

Bruton. W. W. P 586 

Bryant, E. E 941 

Bucknell, Charles M 371 

Burbeck, Charles L 958 

Burke, Isaac C 684 

Burke, James H 339 

Burriss, Lewis C 895 

Burton, Mrs. Sarah E. F... 963 

Busch, John G 962 

Byrnes, Ralph R 300 


Cameron, George A 396 

Cameron, William A 944 

Camp, Frederick H., D. D. S 452 

Carothers, Thomas L 184 

Carpenter, A. 1 652 

Carpenter, Mrs. Helen M 653 

Gary, Earl J 671 

Gary, George E 563 

Gary, Louis H 671 

Chambers, Alfred J 889 

Christy, John H 861 

Church. Joseph M 361 

Churchill, Heber B 573 

Cittoni, Clemente 691 

Clark, Byron ; 195 

Clarke, Joseph H 1019 

Clayton, William J 636 

Clear Lake Railroad Company 968 

Cochard, Oscar 643 

Cocking, Nicholas 710 

Commercial Bank of Ukiah 400 

Connolly, P 842 

Coombs, Silas •. 1035 

Coombs, Silas W : 559 

Coombs, William B 1029 

Cotton, Joel S 733 

Cowen, John W 906 

Cox. Dabney L 505 

Cox, Thomas W 1001 

Crawford, John 950 

Crawford, Wayne L 952 

Cruickshank, George 534 

Cummings, Frank A 1025 

Curley, Charles M 547 

Curtis, Carleton A 490 


Dahl, Charles E 966 

Daily, George L 782 

Daniels. George A 1013 

Dartt, Robert J 910 

Davidson, Allen 869 

Davidson, Allen 945 

Davidson, William C 445 

Del Grosso, Amadeo 901 

Denison, James H 227 

Dennis, Amos 569 

Devereux, John 907 

Devilbiss, George A 548 

Dewell, Benjamin 809 

Dewell, Mrs. Celia H 681 

Dewell, Samuel M 810 

Dickie, Walter B 400 

Dill. John M 1017 

Dilling, Andrew Albert 446 

Dilling, Joseph H 1021 

Dixon. William H 951 

Dodge. William K 506 

Donnelley, William F 840 

Donohoe, Jeremiah H 796 

Donohoe, Robert E 796 

Donohue. Michael 692 

Dooley, Elijah 492 

Dooley, Franklin W 788 

Dowd, John E 649 

Drewry, Irvin H 495 

Drewry. John P 495 

Drewry, Sarah E 495 

Dryden, Robert J 3.^3 

Duffield. Jesse C 661 

Dunbar. Walter S 853 

Duncan. Frank .364 

Duncan, George W 735 

Duncan, Ralph T 245 

Duncan, Sa'Tiuel 246 

Duncan, William 368 

Dunlap. James L 1032 

Dutcher, Ida 694 


Ebbinghausen, Frank 702 

Ebbinghausen, Henry F 702 

Edmands, William 166 

Edwards, James 979 

Elliott. William B 683 

Ells, George H 464 

Enderlin, Ernest 200 

English, Daniel P 451 

English, Wylie 676 

Exley, Mrs. Rosa D 222 


Farmers Savings Bank. Lakeport 288 

Farnsworth, Silas B 441 

Favreliere, E 539 

Fee, George H 996 

Fifield, George W 260 

Finne, Louis 838 

First National Bank, Fort Bragg 799 

Fitch, Ernest E 990 

Flowers, Prof. Chester D 265 

Ford. James A 662 

Ford, William 294 

Ford, William K 981 

Forse, William H 412 

Foster, A. W 863 

Foster, R. N 863 

F;oster, W. A. S 839 

Foushee, Edwin C 697 

Foye, Henry M 518 

Franklin, David, ^L D 325 

P'raser, John K 317 

Eraser, Lyon 388 

Frazer, James 778 

French, James A 988 

Fuller, W^illiam F 704 

G - 

Galletti, Charles 927 

Gamberg, August 922 

Gambrel, Edward 193 

Garner, Fred W 931 

Garner, John F 608 

Garner. John R 252 

Garner, Leland J 574 

Caspar, Manuel 901 

Gavin, John 953 

Gibbs, George H 956 

Gibson, Edwin 431 

Gibson, John R 829 

Goforth, Frank M 908 

Goforth, George W 910 

Golden. George 613 

Goldsmith, William C 188 

Good, Prof. Roy 797 

Goodwin, Charles 790 

Gordon, George R 405 

Gowan, Ernest .-X 874 

Graham, Nathan 532 

Graham. Willis N _ 770 

Granholm, John 1 976 

Grant. George W 656 

Gravier, Edward A 790 

Green. Arthur W 467 

Greenough. Ralph C 628 

Gregory, Lester C, M. D 841 

Grindle, Joshua 911 

Grist. John W 987 

Grothe Brothers ;1043 

Gruwell. Will W 894 

Guenza, John _ 550 

Gummerus. lohn F 900 

Gunn, James A 281 


Hall, Frank K 926 

Hall, Parker L 828 

Halliday, Joseph C 224 

Ham, John T 946 

Hamer, George L 759 

Hammond, Col. Charles M 160 

Handv. Fred C 291 

Handy, Percy W 806 

Handy, Philo 806 

Hanen, William 789 

Hansen, Chris 390 

Hansen, Hans P 63S 

Hansen, Henry 719 

Hanson, John E 922 

Hanson, Rufus T 914 

Harden, P. 975 

Hargrave, Charles M 617 

Hargrave, Walter 570 

Harrington, Harry 798 

Harris, James A 276 

Harris, Joseph W 800 

Haskett, Guy 372 

Haskett, Mrs. Miranda B 540 

Haun, Andrew 1027 

Haydon, Mrs. Eugenia 988 

Haydon, Hiram B 875 

Heckendorf, Henry D 859 

Heeser, William 850 

Helm. Mrs. A. M 727 

Hemenway, Charles L 670 

Hendricks, Greenbury 470 

Hendricks, John B 470 

Hendricks, LaFayette 207 

Herrick, Hamlin W 458 

Herrick, Silas B 459 

Hewlett, George 1033 

Heyward, George T 174 

Heyward, Jesse 442 

Hildreth, William J 744 

Himmehvright, Edwin Y 528 

Hoberg, Gustav 595 

Hoberg, Max G 595 

Hoberg. Mrs. Mathilda 595 

Hoffman, John P 320 

Hogshead, John S., M. D 601 

Holbrook, Eugene E 307 

Holzhauser, L. J 747 

Hopland Stock Farm 863 

Hopper, Laurance C 858 

Howard, Peter M 378 

Howe, Newton P 729 

Hudson, Taliaferro F 738 

Huggins, Eri 804 

Hunter, William C 871 

Hurt, Andrew J •. 484 

Hurt, Charles H 178 

Hutsell, Robert T 730 

Hyvari & Karjamaki 903 


Incerti, Romeo 907 

Ingram, Daniel C 677 

Irvine. Charles A 666 

Irwin, Hettie 303 

Iversen. M. H 373 


Jago, Louis 995 

Jefferson, Alexander 428 

Johnson, David T 199 

Johnson, Hans C 525 

Johnson, John C 4-S7 

Johnson, Matthew 939 

Jones, Alpheus Z 249 

Jones, Eli V 872 

Jones, Herbert M 885 

Jones, John W 728 

Jones, P. C 629 


Kaarto, Rev. Otto 982 

Keeling, Herbert V 377 

Keithly, Jacob A 1000 

Kelley, James W 967 

Kelly, William H 846 

Kennedy, Albert H 222 

Kennedy, Alexander W 221 

Kennedy, Hiram 218 

Kennedy, Thomas 1016 

Kent, Nathaniel W 217 

Kerr, James M 346 

Kesey, James A 1009 

Kiblinger, George W 1030 

Kimball. John S 754 

Knight, Charles L 965 

Kuhn, Charles 1013 


Lake County Title & Abstract Co 982 

Lakeport Public Library 694 

Lamb, Mrs. Elizabeth A 882 

LaMotte, Harry D 918 

Langermann, Fred 356 

Langland. Mrs. Clora 255 

Lappinen. Andrew 966 

Larsen, Carl L 870 

Lendrum, Birney A., M. D 1002 

LeValley, Don Z 906 

Lewis, George C 304 

Lewis, William 959 

Liftchild, Judson, M. D 384 

Lind, John 447 

Lindstrom, John H 971 

Little, Henry W 721 

"Lobree, Philip 582 

Long, Edward H 214 

Loring, Fred N 581 

Lovell, Henry S 818 

Lowell, A. J 1024 

Lundquist, Amelia 1005 

Lundquist, Levi 1003 

Lynch. Martin L 821 

Lyon, George A 825 


MacKerricher. Duncan 499 

McAbee, Samuel T 867 

McCabe, William B 938 

McCarty, Eugene G 868 

McCowen, Hale 171 

McCracken. Joseph L 873 

McDonald. Alexander C 432 


^IcDonald, A. W 908 

McElroy, Harry L 765 

McFauI, Charles A 544 

McGee, Hugh P 954 

McGlashan, John 193 

Mclntire, Charles S12 

Mclntire, David F 515 

Mclntire. Murdock 51- 

McKinley, Charles 622 

McKinley, George E 489 

McKinley, Sidney H 486 

McKinney, Harold H 812 

McPeak, Eugene 324 

^IcSpadden, James 357 

Malpas, Lathrop, M. D 355 

jMannon, James M 243 

IManzini, A, & Co 876 

Markkula, Matt 183 

Marshall, Robert E 1027 

Alartella, Pietro 234 

Martin, Stephen B T^^ 

Martinazzi, Martin 877 

Mason, James D 575 

JNIathews, Charles W 313 

Mathews, Charles W 405 

Mathews, Shafter 238 

Mathison, Charles J 1017 

Mattern, Herman §69 

May, Charles F 553 

Meddaugh, Oscar E 362 

Mendenhall, Adolphus 272 

Mendenhall, Joseph 823 

Mendocino State Hospital 172 

Mero. Charles W 915 

Middleton, Granville A 510 

Millar, David 947 

Millberry, Percy H 699 

Miller, Curtis A 483 

INIiller, Fritz F 720 

Miller, G. Milton 743 

Milliken, Horace F 211 

Mills, Mrs. Lucinda M 387 

Montague, Henry W 992 

Montgomery, J. A 740 

Moore & Bacon ; 707 

Alorgan, Lauriston A 835 

Morrell, Albert F 933 

Morris, William 602 

^lorris, W. R 196 

Morrison, Frederick L 533 

Morrison, George E 708 

^Morrison, Samuel L 708 

Morrison, William S 883 

Jilorton, John J 834 

I\losier, Francis L 991 

Moulton, Arthur F 1042 

Muir, Henry B 659 

Mulson, Henry 522 


Neal, George H 229 

Nelson, Gust 414 

Nelson, J. A 832 

Newman, John G 630 

Nichalson, William J 693 

Noel. Mrs. Alonzo E 983 

Noel. Frank W 176 

Nonella, Peter y^" 

Norton, Frank J 891 

Nott, J. Ridley. ^I. D 949 

O'Neal, Philip 944 

Olson, A. B |e7 

Olson, Mrs. A. B »»» 

Ordway, Ed 10|1 

Ordway, Ira ^1 

Ornbaun, William F »»" 

Orr, Samuel 'S^^ 

Orr, Samuel M 76U 

Osborn, George K., M. D 439 

Overholser, John 9''* 


Packwood, John 1 468 

Packwood, Samuel T o*^ 

Parker, Thomas 1""^ 

Parr, Eugene ^^° 

Parrott, Benjamin R j}Jl 

Paulson, Christ ^^^ 

Pedretti, Charles ^ »9y 

Peirsol. Frank C, M. D 980 

Pemberton, Bennett 1»^:1 

Pemberton, James E iu^^ 

Percy, Edwin H., Jr ^^' 

Persico, Francisco °^^ 

Peterson, Lorenzo S ^^ 

Pettis, John A ^^° 

Phelps, Warren H "Jy 

Phillips, Charles W 38« 

Phillips, Walter L ««1 

Phillips, W. S 460 

Pickle, John W ^V 

Pinches. Samuel ^^JP 

Finer, Mrs. Sarah S 902 

Pitner. Oron B ^ff 

Poage, William G 411 

Polk, Robert T »43 

Porter, Edward ^}¥- 

Potter, Elijah R 366 

Potter, William -'1 

Prather. Hale -r:!^ 

' Preston, Howard P '^^ 

Preston, John W -f' 

Preston, Russell W.. AI. D 559 

Puett, William L '^}^ 

Pullen, James %')/ 

Pullen, Wilder S 764 

Purcell George E .^ «&- 

Purlenky, George P.. M. D. 624 

Pyhaluoto. Seth A. & Erick S ws 


Quarteroni, Giovanni 941 


Rannells, Warren B 912 

Rantala, August 90S 

Rantz. William D 771 

Raudio. Charles 921 

Rawles, Alexander N 785 

Rea. Joseph N 937 

Read, Joseph L .". 419 

Redemeyer, J. A 753 

Redwine, George R '. 381 

Reed, Cyrus W 473 

Reid, Capt. James M 713 

Reynolds, Charles 485 

Rice, Samuel H 413 

Richards, Robert L., M. D 172 

Richardson, George W 943 

Riffe, Clyde A 531 

Robinson, Jesse B., Sr 819 

Robinson, Jesse B 821 

Robinson, John L 820 

Rocca, Andrew 422 

Rodgers, Terence 978 

Rogers, James B 501 

Rohrbough, John S 205 

Rose, Eugene W 808 

Ross, Rev. John S 230 

Ross, John S 326 

Ross, William H 233 

Rossotti, Dominico 924 

Rowe, Thomas F 650 

Ruddick. Lewis M 991 

Ruddick, William 816 

Rupe, John M 977 

Rushing, Joel W 896 

Russell, Archie M 856 

Russell. Sullivan S 854 


St. Mary's Catholic Church 886 

Sailor, Edward P 814 

Sailor, LaFayette 830 

Samuelson, Allen 292 

Sandahl. August 1014 

Sandelin. Frank 566 

Sanford, John B 175 

Sartori, Augustus 750 

Sawyers, David L 309 

Sayre, Burt G 707 

Sayre, Morton S 165 

Schaffer, Charles C 678 

Scott, Alonzo D 521 

Scott. Edwin S 1018 

Scudamore, Dick 903 

Scudamore, Godwin 955 

Seaholm, Otto H : 807 

Seman, Emil 1012 

Seymour, Wright 453 

Shafsky, Abraham H 960 

Shafsky, Samuel 961 

Shattuck, Dickson S 614 

Shau!, Aaron B 394 

Shaul, Benjamin F 563 

Shelton, James K. P 434 

Sherwood, Oscar W., M. D 932 

Shirley, John E 527 

Shoemaker, John W , 866 

Short, James G 1038 

Simonson, Ole 374 

Simonson, Zacharias 500 

Singley, John E 787 

Sleeper, D. 579 

Sleeper, Ellery D 479 

Sleeper, Jerome M 478 

Sleeper, Van Buren 480 

Smart, George A 826 

Smith, Andrew 390 

Smith, D. Clair 1023 

Smith, Howard B : -' 278 

Smith, John P 930 

Smith, Peter C ; ..:;.. 925 

Smith, Tracy H., M. D 565 

Smith, William H 206 

Snickers, Edward 1 1036 

Snow, John .,..-1 ;. 756 

Snow, :\Iatthew M 508 

Snow, William F :..., 957 

Spurlock, Thomas F , 763 

Squires. George E 580 

Staheli, John J .-. : 837 

Standley, William M 543 

Stanley, A. Mortimer 190 

Starkey, William H 461 

Stewart, George F 925 

Stokes, Frederick G 269 

Stone, Solomon C 786 

Stornetta. Antonio 560 

Stout, George W., M. D 168 

Stubbs, John L 1039 

Swanson, Gustav H 989 

Swensen, Peter 452 


Tallman, George T 890 

Taylor, Porter H 827 

Terwilliger. Newton C 1044 

Thatcher. William W 367 

Thomas. William P 399 

Thompson, Ira 948 

Thurman. Henry 537 

Tocher, Robert 597 

Toepfer, Rev. Philemon 698 

Toney, Mrs. Amanda McCabe 928 

Turner, Cyrus G 187 

Turner, Thomas G 769 


Ukiah Times 863 

Upp, George W S65 

Upp, Philip 865 

Upton, William E.. M. D 794 


Valenti. Gaudenzio 251 

Van Allen. L. K., M. D 739 

Van Allen, William 739 

Van Damme, John 415 

Van Nader, Henry H 772 

Vassar, Michael 1016 

Vincent, Mrs. Nancy M 448 

Voss, George H 507 


Walker, Carolus M 618 

Wallace, William L 363 

Walter, Simon W 986 

Wambold, Henry V 935 

Wambold, Milton 923 

Ward, Charles M 395 

Weigand, William 293 

Weldon, Hon. Thomas J 803 

Weller, J. E 341 

Wells, E. H 884 

Wemple, Laurence A 1031 

West, Wells W 860 

Whipple, Frank A 297 

White, Chester 845 

White, James N 1040 

White, Judge John Q 159 

White, William 984 

Whited, Charles 348 

Whited, LeRoy 406 

Wilcox, George L 904 

Wildgrube, Henry L 239 

Williams, Ernest L 268 

Williams, James H 495 

Williams, Lee J 1028 

Williamson, William 836 

Willits Steam Laundry 989 

Windlinx, Frederick 588 

Witherspoon, Henry E 333 

Woelffel, George A., M. D 878 

Wooldridge. Josiah E 463 


Yeary, George 427 

Young, Charles M 286 

Young. Swan W 357 



Organization and Legislative History of Mendocino County 

Mendocino county is an integral part of the State of California which 
was created out of territory ceded to the United States by Mexico in 1848, 
as a penalty of and recompense for the expenses incurred by the United 
States in the war between the two countries in 1846-7. At that time the 
country comprised therein was little valued by either of the contracting 
parties, and the acquisition thereof was belittled and scouted by the opponents 
of the war, very much as Seward's acquisition of Alaska has been in later 
years So, too, has the value of Mendocino county been underrated in past 
years, and only within the last five years has its true value to the nation 
received recognition at the hands of capitalists, who are generally the first to 
acquire an understanding of the availability of any section of a new country 
for purposes of profit from land investments. Mendocino's southern line is 
eighty-four miles north of San Francisco, and stretches one hundred miles 
along the Pacific coast to Humboldt and Trinity on the north. It contains 
sixty townships, by United States survey, nearly one and a half milHon acres. 
Only about 80,000 acres of this vast area is in cultivation, the rest being 
grazing land, timber, brush, and lake and watercourse. Timber covers nearly 
one-third of its area; chemissal one-third, and the open land the remaining 
third. Of the brush and timber land a large percentage is fit for man's uses, 
growing fruit and cereals when once cleared. The greater part of its 
timber area is covered with redwood, tanbark oak, madrona, all evergreens, 
reproducing themselves from the roots after having been cut down for man's 
uae. The range of mountains north and south through its center divides the 
county into two nearly equal sections — the coast and the interior, the first 
being mostly timber, the second mostly open land. On the oc'ast is a 
number of rivers flowing into the ocean, mainly in a northerly course — the 
Gualala, the Garcia, Navarro, Big river, Novo, and Ten-Mile, all considerable 
streams about thirty rtiiles long. The interior section covers the watershed 
of Russian river on the south, and Eel river on the north, either much larger 
and longer than the coast streams. The one southerly branch of Eel river, 
where it enters Mendocino, from a short digression into Lake county, 
through the winter has a breadth of two hundred and twenty-five feet and 
depth of ten feet, and in high water has measured at the same spot, two 
hundred and fifty feet wide and twenty-five feet deep, with a velocity of over 
five miles an hour. And this is but one of four forks of Eel river in the 

The assessed valuation of the county for 1913 was $16,346,314; population 
in 1910, 23,929; acres wheat, 12,000; oats, 9,000; barley. 7,500; hay, 30,000; 
hops, 2.352; alfalfa, 4,000. There are in the county 15,682 cattle; 5,760 hcgs; 
252 mules ; 4,389 horses ; 90,785 sheep ; 4,279 goats ; 35,000 poultry. Of fruit 
trees there are 98,000 apple; 56,000 peach ; 50,000 pear; 26,000 prune; 1,400 
walnut. .'Knd it is safe to say that all the foregoing figures, except as refers to 


assessed value, may be considered twenty per cent, too low. The assessed 
value is undoubtedly forty per cent below the real cash value. Land values 
have more than doubled in the last two years, and in many sections have 

According to Indian tradition, this county and Humboldt were once one 
vast mesa, level and waterless in summer, but the coyote (their representative 
of power and energy) caused an upheaval into its now broken state. Winter 
rains filled the chasms, w-ashed down the silt, overflowed, and broke out from 
one to another, forming lakes and rivers, which former eventually became 
the present valleys. Hence the soil in each is determined by the character of 
that of the surrounding hills. Some are sandy loam, and some the black 
loam approaching the adobe. Either is rich in the qualities which make for 
heavy production of cereals or root crops. There is much red soil in the 
hills, evidencing volcanic origin, and this is unsurpassed for fruit and vine. 

In Ukiah valley, the virgin soil has been known to produce one hundred 
and twenty-five bushels of oats per acre, and sixty bushels of wheat. Corn 
yields well in the river bottom lands, without irrigation, often not having a 
shower of rain upon it from planting to harvest, and hops yield from eighteen 
hundred to twenty-two hundred pounds per acre. 

The various branches of Eel river afford but meagre bottom lands, the 
hills shutting in too precipitously. This is also true of the coast streams, 
except the Navarro, which in Anderson broadens out sufficiently to afford 
some level cultivating land. Russian river, on the contrary, has a succession 
of valleys along its several branches, the principal of which are Walker, 
Redwood, Coyote, Potter, Ukiah, and Sanel. Little lake and Long valley 
and Round valley are on the extreme headwaters of the South Eel river. 

Unlike the greater part of the southern and central parts of the state, 
Mendocino was only slightly cursed with Spanish grants, as there were only 
three located in the county, and one of these incurred final rejection, and one 
of the others was undoubtedly fraudulent, though finally confirmed through 
the effect of perjured testimony. The Richardson grant, as it was generally 
styled, lying along the immediate ocean bank, was finally rejected, but those 
persons who had bought acreage of the claimants, in good faith, and were 
occupying and using the same, were permitted to enter, as government land, 
such premises as they held at the time of the passage of the enabling act. 
This grant covered the country one league wide from Garcia to Bi,e: river, but 
was overlapped by the Garcia grant from Mai Paso to the Garcia river, which 
never was seriously urged, and was not considered at all by settlers, and, as 
far as can be learned, none of it was ever purchased by any of them, while of 
the Richardson grant hundreds of acres were purchased in good faith, and 
fenced, and much of it cultivated. 

The Yokayo grant was made to Cayetano Juarez, May 24, 1845, by Pio 
Pico, and duly approved by the Mexican assembly June 3, 1846. His claim 
was rejected November 7. 1854, and confirmed on appeal April 17, 1863, and 
again confirmed on appeal by the supreme court in December, 1864. It 
covered the valley of Russian river from the southern end of Ukiah valley 
to the northern end of Redwood valley, from one to two miles wide, and 
approximating sixteen miles in length, and containing 35,541 acres. The 
name, Yokayo, was as near that of the Indian tribe inhabiting the territory 
as white men could pronounce it ; but which was still farther removed from 


the Indian tongue in naming the principal valley and the town therein, as 
the present cognomen of Ukiah. 

Sanel grant was located on Russian river, in a valley five miles south 
of Ukiah valley, and was to be of four leagues of land, provided that much 
land could be contained within the boundaries given in the petition asking 
for the grant. It was rejected by the land commissioners October 18, 1853, 
and their decision reversed by the United States district court, June 14, 1856. 
These grants were sold out on advantageous terms to settlers, at from $2.50 
per acre to $10 per acre, with a series of years for making payments. 

Mendocino was named from the cape of that name on its northern coast 
boundary, which cape was discovered by Bartolomeo Ferrolo, chief pilot for 
Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo, who took command of the expedition on the death 
of Cabrillo. The latter died at the Santa Barbara islands, and Ferrolo sailed 
north, discovering and naming the cape February 28, 1543, for the then 
viceroy of New Spain, Antonio de Mendoza. In 1579, Sir Francis Drake, 
seeking the Northwest passage, struck the coast at about Cape Blanco, and 
sailed south past Cape Mendocino and anchored in Drake's bay on June 17, 
1579. The Russian settlement, at Fort Ross, was in Sonoma county, and 
beyond the naming of Russian river, seemed to have no connection with or 
influence upon Mendocino county. 

By treaty of peace and settlement with Mexico, dated at Guadalupe 
Hidalgo, February 2, 1848, the boundaries of the ceded territory were defined, 
ratified by the president, March 16, 1848, and promulgated July 4, 1848. In 
1849, a constitutional convention was assembled in Monterey, and on the 
close of the session, October 12, a proclamation was published calling upon 
the citizens of the proposed state to form a government, and elect officers, 
ratify the constitution, and assume the responsibilities of self-government. 
This document was signed by B. Riley, brevet brigadier-general United 
States of America, as governor, and H. W. Hallock, brevet captain and 
secretary of state. 

In accordance with the provisions of the constitution, at the first session 
of the legislature, in San Jose, on the 15th of December, 1849, "an act 
subdividing the state into counties and establishing courts," the boundaries 
of Mendocino county were given as follows : Beginning on the parallel of 
forty degrees of north latitude, at a point in the ocean three English miles 
from land, and running due east on said parallel to the summit of the Coast 
range ; thence in a southerly direction, following the summit of the Coast 
range, and past Cache creek, to Putah creek; thence following up said creek 
to its sources in the mountains called Mayacmas ; thence along the summit 
of said mountains to the head of Russian river : thence down the middle of 
said river to its mouth, and three English miles into the ocean ; thence in a 
northerly direction parallel with the coast to the point of beginning. The 
county, for the time, was attached to Sonoma county for judicial purposes. 
This would include the old Fort Ross Russian settlement, and the greater 
part of what is now Lake county, yet leaving out all that stretch of country 
between Russian river and the Mayacmas mountains. The legislators 
evidently had little knowledge of the country they were trying to segregate, 
as a line from the head of Putah creek to the Mayacmas. thence along the 
summit to the head of Russian river, would be as intricate as a spider web. 
However, by act of March 11, 1859, the boundaries were changed to read as 


follows: Beginning at a point three miles west of the mouth of the Gualala 
stceam, and up the middle of the channel of said stream two miles; thence 
in a direct line to the most northern and highest peak or summit of the 
Redwood mountains immediately north of Cloverdale and Oat valley; thence 
due east to the western boundary of Napa county, on the summit ot the 
Mayacmas ridge; thence northerly and easterly along the west and north 
boundary of Napa county to the western boundary of Colusa county; thence 
northerly along the western boundaries of Colusa and Tehama counties to 
a point on the fifth standard north of Mount Diablo meridian; thence along 
such standard parallel due west to a point in the Pacific ocean three miles 
west of the shore ; thence southerly parallel with the coast to the point of 

By the same act an election for county officers was ordered for the first 
Monday in May, 1859, at which were to be elected county judge, district 
attorney, county clerk, auditor, and recorder, treasurer, sheriff, assessor, 
coroner, surveyor, and three supervisors and bj' an amendment a superin- 
tendent of schools was included in the list of officers. Joseph Knox, F. Nally, 
Harry Baechtel, George Brown and Jacob Heiser were appointed com- 
missioners to designate such additional voting places as they deemed 
necessary, and to appoint inspectors and judges of election at the various 
precincts. They were also empowered and directed to receive the returns 
and issue certificates of election to the successful candidates and to declare 
which place was the legally selected county seat. 

The county judge's term of office was fixed at four years, and his annual 
salary to be $1,500 per annum. The other county officers terms were fixed 
for two years. For judicial purposes, Mendocino county was to remain a part 
of the Seventh Judicial district, which court was the court of appeal from 
the decisions of the county court. The latter court held sessions alternately 
as county court and probate court, as the business seemed to demand; also as 
a court of sessions on appeals from justice courts. 

Before the passage of this act Sonoma and Mendocino had been assigned 
two members of the assembly. Thereafter one of these was to be elected 
from each county. 

Beverly Mundy of Sonoma county, Jesse Whitton of Napa county and 
Upton Gordon of Marin county were appointed commissioners to select two 
sites to be voted upon for county seat, but they, failing to act in the matter, the 
selection of a county seat became an open fight by ballot, and Ukiah received 
the largest vote by reason of the largest population, and ease of access, com- 
paratively, from the outside world. 

The fiscal afi'airs of the two counties were adjusted by the appointment 
of two commissioners, J. R. Short of Mendocino and John Hendley of Sonoma 
county, who squared the accounts between the two counties by giving Mendo- 
cino the right to collect the delinquent taxes standing against her citizens, 
on the payment to Sonoma of $1,157.60, which it is safe to say was more than 
Mendocino realized from the $4,647.09 due from delinquents. And, in fact, 
it having been made to appear that $1,200 of such supposedly delinquent 
taxes had been paid and receipted for, Mendocino did not pay Sonoma any 
part of the $1,157.60 adjudged her due. 

In 1860, the county was divided into supervisorial districts as follows : 
First district: Ukiah, Sanel, Anderson and Navarro precincts. Second dis- 
trict: Calpella, Potter Valley, Little Lake, Long Valley, Round Valley and 


Sherwood precincts. Third district : Noyo, Big River, Albion and Garcia 
precincts. In April, 1878, by act of the legislature, the county was redistricted 
into five supervisorial districts, as follows : First district : Anderson and Sanel 
townships. Second district: Calpella and Ukiah townships. Third district, 
Little Lake and Round Valley townships. Fourth district: Big River and 
Ten-Mile townships. Fifth district : Arena township. These boundaries or 
subdivisions still constitute the respective districts, though the townships 
have been divided later and increased in number to eleven, as follows: Sanel 
and Anderson comprise the first supervisorial district : Ukiah the second ; 
Little Lake, Long Valley, and Round Valley the third ; Westport, Ten Mile 
and Big River the fourth ; and CuiTey's Cove and Arena the fifth district. 

There being, of course, no county buildings, the second story of a rough 
board building known as Musical Hall, on Main street, Ukiah, was rented 
at $25 per month for the use of the county officers. It was built of rough 
boards, set upright, so-called balloon frame, but the best and only place 
obtainable, and answered the purpose for the time. August 18, 1859, the 
supervisors advertised for sealed proposals for a new court house, and 
awarded the contract to E. Rathbun for $6,000. No plans or specifications 
are extant, or record of its size, except that it was to be of brick, thirty-five 
feet wide, to contain jail accommodations, and be built in the center of the 
plaza. The building was completed and accepted January 24. 1860, and 
immediately occupied. 

On the 3d of Septemlier, 1864, $500 was appropriated to enlarge the jail 
quarters, there being more criminality in the new county than was at first 
provided for. And, to the end that the jail part might be more secure, Novem- 
ber 24, 1866, the supervisors appropriated $500 more for iron cells. It was 
months before these latter arrived from the city, on account of the roads 
becoming impassable for such heavy freight. Meantime the grand jury 
declared the jail "no jail at all, and entirely useless as a place for the detention 
cf criminals." 

Again in 1871 a move was made for more room for the county offices, 
jail, etc. Additions and separate buildings were talked of, but the matter 
culminated on December 5th, 1871, and the board of supervisors advertised 
for plans and specifications of a much larger court house, $200 being the 
maximum price for the same, and the building to cost not over $40,000. A 
draft of a bill, authorizing the issuance of bonds to the amount of $40,000, 
was presented to the legislature. The bill passed and was signed by the 
governor January 18, 1872. 

LTpon the plans submitted, the board awarded the contract to A. P. 
Pettit. And yet, on March 19, 1872, the board passed an order that "all bids 
should be and are rejected." Five days later they again changed their minds, 
and, with a slight revision of Pettit's plans, they were approved, and on 
April 24 the contract was awarded to A. P. Pettit, the building to be completed 
by January 1, 1873. Pettit proved to be an honest contractor, and the 
building withstood the earthquake of 1906 with scarcely a crack. As it has 
been asserted that one, at least, of the supervisors cashed one of the $500 
bonds issued, it may have been that graft permeated the proceedings of that 
early day. 

At times, special tax levies have been authorized by the legislature, the 
first of which was approved April 13, 1859, of thirty-five cents on the hundred 
dollars, for county purposes. The first rate of taxation fixed by the board was 


$1.65 on the hundred dollars; and the rate has been as high as $2.25 on the 
hundred, but usually under $2. 

By act of February 29, 1864, a special election was authorized to fill a 
vacancy in the office of sheriff, W. H. Tainter having been drowned in Elk 
creek January 15, 1864. The treasurer was made ex-officio tax collector, with 
emoluments of one-half of one per cent, on collections. April 1, 1864, Men- 
docino county was placed in the Third Congressional district. March 28, 1868, 
Mendocino was granted five more notaries public. March 30, 1868, legal 
distances from the county seat of Mendocino, Ukiah, were established as 
follows : to Sacramento city, two hundred and twenty-five miles ; to Stockton, 
two hundred and twenty-one miles ; to San Ouentin. one hundred and ten 

On the 8th of January, 1872, a bill was approved separating the office oi 
recorder from that of count}' clerk. The first recorder took office the first 
Alonday in March, 1874. February 6, 1874, placing Mendocino in the Twen- 
ty-seventh senatorial district. March 16, 1874, repeal of act authorizing county 
to build telegraph line to Humboldt. March 18, 1874, providing for collection 
of taxes in Ukiah school district. March 18, 1874, authorizing issue of bonds, 
$10,000 for Boonville to Point Arena road, $3,000 for road to north county 
line via Summit or Ten-Mile valley, March 25, 1874, regulating salaries. 

February 28, 1876, providing for payment of deficiency of school funds, 
^larch 20, 1876, authorizing bonds of $12,000 for purchase of Navarro, Albion, 
Big river and Noyo bridges ; $4,000 to complete Boonville and Point Arena 
road ; $10,000 to construct road from Ten-Mile valley to north line of the 
county. March 8, 1876, act incorporating Town of Ukiah City. April 3, 1876, 
continuing tax to provide for payment of bonded indebtedness of 1862. 
December 21, 1876, repeal of law giving bounty on scalps of v\'ild animals. 
February 8, 1878, empowering sale of remaining bridge bonds. February 14, 
1878, repealing act restricting grazing of sheep. March 8, 1878, fixing salary 
of recorder at $2,000, with certain fees additional. March 27, 1878, authorizing 
supervisors to issue bonds of $3,000 each for building bridge over Gualala 
river, and finishing Point Arena and Boonville road. March 30, 1878, creating 
special bridge fund, and authorizing tax of thirty cents for that year, and ten 
cents for succeeding years, and the building of bridge over South and Middle 
forks of Eel river. April 1, 1878, redistricting the county into supervisorial 
districts and ordering election, April 1, 1878, act amending statute regarding 
payment of bonds of 1862. March 6. 1883, Mendocino and Lake counties 
were united to constitute the Twelfth agricultural district. March 8, 1883, 
Mendocino and Lake united to constitute the Sixth senatorial district. March 
13, 1883, Mendocino county was assigned to the First congressional district. 
March, 1885, appointment of commissioners to select and purchase site for 
Mendocino State Hospital for the Insane at Ukiah, and appropriating $250,000 
for purchase of site and erection of buildings. February 20, 1889, appropria- 
tion of $175,000 for support and extension of Mendocino State Hospital at 
Ukiah, and act establishing the same. February 20, 1889, act fixing salary 
of superior judge at $4,000. March 6, 1889, Lake and Mendocino counties 
placed in Twelfth agricultural district. March 11, 1891, act making Mendo- 
cino the Ninth assembly district, and with Colusa the Eighth senatorial 
district. March 3, 1893, appropriation of $100,000 to finish the Mendocino 
State Hospital, with a female ward. March 9, 1893, appropriation to pay 
McGowan & Butler for retaining wall and drainage system at Mendocino 


State Hospital. April 1, 1897, appropriation of $60,000 for furnishing hospital, 
and $160,000 for support of same. March 17. 1899, appropriation of $107,000 
for support of hospital, and $78,000 for salaries of officers and attendants. 
March 25, 1901, appropriation of $21,000 for purchase of additional land, 
water pipe and cows for hospital. March 21, 1901, appropriation of $123,900 
for support of hospital, and $82,200 for salaries. March 25, 1903, appropriation 
of $7,500 for water and protection, and $30,000 for assembly hall, hospital. 
March 28, 1903, appropriation of $129,357 for support of hospital, and $99,673 
for salaries. February 24, 1905, act forbidding sale of liquor within one mile 
of hospital. March 18, 1905, appropriation of $4,500 for improvement of 
grounds, hospital. March 22, 1905, appropriation of $235,600 for support of 
hospital and salaries. March 8, 1907, appropriation of $6,000 to finish the 
water tower, hospital. March 22, 1907, appropriation of $138,300 for support 
of hospital, and $122,537 for salaries of officers, attendants and employes. 
March 8, 1907, survey and settlement of the county boundary between Mendo- 
cino and -Glenn. March 8, 1907, appropriation of $5,000 to furnish female 
cottage, and $2,500 to furnish male cottage, hospital. April 26, 1909, appropri- 
ation of $205,000 for support of hospital, and $145,000 for salaries, and $7,207 
for construction. March 13, 1909, partial boundary between Lake and Men- 
docino counties. March 25, 1909, appropriation of $12,500 for completion of 
cottages, hospital. April 12, 1909, appropriation of $10,000 to build main 
kitchen, etc., hospital. February 28, 1911, Mendocino county declared in 
twenty-fourth class. March 9, 1911, appropriations for hospital as follows: 
$3,000 for plumbing, $14,500 for male cottage, $12,500 for dam. March 14, 
1911, appropriation of $4,000 for equipment of male cottage. April 14, 1911, 
an act to prevent the taking of fish by traps, nets, dams, etc., in certain 
waters. May 1, 1911, appropriation for support of hospital, $210,000, and for 
salaries of employes therein. $160,000. May 8, 1913, appropriation of $12,500 
for dam and reservoir at hospital, and $10,000 for gas plant. June 6, 1913, 
appropriation of $239,600 for support, and $185,460 for salaries at hospital. 
An act classifying Mendocino coimty- in the twenty-fourth class, and fixing 
salaries as follows : Clerk, $3,000 and sundry fees ; sherifif, $4,000 and certain 
mileage; recorder, $2,100; auditor, $2,000; tax collector, $2,200; assessor, 
$3,000; district attorney, $2,700 and traveling expenses; superintendent of 
schools, $2,400 and traveling expenses. The teachers of the country grammar 
schools are generally paid $70 per month. In the larger towns, and high 
schools, they are graded up to $130 per month. 

The educational facilities of the county compare favorably with any in the 
state, leaving state institutions out of consideration. The county supports 
two county high schools, five union high schools, and one hundred and twenty- 
one elementary or grammar schools. One hundred and sixty-two teachers 
supply the graded schools, and there are twenty-eight high school teachers. 
The valuation of school property is $218,253. .Amount paid teachers. 1913, $93.- 
130. Total number of children enrolled, 3,855. Average daily attendance, 

Resources. It is estimated that there are still standing in the county 
twenty billion feet of redwood timber. Add to this about two billion feet of 
pine and fir, and the millions of cords of oak and madrona for wood ; the 
thousands of acres of land suitable for grapes and fruit not yet under cultiva- 
tion ; the possibilities of water and power conservation oflfered by her deep 
\alleys, close-locked canyons, and heavy unfailing rainfall — can one doubt 


that she will yet take her place far in advance of her now twenty-sixth class 
among our list of counties? In the last twelve months her many mills have 
produced over one hundred and sixty million feet of lumber; and it is esti- 
mated that this production can be maintained for thirty or more years, and 
some say for fifty or more. Her transportation facilities, already so ample, 
consist of eighteen principal shipping ports, and as many more possible ones, 
a railroad the full length of the county, soon to connect with Humboldt bay, 
and probably with Oregon, three considerable coast railroads extending to 
the interior many miles, one of which will soon connect with the through 
road, and the Ft. Bragg road already connecting, the future of Mendocino 
county is fully assured. The principal timber trees, redwood and tanbark, 
are evergreens, sprouting from the stumps and roots, and with any care at 
all, such as is given in Europe to forests, her timber resources are inexhaust- 
ible. With the immense roots of the original tree for support, redwood 
suckers in twenty years attain a diameter of a foot to sixteen inches. While 
the cleared land is unsurpassed for fruit growing, we conceive that the 
reforesting by natural methods is of much more importance to the nation. 
Eucalyptus have been planted on the headwaters of the Albion in thousands, 
and are growing thriftily, and may in time supply that timber in abundance. 
The Union Lumber Company of Ft. Bragg has also planted these trees by 

In Mendocino rain is ever abundant, since 1877 never having fallen less 
than 19.98 inches in the season, and from that to 60.48 inches. This is the 
reading at Ukiah by government standard, while at other places in the 
county as high as one hundred inches has been recorded. Thirty-five inches 
is the average. The average for March is 4.69; for April, 2.76; May, 1.29; 
the least for January. 1.04: for February, .23; for March, .25; for December, 
.68. Light winter rains nearly always precede abundant spring rains, which 
assure full crops. The winter of 1913-14, up to January 31, has measured up 
41.38 inches. There has never been a failure of crops, every year yielding 
from moderate to abundant, and perhaps never better than the year when 
Napa farmers came into Potter valley, paid three cents for wheat for seed, 
and hauled it home by wagonload eighty miles over rough mountainous 
roads. Peaches and almonds sometimes fail from spring frosts, but there are 
favored spots, thermal belts, in nearly every locality where they give annual 
crops. Apples, pears and plums never fail, except in some of the higher 
valleys, and even these have the thermal lines to be observed in planting. 

The assessed valuation of the county for 1914 is $15,921,448, "non- 
operative"; tax rate not yet set. but probably below $2. The registration 
of voters for the August primary was 10,000. 

Of homicides, Mendocino county has had many, and two executions have 
taken place locally, and two at San Quentin. The majority of cases have 
been decided as justifiable by juries, and the others sentenced to longer or 
shorter terms of imprisonment, more commonly the latter. 

The most notable of these was the so-called "Mendocino Outlaw" case. 
Four men conspired to rob the Alendocino bank, and the tax collector on his 
round of collection. One posed in Mendocino city as a dentist, the others 
made camp in the timber adjoining town, and killed a beef for their camp 
use. This proved their undoing. A posse went out to arrest them for this 
offense, and met a murderous fire, which killed two of their number. The 
town and county were at once in a ferment. Ex-Sheriff Standley and Sheriffs 


Moore and J. H. Donohoe were at once in the field, and tracked the men 
through the mountainous wilds of Mendocino, Trinity and Tehama counties, 
across and back through the Sacramento Valley, and abandoned the chase. 
Again taking it up, they followed the trail of the fugitives all over Tehama 
and Butte counties, finally killing Billings on Butte creek near Nimshew, and 
capturing Gaunce the next morning in Nimshew, and Brown near Bidwell's 
Bar a few days later. The three were sent to San Quentin, and the arch 
conspirator, Dentist Wheeler, committed suicide in jail. Great credit is due 
to Sherif? Moore, Deputy Standley, and J. H. Donohoe. The latter was in 
in the field sixty-one days. Both Donohoe and J. M. Standley were after- 
wards sheriffs, the latter one of the best in the state, and his mantle has 
fallen upon the present sheriff, Ralph R. Byrnes, who has more arrests to 
his credit in the last four years than any sheriiT in the state. 

Some Early Deeds 

The first deed recorded in the county was by Louis and Beatrice Pena 
to Richard Harrison, May 23, 1859, to -five hundred acres adjoining what is 
now the town of Hopland, $2000. The second, R. Harrison to Beatrice Pena, 
in Sanel Valley, two hundred and thirty acres, $1400, May 27, 1859. June 1, 
1859, F. B. Gardner to W. W. Starr, quarter interest in 1940 acres, $2000. 
Same date, premises and to J. B. Bowen. S. J. Smith, guardian, to Oscar 
Schlesinger, June 25, 1859, lot in Ukiah on Main street now the Lempke 
homestead. Agreement, Tichenor and Byxbee, to buy or sell Navarro Mill 
property, November 27, 1863, $40,000. April 1, 1860, Lloyd Beall and E. J. 
Whipple, land near Westport. October 16, 1865, D. F. Lansing and wife 
to Eugene O'Connell. Vicar Apostle, lot in Mendocino City, $150. 



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Anderson Township 

This township is located in the Coast Range, almost all in and embracing 
the whole of the watershed of the Navarro river, and a small portion of the 
headwaters of Dry Creek. It is thirty miles in length, and a breadth vary- 
ing from eight to twenty miles. The arable land at present under cultivation 
nowhere exceeds more than a mile and for the most part, only a half mile 
in width. Much more could be cultivated, but so far has been deemed mere 
valuable for pasture than for the plow. The southern part of the township 
is detached from the northern part by reason of the fact that the main 
branch of the river. Rancheria creek, has no bottom land to speak of for 
some miles of its course opposite Bconville, but further south on its extreme 
head waters, it again afifords some tillable land. The valley soil is a rich 
wash loam immediately along the creek bottoms. The bench lands are either 
black clover land or gravelly loam, while the pasture lands proper, on the 
hills, partake of the nature of both the last _ mentioned soils, while the 
chemissal and brush lands are generally rocky and sterile. Exceptions in 
these latter may be found where the soil is a rich red volcanic debris, that 
makes the best of orchard and vineyard land. 

The climate of Anderson is a compromise between the hot torrid inner 
valleys and the cold, foggy coast section. It usually has a nice sea breeze in 
the afternoon, and often foggy mornings, which revive the vegetation in the 
dry summer months and restrain the frosts in the winter. 

The various grains luxuriate here, except corn, which is not especially 
successful, probably from the coolness induced by the fog. Hops succeed 
well and give a good yield on the best bottom land. Fruit grows remark- 
ably well on much of the bench land and lower hills. 

Early Settlement 

So far as the dim past can be explored, Walter Anderson seems to be 
the first white man who really settled in Anderson intending to make it his 
home, and that as early as 1851. He came from Sonoma county, as most 
of the interior early settlers seem to have done, and located what was after- 
wards known as the Rowles place, on the west side of the valley, about 
one mile northwest of Boonville. He sold the place to Joseph Rowles in 
1858 and moved away. J. D. Ball and family arrived in 1852, and settled on 
the opposite side of the valley, on plateau land, and was the first to put out 
an extensive orchard, which is still bearing profusely. In 1855-6-7 closely 
following each other came William Prather, John Gschwend, J. S. Smalley, 
Oscar Carey, Joseph Gschwend, James Burgess, Henry Wade, Frank Buster, 
A. Guntley, John Gossman, John Conrad, A. Braden, J. Shields, W. W. Boone, 
A. Elliott and H. Stevens. In the following few years R. H. Rawles, J. A. 
Jamison, J. O. McSpadden, J. McGimsey, Alex McDonald, J. W. McAbee, 
C. Prather and R. H. York. The first attempt at town building was about a 
mile from the present town of Boonville, John Burgot building a hotel, Sam 
Stevens a blacksmith shop and Levi V. Harrison a store. Quite a large 
stock of goods was also placed in a two-story building (where Robert Rowles 
has lived for some years) by Wintzer & Welle, but all of these died out in a 
short time. In 1864 Alonzo Kendall built a hotel at what is now Boonville 
and called the place Kendall's City. Levi & Straus moved their store here, 
soon selling out to W. W. Boone, who succeeded in giving his name to the 


town, Mr. Kendall having removed to Manchester. Access to the valley was 
yet very difficult on the road from Cloverdale, and by private subscription 
John Gschwend attempted to build a road from Boonville to Ukiah, the 
county seat, in 1867. When about half done, the subscriptions failed, and 
Gschwend obtained a franchise for its completion as a toll road in 1868. 
Within the last four or five years nearly the whole of the old road has been 
abandoned for better grade, though the general route has been followed. 
In 1869-70 a road was surveyed and soon after worked after a fashion from 
Anderson to Point Arena, but the grades were so steep it has never been 
used for aught but light teams, except at each end, where the down grade 
favors the hauling of timber either way. To John Gschwend also belongs 
the principal credit for the road built over Navarro ridge connecting Ander- 
son with the coast. This was "swamped" in 1861-2 and graded immediately 
after and for many years was the only road from the coast part of the county 
to the outside world. The Gschwends, Guntleys and Gossmans were Swiss, 
and formed the settlement at the lower end of the valley that was long known 
as "Guntleys" and later as Christine, for a daughter of John Gschwend's. 
Andrew Guntley erected a distillery and brewery which flourished until about 
1866, when the government tax caused the abolition of the establishments. 
These Swiss all planted orchards which still flourish, and the orchard area 
might be extended tenfold with profit. There are several fruit driers in the 
main valley and much fruit is shipped to the coast section for home con- 
sumption, but little or none has been shipped to the more extensive markets 
of the bay district, except dried. In 1908 two hundred and fifty tons dried 
pears were shipped. 

The western and northern part of the township is heavily timbered with 
redwood, fir, tan oak, madrona, laurel, as forest, with manzanita, blue blos- 
som and chemissal brush covering quite a large section. The redwood and 
fir have been destroyed largely in the northern part of the township, while 
only desultory attempts have been made upon its area elsewhere. To John 
Gschwend belongs the honor of building the first saw mill, in 1856. At that 
time there were no roads leading into or out of the valley, and access to 
the township was had only by skirmishing over the hills from one opening 
to another with ox teams, rough locking down the steep hills, and doubling 
teams up the mountain. It was built on his own homestead on a branch of 
the main fork of the Navarro, run by water. Previous to that date the settlers' 
houses were mostl}' built of logs, shakes split from the pliant, straight-grained 
redwood, or lumber made by the toilsome whipsaw mill. Some years later 
it was supplied with steam power and more machinery for making dressed 
lumber. In 1864 a grist mill addition supplied the neighborhood with flour. 
In 1875 fire destroyed the mill, and as the timber was nearly all cut off con- 
tiguous to the site, it was not rebuilt. 

In 1877 Thomas Hiatt built a saw mill some four miles up the valley 
from Gschwend's, with a capacity of 8000 feet per day, and soon cut out the 
timber convenient and moved the mill away. In 1876 the Clow brothers built 
a mill on the west side of the valley, about four miles from Boonville, 
which used up the timber on 250 acres, running twenty years. Its capacity 
was 12,000 feet per day. It was then sold and moved away. 

In 1878 H. O. Irish erected the fourth mill a mile or two further down 
the valley, but it was destroyed by fire \ery soon after it began running. In 
1896 August Wehrspon built a mill at Ornbaun's \'alley, a detached upland 


valley near Yorkville, with a capacity of 20,000 feet per day. This mill was 
in a fine body of timber, purchasable at $1 per thousand. By the terms of the 
contract the mill was required to cut a specified amount of lumber each year. 
Timber raised in value, the mill owner failed one year to cut the required 
amount, and was ousted by suit at court. The mill was moved to the old 
Bonnet place west of Boonville. cut a little lumber, and still stands there, 
although the main body of the timber has passed into the hands of speculators. 
The mill cut about 16 million feet in all. In 1904 Bledsoe built a shingle 
mill at Peachland, a settlement on the ridge east of Anderson, of about 20,000 
feet capacity. It was run about three years, and since then has remained 
idle. It is now owned by Bledsoe & Daugherty. 

Access to the township is attained by a road from Cloverdale, thirty miles 
distant, or from Ukiah, twenty-four miles, or from the Albion by road, or rail- 
road, to Wendling, a mill town, a few years old. This mill was built on the 
promise of a railroad, but before even residences were finished for its superin- 
tendent and foremen, work was suspended, the railroad not materializing. 
Suit was instituted, or threatened against the Santa Fe company and com- 
promised, and the logging road from the Albion mill was pushed through 
to the mill, and tv\-o miles further up the valley. The product is railed down 
to the Albion and there transhipped to vessels. This road has been sur- 
veyed through to a junction with the Northwestern at Healdsburg, and will 
soon be pushed through, as there is a fine body of timber tributary to it. 
The Wendling property has passed into the hands of Hickey & Co., and the 
town name changed to Navarro. 

Yorkville, in the southern part of the township, is a small hamlet of a 
few houses, located on Rancheria creek, the principal tributary, or rather 
the main head of Navarro river. It was named after its founder, R. H. York, 
who lived there many years. It has a post ofifice and a hotel has long been 
maintained by the Hiatt family owning the ranch. 

Boonville, about the center of the township, is the oldest village in it. 
It consists of two hotels, two stores, two blacksmith shops, post ofifice, drug 
store, and eight or ten residences, a church and school house and barber shop. 
There used to he two saloons, liut the school district voted dry some years 
ago and they are things of the past. 

Philo, nine miles down the valley, is a small hamlet of two stores, black- 
smith shop, Methodist Episcopal church, school house, post ofifice, and two 
or three residences, near enough to be included in the town. Here the four- 
horse stages from Cloverdale are split into two, one proceeding to Green- 
wood on the coast, the other five miles down the valley to Navarro. The 
latter is essentially a mill town, and was unbroken forest until the lumber 
company pitched on it as a base of operations. The mill has recently changed 
hands and its product will eventually find its outlet by rail to Healdsburg, 
and on to San Francisco and east. The mill was erected in 1905, with a 
capacity of sixty thousand feet of lumber and one hundred thousand shingles. 
It was run by the Stearns Lumber Co. with profit, notwithstanding the long 
haul and rehandling of its output. The town did contain two stores, one 
livery stable, three hotels with bars, two hotels without bars, one saloon, 
one blacksmith shop, one restaurant, one barber shop, one photo gallery, 
forty-five residences and post ofifice, being the end of a mail route in that 
direction. The saloons have been discontinued on account of an election 
voting the district dry. 


Many fine residences have been erected in Anderson in the last ten 
years and much progress made in fruit culture. The climate is undoubtedly 
the finest in the county, and only three failures on account of frost have been 
known since its first settlement. The earthquake of 1906 did not seem to 
affect this section as much as the one experienced in 1898, which opened 
considerable gaps in the earth at the northern end of the valley but without 
much damage. In the past few years roads have been built connecting the 
valley with Hopland and Fish Rock, both starting from Yorkville. Several 
mineral excitements have had their rise and fall, but none of the discoveries 
have so far proved of present value. 

There have been several lodges instituted in the valley, but at present 
all have lapsed. It has had its quota of fires. The hotel has been burned 
and rebuilt; Ruddick's store burned in April, 1913; Johnson's store at Philo 
burned September 18, 1913, and there have been several residences burned. 
In July, 1901, a threshing boiler exploded, killing two men. 

There are several fruit dryers in the valley, J. D. Ball erecting the first 
in 1890, Studebaker about the same time and others have followed. There 
have been two or three small saw mills on Rancheria and Dry creek, but they 
have passed away. The road to Point Arena was improved from time to 
time until in 1890 it was made available for freighting to a limited extent. 
A mail route formerly extended through the valley from Cloverdale to 
Navarro, sixty miles, but has been cut off at Wendling, while a cross mail 
has been established from Philo to Greenwood, twenty-one miles. On the 
through route in 1904 there were used sixty-seven individual mail pouches. 
The timber has nearly all passed into the hands of mill owners or specula- 
tors. In 1909 Hickey & Standish bought 3500 acres west of Boonville. and 
sold 12,000 acres of their holdings to the Santa Fe. During 1913 much bark 
was hauled to Cloverdale by motor trucks; 8700 pounds at a load, two 
trips per day, making 120 miles travel. Much has also been shipped by way 
of Albion. For 3'ears previous it had been hauled by teams to Cloverdale 
and Ukiah. 

Some notable deaths have occurred of the old settlers. Among them 
may be mentioned John Gossman. eight}--eight years, November 20, 1898, 
who came to the valley in 1856; S. W. Knowles, September 25, 1911, eighty- 
nine years of age, settled on Dry creek, 1858-9; R. H. Rowles, ex-supervisor. 
November 9, 1911, sixty-six years, settled in 1858; W. L. Wallace, August 
27, 1883, settled in 1857, and Mrs. John Conrad, who came to the valley in 
1858, died July 12, 1914, at the age of one hundred and one years. 

The several school districts voted for a union high school, and a rough 
building was erected last year and is now in use. 


Arena Township 

Arena is essentially a coast township, having its western line on the ocean, 
and its eastern the summit of the coast range. On the south it joins Sonoma 
county, and on the north Cuffey's Cove township. In length it is about thirty 
miles, and its breadth from eight to fifteen miles. Along the ocean shore lies a 
strip of fertile open land, mostly under cultivation, varying from half a mile to 
three miles at most ; back of that, heavy timber, with occasional openings of 
grazing land, mostly too steep for cultivation. It has one large river, the Gar- 
cia, and the Gualala river makes its southern boundary for about four miles. 
The north fork of the Gualala rises in Arena, but is inconsiderable except in 
winter. Alder creek is a large stream in winter, and always flows some water. 
It is fifteen miles in length and was heavily timbered, but its headwaters are 
denuded. Brush creek is a fine timber stream though only a few miles long. 
North of Alder creek are two abrupt deep gulches, not dignified by any 
other name than that of the settlers who first lived in their vicinity as Irish 
Gulch and Mai Paso (bad pass). The narrow bench along the immediate 
ocean bluff of the northern part of the township is the best land in the 
county. It is a rich black wash loam from the high, timbered blufif back 
of it, and the soil is often ten and fifteen feet deep, producing large crops of 
grain and vegetables; potatoes, beets and carrots being largely cultivated. 
Tt is essentially a dairy country, as the feed stays green until late summer, 
and is supplemented by green silage of corn, beets and carrots. Corn does 
not mature along the coast and is only sown for silage or green feed. Phe- 
nomenal yields are often secured without fertilization. On the Garcia bot- 
tom lands in 1910 Charles Bishop secured 3500 sacks of potatoes from twelve 
acres, 3000 of them being produced on eight acres. In the same year on the 
bench land at Bridgeport R. J. Dartt harvested as follows: Eighteen acres 
black oats, 1440 bushels; twenty acres white oats, 1600 bushels; sixteen acres 
wheat, 480 bushels ; twenty acres barley, 1200 bushels ; thirty-two acres hay, 
96 tons; three acres potatoes, 400 sacks; and with seventy acres in pasture, 
the farm keeps 265 sheep (Southdowns), sixty head of cattle, fourteen horses, 
and seventy-five hogs. Scientific farming, with the use of thousands of 
tons of kelp, potash producing material, will keep this land up to this point 
of production for an indefinite time. Onions of two pounds, cabbage thirty- 
five pounds, lettuce twenty-five inches across, and beets of one hundred and 
seventeen pounds have been produced. 

Going south from Point Arena one crosses numerous gulches, but no 
considerable stream. The southern boundary, Gualala river, is mostly in 
Sonoma county. In the watershed of this stream it has recently been esti- 
mated that there is yet remaining nearly one billion feet of lumber; on the 
Garcia river watershed there is nearly as much ; on the Navarro three hun- 
dred million ; on Big river, fifteen hundred million, and north of that an 
untold quantity that has not been estimated by timber cruisers. With all 
this timber yet to cut and ship, Mendocino has a future from this industry 
alone. Much timber land has been cleared of all merchantable lumber and 
is now being cleared up and devoted to farming and fruit raising or being 
set in eucalyptus. The redwood lands make the best of orchard land, pro- 
ducing fruit crisper, more juicy and with higher flavor than the open lands 
of the interior. And yet it is the belief of many thinking minds that these 
lands are worth more to the nation for reforesting than for agriculture. The 


redwood and tan bark oak are evergreens which sprout up from the stumps 
as vigorously as willows. If the sprouts were carefully thinned to a judicious 
number, the waste kept burned up, in a decade or two sawing timber would 
be produced from the one, and another crop of bark and wood from the other. 
Point Arena is the only considerable town in the township, and the main 
shipping port for agricultural products, supplemented by bark, ties, posts, 
etc. It is a town of 476 inhabitants by the last census, and was incor- 
porated July 11, 1908. The town boasts nine saloons, three general 
stores, three confectionery stores, harness shop, two blacksmith shops, two 
barbers, one livery stable, one hardware store, three hotels (all under one 
management, one closed, and one used only for lodging purposes), butcher 
shop, and a millinery establishment, fire company, water works and electric 
lighting, and three churches, grammar school and high school. Steamers 
run to the port regularly twice a week and semi oftener, Wednesday being 
steamer day, when the town will be full of teams bringing farm produce, 
butter, eggs, chickens, and travelers for the city. The port is not a secure 
one, and in boisterous weather is sometimes missed by even the regular 
steamer. There is a long wharf and also a chute for shipping ties, etc. This 
latter is of the cable variety and used only by the L. E. White Lumber Co. 
Asphalt exudes from the ocean bluiif west of the town, and two attempts 
have been made to obtain oil, but the casing has been pulled out of the last 
and deepest, 1600 feet, and there is no prospect of another attempt for years 
to come. The crude asphalt has been hauled and dumped on the street and 
lasts for years. Early Settlement 

As before written, during the Spanish regime Rafael Garcia received a 
grant which covered all the open land in the township, and he stocked it 
with large bands of cattle, finally selling his right to Don Jose Leandro 
Luco for the sum of $10,000; the latter dispatched M. T. Smith and Dr. J. C. 
Morse to the rancho as his agents. As heretofore written the grant was 
finally rejected by the United States, and thrown open for settlement. In 
1855 J. A. Hamilton, Joseph Sheppard and William Oliver came from Yolo 
county with cattle and settled on the Garcia bottoms, near the old ranch 
house of Garcia's agents, who also count among the earliest real settlers. 
Hamilton brought with him his family. Shortly after S. B. Campbell and 
family, and David and Elijah Beebee with their families settled upon either side 
of the present town of Point Arena. In 1856 William Shoemake located a 
farm, bought a large tract from Luco, which under the provisions for settling 
the controversy the government permitted him to retain, he having held con- 
tinuous possession and improving the same. The same year Fadre settled 
near Bourne's Landing. In 1857 G. W. Wright, R. W. O'Neil and J. T. O'Neil 
arrived. The year 1858 brought in the families of Dr. J. G. Morse, O. W. 
Scott and others, while in the southern part of the township settled C. D. 
Robinson at Gualala. and John Northrope and Joshua Adams located at 
Ferguson's Cove. .\t about this time came J. Oliver, M. W. Barney, 
J. Schrock, C. De Wolff, J. L. Gillespie. Kuffef, Willard and John Smith, 
making in all about thirty families in the neighborhood at the time of the 
organization of the county. In 1859 and 1860 came Sam McMulIen, S. S. 
Hoyt, C. B. Pease, T. J. and Calvin Stewart, Samuel Hunter, A. W. Hall and 
E. Wilsey. Of all these above mentioned so far as can be learned none are 
living save the Stewarts. Mart T. Smith died in Inglenook, in Ten Mile 
township, in 1913. When the mill fever was at its height. Point Arena was 


the busiest town between San Francisco and Eureka. In addition to posts, 
wood, ties, bark and farm produce, from three to seven mills were turning 
out lumber at the rate of 200,000 feet per diem. In the near future this era 
of prosperity will be duplicated, as there are vast forests back of the town 
whose products must come down to the port of Point Arena. Notwith- 
standing the number of saloons in the town, it is an exceedingly quiet place, 
seldom the scene of any boisterous manifestations of the effects of king 
alcohol; and its government is carried on with economy and conservative 
management. Its distinguishing feature, which strikes a stranger forcibly, 
is its steep main street, and the many levels of its sidewalks. Its educa- 
tional facilities are unrivalled in any other town of its size, with its large, 
commodious grammar school and high school, both new buildings costing 
$3500 and $4000 respectively. 

The electric light plant was put in by Albert Brown of Mendocino, in 
1905. and is a midnight closing plant, though heretofore it had been an all- 
night service as long as it justified. Water is supplied from springs in the 
adjacent hills, and could be improved without much expense. Travel by 
land up and down the coast is by stages, meeting the Northwestern Pacific 
railroad at Cazadero, fifty miles south. The mails arrive from San Fran- 
cisco in twelve hours. There is also a steamer service that reaches the city 
in about the same time. The stage line is owned and run by J. C. Halliday 
Co. and is efficient and sufficient. During the last decade all the streams 
and gulches in the township have been spanned by new bridges, generally 
up to grade of the road, hills circled or cut down, and general improvement 
every way, rendering travel more pleasant and less expensive. 

The first building on the present town site was erected by L. Wilsey, 
and stocked with goods in 1859. Another store was put in that year by 
Lane & Linderoos, and a saloon by S. W. McMuUen. In February, 1866, 
Mart T. Smith obtained a franchise for and built a wharf. In 1870 he sold 
it to Woodward & Chalfant. In 1875 it passed into the hands of C. R. Arthur, 
and the records show that a large amount of shipping was done at that early 
date. Soon after it passed into the hands of Wells, Russell & Co., by whom 
it is now operated. The L. E. White Lumber Co. put in a cable chute for 
their own use on the north side of the harbor, as also did C. W. Tindall. 

Gualala, at the extreme southern end of the township and county, was 
only a mill town, and is now only a hamlet, with one hotel, one store, post 
office, shoe shop and blacksmith shop, and eight or ten dwellings. The 
burning of the mill put a damper on enterprise here. 

Bourne's Landing, two and a half miles north, is the shipping point for 
this region and has a general store and a few houses. There were chutes 
operated at St. Ores, a mile north, and at Robinson's, but they are no longer 
in use. 

iMsh Rock was once the scene of much activity, shipping timber products, 
but its proprietor, C. Queen, of late years has devoted himself to orchard 
work. He has 800 Baldwin trees, the entire crop being put through a dryer. 
George Brandt, on the hill back of the port, has a fine large orchard from 
which he has been for years shipping a fine lot of apples. Chutes have been 
in operation at several other points along the coast above here up to Fer- 
guson's cove, which latter once did a large business shipping ties, etc., and 
the lumber and shingles for the mills at Schooner, Galloway and others 
spoken of later. But this chute closed down last November for want of 
profitable work and as a hamlet the place is deserted. 


Manchester, six miles north of Point Arena, has a fine large new school 
house, two churches, one store, blacksmith shop, two creameries and hotel, 
one creamery making over 500 pounds of butter per day. It is essentially a 
farming community, surrounded as it is by many fine farms. 

Bridgeport, six miles north, was once a thriving mercantile and shipping 
place with a chute, but it was a dangerous harbor and not used long for that 
purpose. The hamlet now has no business places, but half a mile south is 
located a fine school house, and a creamery which operates about ten months 
in the year. The effect of the earthquake of 1906 is distinctly visible in this 
vicinity, large areas having been shaken loose from the steep hills abo\e the 
farming lands, sliding down and covering many acres with gravel, sand and 
rocks. The neighborhood of Bridgeport, next to the Garcia bottoms, is the 
finest land in the county. The farms of the Walsh family, R. J. Dartt, 
Ryans, Snickers, H. Bishop, C. J. Buchanan and others cannot be exceeded 
in fertility, depth of soil and ease of cultivation, anywhere in the world. 
These farms were nearly all damaged by the earthquake of 1S06. The line 
of the fault was clearly visible from the mouth of Alder creek easterly 
through many farms and far back into the mountains. Curious manifesta- 
tions of its power were to be seen in the fissure, breaking the continuity of 
lines of fruit trees and "fences from twelve to fourteen feet, and breaking- 
rocks the size of a goose egg sharply in two. The iron bridge at the mouth 
of Alder creek was torn to pieces like a cardboard house. In Point Arena 
the brick buildings were generally destroyed. The Odd Fellows' two-story 
building was thrown bodily endwise into the street. The L. E. White store 
was also totally destroyed, while the wooden buildings sustained but little 
damage. In 1893 the west side of the business street was nearly all burned 
out, the only serious fire the town has ever had. Formerly there was a 
tannery, but it has long since ceased its operation ; and also a brewery, 
operated by Mr. Schlachter, but it, too, has been discontinued on account of 
the death of the proprietor. 

There are three churches. Methodist. Catholic and Presbyterian, with 
resident pastors. 

The first mill in the township was built by Tift & Pound, at Hard- 
scratch, seven miles south of Point Arena. It was a wet weather water 
mill with a forty foot overshot wheel, with a capacity of about 2000 feet 
per day — sometimes. It was located on a narrow shallow gulch having a 
solid water-worn rock bottom which discharged its waters over a precipice 
forty feet high directly into the ocean. It had performed its mission and 
departed before 1864. In 1862 .Rutherford & Webber erected a mill near 
the mouth of the Gualala river of a capacity of 20,000 feet. In 1872 its 
capacity was increased to 35,000. Soon after they abandoned the methods 
then in vogue for bringing logs to the mill and put in a railroad to the 
woods and continued it to the shipping point of Bourne's Landing, two and 
a half miles north of the mill. The franchise for railroad and wharf was 
granted in 1862. In 1878 a heavy southeaster destroyed the wharf and 
chute, which were immediately rebuilt on improved plans and are still in 
use at this date. In 1868 Mr. Webber sold his interest to Heywood & Har- 
mon, and Mr. Rutherford soon afterward sold out. It was afterward moved 
up the river a half mile and after being run a couple of years was sold, there- 
after remaining idle for a short time, when it was destroyed by fire. The 
largest redwood in the county, twenty-two feet in diameter, stood about six 


miles up the river. At this date the mill property has passed into the hands 
of E. B. Salsig & Co. and the mill is being rebuilt. In 1864 Russell Stevens 
built a mill in Fish Rock gulch almost down to tide water. Its capacity- 
was about 13,000 feet per day. It did not run long, for the machinery had 
all been taken away in 1866. In 1869 a mill was erected a mile or two north 
of Gualala by John Woods, cutting about 16,000 feet per diem. It was 
destroyed by fire in 1872, rebuilt, moved further north, run a short time, and 
was moved away. 

In 1875 a mill was built at Schooner gulch by A. Saunders, who also 
built a shingle mill on Brush creek. A big business was done by these two 
mills for a number of years, until Saunders failed, and departed, taking with 
him thousands of dollars of the hard-earned wages of his employes that had 
been entrusted to his keeping. Nealon & Young succeeded him in the 
Schooner Gulch mill, and ran it until 1878. The Brush creek mill was run 
by the creditors, increasing its capacity somewhat, but it proved unprofitable 
and was dismantled and sold. 

A mill was built in Galloway gulch in 1869, cutting 50,000 per day, run 
for three years, and departed. L. B. Doe & Co. erected a mill at Signal Port 
about this time, that was supplied with logs by hauling them up a long hill 
by steam power. It only ran a couple of years. Another was built in China 
gulch, lived its brief ephemeral life and left a pile of sawdust as its monu- 
ment. About this time Ross & Francis were running a small mill on their 
own premises southeast of the' town about two miles. They ran a couple 
of years. 

In 1904 an epidemic of mills struck the neighborhood. Anderson put in 
a 25,000 capacity mill ; Grace another about the same size ; Bowen another, 
but all passed away in three or four years. Albert Brown equipped a 15,000 
foot mill east of town in 1904, which ran one summer. At present there are 
no saw mills in operation for forty miles along the coast, and Point Arena 
is hauling its supply of lumber eighteen miles. In 1869 and '70, Stevens & 
Whitmore built a mill on the Garcia river six miles from Point Arena. In 
1872 they sold to Nickerson & Baker, who ran it for several years, cutting 
about 40,000 per day. The lumber was floated down a flume six miles to the 
foot of the blufif opposite the port, and there carried up the hill by means of 
spiked rollers in a dry flume or track, where it was placed on cars and rail- 
roaded to the head of the chute. After a few years run the mill was pur- 
chased by the L. E. White Lumber Co. and was burned down in 1894, having 
been idle some time. As the company has 25,000 acres of timber land in the 
watershed of the river, this mill will undoubtedly be rebuilt at no distant 
day, and probably a railroad built to convey either logs or lumber or both, 
according to where the mill is built. 

A mill was built at Bridgeport in 1874 and run on lumber, and later 
shingles, for several years. It passed through several hands, and was finally 
moved away. In 1870 a mill was put in on the Garcia about eight miles 
from its mouth, called Riverside, which ran several years and went up in 
smoke, as did most of the profits. 

A paper mill, to run on oat straw, was put in on Brush creek, and ran 
for ten years; at first profitable on straw at $2.50 per ton; however, the 
farmers raised the price to $7 and the mill closed down and moved away. 


Secret Societies 

One may to a certain extent judge a country town by the number and 
character of its secret societies. Point Arena is fairly prosperous in this 
line, though some have decayed and lost standing by reason of deaths and 
removals. The Free and Accepted Masons organized the first lodge, Clai- 
borne Lodge No. 185, F. & A. M., on June 14, 1867, wath the following charter 
members : R. D. Handy, S. W. Randolph, Niels Iverson, N. D. Witt, William 
Cushings, Charles Lyman, Alph Harris and F. W. Watrous. At the present 
day the lodge is in an exceedingly prosperous condition, and numbers fifty- 
one members, with the following officers : Henry Howe, W. M. ; F. W. 
Reynolds, S. W. ; B. H. Baker, J- ^^^ ; John Clark, treasurer; Frank L. 
Emory, secretary. 

Garcia Lodge No. 240, I. O. O. P., was instituted January 4, 1876. 
with the following charter members : P. Peters, W. H. Cureton, L. F. 
Spaulding, D. M. Ketchum, N. Iverson arid J. B. M. Warren. The lodge 
has fought its way against adverse conditions, the decline of the mill and 
timber business coming upon the community soon after its organization, 
but is now on a firm basis, and steadily growing from accessions from the 
ranks of young manhood. In conjunction with the Masons in 1880. they 
erected a two-story building, 24x60. which was dedicated May 29, 1880, the 
Masons joining them in the erection of the same. The earthquake of 1906 
entirely demolished the building, and the next year it was replaced by a 
reinforced concrete. The present officers are : Henry Howe, N. G. ; A. H. 
Clark, V. G. : \Mlliam Hanen, secretary; J. C. Halliday, treasurer. 

Arena Encampment No. 75, I. O. O. F., was instituted May 18, 1886, 
with charter members as follows : Joseph Lufkin, P. C. P. ; C. W. Tindall, 
J. L. Woodin. Le Grand Alorse, Jacob Cohn, Aaron Newfield, John Hurst, 
W. C. Cartnell, J. D. McCabe, Charles Meirs, F. W. Goodwin, H. L. Estes, 
C. M. Cartwright, S. W. Collins. Joseph Tongue. John Widden. H. B. Scott, 
H. S. Symonds, H. Tullener, J. S. Larson, Frank Groshong, C. Christensen, 
William Heywood, E. M. Stuart, E. N. Donaldson. The Encampment has 
lived and prospered through all the dull times succeeding the birth of the 
Encampment. It now has the following officers : E. A. Zimmerman, C. P. ; 
H. B. Scott. H. P.; A. Christensen. S. W. ; W. Haines. Scribe; C. Nicks, 
treasurer; H. Tullener, I. W. 

Native Sons. Broderick No. 117, was instituted Januar}' 9. 1888, with 
the following list of charter members : C. W. Tindall, C. Hunter, T. O. Cal- 
laghan. W. O. Davis, T. Roseman, G. Smith, William Brandt, R. Caughey, 
F. Watrous, E. Arthur, P. Chane, H. L. Estes, S. Hunter, C. M. Cartwright, 
H. Smith, G. Miller. F. Handy, R. Crawford, W. Myers, F. Arthur, It now 
has a membership of thirty-three, with the following officers : • F. ^^^ Rey- 
nolds, J. P. P.; E. A. Zimmerman, treasurer: J. P. Connor. J. P.; W. E. 
Carey, secretary 

Order of Eastern Star was instituted May 30. 1910, as Point Arena 
Chapter 291, with the following charter members: Rev. E. E. Robbins. 
W. P.; Matilda Davidson, W. M.; Kate Halliday, A. W. M.; Florence Halli- 
day, Con. ; J. R. Neto. Sec. : Mabel Neto, Matilda Robbins, Olive Robbins. 
James Dunn. Phoebe Dunn. Bessie Halliday, J. C. Halliday, C. F. O'Brien. 
Louise O'Brien. Ethel Hathaway. Anna Iverson, Emma Watrous, Mary 
A. Burroughs, Margarethe Dunn. Henry Halliday. For 1913 it has the 


following officers: Lettie Zimmerman, W. M.; Jacob Kingren, W. P.; Flora 
Hunter, A. M. ; Pearl Emery, secretary ; fifty-four members. There are other 
societies extant, of which we have no record. 

Court Arena No. 8518, Ancient Order of Foresters. Officers: C. R., 
W. C. Davidson; P. C. R., William Thomas; financial secretary, Newton P. 
Howe : treasurer, William Carey. Number of members, seventy-eight. 

The town of Point Arena was incorporated July 11, 1908, and the present 
officers are S. W. Ainslie, J. C. Halliday, John Clark, J. ^^^ Kingren (mayor), 
N. P. Howe, trustees; N. A. McCallum, clerk; J. F. Dixon, marshal; Conrad 
Nicks, treasurer and recorder. The assessed value of the town for 1913 
was $150,964; tax rate, fifty cents per $100, Population 497. 

The Bank of Point Arena, No. 338, was incorporated June 9, 1905, with 
a paid up capital $25,000. Their report for 1913 shows deposits of $87,000, 
in a volume of business of $119,000. J. C. Halliday is president and P. W. 
Haggreen cashier. 

The building of the lighthouse on the point north of and about three 
miles northwest of the town was an epoch in the history of the township. 
The coast, with its abrupt rocky shore, projecting hidden reefs, and treach- 
erous currents, was dangerous to experienced navigators, and infinitely more 
so to those new to its waters. The lighthouse was built close out to the 
end of the point, nautically located in latitude 38° 57' 10" and longitude 
123° 44' 42". The light was fixed, stationary, white, and visible nineteen 
nautical miles at sea. The tower was of brick one hundred and fifty-six 
feet to the lamp. The earthquake of 1906 entirely destroyed the lenses and 
so damaged the tower and dwelling house that the government pulled them 
down and rebuilt them farther inland, as being necessary from the inroads 
of the sea on the narrow point. The new one is about the same height of 
the one destroyed, but has a revolving white light four flashes per minute, 
five seconds duration, five seconds intermission, then twenty seconds inter- 
mission. It is built of reinforced concrete, the brick of the old one having 
been thrown over the bank into the ocean. The dwellings were also torn 
down, and four cottages built at a cost of $6000 each, the whole costing the 
government about twice what they would a private individual. Twenty-five 
hundred dollars was put into gravel for the road leading to the lighthouse. 
A fog signal is also established, run by distillate engine, automatic in its 
action, dispensing with the services of one man over the old steam engine. 

In near vicinity to the lighthouse is a large colony of sea lions, whose 
hoarse growls may be heard at all hours of the day and night. At one time 
they were hunted for their oil and hides, but the difficulty and danger, more 
on account of the location, rather than fear of the lions, caused a cessation 
of hostilities. They no doubt conduce to the scarcity of fish in their imme- 
diate neighborhood, though good catches are frequent. In the fall excellent 
sport is had at the mouth of Garcia river trolling for steelheads from one to 
two pounds each, and in season trout fishing is excellent. 

Like almost every community. Point Arena has its fashionable watering 
place; in her case, medicinal, as well. The hot sulphur springs twelve miles 
up the Garcia river have proved both medicinal and fashionable. Situated 
in the gorge of the river, with a dense forest of redwood surrounding, it is 
an ideal place to pass the hot summer months of the interior, or the cold, 
foggy ones of the coast. 


Of shipwrecks there have been many along the bluff coast of the county, 
and Point Arena has had more than her share. The beach north of the 
lighthouse has been a favorite place for old vessels to close their careers, 
nearly every vessel built in the township, of which there have been several, 
has come back to die, some before even a full voyage has been made. This 
fact procured the lighthouse, and in 1903 a life saving station was estab- 
lished at the port, which at present is in charge of Captain Stitt and eight 

The township boasts six creameries, not all running continuously, some 
private and some public or stock companies. Siples, Stornetti, C. Bishop and 
H. Bishop are private, and Point Arena, Manchester and Bridgeport are 
run as public. The Manchester, owned by Beck & Halliday, is the largest 
and most successful, paying about ten per cent, dividend. 

Point Arena has had the usual experience, with most California towns, 
in being exploited by the ephemeral newspaper ventures. In 1877 John 
Kester issued the first number of the News, on March 22. November 29 
G. S. Afifolter and W. P. McClure assumed its responsibility and managed 
it until May, 1878. when Mr. McClure retired. The following September 
it bade the community good-bye. 

In 1888 H. B. Cartnell founded the Record, and it still continues. It 
passed into the hands of William Heeser in 1892, and was edited by R. Y. 
Glidden for some time, and passed into the hands of William Hanen, who 
assumed its burden in 1892. It fills all the requirements of the town, and 
is really a credit to it, and the town is also a credit to the paper, for it is 
seldom so small a place will support a newspaper. From its files much of 
our information has been gleaned. The office work is done the old-fashioned 
way, hand-setting type and press. From it we learned that an old settler, 
William Shoemake, died May 16, 1881 ; he came to Point Arena in 1852 and 
was one of the provident ones who were in possession of large tracts of 
land when the grant was finally rejected. He had about 640 acres. August 
3. 1881. fire destroyed Iversen hotel, Warren's butcher shop, Lancaster shoe 
store; loss $13,000, insurance $8000. Wharf changed hands January, 1882, 
and C. Queen purchased the Fish Rock property. G. Linderoos died June 1. 
1885 : he was for many years justice and the legal functionary of the lower 
coast. Point Arena made great growth in the years 1885-6. On June 3, 
1885, the new I. O. O. F. hall was dedicated. The McMullen hotel opened 
for patrons in 1886, and pottery was made at Fish Rock. B. F. McClure, a 
prominent citizen and ex-supervisor, died March 15, 1887. Collins' shingle 
mill was running 100,000 shingles per day. Bessie Everding lost at Bourne's 
Landing, September 12, 1888; severe earthquake January 25, 1889; Charlotte 
wrecked on Fish Rock, March 28, 1889; Golden Gate, May 15, 1889; Gualala 
river eight feet above high water mark, January, 1895 ; San Francisco and 
Oakland capitalists propose to build a railroad up the Gualala to Cazadero. 
Frost spoiled the cutlook for a fruit crop in 1892. Five thousand ties were 
flumed down to the port from the Garcia river, six miles, in one day. March 
10. 1893, the John McCullough ashore at Fish Rock, a total wreck. April 3 
fire destroyed sixteen buildings in Point Arena ; loss $32,000, insurance $10,- 
000. Ancient Order of Foresters instituted at Gualala. Rebekah Lodge insti- 
' tuted at Point Arena, but has lapsed. The Point Arena creamery com- 
pleted. Eight hundred fish were caught in a few hours by a Gualala bull 
puncher. Thirty-seven sea lions were killed during the year, yielding 250 


gallons of oil. Presbyterian church at Manchester, completed. The Gualala 
mill averaged 175,000 feet per day one week in October. An eighteen-pound 
carrot was brought into town and a thirty-five pound cabbage. Freshet 
raised the railroad track over a twelve-foot stump up the Gualala, January 
14, 1894, and several houses washed away. A wood and shingle mill ran at 
Iversen, 1893-'94. Point Arena Creamery made 120,000 pounds of butter, 
realizing ten per cent, on its stock. Hot Springs opened for guests June 5, 
1895. The fog signal was moved inland one hundred and fifty yards. San 
Benito wrecked on the beach north of town, November 23, 1896. April 11, 
1897, fire destroyed store, several cabins and an orphans' home. October 22, 
Caspar ashore Sander's reef, and several lives lost. April 15, 1898, thirty- 
two shocks of earthquake; center of disturbance near Xavarro. Dr. J. C. 
Morse died January 1, 1898, and his widow, August 9, 1898. They came across 
the isthmus horseback in 1852, and to Point xArena in 1859, walking up from 
Fish Rock, from steamer North America, wrecked there. Schooner Jeanne 
ashore October 1, 1900. I. O. O. F. hall dedicated. Barbara Harvester lost 
January 24, 1901. January 30, 1903, Crescent City ashore at Fish Rock; 
schooner Davidson ashore at Iversen 31st of March. Gualala hotel burned 
July 6, 1903. Western Graphite Co., fifteen miles east, ledge traced over half 
a mile. Oil well said to have been sunk 2250 feet, was abandoned. Electricity 
introduced July 28, 1905. Two swans killed on the Garcia. 

The great earthquake of April 18, 1906, was very severe in Point Arena 
and vicinity. Every business house in town was a junk heap; every brick 
totally destroyed; many wood houses badly damaged; the loss was estimated 
$100,000. The town was practically rebuilt in two years and incorporated 
July, 1908. C. D. Robinson died November 6, 1906, aged eighty-four; he 
settled at Gualala in 1858. Le Grand Morse died February 8, 1907. A 
destructive rain visited the vicinity in March, 1907, and Garcia bridge went 
out. High school building completed in Point Arena, 44x60, with ten-foot 
basement, well, tank and windmill, at a cost of $5,489. J. A. Hamilton died 
May 20, 1909, aged eighty-two years. Steamer Winnebago wrecked July 31. 
Point Arena creamery burned September 13. but immediately rebuilt at cost 
of $7,000. Sixty-two inches of rain in winter of 1908-09. December 5, Elias 
Miller died, aged one hundred and three. 

Elections in ten precincts on the coast on the wet and dry propositions, 
resulted in increased dry territory. Phoenix steamer blew up oiif lighthouse, 
August 13, 1910, three killed. March 10, 1911, high wind took up a plow 
furrow on N. P. Howe's place and wrapped it around a tree. Schooner 
Sonoma foundered ofT the port, crew saved. Oil operations stopped. Free 
library closed and books turned over to Women's Civic Club. Ladies' band 
organized February 20. Petition for breakwater to make a harbor of refuge 
sent Congress. Point Arena high school accredited in 1913. Capt. N. Iversen 
died June 15, 1912, aged eighty-two. For many years he was the principal 
purchaser and shipper from Point Arena. In this connection A. W. Hall 
should have special mention, as his business ventures in the '60s added 
materially to the coast's prosperity. Lane Kirkland exhibited forty-two 
potatoes which weighed 140 pounds, fifty-one which weighed 135 pounds, 
and six which weighed twenty-four pounds. 


Big River Township 

Originally extending along the coast from Navarro to the northern 
boundary of the county, Big River township has been curtailed and sub- 
divided until it now extends only from Salmon creek on the south to Hare 
creek on the north, a distance of about seventeen miles, and on the east to 
nearly the line of watershed between interior rivers and the coast streams ; 
or more properly speaking, to the western line of Ukiah and Little Lake 
townships, being about thirty miles wide. The streams flowing to the ocean 
are Salmon creek, Albion, Little. Big river, and Caspar. Technically Big 
river and Albion are navigable rivers, but are only so used in the immediate 
mouths thereof. These two latter have been used mainly for log driving, and 
that is almost superseded by railroads, which dump the logs into the booms 
at the mills. All are heavily timbered on their banks, and to the tops of the 
ridges there being very little open farming ground on any of them except at 
the immediate coast and far on the headwaters. Redwood and fir are the 
lumber trees, oak for tanbark. and madrona for little use save firewood in 
some places. There are many other kinds of trees, like manzanita, chestnut 
oak, black oak. post oak. alder along the streams, with blue blossom spring- 
ing up wherever the timber is removed, soon forming impenetrable thickets. 
All of these except black and post oak are evergreens, and sprout from the 
root, making the clearing of land for agricultural purposes a labor of years. 
Really, the redwood lands should never be cleared, but allowed to reforest 
for future generations. 

Along the immediate coast is a strip of clear land, only second rate in 
quality as compared with the coast further south, but yielding fair crops of 
grain and hay and vegetables, but not very good for potatoes on account of 
persistent cropping with them. Just back of this strip of fertility is a sandy, 
barren tract covered with dwarf huckleberries and a species of pine that 
often contents itself with a height of two or three feet, though sometimes 
eight to ten, and wild rhododendron bushes. This section has lately sprung 
into prominence as orchard land, though only a white sand soil underlaid 
with yellow clay. Water is said to be abundant at sixteen to eighteen feet 
depth, but it cannot add fertility to such soil. All the coast townships have 
the same climate, cool, foggy at times, the thermometer seldom ranging 
higher than 85° nor lower than 30°. though there have been exceptions to 
both. It is modified in many places by the conformation of the headlands 
and ridges protecting certain locations, so that it is always open to dispute. 

Early Settlement 

As given heretofore, \\'illiam Kasten is the first known white settler, 
who dates from 1850-51. He built a log cabin and claimed the north bank 
of the bay. In 1851-2 a vessel en route from China to San Francisco was 
wrecked at Point Cabrillo. News of this was carried down the coast to 
Bodega, and a party came up to profit by the wreck. They reported on the 
immense body of redwood to be found on this coast and enlisted the interest 
of Harry Meiggs. but lately arrived in San Francisco, who at once took 
advantage of the news and forthwith chartered a vessel, the Ontario, and 
loaded her with a complete sawmill and sailed for Mendocino bay. Meiggs 
almost immediatelv concluded his mill was too small for such magnificent 


timber and sent E. C. Williams east for a more complete and larger mill, 
which did not arrive on the ground until the following spring, owing to 
trouble in crossing the isthmus. It was erected on the "point," the logs 
being hauled up from the river on an incline. Meiggs arrived on the 19th of 
July, 1852, and with him came J. E. Carlson, William H. Kelly and Capt. 
D. F. Lansing. J. B. Ford arrived ten days before Meiggs with eight yoke 
of oxen. As William Kasten claimed the waterfront on the north side of 
the bay, Meiggs purchased it and paid for it mostly in lumber, with which 
was built a house for many years occupied by William Heeser as a residence, 
of course with many additions and improvements. Loyd Beall lived just 
north of Little River, and sold his place to W. H. Kent, who came in 1852, as 
also did Gebhard and George Hegemeyer, John C. Byrnes, Robert White, 
J. P. Simpson and J. Scharf. In years succeeding 1854-5-6. arrived A. F. 
Mahlman, G. C. Smith, L. L. Gray, James Townsend. Silas Coombs. Ruel 
Stickney; 1865-7-8-9, Thomas Walsh, William Heeser, E. W. Blair, F. P. 
Furlong, J. D. Murray, N. E. Hoak, J. F. Hills, Haskett Severance, James 
Severance, C. R. Kaisen, A. Heeser followed the tide of immigration. Of these 
at this date only N. E. Hoak is living. Mrs. W. H. Kent and Mrs. J. F. Hills 
were the first white women to enter the new settlement. They came by the 
isthmus in 1855, the second train across; from San Francisco to Petaluma 
by boat, carriage to Cloverdale, thence horseback through Anderson valley 
across the mountain to Greenwood, thence up the coast to their destination, 
arriving in April, 1855. Capt. Peter Thompson settled at Pine Grove. Siegfrid 
Caspar had a cabin at Caspar Creek, Captain Rundle at Noyo. Manuel Law- 
rence at Salmon Creek. 

The town of Mendocino occupies the southern slope of the point north 
of the harbor, and is garnished with a veritable forest of windmills. The 
main streets run east and west and are comparatively level, while the cross 
streets are steep and often in poor condition. J. F. Hills stocked the first 
store in 1856. William Heeser followed him soon ; then L. Woodward and 
Captain Rundle. the latter soon retiring. Mr. Woodward amassed a com- 
petence, though for fourteen years he did not go south of the river, purchas- 
ing all his stock by letter before the days of drummers. W. H. Kelly also 
engaged in the store business for many years. J. D. Murray was the first 
druggist. Eugene Brown engaged in merchandising in 1865 and continued 
until 1909. The early experience of Mendocino's merchants in obtaining 
goods from San Francisco was often heart 'rending and purse bursting. In 
December, 1871, Mr. Brown lost a consignment of goods by the wreck of 
the Brilliant; a duplicate order was lost on the bar at San Francisco; the 
third order reached him safely. Other merchants lost heavily in the numerous 
shipwrecks prior to 1870. there being thirty of record up to that date. The 
most disastrous as to loss of life were the Chilian vessel La Paz; the Cabot, 
twelve lives lost; and a small schooner of one hundred and fifty tons which 
was sucked into the "blow hole" on the south side of the bay. As she went 
into the cavern several of her crew were rescued by ropes in the hands of 
Charley Carlson and W. H. Kelly. Many have doubted the truth of this 
story, but it is authenticated by the best of evidence, and the cavern has 
been explored by Eugene Brown and others. It has been reported to be of 
great length, but actually one hundred and fifty feet. The night of Novem- 
ber 20, 1865, was memorable as that of the most disastrous storm known on 
this coast, when ten vessels went ashore on the Mendocino coast. 


Among- the early settlers of Mendocino who led long and useful lives 
might be mentioned J. B. Ford, D. F. Lansing, W. H. Kelly, E. C. Williams, 
S. W. Hills, Eugene" Brown, D. B. Millikin, all enterprising, public-spirited 
citizens, only two of whom are now living — Millikin and Eugene Brown. 
William Heeser bought of ^^'. H. Kelly for $6,CO0, in 1858, the farm so long 
owned by him, and probably the first to be cultivated in the township. It 
comprised all the point west of Main street save a strip next that street 
which Mr. Kelly reserved for town lots. It is still held by Mr. Heeser's son, 
except such portion as has been sold for town lots. As early as 1863 Mendo- 
cino possessed gcod hotels, on iMain street, and several were built later. At 
that date there were Carlson's, Osborne & Heldt, and the St. Nicholas kept 
by Ben Severance, which latter was burned October 20, 1870, and with it 
twenty-five other buildings, the only serious fire the town has ever had. 
Recently a pipe and tank system of water has been installed, which will be 
sufficient for any ordinary fire. The town is lighted by electricity, brought 
from Ft. Bragg by Henshaw, Buckley & Co. in 1899. Within the last two 
years the town or rather precinct has voted on prohibition twice, which was 
successful both times, and it is predicted that it will always stay "dry," so 
satisfactory has the experiment proved to both the business men and the 
people. As one landlady expressed the result, "I do not do quite so much 
business, but I get my money for what I do." The merchants also express 
themselves in similar terms as to compensation, but assert increase of 

The pay roll of the mill and timber camps, ties, bark and post sales, are 
the main support of the town, as the farming products do not furnish a tithe 
of the consumption of the town. Jarvis & Nichols, the principal dealers in 
ties, had 125,000 piled upon the landing in 1911, most of which were shipped 
the following season. 

Of business houses there are the following in the town ; Four hotels, 
five general merchandise, two groceries, one photographer, one confectionery, 
one shoe shop, two blacksmiths, one butcher, one livery stable, one imder- 
taker, two jewelers, four soft drink saloons, two shoemakers, one moving 
picture show, three barber shops, one bakery, one billiard parlor, one harness 
shop, two drug stores, two lodging houses. There are of professional men 
three notaries, two doctors and three of the ministerial profession — Presby- 
terian, Baptist and Catholic. 

The "Beacon" is the only newspaper in the town, and is ably edited and 
managed by its proprietor. A. A. Heeser, son of its founder, William Heeser. 
It was established October 6, 1877, succeeding after an interval, the "Star," 
for a short time published by M. J. C. Galvin. It supplies all that is required 
in a local paper, is fully alive to the needs and interests of the community, 
and has a good circulation and the latest in printing facilities, a Simplex 
type casting machine and power press. There are many fine residences in 
the town, and so situated on the elevated slope as to give a beautiful view 
of the ocean, the bay, and the wooded slope beyond. On the highest point 
of the ridge west of town is situated a fine high school building, with a corps 
of efficient teachers, and near by the Catholic church ; farther east in an 
elegant location is the grammar school. The Presbyterian church is in the 
center of a lawn on the main street. The town has regular steamer service 
with the city, besides the lumber vessels coming in at all times. Mail stages 
up and down the coast connect it with railroads at Fort Bragg and Cazadero, 

mp:xd()cixc) and lake counties 53 

mails coming through from San Francisco in twelve hours. The climate is 
such that in sheltered locations fuschias and geraniums keep green the year 
round, and apples, pears, quinces and plums grow to perfection. All the 
vegetables, except corn and tomatoes, flourish and new land produces the 
finest pctatoes in the world. 

Of secret societies Mendocino possesses- a superfluity. The Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows was the first to organize in the town. Stella Lodge 
No. 213 was instituted November 22, 1872, with the following charter mem- 
bers : ■ J. F. Nichols, M. J. C. Galvin, N. Iversen, W. H. Cureton, George 
Sanders, and J. E. Kennedy. The first officers were, J. F. Nichols, N. G. ; 
M. J. C. Galvin, V. G. : N. \V. Lane, secretary. The lodge has flourished, 
built two halls and now numbers one hundred and sixty-nine members. The 
present officers are: William Fleming, N. G. ; L. P. Hanson, V. G. ; G. W. 
Jarvis, secretary; Eugene Bailey, treasurer. The hall now in use by this 
Order was built in 1893, two stories. The lower story is used as a general 
?ssembly room, and for general public purposes. The upper story con- 
tains the lodge room proper, ante rooms, and in front dressing and card room 
and library. In the rear is a fine banquet room and kitchen. The building 
cost over $9000 and is a useful ornament to the town and a monument to the 

Mendocino Lodge No. 179, F. & A. M., was instituted in October, 1865. 
Its first officers, under dispensation, were E. J. Albertson, W. M. ; William 
Heeser, S. W.; G. R. Lowell, J. W.; R. G. Coombs, treasurer, G. C. Smith, 
secretary. The charter members included the above and F. B. Lowell, 
J. Gschwend, Silas Coombs, I. Stevens and William Booth. A hall was built 
in 1866, by stock subscription, which has all passed into the ownership of the 
lodge. To its first Worthy Master, E. J. Albertson, much of the ornamenta- 
tion, for which the hall is remarkable, is to be credited. He worked long 
and faithfully upon it, without hope of reward. Its present membership is 
one hundred and thirty-two and the present officers are J. H- Chambers. 
W. M. ; George E. Bassett, S. W. ; H. A. Atwood, J. W. ; John A. Chambers, 
secretary; H. H. Jarvis, treasurer. 

Ocean View Chapter No. Ill, O. E. S., instituted September 19, 1891, 
with officers as follows: Emily McCornack, W. M.; Elizabeth J. Clark, 
A. W. M. ; C. J. Wood, Secy. ; Mary J. Paddleford, Treas. ; C. W. White, W. P. 
Present officers: Florence N. Weber, W. M.; Ava L. Valentine, W. A. M. ; 
George Bassett, W. P. ; O. Tarmlund, Treas.; Nannie M. Flood, Secy. Xuni- 
ber of members, one hundred and twenty. 

Mendocino Lodge No. 70, A. O. U. W., was instituted December 7, 1878, 
with the following charter members: B. F. Higgins, G. H. Bowman, D. N. 
Le Ballister, John Sorowski. T. R. Smith, E. W. Potter. J. McCroden, A. 
Freding, O. Hamilton and N. E. Hoak. The first officers were G. H. Bow- 
man, W. M.; D. N. LeBallister, F. ; J. Sorowski, O. ; T. R. Smith, recorder; 
E. W. Potter, Fin.; J. McCroden, Rec. For years it was one of the most 
flourishing of the Orders in the town, but death and depression of the lumber 
trade thinned its membership until now only a handful remain faithful. Its 
officers now are: C. L. Knight, M. W. ; E. S. Knight. F. ; J. D. Silveria, O. ; 
Wm. T. ^Vallace, recorder. 

Council Amor da Sociedade No. 41, S. P. R. S. I., was instituted Septem- 
ber 15, 1901, with twelve charter members as follows: Maria J. Ramus, 
Henrietta C. Silva, Mayme C. Lopes. Anna F. Luiz, Maria P. Silva. Maria 


G. Brown, Joaquina King, Mariana Pimental, Emilia V. Lemas, Maria C. 
Machado, Maria S. Neto, Rosa T. Ramus. Present officers: Anna M. Gon- 
salves, Pres. : Henrietta C. Silva, V. P.; Mariana Pimental, Secy.; Frances 
Escobar, Mes. of Cores. ; Adelaide C. Silva, Mar. ; Joaquina King, G. Number 
of members, sixty-six. The initials S. P. R. S. I. are the abbreviation of 
Sociedade Portugueza Rainha Santa Isabel, or Portuguese Society of Queen 
St. Elizabeth, which has a membership of about six thousand, with a grand 
lodge in Oakland and eighty-five subordinate lodges in California. 

Far West Rebekah Lodge No. 176 was instituted October 22, 1891, with 
the following charter members : B. W. Bowden, G. H. Bowman, A. F. Mahl- 
man, J- O'Donnell, G. B. Bever, J. Seimore, H. L. Frederick, George Switzer, 
Mary S. Bever, Emily McCornack, W. A. McCornack. The present member- 
ship is ninety-seven and the elective officers are Jennie Swansen, N. G. ; Marie 
Iversen, V. G. ; Lena Bowman, Secy. ; Annie Brown, Treas. 

Mendocino No. 88, R. A. M., was instituted September 5, 1903, with the 
following charter members : William A. Butterfield, Joshua Grindle, Wil- 
liam Heeser, Fred Hailing, Henry B. Hickey, H. H. Jarvis, J. A. Nelson, 
C. O. Packard, C. J. Wood. The first officers were John Leishman, H. P. ; 
J. C. Rice, King; Frank Hall, Scribe; H. H. Jarvis, Treas.; Charles Banker, 
Secy. The present officers are W. H. Higgins, H. P. ; Frederick Hailing, 
Scribe; J. C. Rice, King; H. H. Jarvis, Treas.; Charles Banker. Secy. Num- 
ber of members, sixty-eight. 

Waw Beck Tribe No. 164, I. O. R. M., was instituted June 7, 1905, with 
charter members as follows : R. R. Armas, William Shaw, William Emerick, 
Alex Cameron, Harold Switzer, A. O. Sjaland, John Zellerhend, James 
Cooney, A. W. Biggers, J- M. Gwin, A. J- Scott, John Flanagan, S. A. Bloyd, 
W. P. Howe, F. E. Lermond, William Fleming, H. G. Bowens, J. W. Millikin, 
C. A. Tracy, William Spangle, T. S. Wallace, J. S. Tongg, Chester Byrne. 
George Hoe, C. H. Nichols, C. F. Bond, F. C. Peirsol and C. F. McDernitt. 
Present membership one hundred and thirty-five. Present officers are : Hel- 
mer Olson, Sachem; Simon Boos, Sen. Sagamore; Albert Brien, J. S. ; 
William Shaw, C. of P. Membership, one hundred and thirty-five. 

Pepperwood Camp No. 756, W. O. W., was instituted June 24, 1903, 
with ten charter members as follows : H. C. Tanner, Fred Post, C. V. Brere- 
ton, T. W. Hoak, J. N. Garvin, H. G. Bowens, C. B. Johnson, O. O. Boggs, 
Theo. Hansen, C. D. Tindall. Present membership, fifty-five. Present offi- 
cers: William Shaw, C. C. ; James Porterfield, A. L. ; Charles Banker, 
Clerk; Olaf Tannlund, Banker. 

Society Consuelho Luiz de Canoes No. 6, U. P. E. C, instituted in 
February, 1889. Present officers : Mattie Osborne, Pres. ; Antone Pacheco. 
V. Pres. ; Frank Valladae, Secy. ; Antone C. Noyo, Treas. ; J. S. Valladao, 
M. of C. ; J. J. Brown, G. of G. ; J. A. Brown, G. of Ex. Number of members, 

• Consello Estrella du Norte No. 62, I. D. E. S., was instituted March 27, 
1904. Present officers: H. V. Silva, Pres.; J. M. Fraga, V. P.; J. R. Rod- 
eriques. Secy. ; A. M. Fraga, Treas. 

West Coast Encampment No. 70, I. O. O. F., present membership, 
fifty-nine. Present officers: H. L. Mallory, C. P.; P. Gramstead, H. P.; 
Robert Law, S. W. ; G. W. Jarvis, Scribe; Eugene Bailey. J. W. ; William 
Fleming, Treas. 


The harbor is a bay at the mouth of Big river, or "Booldam," as the 
Indians, called it. It is almost circular, and nearly land locked, but open 
to the southeast, from which point come the most destructive gales. The 
government has been repeatedly importuned to build a breakwater, and thus 
create a harbor of refuge for distressed vessels in time of storm — the only 
one between San Francisco and Oregon. It is roomy and deep and would 
accommodate several vessels at one time. The northern side turns around 
to the south in a curve, and on its point is located the shipping cable, over 
which everything goes and comes, and so complete and expeditious is it 
that a large ship is loaded with lumber in a day. The "Point" is pierced by 
the action of the water, so that a row boat can go through from side to side, 
and in stormy times the dash of the waves makes the rock tremble. Several 
vessels have been lost in the harbor from the parting of their moorings, 
four or five totally, and as many more that were repaired and floated. The 
saw mill was first built on the point, but for many years it has been on the 
flat about half a mile up the river. Meiggs' schemes and plans proved to 
be too far in advance, and too expensive for the times, and the mill property 
passed into the hands of his principal creditors, GodefYroy, Sillem & Co., 
E. C. Williams, J. B. Ford, and others, who for many years, with varying 
fortunes, through many vicissitudes, carried it on until it gave each of them 
a fortune. 

The logging was done by river-driving, and occasionally a season's 
work went to sea on the crest of a flood. D. B. Millikin for many years was 
logger for the company, at so much per thousand, logs delivered in the boom, 
the company paying all bills and settling up at the end of the season. Lost 
logs were the logger's loss and at one time Millikin was $40,000 in debt to 
the company. Two successful seasons evened up, and left him a competence, 
which he invested in Fresno vineyards, and he is the only one living of all the 
old timber men of the early days. 

This system of logging obtained on all the rivers of the coast, the 
Gualala, Garcia. Xavarro, Big River, Noyo, and Albion. Now only Big 
River is using it. And here they have a railroad seven miles long, built in 
1893, which is used to supplement the river driving in dry seasons, or emerg- 
ency calls for specific cargoes. The capacity of the mill is 100,000 feet, but 
at one time 300,000 feet was forced through it in one day uf less than twelve 
hours on a competitive sawing with Little River mill. It has been burned 
and rebuilt once. 

Salmon Creek, which lies a mile south of .Mbion, was once a busy milling 
village with two stores, two hotels, two big mills and several saloons, but 
is now a dead burg, affording refuge to one disreputable saloon, which has 
been purged by fire as we write. The timber is all cut, and the two mills 
that shrilly whistled hundreds of hardy woodsmen to labor are things of the 
past. Prosperous ranches occupy the hills where once the lofty redwood 
and fir swayed to the ocean breeze, or the wild blue blossom presents its 
tangled front. Once an hundred thousand feet of lumber and thousands of 
ties were shipped each day from its wharf, where safe anchorage for one 
vessel was secured. Xow nothing more than a fishing boat ever ties up at it. 

