Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Miami County, Indiana, from the earliest time to the present"

See other formats








Brant & 



^.^:^ '' 





AFTER several months of almost uninterrupted labor, the History 
of Miami County is completed. In issuing it to our patrons we do 
not claim for it perfection : but that it contains that reasonable degree 
of accuracy which only could be expected of us, is coniidently asserted. 
The difficulties that surround such an undertaking can scarcely be real- 
ized by one who has never engaged in work of the kind. To reconcile 
the doubtful and often conflicting statements that are so frequently 
made liy those who would seem to be best informed, is a task both per- 
plexing and tedious. Yet we believe that we have been able to present 
a history of the county that is as nearly complete as reason can demand, 
and the book exceeds our promises in almost every particular. We have 
endeavored to set forth the facts in as concise and unostentatious lan- 
guage as possible, believing it is for the facts and not for rhetorical 
display that the book is desired. The mechanical execution and gen- 
eral appearance of the volume will recommend it, even to the fastidi- 
ous. The arrangement of the matter is such as to render an index 
almost superfluous, as the subject xander consideration is at the top of 
every right-hand page. For further details the italic subdivisions 
will enable the reader to refer with readiness to any subject. In the 
spelling of proper names there is such a wide difference, even among 
members of the same family, and is a matter of so arbitrary a nature 
that our only guide was each man's desire. Every clue that gavejH'om- 
ise of important facts connected with the county's history has been in- 
vestigated by those engaged in the work. We believe the volume will 
be favorably received and highly appreciated by those for whom it was 
jirepared. Our thanks are due to those who have rendered us assistance, 
and to our patrons. 


Chicago, III., March, 1887. 

./«".. :.'.;,. <rft*l.i'.i..../.ii.xj»\^."'.' <•.. 




Pkkhistobic Races 17 

Antiquities 19 

Chinese, The 18 

Discovery by Columbus 33 

Explorations by the Whites 37 

Indians, The 31 

Immigration, The First 18 

Immigration, The Second 20 

Pyramids, etc.. The 21 

Relics of the Mound-Builders 23 

Savage Customs 34 

Tartars, The '. 23 

Vincennes 39 

Wabash KiTer. The 39 

White Men, The First 37 


National Policies, etc 41 

American Policy, The 46 

Atrocity of the Savages 47 

Burning of Hinton 48 

British I'olicy, The 46 

Clark's Expedition 52 

French Scheme, The 41 

Gilbault, Father 65 

(iovernmcnt of the Northwest 67 

Hamilton's Career 64 

Liquor and Gaming Laws .' 74 

Missionaries, The Catholic 42 

Ordinance of 1787 70 

Pontiac's War 46 

Ruse Against the Indians 64 

Vigo, Francis 6 


Operations Against the Indians 75 

Battle at Peoria Lake 104 

Campaign of Harrison 92 

Cession Treaties 9;J 

Defeat of St. Clair 79 

Defensive Operations 7G 

Expedition of Harmer 75 

Expedition of Wayne 79 

Expedition of St. Clair 78 

Expedition of Williamson 78 

Fort Miami, Battle of 80 

Harrison and the Indians 87 

Hopkins' Campaign 105 

Kickapoo Town, Burning of - 78 

Maumee, Buttle of. 75 

Massacre at Pigeon Roost 103 

Mississiuewa Town, Battle at 106 

Oratory, 'Tecumseh's 114 

Prophet Town, Destniction of 100 

Peace with the Indians 106 

Siege of Fort Wayne 101 

Siege of Fort Harrison 103 

Tecumseh Ill 

Tippecanoe, Battle of. 98 

War of 1S12 101 

War of 1812, Close of the 108 


Organization of Indiana Territory 82 

Bank, Establishment of 120 

Courts, Formation of 120 

County Offices, Appotntmentof. 110 

Corydon, the Capital 117 

Gov. Posey 117 

Indiana in 1810 84 

Population in 1815 118 

Territorial Legislature, The First 84 

WetUm Sun, The 84 


Organization of the State, etc 121 

Amendment, The Fifteenth 147 

Black Hawk War 128 

Constitution, Formation of the 121 

Campaigns Against the Indians 128 

Defeat of lilack Hawk laO 

Exodus of the Indians 131 

General Assembly, The First 122 

Guadalupe-HidalgOj Treaty of. 142 

Harmony Community 134 

Indian Titles 132 

Immigration « 12.*= 

Lafayette, Action at „ 127 

Land Sales , 133 

Mexican War, The 186 

Slavery 144 


Indiana in the Rebellion 148 

Batteriesof Light Infantry 182 

Battle Record of States 188 

Call to Arms, The 149 

Colored Troops of Indiana 182 

Calls of 1864 177 

Field, In the 152 

Independent Cavalry Regiment 181 

Morgan's Itaid 170 

Minute-Men 17(j 

One Hundred Days' Men 176 

Regiu'ents, Formation of. 151 

Regiments, Sketch of. 153 

Six Months' Regiments 172 


State Affairs After the Rebellion 189 

Agriculture 2o9 

Coal 207 

Divorce Laws 193 

Finances 194 

Geology 205 

Internal Improvements 199 

Indiana Horticultural Society 212 

Indiana Promological Society 213 

Special Laws 190 

State Bank 196 

State Board of Agriculture 209 

State Expositions 210 

Wealth and Progress 197 


Education and Benevolence 215 

Blind Institute, The 232 

City School System 218 

Compensation of Teachers 220 

Denominational and Private Institutions.... 230 

Deaf and Dumb Institute 236 

Education 26-'> 

Enumeration of Scholars 219 

Family Worship 252 

Free School System, The 215 

Funds, Management of the 217 

Female Prison and Reformatory 241 

Houseof Pvefuge, The 243 

Insane Hospital, The 238 

Northern Indiana Normal School 229 

Origin of School Funds 221 

Purdue University 224 

School Statistics 218 

State University. The 222 

State Normal School 228 

State Prison, South] 239 

State Prison, North 240 

Total School Funds 220 





OY— General Features— Soil and Boun- 
f dary— Lime— The Pillared Rocks 247 

DIAN History- Early Tribes — The Miamis— 
Treaties— The Pottawattomies— Indian Vil- 
lages—Miami Chiefs— Indian Murders — 
FMUces Slocum— Battle of the Mississinewa 250 

ovNTY Orqamzation— Acts of the Legisla- 
ture — Proceedings of the County Board — 
Creation of Townships — Public Buildings — 
County Finances — Wabash & Erie Canal — 
Railroads — Gravel Roads — Medical and Ag- 
ricultural Societies— Elections— County Offi- 
cers, etc 272 


Military History— Early Militia— Mexican 

"War— Opening of the Rebellion— Call to 

< Arms — First Troops for the Front... Miami 

County Regiments in Detail— Roll of Honor 

—Drafts— Bounty and Relief, etc 299 

Bench and Bar— Early Courts— First Judge*— 
Destruction of Records — Early Cases — Early 
Attorneys — Courts under the New Constitu- 
tion — Official Seal — Criminal Trials — Later 
Judges and Attorneys— Probate and Com- 
mon Pleas Courts— Roll of Attorneys 



Schools— Early Educational Advantages — First 
Schools— Teachers and Their Methods — 
Schools of Peru— The Townships in Detail — 
County Seminary — The Township Funds — 
Normals and Institutes, etc M8 

Peru — The Original Owners— Laying out of the 
Town— Miamlsport — Sale of Lots— Early 
Business— Navigation of the Wabash— The 
Canal — Early Families — Incorporation — 
Additions — Fire and Water Departments — 
Newspapers — Churches — Secret Societies — 
Literary Societies and Libraries — Banks — 
Manufacturing Enterprises — Biographical 
.Sketches 362 


Allen Township History 488 

Allen Township Biographies 505 

Butler Township History 535 

Butler Township Biographies 543 

Clay Township History 559 

Clay Township Biographies 563 

Deer Creek Township History 572 

Deer Creek Township Biographies 579 

Erie Township History 691 

Erie Township Biographies S96 

Harrison Township History 602 

Harrison Township Biographies 612 

Jackson Township History , 617 

Jackson Township Biographies 637 

Jefferson Township History 659 

Jefferson Township Biographies 682 

Perry Township History.. 712 

Perry Township Biographies 726 

Peru Township History 362 

Peru Township Biographies 392 

Pipe Creek Township History 736 

Pipe Creek Township Biographies 753 

Richland Township History 762 

Richland Township Biographies 772 

Union Township History 781 

Union Township Biographies 792 

Washington Township History 802 

Washington Township Biographies 807 


Bloomfield. E. M 405 

Brown, James M 351 

Clendenning, E. B 51S 

Coe, A. D 657 

Cox. J. T 475 

Crowell, Geo. A 369 

Dukes, A. N 316 

Farrar, John L 649 

Farrar, Josiah 423 

Fisher, Joseph 603 

Graft, Benjamin 675 

Graham, Jehn A 279 

Helm, John H 297 

HoUenshade, James 639 

Larimer, J. H 567 

Lockwood, W. W 441 

McDowell, H. P 621 

Miller, W. B 460 

Runyan, R. B 586 

Shirk. E. H - ^»» 261 

Shirk, H. J 387 

Waite, A. C 531 

Walker, Lyman 333 

Wilson, J. S 495 




Scientists have ascribed to the Mound Builders varied origins 
and though their divergence of opinion may for a time seem incom- 
patible with a thorough investigation of the subject, and tend to 
a confusion of ideas, no doubt whatever can exist as to the compar- 
ative accuracy of conclusions arrived at by some of them. Like 
the vexed question of the Pillar Towers of Ireland, it lias caused 
much speculation, and elicited the opinions of so many learned 
antiquarians, ethnologists and travelers, that it will not be found 
beyond the range of possibility to make deductions that may 
suffice to solve the problem who were the prehistoric settlers of 
America. To achieve this it will not be necessary to go beyond the 
period over which Scripture history extends, or to indulge in those 
airy flights of imagination so sadly identified with occasional 
writers of even the Christian school, and all the accepted literary 
exponents of modern paganism. 

That this continent is co-existent witli the world of the ancients 
cannot be questioned. Every investigation, instituted under the 
auspices of modern civilization, confirms the fact and leaves no 
channel open through which the skeptic can escape the thorough 
refutation of his opinions. China, with its numerous living testi- 
monials of antiquity, with its ancient, though limited literature 
and its' Babelish superstitions, claims a continuous history from 
antediluvian times; but although its continuity may be denied 
with every just reason, there is nothing to prevent the transmission 
of a hieroglyphic record of its history prior to 1656 atmo mundi, 
since many traces of its early settlement survived the Deluge, and 
became sacred objects of the first historical epoch. This very sur 
vival of a record, such as that of which the Chinese boast, is not 
at variance with the designs of a God who made and ruled the 
universe; but that an antediluvian people inhabited this continent, 


will not be claimed; because it is not probable, though it may be 
possible, that a settlement in a land which may be considered a 
portion of the Asiatic continent, was effected by the immediate 
followers of the first progenitors of the human race. . Therefore, on 
entering the study of the ancient people who raised these tumu- 
lus monuments over large tracts of the country, it will be just 
sufficient to wander back to that time when the flood-gates of 
hearen were swung open to hurl destruction on a wicked world; 
and in doing so the inquiry must be based on legendary, or rather 
upon many circumstantial evidences; for, so far as written narra- 
tive extends, there is nothing to show that a movement of people 
too far east resulted in a Western settlement. 


The first and most probable sources in which the origin of the 
Builders must be sought, are those countries lying along the east- 
ern coast of Asia, which doubtless at that time stretched far beyond 
its present limits, and presented a continuous shore from Lopatka 
to Point Cambodia, holding a population comparatively civilized, 
and all professing some elementary form of the Boodhism of later 
days. Those peoples, like the Chinese of the present, were bound 
to live at home, and probably observed that law until after the con- 
fusion of languages and the dispersion of the builders of Babel in 
1757, A. M. ; but subsequently, within the following century, the 
old Mongolians, like the new, crossed the great ocean in tiie very 
paths taken by the present representatives of the race, arrived on 
the same shores, which now extend a very questionable hospitality 
to them, and entered at once upon the colonization of the country 
south and east, while the Caucasian race engaged in a similar move- 
ment of exploration and colonization over what may be justly 
termed the western extension of Asia, and both peoples growing 
stalwart under the change, attained a moral and physical eminence 
to which they never could lay claim under the tropical sun which 
shed its beams upon the cradle of the human race. 

That mysterious people who, like the Brahmins of to-day, wor- 
shiped some transitory deity, and in after years, evidently embraced 
the idealization of Boodhism, as preached in Mongolia early in the 
35th century of the world, together with acquiring the learning of 
the Confucian and Pythagorean schools of the same period, spread 
all over the land, and in their numerous settlements erected these 
ratliB, or mounds, and sacrificial altars whereon they received their 


periodical visiting gods, surrendered their bodies to natural absorp- 
tion or annihilation, and watched tor the return of some transmi- 
grated soul, the while adoring the universe, which with all beings 
they believed would be eternally existent. Thej possessed religious 
orders corresponding in external show at least with the Essenes or 
Theraputse of the pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to the 
reformed Theraputie or monks of the present. Every memento 
of their coming and their stay which has descended to us is an evi- 
dence of their civilized condition. The free copper found within 
the tumuli; the open veins of the Superior and Iron Mountain 
copper-mines, with all ihemodiis opera)idi of ancient mining, such 
as ladders, levers, chisels, and hammer-heads, discovered by the 
French explorers of the Northwest and the Mississippi, are conclu- 
sive proofs that those prehistoric people were highly civilized, and 
that many flourishing colonies were spread throughout the Missis- 
sippi valley, while yet the mammoth, the mastodon, and a hundred 
other animals, now only known by their gigantic fossil remains, 
guarded the eastern shore of the continent as it were against sup- 
posed invasions of the Tower Builders who went west from Babel; 
while yet the beautiful isles of the Antilles formed an integral 
portion of this continent, long years before the European Northmau 
dreamed of setting forth to the discovery of Greenland and the 
northern isles, and certainly at a time when all that portion of 
America north of latitude 45° was an ice-incumbered waste. 

Within the last few years great advances have been made toward 
the discovery of antiquities whether pertaining to remains of organic 
or inorganic nature. Together with many small, but telling 
relics of the early inhabitants of the country, the fossils of pre- 
historic animals have been unearthed from end to end of the land, 
and in districts, too, long pronounced by geologists of some repute 
to be without even a vestige of vertebrate fossils. Among the 
collected souvenirs of an age about which so very little is known, 
are twenty-five vertebrfe averaging thirteen inches in diameter, 
and three vertebraj ossified together measure nine cubical feet; a 
thigh-bone five feet long by twenty-eight, by twelve inches in 
diameter, and the shaft fourteen by eight inches thick, the entire 
lot weighing 600 lbs. These fossils are presumed to belong to the 
cretaceous period, when the Dinosaur roamed over the country from 
East to West, desolating the villages of the people. This animal 
is said to have been sixty feet long, and when feeding in cypress 
and palm forests, to extend himself eighty-five feet, so that he maj^ 


devour the budding tops of those great trees. Other efforts in this 
direction may lead to great results, and culminate probably in the 
discovery of a tablet engraven by some learned Mound Builder, 
describing in the ancient hieroglyphics of China all these men and 
beasts whose history excites so much speculation. The identity of 
the Mound Builders with the Mongolians might lead us to hope 
for 6uch a consummation; nor is it be^-ond the range of probability, 
particularly in this practical age, to find the future labors of some 
industrious antiquarian requited by the upheaval of a tablet, written 
in the Tartar characters of 1700 years ago, bearing on a subject 
which can now be treated only on a purely circumstantial basis. 


may have begun a few centuries prior to the Christian era, and 
unlike the former expedition or expeditions, to have traversed north- 
eastern Asia to its Arctic confines, and then east to the narrow 
channel now known as Behring's Straits, which they crossed, and 
sailing up the unchanging Yukon, settled under the shadow of 
Mount St. Elias for many years, and pushing South commingled 
•with their countrymen, soon acquiring the characteristics of the 
descendants of the first colonists. Chinese chronicles tell of such 
a people, who went North and were never heard of more. Circum- 
stances conspire to render that particular colony the carriers of a 
;new religious faith and of an alphabetic system of a representative 
.character to the old colonists, and they, doubtless, exercised a most 
[beneficial influence in other respects ; because the influx of immi- 
;grant3 of such culture ag were the Chinese, even of that remote 
■period, must necessarily bear very favorable results, not only in 
!bi'inging in reports of their travels, but also accounts from the 
rfatherland bearing on the latest events. 

With the idea of a second and important exodus there are many 
theorists united, one of whom sa^^s: " It is now the generally 
•received opinion that the first inhabitants of America passed over 
from Asia through these straits. The number of small islands 
■-lying between both continents renders this opinion still more 
:probable; and it is yet farther confirmed by some remarkable traces 

• of similarity in the physical conformation of the northern natives 

• of both continents. The Esquimaux of North America, the 
isamoieds of Asia, and the Laplanders of Europe, are supposed to 
be of the same family; and this supposition is strengthened by the 

;iifl3nity which exists in their languages. The researches of Hum- 


boldt have traced the Mexicans to the vicinity of Behring's Straits; 
whence it is conjectured that they, as well as the Peruvians and 
other tribes, came originally from Asia, and were the Iliongnoos, 
who are, in the Chinese annals, said to have emigrated under Puno, 
and to have been lost in the North of Siberia." 

Since this theory is accepted by most antiquaries, there is every 
reason to believe that from the discovery of what may be called an 
overland route to what was then considered an eastern extension of 
that country which is now known as the " Celestial Empire," many 
caravans of emigrants passed to their new homes in the land of 
illimitable possibilities until the way became a well-marked trail 
over which the Asiatic might travel forward, and having once 
entered the Elysian fields never entertained an idea of returning. 
Thus from generation to generation the tide of immigration poured 
in until the slopes of the Pacific and the banks of the great inland 
rivers became hives of busy industry. Magnificent cities and 
monuments were raised at the bidding of the tribal leaders and 
populous settlements centered with happy villages sprung up 
everywhere in manifestation of the power and wealth and knowl- 
edge of the people. The colonizing Caucasian of the historic 
period walked over this great country on the very ruins of a civil- 
ization which a thousand years before eclipsed all that of which he 
could boast. He walked through the wilderness of the West over 
buried treasures hidden under the accumulated growth of nature, 
nor rested until he saw, with great surprise, the remains of ancient 
pyramids and temples and cities, larger and evidently more beauti- 
ful than ancient Egypt could bring forth after its long years of 
uninterrupted history. The pyramids resemble those of Egypt in 
exterior form, and in some instances are of larger dimensions. The 
pyramid of Cholula is square, having each side of its base 1,335 
feet in length, and its height about 172 feet. Another pyramid? 
situated in the north of Vera Cruz, is formed of large blocks- 
of highly-polished porphyry, and bears upon its front hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions and curious sculpture. Each side of its 
square base is 82 feet in length, and a flight of 57 steps conducts to 
its summit, which is 65 feet in height. The ruins of Palenque are 
said to extend 20 miles along the ridge of a mountain, and the 
remains of an Aztec city, near the banks of the river Gila, are 
spread over more than a square league. Their literature consisted 
of hieroglyphics; but their arithmetical knowledge did not extend 
farther than their calculations by the aid of grains of corn. Yet^ 


notwithstanding all their varied accoinplisliments, and they were 
evidently many, their notions of religious duty led to a most demo- 
niac zeal at once barbarously savage and ferociously cruel. Each 
visiting, god instead of bringing new life to the people, brought 
death to thousands; and their grotesque idols, exposed to drown 
the senses of the beliolders in fear, wrought wretchedness rather 
than spiritual happiness, until, as some learned and humane Monte- 
zumian said, the people never approached these idols without fear, 
and this fear was the great animating principle, the great religious 
motive power which sustained the terrible religion. Their altars 
were sprinkled with blood drawn from their own bodies in large 
quantities, and on them thousands of human victims were sacri- 
ficed in honor of the demons whom they worshiped. The head 
and heart of every captive taken in war were offered up as a bloody 
sacrifice to the god of battles, while the victorious legions feasted 
on the remaining portioas of the dead bodies. It has been ascer- 
tained that during the ceremonies attendant on the consecration of 
two of their temples, the number of prisoners offered up ia sacri- 
fice was 12,210; wliile their own legions contributed voluntary 
victims to the terrible belief in large numbers. Nor did this 
horrible custom cease immediately after 1521, when Cortez entered 
the imperial city of the Montezumas; for, on being driven from 
it, all his troops who fell into the hands of the native soldiers were 
subjected to the most terrible and prolonged suffering that could be 
experienced in this world, and when about to yield up that spirit 
which is indestructible, were offered in sacrifice, their hearts and 
heads consecrated, and the victors allowed to feast on the yet warm 

A reference is made here to the period when the Montezumas 
ruled over Mexico, simply to gain a better idea of the hideous 
idolatry' which took the place of the old Boodhism of the Mound 
Builders, and doubtless helped in a great measure to give victory 
to the new comers, eveu as the tenets of Mahometanism urged the 
ignorant followers of the prophet to the conquest of great nations. 
It was not the faith of the people who built the mounds and the 
pyramids and the temples, and who, 200 years before the Christian 
era, built the great wall of jealous China. No: rather was it that 
terrible faith born of the Tartar victory, which carried the great 
defenses of Cliina at the point of the javelin and hatchet, who 
afterward marched to the very walls of Rome, under Alaric, and 



spread over the islands of Polynesia to the Pacific slopes of South 


came there, and, like the pure Mongols of Mexico and the Missis- 
sippi valley, rose to a state of civilization bordering on that attained 
by them. Here for centuries the sons of the fierce Tartar race con- 
tinued to dwell in comparative peace until the all-ruling ambition 
of empire took in the whole country from the Pacific to the Atlan- 
tic, and peopled the vast territory watered by the Amazon with a 
race that was destined to conquer all the peoples of the Orient, 
and only to fall before the march of the arch-civilizing Caucasian. 
In course of time those fierce Tartars pushed their settlements 
northward, and ultimately entered the territories of the Mound 
Builders, putting to death all who fell within their reach, and 
causing the survivors of the death-dealing invasion to seek a refuge 
from the hordes of this semi-barbarous people in the wilds and fast- 
. nesses of the North and Northwest. The beautiful country of the 
Mound Builders was now in the hands of savage invaders, the quiet, 
industrious people who raised the temples and pyramids were gone; 
and the wealth of intelligence and industry, accumulating forages, 
passed into the possession of a rapacious horde, who could admire 
it only so far as it offered objects for plunder. Even in this the 
invaders were satisfied, and then having arrived at the height of 
their ambition, rested on their swords and entered upon the luxury 
and ease in the enjoyment of which they were found when the van- 
guard of European civilization appeared upon the scene. Mean- 
time the southern countries which those adventurers abandoned 
after having completed their conquests in the North, were soon 
peopled by hundreds of people, always moving from island to 
island and ultimately halting amid the ruins of villages deserted 
by those who, as legends tell, had passed eastward but never returned; 
and it would scarcely be a matter for surprise if those emigrants 
were found to be the progenitors of that race found by the Spaniards 
in 1532, and identical with the Araucanians, Cuenches and Huil- 
tiches of to-day. 


One of the most brilliant and impartial historians of the Republic 
stated that the valley of the Mississippi contained no monuments. 
So far as the word is entertained now, he was literally correct, but 


in some hasty eflFort neglected to qualify his sentence by a refer- 
ence to the numerous relics of antiquity to be found throughout 
its length and breadth, and so exposed his chapters to criticism. 
The valley of the Father of Waters, and indeed the country from 
the trap rocks of the Great Lakes southeast to the Gulf and south- 
west to Mexico, abound in tell-tale monuments of a race of people 
much farther advanced in civilization than the Montezumas of the 
sixteenth century. The remains of walls and fortifications found 
in Kentucky and Indiana, the earthworks of Vincennes and 
throughout the valley of the Wabash, the mounds scattered over 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Virginia, and those found in Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, are all evidences of the univer- 
sality of the Chinese Mongols and of their advance toward a com- 
parative knowledge of man and cosmology. At the mouth of 
Fourteen-Mile creek, in Clark county, Indiana, there stands one of 
these old monuments known as the '■ Stone Fort." It is an 
unmistakable heirloom of a great and ancient people, and must 
have formed one of their most important posts. The State Geolo- 
gist's report, filed among the records of the State and furnished 
by Prof. Cox, says: "At the mouth of Fourteen-Mile creek, and 
about three miles from Charleston, the county-seat of Clark county, 
there is one of the most remarkable stone fortifications which has 
ever come under my notice. Accompanied by my assistant, Mr. 
Borden, and a number of citizens of Charleston, I visited the ' Stone 
Fort' for the purpose of making an examination of it. The locality 
selected for this fort presents many natural advantages for making 
it impregnable to the opposing forces of prehistoric times. It 
occupies the point of an elevated narrow ridge which faces the 
Ohio river on the east and is bordered by Fourteen-Mile creek on 
the west side. This creek empties into the Ohio a short distance 
below the fort. The top of the ridge is pear-shaped, with the 
part answering to the neck at the north end. This part is not 
over twenty feet wide, and is protected by precipitous natural walls 
of stone. It is 280 feet above the level of the Ohio river, and the 
slope is very gradual to the south. At the upper field it is 240 feet 
high and one hundred steps wide. At the lower timber it is 120 
feet high. The bottom land at the foot of the south end is sixty 
feet above the river. Along the greater part of the Ohio river 
front there is an abrupt escarpment rock, entirely too steep to be 
scaled, and a similar natural barrier exists along a portion of the 
northwest side of the ridge, facing the creek. This natural wall 









is joined to the neck of an artificial wall, made by piling up, mason 
fashion but without mortar, loose stone, which had evidently been 
pried up from the carboniferous layers of rock. This made wall, at 
this point, is about 150 feet long. It is built along the slope of the 
bill and had an elevation of about 75 feet above its base, the upper 
ten feet being vertical. The inside of the wall is protected by a 
ditch. The remainder of the hill is protected by an artificial stone 
wall, built in the same manner, but not more than ten feet high. 
The elevation of the side wall above the creek bottom is 80 feet. 
Within the artificial walls is a string of mounds which rise to the 
height of the wall, and are protected from the washing of the hill- 
sides by a ditch 20 feet wide and four feet deep. The position of 
the artificial walls, natural cliffs of bedded stone, as well as that of 
tlie ditch and mounds, are well illustrated. The top of the enclosed 
ridge embraces ten or twelve acres, and there are as many as five 
mounds that can be recognized on the flat surface, while no doubt 
many others existed which have been obliterated by time, and 
tliough the agency of man in his efibrts to cultivate a portion of 
the ground. A trench was cut into one of these mounds in search 
of relics. A few fragments of charcoal and decomposed bones, and 
a large irregular, diamond-shaped boulder, with a small circular 
indentation near the middle of the upper part, that was worn quite 
smooth by the use to which it had been put, and the small pieces 
of fossil coral, comprised all the articles of note which were revealed 
by the excavation. The earth of which the mound is made resem- 
bles that seen on the hillside, and was probably in most part taken 
from the ditch. The margin next to the ditch was protected by 
slabs of stone set on edge, and leaning at an angle corresponding to 
the slope of the mound. This stone shield was two and one-half 
feet wide and one foot high. At intervals along the great ditch 
there are channels formed between the mounds that probably served 
to carry ofi" the surplus water through openings in the outer wall. 
On the top of the enclosed ridge, and near its narrowest part, there 
is one mound much larger than any of the others, and so situated 
as to command an extensive view up and down the Ohio river, as well 
as afibrding an unobstructed view east and west. This is designated 
as ' Look-out Mound.' There is near it a slight break in the cliff 
of rock, which furnished a narrow passageway to the Ohio river. 
Though the locality afforded many natural advantages for a fort or 
stronghold, one is compelled to admit that much skill was displayed 
.and labor expended in making its defense as perfect as possible at 


all points. Stone axes, pestles, arrow-heads, spear-points, totums, 
charms and flint flakes have been found in great abundance in 
plowing the field at the foot of the old fort." 

From the " Stone Fort " the Professor turns his steps to Posey 
county, at a point on the Wabash, ten miles above the mouth, 
called "Bone Bank," on account of the number of human bones 
continually washed out from the river bank. " It is," he states 
"situated in a bend on the left bank of the river; and the ground 
is about ten feet above high-water mark, being tlie only land along 
this portion of the river that is not submerged in seasons of high 
water. Tiie bank slopes gradually back from the river to a slough. 
This slough now seldom contains water, but no doubt at one time 
it was an arm of the Wabash river, which flowed around the Bone 
Bank and afforded protection to the island home of the Mound 
Builders. The Wabash has been changing its bed for many years, 
leaving a broad extent of newly made land on the right shore, and 
gradually making inroads on the left shore by cutting away the 
Bone Bank. The stages of growth of land on the right bank of the 
river are well defined by thecottonwood trees, which increase in size 
as you go back from the river. Unless there is a change in the cur- 
rent of the river, all trace of the Bone Bank will be obliterated. 
Already within the memory of the white inhabitants, the bank has 
been removed to the width of several hundred yards. As the bank 
is cut by the current of the river it loses its support, and when the 
water sinks it tumbles over, carrying with it the bones of the 
Mound Builders and the cherished articles buried with them. No 
locality in the country furnishes a greater number and variety of 
relics than this. It has proved especially rich in pottery of 
quaint design and skillful workmanship. I have a number of jugs 
and pots and a cup found at the Bone Bank. This kind of work 
has been very abundant, and is still f jund in such quantities that 
we are led to conclude that its manufacture formed a leading indus- 
try of the inhabitants of the Bone Bank. It is not in Europe 
alone that we find a well-founded claim of high antiquity for the 
art of making hard and durable stone by a mixture of clay, lime, 
sand and stone; for I am convinced that this art was possessed by 
a race of people who inhabited this continent at a period so remote 
that neither tradition nor history can furnish any account of thein. 
They belonged to the Neolithic, or polished-stone, age. They lived 
in towns and built mounds for sepulture and worship and pro- 
tected their homes bv surrounding them with walls of earth and 



stone. Ill sotiie of these mounds specimens of various kinds of 
pottery, in a perfect state of preservation, have from time to time 
been found, and fragments are so common that every student of 
archieology can have a bountiful supply. Some of these fragments 
indicate vessels of very great size. At the Saline springs of Gal- 
latin I picked up fragments that indicated, by their curvature, ves- 
sels five to six feet in diameter, and it is probable they are frag- 
ments of artificial stone pans used to hold brine that was manufac- 
tured into salt by solar evaporation. 

" Now, all the pottery belonging to the Mound Builders' age, 
which I have seen, is composed of alluvial clay and sand, or a mix- 
ture of the former with pulverized fresh-water shells. A paste 
made of such a mixture possesses, in high degree, the properties of 
hydraulic Puzzuoland and Portland cement, so that vessels formed 
of it hardened without being burned, as is customary with modern 

The Professor deals very aptly with this industry of the aborig- 
ines, and concludes a very able disquisition on the Bone Bank in 
its relation to the prehistoric builders. 


^nv: % 


The great circular redoubt or earth-work found two miles west ot 
the village of New Washington, and the " Stone Fort," on a ridge 
one mile west of the village of Deputy, offer a subject for the anti- 
quarian us deeply interesting as any of the monuments of a 
iecayod empire so far discovered. 


From end to end of Indiana there are to be found many other rel- 
ics of the obscure past. Some of them have been unearthed and now 
appear among the collected antiquities at Indianapolis. The highly 
finished sandstone pipe, the copper ax, stone axes, flint arrow-heads 
and magnetic plummets found a few years ago beneath the soil of 
Cut-Oflf Island near New Harmony, together with the pipes of rare 
workmanship and und^iubted age, unearthed near Covington, all 
live as it were in testimony of their owner's and maker's excel- 
lence, and hold a share in the evidence of the partial annihilation 
of a race, with the complete disruption of its manners, customs 
and industries; and it is possible that when numbers of these relics 
are placed together, a key to the phonetic or rather hieroglyphic 
system of that remote period might be evolved. 

It may be asked what these hieroglypliical characters reall}' are. 
Well, they are varied in form, so much so that the pipes found in 
the mounds of Indians, each bearing a distinct representation of 
some animal, may be taken for one species, used to represent the 
abstract ideas of the Mound Builders. The second form consists 
of pure hieroglyphics or phonetic characters, in which the sound is 
represented instead of the object; and the third, or painted form of 
the first, conveys to the mind that whi^h is desired to be re])re- 
sented. This form exists among the Cree Indians of the far North- 
west, at present. They, when departing from their permanent vil- 
lages for the distant hunting grounds, paint on the barked trees in 
the neighborhood the figure of a snake or eagle, or perhaps huskey 
dog; and this animal is supposed to guard the position until the 
warrior's return, or welcome any friendly tribes that may arrive 
there in the interim. In the case of the Mound Builders, it is un- 
likely that this latter extreme was resorted to, for tiie simple reason 
that the relics of their occupation are too high in the ways of art to 
tolerate such a barbarous science of language; but the sculptured 
pipes and javelins and spear-heads of the Mound Builders may be 
taken as a collection of graven images, each conveying a set of 
ideas easily understood, and perhaps sometimes or more generally 
used to designate the vocation, name or character of the owner. 
That the builders possessed an alphabet of a phonetic form, and 
purely hieroglyphic, can scarcely be questioned; but until one or 
more of the unearthed tablets, which bore all or even a portion of 
such characters, are raised from their centiiried graves, the mystery 
whieli surrounds this people must remain, while we must dwell in 
a world of mere sneculation. 


Vigo, Jasper, Sullivan, Switzerland and Ohio counties can boast 
of a most liberal endowment in this relation; and when in other 
days the people will direct a minute inquiry, and penetrate to the 
very heart of the thousand cones which are scattered throughout 
the land, they may possibly extract the blood in the shape of metal- 
lic and porcelain works, with hieroglyphic tablets, while leaving 
the form of heart and body complete to entertain and delight un- 
born generations, who in their time will wonder much when they 
learn that an American people, living toward the close of the 59th 
century, could possibly indulge in such an anachronism as is im- 
plied in the term "New World." 


The origin of the Red Men, or American Indians, is a subject 
which interests as well as instructs. It is a favorite with the etli- 
nologist, even as it is one of deep concern to the ordinary reader. 
A review of two works lately published on the origin of the Indians 
treats the matter in a peculiarly reasonable light. It says: 

" Recently a German writer has put forward one theory on the 
subject, and an English writer has put forward another and directly 
opposite theory. Tiie difference of opinion concerning our aborig- 
inals among authors who have made a profound study of races is at 
once curious and interesting. Blumenbach treats them in his 
classifications as a distinct variety of the human family; but, in the 
threefold division of Dr. Latham, they are ranked among the Mon- 
golidiB. Other writers on race regard them as a branch of the great 
Mongolian family, which at a distant period found its way from 
Asia to this continent, and remained here for centuries separate 
from the rest of mankind, passing, meanwhile, through divers 
phases of barbarism and civilization. Morton, our eminent eth- 
nologist, and his followers, Nott and Gliddon, claim for our native 
Red Men an origin as distinct as the flora and fauna of this conti- 
nent. Prichard, whose views are apt to differ from Morton's, finds 
reason to believe, on comparing the American tribes together, that 
they must have formed a separate department of nations from the 
earliest period of the world. The era of their existence as a distinct 
and insulated people must probably be dated back to the time 
which separated into nations the inhabitants of the Old World, and 
gave to each its individuality and primitive language. Dr. Robert 
Brown, the latest authority, attributes, in his •' Races of Mankind," 
an Asiatic origin to our aboriginals. lie says that the Western In- 
dians not only personally resemble their nearest neighbors — the 
Northeastern Asiatics — but they resemble them in language and 
traditions. The Esquimaux on the American and the Tchuktchis 
on the Asiatic side understand one another perfectly. Modern an- 


thropologists, indeed, are disposed to think that Japan, the Kuriles, 
and neighboring regions, may be regarded as the original home of 
the greater part of the native American race. It is also admitted 
by them that between tlie tribes scattered from the Arctic sea to 
Cape Horn there is more uniformity of physical features than is 
seen in any other quarter of the globe. The weight of evidence 
and authority is altogether in favor of the opinion that our so- 
called Indians are a branch of the Mongolian family, and all addi- 
tional researches strengthen the opinion. The tribes of both North 
and South America are unquestionably homogeneous, and, in all 
likelihood, had their origin in Asia, though they have been altered 
and modified by thousands of years of total separation from the 
parent stock." 

The conclusions arrived at by the reviewer at that time, though 
safe, are too general to lead the reader to form any definite idea on 
the subject. No doubt whatever can exist, when the American In- 
dian is regarded as of an Asiatic origin; but there is nothing in the 
works or even in the review, to which these works were subjected, 
which misht account for the vast difference in manner and form 
between the Red Man, as he is now known, or even as he appeared 
to Columbus and his successors in the field of discovery, and the 
comparatively civilized inhabitants of Mexico, as seen in 1521 by 
Cortez, and of Peru, as witnessed by Pizarro in 1532. The fact is 
that the pure bred Indian of the present is descended directly 
from the earliest inhabitants, or in other words from the survivors 
of that people who, on being driven from their fair possessions, re- 
tired to the wilderness in sorrow and reared up their children under 
the saddening influences of their unquenchable griefs, bequeathing 
them only the habits of the wild, cloud-roofed home of their de- 
clining years, a sullen silence, and a rude moral code. In after 
years these wild sons of the forest and prairie grev? in numbers and 
in strength. Some legend told them of their present sulFerings, of 
the station which their fathers once had known, and of the riotous 
race which now reveled in wealth which should be theirs. The 
fierce passions of the savage were aroused, and uniting their scat- 
tered bands marched in silence upon the villages of the Tartars, 
driving them onward to the capital of their Incas, and consigning 
their homes to the flames. Once in view of the great city, the 
hurrying bands halted in surprise; but Tartar cunning took in the 
situation and offered pledges of amity, which were sacredly ob- 
served. Henceforth Mexico was open to the Indians, bearing pre- 
cisely the same relation to them that the Hudson's Bay Company's 


villages do to the Northwestern Indians of the present; obtaining 
all, and bestowing very little. The subjection of the Mongoliau 
race represented in North America by that branch of it to which 
the Tartars belonged, represented in the Southern portion of the con- 
tinent, seems to have taken place some five centuries before the 
advent of the European, while it may be concluded that the war of 
the races which resulted in reducing the villages erected by the 
Tartar hordes to ruin took place between one and two hundred 
;?ears later. These statements, though actually referring to events 
which in point of time are comparatively modern, can only be sub- 
stantiated by the facts that, about the periods mentioned the dead 
bodies of an unknown race of men were washed ashore on the Eu- 
ropean coasts, while previous to that time there is no account 
whatever in European annals of even a vestige of trans- Atlantic hu- 
manity being transferred by ocean currents to the gaze of a won- 
dering people. Towards the latter half ot the 15th century two 
dead bodies entirely free from decomposition, and corresponding 
with the Red Men as they afterward appeared to Columbus, were 
cast on the shores of the Azores, and confirmed Columbus in his be- 
lief in the existence of a western world and western people. 

Storm and flood and disease have created sad havoc in the ranks 
of the Indian since the occupation of the country by the white man. 
These natural causes have conspired to decimate the race even more 
than the advance of civilization, which seems not to affect it to any 
material extent. In its maintenance of the same number of rep- 
resentatives during three centuries, and its existence in the very 
face of a most unceremonious, and, whenever necessary, cruel con- 
quest, the grand dispensations of the unseen Ruler of the universe 
is demonstrated; for, without the aborigines, savage and treach- 
erous as they were, it is possible that the explorers of former times 
would have so many natural difficulties to contend with, that their 
work would be surrendered in despair, and the most fertile regions 
of the continent saved for the plowshares of generations yet un- 
born. It is questionable whether we owe the discovery of this con- 
tinent to the unaided scientific knowledge of Columbus, or to the 
dead bodies of the two Indians referred to above; nor can their ser- 
vices to the explorers of ancient and modern times be over-esti- 
mated. Their existence is embraced in the plan of the Divinity 
for the government of the world, and it will not form subject for 
surprise to learn that the same intelligence which sent a thrill ot 
liberty into every corner of the republic, will, in the near future,- 


devise some method under which the remnant of a great and an- 
cient race may taste the sweets of public Jcindness, and feel that, 
after centuries of turmoil and tjranny, they have at last found a 
shelter amid a sympathizing people. Many have looked at the In- 
dian as the pessimist does at all things; they say that he was never 
formidable until the white man supplied him with the weapons of 
modern warfare; but there is no mention made of his eviction from 
his retired home, and the little plot of cultivated garden which 
formed the nucleus of a village that, if fostered instead of being 
destroyed, might possibly hold an Indian population of some im- 
portance in the economy of the nation. There is no intention what- 
ever to maintain that the occupation of this country by the favored 
races is wrong even in principle; for where any obstacle to advanc- 
ing civilization exists, it has to fall to the ground; but it may be 
said, with some truth, that the white man, instead of a policy of 
conciliation formed upon the power of kindness, indulged in bel- 
ligerency as impolitic as it was unjust. A. modern writer says, 
when speaking of tiio Indian's character: "He did not exhibit that 
steady valor and efficient di.-cipline of the American soldier; and 
to-day on the plains Sheridan's troopers would not hesitate to 
attack the bravest band, though outnumbered three to one." This 
piece of information applies to the European and African, as well 
as to the Indian. The American soldier, and particularly the 
troopers referred to, would not fear or shrink from a very legion ot 
demons, even with odds against them. This mode of warfare seems 
strangely peculiar when compared with the military sj'stems of 
civilized countries; yet, since the main object of armed men is to 
defend a country or a principle, and to destroy anything which may 
oppose itself to them, the mode of warfare pursued bj' the savage 
will be found admirably adapted to their requirements in this con- 
nection, and will doubtless compare favorably with the systems of 
the Afghans and Persians of the present, and the Caucasian pcojile 
"sf the first historic period. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing a large quadruped 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 


seduloush- inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easilj 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is. 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself ot" 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 
speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earthy, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors^ 
each of whom took a whift". These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simi^lest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, oraninterchangeof articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain blood>' revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's-^ 


glory and delight, — war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty' were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
hut when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of cauoes. These were constructed ot 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. Ilis amusements were the war-dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them ; and this vacancy 
imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The mam labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things ot 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 



The State of Indiana is bounded on tlie east by the meridian line 
which forms also the western boundary of Ohio, extending due 
north from the mouth of the Great Miami river; on the south by 
the Ohio river from the mouth of the Great Miami to the mouth 
of the Wabash; on the west hyaline drawn along the middle of 
the Wabash river from its mouth to a point where a due north 
line from the town of Vincennes would last touch the shore of said 
river, and thence directly north to Lake Michigan; and on the north 
by said lake and an east and west line ten miles north of the ex- 
treme south end of the lake, and extending to its intersection with 
the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary of Ohio. These bound- 
aries include an area of 33,809 square miles, lying between 37° 
47' and -iP 50 north latitude, and between 7° 45' and IP 1 west 
longitude from Washington. 

After the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, more than 
150 years passed away before any portion of the territory now com- 
prised within the above limits was explored by Europeans. Colo- 
nies were established in Florida, Virginia and JSfova Scotia by the 
principal rival governments of Europe, but not until about 1670-'2 
did the first white travelers venture as far into the Northwest as 
Indiana or Lake Michigan. These explorers were Frenchmen by 
the names of Claude AUouez and Claude Dablon, who then visited 
what is now the eastern ])art of Wisconsin, the northeastern portion 
of Illinois and probably that portion of this State north of the Kan- 
kakee river. In the following year M. Joliet, an agent of the 
French Colonial government, and James Marquette, a good and 
simple-hearted missionary who had his station at Mackinaw, ex- 
plored the country about Green Bay, and along Fox and Wiscon- 
sin rivers as far westward as the Missi6sip])i, the banks of which 
they reached June 17, 1673. They descended this river to about 
33° 40', but returned by way of the Illinois river and the route 
they came in the Lake Region. At a village among the Illinois In- 
dians, Manpiutte and his small band of adventurers were receit-ed 



in a friendly manner and treated hospitably. They were made the 
honored guestt at a great feast, where hominy, fish, dog meat and 
roast buffalo meat were spread before them in great abundance. In 
16S2 LaS&l'e explored the "West, but it is not known that he entered 
tiie region now embraced within the State of Indiana. He took 
formal possession, however, of all the Mississippi region in the 
name of the King of France, in whose honor he gave all this Mis- 
sissippi region, including what is now Indiana, the name "Louisi- 
ana." Spain at the same time laid claim to all the region about 
the Gulf of Mexico, and thus these two trreat nations were brousfht 
into collision. ( But the country was actually held and occupied by 
the great Miami confederacy of Indians, the Miamis proper (an- 
ciently the Twightwees) being the eastern and most powerful tribe. 
Their territory extended strictly from the^cioto river west to the 
llinois river.) Their villages were few and scattering, and their 
occupation was scarcely dense enough to maintain itself against in- 
jvasion. Their settlements were occasionally visited by Christian 
missionaries, fur traders and adventurers, but no body of white men 
made any settlement sufficiently permanent for a title to national 
possession. Christian zeal animated France and England in mis- 
sionary enterprise, the former in the interests of Catholicism and 
tlie latter in the interests of Protestantism. Hence their haste to 
preoccupy the land and proselyte the aborigines. No doubt this 
ugly rivalry was often seen by Indians, and they refused to be 
])roselyted to either branch of Christianity. 

The " Five Nations," farther east, comprised the Mohawks, 
Oaeidas, Cayugas, Onondaguas and Senecas. In 1677 the nuihbur 
ol warriors in this confederacy was 2,150. About 1711 the Tusca- 
roras retired from Carolina and joined the Iroquois, or Five Na- 
tions, which, after that event, became known as the " Six Nations." 
In 1689 hostilities broke out between the Five Nations and the 
Colonists of Canada, and the almost constant wars in whicli France 
was engaged until the treaty of Ryswick in 1697 combined to 
check the grasping policy of Louis" XIV.. and to retard the plant- 
ing of French colonies in the Mississippi vallej'. Missionary efforts, 
however, continued with more failure than success, the Jesuits 
allying themselves with tiie Indians in habits and customs, even 
encouraging inter-marriage between them and their white fol- 



The Wabash was first named by the French, and spelled by them 
Oiiabache. This river was known even before the Ohio, and was 
navigated as the Ouabache all the way to the Mississippi a long time 
before it was discovered that it was a tributary of the Ohio (Belle 
Riviere). In navigating the Mississippi they thought they passed 
the mouth of the Ouabache instead of the Ohio. In traveling from 
the Great Lakes to the south, the French always went by the way of 
the Ouabache or Illinois. 


Francois Morgan de Vinsenne served in Canada as early as 1720 
in the regiment of " De Carrignan " of the French service, and 
again on the lakes in the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie in the same 
service under M. de Vaudriel, in 1725. It is possible that his ad- 
vent to Vincennes may have taken place in 1732; and in proof of 
this the only record is an act of sale under the joint names of him- 
self and Madame Vinsenne, the daughter of M. Philip Longprie, 
and dated Jan. 5, 1735. This document gives his military position 
as commandant of the post of Ouabache in the service of the French 
King. The will of Longprie, dated March 10, same year, bequeaths 
him, among other things, 408 pounds of pork, which he ordered to 
be kept safe until Vinsenne, who was then at Ouabache, returned 
to Kaskaskia. 

Tliere are many other documents connected with its early settle- 
ment by Vinsenne, among which is a receipt for the 100 pistoles 
granted him as his wife's marriage dowry. In 1736 this officer was 
ordered to Charlevoix by D'Artagette, viceroy of the King at New 
Orleans, and commandant of Illinois. Here M. St. Vinsenne re- 
ceived his mortal wounds. The event is chronicled as follows, in 
the words of D'Artagette: " We have just received very bad news 
from Louisiana, and our war with the Chickasaws. The French 
have been defeated. Among the slain is M. de Vinsenne, who 
ceased not until his last breath to exhort his men to behave worthy 
of their faith and fatherland." 

Thus closed the career of this gallant oiBcer, leaving a name 
which holds as a remembrancer the present beautiful town of Vin- 
cennes, changed from Vinsenne to its present orthography in 1749. 

Post Vincennes was settled as early as 1710 or 1711. In a letter 
from Father Marest to Father Germon, dated at Kaskaskia, Nov. 9, 
1712, occurs tliis passage: "Zes Francois itoient itahli unfort sw 


leflcwoeOuahache ; ils deraanderent un missionaire ,' et le Pere 
Mermet leurfut envoye. Ve Pere crut devoir travailler a la 
oonversion des Mascouteas qui avoieiit fait un village sur les 
hords dumeme jleuve. Cest une nation Indians qni entend la 
la/ngue niinoise." Translated: "Tlie French have established a 
fort upon the river Wabash, and want a missionary; and Fatlier 
Mermet has been sent to them. That Father believes he should 
labor for the conversion of the Mascoutens, who have built a vil- 
lage on the banks of the same river. They are a nation of Indians 
who understand the language of the Illinois." 

Mermet was therefore the iirst preacher of Christianity in this 
part of the world, and his mission was to convert the Mascoutens, 
a branch of the Miamis. "The way I took," says lie, " was to con- 
found, in the presence of the whole tribe, one of these charlatans 
[medicine men], whose Manitou, or great spirit which he wor- 
shiped, was the buffalo. After leading him on insensibly to the 
avowal that it was not the buffalo that he worshiped, but the Man- 
itou, or spirit, of the buffalo, which was under the earth and ani- 
mated all buffaloes, which heals the sick and has all power, I asked 
him whether other beasts, the bear for instance, and which one of 
his nation worshiped, was not equally inhabited by a Manitou, 
which was under the earth. 'Without doubt,' said the grand medi- 
cine man. ' If this is so,' said I, ' men ought to have a Manitou 
who inhabits them.' ' Nothing more certain,' said he. ' Ought 
not that to convince you,' continued I, ' that you are not very 
reasonable? For if man upon the earth is the master of all animals, 
if he kills them, if he eats them, does it not follow that the Mani- 
tou which inhabits him must have a mastery over all other Maui- 
tons? Why then do you not invoke him instead of the Manitou 
of the bear and the buffalo, when you are sick?' This reasoning- 
disconcerted the charlatan. But this was all the effect it 

The result of convincing these heathen by logic, as is generally 
the case the world over, was only a temporary logical victory, and 
no change whatever was produced in the professions and practices 
of the Indians. 

But the first Christian (Catholic) missionary at this place whose 
name we find recorded in the Church annals, was Meurin, in 184!). 

The church building used by these early missionaries at Vin- 
cennes is thus described by the " oldest inhabitants:" Fronting on 
Water street and running back on Church street, it was a plaia 


building with a rough exterior, of upright posts, chinked and 
daubed, with a rough coat of cement on the outside; about 20 feet 
wide and 60 long; one story high, with a small belfry and an equally 
small bell." It was dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. This spot is 
now occupied by a splendid cathedral. 

Vincennes has ever been a stronghold of Catholicism. The 
Church there has educated and sent out many clergymen of her 
faith, some of whom have become bishops, or attained other high 
positions in ecclesiastical authority. 

Almost contemporaneous with the progress of the Church at 
Vincennes was a missionary work near the moutbDf the Wea river, 
among the Ouiatenons, but the settlement there was broken up in 
early day. 



Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi by La- 
Salle in 1682, the government of France began to encourage the 
policy of establishing a line of trading posts and missionary 
stations extending through the West from Canada to Louisiana, 
and this policy was maintained, with partial success, for about 75 
years. The traders persisted in importing whisky, which cancelled 
nearly every civilizing influence that could be brought to bear upon 
the Indian, and the vast distances between posts prevented that 
strength which can be enjoyed only by close and convenient inter- 
communication. Another characteristic of Indian nature was to 
listen attentively to all the missionary said, pretending to believe 
^11 he preached, and then offer in turn his theory of the world, of 
religion, etc., and because he was not listened to with the same 
degree of attention and pretense of belief, would go off disgusted. 
This was his idea of the golden rule. 

The river St. Joseph of Lake Michigan was called " the river 
Miaiuis" in 1679, in which year LaSalle built a small fort on its 
bank, near the lake shore. The principal station of the mission 
for the instruction of the Miamis was established on the borders of 
this river. The first French post within the territory of the 
Miamis was at the mouth of the river Miamis, on an eminence 
naturally fortified on two sides by the river, and on one side by a 


deep ditch made by a fall of water. It was of triangular form. 
Tiie missionary Hennepin gives a good description uf it, as lie was 
one of the company who built it, in 1679. Says be: ""\Ve fell the 
trees that were on the top of the hill; and having cleared the same 
from bushes for about two musket shot, we began to build a 
redoubt of 80 feet long and 40 feet broad, with great square pieces 
of timber laid one upon another, and prepared a great number of 
stakes of about 25 feet long to drive into tlie ground, to make our 
fort more inaccessible on the riverside. We employed the whole 
month of November about that work, which was very hard, though 
we had no other food but the bear's flesh our savage killed. These 
beasts are very common in that place because of the great quantity 
of grapes they find there; but their flesh being too fat and luscious, 
our men began to be weary of it and desired leave to go a hunting 
to kill some wild goats. M. "LaSalle denied them that libert}', 
which caused some murmurs among them; and it was but unwill- 
ingly that they continued their work. This, together with the 
approaeli of winter and the apprehension that M. LaSalle had that 
his vessel (the Griffin) was lost, made him very melancholy, though 
he concealed it as much as he could. We made a cabin wherein 
we performed divine service every Sunday, and Father Gabriel and 
I, who preached alternately, took care to take such texts as were 
suitable to our pre>'ent circumstances and fit to inspire us with 
courage, concord and brotherly love. * * * The fort was at 
last perfected, and called Fort Miamis." 

In the year 1711 tlie missionary Chardon, who was said to be 
very zealous and apt in the acquisition of languages, had a station 
on the St. Joseph about 60 miles above the mouth. Charlevoix, 
another distinguished missionary from France, visited a post on 
this river in 1721. In a letter dated at -the j)lace, Aug. 16, hesay#: 
" There is a commandant here, with a small garrison. Plis house, 
which is but a very sorry one, is called tiie fort, from its being sur- 
rounded with an indifiiereut palisado, which is pretty near the case 
in all the rest. We have here two villages of Indians, one of the 
Miamis and the other of the Pottawatomies, both of them mostly 
Christians; but as they have been for a long time without any pas- 
tors, the missionary who has been lately sent to them will have no 
small difficulty in bringing them back to the exercise of their re- 
ligion." He speaks also of the main commodity for which the In. 
dians would part with their goods, namel}', spirituous liquors, 
which they drink and keep drunk upon as long as a supply lasted. 



More than a century and a half has now passed since Charlevoix 
lined the above, without any change whatever in this trait of In- 
dian character. 

In 1165 the Miami nation, or confederacy, was composed of four 
tribes, whose total number of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were Tvvightwees, or Miamis proper, 
300 Weas, or Ouiatenons,300 Piankeshawsand 200 Shockeys; and 
at this time the principal villages of the Twightwees were situated 
about the head of the Maumee river at and near the place where 
Fort Wayne now is. The larger Wea villages were near the banks 
of the Wabash river, in the vicinity of the Post Ouiatenon; and 
the Shockeys and Piankeshaws dwelt on the banks of the Vermil- 
lion and on the borders of the Wabash between Vincennes and 
Ouiatenon. Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, Delaware and 
Kickapoo tribes were permitted at difl'erent times to enter within 
the boundaries of the Miamis and reside for a while. 

The wars in which France and England were engaged, from 1688 
to 1697, retarded the growth of the colonies of those nations in 
North America, and the eiforts made by France to connect Canada 
and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of trading posts and colonies 
naturally excited the jealousy of England and gradually laid the 
foundation for a struggle at arms. After several stations were estab- 
lished elsewhere in the West, trading posts were started at the 
Miami villages, which stood at the head of the Maumee, at the Wea 
villages about Ouiatenon on the Wabash, and at the Piankeshaw vil- 
lages about the present sight of Vincennes. It is probable that before 
the close of the year 1719, temporary trading posts were erected at the 
sites of Fort Wayne, Ouiatenon and Vincennes. These points were 
probably often visited by French fur traders prior to 1700. In the 
meanwhile the English people in this country commenced also to 
establish military posts west of the Alleghanies, and thus matters 
went on until they naturally culminated in a general war, which, 
being waged by the French and Indians combined on one side, was 
called " the French and Indian war." This war was terminated in 
1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which France ceded to Great Britain 
all of North America east of the Mississippi except New Orleans 
and the island on which it is situated; and indeed, France had the 
preceding autumn, by a secret convention, ceded to Spain all the 
country west of that river. 



In 1762, after Canada and its dependencies had been surrendered 
to the English, Poutiac and his partisans secretly organized a pow- 
erful confederacy in order to crush at one blow all English power 
in the West. This great scheme was skillfully projected and cau- 
tiously matured. 

The principal act in the programme was to gain admittance into 
the fort at Detroit, on pretense of a friendly visit, with short- 
ened muskets concealed under their blankets, and on a given signal 
suddenly break forth upon the garrison; but an inadvertent remark 
of au Indian woman led to a discovery of the plot, which was con- 
sequently averted. Pontiac and his warriors afterward made many 
attacks upon the English, some of which were successful, but the 
Indians were finally defeated in the general war. 


In 17(15 the total number of French families within the limits of 
the Northwestern Territory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along the river Wabash and the 
neighborhood of Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. Of these fami- 
lies, about 80 or 90 resided at Post Vincennes, 14 at Fort Ouiate- 
non, on the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of the St. 
Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy of the British government opposed any meas- 
ures which might strengthen settlements in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and independent of the 
mother country; hence the early and rapid settlemeut of the North- 
western territory was still further retarded by the short-sighted 
selfishness of England. That fatal polic}- consisted mainly in hold- 
ing the land in the hands of the government and not allowing it to 
be subdivided and sold to settlers. But in spite of all her efforts 
in this direction, she constantly made just such efforts as provoked 
the American people to rebel, and to rebel successfully, which was 
within 15 years after the perfect close of the French and Indiau 


Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman and wise Governor of 
Virginia, saw from tlie first tiiat actual occupation of Western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the hands of foreigners and 


Indians. Therefore, directly after tlie conquest of Viiifennes by 
Clark, lie engaged a scientific corps to proceed nnder an escort to 
the Mississip])!, and ascertain by celestial observations tlie point 
on that river intersected by latitude 36° 30', the southern limit of 
the State, and to measure its distance to the Oliio. To Gen. Clark 
was entrusted the conduct of the Tnilitary operations in that quar- 
ter, lie was instructed to select a strong position near that point 
and estahl ish there a fort and garrison ; thence to extend his conquests 
northward to the lakes, erecting forts at different points, which 
might serve as monuments of actual possession, besides affording 
protection to that portion of the country. Fort "Jefferson " was 
erected and garrisoned on the Mississippi a few miles above the 
southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the addition, to the chartered 
limits of Virginia, of that immense region known as the " North- 
western Territory." The simple fact that such and such forts were 
established by the Americans in this vast region convinced the Brit- 
ish Commissioners that we had entitled ourselves to the land. But 
where are those " monuments " of our power now? 


As a striking example of the inhuman treatment which the early 
Indians were capable of giving white people, we quote the follow 
ing blood-curdling story from Mr. Cox' " Recollections of the 
Wabash Valley": 

On the 11th of February, 1781, a wagoner named Irvin Hinton 
was sent from the block-house at Louisville, Ky., to Ilarrodsburg 
for a load of provisions for the fort. Two J'oung men, Richard 
Rue and George Holman, aged respectively 19 and 16 years, were 
sent as guards to protect the wagon from the depredations of any 
hostile Indians who might be lurking in the cane-brakes or ravines 
through which they must pass. Soon after their start a severe 
snow-storm set in which lasted until afternoon. Lest the melting 
snow might dampen the powder in their rifles, the guards fired 
them off, intending to reload them as soon as the storm ceased. 
Hinton drove the horses while Rue walked a few rods ahead and 
Holman about the same distance behind. As they ascended a hill 
about eight miles from Louisville Hinton heard some one say Wlioa 
to the horses. Supposing that something was wrong about the 
wagon, he stopped and asked Holman why he had called him to 
halt. Holman said that he had not spoken; Rue also denied it, 


but said that he liad heard the voice distinctly. At tiiis time a voice 
cried out, " I will solve the mystery for you; if was Simon Girty that 
cried Whoa, and he meant what he said," — at the same time emerg- 
ing from a sink-hole a few rods from the roadside, followed by 13 
Indians, who immediately surrounded the three Kentuckians and 
demanded them to surrender or die instanth'. The little party, 
making a virtue of necessity, surrendered to this renegade white 
man and his Indian allies. 

Being so near two forts, Girty made all possible speed in making 
fast his prisoners, selecting the lines and other parts of the harness, 
he prepared for an immediate flight across the Ohio. The panta- 
loons of the prisoners were cut off about four inches above the 
knees, and thus they started through the deep snow as fast as the 
horses could trot, leaving the wagon, containing a few empty bar- 
rels, standing in the road. They continued their march for sev- 
eral cold days, without fire at night, until they reached "Wa-puc-ca- 
nat-ta, where they compelled their prisoners to run the gauntlet as 
they entered the village. Hinton first ran the gauntlet and reached 
the council-house after receiving several severe blows upon the head 
and shoulders. Rue next ran between the lines, pursued by an 
Indian with an uplifted tomahawk. He far outstripped his pursuer 
and dodged most of the blows aimed at him. Holman complaining 
that it was too severe a test for a worn-out stripling like himself, 
was allowed to run between two lines of squaws and boys, and was 
followed by an Indian with a long switch. 

The first council of the Indians did not dispose of these young 
men; they were waiting for the presence of other chiefs and war- 
riors. Hinton escaped, but on the afternoon of the second day he 
was re-captured. Now the Indians were glad that they had an 
occasion to indulge in the infernal joy of burning him at once. 
Soon after their supper, which they shared with their victim, they 
drove the stake into the ground, piled np the fagots in a circle 
around it, stripped and blackened the prisoner, tied him to the 
stake, and applied the torch. It was a slow fire. The war-whoop 
then thrilled throug^h the dark surrounding forest like the chorus 
of a band of infernal s])irits escaped from pandemonium, and the 
scalp dance was struck up by those demons in human shape, who 
for hours encircled their victim, brandishing their tomahawks and 
war clubs, and venting their execrations upon the helpless sufferer, 
who died about midnight from the effects of the slow heat. As 
soon as he fell upon the ground, the Indian who first discovered 


liim m the woods that evening sprang in, sunk his tomahawk into 
his skull above the ear, and with liis knife stripped oflF the scalp, 
which he bore back with him to the town as a trophy, and which 
was tauntingly thrust into the faces of Rue and Holman, with the 
question, " Can you smell the fire on the scalp of your red-headed 
friend? We cooked him and left him for the wolves to make a 
breakfast upon; that is the way we serve runaway prisoners." 

After a march of three days more, the prisoners, Rue and Hol- 
man, had to run the gauntlets again, and barely got through with 
their lives. It was decided that they should both be burned at the 
stake that night, though this decision was far from being unani- 
mous. The necessary preparations were made, dry sticks and 
brush were gathered and piled around two stakes, the faces 
and hands of the doomed men were blackened in the customary 
manner, and as the evening approached the poor wretches sat look- 
ing upon the setting sun for the last time. An unusual excitement 
was manifest in a number of chiefs who still lingered about the 
council-house. At a pause in the contention, a noble-looking In- 
dian approached the prisoners, and after speaking a few words to 
the guards, took Holman by the hand, lifted him to his feet, cut the 
cords that bound him to his fellow prisoners, removed the black from 
his face and hands, put his hand kindly upon his head and said : " I 
adopt you as my son, to fill the place of the one I have lately buried ; 
you are now a kinsman of Logan, the white man's friend, as he has 
been called, but who has lately proven himself to be a terrible 
avenger of the wrongs inflicted upon him by the bloody Cresap and 
his men." With evident reluctance, Girty interpreted this to Hol- 
man, who was thus unexpectedly freed. 

But the preparations for the burning of Rue went on. Holman 
and Rue embraced each other most affectionately, with a sorrow too 
deep for description. Rue was then tied to one of the stakes; but 
the general contention among the Indians had not ceased. Just as 
the lighted fagots were about to be applied to the dry brush piled 
around the devoted youth, a tall, active young Shawnee, a son of 
the victim's captor, sprang into the ring, and cutting the cords 
which bound him to the stake, led him out amidst the deafening 
plaudits of a part of the crowd and the execrations of the rest. Re- 
gardless of threats, he caused water to be brought and the black to 
be washed from the face and hands of the prisoner, whose clothes 
were then returned to him, when the young brave said : " I take 
this young man to be my brother, in the place of one I lately lost; 


I loved that brother well; I will love this one, too; my old mother 
will be glad when I tell her that I have brought her a son, in place 
of the dear departed one. We want no more victims. The burning 
of Red-head [Hinton] ought to satisfy us. These innocent j'oung 
men do not merit such cruel fate; I would rather die myself than 
see this adopted brother burned at the stake." 

A loud shout of approbation showed that the young Shawnee had 
triumphed, though dissension was manifest among the various 
tribes afterward. Some of them abandoned their trip to Detroit, 
others retarded to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, a few turned toward the Mis- 
sissinewa and the Wabash towns, while a portion continued to De- 
troit. Holraan was taken back to Wa-puc-ca-nat ta, where he re- 
mained most of the time of his captivity. Rue was taken first to 
the Mississinewa, then to the Wabash towns. Two years of his 
eventful captivity were spent in the region of the Wabash and Illi- 
nois rivers, but the last few months at Detroit; was in captivity 
altogether about three years and a half. 

Rue effected his escape in the following manner: During one of 
the drunken revels of the Indians near Detroit one of them lost a 
purse of $90; various tribes were suspected of feloniously keeping 
the treasure, and much ugly speculation was indulged in as to who 
was the thief. At length a prophet of a tribe that was not suspected 
was called to divine the mystery. He spread sand over a green 
deer-skin, watched it awhile and performed various manipulations, 
and professed to see that the money had been stolen and carried 
away by a tribe entirely different from any that had been 
suspicioned; but he was shrewd enough not to announce who the 
thief was or the tribe he belonged to, lest a war might arise. His 
decision quieted the belligerent uprisings threatened by the excited 

Rue and two other prisoners saw this display of the prophet's 
skill and concluded to interrogate hirasoou concerning their fami- 
lies at home. The opportunity occurred in a few days, and the In- 
dian seer actually astonished Rue with the accuracy with which he 
described his family, and added, "You all intend to make your 
escape, and you will effect it soon. You will meet with many trials 
and hardshipsin passing over so wild a district of country, inhabited 
by so many hostile nations of Indians. You will almost starve to 
death ; but about the time you have given up all hope of finding 
game to sustain you in your famished condition, succor will come 
when you least expect it. The first game you will succeed in taking 


will be a male of some kind; after that you will have plenty of 
game and return home in safety." 

The prophet kept this matter a secret for the prisoners, and the 
latter in a few days set off upon their terrible journey, and had 
just such experience as the Indian prophet had foretold; they 
arrived home with their lives, but were pretty well worn out with the 
exposures and privations of a three weeks' journey. 

On the return of Holman's party of Indians to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta,. 
much dissatisfaction existed in regard to the manner of his release 
from the sentence of condemnation pronounced against him by the 
council. Many were in favor of recalling the council and trying; 
him again, and this was finally agreed to. The young man was. 
again put upon trial for his life, with a strong probability of his 
being condemned to the stake. Both parties worked hard for vic- 
tory in the final vote, which eventually proved to give a majority of 
one for the prisoner's acquittal. 

While with the Indians, Holman saw them burn at the stake a 
Kentuckian named Richard Hogeland, who had been taken prisoner 
at the defeat of Col. Crawford. They commenced burning him at 
nine o'clock at night, and continued roasting him until ten o'clock 
the next day, before he expired. During his excruciating tortures he 
begged for some of them to end his life and sufferings with a gun 
or tomahawk. Finally his cruel tormentors promised they would^ 
and cut several deep gashes in his flesh with their tomahawks, and 
shoveled up hot ashes and embers and threw them into the gaping 
wounds. When he was dead they stripped off his scalp, cut him 
to pieces and burnt him to ashes, which they scattered through the 
town to expel the evil spirits from it. 