Albion, on the mouth of the river of the same name, six miles south of 
Mendocino, is a mill town of as busy an appearance as any one could wish 
to see. The mill, lumber yard, store, hotel, and the cabins of the mill hands 
occuDv all the flat along the river, while the residences of business men, a 


store or two, another hotel, are ranged along the hill on either side of the 
river, mostly up a steep grade. A drawbridge confronts one at the foot of 
the steep grade on the south side, and from its northern end one gropes 
along under huge platforms supporting the tracks which carry from the mill 
its entire output. In former days vessels were occasionally run above the 
bridge to load from the wharf, or for security in a great storm when more 
than one was in the harbor. But of late years this has not been done, as 
there is not water enough for the larger size of vessels now used, and sub- 
stantial wharves and moorings have been provided in the harbor for even 
deep water freighters from foreign ports, of which at one time there were 
four in for loads. For many years it was essentially and exclusively a mill 
town, its business dominated by the mill owners, and to a great extent is 
now. The first known settlement was made here by Scharf, who in 1853 
built a water mill for Captain Richardson, the claimant of the grant reaching 
from the Albion to the Garcia. It could not have had more than an ephemeral 
existence, as Rawson & Rutherford were exploiting the place in 1855-6. tc 
be succeeded by Alerrit & Lawrence, then A. G. Dallas, and he by A. W. 
McPherson. The history of the town is but the history of mill operations, 
as the mill proprietors transacted all business for some time after the erection 
of the mill. The first mill was burned in 1867. and a new one of 35.000 feet 
capacity was at once erected by McPherson, who soon after was joined in 
the enterprise by Henry Wetherby. L. E. White was bookkeeper for the 
firm, and finally stocked a store and saloon, and later a hotel, and was 
eminently successful in all. as all the pay roll passed through his hands. 
In 1861 James Townsend. superintendent of the mill, became associated with 
him. and the finn launched out into the tie business and for many years 
controlled it. In the same year Townsend moved to Noyo and took charge 
of that mill also. He also was interested with Fred Brown in a store at 
Noyo. and with Joseph Carroll in a store on Eel river in Humboldt county. 
These two men were the business men of the coast for twenty-five years 
and made history in their extensive operations in lumber, timber, railroads 
and mills. Of late years the mill operations have assumed a more settled 
and comprehensive form, by the building of railroad, purchase of large 
tracts of timber land, and great improvements in machinery, dry houses and 
wharves, which have had the effect of encouraging dwellings of a more 
substantial character than the cabins of the mill hands, and the establish- 
ment of stores and hotels other than those of the mill company. There are 
now three general stores, three hotels, one confectionery, one blacksmith 
shop, two barbers, and a hospital, and about twenty good dwellings, school 
house, hall, and church. The railroad has been extended to and past Wend- 
ling, in the lower end of Anderson, and is eventually expected to connect 
with the California Northwestern at Healdsburg. The mill and its adjuncts. 
timber, etc., passed into the hands of the Southern Pacific in September. 
1907, with its twenty-four thousand acres of timber land at a stated price of 
$900,000. The milfhas a capacity of 110,000 feet per diem, 30.000.000 feet 
being its output for 1913. Hickey & Co., who previously owned the prop- 
erty, are said to have purchased forty thousand acres of redwood timber, 
mainly in Humboldt county. 

There is quite a body of good farming land contiguous to the town, 
mainly south, and much timber land has been cleared and now in fruit, which 
takes the first premium wherever exhibited. At Salmon Creek a creamery 


has Ijeeii in successful operation some years. For many years the logging 
on the Albion was done by river driving, but the timber has been taken off 
for sixteen miles up the stream and the volume of water up there is too 
inconsiderable, unless expensive dams are built to be let loose in times of 
heavy rains. In an early day when Fred Brown was doing the logging, a 
chute was used to put the logs down into the river some two miles from 
the mill. It was a quarter of a mile long, and logs smoked as they went 

Little River, two miles south of Mendocino, is now essentially a resi- 
dence town with one store, one hotel, and about sixteen dwellings, a church, 
school house, and blacksmith shop. There is an excellent small harbor at 
this place, where steamers often run in when it is too rough to land in any 
other harbor in the county, or between San Francisco and Oregon. Years 
ago a vessel came in during a foggy night without intention on the part of 
her crew, much to the captain's astonishment in the morning. A few ties 
and some bark and posts are shipped at this time. Ruel Stickney, Silas 
Coombs .and Tapping Reeves built the town when they built their mill in 
1864. But the amount of timber available was soon exhausted, though the 
mill was once rebuilt after a fire. No vestige of the mill now remains, and 
some buildings have succumbed to time and neglect. The early settlers, 
W. H. Kent. Ruel Stickney, Tapping Reeves, Silas Coombs, Charles Perkins, 
A. F. Alahlman, Isaiah Stevens, Richard Coombs, Charles Pullen. have passed 
to the great be3'ond. and their children and grandchildren perpetuate the 
family names in school, church and business. Little River was at one time 
a lively ship-building port. Capt. Thomas H. Peterson having built twenty 
schooners there. 

Caspar, five miles north of Mendocino, is another town built primarily 
by the mill business, though it has something in the way of agriculture and 
orcharding to give it support. It took its name from a German who first settled 
there at some unknown date. The harbor is little more than an open road- 
stead and is avoided in n ugh weather. The mill was built in 1861 by 
Kelly & Rundle, and passed into the hands of J. G. Jackson in 1864. Outside 
of the mill company the first business set up there was a saloon by George 
Heldt, though Pine Grove, three-fourths of a mile south, provided a hotel 
and bar which up to that time accommodated the thirsty. This may be 
considered as part of Caspar, as it drew all its support therefrnm and was 
for many years owned by Harry Kier, who made a fortune cashing orders 
for mill hands, acting as banker for them, and loaning money deposited with 
him. Capt. Peter Thompson was the first settler at Pine Grove, and farmed 
a little and ran a band of cattle there in 1853. Harry Kier sold out to Sever- 
ance and Maxwell, but they did not long continue, as the erection of other 
business houses at Caspar proper cut off the patronage from Pine Grove. 
A brewery was maintained here from 1873 for a number of years, but was 
discontinued for want of patronage. There are now four or five dwellings, 
and it is a farming community. Brown & Wooster ran a store here in the 
'60s. .\ government lighthouse has been recently erected on the point west, 
called Cabrillo Point. It is a revolving ten-second flash light and is visible 
fifteen miles. Three cottages have also been provided for the crew and 
wrecked people. Harry Harrison built the first hotel in Caspar, about where 
the company's store now stands. The writer must have been his first 
patron, for a blanket on the bare floor was the only bedroom equipment fur- 


nished, and that under the eaves where it was not fully closed in from the 
night air. The town consists of some thirty or forty dwellings, two stores, 
two hotels, and at present writing no saloons, the territory having been 
"dry" for the last three years. 

The mill is up-to-date in every particular and has a capacity of 75,000 
feet. Its logs are brought by rail from the Noyo watershed and are shot 
down into the dam at the mill with startling efifect upon a strange horse 
passing. The mill was burned in 1888, but was immediately rebuilt ; loss, 
$75,000; insurance, $20,000. Upon the death of J- G. Jackson the property 
passed into the hands of his daughter, Mrs. Abbie Krebbs, who, with the 
assistance of her son, C. J. Wood, has successfully conducted it. The com- 
pany has an orchard of eighty acres on cleared redwood lands that in 1911 
yielded 10,000 boxes of apples of a quality far superior to the far-famed 
Watsonville fruit. There have been secret societies here, but all passed away 
long ago except the I. O. G. T., which flourished apace, and the result has 
been a dry town, and Court Caspar No. 8217, which was instituted May 15, 
1894. The principal officers at the present time are George Allen, C. R. ; 
Randolph Pfiester, S. C. ; Arch Bailey, P. C. F. ; Cecil Gregor, Fin. Sec. ; Gus 
C. G. Wahlstrom, Treas. 

The Caspar, South Fork and Eastern Railroad was incorporated |ulv 7, 

1903, with $500,000 capital. r^. , 

' Chronology 

October, 1879, Schooner Annie Stofifer ashore at Caspar. February 3, 
1880, Schooner Norwester wrecked at Little River. February 19, A. W. 
McPherson died, aged fifty-six years. He was agent for the English firm 
of A. G. Dallas, and built and ran the Albion mill for them. Afterwards 
became its owner, with Wetherbee, as also the Noyo mill. March 6, Bever 
hotel burned; loss $5000, insurance $3200. .\ugust 24, a sixteen year old 
boy killed three bear at Half Way House. February, 1881, Albion mill 
passed into hands of A. W. Starbird. Thirteen schooners were loaded in 
ten days. A pear tree at Pine Grove yielded twenty bushels pears. By the 
breaking of a chain a team of oxen went over a bank, killing five. Little 
River school opened with eighty-one pupils. J. S. Kimball opened up a 
store at Whitesboro. July 22, 1882, eight whales spouted along Mendocino. 
November 20, five schooners went ashore between Navarro and Westport, 
Tie output for 1883, 880,000. A reading room was established in Mendocino. 
Albion freshets brought down 32,000 logs. August 20, 1884, Charles Pullen, 
Sr., died at Little River. He was a fine mechanic, who assisted in, or erected 
the Little River mill, several bridges, and left a large family of mechanics to 
continue his work. Game so plentiful that A. Davenport in four days' hunt 
killed a six hundred pound bear, six deer and a panther. Apples weighing 
from sixteen to twenty-nine and one-half ounces on exhibition. Winter 
rains began December 15, 1884. February 1, 1885, Little River ashore, and 
a total loss in Little River harbor, where she was built. Isaiah Stevens, a 
Little River pioneer, died December 10, 1885, seventy-six years of age. 
August, 1884, Caspar Co. bridged Jug Handle creek, for logging railroad, 
high and long; it was destroyed by the earthquake of 1906 and rebuilt. 
Electric light introduced at Caspar January, 1887, January 6, 1887, Irma 
and George R. Higgins ashore at Whitesboro. .^pril 9, 1887, J. Eppinger at 
Navarro, and the Pet at Albion, ashore. May 11, 1887, schooners Albion, 
Champion, Charlotte, and a tug, ashore at Navarm. Tulv 9. 1887, Mendocino 


procured a fire engine. January, 1888, twenty thousand logs came down 
Big river. Z. B. Heywood wrecked at Navarro. Haskett Severance died at 
Navarro, April 19, 1888. J. B. Ford died in Oakland, October 25, 1889. 
C. W. Denslow died September 25, 1889, aged seventy-five years. Henry 
Witherbee died January 29, 1892. E. W. Blair died May 4, 1892, aged fifty- 
five years. J. D. Murray died May 25, 1892. All pioneers. 

Albion logging train wrecked by a bull and three men killed, June 13, 
1893. Navarro mill shut down September 25, 1893, $500,000 in debt. Little 
River mill closed up its career, August 20, 1893. 

Mendocino high school dedicated May 11, 1894, accredited July, 1897. 
L. E. White gave orders that all married woodsmen should be given employ- 
ment in his tie camps, although there was already an oversupply of ties. 
J. C. Byrnes died January 18, 1894. 

S. W. McMuflen killed by accident, April 26, 1895. August 18, 1895, a 
mail route was inaugurated fmm Philo to Greenwood. A combination of all 
the coast saw mills was again attempted in 1895, to limit production. W. H. 
Kelly died December, 1905, aged eighty-four, a pioneer. He practically 
built the Baptist church at Mendocino. 

A tidal wave of over seven feet struck the coast between 2 and 4 p. m., 
June 17, 1856. Randlett hotel burned in Little River, October 29, 1896. 
A. W. Hall died February 6, 1897, seventy-three years of age. Capt. Samuel 
Blair died May 31, 1897. Wintzer store burned at Navarro, July 12, 1897. 
A ledge of iron ore and polarized gravel discovered at Mendocino. 

Nolan's hotel burned at Caspar, April 9, 1898. Bobolink ashore on Kent's 
Point, March 22, 1898. Earthquake damaged Albion railroad several thousand 
dollars, April 14, 1898. Store fired, December 25, 1898. Ruel Stickney died, 
January 12, 1899, aged seventy-five years. J. E. Carlson died, April 16, 1899, 
aged seventy-seven years. Fire destroyed Gorman barn. Mendocino, and five 
horses, six coaches and buggies. Mendocino Discount Bank placed in liqui- 
dation. Albion steam schooner sailed for Alaska with 500 reindeer. 

Little River shipped 100,000 ties in 1899. The timber king, Weyerhauser, 
ow.ning a million acres in Western Washington, contemplated investments in 
Humboldt, but failed to make them. Albion Mill burned September 29, 
1900, with 19,000,000 feet of lumber; loss, $130,000. Schooner Sunol burned 
at Little River October 23, 1900. James Townsend died December 21, 1900, 
aged seventy years. Kaisen tract of timber sold at $30 per acre. Creamery 
established at Whitesboro, February, 1901. J. G. Jackson died April 17, 1901, 
aged eighty-four years. An oar of the Steamer Rio Janeiro was picked up 
in the Mendocino harbor April 15. 1901. G. Hagemyer died May 13, 1901. 
Dayton Torrence, five years old, playing in a tie chute, was hit by a tie, fell 
back on it, and was carried to the end without injury, at the speed of a mile 
in eighteen seconds. Almost a famine along the coast on account of vessels 
being" tied up bv a strike. 105,000 ties on the bank at Mendocino October, 

February, 1902, 17.26 inches of rain. Wire chute put in on the point 
March, 1902, making loading much more expeditious. April 12, 1902, Men- 
docino Mill started up on the north side, having been idle fifteen years. She 
cut 51,375 feet from eleven logs out of one tree. At loggers' scale, the logger 
would receive $250 for it. Albion railroad surveyed (and incorporated) to 
Guntley's in Anderson, and mill completed, with electric lights installed. 
Ten-hour schedule adopted, 1902. C. A. Perkins died in July, 1902, aged 


sixty-three years. The Ford family sold out their holdings in the Mendocino 
Mill Co. to J. L. Ross. Charles Fletcher died August 14. 1902, aged eighty- 
three years. Navarro Mill burned November 7, 1902. 

February 7, 1903, six inches snow at Comptche. Stage held up near 
there February, 1903. Mendocino Mill cut 572,000 feet in six days in Feb- 
ruary, 1903. Severance Hotel at Navarro burned March 7. 1903. Again is 
a combination of mills attempted. Rainfall for season, 1903-04: Mendocino, 
44.37; Branscomb, 118; Ukiah, 51.49; Westport, 82.13 inches. Frank Farnier 
died October 3, 1904, aged one hundred and four years. Sotoyome launched 
at Albion January, 1904. New Catholic Church at Mendocino, 40x96, and 
Monastery, 30x71. 

J. E. Chalfant died April 1, 1905, aged eighty years. Bank of Com- 
merce opened at Mendocino August 6, 1905. Results of accidents in one 
year ending September 30, 1905: Death, 9; serious, 26. Violence: Death, 
4; serious, 2; suicide, 5. Mendocino Lumber Co. changes name to Mendo- 
cino Redwood Co., December 30, 1905. 20,000,000 feet cut in 1905. 24,000 
logs in boom January, 1906. In three days, 7.12 inches of rain. W. H. 
Kent died January 29, 1906. aged eighty-five years. Albion Mill cutting 
142.000 feet" daily.' Seven dry kilns of capacity of 450,000 feet ; 22.000,000 
in 1905. William Heeser died April 9, 1906', aged eighty-three years. The 
earthquake of April 18, 1906, shook down nearly every chimney in Mendo- 
cino. Occidental hotel moved five feet. Mill twisted out of true. High 
school off its foundation. Monuments thrown down. Span of bridge down. 
Mill chimney built in 1864, of 1,000.000 brick, thrown down. From seven 
days' rain. 16.81 inches. February, 1907, water works put in for fire pur- 
poses. August Heeser died September 23, 1907. Contract let for Point Ca- 
brillo lighthouse, three dwellings and barn. Flashlight every ten seconds. 
Rain October 14. 1908. Fifteen hundred logs (800,000 feet lumber) rafted 
from boom to mill one day by three men. 

S. W. Hills died July 10, 1909, aged eighty-four years. Smokestack of 
mill rusted olif and fell September 29, 1509; had been up only three years. 
Experiment of making heavy wrapping paper from redwood bark, etc., suc- 
cessful ; five tons of waste will make one ton paper ; gallon of alcohol from 
six cubic feet of waste. On Stillwell ranch reported mine bearing silver, 
gold, tin, copper (not ready coined). In jMendocino boom 20,000 logs Jan- 
uary 21, 1911. September 7, 1912, rainfall for week, 4.25 inches. Apple fair, 
October 23 to 27, 1912. and November 18 to 22. 1913. Improvements in Big 
River mill of the latest patents in saws, steam rigger, Prescott carriage, 
simplifies and decreases the manual labor. The mill company owns about 
35,000 acres of timber land, having on it about 1,500,000,000 feet of timber. 
which is estimated to be 40 per cent of the timber on the Big River drainage 

The Rank of Commerce is the onlv one now doing business at Mendo- 
cino. Its report for December 27, 1913, is as follows: Capital stock paid in. 
$25,000; surplus, $10,100; cash on hand, $17,412; deposits subject to check, 
$129,218.75. John S. Ross, vice-president; J. N. Rea, cashier. 

The future of the town seems assured for years to come, as the mill 
company owns 35,000 acres of timber land, which is forty per cent of the 
estimated acreage on the tributaries of Big River, and the greater portion 
of the balance necessarih^ will pass through their mill. 


It would not be fair to close "Big River's" history without allusiun to 
Comptche, sixteen miles east of Mendocino City, on the headwaters of the 
Albion. Originally a lumber camp, with small areas of open land scattered 
through the timber, by clearing up the land after the loggers were through, 
quite a prosperous settlement has resulted, which supports two good schools 
and some fine orchards. It is here that thousands of gum trees have been 
planted on the denuded lands of the Albion company. For some years there 
has been a creamery in operation here, sustained by alfalfa on cleared stump 
land. A shake mill has been operated here, and thousands of ties made in 
the vicinity. The Albion mill has been logging here for some years past. 
There is a large body of the finest timber in the township here, which was 
sold to an eastern speculator, to be taken oS in ten years, with a proviso 
that it might remain longer on certain conditions. By suit in court, it has 
been determined that only four and one-half years more are allowed. 


Ten Mile Township 

Ten Mile township extends akmg the coast from Hare creek (half a mile 
south of Noyo river) to Chadbourne gulch on the north. There is but one 
considerable town in it, Fort Bragg, whose population is 2403. 

There is but little open land in this township, most of it being densely 
timbered, with a strip along the southern coast part covered with brush and 
scraggly pine. Much of this latter has been cleared out in the last ten years 
and made available for gardens and building lots. In the northern part of 
the township is as fine land as ever was cultivated and there are three large 
dairies maintained there. Here, too, is one of the longest beaches on the 
county's coast, with two smaller ones, to break the monotony of the bleak 
black bluff which presents its cold shoulder to the mariner. The whole 
story of the township centers about Fort Bragg, which is the liveliest, busiest 
town in the county. It was incorporated in 1889, with C. R. Johnson, V. J. 
Westover, F. Bucholtz, T. Clark and H. A. Weller as trustees; F. A. Whip- 
ple, recorder; J. Wintzer, treasurer; J. C. White, marshal; Fire Commission- 
ers, C. Stewart, J. Randolph and J. Bucholtz. In 1914 the following officers 
were elected: Sam Shafsky, Mayor; E. E. Brown, D. Miller, C. W. Mero, 
W. H. Dixon, trustees; clerk, O. L. Johnson; marshal, F. J. Smith; treasurer, 
H. W. Little. Population. 2408; assessed value, $746,000; tax rate, $1.98 on 
the $100. Date of incorporation, August 5, 1889. Territory one mile square. 

The first school, a private one, was organized in 1887, and the first school 
house was built in 1889. In 1895, a fine grammar school house was erected, 
two-story and basement. In 1901 the high school building was erected at 
a cost of $17,000, employing five teachers, with an attendance of seventy-five. 

In 1911 the high school pupils issued a most clever and delightful 
brochure entitled, "Breath of Ocean," which for interest and information 
is the equal of any college publication in the state. 

The town has had its catastrophies, but no trace of them remains. The 
worst was the earthquake of 1906, which leveled the I. O. O. F. hall, a brick 
structure, and others of like construction, but its chief damage was to chim- 
neys, and the fire consequent upon it. which swept through the principal 


business block, entailing a loss of $800,000. Like every other place, it had 
its vagaries in upsetting safes, and respecting jardiniers, throwing doors 
into the street, and leaving windows on either side intact ; upsetting a huge 
printing press and leaving a type rack undisturbed. 

The streets are graded, but not paved ; sidewalks cemented in the main 
part of town, and seme of the residence districts. The town is supplied with 
water from mountain springs, and also has a pipe system from the mill for 
use in case of fire. The mill also supplies electricit)^ at the rate of twelve 
cents per watt. Excellent order is maintained, and a cement calaboose con- 
tributes to its enforcement. The people are enterprising, liberal and intelli- 
gent, and with many thousand acres of the best redwood of the state con- 
tributory to the mill. Fort Bragg is sure to grow for many years to come. 

Early History and Settlement 

This whole township was selected as an Indian reservation in 1857. 
The government having decided to establish a reservation, T. J. Flenley, 
then Superintendent of Indian Affairs in California, having headquarters at 
San Francisco, sent Lieutenant H. P. Heintzleman on an exploring expe- 
dition to Cahto, thence north to Cape Mendocino and down the coast to 
Noyo. His report decided the authorities to locate the reservation on the 
territory thus mapped out. In 1857, Lieutenant H. G. Gibson was ordered to 
establish a post, and his selection of a site was named after Colonel Brax- 
ton Bragg, of Mexican war fame. The present town of Fort Bragg was 
then a beautiful glade, sloping gently to the west, and completely surrounded 
by heavy timber, which shut out the harsh winds, and, in a great measure, 
the fogs that elsewhere rolled in so frequently. It had the most equable 
climate on the coast. Dr. A. C. Folsom, stationed there for eighteen months, 
assured the writer that in that time the mercury showed only a variation 
of thirty degrees. The cutting away of the timber north and west of the 
then open glade has let in wind and fog and greatly changed the climate. 
The officers' quarters were at the east end of the natural parallelogram, the 
barracks on either side, and the hospital on quite an eminence at the west 
end. The writer visited the "Fort" in 1864. Captain Hull and Lieutenant 
Knickerbocker then being in charge. That night Lieutenant Coffman, from 
Round Valley station, was there on military business. John Byrnes and 
George Wooster from Noyo were invited ; "'commissary" was on tap, and a 
regular jamboree inaugurated. Myself and Wooster vacated by way of a 
window, and "joy went on unconfined." The soldiers had nothing to do 
at that time but eat and drink and occasionally go out and bring in an 
Indian family or two to keep up the numbers to be reported. In 1867 the 
reservation was abandoned, and soon after the land was thrown open for 
purchase, actual settlers being allowed to enter, at the government price 
of $1.25 per acre, whatever they were actually in possession of, to the limit 
of six hundred and forty acres, and "possession" was very liberally con- 
strued. The tract embraced in the limits of the reservation contained over 
twenty-four thousand acres, and four stations were established: Fort Bragg; 
Culle Bulle, just south of the Noyo river, of which John P. Simpson was 
agent and William Ray assistant; Bald Hill, three miles northeast of Noyo, 
with M. C. Doherty, agent, and John Clark, assistant; and Ten Mile, with 
Major Lewis, agent, and E. J. Whipple, assistant. Captain H. L. Ford was 
the first agent at Fort Bragg. Robert White, John P. Simpson, Sam Watts, 



Hub Mitchell, Steve Mitchell, G. C. Smith, Harry Kier, H. Beall and Lloyd 
Beall. Sr.. were employes at various times, and on the breaking up of the 
reservation, settled on some of the lands. Dr. T. M. Ames was the first 
physician, and was located at Bald Hill, which place fell to Fred Heldt on 
the final breakup. Graft was no name for expenditures of this and other 
reservations in those times. The Indians got little of it, the employes all. 
Only one or two profited by it in the long run, and nearly everyone died 
in poverty. 

The moving of a mill from Ten Mile river to Fort Bragg in 1885, started 
the town, which for some years grew rapidly, especially when talk of a 
railroad to Willits became common, and a large grading outfit was landed 
at the Noyo. But this project fell through, and the low price of lumber 
caused stagnation. But times soon brightened. The logging road continued 
to ascend the Noyo river, until the distance intervening between its terminal 
and Willits was so inconsiderable that the project of rail connection with 
the outside world was revived, and is now realized. There are probably 
five thousand acres of open or cleared land in the township, and more being 
brought under cultivation, consequently, it is clearly seen that the welfare 
and support of the town rests entirely on the timber business at present. 
The company employs at times as many as one thousand men, and has 
exceeded that number. The payroll, therefore, brings to the coffers of 
the business men of the town $50,000 per month, no small revenue for a town 
of twenty-four hundred inhabitants. 

There are in the town seven general merchandise stores; banks, two; 
hotels, nine; garages, two; clothing houses, four; confectioneries, four; drug 
stores, two; millinery, two; jewelers, two; bakeries, two; variety, one; sa- 
loons, fifteen; photo galleries, one; barber shops, four; livery stables, three; 
electrical, one ; undertaker, one ; furniture, one ; newspapers, one, sometimes 
two; blacksmiths, four; bottling works, one; second-hand, one; restaurants, 
four; tailors, two; moving pictures, two; job wagons, six; all licensed to do 
business. To a stranger business seems to be overdone — too many business 
houses for the country, as the rural population seems scanty, and farms of 
any size few and far between. But back from the main thoroughfare, along 
the coast, ranches and orchards are being carved out of the stump and brush 
land, and the trade of the workers in the woods and mills, especially of the 
two large ones in town and nearby, employing sometimes fifteen hundred 
men, affords support for them all. Then, too, the extension of the railroad 
to Willits has opened up an extensive trade with the interior. The Finn, 
the Swede, the German, the Italian, are making homes blossom where the 
average American saw no encouragement for exertion. And, too. an experi- 
ment in making paper pulp from redwood bark has resulted favorably in a 
small way, and may lead to a profitable industry. As the bark of a redwood 
is from two to eighteen inches thick the amount of material is illimitable, 
and no use is now made of it save to patch a culvert, fill a mudhole, or burn 
to get it out of the way. 

A large, well equipped hospital is maintained by membership dues, and 
is an absolutely necessary adjunct to the mill business, as the record shows 
forty-six accidents in one year involving life or limb. The town supports 
one newspaper well and occasionally has another thrust upon it for an 
ephemeral existence. The Advocate was founded by Heeser and Bucking- 
ham in 1887, and it passed into the hands of C. J. Cavanaugh in May, 1889. 


From it we extract the following epitome of events : Of that date mention 
is made of a visit from J. E. Pemberton, "a rising- young lawyer." now one 
of the first in his specialty in San Francisco. 

A card received from Captain W. E. Hull, formerly in charge of Fort 
Bragg in 1863-4, now a dealer in grain, wood and lumber in Prior Lake, 
I\Iinnesota. June 5, a subscription of $76, raised to send a young man to 
Ukiah hospital for treatment. June 24, election held for incorporation, car- 
ried by seventy-nine majority. Trustees elected: C. R. Johnson, Cal Stewart, 
O. F. Westover, Frank Bucholtz. and John Randolph; clerk, H. A. Weller; 
treasurer, J. Wintzer. July 3d, Steamer Noyo takes out the first log raft. 
A lot was purchased by the town for school house for $1,000. On the 24th 
the waterworks were completed by Horace Milliken, affording a supply of 
1.000,009 gallons per day. Incorporated as a company January 10, 1890. a 
building arid loan association was formed in September. In October the 
grand officers of the Red Men visited the local lodge. November 27, Schooner 
Protection ashore with a cargo of 175.000 feet lumber and 7,000 posts. 

January 10, 1890, Baptist church completed. Shingle mill put in opera- 
tion and in May, I. O. O. F. lodge instituted. Teachers' County Institute 
held in Fort Bragg in June. A fire truck was purchased in February, 1891. 
South Coast ashore, but floated, repaired and sailed. July 22, Australian 
advices reported no sale for redwood lumber. Mill cut two and one-half 
million feet in July. Fire, December 15, burned Hotel Kimball, saloon, jew- 
elry store, Weller & Co.'s. Lieser's, Sternberg's, McMullen's, Hetherington's, 
and Moore's; loss, $50,000; insurance, $15,000. December 23, I. O. O. F. 
hall, uncompleted brick, blown down. In 1891 lumber was shipped, 16,614,- 
186 feet: shingles. 4.219,400; shakes, 339,000; ties, 158,563; piles, 880 (some- 
times 120 feet long, three feet in diameter) ; posts, 74,409, and wood and bark, 
etc., nearly as much remaining in the yards. 

May 12, 1892, a cigar raft containing 1.200,000 feet of piling was launched, 
but stuck in the mud, being twenty-one feet deep, thirty-five feet wide and 
600 feet long. Later it was got under way, but broke in two, and the Noyo 
towed part of it into San Francisco. The town bought a chemical engine 
August 24; the tunnel from Pudding creek to Noyo river was completed for 
the railroad. James Brett built another cigar raft in the harbor, which was 
successfully launched, and landed in the bay at San Francisco, Fire, Sep- 
tember 27, destroyed six cottages. A reading room was established. 

December 31, the Advocate was sold to C. J. Cavanaugh, who still con- 
tinues its proprietor. Again in January, 1893, James Brett launched a log 
raft of 1,200,000 feet, and an engine was put on the wharf for handling lum- 
ber. A table was shipped to the World's fair, Chicago, made with a jack 
knife by Charles Brown, a woodsman, of two thousand pieces of wood, with 
two years' work. It contained fourteen diflferent native woods, and a con- 
cealed snake and other ingenious contrivances, spring actuated. A crash in 
the tie business entailed loss on many in June. 1893. Another log raft was 
sent ofif July 22d. A water tunnel was driven 450 feet into the hill back of 
town to augment the water supply. The Presbyterian society, organized in 
1887, erected a church in 1888, which was blown off its base in December, 
1892; was restored and a lecture room added at this date. Thirty-five build- 
ings were erected in 1893: Red Men's hall, 54x150, three stories; McMullen's, 
Randolph's and Higgins' of brick. A log raft, built by Robertson at Marsh- 
field, Ore., December 20, 1893, near Trinidad, eighty tons of chains being 


used in its construction, broke up. A combination of Mendocino and Hum- 
boldt mills, excepting Caspar and Gualala, was reported. The Daisy Kim- 
ball made a daylight round-trip to the Midwinter fair at San Francisco, at 
$4 for the trip. 

June 20, 1894, application was made for franchise for electric railroad, 
and also for telephone. September 11, a large amount of railroad tools was 
landed from the Steamer Noyo, and the town was full of expectant engineers, 
laborers, etc. One hundred and fifty horses also came on for the work. It 
was expected to run a road to Willits. October 6, 1895, a contract of $4,300 
was let for school house. Colonel Whipple died at Eureka October 22, 1895. 
His brother, H. E. Whipple, died in San Francisco, October 6, 1893. Both 
were identified with the early history of the town and vicinity, and held in 
high esteem. 

Application for franchise for electric lights was made October 30, 1895, 
and March 11, 1896, the light was turned on. In February, 1896, the mill 
doubled its capacity and extended the wharf. A Finnish commercial com- 
pany was incorporated and general store opened October 16. Dr. W. A. 
McCornack opened his hospital with drug store, April 14, 1897, the mill 
compan}' assessing employes ninety cents per month each for its support. 
The mill shipped 1,000,000 feet of lumber in four days. The barkentine, C. 
F. Crexker, took on a million feet for Guayaquil, Ecuador. September 22 
fire destroyed Kemppe and Aulin houses ; loss, $3,800. The mill put up a 
15,000 gallon water tank above the roof, and installed two and one-half miles 
of sprinkling pipe. An earthquake visited the town April 14, 1898. continuing 
for two days, wrecking most of the chimneys in town, and cracking the brick 
buildings. Shafsky Brothers erected a brick, 24x90, two stories, with ware- 
house in the rear, 24x40, April 19, 1899. Schooner Norma wrecked entering 
the harbor, November 15. The wind died down before she made her anchor- 
age, and she drifted on the rocks. She had been hove-to outside for thirteen 
days. The mill company put in a reading room at the boarding house Jan- 
uary 7, 1900. They also laid large water mains, connecting with the steam 
pumps up to and along Main street from Grand hotel to Jefiferson's, and to 
connect with pipe heretofore laid to Presbyterian church. 

July 1st, steam laundry put in operation. On the 10th an earthquake; 
no damage. April 17. 1901, seven houses in process of construction. Union, 
high school, and another story on the Grand hotel. The mill put in a two 
hundred and twenty-horsepower engine and 3,000 light dynamo. Admiral, 
a four-masted schooner, loaded with one million feet of lumber for Ecuador, 
and the Steamer Buckingham, two million feet for same country. January 
27-28-29, 1902, killing frosts, very unusual. White and Plummer sold the 
Noyo store to the Caspar company, whose logging camps were near. Dwell- 
ings of H. A. Weller and Alf Cary destroyed by fire May 10, and Bucholtz 
house the next week. Another sawmill was built up on the Noyo by DuflFey 
and run for a few years at Alpine. Redwood conduits are being used for 
carrying electric wires under ground, as being more durable than iron or 
steel piping, and more convenient to repair. Mill here sawing for them. A 
great labor strike was inaugurated March 25, 1903, which practically paralyzed 
business in mill and woods, lasting some weeks. 

April, 1903. the Ontario Power company ordered fifteen million feet of 
flume for conveying their electric power to Buffalo. Bottling works started, 
and a bank building of brick, 35x60, fourteen-foot story. 


April 25, 1905, the business houses elected to close Sunday, and every 
evening at 6 p.m., except Wednesdays and Saturdays, and first and fifteenth 
of each month, for six months. January 21, 1906, the great storm of previous 
week made of Fort Bragg an island, as the Noyo ran through the railroad 
tunnel to Pudding creek and raised one bridge up two feet. 

April 18, 1906, the great earthtpiake struck Fort Bragg the hardest of any 
town in the county. Every brick building in town, except the bank, Gus 
West's and the Hardee block, was wrecked, and many of the wooden ones 
badly damaged ; some of¥ their foundations. Like San Francisco, fire com- 
pleted the work, wiping out an entire business block. The loss footed up 
nearly a million dollars and one life — La Poie. Perhaps no town in the State, 
in comparison to size, suffered more heavily. Rebuilding began at once, and 
better and more firmly braced structures were the order of the day. Brick 
was not to be thought of. September 17, Rone's house burned. January, 
1907, several inches of snow fell. 

In August, 1907, the Steamer Strathskey took on 2,000,000 feet of lum- 
ber and sailed for Puget Sound to take on another million. The Christian 
Bors loaded two and a half million feet for Valparaiso. In March, 1908, the 
high school building was finished. The high school was accredited May, 
1909. The new Presbyterian church was dedicated October 1, 1910. On the 
18th fire destroyed the planing mill, ice plant, blacksmith shop and stable 
belonging to the mill company. 

March 15, 1911, the library issued one hundred and thirty borrowers' 
cards, received $50 in donations^ and ordered one hundred and seventeen vol- 
umes. In April a reinforced concrete jail was erected, and to render it useless, 
nine grammar school teachers were employed. Five fire alarm stations were 
located. In October an election was held on the liquor question and the 
town went "wet" by one hundred and nineteen majority. September report 
of the librarian showed that six hundred and eighty-two books were given 
out; attendance. 1,120. The town now had four school buildings, fifteen 
teachers, four hundred and seventy-five pupils ; school property valued at 
$27,000. December 15, 1911, the rails were laid into Willits and an excur- 
sion of one hundred and fifty celebrated the occasion. J. G. French was made 
superintendent of the road, the "California Western Railroad and Naviga- 
tion Company." 

The twenty-fourth anniversary of the Red Men's lodge was held May 11, 
1912. The new bank building, of reinforced concrete, was finished June 8th. 
On the 28th the steeple of the Baptist church, ninety feet high, fell. The 
Atlas Tank company was incorporated to build redwood tanks. British 
tramp steamer, St. Kilda, loaded with one million feet of lumber for Aus- 

An election was held October 7, 1912, for issuing bonds to build or pur- 
chase city water works. The local works were offered at $75,000. The town 
has offered $30,000 for the plant which has been refused. Library building 
completed, 35x55 feet; wood, with mezzanine floor, $2,500. M. T. Smith, 
an old pioneer, died Tanuarv 24, 1912. The new Baptist church dedicated 
March 13, 1913. 

Cleone. north of I^'ort Bragg six miles, has a chute and wharf, difficult 
to maintain, but which has done a great deal of business in tie. bark and pile 
shipping. There have been two mills in the timber east of the road, but 
the other business j^roving more profitable, they were closed down. It once 


supported quite a business village, with several saloons ; now a store, black- 
smith shop and half a dozen dwellings comprise the town. It is the frontier 
of quite a large body of fine agricultural land, extending to and north of 
Ten Mile river to Kibesilah, another has-been town. Between is a shipping 
point, Newport, once the outlet for what is now the Fort Bragg mill, then 
located on Ten Mile river. Near here are three large dairies which supply 
the home demand for butter. Kibesilah once boasted two hotels, two stores, 
as many or more bars, and did quite a business in shipping lumber, ties, bark 
and posts, but nothing is now left but a small dwelling recently erected on the 
ashes of the last old relic of its former prosperity. 

Just south of Newport stood the old reservation headquarters, long the 
residence of E. J. Whipple. It was destroyed by fire in 1913. There is a 
large body of fine land stretching along the coast from Cleone or Inglenook 
to Chadbourne Gulch, the north line of the township. We may suppose that 
before the timber is gone improved methods of farming, clearing up the brush 
land, the use of kelp as a fertilizer, and man's ingenuity will so far increase 
production, that the towns will be supported by the productions of the earth. 

New industries, or applications of the old material, are continually 
springing up. The waste about a sawmill in the old days amounted to fully 
one-third of a log, and sometimes one-half. Now it does not average one- 
fourth. Shingle blocks, short lumber, pickets, etc., use up much that for- 
merly went over to the burning heap. Now the mills are universally fitted 
with machinery to cut up the edging and broken boards for engine fuel, and 
the sawdust, that many of them also use for fuel, is now being kiln dried, 
put into drums made for the purpose at the mill, and shipped to Fresno 
to be filled with grapes and sent east for cold storage until the holiday trade 
begins. The grapes net $60 to $70 per ton in this way. The Union Lumber 
company has the finest building of wood north of San Francisco, and per- 
haps in the state, which is completely stocked in department style. It is 
one hundred and twenty feet front and depth, finished in natural wood with 
maple floor. Repeated requests obtained no details of construction or ar- 

Glen Blair is another suburb of Fort Bragg. It is situated. on Pudding 
creek, six miles inland by rail, and is simply a mill village, supported by 
employes of the Glen Blair Mill company. The mill is one of the best on 
the coast. 60,000 feet capacity, and ships its lumber through Fort Bragg's port. 
It originally had the finest body of timber on the coast ; many logs had to 
be blasted before being brought from the woods. It was built by Captain 
Blair soon after Fort Bragg was in operation and in charge of Alex Mc- 
Callum, run successfully for many years. It is now owned by Glen Blair 
Mill company and in charge of J. A. Sinclair, one of the principal owners. 

Fort Bragg has three banks, all in flourishing condition. The First 
National has a paid-up capital of $50,000, surplus and undivided profits $19,427. 
J. E. Weller, president; L. Barnard, vice president; C. R. Weller, cashier; 
additional directors, L. J. Scoofify, George Golden, C. F. Hunt. 

First Bank of Savings: Capital, $25,000, paid up. Resources. $150,014. 
L. Barnard, president ; George Golden, vice president ; J. E. Weller. cashier ; 
additional directors, H. P. Plummer, L. J. Scooffy, C. W. Broback. F. Wind- 

Fort Bragg Commercial Bank, incorporated March 28, 1912. Paid-up 
capital. $25,000. Surplus and undivided profits. $3047. Individual deposits. 


$145,726. Total resources, $216,291. C. W. Mathews, president; D. Brandon, 
vice president; H. P. Preston, cashier; Leo Brandon, assistant cashier; addi- 
tional directors, J. W. Preston, M. H. Iversen, L. C. Gregory, B. A. Lendrum. 

Fort Bragg is well represented on the secret society map, and part of 
them may not be uninteresting to the lodge portion of our subscribers. 

Fort Bragg Lodge No. 361, F. & A. M., was organized March 14, 1904. 
Charter members : W. A. McCorn'ack, John E. Weller, Eric Huggins, H. R. 
Baum, A. S. Lyman, H. M. Foye, W. B. Ward, J. H. Carlisle, G. H. Stilling, 
A. H. Shafsky, Chester Woodruff, John W. Cullom. Present officers : J. E. 
Weller, W. M.; A. A. Lord, S. W.; W. F. Fuller, J. W. ; C. R. Weller, 
Treas. ; George Golden, Secy. Number of members, seventy-four. 

Fort Bragg Lodge No. 360, I. O. O. F., was organized May 31, 1890. 
Charter members : Charles Thamer, J. E. Diehl, Louis Nelson, John Ran- 
dolph, T. A. White, and Valentine Menges. Present officers: Peter Johnson, 
N. G.; G. H. Hartman, V. G. ; H. J. Dellett, Secy.; O. L. Johnson, Treas. 

Redwood Encampment No. 67, I. O. O. F., was organized February 27, 
1899. Charter members : T. O'Connor, S. B. Hatch, George Urquehart, 
Abraham Shafsky, P. Halvorsen. Present officers : Ed Mann, C. P. ; W. 
Turner, H. P.; E. Ness, S. W.; H. J. Dellett, Scribe; T. F. Johnson, Treas.; 
P. Ericson, J. W. Number of members, sixty-seven. 

Golden West Rebekah Lodge No. 32, 1. O. O. F., was organized February 
28, 1895. Present officers: Jeannie Murphy, N. G. ; May Lewthwaite, V. G. ; 
Alva McLeod, Secy. ; Margaret Hopkins, Treas. Number of members, fifty. 

Santana Tribe No. 60, I. O. R. M., was organized May 11, 1888. Present 
officers: H. J. Young, Sachem; Henry Whipple, Sr. Sagamore; C. F. Johnson, 
Jr. Sagamore ; J. E. Weller, Keeper of Wampum ; George Golden, Chief of 
Records. Number of members, two hundred and twenty. 

Knights of the Maccabees was organized September 18, 1897. Present 
officers: O. L. Johnson, Commander; A. Shafsky, Record Keeper. Number 
of members, thirty-six. 

Fort Bragg Aerie No. 833, F. O. E., organized November 10, 1904. Present 
officers : W. Bangs, W. P. ; L. F. Thompson, V. P. ; H. W. Little, C. ; W. W. 
Ware, Secy. Number of members, two hundred and twelve. 

Alden Glen Parlor No. 200, N. S. G. W., was organized August 31, 1897. 
Present officers : W. F. Agnew, P. P. ; W. C. Balfour, P. ; H. W. Little, Secy. ; 
George P. Purlenskv, Treas. Number of members, sixtv-eight. Funds in 
treasury, $2200. 

Kalavala Brotherhood was originated and organized in Fort Bragg by 
Charles Martin, October 28, 1907. Present officers : Oscar Ruuska, Past Pres. ; 
Charles Randis, Pres.; August Rantala, Secy.; John Abrahamson, Treas. 
Number of members, two hundred and three. 

United Ancient Order of Druids (American) was organized July 12, 1906. 
Present officers: E. S. Belknap; O. L. Johnson. Secy.; H. W. Little, Treas. 
Number of members, sixty-two. 

Croatian Society Narodue H. R. V., Zajednice, was organized in 1907. 
Present officers: Anton Zruak, Pres.; George Bozicevich, Fin. Secy.; John 
Buzdon, Rec. Secy. ; Mate Sverki, Treas. Number of members, one hundred 
and seventeen. 

Loyal Order of Moose. Present officers: L. C. Gregory, P. D. ; J. G. 
Aylward, D.; E. S. Scott, V. D.; D. J. Donigan, Prelate; A. T. Lewis, S. of A. 


Degree of Pocahontas : Prophetess, Annie Garhohn ; Pocahontas, Mrs. 
Helena Conroy; Wewonah, Mrs. Maud Agnew; Powhatan, Joe Ferandy ; 
K. of R., Mrs. Josiah M. Stoddard; K. of W., Mrs. Lucy Carlson. Number of 
members, eighty-nine. 

Redwood Hive No. 32 was instituted August 23, 1898. Present officers: 
Mrs. Nellie Doyle, L. C. ; Mrs. Caldona Allen, P. L. C. ; Mrs. Catherine Camp- 
bell, R. K.; Mrs. Ida R. Johnson, L. A. 

W. O. W.: G. W. Taylor, C. C. ; W. D. Dolan, A. L.; E. E. Brown, 
Clerk: I. W. Mathews, Banker. Number of 'members, seventy-six. 

Knights of Pythias : G. W. Taylor, C. C. ; E. A, Erickson, A. L. ; G. V. 
Weller, Prelate; E. E. Brown, K. of R.; J. P. Hopkins, M. J. E. Number of 
members, thirty-six. 

Sapphire Chapter, O. E. S., was instituted .\pril 25. 1905. Present ofifi- 
cers : Alice AI. Pensol, A\'. M. : Anna E. Milliken, A. M. W. ; Emma E. Brown, 
Secy.; Harriet R. Huggins, Treas. : W. F. Fuller, W. Patron. Number of 
members, seventy-five. 

Kalavala Sisterhood No. 1, was organized at Fort Bragg March 12, 1897. 
Its first officers were Mrs. Matilda Aulin, Pres. ; Miss Fiina Karjanaki, V. P.; 
James Marttin, P. M. ; Evelina Kemppe, Secy. ; Sophie Hellen, Treas. Present 
officers: Lena Guinnerus, P.; Sigrid Karjanaki, V. P.; Olga Karvonen, P.; 
Elima Lehtemaki, Secy. ; Lizzie Abrahamson, Treas. Number of members, 

Mendocino Grove No. 105, U. A. O. D., was instituted in 1912. M. 
Domeriguez, D. D. ; P. Farilli, N. A. ; E. Corelli, F. Secy. ; J. A. Simonin, R. S. 
Present membership, two hundred and seventeen. 

The weather clerk reports an unusually severe winter 1913-14. Higher 
tides, heavier winds, and more rainfall than have occurred in years, 46.62 
inches to March 21, with some inches to date since then. 

Ukiah Township 

This township lies in a valley i.f Russian river and is bounded by quite 
abrupt ranges both east and west, and north and south respectively by Sanel 
and Little Lake townships, and for a short distance by Potter, on the north. 
It was practically all included within the lines of Yokaya grant, save a narrow 
strip of mountain land on each side, not considered worth surveying by the 
grant claimants. And yet this worthless land is now selling at $15 to $20 
per acre, and being transformed into vineyards. 

The soil of the valley consists of the river loam, black clover land, gravelly 
wash from the hills, and the gravelly sandy formation of most of the hills of 
the county. 

The climate is unsurpassed in Calilnrnia. while the summers develop 
heat sufficient to bring the mercury in exceptional days up to 110 degrees, 
yet the cool nights at 50 degrees, and invigorating mornings, fit the citizen 
for the labors of the day, which the more even temperature of the eastern 
climate does not affect. The dryness of the air in summer, devoid of the damp 
sultriness of the eastern climate, makes this degree of heat endurable even 
for the hard W(irk of the harvest field, while the toiler ever finds the cooling 


influence of a shade, and the ever daily recurring breeze, sulificient to prevent 
complaint. The lowest known temperature has been 12 degrees above, and 
this only once in the fifty years that a record has been kept. The usual limit 
is 24 degrees, with an occasional drop to 19 or 21 degrees on off years. 


The great variety of fruit and general products of the township is suffi- 
cient to demonstrate its fertility and climate. Grain of all kinds, including 
corn, luxuriates, fruit of all kinds indigenous to the temperate zone is raised 
in profusion, while many of the tropical ones find a congenial home in the 
valley and foothills. Heavy spring rains, or late frosts, sometimes curtail the 
amount of fruit, but a total failure has never been recorded. The varying 
elevations and exposures always insure a liberal supply for every valley. 
Prunes, plums, pears, cherries, apples, are always in evidence, with peaches 
and apricots in favored localities, berries everywhere, and oranges, lemons 
and olives wherever they have been tried. 

The township reaches from the 25 mile post (from county line) to the 
head of Redwood valley, and includes Ukiah valley, Coyote valley and Red- 
wood valley, being about twenty-seven miles north and south and about 
twenty miles east and west, the west line being at the intersection of the 
Hot Springs and Low Gap roads. East of Ukiah valley the mountain is 
heavily clad with brush, and a good part on the west, except at the northern 
and southern part where the country presents more grazing land. It includes 
nearly all the tributaries of Russian river except Walker valley. Potter, and 
the Cold creek region. 

Ukiah valley is about ten miles long and from half a mile to two miles 
wide, with occasional glades running up the incoming streams. On the hills 
grow the various woods indigenous to California, several kinds of oak, fir, 
limited bodies of redwood, pine, madrona. tan oak, chestnut oak, manzanita, 
and the smaller woods or brush, such as hazel, chemissal, blue blossom, moun- 
tain mahogany, nutmeg, yew, laurel, etc., cover the mountains and fill the 
canons. The white oaks of the valley often obtain a diameter of six feet, 
with a branch spread of one hundred and fifty feet, while the golden oak of 
the canon grows to the size of four feet, and height of one hundred and fifty 
feet or more. The redwoods grew only in a few of the stream heads on the 
western side of the valley, and have practically been exterminated. It seemed 
merely an overflow of the dense forests of the western slope of the range, and 
came no farther than the limit of the fog drift from the coast. 

Early Settlement 

Conflicting authorities differ as to the date and personality of the first 
really white settlers of the township, but Dr. Vallejo, son of General Vallejo, 
certainly must be as near correct as any one not here at the time. In an 
article recently published, he mentions the fact that in 1833, "Captain Sepul- 
vedo Vallejo came up with Spanish troops to procure Indians to work on 
adobe houses and forts then being built at Sonoma. That later other expedi- 
tions were here to procure children to enslave. In 1848, Don Timothy Murphy 
and James Black sent John Parker to Ukiah valley with horses and cattle, 
who located at Robertson creek. In the spring of 1850 Parker was seriously 
injured, as he said, by Indians, while the latter asserted that Parker was run 
over by a band of horses when he was lying asleeii. His jaw was broken. 


and the Indian chief, Cyotiwexo, kept him alive 'for some time by adminis- 
tering liquid food through a reed. The chiefs son, Guadaloupe, carried word 
to Murphy, who sent his major-domo, John Knight, to bring Parker and the 
stock back to San Rafael. Parker died in Peru." Yet others have asserted 
that Parker was living in the valley as late, or early as 1852-3. Colonel 
La Motte passed through the valley in 1854, and says some white man was 
then living in the same location. 

Samuel Lowry arrived in the valley in 1856 and located at what is now 
the corner of Main and Perkins streets, declaring a homestead. In April, 
1857, A. T. Perkins and family moved in, and bought out Lowry. In this year 
also came G. B. Mathers. Berry Wright, John Burton, L. M. Ruddick, T. F. 
Beattie, and W. J. Cleveland. The following spring witnessed an influx of 
settlers, among whom may be named H. Standley, M. C. Briggs, G. C. Smith, 
J. B. Lamar, D. Gobbi, S. W. Haskett, William Neely Johnson, Lew Warden, 
]. R. Moore, Dr. Price. Later by a year or two came the Gibsons, G. W., 
T. J., A. T.. and Robert; R. McGarvey, E. R. Budd, William Henry, John 
Ontis, W."b. Hagans, M. Hooper, R. Stevens, W. H. White, M. W. Howard, 
J. W. Morris, Sam Ackerman, and about seventy-five others, enough to deter- 
mine Ukiah as the county seat at the election called in May, 1859. Of all those 
that were known to be here at that date only I. C. Reed, Berry Wright, T. J. 
Gibson, J. P. Smith and John Ontis are known to be now living. 

The name Ukiah is a corruption of the Indian name Tokya, and is so 
variously spelled on letters daily received at the post office that one wonders 
how they find their way here. The history of the township embodies that 
of the town, and so intimately are they interwoven that an attempt to treat 
them separately would occasion much repetition. 

The Grant 

Covered as it was by the Yokaya grant, in its entirety, the progress of the 
community was in a measure restrained on account of the uncertainty of title 
to the land. The confirmation of the grant title in the United States district 
court on December 18, 1862, settled the matter, but the sale of the land only 
began in earnest in May. 1866. In February, 1861, Julia E. Rogers, O. Schle- 
singer, William Neely Johnson, E. R. Budd, Robert AIcGarvey and others 
secured bonds for deeds to lots in or adjoining the town, the first actual full 
deed from the grant owners being made to J. H. Laughlin, December 14, 
1867, for one hundred and ninety acres for the sum of $1000. The same date 
S. B. Edsall obtained a deed to two hundred acres for $800; T. F. Beattie, 
three hundred and sixty-three acres for $1180; T. J. Faught, three hundred 
and twenty-five acres for $1430; December 16, P. Mankens, one hundred and 
seven acres for $900 (this latter piece is now held at $11,000) ; A. T. Perkins, 
sixty-six acres for $1100; J. R. Short, one hundred and sixty-three acres for 
$1500; December 17, H. P. Benton, two hundred and eight acres, $2233 (what 
is now the Redemeyer and Sandford ranches). As these are average ranches 
for soil and location, the price ranged from $2 to $11 per acre. 

The first deed placed on record in the books of the county clerk was from 
Louis Pena and wife, Beatrice Pena, to_ Richard Harrison, of date May 23. 
1859, of five hundred acres in Sanel Valley for the sum of $2000. The second 
deed was of date May 27, 1859, from Richard Harrison, conveying two hun- 
dred and thirty acres of the same land tn Beatrice Pena for $1400. June 1, 
1859. F. B Gardner deeded one-fourth interest each in the Star Ranch, Knights 


valley, to W. W. Star and J. B. Bovven. nineteen hundred and forty acres, for 
$4000. This gives one a fair idea of land values at that early day. Lots in 
Ukiah sold at $20 up. E. R. Budd's ten-acre tract in the southern border of 
the town was priced at $25 an acre. At a later date, when the remnants of the 
grant passed into the ownership of Doolan and IMcGarvey, the poorest land 
was sold at $2.50 per acre, and blocks in the western part of town for $200 
to $250 each. 

The first hotel in the town was built by Harrison Standley on the south- 
west corner of Main and Standley streets, in 1859. It has twice been moved 
bodily, to the southeast corner of Standley and State streets, and back again, 
and torn down in 1913. It had been on fire a score of times, yet never seri- 
ously injured thereby. As before related, the upper story of a building on the 
east side of Main street, a little south of Standley street, was used as a court 
house and for county offices until a brick court house was built, at a cost of 
$9000 for building and furnishing. It was finished, accepted and occupied 
January 24, 1860. 

In November, 1860, E. R. Budd, for some years publisher of the Sonoma 
Democrat in Santa Rosa, established the Mendocino Herald, in Ukiah, where 
it held sway for many years. Democratic though its proprietor had always 
been, yet the paper from its inception espoused the L^nion cause, and from 
that, at the close of the war, became Republican. During 1863-4 A. O. Car- 
penter was associated in its publication. In July, 1865, E. D. Pepper suc- 
ceeded to the management of the Herald for a short time. 

July 2. 1863, a Democratic paper was first published, with A. T. Perkins 
& Co. as ostensible proprietors, and William Holden as editor, with "Consti- 
tutional Democrat" for the cognomen. The Hon. Holden thereafter was 
nicknamed "Constitutional Bill." February 19, 1865, another paper was 
launched on the suflfering public under the name of Mendocino County Demo- 
crat, with Mat Lynch as editor and proprietor. These last two papers were 
merged into one, and for some years was run by Mat Lynch. Differences 
arose between Lynch and the Democracy and he was forced out of the paper 
by financial pressure, and it became the Mendocino Democrat, and under Alex 
Montgomery in 1870 absorbed the Herald, thus leaving the Republican party 
without an organ. In October, 1873, Mat Lynch again essayed the role of 
journalist and began the publication of the Democratic Weekly Dispatch. 
Dying in [•'ebruary, 1874, his widow, Mrs. Belle Lynch, assumed the control, 
editorial and business, of the paper, and made it decidedly spicy and energetic. 
Untoward circumstances forced her out of its management in March, 1878, 
and Gambee & Hofifman published it until August, when Hoffman retired and 
E. B. Gambee remained sole owner. An unfortunate article clipped from the 
Argonaut proved his undoing, and in July, 1879, C. J. Williams assumed control 
of its destinies. April, 1880, Peabody & Sefton purchased it, and conducted 
it for some years, when A. W. Sefton sold out to his partner, who assumed 
its sole management until 1889, when he sold to John Buckingham. In July, 
1896, Buckingham died, and the paper was managed by M. Baechtel, with Mr. 
Kertley as editcr, and was by him sold to J. B. Sanford in 1898. In 1913 Mr. 
Sanford associated with himself E..P. Thurston, who had for some years 
virtually conducted the paper. It is intensely Democratic, has a large sub- 
scription list, good joli office, linotype machine, and power press. 

In July, 1877, E. J. Handley issued the first number of the Ukiah City 
Press, and continued it until October. 1878, when be departed for unknown 


territory, leaving the paper in charge of his foreman, who surrendered it to 
the mortgagee, the latter selling it to A. O. Carpenter. It had a subscription 
list of about three hundred and was weakly in every respect. Close applica- 
tion to its business department, and diligence in seeking news and new sub- 
scribers caused it to flourish, and in a year's time it was on a firm basis, with 
a good list of eight hundred subscribers. In February, 1879, Charles S. Paine 
became associated in its conduct, paying most of his attention to the typo- 
graphical department, and two years after bought out Mr. Carpenter. June, 
1883, Paine sold to Pope, who ran the Press until 1889, when Mrs. Pope 
assumed its responsibilities and sold to S. Hornbrook. June, 1891, Thatcher 
& Paxton assumed control ; S. J. Matthews, Poundstone & Matthews, suc- 
ceeded in close order, until 1893, when it was issued by the Press Publishing 
Company, headed by J. M. Mannon ; then in 1896 Alf. Pennington's name 
appeared at the head of its columns ; 1898 Pennington & White appeared as 
its directors; 1902 J. M. Mannon was again its ostensible owner; 1903 White 
& Stanley took charge of it, and shortly after W. O. White's name was 
blazoned on the paper and the windows of its office, and it has since continued 
acceptable to the rank and file of the party it represents, and the public in 
general. It issues two thousand copies and has a power press and Intertype 
machine and full outfit for fine job work. 

The Times, another weekly, has had an exceedingly varied experience. 
It is hard to say who its progenitor was, as it has been grafted upon several 
sporadic efforts at journalism. The Ukiah Independent of Hunter & Whitton, 
the Mendocino Republican by C. Huse, the Herald by Herzinger, the Saturday 
Night by Broback, may all be counted among its ancestors. Finally it fell into 
the hands of George H. Rhodes, who let go of it soon after the election of 
W. H. Kent to Congress. Since then it has been successively in the hands 
of Marlow, Halliday, Adams, and now is run by Keller & Hufft, two young 
men who have grown up with the town. It also has a job office, power press, 
and linotype. 

John Burton sold the first goods in Ukiah, was afterwards county assessor, 
and owned the farms now occupied by Sanford Bros, and the Redemeyers. In 
conjunction with A. T. Perkins a store was built on the corner of Main and 
Smith streets, afterwards occupied by Kaskell, Mears & Co. In 1858 Perkins 
and J. R. Short built a school house between Clay and Stevenson streets, west 
of Oak, of split stufT. Fred S. Dashiell was the first teacher. 

In 1859 J. R. Moore established a saloon on Standley street near State. 
Up to that time all the business of the town was located on Main street. 
Philbrick & Morton erected another on State, which burned down in 1913, 
then occupied by L. Van Dusen. The first drug store was built and stocked 
by George B. Mathers, on the corner of Perkins and State, where now is the 
bar of the Cecille hotel. North of the Ukiah House (Standley's) was a two- 
story building occupied by Capt. D. W. Smith as a saloon below and lodging 
house above, and it was often three deep both above and below. 

The first church, Methodist Episcopal, was built in 1862, through the 
exertions i<f Rev. W. S. Bryant. Rumors of a railroad were floating around, 
though there was not money enough in the county to build a decent dirt road. 
In May, 1863, Capt. J. P. Simpson recruited a company of volunteers to take 
the place of regulars in the care of Indians in Mendocino and Humboldt. They 
were mustered out in June, 1865, not having drawn blood. In April, 1867, 
the Southern Relief Fund was enriched bv contributions as follows: Ukiah, 


$295; Potter, $31.50; Redwood Valley, $15. The flour mill which had for 
some years been run by water at Calpella by Wurtenburg & Wichelhausen 
was moved to Ukiah and fitted with steam power. In 1870 T. B. Bond, 
R. McGarvey and W. E. Willis were appointed to locate the streets of Ukiah, 
and a year after they reported them where they were before, and have con- 
tinued since, in effect. 

In August, 1872, a petition for incorporating Ukiah was presented to the 
board of supervisors, who granted the same, and ordered an election for town 
officers for August 31st, and prescribed that the town should be one mile 
square, with the court house as its center. The election resulted in the fol- 
lowing officers : Trustees, R. N. Willing, J. R. Moore, E. W. King and Samuel 
Orr, and later T. L. Carothers. R. N. Willing was elected chairman, T. L. 
Carothers, clerk. Thomas Charlton was elected marshal, and I. Isaac treas- 
urer. The following year Mr. Isaac committed suicide and William Ford was 
appointed treasurer. In 1874, after the election, the officers-elect failed to 
qualif}-, the old officers refused to serve, and the town fell down. The town 
was again incorporated in 1876 and the election held in February resulted in 
the following list of oificers : T. L. Carothers. J. S. Reed, S. Orr, W. H. Forse 
and G.B. Mathers; assessor and marhsal, A. O. Carpenter. In 1877 the 
Ukiah Water Co. proceeded to lay mains. The Maxim Gas Co. having also 
laid its mains, street lights were ordered at the principal corners. A Babcock 
hook and ladder truck was purchased. Financial statement of the town No- 
vember 25. 1879: Property, $326,747; tax collected, $800; poll tax, $119; 
licenses, etc:, $328; total. $1247. 

July 26, 1879, the people were called upon to mourn the loss of the first 
inhabitant to locate in its boundaries, Abner T. Perkins, a man without an 
enemy, and a friend of all. 

The water rate was fixed at $1.50 per month for a residence and ten cents 
per hour for irrigat^ion with a three-quarter hose. 

The bank of Santa Rosa established a branch in Ukiah, in 1873, under 
the management of J. H. Donohoe. It erected the building later taken over 
by the Bank of Ukiah; It closed out its business in 1876. 

The Bank of Ukiah was organized in 1874, with A. F. Redemeyer presi- 
dent and Sam Wheeler cashier, who remained in office for many years. R. Mc- 
Garvey svicceeded Redemeyer and in turn was succeeded by Hale McCowen 
and he by Henry Hopper, who is now president. W. F. Thomas succeeded 
Sam Wheeler as cashier, and now holds that position. The bank has ever 
been prosperous, and of late years conservative in its management. In the 
spring of 1914, its capital stock was reduced to $150,000, as being preferable 
to the larger amount heretofore carried. Its statement of March 11, 1914. 
shows resources of $708,864, of which $55,835 is cash on hand. It has a surplus 
of $25,000, undivided profits $12,847; individual deposits subject to check, 

The Savings Bank of Mendocino County was incorporated December 13. 
1903, both as a commercial bank and savings bank, $25,000 capital paid in, in 
each department. The figures given represent the two combined, of which 
seventy-five per cent represents the savings department. Resources, $434,- 
671; cash on hand, $15,119; undivided profits, $11,225; surplus, $6000; indi- 
vidual savings deposits. $278,341. At its organization J. H. Barker was presi- 
dent. Ill health caused his resignation in 1914, and J. M. Mannon became 
president ; J. L. ^IcCracken. \ice-president ; .\rtlnir Tracw cashier. 


The Commercial Bank of Ukiah was organized December 18, 1903, with 
a paid-up capital stock of $50,000. W. P. Thomas president and E. L. Cun- 
ningham cashier. Resources, $369,669; surplus, $35,000; individual deposits, 

Eagle fire company was organized in March, 1877, with C. W. Tindall as 
foreman. The apparatus owned by it was a hook and ladder truck, four Bab- 
cock extinguishers and a house and lot. Now it has two hose carts, a library 
and clubhouse. January 5, 1881, a fire swept Standley street fronting the plaza, 
except a brick on the corner of State street. 

A representative of eastern stockholders disbursed $7000 acquiring timber 
land on the head of Seward creek, Leonard's water right, and the Gold Mining 
Company at Calpella. Louis Sefton, seven years old, drowned in Gibson 
creek, in town. The "bear truth" is chronicled in the Press of February 4, 1882; 
Nixon trapped eleven bear last year on Big river; Doc Standley killed four 
in less than one minute ; the Rawles brothers kill from twenty to thirty in 
Anderson each year. On the tenth, fire in Grand hotel block destroyed hard- 
ware store and post office; loss $14,000, insurance $6000. 

The Calpella Gold Mining and Flume Co. surveyed to Calpella, ten and 
nine-tenths miles. Delinquent tax list of county only $2500. Smallpox at 
Cowsert ranch, March; no fatalities. "Ruth" given by home talent: J. C. 
Ruddock, Mrs. Kelton, Lulu Dozier, Belle McGarvey, Clara Wheeler, Carrie 
Hunter, Nellie Malone, Helen M. Carpenter, Mrs. Griffith, Jennie Sturtevant, 
Ella King, Nellie Forse, Charles Duncan, Eugene Tutt, Charles Cunningham, 
under the direction of D. H. Tucker, with a second presentation in March. 
Grammar school opened with one hundred and eighty-eight pupils with J. C. 
Ruddock, Mrs. Kelton and Blanche McCowen as teachers. A road surveyed 
from Alfred Higgins' place to Lakeport, fourteen and one-half miles, estimated 
to cost $7000, crossing the ridge at an elevation of 2800 feet; but as the 
viewers place Hopland at 800, it is probable their guess was ofif on all the 
figures. Railroad time from Cloverdale to San Francisco, five hours. 

Auriferous deposit at Calpella estimated at three miles long, 20 to 200 
feet deep (or high) and to yield $30,000 per acre by hydraulic process. Garnets 
found also. Forse's stages making the 215 miles from Cloverdale to Eureka 
in thirty-six hours. A fire engine purchased from Petaluma. Wool thirty 
cents per pound. Work on gold mining flume begun July 20; eighty-seven 
men engaged on it. Col. A. Von Schmidt now meandering up Russian river 
canon with a view to extending the railroad to Ukiah, August 12. The Law 
building, corner Standley and Schcol. built by T. L. Carothers. First dried 
fruit of consequence made by X. Wagonseller — plums. August temperature 
60 to 100 degrees. 

The week of September 3 tallied arrivals at Ukiah hotels of one hundred 
and seven at Ukiah House, seventy-nine at Palace, fifty-four at Peoples. 
Captain Jack bought land north of town for his tribe; Capt. Bill fifty acres 
near Guidi : Capt. Charley the McPeak ranch, down the valley. This latter 
place ]iaid itself out the first season in hops $3600. Bank of Ukiah ofifers face 
value for county warrants. The Gold Mining & Flume Co. put a mortgage 
of $34,000 on its possessions. Grace Carpenter (Hudson) received telegram 
of award to her of gold medal from San Francisco Art School for best crayon 
from plaster cast. January, 1882, mercury from 20 to 28 degrees. County 
statistics: Valuation, $4,175,853 real estate; personal, $1,941,161. January 
26, stage held up near toll house in the canon. February 12, six inches of snow, 


forty per cent estimated loss on sheep. The Gold Mining and Flume Company 
died. June, wool twenty-five and one-half cents. Thunder storm and lighting, 
July 19, used up nine telegraph poles, a tree at Long's, and stunned John 
Higgins. Hop picking set at one and a quarter cents. Circus wagon off the 
grade at Cleveland's, and two horses drowned. September, heavy rains, 2.72 
inches to October 13th. Registration 3409. I. O. O. F. hall completed Novem- 
ber 17th. To October 31st the coast mills cut 94,000,000 feet of lumber. 
County school census shows 3543 pupils with average attendance 2735. Willie 
Hemans killed a ten and one-half foot panther, near Reeves mill, with quail 
shot, at twelve feet distance. It weighed two hundred and twenty-five pounds. 
Chrome iron discovered on county farm. J. H. Donohoe bought exclusive 
right at seventy-five cents per ton, fifty tons per year. Nothing doing. 
May 5, 1884, north bound stage robbed of mail and express, three miles from 
Cloverdale. Artesian well company formed in September, and well put down 
150 feet. Hops twenty-five to thirty cents, .\ugust 3, McClosky house 
burned. Stage opposition on from Cloverdale up to Ukiah, fare fifty cents and 
less. Rain September 13. Teachers' Institute, September 28. 

"Triumph of Love" given by local talent. January 24, 1885, stage hold- 
up a mile north of town. Express box contained only garden seeds. April 
30, fire destroyed west front of block on State street, between Church and 
Stevenson ; loss, $6,000 ; insurance, $2,500. Another attempt to hold up stage 
north from Cloverdale to Mendocino ; several shots exchanged. Railroad 
rumors. The latest from Colusa to Mendocino. Supposed S, P. Co. Another 
San Francisco to Lake and Mendocino ; another from Cloverdale to Ukiah ; 
and four or five others, having terminals in Mendocino. Another stage hold- 
up north of Cloverdale ; robber caught at once, September 20. Notice that 
Donohoe would run the railroad to Ukiah at once. Sacramento & Mendo- 
cino railroad setting stakes up Cache creek canyon. Surveying also from 
Willows to Covelo. High license defeated in town election, 1886. Town 
assessment roll, $596,696, 1887. Seven hundred men at work on railroad. 
Mechanics' Institute fair received from this county two redwood planks, 
seven and nine feet wide, eighteen feet long, four inches thick, sent by Mc- 
Pherson and Wetherbee ; from there they were sent to England. Agricul- 
tural fair, October 14. Teachers' Institute, Ukiah. October 22. Hart's resi- 
dence on Seminarv a\enue Ijurned December 14; loss, $4,000; insurance, 

February, 1888. waterworks bought by T. F". Jamieson, Morris Peck 
raised four hundred and sixty pounds of squashes from one vine, Novem- 
ber 2, railroad grade completed, Kelso & Co. gave a supper to one hundred 
guests at Reed's hall. Freight tarifif promulgated : thirty-five to fifty cents 
per hundredweight ; carloads, fifteen to thirty-two cents. George W. Gib- 
son died, a pioneer of 1858. J. M. Donahue acquired all the stock of S, F, & 
N. P. and reincorporated at "$6,000,COO. Mill output of county, 150,000.000 
feet. Mendocino and Cloverdale stages, up and down, held up near Philo, 
January 5, 1889. February 9, railroad in running order. Eagle block erected. 
March, railroad blocked with slides. Mail by handcar and foot service. J. 
M. Donohoe died March 4. Corporation organized to build railroad from 
Ukiah to Lakeport; $720,000, in 1890. Eighty-three teachers employed in 
the county. Sand stone quarry west of town. Snuffin's residence burned ; an 
old landmark. Bids advertised for asylum grounds. August 11, bids 
called for building, aggregating $400,000. Corner stone laid, December 9, bv 


Grand Master of Masons ; Governor Waterman present. Power press for 
Republican Press ; first in the county. 

In 1891 telegraph and telephone company incorporated for lines from 
Ukiah to Potter, and Lakeport. April, beef cattle brought in from outside 
the county. June 3, half an inch of rain. First annual report of S. F. & 
N. P. shows net earnings, $313,795. The road has eighteen engines, fifty- 
five passenger cars, three hundred and eighty-nine freight cars, seventy-nine 
dump cars, one hundred and eighty-six miles of road, 8,985 feet of tunneling, 
1,848 feet bridges, 36,989 feet of trestle. August 5, yacht Whisper sailed 
for Lakeport on wheels. She is seventy feet long, ten and six-tenths beam, 
seven feet hold. Water agitation for Doolan and Robertson creeks. Marks 
block rebuilt. Twelfth District fair, September 29. On the 16th lightning 
killed four horses and five hogs at Howell's ranch. May Day, 1892, first 
excursion on railroad from Sonoma county, 1,000 on board. Curtis house 
built. In 1893, shaft sunk on Cleveland property north of Coyote, 260 feet; 
option extended, gold looked for. S. F. & N. P. sold to Foster, Smith & 
Seligman. Mendocino county represented at Chicago World's fair by Miss 
Reeve's flower paintings on curly redwood, Mrs. Hudson's "Little Mendo- 
cino" and the "Interrupted Bath," and Dr. Hudson's Indian baskets. June 
23, wool in store in town, 356,665 pounds ; priced at from eleven to four- 
teen cents. Agitation for railway to Low Gap. Second Artillery regiment 
encampment. June, 1895. Sam Brown killed forty-four rattlesnakes in one 

J. M. Standley shot by stage robber January 17, 1896. Stage had been 
stoi)ped by him on two dates. March 6, four inches of snow. Sewer con- 
tract let to F. Brunner & Son, $15,900. John Buckingham, proprietor of 
Dis])atch, died July 9. March, 1897, fish hatchery opened on Gibson creek. 
I'ranchise awarded Mendocino Electric Lighting company in August. Sep- 
tember 17 , Anderson and L'kiah stage held up, and Barnett killed. January 
12, 1898, mercury lowest ever known in L'kiah, twelve degrees. More rail- 
roads projected. Earthquake, April 14; no damage; severe on coast about 
Navarro. The Smith-Borel party sold their stock in S. F. & N. P. to A. W. 
Foster syndicate, together with the North Coast railroad in November. 

In 1899, consolidation of two electric light plants, and raise of price 
of service, caused a bond election for building a plant, $18,000. Fire, July 
17, burned east front of block on State street, between Stevenson and Church, 
fully insured. Healey, Tibbets & Co. awarded contract for bridge on east 
fork of river, at Bailey place, $4,000. Railroad rumors. Surveys made 
from Healdsburg to Anderson, and from Ukiah to Low Gap. Twelfth Dis- 
trict f, 4th to 7th of October. Rudee block built, corner State and Stand- 

In 1900, drilling for oil west part of town. International Geodetic sur- 
vey located an observatory southwest of town. In 1902. five bear killed on 
one hunt. J. L. Burchard died January 7, J. H. Donohoe on the 15th. Steam 
laundry inaugurated by Albertson & Co. Estimate of redwood timber at 
this date, in the county, 434,320 acres, 17,272.000,000 feet. J. R. Moore died 
April 30, a pioneer of 1857. Albion & Southeastern railroad incorporated 
for $1,000,000, to run up the Albion and to Boonville. W. H. Kent tree 
yielded 100,000 feet. July 23, a party left for Trinity pine region to locate 
homesteads. James Wilsey, in that vicinity, took 33,000 deer hides in 
eleven years. J. H. Seawell died August 24. In 1904, hold-up men made 


several attempts. Several days in April mercury above ninety degrees ; hot- 
test for month on record before, eighty-eight degrees. High school athletic 
team has won eight field days. L. Finne, Calpella, makes 6,000 to 8,000 gal- 
lons of vi^ine per annum. Ships east, and to Asti. December 27, two brown 
bears strayed into west part of town. Daniel Gobbi, a pioneer, died January 
17, 1905. Eel River Power company incorporated February 10, $500,000; 
work begun in March. Eversole block completed in February. Two mil- 
lion five hundred thousand hop roots shipped from Ukiah. Local railroad 
passed into hands of Southern Pacific. California Western incorporated to 
run from Fort Bragg to Willits, in June. Articles of incorporation filed b}' 
Southern Pacific in court house, to include Cal. S. P., Arizona S. P., New 
Mexico S. P., and Winters, Berryessa and Lake to Mendocino, and Elmira 
to Lakeport. M. Gibson's hop house burned, September 4; loss, $5,000; 
insurance, $4,100. Spring wool, twenty-eight to thirty and one-fourth cents. 
New dam being built at Asylum to hold one million gallons. Fire destroyed 
the old White building, east of plaza, November 1st; new brick to go up. 
December 22, Sheriff J. H. Smith killed by Frank Willard under arrest ; D. 
M. Gibson appointed to fill vacancy. Rural delivery route established as 
far south as Largo. Extreme high water January 19, 1906; 5.60 of an inch fell 
at Willits. Stores all agreed to close at 6 P. M., except Saturday. Two 
hundred and fifty thousand grape cuttings brought up from Asti. Eel River 
Power company reorganized as Snow Mountain Water and Power com- 
pany; capital, $5,000,000. Principal stockholders. Senator Fulton, Gen. Gra- 
ham and T. Hopkins. April 18. earthquake. Rudee block thrown eight 
inches out of plumb, pushing the new White brick over also. North wall of 
McGlashan building thrown out down to tops of upper windows. I. O. O. F. 
hall badly cracked on east end. Chimneys generally thrown down, book- 
cases emptied. State hospital lost a tower, and water tank removed from it. 
Odd Fellows removed east wall and built on a large dining room and kitchen ; 
White building taken down to the ground and rebuilt. Rudee's building 
was shifted back to plumb without great loss. Dr. Stout's well-appointed 
medical rooms were still further equipped with an X-ray machine. Higgins 
store, in Law building, burned out ; loss, $3,500, fully insured. Library 
established in Eversole building. Stitt's barn, five horses, hay and buggies 
burned. Another day the old one-story shacks west of the plaza. The entire 
cost of Mendocino State hospital, $607,550. 1907, snow. Brewery company 
incorporated and first beer, February 14. March 16-17. heavy rain, 8.40 inches 
in two days. River within sixteen inches of bridge. Snow Alountain W^ater 
and Power company filed mortgage. $1,250,000. C. Hofman company in- 
corporated, $75,000," I\Iarch 26. ^California Northwestern $35,000,000 mort- 
gage filed, to Farmers' Loan and Trust company, June 18. July 27, stage 
held up at Cold creek. U. R. K. P. in camp at Todd's grove, August 12. R. 
McGarvey died October 17, eighty-two years of age. Mendocino Vineyard 
company incorporated November 20. December, hops six and eight cents ; 
old, only two cents. 

Stage again held up at Cold creek. January 15, 1908. Jail record : One 
hundred and thirty-six committed ; nine sent to San Quentin. Creamery, 
March 2. Electric power into town, from Snow Mountain Water and Power 
company. Articles of incorporation filed, South Eel River Timber company ; 
H. B. Hickey and others. Pressey and Jackson houses, corner Stevenson 
and State, burned. April 1st, electricity turned on from new line. Auto- 


mobiles on Eureka route. April 30, Evans & Orr planing mill burned ; loss, 
$4,000, to George McCowen, owner. J. M. Standley, a sheriff of renown, 
died at Portland, Jul)' 8. McKinley, Gibson, and Weldon & Held brick and 
cement buildings completed. October 16, sufficient rain to raise Eel river. 
Hop crop 9,680 bales ; average weight, one hundred and ninety pounds ; 
14,000 pounds of turkey shipped in two days. 1909, nine inches of rain for 
the week ending January 15. Meteorological report for January by Dr. 
McCowen ; temperature from twenty-four to sixty-three degrees ; greatest 
rainfall, 14th, 3.60 inches ; for the month, 30.75 inches ; other heavy rain- 
falls, February, 1892, 19.40; November, 1895, 19.11; March, 1907, 18.18; Jan- 
uary, 1913, 19.14 inches. May 3, H. L. Kohn's residence burned. Twenty- 
two petitions for "wet or dry" elections presented to board of supervisors. 
Constable T. Lynch shot, fatally, by Indian Dick Williams, who later com- 
mitted suicide. Another oil well to be tried. July 28, fire again west of 
plaza, in old shacks repaired from previous fire. Lindell Foster brought in 
one hundred and forty-five pound deer, August 1. September 23, second 
battalion, United States Fourteenth Cavalry, and detachment of signal corps, 
in camp. Sim's saloon burned out May 2; loss, $4,000; insurance, $2,500. 
Vierra & Scontranini put in lOO-horsepower engine, ten-inch pump, 1,900 feet 
eight-inch pipe, to irrigate alfalfa in Coyote. Making cheese. On Mendocino 
road a panther came in a dooryard, caught and carried oft' a goat and two 
pigs. May 11, 1910. W. A. Hagaus. a pioneer, died July 15, 1911. Post Office 
savings bank instituted in town. July 20, hops forty cents. September 25, 
Ukiah voted for license by small majority. Second district, ditto ; third dis- 
trict, no license by three majority. Ordinance closing saloons on Sunday at 
10 P. M. ; $200 license per year. Thirty million-gallon reservoir being built 
on Mill creek for Mendocino State hospital. Dam, forty feet high, forty- 
three feet thick at base. Superintendent E. W. King had a leg amputated 
December 11. W. D. White building, $2,000 fire. 

E. W. King resigned from Asylum, to take effect May 1, 1912, having 
been superintendent nineteen years. In March, J. L. McNab appointed 
United States district attorney. Crystal ice works opened in April. June 14, 
board of town trustees passed resolution appropriating $800 annually for 
support of the library. June 19, dwelling of W. I. Bailey burned. W. J. 
Hildreth ranch sold for $75,000; bargained for $25,000 three years ago. Con- 
tract let for closing the gap in the railroad to Humboldt. July, electric power 
lines being put up about the valley. County Assessor M. A. Thomas died 
July 29. Sanford hop kiln burned ;'loss, $7,000; insurance, $2,000. Dr. R. L. 
Richards, late of the United States Medical corps, appointed superintendent 
of the Mendocino State hospital. State highway in process of construction 
from Ukiah to Forsythe creek. (Finished June, 1914.) 

January 10, 1913, mercury at fifteen degrees. T. E. Garner shipped $25,- 
000 worth of hogs in last three months. An old landmark burned — Van 
Dusen saloon, east of plaza — erected in 1859. Wool, nineteen and twenty 
cents. Manganese globular safe for County Treasurer's office. Treasurer 
reported $212,182 in the county treasury. Ukiah house, a relic of 1859, 
demolished. August, a limb eighteen inches in diameter, reported broken 
off by the weight of wild pigeons roosting on it. Irrigation system inaug- 
urated from the river below the mouth of .Ackerman creek. A fourteen- 
inch centrifugal pump installed, discharging into a ditch seven feet wide 
at the top, four feet on the bottom, eighteen inches deep, one mile long. 


City free deliver)' inaugurated August 1st. W. J. Kline killed three eagles. 
George Kinloch, first white child born in California, died in Ukiah August 
28, aged eighty-four years. In its first season the local winery received 1,723 
tons of grapes, $25,000. Hops down from twenty to eighteen cents in De- 
cember; sixteen cents offered for 1914 crop. December 16, hearing before 
the commission on rate for electricity for the town. Decision favor of town. 
In 1914 supervisors decide to take $150000 of highway bonds. Treasurer 
reports $260,955 in county treasury. February 4, board of trade incorporated. 
A business man's association has been formed to bring uniformity of action 
on all public questions. The library was completed and formally opened on 
the 17th of April. The lot was purchased by subscription, raised by the 
personal efiforts of Miss Carrie Garnsey and ]\Irs. A. O. Carpenter, and $8,000 
contributed for the building by Mr. Carnegie. About the same time the 
new opera house was finished by a joint stock company. 

Ukiah valley is one of the best and most extensive hop growing sec- 
tions of the state. The hops are of the best quality, and the yield is from 
1,600 to 2,300 pounds per acre. They are three weeks earlier in maturing 
than in Sonoma, and less likely to be troubled with lice, on account of the 
absence of fog. There are about 2,000 acres in the valley used for this 
crop, and much more land that might be devoted to it profitably. It costs 
about nine cents per pound to make and market the crop, so that when the 
price soars to forty, there is a fortune in a ten-acre tract. The crop of 
1913 amounted to over 16,000 bales. Corn makes a good crop on the river 
bottoms, and is often without a drop of rain or any irrigation from planting 
to harvest. Alfalfa yields three crops without irrigation, and is fast absorb- 
ing all the river lands not used for hops. It yields abundantly on the higher 
lands, but it is difficult to get it started there. 

About two hundred acres in the valley are devoted to prunes, which 
rank at the top for quality. There are six extensive vegetable gardens about 
Ukiah, which furnish the town, and products are shipped north to a consider- 
able extent. Of fruit, every kind is grown to perfection, though figs, apricots 
and nectarines are not generally cultivated. Walnuts are found everywhere, 
but in no large tracts. 

The town of Ukiah was first limited to one mile square with the court 
house for the center. Later its boundaries were extended nearly half a mile 
to the west, taking in all to the mountains. The streets north and south 
were originally laid out eighty feet wide, but some on the west have been 
reduced to fifty and sixty feet. East and west streets are forty feet wide. 
They are all graded, and in the center of town paved, and the main street 
from the northern to the southern line. There are fifty business brick build- 
ings in town and two brick dwellings, high school, two grammar schools, 
seven churches, an opera house that seats one thousand, another of five hun- 
dred capacity, four garages with machinery for repair work, two planing 
mills with lumber yards, two lumber yards', three blacksmiths, one 
vegetable market, one gristmill, four livery stables, one saddlery, two fish 
and poultry markets, three second-hand stores, two furniture and under- 
taking establishments, one clothing, three shoe, three drug and four hard- 
ware stores, two plumbers, one paint store, two billiard halls, seven saloons, 
two butchers, three tailors, one electric shop, two jewelry stores, five barbers, 
two cand)' stores, two bakeries, one creamery, three restaurants, two coffee 
houses, four restaurants and lodging combined, three hotels, three depart- 


ment stores, two dry goods, three miscellaneous stores, three news stores, 
eight real-estate offices, four printing offices, seven notaries, three banks, 
four dentists, eight law offices, a gas plant and a fine large new library- 
building with several thousand volumes, and last, but not least, a fine town 
hall building, covering council room, tax collector's office, electric depart- 
ment and jail. The town possesses eight physicians, all in apparent good 
health. There is no malaria in the neighborhood, except imported cases, 
which soon recover; no mosquitos except an occasional one comes up in 
the cars from Alarin or Petaluma. 

The town has an adequate sewer .system, and the water supply is lim- 
ited only by the power of steam or electricity. An ample supply is always 
assured, and pumps can be used anywhere within the town limits in case of 
emergency, and the quality is unsurpassed, as it really is over the whole 
county. A telephone system covers town and valley. A fine grist mill 
supplies all wants in that direction ; a large winery runs every season, and 
the expansion of irrigation sj'stems is constantly adding to the productions 
of the soil. 

The Mendocino State hospital for the insane, with its payroll of nearly 
$92,500 per annum, is no small factor in the prosperity of the community. 
The bulk of its supplies comes from the outside world, but pays a certain toll, 
on their way, to our community. The original purchase of land for the 
location was made in 1889; one hundred acres, $30,000. Since then an ad- 
joining farm has been bought, and large crops of corn and alfalfa raised to 
make the dairy self-supporting. The grounds now consist of nine hundred 
:ind five acres, three hundred and three of which are cultivation, much 
of which is under irrigation, in corn, alfalfa and vegetables. The total value 
of all the farm products of dairy, poultry, eggs, etc., amounts to $31,000 per 
annum. Fifty milk cows, thirty-five heifers, mostly Holsteins ; one hundred 
hogs, two thousand chickens and many horses comprise the live stock of the 
establishment, and a large part of the labor is supplied by the inmates, who 
are perceptibly benefited by their participation therein. Outside of salaries, 
,"^239.000 was appropriated by the state for the sixty-fifth and sixty-sixth 
fiscal years. It is conceded to be the best and most economically managed of 
all the state institutions. Its corps of physicians, and an interne, ninety-three 
male and thirty-five female employes, stand high in the regard of the state 
board of control, and of the public who are brought in contact with them. 
There are at present over one thousand inmates. 

Ukiah has its watering places or health resorts, not to be neglected 
l)y either the invalid or pleasure seeker. Vichy Springs, three miles east, so 
named for the similarity of its waters to those of the celebrated Vichy of 
Cicrmany, had a wide reputation among the Indians for curative power, 
and has lost none of it among more civilized frequenters. It has recently 
changed hands, and another year is to be improved and placed where it 
belongs, both in fashion and popularity. Orr's Hot Sulphur Springs, four- 
teen miles west, situated at the foot of a precipitous verdure-covered bluff, 
five hundred feet high, just in the edge of the redwood belt, are justly 
celebrated in rheumatic complaints, and a delightful resort for a summer 
outing. The springs yield sufficient gas to light the place, and heat a man- 
gle, and probably would aft'ord enough to heat the hotel and cottages if 
developed to the fullest extent. 


The county farm, for'the care of its indigents, is located just outside the 
town limits, and is a credit to the county and a source of profit to the town. 
North of Ukiah valley lie both Redwood and Coyote valleys, in the same 
township, however. Redwood commences at the hamlet of Calpella, named 
after an Indian — Kol-pellah — some six miles north of Ukiah, and stretches 
along the middle fork of Russian river about eight miles. It is only one 
farm wide the most of the way, lying between benches of upland, and is 
exceedingly fertile along the river bottom, and the low bordering hills are 
being brought into cultivation for vineyards and orchards. Calpella con- 
sists of store, hotel, blacksmith shop, and eight or ten dwellings, but is im- 
portant as the voting place of a wide section of country, including both 
Redwood and Coyote valleys, with a registered vote of nearly two hundred. 

Coyote valley is a small valley on the east fork of Russian river, four 
miles north of Ukiah, containing nine farms. One of these contains one 
thousand acres of mountain and valley, and has an extensive pump- 
ing plant to irrigate over one hundred acres devoted to alfalfa, cheese and 
chickens. Several of the others are also irrigated by the same means, for 
alfalfa and fruit. In former days a grist mill ground out a busy existence in 
the north end of the valley, but flood first, and fire later, closed its existence. 
A large tract, for so small a valley, which was once a waste of high chemissal, 
scrub oak and manzanita, is now a smiling grain field. A series of pumping 
plants furnish the water to sprinkle the highwav from Ukiah to and through 

In the eighties there existed a park association, and race meets and 
animal shows were held yearly for some years, but a mortgage ate up the 
stockholders' interests, and it passed into private hands. Occasionally it is 
still the scene of such contests. The town of Ukiah has purchased a square 
of two acres or more in the southern limit for park purposes, where will 
probably be held all fairs in the future. 

In a fraternal way. Ukiah is not blest to the extent of Fort Bragg, as 
none of the foreign population have entered into this competition. But there 
are enough, and man}- honored names appear on their list of officers : First, 
always in the field, come the ^Masons" several organizations : 

Abell Lodge, F. & A. M.. was instituted June 19, 1860, with charter 
members as follows : J. B. Price. M. Y. Cleveland, N. S. Fanning, William 
Henry, L. M. Warden, O. H. P. Brown, and J. A. Shore. The first officers, 
both under dispensation and charter, were J. B. Price, W. M. ; M. V. Cleve- 
land, S. W. ; N. S. Fanning. J. W. ; William Henry, Treas. ; L. M. Warden, 
and G. C. Smith, Secy. The present officers are F. T. Barker, W. M. ; Hale 
-McCowen, Jr., S. W. ; P. ^^". Handy. J. W. ; J. R. :\Iatthews. Treas. : Ed V. 
Henley, Secy. Membership, one hundred and thirty. 

Ukiah Chapter No. 53, instituted July 3, 1878. Charter members : J. W. 
Jenkins, J. L. Burchard, T. L. Carothers, J. H. Donohoe, T. L. Barnes, 
J. Updegrafif, L. D. Montague, B. C. Bellamy, George McCowen, S. Horn- 
brook, J. Albertson. The first officers were J. W. Jenkins, M. E. H. P. ; 
E. W. King, E. K. ; G. W. Heald. G. S. ; J. S. Reed, Treas. : Sam Wheeler, 
Secy. The present officers are T. P. Anderson. E, H. P.: William Finne. 
K.;'f. T. Barker. S. ; J. H. Barker. Treas.; C. U. White, Secy. Membership, 

Ukiah Commanderv No. 33, instituted March 17, 1892. Present officers: 
T. M. Cleland, E. C. ; l" W. Babcock, G. : J. R. Matthews, C. G. ; J. D. Palmer, 


S. W. ; G. P. Anderson, J. W.; F. C. Gowell, Recorder; J. H. Barker, Treas. 
Membership, fifty-six. 

Kingsley Chapter, O. E. S., instituted July 23, 1881. Charter members: 
W. L. Bransford, Patron; M. E. P. McCowen, W. M.; Emma Metzgar, 
W. A. M. Present officers : Ella McCracken, W. M. ; Ed. D. Henley, W. P. ; 
Delia McKay, W. A. M. ; Martha Toles, Secy. ; Emma Cranz. Treas. Mem- 
bership, one hundred and fifty. 

Casimir Chapter, O. E. S., instituted April 13, 1907. Present officers: 
Celia Lobree, W. M. ; William Finne, W. P. ; Martha H. Redemeyer, A. W. 
M. ; Nellie F. Gibson, C. ; S. B. Hatch, Secy. 

Ukiah Lodge No. 174, L O. O. F., instituted July 20, 1870. Charter 
members : E. W. King, N. Ellis, C. Hofman, J. R. Short, J. P. Clark, Robert 
White, W. W. Cunningham, W. H. White. First officers: E. W. King, 
N. G. ; C. Hofman, V. G. ; N. Ellis, Secy. ; J. R. Short, Treas. Present officers 
are: L. H. Foster, N. G. ; B. D. Van Nader, V. G.; W. O. White. Secy.; 
J. Roller, Treas. Membership, one hundred and fourteen. 

A. O. U. W., Ukiah Lodge No. 33, instituted May 14. 1878. Present 
officers: W. D. L. Held, W. M. ; L. P. Anker, F.; N. Anker. Fin.; A. O. 
Carpenter, Recorder. Membership, twelve. 

Fraternal Brotherhood, Ukiah No. 263, instituted December 18, 1902. 
Officers : Oscar Olsen, P. ; Frank Olsen, V. P. ; Al Sawyers. Treas. ; Jerry 
Olsen, Secy. Members, seventy. 

Yokia Camp 369, W. O. W., instituted April, 1898. Present officers: 
W. G. Poague, C. C; C. R. Thomas. A. V. L. ; C. H. Duncan. Banker; 
C. Bailey, Clerk. Membership, sixty-one. 

Ukiah Aerie 319, instituted in May, 1903. Present officers: H. A. Keller, 
P. AV. P. ; C. F. Benton. W. P. ; O. L. Olsen, W. V. P. ; O. F. Hargis, W. C. ; 
J. C. Warren, W. S. ; W. S. Van Dyke, W. T. Membership, two hundred 
and sixty-seven. 

Yokaya Tribe 110, L O. R. M., instituted August 16, 1901. Present offi- 
cers: G. L. Smith, S. : Fred Figoni, S. S. : S. P. Garaventi. J. R. S. : R. L. 
Hutchinson, Proph. ; H. L. Kohn, C. R. ; A. L. Tracy, K. of W. 

Ukiah Camp 9017, M. W. A., instituted in December, 1900. Present offi- 
cers : W. H. York, C. ; L. J. Holzheiser, A. ; H. L. Kohn, C. 

American Yeoman, Independence Homestead No. 1219. 

Ukiah No. 63, K. O. T. :\I.. instituted in Tune. 1900. Present officers: 
F. P. Bull, L. C; B. F. Davidson. P. C. ; A. W. Custer. K. of R. Member- 
ship, thirty-one. 

Cornelia Rebekah Lodge No. 205, I. O. O. F., instituted in March, 1894. 
Officers: H. M. Carpenter, N. G.; Mrs. Elizabeth Chalfant, V. G.; Sallie 
Thomas, Secretary. Present officers : Mrs. Emma Kirtley. N. G. ; Catherine 
Sloper. V. G. : Mrs. Kate B. Prather, Secy.; Laura Shattuck. Treasurer. 
Membership, one hundred and fifty. 


Potter Valley Township 

This township was formerly part of Calpella township, which was 

divided, the western part annexed to Ukiah. and the eastern part. i. e.. 

Potter Valley, became a township unto itself. It comprises the drainage 

basin of the east fork of Russian river as far south as the head of Covote 


Valley, and reaches north to Little Lake Township on Eel river, and east 
to the county line of Mendocino and Lake, and is about fifteen miles in 
extreme length and ten miles wide. 

It has the general climate and soil characteristics of the other interior 
valleys — river loam and rich black clover land in the valley and generally 
sandy soil on the hills, though in some places the black, almost adobe, shows 
in the hills. 

The incorporation of Potter Valley includes the whole township prac- 
tically and was so made for the purpose of excluding saloons from its neigh- 
borhood. The valley proper is seven miles long and two miles wide at 
most, and is nearly all in a high state of cultivation, and now that the 
waters of Eel river have been turned into the head of Russian river by the 
Water and Power Company much irrigation is probable in the near future. 
Alfalfa is much raised in the upper end of the valley, and there yields three 
good crops without irrigation, and can easily be brought up to six or 
eight cuttings, as in the heat of summer it may be cut with profit every 
month from May to November. In the southeastern corner of the valley, 
J. D. Brower, the pioneer in irrigation there, has a considerable retaining 
dam and has been using the water for alfalfa for several years. Hay, wheat, 
oats, barley and corn are the principal crops : there are many fine orchards 
and three or four hopyards. Potatoes, pumpkins, squashes, beets, carrots, 
tomatoes, etc., are grown for home use, but none for market. Premium 
watermelons and the "Golden" muskmelon originated here. 

Thomas and William Potter and M. C. Briggs were the first whites to 
locate in the valley, coming here in 1852, though their families did not 

arrive until two or three years later. In 1856-7 John Gardner and 

Fowler were in the valley with a band of horses. In 1857 Dick Swift and 
Samuel Chase arrived, and Berry Wright and Williams. Samuel Mewhin- 
ney and family and John Leonard and family came in the spring of 1858. 
In that year also Samuel, Lewis, Stoddard and James Neil, John McCloud, 
William Eddy and others. In 1859 the valley was virtually full of settlers. 
In that year Thomas McCowen, A. O. Carpenter, Andrew Lefever, William 
Van Nader, Samuel McCullough and others arrived. Later the Carner 
family. Vans, Wattenberger, Boice, Wolfe, McCreary, Fuller, Pursell 
arrived. There is no locality in the county where the old original stock is 
so well represented in name and blood as in Potter Valley. Their increase 
has overflowed into the surrounding hills and little nooks, intermarried, 
and "possessed the land." Recently an agent was in the valley desirous 
of purchasing four hundred acres in a body for the purpose of founding a 
school, but $200 per acre was no temptation to either old or young. 

Building was difficult as the timber was mostly oak in the valley and 
pine on the hills and not fitted for log houses. A few of these were put up, 
some were built of shakes, both oak and pine — some of the latter was whip- 
sawed- — and most of the houses had oak puncheon floors. Two adobes were 
also put up and stood for years. By 1863-4 roads were dug out so that 
redwood was brought in from the western branch of the river, some 
eighteen to twenty miles, though this also was split lumber. A little sawed 
lumber was procurable from the head of Redwood valley, from Reed's mill, 
and some from Holden's mill on Ackerman creek. A sawmill was built by 
William Van Nader in 1874 on the mountain east of the valley, but it was 


of too small caliber to do more than furnish finishing and flooring, and it 
was afterwards moved to Round valley and taken by the government. Prac- 
tically all the lumber for the many fine houses and large barns in the valley 
has been hauled by teams from twelve to twenty-five miles, as well as a 
majority of the fencing. Wire fencing was then unknown, but is now 
taking the place of the wornout redwood pickets and oak rails. 

In the early times supplies were packed in from Healdsburg, and it was 
no uncommon occurrence for a horse to knock itself ofif the narrow trail 
and go rolling down the mountainside. Experience taught them to give a 
tree or rock more room for their packs when passing. 

The road out of the valley to Coyote was made by private work, some 
men voluntarily laboring twenty to thirty days on it. A road was also 
made north toward Round Valley, and a branch of it to Little Lake. Even- 
tually there was another over the divide to Eel river and up to Gravelly valley. 
L. B. Frazier built a steam mill about ten miles out on Sanhedrin, in the 
yellow and sugar pine timber, and moved it nearer as the timber was ex- 
hausted. The sugar pine was mostly shipped to San Francisco, and the 
yellow pine used in the box factory in Ukiah. In early days, from 1861 to 
1865, political feeling was bitter; and at the time of the death of Lincoln 
three arrests were made in the valley, Thad W . Dashiell and John McCall 
(for rejoicing at the death of Lincoln), and a school teacher, Miss Buster 
(for trampling the flag under foot). They were soon released and returned 
to the valley. In after years Mr. Dashiell was taken to task for voting the 
Republican ticket. His only reply was, "I packed sand at Alcatraz for the 
privilege of expressing my opinion." Separate schools were maintained at 
one time, with politics rather than geography as a dividing line. 

One of the first Fourth of July celebrations that the county witnessed 
was held in this valley. For music William Van Nader manufactured a drum 
by cutting a section of a fir tree, hollowing it out, heading it with deer 
<kins, and in the morning its resonance could be heard the whole length of 
the valley. 

Dances were held at private houses lasting from dark to daylight, and 
sometimes a breakfast was served to favored guests who were nOt in a 
hurry to go home. Quilting and fencing bees were often held, thus helping 
the husband and wife at the same time. And the people collected just as 
hilariously to labor for a sick neighbor as they did to dance at his husking. 
Occasionally a bear hunt enlivened the leisure hours, and more than one 
was tracked through the valley to the chemissal around, and brought home 
in triumph. Not always, though, for on one occasion a huge-footed beast 
was tracked along the western slope the whole length of the valley and 
far into the hills north. At another time, following the bear into the brush, 
the hunters found themselves surrounded by three bears, and backed out 
to more advantageous positions, securing one of the trio eventually. Wild 
oats covered the hills and clover the valley, either or both growing to the 
height of three feet, and game w^as abundant. In 1858 bear would nighth" 
prowl around and investigate the rail-making operations of settlers, but 
not take a hand at it. If the farmer needed meat, and was too busy to 
hunt, a rifle and a few l)ullets were given "Hunter Jim,'" and venison ap- 
peared on the supper table — but not bear meat. No Indian would molest 
Hruin. Rears were believed to emiiody the spirits of bad Indians. 


Potter has ever been a temperance community, and it has been many 
years since a saloon flourished here. In an early day the "Sons of Tem- 
perance" was established there, but died out, yet its influence remained. 
Over the hill on Eel river several times a saloon has been opened, and on the 
southern line of the township, at Cold creek, another, but the supervisorial 
district having voted dry this latter has been transformed to a soft drink 
emporium. The town was incorporated in July, 1889, and includes so large a 
portion of the township that it is practically all of it. The present officers 
are: Trustees, C. B. Neil, D. Burkhardt; John Gavin, Mayor, T. P. Hopkins, 
Treas. The assessed valuation for 1913 was $489,961 ; tax rate, seventy-five 
cents; population in 1910, 576, with a registered vote of 179. The registra- 
tion for the municipal election of 1914, of course, includes the female voters 
and is 270. 

Fine corn is raised in the valley without irrigation, frequently without 
a shower upon it from planting to harvest. Alfalfa is constantly increasing 
its area, and now that the waters of Eel river are available for pumping 
and even for ditching much more will be sown with a purpose of beef and 
pork production. 

The Snow Mountain Water and Power Company's enterprise has 
greatly benefited the valley, though some consider it a detriment, on account 
of its increasing the flow of water in Russian river to the extent of washing 
the banks. This enterprise has its head in Gravelly valley, fifteen miles 
easterly in Lake count}'. There a dam 140 feet high and 600 feet long 
is proposed, which will impound 2500 acres of water, backing it up the main 
stream seven miles and up Rice fork three miles. A careful measurement 
of the water flow was had all through the season in 1905, and at the dam 
site the stream (Eel river) raised nineteen feet one day, running five miles 
an hour and 250 feet wide. It was estimated that there was water enough 
in that one day to supply San Francisco three years. Shafts have been 
sunk 75 and 100 feet on either side of the river at the dam -site and a tunnel 
run under the channel to connect them in the endeavor to locate the bed 
rock. It was the intention to construct a cement core dam twenty feet or 
more thick, and then fill the channel full above and below with detritus 
from the high hill on both sides for 800 feet, and locate the overflow half a 
mile distant through a low gap in the ridge, returning the water to the 
stream a half mile below the dam. Whether this plan still holds we may 
not say. Something over a million dollars has been spent on the project, 
but not needlessly, as it is being used for electric purposes without this large 
projected retaining dam. Two miles north of Potter, by road, is a diverting 
dam of 300 feet length, forty-foot base, sixty-five feet high. From this a 
tunnel was run 5900 feet through the mountain to Potter. There is a twenty- 
foot head above the tunnel, which is 6x7 feet clear and has 400 feet fall to the 
dynamos in the valley. The tunnel is mostly in serpentine rock, cemented 
on the bottom and timbered sides and top. There are two lines of service 
pipe from the tunnel down the hill to the dynamos, three in number, of 4000 
horsepower each, and room for another in the power house. Electricity 
is furnished for Potter valley, Ukiah town and valley. Lake county, nearly 
all of Sonoma county and considerable for Napa. The system connects 
with the Bay Counties' system, so that mutual assistance is rendered in 
time of need. The Bay Counties is short of power in the winter, while the 
Snow Mountain is short in the late summer. Eventually the water from 


the dynamos will be ditched along the hill base on both sides of Russian 
river, and then will the whole territory blossom as the rose from April to 
December. The water may be easily taken out again in two diiiferent 
places between Ukiah and Cloverdale and its good work be multiplied. 
What the intention of the company is in regard to the water after it leaves 
its dynamos, no one can say except themselves, and they have not spoken 
except to say that if the farmers will dig the ditches they will supply the 
water at $3 per acre per annum. Meantime several are pumping the water 
without paying for the privilege. 

Some of the best soil in the State lies in Potter, but it has been fear- 
fully abused, cropped year after year, or, rather, decade after decade, return- 
ing nothing of what has been taken off, not even the straw, which has been 
generally burned. Of late years much hay has been shipped out, besides 
the grain, and this course has had its effect. The first wheat in the valley 
threshed sixty-six bushels to the acre, and now the same land, after fifty 
years' constant cropping, yields only twenty bushels, though five and one- 
quarter acres recently yielded three hundred bushels. 

Fruit, especially pears, apples and plums, luxuriate, of unsurpassed 
flavor and coloring, and peaches yield crops about three years out of five. 
Prunes also are excellent, but are not generally raised. Hops yield heavily 
of first-class quality. Not much is done in root crops except at the upper 
end of the valley, where beets and potatoes thrive. 

Minerals there are on every side: Copper, gold, manganese, etc., but no 
one has ever made expenses in working the leads. Alabaster exists in the 
mountains north and asbestos also. 

There are three schools in the valley, which are open about nine or 
ten months in the year, in charge of competent teachers. 

Two large farms in the valley have been purchased by Russians, one 
of which has been cut in long, narrow sub-divisions, half a mile long and 
a few rods wide, after the old country custom. They have built their houses 
on the comparatively worthless hill ground and cross the river to their 
daily toil. The women do much of the farm work, while the men work out 
or are off in San Francisco or the coast mills at work. 

At one time there was a grist mill on the southern line of the township, 
but the miller grew old with his mill, and it burned down just after its insur- 
ance ran out. It had once been drowned out, but was moved to higher 
ground, and the ditch which brought water for its wheel was run higher up 
the stream. It finally had an engine as auxiliary power. The water is now 
used for irrigation purposes. .A mill company was formed in 1891-2 and a 
grist mill built in the lower end of the valley. The incorporation of the 
company followed in 1898, but it did not run long thereafter. 

Spottswood's hop kiln was burned in 1883 with his crop of hops: loss 
815,000, insurance $1,000. In 1891 a scheme for irrigation by ditch from 
Eel river was broached, but came to nothing. Eraser built a new bridge on 
the river in November, 1891, above Coal creek, and the same has been re- 
built in 1913. In February, 1896, Robert Marders' four-horse team went 
off the grade, down seventy-five feet, with only trifling injury. In 1898 an 
ear of corn was on exhibition measuring eleven inches long and nine inches in 
circumference. And George Shinn originated the Golden muskmelon, which 
rivals Burbank's creations. 


In the last five years there have been twenty-five good residences built — ■ 
perhaps the best by A. F. Busch, in the past year, which has all the modern 
improvements save an elevator. The valley has been singularly free from 
fires, only the one hop house and one dwelling house having been burned 
in the recollection of the oldest inhabitant living. 