After a captivity of about three years and a half, Holman saw an 
opportunity of going on amission for the destitute Indians, namely, 
of going to Harrodsburg, Ky., where he had a rich uncle, from 
whom they could get what supplies they wanted. They let him go 
with a guard, but on arriving at Louisville, where Gen. Clark was 
in command, he was ransomed, and he reached home only three 
days after the arrival of Rue. Both these men lived to a good old 
age, terminating their lives at their home about two miles south ot 
Richmond, Ind. 



In the summer of 1778, Col. George Rogers Clark, a native of 
Albemarle county, Va., led a memorable expedition against the 
ancient French settlements about Kaskaskia and Post Vincennes. 
With respect to the magnitude of its design, the valor and perse- 
verance with which it was carried on, and the memorable results 
which were produced by it, this expedition stands without a parallel 
in the early annals of the valley of the Mississippi. That portion 
of the West called Kentucky was occupied by Henderson & Co., 
who pretended to own the land and who held it at a high price. 
Col. Clark wished to test the validity of their claim and adjust the 
government of the country so as to encourage immigration. He 
accordingly called a meeting of the citizens at Harrodstown, to 
assemble June 6, 1776, and consider the claims of the company and 
consult with reference to the interest of the country. He did not 
at first publish the exact aim of this movement, lest parties would 
be formed in advance and block the enterprise; also, if the object 
of the meeting were not announced beforehand, the curiosity of the 
people to know what was to be proposed would bring out a much 
greater attendance. 

The meeting was held on the day appointed, and delegates were 
(elected to treat with the government of Virginia, to see whether 
it would be best to become a county in that State and be protected 
by it, etc. Various delays on account of the remoteness of the 
white settlers from the older communities of Virginia and the hos- 
tility of Indians in every direction, prevented a consummation of 
this object until some time in 1778. The government of Virginia 
was friendly to Clark's enterprise to a certain extent, but claimed 
that they had not authority to do much more than to lend a little 
assistance for which payment should be made at some future time, 
as it was not certain whether Kentucky would become a part of Vir- 
ginia or not. Gov. Henry and a few gentlemen were individually 
«o hearty in favor of Clark's benevolent undertaking that they 
assisted him all they could. Accordingly Mr. Clark organized his 
expedition, keeping every particular secret lest powerful parties 
would form in the West against him. He took in stores at Pitts- 




burg and Wheeling, proceeded down the Ohio to the " Falls," 
where he took possession of an island of a about seven acres, and 
divided it among a small number of families, for whose protection 
he constructed some light fortifications. At this time Post Vin- 
cennes comprised about 400 militia, and it was a daring undertak- 
ing for Col. Clark, with his small force, to go up against it and Kas- 
kaskia, as he had plaimed. Indeed, some of his men, on hearing of 
his plan, deserted him. He conducted himself so as to gain the 
sympathy of the French, and through them also that of the 
Indians to some extent, as both these people were very bitter 
against the British, who had possession of the Lake Region. 

From the nature of the situation Clark concluded it was best to 
take Kaskaskia first. The fact that the people ^regarded him as a 
savage rebel, he regarded as really a good thing in his favor; for 
after the first victory he would show them so much unexpected 
lenity that they would rally to his standard. In this policy he was 
indeed successful. He arrested a few men and put them in irons. 
The priest of the village, accompanied by five or six aged citizens, 
waited on Clark and said that the inhabitants expected to be separ- 
ated, perhaps never to meet again, and they begged to be permitted 
to assemble in their church to take leave of each other. Clark 
mildly replied that he had nothing against their religion, that they 
might continue to assemble in their church, but not venture out of 
town, etc. Thus, by what has since been termed the "Rarey" 
method of taming horses, Clark showed them he had power over 
them but designed them no harm, and they readily took the oath 
of allegiance to Virginia. 

After Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia it was diflScult to induce the 
French settlers to accept the "Continental paper" introduced by 
him and his troops. Nor until Col. Vigo arrived there and guar- 
anteed its redemption would they receive it. Peltries and piastres 
formed the only currency, and Vigo found great diflSculty in ex- 
plaining Clark's financial arrangements. "Their commandants 
never made money," was the reply to Vigo's explanation of the 
policy of the old Dotainion. But notwithstanding the guarantees, 
the Continental paper fell very low in the market. Vigo had a 
trading establishment at Kaskaskia, where he sold coffee at one 
dollar a pound, and all the other necessaries of life at an equally 
reasonable price. The unsophisticated Frenchmen were generally 
asked in what kind of money they would pay their little bills. 


"Douleur," was the general reply; and as an authority on the sul> 
ject says, "It took about twenty Continental dollars to purchase a 
silver dollar's worth of coffee; and as the French word "douleur" sig- 
nifies grief or pain, perhaps no word either in the French or Eng- 
lish languages expressed the idea more correctly than the douleur 
for a Continental dollar. At any rate it was truly douleur to the 
Colonel, for he never received a single dollar in exchange for the 
large amount taken from him in order to sustain Clark's credit. 

Now, the post at Vincennes, defended by Fort Sackville, came 
next. The priest just mentioned, Mr. Gibault, was really friendly 
to " the American interest;" he had spiritual charge of the church 
at Vincennes, and he with several others were deputed to assemble 
the people there and authorize them to garrison their own fort like 
a free and independent people, etc. This plan had its desired effect, 
and the people took the oath of allegiance to the State of Virginia 
and became citizens of the United States. Their stvle of laneua^e 
and conduct changed to a better hue, and they surprised the numer- 
ous Indians in the vicinity by displaying anew flag and informing 
them that their old father, the King of France, was come to life 
again, and was mad at them for fighting the English; and they ad- 
vised them to make peace with the Americans as soon as they 
could, otherwise they might expect to make the land very bloody, 
etc. The Indians concluded they would have to fall in line, and 
they offered no resistance. Capt. Leonard Helm, an American, 
was left in charge of this post, and Clark began to turn his atten- 
tion to other points. But before leaving this section of the coun- 
try he made treaties of peace with the Indians ; this he did, how- 
ever, by a different method from what had always before been 
followed. By indirect methods he caused them to come to him, 
instead of going to them. He was convinced that inviting them to 
treaties was considered by them in a different manner from what 
the whites expected, and imputed them to fear, and that giving 
them great presents confirmed it. He accordingly established 
treaties with the Piankeshaws, Ouiatenons, Kickapoos, Illinois, 
Kaskaskias, Peorias and branches of some other tribes that inhab- 
ited the country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi. 
Upon this the General Assembly of the State of Virginia declared 
all the citizens settled west of the Ohio organized into a county of 
that State, to be known as "Illinois" county; but before the pro- 
visions of the law could be carried into effect, Henry Hamilton, the 
British Lieutenant-Governor of Detroit, collected an army of abuut 


30 regulars, 50 French volunteers and 400 Indians, went down ami 
re-took the post Vincennes in December, 1778. No attempt wa.-; 
made by the population to defend the town. Capt. Helm and a 
man named Henry were the only Americans at the fort, the only 
members of the garrison. Capt. Helm was taken prisoner and a 
number of the French inhabitants disarmed. 

Col. Clark, hearing of the situation, determined to re-capture the 
place. He accordingly gathered together what force he could in 
this distant land, 170 men, and on the 5th of February, started from 
Kaskaskia and crossed the river of that name. The weather was 
very wet, and the low lands were pretty well covered with water. 
The march was difficult, and the Colonel bad to work'hard to keep 
his men in spirits. He suffered them to shoot game whenever they 
wished and eat it like Indian war-dancers, each company by turns 
inviting the others to their feasts, which was the case every night. 
Clark waded through water as much as any of them, and thus stimu- 
lated the men by his example. They reached the Little Vabash 
on the 13th, after suffering many and great hardships. Here a camp 
was formed, and without waiting to discuss plans for crossing the 
river, Clark ordered the men to construct a vessel, and pretended 
that crossing the stream would be only a piece of amusement, al- 
though inwardly he held a different opinion. 

The second day afterward a reconnoitering party was sent across 
the river, who returned and made an encouraging report. A scaf- 
folding was built on the opposite shore, upon which the baggage 
was placed as it was tediously ferried over, and the new camping 
ground was a nice half acre of dry land. There were many amuse- 
ments, indeed, in getting across the river, which put all the men ia 
high spirits. The succeeding two or three days they had to march 
through a great deal of water, having on the night of the 17th to 
encamp in the water, near the Big Wabash. 

At daybreak on the ISth they heard the signal gun at Vincennes, 
and at once commenced their march. Reaching the Wabash about 
two o'clock, they constructed rafts to cross the river on a boat-steal- 
ing expedition, but labored all day and night to no purpose. Ou 
the 19th they began to make a canoe, in which a second attempt to 
steal boats was made, but tliis expedition returned, reporting tliat 
there were two "large fires" within a mile of them. Clark sent a 
canoe down the river to meet the vessel that was supposed to be on 
her way up witli tliesup])iies, with orders to hasten forward day and 
night. This was their last hope, as their provisions were entirely 


gone, and starvation seemed to be hovering about them. The next 
day they commenced to make more canoes, when about noon the 
sentinel on the river brought a boat with five Frenchmen from the 
fort. From this party they learned that they were not as yet dis- 
covered. All the array crossed the river in two canoes the next 
day, and as Clark had determined to reach the town that night, he 
ordered his men to move forward. They plunged into the water 
sometimes to the neck, for over three miles. 

Without food, benumbed with cold, up to their waists in water, 
covered with broken ice, the men at one time mutinied and refused 
to march. All the persuasions of Clark had no effect upon the 
half-starved and half- frozen soldiers. In one company was a small 
drummer boy, and also a sergeant who stood six feet two inches in 
socks, and stout and athletic. He was devoted to Clark. The Gen- 
eral mounted the little drummer on the shoulders of the stalwart 
sergeant and ordered him to plunge into the water, half-frozen as it 
was; He did so, the little boy beating the charge from his lofty 
perch, while Clark, sword in hand, followed them, giving the com- 
mand as he threw aside the floating ice, " Forward." Elated and 
amused with the scene, the men promptly obeyed, holding their 
rifles above their heads, and in spite of all the obstacles they reached 
the high land in perfect safety. But for this and the ensuing days 
of this campaign we quote from Clark's account: 

" This last day's march through the water was far superior to any- 
thing the Frenchmen had any idea of. They were backward in 
speaking; said that the nearest land to us was a small league, a 
sugar camp on the bank of the river. A canoe was sent off and re- 
turned without finding that we could pass. I went in her myself 
and sounded the water and found it as deep as to my neck. I returned 
with a design to have the men transported on board the canoes to 
the sugar camp, which I knew would expend the whole day and en- 
suing night, as the vessels would pass slowly through the bushes. 
The loss of so much time to men half starved was a matter of con- 
sequence. I would have given now a great deal for a day's provis- 
-ion, or for one of our horses. I returned but slowly to the troops, 
giving myself time to think. On our arrival all ran to hear what 
was the report; every eye was fixed on me; I unfortunately spoke 
in a serious manner to one of the officers. The whole were alarmed 
without knowing what I said. I viewed their confusion for about 
one minute; I wiiispered to those near me to do as I did, immedi- 
ately ])Ut some water in my hand, poured on powder, blackened my 


face, gave the war-whoop, and marched into the water without say- 
ing a word. The party gazed and fell in, one after another without 
saying a word, like a flock of sheep. I ordered tliose near me to 
begin'a favorite song of theirs; it soon passed through the line, and 
the whole went on cheerfully. 

" I now intended to have them transported across the deepest 
part of the water; but when about waist-deep, one of the men in- 
formed me that he thought he felt a path; we examined and found 
it so, and concluded that it kept on the highest ground, which it did, 
and by taking pains to follow it, we got to the sugar camp with no 
difficulty, where there was about half an acre of dry ground,— at 
least ground not under water, and there we took up our lodging. 
^ » * * * * * 

" The night had been colder than any we had had, and the ice in 
the morning was one-half or three-quarters of an inch thick in still 
water; the morning was the finest. A little after sunrise I lectured 
the whole; what I said to them I forget, but I concluded by in- 
forming them that passing the plain then in full view, and 
reaching the opposite woods would put an end to their fatigue; 
that in a few ho'urs they would have a sight of their long wished-for 
object; and immediately stepped into the water without waiting 
lor any reply. A huzza took place. As we generally marched 
through the water in a line, before the third man entered, I called to 
Majo^Bowman, ordering him to fall in the rear of the 25 men, and 
put to death any man who refused to march. This met with a cry 
of approbation, and on we went. Getting about the middle of the 
plain, the water about mid-deep, I found myself sensibly faihng; 
and as there were no trees nor bushes for the men to support them- 
selves by, I feared that many of the weak would be drowned. I or- 
dered the canoes to make the land, discharge their loading, and play 
backward and forward with all diligence and pick up the men; and 
to encourage the party, sent some of the strongest men forward, 
with orders when they got to a certain distance, to pass the word 
back that the water was getting shallow, and when getting near the 
woods, to cry out land. This stratagem had its desired effect; the 
men e'xerted themselves almost beyond their abilities, the weak 
holding by the stronger. The water, however, did not become 
shallower, but continued deepening. Getting to the woods where 
the men expected land, the water was up to my shoulders; but 
gaining the woods was of great consequence; all the low men and 
weakly hung to the trees and floated on the old logs until they were 


taken off by tlie cunues; tlie strong and tall got ashore and built 
tires. Many would reach the shore and fall with their bodies half 
in the water, not being able to support themselves without it. 

"This was a dry and delightful spot of ground of about ten acres. 
Fortunately, as if designed by Providence, a canoe of Indian squaws 
and children was coining up to town, and took through this part of 
the plain as a nigh way; it was discovered by our canoe-raen as they 
were out after the other men. They gave chase and took the Indian 
canoe, on board of which was nearly half a quarter of buffalo, some 
corn, tallow, kettles, etc. This was an invaluable prize. Broth was 
immediately made and served out, especially to the weakly; nearly 
all of us got a little; but a great many gave their part to the 
weakly, saying something cheering to their comrades. By the 
afternoon, this refreshment and fine weather had greatly invigor- 
ated the whole party. 

" Crossing a narrow and deep lake in the canoes, and marching 
some distance, we came to a copse of timber called ' Warrior's 
Island.' We were now in full view of the fort and town; it was 
about two miles distant, with not a shrub intervening. Everyman 
now feasted his eyes and forgot that he had suffered anything, say- 
ing that all which had passed was owing to good polic}', and noth- 
ing but what a man could bear, and that a soldier had no right to 
think, passing from one extreme to the other, — which is common in 
such cases. And now stratagem was necessary. The plain between 
us and the town was not a perfect level; the sunken grounds were 
covered with water full of ducks. We observed several men within 
ahalf a mile of us shooting ducks, and sent out some of our active 
young Frenchmen to take one of these men prisoners without 
alarming the rest, which they did. The information we got from 
this person was similar to that which we got from those taken on the 
river, except that of the British having that evening completed the 
wall of the fort, and that there were a great many Indians in town. 

"Our situation was now critical. No possibility of retreat in 
case of defeat, and in full view of a town containing at this time 
more than 600 men, troops, inhabitants and Indians. The crew of the 
galley, though not 50 men, would have been now a re-enforcement 
of immense magnitude to our little army, if I may so call it, but 
we would not think of tliem. We were now in the situation that I 
had labored to get ourselves in. The idea of being made prisoner 
was foreign to almost every man, as they expected notliing but tor- 
ture from the savages if they fell into their hands. Our fate was 


now to be determined, probably in a few lioiirs; we knew that 
nothing but the most daring conduct would insure success; I knew 
also that a number of the inhabitants wished us well. This was a 
favorable circumstance; and as there was but little prooabilitj of our 
remaining until dark undiscovered, I determined to begin opera- 
tions immediately, and therefore wrote the following placard to the 

To the Inhabitants of Post Vincennes: 

Gentlemen: — Being now within two miles of your village with 
my army, determined to take your fort this night, and not being 
willing to surprise you, I take this method to request such of you 
as are true citizens and willing to enjoy the liberty I bring you, to 
remain still in your houses; and those, if any there be, that are 
friends to the king, will instantly repair to the fort and join the 
hair-buyer general and fight like men; and if any such as do not go 
to the fort shall be discovered afterward, they may depend on 
severe punishment. On the contrary, those wlio are true friends 
to liberty may depend on being well treated; and I once more 
request them to keep out of the streets; for everyone I find in 
arms on ray arrival I shall treat as an enemy. 

[Signed] G. R. Clark. 

" I had various ideas on the results of this letter. I knew it 
could do us no damage, but that it would cause the lukewarm to 
be decided, and encourage our friends and astonish our enemies. 
We anxiously viewed this messenger until he entered the town, and 
in a few minutes we discovered by our glasses some stir in every 
street we could penetrate, and great numbers running or riding out 
into the commons, we supposed to view us, which was the case. 
But what surprised us was that nothing had yet happened that had 
the appearance of the garrison being alarmed, — neither gun nor 
drum. We began to suppose that the information we got from our 
prisoners was false, and that the enemy had already knew of us and 
were prepared. A little before sunset we displayed ourselves in 
full view of the town, — crowds gazing at us. We were plunging 
ourselves into certain destruction or success ; there was no midway 
thought of. We had but little to say to our men, e.\cept inculcat- 
ing an idea of the necessity of obedience, etc. We moved on 
slowly in full view of the town ; but as it was a point of some con- 
sequence to us to make ourselves appear formidable, we, in leaving 
the covert we were in, marched and counter- marched in such a 
manner that we a]ipeared numerous. Our colors were displayed to 
the best advantage; and as the low plain we marched through was 


not a perfect level, but had frequent risings in it, of Tor 8 
higher than the common level, which was covered with water; and 
as these risings generally run in an oblique direction to the town,, 
we took the advantage of one of them, marching through the water 
by it, which completely prevented our being numbered. We gained 
the heights back of the town. As there were as yet no hostile 
appearance, we were impatient to have the cause unriddled. Lieut. 
Bay ley was ordered with 14 men to march and fire on the fort; 
the main body moved in a different direction and took possession 
of the strongest part of the town." 

Clark then sent a written order to Hamilton commanding 
him to surrender immediately or he would be treated as a 
murderer; Hamilton replied that he and his garrison were not 
disposed to be awed into any action unworthy of British sub- 
jects. After one hour more of fighting, Hamilton proposed a 
truce of three days for conference, on condition that each side 
cease all defensive work; Clark rejoined that he would "not 
agree to any terms other than Mr. Hamilton surrendering himself 
and garrison prisoners at discretion," and added that if he, Hamil- 
ton, wished to talk with him he could meet him immediately at the 
church with Capt. Helm. In less than an hour Clark dictated the 
terms of surrender, Feb. 24, 1779. Hamilton agreed to the total 
surrender because, as he there claimed in writing, he was too far 
from aid from his own government, and because of the " unanimity" 
of his oificers in the surrender, and his "confidence in a generous 

"Of this expedition, of its results, of its importance, of the merits of 
those engaged in it, of their bravery, their skill, of their prudence, of 
their success, a volume would not more than suffice for the details. 
Suflice it to say that in my opinion, and I have accurately and criti- 
cally weighed and examined all the results produced by the con- 
tests in which we were engaged during the Revolutionary war, 
that for bravery, for hardships endured, for skill and consummate 
tact and prudence on the part of the commander, obedience, dis- 
cipline and love of country on the part of his followers, for the 
immense benefits acquired, and signal advantages obtained by it 
for the whole union, it was second to no enterprise undertaken dur- 
ing that struggle. I might add, second to no undertaking in an- 
cient or modern warfare. The whole credit of this conquest be- 
longs to two men; Gen. George Rogers Clark and Col. Francis 
Vigo. And when we consider that by it the whole territory now 



covered by the three great states of Indiana, Illinois and Michigan 
was added to the union, and so admitted to be by the British commis- 
sioners at the preliminaries to the treaty of peace in 1783; (and but 
for this very conquest, the boundaries of our territories west would 
have been the Ohio instead of the Mississippi, and so acknowledged 
by both our commissioners and the British at that conference;) a 
territory embracing upward of 2,000,000 people, the human mind 
is lost in the contemplation of its effects; and we can but wonder 
that a force of 170 men, the whole number of Clark's troops, 
should by this single action have produced such important results." 
[John Law. 

The next day Clark sent a detachment of 80 men up the river 
Wabash to intercept some boats which were laden with provisions 
and goods from Detroit. This force was placed under command of 
Capt. Helm, Major Bosseron and Major Legras, and they proceeded 
up the river, in three armed boats, about 120 miles, when the 
British boats, about seven in number, were surprised and captured 
without firing a gun. These boats, which had on board about 
$50,000 worth of goods and provisions, were manned by about 
40 men, among whom was Philip Dejean, a magistrate of Detroit. 
The provisions were taken for the public, and distributed among 
the soldiery. 

Having organized a military government at Vincennes and 
appointed Capt. Helm commandant of the town. Col. Clark return- 
ed in the vessel to Kaskaskia, where he was joined by reinforce- 
ments from Kentucky under Capt. George. Meanwhile, a party of 
traders who were going to the falls, were killed and plundered by 
the Delawares of White River; the news of this disaster having 
reached Clark, he sent a dispatch to Capt. Helm ordering him to 
make war on the Delawares and use every means in his power to 
destroy them; to show no mercy to the men, but to save the 
women and children. This order was executed without dela}'. 
Their camps were attacked in every quarter where they could be 
found. Many fell, and others were carried to Post Vincennes and 
put to death. The surviving Delawares at once pleaded for mercy 
and appeared anxious to make some atonement for their bad con- 
duct. To these overtures Capt. Helm replied that Col. Clark, the 
" Big Knife," had ordered the war, and that he had no power to lay 
down the hatchet, but that he would suspend hostilities until a 
messenger could be sent to Kaskaskia. This was done, and the 
crafty Colonel, well understanding the Indian character, sent a 


message lo the Delawares, telling them that he would not accept 
their friendship or treat with them for peace; but that if they 
could get some of the neighboring tribes to become responsible for 
their future conduct, he would discontinue the war and spare their 
lives; otherwise they must all perish. 

Accordingly a council was called of all the Indians in the neigh- 
borhood, and Clark's answer was read to the assembly. After due 
deliberation the Piankeshaws took on themselves to answer for the 
future good conduct of the Delawares, and the " Grand Door " in a 
long speech denounced their base conduct. This ended the war 
with the Delawares and secured the respect of the neighboring 

Clark's attention was next turiied to the British post at Detroit, 
but being unable to obtain suiBcient troops he abandoned the en- 

Clark's ingenious ruse against the Indians. 

Tradition says that when Clark captured Hamilton and his gar- 
rison at Fort Sackville, he took possession of the fort and kept the 
British flag flying, dressed his sentinels with the nniform of the 
British soldiery, and let everything about the premises remain as 
they were, so that when the Indians sympathizing with the Bi-itish 
arrived they would walk right into the citadel, into the jaws of 
death. His success was perfect. Sullen and silent, with the scalp- 
lock of his victims hanging at his girdle, and in full expectation of 
his reward from Hamilton, the unwary savage, unconscious of 
danger and wholly ignorant of the change that had just been effected 
in his absence, passed the supposed British sentry at the gate of the 
fort unmolested and unchallenged; but as soon as in, a volley from 
the rifles of a platoon of Clark's men, drawn up and awaiting his 
coming, pierced their hearts and sent the unconscious savage, reek- 
ing with murder, to that tribunal to which he had so frequently, 
by order of the hair-buyer general, sent his American captives, 
from the infant in the cradle to the grandfather of the family, tot- 
tering with age and infirmity. It was a just retribution, and few 
men but Clark would have planned such a ruse or carried it out 
successfully. It is reported that fifty Indians met this fate within 
the fort; and probably Hamilton, a prisoner there, witnessed it all 


Henry Hamilton, who had acted as Lieutenant and Governor of 
the British possessions under Sir George Oarleton, was sent for- 


"Ward, with two other prisoners of war, Dejeaii and LaMothe, to 
Williamsburg, Va., early in June following, 1779. Proclamations, 
in his own handwriting, were found, in which he had offered a 
specific sum for every American scalp brought into the camp, either 
by his own troops or his allies, the Indians; and from this he was 
denominated the "hair-buyer General." This and much other tes- 
timony of living witnesses at the time, all showed what a savage ho 
was. Tlioraas Jefferson, then Governor of Virginia, being made 
aware of the inhumanity of this wretch, concluded to resort to a 
little retaliation by way of closer confinement. Accordingly he 
ordered that these three prisoners be put in irons, confined in a 
dungeon, deprived of the use of pen, ink and paper, and be ex- 
cluded from all conversation except with their keeper. Major 
General Phillips, a British officer out on parole in the vicinity of 
Charlottesville, where the prisoners now were, in closer confine- 
ment, remonstrated, and President Washington, while approving 
of Jefferson's course, requested a mitigation of the severe order, 
lest the British be goaded to desperate measures. 

Soon afterward Hamilton was released on parole, and he subse- 
quently appeared in Canada, still acting as if he had jurisdiction 
in the United States. 


The faithful, self-sacrificing and patriotic services of Father 
Pierre Gibault in behalf of the Americans require a special notice 
of him in this connection. He was the parish priest at Vincennes, 
as well as at Kaskaskia. He was, at an early period, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary to the Illinois. Had it not been for the infiuence of this man, 
Clark could not have obtained the influence of the citizens at either 
place. He gave all his property, to the value of 1,500 Spanish 
milled dollars, to the support of Col. Clark's troops, and never re- 
ceived a single dollar in return. So far as the records inform lis, 
he was given 1,500 Continental paper dollars, which proved in the 
end entirely valueless. He modestly petitioned from the Govern- 
ment a small allowance of land at Cahokia, but we find no account 
of his ever receiving it. He was dependent upon the public in his 
older days, and in 1790 Winthrop Sargent "conceded" to him a lot 
of about "14 toises, one side to Mr. Millet, another to Mr. Vaudrsy, 
and to two streets," — a vague description of land. 



Col. Francis Vigo was born in Mondovi, in the kingdom of Sar- 
dinia, in 1747. He left his parents and guardians at a very early 
age, and enlisted in a Spanish regiment as a soldier. The regiment 
was ordered to Havana, and a detachment of it subsequently to 
New Orleans, then a Spanish post; Col. Vigo accompanied this de- 
tachment. But he left the army and engaged in trading with the 
Indians on the Arkansas and its tributaries. Next he settled at St. 
Louis, also a Spanish post, where he became closely connected, both 
in friendship and business, with the Governor of Upper Louisiana, 
then residing at the same place. This friendship he enjoyed, though 
he could only write his name; and we have many circumstantial 
evidences that he was a man of high'intelligence, honor, purity of 
heart, and ability. Here he was living when Clark captured Kas- 
kaskia, and was extensively engaged in trading up the Missouri. 

A Spaniard by birth and allegiance, he was under no obligation 
to assist the Americans. Spain was at peace with Great Britain, 
and any interference by her citizens was a breach of neutrality, and 
subjected an individual, especially one of the high character and 
standing of Col. Vigo, to all the contumely, loss and vengeance 
which British power could inflict. But Col. Vigo did not falter. 
With an innate love of liberty, an attachment to Republican prin- 
ciples, and an ardent sympathy for an oppressed people struggling 
for their rights, he overlooked all personal consequences, and as 
soon as he learned of Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia, he crossed the 
line and went to Clark and tendered him his means and influence, 
both of which were joyfully accepted. 

Knowing Col. Vigo's influence with the ancient inhabitants of 
the country, and desirous of obtaining some information from 
Vincennes, from which he had not heard for several months, Col. 
Clark proposed to him that he might go to that place and learn the 
actual state of affairs. Vigo went without hesitation, but on the 
Embarrass river he was seized by a party of Indians, plundered of 
all he possessed, and brought a prisoner before Hamilton, then in pos- 
session of the post, which he had a short time previously captured, 
holding Capt. Helm a prisoner of war. Being a Spanish subject, 
and consequently a non-combatant. Gov. Hamilton, although he 
strongly suspected the motives of the visit, dared not confine him, 
but admitted him to parole, on the single condition that he 
should daily report himself at the fort. But Hamilton was embar- 


rassed by his detention, being besieged by tlie inhabitants of the 
town, who loved Vigo and threatened to withdraw their support 
from the garrison if he would not release him. Father Gibault was 
the chief pleader for Vigo's release. Hamilton finally yielded, on con- 
dition that he, Vigo, would do no injury to the British interests on 
his way to St. Louis. He went to St. Louis, sure enougli, doing no 
injury to British interests, but immediately returned to Kaskaskia 
and reported to Clark in detail all he had learned at Vincennes, 
without which knowledge Clark would have been unable to ac- 
complish his famous expedition to that post with final triumph. 
The redemption of this country from the British is due as much, 
probably, to Col. Vigo as Col. Clark. 


Col. John Todd, Lieutenant for the county of Illinois, in the 
spring of 1779 visited the old settlements at Vincennes and Kas- 
kaskia, and organized temporary civil governments in nearly all the 
settlements west of the Ohio. Previous to this, however, Clark 
had established a military government atKaskaskia and Vincennes, 
appointed commandants in both places and taken up his headquar- 
ters at the falls of the Oliio, where he could watch the operations 
of the enemy and save the frontier settlements from the depreda- 
tions of Indian warfare. On reaching the settlements, Col. Todd 
issued a proclamation regulating the settlement of unoccupied 
lands and requiring the presentation of all claims to the lands set- 
tled, as the number of adventurers who would shortly overrun the 
country would be serious. He also organized a Court of civil and 
criminal jurisdiction at Vincennes, in the mouth of June, 1779. 
This Court was composed of several magistrates and presided over 
by Col. J. M. P. Legras, who had been appointed commandant at 
Vincennes. Acting from the precedents established b}' the early 
French commandants in the West, this Court began to grant tracts 
of land to the French and American inhabitants; and to the year 
1783, it had granted to different parties about 26,000 acres of land; 
22,000 more was granted in this manner by 17S7, when the practice 
was prohibited by Gen. Harmer. These tracts varied in size from 
a house lot to 500 acres. Besides this loose business, the Court 
entered into a stupendous speculation, one not altogether creditable 
to its honor and dignity. The commandant and the magistrates 
under him suddenly adopted the opinion that they were iiiveslP'i 


witli the autlioritj to dispose of the whole of that large region 
which in 18i2 liad been granted by the Piankeshaws to the French 
inhabitants of Vincennes. Accordingly a very convenient arrange- 
ment was entered into by which the whole tract of country men- 
tioned was to be divided between the members of the honorable 
Court. A record was made to that effect, and in order to gloss over 
the steal, each member took pains to be absent from Court on the 
day that the order was made in his favor. 

In the fall of 1780 La Balme, a Frenchman, made an attempt to 
capture the British garrison of Detroit by leading an expedition 
against it from Kaskaskia. At the head of 30 men he marched to 
Vincennes, where his force was slightly increased. From this 
place he proceeded to the British trading post at the head of the 
Maumee, where Fort Wa^me now stands, plundered the British 
traders and Indians and then retired. While encamped on the 
bank of a small stream on his retreat, he was attacked by a band 
of Miamis, a number of his men were killed, and his expedition 
against Detroit was ruined. 

In this manner border war continued between Americans and 
■their enemies, with varying victory, until 17S3, when the treaty of 
Paris was concluded, resulting in the establishment of the inde- 
pendence of the United States. Up to this time the territory now 
included in Indiana belonged by conquest to the State of Virginia; 
but in January, 1783, the General Assembly of that State resolved 
"to cede to the Congress of the United States all the territory north- 
west of the Ohio. The conditions offered by Virginia were 
accepted by Congress Dec. 20, that year, and early in 17S4 the 
transfer was completed. In 1783 Virginia had platted the town of 
'Clarksville, at the falls of the Ohio. The deed of cession provided 
that the territory should be laid out into States, containing a suita- 
ble extent of territory not less than 100 nor more than 150 miles 
square, or as near thereto as circumstances would permit; aud that 
the States so formed shall be distinct Republican States and 
admitted members of the Federal Union, having the same rights of 
sovereignty, freedom and independence as the other States. The 
other conditions of the deed were as follows: That the necessary 
and reasonable expenses incurred by Virginia in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts and garrisons within and for 
the defense, or in acquiring any part of the territory so ceded or 
relinquished, shall be fully reimbursed by the United States; that 
the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of the Kas- 


kaskia, Post Vincennes and the neighboring villages who have pro- 
fessed themselves citizens of Virginia, shall have their titles and 
possessions confirmed to them, and be protected in the enjoyment 
of their rights and privileges; th;it a quantit}' not exceeding 150,- 
000 acres of land, promised by Virginia, shall be allowed and 
granted to the then Colonel, now General, George Rogers Clark, 
and to the officers and soldiers of his regiment, who marched with 
him when the posts and of Kaskaskia and Vincennes were reduced, 
and to the officers and soldiers that have been since incorporated 
into the said regiment, to be laid off in one tract, the length o' 
which not to exceed double the breadth, in such a place on the 
northwest side of the Ohio as a majority of the officers shall 
choose, and to be afterward divided among the officers and soldiers 
in due proportion according to the laws of Virginia; that in case 
the quantity of good lands on the southeast side of the Ohio, upon 
the waters of Cumberland river, and between Green river and Ten. 
nessee river, which have been reserved by law for the Virginia 
troops upon Continental establishment, should, from the North 
Carolina line, bearing in further upon the Cumberland lands than 
was expected, prove insufficient for their legal bounties, the defi- 
ciency shall be made up to the said troops in good lands to be laid 
off between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami, on tlie northwest 
side of the river Ohio, in such proportions as have been engaged 
to them by the laws of Virginia; that all the lands within tlie ter- 
ritory so ceded to the United States, and not reserved for or appro- 
priated to any of the before-mentioned purposes, or disposed of in 
bounties to the officers and soldiers of the American army, shall be 
considered as a common fund for the use and benefit of sucli of the 
United States as have become, or shall become, members of the 
confederation or federal alliance of the said States, Virginia included, 
according to their usual respective proportions in the general 
charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully and bona fide dis- 
posed of for that purpose and for no other use or purpose whatever. 
After the above deed of cession had been accepted by Congress, 
in the spring of 178-t, the matter of the future government of the 
territory was referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. Jeffer- 
son of Virginia, Chase of Maryland and Howell of Rhode Island, 
which committee reported an ordinance for its government, provid- 
ing, among other things, that slavery should not exist in said terri- 
tory after 1800, except as punishment of criminals; but this article 
of the ordinance was rejected, and an ordinance for the temporary 


government of the county was adopted. In 1785 laws were passed 
hj Congress for the disposition of lands in the territory and pro- 
liibiting the settlement of unappropriated lands by reckless specu- 
lators. But human passion is ever strong enough to evade the law 
to some extent, and large associations, representing considerable 
means, were formed for the purpose of monopolizing the land busi- 
ness. Millions of acres were sold at one time by Congress to asso- 
ciations on the installment plan, and so far as the Indian titles 
could be extinguished, the work of settling and improving the 
lands was pushed rapidly forward. 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to Nathan 
Dane; and to Rufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
ways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jefferson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
in his ordinance of 1781. But the part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescript- 
ible and unchangeable monument, the very heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knowledge, and Union, will forever honor the names ot 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
lor the Northwestern territory. He was an emancipationist and 
lavored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Rev. Mauasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern territory. Everything seemed 
to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the public 
credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, 
his personal character, all combined to complete one of those suddea 


and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that once in five or 
ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the breath of the 

Cutler was a graduate of Yale. He had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
Ho had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
Eui^land. As a scientist in America his name stood second only to 
that of Franklin. He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, a 
man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1, .500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, and Jefierson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral. 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constuitents of her members were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documentp 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned anj' human law book. 
He borrowed from Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schof)ls, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 10 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 
the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 


Be it forever remembered that this compact declared that " re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his unqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 17S7, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that waa 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

The " Northwestern Territory " included of course what is now 
the State of Indiana; and Oct 5, 1787, Maj. Geu. Arthur St. Clair 
was elected by Congress Governor of this territory. Upon 
commencing the duties of his office he was instructed to ascertain 
the real temper of the Indians and do all in his power to remove 
the causes for controversy between them and the United States, 
and to effect the extinguishment of Indian titles to all the land 
possible. The Governor took up quarters in the new settlement of 
Marietta, Ohio, where he immediately began the organization of 
the government of the territory. The first session of the General 
Court of the new territory was held at that place in 1788, the 
Judges being Samuel H. Parsons, James M. Varnum and John C. 
Symmes, but under the ordinance Gov. St. Clair was President of 
the Court. After the first session, and after the necessary laws for 
government were adopted, Gov. St. Clair, accompanied by the 
Judges, visited Kaskaskia for the purpose of organizing a civil gov- 
ernment there. Full instructions had been sent to Maj. Hamtramck, 
commandant at Vincennes, to ascertain the exact feeling and temper 
of the Indian tribes of the Wabash. These instructions were ac- 
companied by speeches to each of the tribes. A Frenchman named 
Antoine Gamelin was dispatched with these messages April 5, 1790, 
who visited nearly all the tribes on the Wabash, St. Joseph and St. 


Mary's rivers, but was coldly received; most of the chiefs being 
dissatisfied with the policy of the Americans toward them, and 
prejudiced through English misrepresentation. Full accounts of 
his adventures among the tribes reached Gov. St. Clair at Kaskas- 
kia in June, 1790. Being satisfied that there was no prospect of 
effecting a general peace with the Indians of Indiana, he resolved 
to visit Gen. Harmar at his head(juarters at Fort Washington and 
consult with him on the means of carrying an expedition against 
the hostile Indians; but before leaving he intrusted Winthrop 
Sargent, the Secretary of the Territory, with the execution of the 
resolutions of Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the 
Wabash. He directed that ofiicer to proceed to Vincennes, lay 
out a county there, establish the militia and appoint the necessary 
civil and military officers. Accordingly Mr. Sargent went to Vin- 
cennes and organized Camp Knox, appointed the officers, and noti- 
fied the inhabitants to present their claims to lands. In establish- 
ing these claims the settlers found great difficulty, and concerning 
this matter the Secretary in his report to the President wrote as 

" Although the lands and lots which were awarded to the inhabi- 
tants appeared from very good oral testimony to belong to those 
persons to whom they were awarded, either by original grants, pur- 
chase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one case in twenty 
where the title was complete, owing to the desultory manner in 
which public business had been transacted and some other unfor- 
tunate causes. The original concessions by the French and British 
commandants were generally made upon a small scrap of paper, 
which it has been customary to lodge in the notary's office, who 
has seldom kept any book of record, but committed the most im- 
portant land concerns to loose sheets, which in process of time 
have come into possession of persons that have fraudulently de- 
stroyed them; or, unacquainted with their consequence, innocently 
lost or trifled them away. By French usage they are considered 
family inheritances, and often descend to women and children. In 
one instance, and during the government of St. Auge here, a royal 
notary ran off with all the public papers in his possession, as by a 
certificate produced to me. And I am very sorry further to observe 
that in the office of Mr. Le Grand, which continued from 1777 to 
1787, and where should have been the vouchers for important land 
transactions, the records have been so falsified, and there is such 
gross fraud and forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and informa- 
tion which I might have otherwise acquired from his papers." 


Mr. Sargent say.s there were about 150 French families at Yin- 
cennes in 1790. The heads of all these families had been at some 
time vested with certain titles to a portion of the soil; and while 
the Secretary was busy in straightening out these claims, he re- 
ceived a petition signed by 80 Americans, asking for the confirma- 
tion of grants of land ceded by the Coart organized by Col. John 
Todd under the authority of Virginia. With reference to this 
cause, Congress, March 3, 1791, empowered the Territorial Governor, 
in cases where land had been actually improved and cultivated 
under a supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons who 
made such improvements the lands supposed to have been granted, 
not, however, exceeding the quantity of iOO acres to any one per- 


The General Court in the summer of 1790, Acting Governor 
Sargent presiding, passed the following laws with reference to 
vending liquor among the Indians and others, and with reference 
to games of chance: 

1. An act to prohibit the giving or selling intoxicating liquors 
to Indians residing in or coming into the Territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio, and for preventing foreigners 
from trading with Indians therein. 

2. An act prohibiting the sale of spirituous or other intoxicat- 
ing liquors to soldiers in the service of the United States, being 
within ten miles of any military post in the territory; and to pre- 
vent the selling or pawning of arms, ammunition, clothing or 

3. An act prohibiting every species of gaming for money or 
property, and for making void contracts and payments made in 
consequence thereof, and for restraining the disorderly practice 
of discharging arms at certain hours and places. 

Winthrop Sargent's administration was highly eulogized by the 
citizens at Vincennes, in a testimonial drawn up and signed by a 
committee of officers. He had conducted the investigation and 
settlement of land claims to the entire satisfaction of the residents, 
had upheld the principles of free government in keeping with the 
animus of the American Revolution, and had established in good 
order the machinery of a good and wise government. In the same 
address Major Hamtramck also received a fair share of praise for 
his judicious management of affairs. 



Gov. St. Clair, on his arrival at Fort Washington from Kas- 
kaskia, had a long conversation with Gen. Ilarinar, and concluded 
to send a powerful force to chastise the savages about the head- 
waters of the "Wabash. He had been empowered by the President 
to call on Virginia for 1,000 troops and on Pennsylvania for 500, 
and he immediately availed himself of this resource, ordering 300 
of the Virginia militia to muster at Fort Steuben and march with 
the garrison of tiiat fort to Vincenues, and join Maj. Hamtramck, 
who had orders to call for aid from the militia of Vincennes, march 
up the Wal)ash, and attack any of the Indian villages which he 
miglit think he could overcome. The remaining 1,200 of the mi- 
litia were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Washington, and to join 
the regular troops at that post under command of Gen. Harmar. 
At this time the United States troops in the West were estimated 
by Gen. Harmar at 400 effective men. These, with the militia, 
gave him a force of 1,450 men. With this army Gen. Harmar 
marched from Fort Washington Sept. 30, and arrived at the Mau- 
mee Oct. 17. They commenced the work of punishing the Indians, 
but were not very successl"ul. The savages, it is true, received a 
severe scourging, but the militia behaved so badly as to be of little 
or no service. A detachment of 340 militia and 60 regulars, under 
the command of Col. Hardin, were sorely defeated on the Maumee 
Oct. 22. The next day the army took up the line of march for 
Fort Washington, which place they reached Nov. 4, having lost in 
the expedition 183 killed and 31 wounded; the Indians lost about 
as many. During the progress of this expedition Maj. Hamtramck 
marched up the Wabash from Vincennes, as far as the Vermillion 
river, and destroyed several deserted villages, but without finding 
an enemy to oppose him. 

Although the savages seem to have been severely punished by 
tliese expeditions, yet they refused to sue for peace, and continued 
their hostilities. Thereupon the inhabitants of the frontier settle- 
ments of Virginia took alarm, and the delegate.^ of Ohio, Monoii- 


gahela, Harrison, Randolph, Greenbrier, Kanawha and Mont- 
gomery counties sent a joint memorial to the Governor uf Vir- 
ginia, saying that tlie defenseless condition of tlie counties, form- 
ing a line of nearly 400 miles along the Ohio river, exposed to the 
hostile invasion of their Indian enemies, destitute of every kind of 
support, was truly alarming; for, notwithstanding all the regula- 
tions of the General Government in that country, they have reason 
to lament that they have been up to that time ineffectual for their 
protection; nor indeed could it be otherwise, for the garrisons kept 
by the Continental troops on the Ohio river, if of any use at all, 
must protect only the Kentucky settlements, as they immediately 
covered that country. They further stated in their memorial: "We 
beg leave to observe that we have reason to fear that the conse- 
quences of the defeat of our army by the Indians in the late expe- 
dition will be severely felt on our frontiers, as there is no doubt 
that the Indians will, in their turn, being flushed with victory, in- 
vade our settlements and exercise all their horrid murder upon the 
inhabitants thereof whenever the weather will permit them to 
travel. Then is it not better to support us where we are, be the ex- 
pense what it may, than to oblige such a number of your brave 
citizens, who have so long supported, and still continue to support, 
a dangerous frontier (although thousands of their relatives in the 
flesh have in the prosecution thereof fallen a sacrifice to savage in- 
ventions) to quit the country, after all they have done and suffered, 
when you know that a frontier must be supported somewhere?" 

This memorial caused the Legislature of Virginia to authorize 
the Governor of that State to make any defensive operations neces- 
sary for the temporary defense of the frontiers, until the general 
Government could adopt and carry out measures to suppress the 
hostile Indians. The Governor at once called upon the military 
commanding officers in the western counties of Virginia to raise hy 
the first of March, 1791, several small companies of rangers for this 
purpose. At the same time Charles Scott was appointed Brigadier- 
General of the Kentucky militia, with authority to raise 226 vol- 
unteers, to protect the most exposed portions of that district. K 
full report of the proceedings of the Virginia Legislature being 
transmitted to Congress, that body constituted a local Board of 
War for the district of Kentuck}-, consisting of five men. March 9, 
1791, Gen. Henry Knox, Secretary of War, sent a letter of instruc- 
tions to Gen. Scott, recommending an expedition of mounted men 
not exceeding 750, against the Wea towns on the Wabash. With 


this force Gen. Scott accordingly crossed the Ohio, May 23, 1791, 
and reached the Wabash in about ten days. Many of the Indians, 
having discovered his approach, fled, but he succeeded in destroy- 
ing all the villages around Ouiatenon, together with several Kick- 
apoo towns, killing 32 warriors and taking 5S prisoners. He 
released a few of the most infirm prisoners, giving them a " talk," 
which they carried to the towns farther up the Wabash, and which 
the wretched condition of his horses prevented him from reaching. 

March 3, 1791, Congress provided for raising and equipping a 
regiment for the protection of the frontiers, and Gov. St. Clair was 
invested with the chief command of about 3,000 troops, to be raised 
and employed against the hostile Indians in the territory over 
whicli his jurisdiction extended. H(? was instructed by the Secre- 
tary of War to march to the Miami village and establish a strong 
and permanent military post there; also such posts elsewhere along 
the Ohio as would be in communication with Fort Washington. 
The post at Miami village was intended to keep the savages in that 
vicinity in check, and was ordered to be strong enough in its gar- 
rison to afford a detachment of 500 or 600 men in case of emer- 
gency, either to chastise any of the Wabash or other hostile Indians 
or capture convoys of the enemy's provisions. The Secretary of 
War also urged Gov. St. Clair to establish that post as the first and 
most important part of the campaign. In case of a previous 
treaty the Indians were to be conciliated upon this point if possible; 
and he presumed good arguments might be offered to induce their 
acquiescence. Said he: "Having commenced your march upon the 
main expedition, and the Indians continuing hostile, you will use 
every possible exertion to make them feel the effects of your superi- 
ority; and, after having arrived at the Miami village and put your 
works in a defensible state, you will seek the enemy with the whole 
of your remaining force, and endeavor by all possible means to 
strike them with great severity. * * * * 

In order to avoid future wars, it might be proper to make the Wa- 
bash and thence over to the Maumee, and down the same to its 
mouth, at Lake Erie, the boundary between the people of the 
United States and the Indians (excepting so far as the same should 
relate to the Wyandots and Delawares), on the supposition of their 
continuing faithful to the treaties; but if they should join in the 
war against the United States, and your army be victorious, the 
said tribes ought to be removed without the boundary mentioned." 

Previous to marching a strong force to the Miami town, Gov. St. 


Clair, June 25, 1791, authorized Gen Wilkinson to conduct a second 
expedition, not exceeding 500 mounted men, against the Indian 
villages on the Wabash. Accordingly Gen. Wilkinson mustered 
his forces and was ready July 20, to march with 525 mounted vol- 
unteers, well armed, and provided with 30 days' provisions, and 
with this force he reached the Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua village on the 
north bank of Eel river about six miles above its mouth, Aug. 7, 
where he killed six warriors and took 34 prisoners. This town> 
which was scattered along the river for three miles, was totally de- 
stroyed. Wilkinson encamped on the ruins of the town that night, 
and the next day he commenced his march for the Kickapoo town 
on the prairie, which he was unable to reach owing to the impassa- 
ble condition of the route which he adopted and the failing condi- 
tion of his horses. He reported the estimated results of the expe- 
/dition as follows: "I have destroyed the chief town of the Ouiate- 
non nation, and have made prisoners of tlie sons and sisters of the 
king. I have burned a respectable Kickapoo village, and cutdown 
at least 400 acres of corn, chiefly in the milk." 


The IndianB were greatly damaged by the expeditions of Harmar, 
Scott and Wilkinson, but were far from being subdued. They 
regarded the policy of the United States as calculated to extermi- 
nate them from the land; and, goaded on by the English of Detroit, 
enemies of the Americans, they were excited to desperation. At 
this time the British Government still supported garrisons at 
Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac, although it was declared by 
the second article of the definitive treaty of peace of 17S3, that 
the king of Great Britain would, " with all convenient speed, and 
without causing any destruction or carrying away any negroes or 
property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his forces, 
garrisons and fleets from the United States, and from every post, 
place and iiarbor within the same." That treaty also provided that 
the creditors on either side should meet with no lawful impedi- 
ments to the recovery of the full value, in sterling money, of all 
honu fide debts previously contracted. The British Government 
claimed that the United States had broken faith in this particular 
understanding of the treaty, and in consequence refused to with- 
draw its forces from the territory. The British garrisons in the 
Lake Region wepo a source of much annoyance to the Americans, 
as they afforded oviitor xo hostile Indians, encouraging them to 


make raids among the Americans. This state of affairs in the 
Territory Northwest of tiie Ohio continued from the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary war to 1796, when under a second 
treaty all British soldiers were withdrawn from the country. 

In September, 1791, St. Clair moved from Fort Washington 
with about 2,000 men, and November 3, the main army, consisting 
of about 1,400 effective troops, moved forward to the head-waters 
of the Wabash, where Fort Recovery was afterward erected, and 
here the army encamped. About 1,200 Indians were secreted a few 
miles distant, awaiting a favorable opportunity to begin an attack, 
which they improved on the morning of Nov. 4, about half an hour 
before sunrise. The attack was first made upon the militia, which 
immediately gave way. St. Clair was defeated and he returned to 
Fort Wasiiington with a broken and dispirited army, having lost 
39 officers killed, and 539 men killed and missing; 22 officers and 
232 men were wounded. Several pieces of artillery, and all the 
baggage, ammunition and provisions were left on the field of bat- 
tle and fell into the hands of the victorious Indians. The stores 
and other public property lost iu the action were valued at $32,800. 
There were also 100 or more American women with the army of 
the wiiites, very few of whom escaped the cruel carnage of the sav- 
age Indians. The latter, characteristic of their brutal nature, 
proceeded in the flush of victory to perpetrate the most horrible 
acts of cruelty and brutality upon the bodies of the living and the 
dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believing that the 
whites had made war for many years merely to acquire land, the 
Indians crammed clay and sand into the eyes and down tlie throats 
of the dying and the dead! 

GEN. Wayne's great victory. 

Although no particular blame was attached to Gov. St. Clair for 
the loss in this expedition, yet he resigned the office of Major-Gen- 
eral, and was succeeded by Anthony Wayne, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolutionary war. Early in 1792 provisions were 
made by the general Government for re-organizing the army, so 
that it should consist of an efficient degree of strength. Wayne 
arrived at Pittsburg in June, where the army was to rendezvous. 
Here he continued actively engaged in organizing and training his 
forces until October, 1793, when with an army of about 3,600 men 
he moved westward to Fort Washington. 

While Wavne was preparing for an offensive campaign, every 

so nisruKY OF Indiana. 

possible means was employed to induce tlie hostile tribes of the 
Northwest to enter into a general treaty of peace with the Ameri- 
can Government; speeches were sent amonw them, and agents to 
make treaties were also sent, but little was accomplished. Major 
Hamtramck, who still remained at Vincennes, succeeded in con- 
cluding a general peace with the Wabash and Illinois Indians; but 
the tribes more immediately under the influence of the British 
refused to hear the sentiments of friendship that were sent among 
them, and tomahawked several of the messengers. Their courage 
had been aroused by St. Clair's defeat, as well as by the unsuccess- 
ful expeditions which had preceded it, and they now felt quite pre- 
pared to meet a superior force under Gen. Wayne. The Indians 
insisted on the Ohio river as the boundary line between their lands 
and the lands of the United States, and felt certain that they could 
maintain tlmt boundary. 

Maj. Gen. Scott, with about 1,600 mounted volunteers from 
Kentucky, joined the regular troops under Gen. Wayne July 26, 
1794, and on the 28th the united forces began their march for the 
Indian towns on the Maumee river. Arriving at the mouth of 
the Auglaize, they erected Fort Detiance, and Aug. 15 the army 
advanced toward the British fort at the foot of the rapids of the 
Maumee, where, on the 20th, almost within reach of the British 
the American army gained a decisive victory over the combined 
forces of the hostile Indians and a considerable number of the 
Detroit militia. The number of the enemy was estimated at 2,000, 
against about 900 American troops actually engaged. This horde 
of savages, as soon as the action began, abandoned themselves to 
flight and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving Wayne's vic- 
torious army in full and quiet possession of the field. The Ameri- 
cans lost 33 killed and 100 wounded; loss of the enemy more than 
double this number. 

The army remained three days and nights on the banks of the 
Maumee, in front of the field of battle, during which time all the 
houses and cornfields were consumed and destroyed for a considera- 
ble distance both above and below Fort Miami, as well as within 
pistol shot of the British garrison, who were compelled to remain 
idle spectators to this general devastation and conflagration, among 
which were the houses, stores and property of Col. McKee, the 
British Indian agent and " principal stimulator of the war then 
existing between the United States and savages." On the return 
march to Fort Defiance the villages and cornfields for about 5C 


miles on each side of tlie Mauinee were destroyed, as well as those 
for a considerable distance around that post. 

Sept. ]i. 179-ir, tlie army under Gen. Wayne commenced its 
marcli toward tlie deserted Miami villages at the confluence of St. 
Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, arriving Oct. 17, and on the follow- 
ing day the site of Fort Wayne was selected. The fort was com- 
pleted Xov. 2'2, and garrisoned by a strong detachment of infantry 
and artillery, under the command of Col. John F. Hamtramck, who 
gave to the new fort the name of Fort Wayne. In 1814 a new fort 
was built on the site of this structure. The Kentucky volunteers 
returned to Fort Washington and were mustered out of service. 
Gen. Wa3me, with the Federal troops, marched to Greenville and 
took up his headquarters during the winter. Here, in August, 
1795, after several months of active negotiation, this gallant officer 
succeeded in concluding a general treaty of peace with all the hos- 
tile tribes of the Northwestern Territory. This treaty opened the 
way for the flood of immigration for many years, and ultimately 
made the States and territories now constituting tiie mighty North- 

Up to the organization of the Indiana Territory there is but little 
history to record aside from those events connected with military 
affixirs. In July, 1796, as before stated, after a treaty was con- 
cluded between tlie United States and Spain, the British garrisons, 
with their arms, artillery and stores, were withdrawn from the 
posts within the boundaries of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio river, and a detachment of American troops, consisting of 65 
men, under the command of Capt. Moses Porter, took possession 
of the evacuated post of Detroit in the same month. 

In the latter part of 1796 Winthrop Sargent went to Detroit and 
organized the county of Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana 
Territory until its division in 1805, when the Territory of Michigan 
was organized. 



On the final success of American arms and diplomacy in 1796, 
the principal town within the Territory, now the State, of Indiana 
was Vincennes, which at this time comprised about 50 liouses, all 
presenting a thrifty and tidy appearance. Each house was sur- 
rounded by a garden fenced with poles, and peach and apple-trees 
grew in most of the enclosures. Garden vegetables of all kinds 
were cultivated with success, and corn, tobacco, wheat, barley and 
cotton grew in the fields around the village in abundance. During 
the last few years of the 18th century the condition of society at 
Vincennes improved wonderfully. 

Besides Vincennes there was a small settlement near where the 
town of Lawrenceburg now stands, in Dearborn county, and in the 
course of that year a small settlement was formed at " Armstrong's 
Station," on the Ohio, within the present limits of Clark county. 
There were of course several other smaller settlements and trading 
posts in the present limits of Indiana, and the number of civilized 
inhabitants comprised within the territory was estimated at 4,875. 

The Territory of Indiana was organized by Act of Congress May 
7, 1800, the material parts of the ordinance of 1787 remaining in 
force; and the inhabitants were invested with all the I'ights, privi- 
leges and advantages granted and secured to the people by that 
ordinance. The seat of government was fixed at Vincennes. May 
13, 1800, Wm. Henry Harrison, a native ot Virginia, was appoint- 
ed Governor of this new territory, and on the next day John Gib- 
son, a native of Pennsylvania and a distinguished "Western pioneer, 
(to whom the Indian chief Logan delivered his celebrated speech in 
1774), was appointed Secretary of the Territory. Soon afterward 
Wm. Clark, Henry Vanderburgh and John Griffio were appointed 
territorial Judges. 

Secretary Gibson arrived at Vincennes in July, and commenced, 
in the absence of Gov. Harrison, the administration of government. 
Gov. Harrison did not arrive until Jan. 10, 1801, when he imme- 
diately called together the Judges of the Territory, who proceeded 



to pass such laws as they deemed necessary for the present govern- 
ment of the Territory. This session began March 3, 1801. 

From this time to 1810 the principal subjects wliicli attracted the 
attention of the people of Indiana were land speculations, the 
adjustment of land titles, the question of negro slavery, the purchase 
of Indian lands by treaties, the organization of Territorial legis- 
latures, the extension of the right of suffrage, the division of 
Indiana Territory, the movements of Aaron Burr, and the hostile 
views and proceedings of the Shawanee chief, Tecuniseh, and his 
brother, the Propliet. 

Up to this time the sixth article of the celebrated ordinance of 
1787, prohibiting slavery in the Northwestern Territor}', had been 
somewhat neglected in the execution of the law, and many French 
settlers still held slaves in a manner. In some instances, according 
to rules prescribed by Territorial legislation, slaves agreed by 
indentures to remain in servitude under their masters for a certain 
number of years; but many slaves, with whom no such contracts 
were made, were removed from the Indiana Territory either to the 
west of the Mississippi or to some of the slaveholdlng States, 
Gov. Harrison convoked a session of delegates of the 'ierritory^ 
elected by a popular vote, who petitioned Congress to declare tiie 
sixth article of the ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slavery, suspend- 
ed; but Congress never consented to grant that petition, and many 
other petitions of a similar import. Soon afterward some of the 
citizens began to take colored persons out of the Territory for the 
purpose of selling them, and Gov. Harrison, by a proclamatiou 
April 6, 1804, forbade it, and called upon the authorities of the 
Territory to assist him in preventing such removal of persons 
of color. 

During the year 1804 all the country west of the Mississippi and 
north of 33° was attached to Indiana Territory by Congress, but in 
a few months was again detached and organized into a separate ter- 

When it appeared from the result of a popular vote in the Terri- 
tory that a majority of 138 freeliolders were in favor of organizing 
a General Assembly, Gov. Harrison, Sept. 11, 1804, issued a procla- 
mation declaring that tlie Territory had passed into the second grade 
of government, as contemplated by the ordinance of 1787, and 
fixed Thursday, Jan. 3, 1805, as the time for holding an election in 
the several counties of the Territory, to choose members of a House 
of Representatives, who should meet at Vincennes Feb. 1 and 


adopt measures for the orgaaizatioii of a Territorial Council. These 
delegates were elected, and met according to the proclamation, and 
selected ten men from whom the President of the United States, 
Mr. Jefferson, should appoint five to be and constitute the Legisla- 
tive Council of the Territory, but he declining, requested Mr. Har- 
rison to make the selection, which was accordingly done. Before 
the first session of this Council, however, was held, Michigan Ter- 
ritory was set off, its south line being one drawn from the southern 
end of Lake Michigan directly east to Lake Erie. 


The first General Assembly, or Legislature, of Indiana Territory 
met at Vincennes July 29, 1805, in pursuance of a gubernatorial 
proclamation. The members of the House of Representatives were 
Jesse B. Thomas, of Dearborn county; Davis Floyd. of Clark count}'; 
Benjamin Parke and John Johnson, of Knox county; Shadrach 
Bond and William Biggs, of St. Clair county, and George Fisher, 
of Randolph count}'. July 30 the Governor delivered his first mes- 
sage to "the Legislative Council and House of Representatives of 
the Indiana Territory." Benjamin Parke was the first delegate 
elected to Congress. He had emigrated from New Jersey to In- 
diana in 1801. 

THE "western sun" 

was the first newspaper published in the Indiana Territory, now 
comprising the four great States of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 
Wisconsin, and the second in all that country once known as the 
"Northwestern Territory." It was commenced at Vincennes in 
1S03, by Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, and- first called the Indiana 
OaztUe, and July, 4, 1S04, was changed to the 'Western Sun. Mr. 
Stout continued the paper until 1845, amid many discouragements, 
■when he was appointed postmaster at the place, and he sold out 
the office. 


The events which we have just been describing really constitute 
the initiatory steps to the great military campaign of Gen. Harrison 
which ended in the "battle of Tippecanoe;" but before proceeding 
to an account of that brilliant affair, let us take a glance at the re- 
sources and strength of Indiana Territory at this time, 1810: 

Total population, 24,520; 33 grist mills: 14 saw mills; 3 horse 
mills; 18 tanneries; 28 distilleries; 3 powder mills; 1,256 looms; 


1,350 spinning wheels; value of manufactures — woolen, cotton 
hempen and flaxen cloths, $159,052; of cotton and wool spun in 
mills, $150,000; of nails, 30,000 pounds, $4,000; of leather tanned, 
$i},300; of distillery products, 35,950 gallons, $16,230; of gun- 
powder, 3,600 pounds, $1,S00; of wine from grapes, 96 barrels, 
$6,000, and 5 0,000 pounds of maple sugar. 

During the year 1810 a Board of Commissioners was established 
to straighten out the confused condition into which the land-title 
controversy had been carried by the various and conflicting admin- 
istrations that had previously exercised jurisdiction in this regard. 
This work was attended with much labor on the part of the Commis- 
sioners and great dissatisfaction on the part of a few designing sj^ecu- 
lators, who thought no extreme of perjury too hazardous in their 
mad attempts to obtain lands fraudulently. In closing their report 
the Commissioners used the following expressive language: ''We 
close this melancholy picture of human depravity by rendering our 
devout acknowledgment that, in the awful alternative in which we 
have been placed, of either admitting perjured testimony in sup- 
port of the claims befoi'e us, or having it turned against our char- 
acters and lives, it has as yet pleased that divine providence which 
rules over the affairs of men, to preserve us, both from legal mur- 
der and private assassination." 

The question of dividing the Territory of Indiana was agitated 
from 1S06 to 1809, when Congress erected the Territory of Illinois, 
to comprise all that part of Indiana Territory lying west of the 
Wabash river and a direct line drawn from that river and Post 
Vincennes due north to the territorial line between the United 
States and Canada. This occasioned some confusion in the govern- 
ment of Indiana, but in due time the new elections were confirmed, 
and the new territuiy started off on a journey of prosperity which 
this section of the United States has ever since enjoyed. 

From the first settlement of Vincennes for nearly half a century 
there occurred nothing of importance to relate, at least so far as 
the records inform us. The place was too isolated to grow very 
fast, and we suppose there was a succession of priests and com- 
mandants, who governed the little world around them with almost 
infinite power and authority, from whose decisions there was no 
appeal, if indeed any was ever desired. The character of society 
in such a place would of course grow gradually different from the 
parent society, assimilating more or less with that of neighboring 
tribes. The whites lived in peace with the Indians, each under- 


Standing the other's peculiarities, which remained fixed long 
enough for both parties to study out and understand them. The 
government was a mixture of the military and the civil. There 
was little to incite to enterprise. Speculations in money and prop- 
erty, and their counterpart, beggary, were both unknown; the nec- 
essaries of life were easily procured, and beyond these there were 
but few wants to be supplied; hospitality was exercised by all, as 
there were no taverns; there seemed to be no use for law, judges 
or prisons; each district had its commandant, and the proceedings 
of a trial were singular. The complaining party obtained a notifi- 
cation from the commandant to his adversary, accompanied by a 
command to render justice. If this had no eflect he was notified 
to appear before the commandant on a particular da}' and answer; 
and if the last notice was neglected, a sergeant and file of men 
were sent to bring him, — no sheriff and no costs. The convicted 
party would be fined and kept in j)rison until he rendered justice 
according to the decree; when extremely refractory the cat-o'-nine- 
tails brought him to a sense of justice. In such a state of society 
there was no demand for learning and science. Few could read, 
and still fewer write. Their disposition was nearly always to deal 
honestly, at least simply. Peltries were their standard of value. 
A brotherly love generally prevailed. But they were devoid of 
public spirit, enterprise or ingenuity. 


Immediately after the organization of Indiana Territory Governor 
Harrison's attention was directed, by necessity as well as by in- 
structions from Congress, to settling affairs with those Indians who 
still held claims to lands. He entered into several treaties, by 
which at the close of 1805 the United States Government had ob- 
tained about 46,000 square miles of territory, including all the 
lands lying on the borders of the Ohio river between the mouth of 
the "Wabash river and the State of Ohio. 

The lei^ying of a tax, especially a poll tax, by the General Assem- 
bly, created considerable dissatisfaction among many of the inhabit- 
ants. At a meeting held Sunday, August 16, 1807, a number of 
Frenchmen resolved to " withdraw their confidence and support 
forever from those men who advocated or in any manner promoted 
the second grade of government." 

In 1807 the territorial statutes were revised and under the new 
code, treason, murder, arson and horse-stealing were each punish- 
able by death. The crime of manslaughter was punishable by the 
common law. Burglary and robbery were punishable by whip- 
ping, fine and in some cases by imprisonment not exceeding forty 
years. Hog stealing was punishable by fine and whipping. Bigamy 
was punishable b}' fine, whipping and disfranchisement, etc. 

In 1804 Congress established three land offices for the sale of 
lands in Indiana territory; one was located at Detroit, one at Vin- 
cennes and one at Kaskaskia. In 1807 a fourth one was opened at 
Jefferson ville, Clark county; this town was first laid out in 1802, 
agreeably to plans suggested by Mr. Jefferson then President of 
the United States. 

Governor Harrison, according to his message to the Legislature 
in 1806, seemed to think that the peace then existing between the 
whites and the Indians was permanent; but in the same document 
he referred to a matter that might be a source of trouble, which in- 
deed it proved to be, namely, the execution of white laws among 
the Indians — laws to which the latter had not been a party in their 
enactment. The trouble was aggravated by the partiality with 
which the laws seem always t6 have been executed; the Indian 



was nearly always the sufferer. All along from 1805 to 1810 the 
Indians complained bitterly against the encroachments of the white 
people upon the lands that belonged to them. The invasion of their 
hunting grounds and the unjustifiable killing of many of their peo- 
ple M'ere the sources of their discontent. An old chief, in laying 
the trouble of his people before Governor Harrison, said: "You 
call us children ; why do you not make us as happy as our fathers, 
the French, did? The}' never took from us our lands; indeed, they 
were common between us. They planted where they pleased, and 
they cut wood where they pleased; and so did we; but now if a 
poor Indian attempts to take a little bark from a tree to cover him 
from the rain, up comes a white man and threatens to shoot him, 
claiming the tree as his own." 