Colonel Marders, one of the ill-fated victims of the tunnel-train fire in 
Mexico, was born and grew to manhood in this valley. The valley boasts a 
monthly paper, issued by Irvine & Muir, the Commercial Bulletin. There are 
three grammar schools in the valley, well attended and open from nine to 
ten months in the year. There are two churches in the town of Centerville. 
two stores, drug store, blacksmith shop, liotel, livery stable, barber shop and 
about twenty dwellings. The town is situated in the center of the valley, 
with a postoffice in one of the stores and daily mail from San Francisco via 

The valley has its quota of orders; the principal ones in interest are as 
follows : 

Potter Valley Lodge No. 215, A. O. V. W., was instituted January. 
1890. Eli Jones." W. M.: Rose Sides, Secy.: J. Eddy. O. : M. R.'Bevens, 

Fraternal Brotherhood No. 764 was instituted September 9, 1910. 
Present members, twelve. Officers: Fred Bucknell, Pres. : Leon T. Grover. 
V. P.; Mrs. Charles .\. Carner, Sec: Charles A. Carner, Treas. 

A. O. F.— Officers: J. G. Newman, C. R. ; Fred Sagehorn, S. C. R. ; N. A. 
Barnett, Treas. ; H. O. Sweeney, R. S. Members, forty-one. 

Potter Valley Grange No. 115, instituted in July, 1874. E. V. Jones, 
W. M.; James Eddie, O. : Miss Rose Sides, Sec. Fifty-six members. The 
society possesses a two-story store and hall, and has $300 cash in its treas- 
urv, which is augmented $250 per annimi from the rent of its store building. 

Sanel Township 

Sanel township lies entirely on the tributaries of Russian river, and the 
main stream, and in the winter just past, 1913-14, Russian river reversed 
conditions and laid on Sanel township. It is bounded north by Ukiah, east 
by Lake county and west by Anderson township, with which it joins to 
form the First supervisorial district. It takes its name from the name of its 
main valley, and that from the Indian tribe which formerly owned the 
territory comprised in the township. 

Its soil and climate are the same as Ukiah, with a little more of the drift 
of southern fog, which often tempers the heat of summer mornings. Its 
productions are much the same as Ukiah, and the larger part of the valley is 
given over to hops and alfalfa to the exclusion of other crops. Of fruit it 
produces quite a large quantit\- of pears and prunes, which are of surpassing 

The hill land is generally of a better quality than other localities and 
aflfords the best of grazing and. indeed, good crops of grain wherever utilized 
for that purpose. In 1863-4, ciuite a tract was cultivated in tobacco, but 


early and heavy rains created so damp an atmosphere (which was not taken 
into account in the curing) that the product resulted in an almost total loss. 

The entire valley was covered by a grant procured in 1844 by Ferdinado 
j-'eliz. comprising four leagues of land extending from the Seven Mile House 
to the southern end of the main Sanel valley. Feliz brought in cattle not 
long after that date and erected an adobe house 30x50 feet square just south 
of the present town of Hopland. His family was located here before 1853, 
and in 1854 Luiz Pena and others joined him. Feliz sold land at ridicu- 
lously low prices to any who would buy. and his descendants have nothing 
left of the huge domain but a town lot in East Hopland. John Knight was 
Feliz' legal adviser and immediately present friend, and was instrumental 
in procuring the confirmation of his grant, and received for his services the 
northernmost league of the grant. This latter tract took the name of 
Knight's Valley, and now is occupied by the three Crawford ranches, two 
Henrys, McGlashan, McNab, Parsons and some smaller tracts. In 1856 
Alfred Higgins and family and H. VVillard arrived. In 1857 the new ar- 
rivals were Amos Snufifins, J. A. Knox, John McGlashan, and J. W. Daw; 
1858 witnessed the advent of S. Myers, W. E. Parsons, L. F. Long, B. B. 
Fox and E. H. Duncan, soon followed by William Andrews, R. Moore, 
George McCain, P. A. Roach, C. Snufifins, B. E. Edsall, J. R. Henry, H. G. 
Pike and William Cole. Of these not one is now living, W. E. Parsons, the 
last survivor, having died suddenly early in 1914. Of the generally large 
tracts settled upon only one or two are now occupied by their descendants. 

In the extreme southern portion of the township is a settlement called 
Hermitage, so named by S. W. Knowles, who settled there in 1858, bringing 
a drove of cattle from Sonoma. The venture not succeeding well, he went 
back to Sonoma, returning again in 1859. He raised the first hops in Men- 
docino county, drying them in the loft of his barn and selling them in Peta- 
luma for thirty cents per pound. The business seemed promising, and he 
tried another crop, but having no contract, the buyer in Petaluma offered 
only twelve and one-half cents, and that killed the business at once. Her- 
mitage is not even a hamlet, but a continuation of farms along a narrow 
valley on the headwaters of Dry creek, to the Knowles place, where long 
was the post office, just at the head of the rough canon that engulfs Dry 
creek on its way to Russian river at Healdsburg. The valley is so narrow 
that the proposed railroad extension from the Albion cannot help being detri- 
mental to the immediate farming interests by reason of cutting througli the 
best lands they have. 

The town of Hopland was located at Sanel in 1859 by Knox. U'illard 
and Connor with a saloon. Soon afterward Thomas Harrison opened up a 
store in a tent, but sold to Connor, who had disposed of his saloon interest. 
Dr. H. G. Pike settled there as physician, removing to a mountain home 
on the -Anderson valley road, and returning many years after to die. Yates 
Weldon began blacksmithing in that year also. In 1874 the building of a 
toll road down the east side of the river threw all the travel that way, and 
the town of Sanel moved over bodily (except a brick store which \\'. W. 
Thatcher had built in 1870) and became Hopland. The town flourished 
until the building of the railroad on the west side of the river and the estab- 
lishment of a depot at the old town, when nearly all the business fluttered 
back to be brooded by the spirit of progress once more at Sanel. But, 
through some freak of good fortune. Hopland retained its post office and 


name for several years, until the department, learning of the proximity of the 
two offices, consolidated the two at Sanel and called it Hopland, and so it 
now is. The town boasts one large two-story brick block and one brick 
store ; all the rest are of wood and nearly all are one-story structures. The 
business houses now occupied are as follows : Two hotels, three general 
stores, one blacksmith shop, one shoe shop, one barber shop, one livery, one 
feed stable, two fruit and ice cream parlors, three churches (Methodist, 
Catholic and Christian), one school, one public hall, and about twenty dwell- 
ings. The hall is occupied twice a week with the "movies" and dances are 

A large acreage of the valley is in alfalfa, pears, prunes and hops, and 
but little grain is raised. A considerable part of the main valley is subject 
to overflow, but not to a damaging extent. Dairying is carried on to a 
limited extent ; the largest dairy, on the Foster ranch, was discontinued, and 
Durham cattle, Hungarian ponies and chickens superseded Jerseys. This 
ranch is one of the finest and best improved in the county, and is owned by 
A. W. Foster of San Rafael, whose son, Benjamin, is now in charge. An 
older son, Robert, was electrocuted on the place in May, 1914. They have 
the most elaborate outfit for the poultry business to be found anywhere, and 
all breeds worth mentioning. D. M. Burns of ''mazuma" fame has a large 
range devoted at .present to Hereford cattle. Formerly it was run to fine 
blooded horses. Four miles south of Hopland is the Hood ranch, where a 
large tract is devoted to fine Merino sheep. 

In 1911 an eflfort was made to interest the California Northwestern in 
the building of a branch road from Hopland to Lakeport, but that road 
would only agree to furnish rails and terminal facilities at Hopland and take 
bonds for the same. Capital to the amount of $80,000 was subscribed, an-".; 
has been expended on six and one half miles of road bed, the easiest part of 
the proposed road. Heavy grading, a 1300-foot tunnel and twenty-three 
miles more stare the projectors in the face, and nothing has been done for 
over a year. C. M. Flammond. Pres.; M. C. Gopcevic, Vice Pres. ; Joseph 
Levy, Treas. ; Euvelle Howard, Secy., were the first officers. The present 
officers are : L. H. Bogg, Pres. ; M. S. Sayre, Vice Pres. ; James Levy, Treas. : 
R. B. Woodward, Secy. Total cost of road, including equipment, estimated 
at SS.SO.OOO. 

There are two roads from the township to Lake county, a toll road from 
Pieta, four miles south of Hopland, intersected three miles out by a road 
from Hopland, and a county road from Hopland. There is also a road over 
the mountain to Yorkville, and two roads south to Cloverdale. One of 
these is generally appropriated by the State highway now nearly completed 
from Cloverdale to Hopland. Two roads also connect the town with Ukiah, 
on either side of the river, altogether making about forty miles of public 
roads to keep in repair. 

A cannery company was organized in 1901, with a capital of $3,000, 
mainly for Bartlett pears, which reach their highest perfection in this valley. 
Its officers at present are J. W. Harris, Pres. ; S. E. Brooks, Secy, and Treas. 

The Bank of Hopland was organized in 1906, through the efforts of 
J. W. Harris, first as a branch of Cloverdale Bank, but later, in 1912, it be- 
came an independent bank, with C. B. Shaw, Pres. ; S. E. Brooks, Vice 
Pres.; J. W. Harris, Secy, and Cashier: Emmett Jones, Asst. Cashier; J. \V. 
Hiatt and D. M. Burns, additional directors. At present its statement is as 


follows: Bonds, $10,000; loans, $58,188; cash, $12,846. Contrary capital, 
$25,000; surplus and undivided profits, $1023; deposits, $56,211. 

Of secret societies the town has been bereft, there having at one time 
been several. 

Of mines there have been innumerable, but none has paid. Copper and 
cinnabar are the principal indications. Having no milling timber except a 
little on Dry creek in the extreme southwestern part of the township, only 
one mill has flourished, and that only for a short time. Gould, Brush and 
\^'alker built a mill on Dry creek in 1866 of 15,000 capacity. After a few 
years' run it was moved to the head of the east fork of Russian river, and 
eventually was known as Reeves' mill. 

L. F. Long has the honor of first introducing the hop industry on a 
commercial scale in the county and township, though S. W. Knowles on 
Dry creek first demonstrated the adaptability of our climate to this industry 
Mr. Long made a fortune in the business and lost it in the same. He died 
December 8, 1904. 

Sanel and Anderson townships form the First supervisorial district and 
have voted "dry" for the second time with a fair working majority. The 
town had been a turbulent commvinity before that, and many crimes marked 
King Alcohol's reign in this vicinity. Now only one soft drink emporium 
usurps the place of five saloons, and it is more than probable that the alco- 
holic drouth will continue. 

Of summer resorts, Duncan's Springs holds a favored place with the 
public. It is one and a half miles south of Hopland on a shoulder of Sanel 
Peak — a sharp, triangular mountain rising some 2500 feet above the valley 
floor. The Howell family, Brookes & Sanborn incorporated in December, 
1895, with $50,000 capital, and the springs have been successfully run since. 
McDowell's, four miles east of town, has also been a noted resort, but not 
at present open for travelers. 

Hopland has had some catastrophes in the past, from which she has 
recovered with California elasticity. A business block, store, livery and 
saloon burned, with sixteen horses; loss, $28,000; insurance, $9,800. Brookes 
house and Sturtevant hophouse burned. The building of the toll road from 
Pieta to Highland, 1891, was a heavy blow, as it took away nearly all the 
lake travel. The washing away of the bridge at Pieta has restored the 
travel to Hopland, but the adoption of automobiles has caused more speedy 
passage and little stopping for meals or lodging. August 5, 1908, fire on 
Sanel peak drove the wild animals to the valley and fourteen deer were 
killed in the fray. Oil indications reported three miles east of town, and 
more cinnabar five miles south. E. Dooley's house burned in August, 1906. 
A quartz vein was worked for seventy-five feet and $1200 taken out. 


Round Valley Township 

This township takes its name from that of its principal valley, and that 
from its shape. It lies entirely on the head waters of the easterly sources 
of Eel river, and is bounded north by Humboldt and Trinity counties, east 
by Tehama, south by Little Lake and west by Little Lake and Long Valley 
townships. It is extremely mountainous, being embraced as it were by the 
Mayacmas range and an offshoot therefrom, and surrounded by peaks that 
exhibit white tops in winter, and on the eastern range snow lies in places 
until late summer. It has two considerable valleys, Round and Eden, and 
numberless small ones of one farm, size, and much cultivatable land not to 
be classed as valley land. Generally both hill and valley land are fertile 
and a great deal of it remarkably so. The soil is of the same general char- 
acter as the other sections heretofore spoken of, wash loam in the valley's, 
with some black land both in the hills and valleys. Indeed, the major part 
of the good land in the hills is black clover land, sometimes approaching 
adobe. Wherever this latter has been contiguous to the valleys it has made 
its mark on the soils therein. This is especially noticeable in the southern 
part of Round valley, which has much black land. The northern or upper 
end of the valley is more of the wash loam, and when settlement was first 
made it was quite swampy and more or less of it was entered as swamp lands. 
The cutting down of the creek beds has nearly corrected that, and an ap- 
propriation of $8,000 by Congress for clearing the channel lower down the 
valley will probably entirely relieve it of surplus water except in midwinter. 

The timber is pine of several varieties, including sugar, yellow, digger : 
oaks of several varieties, cedar on the highest ridges, madrona and buckeye, 
manzanita, mahogany, steel brush, chemissal, etc., for covering of the rocky 
hills. The timljer near the valley has been exploited to a great extent, so 
that ten or twelve miles' haul is necessary in procuring lumber. Much of the 
finishing and roofing stuff is hauled from Branscomb, thirty-five miles, over 
two considerable ranges elevated a thousand feet above the valley. Not- 
withstanding this handicap, many fine residences have been built in the last 
few years, notably in 1912-1913, when some thirty-five or more were erected. 

Originally selected by the Indian Department for a reservation station 
in the handling of the aboriginal people of northern California, the first 
settlers certainly had knowledge of the intention in regard to the valley and 
could hardly complain, no matter how much of it the department might have 
appropriated to that use. But the vacillating, undetermined course of it.s 
agents in later years exasperated those who came in later under the im- 
pression that all land not in immediate occupancy and use by the govern- 
ment was open to settlement. This condition of aflfairs greatly retarded 
the growth and prosperity of the township, and in a measure prevented 
permanent improvements of value. 

Early Settlement 
The date of the first discovery of Round vallev by white men is defi- 
nitely fixed as occurring in 1854, but there is an uncertainty as to who it 
was. Frank Asbill claims it. and was possibly the first white man in the 
valley, though one Williams claims to have seen the valley from the eastern 
hills prior to the .Asbills coming into it. Charles Kelsev blazed a trail from 


Clear Lake through Round valley in 1854. To which of the three the honor 
belongs is the subject of doubt to some of the old settlers of the valley. It 
is conceded that Frank Asbill named both Round and Eden valleys, which 
is honor enough for one man. TTie Asbills, Frank and Pierce, passed 
through Eden Valley and camped on north or middle Eel river, and in 
pursuit of their horses the next morning, May 15, 1854, Frank saw the 
valley, reported to his comrades that it was large and nearly round, and 
then and there christened it Round valley, and it has since retained the 
name and shape. They reported encountering a band of Indians, and in a 
"fight" killing forty of them. As these Indians were never known after- 
wards to stand up and fight even in defense of their women and homes, the 
slaughter may be doubted. The Asbill party did not then remain in the 
valley. A few days later another party, consisting of George E., James and 
Calvin White, George Hudspeth and Dr. Atkinson, arrived in the valley 
from the eastern side. The trail of the Kelsey party was still discernible, 
and they had left their names cut on a tree. The White party saw no In- 
dians, which certainly indicated the cowardly nature of the natives, as other- 
wise they would have attempted reprisals for the deaths inflicted by the 
Asbill party. George E. White located a claim, built a cabin and left it in 
charge of Charles Brown. As if to claim proprietorship of the valley, he 
built a second cabin, and all his actions thereafter were as domineering as 
the lord of a principalit}'. Devinna and Craft built the third cabin on what 
was afterwards the Melendy farm. Lawson and Arthur built the next house 
where now stands the two-story dwelling built by George Henley. The 
Lawson and Arthur house was really the beginning of Covelo, the only town 
in the township. These latter settlers brought in a drove of hogs, the pro- 
genitors of untold thousands. S. Hornbrook came to the valley in 1856. In 
1857 John Owens, J. H. Thomas, T. D. Lacock, C. H. Eberle and others 
came in, and George E. White and C. H. Bourne brought in two droves of 
cattle. C. H. Diggins, S. P. Storms, E. S. Gibson, A. Leger, D. C. and D. 
W. Dorneau. P. A. Witt and Randall Rice arrived and located in dififerent 
parts of the valley. There were nineteen white men who wintered in the 
valley in 1857-8 and two women, whose names cannot be ascertained. They 
put in their spare time making buckskin clothing for the men. The first 
child born in the valley was Harry Storms. 

The first mail was by private subscription and was carried horseback 
by Jesse Holland in the summer of 1858. It was continued in this way for 
several years, the first mail contract by the government being let to C. H. 
Eberle in June, 1870. The year 1869 saw a road completed from the valley 
to Ukiah, mostly by private subscription and work. The two forks of Eel 
river were bridged in the '70s. but washed away before the planks showed 
any marks of wear. Contractors would not believe the tales of high water 
old settlers told them and built too low. TTie first court was held in 1859, 
C H. Eberle having been appointed a justice of the peace, and on this 
occasion he fined two Indians $70 for stealing. 

In 1858 sixty-one soldiers came into the valley, but only remained a 
short time. Again in 1863 a military post was established, and seventy 
soldiers were sent in. Captain Douglas commanding. Soon after a company 
of cavalry came in as reinforcements. The post was maintained until the 
reservation was turned over to the care of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
in pursuance of Grant's policy toward the Indians. 


The first sawmill was built by Andrew Gray in 1862, a water power, 
and in 1864 two buhrs were put in for the manufacture of flour. In 1868 
the mill was sold to the government. Brown & Cummins built a sawmill 
east of the valley; Henley built one west of the valley; H. L. Zeek now 
has a sawmill about ten miles northeast of the valley, 10,000 feet capacity, 
and A. J. Fairbanks put in one near Dos Rios, thirteen miles west, of 8000 
feet capacity. 

In 1856 the farm was established at what is now the reservation by the 
government and called Nome Cult station. It was used only as a stock 
range, and no elifort was made toward cultivation for some time. It was 
principally a breeding and fattening station for beef to supply the reserva- 
tion on the coast. In 1858 it was declared a reservation, and then the trou- 
bles of the settlers began. At first it was to contain 25,000 acres, but in 1868 
its limits were extended northerly to the summit of the range. On March 
30, 1870, by proclamation of the president, all the land embraced within its 
boundaries was set apart for reservation purposes. On March 3, 1873, its 
boundaries were limited and more definitely described as follows : All within 
a line between townships 22 and 23 on the south ; main Eel river on the 
west; north Eel river on the north; Hull and Williams' creeks and Middle 
Eel river on the east, containing 102,118 acres. The vast principality was 
ostensibly given over for the care of about 1000 Indians of the Pomos, 
Ukiahs, Little Lakes, Redwoods, Conches, Pit Rivers, Yukas and Wy- 
lackies. ]\Iost of the Pomos. Ukiahs and Redwoods returned to their 
old homes and there are seldom more than 500 at the reservation. The 
government has spent upon them ten times the money the land brought 
which they used to call theirs, and the end is not yet in sight. Only occa- 
sionally one of them attains a standing in business, education being wasted 
on 95 per cent, of those who have been aftorded the opportunity. Of those 
who have adopted white man's ways and shown business talent may be 
mentioned Henry Henley, who is a halfbreed of Nevada parentage, and is 
reputed worth $25,000. He was taught to read and write by Thomas Henley 
and for some years was "major domo" of their 1000-acre ranch. Another, 
Ed Smith, Lake County Indian, and Frank Perry, Redwood tribe, are espe- 
cially good citizens. The latter has his house insured for $1500. Also in 
this connection we would mention Wesley Hoxie, Jack Anderson, Alex 
Eraser and Raymond Brown. 

The reservation was managed first by civilian appointees, then by a 
military officer detailed for that purpose, then it was turned over to the 
Methodist Episcopal church and by them relinquished to civilian appointees 
again. S. P. Storms was in charge in the '60s, a man of great energy. He 
has been known to make the trip horseback from Ukiah to Round valley, 
sixty miles, in a day, in midwinter, swimming every stream. Succeeding 
him was Austin Wiley, Fairchild, Wilsey, Lieut. Connolly, Patrick, Liston 
Sheldon, Burchard, Yates, Johnson and Wilson. The Rev. Burchard was 
held in great esteem by the Indians, and his memory is cherished among 
them as father and prophet. At the present time the reservation is cut down 
to one hundred and sixty acres of the best land in the valley and five hun- 
dred acres of range land adjoining. In 1913 the one hundred and sixty had 
on it the school, dormitories, office, laundry and other buildings, about ten 
in number. There are from one hundred to one hundred and twenty in the 


school with only two teachers. Pupils are taken to the sixth grade. Three 
young Indians fired the school house, in the basement of which was stored 
a large amount of provisions. The whole was a total loss. 

In 1894 apportionment of land was made to individual Indians and fami- 
lies : To heads of families, ten acres (valley land); each child, ten acres; 
wife, five acres. In 1909 further apportionment was made of sixty acres 
mountain land; and to those who had received no land at the previous date 
sevent.y acres was allotted. They are not allowed to alienate the land for 
twenty-five years. Rations are issued to twenty-five old, helpless Indians ; 
otherwise they are supposed to be self-supporting, except those in the 
school, who are kept in boarding. 

At one time, when Philo Handy was head farmer, the reservation 
threshed 30,000 bushels of grain, all the product of Indian labor. In 1881 
the production was 3150 bushels wheat, 1060 oats, 1850 barley, 1500 corn, 
20,980 pounds hops. There were of stock ninety horses, thirteen mules, 
one hundred and forty-nine hogs, thirty oxen, four hundred and fifty-two 
cattle. At the same time the Indians owned one hundred and ten horses, 
seven mules, one hundred and fifteen hogs, and produced 672 bushels wheat, 
148 oats, 325 barley, 600 corn, 60 beans, 12,000 melons, 3000 pumpkins and 
90 tons hay. They built 410 rods board fence, 320 rods rail fence and re- 
paired fourteen and one-half miles of fence. The mill ground 250,000 pounds 
wheat for agency and 2500 pounds for the Indians, and 411,000 pounds wheat 
and 32,000 of barley for settlers, almost entirely Indian labor, even to the 
engineer. The sawmill cut 177,000 feet. 

The land is extremely fertile, producing everything without irrigation : 
Alfalfa, three cuttings of two, one and one-half and one ton, respectively; 
twelve sacks of wheat, thirty sacks of barley, fifty bushels corn, watermelons 
of seventy-five pounds weight, etc. 


Covelo was so named by C. H. Eberle, after a Swiss village of that 
name. The beginning of the town was the Lawson and Arthur house. 
Dorman & Hornbrook erected a saloon next and Jacob Updegrafif a black- 
smith shop. The first store was by Lieut. B. S. Coffman in 1860, suc- 
ceeded by Riley & Bransford, and a hotel by Thomas White. A company 
of regulars came into the valley late in 1856, and added zest to the society. 
They remained ostensibly to protect the settlers from the Indians, but their 
officers reported that the protection was needed the other way. They re- 
moved at the opening of the Civil war, and were replaced by a company of 
California volunteers. 

After 1862 building proceeded as rapidly as the one sawmill could supply 
the lumber. Up to that time logs, split shakes or whipsawed stuff supplied 
the building material. In 1861 some trouble was experienced from raids 
made upon stock by the outside Indians, and in an attack on one of their 
camps L. D. Alontague was shot in the leg, the only white wounded, but a 
dozen Indians were killed. In 1861 500 Wylackies drove off thirty-seven 
horses and were overtaken at Horse Canon by ten whites and forty Indians; 
one hundred and twenty of the raiding party were killed. Of the pursuing 
party only two were wounded, L. D. Montague and H. J. Abbott. On the 
6th of August, 1862, Wylackies again attempted to drive off stock, and were 


routed with a loss of twenty-two killed. L. D. Montague was seriously 
wounded and Shade Lamb killed. The next summer the raid was repeated 
and nearly all the band of Indians killed, and Sharman and another white 
man killed. The following winter George Bowers was killed by his Indian 
servants, after he had killed two of them. These raids employed the settlers' 
attention to such an extent that building was slow. In 1866 L. D. Mon- 
tague erected a hotel and saloon. Ira Hoxie built a livery stable, and a meat 
market was erected by C. H. Eberle. 

In 1868 Dan Stephens, William Mantle and an Indian drove cattle to 
Sonoma county; returning, Stephens was drowned and Mantle was killed 
by an Indian arrow as he was swimming Eel river. These were the first 
deaths among the whites in the valley. The same year Kettenpum valley, 
thirty miles north, was raided by what was called the "gun" Indians from 
Humboldt, and a white man and squaw killed, the ranch plundered and 
burned. A week later the same band attacked the Hayfork and Douglas 
toll house, but were driven oflf, after wounding one man and killing a dog. 

In 1872 Riley and Bransford were merchandising in Covelo, soon chang- 
ing to Fairbanks and Bransford. J. M. Ellis stocked a store there in 1873, 
and Henley Bros, in 1877. 

Thompson and UpdegrafT supplied a sutler's store on the reservation in 
1877, and a drug store in Covelo in 1879. In 1873 the road was built from 
the valley to Ukiah, mostly by private subscription, S. Hornbrook. who 
was also the first postmaster, superintending the work. In 1879 bridges 
were built across both Eel rivers, but only stood a few months. The con- 
tractors would not believe the tales of high water given them by old settlers, 
hence built too low. This mistake has been repeated on the state highway, 
as also on the extension of the Northwestern above Willits. In August, 
1881, fire destroyed the business part of the town, entailing a loss of $55,000; 
insurance $19,000. The stores destroyed were Marks and Rosenberg, Henley 
Bros., Thompson's, Bransford's, and Cunningham's hotel. Chambers and 
White's saloons. Rebuilding proceeded rapidly, and Prising block was fin- 
ished in December. With thousands of acres of range at this time, the reser- 
vation advertised to buy 100,000 pounds of beef. T'he Methodist Episcopal 
church at this date relinquished the care of the reservation. In 1882 George 
E. White built a hotel and other buildings. The cook house at the Indian 
school on the reservation, August 23, 1883, was burned. Twenty buildings 
were erected in the town in 1883, among them a hotel by Enoch Gibson com- 
pleted in February, 1884, at a cost of $12,000. United States Inspector visited 
the reservation, remaining six weeks. H. B. Sheldon resigned, having been 
superintendent six years. Two hundred and sixty-nine acres of hops in the 
valley at this date, and the result was the bankruptcy of most of the owners. 

A new road was opened from Eden valley to South Eel river in 1884, 
increasing the distance some miles, and bettering the grade slightly. Super- 
intendent Wilsey resigned in 1886, and C. H. Yates assumed the duties Jan- 
uary, 1887. In September forty-two soldiers. Battalion I, from the Presidio, 
in command of Captain R. G. Shaw and Lieutenants Davis and Mott, were 
ordered into the valley to remove the settlers' stock from the reservation, 
but were ordered out again in October. 

Congress appropriated $100,000 to buy out settlers on the reservation, 
and commissioners were appointed to appraise their improvements, etc. The 
coal field on South Eel river was being worked spasmodically by the land- 


owners, or by those having options on the purchase of it. The vein is trace- 
able for twenty miles along the western side of the valley and makes a bar 
across the river twenty feet thick. The coal is a lignite of good heating 
quality. Tunnels have been run in seventy-five and one hundred and forty 
feet, and some two tons taken to the city. The extension of the Northwestern 
passes within six miles of the vein. In 1891, contract was let for the building 
of a bridge on ]Main Eel river, on the road to Laytonville, which was opened 
in 1887, for $18,349. 

March 11, 1892, Captain Daugherty and seventy-two soldiers arrived in 
the valley, remaining only a short time. All kinds of rumors regarding the 
coal mine reported to have been bonded — that Flood and Mackey bought 
out all other holdings, that contract was let for railroad to it, etc., all 
proved myths. In December, 1897, Captain R. G. Shaw with forty-one sol- 
diers and seventeen wagons, marched into the valley, after a strenuous time 
on the road. September 5, 1898, William Russell and an Indian "Hacka" 
met on the street on horseback, and both being tuned up each wanted the 
whole road in which to show off his horsemanship. A duel ensued between 
both men and horses. The Indian was dismounted, but no serious injury 

A fire in July, 1899, destroyed Yourie's barn, two saloons, and the old 
Henley house was torn down to prevent further spread of the flames. 

J. L. Burchard retired from the agency in 1900, after nine years' service, 
regretted by all, both Indians and whites. 

Gas was discovered in June, 1901, but no use made of it, except talk. 

The Indians gave a grand dinner, on the 4th of July, 1900, barbecuing 
five beeves. In 1903, a movement was inaugurated for the establishment of 
a union high school, and in 1904 bonds were voted to the amount of $6000, 
and classes were organized. Game continued abundant, especially the preda- 
tory kind ; bear and wildcats were common. Two bear were killed close to 
town; on January 18, 1904, Dave Mackey killed three bears, three panthers, 
and a coyote. 

There are three families in the valley on the Rooseveltian basis, having 
respectively seventeen, sixteen and fourteen children. Long may they live. 

In April, 1905, a body of Japs were brought up from San Francisco, for 
work in the hop fields, but were peremptorily ordered "deported,'' and they 

Major J. McLaughlin arrived in the valley, August 17, 1905, to appraise 
the 66,000 acres to be thrown open for settlement. It was expected to be 
open for filing upon by January, 1906. Dos Rios bridge declared unsafe. 
Half the town of Covelo, and nearh' all the business portion was destroyed by 
fire July 26, 1905. Rudee's store, $12,000 loss; insurance $4000; Rohrbough's 
five "buildings, loss $8000; W. Grist, $1500; Goldberg, loss $300; Perry, $300; 
Shutler, $500, etc. Total insurance $10,000. Total loss $35,000. 

Grasshoppers innumerable northerly of the valley. A sale of reservation 
cattle brought five and a quarter cents per pound. 

Stewart & Zeek sawmill sending in lumber. A big storm the third week 
in March, 1907, raised the water to an extremely high stage. Congress ap- 
propriated $8000 for clearing the outlet creek. August, the Buck mountain 
section survey is helping the valley. A party of eastern capitalists arrive to 
examine the coal fields. Work on coal fields progressed during 1909, as the 
option was to expire May 1st; 9000 acres belong to the Flood estate, and about 


lOCX) acres to local settlers. May 20, 1909, road to Sacramento Valley opened 
for travel. Further subdivision of the reservation by H. J. Johnson in Janu- 
ary. 1910. Contract let for three miles on new road from Dos Rios to the 
south end of the valley to Henley ranch, on a grade of six' per cent, and 1000 
feet below the old road. April 10. 1912. six inches of snow fell in the valley. 
Bond election of $1500 April. 1912. His:h school (Union) built with bonds of 

Ed Gibson, D. English, H. B. Hayden and Henry Henley (Indian) all 
have artesian wells, water rising to the surface with about seven gallons flow 
per minute. A creamery has been in operation for some years. President, 
Ed. Gibson ; vice-president, J. S. Rohrbough : F. F. Spurlock, E. A. Gravier, 
George H. Ells, secretary and treasurer. 

The town now consists of three general stores, candy store, two black- 
smith shops, shoe shop, barber shop, butcher shop, saddler, two hotels, tvi^o 
restaurants, flour mill, two drug stores, one millinery store, high school and 
grammar school, and about thirty dwellings. The town having voted dry 
the second time, several saloons have now become residences. The flour 
mill has a capacity of twenty-five barrels in a twelve-hour run. It is roller 
style, but is to be superseded by a better one, capable of a largci' output in 
another season. 

Roimd Valley has been a turbulent community from early days to the 
present. Land disputes, cattle stealing, and kindred feuds have been the 
cause of several homicides. Some of them have been attributed to the machi- 
nations of George E. White, who for many years dominated the country north 
of the valley, and at one time claimed title to nearly 30,000 acres of range land. 
And, though he is dead and gone to his long account, the aftermath of the 
old feuds still takes toll of individuals, and of the public through expensive 
criminal trials. 

In an early day, as before mentioned, a flourishing lodge of Good Temp- 
lars existed, but when the saloons began using its passwords, it broke up in 
dis.gust. At present there are in the vallev the following societies : 

" Covelo Lodge, No. 231, F. & A. M. ' Instituted June, 1873. The first 
officers were: J. M. Ellis, W. M.; T. L. Barnes, S. W. ; J. Updegraff, J. W.; 
J. Anthony, Treas. ; W. L. Bransford. Secy. The present officers are : George 
M Biggar, W. M. ; Charles Hurt. S. ^^'. : L. B. Tuttle, J. W. ; ^^'alter Hargrave, 
Secy.; E. A. Gravier, Treas. 

Augusta Chapter. No. 80, O. E. S. : Dora Asbill, W. M. ; Walter Har- 
grave, W. P.; Hattie Tuttle. A. M.; Ethel Hargrave, Sec; George H. Ells, 

W. O. A\'. Present officers : George Biggars, C. C. ; Charles Bucknell, 
A L ; Robert Redwine, Secy.; S. P. ^^'est, Treas. (since died). 

A lodge of I. O. O. F. was maintained for some years, but finally suc- 
cumbed to inertia. There is talk of reviving it in the near future. 

The educational facilities of the valley are excellent, with the high school 
and surrounding grammar schools, and there is probability of soon being 
another of the latter in the valley. 

There are features worthy of note outside the valley proper. Among 
them the most noteworthy is the Eden ^^alley principality of W. G. Henshaw. 
Frank Asbill claims to have named this lovely valley also, and it is rightly 
named. Bursting on the vision of the tired traveler after forty miles of up- 
and-down climbing, a couple of miles of level land covered with waving 


grain, or green grass and flowers, it indeed seemed paradise before the grounds 
about the house were laid out by the artistic hand of Carl Purdy. A valley 
about two miles long, level as a floor, with a bright stream flowing the whole 
length until late in summer, bordered by grain and poppies, it is a rest to the 
eye and body. ^Y. G. Henshaw bought the original ranch some years ago, 
and has added to it b}' purchase, two large tracts and several small ranches, 
until the estate now contains 25,000 acres. About 300 acres of level land 
surround the residence, which is modern, with water and gas distributed 
through the residence, and fine grounds surrounding, a carload of shrubbery 
and ornamental trees having been transported by rail from San Francisco 
and thirty miles by wagon. Three hundred fine dairy cows graze on the hill- 
sides, and ten Hereford bulls, several elk and a bufTalo or two, provide, 
with the abundance of native game, both profit and sport. Reeves and Van 
Dusen operated a sawmill in the valle}' in 1881-2, but it was closed down and 
moved to Low Gap. 

North of Round valley is another large range, a remnant of the George 
E. White principality, that of J. S. Rohrbough, containing 4300 acres, of fine 
grass country. East of Eden valley is the Squires range of 4560 acres, now 
owned by Oscar Cooper. West of Eden lies the Bigelow estate of 4877 acres, 
and there are several others running into the thousands of acres. One may 
judge from this what a vast country is included in the township. Scattered 
through the hills on all these big tracts are flats and small valleys adapted 
to garden and orchard culture. While in the main valley are about 25,000 
acres, only about 10,000 are in cultivation. This vast country has a popula- 
tion of only about one thousand souls. 

In 1907 eighty-four square miles were added to the Stony Creek forest 
reserve, nearly all from this township. 

Eden valley was purchased in 1895 by a Catholic priest named Jerome 
and a colony of several families settled upon it. The financial part proved a 
failure, and Father Jerome was drowned in Eel river in 1896. and the colony 
was abandoned. 

In 1910 a road was completed from Covelo to Elk creek on the Sacra- 
mento side of the mountain, crossing the ridge at an elevation of nearly 4000 
feet. It is not used to any extent as a freighting outlet, being too steep in 
grade and narrow. Also a road extends some distance towards Trinity 


Long Valley Township 

This township was cut otY from Little Lake, and its southern bnundary is 
near a pond on the old road about a mile from Sherwood valley, the line 
separating it from Little Lake running nearly east and west ; the western 
boundary is down the coast slope some distance, so that a considerable body 
of redwoods falls to its share, having on its western flank Ten Mile and West- 
port townships. On the north Humboldt county, some distance north of 
Laytonville, about thirty-five miles ; and on the east Round ^"alley township. 
It is extremely mountainous, having but one valley of any great size, after 
which the township was named, and, as its name indicates, having very little 
width. In extreme length it is about six miles, and nowhere over a mile 


wide, and oftener only half a mile. The soil is the ever-present wash loam, 
and many of the hills seem to have almost identical characteristics and are 
quite fertile. 

Ten Mile valley is only a farm of a few hundred acres, and between it 
and Long valley is another. 

The climate is colder than Ukiah, on account of its elevation, which is 
about the same as Round valley, and the degrees of heat and cold about the 
same, the extreme range being from °10-|- to °100+ winter and summer. It 
is usually blessed with early rains in the fall, and later rains in the spring 
than the southern part of the county, which is an advantage for feed and 
cropping, but its excess of rain above Ukiah is a disadvantage. Snow often 
falls, and sometimes lies even in the valleys several days, but not often. 

The first settlers in the valley were Jackson Farley, George Woodman, 
Harry Schroeder, George and Edward Dutton and William Poe in 1857. 
Dr. G. W. Sargeant brought in the first family in that year. Jerry Lambert, 
with wife and three children, arrived in 1858, and J. G. Wilson, wife and two 
children. A. Requa and wife, Clement Beattie and Thomas Smith came late 
in the fall. Early in 1859 Rufus Ward and B. S. Burns arrived. A daughter 
of Jerry Lambert's, Miss Abigail, and Richard Kenney were the first to marry 
in the township, in 1860. The first school was taught the same year by a 
Mr. Dennison, and Rev. Cox held the first church service, in 1859. In those 
days the Indians were a little troublesome to lone travelers, or a ranch un- 
guarded. Mrs. Bowman was attacked in the absence of her husband, and 
after killing two of her assailants guarded her children four miles to a neigh- 
bor's. Jack Farley lost a large band of horses, and trailing them, overtook 
them in charge of a band of Indians. He killed several Indians and recovered 
the whole drove save one which the Indians had stopped to kill and eat. 
Woodman made a regular business of raiding Indian villages, capturing chil- 
dren and taking them to Sonoma and Napa for sale. He was overhauled in 
Ukiah once, his prisoners taken away by the district court, and placed in the 
hands of the district attorney, who parceled them out among his friends, 
which proved no better fate than Woodman had prepared for them. 

Cahto is a small valley at the edge of the redwoods west of Long valley. 
It was almost a swamp of about 400 acres, considerably higher in altitude 
than Long valley. It was drained by a ditch into a gorge, and in the course 
of years has washed a channel two hundred feet wide. There is another set- 
tlement on the creek which is the head of South fork of Eel river, farther 
west than Cahto, called Branscomb, where a small spot of open land has 
been enlarged by clearing up redwood land after the timber had been cut off. 
It is here that the heaviest rainfall in the county is experienced, having 
reached the enormous amount of 118 inches one season. There is a mill here 
which supplies nearly all the lumber for Long valley, and considerable is 
hauled to Round valley, though that entails a haulage of about forty miles 
over three quite difficult elevations. The mill was built in 1888, and is 
of 15,000 feet capacity, and has cut about 5,000,000 feet of lumber, only run- 
ning part of the time. It is run by an incorporated company, A. Haun & Sons. 
Some miles farther down the stream is the finest body of redwood timber in 
the county. It is estimated that two hundred and eighty acres bear 20,000,- 
000 feet, easily accessible, either by railroad to the bay or to the coast. There 
is considerable pine timber, yellow and digger, and much has been cut into 
lumber; but is poor for outside work, as it warps, swells and shrinks so much. 


There was a sawmill west of Long valley, which also ground some grain in 
an early day, but only the oldest inhabitant remembers its existence. There 
was also one about three-fourths of a mile from Cahto, which has also long 
gone to decay. Near the Dos Rios bridge, in the eastern part of the town- 
ship, a mill to cut lumber to use on road construction was erected by Fair- 
banks and Baechtel in 1910, of 10,000 feet capacity. The Vassars have an- 
other south of Laytonville, which cuts 8000 feet a day. 

Laytonville is the only town in the township, and consists of two each 
of hotels, stables and stores, a blacksmith shop, ice cream and barber shop, 
telephone and telegraph station, and a dozen dwellings, scattered over much 
ground, and the inevitable schoolhouse. The town was founded by F. B. 
Layton, who built a blacksmith shop and dwelling in 1874. Viers and Rem- 
ington opened a store there in November, 1885. A huge panther killed at 
Cahto. Layton's house was burned on July 30, 1881, loss $2000. The Haas 
ranch of 5200 acres was sold to George A. Knight for $11,000. He has since 
bought two other ranches in the south end of the valley, to give him an outlet 
to the public road and for cropping purposes, making about 8000 acres. 

April 1, 1901, C. A. Lockhart located 150 mining claims on Red mountain, 
twenty miles east of Usal and about as far northwest of Long valley. Ar- 
rangements were made to put in a ten-stamp mill. The ledge is traceable 
about four miles at 3000 feet elevation. Jack Farley died in 1898, aged 103 

November 17, 1896, mail driver drowned in Ten Mile creek. Branscomb 
shot three bear in one tree in December, 1900. 

Laytonville burned in August, 1904, destroying two hotels and their 
stables, a store and a saloon ; loss $10,000. insurance $6000. A cloud-burst on 
Rattlesnake creek in September, 1904. Thirteen inches of snow in the valley 
Januar}', 1907. Laytonville again wiped out by fire, destroying Northwest- 
ern store, Helm hotel and barn and tank house. Pinches' and Yates' resi- 
dences, and telephone office, September 24, 1907; loss $15,000, insurance $10,- 
000. The government bought the Braden ranch for the Indians in March, 1908, 
for .$2500, which barely affords them a resting place. 

Autos were put on the stage route from Sherwood through Laytonville 
in 1910. When the road down the outlet to railroad connection at Longvale, 
fifteen miles, was finished in 1912, autos were changed to that route through 
to Humboldt for summer use. J. LI. Braden, a pioneer in the valley, thirty- 
two years justice of the peace, died July 31, 1913. Of the old original settlers 
none are left, and some of the families are not even represented by descendants 
of rhe name. 

A celebrated bear, old Twotoes, so-called from having lost part of his 
foot in a trap, was killed by G. E. Lovejoy and E. G. Bigelow, September 30, 
1907. He measured six feet in length, and his spread of forelegs was even 
greater. Such a bear works havoc with stock. Sheep will return to their 
sleeping place though routed out night after night by bear. J. M. Standley 
on a hunt in the edge of Humboldt, killed an old bear, and three cubs of 200 
pounds weight each, in one pile, in less than two minutes. They were fat 
as hogs, having been depredating on sheep for several weeks. 

On the Sargeant place a mile north of Laytonville there is a large mineral 
spring, which runs an uninterrupted stream of water, but is so strongly 
impregnated with sulphur that it cannot be used for any purpose. The valley 
is unique in one way, as the waters divide near the north end and flow to 


the north and south, and reach Eel river twenty miles or more apart. Fruit 
is an uncertain crop in the valley, but on higher ground surrounding it pears, 
apples and plums usually bear crops and berries flourish. 

Cahto was once the only town in the township. It was founded by Rob- 
ert White and John P. Simpson in 1856. They opened a hotel in 1861, and a 
store in 1865 ; and proceeded to drain the valley. They put up a small mill 
a short distance west, afterwards moving it down into the redwoods. H. 
Chadbourne put in a blacksmith shop, Isaac Smith a saloon, and it became the 
metropolis of the township. F. B. Layton also started a blacksmith shop, but 
unfortunately for Cahto, a quarrel with the town authorities led him to 
relocate in Long valley proper, hence Laytonville. Successive fires destroyed 
the hotel (which was rebuilt), the stables, store, saloon and a dwell- 
ing, in 1867, 79 and "91, and nothing remains but the hotel and three 
small dwellings and the Odd Fellows' hall. The Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows was instituted July 20, 1872. The first officers were : J. G. 
Killian, N. G. : Robert White, V. G. ; J. C. Grime, Secy. ; J. C. Talkington, 
Treas., who, with I\I. Vassar and William McKinney, were the only charter 
members. The present officers are H. F. Britt, N. G. ; M. A. Norris, V. G. ; 
Frank Purdy, Secy. ; A. A. Grothe, Treas. Forty-eight members. The meet- 
ing place has been changed to Laytonville, as their-sessions often last until 
late and there are no accommodations at Cahto for man or beast. 

A road was opened from Laytonville to Covelo in 1885, which livened 
the town considerably, but its full effect was not experienced until the bridge 
at Eel river was built in 1892, when all the winter travel to and from Covelo 
was diverted this way. 

One of the curiosities of the township is the mud springs, some six miles 
west of Cahto on a small spring branch that runs into a creek leading west to 
Eel river. It is a side hill gently sloping south, of blue clay formation, and 
over its surface, in the fall, are several mud cones from five to six feet high, in 
which the mud seems to be boiling, occasionally running over, and thus 
building up the walls. Some assert that they ebb and flow with the tides, 
but no one has remained on watch long enough to give data from which to 
confirm that theory. In the winter the rains wash down the cones, or the 
mud is too thin to build up. so that they can only be seen at their best in the 
late fall. 

For a time it was believed that the extension of the railroad would go 
through Cahto valley, and down South Eel river, on account of the heavy 
body of redwood that would be entered about six miles west of Cahto. It 
exiends from that point to Humboldt bay, and would certainly seem to have 
been worth the effort in that direction. It is extremely probable that time 
will bring a branch road in that direction, as it is an easy grade from Long- 
vale, and only twenty miles to the timber. 

Asbestos was discovered in Jackson valley (Branscomb), by J. R. Tracy 
in 1902, and traces of gold and copper in numerous localities, but none, so far, 
ricli enough for profitable work. 

Laytonville has an excellent hotel, and always has had, notwithstanding 
the numerous fires. For many years Mrs. Van Helm conducted a hotel, as 
also the post office and stage office. For many years she only had an anti- 
quated dwelling, but its table was alwa3's first-class. Burned out twice, she 
relegated the task to some one else in 1913. 


There are several princely domains in this township,- not least among 
them being that of George A. Knight, the San Francisco lawyer, which con- 
sists of over 8000 acres, of which several hundred are susceptible of cultiva- 
tion. As it is not stocked to its full capacity he has complained that deer 
constitute his greatest annoyance. The Hardin ranch stretches for miles 
south of and includes a portion of that valley, is excellent range, and in places 
heavily wooded with immense tan oaks. A large section of it was in 1858 
orrginally settled by A. F. Redeme3-er. who remained there many years, until 
his removal to Ukiah, where he became very wealthy. 

J. H. Clark has a large range of 4736 acres stretching from Cahto 
south nearly to Sherwood, and from the road west to and into the redwoods. 
He runs sheep of the Rambouillet breed, known everywhere as of the best. 
The average annual clip of his sheep is seven and one-half pounds per head. 
His range is fenced with posts six feet high, and barbed wire from the very 
ground up, and close watch is kept to see that it is unbroken by falling limbs, 
rushing torrents, or wandering hunters. Usually from 1700 to 1800 sheep 
are wintered without loss, and with neither feed nor protection, except what 
nature supplies. Seven hundred to nine hundred lambs are marked each 
season. The grasshoppers of 1913 so denuded the range that the young grass 
had no protection from frost, and the heavy winter rains had a stronger hold 
for erosion than usual. The family consisted originally of the parents and 
three boys and a girl, and came to their present location three miles west of 
Cahto, in 1869. Two brothers, Frank and William, and the parents have 
died. J. H. Clark married Annie P'owzer, daughter of a pioneer of Sanel, and 
they have reared and educated a family of five, ready for high school, at 
home. In that region, Mr. Clark says, this 1913-14 has been a phenomenal 
season. The highest water he has a record of was on March 5, 1879. On 
March 4, 1880, the temperature was 10° above zero. Previous to the present 
March, the highest temperature for the month, the 14th, 1888, 86° above. 
Last Tuesday, St. Patrick's day, the mercury registered 95", and remained 
there for nearl}- three hours. March has heretofore been a stormy month. 
The coldest in forty-two years was January 14, 1888, with the mercury down 
to 6°. The coldest this winter (1913-14) has been 28°. 

The finishing of the California Northwestern through to Humboldt will 
cut off from this valley most of the through travel, and probably reduce the 
mail service, though the building of the state highway through the valley will 
insure the automobile travel. Thirty autnmoljiles passed through the town 
one day last summer, 1913. 

Cuffey's Cove Township 

T'his township, the southern portion of the original Big River township, 
was so named because of the early-da\- presence of Nigger Nat, who divided 
the honors of first settler with Frank Farnier, i. e., "Portuguese Frank." The 
township is bounded on the north by Big River township, at Salmon creek, 
east by Anderson township, south by Arena, and west by the Pacific Ocean. 
It is about thirteen or fourteen miles, nearly square in extent, and has almost 
no open land except on the immediate ocean bank, and there not more than 
a mile wide, often less. But this land is, or has been, of unparalleled richness, 


being of great depth of vegetable sandy loam, washed from the timbered 
ridges of solid walls of foliage to the east. 

Navarro river is the largest stream, and Elk and Greenwood creeks are 
respectively about ten and twelve miles long, heavily timbered, rushing moun- 
tain water courses in winter, purling brooks in summer. Railroads have been 
up both streams a short distance to mills long since faded away, and Green- 
wood is likely again to have one extended nearly to its head in pursuit of 
timber. Since the inauguration of the flying skidder, the Greenwood mill 
proprietor does not hesitate to run a railroad into the bottom of any gulch, 
run a heavy cable from side to side of the canyon, garnish it with heavy 
blocks, drop a chain down to and around a log, with donkey engine raise it 
clear of a tangle of brush and logs, run it out over the rails, and lower it to 
the waiting log trucks. All this is done in less than half the time it would 
require to clear the way for it to be dragged along the ground to the train. 
Then, too, the track may be up from the bottom of the gulch as far as con- 
venience dictates, and logs can be lifted and carried from either below or 
above the train. Nine men and a boy load 70,000 feet of logs per day. 

Greenwood is another mill town, though it has considerable agricultural 
country immediately along the coast, and uses all, or nearly all, that is pro- 
duced thereon. Considerable cleared land on the ridges back of town has 
been brought into cultivation for hay and orchard, and produces the best in 
the- market of apples, pears and plums, and peaches also, some miles inland. 
The neighborhood was once the premium potato locality, but continued crop- 
ping, without potash fertilizer has caused a deterioration of that product. 

The first known white settler in the vicinity was Frank Farnier, after- 
wards generally known as Portuguese Frank, and as a neighbor he had 
Nigger Nat. It has been supposed that the name originated from his pres- 
ence, but another legend attributes the cognomen to Charles Fletcher. He 
was down from the Navarro in the harbor which as yet had no name. \\'hile 
speculating what to designate the landing he saw a large bear climbing the 
bank, and at once christened it Cufifey's Cove, and the name still holds. 
The Switzer Bros, bought out Nigger Nat, and later sold to Alichael Dona- 
hue ; James Kenney bought out Frank Farnier, but no date can be given, as 
there is no record of either transaction, and the parties are all gone or dead. 
Farnier died in 1904 at the reputed age of 103. The early history of the 
place is in obscurity, as little information can be derived from the one or 
two old settlers still living, so that most of the history, as in nearly all this 
book, must be written from the personal recollection of the writer. 

The Greenwood brothers, Britt, William Boggs and James, arrived about 
1854, and built a large house, for that era, on the second bench back from 
the ocean bluff and nearly east of the present town of Greenwood. It was 
for a long time the starting point for a trip across country, via Anderson, to 
the county seat and Cloverdale. Osro Clift built farther up the ridge at a 
later date, and kept such travellers as presented themselves at his hospitable 
dwelling. The Greenwoods sold to H. Bonee in September, 1873, for $9435, 519 
acres. In 1874 Bonee sold to John Cummings, a one-armed man, one acre, 
where was a saloon for some years. H. Bonee sold to William Bonee in 1887 
twenty-one acres located near the same place. The latter sold to J. S. Kim- 
ball, who sold to L. E. White, and then began the building up of that vast 
lumber enterprise, and the decadence of the town of Cufifey's Cove. L. E. 


White eventually bought the Greenwood ranch, and several hundred acres 
adjoining, and the site of the present town, from Michael Donahue, in 1883. 

On Greenwood creek, where is now the mill dam, was once a hotel and 
livery business, kept by James Greenwood, until 1871, when he sold to J. 
Turner. Afterward John Reed operated the place, receiving deed therefor 
from Thos. Kenney, both in 1876 and 1878. Turner also deeded the same 
property to Reed in 1877. 

What was once Cuffey's Cove owed its rise and prosperity to James 
Kenney, who in 1865 bought land there from Albert Miller, having previously 
bought of Farnier, and in 1869 bought again from Clinton Gurnee, and in 
1873 of Thomas Musgrove ; and in July, 1877, of John A. Coflfey. This latter 
piece was fifty acres of the "northwest corner of the Cufifey's Cove ranch." 
It is safe to say that he bought the most of his land twice or three times over, 
such was the indeterminate state of land titles at that early day. 

Mr. Kenney recognized the feasibility of shipping the vast amount of 
timber to be cut on the adjacent ridges, and consequently the value of title 
to the shore, and did not hesitate to buy every shadow of a title claimed. 
His one mistake was in thinking no other shipping point was available in the 
neighborhood. The first shipping was done with a short chute and lighters ; 
but a longer chute was soon designed, under which the vessels could be 
moored to receive cargo, thus saving one handling of the timber. For some 
years only split stuff was shipped, but bark wood and lumber added to the 
work to be done, and it became a busy place. 

The town was surveyed and mapped in March, 1876, and the first lot 
sold of record was to J. D. Gow, 40x80 feet, July 1876, for $1000. Afterwards 
bought by J. S. Kimball, August 5, 1876. September 19 a lot 40x80 feet 
was sold to Thomas Lvnch for $500. October 16, J. K. Salter, 80x40 feet, 
$300. December 20, J. K. Reyburn, 40x80, $400. Elizabeth Kitchens, De- 
cember 20, 40x80, $950. Some of these lots were afterwards sold for double 
the original price. Now, none so poor as to own them. Even as late as 
March, 1883, Catherine Ballentine paid $500 for a lot in the town. In 1887 
J. S. Kimball sold lots in the town to L. E. White, and on the same date 
twenty-one acres near or on Greenwood bluff. With his business in ties, 
and mills projected and built, L. E. White was dissatisfied with the shipping 
facilities of the Cove, and to the end that he might handle and enlarge the 
plant, both for his own needs and the benefit of the public, he offered Kenney 
$40,000 for his holdings there, in 1887. Kenney asked $75,000. White at 
once put in motion his surveyors and engineers, sea captains and wreckers, 
and Greenwood is the result. There have been fewer marine casualties at 
this landing than at any other doing a like business, on the coast. The pur- 
chase of large tracts of timber, and the building of the mill dam and railroad 
soon followed. The latter has stretched itself, feeling for timber, up Elk 
creek, and out over the divide to Alder creek, and' even up to the last spring 
at its head, taking everything in the shape of timber that would square eight 
inches. In the '60s and 70s or later nothing less than eighteen inches was 
considered fit to saw. The L. E. White mill is one of the most complete 
on the coast, and is the only one that has not been burned. The country 
traversed by this road is as bare as a fire-swept prairie. The railroad is about 
twenty-five miles in length, and must tunnel through to the watershed of 
the Garcia, where the company has much good timber, or be soon discon- 
tinued. The company has cut off over 13,000 acres, and has about as much 


more, but not in compact form. They have been building a railroad up 
Greenwood creek for more timber. A railroad was built from Cul¥ey's Cove 
landing to and up Greenwood creek, in all about three miles, to the sawmill 
there. It was built by A. W. Hall for Fred Hehnke in 1875-6, but torn up 
before L. E. White began operations at the Greenwood landing. It had 
served its purpose when the mills which fed it were discontinued, owing to 
low price of lumber. 

A\^ith characteristic energy L. E. White had the big mill at Greenwood 
in running order by 1890; the wharf and chute under construction, and it 
has run almost uninterruptedly ever since under his management until his 
death in 1896, under his son, W. H. ^^^^ite, until his death in 1898, and since 
then Mrs. W. H. White, and later under her second husband, F. C. Drew. 
(L. E. White and son each died on the 4th of July.) The mill has cut 110.000 
feet in a day, and averaged 60,825 feet during March. 

Cuffey's Cove for some years was the headquarters for J- S. Kimball's 
multitudinous timber operations, until he moved to Westport. He built nu- 
merous schooners fitted with auxiliarj^ power and hotels everywhere along 
the coast. Several times almost on the verge of bankruptcy, his genius 
became more brilliant under adversity, and he emerged with a fortune. In 
May, 1886, a fire at the Cove burned eight buildings; loss $35,000, insurance 
$15,000. In April, 1892, fire again destroyed a store, hotel and three saloons. 
In 1891 a lot was deeded for a Catholic church. Another big fire in 1911 de- 
stroyed the most of the deserted buildings, and Cuffey's Cove became a 
memory only. John Conway is almost the only one of the old-timers. 
Greenwood is essentially a mill town, and should milling discontinue its fate 
would be much the same as that of Cuffey's Cove. It has about 400 in- 
habitants, except on Sunday, when an additional hundred floats in from the 
woods, and the few farms above and below. Of business houses it has six 
hotels, each graced with a bar; one blacksmith shop, two confectionery stores, 
two barber shops, one butcher shop, one jewelry store, one livery stable, two 
general merchandise establishments, one photograph gallery, and no use for 
an}- more. The mill company maintains a good hotel, and a large general 
store. Under L. E. W^hite a fair business understanding with the employees 
was established, and it has been maintained by his successors. No labor 
troubles have interfered with the work of the company. He prosecuted the 
tie business at a loss to give work to men with families in dull times. Five 
hundred thousand ties have been shipped here in a year ; but now about 
250,000 in the limit. The company runs three steamers from its wharf to the 
city continuously, for both passengers and freight. 

Beneficial societies are represented in Greenwood by : 

Court Greenwood, No. 8225, A. O. F., organized June 4, 1904. Present 
membership, fifty. Officers: I. W. Freeberg, P. C. R. ; Donald Buchanan, 
C. R. ; Albert Popeck. S. C. R.; John P. Conway, Sec; H. Anderson, R. ; Emil 
Hagland, Treas. 

U. A. O. D., Elk Grove, No. 186, instituted October 28, 1906. Number 
of members one hundred. Present officers: V. Bettigo, N. A.; V. Luchinetti, 
V. A.; A. Falleri, Treas; O. Vivian, Sec; V. Bacci, A. P. 

There are also other societies, but no rejiorts have been received from 


South of Greenwood lies quite a stretch of fine farming land, half a mile 
wide, of unknown depth of soil, as one might say, three or four farms deep, 
all under a high state of cultivation. Some day it will be refertilized by the 
tons of kelp obtainable all along its ocean shore. Six miles down there was 
for a time a busy little place called Bridgeport, but little is done there now 
save farming and a creamery, which latter was established in February, 1900, 
and has been in operation since. The shipping formerly done here by chute 
proved too precarious, two vessels having been wrecked, and it has been 
abandoned, as have all the mills which once existed in the neighborhood. 
A store was burned out there in March, 1886. 

Six miles north of Greenwood is or was Navarro, once a busy mill town, 
with a thriving hotel and livery business. Fire and bankruptcy have ended 
it all. Nothing is left at the flat at the mouth of the river but rotting piles, 
and one or two of the original dwellings, and they will soon go the wa}^ of 
the others. The mill was burned in July, 1890, and rebuilt a mile up the 
ri\er. run a few years and closed down, $500,000 in debt, and assigned to 
A. J. Clunie. The employes took possession of the mill store, and paid 
themselves the back wages due for labor. The mill was again burned in 
November. 1902, and the property lies idle. It has been bonded to the 
American Steel \\'ire Co., and to other parties, and is now supposed to be 
the property of the Pacific Coast Redwood Co. — J. C. Cook, et al. Charles 
Fletcher, a hardy sailor, was the first known settler in this vicinity, and his 
is the principal house now standing, built in the early '50s. For many years 
he maintained a ferry here, first with a dugout for the traveler, and a swim 
for his horse. Later a flat boat increased the accommodation. J. B. Har- 
grave settled on the ridge north of the river and maintained a stopping place 
for travelers, and graded a trail a mile and a half to the ferry, which was 
afterwards widened to accommodate wagons. Haskett Severance arrived 
in 1858, and with his brothers. Ben and Frank, assumed the job of furnishing 
the mill with logs. River driving was the established trade, and where suc- 
cessful was extremely remunerative. But the loss of a season's logging from 
the breaking of a boom often threw the logger thousands of dollars in debt. 
Haskett Severance bought the Hargrave place, of eighty acres, on the ridge, 
and settled down to farming, hotel, livery and teaming business. He also 
built a large hall for the neighborhood dances, and was the life of the com- 
munity for many years until his death in 1888. Mrs. Severance was the good 
angel of every broken and maimed woodsman from miles around, and many 
owed life itself to her careful nursing. She died in Boston in 1892, but was 
brought home and laid by her husband and daughter in Little River cemetery. 

Charles Wintzer did a large business in a store, express, mail and bank- 
ing for several years, but closed out when the mill closed down, and the store 
burned in 1897. Several hotels and saloons were operated between the 
Severance hotel and Salmon creek, but have all been deserted since the 
mill there ceased existence. The bridge across the river has been washed 
out twice, once in 1897. and again in 1914. A ferry is each time established 
in the interim, and in February of this jxar the boat sunk without casualty. 

A move is being made to establish a new road from Salmon creek round 
the point to the Navarro, avoiding the two steep long hills now used. At 
Navarro Flat in years gone the A. O. U. W. and I. O. G. T. flourished, and 
there was a church and public hall, which latter stood the ocean's force, high 
water of the river, and the earthquake, to perish at last by fire. The Green- 


wood mill and logging establishment has been singularly free from serious 
accidents and fire. One old mill man remarked in a letter last year (1913) 
that it was her turn next, but he has not lived to see his prophesy fulfilled. 
A landslide at the mill killed one man in the '80s, and two men were killed 
in one week in the mill in March, 1914. 

Thomas Walsh was an early settler in the Bridgeport neighborhood, 
and south of him one Moody held sway over hundreds of acres, but did not 
remain to acquire any title. James Nolan was another of the early settlers. 
A. W. Hall, after a busy life in Point Arena and later at Cufifey's Cove, settled 
on a fine ranch just south of Elk creek, built numerous improvements, and 
died there. C. J. Buchanan now owns the place, one of the best on the coast. 
The earthquake of 1906 badly damaged the ranches between Elk creek and 
Alder creek. Huge sections of land broke loose from the steep hillsides and 
slid down upon the farms, burying the soil from two to four feet under gravel 
and clay, in places sliding down a quarter of a mile. 

Little Lake Township 

This township is in the center of the county, and bounded on the north 
by Round valley and Long valley, east by Round valley and a little strip of 
Lake county, south by Potter and Ukiah townships. It contains about 
eleven government townships, i. e., 253,440 acres, with only one considerable 
valley, and several smaller ones of one to four ranches each. Little Lake 
valley, the largest, contains about 12,000 acres of tillable land; if it were 
properly drained, of exceeding fertility. The soil and climate are very much 
the same as Round valley and Long valley, though the soil more generally 
approaches the river loam than either of them. The hardier fruits and veg- 
etables thrive, especially along the slightly elevated land bordering the 
valley, and the often occurring table lands in the surrounding hills. Fog 
often envelops the valle3% both from the coast and a ground fog generated 
by the swampy character of the middle and lower part of the valley. The 
range of the mercury in summer is from 40 to 104 degrees, with occasional 
rises to 110 degrees: in winter 13 to 60 degrees, with occasional lapses to 
12 degrees. 

There is not much timber in the township, for mill purposes, except the 
fir and redwood along its western border, where it has followed the ocean 
fogs over the ridge, and the western line of the township trenches upon the 
timber west of the ridge. Through the valley are a profusion of huge white 
oaks, and white, black and post ash, madrona, and pepperwood. Fir and pine 
dot the hills and ravines over the eastern slopes. 

Until the coming of the railroad was authoritatively announced in 1900, 
the valley was so isolated by distance and bad roads that little progress could 
be made. The best land in the valley was held at only $35 per acre, and only 
crops enough were raised for home consumption and nearly all the flour 
used was hauled in from Ukiah or below. A. E. Sherwood was the first 
permanent white settler in the township, and in 1853 located in Sherwood 
Valley, where he remained until his death. The Baechtel Bros., Samuel, 
Harry and Martin, brought a band of cattle from Marin County in Septem- 


ber, 1855, and Samuel and Harry remained there until Harry died in 1913. 
Following them were Daugherty, Shondreau, Potter, J. G. and R. S. Rowli- 
son, Partin, Duncan, Levi Felton, Darby, Arnett, and William Fulwider. 
Nearly every one of these left the valley sooner or later, except Felton, Ful- 
wider and Daugherty, who died there. J. L. Broaddus, W. C. James and 
Hiram Willits next came, bringing wives with them, the first in the valley. 
The first child was a boy born in the James family and the first girl was 
born in the Upp family. 

The first approach towards a town was at the Baechtel ranch, where a 
store was opened by W. C. James in 1865, and a saloon in 1859. In 1860 
a public hall was built there, about 30x40, and there a dance was given 
July 4th. A rupture in business relations here, as in Cahto, led to an opposi- 
tion town, and Willits was located about a mile north. Kirk Brier of Peta- 
luma, opened a store where Willits is now located in 1866. J. M. Jones 
opened a blacksmith shop and a saloon soon followed, and henceforth it was 
a town. Hiram Willits soon purchased the store and continued it until 
1883, when he sold out to Cerf & Lobree, who in turn sold to Irvine & Muir. 
Just north of the town Mr. Willits built a two-story dwelling, the only one 
in the valley for many years, and he and his good wife were first and fore- 
most in the social life of the valley. 

A thirty-three pound salmon was caught in 1860. Countless thousands 
of these fish come up the streams in the fall with the first freshet; and in 
the late winter and spring a like number of steelheads come up. There was 
a tannery three miles south of Willits in 1864, and for several years after, 
but has long since disappeared. So, too, a distillery was fitted up near the 
same place, but the project was abandoned before any spirits were run. At 
the same locality W. C. James operated a grist mill in 1860, but nothing 
remains of it but the water ditch, now used for irrigating purposes, and the 
deep cut where stood the water wheel. In 1875 F. L. Duncan built a steam 
grist mill in Willits, of twenty barrels capacity, with two runs of buhrs. 
It was improved by Capt. J. A. Morgan and T. L. Kelley, but the venture 
did not pay and was abandoned, although it was running as late as 1890. 
It was then turned over to H. B. Muir for the benefit of the creditors of 
Morgan & Kelley, sold and resold, leased and re-leased, and is now the 
property of John Havens. He, in company with Barney Schow, established 
a tannery there, but operated it only a short time, producing $17,000 of 
leather one year. In 1885 Scudamore Reynolds. Rice & Mason opened a 
store in Willits and ran it for a few years. 

The Blosser Bros, built a sawmill two and a half miles up Willits creek, 
run by water power, in the early '60s. It was afterwards fitted with steam. 
In 1877-8 it passed into the hands of H. L. Norton, and was run by him 
for several years. It had a capacity of 20,000 per day. He cut nearly 
3,000,000 feet of lumber. He purchased about 3,000 acres of timber, but 
legal complications were too much for the enterprise. After lying idle some 
years the N. W. Redwood Co. bought part of the land and built a 40,000- 
foot mill in 1901, antedating the coming of the Northwestern railroad. 
This mill was burned in 1902, loss $30,000, well insured. It was rebuilt on 
improved lines, and has ever since been run to its full capacity. In January, 
1909, the lumber in the yard at Willits invoiced 10,000,000 feet. There was 
quite a fever of small mills in the township at one time, running on the scat- 


tering pine timber. None of them lasted long, or sawed much lumber, and 
piles of sawdust only remain to mark their location. 

In 1861 H. T. Hatch built a Avaterpower mill at the foot of Sherwood 
valley, which could run only on the winter rains impounded on a meadow 
which furnished hay and grazing in the late summer. It was first fitted 
with an overshot wheel, then a turbine and finally with steam. Its capacity 
was 10,000 feet per day, and it cut about 5,000,000 feet before its market was 
destroyed by other mills nearer the building operations of the county. It 
was closed down in 1895 and opened up and run a few weeks in 1900, dis- 
mantled and moved down to where the Northwestern mill now is. 

Northwest of Willits \\'. T. Coffer operated a sawmill for some years in 
the '90s, but it has long been discontinued. In 1901 the corporation of Irvine 
& Muir was formed for mercantile purposes, and in 1903 the Irvine & Muir 
Lumber Co. was incorporated. They had acquired the business stand of 
the original Willits store and greatly enlarged it into three departments. 
In 1902 they built a large mill in Two Rock valley, six miles west of Willits, 
hauling the output with teams to the railroad. The mill has cut from fo.ur 
to six million feet per annum, exhausting the timber on 1500 acres, and 
they have there about 500 acres yet to cut. In 1909 they began the erection 
of a large mill in the "Big Basin," on the western slope some fourteen miles 
from Willits. The mill fired up for regular work June 1st, 1910, and cut 
20,000,000 feet in the first nineteen months, its capacity being 50,000 per 
day. The firm owns about 7900 acres and estimates its product will amount 
to 300,000,000 feet. The lumber is railed to Fort Bragg and shipped from 
there by water. The firm has a deck 75x600 feet, with traveling derrick to 
handle the lumber at the mill. The mill is the latest in all its appointments, 
including all the labor-saving appliances invented to date. Among others 
is the applied method of hauling logs up an incline of 1200 feet, drop])ing 
them down 600 feet on the other side of the ridge, the loaded cars hauling 
up the empty ones. Three men and a boy delivered 50,000 feet per day at 
the mill. They do a business of nearly half a million per year. 

W. S. Melville operates a shingle mill eight miles west of Willits, which 
cuts 100,000 in ten hours. It was first built in 1903, and ran for four years, 
making twenty million shingles on 160 acres. There was also made on the 
tract a large amount of split stuff, ties, posts, shakes and pickets. The 
mill was then moved to its present location, where he has cut about fifty 
million shingles, besides split stuff, on 450 acres, and has 250 acres yet to 
work up. At one time Mr. Melville had a 15,000-foot sawmill on the first 
tract, but cut only one million feet when the mill was moved to Island 
Mountain to cut timber for the extension of the Northwestern Pacific rail- 
road. The Whiteds built a mill on the Blosser tract in 1008 of 25.000-feet 

The township contains about eleven government townships, which makes 
its area 253,440 acres. Of this immense area there are probably all told 
30,000 acres susceptible of profitable cultivation in all the valleys and benches 
distributed through its mountains. Little Lake valley at the most contains 
about 12.000 acres, two-thirds of which is cultivatable land when properly 
drained. But little over half that amount is now so used, the balance being 
pastured or cut to wild ha}-. Potatoes, beets, turnips, cabbage, peas and all 
the hardy vegetables thrive and grow to great size, but the climate in the 
late spring is uncertain for corn, beans, tomatoes, etc., though sometimes 


successful in favored localities. As pasture land it is unrivaled in the county, 
the natural grasses keeping green until late summer, afifording dairies the 
best of opportunity for profitable business. 

The principal and really only town is Willits, which is located on the 
western edge of the valley, well towards the southern limit. It is one mile 
square and was incorporated in 1888, and has had the usual difficulties of 
small towns to contend with. Its streets are graded, but as yet no pave- 
ments have been laid. The sidewalks of its one business street are cemented 
and crossings laid with stone. Private corporations furnish water and light, 
and the town has laid complaint about the terms thereof before the State 
Commission. The supply is really inadequate, for the last season's scant 
rainfall caused a scarcity of water for municipal purposes. School facilities 
are unexcelled, there being a Union High School and two fine grammar 
schools, the former employing four teachers. The main business street fol- 
lows the track of the original county road, with its crook from a straight 
line, and is -closely built up for half its length, while the residence sections 
scatter over the remaining portion of the square mile. Quite a lovely sec- 
tion of the town on the west is not in sight of the main street, being back of 
quite an eminence. There are but few brick buildings in the town, and the 
disastrous effects of the great earthquake of 1906 did not encourage the 
building- of them. However, quite a large one is now on the point of com- 
pletion, 60x100, two stories, for a post office and film theatre. It has the 
finest, largest and most complete hotel in the county, "The Willits," with all 
the modern improvements except an elevator, and one that belongs to a past 
age — a six-foot fireplace. .\ large brick hotel was entirely demolished by 
the earthquake, and its site is now appropriated by the post office above 
spoken of. The town has free postal delivery. 

The business houses may be enumerated as follows : Seven hotels, three 
lodging houses, seven real estate offices, two drug stores, four barber shops, 
two livery stables, two boot and shoe stores, two photograph galleries, four 
milk depots, three tailor shops, six billiard halls, three butcher shops, two 
expressmen, two deliverymen, two halls, five restaurants, one undertaking 
establishment, one feed stable, seven tobaccconists, two blacksmiths, one 
lumber office and yard, eleven saloons, two bakeries, four plumbers, two 
coffee houses, two laundries, one garage, sixteen merchandising establish- 
ments, two jewelry stores, two wholesale liquor stores, one film theatre, 
one fish market, one bottling plant and one newspaper. At times there have 
been two papers extant in the town and symptoms of a third. Charles Mast 
started a paper in the early '80s ; A. L. Dobie issued a paper called the 
X-Ray, but fire extinguished it. In 1900 the Little Lake Herald was issued 
by White & Pennington, and passed to the latter in 1903, and was later 
merged into the News. The latter was established by S. P. Curtis and by 
him sold to Broback, who moved the paper's headquarters to Ukiah and 
issued it as the News and Saturday Night, its ostensible home being Willits. 
P. L. Hall obtained possession of it and after a short time sold it in 1906 to 
Dr. Liftchild, who sold it to Fred Loring in 1907. The Herald was merged 
in the News, and it now fills all the requirements of the town and is ably 
conducted by Mr. Loring. 

The Central Hotel was destroyed once by fire and rebuilt of brick. 
Though damaged by the earthquake, it is still on the map. There are several 
Italian hotels, small, half lodging house and half saloon, that accommodate 


the laboring class of that nation, who are numerous in the mills and on 
the railroad. 

The Willits Mercantile Company has a large department store, half 
brick and half wood, well appointed and stocked. Just at present the paving 
of the main street, at least, is being agitated, and on that question a recall 
is being urged against a trustee of the town. One garage attends to the 
wants of the smoke wagons, and all other branches of business are fully 
supplied with good stocks, including the undertaker. 

The census of 1910 gave the town 1153 population. The assessment of 
1913 totaled S493,879, and the rate for town purposes seventy-five cents 
on the $100. The present officers are ; Mayor, F. L. A. Gorlinsky ; Trustees, 
C. B. Melville, E. H. Roth, A. J. James, O. O. Butcher; Marshal, E. V. Liv- 
ingston ; Clerk. L. C. Cureton ; Treasurer, W. H. Baechtel. 

Of secret societies the town has more than enough, and the bug ha= 
bitten the foreign population as severely as the native. 

Little Lake Lodge No. 277 was instituted August 8, 1878, The first offi- 
cers were : W. L. Brown, N. G. ; J. S. Holman, V. G. ; A. O. Ross, Secy. ; L. 
Barnett, Treas. A hall was erected in the same year, 70x30, two-story, and 
a library started. It was destroyed by fire in 1898 and rebuilt larger and 
better in 1899. The present officers are: C. L. James, N. G. ; H. A. Walker 
V. G. ; P. L. Hall, Secy.; W. T. Saxon, Treas. Number of members, one 

Lagunita Rebekah Lodge No. 248 was instituted April 13, 1900, by the 
then president of the Rebekah Assembly, Helen M. Carpenter. The present 
officers are Annie Bowen, N. G. ; Maud De Camp, V. G. ; Estelle Loring, 
Secy.; Sophronia Irvine. Treas. Number of members, one hundred and 

Willits Lodge No. 365, F. & A. M., instituted January 3, 1905. Present 
membership, eighty. Officers : George Yonde, W. M. ; James E. Daniels, S. 
W. ; G. C. Lewis, J. W. ; W. T. Saxon, Treas. ; F. N. Loring, Secy. 

Woodmen of the World, No. 444, instituted May 29, 1903. Present 
membership, ninety-five. Officers: W. P. Heap, C. C. ; A. L. Moffit, A. L.; 
W. T. Saxon, M. 

Knights of Pythias No. 19. Instituted January 12, 1904. Present mem- 
bership, sixty. Officers: E. S. Conner, C. C. ; R. C. J. Ritchell, V. C. ; J. J. 
Keller, K. of R. and S. 

Willits Grove No. 158, Druids. Instituted July 19, 1903. Present mem- 
bership sixty-five. Officers : A. Figone, A. P. ; S. Pietronone, N. A. ; S. Fig- 
one, V. A. ; A. Reeves, Secy. 

Fraternal Brotherhood No. 494. Instituted July 26, 1906. Present mem- 
bership, twenty-nine. Officers: M. C. Arthur, P.; George Smith, V. P.; M. 
Argetsinger, Treas. ; Eva M. White, Secy. 

Willits Aerie No. 826. Instituted November 15, 1904. Present mem- 
bership, one hundred and twenty-seven. Officers: O. O. Butcher. P.; G. F. 
Teal, V. P.; E. M. Whitney, Sec; F. N. Loring, Treas. 

Women of Woodcraft, Golden West Circle No. 686. Instituted Jan- 
uary 14, 1908. Present officers, Elsie Teale, G. N.; Ada Campbell, A.; Tillie 
Mohn. B.; Margaret Eldridge, C. Beneficial members, twenty-five; social, 15. 

Willits Lodge 862, Loyal Order Moose. Instituted January, 1911. Pres- 
ent membership, one hundred and fifty. Officers, W. H. Clay, D.; O. O. 
Butcher, V. D.; E. M. Whitney, Secy; G. E. Mitchell, Treas. 


The Bank of Willits was incorporated April 11, 1904, with a paid-up 
capital of $50,000. It has an earned surplus of $30,000, undivided profits of 
$17,709, and has resources of $444,377. W. A. Foster, Pres.; J. W. Lilien- 
thal, V. P.; W. H. Baechtel. Ca.shier: C. M. Walker, Asst. Cashier. 

The first agricultural fair in the county was held in Willits in Septem- 
ber, 1879, the society having been incorporated the December before. As a 
fair it was a success, but a pecuniary loss, especially to one director who 
paid $500 out of his own pocket to close up its affairs. Fairs were held in 
1881-2-3-5. but the later ones were under and by state subsidy in part. All ' 
were successful in demonstrating the fertility of the soil and the energy of 
the township's citizens. Again in 1912 a fair was held at Willits, and a 
wonderful display of farm produce made. Three and a half pound potatoes, 
ninety pound squash, thirty-five bushels of wheat and sixty-seven of barley 
to the acre was vouched for. It was a credit to those having in charge the 
prosecution of the enterprise. 

A large dairy has been maintained on the n(^)rthern confines of the town 
on the farm of E. F. DeCamp ; 10,862 pounds of butter was one year's pro- 
duction. A half dozen such dairies could easily find good forage, and the 
wild hay indigenous to the land is excellent for that purpose. The streams 
of the township teem with salmon in the fall after the first high water and 
with steelheads in the early spring. In 1896 a trapping establishment was 
prepared at the lower end of the valley for the purpose of securing eggs 
of the latter fish for stocking the streams of the, territory tributary to the 
Northwestern railroad. It did not prove a favorable locality, as nearly every 
winter high water completely submerged it. and it was discontinued in 1909 
and relocated near Potter valley. A\'hile it was in use from 750,000 to 
1.500,000 eggs were procured yearly. 

There are numerous small valleys scattered through the mountains 
of the township. Two Rock, Wheelbarrow, Scott Valley and others, only a 
farm in size, but Sherwood Valley, ten miles north of Willits, is more con- 
siderable in size, stretching along a small stream for two or three miles, but 
nowhere more than a quarter of a mile in width. The first settler here was 
A. E. Sherwood, in 1853. and he remained in the valley continuously until 
his death in March, 1900. Samuel Watts came in 1857 and was killed by 
Indians, the only white man known to have suffered at their hands. David 
Son and Sylvester Hatch were the next who remained in the valley for any 
length of time. L5rock and Benjamin Henderson arrived in 1858. the latter 
with a wife, who did not stay long, deeming it too far from civilization, 
and the Hendersons themselves soon left. 

There are two dairies operated in the valley and more might be profitably 
maintained. The valley is elevated much above Little Lake Valley, and is 
cold in winter and has usually heavy spring and fall rains, insuring a longer 
season of green feed than the country farther south. There was a fine body 
of redwood along the west slope of the valley, but it has been mostly fed 
into the iron maw of the Northwestern mill near Willits. A branch road 
penetrates the valley, and the legs, ties, bark, wood, etc.. are railed to the 
mill and the city beyond. In April, 1905, tanbark from this section was being 
shipped to Japan, and 2500 cords were burned in the woods. The State high- 
way misses this valley, as it follows the watercourse from Willits down to 
the forks of the outlet, thence up the north branch to Long valley. 


Willits has a public library, managed mostly by a society of ladies, 
though it has masculine representation on its board of trustees. A move is 
being made at this date to secure aid of Carnegie to erect a suitable library 
building, which will probably be successful through his known liberality in 
this direction. 

May 5, 1881, an earthquake was felt in the town. The northbound stage 
was stopped by a deer getting tangled in one of the front wheels in its 
frightened flight across the road. June 14, 1882, the stage was robbed a few 
miles from town. Elisha Frost killed a panther measuring ten feet from tip 
to tip, the largest ever known in the county. 

The Daugherty tract, adjoining the town, one hundred and sixty acres, 
sold for $9,125 ; much of it has since been cut up into lots. In April, 1885, 
James -Frost was killed by his uncle, Isom Frost, as the result of an old feud, 
and in the melee Andrew Hamburg was killed by James Frost, under a mis- 
apprehension. The beginning of the feud dated back to 1865, when one 
Frost and five Coates were killed near Baechtels. and Martin Frost was 
killed some years later by James Frost. The only one who was punished 
was Isom Frost, who served a long term in San Quentin for the killing of 
James Frost. 

The new Baptist Church was dedicated in September, 1885. The same 
year Hiram Willits struck gas and oil in a well and laid pipes to his store, 
but nothing came of it of much benefit. J. L. Broaddus died August 22, 
1886, one of the first and best settlers in the valley. In February, 1887, two 
earthquakes were felt in- two successive days. There was much complaint 
about coyotes about this time, and Brower and Hall killed seventeen wild- 
cats in the year. The stage was again held up in December, 1895, and in 
April, 1896, on the grade north of ^^Mllits, it was found upset, pinning the 
driver under it dead, and everything combustible burned. 

In 1898 Willits was devastated by fire, burning off nearly all the east side 
of the main street, including the Odd Fellows two-story hall. Loss, $30,000. 
The average rainfall for the months of September and October in the valley 
is one inch and two and a half inches, respectively. In September, 1900, 
William Ellis, superintendent of the Eden Valley ranch, drove his team into 
the "Black Pool" on the road north, and the horses were engulfed in quick- 
sand. The Northwestern Redwood Company built their large mill, and No- 
vember 15, 1901, the railroad reached Willits. A flagpole one hundred feet 
high was erected to celebrate the occasion. December 21 the stage was again 
held up, but the robber only realized $1.75. Jaspar Christy, the driver, 
caused the arrest of two of his passengers for using bad language — an un- 
heard-of proceeding before this date — $100 fine. June 12 fire destroyed the 
business part of town, fourteen buildings, loss $30,000. Palace Hotel, a two- 
story brick, completed by Charles Whited December 6. A. W. Foster bought 
the Willits & Johnson farm, 259 acres, for $42 an acre. The Hotel Willits, 
built thereon, opened March 23, 1902. Buckner hotel, two story brick, opened 
the same month, was completely destroyed by the earthquake of 1906. E. H. 
Harriman inspected the Northwestern railroad with a view to purchase May 
20. August 25 first serious accident occurred on the railroad, on the exten- 
sion to Sherwood. Locomotive ran away, ditched ; five were killed and four 
injured, employes. Fire company organized in September. Willits Water 
Company incorporated in October. April, 1903, rumors of the transfer of 
railroad to Harriman interests, which continued at intervals for some years. 


until finally consummated in 1907. Electric light schedule promulgated: 
Residence, $1 for three lights; hotels, fifty cents each up to twenty-five lights; 
stores, first two $1, excess forty cents each. June, 1903, report of trustees 
on new school house and furniture totaled $8,702. California Northwestern 
Railroad report for the year: Gross earnings, $1,222,554.95; operating ex- 
pense, $858,746.50; other expense, $312,433.76; net, $51,374.80. October, wool 
shipped by Irvine & Muir, 37,000 pounds. Average rainfall for October 
twenty-seven years, 6.59 inches. November 30, rain to date, 20.67 inches. 
Survey from the bay to Eureka by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe fin- 
ished August, '04. High School organized. Valuation of town, $893,101. 
Tax rate forty cents. Eight thousand cords of tan bark shipped at $12 
valuation. In the Northwestern yard, 4,000,000 feet of select lumber. Ir- 
vine & Muir's yard, 2,000,000 feet. Mohn's store burned February 9, 1905; 
loss $10,000, insurance $2600. Frank Brown made 30,000 shakes from one 
redwood tree, which sent out numerous sprouts after he was done work on it. 
Mrs. Mary Broaddus died October 24, 1906, one hundred and two years of 
age, one of the first white women in the valley. May, 1907, railroad com- 
pleted ten miles to Sherwood. Willits News passed into the hands of F. N. 
Loring. Ordinance passed to the eflfect that only eight saloons should be 
allowed in the town, whenever the superfluous ones should be eliminated 
down to that number; license to be sufficient to yield $3200 revenue. The 
Northwestern mortgaged to the amount of $35,000,000 June, 1907. Authorita- 
tive assertion of joint ownership of the same by Southern Pacific and Atchi- 
son, Topeka and Santa Fe. 

Gas and petroleum struck near town. An oil well was sunk 275 feet, 
with no astounding effect. Tax rate seventy-five cents. Work on extension 
of railroad toward Eureka on a three-mile contract begun in November, but 
shut down December 20. Little Lake Herald leased to Bourke & Carlyle, 
who ran it about a year. July, 1908, right of way mostly secured for rail- 
road extension. Bonds voted, $30,000, for high school building. Construc- 
tion ordered on extension of railroad north between Shively and Dyerville, 
seven miles, estimated to cost $3,000,000. A company formed to bore for 
oil, gas or coal August 12, 1907. The Northwestern Redwood Company 
purchased 500 goats. Artesian water and a strong flow of gas from a well 
on the east side of the valley. Northwestern Railroad Company offered the 
town a lot for a hall. The Willits Oil Development Company incorporated 
with $50,000 capital February, 1908. June 7, public library trustees appointed 
and a ladies' band organized. .\uto stages put on line north. Survey of 
wagon road down the "Outlet" accepted. January, 1909, fire alarm system 
with sixteen boxes installed, .\pril 5th, ,$30,000 sewer bond election carried 
and bonds sold for $30,711. December 31 stage connection with the Fort 
Bragg railroad at Irmulco, eleven miles from Willits. January, 1909. in- 
ventory of lumber in Northwestern Railroad Company yard footed up 10,- 
000,000 feet. February 23, train wreck on Sherwood branch, several injured. 
Automobile service to connect with Fort Bragg train. Sewer contract let 
at $17,312.95. Orders from Harriman to proceed with construction of rail- 
road extension to Eureka from both ends; $10.00,000 appropriated for the 
work, September 17. De Camp creamery installed a 150-pound churn. H. C. 
Wade died November 22; claimed to have been in valley in 1853. A 40-inch 
turbine installed at Northwestern mill for the generation of electricity. 


Midland Lyceum course inaugurated. Methodist Episcopal Church dedi- 

June, 1910, Fort Bragg stage upset, one killed, three badly injured, of 
whom one died later from the effects of the injuries. The railroad let con- 
tract to clear timber from right of way down the Outlet, about eight miles. 
It is expected to produce 16,000,000 feet of lumber. Northwestern mill 
erected sheds in town for 1,000.000 feet of lumber. Storm sewer flooded. 
Gold and slate rock discovered west of town. 

January, 1911, mining corporation formed, $250,000 capital. April 4, 
four and one-tenth inches of rain fell. New road to Potter Valley. North- 
western Pacific put up a 30-000-gallon water tank in railroad yard. Heaviest 
grade on survey to Eureka seven-tenths per cent, heaviest curve ten degrees. 
Longrale thirteen miles; Dos Rios fourteen miles further, to Round valley 
road. Gap in Fort Bragg rail connection closed December 19. Northwestern 
Railroad Company built a reservoir on hill north of town of 110,000 gallons, 
auxiliary for fire purposes. Thirty-one new buildings erected in town in 
1912. School bonds for new school house in the Daugherty addition sold 
at a premium. Half acre of potatoes yielded 8600 pounds. November 5, 
heavy rain washed 50,000 feet of logs out of Irmulco dam. February, 1912. 
saloons ordered by ordinance to close Sundays, and from one to five a. m. 
week-days: license to be $600 per annum. In 1913 tunnel on Fort Bragg 
road burned out for 300 feet. The winter of 1913 was particularly disas- 
trous to the railroads in the section, owing to the extreme high water. The 
Fort Bragg road was shut off for several days by slides and the burning of 
the tunnel. The California Northwestern was blocked both north and south ; 
in the north for several days. 

In the southern part of the township is Walker valley, a veritable para- 
dise in summer. It is an estate of about 15,000 acres, and the central valley 
contains about 300 acres of fine land, and was originally four pre-emption 
claims. In this valley the former proprietor, W. W. Van Ansdale, sowed 
a large acreage of alfalfa. This he irrigated by means of standpipes and 
spray nozzles, by water collected from springs by pipes leading to a central 
reservoir on the hill. A fine, large, modern residence and outbuildings were 
erected, and death intervened just as he had begun to live. As this mag- 
nificent domain is virtually a game preserve, one may imagine the number 
of deer which make it their refuge before and during the open season. 
Trout abound in its waters, and it has always been the mecca of anglers 
who are permitted within its bounds. 


Westport Township 

Westport township comprises all that part of Mendocino county north 
of Chadbourne gulch, the north line of Ten Mile township, and east of Long 
Valley township, with Humboldt county for its north line and the Pacific 
ocean for its western limit, into which it reaches as far as wind and weather 
will permit by means of various and numerous wharves, shipping cables, 
etc. It has the same general features of surface and soil as the more south- 
ern townships, but is rougher, more mountainous, heavier timbered, and less 
level land within its borders. There are no large streams in it, Usal creek 


being the mcst considerable, only ten or twelve miles long. Timber in its 
various forms is the main, all-abounding product, though hay, grain and 
potatoes sufficient for ordinarj^ home consumption are produced and some 
oats shipped, all of unexcelled quality. Peas and string beans grow luxuri- 
antly, and in 1911 C. G. Lewis began canning them for the public and is 
competing successfully with the highly prized Clear Lake brand. 

The climate is equable and not as foggy as farther down the coast, a 
headland on the north. Cape Mendocino, deflecting it in a measure. 

The first known white settler was Lloyd Beall, who was at the site of 
the present town of \\'estport in 1864, and from the appearance of his sur- 
roundings must have been there some years. His house stood near a spring 
between George P'ee's present residence and the town. At the same time 
Alfred Weges settled a short distance north, on the creek to which he gave 
his name. 

November, 1864, Beall sold a half interest in all the country lying be- 
tween Chadbourne gulch and the point where the Lfnion Landing now is to 
E. J. Whipple, together with thirteen horses, two hundred and ten cattle and 
thirty hogs, for $1600. At that time M. C. Dougherty was getting out tim- 
bers on the hill above where the school house stands to build a chute for 
shipping potatoes in a four-ton boat moored below the bluf?, near by. March, 
1865, Osborne & Heldt sold Beall and Whipple 640 acres for .$600, just 
south of Chadbourne gulch. At that time the land was unsurveyed, and 
only possessory title could pass. April 1, Beall and Whipple divided the land, 
Beall took the land south of DeHaven and Whipple that north of that creek. 
Brenner and H. Helmken sold land to Beall near the future chute : the de- 
scription is such that one cannot identify. March, 1877, Boyd & Switzer 
seem to have possession of the property, and sold eight acres and right of 
way to F. Helmke, who started in to build a chute and wharf, but gave way 
to J. T, Rogers in the fall, who obtained a franchise February 5, 1878, and 
built or completed the chute. There was no harbor or protection from wind 
or heavy ocean swell, so that loading was uncertain. To facilitate fast work 
when conditions were favorable, Mr. Rogers duplicated his wharf and chute. 
The one had a span of 275 feet, and its outer end rested on a large rock, 
from which a cable and pulley conveyed the cargo to and from the vessel ; 
150,000 feet could be shipped in a day. 

Now the town began to grow apace. Fields Bros, built and stocked a 
store in 1877. George W. Stevenson opened a saloon, the first building in 
the town; Sampson opened another; George McPhee opened a store in 
1878; J. H. Murphy a livery stable in 1879; the same year Fred Johns built 
a large hotel, which is one of the few buildings still standing. J. S. Kimball 
built a big hotel, which he afterwards sold to Charles Kimball and Cooper. 
This became the drummers' favorite house for a time, but closed its career 
by fire, as have many other buildings. Saloons and hotels were built in ad- 
vance of necessity, and whenever a mill shut down business languished. 
At one time there were four hotels, as many stores and seven saloons, be- 
sides hotel bars. Thousands of ties, hundreds of cords of bark and millions 
of feet of lumber were shipped monthly, and in 1881 up to August 19 twenty- 
eight schooners had been loaded. 

Weges Creek mill was built in 1881 by Pollard & Blaisdell. who failed 
in 1882. and the mill went into the hands of Gill, Gordon & McPhee, who 
ran it until 1889 and closed down. It was moved to De Haven. Gordon's 

118 MENDOCINO AND LAKE COUNTIES, by Gill & Gordon, and afterwards went into the possession of the 
Pollard Lumber Co. and has long stood idle. W. Graham built a mill at 
Weges creek in 1881, and took in as partners Chester and McGowan, and 
failed in 1885. Hansen Hilton fell heir to it in a business way, and it was 
afterwards known as the California Lumber Co. All these mills were of 
capacity of from 25,000 to 40,000 feet per day. J. S. Kimball put in a mill 
half a mile north of the town of 40,000 feet capacity, which he ran about six 
years to 1885. He also built and stocked a store, continuing it to 1892. His 
operations in lumber, ties and bark were colossal and continued until 1892. 
The Pollard Lumber Company obtained a franchise for chute at Westport 
September, 1905. 

McFaul & Williams built a mill on Howard creek, two miles north ot 
Westport, in 1875, and ran a railroad to Union Landing, two miles farther 
north. Since then it has passed into the hands of the West Coast Lumber 
Co. and at this writing February, 1914, an application in bankruptcy is pend- 
ing. J. S. Kimball sold his store at Westport to Hart in 1899. Three build- 
ings in town were burned in 1900. Commercial hotel and Stevenson's house 
burned. McFaul & Keene put in a mill at Switzer gulch in December, 1883, 
At that time, or rather in 1884, there were five mills within four miles of 
Westport, running spasmodically, and the greater number of them are ready 
to run yet, whenever the price of lumber and capital conjoin. 

Of the stores, only two remain, Dr. T. H. Smith and Lowell's. One 
hotel, one saloon, one blacksmith shop, one stable, and twenty occupied 
dwelling houses. Fire and decay have taken more than half the buildings, 
and what remain are dilapidated. At one time there were both Masonic 
and A. O. U. W. halls. 

R. A. Hardy obtained a franchise for wharf and chute six miles north 
of Westport, and gave his name to the place, in 1892, and the following 
year contracted 60,000 ties. Bark wood and ties were the only shipments 
until 1903, when the remains of the Rockport mill were brought over to 
Hardy, and a fine mill of 40,000 feet capacity was erected. A good two- 
story hotel was also built, as were stables, store, dwellings, etc. The whole 
passed into the hands of the Pennsylvania & New York Lumber Co. in 1907 
June 4, 1911, it was burned with 3.000,000 feet of lumber, nearly as much 
being saved. As the timber tributary was not sufficient to warrant a new 
sawmill, a shingle mill was erected in 1913, but not run until the fall of 1914. 
This company now owns the coast up to near Needle Rock, thirty miles. 

Rockport mill was built by W. R. Miller in 1877 of 40,000 feet capacity, 
and was destroyed by fire. The wharf and chute were erected in 
1876 and were the finest in the county. The track and wharf are about three- 
fourths of a mile long, finishing with a steel wire suspension span 275 feet 
long to an island and cable. It is supported by seven all-steel wire cables, 
the first erected on this coast. The mill burned in 1889, since which time 
nothing has been done here. 

The first white settler here was Leonard Dodge, and he obtained fran- 
chise for chute a little north of Cottoneva in 1876. In 1866 A. J. Lowell 
settled on the creek three miles up and soon after Henry Devilbiss arrived 
and remained some years. 

Usal mill was built in 1890. A wharf 900 feet long and about three miles 
of railroad were put in. It was burned July 12, 1902. The Usal timber was 
the largest in the county, but of poor quality. It seemed to have belonged 


to an earlier era than other timber along the coast, and it was so full of 
doted places and wind cracks that it did not yield more than half the lumber 
its size indicated. The wharf was difficult to maintain and repeatedly lost 
sections. Nothing is now doing at the place. Kildufif & Proudfoot lost 
a shake mill by fire on August 4, 1901. 

Northport, six miles farther north, was once a busy place, shipping bark 
and ties, but there is no activity there now. 

At Little Jackass gulch R. H. Anderson did a shipping business in 1875, 
but it was discontinued in a short time as the timber tributary to it was 
sold — 6,000 acres to one Eastern concern at $40 per acre. Still farther up the 
coast is Needle Rock. The first settlement here was made by Captain Mor- 
gan and son in 1868. With D. W. McCallum, they began operations to de- 
velop a shipping place, but both Morgan and McCallum died before their 
object was accomplished. J. B. Stetson, Jr., acquired the property in 1890 
and built about three miles of railroad and shipping facilities in 1891. A 
small mill was built about three miles back, but only ran a short time and 
was removed. In 1898 Needle Rock passed into the hands of the Needle 
Rock Company, which incorporated the following January with $30,000 
capital and the following subscribers to the stock : W. P. Thomas, Wiley 
English, Ed DeCamp, J. F. Clark and H. B. Muir, $18,000 having been sub- 
scribed by them. The property has been leased for some years by Stewart 
& McKee. There are about 150 acres of farming land and 1600 acres of 
grazing land back of the landing. 

A few miles farther north is Bear Harbor. The first knowledge we can 
get of the place is that in 1862 J. A. Hamilton and William Oliver drove a 
band of cattle there from Point Arena. Oliver was killed by the Indians. 
What became of the cattle is unknown at this time. Capt, J. A. Morgan and 
son, L. A. Morgan, were there in 1868, and sold the place to Kaiser Bros. 
C. C. Milton began preparations for building a chute, but was drowned at 
Rockport. In 1884 W. A. McCornack bought land of the Kaisers and again 
in 1888, and built a chute in 1892. In February, 1893. he sold the chute and 
adjoining land to Messrs. Pollard, Dodge, Stewart and Hunter; they, with 
A. B. Cooper, incorporated in July as the Bear Harbor Lumber Co., $200,000 
capital, $80,000 subscribed. In the next year the company surveyed a rail- 
road to and down Indian creek, nine miles. The grade was finished and rails 
laid in 1898. In 1899 a tidal wave struck and demolished the wharf and , 
chute, drowning one man. H. N. Anderson built a large mill at the terminus 
of the road, and before it was running was struck by a falling scantling, 
receiving fatal injuries. The mill has not started up to date. September 11, 
1912, an engineer, Rankin, and a large party of capitalists examined the prop- 
erty, but nothing resulted therefrom. 

A wagon road was built from Bear Harbor to Low Gap to connect with 
Humboldt county system. About the harbor is eighty acres farming land 
and 1500 acres grazing land. At Andersonia, near the mill, are several small 
farms, and some good bottom land and about 3000 acres grazing land. The 
first settlers there were Sam Pearcy, Bob Jones and Macoosh Mudgett in the 
order named. It was at one time a voting precinct, but has of late been 
discontinued as such. 

All the roads on the upper coast section were built for the convenience 
of hauling timber products down hill to the mills or shipping points, and 
are steep and narrow. No matter how steep they were, there must be no 


uphaul with the load. And as the most of them were made by private work, 
the way that took the least work was the way selected. Gradually all this is 
being remedied. The steep climbs up and down the gulches are nearly all 
eliminated along the coast by long, high bridges, and grades are being made 
around instead of over the points to be avoided. The grade immediately 
south of Westport gives the most trouble of any in the county. Every wet 
season it either slides out or in and the past winter it has done the former 
to quite an extent. 

.\t the present time and for a year past there has been no sawmill 
running between Fort Bragg and the Humboldt line, in which territory at 
one time there were ten mills ; and now there are five lying idle. 

Of wrecks there have been many on this section of the coast, and for a 
short time there was a newspaper in Westport to chronicle them, the News 
and Argus 1882-3. It was started solely to catch the land entry advertise- 
ments and as soon as the bulk of the land was entered its ephemeral exis- 
tence terminated. The Meriwether. H. H. Knapp, Sea Foam and Humboldt 
were lost at Westport in 1885-7 ; the Venture and Silver Spring at Rockport, 
and some others. 

Game is at all times abundant, especially the predatory class. Two 
boys, Pat and Louis Roach, killed two panthers, a bear and two cubs, in an 
hour in 1882. And three bear were killed at Usal in 1908. Of highway rob- 
beries this section has been remarkably clear. A notable one occurred at 
Usal November, 1899, when a saloon and eight men were held up, resulting 
in a loss of $3,000. Had it occurred fifteen minutes later it would have been 
$600 more. 

Early History of Lake County 

Lake county. California, is frequently referred to. by persons of travel. 
experience and imagination, with appropriateness in respect to its physical 
characteristics, as the Switzerland of America. The Walled-in-County is 
another title applied to the section. These synonyms and its legal appellation 
fitly describe in a few words this isolated and naturally favored part of the 
Golden State. 

To briefl.v enlarge on its topographical features, the county is a region 
of mountains and lakes, situated in the Coast range, midway between the 
Sacramento valley and the Pacific ocean, about one hundred miles due north 
of San Francisco. It is a ]:)lateau. with a mean altitude of 1500 feet above 
sea level. The boundary lines in the main follow the summits of the en- 
circling mountain ridges. From many points of access, there bursts on the 
traveler at the moment of crossing the boundary line a comprehensive view 
of Lake county. It is spread out in a panorama below him, the wide, peaceful 
expanse of Clear lake occupying the center of the picture, surrounded by 
rolling hills and the checkerboards of cultivated valleys. Mt. Konocti rises 
solitarily 2500 feet sheer from the level of the placid lake, a majestic chieftain 
or guardian of the scene, as his Indian name signifies. From Konocti, almost 
in the geographical center of the region, can be seen the greater part of the 
1332 square miles of the county's area. In an almost unbroken circle from 
the viewpoint stretches the rim of rugged and dark pine-forested mountains. 


With the exception of the extreme northern part, which drains through Eel 
river, into the Pacific ocean, and a section in the south draining via Putah 
creek into the Sacramento river, the entire county is a single vast water- 
shed, its streams flowing into Clear lake, from which the only outlet is 
Cache creek, flowing through a tortuous gorge in the hills, through Yolo 
county into the Sacramento ri\-er. 

Early Indian Inhabitants 

In this secluded region, favored with an equable climate and beneficently 
provisioned by nature in plant growth, game, and the waters so teeming with 
fish that at spawning running streams were choked with them, there lived 
before the white invasion thousands of the aboriginal inhabitants, the Indians. 

These were for the most part of the general family of the Pomos, va- 
rious tribes of which, speaking slightly different dialects, inhabited different 
valleys. Some of these tribes whose names have been adopted in geographi- 
cal nomenclature were the Guenocks and Locollomillos, who lived between 
Clear lake and Napa in sections now known as the Loconomi valley, Guenoc 
rancho and Callayomi rancho, adjoining Middletown ; the Lupilomis, living 
near the present site of Kelsey\'ille ; the Napobatin, meaning "many houses," 
which was the collective name of six tribes living at Clear lake, the principal 
ones of which were the Hoolanapo. living just south of the present site of 
Lakeport, and the Habenapo, located at the month of Kelsey creek on the 
north side. These Pomos were closely related to other tribes living in the 
Russian River valley and intervisited frequently with the Sanels, living at 
the site now occupied by Hopland. 

The aboriginals of Long and Indian valleys on the east side of Clear 
lake, and on Cache and Putah creeks, to the south, belonged to a Northern 
California division different from the Pomos, and were related to the tribes 
of Napa valley. For instance, in the spring of 1849, when ex-Governor L. 
W. Boggs of Missouri desired to secure a body of the upper country Indians 
to work for a gold prospecting party at the headwaters of the Sacramento, 
he sent a chief of the Suisuns, who easily interpreted for the white men. 

In Long valley the chief tribe was known as the Lolsels, or Loldlas. 
This name signified "wild tobacco place." The chief of the Lolsels at 
the time of the first settlement of white men was Clitey, then probably eighty 
years old. He became very friendly with J. F. Hanson, one of the first white 
settlers in that section, who learned the Indian language, acted as an inter- 
preter and was greatly liked by the Indians. Clitey. with jiart of his tribe, 
was driven by civil war to the present L'pper Lake region. 

Many of the names applied to the various tribes by early historians were 
the local appellations given to them by the Hoolanapos, and were not often 
the names that the tribes called themselves. Augustine was chief of the 
Hoolanapos for many years in the time of the beginning of the white in- 
vasion.' He was intelligent and bore a name for veracity and probity, and 
his accounts furnished most of the information of early Indian life in the 
Clear Lake region. Totaling the estimates of the many small tribes, fur- 
nished by Augustine, it is probable there were between four and five thou- 
sand Indians in the territory when the whites first invaded the country. The 
L^nited States census of 1880 gave the Indian population as 765. Their pre.s- 
ent number is 490. 


The aboriginal inhabitants were not rated very high by historians Ban- 
croft and Gibbs. They were of the division commonly known as "Diggers," 
and were short and thick-set, not symmetrically built, and had very dark 
complexions. But they had many good qualities, which persist in their pres- 
ent day descendants. These Indians were skilful hunters and fishers, and 
expert with game traps. They made active and trust)' vaqueros as early as 
the middle forties, under the regime of Salvador Vallejo, and Stone and 
Kelsey found them very willing and efficient workers. 

According to the index of the advancement of primitive races evidenced 
by the existence and character of boats used, the Clear Lake Indians de- 
serve a leading place. They built boats with willow poles for keel and gun- 
wales, withes for ribs, and interwove tules for covering. The boats were not 
perfectly watertight, but were seaworthy. In later periods they made log 
dugouts, with fire as the chief implement. In basket-making, the Pomos 
excelled, and at this day their handicraft is much prized. Many of their 
baskets are fine specimens of close and complicated weaving and beautiful 
feather work. They build houses of willow pole frames, thatched with grass 
or tules, and conical or round in shape. In agriculture and other vocations 
they now do as well as many white men. 

The Clear Lake Indians practiced many weird and not ungraceful dances, 
the most interesting being the fire-eating dance, in which the men hold 
glowing coals between their lips. These dances are now given only at rare 
intervals and only by the older members of the tribes, the knowledge and 
skill displayed in them having apparently been lost to the younger generation. 

Legend of Konocti 

There are but a few Indian legends extant, most))' touching on the physi- 
cal features of the country and the forces of nature, showing the limited 
extent of the Pomos' imagination and religious ideas. One of these legends 
is interpreted as follows : 

Konocti was a proud and powerful chief, with a beautiful daughter 
Lupiyomi. His rival was a young chief named Kah-bel, who loved Lupiyomi 
and his passion was reciprocated. Konocti refused his consent to their 
marriage and was challenged to battle by Kah-bel. On either side of the 
Narrows of Clear lake the mighty chiefs took their stand, and hurled rocks 
at each other across the water. The Indian narrator in support of this legend 
points to the immense boulders strewn to this day over these mountain sides. 
The Indian girl grieved over the deadly contest, and Little Borax lake, in- 
tensely impregnated with mineral, attests to her bitter tears. Kah-bel was 
killed, and his blood is now seen in the red splashes on the gashed side of 
Red Hill, on the north shore of the Narrows. But old Chief Konocti also 
succumbed to his wounds, and sank back to form the rugged volcanic rock 
pile which bears his name. The maiden Lupiyomi was so distraught over 
the death of both her lover and her father she threw herself into the lake 
and her unfailing tears now bubble up in the big soda spring, Omarocharbe, 
which gushes out of the waters of Clear lake at Soda bay. 

Mexican Land Grants 

The territory now embraced in Lake county was so remote from the 
points of early discovery and the highways of the padres that it attracted but 
few of the Spanish-Mexican settlers of California. But three land grants 


from the Mexican government have ever been claimed, and of these but two 
were approved by the United States courts. The history of the third and 
rejected one, of most historic interest, is best told in the opinion of Judge 
Ogden Hoffman, of the United States district court, in the case of United 
States vs. Teschmaker, et al., given at Sonoma in September, 1866. 

On January 4, 1853, the claimants petitioned the board of land com- 
missioners for confirmation of their claim to the place known as Lup-Yomi, 
containing fourteen square leagues. In support of their claim a grant was 
produced, dated September 5, 1844, purporting to be signed by Manuel 
Micheltoreno and conveying to Salvador and Juan Antonio Vallejo the land 
known as Laguna de Lup-Yomi, to the extent of sixteen square leagues. 
On the map accompanying the grant the sheet of water now known as Clear 
lake and a considerable tract of land around it was rudely delineated. As 
no evidence from the archives was offered, and a memorandum written on 
the grant to the effect that note of it had been taken in the proper book was 
found to be false, the supreme court had refused to confirm the claim and 
remanded the case to the district court for further testimony. On the trial 
before Judge Hofifman, one Vincente P. Gomez sought to support the grant 
by an expediente purporting to contain a concession of the land in question. 
This document contained a petition signed by Salvador Vallejo, and dated 
May 23, 1844, soliciting for himself, and for Antonio Vallejo, Rosalia Olivera 
and Marcos Juarez, a tract of land south of the lake thirty-two square leagues 
in extent. 

On the grounds of the difference in the claims solicited in the grant and 
the expediente, the fact that the signature of the Mexican secretary had been 
torn off the latter, and the lack of archive testimony, the claim was rejected. 
By the time of this decision the section designated in this grant, comprising 
Big, Scotts, Upper Lake and Bachelor valleys, was well settled by Ameri- 
cans, who, anxious to prove rights to the land they had occupied, had em- 
ployed S. K. Welch to represent them in the court. There was great relief 
and satisfaction over the decision in favor of the United States, and the 
settlers' lands were surveyed and entered up regularly. 

There is no doubt but that Salvador Vallejo had undisputed possession 
of the territory embraced in the grant for a number of years. Chief Augus- 
tine in later years gave a list of the major-domos who had charge of Vallejo's 
cattle. It is established that Vallejo tried to sell this grant to several Ameri- 
cans before 1850, and negotiations were at one time pending between him 
and Governor Boggs. 

Callayomi grant for three leagues, in what is known as the Loconomi 
valley (in the heart of which Middletown is now situated), was ceded to 
Robert T. Ridley on June 17, 1845. by M. Micheltoreno, governor-general of 
California, and was approved by the Department Assembly, September 26, 
1845. The United States survey showed the grant to contain 8242 acres. 
Col. A. A. Ritchie and P. S. Forbes filed a petition claiming this grant, with 
the board of land commissioners, February 12, 1852, and their claim was 
confirmed and a patent issued in December of that year. The owners of 
this grant were never in conflict with settlers to any considerable extent. 
In 1871 the land was divided into small tracts and disposed of to actual 

Guenoc grant, comprising 21,220 acres, adjoining to the north and east 
the Callayomi grant, was ceded by the Mexican government to George Roch 


on August 8, 1845. by Pio Pico, governor of California, and approved by the 
assembly the following month. Col. Ritchie and Paul S. Forbes also claimed 
this grant, and the board of land commissioners confirmed their petition, 
patent being granted to them in December, 1852. There were at one time 
a number of settlers on the land of this grant, and all were evicted by the 

First White Settlers in Lake County 

Knowledge of the first visit of a white man to the territory now embraced 
in Lake county, or of its date, is now lost in the misty vistas of tradition. 
Whoever he may have been, his pioneering was scarcely less venturesome 
or romantic than the early deeds of Daniel Boone and other pathfinders. 
The section was wild and isolated and thickly peopled with primitive Indians. 
Grizzly bears and panthers were numerous, and resented intruders. 

It is authentically related that at a very early date a party of white 
hunters passed one winter in the valley near Lower lake. The narrative 
states that they were making their way from the Oregon country and instead 
of keeping on down the Sacramento river, had started across the moun- 
tains, heading for the old Russian settlements at Bodega and Fort Ross. 
The Russians had left these settlements in 1841, and it is apparent from the 
course of these pioneer trappers that they were not aware of this and also 
did not know of the existing settlements in Napa and Sonoma valleys. This 
party built a log hut at the lower end of Clear lake, which is believed to be 
the first white man's habitation in the county. 

No direct evidences exist of possible visits of the hunters of the Russo- 
American Fur Company, which company established its trading post at 
Bodega in 1811, and that at Fort Ross a few years later. As their hunting 
excursions would easily extend up the Russian river as far as the rancheria 
of the Sanel Indians, who were related to the Hoolanapos of Clear lake, it 
is quite probable that the Russians would hear of the big lake, visit and hunt 
on it. Indeed the fairer complexion of an occasional Indian noted by early 
settlers indicated a slight infusion of Russian blood in these tribes. 

The first actual occupation of the country, warranting the title of a 
settler, was that of Salvador Vallejo. In 1835 General Mariana Guadalupe 
Vallejo was placed in command of the Mexican forces north of the Bay of 
San Francisco, with headquarters at the Presidio Sonoma. He proceeded to 
subject all hostile Indians in his territory to Mexican rule. An expedition 
was organized in 1836 to make a foray into the Clear Lake region, then 
unknown to the Spaniards except by reports of the Indians. Captain Salva- 
dor Vallejo, a brother of the commandante, and Captain Ramon Corrillo 
commanded the force of soldiers. But little is recorded of the operations of 
the expedition, but its success was evidenced by the tractableness of the 
Indians following it, especially toward the Spaniards. 

It was in consideration of these services that Salvador Vallejo applied 
for the Laguna de Lup-Yomi grant. His possession of the land was prob- 
ably, however, based on pre-emption, sustained by his brother's military 
authnrity. The date of ^'allejo's occupation of the valley is fixed at 1840. 


This time is based on old Chief Augustine's statement that it was about ten 
years before the killing of Stone and Kelsey. Vallejo brought many cattle 
into the valley, putting them in charge of a major-domo and ten vaqueros. 
They built a rude log house and a corral on the land now occupied by Mrs. 
M. A. Rickabaugh's ranch in Big valley, near Kelseyville. The late Judge 
Woods Crawford stated that when he came into the valley in 1854 the re- 
mains of this corral still existed, and in 1837 some of the stakes (it being 
an upright pole stockade) were dug out of the ground in a good state of 

Augustine stated that the first major-domo was one Juarez, who re- 
mained several years. The next was named Guadalupe, who married an 
Indian woman, but lost her because his abuse drove her back to her tribe. 
Next in succession were Moretta, an American named Hubbard, and one 
Pinola. The Indians did all the work, constructing the house and corral, and 
herding the cattle. The vaqueros rode bareback, with only a "hackamore" 
bridle to guide their bronchos. In time the stock had multiplied until the 
valley was filled with cattle, and they had become wild as deer and difficult 
to herd. Vallejo finally drove out all the cattle he could round up, but 
disposed of about eight hundred head to Stone and Kelsey when they came 
to Lake county. 

The Adventurous Career of Stone and Kelsey 

The most interesting and tragic chapter in the history of the early set- 
tlement of Lake county is undoubtedly the adventurous career of Stone, 
whose given name is unknown, and Andy Kelsey, in the county for several 
years, and their massacre at the hands of the Indians. Conflicting views 
are held as to the blame of this killing, based on the evidence of white 
settlers and of Chief Augustine, but the consensus of opinion is that the 
deed was justified by the harsh and unjust treatment given the Indians by 
these two frontiersmen. Making due allowance for the rude stage of de- 
velopment of that time and of the Indians" semi-savagery, the facts stand 
out that Vallejo's major-domos had lived among them for years without 
trouble, and that a succession of cruelties was practiced on the meek ab- 
origines by Stone and Kelsey, arousing resentment which became warfare 
and resulted in their death. 

In the fall of 1847, Stone, Shirland, Andy Kelsey and Hen Kelsey, the 
last named two being brothers, secured from Salvador Vallejo the use of the 
land which he claimed, with their purchase of his remaining stock in the 
county. Stone and Andy Kelsey came to the rancheria and took possession 
of the place aufl cattle. Their operations began with the construction of an 
adobe house forty feet long bj^ fifteen feet wide, divided into two rooms and 
a loft above, which was situated on what is now the Finer ranch, just west 
of and across the creek from the present town of Kelseyville. 

The work was done by Indians, practically without pay, and the ra- 
tions and treatment given them were far short of what they had been used 
to when working for the Spaniards. Resenting this, the Indians complained 
and got only harder tasks and whippings for their dissatisfaction. Trouble 
began to brew, and the Indians helped themselves to what they could find 
and killed not a few cattle for food. 

Stone and Kelsey realized their increasing danger and inveigled the 
Indians to store their weapons in the loft of the house. In the spring of 


1848 the Indians became aggressive, and numbers of them gathered at the 
rancheria and besieged the two white men in their house. A friendly Indian 
made his way to the Sonoma settlement, carrying word of the perilous situ- 
ation. There a relief party was formed, consisting of Ben and Sam Kelsey, 
William M. Boggs, Richard A. Maupin, a young lawyer from Kentucky, 
Elias and John Graham. They rode horseback over the rough trail via the 
present sites of Santa Rosa, Calistoga, over St. Helena mountain, through 
Loconomi valley, over Cobb mountain, and down Kelsey creek. Ems Elliott 
had joined the expedition at his father's ranch near the Hot Springs, now 
Calistoga. The ride took about thirt_y-six hours of almost continuous 

A Night Attack Upon the Indians 

They arrived at their destination after dark and halted in the creek bed at 
some distance from the house, while Mr. Boggs reconnoitred. He crossed the 
creek, made a detour to the left and came out on the high ground just south 
of the building. The sight which met his eyes was a wild and weird scene 
of savagery, enough to curdle the blood, which left in the minds of those 
witnesses a vivid recollection which lingered to their last days. 

The adobe house loomed up in the night, dark and silent. Surrounding 
it, shrieking and yelling like fiends, danced a horde of naked savages. The 
squaws hovered over the fires, adding their dismal wails to the pandemonium. 
It required courage of a high order for eight men to resolve to attack those 
hundreds of impassioned Indians, to risk their lives to save the besieged 
whites, but not a man of them failed. 

A council was held on the return of the scout, and the party determined 
to make a mounted charge with noise to stampede the Indians, but to avoid 
shooting if possible. They rode silently to where Mr. Boggs made his recon- 
noissance. Down a short and steep hill they spurred their horses, with wild 
yells, right into the thick of the howling savages. So complete was the 
surprise and so fierce the charge, the Indians broke and fled in all directions. 
In a few minutes not one of them was in sight. 

At the sound of white men's voices and horses" hoofs. Stone and Kelsey 
quickly unbarred the doors of their fortress, from which they had not ex- 
pected to come out alive. It was learned the principal cause of the Indians' 
hostile demonstration had been the withholding of their bows and arrows 
by the white men. That the aboriginals had been weaponless no doubt 
contributed to the fortunate outcome of what seemed in advance a desper- 
ate encounter. 

The Indians soon finding out that other Kelseys were in the party, whom 
some of them knew, and no shots having been fired, they came out of hiding 
and conferred with the whites. A pretense that a big force of soldiers, with 
their "boom booms," was coming, had a quieting effect on the Indians. Stone 
and Kelsey had been shut up in the house for several days and had eaten their 
last rations. 

Their hazardous experience did not teach Stone and Kelsey any lesson 
of forbearance and pacification with the Indians. On the morning after the 
rescue, the Kelsey brothers summoned the entire tribe and picked from them 
one hundred and forty-four men to constitute an expedition against a small 
band living in Scotts valley, who were believed to have been the marauders 
on the cattle herds. The ten white men led the expedition, and later were 
joined by Walter Anderson and a young man named Beson, who had just 


come into the Lower Lake region. The party passed the present site of 
Lakeport, then went west to the head of Scotts valley, and proceeded down 
the valley, scouring the country for the objects of their pursuit. They 
reached the junction of Scotts valley and the Blue Lakes canyon late that 
night without having found the Scotts valley Indians. The next morning 
some of the bucks in the expedition brought in a wounded captive. This 
Indian indicated that his band was farther up the Blue Lakes canyon. The 
pursuit continued till the party reached the divide, now the boundary line 
between Lake and Mendocino counties. 

Believing that the captured Indian had deceived them, Ben Kelsey tied 
the unfortunate up to the limb of a tree and compelled every Indian to cut a 
switch, march past and give him a blow on the bare back. Kelsey was 
remonstrated with by others of the white men, and the prophetic remark was 
made that somebody's blood would pay for that brutal scourging. After his 
beating, the captive revealed the hiding place of his tribesmen, on a mountain 
west of the mouth of Blue Lakes canyon, probably Cow mountain. The 
Kelsey Indians made a dash up the mountain side and captured the entire 
band, dragging and driving them to the valley below. That night was 
afterward described by members of the party as about as harrowing an 
experience as they had ever felt, when the dozen white men camped in the 
wilds with hundreds of bucks of two warring tribes, both of whom had deep 
grievances against the whites. The next day the entire body of Indians was 
marched by way of Tule lake and Clear lake to Kelsey's ranch, a few of the 
whites making a detour into Scotts valley and burning the rancheria of the 
captured tribe. 

The Sonoma settlers left for their homes, and Stone and the Kelseys 
continued in their acts of aggression and injustice toward the Indians. That 
summer a party of bucks was taken to the Kelsey ranch in Sonoma and 
made to build adobe houses. Chief Augustine was one so taken. He said 
that when he ran away and returned to Lake county he was imprisoned in a 
sweathouse for a week. He said many Indians had been whipped by Stone 
and Kelsey. 

The outrage that aroused the deepest resentment in the hearts of these 
simple and long-suffering redmen, and which constituted the direct inciting 
cause for the massacre of that pair of cruel yet remarkably daring pioneer 
whites, was the gold hunting expedition. In the spring of 1849, in the gold 
excitement, a party was organized at Sonoma to go prospecting at the head- 
waters of the Sacramento river. The expedition, as organized, comprised 
Sam and Ben Kelsey, ex-Governor L. W. Boggs (who, however, did not go 
with the party), \\'iniam M. Boggs, Salvador Vallejo, Alf Musgrove, A. J. 
Cox, John Ballard and Juan Castinado. On formation of their plans, Ben 
Kelsey went to Clear Lake and got fifty picked men of the Indians. 

Of that band, the early authorities state that probably not more than 
one or two Indians ever got back to Lake county. Hunger, disease, priva- 
tion and their Indian enemies decimated their numbers. The blame is placed 
mainly on Ben Kelsey. He found selling the expedition's supplies more 
profitable than prospecting, and depleted their provisions. The Indians 
starved, and malarial fever worked its ravages. The Indians who returned 
told a heart-rending story. When months passed and their sons and brothers 
did not return, "Kelsey blood shall pay the penalty," was the revengeful 
thought of the remainder of the tribe. 


The Massacre of Stone and Kelsey 

Stone and Andy Kelsey remained in Lake county during this expedi- 
tion, and their conduct toward the Indians became more outrageous. It 
was a sport to shoot at them to see them jump, and to lash the helpless red- 
men, to amuse chance white friends who came into the region. They seized 
Chief Augustine's wife and forced her to live with them. This squaw played 
a leading part in the conspiracy which brought on the white men's death. 

In the fall of 1849, when Stone and Kelsey were away with the vaqueros, 
attending to their cattle one day, Augustine's squaw poured water into their 
loaded guns. The next morning some of the Indians made a charge on the 
house. Kelsey was killed outright with an arrow, shot through a window. 
Stone escaped upstairs, and on the Indians rushing up after him, jumped out 
of an upper window, ran to the creek and hid in a clump of willows. By this 
time the entire rancheria was aroused to bloodthirstiness, and all the bucks 
joined in the search for Stone. An old Indian found him and killed him with 
the blow of a rock on the head. The bodies were buried in the sand of 
the creek bank. A simple stone on the bench above Kelsey creek, now 
occupied by the Kelseyville I. O. O. F. cemetery, marks the graves of that 
adventurous if vicious pair of pioneers of Lake county. 

The Indians' feeling of security from further invasion of the whites was 
rudely dispelled in the spring of 1850. A detachment of soldiers under 
Lieutenant Lyons (afterwards the brave general who fell at Wilson's creek, 
near Springfield, Mo., in the Civil War) was sent to punish them for the 
Stone and Kelsey massacre. The soldiers came over Howell mountain, via 
Pope and Coyote valleys. When they arrived at the lower end of Clear lake, 
they learned the Indians had taken refuge on an island in the northern end 
of the lake. The soldiers sent back to San Francisco or Benicia and secured 
two whale boats and two small brass cannon. These were arduously brought 
up on wagons, the first vehicles ever in the county, over narrow trails and 
niugh, unbroken country. 

Government Punishes the Indians 

A number of volunteers from among the settlers joined the military 
expedition. Part of the soldiers, with the cannon, proceeded in the boats up 
the lake. The others rode up the west side of the lake. This party was in 
command of Lieutenant George Stoneman (afterward General Stoneman, 
and noted in the War of the Rebellion). The rendezvous of the white men 
was at Robinson's Point, south of the island. During the night, part of the 
detachment went by land around the head of the lake with the cannon, ap- 
proaching to the nearest point on the north side. In the morning a few rifle 
shots were fired by the latter to attract attention. The bullets failed to 
carry to the island and the Indians gathered on the shore on that side and 
jeered at the whites. Meanwhile the soldiers in the boats came up on the 
opposite side, and at a signal, the cannon opened fire. The cannister shot 
plowed through the surprised rednien. killing and wounding many at the 
outset. The panic-stricken Indians rushed to the south side of the island and 
a line of soldiers rose up from the tules and received them with a deadly 
fire of musketry. Beset on every side, the remaining redmen jumped into the 
water and attempted to swim to the mainland. Tales of the white partici- 
pants and Indian traditions differ as to the extent of this massacre, but there 


is little doubt but that at least one hundred Indians were killed or drowned 
in the engagement. The name of Bloody Island, still attached to this site, 
attests to the sanguinary nature of the conflict. 

The soldiers proceeded over the mountains to Potter and Ukiah val- 
leys, engaging in other skirmishes, and returned to Benicia by way of Russian 
River valley and Santa Rosa. Their wagons and boats were left at Clear 
lake, and parts of them were found in various sections of the county within 
comparatively recent years. 

The First Permanent Settlement 

Without doubt, Walter Anderson was the next white settler after Stone 
and Kelsey. He, with his wife, who was unquestionably the first white 
woman in the county, settled near the present site of Lower Lake in 1848. A 
young man by the name of Beson lived with him for a period. Anderson 
moved on to Mendocino county in 1851. 

The next house after the Stone and Kelsey adobe was a log cabin built in 
1853 by Robert Gaddy, Charles Ferguson and C. N. Copsey. It was located 
about one and one-half miles west of the site of Lower Lake. The second 
house was built the same year, near the present Quercus landing on Clear 
lake, by J. Broome Smith and William Graves, the latter as a boy being 
a survivor of the famous Donner party. The third house was built by Jef- 
ferson Warden, in the fall of 1853, in Scotts valley, on what is now the Walter 
Faught place. Joe Fournier, a Frenchman, had a cabin there. None of 
these men had families. \\'illiam Scott settled in this valley in 1848 and gave 
it his name, but did not remain long. 

In the spring of 1854 there arrived a party consisting of Martin Ham- 
mack and his wife, his son Brice Hammack and wife, Mr. and Mrs. Woods 
Crawford, Mary and Martha Hammack (the three last named women being 
daughters of Martin Hammack), John, William, Robert J. and Sarah, younger 
children of the party's leader, all of whom crossed the plains from Missouri 
to Shasta county. With them were John T. Shin, J. J. Hendricks, J. W. 
Butts, J. B. Cook and his son, W. S. Cook, who accompanied the party from 
Shasta county ; and several others who did not become permanent settlers. 
The party camped where Kelseyville now stands, on April 8, 1854. Elijah 
Reeves and family arrived three days later. The Hammack party came via 
Napa City, Yountville, over Howell mountain into Pope valley, over Pope 
mountain into Coyote valley, thence to Lower Lake, and over Seigler moun- 
tain to Big valley. In Coyote valley, vaqueros in charge of stock owned by 
Jacob P. Leese, tried to drive the party off, thinking them land jumpers. 
They camped enroute at what are now the Mclntire and Dorn ranches. A few 
nights after their arrival in Big valley, a big grizzly was killed within their 

The men of the party commenced erection of habitations. They went 
up on Seigler mountain, split out and shaved cedar boards six feet long. The 
heavier timber was hewn out of oak. The house occupied by Woods Craw- 
ford was the first built. It was located on what is now the Joe Wooldridge 
ranch. The two Hammack homes were built about a mile east of Crawford's. 
This party brought in about two hundred head of horses and cattle and 
engaged in stock raising. The bears were considered more dangerous at 
that time than the Indians. 


What was known as the Elliott party came into this section in the fall 
of 1854 and located in the Upper Lake region. This party consisted of Wil- 
liam B. Elliott and wife, two unmarried sons and a daughter, aged twelve 
or fourteen years, two married sons, Alburn and Commodore, with their 
wives, and Benjamin Dewell and his wife, who was a daughter of Elliott. 
Dewell and wife preceded the others by a month. They settled on Clover 
creek, a quarter-mile above the present town of Upper Lake, the Elliotts 
locating on the east side of the creek and Dewell on the west side. This 
party brought four or five hundred head of stock and engaged in stock 

In the spring of 1855, Lansing T. Musick and Joseph Willard, with 
their families, came in and settled at the present Mendenhall place. Musick 
engaged in farming, hunting, trapping and had a little stock. Willard en- 
gaged in raising hogs. 

A Mr. Barber settled a quarter mile above the present site of Lower Lake 
in the fall of 1854 or early in 1855. J. R. Hale settled a mile further up 
Seigler creek. Dr. W. R. Mathews (subsequently the first county clerk) 
and the Copsey family located in what was known as the Copsey settlement, 
three miles south of Lower Lake, about 1855. These were all men of families. 
The first settlers in Scotts valle}' were G. C. Cord, a gunsmith, and a man 
named Ogden, brothers-in-law, with their .wives, who located on the present 
Chester White ranch but remained only two or three years. 

George M. Hanson, a man prominent in the early history of Illinois, who 
was a member of the senate of that state when Abraham Lincoln made his 
first appearance as a legislator and who placed Mr. Lincoln's name before 
the national convention as a candidate for vice-president in 1856, brought 
three of his sons to what is now Lake county, in 1854. They prospected the 
region thoroughly and first settled on Middle creek, near Upper Lake. Mr, 
Hanson returned to Yuba county and the sons, who were David M., James 
Francis and Daniel A. Hanson, soon moved to Long valley. 

In Coyote valley the stone house on the Mexican grant existed as early 
as 1852, and two men were there in charge of stock belonging to A. A. 
Ritchie. In Loconomi valley the first settlers were the Bradfords, at what 
later became the Mirabel mine. 

The first merchandising business in the county was started in 1855 
by a man named Johnson, who sold in 1856 to Dr. E. D. Boynton, from 
Napa. He built a store and put in more goods, at Stony Point, later called 
Tuckertown, a short distance south of the present site of Lakeport. 

Richard Lawrence, Green Catran, Daniel Giles and Benjamin Moore 
were the first settlers in Bachelor valley, in the middle '50s. These men 
were unmarried, from which fact the valley received its name. 

In the Lower Lake section. I. B. Shreve, C. N. Copsey and L. \\'. 
Parkerson settled in 1851. W. W. Hall came in 1854, Terrell Grigsby located 
Seigler Springs in 1854. In 1856 there came C. C. Allen, O. J., John C. and 
Thomas Copsey, William R. Mathews and family, N. Herndon and family, 
William Slater and family, and Jarvis Cable, W, C. Goldsmith came in 
1857, and in 1858 Charles Kiphart, Calvin Reams, A. Hill, A, S, McWilliams, 
E. M. Day, O. N. Cadwell and Ed Mitchell, all men with families, Robert 
Gaddy, Charles Ferguson, J. R. Hale, S, A. Thompson, C. L. Wilson, L. H. 
Gruwell, William Kesey and E. P. Scranton were also early settlers in this 
section. A man by name of Burns located in the vallej^ named after him in 



1857. In 1855 William E. Willis settled near the lake in Burns valley, and 
he sold to Jacob Bower in 1857. George Rock came into Coyote valley as 
agent for Jacob O. Leese as early as 1850 and built a log house where the 
stone house of the Guenoc ranch now stands. There followed him J. Broome 
Smith, Robert Watterman, Capt. R. Steele, Robert Sterling and J. M. Hamil- 
ton. Benjamin Knight, Richard and Perry Drury settled in Long valley 
in 1855. 

Establishment of Government 

The first act in the way of establishing government in the Clear Lake 
region was in 1855, when this territory was embraced in Hot Springs town- 
ship of Napa county. On April 14 of that year, the Napa county supervisors 
appointed S. Grigsby a justice of the peace and C. N. Copsey constable. On 
November 6, 1855, Clear Lake township was organized as part of Napa 
county. It included Lupoyomi, Coyote, Cobb and Scotts valleys, and the 
smaller valleys about Clear Lake. Two voting precincts were established, 
known as Upper Lake and Lower Lake. At the general election of 1855, 
R. H. Lawrence and L. Musick, both residents of the Lake section, were 
elected respectively justice of the peace and constable of Hot Springs town- 

Two school districts were organized in Clear Lake township April 7, 
1856. Other elections resulted in the following list of officers who served 
previous to the organization of Lake county in 1861 : In 1856: H. B. Hough- 
ton and A. Brown, justices; Woods Crawford and P. Rickabaugh, constables; 
1857: J. Bower and Woods Crawford, justices; G. Keith and Thomas Boyd, 
constables; 1858: J. F. Houx and W. W. Merridith, justices; J. C. W. Ingram 
and James Gray, constables; L. T. Musick, supervisor representing the town- 
ship; 1859: J. F. Houx and G. A. Lyon, justices; J. T. Shin and C. Elliott, 
constables; 1861: H. Winchester and W. C. Ferrell, justices; L. T. Musick 
and J. Dotey, constables. January 3, 1861, William C. Ferrell and James 
German were appointed justices, and C. N. Copsey appointed constable. 
February 4, 1861, O. A. Munn was appointed justice. 

Organization of the County 

On May 20, 1861, an act delining the boundaries and providing for the 
organization of Lake county was approved by John G. Downey, governor 
of California at that time. Woods Crawford, William Manlove and Alex- 
ander McLean were appointed commissioners to establish precincts, appoint 
election officials and canvass the votes for the election to choose county 
officers and to locate the county seat, which election was set for the first 
Monday of June, 1861. The officers elected at this time were O. A. Munn, 
county judge; W. H. Manlove, sheriff; W. R. Mathews, county clerk; G. W. 
Marshall, district attorney; N. Smith, treasurer; E. Musick, surveyor; J. W. 
Smith, coroner; Supervisors: First district, S. Hunting; second district, 
J. H. Jamison; J. W. Maxwell, third district. The commissioners had desig- 
nated two places as suitable locations for the county seat, Lakeport, then 
known as Forbesville, and Lower Lake. The first-named place was the 


choice of the electors, and was re-named Lakeport, the name being sug- 
gested by Woods Crawford, at the time of organization. 

Peregrination of the County Seat 

While Lakeport is at the present time the county seat, its location there 
has not remained undisturbed. On the night of February 15, 1867, the court 
house at Lakeport was destroyed by fire, and with it were burned all the 
official records of the county, rendering difficult the compilation of political 
history previous to that date. This fire was undoubtedly the work of an 
incendiary, stirred to the deed by the intense rivalry among towns of the 
county for the court house location. Dissatisfaction with Lakeport as the 
county seat manifested itself soon after the organization of the county. 
County buildings had been erected at that place, and the offices located 

Partisans of the other towns secured the passage of an act by the State 
Legislature calling for an election on April 20, 1864, to again vote on the site. 
Lakeport, Kelsey Creek, later re-named Kelseyville, and Lower Lake, which 
was also called Grantville, were designated as the eligible locations. The 
vote again favored Lakeport, and the people of that town were exultant, but 
the outsiders still dissatisfied. In 1866 another legislative act was secured, 
calling for an election in September, 1867, Lakeport and Lower Lake being 
the contending points. 

Between the passage of this act and the election, the court house was 
burned. This removed the strong argument in favor of Lakeport of existing 
buildings. In the interim before the election the supervisors rented a build- 
ing of John O'Shea to temporarily domicile the county offices. Kelseyville 
being out of this election, the votes of that section were keenly sought after 
by the rival parties. The published statement of the result of that election 
was Lakeport, 378; Lower Lake, 365; giving Lakeport a majority of thir- 
teen; but when the board of canvassers met they decided Lower Lake had 
won by seven votes. Lakeport citizens were loud in their recriminations 
and charges of fraud against Lower Lake partisans. 

Shortly after the election, the county officers moved their quarters to 
Lower Lake, the order to remove being issued by the supervisors November 
4, 1867. Lakeport people did not give up the fight, but began a suit to con- 
test the election. A mandamus to require the officers to return to Lakeport 
was issued JMarch 28, 1868, but this was not obeyed by the officials. In 
October, 1869, the matter was tried before a jury in the court of Judge J. B. 
Southard at Napa City. The jury found in favor of Lakeport. The judge 
referred the case to the legislature, and again an act providing for an election, 
the fourth concerning the location, was passed, set for May, 1870. 

The partisans recognized this as a determining contest, and rivalry for 
votes was again intense. A few years of experience with Lower Lake as the 
location had brought about a considerable change in Kelseyville sentiment. 
The election resulted in 479 votes for Lakeport, and 404 for Lower Lake, a 
majority of 75. The northern end of the county voted unanimously for 
Lakeport, Kelseyville voted four to one in that town's favor ; even a few 
votes for Lakeport were recorded in the Lower Lake section. 

Following the destruction of the county records in 1867, the supervisors 
re-established boundaries of townships and supervisorial districts. These 
comprised Lower Lake, Big Valley, Upper Lake and Knoxville townships. 


In 1874 a local option election, on the question of licensing the liquor traffic, 
was held, resulting in total vote in the county of 460 in favor of licensing and 
211 against the traffic. A. E. Noel of Lower Lake was elected delegate from 
Lake county to the convention which formulated the new constitution of 
California in 1878. 

Lower Lake Township 

The first house in the town of Lower Lake was built by E. Mitchell in 
1858. Herrick & Getz had a store there in 1860. The first hotel was opened 
by Dr. Bynum in 1865, the first saloon by C. N. Adams in 1861, the first 
blacksmith shop by L. B. Thompson in 1860. From the time of location 
of the county seat at that place in 1867, the growth in population was 
steady and rapid. Lower Lake had in her early years the novel distinc- 
tion of a young lady druggist, Miss Delia Walls, one of a very few of her 
sex in that profession, and in full charge of a drug store at the age of sixteen 
years. In its early history Lower Lake had transportation connections with 
the outside world by two stage lines, one running from Calistoga through 
Lower Lake to East Lake, the headquarters of the Sulphur Banks mine, and 
the other from Woodland to Lower Lake. 

This town had visions of great development about 1867. The county 
seat question had been decided in its favor. About that time the Clear 
Lake Water Company began operations. This company proposed to erect 
a woolen mill, flour and lumber mills, on Cache creek, which should turn 
out in manufactured form all the wool, grain and timber produced in the 
county. The projects on paper looked roseate, and the bright prospects 
were generally accepted by the people, but the decrees of destiny seemed 
cruel. The company did construct a dam across the creek, erect quite an 
extensive building and install machinery for flour, saw and planing mill. 
At the time all products, beyond the needs of the limited county market, 
had to be hauled by team one hundred miles to tidewater. What might have 
been the outcome of the company's promises will never be known, as the 
hand of fate in the shape of an indignant people ended the company's 
activities. In a night, their dam was destroyed and the mill burned to the 
ground. The loss of the county seat followed, and seemed a death-blow 
to the bright hopes of Lower Lake's people. They quickly recovered courage, 
and steady and substantial growth came in the following years. 

Destruction of Cache Creek Dam 

Probably the most stirring event in the county's history, its details 
being still vividly remembered by living pioneers and frequently revived 
by recent water company operations, was the destruction of the Clear Lake 
Water Company's dam across Cache creek. This intense expression of the 
people's cumulating resentment occurred in November, 1868. In the minds 
of early residents, not a few now living who participated in the memorable 
affair, the demolition of the company's property was a justifiable retribution 
for wrongs inflicted on the people, a taking of justice in their own hands 
when their reasonable appeals had been ignored, when the company per- 
sisted in maintaining the dam and no compensation for their injuries was 
allowed the people by the law and its officers. The deed of the citizenry 
is openly defended as a necessary relief from intolerable oppression — that 
while in violation of the written law, it had the sanction of the higher law 


of the people's welfare. The burning of the mill being asserted to be acci- 
dental, and the destruction of the dam justifiable, the only wrongdoing 
acknowledged by members of the party was the appropriation of a few 
sacks of grain by individuals to feed their horses. This slight turpitude is 
held to be the basis for the county authorities' final surrender of ground 
in the compromise, which fixed the judgment of $20,000 upon the county. 
This judgment still partially hangs over the county, and upon it and another 
early obligation for purchase of a toll road of double that amount, over 
$90,000 interest, and $34,500 principal, has been paid by the citizens. 

The story of the early dam's destruction is picturesque and stirring. A 
dam, of slight height, had existed for some years at the Fowler mill on 
Cache creek, two miles below its outlet from Clear lake and near the town 
of Lower Lake. Orrin Simmons, acting as agent for the Clear Lake Water 
Compan}', purchased the mill and land in the fall of 1865. At the session 
of the Legislature that winter, lobbyists for the water company secured 
passage of an act authorizing the company to "build and keep in repair a 
lock," etc. L. M. Curtis, W. G. Hunt, E. R. Lowe, J. D. Longhenour, S. N. 
Mewing, J. A. Hutton, G. W. Woodward, H. C. Derby, Charles Traver, N. 
Wyckoff, R. Day, N. Coombs, J. D. Stephens, William Gordon and F. S. 
Freeman were the men to whom the authority was given. Provisions of the 
act granted the rights for thirty years, gave permission to remove obstruc- 
tions in the stream, and required that the lake level should not be lowered 
during the months of July and August more than one foot below where it 
usually stood in said months, nor be raised at any time above the usual 
natural height. The company was given control of all water in the creek, 
excepting the use to other riparian owners of water for stock and domestic 

The company commenced construction of the new dam in August, 1866, 
and it was finished in December, 1867. An unusually heavy rainfall occurred 
in both of these winters. The dam was of stone, with wooden cribs built into 
it for foundations of the mill. As to its height, there are conflicting reports, 
some witnesses stating the flood-gates were arranged to hold the lake 
level at thirteen feet above high water mark. W'hatever its height or the 
cause, the lake level rose in the winter of 1867-68 to several feet above the 
highest water ever before known. It reached the level of Main street in 
Lakeport and flooded the lowlands about the lake, where the damage was 
greatest, orchards being destroyed, land being unusable for planting crops, 
and houses vacated. The lake level receded but two feet in the following 
summer, instead of the average fall of nine to ten feet. Sickness prevailed 
to an alarming extent, both of a malarial and membranous character, seven 
children dying in one family from diphtheria. The high water, standing 
stagnant on many ranches, was generally believed to be the cause of the 

The company had been sued, and the dam declared a nuisance several 
times by the grand jury, but no heed was paid. The legal quandary was 
that the people could sue only in their own court, and a jury could not be 
obtained that the company could not challenge and dismiss by reason of 
prejudice or interest. The company would not ask for a change of venue. 
A suit for $15,000 damages was brought in Mendocino county by a Mr. 
Grigsby, one of the affected land owners, in which he was supported by 
other Lake county citizens. This suit was taken to the State Supreme Court. 



On the third indictment by the grand jury of the dam as a nuisance, it was 
tried before Judge J. B. Southard at Lower Lake. Upon that occasion the 
judge said: "I see no redress for the injured parties around the margin of 
the lake, in civil law, but there is such a thing as a higher law." 

The people grasped the import of the judge's words, which were spoken 
on W^ednesday, November 11. 1868. Plans were secretly made for a move 
on the dam on the following Saturday, the 14th. Couriers were dispatched 
over all the northern end of the county. On the day set determined men 
began to assemble at Lakeport. By noon probably 250 were gathered. The 
expedition moved, on horseback and in wagons, toward Lower Lake, pro- 
vided with arms, blankets and provisions sufficient for a week's campaign. 
The rendezvous was at the Lost Spring ranch, since known as the J. H. 
Jamison place, about three miles west of Lower Lake. About three hundred 
and twenty-five men assembled there that night. The body elected Jacob 
Bower and J. B. Robinson to take charge of removal of the dam, and J. W. 
Mackall as military commander. From that time forward everything was 
done with order and discipline. 

Vigilance Committee Seizes Officers and Tears Out Dam 

On the morning of Sunday, the 15th, Commander Mackall and ten 
picked men started early for Lower Lake, arriving there at 8:00 o'clock 
that morning. This advance guard took into custody the county officers, 
then located at that town, who were W. H. Manlove, sheriiT; F. Herrenden, 
deputy sheriff; J. B. Holloway, county judge, and Sarshel Bynum, county 
clerk, and also L. P. Nichols, superintendent of the water company. The 
main body of citizens arrived soon afterward, and great surprise and interest 
were aroused in the town's population. The officers keenly resented their 
arrest, the sheriff, especially, in the language of one witness, "bucking 
furiously." This official demanded the right to "read the riot act" to the 
"mob." as he termed them. He was given the privilege and the crowd 
listened with amusement and in perfect order. Then the sheriff was ordered 
to take his seat and not leave it. and he obeyed implicitly. Another humor- 
ous incident relieved the tense situation. The county clerk had been placed 
under guard of Jacob Welty, a gray-bearded mountaineer of over eighty 
years, and diminutive in stature. Mr. Bynum protested that he would not 
submit to the outrage and proceeded to move ofi. Old Mountaineer backed 
ofif until he could get the barrel of his old-fashioned muzzle-loading flint- 
lock on a horizontal, and leveled it on the clerk, shouting in stentorian tones : 
"Stand, Sarshel, I say; STAND." This exclamation became a by-word with 
which jMr. Bynum was plagued by enemies and mischievous friends to the 
end of his days. 

At 8:30 o'clock Mackall and his vanguard preceded the main body to 
the mill, and there took charge of four men employed on the premises. When 
the crowd arrived, a double patrol was formed, the inner circle about the 
mill being three hundred j^ards in diameter, and the outer guard fifty yards 
beyond. There were twenty men in each circle, and guard was relieved, in 
military style, every two hours. 

When all the preliminaries were arranged, Rev. B. Ogle, a Baptist 
minister, asked a blessing on the undertaking. Then this man of God, and 
upon the Sabbath day, took off his coat and worked with as willing arms 
as anj' one of the party. The men first removed to a safe distance all the 


grain and other contents of the mill, including the machinery, which work 
was not completed until nightfall. While the men were at supper, fire was 
noticed in the building, and every efifort was made to extinguish it but 
without success. A small dwelling house and the adjoining bridge were 
saved. This incendiary deed was done without the knowledge or consent 
of the leaders of the expedition, and the destruction of the mill was greatly 

On Monday morning the work of tearing out the dam by use of block and 
tackle was begun. Removing the heavy stones took all of that day and part 
of Tuesday morning. The water went out with a tremendous rush toward 
the completion of the work, turning big logs end over end. The force 
of the wave of impounded water was felt at Cacheville, in Yolo county 
about thirty miles down the creek. The demolition completed, the men dis- 
persed to their homes. No liquor had been allowed within the lines, and 
general orderliness had been observed. 

Water Company Sues the County 

On January 29, 1869, the Clear Lake Water Company commenced suit 
in the Twelfth District Court against Jacob Bower and 183 other citizens 
of Lake county, the list including the names of all the participants that 
could be ascertained. The company claimed $250,000 damages. Its counsel 
were McM. Shafter. Seawell and Hubbard. A change of venue was secured 
and the trial was held at Fairfield. The jury found that the dam was a 
nuisance and sustained the people in abating it. The company appealed to 
the Supreme Court from this decision. A\'hile this suit was in progress, the 
water company began another action against the Lake county supervisors 
for $50,000 actual damages and $100,000 accumulated damages. This suit 
was tried in Yolo county in ^lay, 1871, the jury disagreeing, being eleven 
for the county and one for the company. A second trial was held in Yolo 
county in September of that year, and while this was in progress, a com- 
promise was agreed upon. Its terms were that each party was to pay its 
own costs, and the county was to allow judgment against it for $20,000, 
which the company was to accept in bonds. The unpaid remainder of these 
bonds, which were re-funded several times, is now held by the state of 

Lower Lake had the finest school house in the county, a two-story 
brick building, erected in 1877. The Lower Lake brewery was started in 
1870 by Keitz & Co., later sold to C. Hammer and in 1875 to C. F. Linck, 
and which c perated under various proprietors until 1903. A planing mill 
was started by S. H. Thompson in 1877. A newspaper called the Observer 
was published at this town in 1866, but no record exists of the identity of 
its first editor or proprietor. D. M. Hanson founded the Clear Lake Sentinel 
in 1866, advocating Lower Lake for the county seat. After that object was 
accomplished, Mr. Hanson moved his paper to Yuba City. 

The Lower Lake Bulletin was started August 28, 1869, by L. P. Nichols, 
later conducted by J. B. Baccus, Jr., in 1879 by John B. Fitch, and acquired 
by A. E. Noel in October. 1885, by whom it was run until his death in 
March, 1893, when his widow assmned charge and has since edited and pub- 
lished the paper. 

The Clear Lake Press was also established in Lower Lake by Mr. 
Baccus, in 1885. For a period it was edited by ^^'. H. Adamson, and moved 
to Lakeport by John L. Allison in 1891. 


Lakeport and Other Towns 

The first store at Lakeport was built in 1856 by Dr. E. D. Boynton 
(though a man named Johnson sold goods there in 1855) at a point, later 
known as Tuckertown, on the present southern boundary of the town. He 
disposed of the merchandising business to Cyrus Smith, and the latter sold 
to George Brewington and Burr Caldwell. These proprietors built a new 
store on the knoll in the south limits of Lakeport, now the Piatt Addition, 
and moved their stock to it. George Nutter and then Aaron Levy acquired 
this business in 1858 and the latter only retired from continuous service in 
merchandising at Lakeport in December, 1913. 

William Forbes had pre-empted a claim of one hundred and sixty acres 
on the present site of Lakeport in 1859. He erected a small wooden build- 
ing on a site which is now south of First and west of Forbes streets. When, 
on the organization of the county, in 1861, the commissioners were investi- 
gating possible sites for the county seat, Forbes offered a free grant of forty 
acres to the county for the location of its capital upon his property. They 
accepted his offer, insofar as they had authority, and when the county seat 
election resulted in Lakeport's selection, Forbes deeded the land. The title 
to a strip of this grant, overflowed land on the present town's lakefront. is 
still held to rest in the county judge, now represented by the superior judge. 

The town sprang into existence upon settlement of the county seat 
location. James Parrish started the first blacksmith shop, on the east side of 
Main street, south of First. The Clear Lake Journal was founded in Sep- 
tember, 1865, published weekly by E. B. Wilson & Co., but had a brief exist- 
ence. In October, 1866, J. H. F. Farley established the weekly Clear Lake 
Courier. The business men of that period as shown by the advertising 
columns of its early issues, were J. S. Downes, M. D. ; S. K. Welch, attorney; 
Woods Crawford, attorney; S. Chapman, shoemaker; J. R. Millett, dentist; 
J. Southard, barber; J. T. Mathes, saloon; H. Cohen, H. Charmak and A. 
Levy, general merchandise ; Col. Lansing T. Musick, hotel. About nine 
business buildings, the courthouse, which occupied the present site, and a 
few dwellings constituted the extent of the village in 1866. Development 
was slow while the county seat was at Lower Lake, but on its restoration in 
1870. Lakeport commenced a rapid and steady growth. It had 400 popula- 
tion in 1870. 

Clear Lake College was instituted at Lakeport in September, 1876, by 
Prof. John A. Kelly. Seven youths were admitted to the academic department 
at that time. It won public favor to the extent that fifty-four students were 
matriculated during its first year. The college was incorporated under the 
title of Clear Lake Collegiate Association, on January 12, 1881. with the fol- 
lowing officers: John A. Kelly, president; Samuel Clendcnin,' vice president; 
S. K. Welch, secretary; Thomas Haycock, treasurer; H. W. Rice, auditor. 
At the first commencement exercises, June 9, 1881, the degree of B. A was 
conferred on William J. ]\Iewhinney, of AL A. upon James L. Woods, and 
LL.D. upon S. K. Welch and S. C. Hastings. This college succumbed to 
adversity in a few years. A private school conducted by Miss Mary Stark 
commenced tuition in January, 1879, and continued for a short time. 


Prof. John Overholser established the Lakeport Academy in 1884. The 
school was first conducted in a building at the corner of Fourth and Forbes 
streets, Lakeport. It had four pupils on the opening day, but sixteen regis- 
tered before the year was out. Professor Overholser taught alone for two 
years. Subsequent assistants were Miss Rooney, Miss Eloise Boone, Miss 
Sara Haycock, the latter being now Mrs. J. G. Crump of Lakeport. 

In 1890 the Academy was incorporated, the first board of directors being 
W. D. Rantz of Scotts Valley, A. M. Reynolds, Marshall Arnold, Lilburn 
H-. Boggs. Milton Wambold, W. A. Maxwell and Frank D. Tunis of Lake- 
port. Two thousands dollars was subscribed in stock, with which a building 
was erected on land donated by Mrs Zilphia A. Carly in the north end of 

The Clear Lake Union High School district was formed on May 4, 
1901, by nineteen school districts in the northern and central parts of the 
county. The proposition carried by the small majority of five votes, the 
result being 192 votes for and 187 against. Lakeport voted strongly for it and 
Upper Lake almost solidly against it. 

The late Charles W. Haycock was one of the strongest advocates of the 
high school. The first trustees, one elected from each district, were W. E. 
York, J. R. Garner, C. M. Hammond, chosen chairman; John M. Wiles, 
Walter Phillips, John Morrison, C. W^hite, C. M. Crawford, W. N. Thompson, 
Ira Carpenter, Thomas Patten, Perry Emerson, Alonzo Lea, Palmer, Sim- 
mons, Mrs. Clark, J. Callahan, W. W. W^oodward, Frank Greene. The 
trustees were unable to agree unanimously on a site, and at an election on 
July 31, 1901, Lakeport was selected, receiving 300 votes to Upper Lake's 
244. C. M. Hammond, J. W. Morrison and W. E. York constituted the first 
executive committee. 

The district rented the Academy building, and Professor Overholser 
became the science instructor. Prof. F. G. Sanderson was the first principal, 
and Miss Ora Boring was also a teacher. The high school started with forty 
students, October 1, 1901, and attendance rapidly increased. Subsequent 
principals have been Ovid Ritter, Dr. A. A. Mackenzie, Horace N. Caldwell 
and J. LeRoy Dixon. A proposition to bond the district for $30,000 to 
build a new school failed of the necessary two-thirds vote at an election 
on May 23, 1913, the proposed bond issue receiving 472 votes to 411 against. 

The Bank of Lake was organized March 10, 1874, with capital stock ot 
$100,000. The first officers were S. Bynum, president; A. Levy, treasurer; 
F. D. Tunis, secretary; George Bucknell, S. K. Welch, A. F. Tate, S. Broad- 
well, S. Bynum, J. T. Boone, J. R. Cook, A. Levy, C. Hartson, Dr. J. S. 
Downes, and A. G. Boggs, directors. Its present directors are W^illiam A. 
Lange of San Francisco, W. E. Greene of Santa Rosa, A. Levy, M. S. Sayre, 
president; L. J. Shuman, Joseph Levy, W. C. Moore of Lakeport. 

The Farmers' Savings Bank was incorporated December 14, 1874, also 
with capital stock of $100,000. Its incorporating directors were R. S. John- 
son, also president ; William J. Biggerstaff, J. H. Renfro, D. V. Thompson, 
Lindsay Carson, D. J. Taylor and George Tucker. J. W. Mackall was the 
first cashier. Lindsay Carson, a brother of the famous frontier scout, Kit 
Carson, became president in 1875. L. H. Boggs became assistant cashier 
in 1876, and his father, Henry C. Boggs, was elected director and presi- 
dent in 1878. G. W. Finer and J. F. Burger became interested in this bank 
in the same year. The present directors of this bank are J. W. Boggs. pres- 


ident; J. Banks, F. H. Boggs, H. C. Boggs, W. D. Rantz, of Lakeport; S. T. 
Packwood of Upper Lake ; Andrew Smith of Big Valley. 

The Lakeport flour mill was built by L. A. Young and Hill in Novem- 
ber, 1871. The builders sold it to H. C. Boggs in 1873, and in 1875 M. Starr 
became proprietor, operating it until 1895, when J. Banks and J. M. Church 
bought it. J. Banks has conducted it alone since 1907. 

A brewery was established by R. O. Smith in 1863, located at first in 
Scotts Valley, but in the fall of 1864 moved to a site one-half mile west of 
Lakeport. This institution ceased business about 1900. 

Tradition tells of the establishment of three newspapers in the earliest 
years of Lakeport's existence, but no definite record is known of them. 
These were the Times, with John Pendegast at one time editor; the Journal, 
of which David Pitman lamo was one of the editors and proprietors in 
1865 ; and the Democrat. All were of brief duration. The Clear Lake Courier 
was started by J. H. F. Farley, a printer, on October 6, 1866. C. B. Woods 
was the editor, and the paper's policy was strongly Democratic, almost 
openly advocating secession. 

The Lake County Bee was established in Lakeport March 8, 1873, by 
J. B. Baccus, Jr. L. Wallace becarhe a partner in the Bee June 14, 1877, 
and on August 23rd of the same year, C. S. Smyth bought the interest of 
Baccus. The next year R. W. Crump bought Smyth's interest, and he and 
Wallace conducted the paper from October 24, 1878. On September 18, 1879, 
A. C. Jackson became part proprietor with Crump. April 20, 1880, A. C. 
Jackson & Co. succeeded Crump & Jackson. 

The Lake Democrat, of the same political belief as the Bee, was started 
June 15, 1875, by A. A. R. Utting, who continued in charge until April, 
1879, when John R. Cook came into possession. On September 11, 1880, 
the Bee and Democrat were consolidated, with J. R. Cook and A. C. Jack- 
son as editors and proprietors. The Bee-Democrat was successively edited 
by Marshall Arnold in 1891, and George Ray in 1892. The Avalanche was 
founded by R. J. Hudson and run by H. A. McCraney and T. H. Rush in its 
brief existence about these years. W. L. Rideout worked on the Avalanche 
from 1893, and succeeded to its management in 1895. Frank W. Beach and 
Burt G. Sayre acquired the Bee, which had then dropped the additional name 
of Democrat, in 1893. Fred N. Loring and Henry Howe conducted it in 1895; 
Loring and Rideout took charge of it in August of that year. H. W. Wood 
edited it for a month in 1903. Rideout returned to its management, leased 
and later sold to H. F. Cross, who conducted it. with exception of a month 
under Harry Odell, until November, 1913, when J. J. Morton took charge. 

Following the removal of the Clear Lake Press from Lower Lake to 
Lakeport in 1891 it was conducted by John L. Allison. January 4, 1895, the 
paper come into possession of the Hanson brothers, Nathan, Frank and 
Da\id M., the last-named editing it. Before the end of that month, Mr. 
Allison recovered the plant and resumed management, associating with him 
David F. Mclntire and the latter's mother-in-law, Mrs. Marcia Mayfield. 
June 7th of the same year, Mayfield & Mclntire acquired Allison's interest. 
On September 16, 1905, Percy H. Millberry leased Mrs. Mayfield's share and 
continued in partnership with Mclntire until October 5, 1907, when Ben S. 
Allen leased the latter's interest. Allen retired December 15, 1907, Millberry 
assuming the entire lease. Millberry installed the first standard linotype 


in Lake county on April 15, 1912, and purchased the paper in September, 

Lakeport was incorporated in 1888, and is still the only incorporated town 
in the county. The present courthouse was built in 1870, and received an 
outer cement coating in 1906. The A. Levy brick block was burned in 1890, 
and immediately rebuilt and a story added. Lakeport citizens voted $15,400 
bonds for a municipal water system December 20, 1898. System was com- 
pleted in 1899 and has been successfully conducted since. Municipal wharf 
built in 1904. Town installed septic sewer system in 1907. Municipal library 
opened May, 1907. Cricket a favorite sport in county during 1891-94. Burns 
Valley and Lakeport teams met San Francisco cracks. Water carnivals given 
at Lakeport in July, 1896, and in June, 1907. Lake county voted saloons out 
in 1893; hop buyers boycotted county growers; in 1895 county returned to 
"wet" column. In April, 1912, Lakeport abolished saloons ; in November of 
same year people passed by initiative an anti-saloon ordinance for entire 
county, the first entire county going "dry" in California. Lakeport confirmed 
anti-salcon stand by larger majority in April, 1914. Electricity first furnished 
Lakeport in 1911 by Mt. Konocti Light and Power Co. 

The first recorded sailboat on Clear-Lake was the "Plunger," sixteen feet 
long, owned by J. Broome Smith. It was brought over the mountains by 
wagon. The next boat of importance was a forty-foot schooner built by Henry- 
Alter in 1862. The "Lady of the Lake," of twenty-five feet length and unusual 
breadth, was launched by Captain Carr in 1866, and was a favorite pleasure 
yacht for many years. The "Hallie" was the pioneer steamer on the lake. 
She was purchased in San Francisco by Capt. R. S. Floyd and brought by 
wagon by Capt. J. K. Fraser from Napa to Lower Lake. On the mountain 
road the wagon upset and the craft was precipitated into a canyon, but was 
reloaded without serious injury. The "Hallie" was launched in July, 1873. In 
.August of that year Mrs. Chapman had a wharf built opposite her property 
on the lake, the present Benvenue hotel site, which was the first wharf in Lake- 
port. The Hallie was raised from the lake-bottom at Sulphur Banks by R. D. 
Winters in 1908, rebuilt, and is now in use by the Yolo A\'ater and Power 
Company dredger tender. This boat was originally a tender for the U. S. S. 

The "Emma Garratt" was the next steamer, and was built in Lakeport in 
1874, by Captains J. B. Robinson and William S. Luke. This craft was of 
seventy-five feet length, had a stern paddle-wheel, and cost $7000. She was 
operated for passenger and freight service between Lakeport and East Lake. 
The "Mamie Coghill" was another old-time steamer operated on the lake by 
the Bank of Lake. The "City of Lakeport," built by Captain Floyd in 1875, 
was a seventy-eight foot model of the then finest steamers of the Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company of San Francisco, having but nine feet beam, and 
was brig-rigged. Up to 1879 the City of Lakeport made daily trips between 
Lakeport and Lower Lake, Capt. J. K. Fraser commanding. This steamer was 
used on the run between Lakeport and Bartlett Landing until 1906. She sank 
at moorings ofif Lakeport in 1908, and a few months later was raised, beached 
and broken up. The first wharf of the Bartlett Springs line was built in 1888, 
at the foot of Second street. 

The Colusa, Lake and Mendocino Telegraph Company had a telegraph 
line from Colusa to Lakeport in 1874, which was afterward extended to Calis- 
toga. In 1881 C. E. Lark acquired this line, and changed the company name to 


the Northern Telegraph Company. The earliest public travel was by horse 
stage lines into the southern end of the county, via Napa and Pope Valley, and 
later from Calistoga, via Middletown, Cobb Valley, and Kelseyville to Lake- 
port. In the '70s the most favored stage route was from Cloverdale, then the 
terminus of the Donohue railroad, via Kelseyville, Lakeport and Upper Lake 
to Bartlett Springs. Another line ran from Lakeport via Upper Lake, Witter 
Springs, Pearsons Springs and Blue Lakes to Ukiah. Steamer service con- 
nected Lakeport and East Lake (Sulphur Banks). 


This town, near the site of the first white man's habitation in the county, 
had no development for years after the massacre of Stone and Kelsey. A 
blacksmith named Benham started a shop there in 1857. Associated with him 
was a wagon-maker named German. No other business place was established 
until 1864, when T. F. Fall opened a store. Rosenbreau & Pace also estab- 
lished a store and boarding house in the same year. The town has since grown 
slowly but steadil}^ The New Era was published there by Otha L. Stanley 
in 1890. The Kelseyville Sun was started in 1901 by McEwen & McEwen, 
and conducted by them until sold to E. E. Bryant in 1912. 

Upper Lake 

Following the first settlement of this section, as described in the general 
history, there came in J. M. Maxwell, J. B. Howard, M. Shepard, J. Gilbert, 
L. A. Young, J. M. Denison, J. F. Crabtree, Caspar Sweikert, George A. Lyon, 
Sr., A. J. Alley, George Bucknell, T. P. Maxwell, M. Waldfogel, S. H. Alley, 
C. C. Rice, D. V. Thompson, J. B. Robinson, R. C. Tallman, J. F. Burger, 
J. O. Sleeper, J. Pitney, M. Sleeper. One of the first schools was located at 
Upper Lake, J. W. Mackall, later cashier of the Farmers' Savings Bank at 
Lakeport, being the first teacher. William B. Elliott had a blacksmith shop 
there in 1856. 

The formation of the town began in 1866, when a man named Bukofsky 
had a store there, and Caspar Sweikert a blacksmith shop. Bukofsky sold to 
Houghton, and he to N. McCrosky. Henry Taylor established the first hotel. 
William Elliott erected a grist mill in 1858, which was operated until 1867. 
The Upper Lake planing and grist mill was erected in 1875 by Thomas 

Stock raising and alfalfa growing for seed have been the principal indus- 
tries of this section. The establishment of bean canneries has given Upper 
Lake a big business growth. 

Bean Canning 

Henry Wambold was the pioneer in the string bean canning industry. 
While proprietor of Laurel Dell resort in 1900, he experimented in that line, 
and gave up the hotel business to operate a cannery at Tule Lake. In 1899 
he started to reclaim that shallow and tule overgrown body of water, to utilize 
the rich silt, which made fertile bean land. His successor, the Lake County 
Canning Co., has completed this reclamation and operates a big cannery, built 
in 1909. 

A. Mendenhall established a bean cannery near Upper Lake in 1897, and 
has (iperated successfully every season since, giving employment to 400 people 
in the season. 


The Lakeport CannerJ^ a stock company, started in 1902, under direction 
of Mr. Wambold and C. L. Tindall, but failed in a few seasons by reason of its 
distance from the bean fields. 

In 1868 I. N. Chapman, a surveyor sent by the United States authorities 
to survey the Lupyoma grant, which had been declared government land, at- 
tempted a scheme to deprive the settlers of their lands. Delaying the making 
of entries, he took his field notes to San Francisco. Judge A. P. McCarty 
suspected Chapman's designs, obtained appointment as his deputy, and notified 
every settler to file the proper papers, which were hurried by messenger to the 
land office at Sacramento. Within a few days applications came from San 
Francisco speculators for practically all the lands within the grant. Chapman 
had connived with these applicants and aided them by making new plat books, 
but the conspiracy was defeated by McCarty's prompt action. 

Beginning of Middletown 

Guenoc was the name of a village started in Coyote valley, which had but 
a brief existence. Herrick & Getz had a store there in 1860, the first store in 
the southern end of the county, but moved it the same year to Lower Lake. 
Strader & Clark started a store there in 1866, and O. Armstrong had a saloon 
there soon afterward. An Odd Fellows' hall was built, but was moved to 
Middletown in 1871. The founding of the latter town, nearer the quicksilver 
mines and at the junction of two roads killed Guenoc. 

The first house was built at Middletown in the fall of 1870 by J. H. Berry, 
who conducted a hotel therein. O. Armstrong started a saloon in the same 
year. C. M. Young bought a half-interest in the townsite in 1871. D. Lobree 
started the first store in 1872. The town developed and prospered in the da.ys 
of extensive quicksilver mining in that section. It was then, as now, con- 
nected by stages with Calistoga, Lower Lake and Lakeport. A brewery was 
established in 1875 by Munz & Scott, which continued under varying manage- 
ment until recent years. The Middletown Independent was established in 1886 
by P. B. Graham and J. L. Read. Read bought Graham's interest in 1889 and 
later in the same year sold a half interest to W. C. Pentecost. In 1895 Read 
again acquired full control, placed T. A. Read as editor until 1899, and then 
Warren E. Read until 1904, when the paper was sold to J- D. Kuykendall. The 
latter conducted it one year and sold it back to J. L. Read, Warren Read again 
becoming editor. On October 11, 1906, the paper passed to A. O. Stanley, who 
published it up to January 1, 1911, when he leased it to his son, "Mort" Stanley. 
The Independent was Republican in politics up to 1906, and independent since. 

Quicksilver mining in this section reached the height of its development 
about 1895. The Great Western Mine, operated by Andrew Rocca, employed 
250 men and was equipped with modern machinery. This mine had been 
located in 1850, but little development was made until 1872, when E. Green and 
Hiram Taft operated it. The Mirabel mine was another large producer. The 
Great Western and other small mines still produce considerable quicksilver. 

A franchise to construct and operate a toll road was granted by the Legis- 
lature in 1866 to John Lawley, a Mr. Patterson and Henry Boggs. The road 
was built in 1867 from Calistoga over Mt. St. Helena to Middletown. The 
toll road is still in operation by the Lawley heirs, a suit in 1909 to terminate 
the franchise by reason of the death of the original grantees having been de- 
cided in their favor. 



Some of the Resources of Lake County 

Mining for borax was conducted in 1856 at Borax lake, east of Clear 
lake. Dr. J. A. Veatch was the discoverer of the mineral, and formed the 
California Borax Company, comprising Messrs. Peachy. Billings, Heydenfeldt, 
Ayers, Maynard and others. The apparatus for extracting the borax from the 
lake bottom was crude, and the enterprise was not profitable. Gen. W. S. 
Jacks, an Englishman named Oxland and Colonel Lightner successively 
worked as manager. The early miners of this company discovered a bonanza, 
however, when prospecting on the shore of the east arm of Clear lake. They 
mined there for sulphur, evidences of which existed widely, but soon discov- 
ered the section was rich in cinnabar, or quicksilver ore. 

First operating in 1874, under the old name of the California Borax Com- 
pany, then consisting of John Parrott, Tiburcio Parrott, W. F. Babcock, D. O. 
Mills and the William Burling estate, the corporation was changed to the Sul- 
phur Banks Quicksilver Mining Company. With inadequate machinery, in 
the first two years of operation, quicksilver to the value of $600,000 was pro- 
duced. The average monthly production in 1876 was valued at $40,000. Harry 
Lightner was the first superintendent. Sulphur Banks grew to be a town of 
1000 population, 600 of the people being Chinamen, who worked in the poison- 
ous fumes of the furnaces and concentrators. The mine greatly developed 
other business in the county. F. Fiedler was the superintendent in the flush 
times up to 1881. The operations previous to that time had all been surface 
workings, but shafts were sunk that year. The country abounds in hot springs, 
and it was found to be impossible to work for any distance below the surface. 
The production began to decline. John F. Jefifress, Richard White, Robert 
Dinsmore and other superintendents operated on a gradually lesser scale. 
Riley A. Boggess had been connected with the mine, and in 1901 he promoted 
the formation of the Empire Consolidated Quicksilver Mining Company, 
floated a considerable amount of stock in the East and secured the names of 
prominent New York capitalists for directors. The new company purchased 
the Sulphur Banks and the Abbott mines in Lake county, and the Central 
and Empire mines in Colusa county. The mines were never opened, and the 
stockholders' money was wasted. The record of the Sulphur Banks since 
has been constant litigation and abandoned works, but it is believed by many 
that rich ore still exists there. 

Mineral Springs 

The many mineral springs of Lake county, possessing curative powers, 
and which are now intensively utilized by the summer resorts built up around 
them, and bottling works which conserve and put on the market the entire 
flow of some of them, were known early. The aboriginal Indians were familiar 
with the medicinal virtues of not a few of these springs and visited them in 
numbers. In this way Capt. A. A. Ritchie discovered Harbin Springs at a 
very early date. He obtained possession by location and held them six years, 
disposing of the site to James Harbin, who owned the place for eleven years, 
when Williams and Hughes acquired the springs. The buildings burned 
September 6, 1894, at a loss of $35,000. Various owners have since held the 
resort, which has been a favorite training headquarters for pugilists. 


Anderson Springs were located in 1873 by Dr. A. Anderson and L. S. 
Patriquin, and opened to the public in 1874. Daughters of the original locator 
conducted this resort to within a few years. 

Adams Springs were located upon by Charles Adams in 1869, and suc- 
cessive owners were Whitton brothers, J. S. Friedman and E. R. Moses. 
Adams has been brought to a high state of development and popularity by 
Dr. William R. Prather, prominent in political circles in California, who has 
been its proprietor for twenty-seven years. 

Howard Springs were discovered in 1877 by C. W. Howard, who opened 
them to the public and transferred his interests to August Heisch the same 
year. This is still a flourishing resort. 

Seigler Springs were a favorite resort of the Indians when the white men 
first came. These aborigines had rude baths arranged in the streams, making 
possible regulation of the temperature of the boiling waters. A man named 
Seigler was the first white locator. Dr. J. T. Boone made preparations to 
develop the place in 1868. Alvinza Hayward and W. Cole of San Francisco 
bought the property in 1870, and planned on a large scale to make it a popular 
resort of the Pacific Coast. An immense sum of money was spent by them 
in constructing a race track, building barns, landscape gardening, etc. Object- 
ing to the high assessment which their improvements induced, the pro- 
prietors allowed the place to go almost to ruin. Through many vicissitudes 
and changes of management, Seigler Springs is still a favored place for 

Highland Springs were discovered by an old hunter named Ripley in the 
'60s. He did little more than build a cabin and dig a tunnel into the creek 
bank. Ripley sold to H. H. Nunnally and he to Dr. A. B. Caldwell, who began 
building a hotel in 1871. H. Shartzer and S. M. Putnam purchased the place in 
1872. The extensive hotel was completed in 1875. Dr. Bates and a Mr. 
Hughes were later proprietors, the latter turning over the property to the 
mortgagor, John D. Stephens, who, associated with Joseph Craig, conducted it 
for years. The present hotel was built in 1897. 

Henry Wambold built the new hotel at Laurel Dell in 1900, and sold it to 
Edgar Durnan in 1901. Blue Lakes was a well-known place of resort as early 
as 1880. The Blue Lakes Realty Co., under management of H. W. Kemp, 
has greatly improved this resort in recent years. 

Soda Bay possesses the distinction of the huge soda spring bubbling from 
the waters of Clear lake, whence the name of the resort is derived. This fea- 
ture is not only a wonderful natural phenomenon, but was celebrated by the 
early Indians as one of their few mythological conceptions. The water, strongly 
charged with carbonic acid gas, arises also at various points from the waters 
of the bay John O'Shea, an early coroner of the county, lost his life by as- 
phyxiation while bathing in this spring. Rev. Richard Wylie of Napa was the 
first owner of the property, and he leased it in 1879 to A. K. Gregg. 

Glenbrook is another resort, situated in Cobb Valley, which has been a 
favored place, especially with fishermen, since early days. 

Saratoga Springs were originally known after the name of the first propri- 
etor, J. W. Pearson, who located them in 1874. He sold to J. J. Kebert in 1878. 
The hotel was erected in 1874. John Mahrtens was a proprietor of this resort 
for many years up to his death in 1913. 

Witter Springs were discovered by Benjamin Burke in 1870, and were pur- 
chased by Dr. Dexter Witter and W. P. Radcliff the following year. A road 


was built in 1872, and the original hotel in 1873. B. Holler was owner in 1892. 
Many cottages were built at intervals, and a magnificent and immense hotel put 
up in 1905. 

Greene Bartlett, then a hunter, discovered the group of springs which have 
since borne his name, in 1870. Trying the efficacy of the water for his rheuma- 
tism, with satisfactory results, he guided a party of fourteen similarly afiflicted 
friends to the place, and claimed they found a remedy for their ills. Mr. Bart- 
lett located on the site, and successive managers of the resort were a Mr. 
Gordon, W. W. Greene, Long & Brown, D. Alexander, J. C. Crigler, the Mc- 
Mahon brothers, and C. C. McMahon. Beside the original hotel and many cot- 
tages, two big and thoroughly-appointed hotel buildings have been erected in 
recent years. 

Big Valley township had the first settlement of white men, as has been 
previously described. The pioneers who followed soon after the Hammack 
party include the following, many of whose names are still represented by 
descendants in the county: Charles Goodwin, Daniel Giles, Dr. J. S. Downes, 
William Forbes, James Parrish, Dr. E. D. Boynton, George Tucker, George 
Brewington, B. Caldwell, A. J. Plate, A. Levy, Robert Gaddy, J. H. Huston, 
W. A. Thompson and family, Peter Clarke, J. B. Cook, W. S. Cook, Preston 
Rickabaugh, Seth Rickabaugh, B. F. Shaul, G. W. Gard, A. Kouns, H. Cohn, 
R. Kenned}', J. Ingram, S. F. Tucker, A. A. Slocum, C. A. Finer, J. M. Huston, 
P. M. Daley, E. B. Bole, J. C. Crigler, Hiram Allen, J. C. W. Ingram, J. T. 
McClintock, J. H. Jamison. In Scotts Valley there settled Greenbury Hen- 
dricks, E. C. Riggs, William Gessner, John Lynch, J. M. Sleeper, J. Davis, A. 
F. Tate and J. H. Moore. In Cobb valley: John Cobb, Simon Bassett and his 
son, William D. Bassett. In Cold valley: H. R. Bolter; and in Paradise valley, 
Isaac Alter. 


While the accessible timber of Lake county has never been extensive, 
small mills for supplying local demands were established from the earliest 
period of white occupation. The Bruce saw mill existed on Cache creek in 
1856. Thomas Boyd, known as "Dobe" Boyd, from the fact of his having lived 
in the adobe house built by Kelsey & Stone, built the next mill, a saw and grist 
mill combined, on the slope of Mt. Hannah, in 1858. It was burned in 1860, 
and rebuilt on the road between Kelseyville and Cobb valley. Subsequent pro- 
prietors were Allen & Shaul Brothers, Benjamin Moore, and H. C. Boggs. 
John Cobb built a saw mill in Cobb vallej- in 1859. J. M. Harbin built a saw 
mill at the summit of Cobb mountain in 1873. Thomas Allison built a flour 
mill on Kelsey creek, two miles above Kelseyville, in 1860. It was burned, but 
rebuilt in 1867, and owned successively by Allison & Standiford, and Peter 
Burtnett. The Lower Lake flouring mill was built in 1869 by J. M. Everetts 
and William Davy, was operated in 1871 by William Saywood, and in 1881 b}' 
M. N. Young. Joel Stoddard had a mill northwest of Middletown in 1881. 
The early mills in the Upper Lake section were the following: Pine Mountain 
mill was built by J. Bateman and M. N. Young in 1865. Subsequent owners 
were H. A. Humphrey & O. Smith, W. H. Manlove, and L. A. Young. The 
Denison mill was moved from Mendocino county by A. J. Stroup, locating on 
Little Horse mountain, and in 1872 to Pine mountain, operated later by Deni- 
son and G. H. Haynes. J. F. Hanson built a small mill at the head of Long 
valley in 1875. J. J. Andray had a mill a short distance above Bartlett Springs 


in 1875 and 1876. Mills of recent years have been the Gunn & Akers, Peter- 
son and Smith mills in the Cobb-Mt. Hannah section, Mason Bros, on Elk 
mountain. M. B. Elliott on Bartlett mountain, the McKinley flour mill and elec- 
tric light plant near Middletown. 


The first roads connecting Lake county with the outside world were from 
the south via Napa county. The next public communication was established 
from Cloverdale by two roads, the Dodson road, built in 1865, and Matt Lea 
toll road, built in 1877. Col. Fred Long built a new wagon road from Hopland 
to Lakeport, striking the valley through Manning canyon, which was com- 
pleted in June, 1890, at a cost of $5000. In the early '90s all roads into the 
county were toll roads owned by private individuals. In 1899, after continued 
agitation for a free road, the supervisors purchased the Long road for $3500. 
Owing to some legal defect in the proceedings the county treasurer refused to 
pay the warrant. Long abandoned his road and lost his rights, and neither 
he nor his heirs received payment for it. The Blue Lakes toll road, connecting 
Upper Lake with L^kiah, was purchased and made a free road in 1896. 

The Highland Springs and Squaw Rock toll road was built in 1891, con- 
necting what was then called Clear Lake station on the Donohue railroad with 
Big valley. J. D. Stephens, proprietor of Highland Springs, and county citi- 
zens subscribed the funds, $27,000. J. W. Boggs superintended the building. 
The primitive horse stages over this road were superseded by automobile stage 
service in 1907. The Lake County Automobile Transportation Co. was incor- 
porated, with M. S. Sayre, William O. Edmands and Euvelle Howard the first 
directors. At about the same time, \\'illiam J- Spiers installed auto stages on 
his lines from Calistoga via Middletown. 

Fruit Growing 

Stock and grain were the earliest farm products of this sectitm. Cheese 
making was among the first industries. The only fruit grown was in family 
orchards. Prunes were extensively planted in the early '80s. W. G. Young, 
the owners of the Mills and Hilsabeck ranches, and J. W. Boggs being pio- 
neers in this line. Later, following a decline in prices, most of the prune 
orchards were torn up. Bartlett pears, now the best product of the county, 
ivere first grown in 1885. Joseph Laughlin and George Akers setting out the 
first trees. Pears are also raised on the Boles and Allison ranches. 

Clear Lake Water Utilization 

From the beginning of white settlement in this region the use oi the flood 
waters of Clear lake has been a constant source of controversy between indi- 
viduals or corporations, seeking to utilize them for irrigation and power, and 
the owners of lake frontage lands. The 45.000-acre area of this lake has been 
a natural reservoir, storing a volume of water from three to thirteen feet in 
height above the average low water mark over that area, the amount depending 
on the winter's rainfall over its immense watershed. The restricted outlet of 
the lake. Cache creek, prevents the flood waters from running off rapidly. 

The first friction over the water rights was the notable episode of the de- 
struction of the dam in 1868. Clear lake was declared navigable by the Legis- 
lature March 29, 1878. with a provision that there should be no interference 


with rights of swamp and overflowed land owners around the margin of the 
lake to reclaim. 

A survey was made by F. Formhals in November, 1892, for a project to 
convey water in iron pipes for six miles from the Fowler mill site to the 
junction of the two forks of Cache creek, there to be used to generate elec- 
trical power. A narrow-gauge railroad from Rumsey up Cache creek was 
proposed to utilize the power. 

In the Legislature of 1892-93 Senate Bill No. 730 was passed, granting 
Clear lake to Lake county, but Governor Markham vetoed it. Incorporation 
papers were filed by James Armstrong, F. A. Simons, J. H. Culver, J. B. 
Treadwell and C. H. King in December, 1893, for a project to develop Cache 
creek to generate 40,000 horsepower for electric lighting and power in the 
city of Oakland. 

At about the same time A. S. Halladie filed notice of appropriation of 
60,000 inches of water, to be diverted from Cache creek, at what was known as 
the Grigsby rififle, the junction of Seigler creek with Cache creek. Another 
appropriation by the same man sought to take the water at the Fowler mill 
site. A dam across Cache creek, and ditches, pipes and flumes to convey it 
nine miles below, where it was to generate electrical power, were fea- 
tures of the project, as was also the electric railroad from Rumsey to Clear 
Lake. The probable real purpose of this plan was to use the appropriated 
water for irrigating in Yolo county. 

J. D. Stephens had filed notice of appropriation of water from Cache 
creek in Yolo county in June, 1859, the Clear Lake Waterworks Company in 
1871, Cacheville Agricultural Ditch Co. in the same year, the Capay Ditch Co. 
1879. Dozens of claims were made in Yolo and Lake counties which ended 
with posting and filing. Some of these early claims and use of water formed 
the basis upon which the Yolo Water and Power Company is now conducting 
extensive operations. 

The acquisition of Kelsey creek falls to generate electric power for Lake 
county was agitated by citizens of Kelseyville in February, 1894. 

The U. S. Department of Agriculture thoroughly investigated the Clear 
lake and Cache creek irrigation and power possibilities in 1890, through James 
M. Wilson, C. E. 

C. G. Baldwin of Claremont, near Pomona, sought rights to utilize 
waters of lake, promising power and light to towns in the county. 

Westinghouse Electrical Company offered in November, 1896, to con- 
struct a railroad from Vallejo to Lower Lake, in consideration of $20,000 
subsidy from each of Lake and Napa counties, and grant by riparian owners 
of their lake frontage. 

The Clear Lake Electric Power Company secured twenty 40-acre tracts 
of land in Cache creek canyon, and completed the survey for their dam in 
March, 1898. This corporation proposed to use jiower for lighting but not 
for railroad purposes. The directors in 1898 were R. Wylie, president ; J. K. 
Eraser, vice-president; E. P. Clendenin, IT. P. Goodwin. E. H. Winship, gen- 
eral manager. 

Thomas J. Rodman sought in 1904 to build dam and keep outlet free of 
obstruction, not to allow water to rise above Gyi feet above C. M. Hammond 
low water mark. Attorney General Webb gave his opinion July 20, 1904, 
that state has control of Clear Lake. Senator J. B. Sanford introduced bill in 
Legislature February 25. 1905, for an appropriation of $20,000 to widen and 


deepen outlet of lake to prevent winter damage. Bill passed the Senate but 
v/as defeated by Ways and Means Committee. 

Construction of the Snow Mountain Power and Water Company project 
of utilizing Eel River in Gravelly Valley for electrical power in Mendocino 
county was completed in 1907. 

The Central Counties Land Company Bubble 

Of all the paper projects and promotion schemes which had after repeated 
failures made Lake county water development and railroads a byword, probably 
the most sensational was that of the Central Counties Land Company, which 
absorbed the county's interest in 1906 and 1907. This was one of the activities 
of J. Dalzell Brown, who was sentenced in April, 1908, to San Quentin peni- 
tentiary for eighteen months for his part in wrecking the California Safe 
Deposit and Trust Co. Lake county people received much of the money of the 
depositors in that wrecked institution. 

The most widely advertised part of the Central Counties Land Com- 
pany's project was the construction of a boulevard entirely around the cir- 
cumference of Clear lake, a distance of eighty miles. One unit of this, a 2000,- 
foot wooden trestle bridge across an arm of the northern end of the lake, was 
completed in September, 1907, at a cost of $12,000. Brown had a splendid 
concrete mansion built on the northeast shore at a cost of $60,000. The Hotel 
Benvenue in Lakeport was bought and luxuriously furnished, principally 
for the use of Brown and his associates when in the town. Underlying these 
frills was the plan to acquire the lake waters for power and irrigation pur- 
poses. E. P. Vandercook, one of Brown's associates, filed an appropriation 
of 30,000 inches in Cache creek, in December, 1906. The Capay Ditch Com- 
pany and Yolo County Consolidated Water Company lands along Cache 
creek, the holdings of the Craig and Stephens interests, were deeded to the 
new corporation. Riparian lands about the lake were bought at high prices. 
The ranch of Heinze Springe, comprising three miles of lake frontage, upon 
which the Brown mansion was built, was bought for $55,000. Of this, $27,000 
was paid Springe in various installments, and later, upon the company's failure, 
he recovered the land and the mansion, beside retaining the money paid. 

The Yolo Water and Power Company Operations 

A deed of all the company's holdings to cover a $5,000,000 bond issue was 
filed in Lake county in October, 1907. Several efforts to rehabilitate the cor- 
poration's project were unsuccessful. Its property interests have recently 
been acquired by the Yolo Water and Power Company. 

The latter company, the only one in the county's history engaging in ex- 
tensive development work and apparently capable of carrying out its 
plans, commenced operations early in 1912. A blanket condemnation suit was 
commenced against all the owners of lake frontage, 207 individuals in all. With 
one exception, that against W. P. Mariner, these suits have not been prose- 
cuted, but the company has been buying riparian lands or overflow rights. A 
concrete dam has been built across Cache creek at the Fowler mill site, 
intended to raise the lake level ten feet above low water mark. A dredger 
has also been built and commenced operations at reclamation work. 


County Development 

Commencing in 1907, the county supervisors adopted the plan of con- 
structing steel and concrete bridges to replace wooden structures, and the 
following were built, at the rate of one a year: 150-foot steel bridge across 
Scotts creek near Upper Lake, 1907, cost $5,630 ; 300-foot steel, across Kelsey 
creek at Kelseyville, December, 1907, cost $13,800; concrete, crossing St. 
Helena creek at Middletown, July, 1908, $5,865 ; steel, crossing Cache creek 
near Lower Lake, October, 1909, $4,358 ; crossing Scotts creek at Sailor 
ranch in Scotts Valley, 1910; smaller bridges over Middle and Clover creeks 
above Upper Lake, 1911; over Copsey creek. Spruce Grove district, 1914. 

Railroad Projects 

With n(jt a mile of railroad within her borders. Lake county history has 
been a succession of projects on paper and in the air, with but few ever 
reaching any material performance. It was a favorite joke with Judge T. B. 
Bond, an old-time lawyer of Lakeport, that he had in his time subscribed a 
million dollars for railroads, but was never called upon to pay a cent. The 
rim of mountains encircling the county has been a discouraging obstacle to 
railroad construction. 

The earliest project was probably that from Rumsey up the Cache creek 
canyon, for which a survey was made by R. W. Gorrill in 1879. It was 
supposed to have been fostered by the Southern Pacific. 

Marshall Arnold of Lakeport was the chief promoter of a road from 
Ukiah in 1884, in which considerable Lake county capital was expended. The 
Taylor scheme from Hopland on a mileage basis soon followed this. A road 
from Napa county by the McNulty-Pettibone syndicate in 1884 gave great 
promise for a time, and was believed to have been blocked by the Southern 
Pacific. Col. Fred Long proposed a wooden railroad from Hopland soon after 
completing his wagon road. 

A survey was made via Blue Lakes to connect with the then San Fran- 
cisco and North Pacific railroad at Ukiah, in 1890. Another survey was made 
from Ukiah via Blue Lakes and Scotts Valley, by F. H. Long in 1891. Collis 
P. Huntington of the Southern Pacific proposed in the same year to build into 
Lakeport for the consideration of the use of Clear Lake waters. A. H. Spurr 
offered a proposition to Huntington in 1892, but received no satisfaction. 

An electric line was proposed from Pieta to Lakeport in 1892, twenty miles 
of road and equipment to cost $120,000. 

The Clear Lake and Russian River Railway and Navigation Company 
was incorporated in November, 1892. The first directors were F. W. Gibson, 
president ; A. H. Spurr, R. W. Crump, D. W. White, M. Justus, A. Levy, C. E. 
Phelan, M. S. Sayre, W. J. BiggerstaiT, William Gessner, H. B. Wells, L. 
Sailor, W. D. Rantz. Its stock subscription required that no money should 
be paid until the road was in operation. 

At a mass meeting at the court house in Lakeport, October 1, 1893, the 
Clear Lake and North Pacific railroad, a new proposition, was submitted. 
The previous Clear Lake and Russian River Company favored this, and urged 
stock subscribers to transfer their subscriptions to the new company. E. B. 
Taylor solicited subscriptions. He and M. S. Sayre drew up a construction 
contract and placed it in escrow in a San Francisco bank. Grading was to 


l>egin at once. Professor Kelly made the survey and estimated the total cost 
at $300,000. 

Richard W'ylie proposed in 1896 a road from Napa county through Conn, 
Sage, Chiles and Pope valleys, thence up Butts canyon to Middletown, the 
mines and springs. Lower Lake, up the lakeshore to Kelseyville and Lake- 
port, a distance of eighty-five miles. 

In June, ISOO. W. B. King projected the San Francisco and Clear Lake 
railroad to build a broad-gauge steam road via \'allejo, Xapa, Sage and Pope 
valleys, to southern end of lake. He wanted Lake county to subscribe $50,000. 
This scheme was capitalized at $3,000,000. 

^V'hat is known as the Boggs road was incorporated in 1903, under the 
name of Clear Lake Railroad and Electric Power Company. Its capital stock 
was $1,000,000, and it asked a $60,000 subsidy. The directors were L. H. 
Boggs, Dr. W. R. Prather, J. W. Boggs, of Lake county ; G. W. Young of 
Napa. W. C. Phillips and R. H. Bingham of Los Angeles. G. M. Dodge 
surveyed the route from Cloverdale to Kelseyville. The Lakeport town trus- 
tees and the county supervisors granted franchises to this company, which 
vicre later forfeited for non-use. 

The Santa Fe companj- made a survey through Lake county near Potter 
Valley south to tidewater in 1904, in an elTort to tap the redwood regions of 
Mendocino and Humboldt. This, a likely project, was abandoned when that 
company joined with the Southern Pacific in the purchase of the California 
Northwestern, or Donohue road, giving the Santa Fe the desired feeder, 
in 1905. 

The Napa and Lakej^ort Railroad Company — the R. M. Hotaling project — 
was one which gave great promise of success in 1905 and 1906 ]\Iany citizens 
believe the earthquake and San Francisco fire of April 18, 1906, and the 
resulting money stringency, alone prevented the building of this road. W. M. 
Rank, W. A. Cattell, C. K. Field, R. H. Bishop, J. \Vilder, D, D. Sales, Geo. 
H, Alastick, James L. deFremery and Theodore A. Bell were associated with 
Hotaling. This company asked no subsidy, but offered part of its $2,000,000 
capital stock for sale at half par value. About $25,000 was subscribed, and 
many rights of way were given. 

Coincident with the highest point of this road's progress, the Clear 
I.ake and Southern Company came into the field. It endeavored to secure 
rights of way, but asked for no stock subscriptions. H. G. Comstock, Guy C. 
Calden, H. L. Johnson. J. \\'. Dorsey and A. H. Elliott addressed a meeting in 
Lakeport in October. 1905, making glittering promises, but nothing sub- 
stantial materialized. This move was apparently an effort to obstruct the 
construction of the Napa & Lakeport road. 

The next project of importance was a local enterprise. Col. J. E. Fulton, 
W. S. Fry, J. A. Sparks, D. F. Mclntire. \V, P. Mariner, J. J. Petty, R. M. 
Beattie, Dr. O. T. Griner of Lakeport, Dr. A. E. Dickenson and J. W. Pres- 
ton of Ukiah. J. R. Garner of Upper Lake, ^^'illiam Johnston of Kelseyville, 
"Pop" McCrea of McCrea's resort, were interested at periods of this road's 
promotion. First called the Sonoma and Lake County Railroad Compau)', 
when organized in the fall of 1906 and incorporated in April, 1907, the name 
was changed to Highland Pacific in September, 1909, when the capital stock 
was increased to $2,500,000. The route first proposed was from Lakeport 
via Highland Springs to Fulton on the Northwestern Pacific road. Later the 


survey, made by D. F. Mclntire, was extended to Santa Rosa. This company 
sold about $104,000 in stock. 

C. E. Loss, Walter M. James, T. F. Bonneau, William M. Willett, and 
FI. B. Chase promoted the Clear Lake Traffic Company in October, 1908, later 
incorporated as the Clear Lake Northern Railroad Company, capitalized "for 
$1,000,000. The names of William L. Gerstle, William H. Tevis and Henry 
T. Scott were later connected with this project. This company proposed a 
hue from Hopland or Pieta to Lakeport. and completed its survey in March, 
1909. The stock subscription in the county reached the sum of $127,000. 

R. D. Winters, then a prominent citizen and contractor of Lakeport, 
agitated a road from L'kiah via lilue Lakes in 1909, but met with little encour- 

The Santa Rosa and Clear Lake Railroad Company had been co-operating 
with the Highland Pacific at its start, but in December, 1910, projected a 
narrow-gauge road via Kellogg to Middletown and Lower Lake. J. W. 
Barrows and P. D. Reynolds were the engineers. A survey, several miles of 
trail, and some six-foot grade were accomplished. 

The latest and still pending railroad possibility is the Clear Lake Railroad 
Company. Its principal agitator was Z. T. Spencer, a merchant of Lakeport, 
when the project was launched at that place in March, 1911. The first plan 
was for a narrow-gauge road from Hopland to Lakeport, estimated to cost 
S200.000. D. F. Mclntire made a reconnoissance of the proposed route. The 
company was incorporated May 17 of that year, the first directors being L. H. 
Boggs, S. E. Brookes of Hopland, Milos M. Gopcevic, C. M. Hammond, presi- 
dent; Euvelle Howard, H. V. Keeling, C. C. McAIahan of Bartlett Springs, 
Joseph Levy, M. S. Sayre. Z. T. Spencer, A. H. Spurr. The capital stock was 
$500,000, of which 316 persons subscribed the total amount of ,$95,400. C. R. 
Rankin made the surveys. Over $78,000 in money was paid in by the stock- 
holders. Ground was broken at Hopland on November 18, 1911, and the 
contractors, Elliott & Axman, continued at intervals with the grading until 
April, 1912, completing about seven miles of the twenty-three mile route. 
All of the money subscribed was expended, and the directors found great 
difficulty in completing the financing. A renewed effort to sell $50,000 in 
stock, to make possible the required bond issue, was started in July, 1914, and 
promises success. The present directors are L. H. Boggs, president; M. S. 
Sayre, L. P. Clendenin, Lewis Henderson, H. V. Keeling, W. P. Mariner, 
S. E. Brookes. Joseph Levy, C. M. Hammond, A\'. P. Hill, A. H. Spurr. 


Officials, Schools, Churches and Fraternities 

Following are the princi])al public officials who have ser\ed Lake county 
since its organization, with the term of their service: 

Assemblyman, the county during these years being a sejiarate Assembly 
district: f. M. Coghlan, 1864-7; J. C. Crigler, 1868-71; W. W. Stillwagon, 
1872-3; S." K. Welch, 1874-5 and 1878-9; R.' \'. S. Ouigley, 1876-7; A. P. Mc- 
Carty, 1880; H. J. Crumpton. 1881-4; E. W. Britt. 1885-6; L. H. Gruwell, 
1887-8; C. M. Crawford. 1889-90; J. H. Renfro. 1891-2; these Lake county 
men elected from Colusa-Glenn-Lake district, Thos. ]. Sheridan, 1901-2; Frank 
II. Smy the, 1907-8. 


County Judge, O. A. Munn, 1861-3; J. B. Holloway, 1864-71; E. M. Paul, 
1872-9; Superior Judge, R. J. Hudson, 1880-9; R. W. Crump, 1890-03, died in 
office; M. S. Sayre, appointed 1903, elected 1904-14. 

Sheriff, W. H. Manlove, 1861-2 and 1868-9; J. C. Crigler, 1863-7 and 
1878-9; T. B. Burger, 1870-3; J. C. W. Ingram, 1874-7; Peter Burtnett, 1880-2; 
L. H. Boggs, 1882-8 and 1891-4; Gawn Moore, 1889-90; G. W. Pardee, 1895-8; 
John P. Moore, 1899-1906; George W. Kemp, 1907-10, killed m office May 5, 
1910; Lyon Eraser, 1910-14. 

Clerk, W. R. Mathews, 1861-5 ; S. Bynum, 1866-73 ; W. Mathews, 1874-5 ; 
H. A. Oliver, 1876-84; Thomas Bynum," 1885-6; M. S. Sayre, 1886-8; W. L. 
Anderson, 1889-94; H. W. Brewer, 1895-02; E. M. Alter, 1903, four months; 
Shafter Mathews, won contest for election, 1903-14. 

District Attorney, G. W. Marshall, 1861 ; Woods Crawford, 1862, 1866-7, 
1872-3, 1885-6; J. H. Thompson, 1863-5; S. K. Welch, 1868-71 and 1891-2; 
A. E. Noel, 1874-5; E. Townsend, 1876-7; D. M. Hanson, 1878-9 and 1883-4; 
R. W. Crump, 1880-2 and 1887-8; M. S. Sayre, 1889-90 and 1895-02; D. F. Mc- 
Intire, 1893-4; H. W. Brewer, 1903-6; Charles W. Haycock, 1907, died Feb- 
ruary 28, 1908; C. M. Crawford, appointed 1908, elected 1910-4. 

Recorder: Combined with clerk from 1881 to 1884; W. A. Thompson, 
1885-86, same official also auditor, 1887-8; N. Phelan, 1889-92; George W. 
Minstrell, 1893-8; Frank W. Beach, 1899-02; Euvelle Howard. 1903-6; J. W. 
Beck, 1907-14. 

Treasurer: N. Smith, 1861-2; J. B. Cook, 1863-7; W. S. Cook, 1868-71; 
T. W. Everett, 1872-7; David Williams, 1878-84; O. V. P. Day, 1885-8; R. V. S. 
Ouigley, 1889-92; P. T. Boone, 1893-4 and 1899-14; W. C. Moore, 1895-8. 

Assessor: E. Musick, 1861-3; N. Phelan, 1864-7 and 1880-1; H. H. Nun- 
nally, 1868-71; H. Allen, 1872-9; T- L. Smythe, 1882-6; W. H. Cunningham, 
1887-94; S. S. Russell, 1895-02; C. M. Young, 1903-6; Fred H. Merritt, 1907-14. 
Superintendent of schools : County clerk acted until 1864. T. Sleeper, 
1864-5; A. P. McCarty, 1866-7; J. W. Mackall, 1868-9; Mack Mathews, 1870-3 
and 1880-6; L. Wallace, 1874-7; J. W. Shirley, 1878-9; Mrs. S. M. Gillett, 
1887-94; Mrs. E. K. Harrington, 1895-8; Charles W. Haycock, 1898-06; Miss 
Hettie Irwin, 1907-14. 

Coroner: J. W. Smith, 1861; S. A. Copsey, 1864-5; L. T. Musick, 1868-9; 
W. R. Mathews, 1870-1 ; H. H. Lull, 1872-3 ; public administrator, L. C. Bur- 
riss, 1868-9; J. Jenkins, 1870-1: J. O'Shea, 1872-3; the two offices combined 
after this date; J. O'Shea, 1874-9; J. Male, 1880-2; Ira G. Yates, 1883-4; S. A. 
Copsey, 1885-8; W. M. Woods, 1889-92; Mack Mathews, 1892-8 and 1903-14; 
R. H. Lawrence, 1899-02. 

Surveyor: Joel Willard, 1862-5; L. M. Musick, 1866-7; I. N. Chapman, 
1868-9; George Tucker, 1870-5, 1883-4, and 1887-8; B. R. Wardlaw, 1876-7; 
R. H. Lawrence, 1878-9; J. A. Kelly, 1880-1; S. H. Rice, 1885-8; D. F. Mcln- 
tire, 1889-90 and 1906-14; J. B. Laughlin, 1891-2; Wright Mathews, 1893-04; 
John L. Stubbs, 1905, appointed on death of Wright Mathews, elected 1906, 
failed to qualify. 

Auditor: A. H. Spurr. 1889-90; H. B. Sheldon, 1891-2; R. H. Lawrence, 
1893-8; office combined with clerk 1899-02; F. W. Crawford, 1903-6: B. J. 
Turner, 1907-14. 


Tax Collector: Office combined with sheriiif until 1888; E. P. Clendenin, 
1889-90 and 1895-8; Elbert Hudson, 1891-4; office combined with treasurer 
1899-02; Frank R. Farrier, 1903-September, 1913, resigned; M. J. Manning, 
appointed, 1913-4. 

Supervisors : First district, in 1884 number changed to Second, S. Hunt- 
ing, 1861-3; D. D. Jones, 1864-7; J. W. Everett, 1868-71; A. F. Morrell, 1872-3, 
1878-80 and 1895-02; R. K. Nichols, 1874-7; L. H. Gruwell, 1881-2; R. F. 
Miles, 1882-6; H. H. Wilson, 1886-90; A. M. Akins, 1891-4; J. M. Adamson, 

Second district, number changed in 1884 to First; J. H. Jamison, 1861-5 
and 1876-7; E. L. Green, 1866-9; A. F. Tate, 1870-1; I. M. Davee, 1872-5; 
G. E. McKinley, 1878-82; T- M. Hamilton, 1883-4; Dallas Poston, 1885-8; C. M. 
Young, 1889-90; G. W. Rawson, 1891-2; George W. Kemp, 1893-6 and 1901-6; 
Frank H. Smythe, 1897-1900; Hazen Cheney, 1907-12; T. A. Read, 1912-4. 

Third district : J. W. Maxwell, 1861 and 1870-1 ; C. C. Rice, 1862-7 ; D. V. 
Thompson, 1868-9; J. B. Robinson, 1872-9; Wm. Gessner, 1880-2; L. A. 
Young, 1883-4; David Alexander, 1885-94; J. N. League, 1895-8; Charles W. 
Phillips, 1899-14. 

Fourth district, formed in 1884: L. A. Young, 1885-8; S. K. Welch, 
1889-92; William Gessner and Samuel Clendenin tied in November, 1892, 
election ; at special election in following month Gessner won and served until 
1896; George A. Lyon, 1897-04; Thomas Patten, 1905-14. 

Fifth district, formed in 1884: Lewis Henderson, 1885-08; John Kelsay, 

Lakeport Town Officials: First meeting. May 10, 1888. Dr. M. R. 
Chamblin, president; J. M. Hamilton, C. E. Phelan, Marshall Arnold, W. E. 
Greene, trustees; James N. Hamilton, clerk; W. A. Thompson, Treasurer; 
W. M. Woods, marshal; J. J. Bruton, attorney. H. M. Condict was appointed 
clerk in September, 1888, on the death of Jas. N. Hamilton. 

J. M. Hamilton resigned as trustee in 1889, and L. G. Simmons was 
appointed. M. R. Chamblin served until 1892; C. E. Phelan to 1890; M. 
Arnold to 1891, resigned, place filled by F. D. Tunis, to 1892; W. E. Greene to 
1894, president in 1891, and elected a-ifain 1899. Other trustees serving at 
various periods: Edward Cohn. 1890; P. T. Boone, S. S. Russell, 1892; David 
Williams and N. O. Smith, 1894; J. W. Byrnes, 1895; Sanford Bruton. B. N. 
Fisher, M. Wambold, 1896; Joseph Levy, 1898, and succeeding terms; W. T. 
Whitton, H. D. LaMotte, 1904; A. H. Spurr, 1904; J. M. Church, 1904; 
Samuel Edmunds, W. W. Page, R. M. Beattie, 1908; F. H. Boggs, 1910; 
W. C. Moore, Fred A. Greene, Dr. W. R. Lane, 1912. 

Succeeding clerks were A. B. McCutcheon, 1890; C. E. Phelan, 1891 ; M. S. 
Sayre, 1891, resigned in 1892, reappointed same year; H. V. Keeling, 1894-08; 
H. B. Churchill, 1908-14; George H. Neal, 1914. Treasurers: F. H. Boggs, 
on death of W. A. Thompson, 1894; Frank Howe, 1894-1903; John G. Crump, 
1903-14; P. T. Boone, 1914. Marshals: W. E. Hixson, 1891, on death of Woods; 
Sam Allen, 1891 ; James W. Laycock, 1892; J. E. Mitchell. 1894-8; R. E. Barry, 
1898-02; R. J. Hammack, 1902-08; J. H. Miller, 1908-14. Town attorneys: 
Charles F. Fishback, 1889; Thomas B. Bond, 1890; Woods Crawford, 1892; 
D. F. Mclntire, 1897-03; H. V. Keeling, 1903-10; H. B. Churchill, 1910-14. 
Town recorder: H. W. McGee, 1889; S. G. Gully, 1889; D. H. Atherton, 
1891 ; W. W. P. Bruton, 1895; J. J. Bruton, 1899-14. 



Of the early history of schools in Lake. county, the official records were 
destroyed in the courthouse fire of 1867. They existed from the time of county 
organization, the county clerk acting as superintendent of schools up to 1864. 
when T. Sleeper was elected to that office. The first school was established 
in Big valley, near the home of Thomas, or "Dobe," Boyd, now the Ricka- 
baugh ranch. The following districts were organized up to 1869, with a total 
attendance that year of 760 pupils: Cinnabar, Lower Lake, Excelsior, Rincon. 
Morgan Valley, Burns Valley, Loconoma, Uncle Sam, Kelsey Creek, Lake- 
port, Blue Lake, Big Valley, Pleasant Grove, Upper Lake. By 1881, Ash- 
land, Bachelor Valley, Bartlett Springs, Cobb Valley, Calayomi, Clover Creek, 
Cache Creek, Eureka, East Lake, Fair View, Great Western, Gravelly Valley. 
Highland, Lakeshore, Liberty, Mountain, Middletown, Spruce Grove, Sul- 
phur Bank and Scotts Valley districts had been formed and the attendance 
that year \yas 1569. Other districts formed since, some of which have lapsed 
or been merged into others, are : Mountain Mill, West Lake, Middle Creek. 
Alcove, established 1892; Mono, San Hedrin, Gruwell, Sunset, in 1896; 
Konocti, 1910; Hammond, 1912; Big Canyon, 1913, and Long Valley, 1913. 


The Methodist Episcopal Church South was the pioneer church within 
the bounds of Lake county, having been organized in a school house in Big 
Valley in 1857. Rev. Norman organized the church. Subsequent early pas- 
tors in Lakeport, Big and Scotts Valleys, were Revs. Hawkins, Jones and 
Clampett, up to 1865; P. O. Clayton, 1865; W. A. Spurlock, 1866; J.L. Porter, 
1867; Y. D. Clanton, 1868-9; H. X. Compton, 1870-1; L. J. Hedgpeth, 1872; 
John Woodin, 1873; W. E. Murry, 1874; R. F. Allen, 1875-7; I. C.Vendergast. 
1878-9; B. F. Burriss, 1880; J. C. C. Harris, 1881. 

The Episcopal church was represented under the title of Trinity Mission 
from 1876 to 1881, with Rev. W. S. Neals in charge. The present church was 
built by Mrs. A\^illiam B. Collier in 1901 as a memorial to her little son, John 
Pierre Collier. 

The First Baptist Church of Lakeport was organized in 1861, Rev. S. 
Reily being the first pastor. He was succeeded by Revs. J. N. Burroughs, 
1862; D. G. Loveall, 1863; T. D. Banner, 1865-6; B. Ogle, 1866-76; E. Waller. 
1876-8; D. L. Taylor, 1868; G. H. Lillard, 1879; R. C. White. 1880. 

Clear Lake Circuit of the Methodist Episcopal Church was organized 
in 1857. Early preachers were S. W. Norman, James Corwin, G. B. Davis. 
George A. Lyon, Noah Burton, Asa J. White. The first camp meeting was 
held at Upper Lake. The Kelseyville church was built in 1870. 

The Catholic church has had a mission in this field since 1867. The first 
priest was Father Luciano O'Suna. The St. Turibius Mission O. F. M., Rev. 
Fr. Philemon Toepfer, Superior, is planning to build a fine new church and 
parish house at Lakeport. 

The Presbyterian church at Lakeport was organized August 9, 1874. 
Lots for church site and parsonage were secured in 1878. The house of 
worship was built in a different location in 1883. The Upper Lake congrega- 
tion with its edifice was an integral part of the Lakeport church till 1912. 
For most of the time until 1907 the time and service of the ministry were 
shared with the Presbyterian church at Kelsevx'ille. .\11 nf the ministers 


were stated supplies though several times the congregation either called or 
Vi^as ready to call and settle a permanent pastor. The first membership 
including the Upper Lake congregation was thirteen. The succession of 
ministers serving six months or more is as follows : James L. Woods, five 
years, 1873-78; James A. Mitchell, one year, 1879-80; Jacob B. Rideout, five 
years, 1882-87; Stewart S. Caldwell, one year, 1887-88; Edwin H. Jenks, three 
years, 1888-91 ; Hervey W. Chapman, twelve years, 1891-04 (with one addi- 
tional year alone at Kelsey 1890-91) ; Henry C. Meredith, one-half year, 1905; 
(a Methodist, J. L. Woods, Presbyterian moderator of sessions) ; Wilhelm C. 
Spaan, two years, 1905-7; Winfield C. Scott, half a year, 1908-09; John P. 
Hearst, Ph.D., ten months, 1911 ; George F. Haerle (Congregational) 1912. 


ODD FELLOWS: Clear Lake Lodge No. 130, I. O. O. F., was organized 
at Lower Lake January 16, 1867. The charter members were W. P. Berry, 
D. M. Hanson, the only one now living; William Farmer, William Kesey, 
H. Allen, H. H. Nunnally and J. H. Berry. D. M. Hanson was the first Noble 
Grand. W. C. Goldsmith, still living, was initiated into this lodge in 1867. 
The lodge built its hall in 1868. 

Friendship Lodge No. 150 was organized at Guenoc December 25, 1868, 
with \\'illiam Farmer, J. H. Berry, H. H. Nunnally, O. Armstrong, M. Getz, 
AVilliam Amesberry and William T. Miles as charter members. Its first 
Noble Grand was J. H. Berry. They built a hall at Guenoc and in 1871 moved 
it to Middletown. A new hall was built in 1875. 

Lupyomi Lodge No. 173 was instituted at Lakeport July 16, 1870. The 
charter members were S. K. Welch, first Noble Grand ; Louis Charmak, W. L. 
Phillips, J. C. Parker, J. O. Johnson and J. W. Robbe. This lodge erected the 
brick building now known as the Scudamore & Co. store, on credit, and 
through neglect and mismanagement the creditors took it over in 1885, the 
lodge charter then being taken to Kelseyville. At the latter place the lodge 
built a hall in 1886, which was destroyed by fire in 1889, but promptly rebuilt. 
Konocti Lodge had been organized in Kelsevville in 1875, but lasted but a 
short time. 

Upper Lake Lodge was instituted January 8, 1876. The charter members 
were Dexter Witter, D. T. Taylor, Orrin Smith, Mark Asher, C. Johnson, C. 
G. Grove, L. Gurnett, W. Ballinger, R. P. White, W. H. Woodard, G. K. 
McMath, F. M. Gully, and H. Palmer. Dexter Witter was the first Noble 
(irand. Their present building was erected in 1898. 

Lakeport Lodge No. 351 was instituted April 11, 1889, by L. Carpenter, 
(iawn Moore, George A. Lyon, S. S. Russell, first presiding officer ; Thomas 
Haycock, W. Keithly. J. R. Edwards, D. C. Rumsey, G. E. Moore and O. 