The Indian truly had grounds for his complaint, and the state of 
feeling existing among the tribes at this time was well calculated 
to develop a patriotic leader who should carry them all forward to 
victory at arms, if certain concessions were not made to them by the 
whites. But this golden opportunity was seized by an unworthy 
warrior. A brother of Tecumseh, a "prophet" named Law-le-was-i- 
kaw, but who assumed the name of Pems-quat-a-wah (Open Door), 
was the crafty Shawanee warrior who was enabled to work upon 
both the superstitions and the rational judgment of his fellow In- 
dians. He was a good orator, somewhat peculiar in his appearance 
and well calculated to win the attention and respect of the savages. 
He began by denouncing witchcraft, the use of intoxicating liquors, 
the custom of Indian women marrying white men, the dress of the 
whites and the practice of selling Indian lands to the United States. 
He also told the Indians that the commands of the Great Spirit re- 
quired them to punish with death those who practiced the arts of 
witchcraft and magic; that the Great Spirit had given him power 
to find out and expose such persons; that he had power to cure all 
■diseases, to confound his enemies and to stay the arm of death in 
sickness and on the battle-field. His harangues aroused among 
some bands of Indians a high degree of superstitious excitement. 
An old Delaware chief named Ta-te-bock-o-she, through whose in- 
fluence a treaty had been made with the Delawares in 1804, was 
accused of witchcraft, tried, condemned and tomahawked, and 
his body consumed by fire. The old chief's wife, nephew 
("Billy Patterson ") and an aged Indian named Joshua were next 
accused of witchcraft and condemned to death. The two men were 
burned at the stake, but the wife of Ta-te-bock-o-she was saved from 

TnE SHAW.NEK i'KOf'ilK P. 


death by her brother, who suddenly approached her, took her by the 
hand, and, without meeting any opposition from the Indians present, 
led her out of the council- house. He then immediately returned and 
checked the growing influence of the Prophet by exclaiming in a 
strong, earnest voice, " The Evil Spirit has come among us and we 
are killing each other." — [Dillon's Ilhtorii of Indiana. 

When Gov. Harrison was made acquainted with these events he 
sent a special messenger to the Indians, strongly entreating them to 
renounce the Prophet and his works. This really destroyed to some 
extent the Prophet's influence; but in the spring of 1808, having 
aroused nearly all the tribes of the Lake Region, the Prophet with 
a large number of followers settled near the mouth of the Tippe- 
canoe river, at a place which afterward had the name of "Prophet's- 
Town." Taking advantage of his brother's influence, Tecuraseh 
actively engaged himself in forming the various tribes into a con- 
federacy. He announced publicly to all the Indians that the 
treaties by which the United States had acquired lands northwest 
of the Ohio were not made in fairness, and should be considered 
void. He also said that no single tribe was invested with power to 
sell lands without the consent of all the other tribes, and that he 
and his brother, the Prophet, would oppose and resist all future 
attempts which the white people might make to extend their set- 
tlements in the lands that belonged to the Indians. 

Early in 1808, Gov. Harrison sent a speech to the Shawanees, 
in which was this sentence: " My children, this business must be 
stopped; I will no longer sufler it. You have called a number of 
men from the most distant tribes to listen to a fool, who speaks 
not the words of the Great Spirit but those of the devil and the 
British agents. My children, your conduct has much alarmed the 
white settlers near you. They desire that you will send away those 
people; and if they wish to have the impostor with them they can 
carry him along with them. Let him go to the lakes; he can hear 
the British more distinctly." This message wounded the pride of 
the Prophet, and he prevailed on the messenger to inform Gov. 
Harrison that he was not in league with the British, but was speak- 
ing truly the words of the Great Spirit. 

In the latter part of the summer of 1808, the Prophet spent sev- 
eral weeks at Vincennes, for the purpose of holding interviews 
with Gov. Harrison. At one time he told the Governor that he 
was a Christian and endeavored to persuade his people also to 
become Christians, abandon the use of liquor, be united in broth- 


erlj love, etc., making Mr. Harrison believe at least, that he was 
honest; but before long it was demonstrated that the "Prophet'* 
was designing, cunning and unreliable; that both he and Tecumseh 
were enemies of the United States, and friends of the English; and 
that in case of a war between the Americans and English, they 
would join the latter. The next year the Prophet again visited 
Vincennes, with assurances that he was not in sympathy with the 
English, but the Governor was not disposed to believe him; and in 
a letter to the Secretary of War, in July, 1809, he said that he 
regarded the bands of Indians at Prophet's Town as a combination 
which had been produced by British intrigue and influence, in antic- 
ipation of a war between them and the United States. 

In direct opposition to Tecumseh and the prophet and in spite 
of all these difficulties, Gov. Harrison continued the work of extin- 
guishing Indian titles to lands, with very good success. By the 
close of 1809, the total amount of land ceded to the United States, 
under treaties which had been efl'ected by Mr. Harrison, exceeded 
30,000,000 a res. 

From 1S05 to 1807, the movements of Aaron Burr in the Ohio 
valley created considerable excitement in Indiana. It seemed tiiat 
he intended to collect a force of men, invade Mexico and found a 
republic there, com])rising all the country west of the Alleghany 
mountains. He gathered, however, but a few men, started south, 
and was soon arrested by the Federal authorities. But before his 
arrest he had abandoned his expedition and his followers had 

Harrison's campaign. 

While the Indians were combining to prevent any further trans- 
fer of land to the whites, the British were using the advantage as a 
groundwork for a successful war upon the Americans. In the 
spring of 1810 the followers of the Prophet refused to receive their 
annuity of salt, and the officials who offered it were denounced as 
"American dogs," and otherwise treated in a disrespectful manner. 
Gov. Harrison, in July, attempted to gain the friendship of the 
Prophet by sending him a letter, offering to treat with him person- 
ally in the matter of his grievances, or to furnish means to send 
him, with three of his principal chiefs, to the President at Wash- 
ington; but the messenger was coldly received, and they returned 
word that they would visit Vincennes in a few days and interview 
the Governor. Accordingl}', Aug. 12, 1810, the Shawanee chief 
with 70 of his principal warriors, marched up to the door of the 


Ooveriior's liouse, and from that day until the 22d held daily inter- 
views with llis Excellency, lu all of iiis speeches Tecumseh was 
liaughty, and sometimes arrogant. On the 20tli he delivered that 
celebrated speech in which he gave the Governor the alternative of 
returning their lands or meeting them in battle. 

While the Governor was replying to this speech Tecumseh inter- 
rupted hiin with an angry exclamation, declaring that the United 
States, through Gov. Harrison, had "cheated and imposed on the 
Indians." When Tecumseh first rose, a number of his party also 
sprung to their feet, armed wnth clubs, tomahawks and spears, and 
made some threatening demoustrations. The Governor's guards, 
who stood a little way oflf, were marched up in haste, and the In- 
dians, awed by the presence of this small armed force, abandoned 
what seemed to be an intention to make an open attack on the Gov- 
ernor and his attendants. As soon as Tecumseh's remarks were 
interpreted, the Governor reproached him for his conduct, and com- 
manded him to depart instantly to his camp. 

On the following day Tecumseh repented of his rash act and re- 
quested the Governor to grant him another interview, and pro- 
tested against any intention of offense. The Governor consented, 
and the council was re-opened on the 21st, when the Shawanee 
chief addressed him in a respectful and dignified manner, but re- 
mained immovable in his policy. The Governor then requested 
Tecumseh to state plainly whether or not the surveyors who might 
be sent to survey the lands purchased at the treaty of Fort Wayne 
in 1809, would be molested by Indians. Tecumseh replied: 
"Brother, when you speak of annuities to me, I look at the land 
and pity the women and children. I am authorized to say that they 
will not receive them. Brother, we want to save that piece of land. 
We do not wish you to take it. It is small enough for our purpose. 
If you do take it, you must blame yourself as the cause of the 
trouble between us and the tribes who sold it to you. I want the 
present boundary line to continue. Should you cross it, I assure 
you it will be productive of bad consequences." 

Tiie next day the Governor, attended only by his interpreter, 
visited the camp of the great Shawanee, and in the course of a long 
interview told him that the President of the United States would 
not acknowledge liis claims. "Well," replied the brave warrior, 
"as the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great 
Spirit will put sense enough into his head to induce liim to direct 
you to give up this land. It is true, he is so far off he will not be 


injured by the war. He may sit still in his town and drink his 
wine, while yon and I will have to fight it out." 

In his message to the new territorial Legislature in 1810 Gov. 
Harrison called attention to the dangerous views held by Tecumseh 
and the Prophet, to the pernicious influence of alien enemies 
among the Indians, to the unsettled condition of the Indian trade 
and to the policy of extinguishing Indian titles to lands. The 
eastern settlements were separated from the western by a consider- 
able extent of Indian lands, and the most fertile tracts within the 
territory were still in the hands of the Indians. Almost entirely 
divested of the game from which they had drawn their subsistence, 
it had become of little use to them; and it was the intention of 
the Government to substitute for the precarious and scanty sup- 
plies of the chase the more certain and plentiful support of agri- 
culture and stock-raising. The old habit of the Indians to hunt 
so long as a deer could be found was so inveterate that they would 
not break it and resort to intelligent agriculture unless they were 
compelled to, and to this they would not be compelled unless they 
were confined to a limited extent of territory. The earnest lan- 
guage of the Governor's appeal was like this: "Are then those 
extinguishments of native title which are at once so beneficial to 
the Indian and the territory of the United States, to be suspended on 
account of the intrigues of a few individuals? Is one of the fair- 
est portions of the globe to remain in a state of nature, the hannt 
of a few wretched savages, when it seems destined by the Creator 
to give support to a large population, and to be the seat of civili- 
zation, of science and true religion?" 

In the same message the Governor also urged the establishment 
of a system of popular education. 

Among the acts passed bv this session of the Legislature, one 
authorized the President and Directors of the Vincennes Public 
Library to raise $1,000 by lottery. Also, a petition was sent to 
Congress for a permanent seat of government for the Territory, and 
commissioners were appointed to select the site. 

With the beginning of the year 1811 the British agent for 
Indian affairs adopted measures calculated to secure the support of 
the savages in the war which at this time seemed almost inevitable. 
Meanwhile Gov. Harrison did all in his power to destroy the influ- 
ence of Tecumseh and his brother and break up the Indian confed- 
eracy which was oeing organized in the interests of Great Britain. 
Pioneer settlers and the Indians naturally grew uiore and more 


aggressive and intolerant, committing depredations and murders, 
until the Governor felt compelled to send the following speech, 
substantially, to the two leaders of the Indian tribes: "This is the 
third year that all the white people in this country have been 
alarmed at your proceedings; you threaten us with war; you invite 
all the tribes north and west of you to join against us, while your 
warriors who have lately been here deny this. The tribes on the 
Mississippi have sent me word that you intended to murder me 
and then commence a war upon my people, and your seizing the salt 
I recently sent up the Wabash is also sufficient evidence of such 
intentions on your part. My warriors are preparing themselves, 
not to strike you, but to defend themselves and their women and 
children. You shall not surprise us, as you e.xpect to do. Your 
intended act is a rash one: consider well of it. What can induce 
you to undertake such a thing when there is so little prospect of 
success? Do you really think that the handful of men you have 
about you are able to contend with the seventeen 'fires?' or even 
that the whole of the tribes united could contend against the Ken- 
tucky 'fire' alone? I am myself of the Long 'Knife fire.' As soon 
as they hear my voice you will see tliem pouring forth their swarms 
of hunting-shirt men as numerous as the musquitoes on the shores 
of the Wabash. . Take care of their stings. It is not our wish to 
hurt you; if we did, we certainly have power to do it. 

" You have also insulted the Government of the United States, 
by seizing the salt that was intended for other tribes. Satisfaction 
must be given for that also. You talk of coming to see me, attend- 
ed by all of your young men; but this must not be. If your inten- 
tions are good, you have no need to bring but a few of your young 
men with you. I must be plain with you. I will not suffer you 
to come into our settlements with such a force. My advice is that 
you visit the President of the United States and lay your griev- 
ances before him. 

" With respect to the lands that were purchased last fall I can 
enter into no negotiations with you; the affair is with the Presi- 
dent. If you wish to go and see him, I will supply you with the 

" The person who delivers this is one of my war officers, and is a 
man in whom I have entire confidence; whatever he says to you, 
although it may not be contained in this paper, you may believe 
comes from me. My friend Tecumseh, the bearer is a good man 
and a brave warrior; I hope you will treat him well. You ar? 


yourself a warrior, and all such should have esteem for each other." 

The bearer of this speech was politely received by Tecumseh, 
•who replied to the Governor briefly that he should visit Vincennes 
in a few days. Accordingly he arrived July 27, 1811, bringing 
with him a considerable force of Indians, which created much 
alarm among the inhabitants. In view of an emergency Gov. 
Harrison reviewed his militia — about 750 armed men — and station- 
ed two companies and a detachment of dragoons on the borders of 
the town. At this interview Tecumseh held forth that he intended 
no war against the United States; that he would send messengers 
among the Indians to prevent murders and depredations on the 
white settlements; that the Indians, as well as the whites, who had 
committed murders, ought to be forgiven; that he had set the white 
people an example of forgiveness, which tliey ought to follow; 
that it wag his wish to establish a union among all the Indian 
tribes; that the northern tribes were united; that he was going to 
visit the southern Indians, and then return to the Prophet's town. 
He said also that he would visit the President the next spring and 
settle all difficulties with liim, and that he hoped no attempts would 
be made to make settlements on the lands which had been sold to 
the United States, at the treaty of Fort Wayne, because the Indians 
wanted to keep those grounds for hunting. 

Tecumseh then, with about 20 of his followers, left for the South, 
to induce the tribes in that direction to join his confederacy. 

By the way, a lawsuit was instituted by Gov. Harrison against a 
certain Wm. Mcintosh, for asserting that the plaintiff had cheated 
the Indians out of their lands, and that by so doing he had made 
them enemies to the United States. The defendant was a wealthy 
Scotch resident of Vincennes, well educated, and a man of influence 
/ among the people opposed to Gov. Harrison's land policy. The 
jury rendered a verdict in favor of Harrison, assessing the damages 
at $4,000. In execution of the decree of Court a large quantity of 
the defendant's land was sold in the absence of Gov. Harrison; 
but some time afterward Harrison caused about two-thirds of the 
j land to be restored'to Mr. Mcintosh, and the remainder was given 
to some orphan children. 

Harrison's first movement was to erect a new fort on the Wabash 
river and to break up the assemblage of hostile Indians at the 
Prophet's town. For this purpose he ordered Col. Boyd's regiment 
of infantry to move from the falls of Ohio to Vincennes. When 
the military expedition organized by Gov. Harrison was nearly 


ready to march to the Prophet's town, several Indian chiefs arrived 
at Vincennes Sept. 25, 1811, and declared that the Indians 
would comply with the demands of the Governor and disperse; but 
this did not check the military proceedings. The army under com- 
mand of Harrison moved from Vincennes Sept. 26, and Oct. 3, en- 
countering no opposition from the enemy, encamped at the place 
where Fort Harrison was afterward built, and near where the city 
of Terre Haute now stands. On the night of the 11th a few hos- 
tile Indians approached the encampment and wounded one of the 
sentinels, which caused considerable excitement. The army was 
immediately drawn up in line of battle, and small detachments 
were sent in all directions; but the enemy could not be found. 
Then the Governor sent a message to Prophet's Town, requiring 
the Shawanees, Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos at 
that place to ^eturii to their respective tribes; he also required the 
Prophet to restore all the stolen horses in his ]iossession, or to give 
satisfactory proof that such persons were not there, nor had lately 
been, under his control. To this message the Governor received 
no answer, unless that answer was delivered in the battle of Tip- 

The new fort on the Wabash was finished Oct. 28, and at the re- 
quest of all the subordinate officers it was called "Fort Harrison," 
near what is now Terre Haute. This fort was garrisoned with a 
small number of men under Lieutenant-Colonel Miller. On the 
29th the remainder of the army, consisting of 910 men, moved 
toward the Prophet's town; about 270 of the troops were mounted. 
The regular troops, 250 in number, were under the command of 
Col. Boyd. With this army the Governor marched to within a 
half mile of the Prophet's town, when a conference was opened 
with a distinguished chief, in high esteem with the Prophet, and 
he informed Harrison that the Indians were much surprised at the 
approach of the army, and had already dispatched a message to 
him by another route. Harrison replied that he would not attack 
them until he had satisfied himsdf that they would not comply 
with his demands; that he would continue his encampment on the 
Wabash, and on the following morning would have an interview 
with the prophet. Harrison then resumed his march, and, after 
some difficulty, selected a place to encamp — a spot not very desir- 
able. It was a piece of dry oak land rising about ten feet above 
the marshy prairie in front toward the Indian town, and nearly 
twice that height above a similar prairie in the rear, through which 


and near this bank ran a small stream clotlied with willow and 
brush wood. Toward the left flank this highland widened consid- 
erably, but became gradually narrower in the opposite direction, 
and at the distance of 150 yards terminated in an abrupt point. 
The two columns of infantry occupied the front and lear of this 
ground, about 150 yards from each other on the left, and a little 
more than half that distance on the right, flank. One flank was 
filled by two companies of mounted riflemen, 120 men, under com- 
mand of Major-General Wells, of the Kentucky militia, and one 
by Spencer's company of mounted riflemen, numbering 80 men. 
The front line was composed of one battalion of United States in- 
fantry, under command of Major Floyd, flanked on the right by 
two companies of militia, and on the left by one company. The 
rear line was composed of a battalion of United States troops, 
under command of Capt. Bean, acting as Major, and four companies 
of militia infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel Decker. The regular 
troops of this line joined the mounted riflemen under Gen. Wells, 
on the left flank, and Col. Decker's battalion formed an angle with 
Spencer's company on tlie left. Two troops of dragoons, about 60 
men in all, were encamped in the rear of the left flank, and Capt, 
Parke's troop, which was larger than the other two, in rear of 
the right line. For a night attack the order of encampment was 
the order of battle, and each man slept opposite his post in the 
line. In the formation of the troops single file was adopted, in 
order to get as great an extension of the lin6s as possible. 


No attack was made by the enemy until abou t 4 o'clock on the 
morning of Nov. 7, just after the Governor had arisen. The 
attack was made on the left flank. Only a single gun was fired by the 
sentinels or by the guard in that direction, which made no resist- 
ance, abandoning their posts and fleeing into camp; and the first 
notice which the troops of that line had of the danger was the yell 
of the savages within a short distance of them. But the men 
were courageous and preserved good discipline. Such of them as 
were awake, or easily awakened, seized arms and took their stations; 
others, who were more tardy, had to contend with the enemy in 
the doors of their tents. The storm first fell upon Capt. Barton's 
company of the Fourth United States Regiment, and Capt. Geiger's 
company of mounted riflemen, which formed the left angle of the 
rear line. The fire from the Indians was exceedingly severe, and 


men in these companies sutfered considerably before relief could be 
brought to them. Some few Indians passed into the encampment 
near the angle, and one or two penetrated to some distance before- 
they were killed. All the companies formed for action before they 
were fired on. The morning was dark and cloudy, and the fires or 
the Americans afforded only a partial light, which gave greater 
advantage to the enemy than to the troops, and they were there- 
fore e.xtinguished. 

As soon as the Governor could mount his horse he rode to the 
angle which was attacked, where he found that Barton's company had 
suftered severely, and the left of Geiger's entirely broken. He 
immediately ordered Cook's and Wentworth's companies to marclt 
up to the center of the rear line, where were stationed a small com- 
pany of U. S. ritlemen and the companies of Bean, Snelling and 
Prescott. As the General rode up he found Maj. Daviess forming 
the dragoons in the rear of these companies, and having ascertained 
that the heaviest fire proceeded from some trees 15 or 20 paces in. 
front of these companies, he directed the Major to dislodge them, 
with a part of the dragoons; but unfortunately the Major's gal- 
lantry caused him to undertake the execution of the order with a 
smaller force than was required, which enabled the enemy to avoid 
him in front and attack his flanks. He was mortally wounded and 
his men driven back. Capt. Snelling, however, with his company 
immediately dislodged those Indians. Capt. Spencer and his 1st 
and 2nd Lieutenants were killed, and Capt. Warwick mortally 
wounded. The soldiery remained brave. Spencer had too much 
ground originally, and Harrison re-enforced him with a company 
of riflemen which had been driven from their position on the left 

Gen. Harrison's aim was to keep the lines entire, to prevent the 
enemy from breaking into the camp uutil daylight, which would 
enable him to make a general and effectual charge. With this view 
he had re-enforced every part of the Hue that had suffered much, 
and with the approach of morning he withdrew several companies 
from the front and rear lines and re-enforced the right and left 
flanks, foreseeing that at these points the enemy would make their 
last effort. Maj. Wells, who had commanded the left flank, charged 
upon the enemy and drove them at the point of the bayonet into 
the marsh, where they could not be followed. Meanwhile Capt. 
Cook and Lieut. Larrabee marched their companies to the right 
flank and formed under tire of the enemy, and being there joined 


by the riflemen of that flank, charged upon the enemy, killinir a 
number and putting the rest to a precipitate flight. 

Thus ended the famous battle of Tippecanoe, victoriously to tiie 
whites and honorably to Gen. Harrison. 

In this battle Mr. Harrison had about 700 efiicient men, while 
the Indians had probably more than that. The loss of the Ameri- 
cans was 37 killed and 25 mortally wounded, and 126 wounded: the 
Indians lost 3S killed on the field of battle, and the number of the 
wounded was never known. Amonw the whites killed were Daviess, 
Spencer, Owen, Warwick, Tlandolph, Bean and "White. Standing on 
an eminence near by, the Prophet encouraged his warriors to battle 
by singing a favorite war-song. He told them that they would gain 
an easy victory, and that the bullets of their enemies would be made 
harmless by the Great Spirit. Being informed during the engagement 
that some of the Indians were killed, he said that his warriors must 
fight on and they would soon be victorious. Immediately after 
their defeat the surviving Indians lost faith in their great (?") Proph- 
et, returned to their respective tribes, and thus the confederacy 
was destroyed. The Prophet, with a very few followers, then took 
up his residence among a small band of Wyandots encamped on 
"Wild-Cat creek. His famous town, with all its possessions, was 
destroyed the next day, Nov. 8. 

On the 18th the American army returned to Vincennes, where 
most of the troops were discharged. The Territorial Legislature, 
being in session, adopted resolutions complimentary to Gov. Harri- 
son and the officers and men under him, and made preparations for 
/» reception and celebration. 
^ Capt. Logan, the eloquent Shawanee chief who assisted our 
forces so materially, died in the latter part of November, 1812, 
from the effects of a wound received in a skirmish with a recon- 
noitering party of hostile Indians accompanied by a white man in 
the British service, No7.'^22. luthat skirmish the white man was 
killed, and "Winamac, a Pottawatomie chief of some distinction, 
fell by the rifle of Logan. The latter was mortally wounded, when 
he retreated with two warriors of his tribe, Capt. Johnny and 
Bright-Horn, to the camp of Gen. Winchester, where he soon after- 
•ward died. He was buried witii the honors of war. 


The victory recently gained by tlie Americans at the battle of 
Tippecanoe insured perfect peace for a time, but only a short time 
as the more extensive schemes of the British had so far ripened as 
to compel the United States again to declare war against them. 
Tecuraseh had fled to Maiden, Canada, where, counseled by the 
English, he continued to excite the tribes against the Americans. 
As soon as this war with Great Britain was declared (June 18, 
1812), the Indians, as was expected, commenced again to commit 
depredations. During the summer of 1812 several points along 
the Lake Region succumbed to theBritish, as Detroit, under Gen. 
Hull, Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), commanded by Capt. Heald 
under Gen. Hull, the post at Mackinac, etc. 

In the early part of September, 1812, parties of hostile Indians 
began to assemble in considerable numbers in the vicinity of Forts 
Wayne and Harrison, with a view to reducing them. Capt. Rhea, 
at this time, had command of Fort Wayne, but his drinking pro- 
pensities rather disqualified him for emergencies. For two weeks 
the fort was in great jeopardy. An express had been sent to Gen. 
Harrison for reinforcements, but many days passed without any 
tidings of expected assistance. At length, one day, Maj. Wm. 
Oliver and four friendly Indians arrived at the fort on horseback. 
One of the Indians was the celebrated Logan. They had come in 
defiance of " 500 Indians," had ''broken their ranks" and reached 
the fort in safety. Oliver reported that Harrison was aware of the 
situation and was raising men for a re-enforcement. Ohio was also 
raising volunteers; 800 were then assembled at St. Mary's, Ohio, 
60 miles south of Fort Wayne, and would march to the relief of 
the fort in three or four days, or as soon as they were joined by re- 
enforcements from Kentucky. 

Oliver prepared a letter, announcing to Gen. Harrison his safe ar- 
rival at the besieged fort, and giving an account of its beleaguered 
situation, which he dispatched by his friendly Shawanees, while he 
concluded to take his chances at the fort. Brave Logan and his 
companions started with the message, but had scarcely left the fort 
when they were discovered and pursued by the hostile Indians, yet 
passing the Indian lines in safety, they were soon out of reach. 
The Indians now began a furious attack upon the fort; but the little 
garrison, with Oliver to cheer them on, bravely met the assault, re- 
pelling the attack day after day, until the army approached to their 

relief. During this siege the commanding officer, whose habits of 




intemperance rendered him unlit for the command, was confined in 
the '• black hole," while the junior officer assumed charge. This 
course was approved by the General, on his arrival, but Capt. Rhea 
received very little censure, probably on account of his valuable ser- 
vices in the Revolutionary war. 

Se]it. 6, 1S12, Harrison moved forward with his army to the re- 
lief of Fort Wayne; the next day he reached a point within three 
milesof St. Mary's river; the next day he reached the river and 
was joined at evening by 200 mounted volunteers, under Col. Rich- 
ard M. Johnson; the next day at "Shane's Crossing" on the St. 
Mary's they were joined by 800 men from Ohio, under Cols. Adams 
and Hawkins. At this place Chief Logan and four other Indians 
offered their services as spies to Gen. Harrison, and were accepted. 
Logan was immediately disguised and sent forward. Passing 
through the lines of the hostile Indians, he ascertained their number 
to be about 1,500, and entering the fort, he encouraged the solaiers 
to hold out, as relief was at hand. Gen. Harrison's force at this 
time was about 3,500. 

After an early breakfast Friday morning they were under march- 
ing orders; it had rained and the guns were damp; they were dis- 
charged and reloaded ; but that day only one Indian was encount- 
ered; preparations were made at night for an expected attack by 
the Indians, but no attack came; the next day, Sept. 10, they ex- 
pected to fight their way to Fort Wayne, but in that they were hap- 
pily disappointed ; and " At the first grey of the morning," as Bryce 
eloquently observes, "the distant halloos of the disappointed sav- 
ages revealed to the anxious inmates of the fort the glorious news 
of the approach of the army. Great clouds of dust could be seen 
from the fort, rolling up in the distance, as the valiant soldiery 
under Gen. Harrison moved forward to the rescue of the garrison 
and the brave boys of Kentucky and Ohio." 

This siege of Fort Wayne of course occasioned great loss to the 
few settlers who had gathered around the fort. At the time of its 
commencement quite a little village had clustered around the mili- 
tary works, but during the siege most of their improvements and 
crops were destroyed by the savages. Every building out of the reach 
of the guns of the fort was leveled to the ground, and thus the in- 
ifant settlement was destroyed. 

During this siege the garrison lost but three men, while the 
Indians lost 25. Gen. Harrison had all the Indian villages for 25 
miles around destroyed. Furt Wayne was nothing but a military 
post until about 1S19. 


Simultaneously with the attack on Fort Wa^'ne the Indians also 
besieged Fort Harrison, which was commanded by Zachary Taylor. 
The Indians commenced firing upon the fort about 11 o'clock one 
night, when the garrison was in a ratlier poor plight for receiving 
them. The enemy succeeded in firing one of tiie block-houses, 
which contained whisky, and the whites had great difliculty in pre- 
venting the burning of all the barracks. The word " fire " seemed 
to have thrown all the men into confusion; soldiers' and citizens' 
wives, who had taken shelter within the fort, were crying; Indians 
were yelling; many of the garrison were sick and unable to be on 
duty; the men despaired and gave themselves up as lost; two of 
the strongest and apparently most reliable men jumped the pickets 
in the very midst of the emergency, etc., so that Capt. Taylor was 
at his wit's end what to do; but he gave directions as to the many 
details, rallied the men by a new scheme, and after about seven 
hours succeeded in saving themselves. The Indians drove up the 
horses belonging to the citizens, and as they could not catch th<^m 
very readily, shot the whole of them in the sight of their owners, 
and also killed a number of the hogs belonging to the whites. 
They drove off all of the cattle, 65 in number, as well as the public 

Among many other depredations committed by the savages dur- 
ing this period, was the massacre of the Pigeon Roost settlement, 
consisting of one man, five women and 16 children; a few escaped. 
An unsuccessful effort was made to capture these Indians, but 
when the news of this massacre and the attack on Fort Harrison 
reached Vinceimes, about 1,200 men, under the command of Col. 
Wm. Russell, of the 7th U. S. Infantry, marched forth for the re- 
lief of the fort and to punish the Indians. On reaching the fort 
the Indians had retired from the vicinity; but on the 15th of Sep- 
tember a small detachment composed of 11 men, under Lieut. Rich- 
ardson, and acting as escort of provisions sent from Vincennes to 
Fort Harrison, was attacked by a party of Indians within the pres- 
ent limits of Sullivan count}'. It was reported that seven of these 
men were killed and one wounded. The provisions of course fell 
into the hands of the Indians. 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession 
of the whole Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their sue- 


cesses, penetrated deeper into the settlements, committing great 
depredations. The activity and success of the enemy aroused the 
people to a realization of the great danger their homes and lamilies 
were in. Gov. Edwards collected a force of 350 men at Camp 
Russell, and Capt. Russell came from Vincennes with about 50 more. 
Being officered and equipped, they proceeded about the middle of 
October on horseback, carrying with them 20 day's rations, to 
Peoria. Capt. Craig was sent with two boats up the Illinois, with 
provisions and tools to build a fort. The little army proceeded to 
Peoria Lake, where was located a Pottawatomie village. They 
arrived late at night, within a few miles of the village, without 
their presence being known to the Indians. Four men were sent 
out that night to reconnoiter the position of the village. The four 
brave men who volunteered for this perilous service were Thomas 
Carlin (afterward Governor), and Robert, Stephen and Davis White- 
side. They proceeded to the village, and explored it and the ap- 
proaches to it thoroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking 
the bark of a dog. The low lands between the Indian village and 
the troops were covered with a rank growth of tall grass, so high 
and dense as to readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within 
a few feet of him. The ground had become still more yielding by 
recent rains, rendering it almost impassable by mounted men. To 
prevent detection the soldiers had camped without lighting the 
usual camp-fires. The men lay down in their cold and cheerless 
camp, with many misgivings. They well remembered how the 
skulking savages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during 
the night. To add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier 
was carelessly discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 
Through a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
army took up its line of march for the Indian town, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to surrender, but Judy observed that he '• did not leave home to take 
prisoners," and instantly shot one of them. "With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony " singing the 
death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. Wright, and in a few minutes expired! Many gnna 
were immediately discharged at the other Indian, not then known 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed by her side, the agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterward restored 
to her nation. 


On nearing tlie town a general charge was made, tlie Imlians 
fleeing to the interior wilderness. Some of their warriors made a 
stand, when a sharp engagement occurred, but the Indians were 
routed. In their flight they left behind all their winter's store of 
provisions, which was taken, and their town burned. Some Indian 
children were found who had been left in the hurried flight, also 
some disabled adults, one of whom was in a starving condition, and 
with a voracious appetite partook of the bread given him. He is 
said to have been killed by a cowardly trooper straggling behind, 
after the main army had resumed its retrograde march, who wanted 
to be able to boast that he had killed an Indian. 

September 19, 1812, Gen. Harrison was put in command of the 
Northwestern army, then estimated at 10,000 men, with these 
orders: "Having provided for the protection of the western front- 
ier, you will retake Detroit; and, with a view to the conquest of 
upper Canada, you will penetrate that country as far as the force 
under your command will in your judgment justify." 

Although surrounded by many difficulties, the General began 
immediately to execute these instructions. In calling for volun- 
teers from Kentucky, however, more men offered than could be 
received. At this time there were about 2,000 mounted volunteers 
at Vincennes, under the command of Gen. Samuel Hopkins, of the 
Revolutionary war, who was under instructions to operate against 
the enemy along the Wabash and Illinois rivers. Accordingly, 
early in October, Gen. Hopkins moved from Vincennes towards the 
Kickapoo villages in the Illinois territory, withaljout 2,000 troops; 
but after four or five days' march the men and officers raised a 
mutiny which gradually succeeded in carrying all back to Vin- 
cennes. The cause of their discontent is not apparent. 

About the same time Col. Russell, with two small companies of 
U. S. rangers, commanded by Capts. Perry and Modrell, marched 
from the neighborhood of Vincennes to unite with a small force of 
mounted militia under the command of Gov. Edwards, of Illinois, 
and afterward to march with the united troops from Cahokia 
toward Lake Peoria, for the purpose of co-operating with Gen. 
Hopkins against the Indian towns in that vicinity; but not find- 
ing the latter on the ground, was compelled to retire. 

Immediately after the discharge of the mutinous volunteers, 
Gen. Hopkins began to organize another force, mainly of infantry, 
to reduce the Indians up the Wabash as far as the Proi)het'st(>wn. 
These troops consisted of three regiments of Kentucky militia. 


coininanded by Cols. Barbour, Miller and Wilcox; a small company 
of regulars commanded by Capt. Zacliary Taylor; a com])any of 
rangers commanded by Capt. Beckes; and a company of scouts or 
spies under the command of Capt. Washburn. The main body of 
this army arrived at Fort Harrison Nov. 5; on the 11th it pro- 
ceeded up the east side of the Wabash into the heart of the Indian 
country, but found the villages generally deserted. Winter set- 
ting in severely, and the troops poorly clad, they had to return to 
Yincennes as rapidly as possible. With one exception the men 
behaved nobly, and did much damage to the enemy. That 
exception was the precipitate chase after an Indian by a detach- 
ment of men somewhat in liquor, until they found themselves sur- 
rounded by an overwiielming force of the enem}', and they had to 
retreat in disorder. 