MASONS: Clear Lake Lodge No. 183, F. & A. M., was organized at 
Lower Lake February 4, 1867. The charter members were L. B. Thurman, 
Charles Wormwood, C. Noble Copsey, W. R. Mathews, T. M. Harris, D. M. 
Hanson, J. D. Hendricks. W. W. Davis, J. C. Crigler, Z. C. Davee, J. U. 
Adams. Charles Stubbs, F. M. Herndon, William Christiansen, C. C. Ruch, 
L. P. Nichols. L. B. Thurman was the first Master. 


Hartley Lodge No. 199 was instituted May 1, 1869. Its charter members 
were Allen D. Green, first Master under dispensation ; Woods Crawford, first 
Master under charter; D. V. Thompson, L. C. Burris, J. W. Casebeere, M. 
Sleeper, Thomas Hayter, Ed L. Greene, A. Levinson and William Meredith. 
The members serving as Master have been Allen D. Green, 1869; Woods 
Crawford, 1870-2, 1889, 1892-3 ; J. C. W. Ingram, 1873 ; James Parrish, 1874-5, 
1886, 1888; F. D. Tunis, 1876; John R. Cook, 1877; J. W. Mackall, 1878-9, 
1881-5, 1887; John W. Elliott, 1880; Marshall Arnold, 1890; G. W. Mallory, 
1891; Angelo Biggi, 1894; C. J. Monroe, 1895, 1900; C. W. Kellogg, 1896; 
David Williams, 1897; M. S. Sayre, 1898; G. W. Myers, 1899; J. F. McClure, 
1901 ; Euvelle Howard, 1902; Herbert V. Keeling, 1903-4; Jabez Banks, 1905; 

C. W. Haycock, 1906 and 1908; A. M. Reynolds, 1907;" Shafter Mathews, 
1909; J. M. Church, 1910; Dr. William R. Lane, 1911 : John D Monroe, 1912; 

D. W. Greene, 1913; George H. Neal, 1914. 

Lakeport Lodge No. 34, A. O. U. W., was organized May 23, 1878, with 
the following charter members: J. C. W. Ingram, first Master; H. A. Oliver, 
A. P. McCarty, Theodore Deming, R. W. Crump, J. B. Baccus Jr., A. A. R. 
Utting, Enoch Yates, J. F. Cowan, Thomas G. Adams, J. F. Scott, Dr. H. J. 
Crumpton, G. H. White, P. M. Daly, F. H. Vallette and G. W. Wilson. The 
lodge flourished for a period, but experienced reverses and finally dissolved 
about 1909. 



HON. JOHN QUINCY WHITE.— More than three decades of close 
personal identification with the bar and the bench of Mendocino county have 
given to Judge White an enviable reputation as an able attorney and an 
impartial jurist. In this era of restless change it is something to have spent 
so long a period in one community, something to have won his way to influ- 
ence as he has done, something to have risen to prominence in the eyes of his 
fellowmen and something to have erected steadily and conscientiously the 
intellectual and professional structure which indicates his aims and purposes 
in life. Withal it is something to indicate an attorney's capability and integ- 
rity that he should be chosen on the Democratic ticket in a Republican county 
to serve as judge of the superior court, and re-elected at the expiration of the 
first term, thus indicating the satisfactory nature of his impartial, able service 
as judge. It is also worthy of note that at the primary election in 1914 he was 
re-elected by a large majority. 

Descended from a long line of southern ancestors, Judge White was born 
in Lafayette county, Mo., February 3, 1852, and was a son of John and 
Lucretia (Williamson) White, natives respectively of Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky. Primarily educated in public schools, he later attended a seminary 
in Lafayette county and in 1872 came to California, where he attended the 
Christian College in Santa Rosa for four years. Immediately after his gradu- 
ation in 1876, receiving the A.B. degree, he returned to Missouri and matricu- 
lated in the law department of the State University at Columbia, where he 
completed the regular law course in 1878, receiving the degree of LL.B. 
During the same year he opened an office for law practice at Warrensburg, 
that state, .\ year later he removed to Colorado and engaged in practice at 
Trinidad, but in 1883 he again came to California, this time establishing resi- 
dence at Ukiah. where he has since risen to prominence as lawyer, citizen 
nnd jurist. 

In 1878 Judge White married Miss Lula H. Sparks, of Lexington, Mo., 
who died in Ukiah in 1908. In February, 1913, he married in San Jose Miss 
Harriet Ortley, a native of Santa Clara county, and a graduate of the San 
Jose State Normal. For some years she was principal of the Alviso schools. 
With his wife Judge White is a member of the Christian church. 

Shortly after his arrival in Ukiah Mr. White was elected district attorney 
of Mendocino county and that position he filled for two terms. At the 
expiration of his period of service he formed a partnership with W. P. Thomas 
under the firm name of White & Thomas and continued in active and suc- 
cessful practice until he was called to serve upon the bench. In 1902 he was 
elected judge of the superior court of Mendocino county and at the expiration 
of the first term in 1908 he was re-elected for another term of six years. 
Frequently he has been called to serve as judge in important cases in other 
counties of the state, and, wherever his service has been, he is known for the 
fairness and impartiality of his decisions. When off the bench his friend- 
ships are as strong as those of any man, but in court he is not swayed by the 


friendship of litigants or lawyers, and it is largely this attitude of mind that 
lias gained him the confidence of the judges of the higher courts. His name 
stands for fine public service and progressive citizenship. The movement for 
the establishment of the Mendocino state hospital .had in him a promoter from 
.its inception. During the erection of the administration building of the hospital 
group he served as a member of the board of directors and was consulted re- 
garding everv phase of the management, but later retired from the directorate. 

COL. CHARLES MIFFLik HAMMOND.— Ma Tel vineyard, situated 
on the eastern shore of Clear lake, and famous for the beauty of its site and 
abundant natural resources. Colonel Hammond's six hundred acre estate and 
palatial residence are noted among the most inviting spots in that section of 
Lake county — the East Upper Lake precinct. Thirtv years of scientific care 
have made it one of the show places of the county. Its grapes and olives have 
helped to make local products take first rank with their kind. Though he 
has become one of the most public-spirited citizens of the county. Colonel 
Hammond is a New Englander born and bred, his ancestors on both paternal 
and maternal sides having lived in or around Boston, Mass., for several genera- 
tions. He is a native of Massachusetts, born at Nahant August 4, 1861, but 
his early life was spent at New London, Conn., whither his parents moved the 
summer after his birth. Gardiner Greene Hammond, his father, was born in 
Boston in 1833, and died in 1902. By occupation he was a farmer, cultivating 
the fine tract of two hundred acres which he owned at New London, on Long 
Island sound. His wife, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Crowninshield 
Mifflin, was born in Boston in 1835, and difed in 1877. Of the si.x children 
born to them, Elizabeth Crowninshield, wife of William Appleton, of Boston, 
was killed in a railroad accident in the year 1880, at the age of twenty-three ; 
she left one child. Gardiner Greene, Jr., is a resident of ^lassachusetts. Charles 
Mifflin is mentioned below. Susan Greene is the wife of William O. Edmands, 
of Lake county, a farmer. Mary Crowninshield, who died leaving two chil- 
dren, was the wife of Edward Brooks and lived at Hyde Park, Mass. Edward 
Crowninshield, who lives on the old home place at New London, Conn., mar- 
ried Anna Chapin Rumrill. of Springfield, Alass. 

Charles Mifflin Hammond passed his boyhood on his father's farm at New 
London. \\'hen eleven years old he entered St. Paul's School at Concord, N. 
H., a preparatory institution for boys, where he took the classical course, 
graduating in 1879. In the fall of that year he matriculated at Harvard, 
where he pursued the general course, graduating in 1883. It was only a few 
months later that he came out to California, arriving at Rutherford, Napa 
county, in January, 1884. To acquire the necessary experience he began 
work as a farm hand for Captain Niebaum, who was a vineyardist, and on 
whose place he gained his first knowledge of viticulture, learning the care of 
the grapevine and its product thoroughly. From the start he studied his 
chosen work scientifically, and time has proved that his efforts have not been 
wasted. During his first year in California he made a trip into Lake county 
and was so well impressed with the land that in partnership with his brother 
Gardiner he made a purchase of twelve hundred and thirty-four acres, in the 
Upper Lake precinct, taking possession on November 1st. His brother sub- 
sequently sold his interest in this tract to their brother-in-law, Mr. Edmands, 
who now owns about six hundred and forty acres of the property. Colonel 
Hammond retaining six hundred. He has beautified his land by extensive im- 


provements and systematic development, and the natural advantages of the 
site have been turned to the best possible use. Twenty years ago he set out an 
olive orchard of twenty acres, which is still in prime bearing condition, and he 
also has a vineyard of twenty-five acres, the varieties including Black Bur- 
gundy, Alataro, Carignan, Cabernet Sauvignon, a few Zinfandels, Sauvignon 
Vert, and White Semillon. His beautiful field lands are also a valuable 
portion of the property, and he has given proper attention to their cultivation, 
which has proved highly profitable. Many of Colonel Hammond's ancestors 
have been manufacturers and men of large affairs in other lines of business, 
hut agriculture has evidently been a wise choice in his case, though undoubt- 
edlv the business ability he has inherited has been an important factor in the 
handling of his large interests, which he has managed with consummate abil- 
ity. His home is four miles southeast of the town of Upper Lake. 

As might be expected from one of his training, accustomed to environ- 
ments where literary education and general culture have become a matter of 
course. Colonel Hammond has been zealous in securing such benefits for his 
adopted community, and it was largely due to his efforts that the only high 
school in Lake county, the Clear Lake Union high school at Lakeport, was 
established. His strenuous efforts and material help made the school possible, 
and he is still serving as one of its trustees. There are many other evidences 
of progress in Lake county introduced or encouraged by him. Though con- 
servative and not given to favoring things which have merely the attraction of 
novelty to recommend them, he is a true friend of progress and good govern- 
ment, as he has shown on numerous occasions. He has given his influence 
and substantial aid to the Clear Lake railroad, is a director of the company, 
and was Lake county's representative in the Sacramento Valley Development 
Association. Straightforward and outspoken. Colonel Hammond is thor- 
oughly sincere and honest in his views and in giving expression to them, 
and though he may have met and incurred opposition it has been in the 
spirit of his ancestors who preferred to fight in the open rather than use 
roundabout means of gaining their ends. His heritage of training and con- 
science would permit him to take no other course than the direct one, and all 
his methods will bear close scrutiny, and not leave unpleasant surprises for 
the future to reveal. From his own large possessions, and the extent to which 
their value has been endangered by the dam on Cache creek, the outlet of 
Clear lake, being built by the Yolo Water & Power Company, it might seem 
that his efforts to stop the activities of that company were actuated by selfish 
motives, but it is well known that protection for himself will mean the same 
for many others, and he has made stubborn resistance to encroachments, in 
behalf of his fellow citizens as well as on his own account. He has led the 
opposition to the company and has proved a powerful adversary, his strict 
integritv holding the confidence of his co-operators, and his unyielding dis- 
])osition in what he believes to be a just cause encouraging them to hold out 
lor their rights, for the attempts of the Yolo company to acquire the shore 
lands of the lake for a sum which would be less than a million dollars — • 
which acquisition would virtually control the forty thousand acres of the lake 
Ijroper — he considers to be absolutely ridiculous. From the Yolo company's 
own figures it is shown that the value of ten feet of water in the lake, when 
used for power and irrigation purposes, is worth a million dollars a year, 
and he sees no reason whv this should not accrue to the people of the county 


;uinually instead of a beggarly pittance being paid once to a few lake shore 
owners. The closing of the dam would absolutely destroy many thousands 
of acres lying below the proposed high water level of ten feet, and two-thirds of 
Colonel Hammond's place would be ruined, as it would be under water till 
a period of the year when it would be impossible to farm it. The Colonel 
would like to see what he considers Lake county's greatest asset conserved 
and saved for the use and benefit of her people, as he believes the wealth 
of the county generally will be greater if her resources are devoted to enrich- 
ing them instead of an outside corporation. Hence his support has been 
given to the side he regards as most deserving. 

Colonel Hammond acquired his title by being appointed to serve on the 
staff of Gov. James N. Gillett of California with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, 
and has kept up old associations through his membership in the University 
and Harvard clubs of San Francisco. He also belongs to the Somerset Club 
of Boston. On political questions he adheres to the Republican party, and is 
unfailing in his loyalty to its traditions and former achievements, the glories 
of its triumphs during the Civil war period, and the years of unbroken suc- 
cess which followed. 

On December 18, 1888, Colonel Hammond was married, in Massachusetts, 
to Miss Harriet Paine Lee, daughter of George Cabot Lee, the sister of the 
first wife of ex-President Roosevelt. They have no children. Mrs. Hammond 
was formerly a Unitarian, but she is now associated with the Episcopal Church. 

EDWARD PORTER. — The proprietor of the Richelieu, a native son of 
Ukiah, was born June 10, 1868, and is the son of Edward and Julia E. (Weller) 
Porter. The father, who was born and reared in Iowa and there learned the 
trade of harness-maker, came across the plains with oxen and wagons about 
1865 in company with his father-in-law, Elisha Weller, and other members of 
the same family. Arriving in Mendocino county, Mr. Weller took up land 
three miles south of Ukiah and Mr. Porter took up work at his trade. The 
former prospered to such an extent that he ultimately held the title to three 
large ranches, but the latter, less fortunate in his business undertakings and 
starting back to the east, was never heard of again, the supposition being that 
he met with an accidental death on the plains. Surviving him are four children, 
namely : John E., now of Bakersfield ; Van A., who is living at Upper Lake ; 
Edward, of Ukiah ; and Malinda May, Mrs. Tallman, who makes her home at 
Bartlett Springs, Lake county. The mother is now the wife of P. C. Phelps 
and is living at Upper Lake, Lake county. 

After he had completed the studies of the Ukiah public schools Edward 
Porter took up the task of earning a livelihood and for a time worked on the 
ranch of his mother in Lake county. Later he followed other occupations. For 
nine years he was employed as stage driver for Len Barnard between Fort 
Bragg and Westport. Upon returning to Ukiah he engaged with B. S. 
Hirsch of the Grand hotel for three years, since which time he has been 
proprietor of the Richelieu. In Ukiah he was united in marriage with Miss 
Lulu E. Rhodenbaugh, who is a native of Kansas City, Mo. Although not a 
partisan in politics, he is stanch in his support of Republican principles. 
While making his headquarters at Fort Bragg he was an active member of 
Alder Glenn Parlor No. 200 in that town, also took an influential part in the 
work of Santana Tribe No. 60, Improved Order of Red Men, and since return- 
ing to Ukiah he has become a member of Camp No. 319, F. O. E. 


HON. MORTON SMITH SAYRE.— The judge of the superior court 
o{ Lake county, who is likewise president of the Bank of Lake and vice-pres- 
ident of the Clear Lake Railroad Company, as well as a large stockholder in 
the Northern California Telephone Company, was born at Reedtown, Seneca 
county, Ohio, December 2Z. 1847, and is a son of John B. and Mary A. 
(Hanks) Sayre. The father, a native of Benton Center, Yates county, N. Y., 
!:iarried Miss Hanks in Steuben county, that state, and took his young wife 
to the then frontier of Ohio, where he improved a farm. Four children were 
born on the Ohio homestead and about 1853 the family returned to York 
state, where the four youngest children were born. All but one of the eight 
lived to maturity, namely: Evaline, who died at the age of eighteen years; 
Morton Smith, the well-known jurist of Lake county; Rozilla G., the widow 
<f Theodore Colgrove and a resident of Los Angeles; Grattan W., a railroad 
man connected with the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad, with headquar- 
ters in Chicago; George H., a gold miner now at Tonopah, Nev. ; Dwight O., 
u stock dealer living in Missouri ; and Angle F., wife of V. S. Johnson, of 
South Dakota. 

Between the years of six and ten Judge Sayre lived on a farm in Steuben 
county, N. Y., and attended the public school in that vicinity. About 1857 
his father was injured so seriously that he was left an invalid' and, no longer 
able to engage in farming, he removed to Hammondsport, Steuben county, 
where in an effort to regain his health the savings of years of arduous labor 
were expended. However, the son was sent to the common schools and 
Hammondsport Academy. While a student in the academy he relinquished 
school work to enlist in the Union army. Early in 1864, when but sixteen 
years of age, he became a private in Company E, One Hundred and Sixty- 
first New York Infantry. Assigned first to the department of the Gulf under 
General Banks and later to an engineering brigade on the lower Mississippi 
under Colonel Bailey, he was next transferred to the Thirteenth Army Corps 
under General Canby and marched from Fort Morgan at the mouth of Mobile 
bay to Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, where he took part in the memorable 
.siege, thence crossed the bay to Mobile. In November, 1865. when still less 
than eighteen, he was mustered out at Tallahassee, Fla.. and honorably dis- 
charged. During his absence in the army his parents had moved to Almond, 
Allegany county, and he joined them there, attending the local academy for 
three winters and earning a livelihood by day tasks in the summer months. 
He also taught at Bishopville, N. Y., for one winter. When twenty-one he 
entered Alfred University, but stopped the next winter to teach school. 
Through all of this period he was earning his own way and paying for his 

Attracted to Iowa by its opportunities, Mr. Sayre lived at Denison from 
the spring of 1870 until 1880. In 1872 he married at Almond, N. Y., Miss 
Delia Genung, of Almond, that state, who died in 1877, leaving one child, 
Burt G., now in the hardware business at Lakeport. Beginning in a bank 
at Denison as clerk, Mr. Sayre rose to be assistant cashier as well as attor- 
ney for the institution. In his leisure hours he had read law with Judge M. 
H. Wygant, of Denison, and about 1876 he was admitted to the bar at Council 
Bluffs, not, however, practicing in that state except in connection with the 
bank's law affairs. A serious throat trouble caused him to resign his bank 


position and seek a change of climate in California, where he spent the years 
1880-85 in business in San Francisco. Being not in the least benefited there, 
he came to Middletown, Lake county, in 1885, and immediately his health 
began to improve, which caused him to become a permanent resident of the 
county. Elected county clerk in 1886, he moved to Lakeport during Decem- 
ber of that year. After two years as clerk and two years as district attorney, 
from January, 1891, to January, 1895, he engaged in law practice with ex- 
Judge R. J. Hudson, under the firm title of Hudson & Sayre. In 1894 he was 
again chosen district attorney and re-elected in 1898, serving until January 1, 
1903. At the expiration of the last term he formed a law partnership with 
II. V. Keeling under the name of Sayre & Keeling. 

On the death of Hon. R. W. Crump he was appointed by Governor 
George C. Pardee to fill the vacancy as judge of the superior court. In 1904 
he was elected to the same office and four years later was again chosen as 
his own successor. His decisions in the court are governed bv a wide knowl- 
edge of the law and a uniform impartiality of temperament and have won 
for him the respect of the higher courts, as well as the admiration of local 
people and a reputation for high legal attainments and wise decisions. With 
his wife, who prior to their marriage on New Year's day of 1907, was Mrs. 
Maude M. Swayze of Lakeport, he has an enviable social standing in circles 
where culture and breadth of mental vision, supplementing honorable prin- 
ciples, are the open sesame. In politics he votes the Republican ticket. 
Always interested in Grand Army work, he has been the most efficient and 
popular promoter of its interests and has served as commander of Gaylord 
Post at Upper Lake. At this writing he is inspector of the Nineteenth Ma- 
sonic district. He was made a Mason at Denison, Iowa, and afterward took 
the Royal Arch degrees at Dunlap. With his wife he has co-operated in the 
work of the Eastern Star and the Rebekahs, while he is now past noble grand 
of Lakeport Lodge No. 351, I. O. O. F. Besides his interests in the bank 
and the railroad and his financial connection with other local enterprises, he 
is the owner of town property at Lakeport and also unimproved country hold- 
ings as well as two improved farms in Lake county, all of his interests being 
concentrated in the county to whose permanent upbuilding he has been a 
constant contributor. 

WILLIAM O. EDMANDS.— There are two notable estates on the east- 
ern shore of Clear lake, in Lake county, those of William O. Edmands and 
his brother-in-law. Colonel Hammond. They have been established here since 
the summer of 1884, when three Boston men, including Colonel Hammond, 
his brother Gardiner Hammond and Mr. Edmands, purchased twelve hundred 
and thirt3'-four acres in the Upper Lake precinct, Gardiner Hammond subse- 
quently selling his interest in the tract to INIr. Edmands, who now has about 
six hundred and forty acres of it. He has made further purchases, his hold- 
ings comprising between eight hundred and nine hundred acres. Chosen pri- 
marily for its agricultural and horticultural possibilities, this property has 
been improved under the ownership of Mr. Edmands with the idea of bring- 
ing out all of its advantages, with the result that he has a beautiful country 
home and a large acreage whose value is being increased yearly by scien- 
tific cultivation. The systematic care expended on the land has been pro- 
ductive of effects reaching beyond the immediate reward of good crops, it 


has vitalized several branches of fruit culture in the locality and stimulated 
other agricultural interests. Mr. Edmands is occupied with the oversight 
of his extensive operations as general farmer, stockman, orchardist and viti- 

Mr. Edmands was born in Massachusetts December 23, 1859, at Newton, 
just outside of Boston. His father, also named William O. Edmands, was 
a business man of Boston, connected with many substantial enterprises, as 
more of his ancestors have been, principally in railway and financial opera- 
tions. His mother, whose maiden name was Frances A. Stickney, was born 
in Boston, and was also of old New England lineage. She spent her later years 
in California, much of the time at Lakeport, and died in August, 1912. William 
O. Edmands is the only child of his parents. In his early boyhood he attended 
public and private schools in Newton, where he prepared for college. Matricu- 
lating at Harvard in 1880, he pursued a course of special scientific study there 
for three years. He came to Lake county, Cal., in the summer of 1884, and 
was one of the trio of Boston men who invested heavily in lands on the 
eastern shore of Clear lake as previously mentioned. His home has been here 
ever since. The attractions and possibilities of the location appealed to him 
so strongly that he found real pleasure in supplementing nature's gifts with 
man's industry, and the ideal conditions he has developed are the outcome 
of years of thoughtful care. He has superintended personall}' the planting 
and culture of his orchards, vineyards, olive and eucalyptus groves ; the lay- 
mg out of drives ; improvements along the lake shore ; cultivation of plow 
lands ; and the numerous other details involved in the proper management of 
an estate so thoroughly well handled. Mr. Edmands is a fancier of blooded 
stock of all kinds. By well-directed energy he has accomplished much to en- 
hance the attractions and convenience of his property, and he has not spared 
himself in looking after it. The ranch is located on the shores of Clear lake, 
about four miles east of Upper Lake. 

Mr. Edmands has a splendid residence on a hill overlooking an arm of 
Clear lake. There is nothing lacking which contributes to the pleasure or 
comfort of the family, and a launch and automobiles make all the local points 
easy of access. Mr. Edmands is a true New Englander on the question of 
education and in public-spirited support of all projects for the general good. 
He has stood firmly with his fellow landowners in Lake county to maintain 
his rights against the aggressions of the Yolo Water & Power Company, 
which he considers a menace to individual property holders under present 
conditions. He has been a Republican in politics, and is a great admirer of 
many of the policies and aims of his friend Colonel Roosevelt. A representa- 
tive of old Pilgrim stock, he has the independent courage of thought and up- 
rightness of character which have typified his ancestors for many genera- 
tions, and his honorable motives and sincerity of purpose toward his fellow 
men have gained him the highest measure of respect from the people among 
whom he has settled. 

In 1888 Mr. Edmands married Miss Susan Greene Hammond, daughter of 
Gardiner Greene and Elizabeth Crowninshield (Mifflin) Hammond, who are 
more fully mentioned in the sketch of Col. Charles Alifflin Hammond, brother 
of Mrs. Edmands. To Mr. and Mrs. Edmands has been born one son. William 


GEORGE W. STOUT, M. D.— The distinction of being the oldest 
physician in j\Iendocino count)' in point of years of continuous professional 
service belongs to Dr. Stout, who arrived at Ukiah November 14, 1884, and 
since has built up an important practice extending throughout this section of 
the county. As might be expected of one identified Vifith the same community 
for a period considerably more than one-quarter of a century, he is earnest 
in support of progressive movements and capable in the forwarding of civic 
enterprises. Withal he is one of the local leaders in his profession and through 
a growing practice he has become an important factor in the professional 
history of Mendocino county. In addition to medical work and civic enter- 
prises he is interested in financial affairs and serves on the directorate of the 
Savings Bank .of Mendocino County. 

The history of the Stout family is traced to Seargent and Penelope Stout, 
who were identified with the early settlement of New Amsterdam. Jacob M. 
Stout, the father of our subject, was born at Oxford, Hamilton county, Ohio, 
in 1816, and in 1826 removed with his father to Greene county, 111., where he 
was a practicing physician for forty-four years. The wife of Jacob M. Stout 
was in maidenhood Maria Henderson, the descendant of Scotch and English 
antecedents. She became the mother of eight children, of whom seven are 
living, the subject of this sketch being the youngest. Two of the sons, H. C. 
and J. C, participated in the Civil war as members of Company I, Ninety- 
first Illinois Infantry. H. C. passed away in Illinois, and J. C. is now a prac- 
ticing physician in Oakland, Cal. 

Near Whitehall, Greene county, 111., George W. Stout was born February 
7. 1858. When he was ten years old he found himself on the frontier, and 
the experiences in self-reliance there gained proved of much value to him in 
later life, \^'hen he was fourteen years old he rode over six hundred miles 
from Illinois to Kansas, accomplishing the trip in t*en days. All the phases 
of frontier life became familiar to him during the years that he rode the range 
and handled stock. Meanwhile he had attended grammar school in Illinois, 
and after completing his studies found employment in a drug store and 
studied medicine with his father and his brother, J. C, both practicing physi- 
cians. Under them he gained much practical experience as a physician before 
his graduation from the American Medical College of St. Louis in 
1883, so that with the conferring of his degree he was ready for successful 
work as a practitioner. A trip to California in 1875 had given him a favorable 
impression of the Santa Clara valley, so in 1883 he returned to that part 
of the west, joining his brother, J. C, at San Jose. From that place he came 
to Ukiah the following year, and has practiced medicine here for thirty years. 

Dr. Stout was married in Ukiah July 12, 1904, to Miss Lorena B. Harris, 
a native of California and the daughter of William Harris. The latter, a 
native of Indiana, came to Dutch Flat, Placer county, Cal., in the early '50s. 
Dr. Stout is a member of Ukiah Lodge No. 315, K. P., of which he is past 
chancellor. He is a member of Schaffner Co., Uniform Rank, and is colonel 
of the Fifth Regiment, Uniform Rank, of California. He is also a member 
and past master of Abell Lodge No. 146, F. & A. M. ; past high priest of Ukiah 
Chapter No. 53, R. A. M., and past eminent commander of Ukiah Com- 
mandery No. 33, K. T. He claims the distinction of being the second oldest 
living past associate grand patron of the Grand Chapter, Order of Eastern 
Star, California. 


HALE McCOWEN. — A long service in the official employ of Mendocino 
county has been sufficient to demonstrate the ability of Hale McCowen and 
his admirable qualifications for a position requiring accuracy, promptness and 
a high order of intelligence. Such is the success of his record as county 
clerk that he has been accorded honors from others not of his own locality, 
and during the convention of the County Clerks" Association of California, 
held at San Francisco in 1912, he was signally honored by being elected 
president of the association, a position that he is well qualified to fill with 
credit to himself and satisfaction to all concerned. To be selected for such a 
position affords ample testimony as to his high standing among those filling 
positions similar to his own, while his popularity in ?iIendocino county is 
indicated by his long retention in public office. 

Hale McCowen was the son of Thomas and Amily (Leonard) McCowen, 
both of whom were born in New Jersey, but who came to Mason, Ohio, with 
their respective parents, there growing to mature years and marrying. 
Thomas McCowen was a physician in Ohio, and later near Indianapolis, Ind. 
In 1855 he removed to Douglas county, Kans., in 1857 starting across the 
plains with ox-teams. He became a pioneer farmer and physician in Potter 
valley, where he pre-empted land. On his retirement, he and his devoted 
wife located in Ukiah, where they spent their remaining years and passed 
away. Their family comprised five children: George, a dentist, now living 
retired in L'kiah ; Helen, Mrs. A. O. Carpenter, of LTkiah ; Emily, Mrs. Horton, 
of Seattle; Hale, and Blanche, Mrs. Landis, of Petaluma. 

The first impressions of Mendocino county gained by Hale McCowen 
were fixed upon his mind at the expiration of a tedious journey across the 
plains in a "prairie schooner" during the summer of 1857. At the time of 
landing in California he was a boy of nine, his previous years having been 
spent on a farm near Indianapolis, Ind., where he was born August 17, 1848, 
and where he had gained his first impressions of life. Although he found 
much to interest him in the undeveloped, unsettled west, there remained in 
his heart a homesick longing for the familiar conditions of his earliest years 
and at the age of eighteen he availed himself of an opportunity to return 
east, via Panama and New York, and in Havana, 111., he completed his studies 
in an academy. 

When Mr. McCowen returned to California from Illinois in 1869 he made 
the trip on the second through overland train, the journey taking fourteen 
days. Going immediately to the old homestead in Potter valley he there 
followed farming and stockraising until 1872, when he came to Ukiah to clerk 
in a store. Later, with the savings of that period of employment, he paid 
his expenses in Heald's Business College in San Francisco, where he was 
graduated in 1874, and was then employed by Dewey & Co., a large publish- 
ing house of that city, for a year. The next year he served as bookkeeper 
with Rea & Ellis, and then returned to a clerkship in Ukiah. During January 
of 1887 he was offered and accepted the appointment as deputy county clerk 
and auditor under Samuel D. Paxton. This represented the beginning of his 
association with the office of county clerk. Such was his ability in the posi- 
tion that he was nominated by acclamation and in November, 1890, was 
elected county clerk and auditor and continued to be re-elected his own suc- 
cessor from term to term until 1899, when the two offices were separated, and 
he was elected county clerk, in all being re-elected six times. That position 
he has filled with honor and fidelity up to the present time, and is undoubt- 


edl)' the oldest county clerk in point of years of service in the state of Cali- 

Meanwhile Mr. McCowen has been a leading factor in civic development. 
The growth of Ukiah is a matter of deep and constant interest to him. Its 
educational and moral upbuilding receives his generous aid and its business 
affairs have his substantial co-operation. Fraternally he is past noble grand 
of Ukiah Lodge No. 174, I. O. O. F., and is a member of Cornelia Rebekah 
Lodge No. 214. He was made a Mason in Abell Lodge No. 146, F. & A. M., 
in 1878, and is past master; is past high priest of Ukiah Chapter No. 53, R. A. 
M., and is past patron of Kingsley Chapter No. 58, O. E. S. ; also past eminent 
commander of Ukiah Commandery No. 33, K. T., and is a member of Islam 
Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of San Francisco. During the existence of the 
I. O. G. T. lodge he was worthy chief templar. 

The marriage of J\Ir. McCowen occurred in Redwood valley, August 18, 
1880, uniting him with Miss Fannie TTiomas, a native of Georgia, daughter of 
Dr. J. R. Thomas, a man of letters. To them have been born two children, 
Mary L., Mrs. Cunningham, and Hale, Jr., a -graduate of Leland Stanford 
University, with degree of J. D. He was elected district attorney of Mendo- 
cino county at the primary election August 25, 1914. 

ROBERT L. RICHARDS, M. D.— The medical superintendent of the 
Mendocino state hospital is an Ohioan by birth, parentage and education. 
Born at New Lexington in 1869, graduated from the Ohio Wesleyan L'ni- 
versity in 1891 with the degree of A. B., and from the Medical College of Ohio 
fmedical department of the University of Cincinnati) with the degree of M. D. 
in 1894, afterward an interne in the City Hospital of Cincinnati and a prac- 
ticing physician in Cincinnati, his residence in Ohio terminated with the 
year 1900. when he went abroad to devote especial study to nervous dis- 
eases in the L'niversities of Berlin and Munich. From the very beginning of 
his medical career he has been deeply interested in nervous and mental dis- 
eases, concerning which he is now regarded as an authority by members of the 
profession. He has been a frequent and liberal contributor to leading medical 
journals and wrote the section entitled "Nervous and Mental Disorders in 
Their Military Relations" in the most recent and complete work of this 
.sort, i. e., the two-volume edition of "Modern Treatment of Nervous and Men- 
tal Diseases" by White and Jellifife. Fraternally Dr. Richards is a member of 
Alpha Tau Omega and the Masons, while in the hne of his profession he is a 
member of the Alilitary Surgeons Association of the United States and the 
American Medico-Psychological Association. His father was Dr. A. B. Rich- 
ards, who was a graduate of the same medical college as his son, and who 
served as a surgeon in the Civil war. 

From the time of his arrival in San Francisco in 1902 until his resignation 
September 20, 1912, Dr. Richards was associated with the medical corps of 
the United States army as a specialist on mental troubles. The development 
and first introduction into the army of military psychiatry may be attributed 
to him. During the years of his identification with the medical corps he saw- 
service in Cuba and the Philippines, was stationed for fifteen months at Wash- 
ington, D. C, as surgeon in the government hospital for the insane, held an 
appointment as surgeon for the insane on Ward's island and also served as 
surgeon at the Presidio hospital, San Francisco. In all of these appointments 
he received recognition as an expert in mental diseases. Upon resigning from 
the army with the rank of Captain Medical Corps he became medical super- 


intendent of the Mendocino state hospital for the insane, succeeding E. W. 
King, M. D., who had served in that capacity from July 1, 1893, until April, 

The California state legislature in 1889 passed a bill authorizing the 
establishment of a hospital for insane at Talmage, three miles from Ukiah. 
The first board of managers were T. L. Carothers, Dr. E. W. King, Archibald 
Yell (all of Ukiah), J. B. ^^'right of Sacramento and Cornelius O'Conner of 
San Francisco. The site selected by these men is perhaps as beautiful and 
suitable as could be found in the valley and comprises one thousand acres lying 
in the foothill region, with distant stretches of valley and mountain providing 
picturesque environment and attractive view. The first board not only 
selected the site, but also built the main ward building, kitchen, laundry and 
boiler house. Subsequent boards erected the administration building, assem- 
bly hall, two cottages, stable, dairy barns and other buildings. The total 
cost of land, buildings, equipment and furnishings exceeds $1,000,000. The 
institution maintains a garden raising all vegetables needed except potatoes; a 
dairy furnishing the table with milk and butter ; a poultry yard providing 
eggs for kitchen use ; and fruit trees and vines that afford fruits and grapes 
for table use. Springs in the mountains east of the asylum fill a reservoir pro- 
viding the institution with a fine water supply and in addition there are sev- 
eral flowing and pumping wells. Over $500 per da)' is spent in maintain- 
ing the hospital, outside of the funds necessary for permanent improvements, 
construction and repairs. Electricity furnishes an adequate lighting system, 
modern plumbing has been introduced and every other modern convenience 
has been installed for the convenience of patients and attendants. A complete 
hydro-therapeutic outfit has been established in both the male and female 
departments and the laboratory and operating room equipments are complete 
and modern. Each patient receives a careful study by one of the staff and 
is then presented for consideration to the whole staff. Special attention is 
paid to occupational work for the patients and the results have been most 
satisfactory. The daily menu has been pronounced one of the best in the state 
by Professor Jaffa. 

Upon the opening of the hospital December 12, 1893, sixty patients were 
brought from the Stockton asylum and two days later a similar number came 
from the Napa asylum. So rapid has been the increase that there are now 
about ten hundred and fifty patients and more than one hundred and thirty 
employes, the whole forming a system directly under the control and scientific 
oversight of the medical superintendent and his trained assistants. 

HOWARD P. PRESTON.— The history of the Preston family is traced 
to old Southern ancestors, whose lives and accomplishments contributed to 
the making of history in that section of country. Tennessee was the field of 
activity for several generations and at Woodbury, that state, Howard P. 
Preston was born December 6, 1884. Woodbury was also the birthplace of 
his father, H. L. Preston, who is now president of the First National Bank 
of that city and one of the old-time bankers of the state, having been inti- 
mately associated with banking circles for the past thirty-three years. During 
the trouble between the north and south his sympathies were naturally with 
the Confederate cause and none of General Forrest's captains was more faith- 
ful and trustworthy than Capt. H. L. Preston, who commanded the Thirty- 
third Tennessee Cavalry. Four times he was wounded while on the field of 


battle, but none of them incapacitated him for service and he was enabled to 
finish his term of enlistment. For a time after the close of the war he carried 
on farming in Tennessee, but soon drifted into the banking business and has 
followed it continuously since. His wife in maidenhood was Thankful C. 
Doak, like himself a native of Tennessee, and the granddaughter of Rev. 
Samuel Doak, who bears the distinction of being the founder of the Presby- 
terian Church in America. Prior to this he had been a clergyman of note in 
Scotland. The mother passed away August 19, 1892. 

Seven children were born to H. L. and Thankful C. (Doak) Preston, all 
of whom are living and taking their place worthily in the world's activities. 
The eldest, W. D., is cashier of the First National Bank of Woodbury, Tenn., 
of which the father is president; T. R. is president of the Hamilton National 
Bank of Chattanooga, Tenn., and holds the same position in the Hamilton 
Trust and Savings Bank, this being an oflF-shoot of the parent organization 
(combined assets of the two banks being eight millions of dollars) ; Mina is 
the wife of Albert M. Dement, of Cortner, Tenn. ; C. AI. is cashier of the 
Hamilton National Bank of Chattanooga and the Hamilton Trust and Sav- 
ings Bank ; John ^^^ is United States district attorney for northern California ; 
H. L., Jr., is an attorney in Ukiah ; Howard P. completes the family. After 
completing the grammar school course in his home city he attended the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee in Knoxville, and left that institution in 1901. Subse- 
quently he was associated with the Thatcher Medicine Company, a wholesale 
drug company of Chattanooga, as traveling salesman for five years. His 
identification with the west and with Mendocino county in particular dates 
from the year 1907, when he went to Ukiah and became associated with the 
Ukiah Guarantee, Abstract and Title Company. As vice-president of the 
company he found his time fully taken up with the duties that the office 
imposed. After an association of about six years with the company he with- 
drew and came to Fort Bragg, and soon afterward organized the Fort Bragg 
Commercial Bank. The papers of organization bear the date of !Ma'rch, 1912, 
but it was not until two months later that the bank was opened for the receipt 
of business. The institution is housed in a substantial re-inforced steel and 
concrete structure especially built for the use of the bank, and is a model 
building of its kind. The Fort Bragg Commercial Bank was organized with 
a capital stock of $50,000, and now has a surplus of $7,000 and deposits to the 
amount of quarter of a million, all of which proves beyond question that it has 
passed the experimental stage. ]\Ir. Preston has been cashier of the bank 
since its organization, and much of the success of the institution has been due 
to his unexcelled business judgment and quick perception. 

The marriage of H. P. Preston occurred in Ukiah and united him with 
Miss Effie Case, who was born in Los Angeles, where she was reared and 
educated primarily, completing her education in the LTkiah high school. Po- 
litically Mr. Preston is a Democrat, stanch in his defense of that party's prin- 
ciples, and personally he is pleasing in manner, gracious in hospitality, and 
withal a gentleman in the best sense of the word. 

GEORGE T. HEYWARD.— It has been the good fortune of the North- 
western Redwood Company to secure for its service men of capacity for this 
arduous work, men possessing strong vitality and remarkable powers of en- 
durance, with the tireless energy' and resolute purpose that carries to suc- 
cessful completion the large enterprises inaugurated by the concern. One 


of the youngest of these assistants is George T. Heyward, son of Jesse Hey- 
ward and himself as stanchly devoted to the welfare of the company as has 
been his father. As a result of his industrious efforts he has advanted Step 
by step and has made good to a degree indicative of his native endowments 
of mind and body. Born at Guerneville, Sonoma couiity, January 5, 1888, 
he is a representative of a pioneer family of Northern California and inherits 
the virile, resourceful qualities that made his grandfather a forceful pioneer 
in the west. Both he and his father have been lifelong residents Of this sec- 
tion of the state and as native sons of the commonwealth have endeavored 
to promote its best interests, although taking little part in political campaigns 
aside from the casting of a Republican ticket at national elections. 

The grammar and high schools of Sonoma county afforded fair educa- 
tional advantages to George T. Heyward, whose keenness of observation and 
quickness of mental comprehension give him a fund of varied and valuable 
knowledge. Since coming to Willits in 1903 he has assisted his father, first 
taking quite a humble position and about 1910 receiving promotion to be 
assistant foreman, in which responsible position he is now engaged. The 
comfortable bungalow which he erected on State street is presided over 
graciously by his wife, Lela, who was born, reared and educated at Willits, 
and in Ukiah October 30, 1909, was united with him in marriage. Her 
parents are Everett and Margaret (Symonds) Endicott, the former for some 
years the postmaster at Willits, but now a resident of Berkeley. Both 'Sir. 
and Mrs. Heyward are actively associated with Willits Chapter No. 314, Order 
of the Eastern Star, and his Masonic connections include membership in 
Willits Lodge No. 365, F. & A. M., in which in 1910 he was made -Jl Mason. 
A young man possessing worth of character and energy of temperatnent, he 
is devoting himself whole heartedl}' to his duties and is a valuable acquisition 
to the community. 

HON. JOHN BUNYAN SANFORD.— Any history of Mendocino 
county would be incomplete without prominent mention of the "Gray Eagle 
of Democracy," the editor and proprietor of the Dispatch-Democrat of Ukiah, 
who as the controlling factor in a leading paper labors for the moral, educa- 
tional and commercial welfare of Mendocino county, and, while voluntarily 
drawing away from partisan prejudice, yet exhibits a striking devotion to 
the principles of his party. With an unusually profound knowledge of public 
affairs, with an unusually powerful mind capable of analyzing motives behind 
deeds, and with a temperament enthusiastic yet impartial, he is admirably 
qualified to guide the policy of an influential paper and to stand at the head 
of a great party organization. Since he assumed control, January 1, 1898, the 
Dispatch-Democrat has led the van in every movement for advancement, has 
advocated schools capable of affording the best training to the young, and 
has headed every enterprise for good roads, well-kept premises, substantial 
business blocks and modern improvements. Civic pride is apparent in the 
policy of the editor. As a pungent and forceful writer he has attained a 
wide reputation. His critical analysis of public events adds interest and value 
to the paper. \\'hile recognizing the widespread public unrest increasing 
in volume within the period of his recollection, he is not oblivious to the ele- 
ment of personal equation, which indeed more and more appeals to his humani- 
tarian nature. 


Born at Mulberry, Tenn.. Alay 17, 1869, a son of Rev. S. L. and Jane 
(Kennedy) Sanford, the former a Baptist minister holding successive pastor- 
ates at Ukiah. Potter Valley, Willits and Lakeport, Cal., John Bunyan San- 
ford received his training in the public schools of Ukiah, the San Jose State 
Normal School and the San Francisco Business College. For eight years he 
taught in Mendocino county, first at Yorkville and Boonville and later as 
principal of the schools at Willits and Point Arena. Continued interest in 
educational work was evinced by a service as a member of the Mendocino 
county board of education for several years. On relinquishing school work he 
entered the field of journalism and since has been at the head of the Dispatch- 
Democrat, making his home meanwhile at Ukiah. On Christmas day of 1898 
he married Miss Nina B. Hughes, daughter of Rev. J. H. Hughes, a prominent 
minister of the Christian Church. They have an only son, Henry Grady San- 
ford, born May 20, 1901. In fraternal work Air. Sanford is prominent. For 
four years he was high chief ranger of the Ancient Order of Foresters and 
for six years he was entrusted with the editorship of the Ancient Forester, 
finally resigning owing to the pressure of other duties. In the Iroquois 
State League he has been honored with the office of grand sachem. The 
Woodmen, Red Men, Elks, Eagles, Odd Fellows and Masons also number 
him among the members of their local organizations. 

Identification with public affairs began when Mr. Sanford was elected to 
the California state assembly in 1894. Satisfactory service resulted in re- 
election in 1896 and 1898 and in three successive elections to the state senate, 
"v'iz. : 1902, 1906, 1908. Altogether his service in the legislature covered a period 
of eighteen years. During his last term he has had the honor of being the 
oldest member of that body from point of service. For one term he was a 
member of the board of trustees of the San Jose State Normal School. In 
1904 he was a delegate to the Democratic national convention and in 1912 
was chosen an alternate, while at the Democratic state convention held at 
Fresno in 1908 he was chosen chairman. From 1908 to 1910 he acted as vice- 
chairman of the Democratic state committee and in 1912 he was elected a 
member of the Democratic national committee to serve for a term of four years. 
For sixteen years he has been chairman of the Democratic legislative caucus 
and for a similar period president of the Democratic Press League. His 
.sobriquet of the "Gray Eagle of Democracy" came to him not alone through his 
forceful editorial writings in defense of party principles, but also through his 
service in "stumping" the state in numerous campaigns, where his familiarity 
with party doctrines, his earnest advocacy of old Democratic principles, his 
logical reasoning and remarkable faculty of interesting and impressing aud- 
iences united to place him at the head of the party in the state. He was 
appointed register of the United States land office at San Francisco, Cal., by 
President AVilson on June 25, 1914, and is at present performing the duties 
of that office. 

FRANK W. NOEL.— The Noels have been people of influential stand- 
ing in Lake county from its early days, especially well known at Lower Lake, 
where the late Hon. A. E. Noel owned and edited the Bulletin until his de- 
cease, since when it has been conducted by his widow. A. E. Noel served 
his fellow citizens in various positions of honor and responsibility. He was a 
member of the Constitutional convention which prepared the present consti- 



tution of the state of California, and he was a leading member of the bar in 
Lake county, where he was elected district attorney. Later he became owner 
and editor of the Lower Lake Bulletin, which his widow now publishes. 

Frank W. Noel, son of Hon. A. E. Noel, was born at Lower Lake July 
7 , 1873. He had excellent educational advantages, and also the benefit of 
newspaper training under his gifted father. When a young man he set type 
in the Bulletin office for his father, and he subsequently engaged in the livery 
business at Lower Lake, running a stable for four years, from 1900 to 1904. 
After the firm of A. M. Akins & Sons began their large general business at 
Lower Lake he became a clerk in the store, remaining with that concern for 
seven years. He has a high reputation for business ability and sterling per- 
sonal qualities, which have long been associated with the name he bears. He 
is a member of Clear Lake Lodge, No. 130, I. O. O. F., of which he is Past 

On December 31, 1902, Mr. Noel married Miss Minnie Leona Manlove, 
daughter of William Henry and Susan (Thompson) Manlove, the former of 
whom had the honor of being the first sheriff elected in Lake county. He held 
the office two terms. \ir. Manlove was a native of Petersburg, Va., and died 
March 17, 1900, on his farm in Big Valley, Lake county. His wife, Susan 
(Thompson), now a resident of Lakeport, is a daughter of Major Thompson, 
of Big Valley, one of the earliest settlers in Lake county. Nine children were 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Manlove: One died in infancy, the others being: Louise, 
now the wife of Nick Cocking, a stockman at Ukiah, Mendocino county; James 
Joel, a farmer, living in Scotts valley ; Virginia Bell, wife of Shaffer Mathews, 
county clerk of Lakeport ; Minnie Leona, Mrs. Frank W. Noel ; Katie, who 
married Ed. Manlove, of Sacramento, and died when twenty-one years old, 
leaving one child, William Alfred, who is now in the employ of the electric 
railway company at Woodland, Cal. ; Hattie Lee, wife of R. F. Kerr, a farmer 
kt Merced, Cal., and agent for the Wells-Fargo Express Company there ; 
William D., member of the firm of Manlove & Boone, Anaconda, Mont., dairy- 
men and butchers ; and Navarro Pauline, wife of G. W. C. Mitchell, a black- 
smith, of Selma, Cal. 

Minnie Leona Manlove, now Mrs. Frank W. Noel, was born and reared 
in Big Valley, and obtained her early education in the public school there. 
Later she took a course at the Lakeport academy, received a diploma, and 
upon examination obtained a teacher's certificate. She completed a normal 
course, being thoroughly prepared for teaching, which profession she has fol- 
lowed for the last twenty-five years, seventeen years of the time at Lower 
Lake, where she has been principal for the last seven years. The Lower Lake 
grammar school, of which she is the efficient head, has eight grades, and 
seventy pupils are enrolled. Mrs. Noel's close association with her pupils 
and the families to which they belong has made it possible for parents to have 
an intimate personal knowledge of the work she is doing for their children, 
and the appreciation and loyalty which they have shown has not only been 
evidence of sympathy and a desire to co-operate in her efiforts, but has also 
been a warm tribute to her high character and womanly worth.' She and her 
husband ha\e used their influence to promote and encourage every good 
movement set on foot in the community, where they are held in the highest 
esteem. Mrs. Noel is a member of Laguna Parlor, No. 189, N. D. G. W., of 
which she is a past president and past district deputy grand president. 


CHARLES HENRY HURT.— The memories of a lifetime associate Mr. 
Hurt only with California, for although a native of Missouri, born in Henry 
county January 20, 1850, he was only three years of age when his parents, 
William and Mary J. (Ogan) Hurt, both natives of Missouri, crossed the 
plains with their few household necessities carefully packed in a covered 
wagon drawn by oxen. The journey, made during the summer of 1853, was 
one of great hardship and privation. Misfortunes more than once threatened 
to exterminate the little party of emigrants. Of these troubles the small son 
was happily ignorant, nor has he clear and distinct recollections of the early 
days at Lakeport, Lake county, where his father settled in 1855 and endured 
all the vicissitudes incident to an endeavor to establish farming in a new 
country upon a paying basis. Schools were few and widely scattered. It was 
not possible for the lad to attend regularly, but he learned much of importance 
as he aided his father in the daily round of toil, and the practical experience 
thus gained laid the foundation of his subsequent success. At the age of 
twenty-three years a desire to earn ready money for himself caused him to 
leave home and secure employment in a saw-mill. However, the call of 
the farm lured him back to country life and since then he has devoted his 
attention to agriculture in its various departments. To the worthy pioneer 
couple were born sixteen children, ten of whom are still living, namely : 
Charles H., of whom we write; William Irvin, residing in Redwood valley; 
James W., a farmer in Poor Man's valley ; A. J., of Upper Lake ; Molissa, 
now Mrs. Gravier of Covelo ; Parthena, Mrs. Bates, matron of the Round Val- 
ley Indian School ; Levi, of Covelo ; L. B.. of Round Valley ; Adah, Mrs. John 
Eldred, of Los JMolinos ; and Ida, Mrs. Cyrus, of Covelo, the two latter being 
twins. The father spent his last days in Round valley, where the mother still 
resides, aged eighty years. 

Upon his arrival in Round Valley, Mendocino county, .\ugust 15, 1884, 
Mr. Hurt secured eighty acres of land, which in 1891 the government bought 
from him to form a part of the present Indian reservation. Being pleased with 
conditions here, he decided to buy another farm and establish himself per- 
manently as a resident. On the east side of the valley he bought an eighty 
that forms the nucleus of his present highly improved property, .\nother tract 
of eighty-three acres was bought in 1904 from John \\'illiams. and in the 
same year he purchased eight hundred acres of range land on the south of the 
middle fork of Eel river. His neat residence and adequate farm buildings are 
located one mile east of Covelo. Among the residents of Round valley he has 
a reputation as one of the most efficient farmers and stock-raisers. Nor does 
the care of the land and the stock represent the limit of his energies, for in 
addition he has been an upbuilder of the local telephone system and during 
1912 consented to serve as a director of the Round Valley Creamery, in 
which he holds considerable stock. 

Mr. Hurt was married in Lakeport June 21, 1874, to Miss Sarah Jane 
Scudemore, a native of Illinois, who came with her father. Godwin Scudemore, 
to Scotts valley. Lake county, in 1869. They have reared a large family and 
have endeavored to train each child to habits of industry and self-reliance and 
to high principles of honor. Mary, Mrs. M. N. Spurlock, and Alice, Mrs. Long, 
both reside in Covelo ; Agnes, Mrs. Rhoads, resides at the Middle Fork ; Mattie, 
Mrs. R. C. Gray, is in Williams valley ; James, who married Bertha Begley 
and has two children, is a farmer adjoining the old home; Molissa. Mrs. W. A. 


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Gray, died April 20, 1911, leaving three children; Lottie married A I Brush 
a farmer m Round valley; Kate. Mrs. Laurence Hansen, resides in Willits' 
-Martm C. married Winnie Jamison and is superintending the Middle Fork 
ranch : Charles H.. Jr., died January 1, 1890, at the age of one month- Byron 
IS a clerk for the firm of Long & Biggar ; Grover C. and Toe are assisting their 
father m operatmg the home ranch ; and Vida is also under the parental roof 
As a member ot the Democratic party Mr. Hurt has maintained a warm inter- 
est m local politics. He served for nearly seven years as deputy United States 
marshal for the Northern District of California under Baldwin and afterwards 
under John H. Shine, during which time he performed the duties of the office 
with fidelity and conscientiousness. In fraternal relations he holds member- 
ship with Covelo Lodge No. 231, F. & A. M., of which he was Master for eight 
years and to whose charities he contributes when called upon He is also 
a member of Ukiah Chapter No. 53, R. A. M., and with his wife is a member 
01 Augusta Chapter No. 80, O. E. S. Modern agriculture represents his chief 
interest. He is a believer in modern methods of farming and is quick to adopt 
any new method of planting or caring for the crops if once convinced of the 
utility of the plan. High grades of stock and the latest machinery may be 
seen on his farm, while the general appearance of thrift indicates that he is a 
farmer of efficiency and intelligence. 

AUGUSTUS M. AKINS.— It is a matter of interest that the modern 
establishment of A. M. Akins & Sons, leading general merchants at Lower 
Lake, Lake county, stands on the site where he began work on coming to the 
town in 1862, in the employ of Herrick & Getz. Living in this region from 
pioneer days, Mr Akins, though himself ahvays engaged in ordinary business 
pursuits, has been brought into contact with many of the most exciting phases 
of Its development and growth, and has had a rich variety of experiences with 
ihe characters and adventures which form so appropriate a background for 
the history of California. His own career to some extent has been typical of 
1 he era through which he has lived, for he was carrying on an independent 
business at an age when most youths are learning to take care of themselves, 
and he is one of the leading citizens of his town because he has shown the 
qualities which entitle him to such standing. 

Mr. Akins belongs to an old American family. His grandfather. Middle- 
ton Akins, was born in Georgia, moving from that state to Arkansas with 
his son John and the latter's family in the year 1847. John Akins, who was 
the father of Augustus M. Akins, died in Arkansas, and the family (including 
the grandfather) subsequently came to California, in 1856. They made the 
journey by the southern route overland with ox teams through the Indian 
country, being robbed of stock by them. Arriving in San Diego, they re- 
mained for a year and a half, and then moved up to Los Angeles county, 
living at El Monte for two years. Then they followed the coast route up to 
Clear Lake, settling on Coal creek, three miles southeast of Kelseyville, in 
1859. The mother of Augustus M. Akins, whose maiden name was Lucinda 
Rudy, was married (second) near Kelseyville in the fall of 1861 to S. A. 
Copsey, by whom she had one child, George W., who died in March, 1910. 
To her marriage with John Akins were born five children : Jane, the eldest, 
married Robert Denham, of Kelseyville, who started the first blacksmith shop 
at that place, and she died at Woodland; Augustus M. is mentioned below; 
Mary Elizabeth, now Airs. Rannels, resides at Lower Lake; Emaline is the 


wife of Thomas Faley and lives at Calistoga; Martha is the wife of J. C. 
Copsey, a farmer near Lower Lake. 

Augustus M. Akins was born May 23, 1845, near Augusta, Ga., and was 
only an infant when the family moved to Arkansas. He was a boy of fourteen 
when they settled in Lake county, and on April 1, 1862, he came to Lower 
Lake, where he found employment with Herrick & Getz, merchants, who had 
their store on the site where he is now located. Part of the time he was en- 
gaged in clerking, but he was mostly employed at outside work, taking care 
of teams, etc. He was less than seventeen when he began teaming on his 
own account, that work taking him all over Lake county, and thus he laid 
the foundation for his substantial fortune and the extensive business he now 
conducts. He drove two, four or six horse teams, as occasion required, 
freighting to Calistoga, Knoxville and other places, and did so well that he 
has always been engaged in busirress for himself since. His first year's wages 
amounted to one hundred and iifty dollars, and he attended school about 
three months that year. Gradually he built up a profitable trade, at one time 
running six six-horse teams to Sulphur Bank, Calistoga and Knoxville. After 
Mr. Herrick withdrew from the mercantile business Mr. Getz was burned 
out, and Air. Akins bought the old Herrick & Getz lot in Lower Lake, in 
1909-10 erecting thereon the fine modern store building in which the mercan- 
tile business of A. M. Akins & Sons is now established. They began business 
in June, 1904, in the old Palestine building, and their trade has been expanding 
ever since. Their present quarters, to which they moved in 1910, comprise a 
store forty by sixty feet in dimensions, the finest in the town, with a large 
warehouse fifty by sixty feet some fifty feet to the rear, and a lumberyard to 
the southeast of this property. The store is clean, light and dry. well venti- 
lated and conveniently arranged, and occupies an ideal location. The stock 
includes boots and shoes, dress goods and other dry goods, hats and caps, 
and jewelry. In the warehouse is the heavy stock, such as oils, machinery, 
farm implements of all kinds, fencing and fencing wire, hardware, cement, 
hay and grain, salt, etc. — a comprehensive line designed to meet all the needs 
of the many patrons who find this a most satisfactory trading place. Rough 
and dimension lumber is handled at the lumberyard. The firm are agents for 
Studebaker automobiles. Three clerks are employed all the year round, the 
members of the firm also helping in the store, and besides there are two 
teamsters and another outside man, as well as a bookkeeper. The firm is 
composed of Augustus M. Akins and his two sons. Alma and Frank, and the 
manner in which they have conducted their business has given a decided 
impetus to trade conditions in the town. Mr. Akins' early business opera- 
tions gained him a wide acquaintance. Though for a number of years he 
was brought into close association with many men of rough character and 
loose principles, he has always kept his own course straight, living a tem- 
perate, industrious life, which has been the means of keeping the confidence 
of all who know him. As one of the foremost residents of Lower Lake, he 
holds an influential position among his fellow citizens, and well deserves their 
high regard. He has served one term as supervisor of his district, giving 
public-spirited attention to his duties. In political connection he is a 

In 1871 Mr. Akins joined Clear Lake Lodge, No. 130, I. O. O. F., at 
Lower Lake, and he has passed through all the chairs and represented that 


body in the Grand Lodge ; for the last fifteen years he has been serving as 
treasurer of the Lower Lake Lodge. 

One of Mr. Akins" experiences in his young manhood will serve to show 
The dangers to which pioneer residents were exposed in their ignorance of 
the character of many who came into this section, then so far from civiliza- 
tion. One evening, soon after he began working for Herrick & Getz, he was 
eating supper with a stranger when Jack Stubbs, then constable, and Frank 
Harrington, as his assistant, came in and ordered the stranger, seated beside 
Mr. Akins at table, to give himself up. Instead he drew a Bowie knife and 
advanced upon the officers, whereupon Stubbs shot him dead. It was after- 
^vard ascertained that he was an escaped convict from San Quentin. 

On January 4, 1872, Mr. Akins was married to Miss Elizabeth Bainbridge, 
in Sacramento. She was born in England, and in 1857 was brought to 
America in infancy by her parents, Mr. and Mrs. John and Alice Bainbridge, 
pioneer farmers of Sacramento county. Mr. and Mrs. Akins have two chil- 
dren. Alma M. and Frank P., both of whom are in partnership with their 
father in the firm of A. M. Akins & Sons. Alma J\I. Akins, born at Lower 
Lake November 19, 1872, is married to Madeline Mahan, and has two chil- 
dren, Raymond and Marie. Frank P. Akins, born at Lower Lake October 1, 
1875, married Maude Knauer of Lower Lake, and they also have two children, 
Leila and Donna. 

MATT MARKKULA. — Well known among the farmers and orchardists 
of Little Valley is Matt Markkula, who came to Fort Bragg in 1888. He 
was born April 9, 1871, in a place in the northern part of Finland. His 
father, Isaac F. Markkula, a carpenter by trade, came to Michigan in 1882, 
his family joining him in 1883 in Houghton county, where he followed lum- 
bering. Five years later the family moved to Fort Bragg, Cal., where the 
father was employed at carpenter work with the Union Lumber Company 
until he retired. He is now seventy-three years of age. The mother before 
her marriage was Louisa Tuomaala, and she died in 1906. Of their seven 
children, three are living: Matt Ma;-kkula being the second eldest. 

Attending the public schools until the age of twelve, Mr. Markkula then 
came to Michigan where he found it necessary to go to work and was em- 
ployed in the woods with axe and saw from daylight until dark. At this occu- 
pation he continued until 1888, when he came to Fort Bragg and first worked 
at making ties, later being in the lumber yard of the Union Lumber Company. 
It was in the car shops of this company that he began the carpenter trade in 
1898. and he learned car repairing. From this he rose to the position of 
assistant foreman, and in 1902 became foreman of the car shop, this position 
including the oversight of the car department, pattern and paint shop. He 
owns a farm of forty acres in Little Valle}', a distance of six miles from Fort 
Bragg, as well as two residences in the same city. He is now engaged in 
farming and orchard growing. 

Mr. Markkula married in Fort Bragg Mrs. Jennie (Anias) Heikkila, who 
was also born in Finland. They have three children : Reina Regina and 
Raymond Frederic, twins, and Armas Clififord. By her first marriage, Mrs. 
Markkula had four children : Jennie. Axel, Heija and Lea. Mr. Markkula 
is a valued member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He is a Re- 
publican and for fifteen years has been a member of the Fort Bragg Hook 
and Ladder Company, being treasurer of the association. 


HON. THOMAS LANGLEY CAROTHERS.— In point of age, expe- 
rience and actual identification with the bar of Mendocino county, Mr. 
Carothers has the distinction of being the oldest attorney in the county seat 
With justice it may also be stated that none possesses a more comprehensive 
knowledge of the law than he, and certainly none is more logical in reasoning, 
more forceful in argument, more eloquent in speeches before judge and jury 
or more keen to penetrate the hidden motives for which the efficient attorney 
must search in many criminal and civil cases. His broad knowledge of 
the law comes principally from experience and habits of close observation 
and careful study, rather than from extended terms of attendance at law 
colleges in his young manhood, but the education acquired through his own 
determined efiforts at self-culture has been in no respect less valuable than 
that which a modern college could afford. Whether alone or in practice 
with a partner, always he has represented the highest and best in his profes- 
sion and has stood as a leader of the bar in the local courts. 

A native of Illinois, born in Carthage, Hancock county, September 26, 
1842, Mr. Carothers left there in 1853 and accompanied his father James H. 
Carothers across the plains via the overland route. A period of farming 
near Petaluma was followed by the removal of the family to Sacramento in 
the spring of 1859 and the father engaged in teaming until the disastrous 
floods of 1861-62 caused him to return to Petaluma, where he took up teaming 
and hauling. Meanwhile the son had attended the Sacramento high school 
and had taken up the study of law in that city with Harrison & Estee, 
and continued his studies in Petaluma with the Hon. George Pearce, being 
admitted to the bar in 1863. For two years he held a position as deputy 
district attorney of Sonoma county. During the spring of 1866 he came to 
Ukiah, hung out his shingle in front of one of the primitive frame structures 
characteristic of the town in those daj's, and gradually built up a practice 
in this community. Ever since coming here he has acted as a notary public. 

When the practice of the law did not occupy his time, Mr. Carothers turned 
to the cultivation of the soil. For some years he was interested in viti- 
culture. Buying one hundred acres of raw land, he planted vines, cultivated 
the vine3'ard, developed it into a productive property, and then sold at 
some profit. During 1872 he became district attorney of Mendocino county, 
filling the office until 1874. In 1884 he was the nominee for Congress on 
the Republican ticket, but suffered defeat with the balance of the ticket 
in this district. Ever since the law went into effect in 1898 creating the office 
of United States referee in bankruptcy, he has filled the position for Mendo- 
cino and Lake counties. At the time of the building of the Mendocino county 
state asylum (now the Mendocino State Hospital) at Ukiah he was a 
member of the E'oard of Directors, and during the first six years of the exist- 
ence of the hcispital he filled the office of president of the Board of Trustees. 
Since 1893 he has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the city of 
Ukiah, and for more than two decades he has been president of the board, 
a position equivalent to the office of Alayor. It would be difficult to name 
any criminal or civil case of great importance in the county witli which he 
has not been connected. In 1883 he prosecuted the famous Mendocino 
outlaws and secured the conviction of all. At another time he defended 
the famous Frost vendetta case, which figured extensively in the early history 
of the epunty. As a criminal lawyer he has gained prominence throughout 
this portion of the state. Fraternally he has been Master of Abell Lodge 

y^ ^, Qx-iu(t^Uju/ 


No. 146, F. & A. M., a member of Ukiah Chapter No. 53, R. A. M., and 
Ukiah Commandery No. 33, K. T., of which he is Past Commander. One 
son, Mack, now deceased, was born of his first wife, Lucy P. Pierson, a 
native of Illinois, whom he married in 1866 and who died thirty years 
afterward. His second marriage was solemnized in Ukiah in 1897 and united 
him with Mrs. Isabelle (Church) Reeves, a native of Ashfield, Franklin 
county, Mass. She was a descendant of Capt. John Church, who came to 
Massachusetts in the Mayflower. 

Mrs. Carothers was the widow of Tapping Reeves, a native of Owego, 
N. Y., born March 7, 1832. the son of Lorenzo and Mona (Clark) Reeves, 
the former a merchant. A brother of Mr. Reeves was D. W. Reeves, a 
celebrated musician and composer, and leader of Reeves Band at Providence, 
R. I. A sister, Lucinda J. Reeves, was teacher of music, painting and drawing 
and a prominent leader in social, church and public affairs in Ukiah. Tapping 
Reeves became a prominent machinist and engineer. Coming to California 
via Panama in 1851, he was afterwards engineer at the Albion mill, and 
while there invented an edger as well as other improvements for the saw mill. 
In 1871 he built a saw mill in Reeves Canyon near Ukiah, where he engaged 
in the manufacture of lumber until his death in 1885. In Fairmont, N. Y., 
in 1875, he married Miss Church and to them was born a daughter, Edna 
Mary, who graduated at Leland Stanford University as A.B. in 1905, and 
is now a teacher in the Mendocino High School. Mrs. Carothers is a member 
of Kingsley Chapter, O. E. S., and is an active member of the Presbyterian 

CYRUS GORDON TURNER.— The tenant on the large stock farm 
in Long Valley precinct, Lake county, known as the Spring Branch farm since 
October, 1909, Mr. Turner is engaged in raising general crops and to some 
extent in stock growing. He is a man known for his straightforward disposi- 
tion and reliable character, and his industry and evident public spirit have 
made him a most desirable citizen of the section where he resides. Practically 
all of his life has been spent in Lake county, for he was only a child of 
six years when his parents settled in the Loconomi valley, near Middletown, 
where he was reared. 

Mr. Turner's father, John Turner, was a native of Virginia, and served 
during the Civil war as a soldier in the Confederate army. He was married 
in Missouri to Ruth Cummings, a native of that state, and they came with 
their family to California in the year 1870, the parents passing the remainder 
of their lives in Lake county. Until he retired, John Turner was a farmer 
and stockman. His death occurred near Lower Lake in 1908, when he was 
seventy-five years old, many years after that of his wife. They had a family 
of seven children : William, who died in Jerusalem valley, Lake county, 
when thirty-one years old, was married and had two children ; Cyrus G. is 
mentioned later ; Samuel conducts a pool hall in Lower Lake ; Josie was the 
wife of Charles Hopper and died leaving two children ; John died at nineteen ; 
Emma married George Copsey and died leaving two children ; Sallie is the 
wife of John Wright, of Santa Rosa, and has a family of six children. 

Cyrus G. Turner was born August 8, 1863, in Clay county, ^Missouri, and 
was six years old at the time the family left that state for California. His 
mother died when he was but eleven years old, and he began to work out as 
a farm hand when a bov of twelve. Nevertheless, he managed to acquire a 


good education, attending school winters and doing chores to pay his way 
meantime. His first employer was "Tom" Parker, for whom he continued to 
work off and on for several years, perhaps remaining with him three years in 
all. Farming has always been his occupation, and he has been renting land 
for a number of years, having been in Little High valley for several years 
before he came to the Spring Branch farm, usually known as the Ouigley 
farm, in October, 1909. It is owned by Mr. and Mrs. Brown, of Richmond, 
Cal., and comprises seven hundred acres of good land, upon which he raises 
mixed crops, meeting with gratifying success in his operations. His stock 
includes fourteen head of cattle, twenty-two hogs and six horses, and he is 
also engaged in raising chickens and turkeys. The present condition of the 
place betokens the thrifty care which Mr. Turner gives to it, and his work 
and upright life have won him the highest respect of his neighbors in the 

On November 1, 1903, Mr. Turner married Miss Nora Estella Cunning- 
ham, of Lower Lake, who belongs to pioneer families of this section in both 
paternal and maternal lines, being a daughter of William H. and Nancy Jane 
^Howard) Cunningham and granddaughter of James Howard, who estab- 
lished Howard Springs Resort. Mr. Cunningham was well known as a black- 
smith at Lower Lake for years, and served ably as assessor of Lake county. 
He died recently, and his wife is also deceased. They had two children, Nora 
Estella and Bertie Leone, the latter now the wife of Thomas A. Wing, a 
carpenter, who lives in Merced county, this state. ]\Ir. and Mrs. Turner have 
two children. Ruth E. and Bertie E. Mrs. Turner is an excellent cook and 
housekeeper, and like her husband has many good personal qualities which 
have won her the regard and esteem of her neighbors. On political questions 
he is a Democrat, but he has not been active in either party affairs or public 

WILLIAM C. GOLDSMITH.— There is no better known citizen in the 
town of Lower Lake than its venerable postmaster and oldest pioneer, William 
C. Goldsmith. He has lived there continuously since August, 1858, has been 
justice of the peace thirty years, for the last twenty-four years consecutively, 
and postmaster for the past fourteen years, holding the office now under ap- 
[jointment from the \\'ilson administration, though he himself is a stanch 
Republican. He is a veteran Odd Fellow, having belonged to the order for 
forty-seven years. 

Indiana is Mr. Goldsmith's native state. He was born in Knox county 
.April 2. 1830, son of Henry and Elizabeth (Ferkins) Goldsmith, the former 
born in Harrisburg, Pa., of Dutch descent, the latter at Beaver Pond, Ky., 
of French extraction. In 1833 the family moved out to what is now Scott 
county, in Illinois, settling at Winchester, where Henry Goldsmith passed 
the rest of his life, engaged at his trade of boot and shoe maker. He died at 
Winchester in 1856. and was buried there. His wife's death occurred there 
also, in 1875. Of the children born to this couple seven grew to maturity. 
William C. Goldsmith was the eldest, and his early life was spent at Win- 
chester, where he served an apprenticeship of four and a half years at the 
trade of harness maker with W. C. Gwin. At the end of that time he began 
to work as a journeyman harness maker, in 1849, following his trade at various 
locations. Greenfield. Tersevville and Rockford, in Illinois; St, Louis. Mo.; and 


in 1850 returned to Indiana, where he worked mainly at Vincennes, though he 
was also employed at Petersburg, Pike county, and Washington, Daviess 
county. He left the latter place in February, 1852, to go to California, leaving 
the parental home at Winchester, 111., March 28, 1852, in company with his 
father and uncle, John Goldsmith, and James Hamilton. They had a large 
immigrant wagon and four yoke of oxen, and equipment and provisions for the 
long journey across the plains. About April 1st they crossed the Mississippi, 
at Hannibal, Mo., went over the Missouri at St. Joseph, Mo., camping there 
six days, and on May 6th started overland toward the coast, making their 
way along the south side of the Platte river. They arrived at Hangtown, Cal., 
August 8th, by which time the father was so discouraged that he started back 
lor Winchester the next day. William C. Goldsmith went over to Kelsey's 
Bar, on the middle fork of the American river, and hired out as a cook. He 
also mined, farmed in the Santa Clara valley, and did other work, at different 
places, but after coming to California he followed his trade for only one month. 
He gave up farming in the Santa Clara valley when his crops dried up, and 
later was in the wood business at Grass Valley, coming from there to Clear 
Lake, Lake county, in 1857. In the fall of the year he went back to Marys- 
ville, where he worked the next year until the harvest was over, returning to 
Lake county and arriving at what is now Lower Lake in August, 1858; since 
the 23rd of that month he has been a permanent resident of Lake county. 
Now, at the age of eighty-four years, he is hale and hearty, and as he has 
never required the services of a doctor or a dose of medicine since he settled 
here his advice is, "If you want to live always, come to Lake county." In 1861 
Mr. Goldsmith went into the sheep business in Morgan valley, continuing to 
engage in that line until April. 1866, when he sold out and came to Lower 
Lake to live. He bought his present property there, a tract of twenty-three 
acres, in 1870. For twenty-four years he was engaged in the liquor business in 
the town, giving it up about 1901, when he became postmaster, at the age of 
seventy years. His popularity is well attested by the fact that he has been 
continued in office ever since, having many friends among the Democratic 
element in town as well as in his own party. His duties are conscientiously 
and faithfully performed, and he also serves as justice of the peace, first taking 
that office in the year 1867. Twent3'-four years ago he was re-elected, and has 
retained the office to the present. He has also been deputy assessor for super- 
visor district No. 2, having filled that position ably for two terms. ]\Ir. Gold- 
smith's first presidential vote was cast for John C. Fremont in 1856. He was 
one of the petitioners for the establishment of Lake count}-, which was made 
\ip of territory taken from Napa and Yolo counties. 

Mr. Goldsmith stands high in the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, to 
which he has belonged for forty-seven years, holding membership in Clear 
Lake Lodge, No. 130, at Lower Lake, of which he is the oldest resident mem- 
ber. He has been through all the chairs, has been representative to the Grand 
Lodge six times, and is a member of the Veteran Odd Fellows at San Fran- 
cisco. While still in the east, in 1845, Mr. Goldsmith joined the Christian 
Church at Winchester, 111., but he has never transferred his membership. 

In 1860 Mr. Goldsmith was united in marriage with Miss Martha C. Asbill, 
daughter of William Asbill. who arrived in Lake county in 1859. Of their 
family, six grew to manhood and womanhood, viz. : John lives at Willows, 
Glenn countv : Elizabeth is in San Francisco; William resides at Willows; 


Arthur is deputy postmaster at Lower Lake ; Edna is the wife of Ed. P. Reiley 
and lives in New York City; Clinton, who lives at home, is an employe of the 
Yolo Water and Power Company. 

A. MORTIMER STANLEY. — Among the prominent and well known 
publishers of Lake county is the gifted editor of the Middletown Independent, 
a newspaper of large circulation in southern Lake county and one of a decided 
influence. Mr. Stanley, popularly known as "Mort" Stanley, is an original 
writer, a clear and logical thinker, with a touch of wit and humor, yet kind- 
hearted and sympathetic, all of which attributes merit the popularity he 
and his paper enjoy. The Independent was established by Pentecost & Read 
twenty-seven years ago and has been published continuously ever since under 
several different managers. Pentecost & Read were succeeded by J. L. Read, 
the present postmaster at Middletown, who owned the paper until 1902, when 
it was taken over by J. D. Kuykendall. He, however, retained it only one 
year, J. L. Read again assuming proprietorship and continuing until 1905. 
During this time it was edited by his son, W. E. Read, and it was issued 
by them until 1906. The next proprietor was A. O. Stanley of Fair Oaks, Cal. 
His son, A. Mortimer Stanley, became editor and publisher, taking a half 
interest and leasing the other half from his father, and about January 1, 1915, 
he expects to take over the entire Independent newspaper and job printing 
plant. This plant has for its equipment two job presses, one lever press, two 
hundred fifty fonts of type, two stones, cases, paper cutter, typewriter, etc. 
In policy the Independent has embraced the idea of county ownership of 
Clear lake and is now strenuously advocating that the lake with its power 
and irrigation projects become the property of Lake county, thus saving to 
the people the most valuable asset of the community. 

A. Mortimer Stanley was born at Lower Lake, Cal., September 23, 1888, 
in a camp wagon. His mother in her girlhood days was Miss Cora C. Ander- 
son, a native of Texas, who came to Lake county with her parents at the 
age of ten. She was the mother of seven children, three of whom are still liv- 
ing: Julietta, now wife of W. D. Hays, a ranchman, living north of Middle- 
town ; John Edwin, a rancher in Big Canyon, and Alfred Mortimer. When 
Mr. Stanley was six months old the family moved to Modoc county, where 
he lived the first ten years of his life. Then they moved back to Lake county. 
He was always a precocious child and began writing for newspapers at the 
early age of eleven. Two years later he felt the lure of the outside world and 
left home to commence work as "devil" for the Surprise Valley Record in 
Modoc county. Here he advanced rapidly. Within a year he was setting 
type and at the age of seventeen was editor of the Middletown Independent 
under the direction of his father. The Stanley family consists largely of 
newspaper men and writers. A. O. Stanley, the father, contributed to weekly 
newspapers, and a sister, Melmoth, who died at the early age of seventeen, 
was a poet of some little promise. 

Mr. Stanley was married at Lakeport to Miss Frances Waterbury, a 
native daughter of Middletown, and a granddaughter of A. S. Armstrong, 
Middletbwn's oldest white settler. To them has been born a daughter, Mel- 
moth, now four years of age. 





JOHN McGLASHAN. — Strange and even weird happenings brought ex- 
citement to the experiences of the late John AIcGlashan in three continents 
during his early years. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1818, he was reared 
amid conditions radically different from those of the present century. After 
an attendance at the national schools in Edinburgh he ran away from home 
when he was about seventeen and sailed for Australia, a long voyage in the 
days before steamboats had come into universal use. For nine years he 
served as sergeant of police in Australia and upon resigning his commission 
he returned to Scotland to renew the associations of youth and again visit 
the scenes familiar to childhood. His next voyage had New York for the 
destination and upon his arrival there he followed the trade of a type-maker. 
Meanwhile gold had been discovered in California and the eyes of the entire 
world had been turned to the west. Believing that he himself might find a 
favorable opening on the Pacific coast, in 1850 he took passage on a ship 
bound from New York to San Francisco via the Horn. 

It was a cosmopolitan throng and a city of tents that met the vision of 
the young Scotch emigrant when he left the ship in the harbor of San Fran- 
cisco. Immediately he began to look about him for an investment His first 
step was the forming of a partnership with Mr. Gilchrist in a book and sta- 
tionery business on Montgomery street, San Francisco, under the firm title 
of McGlashan & Gilchrist. Soon he bought the interest of his partner and 
conducted the business alone. During 1856 he sold out and then traveled 
over the state looking for a desirable place to invest and locate. Coming 
to Petaluma by steamer, from there he came by horseback with Mr. Carey, 
his bookkeeper, up the valley to the present site of Hopland. After having 
spent three months in search of a desirable location, he found what he sought 
in a portion of the Sanel grant, one of the few Spanish grants to which a 
clear title could be given. He had brought $50,000 in gold, in order to pay 
cash for any purchase decided upon. It was, therefore, a brief task to find 
the owner of the grant, Don Fernando Fehx, make due negotiations with 
him and pay for the sixteen hundred acres of land selected. The receipt of 
so large a sum in gold delighted the old Don, who promptly divided it with 
his sons and all proceeded to enjoy a grand celebration in honor of the sale. 
The grant originally comprised eighteen thousand acres and extended 
seven miles along both sides of the river. In 1858, two years after Mr. Mc- 
Glashan had bought his tract out of the vast estate, the old Don divided 
the land among his children, excepting only one hundred acres given to 
Richard Harrison, a surveyor, and one thousand acres given to John Knight 
for his services in investigating the title. This last acreage now belongs to 
John Crawford. Previous to this two thousand acres had been sold to the 
Gardiner family. On the west side one thousand acres were given to Jose, 
son of the old Don. Jose in turn sold the property to E. H. Duncan for one 
hundred and fifty head of cattle worth perhaps $20 per head. An adjacent 
tract was given to Louis Penia, another to the north presented to his daugh- 
ter, Mrs. William Andrews, while the next one thousand acres were given to 
another daughter, Mrs. Alvina Orta. On the Hopland side one thousand 
acres were given to Mrs. Murray. To Mrs. Edsell was given one thousand 
acres upon a part of which the village of Hopland now stands. A daughter, 
Mrs. Guadalupe Penja, was given a tract, as were three sons, Lencho, Cistro 
and Necho. On this vast grant cattle roamed in great droves, large fields 


were under cultivation to grain and corn, and later alfalfa and hops were 
raised with profit, while orchards also became a source of revenue to the 
owners. The old Don, once the owner of this lordly estate, died in poverty. 
On a natural elevated mound overlooking the valley Mr. McGlashan 
built a ranch house and named the place Burnee Hill ranch. The original 
building stands, although somewhat changed in appearance by reason of 
additions that have been made to it. The wood in the old house was hand- 
planed and was brought from San Francisco. In those days it was custo- 
mary to bring all provisions and supplies from the California metropolis and 
there he bought the first piano ever brought into Mendocino county, a grand 
square Steinway, which was brought from Petaluma by ox-teams, packed 
jround with sacks of flour. It took five days to make the trip. The land 
which Mr. McGlashan purchased was the first portion of the vast grant 
for which any money was paid, previous sales having been in the nature of 
exchanges. When he began to cultivate the land he used oxen to turn the 
first furrows in the soil. There was little machinery and such implements 
as were in use showed crudity of form that involved dissatisfaction in their 
handling. However, in spite of these disadvantages and many other hard- 
ships, the owner of the ranch prospered, his crops were large, his stock flour- 
ished and his name became well known throughout the county. Among the 
improvements made on the land was that of fencing, at a cost of $10,000, 
the entire place, so that he was enabled to cultivate his crops more success- 
fulh' and to herd his stock more satisfactorily. The raising of Spanish merino 
sheep was one of his specialties. To secure the finest breeds he paid $400 
for a buck and $75 for an ewe, from which foundation he built up a flock 
pure in quality and accounted one of the best in Northern California. After 
many years of strict attention to ranching in 1880 he retired to Ukiah and 
built the residence on Perkins and Dora avenue in which he died in 1895. 
While still in England he had joined the Masonic Order, but took little part 
in the work after coming to California. He was twice married, first in 1856 
in New York to Miss Elizabeth Hewes, who was born in England, and second 
in San Francisco in 1889 to Mrs. Anna (Bennett) Pope, who was born in 
Newport, Ky., the daughter of W. H. and Maria (Hornbrook) Bennett, na- 
tives of Pennsylvania and Kentucky respectively. Mr. Bennett participated 
in the Civil war in a Kentucky regiment, serving as captain. Later he was 
a member of the Pinkerton detective force, subsequently assessor of Newport, 
Ky., for twelve years, and still later he served as mayor of that city. By 
trade he was a boat builder and for many years he ran a boat yard in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. Mr. Bennett, who was a prominent j\Iason and Odd Fellow, 
passed away in Newport, Ky., while his wife died at the home of j\Irs. Mc- 
Glashan. The only daughter born to her parents, Mrs. McGlashan was edu- 
cated in the public schools and in St. Azabra Convent, and graduated from 
the Newport high school. Her first marriage occurred in Newport and united 
her with John Pope, a printer by trade. In 1883 Mr. Pope and his wife left 
Chicago for Ukiah, where he bought the Ukiah City Press. Subsequently 
he died while on a trip to Placer county. Mrs. Pope continued to edit the 
Press until her marriage to Mr. McGlashan. By her first marriage there 
was one daughter, Fannie H., Mrs. Jesse Williams, of San Francisco. Of 
Mr. McGlashan's second marriage one daughter survives him, Jeanie, Mrs. 
Hawn, of Ukiah. Four vears after the death of Mr. McGlashan his widow 


married Edward Gambrel, who was born on the Gibson ranch in Round 
valley, Mendocino county, April 5, 1864, being the son of Smith W. and 
Sallie (Onyett) Gambrel, natives respectively of Virginia and Evansville, 
Ind. The family comprised five children, those besides himself being Lena, 
Anna, Charles and Smith. During the early '50s the father came to Cali- 
fornia and settled in Mendocino county, where for years he carried on farm 
pursuits in the Round valley. For years he was a leading factor in local 
affairs and served as justice of the peace. In young manhood Edward Gam- 
brel engaged in the dairy business at Oroville, Butte county, whence he re- 
turned to Mendocino county and since 1897 has been identified with the work 
on the McGlashan ranch. Fraternally he is connected with the Elks of Santa 
Rosa. Mrs. Gambrel gives her time to the supervision of the Burnee Hill 
ranch and to her property in Ukiah. With Mr. McGlashan she built the Mc- 
Glashan Building in Ukiah, where the postofifice is located, besides which 
she owns residence property there. She and her present husband still con- 
tinue the raising of fine Merino sheep. Burnee Hill ranch is one of the show 
places of the county. The lawn, which is like velvet, is irrigated from a spring 
a mile away, the water being stored in a reservoir of eight thousand gallons' 
capacity. For domestic use water is brought from another spring three- 
quarters of a mile distant, coming from a solid rock. The ranch comprises 
sixteen hundred acres and runs for one mile along the Russian river, and is 
r-.lmost three miles in width. 

BYRON CLARK. — Maine has made a worthy contribution to the citizen- 
.•^hip of California during the course of westward migration, but none of her 
representatives proved more worthy or steadfast in his endeavors to upbuild 
and advance the interests of his chosen home place than the late Byron Clark. 
The descendant of an old New England family, long resident in that rugged 
section of country, he was born in Ellsworth, Me., November 22, 1855. the 
son of Capt. Curtis Clark, the owner and master of a coasting vessel. The 
public schools of Ellsworth supplied the educational advantages which young 
Byron was permitted to enjoy, and after his schooling was completed he was 
variously employed in the east until the call of the west brought him to 
California in 1874. He was then a young man of about nineteen years, full 
of energy and determination, and he did not lack for opportunity to show his 
capabilities. Coming to Mendocino he found employment with the Mendo- 
cino Lumber Company, beginning to work for them in the woods. The work 
proved congenial and he rose from one position to another until he was finally 
made superintendent of the woods, a position which he held for about nme- 
teen years. Subsequently he was a boss in the woods for the Union Lumber 
Company for a number of years, and still later he held the same position with 
the Caspar Lumber Company, and it was while associated with the latter 
company that his death occurred, IMarch 14, 1909. The lumber interests of 
the county lost a valued worker in his death, for he was thoroughly con- 
versant with all details of the business and his services were in constant de- 
mand ; his family lost a devoted and indulgent husband and father, and the 
community a loyal, public-spirited, unassuming citizen who has been sadly 
missed. He was a man among men, one of Nature's noblemen who had 
won his way to success by his own self-reliance and energy. Fraternally he 
was also well known and very popular with his associates. He was a mem- 


ber of Mendocino Lodge, No. 179, F. & A. Isl., also of Mendocino Chapter 
and the Order of the Eastern Star of the same place, Ukiah Commandery No. 
33, K. T., while in the Odd Fellows order he was connected with lodge, en- 
campment and the Rebekahs. Politically he gave his allegiance to Republican 
principles and candidates. 

A marriage ceremony performed in Ukiah February 3. 1886, united the 
destinies of Byron Clark and Miss Oleva Burger. She was born near Lay- 
tonville, Cal., the daughter of James and Nancy (Lambert) Burger, natives 
of Kentucky and Iowa respectively. Mr. and Mrs. Burger were married 
in Iowa and from that state they started for California with ox-teams in the 
early '50s. They settled in Long valley, where Mr. Burger became well 
known as a successful stockman. His later years were passed in Ukiah, and 
in that city his death occurred in 1899. Mrs. Burger still continues to make 
her home in Ukiah. Of her five children four are living, Mrs. Clark being 
next to the oldest. The greater part of her early life was passed in Ukiah, 
v/here she attended grammar school, and later she attended the San Jose 
state normal. Putting her knowledge to good account she adopted teaching 
as a profession and followed it for eleven years, eight years of this time being 
passed in the schools of Alendocino. After the death of Mr. Clark she re- 
moved to Ft. Bragg and has made this city her home ever since, giving to its 
welfare a wholesome interest that is characteristic. With her two children 
she resides in a comfortable home which she erected on Brandon Way. The 
son, Russell, is a graduate of Mendocino high school and the Santa Rosa 
Business College ; and the daughter, Leonora, a graduate of Mendocino high 
school and San Jose State Normal, is a teacher. Mrs. Clark is a member 
of the Presbyterian Church of Mendocino, in the work of which she is deeply 
interested. She is past matron of Ocean View Chapter, O. E. S., at Afendo- 
cino, is past noble grand of Far West Lodge of Rebekahs of that place, and 
for several terms was district deputy. Personally ^Irs. Clark is a woman of 
noble characteristics, and all who are privileged to know her feel the impress 
of her radiant good nature. 

W. R. MORRIS. — One of the youngest men in the employ of the Union 
Lumber Company is the foreman of the yards, W. R. Morris, who is a native 
of the great middle west. He was born in Chicago, 111., May 30, 1890, a son 
of H. F. Morris, who was a native of the same state, born in Ouincy, and a 
banker in Chicago at the time of his death. His mother, Evelyn Schumacher 
before her marriage, was born in \\'isconsin, and now makes her home with 
her son in Fort Bragg. 

W. R. Morris received his preliminary education in the public schools 
of Chicago, and later he attended the University of Chicago, altogether receiv- 
ing educational privileges above the possibility of the average young man. 
Some time after the death of the father, Mr. Morris and his mother came 
west, in 1908, coming direct to Alendocino county and to Fort Bragg. The 
son was fortunate in securing employment readily, accepting a position with 
the Union Lumber Company, and he has remained with the company ever 
since, being now foreman of the yards, a position which he has since filled with 
entire satisfaction to his superiors. The only organization with which he is 
afifiliated is the Hoo Hoo, a lumbermen's organization well known throughout 
the west. Politically Mr. Morris is a Republican. 


DAVID T. JOHNSON. — Unusual executive ability has marked the career 
of David T. Johnson and ofifers great promise for the future enterprises of this 
native son, whose efficiency and integrity have given him leadership in the 
stock industry and made his name powerful along the entire north coast. To 
what degree his expertness in the stock business is a matter of early environ- 
ment and training, to what degree it came to him by inheritance and to what 
extent it results from a most careful study of every detail connected with such 
work, it would be futile to inquire, nor does it concern the present purposes of 
this narrative, which deals with facts, not with theoretical problems. Suffice 
it to say that certain mental endowments and certain conditions of environ- 
ment combined to make him an expert judge of stock and thereby to enable 
him to become a leader as stockman in the northern part of the state. His 
earliest memories of the home near Chico (where he was born) are asso- 
ciated with the buying and selling of stock and with the conversations of 
his father in regard to the good or poor qualities of animals. The elder John- 
son, whose name likewise was David T., and who was born near Bridgeton, 
Me., had come to California during the early '50s. An initial experience as a 
miner proved unsuccessful and he sought other means of earning a liveli- 
hood. For years he was associated with Sam Perrington in the buying of 
stock and the selling of meat in the mines. The butcher's trade proved 
profitable and gave him a start. During April of 1872 he brought his family 
to Round valley and became an extensive sheep-raiser of the locality, besides 
continuing to handle cattle. Until 1880 he lived in the village of Covelo, but 
then bought and settled upon a tract of ninety acres adjacent to the town. 
This property is still owned by his heirs, David T., George T. and Francis. 
When he died in August, 1890, he left to his family this home and the stock 
upon the place, but to have accumulated that neat estate indicated that he 
was a man of excellent business ability. 

The marriage of David T. Johnson, Sr., at Howland Flat, Cal., had united 
him with Miss Mertie A. Larkin, who was born in New York state and 
received excellent educational advantages, being a graduate of Jonesville 
Academy. After completing her studies in the academy she came to Cali- 
fornia via Panama. A woman of remarkable ability and business acumen, 
after the death of her husband, with the aid of her sons she continued the 
stock business and general ranching. With the most optimistic faith in the 
rising valuations of land, she began to purchase unimproved tracts whenever 
the opportunity offered. Always she advised her sons to buy land as an 
investment. The result was all she could hope for and more than even her 
most sanguine predictions had foreseen. When the sons were still in their 
twenties they saw the wisdom of their mother's ideas demonstrated on more 
than one occasion and they joined her in reaching out in the purchase of 
landed property, ^^'hen she passed awa)' at San Francisco, January 18, 1910, 
it was felt to be a distinct bereavement not only to her sons, but also to the 
Presbyterian Church (of which she was a generous and sincere member), 
to general circles of society and to the entire community of Round valley. 
With superior business judgment she united gentleness of disposition, amia- 
bility of temperament and nobility of spirit, while loyalty to family and friends 
was also one of her attractive traits. 

Since the death of their mother the sons have continued in the stock 
business, with David T., as the elder, the manager of their extensive 
interests. Primarily educated in Round valley, he later had the advantages of 


Heald's Business College, from which he was graduated in 1892. Having 
been trained to the stock industry from boyhood and having the encourage- 
ment of his mother, he soon became a leading factor in the cattle, sheep and 
hog business in the coast counties. As the herds increased, the lands also 
were enlarged until the brothers now have thousands of acres in JMendocino 
and Trinity counties, where graze their herds and flocks. They specialize with 
French Merinos and are the largest sheep-growers in Mendocino county. In 
the cattle industry they are breeding Red Durhams. About five hundred acres 
are tillable, now devoted to the raising of grain and alfalfa hay. Besides 
cattle and sheep they are raising horses, mules and hogs, and their business 
also includes the buying of stock, the feeding of the same and the shipping to 
San Francisco markets. With a view to draining the level lands Mr. Johnson 
brought to Round valley a steam tile machine and has manufactured tile of 
the three, six and eight-inch sizes, some of which, used successfully on his own 
lands, have been secured by others for tiling purposes. Always the results 
have been satisfactory. A progressive rancher, solicitous to build up the 
community and always in the forefront of any beneficial movement, he is 
aiding in the development of the valley and is furnishing an example of 
patriotism, loyalty to community and business integrity that others may well 
emulate. Through mental habits of a broad and expanding order he has 
reached out into many avenues of activity and usefulness, but always his 
interests in land and stock are uppermost in his thoughts and future plans, 
and he is giving to his chosen occupation the intelligent efficiency of long 
experience as well as the practical common sense that characterizes all of his 

ERNEST ENDERLIN.— An industry which is still in the incipient stage 
in Lake county, the raising of milch goats and production of goats' milk, has 
a most able advocate in the person of Ernest Enderlin, now a resident of 
Lower Lake, where he has been settled since 1905. Mr. Enderlin is a native 
of Baden, Germany, born December 25, 1879. When he was four years old 
his parents brought their family to America, arriving at San Francisco, Cal., 
about 1883-8-1 — father, mother and eight children. The parents are residents 
of the Lower Lake precinct in Lake county, having a forty-acre farm in Little 
High valley, at Spruce Grove. Mr. Enderlin is now sixty-eight years old, 
Mrs. Enderlin sixty-four. Of their family, Frieda (a half sister of the rest) 
is now the wife of Christian Eskelson, of San Mateo, Cal., proprietor of a 
creamery; Louise is married to E. B. Hinton, clerk in a mercantile establish- 
ment at Chico, Cal. ; Mary Magdalena is the wife of A. P. Mefford, a farmer, 
of Calistoga; Ernest is next in the family; Henry is a farmer, operating the 
Steinhart ranch ; Sophia is the wife of Ralph Hopper, of Lower Lake ; Hattie 
is the wife of Jens Nielson, a farmer at Ukiah, Mendocino county; George is 
employed on the farm belonging to the State Agricultural College at 
Davis, Cal. 

Ernest Enderlin attended school in San Francisco, and when a youth 
began a four years' apprenticeship to the trade of machinist in the shops of 
the Pacific Rolling Mills (now the Risden Iron Works) in that city. Mean- 
while, however, when seventeen years old, he came to Lake county and for 
two years was located at Lower Lake, returning to San Francisco to finish 
his apprenticeship. Subsequently he was employed as a machinist at the Dow 
Pump Works, Eagle Gas Engine Company and United Iron Works at Oak- 
land, continuing thus until a few years after his marriage. In 1905 he re- 


turned to Lower Lake and bought his present home in the western part of 
the town, having between three and four acres of ground and a comfortable 
house. Of late years he has done little at his trade, being engaged principally 
as a professional nurse, in which work he has proved very successful, his 
congenial personality and skillful attention winning the highest praise from 
all who have had need of his services. 

Some time ago Mr. Enderlin began to take an interest in the subject of 
producing goats' milk, which at the present time has a market value of fifty 
cents per quart, being rich in the butter fats which are so nutritive and easy 
of digestion. The difficulty at present in this country is to get stock goats 
for breeding purposes, of the milch varieties, as the government has stringent 
quarantine regulations against the foot-mouth disease, barring all suspicious 
importations. There is no disease among the goats in Lake county, but the 
number is limited. For the last three years Mr. Enderlin has given attention 
particularly to the breeding of his herd, and he now has fifteen head of high- 
grade Toggenburg-Saanen milch goats. Milch goats are worth from twenty- 
five dollars to seventy-five dollars apiece, and a good animal yields from two 
to four quarts of milk daily. Mr. Enderlin estimates that there is probably 
about one hundred thousand acres of unoccupied brush land in Lake county 
which would furnish proper pasture for goats, and when eaten down by them 
could easily be prepared for orcharding, ready for the planting of apple, pear 
and olive trees, or vineyards. The industry has gigantic possibilities in the 
county. Condensed goat milk would solve the perplexing question of infant 
feeding in many a community, and condensing factories, Roquefort cheese 
factories and even sanitariums where invalids, especially dyspeptics, could be 
benefited by the milk diet, are some of the features which the development 
of this business might bring out. i\Ir. Enderlin has given considerable time 
to the study of this problem, and he has done much writing on the subject, 
contributing articles to live stock and agricultural papers, including the Goat 
Journal. He is local correspondent for the Lake County Bee and the Kelsey- 
ville Sun, as well as other papers, and he is doing his best to start a movement 
in favor of the project which he feels would add to the riches of the county 
and bring benefit to many, from the standpoint of health as well as financial 

When twenty-two years old Mr. Enderlin was married in San Francisco 
to Miss Eva Marie Rousseau, and they have had six children, all of whom are 
vet at home, namely: Blanche, Evelyn, Rousseau, Milton, Harold and 
Euvelle. Mr. Enderlin is well known in the local fraternal bodies, being a 
member of the Lower Lake Blue Lodge and a Master Mason, and a past 
grand of Clear Lake Lodge. No. 130. I. O. O. F., of Lower Lake. 

LORENCE E. ALLISON.— The wide-awake town of Kelseyville has 
proved a good field for progressive business men, its residents appreciating 
the efforts local merchants make to give them good merchandise and service, 
and the benefit has been mutual. Though still one of the younger of the well- 
known storekeepers in the place, Lorence E. Allison, senior member of the 
firm of Allison & Stone, has established himself thoroughly in the confidence 
of the townspeople, and the trade he has built up within a few years would 
seem astonishing to any unfamiliar with conditions in the community or with 
his energetic character. His honorable career is considered a credit to the 
town, for he is a native of Kelsewille. Though his success is his own, the 


community has profited by it also, and in patronizing his up-to-date store so 
liberally has made possible many of the conveniences he has been able to 
place at the disposal of his customers. 

The late J. Roily Allison, father of Lorence E. Allison, came to Lake 
county in the sixties, and his father was a rancher in California in the early 
days. J. R. Allison married Mrs. Florence L. (Barker) Kelsey, a native of 
Massachusetts, who came to California with her parents when a girl of four- 
teen years, the family settling in Lake county. By her first marriage Mrs. 
Allison had four children, two of whom died in infancy, Susan and Elmer C. 
living to maturity. Susan is the wife of C. H. Peugh, a farmer, living at 
Modesto, Cal. ; Elmer C. is a member of the firm of Renfro & Kelsey, butchers, 
of Kelseyville, and his father ran the pioneer butcher shop there, built forty 
years ago, but he has built a new one in 1914. Three children were born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Allison : Lorence E. ; Alton Grant, who is married and lives at 
Kelseyville; and Gladys, wife of A. N. Orcutt, a miner, of Garfield, Utah. 

Lorence E. Allison was born February 14, 1884, and grew up in Kelsey- 
ville, receiving a public school education. He began work at the age of four- 
teen years, clerking in the general merchandise store of W. H. Marshall, at 
Kelseyville. When sixteen he went to Santa Rosa to take a course in Sweet's 
Business College, and after graduating returned to Kelseyville and resumed 
work with his old employer, with whom he remained for several years. For 
one year he was at Lower Lake with M. Levy, and for a short time he clerked 
at San Rafael with Hugh Gorley, with those exceptions continuing in Mr. 
Marshall's employ until he embarked in business for himself, in 1911, at 
Kelseyville. He commenced with a notion store, adding to his stock as trade 
demanded, and enlarged his accommodations, until he found himself at the 
head of one of the largest mercantile establishments in the town. On Decem- 
ber 1, 1912, he took Donald R. Stone into partnership, and these young men 
have made a thorough "go'' of their venture. Their comprehensive stock of 
general merchandise includes everything for which there is likely to be any 
call — groceries, crockery, hardware, tinware, dry goods, hats and caps, boots 
and shoes, wire fencing and farming machinery, Mr. Allison being agent for 
the International Harvester Company's implements. He also has the agency 
for the Spires stage line. Mr. Allison's policy of fair and square dealing has 
not only brought him customers, but has also established his credit with the 
wholesale and jobbing houses. The store is centrally located, and the stock 
is displayed in an attractive and orderly manner, and conveniently arranged. 
There is no doubt that Mr. Allison's high personal character has been the 
main factor in his success, for he began with few advantages and had an up- 
hill road for some years, though his perseverance and industry proved suf- 
ficient to help him overcome the difficulties he had to encounter before he 
became well established. His fellow citizens have shown their trust in his 
ability by selecting him for local offices, among them that of postmaster, which 
he filled from 1911 to 1913. He has also been popular in the social organiza- 
tions of the town, having been president of Kelseyville Parlor, No. 219, N. S 
G. W., and council commander of Clear Lake Camp, No. 810, W. O. W. In 
politics he gives his allegiance to Republican principles. 

In 1907 Mr. Allison married Miss Mary E. Grigsby, daughter of the late 
P. D. Grigsby, of Lower Lake. They have had two children. LeRoy Ellwood 
;.nd Dialtha Gladvs. 


JOHN SYLVANUS ROHRBOUGH.— Associated with the agricultural 
development of Round valley is the name of John S. Rohrbough, who is one 
of the most widely known citizens and one of the heaviest taxpayers in Mendo- 
cino county. From the age of seventeen years he has made his home in the 
coast country of California, having come hither in 1876 from Buckhannon, 
Upshur county, W. Va., where he was born February 12, 1859. He is the son 
of Jacob H. and Marella (White) Rohrbough, also natives of Upshur county, 
where the father was a farmer and business man, and on his mother's side is 
a descendant of the Jackson family of Revolutionary stock. He is the third 
in the family of four children and received a common-school education in his 
native place. The presence of an uncle, G. E. White, in Mendocino county 
was the factor governing his removal from the east and his arrival here during 
1876, after which he was engaged as an employe on the ranch of his uncle 
in Round valley at a salary of $20 a month. Industry and energy were 
apparent in his earliest associations with agriculture. An innate spirit of 
frugality enabled him to save his first earnings to be used in the purchase 
of property, his first purchase being the flour mill in Covelo, where he has 
manufactured that product ever since by the steam full roller process, with 
a capacity of fifty barrels. He also engaged in the stock business, renting 
land and as he was able purchasing small ranches, thus becoming the owner 
of several thousand acres. And when his uncle G. E. White's large holdings 
were offered for sale by various banks and insurance companies on fore- 
closure of mortgage he took over all of them, going into debt for the larger 
part. Continuing to raise wheat and manufacture it into flour, which he 
shipped as far as Ukiah, and engaging in the raising of hay and feeding of 
cattle, he was enabled to settle the obligation, his diflferent ranches now 
embracing in all some twenty-five thousand acres of tillable land in Mendo- 
cino, Humboldt and Trinity counties, over two thousand acres being level 
valley land nearly in the center of Round valley, forming one of the richest 
and most fertile tracts in the county, a small agricultural empire reflecting 
credit upon the ability of its owner and forming a source of merited pride 
on his part. He makes a specialty of raising large herds of cattle, which 
range on his diflferent ranches, his brand being 55. For some years he has 
been breeding full-blooded roan Durham cattle on his home ranch, and these 
bulls are turned loose on his different ranges. He has also sold more than 
a score of these full-blooded animals to stockmen in the county, so contribut- 
ing greatly toward bringing the quality of the cattle to a high standard. He 
also owns large flocks of sheep, breeding French Merinos, and has raised a 
large number of horses and mules. In the operation of his ranch he uses 
the latest machinery, using the largest traction engine manufactured, a 
Rumely oil pull 30x60, for plowing as well as pulling the combined harvester. 
He is rapidly converting different fields into alfalfa and rents some of his 
lands for dairy purposes, which is rapidly taking a lead in intensified farming. 

A crowning feature of Mr. Rohrbough's refined home is to be found in 
the gracious hospitality of the cultured hostess, Mrs. Jennie Myrtle (Fetty) 
Rohrbough, who is of West Virginian birth. Her birth occurred in Lewis 
county and her education was received in Buckhannon at Wesleyan College, 
from which she was graduated in 1893. The same fall she came to California, 
and on the 3d of April, 1894, in Round valley, she became the wife of Mr. 
Rohrbough. Seven children have been born of their union, namely: Evan, 


attending the University of California, studying on the experimental farm 
at Davis ; INIarella, attending Hamlin's School, San Francisco ; John, attend- 
ing the grammar school ; Lummie, deceased ; Beverley, Shirley, and Margaret, 
deceased. Mrs. Rohrbough is an active member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church in Covelo. 

In the past years Mr. Rohrbough has spared neither expense nor personal 
attention to promote the general welfare of Round valley. Progressive and 
moral movements inaugurated in recent years have received his support. In 
this connection it may be stated that he has been associated with the develop- 
ment of the creamery in this valley, and also the local telephone system, 
holding stock in both concerns. For a number of years he has been a director 
r,i the Bank of W'illits, in which he holds a large block of stock. It may be 
said that he is truly a representative of the type of men who are causing 
Mendocino county to forge to the front as an agricultural center. While a 
stanch advocate of Democratic principles, he has confined his interest along 
these lines to the support he could give to the men and measures of his 
party. Not only in the interests of his children, but also for the larger interests 
oi the county, he has sought to advance the welfare of the schools of Round 
valley and has been in favor of advancing the standard of education to meet 
the enlarged demands of the twentieth century. Although highly successful, 
the fact that his character is free from self-seeking and self-aggrandizement 
enables him to wield a more than temporary influence in afifairs of the valley 
and county. 

WILLIAM H. SMITH.— In 1906 William H. Smith moved into the 
town of Lower Lake to settle down in retirement, after forty years and more 
of farming. He still retains valuable agricultural property in Lake county, 
one farm in ^\'eldon valley and another in Burns valley, having lived on the 
former place for twenty years before he gave up active work. He came to 
Lake county from Illinois, in search of health, and was fortunate in finding 
a climate which brought back his strength and enabled him to continue his 
labors successfully for many years. Mr. Smith has prospered by dint of in- 
dustry and commendable management, and deserves the respect which all 
his fellow citizens accord him. He is a leading member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church at Lower Lake. 

Mr. Smith is a native of the town of Parrish, Oswego county, N. Y., born 
March 13, 1842. His father, Franklin Smith, went into the backwoods of 
Oswego county to clear up a farm and establish a comfortable home for his 
little family, but he died before he had been able to accomplish much toward 
the improvement of his place or to accumulate much of this world's goods. 
He had married Elizabeth House, who was left with four young children : 
Martha, now the widow of William Dillworth, living in Hamilton county, 111. ; 
Barnard, who is farming in Knox county. Neb. ; Oscar, who was only sixteen 
years old when he enlisted during the Civil war in the Twenty-fourth New 
York Cavalry, was captured, and died while a prisoner at Andersonville, and 
William H. The mother remarried, her second husband being Martin Stern 
fnow deceased), by whom she had six children. She lived and died in New 
York state, reaching the age of seventy-four years. 

William H. Smith was but seven years old when his father died, and soon 
afterward he went to live at the honie of an uncle, Joel Andrews, who was 
engaged in farming in Oneida county, N. Y. Lentil he was nineteen he con- 


tinned to make his home there, though from the time he was seventeen he 
worked out on farms for others. On April 24, 1861, at Utica, N. Y., he 
enlisted in the Union service, and was mustered in at Elmira, that state, as 
a member of Company A, Twenty-sixth New York Volunteer Infantry, which 
was attached to the Army of the Potomac. He took part in many important 
engagements, including Cedar Mountain, Thoroughfare Gap, Rappahannock 
Station, Second Bull Run, Antietam and Fredericksburg, and was honorably 
discharged in 1863, at the expiration of his term of service, with an excep- 
tional record. In the fall of 1863 Mr. Smith went to Kendall county. 111., and 
for two years was engaged in farming. Returning east, he spent two winters 
working in the Michigan pineries, and then bought a farm in Champaign 
county, 111., which he intended for his permanent home. He set about the 
cultivation and improvement of his property, and met with decided success 
in his work, remaining there for a period of eighteen years, until failing health 
made a change seem desirable. It was for this reason he came to California, 
in 1886, living for a year in Ventura county, and then coming to Lake county, 
and settling in Weldon valley, where he farnied until his retirement. The 
farm he bought there contains one hundred and fifty-seven acres, ten acres 
of which are in fruit, and besides he owns fifty acres in Burns valley, all level 
grain land. Mr. Smith has. derived a good income from his land, which he 
has improved systematically and is now under profitable cultivation. He has 
various interests at Lower Lake, being a member and treasurer of the Masonic 
Lodge there and member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, which he has 
served officially in several capacities, having been steward and trustee, and 
still holding the latter office. His political connection is with the Republican 
party. Though he began life under adverse circumstances, Mr, Smith has 
overcome them by his steady persistence and application to his work, and 
he is respected for his industrious career and for his high Christian character. 
Though conservative, he has never been an enemy of progress, and he can 
always be counted upon to support good government, though he himself has 
never had any desire to take a hand in the administration of public affairs. 

In 1872, while living in Champaign county, 111., Mr. Smith was united in 
marriage with Miss Minerva J. Hofifman, of that county, but a native of 
Butler county, Ohio. They have had a family of five children : Eugene died 
in Illinois when sixteen months old; Viola died when eleven months old; 
Edward Franklin died when fifteen years old ; Evelyn Cornelia is the wife of 
W. J. Foster, who is now cultivating Mr. Smith's farm of one hundred and 
fifty-seven acres in Weldon valley ; Erva Amanda is the wife of Andrew 
Johnson, a farmer in Big valley. Lake county. 

LAFAYETTE HENDRICKS. — When recognition is taken of those 
who have been primarily influential in the development and agricultural 
upbuilding of Lake county, to few should greater tribute be paid than to 
LaFayette Hendricks, whose energies have been given to the promotion of 
the farming interests of this section of the state and who is a scion of the 
stanchest of pioneer stock. The reputation of the Hendricks family through- 
out the county is most enviable. Hard-working, good-hearted, generous, 
efficient, kind and helpful, their members have formed the very essence of the 
backbone of the cleanest citizenship of their several communities, and in this 
respect Mr. Hendricks has not been surpassed by other representatives of the 
name. .A^ most dependable man and an exceptionally capable farmer, he 


devoted all of his active years to agricultural pursuits, but the destruction of 
his farmhouse by fire in 1911 caused him to bring his family to Lakeport and 
establish a home here, retaining, however, the highly-improved dairy ranch 
of forty-four acres located directly north of the creamery in Scotts valley, 
and also his stock ranch of five hundred and fifty-five acres about five miles 
north of Lakeport, devoted to stock raising. 

One of the earliest memories (somewhat vague and indistinct, it is true) 
of LaPayette Hendricks pertains to the removal of the family from Texas, 
where he was born near Fort Worth September 8, 1854, to California, whither 
a tedious journey with ox teams brought them in 1859. The parents, Green- 
berry and Mary Ann (Stephenson) Hendricks, were married at Cape Girar- 
deau, Mo., and later settled in Texas, where two children were born, La- 
Fayette and Ellen A., the latter now the wife of William D. Rantz, a promi- 
nent resident of Lakeport. After coming to California the family lived for 
two years on a ranch in Tulare county four miles east of Visalia, but about 
the middle of December. 1861, thej' arrived in Lake county and settled in 
Scotts valley, where the father died in April, 1876, before he had succeeded in 
clearing and improving his farm of one hundred and sixty acres. Meanwhile 
there had been born in Lake county one daughter and four sons, namely : 
Lydia S., the widow of W. W. Waldo and a resident of Lakeport; William 
G., who died at twenty-seven years and whose widow, Nellie B. (Keys) 
Hendricks, is still operating the farm in Scotts valley, having with her their 
three sons, Archie M., Ernest and William ; Joseph W., who married Airs. 
Little, of Lakeport, and is engaged in farming in Scotts valley ; John B., a 
well-known farmer and perhaps the largest walnut grower in Lake county ; 
and Robert Edward, who married Miss Bertha Whitton and is a partner in 
the Hendricks-Crump Company, of Lakeport. 

Until after the removal of the family to Lake county it had not been 
possible for LaFayette Hendricks to attend school and his advantages here 
were very meager, although he was a pupil in the first school ever started in 
Scotts valley. Since leaving school he has read widely and carefully, and 
thus has gained a fund of knowledge most valuable to him. His mother, who 
is still living in Lakeport, hale notwithstanding her eighty-two busy years, 
and her second husband, Z. Morrison, donated the ground on which stands the 
Scotts Valley Methodist Episcopal Church, and the Hendricks family as- 
sisted generously in the erection of the edifice. During 1881 Mr. Hendricks 
married Miss Emma M. Glines, who died in 1891, leaving a daughter, Eva 
Pearl, now the wife of Roy B. Embree, of Lakeport. The second marriage 
of Mr. Hendricks was solemnized in 1894 and united him with Miss Sadie 
L. Morris, member of one of the earliest families to settle in the state of 
Missouri. Of this union there are six children, viz. : Clarence Clififord and 
Emma V., students in the Lakeport Union high school ; Marion L., Etta Marie, 
Olive I. and Elzada Louise, pupils in the Lakeport grammar school. The 
family are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in the main- 
tenance of which Mr. Hendricks assists to the extent of his ability. Until 
removing to Lakeport he served for some years as clerk of the board of 
trustees of the Scotts valley grammar school. Other interests include the 
holding of stock in the Clear Lake Railway Company and membership in the 
Taxpayers' Association of Lake county, in which he is now serving as a 

^a-L^c^ ^;^l^:^ 


HORACE FREMONT MILLIKEN.— It has been given to Mr. Milliken 
to pass his entire life near the sea. During- his first twenty years he hved in 
Maine, where his parents, Horatio and Julia (Blaisdell) Milliken, were born, 
and where his own life began June 20, 1854, in the village of Surry, almost 
within sight and sound of the tempestuous waves that dashed against the 
rock-bound coast of Maine. During 1874 he traveled across the continent to 
San Francisco, thence proceeded by steamer to Petaluma and from there trav- 
eled by stage to Mendocino City. At the time lumbering formed the chief 
industry in Mendocino county. Naturally he turned to work in the lumber 
camps as offering the easiest means of securing a livelihood. In a short time 
he gained a comprehensive knowledge of the business in its different depart- 
ments. For six years he was employed to drive ox-teams and later he became 
superintendent of logging for the L. E. White Lumber Company at Whites- 
boro. L^pon resigning from the lumber business he carried on a hardware 
business in Mendocino county for seven years. A tour of inspection through 
Southern California as early as 1881 had resulted in the purchase of raw land 
at Cucamonga, in San Bernardino county, and for some years he divided his 
time between his interests there and in Northern California, meanwhile im- 
proving the raw land with a vineyard, a peach orchard and an orange grove. 

Upon coming to Fort Bragg in 1888 i\Ir. ]\Iilliken bought a tract of land in 
the midst of the redwood forest, just a little ways back from the ocean, and 
there he erected a residence. Since then the trees have been cut away for miles 
back of his place and his home is now the center of the residence district of 
the town. In 1893 he purchased twelve hundred acres on Pudding creek one 
mile east of the city. At the time the land was in its primeval condition, but its 
crude condition did not in the least dampen the ardor of the new owner. On 
the other hand it seemed to whet his ambition to put it in a state of cultivation 
as rapidly as possible, and with this object before him he set to work dili- 
gently to clear and improve it. When this was accomplished he enclosed it 
with good fencing and stocked it with cattle, sheep and hogs. He also estab- 
lished his own slaughter house and butcher shop so that he was able to supply 
the town and valley with meat. The clearing and improving of the ranch 
entailed the expenditure of a large sum of money and required a long time 
and much hard work. The result, however, has justified all that has been 
expended in its accomplishment, and today it is the consensus of opinion 
that it is the finest and best improved stock ranch in the country round about. 
The ranch is still in his possession and under his immediate management. 
With his son Leland E., Jr., Mr. Milliken owns three hundred and fifty acres 
of land near Livingston, Merced county, all under irrigation and in alfalfa, 
the son having the management of the property. For many years Mr. 
Milliken carried on a hardware business on Main street in Fort Bragg. In 
all probability, however, he has accomplished the greatest good to the com- 
munity through his services as the owner and builder of the Fort Bragg Water 
plant. The first attempt to supply the town with a water system resulted from 
his foresight and energy. In 1889 he established a small concern, which has 
since expanded with the growth of the place and is now capable of furnish- 
ing water to a city of more than five thousand inhabitants. A careful study of 
the building of a water plant convinced Mr. Milliken that not only were red- 
wood logs far less expensive than iron pipe, but they have the further advan- 
tage of being non-conductors of heat and cold, and on account of the smooth- 


ness of the wood a freer flow of water is permitted. Experience proved the 
sagacity of his judgment. After the logs had been in use for sixteen years it 
was decided to replace them with larger pipe. On being taken up the logs 
were found to be sound and in the very best condition, hence it strengthened 
his confidence in the value of redwood as the most serviceable and practicable 
pipe to conduct water, and he has consequently used it in his entire system. 
This makes Mr. Milliken the pioneer in the use of and also in the demonstra- 
tion of the fact that redwood pipe is superior and more valuable than any 
other as water pipe. 

The possessor of varied talents, Mr. Milliken enjoys instrumental and 
vocal music and was for many years the leader of the Fort Bragg band. 
Music, however, does not fill all of his leisure moments, for he is an enthusiast 
at chess and checkers and nothing pleases him more nor gives him more 
diversion than to match his skill with the best-known players of the games. 

Mr. Milliken's activities as a citizen years ago led him to aid in the 
organization of a volunteer fire department for the city. Formerly he served 
as a member of the board of town trustees and president of the school board, 
while at this writing he is president of the board of trustees of the Fort 
Bragg Union high school, and also officiates as president of the library board. 
Until the formation of the Progressive party he took no part in politics, but 
he was then prevailed upon to accept the chairmanship of the Progressive 
Republican county central committee, in which capacity he worked faithfully 
in behalf of his party. He was made a Mason in Fort Bragg Lodge No. 361, 
F. & A. M., and is a member of Mendocino Chapter No. 88, R. A. M., and with 
his wife is a member of Sapphire Chapter No. 230, O. E. S., and of the Order 
of Pocahontas. Mr. Milliken is also a member of the Loyal Order of Moose 
and the Improved Order of Red Men. 

At Mendocino, on May 7, 1881, Mr. Milliken was married to Miss Anna 
Mitchell, who was born in St. Johns, New Brunswick, but has spent her 
life principally in California, having come here with her mother in 1875. They 
became the parents of three children, Leland E., Julia Edna and Horace Leroy, 
the last-named dying at the age of six years. Leland E. Milliken chose for his 
wife Miss Elizabeth Holbrook, of Berkeley, and they have a daughter. Julia 
Edna Milliken became the wife of Edwin L. IMcKinlay, and they reside in 
Berkeley. There is no movement started for the benefit of the citizens and 
business interests of Fort Bragg or Mendocino county that does not have the 
liberal support of Mr. Milliken, to which he contributes liberally of his time 
and means. 

BENJAMIN ROBERT PARROTT.— Over twenty-five years ago 
Benjamin R. Parrott came into Lake county looking for desirable land, and 
he preempted a tract of one hundred and sixty acres lying in what is now 
known as the Mountain District precinct, formerly included in the South 
Kelseyville precinct, where he has resided continuously since. He has made 
considerable improvement in his property, particularly in the setting out of 
fruit trees, giving his attention particularly to the raising of fruit, in which 
he has found a profitable field of labor. His brother, Edwin O. Parrott, occu- 
pies this place with him, assisting him to some extent in its cultivation. 

Mr. Parrott has been in the west since he was eighteen years old. Born 
"May 6, 1846, at Rushville, in Schuyler county. 111., he is one of the eight 
children of Thomas Jefiferson and Virginia (Henley) Parrott, the former a 


native of Virginia, the latter of Lexington, Ky. The father was ten years 
older than the mother, and both parents lived to the age of seventy-eight. Of 
the family, Virginia, now nearly eighty years old, is unmarried, and lives on 
the old Parrott home place in Schuyler county, 111.; Samuel died in infancy; 
Cornelius died in infancy ; Thomas died in Sioux City, Iowa (where he con- 
ducted a feed store), leaving a wife and two children; Julius has had a suc- 
cessful life and is now living in retirement at Rushville, 111. ; Benjamin Robert 
is next in the family ; Cornelia is unmarried and living at the old home place ; 
Edwin Othello, born July 10, 1853, was for many years in the service of th<! 
Southern Pacific Railroad Company as brakeman and conductor, and is now 
making his home with his brother on the ranch in Lake county. 

Benjamin Robert Parrott had rather limited advantages in his youth, 
but he had plenty of practical experience to prepare him for life. When only 
a young man of eighteen years he started across the plains with one hundred 
and eighteen head of horses and two mules, arriving at Virginia City, Nev.. 
June 11, 1864. It was not easy to find employment, and though he was ready 
to take anything he could get in the way of honest work, he once went without 
a bite to eat for three days while looking for something to do. He finally took 
a job as car pusher. When he came to California he arrived in Nevada county 
without a cent, and he went to work on a ranch for a dollar a day. The 
employment was not steady, and when not working he was charged $1 a 
day for board. After a time he went to Todd's valley, in Placer county, this 
state, where he followed mining, running a placer mine. He also worked in 
the hydraulic mines, receiving $3 a day and his board, and remained at that 
location for one year. Thus he went from place to place in the state, search- 
ing for his uncle, Robert Hendley, and finally found he had gone to the Reese 
river, where he contracted mountain fever. From there Mr. Hendley then 
returned to Yolo county, where he died, and Mr. Parrott found his grave, at 
Knights Landing. In 1887 Mr. Parrott arrived in Lake county, locating upon 
the tract where he has since made his home, and filing upon one hundred and 
sixty acres as his preemption. Although he had only $9.50 in money when he 
settled here, he has made his way ahead steadily, proved up on his land and 
paid for it, and continued to improve it from year to year, having a comfort- 
able house, barns, fences and a commercial orchard of fourteen acres. His 
orchards now contain sixteen hundred trees. The fourteen acres are planted 
principally in prunes, and Mr. Parrott has had abundant crops, his fruit net- 
ting him a good income. As he has done all the work himself, clearing the 
land from its primitive state, setting out the trees, cultivating and gathering 
his crops, he has accomplished considerable, and he is respected by all his 
neighbors for the steady industry which has been necessary to bring his 
property into its present condition. All that he owns has been gained by hard 
work, and he well deserves the prosperity that his years of application havo 
finally brought. His brother is like himself a man of estimable character, anri 
they are well liked among their fellow citizens. They keep bachelors' hall on 
the farm, being the only members of their family now in this section. 

Mr. Parrott was married in San- Francisco, and the only child born of 
the union, Harry T., is deceased. He is a member of the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows, belonging to the lodge at Kelseyville, and though not per- 
sonally active in public aflfairs is interested in the success of the Republican 
party, which he supports with his ballot. 


EDWARD HENRY LONG.— A keen, perceptive mind, a natural busi- 
ness ability and an unfailing sense of honor have been the attributes which 
have brought Edward Henry Long success, and added to this he has a genial, 
unselfish and sympathetic nature which manifests itself in his every day 
life to such an extent as to bring him many warm friends and a wide patronage 
in his mercantile business. His experiences have been many, filled with 
hardships and failures to discourage a less stalwart heart than Mr. Long's, 
but he has faced them one by one with unflinching determination to win and, 
though still in his prime, he has reached a prominent position in his vicinity 
which few have attained. 

Born August 22, 1881, in Potter valley, Mendocino county, Mr. Long 
is the only child living of a family of four born to Thomas E. and Ida M. 
(Carner) Long. His father was a stockman, farmer and merchant, and was 
surpervisor of the Third District of Mendocino county at the time of his 
death. Edward Henry was a mere child when he was taken to Santa Bar- 
bara, where his parents made their home for four years, and then returned 
to Mendocino county, locating in Rovmd valley. Here his father purchased 
thirty acres of land, which was unimproved, and at once set to work to clear 
it and put it in shape for cultivation. As the son grew older he was sent to • 
the neighborhood grammar school, which course he completed, meanwhile 
assisting his father on the farm during spare hours. Later he took a course 
in Sweet's Business College at Santa Rosa, from which he was graduated, 
and then returned home to work with his father in his store in Covelo, and 
after his father's demise he assumed charge of his alYairs. To make matters 
worse, the store burned to the ground a short time afterwards. Being a 
total loss, he wound up the business, and in the spring of 1903 moved to 
Lake county and remained at Witters Spring for some time, his health having 
failed him, and the change and rest soon restored him to his normal self. He 
removed to Willits and for a time worked as clerk in a store, later spending a 
few months in L^kiah, whence he returned to Round valley and worked at 
farming. A short time later he purchased from his mother a half interest 
in the home ranch and for three years met with great success in farming that 
land, making his chief occupation the raising of hogs. However, in Novem- 
ber, 1911, he sold out his interest and moved to Covelo. where January 6, 
1911, he had bought a half interest in a general merchandise store, now known 
as Long & Biggar, and which business is now his present field of energy. Here 
his excellent business judgment, his energy and industrious application to 
matters of moment have been the means of bringing good results, and he 
enjoys the respect of his fellow business men throughout the county. 

Independent in politics, while primarily a Democrat, Mr. Long believes 
m voting for the man he deems best fitted for the ofifice, and he has proven 
himself a conscientious and active citizen wherever local matters have been 
concerned. He believes in the making of permanent improvements in the 
town where his interests are centered, and has built a new, modern residence 
at a convenient distance from the business center. While not a member 
of any church, he believes in their influence for moral good and lends his sup- 
port to them as well as the Sunday schools. He married December 18, 1905, 
Alice Hurt, who was born in Lake county, and five children have been born 
to them : Harold, Gerald, Thomas, Joseph and Leta Alice. 


NATHANIEL WARREN KENT.— That it is possible to secure a sub- 
stantial degree of success in Mendocino county the prosperity of Mr. Kent 
abundantly proves, for he is the owner of a large and well-improved ranch 
two and one-half miles south of the village of Mendocino in the Little River 
district, and is extensively engaged in stock-raising, dairying and kindred 
industries. Recently he has added a creamery to his other enterprises. The 
plant is modern and well-equipped. The quality of the output is indicated by 
the statement that he has received the highest awards for his butter at local 
fairs. In the creamery as in every other department connected with the farm 
thrift, sanitation and intelligence predominate. The oversight of the owner 
is everywhere in evidence. In the selection of stock for his dairy he exercises 
the most careful judgment in securing the best Jersey blood and in this way 
he is building up a very valuable herd. 

Perhaps the prominence of Mr. Kent in agricultural circles is due in some 
degree to the fact that he has been a lifelong resident of Mendocino county 
and the son of an honored pioneer family. His father, William Henry Kent, 
who was born in Mount Vernon, Me., came to California in 1851 via the 
Isthmus to San Francisco. His first venture in the west was in the mines, 
but it was not a success, and by the time he was reduced to four bits he 
concluded it was time to seek other employment. His familiarity with logging 
in Alaine induced him to seek similar work in Mendocino county. At first he 
engaged in logging on Big river, and eventually he became camp boss. In 
1857 he bought a squatter's claim from Mr. Beall, and this he improved and 
continued to make his home until his death. He was greatly interested in 
Toad-building, often using his own teams to carry out projects that he deemed 
essential, and he served one term as supervisor of his district. In maidenhood 
his wife was Miss Charlotte Cofren, of Vienna, Me., and her mother was 
Sarah Greeley, a member of the same family as Horace Greeley. Mr. and 
Mrs. Kent were married in Maine and in 1855 Mrs. Kent came by way of 
Panama to Cloverdale, Cal., from there riding horseback on the Indian trail 
to Mendocino county. Only two white women had preceded her here. The 
history of the Kent family in this country is traced back to the first settlement 
made in Connecticut in 1640, from there going back to the twelfth century in 
England. To William H. Kent and his wife two children were born, Everett 
William, who died in 1902, and Nathaniel W., whose name heads this sketch, 
.^t the old homestead on Little river, where Nathaniel W. Kent was born. 
June 10, 1864, he learned the rudiments of agriculture and acquired skill in 
the care of stock. A course of study in Heald's Business College, San Francisco, 
cpialified him for commercial affairs. His mother died September 2, 1891, and 
his father passed away January 25, 1906, leaving to him the ranch of four 
hundred and ninety-six acres at Bridgeport and two hundred and seventy 
of the old home place at Little River. The example of the father was fol- 
lowed by the son. who gave considerable attention first to sheep and later to 
dairying. Through energj- and patience he has developed one of the finest 
dairies in the district and the enterprise is proving profitable as well as 
popular. For a number of years his father had the largest butchering busi- 
ness in Northern California and our subject aided him in the business. He 
had charge of the slaughter house on the ranch, and killed thirty cattle a week 
for a time. His Jersey herd has been bred to a high grade, representing the 
St. Lambert strain largely. .\ part of the ranch is devoted to intensified farm- 


ing, large crops of peas and beets being raised and furnishing feed the year 

The Kent farm house is said to be one of the finest country homes in 
Mendocino county. The home is presided over graciously by Mrs. Kent, for- 
merly Mary Emma Phelps, a native of Owatonna, Minn., born May 16, 1868, 
the daughter of Oriville and Mary (Butterfield) Phelps, born in New York 
and Michigan respectively. About 1884 the family came to California, but in 
the fall of 1887 Miss Phelps returned to Minnesota, and there the following 
year she became the bride of Mr. Kent, their marriage being solemnized June 
1, 1888. Seven children were born of their union, namely: Dwight N. of 
Vallejo; Ralph L., deceased; William Howard; Ruth, Donald, Edith and 
Florence. Mr. Kent was made a jNlason in INIendocino Lodge No. 179, F. & 
A. M., and with his wife is a member of Ocean View Chapter, No. Ill, O. E. 
S. The family are associated with the Presbyterian Church in religious affili- 
ations. Active in politics, Mr. Kent has been chosen delegate to local con- 
ventions of the Republican party and has been influential in promoting its 
interests. Both as a neighbor and as a farmer he stands high. His popu- 
larity results from a lifetime of devotion to the interests of the community and 
a progressive spirit that inspires him to advocate all measures for the general 
welfare. To such men as he the county is indebted for past progress and 
future prospects. 

HIRAM KENNEDY. — Within the spacious bounds of the Kennedy 
ranch in Long vallev may be found an establishment so complete in every 
detail that it should be the pride of its owner, who has been a pioneer in that 
region in more respects than one. He has occupied his home tract there since 
1859, and is now one of the largest land owners in the locality, principally 
engaged in the raising of cattle and hog? for the beef and pork market. But 
for a period of twenty-nine years he was extensively interested in dairying, 
in which line he was perhaps the first farmer east of Clear Lake to meet with 
enough profitable success to justify his continuing it. He has made and sold 
tons of first-class butter, and in the early days of the Bartlett Springs Resort 
in Lake county supplied the dairy products used there, to which fact doubtless 
much of its popularity was due, as it was famous for the excellence of its 
table. Mr. Kennedy is a "Yankee" by birth, and though most of his long 
life — he is now in his eightieth year — has been spent in California, he still 
"etains many typical New England qualities, not only the thrift and pride of 
independence, but also the keenness of intellect and ingenuity which marks 
the true sons of that section. His energetic personality, alert bearing and 
physical activity evince the executive ability which has made his many 
achievements possible. 

New Hampshire is Mr. Kennedy's native state, and he is of the fourth 
generation of his family in this country, his great-grandfather, James Ken- 
nedy, having been born in Londonderry, Ireland, from which country he came 
to America. He made a settlement in what is now Hillsboro county, N. H., 
near the Unconono mountains. The first white child born at Gofifstown, that 
state, was Thomas Kennedy, a cousin of James Kennedy (father of Hiram 
Kennedy), to which fact the inscription on the shaft of native slatestone 
which marks his grave bears witness. One of Hiram Kennedy's aunts bore 
the maiden name of Louisa Stark, and she was a granddaughter of General 
Stark of Revolutionary fame, who lies buried at Manchester, N. H. James 



Kennedy, grandfather of Hiram Kennedy, was born at Gofifstown, as was his 
father, James Kennedy, Jr. The latter was engaged as a sawmill man at 
Gofifstown until he came to California among the "argonauts of '49," making 
the trip around the Horn in the bark "Chester," which proved to be a very 
slow vessel, the tedious, stormy voyage consuming nine months. He landed 
at San Francisco in April, 1850, and engaged in placer mining until joined 
by his son a few years later, eventually entering into agricultural work with 
him, and he died at his son Hiram's home in Long valley some years ago, 
lacking only five months of completing his ninetieth year. He had married 
Phoebe Robie, who was a native of Maine, their marriage taking place at 
Gofifstown, N. H., where she died at the age of fifty-three. Six children were 
born to this union, Clarinda, Diantha, Roberta, Hiram, Almus and Esther. 
Clarinda died in 1893. Diantha, who is also deceased, married William 
Moody, a sea captain, and lived in Boston, Mass. ; she had two children. 
Roberta, deceased, married James Colby, a farmer, and had one child ; they 
lived at Dunbarton, near Gofifstown. Almus, a veteran of the Civil war, was 
a painter until his retirement ; he married Miss Belle Wilson, of Davis, Cal., 
where they now reside ; they have no living children. Esther is the wife of 
Albert F. Morrell, a prominent resident of the Morgan valley, and they have 
had five children. 

Hiram Kennedy was born at Goffstown, N. H., November 20, 1834, and 
obtained his education in the public schools there. When sixteen he went to 
work for the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company at Manchester, N. H., and 
he gained a very thorough knowledge of boilermaking and machinist work 
under his boss, Mr. Farrier, a highly competent man, who turned out some 
fine locomotive boilers. By that time Mr. Kennedy's father had gone to 
California, and the youth did the best he could to make his own living and 
also help his mother, trying so earnestly that although he had a very severe 
boss he worked his way up steadily, himself becoming head of the shop. At 
the age of nineteen he left to follow his father to the west, expecting to join 
him at Volcanoville, where the family had last heard from him, and where 
he was following placer mining. Bidding good-bye to his mother and the 
rest of the home folks, he sailed from New York on the steamer "George 
Law" to Aspinwall, and crossed the isthmus, being obliged to go eleven miles 
of the way on foot. At Panama he embarked on the "Sonora" for San Fran- 
cisco, where he arrived after a twenty-six days' journey from New York City, 
which he had left August 4, 1854. The voyage up the coast from Panama 
was marked by many unpleasant experiences. Cholera claimed twelve of the 
passengers, and sixty miles below San Francisco the boat ran on a rock, but 
managed to get away and finish the trip. Mr. Kennedy proceeded at once 
to Volcanoville, only to learn that his father had gone to Shasta county. 
Being out of money, the young man took a position at the "Illinois House," a 
Dutch hotel on J street, Sacramento, with a man named Merker, and worked 
there three months liefore he found where his father was. They met at Dicks- 
bury, and from that time mined together in Butte and Plumas counties. The 
father was about discouraged, believing the mines were played out, and after 
following that work for a few years more they resolved to try their fortunes 
in land and agricultural operations. 

When Mr. Kennedy and his father came into Lake county in 1859 they 
had but eighteen hundred dollars between them, and they put thirteen hundred 


dollars into their first purchase, acquiring a possessory right in one hundred 
and sixty acres. They bought from the original settlers, Ben Knights and a 
Mr. Willis, known as Knights & Willis, and later had the land surveyed, 
acquiring the patent from the government. At that time James Kennedy and 
his sons Hiram and Almus each took up one hundred and sixty acres, Hiram 
Kennedy afterward pre-empting one hundred and sixty acres and homestead- 
ing a tract of eighty acres. His other one hundred and sixty consisted of lieu 
lands. His holdings at present, including land he has bought from the govern- 
ment and others, aggregate a little less than two thousand acres. The story 
of his busy life betv^een his arrival in Long valley and the present is one of 
constant effort, yet he also found time for hunting in the early days and 
missed none of the experiences which constitute the "atmosphere" of a region 
opening gradually from its primitive state to one of advanced development. 
Few men know more of the typical phases of life in the early days than he. 
and few have taken more interest or pains to preserve relics and valuable 
mementoes of those times. 

At the time he commenced dairying Mr. Kennedy took in a working 
partner, J. Durst, with whom he was associated for two years, since when 
he has been in business on his own account except as his sons have become 
interested with him. His large dairy was a profitable venture throughout 
the twent}--nine years he made a specialty of that branch, but he has given it 
up to devote all his attention to the raising of beef and pork, in which he deals 
extensively. He has one hundred and twenty-five head of cattle and one 
hundred and fifty hogs on hand as a rule, has facilities for killing, scalding 
and cutting over fifty hogs a day, and also has a large smokehouse, sometimes 
curing hams and bacon from as many as one hundred hogs in a year. His 
product is high class and much in demand in the local market. All the opera- 
tions are conducted in the most systematic modern manner, the equipment 
on the place being conspicuously perfect in every detail, for his son Albert 
is an all-around electrical engineer and machinist, and he and his father 
manage all the repair work of every kind necessary on the ranch. Wagons, 
machinerj' of various kinds, and everything about the place are kept in first- 
class order, facilitating the work immensely. A waterworks system has been 
installed, so that the barns, cattle and hay yards, house and wash rooms are 
supplied with an unlimited flow of pure mountain water, and power is fur- 
nished for running a grindstone and the dynamo for electric lighting. The 
machine shop is well equipped with drills, lathes, and woodworking and iron- 
working machinery. Mr. Kenned}- has rebuilt his home, but a number of 
the timbers which his father hewed out for the original building still remain. 
It is a commodious and comfortable house, unpretentious, but suggesting 
the generous scale on which all his work has been carried on. 

In his machine shop Mr. Kennedy has quite a collection of traps, in- 
cluding a grizzly bear steel trap about seven feet long, which was made by 
the pioneer blacksmith at Lower Lake, Mr. Tremper, in the early days. Hunt- 
ing was his principal recreation for a number of years after he settled here, 
and he has killed grizzly, cinnamon, brown and black bears in Long valley, 
his house being decorated with rugs from the hides of bears, deer, panthers, 
foxes and other wild animals he has hunted. He has also preserved carefully 
the skulls of different varieties of native wild animals, such as bears, panthers, 
etc.. while dozens of deer antlers tell the storv of his successes. However, he 


has relinquished this sport, and he allows no shooting on his own premises, a 
fact which the deer seem to have learned, for they browse there unafraid, 
seeming to understand the full freedom and absolute protection assured them, 
from deer hounds as well as from hunters. In consequence, herds of deer 
may be observed from the porch of Mr. Kennedy's residence with the aid of 
a telescope almost any day, grazing in large numbers, from twenty to fifty 
together. He is indeed a typical member of the stock from which he springs. 
Many of the Kennedys have been educators, many have shown a genius for 
mechanics, and many like himself have been successful farmers and financiers, 
large landowners and influential members of the communities in which their 
lots have been cast. 

In the year 1872 Mr. Kennedy married Miss Rose Wilson, of Davisville, 
Yolo county, Cal., daughter of Alexander and Eliza (Cronk) Wilson, the 
father a native of England, the latter born in New York, of Holland-Dutch 
descent. They came to California from Pennsylvania (in which state Mrs. 
Kennedy was born) in 1863, sailing from New York and crossing the conti- 
nent by the Nicaragua route, and Mrs. Kennedy was brought up in Yolo 
county. Three children have been born of this marriage: Alexander W., 
mentioned more at length below ; Milo Russell, a physician and surgeon oi 
Eagleville, Modoc county, this state, who married Winona .'Kdams and has 
three children, Mabel, Milo and Thomas ; and Albert H., also mentioned later. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy are both prominent in 'Masonic circles, his mem- 
bership being with Lower Lake Lodge, No. 183, F. & A. M., and with the 
Royal Arch Chapter ; he has been a master I\Iason for fifty years. Mrs. Ken- 
nedy is a member of Lower Lake Chapter, No. 231, O. E. S., and is one of its 
past matrons. Politically. Mr. Kennedy has been a Republican in sentiment, 
hut party affairs have never engaged much of his attention, though he is in- 
terested thoroughly in public movements. In his eightieth year, he is still 
■.vorking and enjoying his work, and he is blessed with good health, though 
he has had his share of misfortune in that respect, having in the course of 
his life had six accidents, runaways, etc. Though seriously injured more than 
once, he has recovered completely, so far as permanent effects are concerned. 

Alexander W. Kennedy, eldest son of Hiram Kennedy, was born at the 
Kennedy homestead May 19, 1873, and has spent his whole life in Long valley. 
The home place, with its varied and numerous interests, has always ofTered 
plenty of outlet for his energies and business ability, and from the time he 
was able to help he became his father's mainstay there. His own house, 
barns, etc., are located about half a mile above his parents' home in Long 
valley, and he has one hundred acres in his own name, besides a homestead 
of one hundred and sixty acres which he has taken up. General farming, 
principally stock raising, has occupied his attention, and his industrious appli- 
cation to everything he undertakes, as well as his unassuming but reliable 
character, have made a substantial place for him in the good will of his neigh- 
bors and friends everywhere. His sense of fairness and justice are recognized 
by all who have had dealings with him, in any of the relations of life. Any- 
thing that tends to benefit the general welfare finds his encouragement and 
support ready, and he is a worthy representative of the name he bears. Mr. 
Kennedy was married about ten years ago to Miss ^lary Schindler, of High 
vallev, and thev have two children. Svlvan and Bertha. 


Albert H. Kennedy, youngest son of Hiram Kennedy, was born October 
15, 1878, on the old Kennedy homestead place in Long valley, and grew up 
there amid conditions which were a constant incentive to one of his mechani- 
cal turn. He attended school in Long valley, and afterward took a course at 
Van der Naillen's school of engineering in San Francisco, attending there 
for a year and a half, and graduating in 1902. Going to Monterey county, he 
took a position with the Spreckels Sugar Company, which he held for nine 
months, at the end of that time going to San Francisco again, doing drafting 
and electrical engineering. His next change was to the employ of the Alaska 
Packers' Association, for which he went to Naknek, Bristol Bay, Alaska, as 
electrician, remaining there five months. The next spring he went up again 
and stayed for a year and a half, in the employ of the same company, and on 
his return to San Francisco took a position at Santa Rosa with the Pacific 
Gas and Electric Corporation, with which he continued a year and a half. A 
defective switch caused an accident in which he had his hands badly burned 
and came within an ace of death, and this experience made him decide to 
make farming his life work thereafter. He has a homestead of one hundred 
and sixty acres adjoining part of the Hiram Kennedy land, his own and his 
brother's and father's holdings totaling about twenty-five hundred acres, 
principally devoted to stock, grain and hay farming, with the production of 
beef and pork as a specialty. Here he has had abundant opportunity to work 
out many of his own ideas in mechanical lines, besides adapting the best of 
others' minds. His mechanical ability is universally recognized, and he has 
been made manager of the Associated Farmers' Telephone lines of Lower 
Lake, a sort of co-operative arrangement among the local farmers, each valley 
having its own line, and all uniting to maintain a central exchange at Lower 
Lake, where two operators are engaged. The day service is from seven in 
the morning until eight at night. 

In 1909 Mr. Kennedy married Miss Daisy Brady, of Davis, Yolo county, 
and they have one child, James Burnell. Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy are interested 
keenly in Masonic work, Mr. Kennedy being the present master of Clear 
Lodge, No. 183, F. & A. M., at Lower Lake, serving his fourth year in that 
position ; he and his wife belong to Lower Lake Chapter, No. 231, O. E. S. 

MRS. ROSA D. EXLEY.— Of old and honored southern lineage, Mrs. 
Exley was born near Elizabethtown, Hardin county, Ky., and is a daughter of 
the late Rev. C. S. and Nancy (Daugherty) Daugherty, who, although bearing 
the same name, came from families entirely unrelated. For sixty years, from 
early manhood until his death at a venerable age, Mr. Daugherty gave the 
most efficient and self-sacrificing service to the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South, whose ministry he adorned and whose doctrines he upheld with intel- 
ligent zeal. Meanwhile he owned and managed his fine plantation of one 
thousand acres near Elizabethtown, where were wont to gather fellow- 
ministers to receive practical counsel and cheerful encouragement from this 
learned man of the church. His devotion to his family was equalled only by 
his love of the church, and he gave to wife and children the affectionate atten- 
tions that gave him the first place in the heart of eacli. There were five chil- 
dren and three of these are still living, Mrs. Exley being the youngest child 
and the only daughter. So rapid was her advancement under the capable 


training of her father that at the age of sixteen she was qualified to teach 
school, and for seven years she followed that profession with commendable 
zeal and noteworthy success. 

There had been two brothers of Rev. C. S. Daugherty who were attracted 
to California by the lure of the gold fields. The second of these left Kentucky 
early in 1857 and undoubtedly perished on the plains, but no word of his 
fate ever came back to the waiting relatives. The other brother, Benjamin, 
had crossed the plains in 1855 on muleback and had arrived in Sacramento 
with fifty cents as his total capital. Fortunately he secured work at once 
with a lumber company and was paid $8 per day. Soon he drifted to the 
mines at Marysville, but did not find the hoped-for fortune in the camp or 
river bed. Directing his attention to the. acquisition of land, he became a 
pioneer of Little Lake valley, Mendocino county, and took up one hundred 
rind sixty acres of government land near the present site of Willits. There 
he remained until his death in 1883. All through this part of the country 
he was known as General Daugherty, the title coming from his skillful re- 
sistance of Indian attacks on the plains, where he so shrewdly and success- 
fully outgeneraled the savages that he was given a military title among his 
acquaintances. Having no family to inherit his property, it fell to the brother 
in Kentucky, Rev. C. S. Daugherty, who in 1901 with his son, Robert, came 
lo Mendocino county and laid out the Daugherty addition to Willits. When 
the business had been settled and the addition sold Mr. Daugherty returned 
to his Kentucky plantation in April, 1904, and there he passed away February 
5, 1914, having survived for some years his aged wife, who died at the old 
home June 28. 1908. Their daughter, Mrs. Exley, joined her father and 
brother at Willits March 28, 1902, and in San Francisco November 23, 1904, 
she became the wife of M. D. Exley, who was born and reared in that city. 
A painter and decorator by trade, he has continued to follow the trade since 
his marriage, although a portion of his time is given to the ranch owned by 
Mrs. Exley and located one mile west of Willits. Two hundred and five 
acres are devoted largely to pasturage, hay and grain, and stock-raising has 
been made a vital part of the farm work. 

The family of Mr. and Mrs. Exley consists of four children, namely : 
Fred Cornelius, Rosa Daugherty, Alice Roberta and Richard Martin. In 
addition Mrs. Exley took into her home a lonely girl of twelve years. Rose 
Kramer, who now at nineteen years is repaying the kindnesses of the past by 
her own affectionate devotion to the entire family and particularly to the 
small children. This act on the part of Mrs. Exley is indicative of her helpful, 
kindlv and capable disposition. Brimming over with the milk of human kind- 
ness, she is ever ready and anxious to assist those less fortunate than herself 
and never allows an opportunity to pass for the doing of some unselfish act 
in the interests of others. For years she has been a communicant of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Descended from stanch old Democratic fore- 
fathers, she is ardent in her advocacy of the same principles and takes much 
interest in public affairs. To an exceptional degree she possesses business 
ability and all of her interests are controlled with sagacious judgment, while 
combined with this important attribute are cheerfulness under all circum- 
stances, gentleness and a loyal devotion to family and friends. 


JOSEPH CROCKETT HALLIDAY.— When recognition is taken of 
those who have been primarily influential in the commercial, agricultural and 
financial advancement of Point Arena, to none should greater tribute be paid 
tlian to Joseph C. Halliday, whose energies have been given to the promotion 
of the interests of this section of Mendocino county and whose influence in 
this line has been prolific of results. It was here that he established head- 
quarters and home in 1875 and here he has since commanded the unqualified 
esteem of the entire community, his sterling character and wise business 
judgment having gained for him distinctive popularity in the town to which 
his loyalty is of the most insistent type. Diversified abilities have led him 
into difl^erent lines of endeavor, not the least important of these being the 
ownership of the stage line from Mendocino to Cazadero, Sonoma county, a 
distance of ninety miles, this being the longest stage system in the entire 
state. For years this line has been of the greatest convenience to people 
desiring to make connection with the North Shore Railroad for San Fran- 
cisco. To cover the distance in the shortest possible time about forty horses 
were purchased, permitting the changing of teams five times during the jour- 
ney. Provision also was made for board and lodging for travelers at seven of 
the stations. The route is one of beauty and picturesqueness. At times the 
road rises hundreds of feet, above the breakers and aiTords an attractive vista 
of the ocean, while elsewhere it leads travelers down through green and 
fertile valleys with giant redwood trees and winding rivers along whose banks 
are flowers of beautiful colors and extraordinary variety. Such a trip in the 
flush of spring or in the mellowing days of autumn is a delight to the eye 
and a source of genuine satisfaction to the mind. 

In studying the personal history of Mr. Halliday, we find that he was born 
near Pictou, Nova Scotia, February 1, 1854, being a son of James and Mary 
I Crockett) Halliday, and in youth an apprentice to the trade of blacksmith. 
After a year as a journeyman at Pawtucket, R. I., he came by railroad to 
California in 1874 and followed his trade at Mayfield, Santa Clara county. 
During 1875 he came to Point Arena and bought the Hugh Graves black- 
smith shop, where he and his partner, F. Mathews, did all kinds of work in 
wood and iron, also made and repaired wagons and carriages. Afterward he 
had other partners, being successively with F. M. Spaulding, L. Archibald and 
N. P. Howe, to the last-named of whom he sold the business in 1908. For 
years he has been interested in agriculture. The O. McNeil ranch, adjoining 
the Point Arena lighthouse grounds, he bought in 1887, afterward purchasing 
the Spaulding and Minor ranches, which gave him four hundred and fifty 
acres in one body. On that place he made a specialty of dairying. At this 
writing he owns fourteen hundred acres of land and conducts the dairy industry 
on a large scale. Associated with W. M. Booth, H. Merrell. N. Everson 
and A. McClure, he built a sawmill and carried on a lumber business for 
some years at Riverside on the Garcia river. Another enterprise that engaged 
his attention was the livery business at Point Arena, where with W. H. Has- 
kell as partner for a time, and afterward alone, he developed a barn equipped 
with fine rigs and horses and built up an excellent patronage among people 
lond of the beautiful drives in the locality. Lately he has built a large garage 
which is run in connection with his livery to care for the automobiles of the 
motorists that are penetrating the coast country, as well as having an auto- 
mobile liverv. To him may be gi\'en the credit largely for the building of tlie 

Ji^. V lf}Uo. ^. ^ .(^Ou^^-^ 


Point Arena high school in 1908 and for the building of road Ijridges along the 
coast; that is, the Garcia and Alder creek bridges, and the rebuilding of the 
Gualala bridge, the latter the largest bridge in Sonoma and Mendocino 
counties, replacing a structure that had been destroyed at the time of the 
earthquake. During 1912 he sold out his creamery at Manchester and since 
then has managed the Point Arena creamery. With the management of his 
large farm and dairy interests, and with the presidency of the Bank of Point 
Arena (of which he has been the leading executive since its organization in 
1903) he is one of the busiest men in Mendocino county as well as one of the 
most influential at Point Arena. 

Through the marriage of Mr. Halliday to Kate Hiett, a native of Iowa, 
Mr. Halliday became the father of ten children, namely: Mary; Albert, who 
took up telegraphy as his life work ; Henry, who became connected with the 
livery business of his father; Charles, Benjamin, Lawrence, Thomas, Helen, 
Bertha ; and Grant ; the latter died in infancy. The fraternities of Mr. Halliday 
are the Ancient Order of United Workmen ; Garcia Lodge, I. O. O. F. ; Point 
Arena Lodge, F. & A. M., of which he is a past master; and Mendocino Chap- 
ter, R. A. M. From boyhood he was reared in the Presbyterian church and is 
;in active member of the Presbyterian church at Point Arena, being one of 
the board of elders. Essentially a business man and with insistent demands 
upon his time in his varied business undertakings, he has had no leisure for par- 
ticipation in political affairs and is far from being a partisan in his attitude 
toward problems of national importance. Alert in the promotion of every 
enterprise tending to advance the general welfare of Point Arena, he has yet 
been guided in judgment by due conservatism and by thoughtful study of the 
subject under consideration. Progressive and patriotic, he has supported all 
movements for the general welfare and is regarded as one of the solid, reliable 
men of the county. 

JAMES H. DENISON. — The name of Denison is closely associated with 
the history of pioneer development in Lake county, one of the important early 
thoroughfares there, the Upper Lake and Bartlett Springs toll road, having 
been constructed by James Madison Denison, father of James H. Denison. 
The latter is doing his share toward keeping the family reputation up for 
live ideas and the ability to put them into execution. The good he has done 
in promoting the raising of Angora goats alone would be worthy of notice 
as the establishment of an industry which has already proved its worth in 
the county, and his recent activities in behalf of the plan for the utilization 
of the waters of Clear lake for power purposes seems likely to gain him 
further recognition in his locality. He is extensively engaged in farming 
and stock raising, both on the Bonham tract, where he lives, and on his own 
ranch of three hundred and twenty acres located on Cache creek. He has 
been a lifelong resident of the county, having been born June 23. 1876, in 
Upper Lake precinct. 

James Madison Denison, his father, was a native of Lawrence county, 
Ohio, born November 24, 1818, and went west when a young man of eighteen 
years, settling in the state of Iowa. There he followed farming until the year 
1852, when he crossed the plains to California, bringing his family with him. 
The journey was made by ox teams, and they arrived in Placer county in 
October, Mr. Denison following mining there for several years, until his re- 
moval to Lake county in 1857. Making a settlement on Middle creek, near 


Upper Lake, he engaged in farming there until 1861, when he returned east 
iind enlisted in the LTnion army, serving till the close of the war; he was first 
lieutenant of Company B, 20th Regiment, Iowa Volunteer Infantry. During 
this time his family remained on the farm in California, to which he returned 
in 1866, resuming farming, which he carried on successfully for several years 
more. In 1875 he constructed the toll road between LTpper Lake and Bartlett 
Springs, and in various other ways he was active in improving conditions in 
this section, being thoroughly identified with its best interests to the close 
of his life. His industrious nature and high character, and his faithful service 
during the Civil war, gained him the sincere respect of the many who knew 
him. and his name has a permanent place among those who helped to lay the 
foundations of civilization here. He died December 8, 1876, leaving a widow, 
Mary (Jewell) Denison, and eight children, viz. : Margaret E., Merritt L. 
(who has not been heard from since he went to Alaska), Alice, Mary Ann, 
Victoria, Laura, James Henry and Olive C. ; one child, Daniel W., is deceased. 
The mother was a native of New York, and died when her son James was 
thirteen years old. She and Mr. Denison were married in 1843. 

James Henry Denison was about eight years old when his father died. 
During his early years he lived at the Denison toll house on the Upper Lake 
and Bartlett Springs road, remaining there, though not regularly, until he 
reached the age of twentj^-three years, and he had charge of the station from 
the time he was twenty-one until he left it permanently, about two years later, 
and his first business experience was gained there. He gave it up to embark 
in the industry which has since received the principal share of his attention, 
the raising of Angora goats, a business which to his mind had a real future 
in this region for one who would take it up seriously. That was seventeen 
years ago, and he has never had any reason to regret his choice of an occupa- 
tion. Though he was one of the first in Lake county to enter upon the branch 
of stock raising, he has made a thorough success of it, undoubtedly because 
he has not been afraid to venture his best resources upon it, but also because, 
although fearless in what he tmdertakes, he has the acumen to combine 
caution with progress in a distinctly advantageous manner. His work in this 
line has undoubtedly been the most important factor in establishing the 
Angora goat industry permanently in his section, and he has done more than 
any other one person in that direction, a fact which is universally recognized, 
for he is looked up to as an authority by all interested in the business. At 
present he owns about twelve hundred pure bred Angora goats, and is ex- 
tensively engaged in breeding. Most of his stock is kept on the Richard D. 
Bonham farm, the tract of thirteen hundred acres on the Long \'alley road 
where he makes his home, and which he rents from the owner, the rest being 
on his own land, the three hundred and twenty acres on Cache creek. The 
greater part of his time and attention is given to his stock, but he could hardly 
confine himself entirely to one line, particularly as his agricultural operations 
involve other interests. He was one of the most enthusiastic supporters of 
the Yolo Water and Power Company's right to establish a dam and operate 
a power plant to utilize the waters of Clear lake for power, he and Mr. Carl 
Ebbinghauser being foremost as champions of what they believe to be a 
decided force for advancement in their locality. They felt that the wealth of 
water and valuable power which might be derived from the lake should not 
longer be allowed to go to waste, and worked zealously while the matter was 


being contested, in 1913, for a project which seems to promise to be of great 
benefit. The recent decision of the State Water Commission, in favor of the 
company, giving them the right to construct and maintain a dam at Cache 
creek and use the same for power purposes, justifies Mr. Denison's position 
in the matter as sustained by so high an authority, and reflects credit on his 
foresight and his courage in advocating what he considered right in the face 
of opposition. As usual, he held to his opinions in the most optimistic man- 
ner. Genial, jovial and wide awake, he makes and keeps friends wherever 
he goes. 

Mr. Denison's marriage to Miss Mabel M. Foutch, of Lake county, 
daughter of J. W. Foutch and his wife Lucretia (Knighton), took place in 
1904. Mr. Foutch is a native of Iowa. To Mr. and Mrs. Denison have been 
horn five children, Blanche D., Welty C, Norma Olive, James B. and Ada 
Margaret. The home is a notably happy and cheerful one, and Mrs. Denison's 
fine personalit}' and lovable character are its controlling elements. 

GEORGE H. NEAL. — In the capacity of secretary of the Lake County 
Title & Abstract Company, the leading concern of its kind in this part of 
California, George H. Neal has established a reputation which augurs well 
for the years he has before him. The company of which he is secretary and 
one of the directors has been doing business since 1905, and its high standards 
of accuracy have come to be so well recognized that it is now commanding 
by far the largest proportion of local patronage, its valuable work in making 
records which shall be of permanent worth being highly appreciated. This 
company owns the only complete set of abstract books in Lake county. 

Until he was thirteen years old Mr. Neal lived in San Francisco, where 
he was born July 17, 1885, and obtained his first instruction there in the 
common schools. Later he was a pupil in the Clear Lake Union high school 
at Lakeport, as a member of the class of 1907. Most of his business career 
has been spent in his connection with the Lake County Title & Abstract 
Company, at Lakeport, and much of its success may be attributed to his 
conscientious, painstaking work. In this association he has become regarded 
as one of the rising young professional men of Lake county, and his com- 
prehensive knowledge of land laws would form a substantial proportion of a 
legal education. The study and research work he has felt necessary for the 
proper performance of his duties have shown his adaptability for the pro- 
fession of law, and the thoroughness and care with which he attends to the 
preparation of the documents sent out from his office would make him a 
successful worker in any line requiring mastery of detail. It is not likely 
that there is another man in Lake county with an equal knowledge of its 
land titles. Mr. Neal was made a Mason in Hartley Lodge, No. 199, F. & 
A. M., in Lakeport in 1906. and stands high in Masonic circles, being the 
present master of his lodge. 

In 1910 Mr. Neal married Miss Anna LaMotte, a native of San Fran- 
cisco and a daughter of Harry D. LaMotte, retired, of Lakeport, mention of 
whom will be found elsewhere in this work. They have one child, a daughter, 
Katherine. Their home is in Lakeport, where Mr. Neal's mother, Mrs. Ida 
E. Neal, also resides, one of the most esteemed members of society in that 


REV. JOHN SIMPSON ROSS.— There is no more vital or interesting 
feature of pioneer history than that afiforded by the life and work of the 
clergy of the early days, whether in California or elsewhere — men who rode 
through wild and rugged country to preach the gospel to the settlers, to 
christen, to marry, to bury the dead, and to give spiritual comfort and help 
to the sore afflicted. Such an one as this is the Rev. John S. Ross, who 
since 1869 has been a resident of California, save for a brief period of fifteen 
months spent in his former home in Ontario, Canada ; and during all this 
time he has been actively engaged in religious work, preaching and teach- 
ing in Mendocino county when it was little more than a wilderness, and do- 
ing much to establish the Baptist church in this part of the state. 

When Reverend Ross first came to California in 1869 it was in an effort 
to regain his shattered health, and he expected to remain only during the 
winter and then to return to his charge in Ontario. He located at San Pablo, 
Contra Costa county, where he preached during the winter, and in the spring 
his health was so much improved and he was so pleased with the climate 
and general conditions that he determined to remain on the coast. Accord- 
ingly he sent his resignation to his church in Ontario and took up the work 
in California which was to be his labor of love for so many fruitful years. 
In March, 1870, he came to Caspar, Mendocino county, and in June of the 
same year his family joined him here. There was no church at Caspar at 
that time, and he preached in the various private houses, and also extended 
his work up and down the coast, preaching in private homes and in school 
houses from Mendocino to Beall's Landing, now known as Westport. There 
were no roads and no bridges above the Noyo river, and he was compelled 
to travel on horseback over the trails, which were often rough and dangerous, 
and to swim the rivers and creeks. He had many narrow escapes from acci- 
dents and even from death, but the love of the work and of the cause which 
he represented were deep in his heart and he pressed onward without thought 
of fear or faltering. In these early days when there were few ministers and 
fewer churches the denominational lines were loosely drawn, and for nearly 
a year Reverend Ross, though himself a Baptist, preached for the Presby- 
terian congregation in Mendocino. 

It was in 1874 that he organized the Baptist church in Caspar, and a 
few years later the organization was able to build a church edifice, and for 
thirty-five years he was pastor of the congregation. During all these years 
he also preached along the coast from Navarro to Usal. His career has been 
full of interest and many unique experiences have fallen to his lot. He has 
preached more than three hundred funeral sermons, and has united more 
than three hundred couples in marriage. There is no possible way of even 
estimating the number of sick and dying that he has visited up and down 
the coast, nor yet of the number of sermons that he has delivered in out-of- 
the-way places and under unusual circumstances, for he never missed an 
opportunity to do either, and no record was ever kept of such occasions — 
they were all a part of the day's work. 

Other churches organized and built by the Reverend Ross are the Bap- 
tist churches at Kibesilah and at Westport, and also at Fort Bragg. Of 
this latter he was also the pastor for the first five years of its life. In all 
of these various places he had organized Sunday schools in the early days 




before the churches were built, and so laid the foundation for the later work 
by a steady growth through preceding years. 

A call from Tiverton, Bruce county, Ontario, came to Reverend Ross 
in 1875 and he accepted, returning at once to the Canadian city. He re- 
mained but fifteen months, however, coming back to California at the end 
of that time, on account of the ill health of Mrs. Ross's mother. 

Reverend Ross is a native of Scotland, having been born near Tain, Ross 
shire, March 31, 1834. His father was William Ross, also a native of Ross 
shire, and his mother was Elizabeth Simpson. While the Reverend Ross was 
still a lad he was left an orphan. He continued to reside in Scotland, where 
he received his early education, learning to read and write both the English 
and Gaelic language. His knowledge of the Gaelic has been carefully kept 
up, and today he is as much a scholar in this language as in English. In 
1847 he came to Ottawa, Ontario, where he continued to attend school. His 
uncle, John Ross, with whom he made his home, desired that he should learn 
the tinner's trade, but there was no opportunity for an apprenticeship at 
the time so he learned the shoemaker's trade instead. He served for four 
years under one man and mastered every detail of the trade, but did not enjoy 
it, so after a short time gave it up. After this he followed various occupa- 
tions until he began his studies for the ministry, earning the money mean- 
while for his schooling. After graduating from the Toronto Normal school 
he began teaching, following this profession for five years, and thus earning 
his way through college. He spent two years at the Collegiate University 
at Ottawa, and then entered the W^oodstock College, in Ontario, where he 
completed his course in theology, graduating in 1863, and at Thurso, Canada, 
September 24, 1863, he was ordained a minister in the Baptist church and 
immediately took up his religious work. He was pastor of two churches on 
the Ottawa river, one in Clarence, Ontario, and the other in Thurso, Quebec, 
from 1862 to 1869, when on account of broken health he came to California. 

The marriage of Mr. Ross occurred in Glengarry county, Ontario, Sep- 
tember 15, 1864, uniting him with Miss Jane Ralston, the daughter of Robert 
and Ann (Gordon) Ralston, natives of Scotland, and early settlers in Bran- 
don, Quebec, where their daughter Jane was born. Mrs. Ross has borne her 
husband five children, all of whom are still living and are residents of Men- 
docino county, where they are well and favorably known. They are William 
H., who is a farmer and supervisor of the fourth district in Mendocino county; 
John S., manager of the Mendocino'Lumber Company; Elizabeth, now Mrs. 
Ross-Miller; Robert, farming with his brother William H. ; and Anne. All 
of the family, with the exception of John S., reside on the home farm near 
Cleone, thus making a practically unbroken family circle. 

The Reverend Ross is so well known throughout JNIendocino county 
tJiat there is scarcely a section where the mention of his name, especially 
among the older settlers, will not recall some event of an early day, and 
bring forth some kindly word of praise for the aged preacher. The Baptist 
church owes much to this earnest, conscientious and God fearing man for his 
splendid service, and those v/ho came under his ministrations remember him 
with deep love and reverence. 

"WILLIAM H. ROSS.— The severest test to which the standing of a 
man among his fellows can be given is the test of public service, especially 
when the office lies within the gift of the people themselves; and when a 


man can successfully stand this test it is a pretty definite proof that he is 
four-square. And this is the case with William H. Ross, supervisor of the 
fourth district for Mendocino county, for his service has been of such a nature 
that even his political opponents have been compelled to concede that he is 
the right man in the right place, and that the county is more than fortunate 
to have him in this capacity. 

]Mr. Ross is a native of Canada, having been born at Clarence, on the 
Ottawa river, in Ontario, June 25, 1866. He is the son of the Rev, John 
S. Ross, whose sketch precedes this. William H., the eldest of five children, 
came to Mendocino county with his parents in 1870. His boyhood days were 
spent here, and his education received in the public schools of the county. 
After the completion of his education he engaged in teaming and contract- 
ing with different lumber companies, being with the Mendocino Lumber Com- 
pany for nine years. 

It was in 1896 that Mr. Ross, together with other members of his family, 
purchased the ranch on which he now makes his home. This property lies 
about one-half mile above Cleone, and consists of some two thousand acres, 
fronting on the Pacific. It is especially well adapted for stockraising, and 
shortly after its purchase Mr. Ross gave up his other interests and with his 
brothers engaged in farming and stockraising on the new property, the ven- 
ture proving a success. 

In 1912 Mr. Ross became the Republican candidate for supervisor of 
the fourth district and was duly elected for the term commencing January, 
1913. This is the largest district in the county, and the care of the mountain 
roads requires much time and effort ; but in spite of these facts the service 
of the new supervisor is proving pre-eminently satisfactory, and everywhere 
within the district, which extends from Salmon creek on the south to the 
Humboldt county line on the north, are to be found evidences of his ability 
to take care of the work devolving upon him, and consequent appreciation 
of the residents. 

PIETRO MARTELLA. — Many of the citizens who have helped to make 
Alendocino county the growing and expanding place it is today have come 
from sunny Italy, and among them is Pietro Martella, the proprietor of the 
new Piedmont hotel in Fort Bragg. He was born at Locarno, Canton Ticino, 
Switzerland, July 25, 1864, and was there reared on his father's farm, being 
educated in the public schools. In 1889»he came to California and spent the 
first two years on a dairy at Bodega. Sonoma county, then coming to Fort 
Bragg, Mendocino county. Here he engaged in making ties for the Fort 
Bragg Lumber Company, then for their successors, the L'nion Lumber Com- 
pany. He subsequently concluded to engage in ranching and purchased a 
farm five miles from Fort Bragg, which he operated for four years. 

Mr. Martella engaged in the hotel business in Fort Bragg as proprietor 
of the Italia hotel, but four years later he sold it and leased the new Piedmont 
hotel in partnership with John Zaina. The latter was born in Lombardy, 
Italy, and came to Mendocino county in 1900. They equipped the hotel with 
new furnishings and it is modern and up-to-date in every way. 

Mr. Martella was married in Fort Bragg, being united with Jennie 
Provibali, who died in Fort Bragg in December, 1913. Fraternally Mr. Mar- 
tella is a member of the Druids and politically is a Republican. 


HON. JOHN W. PRESTON.— Judging: from the prominence attained 
by Hon. John W. Preston in the legal affairs of California it might be sur- 
mised that fortuitous circumstances surrounded him throughout his career, 
and that his appointment to the office of district attorney of the Northern 
District of California was the natural outcome of such conditions. Such was 
not the case, however, for all that he has attained has come to him as the 
result of his own efforts and a noble determination to attain excellence in 
whatever he attempted. This standard of life was established in his youth 
and was clearly exemplified in the singleness of purpose followed during his 
school days, for he took advantage of every opportunity for acquiring knowl- 
edge that it was in the power of his parents to bestow. 

Woodbury, Cannon county, Tenn., was the birthplace of John W. 
Preston, and this was also the birthplace of his father. Hugh L. Preston, the 
present president of the First National Bank of that city, and the careers of 
both men have been identified with the most consistent and trustworthy 
public men of the community. John W. Preston was reared in the home of 
his parents, Hugh L. and Thankful C. (Doak) Preston, his birth having 
occurred May 14, 1877. For many years the father was county judge of 
Cannon county, Tenn., was also at one time sheriff of the county, besides 
which he served acceptably in both houses of the legislature of that state. 

John W. Preston received his elementary education in the public schools 
of his native place, later attending Burritt College, from which he graduated 
in 1894 with the degree of A. B. He carried off the honors of his class in 
being the youngest addition to the alma mater in the history of the institution. 
Following his graduation he further pursued his studies by taking a post- 
graduate course in Bethany (W. Va.) College, continuing in that institution 
for one year. Close observation, a natural tendency to study and a quick, 
ready intellect contributed to his excellent standing, and the study of law 
was the natural result of his search for a professional career suited to his 
abilities and equipment. Before his admission to the bar he practiced in 
Cannon and Van Buren counties, Tenn., and was regularly admitted to the 
supreme court of that state in 1897, while yet in his nineteenth year. From 
that date his career in the legal world broadened and grew, bringing to him 
important cases which he was specially qualified to handle. Dispatch in his 
decisions and satisfaction to his clients brought him into high repute, and he 
was at once in possession of the high esteem and confidence of all who had 
trusted their complicated legal affairs to him. 

It was in 1902 that ]\Ir. Preston inaugurated the L^kiah Guarantee, 
Abstract and Title Company, of which his brother, H. L. Preston, Jr., was 
secretary, and which became recognized as one of the most solid financial 
institulions in this section of the country. The business was sold out in 1911. 
Mr. Preston came to Mendocino county in 1899, and almost immediately he 
was as well established in his profession here as he could have hoped to be 
had he twice his years and experience to his credit. His sagacity and clear 
understanding of the law and forceful and honorable execution of all matters 
that came to him formed the entering wedge that paved the wa}^ to his ap- 
pointment in 1913, by President Woodrow Wilson, as United States district 
attorney for the Northern District of California, and the masterful way he 
has filled the position demonstrates the wisdom of the appointment. 

The law firm of Preston & Preston, with headquarters in Ukiah. is com- 
josed of John \\". Preston and his brother, H. L. Preston. Jr.. and their 


large clientele is not confined to that city and its vicinity, but extends 
throughout Northern California. 

In politics John W. Preston is a Democrat, a man of progressive and 
liberal views on all questions that affect the well-being of town, state or 
nation. He served as a member and chairman of the central committee of 
his native county in Tennessee, and in the same capacity he also served for 
several years in Mendocino county. In 1908 he was elected to the state 
legislature by a majority of four hundred and eighteen over a popular op- 
ponent in a Republican county of over twelve hundred majority. Like him- 
self, Mr. Preston's brothers are all self-made men who have achieved success, 
all being bankers of well-known repute, and with them he is interested in 
three institutions in Tennessee and two in Mendocino county, the latter the 
Fort Bragg Commercial Bank, of which he is a director, and the Willits Com- 
mercial Bank. 

Mr. Preston's marriage united him with Miss Sarah Rucker, a native of 
Nashville, Tenn., and member of a well-known Southern family, their mar- 
riage occurring in the south, in 1902. Two children have been born to them, 
Elizabeth and John W., Jr. 

SHAFTER MATHEWS.— Throughout his entire boyhood Mr. Mathews 
had no advantages except such as his determination and energy made possible. 
His first chance to attend school came when he was eleven, and after fifteen 
he had only such opportunities as studying at night offered, supplemented by 
a course in the Chautauqua reading circle and such other forms of self-help 
as ambition grasps. There was no form of manual labor too difficult for his 
energetic efforts, but with characteristic foresight he realized the future value 
to him of a good education and he employed spare hours in broadening his 
fund of general information. Politics interested him from youth and always 
he has been a stanch Democrat. Since 1902 by successive re-elections he has 
filled the office of county clerk. The records in his office show that according 
to the 1910 census Lake county then had a population of fifty-five hundred 
and twenty-six, while the population of Lakeport was eight hundred and 
seventy. In his belief the population will be greatly increased with the build- 
ing of the Clear Lake Railroad, and his faith in that project caused him to 
become a stockholder in the company. Lake county has been noted for its 
observance of law and order. From November, 1908, to November, 1909, 
there were only three criminal cases in the superior court; from November, 
1909. to November of 1910, six criminal cases; from November, 1910 to 1911, 
.one violation of the fish law; 1911 to 1912, one criminal case; 1912 to 1913, 
eight criminal cases. 

Among the gold-seekers whom the great discovery of gold brought to 
Hangtown in 1850 was William Mathews, a native of Indiana and a member 
of an old Virginia family. Shortly after his arrival he found that there was 
little hope for him of securing a fortune in the mines, and as early as 1853 
he came to Lake county to seek employment as a day laborer. During 1864 
he settled at Lower Lake, where he teamed and cut timber in the woods. 
Later removals took him to other points, but eventually he returned to Lower 
Lake, and there he died in 1904 at the age of seventy-two. In Lake county 
he married Miss Eliza Roberson, who, at the age of sixty-three, is still making 
her home at Lower Lake. They became the parents of four children, namely: 


Shafter, who was born at Lower Lake February 13, 1870; Jennie, wife of J. 
L. Sylar, proprietor of the Spring ranch at Upper Lake ; Walker, who resides 
at Lower Lake with his mother, and Edna, wife of Andrew Jones, a stockman 
at Lower Lake. For a time the father ran a sawmill in Mendocino county 
and engaged in teaming at Cloverdale, Sonoma county, but when Shafter 
Mathews was eleven years of age the family returned to Lower Lake, and 
here he found out what a school house really looked like. A brief attendance 
at school was appreciated and enabled him to lay the foundation of an educa- 
tion largely self-acquired. After he had worked in the woods and at any other 
occupation possible to his youth he became a printer's devil and learned the 
trade of typesetting with the Lower Lake Bulletin and the Clear Lake Press. 
From the age of eighteen until twenty-eight he ran a mercantile wagon for 
Morris Levy, and during that period he made many friends among the people 
of Lake county. From 1898 to 1902 he took contracts for cutting saw timber 
in this county, and meanwhile cut several million feet of logs, which made 
him a fair profit. In 1903 he married Virginia B. Manlove, daughter of 
William Manlove, an old settler whose death occurred in 1902 at Lakeport. 
Besides being a member of Lakeport Parlor, Native Sons, Mr. Mathews is 
identified with the Masons, having been made a Mason in Hartley Lodge, No. 
199, Lakeport, and an Odd Fellow in Clear Lake Lodge, No. 130, at Lower 
Lake, and has been through the chairs in the local lodges of both organiza- 

HENRY L. WILDGRUBE.— A resident of Lake county since 1856, 
Mr. Wildgrube may well be counted among its oldest settlers, and he is the 
oldest living pioneer of High valley, where he has a one hundred and sixty 
acre farm now cultivated by his son-in-law, Aaron B. Shaul. He started the 
first store at Upper Lake, and while conducting it met many of the men 
whose names are now linked with the history of the early days. His own 
experiences, typical of those times, make interesting reminiscences, and 
Mr. Wildgrube has a mind which has enabled him to appreciate the changes 
he has witnessed in his long residence in this region. Germany is his native 
land, and he was born Februarv 25, 1835, at Ragoon, in the Duchy of Anhalt, 
which is entirely surrounded by Prussian Saxony. His father, Henry John 
Wildgrube, was a merchant at that town, which then had a population of about 
two thousand, and his mother was Leopoldina Volkmann ; they lived and died 
there. The family has always had honorable standing, the Wildgrubes 
being typical members of the well-to-do merchant class. 

Henry L. Wildgrube was the only child of his parents, and he received 
excellent educational advantages, attending public school in his home town 
until he reached the age of twelve years, after which he attended a private 
school. Besides having thorough instruction in the ordinary branches and bus- 
iness principles, he studied French and Latin, and he has never lost his fond- 
ness for books or his appreciation of the value of good and early training. 
Full of ambition, he decided to come to America to seek his fortune, and he 
was only a youth when he crossed the ocean, landing at Philadelphia. Hav- 
ing no friends, and unable to speak English, he took whatever work he could 
find at first, and was making good progress when his father died and he re- 
turned to the old country to claim his inheritance. At that time he was 
twenty, and while he was engaged in straightening out the affairs of his 


father's estate he was impressed into the German military service, in which 
he had to remain until he received his honorable discharge. When he received 
his discharge he at once came back to America, and on July 1, 1856, arrived 
at San Francisco, having made the journey by way of New York and Panama. 
In Oakland he met a merchant, Mr. Stark, a Bohemian, who told him he was 
about to go to Upper Lake, and that there was no store at that point. On his 
advice Mr. Wildgrube opened a store there August 23, 1856, and made a suc- 
cess of the venture, but he wanted a ranch, and he soon bought the possessory 
right in a tract at LIpper Lake (the one now owned by Mack Sleeper) from an 
old man, Mr. Willard, then eighty years of age, one of the last survivors of the 
Lewis and Clark expedition of 1805. Mr. Wildgrube paid fifty-two dollars for 
his right. But he did not remain long on that place, and after leaving it was 
on the Morrison place for a while, first coming to his present ranch in 1857 
and settling there permanently in 1859. About the latter year he bought the 
possessory rights therein from Sam Morrison, long before the government 
land was surveyed, in 1868. The first house in which he lived there was one 
that had been used for a bear pen, but he soon erected the one which has 
since been his home, and which has many features typical of the pioneer 
homes in this section. It has always been a hospitable home, and the large 
fireplace, built out of native stone, gives it an air of comfort and cheer long 
remembered by those who have been fortunate enough to enjoy its shelter. 
Mr. Wildgrube has fenced his property and made other improvements there 
besides putting the land under cultivation, in which work he was engaged 
until recent years, his son-in-law now renting the place and carrying on the 

Among the many interesting experiences which Mr. Wildgrube had in 
pioneer days were the frequent bear hunts, and at one time he had a very 
narrow escape, being but eight feet from a vicious grizzly bear with her two 
cubs when he and his companion succeeded in killing her after an exciting 
encounter. Though German born, Mr. Wildgrube speaks English perfectly. 
His early education has been supplemented by constant reading, and he is 
looked up to by all who know him as a scholar and a thinker, his conversation 
showing that he deserves the reputation he enjoys. He has always main- 
tained an intelligent interest in current events, particularly the development 
of his own locality. When he came here Lake county had not been formed, 
being then included in Napa county, so that he has watched her progress from 
the very beginning. 

Mr. Wildgrube was married in 1869 to Miss Mary Ann Britton, a native of 
County Fermanagh, in the northern part of Ireland, part of the Province of 
Ulster, and she died at her home, February IS, 1878. A family of five children 
was born to them : One that was born dead ; William and Catherine, twitis, 
the former dying when thirteen months old, the latter married to Jacob Pluth, 
of Upper Lake (they have four children, one son and three daughters) ; Julia 
May, Mrs. Aaron B. Shaul (Aaron B. Shaul is represented on another page 
in this work) ; and Henry James, who "is a lawyer at Richmond. Mr. Wild- 
grube is a member of the German Reformed Church, and in political opinion 
has held to the doctrines of the Republican party. Mr. Wildgrube was mar- 
ried the second time to Louisa Straub, born in Germany. She died October 
19, 1909. 


HON. JAMES MILTON MANNON.— The genealogy of the Mannon 
family shows an identification with America dating back to the eighteenth 
century. At the outbreak of the war of 1812 one of the family, William 
Mannon, a native Virginian and at the time of the second struggle with 
England a youth scarcely on the threshold of man's estate, enlisted in the 
federal service and remained at the front until hostilities had ceased. There- 
after he migrated from his native commonwealth to Kentucky and from that 
state went into Ohio, where he took up a tract of wild land in Adams county 
and began the strenuous task of converting the virgin soil into remunerative 
acreage. Before he had succeeded in his difficult work death came to him, so 
that his wife, a Miss Paul (a native of Ireland, of Scotch ancestry) was left 
with the care of the farm and the large family of children. Both thrived 
under her management ; the farm increased in value and the sons and daugh- 
ters entered upon active lives of industry and honesty. One of the sons, 
Robert Mannon, was born in Adams county, Ohio, and in young manhood 
removed to Brown county, in the same state. There he secured a large farm, 
on which a small brick house had been erected and a few acres had been 
cleared. Agricultural operations brought him prosperity and he was rated 
a well-to-do farmer for that day and locality. From one farm to another in 
the same county he moved, buying and selling at an advantage. His last 
days were passed on a farm in Jefferson township and there he died at the 
age of seventy-six years. 

During the era of pioneer development in Brown county, when it was 
being transformed from frontier into productive acreage, a young Scotch- 
man crossed the ocean from the highlands of his native country and pur- 
chased a large tract of military land in the new section of Ohio. A man of 
ability, supplementing the Scotch thrift with American enterprise, he became 
an extensive landholder. At his death he left to each of his sons and daugh- 
ters a good farm, .\mong the sons was one, Samuel McFerson, who settled 
in Union township on land inherited from his father and remained there until 
his death, which was caused by an accident, ere he had reached middle age. 
His wife, who bore the maiden name of Martha Culter, was born in England 
and came to the United States with her parents, the family becoming pioneers 
of Brown county, Ohio. Among the children of Samuel and Martha McFerson 
there was a daughter, Eliza, who was born in Brown county and there married 
Robert Mannon. Five children were born to their union, namely : Martha, 
Mary, James Milton, Robert A. and Lizzie May. 

Born April 9, 1847, in Union township. Brown county, Ohio, James 
Milton Mannon was primarily educated in the primitive log schoolhouse of 
his native district. .\t the age of fifteen he entered the high school at Rus- 
sellville. Brown county. Afterward he continued his studies in the academy 
ai Bloomingburg, Fayette county. Next he became a student in the State 
Normal School in Lebanon, an institution now known as the Ohio National 
University. Meanwhile he had taught his first term of school in Byrd town- 
ship, Brown county, and later taught in other localities. During 1873 he 
came to the Pacific coast and after a tour of inspection through Southern 
California he located in San Luis Obispo county. For a year he engaged as 
!)ookkeeper at a quicksilver mine near Cambria and later he clerked in a 
general mercantile store. F(^r two vears he served as office deputy assessor 


of San Luis Obispo county. During 1877 he served as police judge of San 
Luis Obispo. On a ranch near Cambria in which he owned an interest he 
established his headquarters in the fall of 1877. At the same time he began to 
serve as deputy assessor of that district. Elected justice of the peace in the 
fall of 1879 and also appointed notary public, he opened an office at Cambria, 
where he conducted a general business in conveyancing. For a .year he 
owned a one-half interest in a sawmill. Aleanwhile he had devoted himself 
diligently to the stud)- of the law and in 1881 was admitted to practice before 
the courts of the state, and the same year located in Ukiah. 

As a leading attorney of Ukiah, as district attorney of Mendocino county 
for one term beginning in January, 1887, as a member of the city council and 
for four years president of that body, and as superior judge of the county 
from 1897 to 1903, Judge Mannon has been prominent in professional, political 
and public affairs of the city which has been his home since 1881. During 
all of this period he has been a leader in local Republican politics. For 
several years he served as chairman of the county central committee. One 
of the founders of the Savings Bank of Mendocino county, he served as its 
vice-president from its organization until the present year when he was 
elected its president. He has also been a stockholder in the Bank of Willits 
from its organization. From 1891 to 1895 inclusive he officiated as treasurer 
of the Mendocino State Hospital. Besides being a member of the Union 
League Club of San Francisco, he is fraternally a member of Abell Lodge 
No. 146, F. & A. M., of which he is a past master; a member and past high 
priest of Ukiah Chapter No. 53, R. A. M.; past commander of Ukiah Com- 
mandery No. 33. K. T. ; a member of Islam Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of San 
Francisco, and is serving his third term as a member of the executive com- 
mittee of that body; a member of Ukiah Lodge No. 174, I. O. O. F. ; Ukiah 
Lodge No. 213, K. P. ; Schaffner Companj' No. 29, Uniform Rank, K. P., and 
as Colonel served on the Brigade Staff, K. P. of California. Judge Mannon 
lias given of his time and means toward the upbuilding of the county, and with 
that viewpoint has taken active part in different business men's associations 
organized for that purpose. 

The marriage of Judge Mannon was solemnized at Windsor. Sonoma 
county, December 8, 1875, and united him with Miss Martha Clark, who was 
born in Bureau county. 111., a daughter of Charles and Mary (Hamilton) 
Clark. Mrs. Alannon has taken a prominent part in civic and social affairs 
'.n Ukiah and there is no movement that has had for its aim the betterment of 
the city's social and moral conditions but has had her hearty support. Of 
late years she has been manifestly interested in the growth of the Ukiah Public 
Library, having been a member of its board of directors since its organization. 
Mr. and Mrs. Mannon are the parents of two sons, Charles McFerson and 
James Milton, Jr. The elder son, a graduate of Leland Stanford L'niversity 
in 1898 and Hastings College of Law in 1900, is now associated with his father 
in a large law practice at Ukiah, also has served as city attorney of Ukiah 
since 1909, is secretary of and attorney for the Merchants' Association oi 
Ukiah and ranks among the influential young men of affairs in this portion 
of Northern California. Like his father, he is prominent in the Knights 
Templar, devoted to the principles of the Republican party, comprehensive in 
his knowledge of the law, brilliant in oratory, logical in reasoning and forceful 


in personality. The younger son was graduated from the University of 
California in 1899, and from Hastings College of Law in 1902, and has since 
engaged in the practice of law in San Francisco, where he is a member of the 
well-known firm of McCutchen, Olney & Willard. 

RALPH THOMPSON DUNCAN.— A comparatively recent but very im- 
portant accession to the business enterprises of Willits is the Rex Drug Com- 
pany, dispensing chemists and manufacturers of the Rex remedies. When 
the founder of the business came to the town in the fall of 1910 he purchased 
Reed's pharmacy, but soon found the building too small for the growing 
business. Accordingly in 1911 he secured and remodeled his present loca- 
tion, putting in new fixtures, a soda fountain and the first plate glass front in 
Willits. Especially unique is the ice-cream parlor, which is attractively fin- 
ished in redwood bark, with an artistic effect unsurpassed by any similar 
institution in the county. The manufacture of ice cream and confectionery 
is carried on under the most sanitary and wholesome conditions, while in an 
entirely separate department are manufactured the Rex remedies, including 
Ralph's health tablets, Rex Lightning Liniment, Rex Mendo-Tone (a tonic), 
Rex skin cream (a cure for poison oak), Rex benzoated lotion (for the com- 
plexion) and Rex croup syrup, a cough mixture for children. The prescription 
department is located on the mezzanine floor. In 1913 E. Y. Himmelwright 
was taken into partnership as a member of the Rex Drug Company, making 
possible a still further enlargement of the business and an even closer atten- 
tion to every detail of the several departments. 

A native of ]\Iendocino county, Ralph Thompson Duncan was born at 
Ukiah May 8, 1887, and is a son of Charles Henry and Elizabeth (Shattuck) 
Duncan, also natives of California. The paternal grandfather, Jacob Duncan, 
came from Virginia to the Pacific coast in a very early day and became a 
pioneer builder in L^kiah, where later Charles H. engaged successively in the 
hotel and banking business and as steward for the Mendocino state hospital. 
After twelve years in the last-named position he returned to the banking 
business and became assistant cashier for the Bank of Ukiah. There were 
three children in the family. The second, Ralph T., a graduate of the Ukiah 
high school, class of 1905, had begun the study of pharmacy while only in the 
seventh grade of the grammar school. For some time he was employed in 
the Hoffman (afterward the Gibson) pharmacy. In order to acquire a thor- 
ough knowledge of the work he took the full course in pharmacy in the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons at San Francisco and in 1907 he passed an 
examination before the state board of examiners. Meantime he had gained 
practical experience as an employe in a San Francisco pharmacy. From that 
city he returned to Mendocino county and has since engaged as a pharmacist 
in Willits, where he has improved and developed one of the finest drug and 
ice-cream establishments in this section of the state. Along the line of his 
chosen occupation he maintains membership in the California Pharmaceutical 
Association. Fraternally he is connected with the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, the Knights of Pythias and the Rebekahs at Willits, and is proud 
of the fact that when only eight years of age he was chosen as drummer boy 
for the Knights of Pythias in Ukiah. In San Francisco he married Miss Iris 
Clare, a native of College City. Colusa county, the mother of one child, Mar- 
jorie Iris Duncan, and a leading member of the Rebekahs and Eastern Star 
at Willits. 


SAMUEL DUNCAN. — Life presents to every earnest mind obligations 
the discharge or neglect of which marks the difference between men. That 
Mr. Duncan has been earnest in meeting every duty brought to him by des- 
tiny is evidence of his resolute purpose and dominant will. The greater part 
of his life has been passed in Mendocino county, where he has been familiar 
with agricultural conditions from his earliest recollections and where he now 
makes his home one mile south of Hopland. A member of an honored pio- 
neer family, in whom there appeared a strong sense of responsibility in the 
welfare of the county and state, his own devotion to the coast country and his 
high spirit of patriotism are easily explained as attributes of heredity. The 
family formed a part of the early civilization of California, bone and sinew 
of her strength and progress. Their tj^pe of sturdy fearlessness and pioneer 
instincts, with its touch of romance and its suggestion of future conquest, no 
longer is to be seen in the west, for the passing of the frontier means also the 
passing of the pioneer. 

In the tiny hamlet of jMark\J^€M^ Sonoma county, Samuel Duncan was 
born January 10, 1857, and from there he was brought to the neighboring 
county of Mendocino by his parents, Elijah Hall and Elizabeth (Craddock) 
Duncan, in the same year. Primarily educated in public schools, at the age 
of sixteen he spent eight months in a private institution at Ukiah and then 
attended a private school at Santa Rosa. Upon his return to Hopland he 
devoted his time wholly to the ranch of his father, and for eight years he 
and his brother, E. J., managed the place successfully, making a specialty of 
the stock industry. During 1898 he sold out his interests to the brother and 
moved to San Francisco, where he was in the employ of Harron, Rickard & 
McCone and also had charge of a lodging house. In 1901 he returned to Hop- 
land to superintend the Duncan estate (comprising three ranches of some 
five thousand acres) for his mother, continuing this until her death in 1905. 
At this time he and his brother Robert were appointed administrators, and 
the estate was divided and settled. He now owns some five hundred and 
fifty acres of the old Duncan ranch, fifty acres of which is bottom land, ten 
acres being in hops, six acres in pear orchard and the balance in alfalfa. For 
five years Mr. Duncan was engaged in the general mercantile business in Hop- 
land, until 1912, when he sold to his brother William. 

Favoring Democratic views and interested in national problems, Mr. 
Duncan has been prominent in local politics. For six and one-half years he 
held the position of supervisor from the first district. In that capacity he 
endeavored to promote the interests of the people of his district, favoring 
good roads, good schools and modern improvements. November 25, 1882, 
he married Miss Marguerite Copple, a native of Nodaway county, Mo. 
whence in 1872 she came to California with the family, who settled near Hop- 
land, Mendocino county. Three children were born to the union of Mr. and 
Mrs. Duncan, namely: Mervin, deceased; Clarence and Ruth. The measure 
of the prosperity of Mr. Duncan is well merited, having been secured by per- 
severance and intelligent application to work. As a result of industry and 
ability he has advanced step by step. Wise management has made him pros- 
perous in business and in agriculture, while fine personal traits have won for 
him the regard of acquaintances and the warm admiration of associates. 

,u^y< e^i-^<^ 


ALPHEUS ZENO JONES.— The firm of Jones Brothers, ranchmen and 
extensive landowners in High valley, in East Lake precinct of Lake county, 
is composed of the two brothers, Alpheus Zeno and Andrew Jones, sons of 
the late J. W. Jones, of Upper Lake. Besides the operations they carry on 
upon their own large holdings, being engaged in cattle raising in High valley 
they rent the Watts ranch, a tract of eighteen hundred and twenty acres at 
the head of Burns valley, in Lower Lake precinct, upon which they keep 
fifteen hundred head of high-grade Merino sheep. Though both are still 
young men, they have been in business for a number of years and have gained 
a standing worthy of members of one of the old pioneer families in this region, 
being known as sell-reliant, able and deservedly respected citizens. They are 
proud of the fact that their family has done its share in the opening up of the 
county and its continued development, and are doing their part to make this 
section desirable both as a business territory and a region of good homes. 
They are energetic about inaugurating improvements and public-spirited in 
seeing that others' rights are respecfd as well as their own — traits which have 
won them the hearty good will of all their neighbors. 

John William Jones, father of the Jones Brothers, was a native of the 
state of Missouri, born February 27 , 1836, and was but a child when his 
parents moved thence to Arkansas. In 1856 he came to California, making 
the journey across the plains, and the first seven years of his residence in this 
.state were spent in Plumas county. During that time he was variously occu- 
pied. From there he went to Marysville, Yuba county, where he remained, 
however, only a short time, going to the San Joaquin valley, where he spent 
a year. Returning to ]\Iarysville, he passed the next two years there, returned 
lo Plumas county for six months, and then came to Lake county, in the fall 
of 1867. After a short stay he went to Plumas county again, but in 1868 came 
back to Lake county and made a permanent settlement, the rest of his active 
years being given to the improvement of his five hundred and twenty acre 
ranch, where he had his home, about three miles from L^pper Lake on the 
Bartlett Springs road. He died at L^pper Lake in the year 1912, when seventy- 
five years old. Mr. Jones was married in 1867, in Lake county, to Miss Mary 
E. McCabe, like himself a native of Missouri, and she survives him, being 
now about sixty-eight years old. Nine children were born to them, viz. : John 
William, who is a dairyman at Bartlett Springs ; Edward, who died when 
twenty years old ; Franklin, who died when eighteen years old ; Lucinda, who 
died in 1909, unmarried; .^aron and Mary Catherine, twins, the former of 
whom died when six weeks old, the latter now the wife of A. A. Pluth, a 
farmer in Upper Lake precinct ; Alpheus Zeno ; Andrew ; and Narcissa, who 
died in 1905, at the age of twenty-one years. 

.\lpheus Zeno Jones, usually called Zeno Jones, was born Juh^ 9, 1881. at 
I'pper Lake, where he was reared. His education was obtained in the public 
schools. When but sixteen years old he started in business with his brother 
Andrew, the boys becoming interested in the raising of Angora goats, in 
which they were pioneers hereabouts. Their stock was bought from H. H. 
Harlan, in Colusa county, and at the time there were few others owned in 
Lake county. For four years they rented land from their father, and also the 
Waldfogel place, and about the end of that period they changed to the cattle 
and sheep business, which has since occupied all their attention Some years 
ago there was another partner in the firm, their cousin, H. M. Jones, who 


is now engaged in the livery and undertaking business at Lower Lake. The 
association was dissolved by mutual agreement, the cousin taking the livery 
and stage line, the brothers the land, cattle and sheep. How well the Jones 
Brothers have succeeded may be estimated from the extent of their present 
possessions and operations. In High valley. East Lake precinct, they own 
a stock ranch of sixteen hundred acres, bought in 1913, upon which they raise 
cattle, having from eighty to eighty-five head ; six years ago they bought 
three hundred and twenty acres on Cache creek, Lake county ; and they rent 
the Watts ranch of eighteen hundred and twenty acres in Burns valley, 
where they take care of their sheep, fifteen hundred head of high-grade 
Merinos. By maintaining high standards and following the most approved 
modern methods in their work, these young men have helped to better the 
grade of cattle all over the region, and the value of their influence is fully 
appreciated in Lake county. Personally they are men of high character, in- 
telligent, fair-minded, and well disposed toward all with whom they come in 
contact, and their names are respected wherever known. Zeno Jones lives 
upon their cattle ranch in High valley, while Andrew Jones makes his home 
on the Watts place. The latter married Miss Edna Mathews, sister of Shafter 
Mathews, county clerk of Lake county, and they have one child, Audrey. 

PERCY C. BAYLIS.— Since 1900 Mr. Baylis has given nearly all his 
iittention to carpenter work and contracting, and he is building up a business 
and reputation which promise well for his future. The number of substantial 
structures in the vicinity of his home, in Burns valley, and elsewhere in Lake 
county, stand as evidence of the reliable and workmanlike manner in which 
his contracts are filled. He has been practically a lifelong resident of the 
county, having been here all his life except for the time he was away attending 
school and a couple of years in Oregon, and he has looked after his various 
responsibilities in such a way as to invite the confidence and esteem of his 
fellow men. His father, the late Dr. A. W. Baylis, was well known to the 
people of Lake county in his day as a physician and surgeon, and his untimely 
death was widely mourned. 

Dr. Baylis was a native of England, and came to California broken in 
health and with the idea of giving up practice. He settled in Lake county, 
and soon found his professional services much in demand, as might be ex- 
pected in a new country, where a good physician is always sure of a welcome. 
He met his death by accident, in 1879, being drowned in Clear lake by the 
upsetting of a sailboat, and left a wife and a large family. Mrs. Baylis, whose 
maiden name was Phoebe Morris, was also born in England, and resides now 
in San Anselmo, Marin county, Cal. To Dr. and Mrs. Baylis were born nine 
children, namely : Mrs. Zoe E. Bigelow, who is a widow and lives with her 
mother ; Irene, Mrs. Webber, of Oakland ; Ernest, who is a miner in Mexico ; 
Mrs. lantha Anderson, who lives in Lower Lake; Percy C. ; Maud, Mrs. 
Young, living in Texas ; Mabyn, who lives with her mother ; Harold, who 
died in Mexico ; and Theodosia, Mrs. Lilly, also living with her mother. 

Percy C. Baylis was born October 6, 1871, in Burns valley. Lake county, 
where he passed his youth, and after attending the local public schools went 
to high school in Oakland and San Francisco. For about two years he was 
engaged in mining in Curry county, Oregon, and when the mines shut down 
he came back to Lower Lake, in his native county, soon finding employment 
on the Wrey ranch, adjoining that town on the south. There he continued 


for some time, becoming assistant superintendent, a position he held for 
several years, during which time he gained valuable experience, in various 
branches of ranching and also in looking after large interests, fruit growing 
especially being carried on there extensively. Meantime he had acquired 
thorough familiarity with carpentry, to which most of his time has since been 
given, and a number of fine residences in Lake county are specimens of his 
skill, the summer home of his brother-in-law, Louis Jago, at Point Lake View, 
on the banks of Clear lake, being particularly worthy of note. His own resi- 
dence there also, in which his family pass most of their summers, is a creditable 
piece of work, and is one of the substantial things Mr. Baylis has done to 
attract buyers to this site, in which he is much interested. It is a location of 
great natural beauty, which makes it highly desirable for summer homes. Web- 
ber's dance hall and the clubhouse at the lake shore, and the summer residence 
of R. W. Beale, all at Point Lake View, are also of his construction, and show 
a conscientious desire on the part of the builder to do his work well, from 
both the useful and the artistic standpoint. In connection with his building 
operations Mr. Baylis also engages in agricultural work to some extent, 
living on and cultivating his wife's ranch, a seventy-acre property at the head 
of Burns valley, a part of the old O'Ferrell place. 

Mr. Baylis married Miss Fannie Jago, who was born at Gibraltar, daugh- 
ter of Major General Jago, a British army officer. She is the sister of Louis 
Jago, a prominent business man of Lower Lake, proprietor of Jago's cash 
store. Seven children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Baylis : Percy Nor- 
man, Alice Fannie, Inez Mary, Jack A. and Thyra C, twins, Frances Mary 
and Beatrice Victorine. The home life of the family, though quiet and un- 
pretentious, is wholesome and animated by the real spirit of helpfulness and 
cordiality. Before her family monopolized her attention Mrs. Baylis gave 
considerable time to painting and music, doing particularly good landscape 
work, and she is a pianist of pleasing ability. Mr. Baylis has taken no special 
part in public life, but he is a Republican in his political views and interested 
in the success of his party. 

GAUDENZIO VALENTI. — Near Lucca, in Tuscany, Italy, in the year 
1850, was born Gaudenzio Valenti, and there he was raised on a farm and 
went to the local schools. On August 7, 1871, he came to California, and 
followed farm work in San Mateo county, until 1873, when he went to Whites- 
boro, Mendocino county. He found employment as a woodsman with James 
Britt, for whom he was the first to work in the woods. When the L. E. 
White Lumber Company purchased Mr. Britt's interest, Mr. Valenti con- 
tinued with them, and in his long period of employment with this company 
he became woods boss, and later foreman on construction. In 1889 he came 
to Greenwood and helped to build the railroad; he also built the first two 

Mr. Valenti changed from this occupation in 1892, buying a ranch ten 
miles out on the Boonville road, where he improved and operated the farm 
which he still owns. In September, 1904, he started a hotel business in 
Greenwood, the Italia hotel, of which he has been the proprietor ever since. 

In Italy Mr. Valenti married Zefifera Tovani, who was also born in 
Tuscany, and of this union there are three children : Edward is running the 
home ranch ; Fravia is Mrs. Bacci ; and Pio resides in Italy. Mr. Valenti in 
his political affiliations is a Republican, and he has served faithfully as 
trustee of the district schools. 


JOHN RILEY GARNER.— In the Upper Lake region the name Garner 
carries the idea of substantial business ability, for which its representatives 
have been noted during the thirty years and more of their residence in Lake 
county. They are no less conspicuous for high moral qualities and honorable 
citizenship, as valuable factors in the upbuilding of the community and in 
all lines conducive to progress and wholesome development. The family is of 
Revolutionary stock and English origin, John R. Garner being of the fourth 
generation in this country. It is noteworthy that so far back as the lineage is 
traced the Garners have been successful stockmen, the branch in California 
carrying on the traditions of the name in that respect. John Garner, the great- 
grandfather, came to this country from England in colonial days and settled 
m Virginia. He fought in the Revolution. His son John, grandfather of 
John R. Garner, lived at Salem, Marion county, 111., and died there in 1833, 
of cholera. Much of the information he possessed regarding the family history 
died with him. 

Valentine Garner, father of John R. Garner, was a native of North Caro- 
lina, was a very successful farmer, trader and stockman, and lived to his 
eightieth year. In young manhood he moved out to Missouri, where he mar- 
ried Sarah Edington, a native of Tennessee. Eight children were born to this 
union. Nancy was the wife of George Linn, and they settled in Napa county, 
Cal., where she died in 1894; they had three children. John Riley is men- 
tioned below. William, a retired farmer, resides near Niangua, Webster 
county, Mo. Martha was the wife of Benjamin F. Shields, and died in 
Webster county. Mo., leaving three children. Diantha, who was the wife of 
P. D. Grigsby, came to Napa county, Cal., and died in 1908; she left seven 
children. Jane, wife of Jesse Elmore, died in Webster county. Mo., leaving 
three children. Susan, Mrs. Callaway, lived and died in Webster county. 
Mo., survived by one child. Frances is the wife of John Shook, a retired 
farmer, of Webster county, Mo.; they have five children. The mother of 
this family died in her thirty-sixth j-ear. and the father remarried, having 
seven children by the second union. 

John R. Garner was born in Webster county. Mo., July 22, 1838. and 
passed his early years in that state. When a young man of nineteen he came 
to California with his sister Nancy, who was the wife of George Linn, and 
tlie party was prepared to engage extensively in farming operations, bringing 
two hundred head of cattle, ten horses and six mules across the plains, besides 
the oxteams to carry their personal effects and household goods. Arriving 
at Napa September 18, 1857, five months to a day from the time they started, 
John R. Garner rented land from the Yount grant and farmed same until 
1863. Then he bought land near Oakville and he farmed in Napa county for 
twenty-five years altogether, with more than ordinary success. In 1883 he 
disposed of his property there, making a trade with Capt. M. G. Ritchie for 
twelve hundred acres in Long Valley, Lake county, to which he moved in 
March, 1883. Having added to his original tract by purchase, his interests 
iiave continued to expand steadily, and a few years ago the John R. Garner 
Stock Farm Corporation was formed to make the management more conve- 
nient, John R. Garner being president of this corporation, in which he is the 
principal stockholder. The corporation owns twenty-seven hundred acres all 
in one body in Long valley, and Arabella post office is located on this land. 
Lentil a short time ago John R. Garner gave most of his operations personal 

/^ (^ ^.^.M...-^-^ 


care, but he has withdrawn from the exacting work of late, his sons taking 
active charge. As previously noted, the Garners have been growers and 
traders of stock for several generations, handling horses, cattle, hogs and 
sheep, and their knowledge of the business has made them regarded as 
authorities wherever they have had dealings. John R. Garner's father and 
grandfather followed this line as well as farming, and his sons are doing the 
same. A number of members of the Garner family have gathered great 
wealth, and there is an estate in probate in St. Louis now, amounting to 
several millions of dollars, left by Henry Garner who recently died intestate 
and childless. 

For the last twelve years John R. Garner has made his home at the vil- 
lage of Upper Lake, where he has a fine residence on a knoll near the school- 
house, and seven and a half acres of highly improved land. Besides his 
holdings in the John R. Garner Stock Farm Corporation he owns a farm 
of one hundred and twenty acres one-half mile east of Upper Lake. As a 
citizen no resident of Upper Lake or vicinity has higher standing. Clean, 
upright, conservative but not reactionary in his ideas, he has spent a useful 
life and is now enjoying its rewards. The Garners are characteristically gen- 
erous in their dealings with their fellow men, whether in their personal or 
business relations, and John R. Garner is no exception to the rule. His sense 
of responsibility toward his fellow men is strong, and he is willing to do his 
share, but he has declined to serve his community in any official capacity. 
His intelligent outlook on public affairs, especially such as affect his home 
locality, and his helpful attitude there, stamp him as one of the most valuable 
citizens of the county. In church connection he is a member of the Chris- 
tian denomination, which has the largest religious organization in Lake 
county — its church at Lakeport ; Mr. Garner and his family have assisted 
materially in building up this church, and he has filled the office of elder very 
acceptably. Politically he is now associated with the Progressive party. 

During his residence in Napa county, November 13, 1864, Mr. Garner mar- 
ried Miss Aramanta Roberts, a native of Tennessee, who came to California 
across the plains with her parents in 1861, and died May 13, 1913, at the age 
of sixty-six years. Twelve children were born to this union : William V. died 
when three years old ; Thomas E. lives near Ukiah, and is engaged as a farmer 
and trader; Joseph W., of Santa Rosa, Cal., was formerly a stockman and 
farmer; John F., a former stockman, resides at Lower Lake, Lake county; 
Louis L., of Arizona, is employed by a transfer company at Jerome, that 
state ; Fred W. is on the home ranch ; Bush died unmarried when twenty-four 
years old ; Julia died when six months old ; Lloyd R. is a stockman and farmer 
at Upper Lake ; one child, a son, was still born ; Leland J. is a stockman and 
trader at Upper Lake ; and Florence E. is the wife of Floyd Edward Woodson 
ot Upper Lake. 

MRS. CLORA LANGLAND.— Nearness of . vision sometimes prevents 
clearness of insight into the character and motives of others, hence the diffi- 
culty of accurately measuring the influence of neighbors and intimate asso- 
ciates. However, there are many instances of men and women appreciated and 
honored by their most intimate friends, and in such a list belongs the name 
of Mrs. Clora Langland, superintendent and proprietor of the Langland hos- 
pital at Ukiah, founder of the institution opened in 1913 on the corner of 
Spring and Stevenson streets, and leader of an enterprise that from both 


philanthropic and financial standpoints is of importance to the city. The 
immediate success of the work obliged her to add another cottage to the 
institution and there are now ample accommodations, modern equipment, 
;.anitary environment and an operating room with every facility for that class 
of work. Through her practical ability as a nurse, combined with business 
efificiency of an high order, she is admirably qualified to establish and develop 
a hospital that will form a permanent asset in the public institutions of city 
and county. 

Herself a native daughter of California, JMrs. Langland is a member of a 
pioneer family of the state. As early as 1851 her grandfather. Jack Alley, 
started from Michigan for the west, accompanied b)^ his wife (who died en 
route) and their children, one of whom, John, was born in Michigan in 1846. 
Reared in California and familiar from early childhood with the picturesque 
but sparsely settled regions of Lake county, John Alley became a farmer, 
stockman and horticulturist at Upper Lake, owning and operating a farm 
three miles north of that town. One of his specialties was the raising oi 
pears, in which profitable industry he was a pioneer. Fraternally he was a 
member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Surviving him at his 
death in 1908 were his widow and seven children, Mrs. Langland, a native 
of Upper Lake, Lake county, being the eldest of the children. The widow, 
who bore the maiden name of Ella AIcMath, was born in Niles, Mich., and in 
1857 came to California with her parents, Archie and Elizabeth (Kimmel) 
McMath. The voyage was made via Panama to San Francisco, thence by 
wagon to Lake county. While still owning the old homestead in Lake county 
Mrs. Alley now makes her home with her eldest child, Mrs. Langland. The 
latter, after having completed her common-school education, entered the 
Children's hospital, San Francisco, for the purpose of taking the nurse's train- 
ing course. She continued there until her marriage in that city, in June of 
1899, to Robert Langland, a native of San Francisco and a builder by trade. 
Four children were born to their union, namely : Jack, Madelene, Robert and 
Raymond. In 1905 the family settled in Lake county, but shortly afterward 
came to Ukiah and there Mr. Langland followed the building business until 
his death, in November, 1911. 

Having engaged as a nurse in Ukiah for a number of years and having 
taken patients in her home, Airs. Langland at the death of her husband de- 
cided to devote herself exclusively to hospital work. To better qualify for 
such work she took a course of study in the City and County hospital at San 
Francisco in 1912. Returning to Ukiah, she practiced as a nurse until 1913, 
when she opened the hospital of which she has since been the executive head. 
The institution is private and has had the support of the leading people of the 
community, for there is a warm interest in Airs. Langland and a deep confi- 
dence in her ability as nurse and practical business woman. So closely has 
her time been given to professional duties and home responsibilities that she 
has had no leisure for participation in public movements, religious activities 
or woman's clubs, but maintains a warm interest nevertheless in all measures 
for the uplift of humanity and is stanchly true to the doctrines of the Presby- 
terian Church and to the principles of the Republican party, as well as other 
enterprises neither religious nor political, yet indissolubly allied with the pro- 
gress of a community. 


LYMAN WILBERT BABCOCK.— Significant of his ability as an in- 
structor is the fact that \lr. liabcock has been connected with the schools of 
Mendocino county since 1882, when he came to California and secured a 
position as teacher in the school at Little River, one of the then thriving 
towns in the lumber regions along the Pacific coast. More than three decades 
of usefulness in the educational field have been given by him ; and the present 
high status of Mendocino county schools may be attributed largely to his 
intelligent, long-continued, and efficient association with the work. In his 
present office of county superintendent of schools, which position he is now 
filling for the second term, he is endeavoring to advance the school system 
and raise it to a still higher standard, an important task in which he receives 
the co-operation of teachers and also, to a large extent, of tax-payers. It is a 
source of pride to him that he has been identified with the educational work 
of the county through so long a period and that he has been privileged to 
promote the same through his own intelligent efficiency. In his opinion there 
is no task in the world nobler than that of strengthening the mind and char- 
acter in the critical, plastic period of youth, thus equipping the pupil for the 
battle of life. Hundreds of students have come under his guidance and 
profited by his instruction. Men and women now in middle age speak of his 
work as instructor with sincere appreciation and in his more recent activities 
as county superintendent he has secured the enthusiastic support of the 
teachers of the county in his efforts toward continued educational upbuilding. 

Born in Tompkins county, N. Y., November 2, 1857, L. W. Babcock was 
the son of Benjamin and Mary (Meacham) Babcock, natives of New York, 
where the father was a farmer, but in 1859 removed with his family to Wells- 
boro, Tioga county. Pa., and later served for three years in the Civil War in 
the army of the North. Lyman W. Babcock was reared at Wellsboro and 
from an early age attended the common schools of Pennsylvania, also the 
State Normal at Mansfield, from which he was graduated in 1879. For a 
time he taught in that state, but in 1882 he became a resident of California 
and a teacher at Little River, Mendocino county. 

After three 3"ears in that little lumber town he came to Ukiah as principal 
of the grammar school, which position he held for eight years. On the estab- 
lishment of the Ukiah High School in 1893 he was elected principal, where 
he continued for thirteen years, meanwhile accomplishing a work of the 
highest importance in connection with the new institution. Having worthily 
filled that position, he was called to one of even greater importance. During 
the fall of 1906 he was elected county superintendent, taking office in January, 
1907. In 1910 he was elected for another term of four years, which began 
January of 1911. Aside from his educational work he has been prominent in 
Masonry, being made a Mason in Abell Lodge No. 146, F. & A. M., of which 
he is Past Master; he is Past High Priest of Ukiah Chapter No. 53, R. A. M., 
and Past Commander of Ukiah Commandery No. 33, K. T., and with Mrs. 
Babcock is a member of Casimir Chapter No. 252, O. E. S. 