At the close of this campaign Gen. Hopkins resigned his 

In the fall of 1812 Gen. Harrison assigned to Lieut. Col. John 
B. Campbell, of the 19th U. S. Inf., the duty of destroying the 
Miami villages on the Mississinewa river, with a detachment of 
about 600 men. Nov. 25, Lieut. Col. Campbell marched from 
Franklinton, according to orders, toward the scene of action, cau- 
tiously avoiding falling in with the Delawares, who had been ordered 
by Gen. Harrison to retire to the Shawanee establishment on the 
Auglaize river, and arriving on the Mississinewa Dec. 17, when 
they discovered an Indian town inhabited by Delawares and 
Miamis This and three other villages were destroyed. Soon 
after this, the sup])lie8 growing short and the troops in a suffering 
condition, Campbell began to consider the propriety of returning 
to Ohio; but just as he was calling together his officers early one 
morning to deliberate on the proposition, an army of Indians 
rushed upon them with fury. The engagement lasted an hour, 
with a loss of eight killed and 42 wounded, besides about 150 horses 
killed. The whites, however, succeeded in defending themselves 
and taking a number of Indians prisoners, who proved to be Mun- 
sies, of Silver Heel's band. Campbell, hewing that a large force 
of Indians were assembled at Mississinewa village, under Tecum- 
seh, determined to return to Greenville. The privations of his 
troops and the severity of the cold compelled him to send to that 
place for re-enforcements and supplies. Seventeen of the men had 
to be carried on litters. They were met by the re-enforcement 
about 40 miles from Greenville. 


Lieut. Col. Campbell sent two messages to the Delawares, who 
lived on White river and who had been previously directed and 
requested to abandon their towns on that river and remove into 
Ohio. In these messages he expressed his regret at iinfortunately 
killing some of their men, and urged them to move to the Shaw- 
anee settlement on the Auglaize river. lie assured them that their 
people, in his power, would be compensated by the Government 
for their losses, if not found to be hostile ; and the friends of those 
killed satisfied by presents, if such satisfaction would be received. 
This advice was heeded by the main body of the Delawares and a 
few Miarais. The Shawanee Prophet, and some of the principal 
chiefs of the Miamis, retired from the country of the Wabash, and, 
with their destitute and suffering bands, moved to Detroit, where 
the}' were received as the friends and allies of Great Britain. 

On the approach of Gen. Harrison with his army in September, 
1813, the British evacuated Detroit, and the Ottawas, Chippewas, 
Pottawatomies, Miamis and Kickapoos sued for peace with the 
United States, wliich was granted temporarily by Brig. Gen. Mc- 
Arthur, on condition of their becoming allies of the United States 
in case of war. 

In June, 1813, an expedition composed of 137 men, under com- 
mand of Col. Joseph Bartholomew, moved from Valonia toward 
the Delaware towns on the west fork of White rivei", to surprise 
and punish some hostile Indians who were supposed to be lurking 
about those villages. Most of these places they found deserted; 
some of them burnt. They had been but temporarily occupied for 
the purpose of collecting and carrying away corn. Col. Bartholo- 
mew's forces succeeded in killing one or two Indians and destroy- 
ing considerable corn, and they returned to Valonia on the 21st of 
this month. 

July 1, 1813, Col. William Russell, of the 7th U. S., organized 
a force of 573 eflfective men at Valonia and marched to the Indian 
villages about tlie month of the Mississinewa. His experience was 
much like tiiat of Col. Bartholomew, who had just preceded him. 
He had rainy weather, suffered many losses, found tlie villages de- 
serted, destroyed stores of corn, etc. The Colonel reported that he 
went to every ])lace where he expected to find the enemy, but they 
nearly always seemed to have fled the country. The march from 
Valonia to the mouth of the Mississinewa and return was about 
250 miles. 

Several smaller expeditions helped to "checker" the surrounding 


country, and find that the Indians were very careful to keep tbem- 
selves out of sight, and thus closed this series of campaigns. 


The war with England closed on the 24th of December, 1814, 
when a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. The 9th article of 
the treaty required the United States to put an end to hostilities 
with all tribes or nations of Indians with whom they had been at 
war; to restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the rights 
and possessions to which they were entitled in 1811, before the 
war, on condition that such Indians should agree to desist from all 
hostilities against the United States. But in February, just before 
the treaty was sanctioned by our Government, there were signs of 
Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, and a cautionary 
order was therefore issued to have all the white forces in readiness 
for an attack by the Indians ; but the attack was not made. During 
the ensuing summer and fall the United States Government ac- 
quainted the Indians with the provisions of the treaty, and entered 
into subordinate treaties of peace with the principal tribes. 

Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was signed, 
the Shawanee Prophet retired to Canada, but declaring his resolu- 
tion to abide by any treaty which the chiefs might sign. Some 
time afterward he returned to the Shawanee settlement in Ohio, and 
lastly to the west of the Mississippi, where he died, in 1S34. The 
British Government allowed him a pension from 1813 until his 
death, llis brother Tecuraseh was killed at the battle of the 
Thames, Oct. 5, 1813, by a Mr. Wheatty, as we are positively in- 
formed by Mr. A. J. James, now a resident of La Harpe township, 
Hancock county, 111., whose father-in-law, John Pigman, of Co- 
shocton county, Ohio, was an eye witness. Gen. Johnson has gener- 
ally had the credit of killing Tccumsuh. 





If one should inquire who has been the greatest Indian, the most 
noted, the "principal Indian " in North America since its discov- 
ery by Columbus, we would be obliged to answer, Tecumseh. For 
all those qualities which elevate a man far above his race; for talent, 
tact, skill and bravery as a warrior; for high-minded, honorable and 
chivalrous bearing as a man; in a word, for all those elements of 
greatness which place him a long way above his fellows in savage 
life, the name and fame of Tecnmseh will go down to posterity in 
the West as one of the most celebrated of the aborigines of this 
continent, — as one who had no equal among the tribes that dwelt 
in the country drained by the Mississippi. Born to command him- 
self, he used all the appliances that would stimulate the courage 
and nerve the valor of his followers. Always in the front rank of 
battle, his followers blindly followed liis lead, and as his war-cry 
rang clear above tlie din and noise of the battle-field, the Shawnee 
warriors, as they rushed on to victory or the grave, rallied around 
him, foemen worthy of the steel of the most gallant commander 
that ever entered the lists in defense of his altar or his home. 

The tribe to which Tecumseh, or Tecumtha, as some write it, be- 
longed, was the Shawnee, or Shawanee. The tradition of the nation 
held that they originally came from the Gulf of Mexico; that they 
wended their way up the Mississippi and the Ohio, and settled at 
or near the present site of Shawneetown, 111., whence they removed 
to the upper "Wabash. In the latter place, at any rate, they were 
found early in the ISth century, and were known as the " bravest 
of the brave." This tribe has uniformly been the bitter enemy of 
the white man, and in every contest with our people has exhibited 
a degree of skill and strategy tliat should characterize the most 
dangerous foe. 

Tecumseh's notoriety and that of his brother, the Prophet, mutu- 
ally served to establish and strengthen each other. While the 
Prophet had unlimited power, spiritual and temporal, hedistributed 
his greatness in all the departments of Indian life with a kind of 
fanaticism that magnetically aroused the religious and superstitious 

passions, not only of his own followers, but also of all the tribes in 



this part of the country; but Tecuraseh concentrated his greatness 
upon the more practical and business affairs of military conquest. 
It is doubted whether he was really a sincere believer in the preten- 
sions of his fanatic brother; if he did not believe in the pretentious 
feature of them he had the shrewdness to keep his unbelief to him- 
self, knowing that religious fanaticism was one of the strongest im- 
pulses to reckless bravery. 

During his sojourn in the Northwestern Territor}', it was Tecnm- 
seh's uppermost desire of life to confederate all the Indian tribes of 
the country together against the whites, to maintain their choice 
hunting-grounds. All his public policy converged toward this sin- 
gle end. In his vast scheme he comprised even all the Indians in 
the Gulf country, — all in America west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. He held, as a subordinate principle, that the Great Spirit 
had given the Indian race all these hunting-grounds to keep in 
common, and that no Indian or tribe could cede any portion of the 
land to the whites without the consent of all the tribes. Hence, in 
all his councils with the whites he ever maintained that the treaties 
were null and void. 

When he met Harrison at Vincennes in council the last time, 
and, as he was invited by that General to take a seat with him on 
the platform, he hesitated; Harrison insisted, saying that it was the 
"wish of their Great Father, the President of the United States, 
that he should do so." The chief paused a moment, raised his tall 
and commanding form to its greatest height, surveyed the troops 
and crowd around hini, iixed his keen eyes upon Gov. Harrison, 
and then turning them to the sky above, and pointing toward 
heaven with his sinewy arm in a manner indicative of supreme 
contempt for the paternity assigned him, said in clarion tones: " ]My 
father? The sun is my father, the earth is my mother, and on her 
bosom I will recline." He then stretched himself, with his war- 
riors, on the green sward. Tlie effect was electrical, and for some 
moments there was perfect silence. 

The Governor, then, through an interpreter, told him that he un- 
derstood he had some complaints to make and redress to ask, etc., 
and that he wished to investigate the matter and make restitution 
wherever it might be decided it should be done. As soon as the 
Governor was through with this introductory speech, the stately 
warrior arose, tall, athletic, manly, dignified and graceful, and with 
a voice at first low, but distinct and musical, commenced a reply. 
As he warmed up with his subject his clear tones might be heard, 


as if " trumpet-tongiied," to the utmost limits of the assembly. 
The most perfect silence prevailed, e.\cept when his warriors gave 
their guttural assent to some eloquent recital of the red man's 
wrong and the white man's injustice. Tecuniseh recited the wrongs 
which his race had suffered from die ti.iie of the massacre of the 
Moravian Indians to the present; said he did not know how he 
could ever again be the friend of the white man; that the Great 
Spirit had given to the Indian all the land from the Miami to the 
Mississippi, and from the lakes to the Ohio, as a commou property 
to all the tribes in these borders, and that the land could not and 
should not be sold without the consent of all; that all the tribes on 
the continent formed but one nation; that if the United States 
would not give up the lands they had bought of the Miamis and 
the other tribes, those united with him were determined to annihi- 
late those tribes; that they were determined to have no more chiefs, 
but in future to be governed by their warriors; that unless the 
whites ceased their encroachments upon Indian lands, the fate of 
the Indians was sealed; they had been driven from the banks of 
the Delaware across the Alleghanies, and their possessions on the 
Wabash and the Illinois were now to be taken from them; that in 
a few years they would not have ground enough to bury their war 
riors on this side of the "Father of Waters;" that all would perish, 
all their possessions taken from them by fraud or force, unless they 
stopped the progress of the white man westward; that it must be 
a war of races in which one or the other must perish; that their 
tribes had been driven toward the setting sun like a gallojiing 
horse (ne-kat a-kush-e ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The Shawnee language, in which this most eminent Indian states- 
man spoke, excelled all other aboriginal tongues in its musical ar- 
ticulation; and the eifect of Tecumseh's oratory on this ociasion 
can be more easily imagined than described. Gov. Harrison, 
although as brave a soldier and General as any American, was over- 
come by this speech. He well knew Tecumseh's power and influ- 
ence among all the tribes, knew his bravery, courage and determi- 
nation, and knew that he meant what he said. When Tecumseh 
was done speaking there was a stillness throughout the assembly 
which was really jtainful; not a whisper was heard, and all eyes were 
turned from the speaker toward Gov. Harrison, who after a few 
moments came to himself, and recollecting many of the absurd 
statements of the great Indian orator, began a reply which was 
more logical, if not so eloquent. The Shawnees were attentive uu- 


til Harrison's interpreter began to translate bis speech to the Mia- 
mis and Pottawatomies, when Tecumseh and his warriors sprang 
to their feet, brandishing their war-clubs and tomahawks. "Tell 
him," said Tecumseh, addressing the interpreter in Shawnee, " he 
lies." The interpreter undertook to convey this message to the 
Governor in smoother language, but Tecumseh noticed the effort 
and remonstrated, " No, no; tell him belies." The warriors began 
to grow more excited, when Secretary Gibson ordered the Ameri- 
can troops in arras to advance. This allayed the rising storm, and 
as soon as Tecumseh's " He lies " was literally interpreted to the 
Governor, the latter told Tecumseh through the interpreter to tell 
Tecumseh he would hold no further council with him. 

Thus the assembly was broken up, and one can hardly imagine a 
more exciting scene. It would constitute the finest subject for a 
historical painting to adorn the rotunda of the capitol. The next 
day Tecumseh requested another interview with the Governor, 
which was granted on condition that he should make an apology ta 
the Governor for his language the day before. This he made 
through the interpreter. Measures for defense and protection were 
taken, however, lest there should be another outbreak. Two com- 
panies of militia were ordered from the country, and the one in 
town added to them, while the Governor and his friends went into 
council fully armed and prepared for any contingency. On this oc- 
casion the conduct of Tecumseh was entirely different from tliat of 
the day before. Firm and intrepid, showing not the slightest fear 
or alarm, surrounded with a military force four times his own, he 
preserved the utmost composure and equanimity. No one would 
have supposed that he could have been the principal actor in the 
thrilling scene of the previous day. He claimed that half the 
Americans were in sympathy with him. He also said that whites 
had informed him that Gov. Harrison had purchased land from the 
Indians without any authority from the Government; that he, 
Harrison, had but two years more to remain in office, and that if 
he, Tecumseh, could prevail upon the Indians who sold the lands 
not to receive their annuities for that time, and the present Gover- 
nor displaced by a good man as his successor, the latter would re- 
store to the Indians all the lands purchased from them. 

The Wyandots, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Ottawas and the Win- 
nebagoes, through their respective spokesmen, declared their 
adherence to the great Shawnee warrior and statesman. Gov. Harri- 
son then told them that he would send Tecumseh's speech to thePresi- 


dent of the United States and return the answer to tlie Indians as soon 
as it was received. Tecumseh then declared that he and his allies were 
determined that the old boundary line should continue; and that 
if the whites crossed it, it would be at their peril . Gov. Harrison re- 
plied that he would be equally plain with him and state that the 
President would never allow that the lands on the Wabash were the 
property of any other tribes than those who had occupied them 
since the white people first came to America; and as the title to 
the lands lately purchased was derived from those tribes by a fair 
purchase, he might rest assured that the right of the United States 
would be supported by the sword. " So be it," was the stern and 
haughty reply of the Shawnee chieftan, as he and his braves took 
leave of the Governor and wended their way in Indian file to their 
camping ground. 

Thus ended the last conference on earth between the chivalrous 
Tecumseh and the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The bones ot* 
the first lie bleaching on the battle-field of the Thames, and those 
of the last in a mausoleniu on the banks of the Ohio; each strus- 
^led for the mastery of his race, ap<J each no doubt was equally 
honest and patriotic in his purposes. Tlie weak yielded to the 
strong, the defenseless to the powerful, and the hunting-ground of 
the Shawnee is all occupied by his enemy. 

Tecumseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in a 
birch canoe, descended the Wabash, and went on to the South to 
unite the tribes of that country in a general system of self-defense 
against the encroachment of the whites. His emblem was a dis- 
jointed snake, with the motto, "Join or die!" In union alone was 

Before Tecumseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe river, on his excursion to the South, he had a definite 
understanding with his brother and the chieftains of the other tribes 
in the Wabash country, that they should preserve perfect peace 
with the whites until his arrangements were completed for a con- 
federacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio and on the Missis- 
sippi river; but it seems that while he was in the South engaged 
in his work of uniting the tribes of that country some of the North- 
ern tribes showed siijns of fight and precipitated Harrison into that 
cain])aign which ended in the battle of Ti])pecanoe and the total 
route of the Indians. Tecumseh, on his return from the South, 
learning what had happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappoin'- 
ment and anger, and accused his brother of duplicity and coward- 


ice; indeed, it is said that he never furgave him to the day of his 
<leath. A short time afterward, on the breaking out of the war of 
Oreat Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a party of his 
warriors, and finally suffered the fate mentioned on page 108. 


Owing to the absence of Gov. Harrison on military duty, John 
iiibson, the Secretary of the Territory, acted in the administration 
of civil affairs. In his message to the Legislature convening on the 
1st of February, 1813, he said, substantially: 

"Did I possess the abilities of Cicero or Demosthenes, I could 
aiot portray in more glowing colors our foreign and domestic politi- 
<cal situation than it is already experienced within our own breasts. 
The United States have been compelled, by frequent acts of injus- 
tice, to declare war against England. For a detail of the causes of 
this war I would refer to the message of President Madison; it 
<3oes honor to his head and heart. Although not au admirer of 
■war, I am glad to see our little but inimitable navy riding triumph- 
.•anton the seas, but chagrined to find that our armies by land are 
:S0 little successful. The spirit of '76 appears to have fled from i>ur 
.continent, or, if not fleJ, is at least asleep, for it appears not to 
pervade our armies generally. At your last assemblage our politi- 
cal horizon seemed clear, and our infant Territory bid fair for rapid 
;and rising grandeur; but, alas, the scene has changed; and whether 
rthis change, as respects our Territory, has been owing to an over 
:anxi£ty in us to extend our dominions, or to a wish for retaliation 
'(by <miT foes, or to a foreign influence, I shall not say. The Indians, 
»otti' former neighbors and friends, have become our most inveterate 
foes. Our former frontiers are now our wilds, and our inner settle- 
ments have become frontiers. Some of our best citizens, and old 
;men worn down with age, and helpless women and innocent 
(babes, have fallen victims to savage cruelty. I have done my duty well as I can, and hope that the interposition of Providence will 
■protect us." 

The many complaints made about the Territorial Government 
Mr. Gibson said, were caused more by default of officers than of the 
Jaw. Said he: '' It is an old and, I believe, correct adage, that 
'' good officers make good soldiers.' This evil having taken root, I do 
aiot know how it can be eradicated; but it may be remedied. In 
vlace of men searching after and accepting commissions before they 


are even tolerably qualified, thereby subjecting themselves to ridi- 
cule and their country to ruin, barely for the name of the thin<», I 
think may be remedied by a previous examination." 

During this session of the Legislature the seat of the Territorial- 
Government veas declared to be at Corydon, and immediately acting 
Governor Gibson prorogued the Legislature to meet at that place, 
the first Monday of December, 1S13. During this year the Terri- 
tory was almost defenseless; Indian outrages were of common- 
occurrence, but no general outbreak was made. The militia-men 
were armed with rifles and long knives, and many of the rangers- 
carried tomahawks. 

In 1813 Thomas Posey, who was at that time a Senator m Con- 
gress from Tennessee, and who had been officer of the army of the 
Revolution, was appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, to suc- 
ceed Gen. Harrison. He arrived in Vinceniies ai'd entered upon 
the discharge of his duties May 25, 1813. During this year several 
expeditions against the Indian settlements were set on foot. 

In his first message to the Legislature the following December, 
at Corydon, Gov. Posey said: " The present crisis is awful, andJbig. 
with great events. Our land and nation is involved in the coramoit 
calamity of war; but we are under the protecting care of the beaefi- 
cent Being, who has on a former occasion brought us safely tbroaglr 
an arduous struggle and placed us on a foundation of independence, 
freedom and happiness. He will not sufter to be taken from us:- 
what He, in His great wisdom has thought proper to confer ancJ 
bless us with, if we make a wise and virtuous use of His good 
gifts. * * * Although our affairs, at the commencement of 
the war, wore a gloomy aspect, they have brightened, and promise 
a certainty of success, if properly directed and conducted, of v/liicli 
I have no doubt, as the President and heads of departments of the ■ 
general Government are men of undoubted patriotism, talents and 
experience, and who have grown old in the service of their country. 
* * * It must be obvious to every thinking man that we were 
forced into the war. Every measure consistent with honor,, both 
before and since the declaration of war, has tried to be on amicable 
terms with our enemy. * * * You who reside in variona parts 
of the Territory have it in 3'our power to understand what will tend 
to its local and general advantage. The judiciary system wonld 
require a revisal and amendment. The militia law is very defective 
and requires your immediate attention. It is necessary to lutve- 


good roads and liighwajs in as many directions through the Terri- 
tory as the circumstances and situation of the inhabitants will 
admit; it would contribute very much to promote the settlement 
and improvement of the Territory. Attention to education is highly 
necessary. Tliere is an appropriation made by Congress, in lands, 
for tiio purpose of establishing public schools. It comes now with- 
in your province to carry into operation the design of the appro- 

Tiiis Legislature passed several ver}- necessary laws for the wel- 
fare of the settlements, and the following year, as Gen. Harrison 
was generally successful in his military campaigns in the North- 
west, the settlements in Indiana began to increase and improve. 
The fear of danger from Indians had in a great measure subsided, 
and the tide of immigration began again to flow. In January, 
1S14-, about a thousand Miamis assembled at Fort Wayne for the 
purpose of obtaining food to prevent starvation. They met with 
ample hospitality, and their example was speedily followed by 
others. These, with other acts of kindness, won the lasting friend- 
ship of the Indians, many of whom had fought in the interests of 
Great Britain. General treaties i)etween the United States and the 
Northwestern tribes were subsequently concluded, and the way 
was fully opened for the iniprovornent and settlement of the lands. 


The population of the Territory of Indiana, as given in the 
official returns to the Legislature of 1815, was as follows, by 

COUNTI ES. While males of 21 and over. TOTAL. 

Wavnc 1,225 '. C,407 

Fraaklia 1,430 7,370 

Dearborn i)02 4,431 

Switzcrlami 377 1,832 

.Jefferson-- 874 4,270 

Cl;irk 1,387 7.1.50 

Washington 1,420 7,317 

Harrison 1,050 6,!»75 

Knox 1,391 8,068 

Gibson 1,100 5,3.iO 

Posey 320 1,619 

Warrick 280 1,41.-) 

Perry 350...'. 1,720 

Grand Totals 12,112 63,897 


The well-known ordinance of 1787 conferred man}- " rights and 
privileges " upon the inhabitants of the Northwestern Territory, and 


consequently upon the people of Indiana Territory, bat after all it 
came far short of conferring as many privileges as are enjoyed at 
the present day by our Territories. They did not have a full form 
of Republican government. A freehold estate in 500 acres of land 
was one of the necessary qualifications of each member of the legis- 
lative council of the Terri tor}'; every member of the Territorial House 
of Representatives was required to hold, in his own riglit, 200 acres 
of land; and the privilege of voting for members of the House 
of Representatives was restricted to those inliabitants who, in addi- 
tion to other qualifications, owned severally at least 50 acres of 
land. The Governor of the the Territory was invested with the 
power of appointing officers of the Territorial militia, Judges of the 
inferior Courts, Clerks of the Courts, Justices of the Peace, Sheriffs. 
Coroners, County Treasurers and County Surveyors. He was also 
authorized to divide the Territory into districts; to apportion 
among tiie several counties tlie members of the House of Represent- 
atives; to prevent the passage of any Territorial law; and to con- 
vene and dissolve the General Assembly whenever he thought best. 
None of the Governors, however, ever exercised these extraordinary 
powers arbitrarily. Nevertheless, the people were constantly agi- 
tating the question of extending the right of suffrage. Five years 
after the organization of the Territory, the Legislative Council, in 
reply to the Governor's Message, said: "Although we are not as 
completely independent in our legislative capacity as we would 
wish to be, yet we are sensible that we must wait with patience for 
that period of time when our population will burst the trammels 
of a Territorial government, and we shall assume the character more 
consonant to Republicanism. * * * The confidence which our 
fellow citizens have uniformly had in your administration has been 
such that they have hitherto had no reason to be jealous of the un- 
limited power which you possess over our legislative proceedings. 
We, however, cannot help regretting that such powers have 
been lodged in the hands of any one, especially when it is recol- 
lected to what dangerous lengths tlie exercise of those powers may 
be extended." 

After repeated petitions the people of Indiana were empowered 
by Congress to elect the members of the Legislative Council by popu- 
lar vote. Tliis act was passed in 1809, and defined what was known 
as the property qualification of voters. These qualifications were 
abolished by Congress in 1811, which extended the riglit of voting 
for members of the General Assembly and for a Territorial delegate 


to Congress to every free white male person who had attained the 
age of twenty -one years, and who, having paid a county or Terri- 
torial tax, was a resident of the Territory and had resided in it for 
a year. In 1814 the voting qualification in Indiana was defined by 
Congress, " to every tree white male person having a freehold in 
the Territory, and being a resident of the same." The House of 
Kepresentatives was authorized by Congress to lay off the Territory 
into five districts, in each of which the qualified voters were em- 
powered to elect a member of the Legislative Council. The division 
was made, one to two counties in each district. 

At the session in August, 1814, the Territory was also divided 
into three judicial circuits, and provisions were made for holding 
courts in the same. The Governor was empowered to appoint a 
presiding Judge in each circuit, and two Associate Judges of the 
circuit court in each county. Their compensation was fixed at 
$700 per annum. 

The same year the General Assembly granted charters to two 
banking institutions, the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Madi- 
son and the Bank of Vincennes. The first was authorized to raise 
a capital of $750,000, and the other $500,000. On the organization 
of the State these banks were merged into the State Bank and ita 

Here we close the history of the Territory of Indiana. 


The last regular session of the Territorial Legislature was held at 
Corydon, convening in December, 1815. The message of Governor 
Posey congratulated the people of the Territory upon the general 
success of the settlements and the great increase of immigration, 
recommended light taxes and a careful attention to the promotion 
of education and the improvement of the State roads and highways. 
He also recommended a revision of the territorial laws and an 
amendment of the militia system. Several laws were passed pre- 
paratory to a State Government, and December 14, 1815, a me- 
morial to Congress was adopted praying for the authority to adopt 
a constitution and State Government. Mr. Jenning8,the Territorial 
delegate, laid this memorial before Congress on the 28th, and April 
19, 1816, the President approved the bill creating the State of In- 
diana. Accordingly, May 30 following, a general election was held 
for a constitutional convention, which met at Corydon June 10 to 
29, Johathan Jennings presiding and Wm. Hendricks acting as 

" The convention that formed the first constitution of the State 
of Indiana was composed mainly of clear-minded, unpretending 
men of common sense, whose patriotism was unquestionable and 
whose morals were fair. Their familiarity with the theories of the 
Declaration of American Independence, their Territorial experience 
under the provisions of the ordinance of 1787, and their knowledge of 
the principles of the constitution of the United States were sufficient, 
when combined, to lighten materially their labors in the great work 
of forming a constitution for a new State. With such landmarks 
in view, the labors of similar conventions in other States and Ter- 
ritories have been rendered comparatively light. In the clearness 
and conciseness of its style, in the comprehensive and just pro- 
visions which it made for the maintainance of civil and religious 
liberty, in its mandates, which were designed to protect the rights 
of the people collectively and individually, and to provide for the 
public welfare, the constitution that was formed for Indiana in 1816 
was not inferior to any of the State constitutions whicii were in ex- 
istence at that time." — Dillon'' x History of Indiana. 


The first State election took place on the first Monday of August, 
1816, and Jonathan Jennings was elected Governor, and Christo- 
pher Harrison, Lieut. Governor. Wm. Hendricks was elected to 
represent the new State in the House of Representatives of the 
United States. 

The first General Assemblj elected under the new constitution 
began its session at Corydon, Nov. 4, 1816. John Paul was called 
to the chair of the Senate pro tem., and Isaac Blackford was elected 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Among other things in the new Governor's message were the 
following remarks: " The result of your deliberation will be con- 
sidered as indicative of its future character as well as of the future 
happiness and prosperity of its citizens. In the commencement 
of the State government the shackles of the colonial should be for- 
gotten in our exertions to prove, by happy experience, that a uni- 
form adherence to the first principles of our Government and a 
virtuous exercise of its powers will best secure eflSciency to its 
measures and stability to its character. Without a frequent recur- 
rence to those principles, the administration of the Government 
will imperceptibly become more and more arduous, until the sim- 
plicity of our Republican institutions may eventually be lost in 
dangerous exjjedients and political design. Under every free gov- 
ernment the happiness of the citizens must be identified with their 
morals; and while a constitutional exercise of their rights shall 
continue to have its due weight in discharge of the duties required 
of the constituted authorities of the State, too much attention can- 
not be bestowed to the encouragement and promotion of every 
moral virtue, and to the enactment of laws calculated to restrain 
the vicious, and prescribe punishment for every crime commensu- 
rate with its enormity. In measuring, however, to each crime its 
adequate punishment, it will be well to recollect that the certainty 
of punishment has generally the surest effect to prevent crime; 
while punishments unnecessarily severe too often produce the ac- 
quittal of the guilty and disappoint one of the greatest objects of 
legislation and good goverument « * * The dissemination of 
useful knowledge will be indispensably necessary as a support to 
morals and as a restraint to vice; and on this subject it will only 
be necessary to direct your attention to the plan of education as 
prescribed by the constitution. * * * j recommend to your 
consideration the propriety of providing by law, to prevent more 
effectually any unlawful attempts to seize and carry into bondage 

01'i.M.\u A.N 1.NU1A>.\ FOUKST. 


persons of color legally entitled to their freedom; and at the same 
time, as far as practicable, to prevent those who rightfully owe ser- 
vice to the citizens of any other State or Territory from seeking 
within the limits of this State a refuge from the possession of their 
lawful owners. Such a measure will tend to secure those who are 
free from any unlawful attempts (to enslave them) and secures the 
rights of the citizens of the other States and Territories as far as 
ought reasonably to be expected." 

This session of the Legislature elected James Noble and Waller 
Taylor to the Senate of the United States; Robert A. New was 
elected Secretary of State; W. H. Lilley, Auditor of State; and 
Daniel C. Lane, Treasurer of State. The session adjourned Janu- 
ary 3, 1817. 

As the history of the State of Indiana from this time forward is 
best given by topics, we will proceed to give them in the chronolog- 
ical order of their origin. 

The happy close of the war with Great Britain in 1814 was fol- 
lowed by a great rush of immigrants to the great Territory of the 
Northwest, including the new States, all now recently cleared of 
the enemy; and by 1820 the State of Indiana had more than 
doubled her population, having at this time 147,178, and by 1825 
nearly doubled this again, that is to say, a round quarter of a mil- 
lion,^ — a growth more rapid probably than that of any other section 
in this country since the days of Columbus. 

The period lS25-'30 was a prosperous time for the young State. 
Immigration continued to be rapid, the crops were generally good 
and the hopes of the people raised higher than they had ever been 
before. Accompanying this immigration, however, were paupers 
and indolent people, who threatened to be so numerous as to 
become a serious burden. On this subject Governor Ray called for 
legislative action, bnt the Legislature scarcely knew what to do 
and they deferred action. 


In 1830 there still lingered within the bounds of the State two 
tribes of Indians, whose growing indolence, intemperate habits, 
dependence upon their neighbors for the bread of life, diminished 
prospects of living by the chase, continued perpetration of murders, 
and other outrages of dangerous precedent, primitive igno- 
rance and unrestrained exhibitions of savage customs before the 
children of the settlers, combined to make them subjects for a more 
rigid government. The removal of the Indians west of tiie Missis- 
sippi was a melancholy but necessary duty, ^he time having- 
arrived for the emigration of the Pottawatomies, according to the 
stipulations contained in their treaty with the United States, they 
evinced that reluctance common among aboriginal tribes on leav- 
ing the homes of their childhood and the graves of their ancestors. 
Love of country is a principle planted in the bosoms of all man- 
kind. The Laplander and the Esquimaux of the frozen north» 
who feed on seals, moose and the meat of thepolar bear, would not 
exchange their country for the sunny clime of "Araby the blest.'* 
Color and shades of complexion have nothing to do with the 
heart's best, warmest emotions. Then we should not wonder that the 
Pottawatomie, on leaving his home on the Wabash, felt as sad as 
-iEschines did when ostracised from his native land, laved bv the 
waters of the classic Scamander; and the noble and eloquent Nas- 
waw-kay, on leaving the encampment on Crooked creek, felt his, 
banishment as keenly as Cicero when thrust from the bosom of hie. 
beloved Rome, for which he had spent the best efforts of his life,, 
and for which he died. 

On Sunday morning. May 18, 1832, the people on the west side 

of the Wabash were thrown into a state of great consternation, on 

account of a report that a large body of hostile Indians had 

approached within 15 miles of Lafayette and killed two men. The 

alarm soon spread tliroughout Tippecanoe, Warren, Vermillion, 

Fountain, Montgomery, and adjoining counties. Several brave 

commandants of companies on the west side of the Wabash in 

Tippecanoe county, raised troops to go and meet the enemy, and 

dispatched an express to Gen. Walker with a request that he should 



make a call upon the militia of the county to equip themselves 
instantly and march to the aid of their bleeding countrymen. 
Thereupon Gen. Walker, Col. Davis, Lieut-Col. Jenners, Capt. 
Brown, of the artillery, and various other gallant spirits mounted 
their war steeds and proceeded to the army, and thence upon a 
scout to the Grand Prairie to discover, if possible, the number, 
intention and situation of the Indians. Over 300 old men, women 
and children flocked precipitately to Lafayette and the surrounding 
country east of the Wabash. A remarkable event occurred in this 
stampede, as follows: 

A man, wife and seven children resided on the edge of the 
Grand Prairie, west of Lafayette, in a locality considered particu- 
larly dangerous. On hearing of this alarm he made hurried 
preparations to fly with his family to Lafayette for safety. Lnag- 
ine his surprise and chagrin when his wife told him she would not 
go one step; that she did not believe in being scared at trifles, and 
in her opinion there was not an Indian within 100 miles of them. 
Importunity proved unavailing, and the disconsolate and frightened 
husband and father took all the children except the youngest, bade 
his wife and babe a long and solemn farewell, never expecting to 
see them again, unless perhaps he might find their mangled re- 
mains, minus their scalps. On arriving at Lafayette, his acquaint- 
ances rallied and berated him for abandoning his wife and child in 
that way, but he met their jibes with a stoical indifference, avowing 
that he should not be held responsible for their obstinacy. 

As the shades of the first evening drew on, the wife felt lonely; 
and the chirping of the frogs and the notes of the whippoorwill only 
intensified her loneliness, until she half wished she had accom- 
panied the rest of the family in their flight. She remained in the 
house a .ew hours without striking a light, and then concluded 
that '* discretion was the better part of valor," took her babe and 
some bed-clothes, fastened the cabin door, and hastened to a sink- 
hole in the woods, in which she afterward said that she and her 
babe slept soundly until sunrise next morning. 

Lafayette literally boiled over with people and patriotism. A 
meeting was held at the court-house, speeches were made by 
patriotic individuals, and to allay the fears of the women an armed 
police was immediately ordered, to be called the " Lafayette Guards." 
Thos. T. Benbridge was elected Captain, and John Cox, Lieutenant. 
Capt. Benbridge yielded the active drill of his guards to the 
Lieutenant, who had served two years in the war of 1812. After 


the meeting adjourned, the guards were paraded on the green 
wliere Purdue's block now stands, and put through sundry evohi- 
tions by Lieut. Cox, who proved to be an expert drill officer, and 
whose clear, shrill voice rung out on the night air as he marched 
and counter- marched the troops from where the paper-mill stands 
to Main street ferry, and over the suburbs, generallj'. Every old 
gun and sword tliat could be found was brought into requisition, 
with a new shine on them. 