His family consists of Mrs. Babcock and one son, Raymond Arthur Bab- 
cock, M. D., the latter a graduate of Hahnemann Medical College of San 
Francisco and now a practicing physician at Willits, this county. Mrs. Bab- 
cock was formerly Annie R. Pullen, born in Little River, whose parents, 
Charles and Elizabeth (Coombs) Pullen, natives of Maine, settled in Mendo- 
cino county in 1864, where Mr. Pullen built a mill at Little River. Mrs. 
Pullen is still living, at the ripe age of ninety-two years. Mrs. Babcock has 


been engaged in educational work for several years and is now assisting her 
husband as deputy county superintendent of schools, thus bringing into use- 
fulness her 3'ears of experience in the schoolroom. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON FIFIELD.— It is not usual to find anyone 
of Canadian birth bearing the name George Washington, but Mr. Fifield, 
though born near London, Ontario, is of American parentage and lineage, 
the family having long been settled in New England. He is one of the Lake 
county farmers who have had wonderful success in growing fruit, and he has 
also become quite heavily interested in the raising of Angora goats, owning 
four hundred at the present time. His farm in the South Kelseyville'precinct 
is located back in the mountains, on a plateau, and the results which have at- 
tended his industrious cultivation of the property show that there is much 
valuable land adapted to fruit raising up in the hills, covered with brush and 
timber. What Lake county will be when all of it has been intelligently devel- 
oped is food for the active imagination. Mr. Fifield has made a demonstra- 
lion on his property which should be an encouragement to all interested in 
the agricultural possibilities of this region. He homesteaded his tract of one 
hundred and sixty acres in 1890, and beginning with practically nothing has 
established a fine home and improved his land, having fourteen hundred fruit 
trees in bearing. 

The Fifield family was settled in New England during Colonial times and 
took an active part in supporting the American cause during the trying days 
of the struggle for independence. Hiram Fifield, father of George Washington 
Fifield, was born in Vermont, and reared in a "Shaker" community. How- 
ever, he was still a bo}" when the family removed to Canada, where he became 
a successful farmer, owning one hundred acres of land near London, Ontario. 
In Canada he married Eliza Black, a native of New Brunswick, and of the 
thirteen children born to their union eleven grew to maturity. The parents 
died in Canada. 

George Washington Fifield was born December 16, 1855, on the home- 
stead near London, and was the youngest son and ninth child in the family. 
He attended common school in his native country, and when a young man 
learned the business of making gas with coke and oil. For a short time he 
was in the service of the Hudson Bay Company, in what is now Alberta and 
Saskatchewan, later returning to Ontario. In 1887 he came to California, and 
m 1889 was joined by his family, consisting at that time of his wife and four 
children. For about a year after he came here he was engaged in work on the 
Leland Stanford university buildings, worked on the Southern Pacific road 
with the bridge builders and carpenters, and for a while was employed on the 
Market street railway in San Francisco. But by 1889 he had decided to take up 
land and try agriculture, and that year he settled in Lake county, taking up 
one hundred and sixty acres in the South Kelseyville precinct, located on the 
Cloverdale road. He had $19.60 left after reaching the land, and no roof but 
the emigrant wagon. But he set bravely to work, and what he has accom- 
plished by his own industry is almost hard to believe. All the family are dili- 
gent workers, and by capable management and the steady labor which his 
strength has made possible "Mr. Fifield has overcome the obstacles which his 
lack of means and equipment at first placed in his way. Being a carpenter 
and handy with tools he has had the advantage of doing all the necessary 
work in that line about the place, saving many an expenditure, to say nothing 


of the saving of time and the convenience of understanding mechanics. Mr. 
Fifield has twenty-two acres of his land cleared and fourteen hundred fruit 
trees set out, and their healthy condition, showing no trace of scale or moss, 
is sufficient indication that the location is a proper one for orchards. The 
fruit is of particularly fine flavor and coloring. There are eight hundred 
prune trees, four hundred Bartlett pear trees, peaches, figs and plums, Mr. 
Fifield having planted a few Satsuma and greengage plums (which are doing 
well). He has a family vineyard. He has three vines of the celebrated Zante 
currant (a kind of seedless grape or raisin), which bears currants one year and 
grapes the next — some years both. The one which he planted at the south- 
west corner of his house has grown wonderfully, being now without doubt the 
largest cultivated vine in Lake county. Mr. Fifield trained one branch around 
the west side of the house, the other along the south side, and it now encircles 
the house completely, the arms having a total length of one hundred and eighty 
feet and screening the walls and porches. It grows luxuriantly and bears 
abundantly, some of the clusters being as much as fifteen inches long, and 
the fruit is sweet and of excellent quality. 

Some time ago Mr. Fifield began the raising of Angora goats, in which 
he is now quite extensively interested, having four hundred head at the present 
time and adding to his stock yearly. He has two good wells upon his land, has 
built a comfortable farmhouse, substantial barns and a house for storing 
and drying fruit, and has many conveniences which make the place highly 
desirable as a home. Though he has never attempted to convert it into a 
summer resort he has a number of guests each summer, the limits of house 
room making it necessary for him to decline accommodations to many who 
would enjoy spending vacation time on his ranch. His wife is a famously 
good cook and model housekeeper, and both Mr. and Mrs. Fifield have the 
faculty of making their guests feel thoroughly at home in their cozy place. 
They are willing to do all in their power to help the time pass pleasantly, and 
the large house on the place put up for drying and storing fruit when not 
in use for that purpose is converted into a clubhouse and provided with an 
excellent piano, so that summer guests and the young people of the neigh- 
borhood may use is as a social center, a convenient place for dances and other 
gatherings. There is a magnificent view from a knoll in the orchard on the 
Fifield farm, Lakeport. Clear Lake, Mount Konocti, and the roads to Middle- 
town and Lower Lakes being in plain sight. Mr. Fifield has labored earnestly 
and faithfully, and his honorable life has won him the respect and esteem of 
all his fellow citizens. 

Mr. Fifield was first married, at Ayr, Canada, to Miss Sarah A. Denman, 
who was born at Woodstock, Ontario, and died in Lake county in 1901. 
She was the mother of four children, Willard George having been eleven years 
old when the family removed from Canada, James Artwell nine, Ernest seven, 
and Charles John five. Willard George is now an engineer on the Southern 
Pacific railroad and resides at San Luis Obispo ; he married Miss Agnes Mc- 
Cullough, of San Francisco, and they have two sons, Willard George and 
Herbert Donald. James Artwell (Artie), who is employed as a motorman on 
the Key route, Oakland, married Miss Iva Hamill, a native of Pennsylvania, 
and they have three children, Beth, Bobbie and Jack. Ernest is a farmer and 
stock-raiser at Sites, Colusa county. Charles John is a farmer, owning one 
hundred and sixty acres of land in Lake county ; he married Emma 


Ferguson, who was a native of San Mateo county. In 1912 Mr. 
Fifield married (second) Mrs. Mary E. (Robinson) Vince, of Sarnia, 
C)ntario, who was born at Yale, Mich. She had three children by her 
first marriage : Harry Russell, an electrician, of Flint, Mich. ; Mabel Ruth, 
wife of John Hickey, of Sarnia, Ontario, cashier for the Flint & Pere Mar- 
quette Railway ; and Olive Irene, wife of Donald W. Hicks, painter of auto- 
mobiles in the employ of the Buick Company, at Flint, Mich. (Mr. and Mrs. 
Hicks have one child, Mabel Edna.) Mrs. Fifield is a Presbyterian in relig- 
ious connection. Mr. Fifield is an advocate of New Thought and a firm be- 
liever in the tenets of the creed. On public questions he is a Socialist, well 
informed on the doctrines of his party and hopeful of the triumph of its best 
principles. He is a member of the Odd Fellows lodge at Kelseyville and has 
passed all the chairs, while Mrs. Fifield belongs to the Rebekahs. 

LEONARD BARNARD. — Long identification with the pioneer stage 
systems of Mendocino county gave to Mr. Barnard the acquaintance of prac- 
tically every member of the then frontier settlements lying along the ocean 
or back in the midst of the redwood forests. From a small beginning he 
worked his way forward until he was operating lines in almost every part of 
Mendocino county as well as in a portion of Humboldt county and even now, 
although railroads have taken the place of the old stage-coach to a large 
degree and consequently his lines are not so extensive as formerly, he still 
has a system that covers a large amount of territory and keeps him in touch 
with the development and in warm friendship with the inhabitants of these 
districts. From his earliest recollections he has been familiar with this 
county. Maine is his native commonwealth and he was born at Augusta, Ken- 
nebec county, in 1859, but in 1871 at the age of twelve years he accompanied 
the family to California, his father, Ira Barnard, a carpenter by trade, making 
his home in Mendocino City for many years. As early as 1880 Leonard Bar- 
nard became interested in the stage-coach business. From his home town of 
Mendocino City he ran a line to Noyo and later extended it to Kibesillah, 
thence to Westport on the ocean and from there to Bear Harbor. Eventually 
he had the line put through to Scotia, Humboldt county, and thus brought 
isolated communities in touch with one another. At one time he was pro- 
prietor of a system from Mendocino City to Ukiah. For ten years before the 
railroad was built he also ran a stage from Fort Bragg to Willits and for a 
considerable period he has made Fort Bragg his home and business head- 

The operation of stage lines does not represent the limit of the energies 
of Mr. Barnard, who also is vice-president of the First National Bank and 
president of the First Bank of Savings in Fort Bragg. Politically he is one 
of the leading Republicans in the town. During a service of twelve years as 
trustee of Fort Bragg he was foremost in promoting projects for civic growth 
and for nine out of the twelve years he was retained as president of the board. 
In addition he has served as a supervisor of Mendocino county for eight years, 
being chairman of the board six years of that time. Fraternally he has iden- 
tified himself with Santa Rosa Lodge of Elks and has held office in the local 
lodges of Eagles and Red Men. By his marriage to Miss Lillian King, a native 
of Canada, he has one son, Harold, now engaged in stock-raising on his ranch 
on the Eel river. 



PROF. CHESTER D. FLOWERS.— The supervising principal of the 
Ukiah grammar schools was born in Alerrimack, Sauk county, Wis., in 1868, 
and is the son of James T. and Mary (Michael) Flov/ers, the former a native 
of Pawlet. Rutland county, Vt.. descended from a colonial family of New 
England, and the latter a native of Canada, descended from French ancestry. 
During the Civil war the father served for three and one-half years as a 
member of the Fourth ^^^isconsin Light Artillery, receiving an honorable 
discharge at the expiration of the struggle. Some years later he removed 
to Minnesota and settled at Adrian, Nobles county, where Chester D. received 
a grammar-school education. Afterward he attended the high school at 
Siou.x Falls, S. D., and in 1889 came to California, where he studied under 
Prof. B. F. Higgins at Mendocino City and also took the normal course at 
the Mendocino high school. Entering upon the profession of teaching as 
a life-work, he secured a position in the Mitchell creek school and v/as so 
successful in the management of the school that he was retained for four and 
one-half years, resigning eventually to take a higher position as principal 
of the Mendocino grammar school. Five years were spent at the head of 
that school, and efficiency in the position led to his appointment in 1904 as 
principal of the grammar school of Ukiah. 

It is in this position, the title of which has been changed to that of 
supervising principal, with similar changes in the regime of work, that 
Professor Flowers has achieved his highest success and made good to an 
extent attracting the attention of educators throughout this part of the state. 
The manual training department which he personally conducts is said to 
be unrivalled in efficiency. The scope of its influence is wide. Its power in 
training the young along lines suited to their special abilities is conceded to 
be great. Efficiency has marked his work as a teacher. The results testify 
concerning his ability in his chosen line of labor. To keep in touch with 
modern educational progress he is a student of pedagogical literature and a 
member of the California State Teachers' Association as well as the National 
Educational Association. In politics he has taken no interest aside from 
voting the Republican ticket at national elections. Horticulture, an occupa- 
tion for which the soil and climate of Mendocino county are well adapted, 
has interested him to such a degree that he has acquired and developed land, 
including twelve acres in pears two miles southeast of Ukiah and eight and 
one-half acres in a pear orchard located in the Waggenseller addition, both 
tracts in excellent condition with abundant promise of increased values with 
the development of the trees. At Ukiah, December 11, 1895, Professor 
Flowers married Miss Anna D. Stickney, who was born at Little River, 
Mendocino county, and is a daughter of Ruel and Ann T. (Coombs) Stickney, 
natives of Maine. The latter, now widowed, is making her home with Mrs. 
Flowers. As early as 1856, when a mere lad, Mr. Stickney made his first 
trip to California from Maine, to which state he later returned and there 
married, coming again to the west in 1862 accompanied by his young wife. 
For many years he engaged in cutting down timber at Little River, where 
he owned a sawmill for the making of lumber. Eventually he retired from 
active business cares and continued to make his home in Little River until 
his last illness. His death occurred at St. Helena in 1898, at the age of seventy- 


W. IVY ALLEN. — Lake county is properly named in honor of her 
abundant water supply, which includes many springs famous for medicinal 
waters as well as purity, and around a number of these have sprung up health 
resorts which have made this region celebrated throughout the state. Of 
special renown is the Highland Springs hotel and resort, which is open all 
the year round to health and pleasure seekers, and which in the complete- 
ness of its equipment meets the requirements of all tastes and ages and offers 
opportunities for quiet rest or varied recreation as guests desire. Within 
the present year, 1914, it has come under new management, the Aliens having 
taken charge March 1st, W. H. Allen as lessee and proprietor of the hotel 
and immense estate, with his son, W. Ivy Allen, as manager. The latter has 
also succeeded to the agency of the Wells-Fargo Express Company at this 
point and has been made postmaster at Highland Springs, in both of which 
positions he will be able to see that his patrons have the best of service, and 
his previous reputation as a business man is sufficient guarantee that his 
duties will be discharged satisfactorily to all concerned. The father is an 
experienced ranchman, so the large stock farm will be in good hands, and 
there is every prospect for the continued prosperity of the resort, which has 
had merited popularity for some years. 

The Aliens came to the coast from Rock Island, 111., in 1854, when W. H. 
Allen was a boy of ten years. He was born at Rock Island, and they drove 
from that point across the plains to Portland, Ore., with a bull team. The 
principal part of his active business career has been spent at San Jose. Santa 
Clara county. Cal., and he has been extensively interested in ranching, being 
well fitted to take charge of the twenty-three hundred acres included in the 
Highland Springs property. It is a fine stock farm, and dairying is carried 
on to some extent, all the dairy products used at the hotel being supplied from 
the cattle on the place. Air. Allen and his son took possession March 1, 1914, 
and have been busily engaged in familiarizing themselves with the numerous 
details necessary to its skillful management. W. H. Allen married Miss 
Annie Russell, who was born at San Jose, Cal., and they now make their 
home at the Highland Springs resort. Six children have been born to them : 
Florence is the wife of \\". E. Hart, who will be associated with his brother- 
in-law, W. Ivy Allen, in the management of the resort ; W. Ivy is mentioned 
below; Leslie R. is in the employ of the Cahfornia Fruit Canners' Associa- 
tion, being at present stationed at Honolulu; Zella is the wife of J. M. Mc- 
'".rath, of Stockton. Cal. ; Elmer and Evelyn are both at home. 

W. Ivy Allen was born December 6, 1885, and grew to manhood at San 
Jose, where he obtained a good practical education, attending public school 
and later completing a commercial course in the business college at that place. 
In his sixteenth year he began work, in May 1900, entering the employ of the 
California Fruit Canners' Association, in a humble capacity, washing cans. 
Remaining with his concern until he resigned, in October, 1913, to become 
associated with his father in their present enterprise, he rose steadily, being 
promoted on his own merits from time to time, and in the winter of 1911 the 
companv showed its confidence in his ability and trustworthiness b}' sending 
him over to Honolulu. Subsequently he became assistant superintendent, and 
was so engaged when he gave up the work to join his father, who had ar- 
ranged to take over the Highland Springs resort. With energy, executive 
ability and alert faculties, and a sympathetic understanding of the demands 


of his new work, he has an active and successful career before him. All the 
old attractions of the place will be maintained, and new features added which 
promise to be desirable, and there is no reason why the hotel and resort should 
not retain their large patronage under the liberal regime planned by Mr. Allen 
and his father. The resort itself is worthy of some description. 

The mineral waters of Highland Springs are noted for their curative prop- 
erties, and physicians of authority testify to their efficacy and usefulness, the 
Seltzer water especially being considered the most agreeable and useful alka- 
line water in the country. With this attraction as the nucleus, there has 
developed a most delightful resort, open all the year round, but particularly 
desirable in the summer season, being located in a beautiful valley among the 
picturesque mountain peaks of Lake county, where the exhilarating atmos- 
phere alone would be found beneficial to anyone. Being only a short distance 
north of San Francisco, it is within easy reach of a large population in this 
section of California, and though many come to enjoy the health-giving 
medicinal waters, as many or more are attracted by the sheer beauty of the 
place. Though the grounds around the hotel buildings are orderly and well- 
kept, they have been skillfully arranged to retain all the natural charm with- 
out any of the drawbacks of wild land, trees and shrubbery have been planted 
or left wherever their presence would enhance the effect, and wild flowers are 
still plentiful in this favored spot. The main hotel building is spacious, and 
the architect showed his appreciation of the surroundings in its exterior and 
interior arrangements ; its reception room is the finest in *any hotel of the 
kind in the state. The old hotel building is used as an annex, .\mong the 
numerous provisions made for the enjoyment of guests one of the most popu- 
lar is the large, modern, concrete bathing pool, with plenty of room to swim 
and dive in deep water, and a shallow part for those who merely wish to 
plunge or are learning to swim. The porcelain bath tubs are supplied with 
water from various springs, of medicinal value. On the grounds are facilities 
for those who indulge in tennis, crocjuet, billiards, bowling, shufifleboard, card 
playing, horseback riding and dancing, a variety which could hardlj' fail to 
please all tastes : and hunting, fishing and automobile excursions to the lakes 
and other points of interest in the vicinity are regular features of life at the 
resort. For those who prefer a restful time, there are shady nooks provided 
with hammocks which are comfortable even on the warmest days, and the 
beautiful groves which are the pride of the vast acreage surrounding the hotel 
of¥er seclusion and quiet at all hours. As a family resort it is particularly 
well liked as offering substantial comforts, especially for those who make pro- 
longed stays. A laundry on the grounds, with equipment for doing work 
expeditiously and scientifically, is an unusual feature and one which adds 
much to the convenience of patrons. The cuisine has always been noted for 
its excellence, and service may be had at any time during the day or evening 
in the grill room, an advantage which brings many automobile parties that 
way. Water from the Seltzer spring is served at table. 

This section is blessed in having good roads, laid out through beautiful 
stretches of scenery practically accessible only b}' automobile. Highland 
Springs is situated eighty-seven miles from Sausalito Ferry, the road travers- 
ing the entire length of the productive and picturesque Sonoma valley. At 
Pieta the traveler strikes a very gradual grade, over an unexcelled and well 


sprinkled mountain road, the most delightful part of the trip — twelve miles 
to the Springs. The rugged gorges and wooded canyons below, the view out 
over the Russian river valley, one of the most fertile regions in all California, 
on one side, and the mountain peaks on the other, combine to impress the 
beholder with the lavishness of nature's hand in this beautiful district and 
form a pleasing introduction to one of the most attractive country resorts 
on the Pacific slope. 

ERNEST LEE WILLIAMS.— Although not of Californian birth, the pro- 
prietor of the Hopland meat market belongs to a pioneer family of the state 
and represents the third generation of the name identified with the common- 
wealth. His father, John S., whose birth occurred at old Sonoma in 1848, had 
the distinction of being the first white child born in Sonoma county. At the 
age of two years he was orphaned by the death of his father and subsequently 
his mother became the wife of Lindsay Carson, a brother of Kit Carson, the 
noted scout. Remaining with his mother and stepfather in California until 
he had reached man's estate, he then went back to the home of relatives in 
Missouri and took up farm pursuits in Monroe count)^, where he married 
Miss Ella Boone, a niece of the great frontiersman and Indian fighter, Daniel 
Boone. Eleven children were born of their marriage and of these the fourth, 
Ernest Lee, was born on the home farm near Paris, Monroe county. Mo., Jan- 
uary 13, 1876. The father in 1882 brought wife and children to California and 
shortly afterward settled on a farm in the Sanel valley, Mendocino county. 
Eventually he refired from agricultural labors. .A.t this writing he is engaged 
as janitor of the Healdsburg high school. 

At the time of the arrival of the family in Mendocino county Ernest Lee 
Williams was a child of six years. Hence his schooling was obtained wholly 
in the schools of this county and his agricultural education was also the result 
of practical training on the home farm here. April 15. 1906. he entered the 
meat market of Eugene Girard as a clerk. The business later was bought by 
^Ir. Barker, from whom in the fall of 1908 Mr. ^^Mlliams acquired its interests. 
During 1913 he moved to his present place of business at Hopland, where he 
has large refrigerator capacity and a cold-storage plant of one ton capacity. 
It is said that his slaughter house is the finest and best equipped in the entire 
county. It has been his aim to secure the finest quality of meat and to sell 
the same at prices as reasonable as the scarcity of good stock will permit. 
Besides owning and operating the market he owns a ranch of twenty-four 
acres near Hopland and of the tract he has planted twelve acres in Bartlett 
pears, with the intention of developing a profitable fruit farm out of the invest- 
ment. In politics he is stanchly Republican. At one time he served as deputy 
county assessor under M. A. Thomas, By his marriage in Santa Rosa to 
Mayme Ward, a native of Hermitage, Mendocino county, he has two sons, 
.A.lvin and James. As might be expected of one allied with such families as 
the Carsons and the Boones, he is devoted to the welfare of the country, thor- 
oughly patriotic in sentiment and willing to aid in any practicable manner all 
enterprises for the general upbuilding. Having been a resident of Mendocino 
county throughout the greater part of his life, he has seen its development from 
an unimproved tract of valley and forest land into a community of citizens 
prosperous, substantial and progressive, with growing opportunities for men 
of character and efificiencv. 


FREDERICK G. STOKES.— Located along Kelsey creek, in the South 

Kelseyville precinct of Lake county, is the thriftily kept ranch of Frederick G. 
Stokes, whose systematic industry and thorough cultivation are increasing 
its value yearly. Mr. Stokes is an Englishman by birth, but Lake county 
has no more public-spirited or loyal citizen, for he believes firmly in her pos- 
sibilities and is working untiringly to make the most of his own property. He 
has become specially interested in horticulture, in which he has not only 
had much practical experience but has studied faithfully to familiarize himself 
with the best ideas and methods of modern growers. 

Born in Cambridgeshire July 12, 1870, Mr. Stokes spent his early years 
in his native land. When a young man he served a year as accountant at 
Birmingham, and spent another year at sea, making a trip to the East Indies. 
In 1888 he came to California, where he had a friend in Dr. Wrightson, the 
analytical chemist, who was located at Napa. .\t the time of his arrival he 
had but $10 left, and he went to work in Sonoma county cutting cordwood, 
the first occupation which offered. He had to take a contract to cut twenty-five 
cords in order to secure the job, and as he was unused to that kind of labor 
it was a somewhat trying experience, but he carried it through, and for sorrte 
time afterward did any kind of work he could find in order to keep employed. 
Finally he rented a vineyard of fwenty-five acres, with which he did fairly 
well for four years. Then he took a trip back to England, and his father, 
who was an auctioneer, horseman and farmer, offered him a partnership. But 
he had already learned to love his adopted state, and he returned. Three years 
later he again made a visit to England, and on coming back took charge of 
the ranch of P. H. Atkinson, in Sonoma county, continuing three years in that 
capacity. At the end of that period he rented the Atkinson ranch for two years, 
until his removal to Lake county some sixteen years ago, and for seven years 
had contracts to work vineyards in Sonoma county for A. B. Carey. Though 
his means were limited he bought one hundred acres of the property he now 
owns and operates, and commenced its development, and at the end of five 
years he had fifteen acres in Bartlett pears. Subsequently he bought eighty 
acres more, adjoining his first purchase, and though he had to go heavily in 
debt for his land he has managed to carry on its improvement systematically 
from year to year, and most of it is under excellent cultivation. Mr. Stokes 
has devoted himself largely to the raising of pears, prunes and grapes, giving 
particular attention to horticulture in his agricultural operations. Besides the 
fifteen acres of Bartlett pears on his own place, he rents ten acres more 
planted to the same fruit, and planted out and has charge of twenty-five acres 
of vineyard. In 1910 Mr. Stokes took the examination for horticultural com- 
missioner in Lake county and passed, but lost the appointment to the position 
b)^ one vote and is again a candidate for the appointment. 

By his first marriage Mr. Stokes had one child, which is deceased. His 
second marriage was to ^Irs. .\gnes Olson, a native of Sweden, who came to 
.America when twelve years old. Her first husband. Captain Olson, was a 
sea captain, well known at the bay ports, and he died in Lake county, whither 
he had come in the hope of benefiting his health. Two children were born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Olson, Leonard and Helen, both of whom live with Mr. and 
Mrs. Stokes, to whose union no children have been born. Mrs. Stokes is a 
model cook and housekeeper, and their home is beautifully well kept and neat 
under her capable management. Mr. Stokes is modest of his achievements, 


but his worth is generally recognized among his fellow citizens, and the con- 
dition of his fine property, which is on the Mill road south of Kelseyville 
mill, is sufficient testimony of his industry and intelligent labors. His wife 
owns a small property also. 

So thoroughly does Mr. Stokes believe in California that he has induced a 
number of his family to settle here. His father, Frederick Stokes, lived and died 
in England. He was a stockman, farmer and auctioneer, and at one time agent 
tor the Duke of Newcastle. His first marriage w^as to Ellen Cox, a native of 
England, who died in that country leaving two children, Frederick G. and 
Mary, the latter the wife of John W. Hodgekinson, a poultry raiser, of Santa 
Rosa, Cal. By his second union, with Sarah Cox, he had a family of six 
and after his death the widow with other members of the family came to the 
Lake county ranch, where the latch string is always out. The children were 
named as follows : Bert, who died in Lake county, Cal. ; Charles, now en- 
gaged as bookkeeper for Folger & Co., in San Francisco ; Sydney, who took 
an auto and mechanics' course at Heald's, but follows farming and for 
several years has owned and operated a hay baler; Janet, a stenographer at 
Santa Rosa; Ethel, a trained nurse of Santa Rosa; and I\Iay, also a trained 
nurse, now the wife of Dr. Dwire of Los Angeles. 

MOSES C. BRIGGS.— The discovery of gold gave definiteness to the 
iialf-formulated plans of a young Missourian, who as a nephew of Kit Carson 
possessed many of the qualities that gave success to that noted scout and 
whose previous life, flowing in the monotonous channel of farm routine, had 
given him no opportunity to gratify his love of adventure and his desire to see 
the world. Howard county in Missouri was his native locality and September 
24, 1827, the date of his birth. In such an environment during the first half 
of the nineteenth century there were no educational advantages. Schools 
were few and widely separated. On lonely, undeveloped claims the frontiers- 
men labored to provide the necessities of existence for the family. Game was 
plentiful and the lad became skilled in the use of a rifle. Nor was he less 
useful in the care of stock and the tilling of the soil. At the age of twenty-two 
he left the old Missouri home. Thenceforward he was identified with the 
development of Northern California. On the 15th of October, 1850, he ar- 
rived in Sonoma county. Capable, robust and resolute, he had no difficulty 
in finding employment and until the spring of 1852 he remained in the employ 
of Captain Mallagh as superintendent of the Santa Rosa ranch. 

It was during a tour of inspection, in search of pasturage for large herds 
of cattle, that Moses Briggs and William Potter discovered Potter valley in 
1852. As they halted their hoi"ses and looked down upon the beautiful but 
unoccupied spot at their feet, doubtless their feelings to a certain extent 
resembled those of Balboa who some three and one-half centuries before, 
from his vantage ground on the Isthmus of Darien, caught the first glimpse 
of the great Pacific ocean. l\Iuch as he was pleased with the valley, however. 
Mr. Briggs did not find it convenient to settle here at once and it was not until 
he had spent five years on the Fitch grant near Healdsburg that in 1857 he 
became a farmer in the region where Mr. Potter had preceded him. In 1859 
he moved to L'kiah, put up a livery barn, began to operate a stable and con- 
tinued in the business until 1861. Returning to the ranch in the valley, he 
resumed agricultural pursuits. However, in 1865 he again established a home 


in Ukiah, built another livery barn and resumed business. In 1867 he went 
back to the ranch, where he specialized in sheep-raising and the sale of wool 
until 1870. Until his death, which occurred in 1892, he continued to reside 
in the valley, where he was honored as a forceful pioneer, prominent Mason, 
generous citizen and capable farmer. In this same valley, honored by all, 
still lives his widow, formerly ]\Iiss Elizabeth Potter of Missouri, a sister of 
the discoverer of the valley, and also a pioneer of California, crossing the plains 
with her parents in 1845, a woman possessing the substantial qualities neces- 
sary to frontier existence. She became the wife of Mr. Briggs August 18, 
1852, and in all the hardships incident to life in a then undeveloped region 
she proved his helpful counselor and capable assistant, ministering to his 
comfort with whole-souled devotion, and wisely rearing her children, Nancy 
(Mrs. Boulon), Jennie J. (now Mrs. Matthews), Belle G. (now Mrs. Elston), 
Charles S. and Moses C. The splendid qualities that gave value to the citizen- 
ship of the pioneer members of the Potter and Briggs families appear in the 
present generation and form an endowment even more desirable than the 
broad acres of this charming valley. 

WILLIAM POTTER.— Nomenclature appeals to the student of history 
with peculiar force when it gives permanence to the identification of pioneer 
or prominent citizen with any community. Potter valley is of interest not 
only because it is the abode of a prosperous agricultural population, but also 
by reason of the name recalling the identification therewith and discovery 
thereof by William Potter, a California pioneer of 1845 and a native of Mis- 
souri. Little is known concerning the early life of this adventurous frontiers- 
man. It is evident, however, that the environment of his boyhood was such 
as to develop his inherent qualities of energy, fearlessness, endurance in priva- 
tion and patience in hardships. In all probability the long journey across the 
plains with his parents proved less arduous to him than to them, for to an 
eager youth, sturdy of limb and stout of body, such a trip would prove a con- 
stant voyage of discovery. Nor did his adventures cease with the arrival of 
the family in the Sacramento valley, where his father took up land near the 
present site of Chico. The old homestead later was embraced in the famous 
Bidwell ranch. At the expiration of two years he left that place and settled 
at Healdsburg, Sonoma county, where he remained for three years. 

Accompanied by Moses Briggs, a frontiersman of like tastes and love of 
adventure, William Potter traveled through northwestern California during 
1852. On one of the mountain tops that overlook Potter valley from the east, 
they halted their horses and gazed down upon the vale below that was green 
with the promise of spring. The charming bit of nature at their feet aroused 
their keenest pleasure. With the bold spirit of frontiersmen they determined 
to graze their cattle in the valley and make it their home. Thus for a time 
at least they were masters of the valley and all it contained. Although Mr. 
Potter did not die here (for he was visiting in Texas at the time of his death) 
his later years were intimately associated with the agricultural development 
of the region and he never ceased to cherish a warm affection for the beau- 
tiful little valley of his discovery. Soon after he came into the locality there 
followed him his two brothers, James and Thomas, also a cousin, Abner, and 
four sisters, namely : Ruth Ann, Mrs. Samuel Chase, now deceased ; Rebecca, 
Mrs. Gordon, deceased ; Elizabeth, the widow of Moses Briggs ; and Mary 
Jane. The entire familj^ became vital factors in the local upbuilding and 


joined with their relative, the original discoverer, in developing its large 
resources and laying the foundation of its present prosperity as an agricul- 
tural and horticultural center. 

ADOLPHUS MENDENHALL.— Close to Upper Lake village, on the 
west, lies a fertile tract whose principal product, string beans, together with 
the work of its preservation, might well be the subject of one of the most 
interesting chapters in the development of either agricultural or industrial 
possibilities in Lake county. It is unlikely that there is another tract of 
similar extent in the county equally productive, for intensive farming in one 
particular line has been most successfully attempted there, and the story of 
Adolphus Mendenhall's prosperous venture is typical of the modern applica- 
tion of scientific knowledge to the furtherance of commercial projects. The 
days are passed when the student had no place in the world of practical 
things. The thinker and the worker have combined their resources with the 
happiest results in an undertaking of this sort, where scientific agriculture 
and scientific business have united in the building up of an establishment 
which has aided in the prosperity of hundreds. The Clear Lake brand of 
canned string beans holds its own in the market today. 

It was Henry Wombold, a market gardener, located at Laurel Dell (Blue 
Lake), in Lake county, some twenty-five years ago, who discovered the 
adaptability of the soil and climate of the Upper Lake country to the growing 
of a very superior quality of string beans, which produced profusely with 
proper care. But it was left to Mr. Mendenhall to make a success out of 
this knowledge from a commercial standpoint, and he not only brought the 
production of the vegetable up to its greatest possibilities, but also found 
that the canning could be done with special advantage right at the source 
of supply — and put his ideas into practice. The result is that he is the owner 
of what is generally considered the most remunerative industry in the county. 
His plant, known as the Clear Lake Cannery, requires as many as four hun- 
dred and fifty people for its operation during the busy season. Its importance 
in relation to the general prosperity of the community may be reckoned from 
that fact alone. Some account of the man who is at its head will be interest- 
ing. Mr. Alendenhall belongs to an old Lake county family of German 
extraction, whose members have been settled in this country, however, for 
several generations. Samuel and Amy Lee (Stevens) Mendenhall, grand- 
parents of Adolphus Mendenhall, were natives of North Carolina, in which 
Jtate they were married. They were farming people, and for a number of 
years lived in Indiana, whence they moved westward to Iowa in the early 
'50s. The mother died there. In the year 1864 the family moved from Iowa 
to Idaho, where they lived for nearly five years, in 1869 coming to California 
and first making a settlement in Contra Costa county. Within a couple of 
years, however, in 1871, they changed their location to Lake county, making 
a permanent home here. The grandfather died in Lake county in his eighty- 
ninth year. The family consisted of eleven children: Aaron, Elijah. Isaac, 
Annis, Henley, Cerelda, Joseph, John, Sylvia, Nelson and Jacob Lowell. 

Joseph Mendenhall, son of Samuel Mendenhall, was born September 9, 
1837, in Greene county, Ind., where he lived until fifteen years old. He then 
went with the family to Iowa, subsequently moving to Idaho and California, 
as already related. When they arrived in Lake county, in 1871, he settled 
•Tlong Scotts creek in Scotts valley, in the Bachelor ^'alley precinct, home- 

^. 4k^o/^^^i^. 


steading a tract of eighty acres, and his father pre-empted another eighty 
acres, which Joseph bought from him later. This property is eight miles 
west of Upper Lake. He and his wife still live there. Mr. Mendenhall was 
married in Iowa, in 1858, to Miss America Phillips, a native of Des Moines, 
(laughter of James Phillips, and they became the parents of ten children, two 
dying in childhood, when eight and ten years old, respectively. The others 
are: Adolphus ; Arvilla L., Mrs. A. L. Harris, of Cloverdale, Sonoma county; 
Olive I., Mrs. George Meadow, living in Scotts valley ; Alexander, a farmer 
in Siskiyou county, this state ; Bert, who lives at home and takes care of the 
f)roperty of his parents ; Sarah Jane, wife of Miner Eaton, of Mendocino 
county ; Nina, wife of Harry Rhodes, living in Arizona, and Maude, wife of 
Lou Mann, living at Saratoga Springs, Cal. A fuller account of this family 
appears elsewhere. 

Adolphus Mendenhall was born in Iowa, near Des Moines, September 
12, 1859, and was a boy of only twelve when the family settled in Lake county. 
His educational advantages were such as the public schools aflford. When 
a youth he began to do farm work, to which he had been trained from child- 
hood, helping around home, arid after his marriage he began on his own 
account, at Fresno for two years, then returned to Bachelor valley, where 
he was located for ten years. However, he did not invest in any land until 
he purchased his present place in Lake county, about 1893. His holdings 
at present consist of one hundred and sixty-seven and a half acres, all adjoin- 
ing Upper Lake on the west, and comprising three dififerent ranches. He 
first purchased the D. V. Thompson place and forty acres from the McClure 
estate, to which he added the Dr. Woodard place, and all the land is of the 
best quality for his purpose. One hundred and thirty acres are entirely 
devoted to the raising of the celebrated White Creaseback string beans, a 
bush variety which Mr. Mendenhall had found especially fine for canning 
purposes. He was the first man to make the raising and canning of this 
variety profitable, and the first to make a demonstration on so large a scale 
of the suitability of the soil hereabouts to its culture. The cannery which he 
has established is taxed to the limit of its capacity during the height of the 
season, and Mr. Mendenhall is making preparations to enlarge it so as to 
increase the output thirty to fifty per cent. The gross annual receipts from 
the business run between $80,000 and $90,000 at present, and have been 
showing steady expansion from the start. AJjout thirty thousand two-dozen 
cases of No. 2 cans (about two pounds each) and about four thousand one- 
dozen cases of No. 8 cans (about six and two-thirds pounds each) are put 
up each year. The growth of the business is a credit to Mr. Mendenhall's 
ability in both the agricultural and the commercial lines, for its proper con- 
duct requires expert knowledge in both and executive faculties of the most 
reliable order. His plant is considered a valuable contribution to Lake 
county's interests. 

Equally entitled to credit for the success of this industry and its bearing 
on the upbuilding and developing of Lake county's natural resources is Mrs 
Mendenhall, who from the first has shared with him the responsibilities and 
trials of the early years of their doubts and fears, for it has not been accom- 
plished without strenuous effort on their part. It was many seasons before 
tliey felt that they could breathe easy, as the saying is. This is the seven- 
teenth season, their first regular pack having occurred in 1897, although in 


1896 they put up samples, the preparation of which was accomplished on the 
kitchen stove, and was a successful demonstration. The outside work having 
to be superintended by Mr. Mendenhall, it has devolved upon Mrs. Menden- 
hall to act as secretary of the establishment, thus making it necessary for 
her to give her attention to the books and correspondence of the concern. 
The product of the cannery is now shipped into various parts of the western 
states, and also to far-away Alaska. Both being indefatigable workers, it is 
not to be wondered at that the result has been satisfactory and more than 
fulfilled their most sanguine expectations. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mendenhall improved their property with regard to appear- 
ance as much as from the economic standpoint, showing themselves thor- 
oughly in sympathy with the modern idea that neatness and thrift must go 
hand in hand. Recently a very fine country residence has been built, two 
stories high and very commodious, and the family enjoy all the comforts of 
a well appointed home. Mr. Mendenhall's time is practically engrossed with 
business affairs, and his activity in politics is limited to voting, in support 
of the Democratic party. He is an Odd Fellow in fraternal connection, be- 
longing to Upper Lake Lodge No. 241. 

Mr. Mendenhall was married in Bachelor valley, September 18, 1881, to 
Miss Lottie Huner, who was born in Lewis county. Mo., the daughter of 
James and Lucy (Cox) Huner, natives of Missouri and Illinois, respectively. 
The father, who was a farmer, died in Missouri. In 1864 the mother came 
to California with their only child, Lottie, and in 1869 came to Lake county, 
the daughter receiving her education in the schools of Bachelor valley. Mr. 
and Mrs. Mendenhall have one child, Eva M., the wife of Charles A. Sanborn 
and the mother of two sons. Elwell A. and Carrol M., who are the pride of 
the home. 

JAMES A. HARRIS. — Coming to California shortly after the close of 
the Civil war, primarily with the object of restoring his health, which had 
become impaired during his service in that conflict, Mr. Harris has been a 
resident of the Lower Lake precinct, in Lake county, continuously since — a 
period of almost fifty years. To the eighty-acre tract which he bought soon 
after his arrival he has added steadily until his holdings now aggregate four 
hundred and eighty acres, nicely improved, advantageously situated on the 
Middletown road, and beautiful with the evidence of his unremitting atten- 
tion in its cultivation and upkeep. All the details of the property are looked 
after with the thoroughness and system characteristic of Mr. Harris. A 
native of Pennsylvania, and descended from two families whose history has 
been intimateh^ connected with progress in the western part of that state, he 
is a typical representative of the stock whence he springs, and some record 
of whose activity will be found interesting. 

James Harris, his father, lived for a number of years at Harrisville, a 
town in Butler county. Pa., some fifty miles northwest of Pittsburg, and had 
extensive interests in the town and surrounding country. He was a merchant 
at Harrisville, owned two farms adjoining that place, and was also engaged 
in smelting ore and in the manufacture of pig iron, having two furnaces 
twelve miles north of town. In 1852 he moved west, settling near Keokuk, 
Lee county, Iowa, where he engaged in farming for three years. He then 
moved to Grinnell, Iowa, where, after a few years spent on a farm, he engaged 
in the drug business, which he continued until the time of his death, which 


occurred when he was sixty-eight years old. He had married Miss Mary 
A. McKee, daughter of Judge McKee, of Venango county, Pa., and as the 
Harrises were the leading people at Harrisville, so the McKees were promi- 
nent in the vicinity of McKeesport, which was named for the family. Mrs. 
Harris lived to her eighty-ninth year. She and her husband were the parents 
of ten children, of whom we have the following record: Ephraim H., who is 
now deceased, was a physician and lived at Grinnell, Iowa ; Thomas McKee 
came to California and settled in Lake county, where he lived and died, be- 
coming quite prominent as a hotel man and farmer; Susan, who is deceased, 
became the wife of Henry Hill, a farmer of Poweshiek county, Iowa; Samuel 
E., who lives at Denver, Colo., was engaged during his active years as a 
carpenter and building contractor ; Jane A. became the wife of Rev. Compton, 
a Presbyterian minister, and died near Sacramento, Cal. ; Sarah, who now 
lives at Lewis, Iowa, is the widow of Theodore Worthington, who was a 
wagonmaker at Grinnell, Iowa ; James A. is mentioned below ; William J. is 
a banker at Lewis, Iowa ; Joanna H., who lives at Grinnell, is the widow of 
Hiram Haynes, a lawyer; Mrs. Mary V. Keegy lives at Grinnell. 

James A. Harris was born October 30, 1839, and his birthplace was 
Harrisville, the town named in honor of his paternal ancestors. He was about 
twelve years old when he went west with his parents to Iowa, where he grew 
up, and he attended the common schools in both Pennsylvania and his new 
home. He also had the privilege of a year's attendance at Grinnell College. 
His school days over, Mr. Harris engaged in the dairy business, continuing 
that in connection with other agricultural work until the Civil war came on. 
He had married meantime, nevertheless he offered his services to his country 
August 15, 1862, enlisting at Montezuma. Iowa, in Company B, Fortieth 
Regiment, Iowa Volunteer Infantry. He was mustered in at Iowa City, and 
under the leadership of General Grant saw service throughout the Vicksburg 
campaign. He was next at Little Rock, in the Camden campaign under 
General Steele, participating in the Battle of Jenkins Ferry, and fought with 
the Army of the Southwest in the Trans-Mississippi Department, seeing con- 
siderable hard service. Having suiTered from fever, his health was broken 
during his army life, but he remained in the service until after the end of the 
war, receiving an honorable discharge and being mustered out August 2, 186.5, 
at Fort Gibson, Cherokee Nation (now Oklahoma). 

Returning to his home in Iowa and finding his health did not improve 
s.itisfactorily, Mr, Harris resolved to try a residence in California, and he 
made the journey west in 1866, bringing his family by way of New York and 
Panama to San Francisco, where they landed about the 1st of November. 
Thence they proceeded immediately to Lower Lake, Lake county, where his 
brother, Thomas ^ilcKee Harris, was then running a hotel, and not long 
afterward, in 1867, Mr. Harris made his first purchase of land, the eighty 
acres which has become the nucleus of a very fine ranch. During the forty- 
eight years and more which have passed since, he has increased and improved 
his possessions as prosperity enabled him, until now he has four hundred and 
eighty acres, principally planted in hay and grain, and also valuable for stock 
raising purposes, Mr. Harris at present having thirty head of cattle, thirty 
hogs and one hundred and fifty chickens, besides nine fine horses. His com- 
fortable home, well cared for orchard, substantial fences and other well chosen 
improvements, combine to make the place highly desirable, a credit to the 


neighborhood as well as to the man who has accomplished its development. 
Mr. Harris devotes all his time to his agricultural interests, nevertheless he 
is an ardent Progressive in his political views, and he has long been a Grand 
Army man, having just cause to feel proud of his fine war record. 

Mr. Harris was married at Deep River, Poweshiek county, Iowa, a few- 
months before his enlistment, to Miss Louisa Parker, a native of the state of 
Ohio, whose parents, T. J. and Catherine (Trout) Parker, were married in 
Ohio, where Mrs. Parker was also born. I\Ir. and Mrs. Parker lived at Deep 
River. Mrs. Harris died in 1873 in Lake county, Cal., in her thirty-first year, 
leaving three children, namely : Eugene, who lives at Kennett, Shasta county, 
Cal., where he is engaged in mining and also conducts a lodging house ; Erwin 
J., also a miner at Kennett, Shasta county ; and Katie M. is the wife of Dr. 
James Ciley, a dentist, of Colusa county, and they have two children. By his 
second marriage, to Miss Lina C. Powell, who was born at San Rafael, Cal., 
and died in 1881, Mr. Harris also has three children: Ralph A., who assists 
his father in the management of the home place ; Carl N., who is also assisting 
his father; and Martha L., who is married to Charles Shreve and has two 
children (Mr. Shreve is employed bv the Transfer Company at Los Gatos, 

HOWARD B. SMITH.— During the residence of his family at Point 
Arena, Mendocino county, Howard B. Smith was born March 8, 1865. The 
son of sturdy pioneers, staunch patriots and energetic workers, he was reared 
in an environment conducive only to thrift and progress. As a boy he at- 
tended grammar school in Ukiah and aided in the cultivation of the home farm, 
which was situated about one mile southeast of the city of Ukiah. He fol- 
lowed farming and teaming up to March 1, 1888, when he entered the assessor's 
office and acted as deputy assessor until August 11, 1888, when 
he became associated with C. H. Duncan in the business of abstracting and 
searching of land titles. On October 1, 1889, Mr. Duncan sold his interest in 
the abstract business to R. E. Donohoe and the firm name was then changed 
to Smith & Donohoe. In 1892 Messrs. Smith & Donohoe purchased the plant 
known as the Mendocino County Abstract Bureau from Peery & Barnett and 
consolidated the two plants. In 1900 P. ^^^ Handy became a third owner 
with Messrs. Smith and Donohoe and the entire abstract plant was incor- 
porated under the name of Smith, Donohoe & Co., proprietors of the Mendo- 
cmo County Abstract Bureau. In December, 1905, Messrs. Smith & Handy 
purchased the interest of Mr. Donohoe in the business and were sole pro- 
prietors until March 1, 1906, when they disposed of all their interest in the 
abstract plant to George P. Anderson. During the year 1906 Mr. Smith gave 
his attention to the winding up of the estate of his brother, Henry Smith, 
who had been killed in December, 1905. while in the performance of his 
duties as sheriff. 

On January 1, 1907, Mr. Smith accepted the position of under sheriff under 
his old partner, Mr. Donohoe, who in the meantime had been elected sheriff 
ot Mendocino county. After the expiration of his term as under sheriff' Mr. 
Smith again became associated with Mr. Donohoe, they establishing the 
Smith & Donohoe Realty Company, for the transaction of a general real estate 
and surveying business. On February 1, 1914, Mr. Smith accepted the cash- 
iership of the Commercial Bank of Ukiah, and as Mr. Donohoe's time was 



so much taken up with the duties of surveying the Smith & Donohoe 
Realty Company was dissolved by mutual consent. 

Mr. Smith has served the city of Ukiah continuously since April, 1906, 
as city trustee and is now a candidate without opposition for his third term, 
(jtherwise he would never allow his name to go before the people as a Candi- 
date for public ofifice. During the last eight years he has witnessed great 
strides in the public improvements of Ukiah, among them the covering of 
the business streets with standard pavements, the building of the new city 
hall at a cost of $10,000, and the Carnegie library, at $8,000. With C. M. 
Mannon he was interested in the erection of the public auditorium on State 
street, known as the Victory Theater, which is a fireproof building with a 
seating capacity of one thousand. One of the largest and finest opera houses 
on the coast north of San Francisco, it was built at a cost of $25,000 and is an 
nrtistic and substantial addition to the architectural beauty of the city. Mr. 
Smith is a horse enthusiast and as such has brought into and raised some of 
the best standard-bred horses in Mendocino county. In partnership with 
others he owns the Ukiah Park grounds, upon which is situated what is said 
to be the best half mile track in California, and over which many contests 
of speed have been displayed in the past. 

Mr. Smith was married in Ukiah April 11, 1894, to Miss Mabel Ames, a 
native of Ukiah, where she was reared. She is an accomplished musician, 
having devoted many years to teaching the piano, and shares with her hus- 
band the friendship of many associates. Mr. Smith was made a Mason in 
Abell Lodge No. 146, F. & A. M., of which he is past master, and is also 
a member of Ukiah Chapter No. 53, R. A. M., and Ukiah Commandery No. 33: 
K. T., of which he is past Eminent Commander. In San Francisco he holds 
membership in Islam Temple, N. M. S., and with his wife is a member of 
Casimir Chapter No. 252, O. E. S., both being past officers of the order. In the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows Mr. Smith is past noble of Ukiah Lodge 
No. 174. All of the interests of a lifetime of activity center in Mendocino 
county with Mr. Smith, who cherishes a deep affection for the region of his 
!>irth and the home of his boyhood. All of his life has been passed almost 
within sound of the sea and within the shadow of the great mountains of the 
west. At Ukiah, where his parents were the first settlers, he has been con- 
lent to remain without desire to follow the allurements of localities less dear 
to him. In common with practically all of the men who have been lifelong 
residents of the county he maintains a deep and unceasing interest in move- 
ments for the public welfare and contributes of his time and influence toward 
such measures. 

JAMES ALEXANDER GUNN. — By birth an Englishman, by destiny an 
American and by choice a Californian, Mr. Gunn came to Lake county in 
1880 without money or friends and with a family dependent upon his efforts 
for their support. Out of the hardships of those early years he has risen to 
prosperity and prominence and is now a leading business man of Kelseyville 
as well as justice of the peace and promoter of religious and temperance 
movements. Possessing natural ability as a mechanic, in early life he learned 
several trades and these came to his relief in days of financial loss. After 
coming to Kelseyville, when he was disabled by a very severe injury and 
reduced to abject poverty, his rigid honesty still remained and his determina- 
tion to conquer adverse circumstances knew no defeat. Taking up the man- 


ufacture of furniture and organs in Kelseyville, he soon acquired a saw- 
mill and ultimately built up a business that is especially interesting as the 
very first manufacturing plant for furniture and organs in the county. For- 
tune smiled on him and ultimately he became well-to-do, while his sons are 
following him in the attainment of success and the exercise of wise business 

In London, England, August 26, 1841, James Alexander Gunn was born 
m the home of John Hugh and JNIargaret (CameronJ Gunn, natives respectively 
of Edinburgh and Inverness, Scotland. The father, a wine merchant of great 
prominence, was supposed to be wealthy, but at his death in 1848 it was 
ascertained that he had become heavily involved and left little or no property. 
This changed the future of the family. There were four children, of whom 
James Alexander is the sole survivor. His mother died in London at the 
age of eighty-four. When he was ten he was put to work in the office of a 
London physician and later earned a livelihood in other ways. .\t the age 
of sixteen he was apprenticed to the trades of cabinet-maker and undertaker 
and served for five years, meanwhile working twelve hours a day and learning 
the trades thoroughly. Later he was variously employed in a piano factory 
and a pipe-organ factory, then for three years was employed as a ship joiner. 
Meanwhile, March 20, 1864, he married Miss Emma LTnderwood, of London. 
When they came to America in 1869 they had two children. For a year Mr. 
Gunn was employed as foreman of a reed-organ factory at Woodstock, On- 
tario, and the firm then became Karn, Gunn & Staebler. Out of that developed 
the Karn Organ & Piano Company, one of the largest organ and piano manu- 
facturing companies in Canada. 

Although already on the road to independence ^Ir. Gunn decided to 
leave Canada for California on account of the ill health of his wife. Arriving 
in San Francisco in 1876, he settled in Oakland and found employment in a 
pipe-organ manufacturing business. For three and one-half years he remained 
m that position. ?ileanwhile he had lost all of his money through buying 
stocks in mining concerns. It became necessary to start anew and he then 
came to Lake county in 1880 and bought a claim on which to establish a home. 
In order to earn a livelihood for his family he began to tune pianos and organs 
in Big valley, .\bout that time his leg was broken by the kick of a mule. 
He was brought to Kelseyville for medical attention, but was forced to wait 
thirty-six hours for the return of the only doctor, who had been called away 
from town. Recovery was slow. Discouragements were many, for he was 
an utter stranger to the people and had only $30 in his possession. However, 
with his restoration to strength there came a turn in the tide of misfortune. 
The establishment of a planing mill and the manufacture of furniture and 
organs gave him a new start in the business world, where he prospered to a 
gratifying degree. In 1887 he established a general mercantile store in 
Kelseyville. which is now managed by his eldest son, James A., Jr. For 
sixteen years or more he has served as township justice of the peace. During 
the last legislature a request was made to ascertain the amount of fees paid 
to justices. The supervisors of Lake county telephoned to him inquiring as 
to the amount of his fees. This caused him to look over old records and in 
so doing he ascertained that there were several times more criminal business 
brought to court when there were saloons as in the times when the district is 




The Gunn family are of the Presbyterian faith and ^Ir. Gunn officiates as 
treasurer and trustee of the congregation at Kelseyville. In politics he is a 
Republican of the progressive type. Fraternally he was made a Mason in 
Oxford Lodge, Woodstock, Ontario, but now belongs to Hartley Lodge No. 
117, F. & A. M., in Lakeport. Ofhis family of seven children the eldest, 
Emma, and the youngest, Joseph, died in infancy. James A. Jr., married Miss 
Molander and has two children, Helen R., and James Alexander, the third 
of that name. Emily is the wife of William Fultz, of San Rafael. Francis 
George is a physician practicing at Willits. Arthur John married Viola Irwin 
and has two children, Clayton and Muriel ; they reside at Kelseyville. Eliza- 
beth is the wife of Dr. C. H. Walworth, of Oakland, and the mother of two 
children, Charlotte and Josephine. 

PETER TRIBBLE BOONE.— The county treasurer of Lake county is a 
member of an historic colonial family of America that had representatives 
among the planters of Virginia during the eighteenth century. In a collateral 
line he is a descendant of Daniel Boone, the famous scout, whose love of the 
forests and the frontier led him across the mountains from Virginia to Ken- 
tucky. Less noted but not less valiant than he was his brother. Squire Boone, 
likewise long identified with the Blue Grass state, and whose son, William, 
a Kentuckian of considerable prominence, was the father of Nestor W. 
Boone and the grandfather of P. T. Boone. The history of Daniel Boone is 
familiar to every boy scout who loves the woods and streams far from the 
haunts of men, who prides himself on expert marksmanship and who de- 
lights in fishing and hunting with all a sportsman's joy. His early settle- 
ment in Kentucky, then inhabited only by Indians, made him one of the 
founders of that state ; yet dear as it was to him, with the incoming of settlers 
and the diminishing opportunity for hunting he found his soul yearning for 
the solitude of nature. Therefore he was impelled to make yet another 
move and his last days were passed in Missouri, where he died in Warren 
county. Under the authority of the Kentucky state legislature his nephew, 
William, went to Missouri and from Warren county conveyed the remains 
of the great scout back to Kentucky, where the body was buried in state at 
Frankfort. Thus did Kentucky render a last tribute of honor to one of her 
greatest men. Mr. Boone's mother was Matilda Tribble, the daughter of 
Rev. Peter Tribble, a Baptist minister from Madison county, Ky. 

At the time of the removal of Nestor W. Boone to Boone county, Mo., in 
1847, P. T. Boone, who was born in Christian county, Ky., June 6, 1837, was 
a boy of ten years, able already to assist materially in the care of stock and 
the general farm work. After leaving Lathrop .Academy when eighteen years 
old, he became a clerk in a mercantile store in Boone county. A few years 
later, July 17, 1862. he married Miss Laura Bower, daughter of Dr. G. M. 
Bower, of Monroe county. Mo. Five children were born of their union, 
namely; Bower; Mrs. Eloise Scranton, who died in Riverside; Catherine A.; 
Jesse T. ; and William, who died in Los Angeles when seventeen years of age. 
During 1874, the family left Missouri for California and settled in Lakeport, 
Lake county, where for some years Mr. Boone acted as manager for the mer- 
cantile house of Scudamore & Co. From the time of casting his first ballot 
he has been stanchly devoted to Democratic policies. The party recognized 
his ability and honored his faithfulness by electing him county treasurer in 
1894, and from that year to the present he has filled the office continuously, 
with the sole exception of four years following a Republican victory at the 


polls. At the primary election held on August 25, 1914, he was re-elected. 
Experience has given him a high degree of efficiency and he is highly re- 
spected for his loyal devotion to the welfare of the county, his strict hon- 
esty in the smallest details connected with the treasury and his ability to dis- 
charge all official duties with skill and accuracy. 

CHARLES MARSH YOUNG.— In the early days of Middletown, Lake 
county, C. M. Young was one of the most prominent business men of the 
place, and he has recently returned to spend the days of his retirement there 
after a number of years on his large ranch in Coyote valley. The home he 
occupies he built in 1872. Though he has passed the threescore and ten mark 
he has relinquished all the care of his interests only within the last year, and 
is still looking after his afifairs with his usual capability. His congenial nature 
and straightforward dealings have drawn numerous friends to him in the 
course of a busy life, and his kindness of heart has endeared him to the many 
who have always found their relations with him pleasant to remember. In 
the early seventies, when Middletown was being laid out, Mr. Young became 
interested in the consequent real estate transactions. He ran the Lake County 
House — still the leading hostelry at Middletown — for a number of years, and 
was also engaged in other lines, at one time, in fact, having the hotel, a general 
store, meat market and livery barn. Though he has had some business 
reverses they have not proved serious drawbacks, and he is now a large 
landowner in Lake county, his holdings in Coyote valley comprising nine 
hundred and sixty acres of valuable land. He has held public positions, prov- 
ing a very competent and trustworthy official, and the story of his well 
rounded life has its place in the history of Lake county. 

Born near Petersburg, Menard county. 111., March 8, 1841, Mr. Young 
is the youngest child of his parents. His father, Matthias Young, a native of 
Kentucky, married Mrs. Hannah (Smith) Pantier, who was born in New 
York state, and she died on the Young homestead in Menard county, when her 
son Charles was five years old. Of the five children born to them three grew 
to maturity : Mary, widow of David Ogden, of Sundance, Wyo., has three 
living children ; William A. is in the soldiers' home at Sawtelle, Los Angeles 
county, Cal. ; Charles Marsh is mentioned more fully later. The father remar- 
ried after the mother's death, and had one child, a daughter, Lizzie (Mrs. 
Higgins) by the second union. Matthias Young's death occurred at his 
home in Menard county when Charles M. Young was eight years old. By 
occupation he was a farmer, and he was one of the early settlers in Menard 
county, taking an active part in its organization. Mr. Young's grandfather, a 
native of Scotland, served in the Revolutionary war, and bore the title of major. 
During that war he was left on the field for dead, but recovered, though he 
had received nineteen saber cuts on the back. 

Charles Marsh Young was reared on the farm, and his childhood was 
typical of the times and locality. He obtained his schooling during two 
months' attendance in the winter season, being obliged to assist with the 
farm work from an early age. He began to plow when only eight years old. 
In 1863 he set out for California, coming across the plains with teams, but 
stopped in the then territory of Nevada and for five months was engaged at 
ranching in the Carson valley. In January, 1864, he came on to San Fran- 
cisco and returned to Illinois via Panama and New York, and then by rail 
to Menard county. His brother, William A., had just been discharged from 


the army, having been badly wounded. The same year the brothers started 
together overland with teams and wagons for the Idaho mines, over which 
there was great excitement at the time, but at Colonel Bridgers cutoff they 
branched off, William continuing on to Idaho and Charles M. to California. 
He located in Sonoma county, where he rented a place and farmed two years. 
In 1866 he married, and shortly afterward moved into Lake county, arriving 
in Coyote valley January 18, 1867. During the next four years Mr. Young 
rented grant land, and then bought a farm a mile north of what is now Mid- 
dletown — about October, 1870. At that time considerable teaming was done in 
that region, hauling sulphur and borax, and stages ran between Lower Lake 
and Calistoga. This point being about centrally located between these places 
it came quite naturally by the name of Middletown. Its reputation was 
further extended from the fact that it proved a good junction for the patrons 
of Harbin Springs, the first mineral springs in the county to attract great 
attention, and liberally patronized even as early as 1870. When the quick- 
silver prospects at the Great Western mine began to boom another impetus 
was given to the opening up of the locality, and Oscar Armstrong and John 
H. Berry (the latter a brother-in-law of Mr. Young) bought forty acres from 
the Callayomi grant, and later forty acres more from William J. Armstrong. 
In 1872 they proceeded to lay out the town site of Middletown, which was 
surveyed and platted as it is at present in 1874 by B. R. Wardlow. In 1871 
Mr. Young bought Mr. Berry's interest in the project, and the firm became 
Young & Armstrong. Mr. Armstrong dying in June, 1872. his widow, Mrs. 
Mary E. Armstrong, who still survives, succeeded to his share in the business, 
which was continued under the same name, the firm selling lots and engaging 
in the other enterprises incidental to starting the town. In 1870 Mr. Berry 
built a four-room house (on the present site of the Lake County House) 
which became the first hotel in Middletown. Mr. Young bought him out in 
1871 and put up a two-story building on the same ground, making a four- 
leen-room house. In 1875 he moved the frame building back on the prem- 
ises and erected the brick part, finishing it practically as it stands today. In 
this connection he started the first brickyard at Middletown, making the 
bricks for his hotel. In 1873 he built the livery barn at Calistoga and Union 
streets. Mr. and Mrs. Young conducted the hotel from the time he purchased 
it until 1885, his wife's assistance proving very valuable in the management, 
seeing to the comfort of patrons and insuring satisfactory service. Mr. 
Young then traded the house for his fine ranch in the Coyote valley, which 
he continues to own. They lived there from 1885 until about 19C0, when 
they returned to Middletown. About 1892 Mr. Young bought the general 
store which his sons Wirt H. and Baxter E. had started, and he carried on the 
business for two years, until burned out in 1894. He had no insurance, and 
the $4000 stock was a total loss. He had had a previous loss by fire, having 
had his livery at Sebastopol, Sonoma county, burned out; at that time he 
lost about $1000, having no insurance. When the store burned he went back 
to the ranch, living there until October, 1913, except for two years during his 
term as county assessor (1902-06). There he gave most of his attention to 
agricultural pursuits, though he held the office of supervisor for six years. He 
was first appointed, by Governor Stoneman. to fill a two-years' vacancy, at 
the end of this service being elected for the full term of four years. In political 
connection he is a Democrat. He is a member of Friendship Lodge No. 150, 


1. O. O. P., at 2\Iiddletown, being the present noble grand, and his wife 
belongs to the Rebekahs. She is a leading member of the Presbyterian Church 
of INIiddletown, taking special interest in mission work and the activities of 
the ladies' aid societj'. In all of Mr. Young's enterprises she has been his 
valued coworker, and she has had her full share in his success. They occupy 
the residence on Union street, Middletown, which he built in 1872. 

On November 20, 1866, Mr. Young married ]Miss Lutitia M. Berry, who 
was born at Fulton, 111., daughter of Baxter Bell and Elizabeth (Cameron) 
Berry, the father a native of Tennessee, the mother of Kentucky. Mr. and 
Mrs. Berry moved to near Oskaloosa, Iowa, and from there came overland to 
California in 1852, settling in Sonoma county, where they were pioneers. Of 
their nine children only three now survive : Lamira S., Mrs. Cannon, of Mid- 
dletown ; Lutitia M., Mrs. Young; and Eva, Mrs. Scudder, a resident of Sebas- 
topol, Sonoma county. Four children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Young : 
Wirt Haight, now engaged in farming in Coyote valley, married Lizzie 
Hughes, and they have two children, Ethel May and Wirt Raymond. Baxter 
Ewing, now located at Oakland, Cal., married Miss Hattie Adamson, by 
whom he has one child, Margaret Lois. Lizzie M. died when about three 
years old. Charles W. is at Sacramento, engaged as foreman in the reclama- 
tion of lands along the Sacramento river, in the employ of the California 
National Bank; to him and his wife Velma (Brooks) have been born two chil- 
nren, Charles Glenn and Lutitia Adeline. 

capital stock of SIOO.OOO, divided into one thousand shares of the par value 
of $100 each, but with only twenty per cent, or $20,000, paid in at the time 
of organization, the Farmers' Savings Bank of Lakeport was established 
December 8, 1874, and in the forty years of subsequent enterprise has had a 
history of growing prestige and unwavering confidence on the part of de- 
positors. Those at the head of the institution have been conservative to an 
unusual degree, but this very spirit of conservatism has been their shield 
figainst unwise investments or heavy loans, so that they stand now as finan- 
ciers of unquestioned ability, abundantly able to guide the destinies of the 
concern through future responsibilities. 

The names of the persons who subscribed the original $20,000 are as 
follows: J. H. Renfro, H. Charmack, C. A. Finer, Z. C. Daver, Thomas Allison, 
T. T. Scott, Martha C. Reeves, Robert Oliver, D. P. Shattuck, H. C. Boggs, 
T. \y. Boggs, W. J. Nicholson, Charles Finer, James B. Jamison, Thomas 
Ormiston, Benjamin F. Shaul, Aaron White, Charles Mclntyre, John Gard, 
AVilliam Stonebraker, A. H. Nobles, G. \\'. Gard, Seth Rickabaugh, John Pos- 
lels, Preston Rickabaugh, W. F. Kelsey, D. D. Davis, William Nobles, I. N. 
Gard, James Kelsey, ^^'ill^am Gard, J. R. Allison, John Kelsey, \^'^illiam G. 
Reeves, Thomas B. Reeves, Latanus N. Nobles, John R. Lamb, J. E. Shirley, H. 
J. Cooper, W. A. Christie, Jonas Ingram, J. W. Robbe, Louisa Thompson, J. 

C. Thompson, N. \V. Washburn, Lindsey Carson, W. J. Butler, G. C. Rippey, 
John Lynch, J. ^^'. Mackall, George Tucker, H. D. Snow, Woods Crawford, 
A. P. McCarthy, M. C. Tucker, George W. Wilson, R. S. Johnson, J. M. 
^Martin, J. J. Bruton, Price Snider, Henry Palmer, M. Asher, R. C. Tallman, 
William J. Biggerstafif, John Jones, S. Ballinger, Peter Clark, Robert Buck- 
nell, Sylvia Thomas, J. W^ Doty, D. T. Taylor, A. B. Hughes, N. H. Thull, 

D. V. Thompson, L. Gnrnett, D. O. McCarthy, G. A. Lyon, R. Phillaber, 


George T. Martin, S. C. Combs. Daniel McLean, E. B. Bole and D. O. 

The present board of directors of the bank comprises the following named 
gentlemen : J. W. Boggs, J. Banks, J. W. Byrnes, F. H. Boggs and W. D. 
Rantz, all of Lakeport ; together with S. T. Packwood, of Upper Lake, and 
Andrew Smith, of Finley. The officers for 1914 are as follows: J. \V. Boggs, 
president; Jabez Banks, vice-president; F. H. Boggs, cashier and secretary; 
H. L. Boggs, assistant cashier ; and George R. Smith, assistant cashier. The 
institution is well and safely managed under the personal and intelligent 
supervision of the officers and directors, who have established a reputation 
for a conservative spirit in all business transactions and have thereby drawn 
to their list of depositors many of the best and most successful business men 
of Lake county. 

FRED C. HANDY. — It would be impossible to present any resume of 
the Alendocino state hospital without due mention of Fred C. Handy, for- 
merly secretar}^ and now steward and business manager of the institution. 
The position that he fills is one demanding the highest efficiency and wisest 
judgment. Decisions of importance must be made promptly, problems must 
be solved sagaciously and large affairs must be governed with wisdom. No 
less than fifty different departments come under his immediate supervision. 
All purchases are made by his authority and with his approval. The task of 
distribution also comes within the scope of his jurisdiction. All of the con- 
struction work of recent years (aggregating in value more than $500,000) has 
been superintended by him personally. In addition he has charge of the 
kitchen, dining-room, dairy, laundry, bakery, shops, etc. ; also manages the buy- 
ing and selling of the stock, the care of the stables and the cultivation of the 
great estate of one thousand acres comprising the hospital farm, the whole 
forming a task of such magnitude that the greatest care and an unusual 
amount of time are demanded for its Successful consummation and the 
maintenance of a high-class business system is absolutely imperative. 

A native of Eldorado county and a lifelong resident of California with 
the exception of a few years spent in Honolulu during the incumbency of a 
position of official importance, Mr. Handy understands conditions as they exist 
in the west, is familiar with the development of this section of the country 
and has great faith in its future progress. He was born near Placerville, 
November 26, 1865, a son of Philo and Laura (Roper) Handy, natives of Ohio 
and Illinois respectively. The father served in the Fifteenth Illinois Regiment 
under General Grant, in which he received wounds at the battle of Shiloh. 
After the close of the war, in 1865, he crossed the plains to California with 
teams and wagons. He followed mining until 1870, when he located in 
Round valley, Mendocino county, and thereafter followed farming. Fred C. 
Handy attended the grammar schools and the Santa Clara high school, as 
well as the Academy of Science, from which he was graduated in 1884. Upon 
returning to Mendocino county to take up the active duties of life, he devoted 
his attention for a time to the raising of sheep and the tilling of the soil in 
Round valley. Later he filled a number of offices with intelligence and 
fidelity, being connected with the offices of county assessor, county tax col- 
lector and county clerk as a deputy and later serving as undersherifT of the 
county. Before the Mendocino state hospital had been completed he was 
chosen secretary of the institution and entered upon his duties October 1. 


1893, after which he filled the position for eight consecutive years. Next 
he spent three years in Honolulu as deputy United States marshal. Upon 
his return to California in 1903 he was chosen steward or business manager 
of the Mendocino state hospital and in that important position he has placed 
the business afi'airs of the institution upon a sound basis. Of the officials 
who became connected with the hospital at the time it was started in the lat- 
ter part of 1893, he alone remains. Under different administrations and 
various boards his work has been alike satisfactory. Naturally, he is some- 
what progressive in his views, somewhat of a reformer in his ideas. Many 
of the reforms for which he worked he has had the gratification of seeing 
adopted. His life has been given to service to his commonwealth. To pro- 
mote the welfare of the institution with which he is connected, to increase its 
usefulness and enhance its efficiency, comprise ambitions that form the very 
foundation of his character, the keynote of his energetic temperament. Yet 
he has not centered himself selfishly upon the one ideal nor limited himself 
narrowly to the one institution : on the other hand, with his wife, who was 
Miss Amy Morrison, a native of California, he has been a power for good in 
all movements for the social and educational upbuilding of the community ; 
he has been and still is a director in the Bank of Ukiah and has made other 
associations in business or public affairs. Fraternally he has had many im- 
portant connections. In Masonry he is past master of Abell Lodge No. 146, 
F. & A. M., past high priest of L^kiah Chapter No. 53, R. A. M., commander of 
Ukiah Commandery No. 33, K. T., past patron of Kingsley Chapter, O. E. S., 
and for some years served as inspector of this Masonic district. In the local 
lodge of Odd Fellows he is past grand, while he furthermore has been influ- 
ential locallv in the Knights of Pvthias, the Eagles and the Woodmen of the 

ALLEN SAMUELSON.— A native son of the Golden West and 
descended from an old pioneer family of California, Allen Samuelson is today 
one of the rising young men of Mendocino county, occupying a position of 
responsibility with one of the largest lumber companies in that part of the 
state. He was born at Albion, Mendocino county, July 28, 1889, and is the 
son of August and Catherine (Miller) Samuelson, who came to California 
almost forty years ago. The father is a native of Sweden and is descended 
from one of the old and highly honored families of that country. After com- 
ing to California he became an edger in the sawmills, holding at different 
times positions with various mills, but making his residence at Fort Bragg. 
Although born at Albion, Mr. Samuelson spent his boyhood days in Fort 
Bragg, where he still has many life-long friends. His education was received 
in the public schools of the busy little city, where he attended the grammar 
schools, and for a short time the high school. The lure of the business world, 
however, proved too strong for this ambitious youth, and after a short time 
he discontinued his studies and was apprenticed as a filer in the Union Lum- 
ber Company's mill at Fort Bragg. Here he continued for four years, and 
rose to the position of second filer. Later he entered the employ of the 
Irvine-Muir Lumber Company at Irmulco, as head filer, a position of trust 
and responsibility. ' After a time he resigned this position to go to Vancouver, 
B. C, as second filer in lumber mills located there. The northern city, how- 
ever, failed to hold this native son away from the land of his nativity, and at 
the end of a vear he returned to accept the position of head filer with the 


Northwestern Redwood Company in their Mendocino county mills, entering 
upon his new duties December 1, 1913 

Mr. Samuelson is still with this company, and is accredited as one of 
their most trusted employes. He makes his home at Northwestern, where he 
is well and favorably known and possesses a host of warm friends. He is 
a member of the Redmen at Fort Bragg, and is considered one of the most 
promising young men in the county. His success is due entirely to his 
steady and earnest application, his unfaltering reliability and trustworthiness, 
and to his general skill in his chosen occupation. 

The Samuelson family is one of the oldest and best known in Mendocino 
county, and is highly respected and honored. There are seven children, of 
whom Allen Samuelson is the eldest, and all are worthy citizens of their 
native county. 

WILLIAM WEIGAND.— The proprietor of Hotel Willits, who ranks 
among the leading landlords of Mendocino county and is an active member of 
the California Hotel Men's Association, has engaged in the hotel business 
from early life, meanwhile acquiring an experience and familiarity with details 
that gives efficiency to his present management and a high degree of success 
in return for his labors. Although a native of Pennsylvania, born in the city 
of Philadelphia, December 11, 1867, from the age of three years until about 
twenty he lived at Oppenheim on the Rhine in Germany. His father, Philip, 
who was born at Dahlheim, Hessen Darmstadt, spent a considerable time in 
Philadelphia where he was among the first fire brick manufacturers in that 
city. In 1870 he took his family to Germany and there remained until death. 
Four of the brothers in the family enlisted in the Union army during the 
Civil war and three of them perished on fields of battle during that great 

Returning to the United States in 1887, William Weigand settled in 
Boston, Mass., and embarked in the hotel and catering business. Three years 
later he removed from Boston to Minneapolis and became interested in the 
same line of business. For a considerable period of years he conducted an 
enterprise with fair profit. The year 1898 found him in California. He located 
at Windsor, Sonoma county, and became proprietor of the New Western hotel 
until the railroad was completed to Willits, when he assumed the management 
of the Hotel Willits. After a year he left to engage in business for himself, 
but at the expiration of eighteen months he again leased the Willits, of which 
he since has been the popular proprietor. This is not only the largest hotel 
in the county, but claims distinction as being without a superior in the mat- 
ter of eciuipment and accommodations and was also the first to establish a 
dining room a la carte. The lobby of the hotel has been made attractive with 
a substantial maple floor, a large fireplace and neat furnishings. The Eagle 
cafe and restaurant are owned by Mr. Weigand, who is also the owner of the 
building in which the cafe is conducted. 

Through his marriage in Minneapolis to Miss Mary Oversett, a native 
of Risfjorden, Norway, Mr. Weigand gained a thoroughly competent help- 
mate, who is now giving personal attention to the management of the Hacienda 
hotel of sevent3'-three rooms, located at No. 580 O'Farrell street. The Hotel 
Willits, which Mr. Weigand purchased in November, 1913, and annex include 
ninety-five large rooms, comfortably furnished and equipped with modern 
conveniences. In addition he is the owner of the old Quass ranch, which 


he uses for a summer home and which is situated six and one-half miles north 
of town. At no time has he been active in politics and his interest in public 
affairs is limited to the casting of a Republican ballot at national elections. 
Fraternally he holds membership with the Sons of Hermann, the Aerie of 
Eagles at Willits. and the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks at Santa Rosa. 

WILLIAM FORD. — One-half century of change and progress has 
brought its sweeping transformation, lifting obscure towns into the prestige 
of largely populated cities and bringing the swift motor car into the highway 
where once could be seen only a primitive ox-cart with its load of human 
freight or a lonely plowman taking his weary way to his shack on a homestead 
claim, — such are but a few of the changes I\Ir. Ford has seen since he arrived 
in Mendocino county in 1864, a pioneer in the great northern sections of Cali- 
tornia as yet unknown to the farmer and undeveloped in resources. His had 
been a life of hardship and privation and he was prepared b}' training for the 
difficulties in his path as a pioneer farmer, in the district surrounding Ukiah. 
The home in which he was reared had been destitute of comforts and he had 
been obliged to work laboriously, with infrequent opportunities to attend 
school. His parents, John and Hopy (Highsmith) Ford, were farmers on the 
then frontier of Illinois and it was in Crawford county, that state, he was born 
August 25, 1831. In his long life he has seen a remarkable advancement. He 
came west in 1850 almost two decades before the completion of the first 
transcontinental railroad. Since then railroads have spanned the countrj', 
electricity has been made a factor in community development, the telephone 
and telegraph, with the more modern wireless system, have obliterated dis- 
tance, and now the most remarkable task of the ages, the great Panama 
canal, is nearing completion. With customary interest in great enterprises 
he has kept posted concerning all of these factors in modern advancement, 
not allowing old age to diminish his deep interest in all that makes for the 
good of the country. 

For fifteen months after coming to California Mr. Ford worked in and 
near Placerville, after which he engaged in getting out timber in the heart of 
the redwood district near Pescadero, San Mateo county. Two years were 
spent in the milling business near Watsonville. Santa Cruz cojnty. Next 
he went to the San Juan valley, Monterey county, and entered land, but 
finally had to abandon the claim owing to the difficulty in establishing a 
title. It was then that he sought ^lendocino county. Here again he was 
confronted by the difficulty in securing a clear title to land. The large body 
which he secured did not have a clear title established and he was forced to go 
through the most strenuous labors to establish his claim to the property. 
Calling the attention of others to the dire need of having correct titles, he 
started an interest culminating in the present secure land measures for the 
orotection of the titles of land owners. When once his title was guaranteed 
he began to improve the tract, consisting of one thousand acres purchased from 
Thomas Gibson and fourteen hundred acres entered as homesteads and 
claims. Afterward he added to it until he had about twenty-seven hundred 
acres located five miles northwest of Ukiah. The great range was well 
adapted to stock and he made a specialty of horses, cattle and sheep. At times 
his flocks numbered as many as twenty-five hundred head. The lowlands 
were devoted to crops, mainly alfalfa, of which he cut two crops each year. 
Meanwhile he had purchased the residence <if Judge ^IcGarvey in ITkiah. 



and here he and his wife (Sarah Lynch, a native of Arlcansas) estabHshed 
a comfortable home and reared their children. 

The Ford household consisted of the following children : James Alfred, a 
farmer on the home place ; Martha Ann, deceased ; Marj^ Elizabeth, who mar- 
ried James York, of Mendocino county ; ^Vi^iam .\dolphus, in the real estate 
business and who made a specialty of raising hops in this county for years ; 
Julia Hopy, who married F. Arnold Ford, also of this county; Enoch M., a 
farmer near the old home place and supervisor of Mendocino county ; and 
Sarah Belle, who married M. Banker, of Ukiah. Mr. Ford was bereaved by 
the death of his wife September 29, 1913, at the age of seventy-three. The 
first presidential vote of Mr. Ford was cast in 1854 and ever since then he has 
supported the principles of the Democratic party. During 1870 he was elected 
treasurer of Mendocino county and served for four years ; again in 1890 he 
was chosen for the same office, that time continuing in the position for eight 
2/ears. For years he has officiated as a trustee and class leader in the Metho- 
oist Episcopal Church. Not only is he a pioneer of California, but in addition 
lie ranks as one of the state's workers, one of those who aided in developing 
the hitherto unknown resources of the west and whose efforts have been of 
value, not merely to himself and family, but in a larger degree to all the people 
if the county and to everyone interested in the agricultural development of 
Northern California. 

JUDGE FRANK A. WHIPPLE.— Among the many important accom- 
plishments which the efforts and indefatigable will of Justice Whipple have 
brought to completion none perhaps has carried as intense weight and figured 
as conspicuously as the securing of the high school for Fort Bragg, in the 
face of great opposition, the fight even being carried through the courts, and 
it is the children of this section of the coast who are the greatest benefactors 
of his untiring labor and unselfish effort. A gentleman, a scholar and an 
unusually keen business man. his forceful character has been felt in many 
avenues throughout the vicinity, but educational matters hax^e most attracted 
his attention. 

Judge Whipple was a native of Oberlin, Ohio, the son of Henry E. 
Whipple, who came from his native Williston, Vt.. to Oberlin when a young 
boy. Aft'orded excellent educational advantages, he was a graduate of the 
Oberlin College, later becoming a professor in same, and for some years re- 
mained in that capacity, during the time being ordained minister. He re- 
signed the professorship finally to accept a call to Hillsdale (Mich.) College, 
aided in its establishment, and served as professor there for a long period. He 
figured prominently as aid on the staff of Governor Blair, war governor of 
Michigan, and in 1870 resigned and came to the coast. As editor of the 
Humboldt Times, which paper was owned by his brother, he served efficiently 
until appointed to a position in the government mint at San Francisco, where 
his last days were spent. He was an earnest preacher and during his life 
had preached in the Baptist Church for sixty-four years all told. His wife, 
who was Elizabeth Packard before her marriage, was born in Massachusetts 
of splendid family. Her death occurred in Fort Bragg; the mother of three 
children, she was an exemplary parent and teacher, imparting to her family 
the beauty of thought and refinement which is a marked characteristic in 
them today. 

Born October 2.^, 18.50. Judge Whipple was his parents' secmid child. He 


was reared in Hillsdale, Mich., entering the public schools and then Hillsdale 
College, in which the foundation of his unusual fund of knowledge was laid. 
Leaving college, he engaged for a time as clerk in the store of his brother 
there, and in 1872 followed his father to California, locating in Mendocino 
county, and engaging in the mercantile business at Kibesilah, which place is 
situated fifteen miles north of Fort Bragg. There was no mail route into this 
town, and his strong influence toward bettering conditions was immediately 
felt in the community by his succeeding in procuring the mail route and the 
establishment of a postoffice at Kibesilah. While living here, in 1885, he was 
appointed justice of the peace of Ten Mile Ri.-er township, and at the end of 
this term was elected, and has been re-elected each term since, covering a 
term of service of twenty-nine years. In December, 1887, when the mills 
were moved to Fort Bragg, he moved there also, it being in the same town- 
ship, and established his office, where he has since performed the duties of 
justice of the peace and followed the business of general conveyancing, in- 
surance, etc., with marked success. 

Judge Whipple married in Hillsdale, Mich., Miss Frances A. Smith, a 
native of Hillsdale county, that state, where for a time she was engaged in 
educational work. To them were born four children, viz. : Allen, Genevieve 
(Mrs. C. E. Sherrick), Henry and Frances (Mrs. Ray Pedrotti), all of them 
residents of Fort Bragg. The Judge is prominent in the Red Men fraternity, 
being a charter member of Santana Tribe No. 60 at Fort Bragg; he is past 
officer and served as the Great Sachem of the Great Council of California in 
1897-98, and three times attended as delegate the Great Council of the LTnited 
States : is also past officer of the Knights of the Maccabees. A Republican in 
political sentiment, well versed on all current subjects pertaining to national 
and local politics, he has been active in and served as chairman of the County 
Republican Committee. He served for twenty years as a member of the board 
of school trustees, refused office for five years, and was again prevailed upon 
to accept office in 1914. As has been mentioned before, he was the prime 
mover in the action to secure the Fort Bragg high school, remaining to fight 
it through after other members of the committee had resigned because of the 
conflict. He served as the first president of the board, justly meriting the praise 
and gratification which he received from the citizens of Fort Bragg. 

MRS. HARRIET C. BIGGERSTAFF.— A long-time resident of Lake- 
port closed her life history and a personage of position passed from among 
her friends with the death of ]\Irs. Harriet C. (Savage) Biggerstafif, November 
23, 1896, at the age of seventy years. This history began in the Kentucky 
home of Pleasant M. Savage November 17, 1826, took on interest through 
an excellent education in Lexington, a cultured city of the Blue Grass state, 
and developed into useful service and individual efl^ort through her removal 
to Missouri to engage in teaching. After having devoted the year 1852 to 
educational work at Glasgow, Mo., in a female seminary of which her brother, 
Rev. George S. Savage, held the principalship, she removed to Plattsburg, 
same state, in 1853 for the purpose of teaching the children of a deceased 
brother. In that city she became the betrothed bride of William J. Bigger- 
stafT, with whom she was united in marriage June 1, 1854. Of her influence 
as wife too much cannot be said in terms of praise. At the time of her mar- 
riage Mr. BiggerstafT was not a Christian, but such was the influence of her 
godly life, such the splendid power of her active Christianity, and such 


the impression created in his mind concerning the exalted state of purity in 
which the true Christian lives, that he was impelled to seek peace with God 
and the gracious consolations of religion. 

Surviving Mrs. Biggerstaff are six children, while three sons, Charles 
William, Pleasant M. and Charles Morton, died at the age of about eighteen 
months. The eldest daughter, Emma Kate, is a school teacher in Lake 
county, and the second, Anna, teaches music in San Francisco. Harriet C. 
is the wife of E. W. Britt, of Los Angeles; Noraine is the wife of Alda N. 
Ferris, a druggist of San Diego; Frederick M. is a musician in San Francisco; 
and Eugene, of Berkeley, is connected with a wholesale poultry house in San 
Francisco. All of the children were born at Plattsburg, Mo., excepting 
Frederick M. and Eugene, who were born after the removal of the family to 
St. Joseph, in that state. The youngest son married Elizabeth Clayton, of 
Los Angeles, and has two children, Eugene Knight and Harriet Elizabeth. 
The third daughter, Mrs. Britt, is the mother of two children, namely : Con- 
^•tance, Mrs. David Barmore, of Los Angeles, and Agnes Wickfield Britt ; 
Mrs. Britt and her two daughters are now making a tour of the world. 

From 1867 until 1874 the family resided at St. Joseph, Mo., and from the 
latter year until her death Mrs. Biggerstafif was intimately identified with 
social, business and religious afifairs in Lakeport. In her younger years she 
was an active church and Sunday school worker, and even after the cares of 
a large family deprived her of the privilege of aggressive church work she 
never lost her interest in the success of religious truth. Methodist preachers 
ever found a cordial welcome in her home. Descended from the sturdy 
pioneers of Methodism, she had early imbibed a spirit of religion and indeed 
could not remember a period in her childhood when she had not been identi- 
fied with the people of God. A devoted Christian mother was of great help 
to her in the formative period of her character. In turn she gave to her 
husband and children the benefit of this deep spirit of piety and religious 
oversight. With rapt attention she daily read her Bible. The inspiration 
she drew therefrom aided her in years of toil, in bereavement and sorrow, and 
became her mainstay as well in hours of joy and domestic happiness. In 
religious opinions she was very positive yet considerate of the sentiments of 
others; economical in her own expenditures, yet generous to those in need; 
always prayerful, earnest, capable and efficient, the ideal wife, whose life 
became so closely interwoven with the life of her husband that it might have 
been said of them in the words of the Scripture, "They twain shall be one 
flesh." While her Bible remained through life her best-loved book she studied 
other literature, particularly such as pertained to agriculture and horticulture, 
or gave information concerning the cultivation of roses, her favorite form of 
recreation. Never neglectful of the temporary needs of her family, she yet 
recognized the greater importance of ministering to and promoting their 
spiritual welfare, and to such work of love her mature years were devoted. 

It has been the prayer of Mrs. Biggerstafif that she might be spared to 
rear her children, and when the youngest was twenty-four years of age she 
remarked that her prayer had been answered and her life work accomplished. 
Already she had begun to feci the call from eternity. On the 3d of November, 
1896, she was stricken with paralysis and on the 23d the silver cord was 
loosed and the golden bowl was broken. Peacefully the long and useful 
pilgrimage ended and she entered into that rest which remains for the people 


of God. Hers was a bright and luminous Christian life. The spirit gained 
from association with and descent from aggressive Methodists gave her deep 
religious fervor and enabled her to meet the trials of life in a cheerful manner, 
supplying her with the tact and gentleness that is the flowering of a long 
line of Christian ancestry. The reviewing of her tranquil but forceful exist- 
ence inspires a feeling of reverence and gratitude, and arouses admiration for 
the qualities of heart and mind that make possible the ideal wife and the 
ideal mother. 

RALPH R. BYRNES.— It is said of the sheriff of Mendocino county 
that he is not only one of the youngest, but also one of the most able public 
officials in the state of California. This is the judgment of his friends and 
also of those who, unacquainted with his exemplary personal character, yet 
find much to admire in his fearless administration of the duties of his office. 
To say of him that as a man he is trusted for his high qualities of mind and 
heart, as a friend he is respected for his generosity and kindly spirit, and as 
an official he is brave and impartial, is to briefly summarize his interesting 
career. He belongs to that class of native sons whose personality invites 
esteem and whose ability indicates a bright future in the political arena of 
the county. Reared in the midst of conditions familiar to him today, inured 
to hard work from early life, energetic of will and fearless of purpose, he is 
conceded to be one of the most popular young men, whether in politics or in 
private life, within the limits of the county today. 

The Byrnes family was founded in California by Michael J. Byrnes, a 
native of Boston, Mass., and a western pioneer of 1862. After years of 
identification with the farming interests of Humboldt county he came to 
Mendocino county in 1880 and settled near the coast, where he worked in the 
lumber mills and in the woods near Little River and Mendocino. For twenty 
years he served as constable and as a deputy sheriiif of the county, and until 
his death in 1902 he was closely identified with public enterprises, giving to 
his adopted community the benefit of a progressive citizenship. Fraternally 
he was connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. By his 
marriage to Mary Hite, a native of Virginia, he became the father of five 
children, namely: John, Grace, Ralph R., Miles J. and Dorothy. Ralph R. 
was born during the residence of the family in Mendocino City and he re- 
ceived his education in this county, of which he has been a lifelong resident. 
Jn selecting an occupation, he took up the business that had interested his 
father and from early youth has been familiar with lumbering in all of its 
departments, working mostly with the Albion Lumber Company on the coast. 
His genial temperament and attractive personality have brought him into 
local prominence and have made him popular in various fraternities, including 
the Santa Rosa Lodge of Elks, the Masons, and Eastern Star at Mendocino, 
and the Eagles in Ukiah. During 1910 he was selected as the standard 
bearer of the Republican party for the office of sherifif and, entering the race 
with customary energy, he was elected by a gratifying majority. Since 
assuming official duties he has served his constituents honestly, faithfully 
and intelligently, and has proved an enemy to lawlessness in every form. By 
doing his duty, he has made the office of sherifif feared and respected by evil- 
doers and law-breakers. In this work he has had the assistance of Lee Cun- 
ningham as under-sherifif and a staff of capable deputies in various parts of 
the county. It is worthy of note that at the primary election in 1914 jNIr. 
Byrnes was re-elected sherifif Ijy a majority of over four thousand. Men- 


docinu cuuiity regards him as one of the coming men of the 
Republican party and it is the belief of his friends that his name will be placed 
high on the roll of successful officials in the public life of the state. Under 
the name of Smith & Byrnes he is one of the proprietors of the Eagle livery 
stables in Ukiah. 

HETTIE IRWIN. — Chicago has its Ella Flagg Young and the entire 
country has watched with interest her progressive reforms in the educational 
work of that great city. Lake county has its Miss Hettie Irwin, and in a local 
way her work, too, has aroused deep interest. Women of this type inspire 
confidence in the perpetuity and the improvement of the public school system 
and in the value of its achievements through the preparation of the youth of 
the land for positions of confidence and responsibility. Not only is Miss Irwin 
a woman of exceptional judgment and broad information concerning peda- 
gogy, but she possesses in addition the important faculty of inspiring the 
children of the county with an aspiration to ascend to intellectual attainment. 
Moreover, she is pronouncedly popular, as was evidenced in her election 
against a Democratic majority of about three hundred and against opponents 
who were candidates of recognized strength and quality. 

It is a source of some pride to Miss Irwin that she is a member of a 
family that has given to the country professional men of note, who have risen 
by very appreciable merits and who in different parts of the country have 
added prestige to the family name by their own alert mentality and indepen- 
dent views. In the opinion of friends, the life of Miss Irwin herself adds 
luster to the intellectual achievements of others of the name. Descended 
from Virginian forebears and from John Irwin, the original immigrant, a man 
of some prominence in his chosen locality and in the period just prior to the 
Revolution, Miss Irwin is a daughter of Isaac Denman and Sarah (Laughlin) 
Irwin. The former, born in Putnam county, Ind., near Greencastle, whither 
his parents had removed from Kentucky, became a pioneer of Nebraska, 
where he remained, with the exception of a brief sojourn in Missouri, until 
he brought his family to California and settled in Lake county. At the age 
of sixty-nine (1914) he is now practically retired. His brother. Benjamin H. 
Irwin, of Tecumseh, Neb., was a lawyer of state-wide prominence during the 
prime of his professional enterprises. A cousin, Rowen Irwin, is now district 
attorney of Kern county, while another cousin, John L. P. Irwin, is district 
attorney of Kings county. Others have gained success at the bar, while there 
have not been wanting some of the name to rise to local distinction in the 
ministry and in educational circles. 

When the family left Nebraska for California. Miss Hettie Irwin was a 
small child. Her only sister, Viola, now a teacher in Scotts valley, is the 
wife of Arthur J. Gunn, owner of a sawmill near Kelseyville. One of her 
brothers, George P., is clerking in a general mercantile store at Kelseyville. 
while the other, Charles Jasper, is a Methodist Episcopal minister, now 
i.astor of a congregation at New Harbor, Me. All of the four were born in 
Nebraska with the exception of Mrs. Gunn, who is a native of Missouri. After 
having had the advantages of the grammar schools and Clear Lake Academy 
at Kelseyville, Miss Hettie Irwin began to teach school at the age of eighteen. 
From the first she displayed rare adaptability for the work. The children 
under her charge made excellent records in their studies. The standard of 
scholarship was advanced. Modern methods were introduced. A close and 


appreciative student of pedagogy, she endeavored to utilize in her classes 
the best counsel of the wisest educators. After thirteen years as a teacher in 
the Lake county schools she was elected county superintendent on the Re- 
publican ticket in the fall of 1906, and four years later was chosen her own 
successor, a fact that gives silent but eloquent tribute to the character of her 
work. In the county there are fifty-one licensed teachers now engaged in 
teaching, while the thirty-nine grammar schools and two high schools come 
directly under the scope of her authority, their work and progress forming 
a portion of her responsibility, while at the same time their success is the 
highest aspiration of her official record. She is identified with the Presby- 
terian Church of Kelseyville. Holding extraneous matters subordinate to 
the exacting demands of her office as county superintendent, she has devoted 
her time and talents to the important task in hand, and has asked no higher 
reward than the conscientiousness of v\^ork well done in the promotion of 
the educational interests of the county. 

GEORGE CALVIN LEWIS.— The youngest in the family of twelve 
children whose parents were Benjamin F. and Alary (Anderson) Lewis and 
the only one of the entire num.ber to migrate to the Pacific coast, George 
Calvin Lewis was born at the old homestead near Bunker Hill, Berkeley 
county, W. Va., June 10, 1864, and became familiar with agricultural pursuits 
at an age when the majority of boys are free from responsibilities. As the 
eider children one by one started out to earn their livelihoods in the world 
he was left to assume more and more the management of the farm, whose 
cultivation he endeavored to promote in such a manner as to secure a liveli- 
hood for the remaining members of the family. From early youth he cherished 
an ambition to settle in the west, but it was not until 1891, at the age of 
twenty-seven years, that such a move was possible for him. Leaving the old 
home neighborhood he came alone to California and found employment at 
Fresno, whence after spending a year he removed to Mendocino county. 
Since 1892 he has made his home and headquarters in or near Willits, where 
in that year, on the 16th of November, he married Miss Carrie McKinley, a 
native daughter of the county, born at Ukiah, educated in local schools and 
with a large circle of intimate friends throughout this locality. During the 
early '50s her father, James McKinley, a Missourian by birth and parentage, 
came across the plains and settled in California. For a long period he and 
his wife, Sarah (Frost) McKinley, lived on a farm near Ukiah, but in 1884 
they established a home in Willits, wliere he died in 1909, and where Mrs. 
McKinley is still living. 

After an efficient service of twelve years as foreman for Hawley Bros. & 
Co., nurserymen, at Willits, Mr. Lewis then purchased his present home farm 
of fifty-five acres, situated one and one-half miles northeast of town, and here 
he has since made a specialty of raising potatoes. The soil is well adapted 
to the potato vine and he usually averages from seventy-five to one hundred 
sacks of spuds to the acre. Since coming on the farm he has been in the 
employ of the Northwestern Lumber Company at dift'erent times, but during 
the busy season on the farm he devotes his attention exclusively to the man- 
agement of the crops. In his family there are four children now living, 
George Calvin, Jr., Walter, Vivian and Georgia. One daughter, Virginia, 
died at the age of three years and four months. For a number of years Mr. 
Lewis served as school trustee in Little Lake district. The cause of free 


education has in him a firm advocate. He believes thoroughly in training 
the young for the responsibilities of life and favors any movement for raising 
the standard of education. Politically he votes with the Democratic party. 
In fraternal relations he is a Moose and a Mason, having been made a Mason 
in \^'illits Lodge, No. 365, F. & A. M., in which he is now junior warden. 
Both he and his wife are leading workers in the Willits Chapter, No. 314, 
Order of the Eastern Star, in which Mrs. Lewis is conductress. Not only in 
that organization, but also in general social circles, they are admired for their 
optimistic outlook upon life, their broad humanitarianism and their sincere 
fidelity to every duty of citizenship. 

EUGENE'eVE'rETT HOLBROOK.— The distinction of being the first 
Republican recorder ever elected in Mendocino county belongs to Eugene 
E. Holbrook, who in 1906 was selected by the Republican party as their 
candidate for the office and who, entering upon the campaign with an enthu- 
siasm and confidence surprising in view of the usual Democratic victories, won 
the election by a majority of more than six hundred votes, a striking tribute 
to the popularity of the man. A victory so important and noteworthy proved 
gratifying to members of the party as well as his personal friends. Nor was 
the success of his service less gratifying, for it brought about his re-election 
in 1910, and his second term happily has exhibited the same accuracy in de- 
tail, the same promptness in work and the same exactness in all records char- 
acteristic of the first term. The people have found him vigilant, tactful and 
politic, ready to use his business and official experience for the good of the 
county, interested in the promotion of worthy enterprises for the upbuilding 
of the county and in every respect a desirable citizen and able official. 

The father of our subject, also Eugene E. Holbrook, was born in Smelsers 
Grove, Grant county, Wis., and later in life was a merchant and farmer at 
Alden, Iowa. After a severe attack of pneumonia he was compelled in 1871 
to come to California for his health. Leaving his family to settle up his 
affairs he came to Potter valley in May of that year, but he had waited too 
long before coming, for he died August 10, following, two da)'s after the birth 
of the son who was named for him. The father of E. E. Holbrook, Sr., was 
Dr. Ora L. Holbrook, a practicing physician in Smelsers Grove, Wis., and 
his wife was Louise Hayes, the daughter of ex-President Rutherford B. Hayes. 
Mrs. Holbrook was before her marriage Susie Nash, a native of Illinois. As 
soon as it was possible to dispose of her affairs after the death of her hus- 
band, she brought her family to Potter valley, in May, 1873, that being the 
home of her mother and step-father. Life Farmer. Mrs. Holbrook's father, 
Robert Nash, served in the Civil war as a captain in an Illinois regiment and 
lost his life in service. His widow subsequently became the wife of Life 
Farmer; she passed away at Cloverdale. ]\Irs. Holbrook resided with Mr. 
and Mrs. Farmer until her second marriage, to William Wilson, after which 
they engaged in the merchandise business in Potter valley until their retire- 
ment to Ukiah, where they now live. 

Three children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Holbrook, Sr., and of these 
our subject is the only one living. He was born in Alden, Iowa, August 8, 
1871, and has lived in California since 1873, his earliest recollections being 
of Mendocino county. During boyhood he attended the district schools in 
Potter valley, completing his education by a course in the Ukiah Business 
College. His step-father, Mr. Wilson, owned one of the leading general stores 


in the valley and during vacations he assisted as a clerk, later giving his entire 
time to such work. For three years he clerked in the store of J. P. Hoffman 
in Ukiah, and meanwhile made many friends by his courteous attention to 
the needs of customers. A service of eight years as town treasurer of Potter 
valley increased his popularity and also gave him a knowledge of official 
duties, qualifying him for his present task as county recorder. Mr. Holbrook 
has again become interested in the business life of Potter valley, where with 
a partner, George P. Anderson, he owns a general merchandise store. While 
he owns valuable ranch land in the valley, he now makes his home at No. 
508 North State street, Ukiah, where the comfortable residence is presided 
over with gracious dignity by his wife, formerly !Miss Frances A. Busch. 
Her father, J. G. Busch, was one of the most highly honored and esteemed 
pioneers of Potter valley and she lived there prior to her marriage in 1896, 
as well as a number of years afterward. Three children bless the imion, viz.: 
Nina B., Helene L. and Eugene E., Jr. Fraternally Mr. Holbrook is past 
chancellor of Ukiah Lodge, No. 213, K. of P. : past captain of Schaffner Co., 
No. 26. U. R. K. P., and is acting adjutant of the Fifth Regiment, U. R. K. P. 
of California. He is a member of Ukiah Lodge No. 174, I. O. O. F., the Re- 
bekahs and the Ancient Order of Foresters, of which he is a past officer. 
With his wife he is a member of the First Christian Church of LTkiah and a 
member of its board of trustees. The history of the Holbrook family can 
be traced back to the early settlement of Pennsylvania, while the Nash fam- 
ily came from New England. 

JOSEPH T. BERRYHILL.— The history of the world with its age- 
long cycles of advancement shows no era more progressive than that which 
Mr. Berryhill has witnessed, and in which he has borne an honorable part. 
Ninety years have brought their remarkable changes since his eyes first 
opened to the Hght. His childhood belonged to that remote period when rail- 
roads and steamboats were in the infancy of their development, when tele- 
graph and telephone systems were unknown and free education had not been 
accepted as a policy of the government. At the time of his birth, which 
occurred in Greene county. Ohio, June 16, 1823, that commonwealth was 
situated at the very edge of civilization. Beyond it stretched the vast and 
desolate frontier, inhabited only by savages and wild animals. The popula- 
tion of the United States was approximately only ten millions, mostly on or 
near the Atlantic seaboard. The region west of the Mississippi river was 
known as the Great American desert. He was born some time before Oregon 
territory was added to our country and before Texas had been annexed to our 
domain ; the war with Mexico occurred when he was a young man. and when 
gold was discovered in California he was following the trade of a carpenter 
in Iowa. He recalls the time when Queen Victoria ascended the throne of 
England and when the first cable message was sent across the Atlantic ocean. 
He has lived to a serene old age in the possession of his faculties and still 
maintains a deep interest in local and public affairs, although it is no longer 
possible for him to participate in such movements. 

From 1840 to 1842 Mr. Berryhill lived in Indiana, where he learned the 
trade of a carpenter. Removing to Iowa in 1842, he followed the trade in that 
state until 1867, and from that year until 1875 he engaged in farming and 
carpentering in Missouri. Upon coming to California in 1875, he settled at 
Mendocino and followed his trade for two vears. The next two years were 


passed on a ranch at Caspar. During 1879 he moved to the vicinity of Ukiah 
and settled on a farm of one hundred and seventeen acres situated south of 
the town, where he engaged in general farming and hop-raising. The market 
for hops was variable. In some years he could scarcely meet expenses, so low 
was the price, while at other times he was paid as high as seventy-five cents 
per pound. In 1892 he sold the farm and bought land in Potter valley, but 
the encroachment of old age obliged him to retire from agricultural labors, 
and he then sold the property. Not only is he the oldest living Mason in 
Potter valley, but he also has the distinction of being the oldest member of 
the blue lodge in California. 

The first marriage of Mr. Berryhill was solemnized October 24, 1844, and 
united him with Jane Butler, who. was born in Wisconsin and died in Mis- 
souri on the 4th of July, 1867. His second marriage occurred August 7, 1868, 
his wife being Mrs. Cynthia (McBride) Falkenberry, who was born in Ken- 
tucky and died in California in 1896. March 9, 19C9, he married Mrs. Sarah 
A. (Roulston) Ingram, who crossed the plains in 1861 and settled in Sacra- 
mento county. By her former marriage she was the mother of three sons, 
Fred S., Charles W. (deceased) and George B. Ingram. The twelve children 
comprising the family of Mr. Berryhill were born of his first marriage. Six 
of these are now living, namely : Mrs. Celia Heath, of South Bend, Wash. ; 
Mrs. Laura Jones and Mrs. Alice Mitchell, both of Healdsburg, Cal. ; Thomas, 
who makes his home in Missouri; George, a resident of Fort Bragg; and 
Frank, of Geyserville, Sonoma county. A son, James, now deceased, enlisted 
in the Union army at the first call for volunteers in 1861 and served until the 
close of the Civil war, being in a number of important engagements under 
Generals Grant and Sherman. Mr. Berryhill is proud of his children and 
their high standing as citizens ; he is also very proud of the fact that he has 
fifty-four grandchildren and forty-six great-grandchildren now living. In 
the waning of life's busy day he finds comfort and happiness in the society of 
his wife and children, and in promoting the welfare of his descendants to the 
second and third generations. 

DAVID LEANDER SAWYERS.— Southern lineage is indicated by the 
Sawyers genealogy. Born, reared and married to Elizabeth King in Kentucky, 
Thomas Sawyers moved from that state to Missouri, where his wife died. 
In Clark county. Mo., June 5, 1850, he married Peggy Hay, a Virginian by 
birth, but from childhood a resident of Missouri. The discovery of gold had 
aroused a deep interest in the Pacific coast country and Mr. Sawyers was one 
of the thousands attracted to the west by its alluring promises to settlers. 
May 3, 1854, accompanied by his wife and two children, he started from the old 
Missouri home with o.x-teams, wagons, provisions and other necessities of 
the long overland trip. The tedious journey came to an end September 30, 
of the same year, with the arrival of the family in Grass valley, Nevada 
county, Cal., and at Rough and Ready, a prominent mining camp of the period, 
a son, David Leander, was born November 6, 1855. When this child was a 
year old the family removed to the vicinity of Petaluma, where Mr. Sawyers 
bought a claim and proved up on the same. Three times he was forced to pay 
for the four hundred acres included in the claim and even then he lost the 
property through later proof of the tract belonging to a large land grant. 
Forced to seek a new location, he brought his family to Little Lake valley, 
Mendocino county, January 31, 1857, and at once purchased one hundred and 


sixty acres one and one-half miles southeast of the present site of Willits. 
So sparsely settled was the country at the time that Mrs. Sawyers was the 
third white woman to establish a home in the valley. Farming and stock- 
raising were conducted upon an extensive scale and the original tract was 
enlarged through purchase until the home ranch finally embraced about one 
thousand acres. 

With all of the labor involved in the management of so large a stock 
ranch Mr. Sawyers found time for educational, religious, civic and fraternal 
associations' and for years was regarded as one of the leading citizens of the 
community, an influential Democrat, a deacon and trustee in the Baptist 
Church and a generous promoter of the public school system in the valley. 
Through the various degrees in Masonry he rose to the thirty-third, which 
was conferred upon him during a trip made for that purpose to Glasgow, 
Scotland. His death occurred at the ranch on Christmas day of 1879. For 
Tnany years he was survived by his wife, who passed away at Willits January 
18, 1914. Of their seven children the two eldest were born in Missouri, namely : 
Marshall N., now of Ukiah ; and Mrs. Annie O. Simonson, of Willits. The 
others are natives of California, namely: David Leander, whose home is at 
the head of Redwood avenue in Willits; Mrs. Fannie Hicks, of Santa Barbara; 
Wade Hampton, of Fresno; George Edwin, of Santa Barbara; and Robert 
L., of Willits. The earliest memories of David Leander Sawyers are asso- 
ciated with Little Lake valley. On reaching man's estate he became manager 
of the homestead and continued there until 1879, when at the age of twenty- 
four he embarked in general contracting for the building of roads in Men- 
docino county. Since then he has built many roads both in mountains and 
in valleys. Among his contracts were those for roads over Redwood moun- 
tain, from Hardy to Juan creek, from Sherwood to Fort Bragg, twenty-three 
miles down the Eel river for the Northwestern Pacific Railroad, a portion of 
the state highway and numerous other important projects. Meanwhile until 
quite recently he engaged in farming and stock-raising on the old Baechtel 
ranch, but this enterprise has been sold in order that he might devote his 
attention wholly to road building. 

The marriage of Mr. Sawyers and Miss Sarah E. Whited was solemnized 
at Willits November 5, 1876, and resulted in two children, the daughter being 
Mrs. Fannie Belle Rogers, of Willits ; the son, Louis D., is an assistant 
of his father in the contracting business. Mrs. Sawyers was next to the young- 
est among the seven survivors in a family that originally numbered twelve 
children, whose parents. Doc Anderson and Sarah (Bishop) Whited, on coming 
to California purchased the first through tickets sold from Burlington to Sac- 
ramento over the Central Pacific Railroad. The family settled on a ranch in 
Little Lake valley, jXIendocino county, where both Mr. and Mrs. Whited 
remained until death. The latter was a Virginian by birth and a member 
of an old southern family. In politics Mr. Sawyers votes with the Democratic 
party. Besides two terms as city trustee he has served several terms as a mem- 
ber of the board of education. Well known in fraternal activities he has been 
connected with the Ancient Order of United Workmen and the Woodmen of 
the World. In 1876 he was initiated into Willits Lodge No. 277, I. O. O. F., 
in which he has officiated as noble grand and representative to the grand 
lodge. In Masonry he is identified with Willits Lodge No. 365, F. & A. M. 
For some years he has been interested in the work of the Rebekahs, in which 



Mrs. Sawyers is past noble grand and ex-district deputy, being a leading 
worker in the order and well posted in its ritual observances. Besides being 
one of the most prominent Rebekahs in the county she is keenly interested in 
religious work and has been identified for years with the Baptist Church at 
Willits, a generous assistant in its charities and a promoter of its missionary 

CHARLES WILLIAM MATHEWS.— To direct the organization of a 
banking institution is no slight task and even greater difficulty attends the 
early history of the concern, which must be guided by wise hands and devel- 
oped by intelligent minds broad in their outlook, yet capable of infinite pains 
v>?ith details. The Fort Bragg Commercial Bank has a sound financial basis, 
due to the executive ability of its officers, who direct the policy of the con- 
cern wisely, energetically and forcefully. The structure on Main street occu- 
pied by the bank has an equipment modern, substantial and complete, in- 
cluding large fireproof safes, twentieth-century fixtures and model accessories. 
Organized in March of 1912 and opened for business on the 1st of May fol- 
lowing, with a capital stock of $50,000, the bank has prospered from the start 
and within the first year its deposits had increased more than $100,000. The 
officers and directors, who also were the organizers of the institution, are as 
follows: C. W. Mathews, president; David Brandon, vice-president; H. P. 
Preston, cashier; J. W. Preston, B. A. Lendrum, M. H. Iversen and L. C. 

From the age of seven years, in 1870, Mr. Mathews has been a resident 
of California and of Mendocino county, having come here with other mem- 
bers of the family from his native city of Ottawa, Canada. The early home 
ot the family in the west was at Caspar, where the father engaged on timber 
contracts in the redwoods, the son assisting him in logging camps or work- 
ing in saw mills during the vacation period of school life. On completing 
the studies of the common schools he secured a clerkship in the Bank of Men- 
docino and from that city in 1891 came to Fort Bragg to enter the employ 
of the Union Lumber Company, in whose office he has risen from a humble 
place to the responsible post of cashier. In addition to his banking business 
he still acts as cashier of the company with which he has been identified for 
more than a score of years and which justly may attribute to him much of 
its local strength and stability. 

The marriage of Mr. Mathews united him with Miss Carrie Blake, a 
native of Massachusetts, and their union has been blessed with three chil- 
dren, William C, Inez A. and Phyllis M. Mr. Mathews was made a Mason 
in Fort Bragg Lodge No. 361, F. & A. M., and is a member of Mendocino 
Chapter, R. A. M., Santana Tribe No. 60, I. O. R. M., and with his wife 
is a member of Sapphire Chapter, O. E. S., of which he is past patron. Always 
interested in the cause of education, he has served for over ten years as a 
member of the board of school trustees of Fort Bragg and has been secre- 
tary of the board. He is an active member of the Baptist Church, and has 
served as a member of the board of deacons as well as on the board of trustees. 
Efficient in business, keen in financial dealings, devoted in friendships and 
loyal in citizenship, he belongs to that class of people whose presence has 
been helpful to Mendocino county and whose progressive spirit has aided in 
its commercial development. 


HON. LILBURN W. BOGGS.— The life which began in Lexington, Ky., 
January 14, 1798, and closed in Napa county, Cal., March 19, 1861, was lifted 
out of the ordinary routine by the romance of war service, of political turmoil 
and of victorious achievement. While ex-Governor Boggs is claimed in the 
annals of Missouri as one of the early governors of that commonwealth and 
as a leader during the dangerous period of JNIormon hostilities, his name also is 
identified with the pioneer period of western development and with the open- 
ing of an overland trail for emigrants prior to the discovery of gold. Much 
as he loved Missouri and dear as was the home of that interesting and event- 
ful period of his career, he developed an attachment equally deep for the 
California home of his last years and experienced the gratification common 
to all high-principled men when success in the west enabled him to pay to the 
last penny the large indebtedness into which he had been plunged by reason 
of the great panic of the latter '30s. To retrieve these losses in his own state 
had seemed impossible, so at an age when many men would have feared 
launching their bark in a strange stream he came across the plains to make 
a new financial start in the world. The subsequent discovery of gold aided 
him greatly in his business afifairs and enabled him to make good the losses 
of the past, besides leaving him a competency for his declining days. It was 
given to him to devote to California about fourteen years of stirring activity 
and then his health began to fail, dropsy of the heart developed and after 
suffering for more than a year he passed from pain into the peace of eternity. 

The Boggs family originally settled on the eastern shore of Maryland, 
hut during the latter part of^ the eighteenth century John M. and Martha 
(Oliver) Boggs sought a home in the then unsettled regions of Kentucky, 
where the former died in young manhood, leaving a son Lilburn W., to take 
up the burden of self-support in boyhood years. To this lad destiny brought 
an early experience in warfare. At the age of sixteen he enlisted in the war 
of 1812 and under Capt. Levi Todd, of Fayette county, Ky.. he spent eighteen 
months at the front, taking part in the battle of the Thames or Tippecanoe be- 
sides other minor engagements. On his return he became a bookkeeper in 
the old Insurance Bank of Kentucky, but at the age of eighteen went to St. 
Louis and from there removed to Franklin on the Missouri river, opposite 
the present site of Boonville. Later he was stationed at Fort Osage as deputy 
factor for paying Indians their annuities, ^^'hile in St. Louis he had married 
Miss Julia Bent, daughter of Judge Silas Bent, and she died early in 1821, 
leaving two sons, Angus and Henry Carroll. In addition to the work at 
Fort Osage he engaged in business for a time at Marias DuCene. While the 
family were living at the latter post his elder son had a narrow escape from 
death. The two small boys, Angus and Henry Carroll, were amusing them- 
selves sliding on the ice, when the elder slid a little too far and fell into the 
opening. The swift current swept him down under the ice to a point where 
there was an air-hole. .An old Indian, whose wigwam was near by, witnessed 
the accident. Without a moment's hesitancy he seized a rail, ran down on the 
ice, laid flat on his body, shoved the rail along in front of him over the thin 
ice and finally reached the spot where the small boy was becoming exhausted 
from the cold and from his vain efforts to retain a hold on the breaking ice. 
Reaching out with great care the Indian grasped the child, hauled him on the 
ice and bore him to safety, then stalked oflf to his wigwam with as little 
concern as though he had not risked his life in a most dangerous and coura- 


geous act. The father of the child was known as the "Big Trader" among 
the Indians and he at once sent for the rescuer, thanked him most earnestly and 
inquired as to how he could reward him. Pointing to a huge pile of trade 
blankets the Indian replied "One blanket." Such was the gratitude of the 
father that the Indian not onl}' received one blanket, but as many as he 
could carry and other articles dear to the heart of a savage were also heaped 
upon him. 

The second marriage of ex-Governor Boggs was solemnized in 1823 and 
united him with Panthea G. Boone, daughter of Jesse Boone and grand- 
daughter of the famous old Kentucky pioneer, Daniel Boone. A new home 
was established at Harmony, Mo., on the Neosho, a branch of the Osage 
river, at which point Mr. Boggs was engaged, in trading with the Indians for 
furs and pelts. The first child of the second marriage was born at Harmony, 
Thomas Oliver Boggs, a comrade of Kit Carson on the plains and for more 
than forty years a resident of Las Animas, Colo., and engaged as a trader 
among the Indians as an agent of the great Bent's organization of furriers. 
From the post at Harmony the family removed to Six Mile Settlement in 
Jackson county. Mo., where in October, 1826, occurred the birth of the second 
son, William M. Boggs, also a plainsman and later captain of the emigrant 
train to California. From Six Mile Settlement the family removed to Inde- 
pendence, where i\Ir. Boggs engaged in the mercantile business. All of the 
children of his second marriage were born in Jackson county with the excep- 
tion of a son, George W., whose birthplace was JeiTerson City. 

The personal qualities of Mr. Boggs were so attractive, his intellect so 
profound and his interest in the state so great that naturally he rose to influ- 
ence. After serving as representative, senator and lieutenant-governor he 
was honored with the office of governor. After the burning of the old state 
house he was engaged to visit the east and purchase supplies for the com- 
pletion of the new capitol, a splendid structure for those times, begun about 
1837 and finished in 1840, constructed of white freestone, with six granite 
columns in front, thirty feet between cap and base, six feet in diameter, and 
placed in a circle at the main entrance, over which on a stone slab appear the 
names of Governor Boggs and the other state officers. His service as governor 
was filled with anxiety and trouble, but he persisted in independent appoint- 
ments despite of enmity aroused. He was no weakling, to be controlled by 
party machinery. Dissensions arose with leading statesmen who regarded 
themselves as supreme in power, but no criticism could turn him from a 
course he believed to be right. His frontier friends and backwoods associates 
n'ere treated with a hospitality gracious and cordial; the poor were welcomed 
to his home with as much tact and kindness as the rich received. Many a man 
was indebted to him for a start that in after years led him to fortune and 
success. His greatest trouble as governor was with the Mormons, who had 
formerly lived near Independence, Mo., but after hostilities that threatened the 
shedding of blood had been exiled, retreating to Nauvoo on the Mississippi 
river in Illinois. The later troubles of this sect in Illinois are a matter of 
history and only terminated with the shooting of Joe Smith in the Hancock 
county jail in Carthage and with the exile of the Mormons to the then desert 
of Utah. Meanwhile the activity of Governor Boggs in causing their removal 
from Missouri had embittered Smith and he had prophesied that the Governor 
would die of violence within twelve months. Shortly after that prophecy Orin 


Porter Rockwell had attempted to assassinate the Governor, who by the 
merest chance escaped death. Two balls lodged in the left side of his brain, 
one lodged in the fleshy part of his neck and one passed through the hollow of 
the neck and came out at the roof of the mouth. The attempted murder pros- 
trated him for a year, but did not prevent his election to the senate and his 
splendid service in behalf of his district in that body. 

On completion of his service as senator ex-Governor Boggs settled on a 
farm near Independence, thence went into that town and later purchased a 
farm in Cass county, but the death of his eldest daughter, Martha, at that place 
caused him to become dissatisfied and he returned to Independence. Mean- 
while a number of his friends had investigated the country west of the Rocky 
mountains and had given favorable accounts of natural resources and cli- 
mate, but doubted the advisability of families attempting to cross through the 
unexplored intervening country. Captain Rickman, who had been west as far 
as Yerba Buena (now San Francisco) advocated the idea of a trans-continental 
railroad and he and the Governor would converse for hours over the feasi- 
bility of such an enterprise. As early as 1842 the Governor wrote an article 
on the subject addressed to Shadwick Penn, then the editor of the St. Louis 
Republic. The article described an overland route for the railroad via Santa 
Fe (much the line later taken by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe) with the 
exception that his starting point was to be Independence, Mo., and his ter- 
minus, San Diego, Cal. His estimate of the cost of construction was based on 
such cost in Pennsylvania and was remarkably near the true cost of the 
later undertaking. The original article on the subject is still preserved and 
is in the possession of the Sonoma Pioneer Society. 

Against the advice of many timid and conservative counselors the Gov- 
ernor determined to migrate to California. His eldest sons. Angus and Henry 
Carroll, who were married and living on farms in Jackson county, did not 
care to accompany him, although the latter followed in 1850. The eldest child 
of the second marriage had gone to Bent's ford and so it was the fourth son, 
\\"illiam M.. who had charge of the expedition which left Independence May 
10, 1846. Just before starting William M. Boggs married Sonora Hicklin, 
daughter of John Hicklin, who in early life had been an intimate friend of the 
Governor and his comrade on expeditions among the Indians. At Ash Hollow 
on the Nebraska river William M. Boggs was chosen captain of the party 
which included about one hundred families. The wisdom of the choice was 
proved by the success of a most dangerous trip. All of his party reached their 
destinations in safety with the exception of the Donner family and their imme- 
diate friends, who decided to take a cut-off against which the captain advised. 
Their terrible sufferings in the Sierra Nevada mountains and their subse- 
quent fate are matters of history. Being an expert marksman Captain Boggs 
supplied the large expedition with buffalo-meat and other game and was 
therefore exceedingly popular, besides which he showed the pluck in hard- 
ships that invariably wins admiration from others. 

Previous to the arrival of the Missourians in the Sacramento valley in 
November, 1846, they were met by Colonel Fallon of the Fremont part}-, who 
Informed them that the American flag was flying in California and that 
recruits were being gathered for the army of Colonel Fremont. Later Gen- 
eral Vallejo tendered the ex-Governor the use of his house on the Petaluma 
rancho and there the family spent the wet winter in 1846, with no society 


except an occasional visit from the General. In the spring the Governor 
entered into merchandising in Sonoma, where Colonel Mason, the military 
governor of California, appointed him alcalde of the northern district, his 
jurisdiction to extend to Sacramento and to include Sutter's Fort, thence 
extending northward to the Oregon line and down the coast to the bay, 
including all of the country north of the bay of San Francisco. Among the 
duties of the alcalde was the performance of marriage ceremonies and fre- 
quently Governor Boggs rode thirty or more miles in order to officiate at 
weddings. He read the service at the marriage of Dr. Robert Semple, the 
founder of Benicia, and Miss Frances Cooper, daughter of Stephen Cooper, 
who erected in 1848 the first hotel at Benicia. He also united in marriage 
William Edgington and Nancy Grigsby, daughter of Capt. John Grigsby, of 
the Bear Plag party ; also many other young couples of pioneer prominence. 
Other duties of the office of alcalde included the trying of cases and the 
maintenance of order, with authority to call on the military if necessary. It 
happened that in one case Captain Sutter had been ordered to appear before the 
court, but instead of responding in person he sent an Indian with gold dust 
amounting to about $300, stating that gold had been discovered on the Ameri- 
can river and his business was of such importance that he could not obey th? 
summons. This was the first news received at Sonoma concerning that most 
interesting event. People at once rushed for the mines, but the Governor 
continued at Sonoma, took charge of gold dust for returning miners, built up 
a very large trade as merchant and in a few years had amassed a small for- 
tune. In 1852 he sent two sons to Missouri to buy fine stock and in that way 
some splendid Durham cattle were brought into Napa county that proved 
most valuable in the future history of the stock industry there. His last years 
were passed happily on his farm in Napa valley and at death his body was 
mterred in the Tulucay cemetery in that county, where his wife, who passed 
away September 23, 1880, was buried by his side. Many of the most im- 
portant state papers of Governor Boggs were lost or destroyed by fire, a fact 
greatly deplored by the representatives of the present generation as well as by 
patriots interested in the preservation of early history. One of the docu- 
ments still in existence, dated at Copenhagen, April 21, 1840, and signed by 
the Royal Society of Northern Antiquarians, informs him of his election as a 
member of that society, organized in furtherance of the perpetuation of pre- 
Columbian history of America. The letter is partly in the Danish language 
and is a beautiful specimen of penmanship, signed by the president as well as 
the secretary, and bearing the legal seal of the society. By chance this docu- 
ment has been preserved, while many other papers equally interesting and 
perhaps even more important, have passed out of existence, depriving the fam- 
ily of the pleasure of a complete understanding of events entering into the 
history of this pioneer governor and shaping his policy in public affairs. 
Enough, however, has been preserved to indicate his forceful intellect, splen- 
did capacity for leadership, intelligent .grasp of national issues and rare devo- 
tion to his country and his home. 

CAPTAIN JOHN KAY ERASER.— There is hardly a better known 
resident along the shores of Clear lake, in Lake county, than Captain Fraser, 
who came to this region almost fifty years ago, in 1866, and has lived here 
almost continuously since. He is one of the forceful characters which are 
necessary to the successful development of a section in its early days, and he 


has continued to occupy an important position in his community to the 
present, his high standing as a business man, influence in civic matters and 
personal integrity being of definite vakie in promoting its welfare. As a 
typical representative of the Highland Scotch race from which he springs, it 
might be expected that he would possess the qualities of physical hardiness 
and mental fitness which have distinguished its scions for generations. In 
.T maternal line he is descended directl}' from a sister of Lovat, who fomented 
the last Jacobite uprising. After Lovat was beheaded his sister crossed the 
Atlantic to the new world, settling in Nova Scotia, and her posterity inter- 
married with the Erasers. 

Hugh Eraser, grandfather of Captain Eraser, came to Nova Scotia from 
Scotland, and there his son, Hugh Smith Eraser, the Captain's father, lived 
and died. The latter fought in the Erench-English war. He married Mrs. 
Hannah (McKenzie) McKay, who also passed all her life in Nova Scotia, 
and who was a member of a family as famous in Canada as her husband's, 
the McKenzie river in British America, which drains the great Arctic slope, 
being named for her family, while the Eraser river is so called in memory of 
the family here under consideration. There are no names in the great north- 
west of more historic importance, and few of the explorers whose deeds are 
known have been more honored. Hugh Smith Eraser died at the age of sixty 
years, his wife at the age of sixty-eight. She had four children by her first 
husband. John George, Roderick. Carmichael and Christobal ; and nine by her 
marriage to Mr. Eraser, viz.: Alexander, Elizabeth, Anna B., Sarah. Robert, 
Smith, Mary, Thomas and John Kay. Duncan Eraser, one of the governors 
of Halifax, was a cousin of Mr. Eraser. 

John Kay Eraser was born at New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, December 2, 
1844, and his educational advantages were meager, as he grew up in a stony 
region still in its pioneer state, and the nearest school was two miles distant. 
Until sixteen years of age he lived on his father's farm, from that time until 
he was twenty serving an apprenticeship to the trade of carpenter and builder 
on the island of Cape Breton. Then he went to New York Cit)^ to follow his 
trade, and after remaining there one spring and one summer proceeded to 
Charleston. S. C, and Savannah. Ga., whence he returned to New York. 
Meantime he was employed as a journeyman carpenter. In the early fall of 
1866 he set out from New York for California, going b}^ the Nicaragua route 
and arriving at San Francisco in October of that year. Again he went to 
work at his trade, and his employer, William Murdock, needing a man to 
come up to Lake county to build a dredge on Borax lake, sent him. He arrived 
here in December and at once commenced the construction of a steam dredge, 
the first of its kind ever built in the county, and used in the dredging of 
Borax lake. His work on the dredge and around the borax mine lasted 
twenty-three months, until the borax was exhausted, after which he went to 
the silver mines at Hamilton, Nev. Returning to San Erancisco after six 
months' work in the silver mines, he resumed carpentry in that city, doing 
general building work until he decided to come back to Lake county in 1870. 
For a year or so he was engaged in mining and refining sulphur at Sulphur 
Banks, in 1871 buying some land at Elgin Point to the improvement of which 
he devoted about a year. Selling it in 1872, he turned his attention more par- 
ticularly to the boat business, with which he has ever since been associated. 
In May, 1873. he went to San Erancisco to get a steam launch for Capt. R. S. 


Floyd. She was first called the Hallie, after Captain Floyd's daughter, was 
afterward rebuilt and renamed the Hazel, and in 1913 was bought by Captain 
Anderson, of Lakeport, who changed her name to the Bartlett, as she is now 
known. All these years she has been sailing the waters of Clear lake. Cap- 
tain Fraser continued in Captain Floyd's employ for a period of eighteen 
years, taking full charge of all his land holdings, aggregating between seven 
hundred and eight hundred acres, and also looking after the Bellvenue resort 
at Lakeport. wliich had a successful career under his management. About 
1892 he did some gold mining in Arizona, but he retained his California prop- 
erty, having a home ranch of one hundred and sixty acres of which he held 
the ownership until he sold in 1905, the year he came to his present prop- 
erty, which was formerly the Blunt place. He also took up one hundred and 
twenty acres on University scrip, but has sold some of this land, having at 
present one hundred and fifty acres, lying in what is known as the Mountain 
District precinct (formerly the North Kelseyville precinct). The tract has 
a frontage of about forty rods on Clear lake, and the Captain has established 
a complete boatbuilding plant there, having a boathouse, a place to build and 
repair boats, a marine railroad for the convenient hauling in of launches to 
]>e repaired, and a well equipped machine shop. As a boatbuilder he has a 
reputation equaled by few. In 1874 he built the City of Lakeport for Captain 
Floyd, the largest steamboat ever on Clear lake and in her day the fastest 
boat in the world in her class, her speed being between seventeen and 
eighteen miles an hour. She measured seventy-four feet over all, with a nine- 
loot beam. The Henrietta, a gasoline launch constructed in 1906, was the 
first boat the Captain built at his present place. In 1907 he built the Hiesther, 
the fastest boat on the lake at that time, which in June, 1907, won the silver 
cup in a race with the Battee and the Vaslav, the latter Gopcivich's boat. 
Again in 1909 she won the cup, and she has had another victory since, holding 
the record on Clear lake yet. 

In the spring of 1900 Captain Fraser went up to Alaska, returning in the 
fall. He was engaged in dredging at Nome, working for "Borax" Smith's 
brother, B. G. Smith. Though now seventy years of age. Captain Fraser is 
as robust and active as ever, and his success in recent years in motorboat 
building is conclusive evidence that he has not fallen behind the times in any 
degree in the business which has won him such high reputation and afforded 
him so much pleasure. It has always been his pride to keep in the lead in 
this respect as he began, for the steamboat he brought here from San Fran- 
cisco for Captain Floyd was the first on the lake ; he ran her for several years. 
His present home is beautifully situated, adjoining the fine property of Cap- 
tain Behr on the west, and like that place is ideally located, being no less 
remarkable for grandeur of scenery than for the mild climate which is the 
result of its protected position on the east side of Mt. Konocti, with the hot 
springs of Clear lake to further modify the temperature. Captain Fraser was 
well adapted by nature for the hardships of pioneer life, coming of stock whose 
lastes led them to exploration and blazing the way for the less venturesome, 
snd he has survived the privations and toil of the early days with constitution 
and health unimpaired. His upright life has earned him the thorough respect 
of all who know him. 

In Lakeport in October, 1874, Captain Fraser married ^liss Clara Lyon, 
sister of George A. Lvon, horticultural commissioner of Lake county, and she 


died leaving five children: Lyon, who is at present serving as sheriff of Lake 
county ; Richard Floyd, who is engaged in farming in Oregon ; Lovett K., an 
attorney, of San Francisco; Yolland L, an electrical engineer, who resides 
at Lakeport ; and Clara, a graduate of the University of California, 1914. The 
present Mrs. Fraser was in her maidenhood Miss Elizabeth Paul, a native of 
Rothiemay, Banffshire, Scotland (but reared in Aberdeen), who came to 
A^ictoria, British Columbia, from that country in 1904, and from Victoria to 
California with her brother, Dr. Ellis Paul, and sister, Jane Paul, who were 
the lessees of Buckingham Park, Lake county, for five years, 1905 to 1910. 
They were married at Buckingham Park in January, 1907. Mrs. Eraser's 
intelligence, hospitality and sincerity of character have won her many friends 
in the neighborhood of her home. In religious views Mr. and Mrs. Fraser are 

JOHN P. HOFFMAN.— The memorable summer of 1849 brought a mot- 
ley throng of Argonauts across the plains, men young and old, high and low, 
vi every occupation and profession, and in all of this vast army of emigrants 
perhaps none was more alert of perception, more capable in action or more sin- 
cere of purpose than John P. Hoffman, a stalwart young man of twenty-three 
years, whose savings from a small salaried position as school teacher were 
devoted to transportation expenses on that long and eventful journey. Born 
near Milton, Pa.. December 5, 1825, there had been no occurrence of especial 
interest in his boyhood and youth, which had been passed in a quiet routine of 
liome duties and school attendance. More fortunate than some of those early 
miners, he secured some returns in his mining operations and after he had 
engaged in placer mining at Sonora, Weaverville and Placerville until he had 
accumulated over $2000 in gold, he fastened $1500 of his precious treasure 
in a belt around his body and started for the east. The sailing vessel, Trescot, 
in the voyage from San Francisco to the Isthmus, was becalmed for thirteen 
days, so that the harbor was not reached until some time later than was usual 
for that voyage. However, he eventually reached his destination and invested 
his gold in merchandise in Chicago and Milwaukee, shipping the stock of 
goods to Lena, 111. From there a few years later he moved his stock to 
Springville, Linn county, Iowa, where he opened a store. The business flour- 
ished to a satisfactory degree, but his mind reverted so frequently to the sights 
and scenes of California that he finally determined to return to the coast. 
Meanwhile he had married in Springville Iowa, Miss Jane B. Kirkwood, a 
native of Elkhart county, Ind., and a school teacher. 

The family consisting of husband and wife and infant child left Iowa 
April 19, 1860, and arrived at lone, Amador county, Cal., August 19 following, 
after a tedious and eventful trip across the plains. The first location was near 
lone on a well improved farm which proved a successful undertaking. Next, 
removal was made to Mendocino county, where Mr. Hoffman selected Ukiah 
as a location especially desirable by reason of its healthful climate. Near the 
town he selected and purchased a tract of seven hundred and forty acres, 
known as the old John Hopper ranch. This property had one of the very first 
orchards planted in the valley and he added to the same by the planting of 
fruit trees of choice varieties. Much of the land was covered with brush. It 
was possible at that time to engage Indians to clear off the brush. The land 
cleared, he took up the task of cultivation and in this he was uniformly suc- 
cessful. For years grain formed his principal crop. The entire ranch was 


fenced under his personal supervision and at heavy expense. Later he bought 
mountain land suitable for the pasturage of his herds of cattle. The man- 
agement of the large ranch did not represent the limit of his activities. With 
characteristic energy he threw himself into many movements for the upbuild- 
ing of the community. Seeing the need of a substantial financial concern, he 
was one of the promoters of the Bank of Ukiah and was the first president of 
the institution. From that time until his death in February of 1903 he con- 
tinued as a director of the bank and his high standing gave weight and 
solidity to the institution. In order to oversee his large business interests he 
moved from the ranch into Ukiah, where he bought a residence and conducted 
a general mercantile business. He believed thoroughly in the public schools 
and served acceptably as trustee of his district. The Republican party received 
his ballot in local and national elections. For years he was one of the largest 
contributors to the Methodist Episcopal Church of Ukiah and that denomina- 
tion had in him one of its most loyal supporters and leading local workers. He is 
survived by his widow, who resides on the old homestead, surrounded by 
members of her family and friends. She is a woman of large information and 
a strong character, and it was largely due to her perception, assistance and 
wise counsel that Mr. HoiTman met with such splendid success. It was also 
due to her oversight and supervision of the children's studies that they ob- 
tained their good educations, and the moral training which they received 
made them citizens of worth, and men and women of the highest ideals. 

There were eight children in the family of the late John P. HoiTman. 
Of these four survive, viz. : Mrs. Emily J. Pettis, Mrs. Ella McKinley, Mrs. 
Nellie Sanford and John Hofifman. The first-named in 1876 became the wife 
of Charles E. Pettis, who was born at Somerset, Bristol county, Mass., Febru- 
ary 12, 1854, and received a seminary education in the old Bay state, supple- 
mented by attendance at the University of the Pacific at San Jose, Cal., in 
1873. A year after his arrival in the west he came to Ukiah and since then 
(1874) hehas been more or less identified with this section of the state. After 
a term of service as bookkeeper with his brother, W. H. Pettis, and a period 
of business association with J. P. Hofifman, he accepted the advice of friends 
and relinquished business for a ministerial career. After four years of theo- 
logical study in the Methodist Episcopal conference, he was ordained to the 
ministry of the Gospel and admitted to the conference. For twenty-seven 
years he preached the Gospel in Marin, Amador, Santa Clara, Monterey and 
Mendocino counties. Eventually in 1912 he retired from the ministry and 
erected a house on the ranch of ninety acres at Talmage near Ukiah, where 
he and his wife have since given their attention to the improvement of the 
property and the building up of a remunerative ranch. Their sons have left 
the home roof to take up life's activities, the eldest, John A., having entered 
the law as an attorney at Fort Bragg, while Charles H. has engaged in ranch- 
ing and cattle-raising in Arizona and Edward V. is clerking in San Francisco. 
The youngest, Ashley B., a musical genius whose talents have been developed 
through study in Europe, now conducts a studio in San Francisco, where 
he ranks among the leading pianists and composers and where his remarkable 
musical memory and unerring accuracy in the art have elicited the most 
flattering comments from the press. Alice is at home. 


EUGENE McPEAK.— The history of the :\IcPeak family in America 
is indicative of that strong pioneer temperament which led the march of 
colonization from the Atlantic seaboard by successive steps across the con- 
tinent to the Pacific coast. It was Henry McPeak who transplanted the name 
from North Carolina to Tennessee, Vv-here he settled on a plantation in Ruther- 
ford county and married Nancy Fain, a native of Virginia. In their young 
married life they became pioneers of Arkansas, where he developed a tract 
of wild land into a productive plantation. On that ranch, situated near 
Osceola, a son, Eugene, was born March 4, 1837. From Arkansas the family 
crossed the line into Missouri during 1840 and settled on an unimproved 
tract of land thirty miles from the nearest school. There were two sons in 
the family, Eugene and Peter, the latter now a resident of Guerneville, Sonoma 
county, Cal. It was impossible for the boys to attend school owing to the 
great distance. Nor had they the advantage of education through contact 
with neighbors, for settlers were few and they were isolated to a degree un- 
common even in that pioneer period. Fortunately, the mother was a woman 
of culture and had received an excellent education in an academy near Mur- 
freesboro, Tenn., so that she was able to instruct her sons in the public-school 
branches as well as impress deeply upon their consciousness the necessity of 
honor, integrity and industry. 

The father died on the home farm near New Madrid, AIo., in 1848, and 
in 1852 the mother came to California, where she died at Willits at the age 
of seventy-five years. At the time of crossing the plains with an ox-team 
train, Eugene McPeak, then a rugged, stalwart youth of fifteen years, was 
given the charge of the cattle, and he drove the herd all the way across the 
plains until they were sold to a trader at the sink of the Humboldt. Arriving 
at Placerville he found work. In 1854 he went to Plumas county and there 
and in Sierra county he engaged in mining with fair success until 1857, when 
he took up government land four miles west of Santa Rosa. With the aid 
of his mother he proved up on a tract, which he devoted to general farming 
and stock-raising. When that place was sold he bought three hundred and 
twenty acres in the same vicinity. The latter farm he operated until 1877, 
when he sold out and came to Little Lake valley, Mendocino county. Here 
he bought and improved a farm of two hundred and eighty acres five miles 
southeast of W'illits. About sixty acres were put under cultivation to grain 
and hay, but the principal acreage was devoted to range for cattle, sheep and 
hogs. In 1910 he sold the farm and retired to Willits, where he owns an acre 
homestead on Humboldt street, with an irrigation plant for fruit and vege- 
tables made possible by an electric motor of standard make. 

At Santa Rosa, Cal., June 19, 1870. Air. McPeak married Miss Mary J. 
Norris, who was born in Bloomfield, Davis county, Iowa, and came across 
the plains in 1859 with her parents, Charles and Martha (Harris) Norris, 
natives of Ohio, .\fter successive temporar)^ sojourns in Missouri and Iowa, 
Mr. Norris had decided to migrate to California and brought his family west 
with wagons and ox-teams as well as a drove of cattle. At the expiration of 
six months he landed in California and took up government land six miles 
from Santa Rosa, where he developed a farm and remained until his death. 
His widow is still a resident of Sonoma county. Of their seven children six 
are still living, Mrs. McPeak being the eldest of the number. For years she 
has been an earnest worker in the Christian Church, in the Rebekahs and in 


Willits Lodge No. 314, Order of Eastern Star. Together with Mr. McPeak 
she has been a capable worker in the interests of education and for twenty 
years served on the board of education in Whitcomb district. When the 
high-school board was organized and the building erected, Mr. McPeak was 
a member of the board, and his efficient services in that capacity covered 
eight years. For four years he was a member of the board of trustees of 
Willits and during two years of the time he was honored with the chairman- 
ship. In politics he votes with the Democratic party. He was made a 
Mason in Lafayette Lodge No. 126, F. & A. M., at Sebastopol, and later 
became a charter member of Willits Lodge No. 365, F. & A. M., besides which 
he has been interested in the Eastern Star. The soul of honor in all the 
relationships of life, he has formed heart to heart links stretching out into 
a circle of friendships which encompass every locality in which he has lived. 
Everyone speaks well of his fine qualities of character. While his life has 
been quiet and unmarked by stirring events, it has been none the less very 
useful to his community. Through high principles of honor and generosity 
of soul he has stood foremost among the citizens pledged to the welfare of town 
and county and instrumental in promoting enterprises of permanent value 
to both. 

DAVID FRANKLIN, M. D. — From the time when, a lad of fourteen 
years, Dr. Franklin arrived in New York City December 1, 1870, alone and 
friendless, with no means of support except such as his own energy made 
possible, he has traveled widely and met with many thrilling experiences, the 
jnost harrowing and disastrous of which were associated with the San Fran- 
cisco earthquake in 1906. A native of this country, born at Brooklyn (Old 
Williamsburg), N. Y., May 16, 1855, he was only two years of age when his 
father, John, returned to Sweden, the land of his birth, and took up mercantile 
enterprises at Tursby, so that the Doctor's earliest recollections cluster around 
the home of his ancestors. Conditions there, however, were not to his liking 
and at the age of fourteen he ran away from home, coming back to the land 
of his birth and earning a livelihood through the selling of papers. Industry 
and energy enabled him to pay his way through the night high school in 
New York City. Although fairly well educated by this course of study, he 
was not content until he had taken a complete medical course. As early as 
1873 when eighteen years of age he matriculated in the medical department of 
New York University. His own efforts defrayed all the expenses of the 
course and in 1878 he received the degree of M. D., after having paid all ex- 
penses in connection with a thorough medical education. It was his good 
fortune to have among his preceptors Dr. Plummer, a surgeon of national 

Shortly after his arrival in San Francisco, October 22, 1879, Dr. Franklin 
opened an office at Sixth and Market streets. The interests of health forced 
him to later relinquish his practice and seek the benefits of an outdoor occu- 
pation, for which purpose he rode the range in Wyoming. The year thus 
spent was filled with exciting incidents, but repaid him through the restora- 
tion of his health. Next he enlisted in the United States navy as a member 
of the Rogers expedition in search of the crew of the Janet. The course of 
the long voyage took them into the Arctic ocean above Point Barrows and 
there they met with a serious misfortune in the burning of their ship, after 
which they spent the winter among the Eskimos and finally were rescued 


and brought back to the United States on the revenue cutter Bear. On the 
return to San Francisco the Doctor resumed practice and remained in the city 
until after the great earthquake and fire of 1906. when he was burned out and 
lost all of his possessions. Forgetting his personal misfortunes, he set himself 
to the task of aiding the injured and worked as a surgeon in the relief camps, 
where he witnessed many distressing sights and was able to assist greatly 
in the alleviation of suffering. When there was no further need of special 
assistance he sought other places of professional labor, spending a time at 
Caspar. Mendocino county, also at Fort Bragg and Laytonville. September 
15, 1913, he came to A\'illits and opened an office, also erected a hospital of 
seventeen rooms and a well-equipped operating room. The building, recently 
completed and newly equipped, ranks with the best of the kind north of San 
Francisco and will afford to people of the community the best of medical care 
and skilled attention in all cases of sickness or operations of a critical nature. 

The present wife of Dr. Franklin, whom he married at Fort Bragg, was 
Miss Windla Johnson, who was born in Finland of Swedish descent. While 
in San Francisco he had married Miss Tina Love, who was born at Half Moon 
Bay and died at San Francisco, leaving an only child, Mrs. Evelyn E. Fitz- 
patrick, of Los Angeles. After the death of his first wife he was united with 
Miss Sophia Erickson, who was born in Sweden and died in Nevada. The three 
children of that union, Oscar G. A., Elsa Clinstene and Carl J., are living in 
Nevada. In politics the Doctor is a progressive Republican. In the various 
places of his residence he has been allied with different fraternities, with the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows at Genoa, Nev. ; with Ivanhoe No. 5, 
K. of P., in San Francisco ; with the Improved Order of Red Men at Van- 
couver, Wash. ; with the Eagles at Eureka and the Moose at Willits, being 
at present physician of the last-named lodge. 

JOHN S. ROSS. — A knowledge of the lumber industry acquired through 
years of experience enables Mr. Ross to discharge with efficiency his respon- 
sible duties as manager of the Mendocino Lumber Company. In fact, so 
remarkable is his grasp of the business, so alert his mind in grasping all of 
the intricacies connected with the work, so resourceful his judgment and so 
sagacious his decisions that he has gained a wide reputation in his chosen 
calling. The reputation as one of the most successful lumber managers 
on the Pacific coast has come to him through his own determined efforts and 
unsurpassed ability. Flattering offers to fill similar positions in the east have 
been made to him, but he prefers the west for his home and has resided in 
Mendocino county throughout so much of his life that the ties of friendship, 
business relations and material enterprises bind him very closely to the spot. 

Of Canadian birth, born in Ottawa in 1867, John S. Ross, is the son of 
Rev. John S. and Jane (Ralston) Ross, born in Scotland and Canada, respec- 
tively. He was brought to California by his parents in 1870 and has been 
identified with Mendocino county from the age of three years up to the pres- 
ent time. Here he attended the public schools and laid the foundation of 
the broad fund of information which now gives him a reputation as one of 
Ihe best-posted men of his community. One of the first positions he ever held 
was that of bookkeeper in the Discount Bank at Mendocino and the Bank of 
Mendocino. After two and one-half years as a bank clerk in December of 
1886 he becatne connected with the lumber industry, his first work in that 
tine being as bookkeeper with the Pudding Creek Lumber Company. Seven 

7. (<r /s^^ 


years were spent with the same concern and during the last three years of 
the time he acted as manager. Since then he has engaged as manager in 
charge of diflferent lumber companies, having had charge of the L. E. White 
Lumber Company at Greenwood for eighteen months and the Little Valley 
Lumber Company for two and one-half years. Since September 1, 1902, he 
has held the position of manager of the Mendocino Lumber Company, where 
his comprehensive knowledge of the industry and his long experience have 
been of inestimable value to the organization. 

Association with the lumber industry, which has been so important a 
factor in the history of Mendocino county, by no means represents the limit 
of the activities of Mr. Ross, who has contributed of his time and talents to 
enterprises connected with the material upbuilding of town and county, and 
has been particularlj^ active in the founding and growth of the Mendocino 
Bank of Commerce, being now vice-president of the bank and a member of 
its board of directors. Sterling qualities of character have given him a prom- 
inent place in commercial circles and in the regard of many friends. The 
high principles of Masonry have enlisted his cordial support and he has been 
I)rominent for years in Mendocino Lodge No. 179, F. & A. M., and Mendocino 
Chapter No. 88, R. A. M., being Past Master and Past High Priest, and with 
Mrs. Ross he is a member of Ocean View Chapter No. Ill, O. E. S., both being 
past officers in that Order. He is also a member of Ukiah Commandery No. 
33, K. T. Conscientiously faithful in every department of life, his citizen- 
ship has been of that ideal type so essential to the permanent progress of 
any community. Sharing with him the esteem of acquaintances is his wife, 
formerly Miss Lulu Willis, who is a native daughter of California and re- 
ceived an excellent education, being a graduate of the Santa Rosa High School 
and the University of Nevada at Reno. For two years she was engaged in 
educational work in that state. Mrs. Ross is the daughter of Rev. F. M. 
Willis, a native of Illinois, who rode horseback across the plains when a young 
man, accompanying a train in 1850. He graduated from the old Sonoma 
Academy and has been a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church for over 
fifty years. The family of Mr. and Mrs. Ross comprises two children, Dor- 
(,'tiiy and John S., Jr. 

MARTIN VAN BAKER.— A long identification with the stock business 
in the west, especially in Nevada and Eastern Oregon, has given to Mr. 
Raker a thorough knowledge of this section of the country and has made 
him conversant with every detail of one of the leading industries for a vast 
region of forest range and foothills. Hardships necessarily have come into 
such a career. Privations were accepted as a part of the business during 
those long years in the open, but there was much of pleasure in the work 
and at times something of profit, although the remuneration was not com- 
mensurate with the labor involved. Only a few years ago he closed out 
his interests in the range country and shortly afterward purchased two 
hundred and six acres about two miles northeast of Willits, where since he 
has engaged in the raising of grain, hay and potatoes. 

The earliest memories of Mr. Baker cluster around Northern California, 
though he was born in Wilson county, Iowa, near the Missouri line, in January, 
1857. It was in the spring of the same year that his parents, H. W. and Eliza- 
l^eth (Wilkerson) Baker, brought their five children across the plains with a 


party of homeseekers. The expedition was of considerable proportions and Mr. 
Baker, who owned the major portion of the drove of cattle, was chosen 
captain of the train, which he brought through in safety. The trip was made 
less difficult by reason of his previous overland journey to California in 1850 
and the return trip to the old home a few years afterward. Nor did these 
two journeys represent the limit of his knowledge of the vast region west 
of the Mississippi, for he had served throughout the Mexican war as a wagon 
master and had seen much of the frontier. In recognition of his faithful 
service during the war he was awarded a medal by congress and this valued 
keepsake is now in the possession of a grandson, Raymond Baker, During 
1857 the family settled at Napa, where the father became landlord of an hotel. 
Three years later he removed to the Bodega valley. Sonoma county, and 
secured a tract of raw land for farming purposes. Twice he paid for the land, 
but even then lost it through later proof that it belonged to an old grant. 

The year 1865 found the family in Mendocino county, where the father 
.spent two years on a farm in Walker valley and then bought a claim in the 
mountains between Potter valley and Willits, about ten miles east of the 
latter place. On this ranch he developed mineral springs that even to this day 
hear the name of Baker Springs. His last days were passed in Santa Maria 
and he died there in 1909, while his wife also passed away at the same place. 
Of their twelve children eight are now living. The fifth of these, Martin Van, 
was eight years of age at the time of coming to Mendocino county and lived 
here until 1874, when he began to ride the Nevada range as a cowboy for the 
Riley & Hardin ranch. At the expiration of three years he was transferred 
to the firm's ranch in Eastern Oregon near Burns and there he made his 
headquarters for many years, raising horses for one-half interest in the sales. 
Unfortunately he refused an ofifer of $14,000 for his part of the stock. At the 
time stock was high and he considered his share worth much more than the 
sum offered, but eventually he was forced to sell four hundred head for 
$1,000, such had been the depreciation in the values of horses. One of his 
most exciting summers was that of 1878, when the Bannock Indians were 
on the warpath and kept the cattle and the camp on the move without much 

After his heavy loss in the horse business Mr. Baker was hired by 
Mr. Riley to take charge of a herd of twelve thousand cattle and for ten years 
he remained on the range until all of the drove had been sold and the business 
closed. Meantime he had bought from Mr. Riley the Cahto ranch in Long 
valley, Mendocino county, and for a time he made his headquarters on this 
place, but when he had sold it he went to Nevada as manager for 
Mr. Hardin of the Humboldt Cattle Company. When the interests of that 
corporation had been sold he returned to Mendocino county in 1909 and the 
following year bought the farm northeast of Willits which he has since 
operated. Throughout all of his life since attaining maturity he has voted the 
Democratic ticket. While living in Oregon he married Miss Alice Thornberg, 
of Burns, that state, a native of Kansas. They are the parents of one son. 
Raymond Carl, a graduate of Sweet's Business College at Santa Rosa and 
now engaged as bookkeeper for Fairbanks & Baechtel, Willits. While living 
in Oregon Mr. Baker was made a Mason in Burns Lodge, F. & A. M., and he 
now belongs to Willits Lodge No. 365. while both he and his wife are charter 

(^- ^~ J0yv^^^6<^ 


members of Willits Chapter No. 314, Order of the Eastern Star, and Mrs. 
Baker has been honored with the office of matron ever since the organization 
of the chapter. 

ROBERT JAMES DRYDEN.— The proprietor of the Little Lake sta- 
bles has been interested in the livery business at Willits since 1900, when he 
opened a small barn on the present site on Main street and embarked in the 
business that he still follows. Having very little capital, he was forced to 
begin upon a small scale, but it was not long before he had gained the confi- 
dence of business men and was establishing a trade that gave gratifying 
promise for the future. At first he kept very few horses ; now he has twenty- 
one head of good drivers. Needing more room, he erected his present large 
stable, 72x120 feet, two floors, all devoted to the livery business. The equip- 
ment of vehicles is complete, well-assorted and modern. Everything pertain- 
ing to the carriages and harness is maintained in first-class condition, indica- 
tive of the careful, close oversight of the proprietor. In 1914, seeing the need 
of garage and automobile livery in Willits, he associated himself with Barney 
Schow and built a garage 62x130 feet, adjoining his stables, but facing Hum- 
boldt street. TTiis is a two-story steel building, the first floor for automobile 
storage and repair shop and second floor for painting and storage. Automo- 
biles are kept on hand for hire as well as for sale. 

While giving his attention closely to the building up of a good trade and 
the enlargement of his business, he has not neglected the duties of good citi- 
zenship, but has found time to serve as a member of the city school board and 
the board of trustees of Willits, in which capacities he has labored to promote 
the best interests of the people. 

The son of Nathaniel Dryden, a California pioneer who crossed the plains 
from Missouri during the summer of 1849, Robert J. Dryden was born at 
Georgetown, Eldorado county, this state, November 6, 1867, and passed the 
first fifteen years of life in his native county. During 1882 he came to Little 
Lake. Mendocino county, and found employment on a ranch, after which, 
either in the employ of others or in working for his own interests, he engaged 
in raising sheep and cattle in the valley. Always he was skilled in the treat- 
ment of stock and was regarded as an expert judge of horses, which he could 
break and manage with skill, and it was this fondness for horses that led him 
into establishing a livery barn at Willits. Since coming here he has been 
made a Mason in Willits Lodge, No. 365, F. & A. M., and with his wife is a 
member of the Eastern Star. He is also a member of the Eagles, Odd Fellows 
and the Woodmen of the World. By his marriage to Lillie Longland, a 
native of the county and a daughter of George Longland, one of Mendocino 
county's most honored pioneers, he has two children, Roberta and Ernest. 

HENRY EUGENE WITHERSPOON.— Each section of our United 
States has its own characteristics, varying from each other as widely as the 
causes which produce them. The nationality of the settlers, geographical 
location, climate, are only a few of the reasons which underlie this individual- 
ity. In California and other western states where similar soil conditions pre- 
vail the agricultural population must depend so la,rgely upon the diversion 
of the waters of their lakes and streams to irrigate the fertile but drj' soil that 
water rights and privileges have grown to be a matter of paramount im- 
portance. Out of their use and abuse has grown a recognition of the necessity 
for observing the rights of all — no one to profit to the detriment of others. 
If properly conserved, if each has his due share, the supply is more than 


enough for all. In the struggle to maintain this equable distribution of 
nature's gifts to his native state, Henry Eugene Witherspoon has applied his 
talents to mastering the laws of water rights, to such good purpose that he 
is a recognized authority on this vital subject. With much of the originality 
and native western boldness in his makeup, he has striven almost single- 
tianded in this cause which lies nearest his heart, efficient, watchful, tireless, 
never despairing of accomplishing what he has set out to do — to hold the 
natural title of the people against intrusion until such time as wisdom shows 
them they may claim it without fear. Mr. Witherspoon's career in the law 
has been brief but brilliant. Though he has actually given all his time to 
practice for less than ten years, he has been acknowledged a worthy opponent 
by the best legal talent in Lake county, the fact that he has been ranged 
against such forces neither discouraging nor terrifying him nor interfering 
with his successful handling of highl)^ important cases. Water and mining 
laws have occupied most of his attention, but he has been engaged in some 
famous litigation of other nature and has proved he may be trusted to defend 
the cause of his clients whatever the legal points may be. He is a member 
of the law firm of Bull & Witherspoon, his partner being Franklin P. Bull, of 
San Francisco, where they have offices on the sixth floor of the Pacific build- 
ing. Their other office is at Lakeport, Lake county, in the Levy block. 

Mr. Witherspoon's father, John Witherspoon, was a civil and mining 
engineer by profession, and having charge of the building of the Southern 
Pacific road over the Sierra Nevada mountains in Nevada county, Cal., made 
his home for about three years at Donner Lake, where Henry Eugene Wither- 
spoon was born June 30, 1866. His mother, Elizabeth (Halligan) Wither- 
spoon, was a native of Pittsburg, Pa. They had three children, all sons, two 
dying in infancy. When Mr. Witherspoon was a young man his father mys- 
teriously disappeared, nothing having been heard from him since 1893. He 
had become much interested in mining in the southwest, in Arizona and 
Mexico, and it is believed he was killed by the Yaqui Indians in Mexico, in 
the Sierra Madre mountains. At the time Mrs. Witherspoon was living at 
San Jose, Cal., where she remained for several years afterward, in 1909 com- 
ing to Lakeport to join her son. She died August 30, 1910. 

Mr. Witherspoon's first recollections are of Oregon, where the family lived 
on a farm three miles from Jacksonville from the time he was three years old 
until he was six. From that time until he was twelve they were at Cliico, 
Cal., where he attended grammar school, and from there moved to Virginia 
City., Nev., where he graduated from high school. He then went to Arizona 
and followed his father's example, getting into the mining game, following 
copper mining at Bisbee and Ash Canyon. Coming back to California he 
attended the normal school at San Jose, from which institution he was gradu- 
ated in 1885. For the next twenty years he was engaged at the teacher's 
profession. In 1884 he had begun to teach mathematics in the normal school, 
where he was retained in that capacity until 1886. Then he became a public 
school teacher, and advanced steadily in the various positions he filled, begin- 
ning in country schools, later acting as high school principal, and eventually 
becoming a professor of higher mathematics. After teaching at Scotts Bar, 
Etna and Fort Jones, in Siskiyou county, Cal., he went to Nevada, where he 
was engaged at Virginia City and Battle Mountain. In 1895 he came to Upper 
Lake, Lake county, Cal., and was principal of the grammar schools from that 


year until he abandoned teaching, in 1906, for the legal profession. Mean- 
time he had studied law, making practically all his preparation by himself, 
and in 1900 being admitted to the Supreme Court of California. Though he 
had some experience as a lawyer while engaged in educational work, he did 
not enter upon practice formally until June, 1906. His partnership with Mr. 
Bull was formed in 1910. 

Within a few years Mr. Witherspoon found himself in the thick of litiga- 
tion involving such large interests that the confidence of his clients was an 
acknowledgment of strong faith in his trustworthiness as well as ability. 
His splendid victory in the Green Bartlett will case — the second largest will 
case ever fought out in Lake county, and kept alive for a period of two years — ■ 
;is attorney for a contesting heir, was a triumph sufficient to make a reputa- 
tion for a lawyer. Other suits, some of them among the most important con- 
ducted in the county, have been intrusted to him with equally happy results. 
One of his first notable achievements was the winning of the case of W. P. 
Mariner in the condemnation suit of the Yolo Water & Power Company 
against Mr. Mariner and two hundred and eight other defendants. The trial 
lasted about two weeks and the case was decided in favor of Mariner, who 
was awarded $25,500 for his lands, a sum so large that the company would 
not give it. However, they abandoned their condemnation suit. This is the 
most famous of all the cases growing out of disputed water rights in Lake 

At first thought there would seem to be little intimate connection between 
mathematics and the law, but Mr. Witherspoon has turned the mathematical 
bent inherited from his father and skill developed in his work as a teacher into 
the most practical possible use. His precision and infinite patience with details 
may undoubtedly be attributed to this training. x\gain, his genius for leaving 
no stone unturned, however trifling the matter may seem, and thus meeting 
emergencies before they arise, probably had its origin in the same source. 
Whatever the cause, it is a fact that he calculates his precedures to a nicety, 
and though he is fluent, eloquent and above all well grounded in the law, he 
makes as careful preparation of all his cases as if he expected to be beaten 
and had to do his utmost. He investigates the facts of every case as thor- 
oughly as possible, then looks up all the statute and substantive law relating 
thereto before he drafts his proceedings, and his court papers are always 
systematically and conscientiously prepared, for he is in the habit of briefing 
every case exhaustively long before he draws his complaints and other plead- 
ings. His phenomenal success in winning cases rests on a substantial founda- 
tion. His ready wit, courage and fine diction are impressive, yet he never 
relies on these or takes a chance on slighting little matters, which might 
appear unimportant on the surface to a more superficial thinker. His imagina- 
tion and the comprehensive study which he gives to everything he undertakes 
show the earnestness and sympathetic interest of which he is capable. Re- 
sourceful, untiring and sincere, he combines ability with perseverance and 
insight which make him a force to be reckoned with whenever he is engaged 
on a case. In appearance Mr. ^Vitherspoon is not unlike the late Colonel 

To illustrate the value of his training in mathematics we have some of 
the incontestable evidence he has used in his hard-fought cases. When he 
was working on the Green Bartlett will case he made a complete diagram, a 


sort of chart-like arrangement showing the family history, all the facts in 
the case, and the citations of law applicable to every point appearing there- 
with — a collection of facts which made a powerful argument by itself. His 
wonderful mastery of the figures which play so important a part in the trial 
of cases pertaining to water rights is astounding. He can figure out the in- 
tricate and gigantic problems dealt with by the civil engineers as well as they. 
His calculations on the water pressure on the proposed dam at Cache creek, 
the contents of the Clear lake basin at low water, at high water, etc., are 
beyond criticism. The litigation afl'ecting Clear lake in Lake county, in 
which he has been interested, divides itself into three periods : His work as 
attorney for D. W. Shetler, in his attempt to utilize the waters of Clear lake 
for irrigation purposes ; as attorney for the Yocolano Company in its opposition 
to the Yolo Water & Power Company ; as attorney for the citizens of the county 
against the aggressiveness of the Yolo Water & Power Company. It may be 
stated that the Taxpayers' League is composed of seven hundred and fifty tax- 
payers and was organized primarily to prevent the granting of the permit for 
utilization of the waters of Clear lake b}^ any private corporations. 

With painstaking system Air. Witherspoon has gone into every phase ol 
this big problem and its effect on the welfare of so many of his fellow citizens. 
Believing he is in the right, and furthering the public good in opposing the 
selfishness of interests whose self-interest has provoked the censure of some 
of the leading men of the day (including Theodore Roosevelt), he has not 
spared himself in his efforts to see that the people get a square deal. Begin- 
ning at the beginning, he has made charts of Clear lake showing the high and 
low water marks ever since the records have been kept, and his knowledge 
of the levels, etc., is most exact, so that he goes into court armed with proofs 
of his statements which there is no gainsaying. One of his briefs on this 
subject has become a celebrated legal document. It has been all through 
Wall Street, New York, and the various courts. The history of the conten- 
tion of the people of Lake county with the Yolo ^^'ater & Power Company is 
taken up exhaustively therein. 

Mr. Witherspoon's library on the "law of the waters" is said to be the 
most comprehensive owned by any lawyer in the LInited States, if not the 
most complete of the kind anywhere. A unique and valuable collection, it is 
typical of himself. \\ ith his faculty for covering all the ground, getting so 
familiar with his subject that he lives it, he has not been content with modern 
works, but has endeavored to obtain everything on water law which has ever 
been published, including Babylonian. Egyptian, Roman, Mexican and Spanish 
customs and laws. His law publishers have a standing order for every new 
and valuable work on the subject issued, anywhere. Besides, his books in- 
clude Pacific Reports, Lawyers' Reports Annotated, American and English 
Annotated Cases, .American and English Encyclopedia of Law (second edi- 
tion). Encyclopedia of Forms, Encyclopedia of Pleading and Practice, Ameri- 
can Leading Cases and United States Supreme Court Reports. He is a mem- 
ber of the Lake County Bar Association and a Republican in politics. 

Mr. Witherspoon has a nice country home in the West Upper Lake pre- 
cinct of Lake county, a fine productive ranch containing forty acres of valley 
in that very fertile section. Besides, he is interested with others in twelve 
hundred acres of grazing land. He was married January 1. 1896, to Miss 
Maud Sleeper, daughter of the late D. O. Sleeper, of Ujjper Lake, whither he 


came in the year 1855. Mrs. Witherspoon's mother, whose maiden name was 
Mary J. Way, also came to Lake county in pioneer times. She, too, is de- 
ceased. Mr. and Mrs. Witherspoon have had three children : Floye E., who 
died December 3, 1906, tlie day she was three years old ; Wanda Janet, born 
in 1907 ; and Gertrude, born in 1909. Mrs. Witherspoon is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church at Upper Lake and active in its work, being 
president of the Ladies' .\id Society. 

JAMES HUSTON BURKE.— The history of the early agricultural 
development of Mendocino county forms in many respects a record of the 
lives of its pioneers. Bravely they surmounted obstacles, cheerfully they 
faced difficulties and efficiently they solved the problems incident to existence 
on the frontier. Nor is James Huston Burke less efficient or patient than 
his companions in the difficult task of development, for he has worked with a 
determination, industry and energy that could not fail to produce results. 
From the time of his arrival in the west, more than fifty-five years ago, he 
has been an efficient factor in the material upbuilding of the state. He studied 
the needs of the soil, planted crops adapted to the climate, pioneered in the 
raising of alfalfa and hops, started an orchard of dififerent varieties of fruit, 
and in every respect proved a resourceful, competent tiller of the soil. 

Descended from an old southern family, James Huston Burke was born 
in Clay county, Mo., November 15, 1834, and spent the years of boyhood in 
that county and Jackson county, same state. His father, Alexander Burke, 
was a native of McMinn county, Tenn., where he grew to manhood and 
married. Some years after his marriage he moved to Missouri and settled 
in Clay county, where he operated tlat-boats on the Missouri river. April 
24, 1853, the father, with the family, left the old Missouri home and started on 
the long journey across the plains, traveling with wagons and ox-teams. An 
uneventful journey was brought to an end at Sacramento during October of 
the same year. For a time the father held a claim on Hood's grant in Sonoma 
county. Upon selling the claim he began to mine at Prairie City, Sacra- 
mento county, and in that same county he engaged in dairying and stock- 
raising. Returning to Sonoma county, he bought a squatter's claim on Mark 
West creek and there engaged in raising stock. Upon coming to Mendocino 
county in 1864. he bought a ranch south of Ukiah, near property owned by 
his sons, and there he engaged in farming and sheep-raising. His last days 
were passed in retirement at his home in Ukiah, where his death occurred in 
1897. By his marriage to Susan Shelton, a native of Tennessee, he became 
the father of ten children, of whom four are deceased, John William, Thomas 
Lee, Martha and Susan. The six still living are James H., Francis M.. An- 
drew, Mrs. Mary Standfield, N. R. and Joseph. 

The eldest of the children, James H. Burke, accompanied the family to 
California in 1853, and thus introduced to the hardships of western pioneer- 
ing, took up the work manfully and found a livelihood as a farmer, besides 
which he worked in the mines. During the fall of 1857 he and his brother 
J. W. came to what is now Mendocino county (then a part of Sonoma), 
driving with them from Cloverdale four yoke of oxen. .\t that period roads 
had not been made. The trails over the mountains were seldom used and 
formed an uncertain mode of progress. Wild animals were numerous. 
Dangers abounded on every hand. The two young travelers, with their 
wagon and oxen, brought one thousand |)ounds of flour with them on that 
trip. On their arrival they purchased nine hundred and seventy-four acres 


of the Yokayo rancho in the valley south of Ukiah, extending from Robinson 
creek to Burke Hill, about two miles. On the land some former squatter 
had put up a rude cabin. A well also had been provided and furnished an 
abundance of water. With that exception, the entire work of improvement 
fell upon them. In addition to the ordinary hardships of such a condition, 
they were unusually troubled by the wild animals that killed their sheep and 
cattle and entailed heavy losses upon them. In 1866 hops were planted on 
the farm for the first time and in 1872 that crop was sold for sixty cents per 
pound. During 1872 James H. bought the interest of his brother, but later 
sold a part of the property to Mr. White and later some to Messrs. Higgins 
and Moore, still retaining, however, about two hundred and eighty acres, on 
which he raises alfalfa, hay, hops and fruit. He has been twice married and 
is the father of two children. Green C. Burke, who manages the farm, and 
Mrs. Nellie Stipp, of Los Angeles. 

NEIL ANKER. — \\'hen fifteen years of age, but already a man in endur- 
ance of privation and hardship. Neil Anker left the old home in Hadersleben, 
Schleswig (where he was born in 1843), and began to earn a livelihood as 
a cabin boy in the trans-Atlantic trade. For a decade or more he sailed the 
high seas and visited many of the leading ports of the world. Six times he 
rounded Cape Horn, three times he made voyages to Cuba and on more than 
one occasion he also visited South America. During one of the voyages to 
England the ship was wrecked off the coast of Land's End and the lives of 
the crew were saved with difficulty, the vessel itself and its contents being 
lost. During 1867 he passed navigation in Liverpool and became an officer 
on the Van Dieman. a new steel ship. To gain promotion from boy to officer 
while yet a young man indicates the high quality of his service. After a 
voyage to Australia and thence to California he left the ship at San Fran- 
cisco in 1868 and went to Santa Rosa, where he was employed in the manu- 
facture of pressed brick. The call of the sea, however, was still too strong 
for him to be satisfied as a landsman and during December of the same year 
we find him again bound for Australia, this time as a passenger on the ship 
Moses Taylor, to Honolulu, where he t-ook ship for Sj'dney. No business 
opening presenting itself in Australia, he shipped with Captain Newell back 
to San Francisco and that voyage ended his life as a sailor. 

An experience in brick-making and other occupations filled the first 
days of the residence of Mr. Anker at Cloverdale. Sonoma county. In 1873 
he began trucking with one team. From that small beginning he built up a 
t-teady business. In 1887, two years before the railroad was built to Ukiah. 
he came to this place and here he has since engaged in the truck business, 
which in 1910 was incorporated as the N. Anker Company, with himself as 
president, his eldest son as treasurer and manager and the second son as 
secretary. An auto truck as well as eighteen head of horses are utilized to 
meet the demands of the business. Aside from a general truck and transfer 
trade, the company engages as general contractors for the leveling of land 
in Mendocino and Lake counties. Their interests are further diversified by 
identification with viticulture through the ownership of fifty acres in a vine- 
yard together with a small orchard. The barns of the company are located on 
the corner of Mill and Main streets, while the warehouse stands in the heart 
of l^kiah on Stanlev street. 



While engaged in business at Cloverdale Mr. Anker established domestic 
ties, being married, May 6, 1877, to Miss Katie Ludvig, who was born in 
Eggensund near Flensborg, Schleswig, then a part of Denmark. During 
girlhood Mrs. Anker came to California and settled in Cloverdale. Eight 
children were born of the marriage, namely: Joe C, who died at the age of 
twenty-one ; Louis C, treasurer and manager of the N. Anker Company ; Mrs. 
Amelia Ganter, who died at twenty-eight years ; Florin E., now with the Cali- 
fornia Telephone & Light Company at Santa Rosa ; Myrtle E., the wife of 
W. B. Dickie, of Ukiah ; Neil M., who has the agency at Ukiah for the Stand- 
ard Oil Company, a position which Mr. Anker himself filled for sixteen years; 
Katie L., wife of Oscar Olson, of Ukiah ; and Gladys, who is a skilled musician 
and brightens the family home with her cheerful presence. In politics Mr. 
Anker is a Republican. Both he and his wife are members of the Ukiah 
Presbyterian Church and he has served on its board of trustees. When his 
parents were growing old he sent to the old home in Denmark for them and 
had them join him in California, where their last days were happily passed 
under the affectionate care of his wife. In the fraternities he has been con- 
nected with the Ancient Order of United Workmen, the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows and the Masons. While living at Cloverdale he was made a 
Mason in Curtis Lodge, of which he officiated as master for three years. At 
this writing he belongs to Abell Lodge No. 146, F. & A. M., at Ukiah, and 
with his wife holds membership in Kingsley Chapter No. 58, O. E. S., besides 
being identified with the Rebekahs. At Cloverdale he was a leading Odd 
Fellow and since coming to Ukiah he has been officially connected with the 
lodge in this city. 

J. E. WELLER. — The financial interests of a large aggregation of the 
people resident in and near Fort Bragg are wisely conserved through the 
agency of the First National Bank of Fort Bragg, an institution that during the 
more than two decades of its existence has had a steady growth in number 
of depositors, amounts of deposits and confidence of the public. Business 
men have found the concern alive to their welfare and concerned in their 
prosperity. Those desirous of commercial credit or loans have been accom- 
modated generously, when the security of the funds has not been jeopardized 
thereby. All in all, the organization has been governed by a directorate pro- 
gressive yet cautious and accommodating yet conservative, and these prin- 
ciples have been carried out in the policy of the officers, particularly in the 
executive supervision of the president, J. E. Weller, who in 1891 came to 
California and settled at Fort Bragg shortly after the establishment of the 
l^ank, and entered the institution in a minor capacity, gradually advancing 
until he was finally promoted to his present position of authority and financial 

A native of Bradford county, Pa., and a graduate of the high schools at 
Athens, that state, T. E. Weller has been self-supporting from the age of 
seventeen years and meantime has developed qualities of self-reliance and 
sagacious judgment of the utmost value to him in the serious undertakings 
of his business career. For three years he was employed in the Santa Fe 
office at Topeka, Kan., and in the same city he gave five years of commercial, 
salaried service to the firm of Stephenson & Peckham. From Kansas he came 
to California, where ever since he has been identified with the First National 
Bank of Fort Bragg and as a leading citizen and president of the local Cham- 


her of Commerce, he has been a leader in civic alifairs. In this town he has 
fraternal connections with the Odd Fellows and Masons and his associations 
of that nature are increased by membership in the Santa Rosa Lodge of 
Elks and the Improved Order of Red Men. His family consists of his wife 
and daughter. Lucille, the former having been Miss Helen Stewart, of Glens 
Falls. N. Y. 

EDWARD E. BROWN, D. D. S.— The president of the Fort Bragg 
Garage and Machine Company came to California with the intention of 
devoting his energies to the practice of the dental profession, but a later 
development of trouble with his eyes caused him to turn over to an assistant 
the care of his office and since then he has engaged in business pursuits. 
Like many of the men whom the possibilities of California have attracted to 
its commercial and professional circles, he claims Canada as his native land, 
and was born at Picton, Province of Ontario, but passed the years of youth 
mainly in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The completion of common-school studies 
was followed by a decision to take up the study of medicine, to which science 
he devoted two years of conscientious application, only to decide at the 
expiration of the time that the practice of the profession did not appeal to 
him. Thereupon, in 1892, he began to train himself for dentistry, taking up 
the profession as a student in Minneapolis and eventually receiving his 
degree from the dental department of the Central University of Kentucky at 
Louisville. Upon coming to California he entered the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons at San Francisco, from which he received the degree of D. D. S. 
and in 1898 opened an office at Fort Bragg, where from the first he proved 
himself to be conscientious, skillful and thoroughly efficient in all lines of 
dental work. In 1907 he took a post graduate course at Haskell Post- 
graduate School of Dentistry in Chicago. When it became necessary for 
him to relinquish at least temporarily all active association with the office, 
he established an assistant therein and turned his attention to business 

The Fort Bragg Garage and Machine Company was incorporated Feb- 
ruary 14, 1910, and the present officers are: E. E. Brown, president; W. H. 
Dixon, vice-president ; J. E. Weller, secretary ; L. Barnard, treasurer. The 
company maintains a modern garage, equipped with everj' facilitjr and device 
a:ssociated with the most recent development of the motor business. A gen- 
eral electrical and supply department adds to the importance of the shop and 
every modern electrical appliance is carried in stock, with an expert electrician 
in charge. The garage is the headquarters and agenc)^ for tAvo popular cars, 
the Buick and Ford. In addition to maintaining a close supervision of the 
shop and his other interests in Mendocino county, the president of the com- 
pany is serving as Mayor. He had been elected a member of the board of 
trustees in April of 1913. and in 1914 was elected president of the beard. 
With his wife, who was Miss Emma E. Neff, a native of Port Huron, Mich., 
and formerly a teacher in the public schools of Mendocino count}', he has a 
high social standing in the community and has a circle of friends as large as 
his list of acquaintances. Prominent in a number of fraternal orders, he is 
acting as keeper of the records and seals of the Knights of Pythias, also is 
past master of Fort Bragg Lodge No. 361, F. & A. M., besides being clerk of 
the local organization of the Woodmen uf the World and a member of the 
Order of Eagles. Professionally he is a member of the alumni association 
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons and the California State Dental 


Association. He is very much interested in good roads and everything 
tending to make automobiling more enjoyable and profitable. He is a mem- 
ber of the California State Automobile Association and the American Auto- 
mobile Association. 

LILBURN H. BOGGS. — Perhaps in no respect has the progress of Lake 
county been retarded to a greater degree than in the absence of adequate 
transportation facilities connecting it with the outside world of activity. As 
the stage line to the best of its ability grappled with the serious problem of 
transportation, there were not wanting men of ability and optimism to 
seriously consider the possibility of constructing a line for steam cars. Always, 
however, the expensive matter of mountain construction with attendant 
tunnels has deterred public-spirited men from inaugurating an enterprise. It 
has been left to Lilburn H. Boggs to display the tremendous energy and 
undaunted pluck for which several generations of the family have been noted 
,ind which found distinguished expression in the life of his grandfather, Gov- 
ernor Lilburn W. Boggs, a pioneer of 1846 in California and alcalde of the 
northern district of this state. As president of the Clear Lake Railroad Com- 
pany he is now promoting the construction of a railroad from Lakeport to 
Hopland, there to connect with the main line of the Northwestern Pacific 
Railroad. Although the distance is not great the state railroad commission 
estimates the total cost of construction and equipment at about $750,000 and 
already $75,000 has been expended by the company in making the survey 
between the two towns named and in the grading of the road preparatory to 
the laying of ties. It is the ambition of the president and the other pro- 
moters of the enterprise to make it possible to celebrate the completion of the 
railroad at the time of the great Panama Canal Exposition in 1915, thus enab- 
ling visitors to San Francisco at that time to inspect the beautiful scenery 
and stud}' the natural resources of Lake county, should they be so inclined. 

When Henry Carroll and Martha Jane (Young) Boggs started from 
Jackson county, Mo., to join other members of the Boggs famil}' in Cali- 
fornia, their son, Lilburn H., was only three months old, his birth having 
occurred Februar)' 4, 1850. During 1864 the family came to Lake county 
and the father organized the Farmers' Savings Bank, which still is owned 
and operated by others of the name. Lilburn H. Boggs was educated in 
public schools, McClure's Academy at Oakland and Heald's Business College 
in San Francisco. On the organization of the Farmers' Savings Bank in 1875 
he became assistant cashier and continued as such for seven years, when he 
resigned to take charge of the sawmill on a tract of four thousand acres of 
sugar pine, yellow pine and fir, in which he also had a one-third interest. This 
tract is located just north of Middletown, on Boggs Mountain, and is wholly 
within the limits of Lake county. The manufacture of lumber was continued 
lor about five years, and the acreage and forest are still retained. For years 
-Mr. Boggs has been a leader in Democratic councils. As early as 1882 he 
was elected sherift" and thereupon accepted the office and began to devote 
Iiis attention to the duties of the office. Twice he was re-elected to the office 
for consecutive terms and again, after an interval in which there was a 
Republican victory, he was returned to the ofirce for two more terms, finally 
retiring in 1895. Throughout the five terms of his incumbenc}' the office was 
filled with energy, fearlessness and tact, and his long retention as sheriff 
indicates the popularity which he gained among the people of the county. 


The family residence of Mr. Boggs on a ranch of three hundred and fifty 
acres in Big valley is a modern, substantial structure befitting the dignity 
of the family name. The lady who graciously presides over the home was, 
prior to her marriage in 1871, ]Miss Sarah C. Elgin, of St. Helena, Napa 
county, a native of Missouri and a daughter of W. A. Elgin, a pioneer of St. 
Helena. There are now four living children, the eldest daughter. Lew, having 
died at fourteen years of age. Floyd H. is now cashier of the Farmers' Savings 
Bank at Lakeport, in which the youngest child, Henry Carroll, acts as assist- 
ant cashier. The elder daughter, Irene, resides on the home ranch with her 
parents, and the younger, Beut Y., is the wife of George Voss, a druggist of 
Lakeport. To the prestige of the family name Lilburn H. Boggs has added 
by his honorable identification with the development of Lake county and 
particularly by his public-spirited efforts to secure for it the advantages of a 

JAMES M. KERR. — A well-known citizen of Mendocino county is the 
hotel proprietor at Albion, James M. Kerr, who was born near Campbellford 
in the province of Ontario, Canada, July 6, 1858, and was bereft of his father, 
William, in May of 1864. The mother, who bore the maiden name of Ellen 
Meikeljohn, was born in Fifeshire, Scotland, April 14, 1828, and at the age 
of fifteen years accompanied her parents to America, in 1843, settling with 
them on a Canadian farm of broad acreage but scant improvements. At the 
age of twenty years she became the wife of William Kerr, who was born in 
Ireland; and his death in 1864 left her with a family of seven children and 
practically nothing for their support. For this reason the children were 
obliged to become self-supporting at an early age. The son, James M,, was 
sent to a Canadian farmer to work for board and clothes. He was ten years 
of age at the time and his work consisted mainly of the chores that form so 
large a part of farm work. jNIeanwhile he was sent to school in the winter 
months. He continued farm work in Ontario until 1881, when he went to 
Saginaw, Mich., where he secured employment in a saw-mill and continued 
!or five years. Then he began to do railroad work. 

During 1886 Mr. Kerr became an apprentice in the machine shops of the 
Pere Marquette Railroad at Saginaw, where he gave special attention to car 
construction. From Saginaw he was sent to Holly, Mich,, in 1891 to act as 
inspector of cars for the same company. Upon the transfer of station and 
holdings to the Grand Trunk Railroad corporation in 1896, he resigned his 
position and took up other lines of enterprise. With W'alter J. Moore as a 
partner he embarked in the ice business at Saginaw. At the expiration of 
three years he bought the interest of his partner in the business, which he 
continued for a short time alone and then sold to L. C. Smith & Co. Later 
he entered other lines of work, but the failure of his health resulting from 
rheumatism caused him to seek the benefits of the California climate. A first 
trip to the west was made in 1903. Soon he returned to Michigan greatly 
benefited by the vacation and change of climate, but the rigorous winters of 
his home state brought on a return of his former trouble and in 1904 he came 
to California to settle permanently. A few months in Mendocino county 
benefited him greatly, and after nine months in business at Caspar he sold out 
and joined his brother. Robert Kerr, in conducting the South Side hotel in 
Albion. The death of his brother in 1910 left him the sole manager of the 
business, in which his mother, who came to Mendocino countv in 1887 and at 


first settled on Salmon creek, is also interested. Fraternally he is connected 
with Aerie No. 833, Fraternal Order of Eagles at Fort Bragg, and also is a 
member of Holly Lodge No. 134, F. & A. M., at Holly, Mich. At Peterbor- 
ough, Canada, February 19, 1880, he married Miss Sarah Jane Dohert}', who 
was born in the province of Ontario April 23, 1859, and died at Holly, Mich., 
February 19, 1894, leaving two daughters, Stella May, Mrs. Fred Barton, of 
Saginaw, and Ethel Irene, who lives with her father. 

HANS ANDERSON. — There is much work of a highly responsible na- 
ture involved in the management and successful conduct of the famous Bart- 
Ictt Springs resort, in Lake county, a health and summer resort which has 
had long continued popularity. The water, noted for its medicinal qualities and 
highly esteemed for table use, is bottled and shipped in large quantities, being 
well known all over the Pacific coast especially, and in Central America as 
well. The site of the resort was discovered about forty years ago by a man 
named Bartlett traveling in search of health, and the delightful atmospheric 
conditions and mineral water so benefited him that he settled there. This 
was the beginning of a sanitarium which has since been visited by people from 
all parts of California, as well as from other states. For over eighteen years 
Hans Anderson has been engineer at the resort, and being a skillful machinist 
and plumber has been very valuable in looking after much of the equipment 
necessary for the comfort of the guests and the important sanitary arrange- 

Mr. Anderson was born in 1868 at Chicago, 111., where his early life was 
spent. He had common school advantages in his native city, and started to 
learn his trade there, in 1888 coming out to California and first settling in San 
Francisco. At that place, at Sacramento, and at Dixon, Solano county, he 
continued to enlarge his experience as a machinist, and over eighteen years 
ago he took the position of engineer at Bartlett Springs, where he has been 
employed continually since. The very fact that he has been retained there so 
long speaks well for his ability and reliable character. He has adapted him- 
self to the increased demands of his position as the place grew and developed, 
the care of the machinery and plumbing being a very important part of the 
direction of the vast establishment which has grown up at this point. Some 
idea of the responsibilities of his work may be gained from the statement 
that there are eighteen hundred acres of land in the Bartlett Springs property ; 
that there are in all about two hundred buildings, including the three main 
hotel buildings, imposing and modernly appointed structures, and a number 
of housekeeping cottages upon the grounds for those who prefer family life, 
accommodating in all about five hundred guests ; and there is a large swim- 
ming tank, steam laundry, and other conveniences which come within his 
province. The building erected for the season of 1911 has twenty rooms with 
baths and toilets, winter dining rooms and kitchen, hot and cold water in 
each room ; there are two rooming houses besides the hotel cottages, and an 
inclosure with fourteen tents furnished for hotel use with running water in 
each. As a number of families make their summer home at this place every- 
thing is done to provide for their wants, and besides stores of various kinds 
there is a butcher shop equipped with a complete refrigerating plant, with 
facilities for making over a ton of ice a day. The cement swimming tank is 
twenty by eighty feet in dimensions, and the mineral, tub and vapor baths 
must all be liberally supplied, so that it will be seen that keeping the ma- 


chinery and plumbing of this large and well organized establishment requires 
executive ability and thorough knowledge of sanitary engineering as well as 
mechanical skill. It is conceded that the obliging assistants have had much 
to do with the satisfaction guests have expressed with the excellent service, 
and Mr. Anderson has done his share toward looking after the comfort and 
health of those who have come to seek health or pleasure in this ideal spot. 
His industry and honorable life have won him the respect of his employers, 
who appreciate his devotion to their interests. By thrift he has been able to 
accumulate some valuable property, having three fine income properties at 
Sacramento and two residence properties at Lakeport. Though quiet and 
unassuming, without any desire to take part in public affairs, he takes a 
deep interest in their efficient administration, and is public-spirited about sup- 
porting high principles and the men who stand for them : politically be be- 
lieves in the doctrines of the Republican party. 

In 1897 Mr. Anderson married Miss Katie Lynch, step-daughter of John 
Ryan, a ranchman in the East L'pper Lake precinct of Lake county, by whom 
she was brought up. Mrs. Anderson died in the fall of 1913, and the only child 
born to this union is also deceased. Mr. Ryan and Mr. Anderson have been 
associated in various matters for a number of years. Mr. Anderson is an Odd 
Fellow in good standing, belonging to the lodge at Dixon. Solano county. 

CHARLES WHITED.— The postmaster at Willits, who was appointed 
to the office May 20, 1913, by President Wilson, taking the office July 11, 1913, 
lanks among the leading citizens of the valley and for years has been a leading 
factor in local public affairs, serving as town trustee for four years and also 
filling the office of town clerk with recognized fidelity and intelligence for 
.eight" years. Practically all of his life has been passed in Mendocino county. 
for, although a native of lo'wa. having been born near Burlington, he was 
only two years of age when in 1869 his parents, Joseph and Mary (Short) 
Whited, came to California and selected for a permanent location the valley 
where subsequent years of energetic and business-like application deservedly 
have given them a high standing among pioneer families. Under the careful 
training of the father, who was the pioneer builder in Willits and rose from 
day work as a carpenter to the taking of important contracts, the sons, Charles 
and L. R., were instructed in every detail connected with the trade, so that 
in their present partnership as builders they are enabled to fill contracts with 
the most scrupulous exactness and devotion to detail. One of their recent im- 
portant contracts has been that for the completion of eight miles of state 
highway north of Ukiah, a large enterprise in which they had D. L. Sawyer 
as an associate. In addition they have been awarded contracts for the build- 
ing of many concrete bridges in the county, as well as the contracts for all 
of the houses erected at the plant of the Irvine-Muir Lumber Company. 

From the age of sixteen years Charles Whited largely has devoted his 
time to the building business, although also in early life he taught school for 
a short time, operated a threshing machine and a sawmill and engaged in 
ranching in the valley. After some time given to ranching he erected the 
Palace hotel, now the Central, on Main street and served as proprietor of the 
same for ten years, meanwhile rebuilding it after it had been destroyed by fire. 
A goodly number of the houses and business buildings in Willits stand as 
monuments to his efficiency as a carpenter and he is still active in this line 
of work. Those who once have engasred his services retain thereafter a high 


opinion of his skill in the building business. By his marriage to Miss Eliza- 
beth J. Vincent, daughter of Frank Vincent, a pioneer blacksmith of the 
valley, he has one son, Carl, a graduate of the Willits high school and now 
an assistant in the A\'illits postofifice. 

JOHN THOMAS BOND.— Mr. Bond has a fine estate of six hundred 
and forty acres in Morgan valley, all the improvements on which are the 
result of his own ambitious eflforts. The eldest son of one of the oldest 
settlers in this region, he was born in the valley, has passed all his life on 
his native soil, and has the distinction of having been one of the pupils in 
attendance the first day school was opened there. All the members of the 
family have large interests in the locality, and he is no exception. Henry 
Bond, his father, popularly known as "Harry" Bond, came into Lake county 
in the year 1857, and has been a resident of Morgan valley since 1860. A 
native of England, born in Somersetshire March 12, 1832, son of Thomas 
and Mary (Ewletts) Bond, he is now past eighty-two years of age, but active 
and attending to various business aflfairs, a typical representative of the 
Quaker stock from which he springs. His parents had a family of five children : 
Amelia, who lived and died in England, became the wife of Charles Cullen 
and had three children ; Henry is mentioned later ; Thomas was an old-time 
miner who came to California in pioneer days ; John died in Australia ; William 
was in Australia when last heard from. The father lived and died in Somer- 
setshire, where he followed the business of liveryman. He passed away in 
1860, at the age of seventy-nine years, his wife dying in England at the same 
age, in 1869. 

Henry Bond passed his early life in his native land, coming alone to 
.\merica when a youth of seventeen, in 1849. Sailing from Liverpool, he 
landed at New York City after a voyage of eight weeks and three days, and 
proceeded from there to Skaneateles, N. Y., where he hired out as a farm 
hand. He earned $15 at his first job, and for his second, in which he remained 
eight months, was promised $8 a month, but the employer proved to be 
"poor pay." and Mr. Bond had to sue him for settlement of the note, which 
he received after much trouble. His next work was for a Quaker, with whom 
lie remained four months, and after continuing to be employed thus for about 
five years he made up his mind to try gold digging in California. On the 1st 
of April, 1854, he embarked at New York for Panama, crossed the isthmus 
and came up to San Francisco, where he arrived April 12th. The mines were 
his objective point, and he was soon engaged in placer mining on the south 
fork of the American river, making $3.50 a day "rocking." After a little 
while, when he had acquired some experience, he took up a new claim with 
two partners, and during the five months they worked it they made $5000 
apiece. Until 1857 Mr. Bond continued mining, and by hard work and thrift 
had accumulated $13,000 in the few years of his stay in California. But the 
work did not agree with him, having brought on rheumatism, and finally an 
Occident made him decide to give it up and return to farming, though under 
very different conditions from those with which he had become familiar in 
his youth. While he was engaged in hydraulic mining a bank of earth caved 
in and fell on him. injuring his head and hurting him so badly in other respects 
that he had to be turned over to the care of two doctors. At the time he 
weighed one hundred and eighty pounds, and had always been well and 
hearty, but he has never fully recovered his physical strength. 


Leaving the mines. Mr. Bond came to Lake county in 1857, first settling 
in Coyote valley, where he took up the tract later known as the Phelan place. 
Within a couple of years, however, he was dispossessed by the Ritchie Com- 
pany, who claimed it by right of former grant, and in the spring of 1860 he 
!iioved into Morgan valley, where he has since made his home. His first 
purchase was the home tract upon which he has resided ever since, and to 
which he has added by other purchases made from time to time, until he 
now owns seven hundred acres, besides which he has given his sons John 
and Joseph about one hundred and sixty acres apiece. He has resided longer 
at the same place than any other present resident in the valley, and his 
industrious years have been well rewarded. Though he faced new agricul- 
tural conditions when he settled down to farming, he adapted himself readily 
to them, as his success testifies, for he is one of the most prosperous men in 
his section. Besides attending to his own aiTairs he has found time to do 
good work for the locality, his services as school trustee hr.ving covered a 
period of eighteen years. Since 1856 he has voted the Democratic ticket and 
given his influence and aid to the candidates and measures of the party. 

At the time of his settlement in Lake county Mr. Bond was unmarried. 
In 1859, while living in Coyote valley, he married Miss INIartha Capps, by 
whom he had three children : John Thomas, who is a farmer in Morgan 
valley; Willie, who died when two years, two months old; and Joseph, who 
is a farmer in Morgan valley. About 1870 Mr. Bond married for his second 
wife Miss Mary Gentry, and to them were born four children, namely: 
Mamie, living in Nevada, who is the wife of Charles Burr and has one child ; 
Frank, who married Iva Smith and has five living children (they live on the 
liome ranch) ; Nettie, who died when eighteen 3'ears old ; and Maude, who is 
the wife of Charles F. Frederickson, a Morgan valley farmer, and has six 

John Thomas Bond was born October 21, 1861, in Morgan valley, and 
was reared on his father's ranch there. There, too, he obtained his early 
education, beginning to attend public school the first day it was opened in 
the valley, with Mr. Knight as teacher. Later he had the advantage of one 
winter term's attendance at the private school in Lower Lake taught by ]\Irs 
Delmont. The home place was the practical school where he had training 
for his life work, and there he acquired the systematic methods and enter- 
prising spirit which have marked every one of his undertakings. Since he 
commenced life on his own account he has acquired ownership of six hundred 
and forty acres in his native valley, and he has put a lifetime of well-directed 
labor in its development, all of which has been accomplished under his 
direction. Here he has established a most comfortable home, and he is 
profitably engaged in general farm work and stock raising, keeping ordinarily 
tliirty head of cattle, eight horses and mules and forty hogs. Mr. Bond has 
taken consideral^le pride in the advancement of his locality, most of its 
transformation from the primitive state having taken place in his day, and 
he has not onlj' done his share bj- opening up his own property to cultivation, 
but he has been public-spirited about assisting in the promotion of its social 
and educational interests. His particular work has been as member of the 
school board and school trustee, in which latter position he served twelve 
years. On purely political questions he is a Democrat like his father. 

o2:r^^^^^^%^ ^^^"f^ 


When twenty-five years old, on May 1, 1887, Mr. Bond married in Morgan 
\ alley Miss Frances Palmer, who was born at Davis, Yolo county, and 
whose father, Jasper V. Palmer, settled in Morgan valley in 1870, becoming 
one of its highly prosperous ranchmen and leaving an estate of eight hun- 
dred acres, which is a notable property. Mr. Palmer lived in Illinois when a 
boy and came across the plains to California with ox teams in 1854, following 
mining for a few years. He then returned to New York, where he was mar- 
ried at Savona in 1859 to Deborah M. Wing, a native of that state, returning 
to Illinois in 1861 for a time before again crossing the plains to California, 
where they resided first near Davis, then came to Lake county in 1870. Mr. 
Palmer died at Santa Rosa in 1907, Mrs. Palmer's death having occurred at 
the old home in 1897. Of their five children four survive, Mrs. Bond being 
che third in order of birth. Three children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
*^ond : Joella Rose is the wife of Hugh Cross, of Lakeport, former editor 
of the Lake County Bee, and has two children, Gertrude I. and Ralph H. ; 
Henry Victor assists on the home farm ; Amy Alice is married to Richard 
Ford, who is in the boating business at Lakeport, and has a son, John Herbert. 

Mr. Bond is a member of Lower Lake Parlor No. 159, N. S. G. W., and 
has been active in the interests of that organization, which he has served as 
trustee. His wife is a member of Laguna Parlor, N. D. G. W. No residents 
of Morgan valley are more highly respected by their neighbors and many 
friends than Mr. and Mrs. Bond, who always give of their time and means 
to any movement for the upbuilding and advancement of the county. 

LATHROP MALPAS, M. D. — One of the most startling developments 
oi the opening era of the twentieth century has been the advance made by 
women in every professional and occupative activity. Particularly has the 
medical science shown the results of the identification of women with its 
advance. In the study of therapeutics, in the development of the science of 
materia medica, in the practice of the profession and even in surgical cases 
requiring the most exact and unerring skill, women have stood side by side 
with men, winning a prestige that formerly would have been regarded as 
impossible and achieving a success that is drawing the science out of the 
realm of the empirical into the region of certainty, absoluteness and positive 
results. It is not too much to say that Dr. Malpas has borne her share in this 
task of advancement and by her own pronounced progress in the profession 
has shown what it is within the power of women to accomplish when their 
faculties are trained and their mental endowments rightly developed. 

The distinction of rising to prominence among the professional leaders of 
Northern California supplements with Dr. Malpas the honor of being a native 
daughter of the state (having been born at San Jose) and the further honor 
of being the daughter of a devoted minister of the Gospel, Rev. Levy B. 
Lathrop, a New Yorker bj' birth and a Forty-niner by choice. The recipient 
of exceptional educational advantages, she attended the Hollister high school 
and after graduating therefrom became a student in Florence College. Later 
she took a course of study in Miss Field's Seminary at Oakland and still later 
had the advantages of a commercial course in Heald's Business College at San 
Francisco. In 1897 she was graduated from the Cooper Medical College, 
after which she spent one year as an interne at the San Francisco Children's 
hospital and a year in similar practice at Santa Barbara. After a period of 
professional service in the McNutt (afterward the St. Winifred) hospital at 


San Francisco, she came to Ukiah in 1902 and has since conducted a hospital 
at this point, making a specialty of the treatment of women's and children's 
diseases and of surgical operations connected with the same. Journals devoted 
to therapeutics receive her careful study. It is ever her aim to keep abreast 
with modern developments in the profession and to this end she is a student 
of medical literature and an interested member of the Mendocino County, 
California State and American ]\Iedical Association, being secretary of the 
County Medical Society. All civic enterprises for the improvement and up- 
building of Ukiah and Mendocino county receive her hearty co-operation, and 
she gives willingly of time and means to forward all such movements. Evi- 
dence of her popularity in the county and city of her residence appears in her 
selection as chairman of the Ukiah Woman's Board for the Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition of 1915 at San Francisco, and in her recent service 
as matron of Casimir Lodge No. 252, Order of the Eastern Star, as well as in 
her distinct success as a physician and the recognition of her skill as a 

FRED LANGERMANN.— The head of a large family, with several sturdy 
sons whom he desired to interest in agriculture. Mr. Langermann made no 
mistake when in 1910 he came to Lake county and bought a tract of sixty acres 
in the South Kelseyville precinct. Since that time he has been making good 
as a farmer and getting established in the neighborhood where, in addition 
to managing his own property, he recently rented a ranch of three hundred 
and twenty acres from a neighbor. To manage so large a tract means intelli- 
gent work and unwearied energy, but he has proved equal to every emergency 
and shows the same sagacity in farming that he exercised in carpentering and 
contracting. Indeed, he is still in the building business and in all probability, 
as soon as his sons have gained efficiency in agricultural enterprises, he will 
return to specializing in contracts, for there is every reason to believe that the 
future is exceptionally bright for the building trades in Lake county. 

Seven miles from Hamburg in Germany Fred Langermann was born July 
1, 1857, and from there in 1868 he crossed the ocean to America with his 
mother, brothers and sisters, settling in Minnesota, fifty-four miles north of 
St. Paul, where he attended schools and gained a knowledge of the English 
language. Early in life he became proficient in carpentering, for which 
indeed he seemed to possess a decided native ability. During 1890 he left 
Minnesota for Oregon and settled in Portland, where he found employment 
at his trade. Little by little he rose in the confidence of those who had build- 
ing contracts to give, and his success in construction work of all kinds was 
exceptional. In concrete as well as in frame construction he acquired pro- 
ficiency and his only reason for giving up his work in Oregon to settle on a 
California farm was the desire to get his sons started along efficient lines of 
agriculture. During 1910 he left Sheridan, Yamhill county, and came down 
to this state, where he selected a favorable location in Lake county. While 
living in Sheridan he was one of the leading Masons of the blue lodge and was 
also active in the work of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. During 
his residence in Minnesota, he married Miss Filora Pemberton June 25, 1882, 
and they are now the parents of seven children, namely : John, who aids his 
father on the home farm : Henry, who is married and living in San Francisco; 
Clifton and Earl, both helping on the farm ; Griffin, Pearl and Ralph, attending 
school, all bright and capable young people whose preparation for efficient 


life work is the chief ambition of their parents. Mrs. Langermann was born 
in Henry county, Iowa, daughter of William H. and Eliza P. (Davis) Pem- 
berton, born in Ohio and Illinois, respectively. The father was a miller and 
also a minister in the Baptist church. Mrs. Langermann's maternal grand- 
father, Griffie Davis, was born in Virginia and was an uncle of Jefferson 
Davis. Mr. and Mrs. Langermann are both members of the Order of the 
Eastern Star. 

JAMES O. McSPADDEN.— Another of the real California pioneers, one 
who came to the state when he was but twenty-one, is James O. McSpadden, 
now one of the most prosperous farmers and stockmen in Mendocino county. 
He crossed the plains with ox teams in 1858, and has lived in the west con- 
tinuously since that time, principally in California, but for a time having 
lived in Nevada. 

Mr. McSpadden is a native of Tennessee, having been born in Calhoun, 
McMinn county. May 16, 1836. He is the descendant of an old Scotch family 
which settled in Virginia in an early day. His father was James Walker 
McSpadden, and was born in Virginia, removing to Tennessee when he was 
a young man. When the son James was yet a lad the family returned to 
Virginia, and he was reared on his father's farm there, attending the public 
.schools in his district. When he was twenty-one years of age he determined 
to come west, and crossed the plains in a "prairie schooner" with ox teams in 
1857, in company with a man named Thomas Potter, starting from Missouri. 
Arriving in California, he remained for a year at Napa, and in 1858 located 
in Mendocino county. He was employed for a number of years on various 
ranches in Anderson valley, and also worked in the woods and in the lumber 
camps and saw mills. He finally settled in Bell Valley, where he engaged in 
farming and stock-raising. 

During the earh' part of his residence in the west Mr. McSpadden spent 
two years in Nevada, but the conditions there did -not appeal to him, and at 
the end of that time he returned to California, and has since then made his 
home continuously in Mendocino county. He has been very successful in the 
stock business, and has purchased and improved several tracts of valuable 
land. He is at present owner of one of the finest properties in the valley, and 
is one of the oldest settlers in the county. He is highly respected as a citizen 
and as a friend and neighbor, and enjoys the friendship of a wide circle. 

The marriage of Mr. McSpadden took place in Ukiah June 19, 1893, unit- 
ing him with Miss Maria Miller, who lived but eighteen months after her mar- 
riage. Mr. McSpadden has not remarried. 

SWAN W. YOUNG. — Among the health and pleasure resorts of Lake 
county which lia\e enjoyed continued favor for years, Newman Springs has 
become well known for its comforts and fine location, as well as for the waters 
whose curative qualities are sufficient to attract many. Mr. Young has been 
the proprietor since 1898, and with commendable enterprise has succeeded in 
building up a fine patronage, in spite of the fact that there are various other 
resorts in the region which have been much longer established. His chicken 
dinners are so popular as to make his place a favorite stopping point for 
driving parties, and his mechanical skill is often in demand for the repair 
of vehicles of all kinds — a very present help to those overtaken with acci- 
dents on the road. Mr. Young has a powerful physique and in his younger 


days was an amateur pugilist of some note, hence the club room with athletic 
appliances and training quarters at his resort. 

A native of Sweden, Mr. Young was born near Christianstad October 6, 
1862, son of West and Kate Young. His mother died when he was only a 
boy, and the father remarried. There were four children by the first union : 
Swan W. ; Nils, a bricklayer and plasterer by occupation, who resides at 
Galesburg, 111. ; John, a railroad man, also living at Galesburg; and a daughter 
that died in infancy. To the second marriage were born two children : Carrie, 
who is married and lives in Chicago, 111. ; and Joseph, a bricklayer, settled in 
British Columbia. 

Ever since his mother died Swan W. Young has made his own way in 
the world. When a young man of nineteen years he came to America, and 
during his first four years in this country lived at Galesburg, 111. Then he 
spent some time in Kansas and worked in Colorado, at Denver, being engaged 
at grading on the Denver & Rio Grande railroad. Within a short time, how- 
ever, he came to California, first locating at San Francisco, and in 1888 coming 
to Lake county, that year entering the employ of the Bartlett Springs Com- 
pany. During the summer season he was engaged as stable man at the resort, 
in the winters returning to San Francisco, where he worked as longshoreman 
or at any other employment — generally heavy work — which would bring him 
an honest living. Because of his steadiness and reliability, and his aptitude 
for mechanical work, he was made head stable man, and while thus engaged 
became an expert horseshoer — a valuable accomplishment, most important to 
the safety of travelers among the mountains. There are comparatively few 
blacksmiths who understand the shoeing of horses as thoroughly as Mr. Young. 
Having worked steadily and saved his money, he concluded to try business 
on his own account in 1898, and accordingly bought the place, known as New- 
man Springs, one and a half miles northwest of Bartlett Springs, that year. 
It is situated in the Bartlett Springs precinct, and one of the several fine 
springs on his property yields a water which looks and tastes exactly like 
that of the celebrated Bartlett spring. The Newman or Soap Creek spring 
is another particularly fine one, and there is another spring strong with iron. 
These waters have high medicinal value, obstinate cases of eczema and other 
skin ailments having been known to yield readily to their continued use, and 
their effects on the liver and kidneys are invigorating and salutary. They are 
recommended highly as an antiseptic and alterative, stimulating all the secre- 
tions of the body, eliminating diseased conditions, and particularly benefiting 
cases of sciatic rheumatism, blood poisoning and similar maladies. 

Newman Springs resort is delightfully and romantically situated among 
the Bartlett mountains in close proximity to the Big Horse mountain. Dur- 
ing Mr. Young's ownership it has been improved in many respects which have 
increased its desirability both as a health and a pleasure resort. The Newman 
house having burned down, he replaced it with a substantial building, and 
the barns and bathhouse are also of his construction. His versatility and skill 
as a mechanic have stood him in good stead in all this process of development. 
He is able to do cement work and carpentry as well as the experienced trades- 
man in these lines, and combined with his capacity for much heavy work 
this has been a great advantage where there is so much to be done with 
proper help not always available. The fine bathing house he has built has a 
lank large enough to accommodate a score or more of bathers. Mr. Young 


keeps personal oversight of the table provisions and service, a fact which is 
thoroughly appreciated by those who relish good home cooking such as he 
places before his guests. Together with his pleasant personality the many 
good points of Newman Springs are drawing an increased patronage yearly. 
He has the faculty of making his guests feel at home, and his obliging dispo- 
sition complements a familiarity with the requirements of his business which 
assures them that everything possible will be done for their comfort. 

Mr. Young is six feet tall and weighs two hundred pounds — all solid 
muscle. His fists, arms and shoulders are tremendous, and though he never 
entered the pugilistic ring except as an amateur he had the reputation of 
delivering as heavy a blow as some of the famous professionals. But although 
he acquired great skill in the art of self-defense and boxing he did not attempt 
to follow it as a professional, in spite of his manifest qualifications. But his 
former prowess has kept him interested in such sports, and a number of 
pugilists have come to the springs to take the baths and train, the club- 
room and training quarters being fitted with punching bag, dumbbells and 
ether appliances. Mr. Young is justly popular and respected, and in his suc- 
cess has the good-will of all who know him. 

JOSEPH MARTIN CHURCH.— On the Canadian side of Lake Erie 
within fifty miles of Niagara Falls, near Brantford, Brant county, Ontario, 
Joseph Martin Church was born on New Year's day of 1858, the eldest 
sron of Seth and Harriet (Harrison) Church, the former of Canadian birth 
and the latter of English blood. Of his immediate family there still remain 
in Brant county an own brother, George W., of Brantford, and a half-brother, 
Duncan Church, who lives on a farm ten miles west of Brantford. The 
original American location of the family had been in New England and 
Philip Church, a native of that section of country, but in young manhood 
a resident first at Troy, N. Y., and later at Syracuse, the same state, had 
been the first to establish a home in Canada, where for a long period of 
industrious activity he engaged in lumbering, an occupation in turn followed 
by Seth and Joseph Martin Church. The latter at the age of fifteen removed 
with other members of the family to a farm and for a year aided in the 
tilling of the soil. A decided bent for machinery and mechanical work led him 
to become an apprentice in a shop at Brantford at the age of sixteen and 
there he not only learned the trade of machinist, but in addition studied 
the principles of engineering. I-fis wages the first year were $4 a week, 
the second year $7, the third year $10, while the fourth, when practically 
a finished machinist, he received only $12 a week, and during all of this 
time he paid his own board. At the end of this period of training, he began 
to work as machinist and engineer in Ontario and it was not until 1886, when 
he was twenty-eight, that he gave up work in Canada for the purpose of 
removing to California. During 1888 he returned to Ontario and married 
Miss Alpharetta Churchill of Brantford, who accompanied him to the west 
and presides with tactful hospitality over their comfortable home. 

For the first year of California residence Mr. Church ran a stationary 
engine for a creamery at Bakersfield owned by the Carr and Haggin interests. 
Coming to Lakeport in 1887, he became engineer at the Lakeport flouring 
mill and after seven years in that capacity he and Jabez Banks purchased the 
mill, which they operated under the title of Banks & Church. After a 
successful period of co-operation in that business, in 1906 Mr. Church sold 


his interest to Mr. Banks and embarked in general merchandising. He is 
now the proprietor of the largest department store in Lakeport, his establish- 
ment containing a varied assortment of dry goods, groceries, shoes, men's 
furnishings and other merchandise, the stock and fixtures having a conserva- 
tive valuation of $20,000. The closest attention is given to every detail 
connected with the store. Prompt payment of bills gives such advantages 
in discounts that prices are often much lower than in other establishments 
in town. Besides attractive prices, the store is also noteworthy by reason 
of convenience of arrangement, harmony of displays and completeness of 
appointments. Added to all else is the unvarying courtesy of the proprietor, 
whose genial but commanding presence inspires confidence and whose inter- 
est in the wants of patrons causes him to do all within his power to fill 
their orders efficiently and with promptness. Aside from his duties at his 
business establishment he finds leisure for the work of the local Masonic 
Blue Lodge, in which he is a Past Master (having been made a Mason in 
Hartley Lodge No. 199, F. & A. M. of Lakeport, and for the duties of 
steward and trustee in the Methodist Episcopal Church South. Although not 
a politician, he keeps posted concerning public affairs and votes the Repub- 
lican ticket. Versatile in abilities, with the talents that would have brought 
success in varied lines of endeavor, he is a splendid type of the Canadian- 
American citizens of California and is highly honored in Lakeport. where 
his devotion to the church, his interest in charities, prominence in business, 
combined with and inspired by a serene disposition and earnest Christian 
character, give him a place in the very forefront of the progressive citizenship 
of the place. 

OSCAR E. MEDDAUGH.— The veteran druggist of Lakeport has been 
engaged in business at his present headquarters in the Levy block on the 
corner of Third and Main streets since the year 1893 as the sole proprietor 
and for five years prior thereto had an interest in the same concern as a mem- 
ber of the firm of Maxwell & Meddaugh. Although identified with the apothe- 
cary's business for perhaps thirty years altogether. Mr. Meddaugh is still in 
the prime of manhood, with the possibility of many years of continued service 
in the future. We pay homage to such men as James G. Blaine, who wrote 
instructively on Twenty Years in Congress : but twenty or more years in 
the drug business in the same place attracts little attention, although it is an 
accomplishment equally valuable and worthy of praise. During all of these 
years Mr. Meddaugh has maintained his reputation for ability and integrity. 
He and his wife have reared a family of four children and their highest am- 
bition has been to give to each the best of educational advantages. But his 
achievements have not been limited to business integrity and domestic wel- 
fare ; always he has been a positive factor for the moral good and spiritual 
uplift of the community. Not only is he a leading member of the Baptist 
L hurch of Lakeport. but he is also a strong temperance advocate and an 
active worker for the prohibition cause. At times his business has been 
threatened and he may have lost trade by his temperance sentiments, but he 
has never failed to speak out boldly against the saloon and the legalized 
liquor traffic. In national politics he votes with the Republican party. A 
man of positive convictions and purposeful character, he believes in the good 
and eschews the bad. In all local matters he desires to stand for the greatest 
good to all, for progress, truth and right. Such men furnish the best types of 


tlie citizenship of California and are a source of uplift to their adopted com- 

In the county of Oxford near the town of Tilsonburg, Ontario, Canada, 
Oscar E. Meddaugh was born February 6, 1863. There he received a common- 
school education and there he learned the drug business with William Mc- 
Donald of Tilsonburg. After considerable experience he became a registered 
pharmacist. During 1886 he married Mary E. Haycock, who was born and 
reared near Tilsonburg. Accompanied by his wife he came to California and 
arrived at Lakeport September 22, 1888. Immediately afterward he bought 
an interest in the drug business of W. A. Maxwell on Main street. At the 
time of the completion of the Levy block in 1891 the business was mov