Gen. Walker, Colonels Davis and Jenners, and other officers 
joined in a call of the people of Tippecanoe county for volunteers to 
inarch to the frontier settlements. A large meeting of the citizens 
assembled in the public square in the town, and over 300 volunteers 
mostly mounted men, left for the scene of action, with an alacrity 
that would have done credit to veterans. 

The first night they camped nine miles west of Lafayette, near 
Grand Prairie. They placed sentinels for the night and retired to 
rest. A few of the subaltern officers very injudiciously concluded 
to try what effect a false alarm would have upon the sleeping sol- 
diers, and a few of theia withdrew to a neighboring thicket, and 
thence made a charge upon the picket guards, who , after hailing 
them and receiving no countersign, fired off their guns and ran for 
the Colonel's marquee in the center of the encampment. The aroused 
Colonels and staff sprang to their feet, shouting "To arms! to arms!" 
and the obedient, though panic-stricken soldiers seized their guns 
and demanded to be led against the invading foe. A wild scene of 
disorder ensued, and amid the din of arms and loud commands of 
the officers the raw militia felt that they had already got into the 
red jaws of battle. One of the alarm sentinels, in running to the 
center of the encampment, leaped over a blazing camp fire, and 
alighted full upon the breast and stomach of a sleeping lawyer, who 
was, no doubt, at that moment dreaming of vested and contingent 
remainders, rich clients and good fees, which in legal parlance was 
suddenly estopped by the hob-nails in the stogas of the scared 
sentinel. As soon as the counselor's vitality and consciousness 
sufficiently returned, ho put in some strong demurrers to the con- 
duct of the affrighted picket men, averring that he would greatly 
prefer being wounded by the enemy to being run over by a cowardly 
booby. Next morning the organizers of the ruse were severely 

May 28, 1832, Governor Noble ordered General Walker to call 
out liis whole command, if necessary, and supply arms, horses and 


provisions, even though it be necessary to seize tliem. The next 
day four baggage wagons, loaded with camp equipments, stores, 
provisions and other articles, were sent to the little army, who were 
thus provided for a campaign of five or six weeks. The following 
Thursday a squad of cavalry, under Coloudl Sigler, passed through 
Lafayette on the way to the hostile region ; and on the 13th of June 
Colonel Russell, commandant of the iOth Regiment, Indiana Militia, 
passed through Lafayette with 340 mounted volunteers from the 
counties of Marion, Hendricks and Johnson. Also, several com- 
panies of volunteers from Montgomery, Fountain and Warren 
counties, hastened to the relief of the frontier settlers. The troops 
from Lafayette marched to Sugar creek, and after a short time, 
there being no probability of finding any of the enemy, were 
ordered to return, Tliey all did so except about 4.5 horsemen, who 
volunteered to cross Hickory creek, where the Indians had com- 
mitted their depredations. They organized a company by electing 
Samuel McGeorge, a soldier of the war of 1812, Captain, and Amos 
Allen and Andrew W. Ingraliam, Lieutenants. 

Crossing Hickory creek, they marched as far as O'Plein river 
without meeting with opposition. Finding no enemy here they 
concluded to return. On the first night of their march home they 
encamped on the open prairie, posting sentinels, as usual. About 
ten o'clock it began to rain, and it was with diflBculty that the sen- 
tinels kept their guns dry. Capt. I. H. Cox and a man named Fox 
had been posted as sentinels within 1.5 or 20 paces of each other. 
Cox drew the skirt of his overcoat over his gun-lock to keep it dry; 
Fox, perceiving this motion, and in the darkness taking him for an 
Indian, fired upon him and fractured his thigh-bone. Several sol- 
diers immediately ran toward the place where the flash of the gun 
bad been seen ; but when they cocked and leveled their guns on the 
figure which had fired at Cox, the wounded man caused them to 
desist by crying, " Don't shoot him, it was a sentinel who shot me." 
The next day the wounded man was left behind the company in 
caie of four men, who, as soon as possible, removed him on a litter 
to Col. Moore's company of Illinois militia, then encamped on the 
O'Plein, where Joliet now stands. 

Although the main body returned to Lafayette in eight or nine 
days, yet the alarm among the people was so great that they could 
not be induced to return to their farms for some time. The pres- 
ence of the hostiles was hourly expected by the frontier settlements 
of Indiana, from Vincennes to La Porte. In Clinton county the 


inhabitants gathered within the forts and prepared for a regular 
siege, while our neighbors at Crawfordsville were suddenly 
astounded by the arrival of a courier at full speed with the announce- 
ment that the Indians, more than a thousand in number, were then 
crossing the Nine-Mile prairie about twelve miles north of town, 
killing and scalping all. The strongest houses were immediately 
put in a condition of defense, and sentinels were placed at the prin- 
cipal points in the direction of the enemy. Scouts were sent out to 
reconnoitre, and messengers were dispatched in different directions 
to announce the danger to the farmers, and to urge them to hasten 
with their families into town, and to assist in fighting the moment- 
arily expected savages. At night-fall the scouts brought in the 
news that the Indians had not crossed the Wabash, but were hourly 
expected at Lafayette. The citizens of Warren, Fountain and Ver- 
million counties were alike terrified by exaggerated stories of Indian 
massacres, and immediately prepared for defense. It turned out 
that the Indians were not within 100 miles of these temporary 
forts; but this by no means proved a want of courage in the citizens. 

After some time had elapsed, a portion of the troops were 
marched back into Tippecanoe county and honorably discharged ; 
but the settlers were still loth for a long time to return to their 
farms. Assured by published reports that the Miamis and Potta- 
watomies did not intend to join the hostiles, the people by degrees 
recovered from the panic and began to attend to their neglected 

During this time there was actual war in Illinois. Black Hawk 
and his warriors, well nigh surrounded by a well-disciplined foe, 
attempted to cross to the west bank of the Mississippi, but after 
being chased up into Wisconsin and to the Mississippi again, he 
was in a final battle taken captive. A few years after his liberation, 
about 1837 or 1838, he died, on the banks of the Des Moines river, 
in Iowa, in what is now the county of Davis, where his remains 
were deposited above ground, in the usual Indian style. His re- 
mains were afterward stolen and carried away, but they were re- 
covered by the Governor of Iowa and placed in the museum of the 
Historical Society at Burlington, where they were finally destroyed 
by fire. 


In July, 1837, Col. Abel C. Pepper convened the Pottawatomie 
nation of Indians at Lake Ke-waw-nay for the purpose of remov- 
ing them west of the Mississippi. That fall a small party of some 
80 or 90 Pottawatomies was conducted west of the Mississippi 
river by George Prolfit, Esq. Among the number were Ke-waw- 
nay, Nebash, Nas-waw-kay, Pash-po-ho and many other leading 
men of the nation. The regular emigration of these poor Indians, 
about 1,000 in number, took place under Col. Pepper and Gen. Tip- 
ton in the summer of 1838. 

It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of 
the forest slowly retiring from the home of their childhood, that 
contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also 
many endearing scenes to which their memories would ever recur 
as sunny spots along their pathway through the wilderness. They 
felt that they were bidding farewell to the hills, valleys and streams 
of their infancy; the more exciting hunting-grounds of their ad- 
vanced youth, as well as the stern and bloody battle-fields where 
they had contended in riper manhood, on which they had received 
wounds, and where many of their friends and loved relatives had 
fallen covered with gore and with glory. All these they were leav- 
ing behind them, to be desecrated by the plowshare of the white 
man. As they cast mournful glances back toward these loved 
scenes that were rapidly fading in the distance, tears fell from the 
cheek of the downcast warrior, old men trembled, matrons wept, 
the swarthy maiden's cheek turned pale, and sighs and half-sup- 
pressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as tiiey passed along, 
some on foot, some on horseback, and others in wagons, — sad as a 
funeral procession. Several of the aged warriors were seen to cast 
glances toward the sky, as if they were imploring aid from the 
spirits of their departed heroes, who were looking down upon them 
from tlie clouds, or from the Great Sjjirit, who would ultimately 
redress the wrongs of the red man, whose broken bow had fallen 
from his hand, and whose sad heart was bleeding within him. 
Ever and anon one of the party would start out into the brush and 
break back to their old encampmetitson Eel river and on the Tippe- 



canoe, declaring that they would rather die than be banished frcnn 
their country. Thus, scores of discontented emigrants returned 
from different points on their journey; and it was several years 
before they conld be induced to join their .countrymen west of the 
Mississippi. / 

Several years after the removal of the Pottawatomies the Miami 
nation was removed to their Western home, by coercive means, un- 
der an escort of United States troops. They were a proud and 
once powerful nation, but at the time of their removal were far 
inferior, in point of numbers, to the Pottawatomie guests whom 
they had permitted to settle and hunt upon their lands, and fish iti 
iheir lakes and rivers after they had been driven southward by 
powerful and warlike tribes who inhabited the shores of the North- 
ern lakes. 


In 1831 a joint resolution of the Legislature of Indiana, request- 
ing an appropriation by Congress for the extinguishment of tiic 
Indian title to lands within tlie State, was forwarded to that bodyi 
^which granted the request. The Secretary of "War, by authority, 
appointed a committee of three citizens to carry into effect the pro- 
visions of the recent law. The Miamis were surrounded on all 
sides by American settlers, and were situated almost in the heart 
of the State on the line of the canal then being made. The chiefs 
-<were called to a council for the purpose of making a treaty; they 
promptly came, but peremptorily refused to go westward or sell 
ithe remainder of their land. The Pottawatomies sold about 
{6,000,000 acres in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, including all 
vthfcir claim in this State. y 

In 1838 a treaty was concluded with the Miami Indians through 
the good offices of Col. A. C. Pepper, the Indian agent, by which 
A considerable of the most desirable portion of their reserve was 
iceded to the United States. 


As an example of the manner in which land speculators were 
treated by the early Lidianians, we cite the following instances 
from Cox's " Kecollections of the Wabash Valley." 

At Crawfordsville, Dec. 24, 1824, many parties were present 
from the eastern and southern portions of the State, as well as from 
Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and even Pennsylvania, to attend a 
land sale. There was but little bidding against each other. The 
settlers, or " squatters," as they were called by the speculators, had 
arranged matters among themselves to their general satisfaction. 
If, upon comparing numbers, it appeared that two were after the 
same tract of land, one would ask the other what he would take 
not to bid against him; if neither would consent to be bought off 
they would retire and cast lots, and the lucky one would enter the 
tract at Congress price, $1.25 an acre, and the other would enter the 
second choice on his list. If a speculator made a bid, or showed a 
disposition to take a settler's claim from him, he soon saw the 
white of a score of eyes glaring at him, and he would "crawfish'* 
out of the crowd at the first opportunity. 

The settlers made it definitely known to foreign capitalists that 
they would enter the tracts of land they had settled upon before 
allowing the latter to come in with their speculations. The land' 
was sold in tiers of townships, beginning at the southern part of 
the district and continuing north until all had been offered at 
public sale. This plan was persisted in, although it kept many on 
the ground for several days waiting, who desired to purchase land 
in the uurtliern part of the district. 

In 1827 a regular Indian scare was gotten up to keep specu- 
lators away for a short time. A man who owned a claim on Tippe- 
canoe river, near Pretty prairie, fearing that some one of the 
numerous land hunters constantly scouring the country might 
enter the laud he had settled upon before he could raise the money 
to buy it, and seeing one day a cavalcade of land hunters riding 
toward where his land lay, mounted his horse and darted off at 
full speed to meet them, swinging his hat and shouting at the top 

of his voice, " Indians! Indians! the woods are full of Indians, 



murdering and scalping all before them!" Thev paused a moment, 
but as the terrified horseman still urged his jaded animal and cried, 
"Help! Longlois, Cicots, help!" they turned and fled like a troop of 
retreating cavalrj', hastening to the thickest settlements and giving 
the alarm, which spread like fire among stubble until the whole 
frontier region was shocked with the startling cry. The squatter 
who fabricated the story and started this false alarm took a cir- 
cuitous route home that evening, and while others were busy 
building temporary block-houses and rubbing up their guns to 
meet the Indians, he was quietly gathering up money and slipped 
down to Crawfordsville and entered his land, chuckling to himself, 
"There's a Yankee trick for you, done up by a Hoosier." 


In 1814 a society of Germans under Frederick Rappe, who had 
originally come from Wirtemberg, Germany, and more recently 
from Pennsylvania, founded a settlement on the Wabash about 50 
miles above its mouth. They were industrious, frugal and honest 
Lutherans. They purchased a large quantity of land and laid otf 
a town, to which the^' gave the name of "Harmony," afterward 
called "New Harmony." They erected a church and a public 
school-house, opened farms, planted orchards and vineyards, built 
flouring mills, established a house of public entertainment, a public 
store, and carried on all the arts of peace with skill and regularity. 
Their property was " in common," according to the custom of an- 
cient Christians at Jerusalem, but the governing power, both tem- 
poral and spiritual, was vested in Frederick Rappe, the elder, who 
was regarded as the founder of the society. By the 3-ear 1S21 the 
society numbered about 900. Every individual of proper age con- 
tributed his proper share of labor. There were neither spendthrifts, 
idlers nor drunkards, and during the whole 17 years of their sojourn 
in America there was not a single lawsuit among them. Every 
controversy arising among them was settled by arbitration, expla- 
nation and compromise before sunset of the day, literally according 
to the injunction of the apostle of the New Testament. 

About 1825 the town of Harmony and a considerable quantity 
of land adjoining was sold to Robert Owen, father of David Dale 
Owen, the State Geologist, and of Robert Dale Owen, of later 
notoriet}'. He was a radical philosopher from Scotland, who had 
become distinguished for his philanthropy and opposition to 


Christianity. He charged the latter with teaching false notions 
regarding human responsihility — notions which have since been 
clothed in the language of physiology, mental philosophy, etc. 
Said lie: 

" That which has hitherto been called wickedness in our fellow 
men has proceeded from one of two distinct causes, or from some 
combination of those causes. They are what are termed bad or 

•' 1. Because they are I)orn with faculties or propensities which 
render them more liable, under the same circumstances, than other 
men, to commit such actions as are usually denominated wicked; 

" 2. Because they have been placed by birth or other events in 
particular countries, — have been influenced from infancy by par- 
ents, pla3'raates and others, and have been surrounded by those 
circumstances which gradually and necessarily trained them in the 
habits and sentiments called wicked; or, 

" 3. They have become wicked in consequence of some particu- 
lar combination of these causes. 

" If it should be asked. Whence then has wickedness pro- 
ceeded? I reply. Solely from the ignorance of our forefathers. 

" Every society which exists at present, as well as every society 
which history records, has been formed and governed on a belief 
in the following notions, assumed as first principles: 

*' 1. That it is in the power of every individual to form his own 
character. Hence the various systems called by the name of religion, 
codes of law, and punishments; hence, also, the angry passions 
entertained by individuals and nations toward each other. 

" 2. That the aflections are at the command of the individual. 
Hence insincerit}' and degradation of character; hence the miseries 
of domestic life, and more than one-half of all the crimes of man- 

" 3. That it is necessary a large portion of mankind should ex- 
ist in ignorance and poverty in order to secure to the remaining part 
such a degree of happiness as they now enjoy. Hence a system of 
counteraction in the pursuits of men, a general opposition among 
individuals to the interests of each other, and the necessary effects 
of such a system, — ignorance, poverty and vice. 


During the administration of Gov. Whitcomb the war with 
Mexico occurred, which resulted in annexing to the United States 
vast tracts of land in the south and west. Indiana contributed her 
full ratio to the troops in that war, and with a remarkable spirit of 
promptness and patriotism adopted all measures to sustain the gen- 
eral Government. These new acquisitions of territory re-opened 
the discussion of the slavery question, and Governor Whitcomb 
expressed his opposition to a further extension of the " national 

The causes which led to a declaration of war against Mexico in 
1846, must be sought for as far back as the year 1830, when the 
present State of Texas formed a province of New and Independent 
Mexico. During the years immediately preceding 1830, Moses 
Austin, of Connecticut, obtained a liberal grant of lands from the 
established Government, and on his death his son was treated in an 
equally liberal manner. The glowing accounts rendered by Aus- 
tin, and the vivid picture of Elysian fields drawn by visiting jour- 
nalists, soon resulted in the influx of a large tide of immigrants, 
nor did the movement to the Southwest cease until 1S30. The 
Mexican province held a prosperous population, comprising 10,0OC 
American citizens. The rapacious Government of the Mexicans 
looked with greed and jealousy upon their eastern province, and, 
under the presidency of Gen. Santa Anna, enacted such measures, 
both unjust and oppressive, as would meet their design of goading 
the people of Texas on to revolution, and thus afford an opportu- 
nity for the infliction of punishment upon subjects whose onlj' 
crime was industry and its accompaniment, prosperity. Precisely 
in keeping with the course pursued by the British toward the col- 
onists of the Eastern States in the last century, Santa Anna's 
Government met the remonstrances of the colonists of Texas with 
threats ; and they, secure in their consciousness of right quietly 
issued their declaration of independence, and proved its literal 
meaning on the field of Gonzales in 1835, having with a force of 



500 men forced the Mexican army of 1,000 to fly for refuge to their 
strongholds. Battle after battle followed, bringing victory always 
to the Colonists, and ultimately resulting in the total rout of the 
Mexican army and the evacuation of Texas. The routed army 
after a short term of rest reorganized, and reappeared in the Terri- 
tory, 8,000 strong. On April 21, a division of this large force 
under Santa Anna encountered the Texaiis under General Samuel 
Houston on tlie banks of the San Jacinto, and though Houston 
could only oppose 800 men to the Mexican legions, the latter were 
driven from the field,nor could they reform their scattered ranks until 
their General was captured next day and forced to sign the declaration 
of 1835. The signature of Santa Anna, though ignored by the 
Congress of the Mexican Kepublic, and consequently left unratified 
on tiie part of Mexico, was effected in so much, that after the sec- 
ond defeat of the army of that Republic all the hostilities of an 
important nature ceased, the Republic of Texas was recognized by 
the powers, and subsequently became an integral part of the United 
States, July 4, 1846. At this period General Herrera was pres- 
ident of Mexico. He was a man of peace, of common sense, and 
very patriotic; and he thus entertained, or pretended to enter- 
tain, the great neighboring Republic in high esteem. For this 
reason he grew unpopular with his people, and General Paredes 
was called to the presidential chair, which he continued to occupy 
until the breaking out of actual hostilities with the United States, 
when Gen. Santa Anna was elected thereto. 

President Polk, aware of the state of feeling in Mexico, ordered 
(jren. Zachary Taylor, in command of the troops in the Southwest, to 
proceed to Texas, and post himself as near to the Mexican border 
as he deemed prudent. At the same time an American squadron was 
dispatched to the vicinity, in the Gulf of Mexico. In November, 
Genera] Taylor had taken his position at Corpus Christi, a Texan 
settlement on a bay of the same name, with about 4,000 men. On 
the 13th of January, 1846, the President ordered him to advance 
with his forces to the Rio Grande; accordingly he proceeded, and 
in Marcli stationed himself on the north bank of that river, with- 
in cannon-shot of the Mexican town of Matamoras. Here he 
hastily erected a fortress, called Fort Brown. The territory ly- 
ing between the river Nueces and the Rio Grande river, about 
120 miles in width, was claimed both by Texas and Mexico; ac- 
cording to the latter, therefore, General Taylor had actually 
invaded lier Territory, and had tlius committed an open 


act of war. On the 26th of April, the Mexican General, Arapudia, 
gave notice to this effect to General Taj-lor, and on the same day a 
party of American dragoons, sixty-three in number, being on the 
north side of the Rio Grande, were attacked, and, after the loss of 
sixteen men killed and wounded, were forced to surrender. Their 
commander, Captain Thornton, only escaped. The Mexican forces 
had now crossed the river above Matamoras and were supposed to 
meditate an attack on Point Isabel, where Taylor had established a 
depot of supplies for his army. On the 1st of May, this ofEcer left 
a small number of troops at Fort Brown, and marched with his 
chief forces, twenty-three hundred men, to the defense of Point 
Isabel. Having garrisoned this place, he set out on his return. 
On the 8th of May, about noon, he met the Mexican army, six 
thousand strong, drawn up in battle array, on the prairie near Palo 
Alto. The Americans at once advanced to the attack, and, after an 
action of five hours, in which their artillery was very effective, 
drove the enemy before them, and encamped upon the field. The 
Mexican loss was about one hundred killed; that ot the Americans, 
four killed and forty wounded. Major Ringgold, of the artillery, 
an officer of great merit, was mortally wounded. The next day, as 
the Americans advanced, they again met the enemy in a strong 
position near Resaca de la Palma, three miles from Fort Brown. 
An action commenced, and was fiercely contested, the artilleiy on 
both sides being served with great vigor. At last the Mexicans 
gave way, and fled in confusion, General de la Vega having fallen 
into the hands of the Americans. They also abandoned their guns 
and a large quantity of ammunition to the victors. The remain- 
ing Mexican soldiers speedily crossed tlie Rio Grande, and the next 
<iay the Americans took up their position at Fort Brown. This 
little fort, in the absence of General Taylor, had gallantly sustained 
an almost uninterrupted attack of several days from tlie Mexican 
batteries of Matamoras. 

"When the news of the capture of Captain Thornton's party was 
spread over the United States, it produced great excitement. The 
President addressed a message to Congress, then in session, declar- 
ing " that war with Mexico existed by her own act;" and that body. 
May, 1846, placed ten millions of dollars at the President's dispo- 
sal, and authorized him to accept the services of fifty thousand 
volunteers. A great part of the summer of 1846 was spent in ]>rep- 
aration for the war, it being resolved to invade Mexico at several 
points. In pursuance of this plan. General Taylor, who had taken 


possession of Matamoras, abandoned by the enemy in May, iiiarclied 
northward in the enemy's country in August, and on the 19th of 
September he appeared before Monterey, capital of the Mexican 
State of New Leon. His army, after having garrisoned several 
places along his route, amounted to six thousand men. The attack 
began on the 21st, and after a succession of assaults, during the 
period of four days, the Mexicans capitulated, leaving the town 
in possession of the Americans. In October, General Taylor 
terminated an armistice into which he had entered with the 
Mexican General, and again commenced offensive operations. 
Various towns and fortresses of the enemy now rapidly fell into 
•our possession. In Xovember, Saltillo, the capital of the State 
of Coahuila was occupied by tlie division of General Worth; 
in December, General Patterson took possession of Victoria, 
the capital of Tamaulipas, and nearly at the same period, 
Commodore Perry captured the fort of Tampico. Santa Fe, 
the capital of New Mexico, with the whole territory of the State 
liad been subjugated by General Harney, after a march of one 
thousand miles through the wilderness. Events of a startling char- 
acter had taken place at still earlier dates along the Pacific coast. On 
the 4th of Juh , Captain Fremort, having repeatedly defeated su- 
perior Mexican forces with tiie small band under his command, de- 
clared California independent of Mexico. Other important places 
in this region had yielded to the American naval force, and in Au- 
gust, 1846, the wliole of California was in the undisputed occupa- 
tion of the Americans. 

The year 1847 opened with still more brilliant victories on the 
part of our armies. By the drawins off of a large part of 
"General Taylor's troops for a meditated attack on Vera Cruz, he 
was left with a comparatively small force to meet the great body of 
Mexican troops, now marching upon him, under command of the 
celebrated Santa Anna, who had again become President of Mexico. 

Ascertaining the advance of this powerful army, twenty thou- 
sand strong, and consisting of the best of the Mexican soldiers, 
<Teneral Taylor took up his position at Buena Vista, a valley a few 
miles from Saltillo. His whole troops numbered only four thousand 
seven hundred and fifty-nine, and here, on the 23d of February, he 
was vigorously attacked by the Mexicans. The battle was very 
severe, and continued nearly the whole day, when the Mexicans fled 
from the field in disorder, with a loss of nearly two thousand men. 
Santa Anna speedily withdrew, and thus abandoned the region of 


the Rio Grande to the complete occupation of our troops. This left 
our forces at liberty to prosecute the grand enterprise of the cam- 
paign, the capture of the strong town of Vera Cruz, with its re- 
nowned castle of San Juan d'Ulloa. On the 9th of March, 1847, 
General Scott landed near the city with an army of twelve thousand 
men, and on the 18th commenced an attack. For four days and 
nights an almost incessant shower of shot and shells was poured 
upon the devoted town, while the batteries of the castle and the city 
replied with terrible energy. At last, as the Americans were pre- 
paring for an assault, the Governor of the city offered to surrender, 
and on the 26th the American flag floated triumphantly from the 
walls of the castle and tlie city. General Scott now prepared to 
march upon the city of Mexico, the capital of the country, situated 
two hundred miles in the interior, and approached only through a 
series of rugged passes and mountain fastnesses, rendered still more 
formidable by several strong fortresses. On the 8th ot April the 
army commenced their march. At Cerro Gordo, Santa Anna had 
posted himself with fifteen thousand men. On the 18th the Amer- 
icans began the daring attack, and by midday every intrenchment 
of the enemy had been carried. The loss of the Mexicans in this 
remarkable battle, besides one thousand killed and wounded, was 
three thousand prisoners, forty-three pieces of cannon, five 
thousand stand of arms, and all their amunitions and mate- 
rials of war. The loss of the Americans was four hundred 
and thirty-one in killed and wounded. The next day our forces 
advanced, and, capturing fortress after fortress, came on the 
18th of August within ten miles of Mexico, a city of two hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, and situated in one of the most 
beautiful valleys in the world. On the 20th they attacked and 
carried the strong batteries of Coutreras, garrisoned by 7,000 men> 
in an impetuous assault, which lasted but seventeen minutes. On 
the same day an attack was made by the Americans on the fortified 
post of Churubusco, four miles northeast of Contreras Here 
nearly the entire Mexican army — more than 20,000 in number — 
were posted; but they were defeated at every point, and obliged to 
seek a retreat in the cit^', or the still remaining fortress of Cbapul- 
tepec. While preparations were being made on the 21st by Gen- 
eral Scott, to level his batteries against the city, prior to summon- 
ing it to surrender, he received propositions from the enemy, which 
terminated in an armistice. This ceased on the 7th of September. 
On the Sth the outer defense of Chapultepec was successfully 


stormed by General Worth, though he lost one-fourth of his men 
in the desperate struggle. The castle of Chapultepec, situated on 
an abrupt and rocky eminence, 150 feet above the snrrounding 
country, presented a most formidable object of attack. On the 
12th, however, the batteries were opened against it, and on the 
next day the citadel was carried by storm. The Mexicans still strug- 
gled along the great causeway leading to the city, as the Americans 
advanced, but before nightfal a part of our army was within the 
gates of the city. Santa Anna and the officers of the Government 
fled, and the next morning, at seven o'clock, the flag of the Ameri- 
cans floated from tlie national palace of Mexico. This conquest of 
the capital was the great and final achievement of the war. The 
Mexican republic was in fact prostrate, her sea-coast and chief 
cities being in the occupation of our troops. On the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, ISiS, terms of peace were agreed upon by the American 
commissioner and the Mexican Government, this treaty being rati- 
fied by the Mexican Congress on the 30th of May following, and 
by the United States soon after. President Polk proclaimed peace 
on the 4th of July, 1848. In the preceding sketch we have given 
only a mere outline of the war with Mexico. We have necessarily 
passed over many interesting events, and have not even named 
many of our soldiers who performed gallant and important ser- 
vices. General Taylor's successful operations in the region of the 
Eio Grande were duly honored by the people of the United States, 
by bestowing upon him tlie Presidency. General Scott's campaign, 
from the attack on Vera Cruz, to the surrender of the city of 
Mexico, was far more remarkable, and, in a military point of view, 
must be considered as one of the most brilliant of modern times. It 
is true the Mexicans are not to be ranked with the great nations of 
the earth; with a population of seven or eight millions, they have 
little more than a million of the white race, the rest being half-civ- 
ilized Indians and mestizos, that is, those of mixed blood. Their 
government is inefficient, and the people divided among them- 
selves. Their soldiers often fought bravely, but they were badly 
officered. While, therefore, we may consider the conquest of so 
extensive and populous a country, in so short a time, and attended 
with such constant superiority even to the greater numbers of the 
enemy, as highly gratifying evidence of the courage and capacity 
of our army, still we must not, in judging of our achievements, fail 
to consider the real weakness of the nation whom we vanquished. 


One thing we may certainly dwell upon with satisfaction — the ad- 
mirable example, not onl}' as a soldier, but as a man, set by our com- 
mander. Gen. Scott, who seems, in the midst of war and the ordinary 
license of the camp, always to have preserved the virtue, kindness, 
and humanity belonging to a state of peace. These qualities 
secured to him the respect, confidence and good-will even of the 
enemy he had conquered. Among the Generals who effectually 
aided General Scott in this remarkable campaign, we must not 
omit to mention the names of Generals Wool, Twiggs, Shields,. 
Worth, Smith, and Quitman, who generally added to the high 
qualities of soldiers the still more estimable characteristics of 
good men. The treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo stipulated that the 
disputed territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande should 
belong to the United States, and it now forms a part of Texas, as 
has been already stated; that the United States should assume and 
pay the debts due from Mexico to American citizens, to the amount 
of $3,500,000; and that, in consideration of the sum of $15,000,000 
to be paid by the United States to Mexico, the latter should 
relinquish to the former the whole of New Mexico and Upper 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this war were formed into 
five regiments of volunteers, numbered respectively, 1st, 2d, 3rd, 
4th and 5th. The fact that companies of the three first-named reg- 
iments served at times with the men of Illinois, the New York 
volunteers, the Palmettos of South Carolina, and United States 
marines, under Gen. James Shields, makes for them a history; be- 
cause the campaigns of the Rio Grande and Chihuahua, the siege 
of Vera Cruz, the desperate encounter at Cerro Gordo, the tragic 
contests in the valley, at Contreras and Churubusco, the storming 
of Chapultepec, and the planting of the stars and stripes upon 
every turret and spire within the conquered city of Mexico, were 
all carried out by the gallant troops under the favorite old General, 
and consequently each of them shared with him in the glories at- 
tached to snch exploits. The other regiments under Cols. Gorman 
and Lane participated in the contests of the period under other com- 
manders. The 4tli Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, comprising 
ten companies, was formally organized at Jeffersonville, Indiana, 
by Capt. R. C. Gatlin, June 15, 1S47, and on the 16th elected 
Major Willis A. Gorman, of the 3rd Regiment, to the Colonelcy; 
Ebenezer Dumont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. McCoy, Major. On 
the 27th of June the regiment left Jefiersonville for the front, and 


subsequently was assigned to Brigadier-General Lane's command, 
which then comprised a battery of five pieces from the 3rd Regi- 
ment U. S. Artillery; a battery of two pieces from the 2nd Regiment 
U. S. Rrtillery, the 4tli Regiment of Indiana Volunteers and the 4th 
Regiment of Ohio, with a squadron of mounted Louisianians and 
detachments of recruits for the U. S. army. The troops of this 
brigade won signal honors at Fasso de Ovegas, August 10, 1847; 
National Bridge, on the 12th; Cerro Gordo, on the 16th; Las Ani- 
mas, on the 19th, under Maj. F. T. Lally, of General Lane's staff, 
and afterward under Lane, directly, took a very prominent part in 
the siege of Puebla, which began on the 15th of September and 
terminated on the 12th of October. At Atlixco, October 19th; 
Tlascala, November 10th; Matamoras and Pass Galajara, Novem- 
ber 23rd and 24th; Guerrilla Ranche, December 5th; Napaloncan, 
December 10th, the Indiana volunteers of the 4th Regiment per- 
formed gallant service, and carried the campaign into the following 
year, representing their State at St. Martin's, February 27, 1848; 
Cholula, March 26th; Matacordera, February 19tli; Sequalteplan, 
February 25th; and on the cessation of hostilities reported at 
Madison, Indiana, for discharge, July 11, 1848; while the 5th In- 
diana Regiment, under Col. J. H. Lane, underwent a similar round 
of duty during its service with other brigades, and gained some 
celebrity at Yera Cruz, Churubusco and with the troops of Illinois 
under Gen. Shields at Chapultepec. 

This war cost the people of the United States sixty-six millions 
of dollars. This very large amount was not paid away for the at- 
tainment of mere glory; there was something else at stake, and 
this something proved to be a country larger and more fertile than 
the France of the Napoleons, and more steady and sensible than 
the France of the Republic. It was the defense of the great Lone 
Star State, the humiliation and chastisement of a quarrelsome 


We have already referred to the prohibition of slavery in the 
Northwestern Territory, and Indiana Territory by the ordinance of 
17S7; to the imperfection in the execution of this ordinance and the 
troubles which the authorities encountered; and the complete estab- 
lishment of the principles of freedom on the organization of the State. 
The next item of significjtnce in this connection is the following lan- 
guage in the message of Gov. Ray to the Legislature of 1S28: " Since 
onr last separation, while we have witnessed with anxious solicitude 
the belligerent operations of another hemisphere, the cross contend- 
ing against the crescent, and the prospect of a general rupture among 
the legitimates of other quarters of the globe, our attention has 
been arrested by proceedings in our own country truly dangerous 
to liberty, seriously premeditated, and disgraceful to its authors 
if agitated only to tamper with the American people. If such ex- 
periments as we see attempted in certain deluded quarters do not 
tail with a burst of thunder upon the heads of their seditious pro- 
jectors, then indeed the Republic has begun to experience the days 
of its degeneracy. The union of these States is the people's only 
sure charter for their liberties and independence. Dissolve it and 
each State will soon be in a condition as deplorable as Alexander's 
conquered countries after they were divided amongst his victorious 
military captains." 

In pursuance of a joint resolution of the Legislature of 1850, a 
block of native marble was procured and forwarded to Washington, 
to be placed in the monument then in the course of erection at the 
National Capital in memory of George Washington. In the 
absence of any legislative instruction concerning the inscription 
upon this emblem of Indiana's loyalty, Gov. Wright ordered the 
following words to be inscribed upon it: Indiana Knows No 
NoKTH, No South, Nothing but the Union. Within a dozen 
years thereafter this noble State demonstrated to the world her loy- 
alty to the Union and the principles of freedom by the sacrifice of 
blood and treasure which she made. In keeping with this senti- 
ment Gov. Wright indorsed the compromise measures of Congress 
on the slavery question, remarking in his message that " Indiana 
takes her stand in the ranks, not of Southern destiny, nor yet of 




Northern destiny: she plants herself on the basis of the Consti- 
tution and takes her stand in the ranks of American destiny." 


At the session of the Legislature in Jaiiuarv, 1869, the subjeel 
of ratifying the fifteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution, 
allowing negro sutirage, came up with such persistency that neither 
party dared to undertake any other business lest it be checkmated 
in some way, and being at a dead lock on this matter, they adjourn- 
ed in March without having done much important business. The 
Democrats, as well as a portion of the conservative Republicans, 
opposed its consideration strongly on the ground that it would be 
unfair to vote on the question until the people of the State liad had 
an opportunity of expressing their views at the polls; but most of 
the liepublicans resolved to push the measure through, while the 
Democrats resolved to resign in a body and leave the Legislatuin; 
without a quorum. Accordingly, on March 4, 17 Senators and 3(j 
Representatives resigned, leaving both houses without a quorum. 

As the early adjournment of the Legislature left the benevolent 
institutions of the State unprovided for, the Governor convened 
that body in extra session as soon as possible, and after the neces- 
sary appropriations were made, on the 19th of May the fifteenth 
amendment came up; but in anticipation of this the Democratic 
members had all resigned and claimed that there was no quorum 
present. There was a quorum, however, of Senators in office, 
though some of them refused to vote, declaring that they were no 
longer Senators; but the president of that body decided that as he 
had not been informed of their resignation by the Governor, they 
were still members. A vote was taken and the ratifying resolution 
was adopted. When the resolution came up in the House, the 
chair decided that, although the Democratic members had resigned 
there was a quorum of the de facto members present, and the 
House proceeded to pass the resolution. This decision of the chair 
was afterward sustained by the Supreme Court. 

At the next regular session of the Legislature, in 1871, the 
Democrats undertook to repeal the ratification, and the Republican 
members resigned to prevent it. The Democrats, as the Republi- 
cans did on the previous occasion, proceeded to pass their resolu- 
tion of repeal; but while the process was under way, before the 
House CoMimittee had time to report on the matter, 34 Republicau 
members resigned, thereby preventing its passage and putting.? 
stop to further legislation. 


The events of the earlier years of this State have been reviewed 
down to that period in the nation's history when the Republic de- 
manded a first sacrifice from the newly erected States: to the time 
when the very safety of the glorious heritage, bequeathed by the 
fathers as a rich legacy, was threatened with a fate worse than death 
— a life under laws that harbored the slave — a civil defiance of the 
first principles of the Constitution. 

Indiana was among the first to respond to the summons of patri- 
otism, and register itself on the national roll of honor, even as she 
was among tlie first to join in that song of joy which greeted a Re- 
public made doubly glorious within a century by the dual victory 
which won liberty for itself, and next bestowed the precious boon 
upon the colored slave. 

The fall of Fort Sumter was a signal for the uprising of the State. 

The news of the calamity was flashed to Indianapolis on the 14tliof 

April, 1861, and early the next morning the electric wire brought 

the welcome message to Washington: — 

Executive Department of Indiana, ) 
Indianapolis, April 15, 1861. ( 
To Abraham Lincoln, President of the United Slates: — On behalf of the State 
of Indiana, 1 tender to you for the defense of the Xation, and to uphold the au- 
thority of the Government, ten thousand men. 

Governor of Indiana. 

This may be considered the first official act of Governor Morton, 
who had just entered on the duties of his exalted position. The 
State was in an almost helpless condition, and yet the faith of the 
" War Governor " was prophetic, when, after a short consultation 
with the members of the Executive Council, he relied on the fidelity 
of ten thousand men and promised their services to the Protectorate 
at Washington. This will be more ap])areut when the military 
condition of the State at the beginning of 1S61 is considered. At 
that time the armories contained less than five hundred stand of 
serviceable small arms, eight pieces of cannon which might be use- 
ful in a museum of antiquities, with sundry weapons which would 
miTcly do credit to the aborigines of one hundred years ago. The 
financial condition of the State was even worse than the military. 



The sum of $10,368.58 in trust funds was the amount of ca^^h in the 
lianils of the Treasurer, and tiiis was, to all intents and ]>iirposes 
unavailable to meet the emergency, since it could not be devoted 
to the military requirements of the day. This state of affairs was 
dispiriting in the extreme, and would doubtless have militated 
against the ultimate success of any other man than Morton; yet 
he overleaped every difficulty, nor did the fearful realization of 
Floyd's treason, discovered during his visit to Washington, damp 
Ins indomitable courage and energy, but with rare persistence he 
urged the claims of his State, and for his exertions was requited 
with an order for five thousand muskets. The order was not exe- 
cuted until hostilities were actually entered upon, and consequently 
for some days succeeding the publication of tlie President's procla- 
mation the people labored under a feeling of terrible anxiety min- 
gled with uncertainty, amid the confusion which followed the crim- 
inal negligence that permitted the disbandment of the magnificent 
corps cT armee (51,000 men) of 1832 two years later in 1834. Great 
numbers of the people maintained their equanamity with the result 
of beholding within a brief space of time every square mile of their 
State represented by soldiers prepared to fight to the bitter end ia 
defense of cherished institutions, and for the extension of the prin- 
ciple of human liberty to all States and classes within the limits of 
the threatened Union. This, tlieirzeal, was not animated by hos- 
tility to the slave holders of the Southern States, but rather by ai 
fraternal spirit, akin to that which urges the eldest brother to cor- 
rect the persistent follies of his juniors, and thus lead them front 
crime to the maintenance of family honor; in this correction, tO' 
draw them away from all that was cruel, diabolical and inhuman in 
the Republic, to all that is gentle, holy and sublime therein. Many 
of the raw troops were not only unimated by a patriotic feeling, 
but also by that beautiful idealization of the poet, who in his un- 
conscious Republicanism, said: 

" I would not have a slave to till my ground, 

To carry me, to fan me while I sleep, 

And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth 

That sinews boui^ht and sold have ever earned 

No: dear as freedom is — and, in my heart's 

Just estimatiiin, prized above all price — 

I much rather be myself the slave, 

And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him." 

Thus animated, it is not a matter for surprise to find the first 
call to arms issued by the President, and calling for 75,000 mcn» 



answered nobly by the people of Indiana. The quota of troops to 
be furnished by the State on the first call was 4,6S3 men for three 
years' service from April 15, 1860. On the 16th of April, Gov- 
ernor Morton issued his proclamation calling on all citizens of the 
State, who had the welfare of the Republic at heart, to organize 
themselves into six regiments in defense of their rights, and in 
apposition to the varied acts of rebellion, charged by him against 
Blie Southern Confederates. To this end, the Hon. Lewis Wallace, 
a soldier of the Mexican campaign was appointed Adjutant-General, 
Col. Thomas A. Morris of the United States Military Academy, 
Quartermaster-General, and Isaiah Mansur, a merchant of Indian- 
apolis, Commissary-General. These general officers converted the 
grounds and buildings of the State Board of Agriculture into a 
military headquarters, and designated the position Camp Morton, 
as the beginning of the many honors which were to follow the pop- 
nlar Governor throughout his future career. Now the people, im- 
bued with confidence in their Government and leaders, rose to the 
grandeur of American freemen, and with an enthusiasm never 
equaled hitherto, flocked to the standard of the nation ; so that 
within a few days (19th April) 2,400 men were ranked beneath 
tteir regimental banners, until as the official report testifies, the 
anxious question, passing from mouth to mouth, was, " Which of 
Hs will be allowed to go? " It seemed as if Indiana was about to 
monopolize the honors of the period, and place the 75.000 men 
demanded of the Union by the President, at his disposition. Even 
now under the genial sway of guaranteed peace, the features of 
Indiana's veterans flush with righteous pride when these days — re- 
membrances of heroic sacrifice — are named, and freemen, still un- 
born, will read their history only to be blessed and glorified in the 
possession of such truly, noble progenitors. Nor were the ladies 
of the State unmindful of their duties. Everywhere they partook 
of the general enthusiasm, and made it practical so far as in their 
power, by embroidering and presenting standards and regimental 
colors, organizing aid and relief societies, and by man}^ other acts 
of patriotism and humanity inherent in the high nature of woman. 
During the days set apart by the military authorities for the or- 
ganization of the regiments, the financiers of the State were en- 
gaged in the reception of munificent grants of money from pri- 
vate citizens, while the money merchants within and without the 
State oflered large loans to the recognized Legislature without even 
imposing a condition of payment. This most practical generosity 


strengthened the hands of the Executive, and within a very few days 
Indiana had passed the crucial test, recovered some of her military 
prestige lost in 1834, and so was prepared to vie with the other 
and wealthier States in making sacrifices for the public welfare. 

On the 20th of April, Messrs, I. S. Dobbs and Alvis D. Gall re- 
ceived their appointments as Medical Inspectors of the Division, 
while Major T. J. Wood arrived at headquarters from Washington 
to receive the newly organized regiments into the service of the 
Union. At the moment this formal proceeding took place, Morton, 
unable to restrain the patriotic ardor ot the people, telegraphed to 
the capitol that he could place six regiments of infantry at the dis- 
posal of the General Government within six days, if such a pro- 
ceeding were acceptable; but in consequence of the wires being cut 
between the State and Federal capitols, no answer came. Taking 
advantage of the little doubt whicli may have had existence in re- 
gard to future action in the matter and in the absence of general 
orders, he gave expression to an intention of placing the volunteers 
in camp, and in his message to the Legislature, who assembled three 
days later, he clearly laid down the principle of immediate action 
and strong measures, recommending a note of $1,000,000 for there- 
organization of the volunteers, for the purchase of arms and supplies, 
and for the punishment of treason. The message was received most 
enthusiastically. The assembly recognized the great points made 
by the Governor, and not only yielded to them in toto, but also made 
the following grand appropriations: 

General military purposes $1,000,000 

Purchase of arras 500,000 

Continsicnt military expenses 100,000 

Organization and support of militia for two years 140,000 

These appropriations, together with the laws enacted during the 
session of the Assembly, speak for the men of Indiana. The celerity 
with which these laws were put in force, the diligince and economy 
exercised by the officers, entrusted with their administration, and 
that systematic genius, under which all the machinery of Govern- 
ment seemed to work in harmony, — all, all, tended to make for the 
State a spring-time of noble deeds, when seeds might be cast along 
her fertile fields and in the streets of her villages of industry to 
grow up at once and blossom in the ray of fame, and after to bloom 
throughout the ages. Within three daj's after the opening of the 
extra session of the Legislature (27th April) six new regiments were 
organized, and commissioned for three months' service. These reg- 





Ebenezer Dumont 




















iraents. notwithstaudiug the fact that the first sis regiments were 
already imistered into the general service, were known as '-The 
First Brigade. Indiana Volunteers," and with the simple object of 
making the way of the future student of a brilliant history clear, 
were numbered respectively 

Sixth Regiment, commanded by Col. T. T. Crittenden. 

Seventh •' " 

Eighth " " 

Ninth " " 

Tenth " " 

Eleventh " " 

The idea of these numbers was suggested by the fact that the 
military representation of Indiana in the Mexican Campaign was 
one brigade of five regiments, and to observe consecutiveness the 
regiments comprised in the first division of volunteers were thus 
numbered, and the entire force placed under Brigadier General T. 
A. Morris, with the following stafi": John Love, Major; Cyrus C> 
Hines, Aid-de-camp; and J. A. Stein, Assistant Adjutant General. 
To follow the fortunes of these volunteers through all the vicissi- 
tudes of war would prove a special work; yet their valor and endur- 
ance during their first term of service deserved a notice of even more 
value than that of the historian, since a commander's opinioa has 
to be taken as the basis upon which the chronicler may expatiate. 
Therefore the following dispatch, dated from the headquarters of the 
Army of Occupation, Beverly Camp, W. Virginia, July 21, 1S61, 
must be taken as one of the first evidences of their utility and 
valor: — 

"Governor O. P. Morton, Indtanapolit, Indiana 

Governor : — I have directed the three months' regiments from Indiana to 
move to Indianapolis, there to be mustered out and reorganized for three years' 

I cannot permit them to return to you without again expressing my high 
appreciation of the distinguished valor and endurance of the Indiana troops, and 
my hope that but a short time will elapse before I have the pleasure of knowing 
that they are again ready for the field. ******* 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
George B. McCleixax, 
iliijor-Oerural, U. S- A. 

On the return of the troops to Indianapolis, July 29, Brigadier 
Morris issued a lengthy, logical and well-deserved congratulatory 
address, from which one paragraph may be extracted to characterize 


the whole. After passing a glowing eulogium on their military 
qualities and on that unexcelled gallantry displayed at Laurel Hill, 
Phillipi and Carrick's Ford, he says: — 

" Soldiers! You have now returned to the friends whose prayers went with you 
to the field of strife. They welcome you witli pride and exultation. Your State 
and country acknowledge the value of your labors. May your future career be as 
your past has been, — honorable to yourselves and serviceable to your country." 

The six regiments forming Morris' brigade, together with one 
composed of the surplus volunteers, for whom there was no regi- 
ment in April, now formed a division of seven regiment?, all reor- 
ganized for three years' service, between the 20th August and 20th 
September, with the exception of the new or 12th, which was ac- 
cepted for one year's service from May 11th, under command of 
Colonel John M. Wallace, and reorganized May 17, 1862, for three 
years' service under Col. W. H. Link, who, with 172 officers and 
men, received their mortal wounds during the Richmond (Ken- 
tucky) engagement, three months after its reorganization. 

The 13th Regiment, under Col. Jeremiah Sullivan, was mus- 
tered into the United States in 1861 and joined Gen. McClellan's 
command at Rich Mountain on the 10th July. The day following it 
was present under Gen. Rosencrans and lost eight men killed; three 
successive days it was engaged under Gen. L I. Re^'nolds, and won 
its laurels at Cheat Mountain summit, where it participated in the 
decisive victory over Gen. Lee. 

The Hth Regiment, organized in 1861 for one year's service, and 
reorganized on the 7th of June at Terre Haute for three years' ser. 
vice. Commanded by Col. Kimball and siiowing a muster roll of 
1,134 men, it was one of the finest, as it was the first, three years' 
regiment organized in the State, with varying fortunes attached to 
its never ending round of duty from Cheat Mountain, September, 
1861, to Morton's Ford in 1864, and during the movement South in 
May of that year to the last of its labors, the battle of Cold Har- 

The loTH Regiment, reorganized at La Fayette 14th June, 1861, 
under Col. G. D. Wagner, moved on Rich Mountain on the 11th 
of July in time to participate in the complete rout of the enemy. 
On the promotion of Col. Wagner, Lieutenant-Col. G. A. Wood 
became Colonel of the regiment, November, 1^62, and during the 
first days of January, 1863, took a distinguished part in the severe 
action of Stone River. From this period down to the battle of Mis- 
sion Ridge it was in a series of destructive engagements, and was, 


after enduring terrible liardsliips, ordered to Chattanooga, and 
thence to Indianapolis, where it was mustered out the 18th June, 
186-1, — four days after the expiration of its term of service. 

The 16th Regiment, organized under Col. P. A. Hackleman at 
Richmond for one year's service, after participating in many minor 
military events, was mustered out at Washington, D.C., on the 14th 
of May, 1862. Col. Hackleman was killed at the battle of luka, 
and Lieutenant-Col. Thomas I. Lucas succeeded to the command. 
It was reorganized at Indianapolis for three years' service, May 27, 
1862, and took a conspicuous part inall the brilliant engagements 
of the war down to June, 18G5, when it was mustered out at New 
Orleans. The survivors, numbering 365 rank and file, returned to 
Indianapolis the 10th of July amid the rejoicing of the populace. 

The 17th Regiment was mustered into service at Indianapolis 
the 12tli of June, 1861, for three years, under Col. Hascall, who 
on being promoted Brigadier General in March, 1862, left the 
Colonelcy to devolve on Lieutenant Colonel John T. Wilder. This 
regiment participated in the many exploits of Gen. Reynold's army 
from Green Brier in 1862, to Macon in 1865, under Gen. Wilson. 
Returning to Indianapolis the 16th of August, in possession of a 
brilliant record, the regiment was disbanded. 

The 18th Regiment, under Colonel Thomas Pattison, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis, and mustered into service on the 16th of 
August, 1861. Under Gen. Pope it gained some distinction at 
Blackwater, and succeeded in retaining a reputation made there, 
by its gallantry at Pea Ridge, February, 1862, down to the moment 
when it planted the regimental flag on the arsenal of Augusta, 
Georgia, where it was disbanded August 28, 1865. 

The 19th Regiment, mustered into three years' service at the 
State capital July 29, 1861, was ordered to join the army of the 
Potomac, and reported its arrival at Washington, August 9. Two 
days later it took part in the battle of Lewinsville, under Colonel 
Solomon Meredith. Occupying Falls Church in September, 1861, 
it continued to maintain a most enviable place of honor on the 
military roll until its consolidation with the 20th Regiment, October, 
1864, under Colonel William Orr, formerly its Lieutenant Colonel. 

The 20th Regiment of La Fayette was organized in July. 1861, 
mustered into three years' service at Indianapolis on the 22d of the 
eame month, and reached the front at Cockeysville, Maryland, 
twelve daj's later. Throughout aW its iirilliant actions from Hat- 
teras Bank, on the 4th of October, to Clover Hill, 9th of April, 1865, 


iticludiiig tlie saving of the United States ship ^oMjr/vs.v', at New- 
]iort News, it added daily some new name to its escutcheon. This 
rejjiment was mustered out at Louisville in July, 1865, and return- 
iwijr to Indianapolis was welcomed by the great war Governor of 
their State. 

The 2l8T -Regiment was mustered into service under Colonel I. 
W. McMillan, July 24, IStU, and re])orted at tlie front the third 
day of August. It was the first regiment to enter New Orleans. 
The fortunes of this regiment were as varied as its services, so that 
its name and fame, grown from the blood shed by its members, are 
destined to live and flourish. In December, 1863, the regiment 
was reorganized, and on the 19th February, 1864, many of its 
veterans returned to their State, where Morton received them with 
that spirit of proud gratitude which he was capable of showing to 
those who deserve honor for honors won. 

Tlie 22d Regiment, under Colonel Jeff. C. Davis, left Indian- 
apolis the 15th of August, and was attached to Fremont's Corps at 
St. Louis on the 17th. From the day it moved to the support of 
Colonel Mulligan at Lexington, to the last victory, won under 
General Sherman at Bentonville, on the 19th of March, 1865, it 
gained a high military reputation. After the fall of Johnston's 
southern army, this regiment was mustered out, and arrived at 
Indianapolis on the 16tli June. 

The 23d Battalion, commanded by Colonel W. L. Sanderson, 
"was mustered in at New Albany, the 29th July, 1861, and moved 
to the front early in August. From its unfortunate marine ex- 
periences before Fort Henry to Bentonville it won unusual honors, 
and after its disbandment at Louisville, returned to Indianapolis 
July 24, 1S65, wiiere Governor Morton and General Sherman 
reviewed and complimented the gallant survivors. 

The 24th Battalion, under Colonel Alvin P. Hovey, was 
mustered at Vincennes the 31st of July, 1861. Proceeding imme- 
diately to the front it joined Fremont's command, and participated 
under many Generals in important affairs during the war. Three 
hundred and ten men and otficers returned to their State in August, 
1865, and were received with marked honors by the people and 

The 25th Regiment, of Evansville mustered into service there 
for three years under Col. J. C. Veatch, arrived at St. Louis on the 
26tli of August, 1861. During the war this regiment was present 
at 18 battles and skirmishes, sustaining therein a loss of 352 men 


and officers. Mustered out at Louisville, July 17, 1S6.5, it returned 
to Indianapolis on tJie 21st amid universal rejoicing. 

The 26th Battalion, under W. M. Wheatley, left Indianapolis 
for the front the 7th of September, 1S61, and after a brilliant cam- 
paign under Fremont, Grant, Heron and Smith, may be said to 
disband the ISth of September, 1S65, when the non-veterans and 
recruits were reviewed by Morton at the State capital. 

The 27th Regiment, uuder Col. Silas Colgrove, moved from 
Indianapolis to Washington City, September 15tli, 1861, and in 
October was allied to Gen. Banks' army. From Winchester 
Heights, the 9th of March 1862, through all the afl'airs of General 
Sherman's campaign, it acted a gallant and faithful part, and was 
disbanded immediately after returning to their State. 

The 28th or 1st Cavalry was mustered into service at Evans- 
ville on the 20th of August, 1861, under Col. Conrad Baker. From 
the skirmish at Ironton, on the 12th of September, wherein three 
companies under Col. Gavin captured a position held by a 
tew rebels, to the battle of the Wilderness, the First Cavalry per- 
formed prodigies of valor. In June and July, 1865, the troops 
were mustered out at Indianapolis. 

The 29th Battalion of La Porte, under Col. J. F. Miller, left 
on the 5th of October, 1861, and reaching Camp Nevin, Kentucky, 
on the 9th, was allied to Rosseau's Brigade, serving with McCook's 
division at Shiloh, with Buell's army in Alabama, Tennessee and 
Kentucky, with liosencrans at Murfreesboro, at Decatur, Alabama, 
and at Dalton, Georgia. The Twenty-ninth won many laurels, 
and had its Colonel promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. 
This officer was succeeded in the command by Lieutenant-Col. 

The 30th Regiment of Fort Wayne, under Col. Sion S. Bass, 
proceeded to the front via Indianapolis, and joined General Rosseau 
at Camp Nevin on the 9th of October, 1801. At Shiloh, Col. 
Bass received a mortal wound, and died a few days later at 
Paducah, leaving the Colonelcy to devolve upon Lieutenant-Col. J. 
B. Dodge. In October 1865, it formed a battalion of General Sheri- 
dan's army of observation in Texas. 

The 3l8t Regiment, organized at Terre Haute, under Col. Charles 
Cruft, in September 1861, was mustered in, and left in a few days 
for Kentucky, Present at the reduction of Fort Donolson on the 
13th, l-ith, and loth of February, 1862, its list of killed and 
wounded proves its desperate fighting qualities. The organization 


was subjected to many changes, but in all its phases maintained a 
fair tame won on many battle fields. Like the former regiment, 
it passed into Gen. Sheridan's Army of Observation, and held the 
district of Green Lake, Texas. 

The 32d Regimen't of German Infantry, under Col. Augnst 
Willich, organized at Lidianapolis, mustered on the 24:th of August, 
isfil, served with distinction throughout the campaign Col. 
Willich was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, andLieut.- 
Col. Henry Von Trebra commissioned to act, under whose com- 
mand the regiment passed into General Sheridan's Army, hold- 
ing the post of Salado Creek, until the withdrawal of the corps of 
observation in Texas. 

The 33d Regiment of Indianapolis possesses a military history 
of no small proportions. The more facts that it was mustered in 
under Col. John Coburn, the 16th of September, won a series of 
distinctions throughout the war district and was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 21, 1S65, taken with its name as one of the most 
powerful regiments engaged in the war, are sufficient here. 

The 34th Battalion, organized at Anderson on the 16th Sep- 
tember, 1S61, under Col. Ashbury Steele, appeared among the in- 
vesting battalions before New Madrid on the 30th of March, 1862. 
From the distinguished part it took in that siege, down to the 
13th of May, 1865, when at Palmetto Ranche, near Palo Alto, it 
fought for hours against fearful odds the last battle of the war for 
the Union. Afterwards it marched 250 miles up the Rio Grande, 
and was the first regiment to reoccupy the position, so 1 mg in 
Southern hands, of Riiigold barracks. In 186.5 it garrisoned Bea- 
consville as part of the Army of Observation. 

The 35th ok First Irish Regiment, was organized at Indian- 
apolis, and mustered into service on the 11th of December, 1861, 
under Col. John C. "Walker. At Nashville, on the 22d of May, 
1862, it was joined by the organized portion of the Sixty-lirst or 
Second Irish Regiment, and unassigned recruits. Col. Mullen now 
became Lieut.-Colonel of the 35th, and shortly after, its Colonel. 
From the ]'.ursuit of Gen. Bragg through Kentucky and the affair 
at Perryville on the 8th of October, 1862, to the terrible hand to 
hand combat at Kenesaw mountain, on the night of the 20th of 
June, 1864, and again from the conclusion of the Atlanta campaign 
to September, 1865, with Gen. Sheridan's army, when it was mus- 
tered out, it won for itself a name of reckless daring and unsur- 
passed gallantry. 


The 36th Regiment, of Richiiiond, Ind., under Col. William 
Grose, mustered into service tor three years on the 16th of Sep- 
tember, 1861, went immediately to the front, and shared the for- 
tunes of the Army of the Ohio until the 27th of February, 1862, 
when a forward movement led to its presence on the battle-field of 
Shiloh. Following up the honors won at Shiloh, it participated in 
some of the most important actions of the war, and was, in October, 
1865, transferred to Gen. Sheridan's army. Col. Grose was pro- 
moted in 1864 to the position of Brigadier-General, and the 
Colonelcy devolved on Oliver H. P. Carey, formerly Lieut.-Colonel 
of the regiment. 

The 37th Battalion, of Lawrenceburg, commanded by Col. 
Geo. W. llazzard, organized the ISth of September, 1861, left for 
the seat of war early in October. From the eventful battle of 
Stone river, in December, 1862, to its participation in Sherman's, 
march through Georgia, it gained for itself a splendid I'eputation. 
This regiment returned to, and was present at, Indianapolis, on the 
30th of July, 1865, where a public reception was tendered to meu 
and officers on the grounds of the Capitol. 

The 38th Regiment, under Col. Benjamin F. Scribner, was mus- 
tered in at New Albany, on the 18th of September, 1861, and 
in a few days were en rovie for the front. To follow its continual 
round of duty, is without the limits of this sketch; therefore, it 
will suffice to say, that on every well-fought field, at least from 
February, 1S62, until its dissolution, on the 15th of July, 1865, it 
earned an enviable renown, and drew from Gov. Morton, on return- 
ing to Indianapolis the 18th of the same mouth, a congratulatory 
address couched in the highest terms of praise. 

The 39th Regiment, or Eighth Cwalrt, was mustered in as 
an infantry regiment, under Col. T. J. Harrison, on the 28th of 
August, 1861, at the State capital. Leaving immediately for the 
front it took a conspicuous part in all the engagements up to April, 
1863, when it was reorganized as a cavalry regiment. The record of 
this organization sparkles with great deeds which men will extol 
while language lives; its services to the LTnioti cannot be over esti- 
mated, or the memory of its daring deeds be forgotten by the un- 
happy people who raised the tumult, which culminated in their 
second shame. 

The 40tu Regiment, of Lafayette, under Col. W. C. Wilson, 
subsequently commanded by Col. J. W. Blake, and again by Col. 
Henry Learning, was organized on the 30th of December, 1861, and 


at once proceeded to the front, where some time was necessarily spent 
in the Camp of Instruction at Bardstowu, Kentucky. In February, 
1862, it joined in Buell's forward movement. During the war the 
regiment shared in all its hardships, participated in all its honors, 
and like many other brave commands took service under Gen. 
Sheridan in his Army of Occupation, holding the post of Port 
Lavaca, Texas, until peace brooded over the land. 

The 41st Regiment ob Second Cavalry, the first complete regi- 
ment of horse ever raised in the State, was organized on the 3d of 
September, 1861, at Indianapolis, under Col. John A. Bridgland, 
and December 16 moved to the front. Its first war experience was 
gained e)h route to Corinth on the 9th of April, 1862, and at Pea 
Ridge on the 15th. Gallatin, Vinegar Hill, and Perryville, and 
Talbot Station followed in succession, each battle bringing to the 
cavalry untold honors. In May, 1864, it entered upon a glorious 
career under Gen. Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, and again 
under Gen. Wilson in the raid through Alabama during April, 
1865. On tiie 22d of July, after a brilliant career, the regiment was 
mustered out at Nashville, and returned at once to Indianapolis for 

The 42d, under Col J. G. Jones, mustered into service at Evans- 
ville, October 9, 1861, and having participated in the principal 
military affairs of the period, Wartrace. Mission Ridge, Altoona, 
Kenesaw, Savannah, Charlestown and Bentonville, was discharged 
at Indianapolis on the 25th of July, 1865. 

The 43d Battalion was mustered in on the 27th of September, 
1861, under Col. George K. Steele, and left Terre Haute enroute to 
the front within a few days. Later it was aPied. to Gen. Pope's 
corps, and afterwards served with Commodore Foote's marines in 
the reduction of Fort Pillow. It was the first Union regiment to 
enter Memj)his. From that period until the close of the war it was 
distinguished for its unexcelled qualifications as a military body, 
and fully deserved the encomiums passed upon it on its return to 
Indiana])olis in March, 1865. 

The 44th or the Regiment of the 10th Congressional District 
was organized at Fort Wayne on the 24th of October, 1861, under 
Col. Hugh B. Reed. Two months later it was ordered to the front, 
and arriving in Kentucky, was attached to Gen. Cruft's Brigade, 
then quartered at Calhoun. After years of faithful service it was 
mustered out at Chattanooga, the 14th of September, 1865. 

The 45Tn, or Third Cavalry, comprised ten companies 


organized at different periods and for varied services in 1861- 
'62, under Colonel Scott Carter and George H. Chapman. The 
distinguished name won by the Third Cavalry is established in 
every village within the State. Let it suffice to add that after its 
brilliant participation in Gen. Sheridan's raid down the James' 
river canal, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 7th of Au- 
gust, 1865. 

The 4:6th Regiment, organized at Logansport under Colonel 
Graham N. Fitch, arrived in Kentucky the 16th of February, 1862, 
and a little later became attached to Gen. Pope's army, then quar- 
tered at Commerce. The capture of Fort Pillow, and its career 
under Generals Curtis, Palmer, Hovey, Gorman, Grant, Sherman, 
Banks and Burbridge are as truly worthy of applause as ever iell to 
the lot of a regiment. The command was mustered out at Louis- 
ville on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 47th was organized at Anderson, under Col. I. P. Slack, early 
in October, 1862. Arriving at Bardstown, Kentuckj-, on the 21st 
of December, it was attached to Gen. Buell's army; but within two 
months was assigned to Gen. Pope, under whom it proved the first 
regiment to enter Fort Thompson near New Madrid. In 1864 the 
command visited Indianapolis on veteran furlough and was enthu- 
siastically received by Governor Morton and the people. Return- 
ing to the trout it engaged heartily in Gen. Banks' company. In 
December, Col. Slack received his commission as Brigadier-General, 
and was succeeded on the regimental command by Col. J. A. Mc- 
Laughton ; at Shreveport under General Heron it received the sub- 
mission of General Price and his army, and there also was it mus- 
tered out of service on the 23d of October, 1865. 

The 48th Regiment, organized at Goshen tlie 6th of December, 
1861, under Col. Norman Eddy, entered on its duties during the 
siege of Corinth in May, and again in October, 1862. The record 
of this battalion may be said to be unsurpassed in its every feature, 
so that the grand ovation extended to the returned soldiers in 
1865 at Indianapolis, is not a matter for surprise. 

The 49th Regiment, organized at Jeffersonville, under Col. J. "W 
Ray, and mustered in on the 21st of November, 1861, for service, 
left en route for the camp at Bardstown. A month later it arrived 
at the unfortunate camp-ground of Cumberland Ford, where dis- 
ease carried off a number of gallant soldiers. The regiment, how- 
ever, survived the dreadful scourge and won its laurels on manj 


a well-foiiglit field until September, 1865, when it was mustered out 
at Louisville. 

The 50rH Regiment, under Col. Cyrus L. Dunham, organized 
during the month of September, 1S61, at Seymour, left en route to ' 
Bardstown for a course of military instruction. On the 20th of 
August, 1862, a detachment of the 50th, under Capt. Atkinson, was 
attacked by Morgan's Cavalry near Edgefield Junction; but the 
gallant few repulsed their oft-repeated onsets and finally drove 
them from the field. Tlie regiment underwent many changes in 
organization, and may be said to muster out on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, 1865. 

TheSlsT Regiment, under Col. Abel. D. Streight, left Indianap- 
olis on the 14th of December, 1861, for the South. After a short 
course of instruction at Bardstown, the regiment joined General 
Buell's and acted with great eflTect during the campaign in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. Ultimately it became a participator in the 
work of the Fourth Corps, or Army of Occupation, and held the post 
of San Antonio until peace was doubly assured. 

The 5"2d Regiment was partially raised at Rushville, and the 
organization completed at Indianapolis, where it was consolidated 
with the Railway Brigade, or 56th Regiment, on the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1862. Going to the front immediately after, it served with 
marked distinction throughoiit the war, and was mustered out at 
Montgomery on the 10th of September, 1865. Returning to Indian- 
apolis six days later, it was welcomed by Gov. Morton and a most 
enthusiastic reception accorded to it. 

The 53kd Battalion was raised at New Albany, and with the 
addition of recruits raised at Rockport formed a standard regi- 
ment, under command of Col. W. Q. Gresham. Its first duty was 
that of guarding the rebels confined on Camp Morton, but on 
going to the front it made for itself an endurable name. It was nnis- 
tered out in July, 1865, and returned to Indiananoplis on the 25tli 
of the same month. 

The 51:TH Regiment was raised at Indianapolis on the 10th of 
June, 1862, for three months' service under Col. D.G.Rose. The 
succeeding two months saw it in charge of the prisoners at Camp 
Morton, and in August it was pushed forward to aid in the defense 
of Kentucky against the Confederate General, Kirby Smith. The 
remainder of its short term of service was given to the cause. On the 
muster out of the three months' service regiment it was reorgan- 


ized for one year's service and gained some distinction, after which 
it was mustered out in 1863 at New Orleans. 

The 55th Regiment, organized for three months' service, retains 
the brief history applicable to the first organization of the 5-tth. 
It was mustered in on the 16th of June, 1862, under Col. J. R. 
Mahon, disbanded on the expiration of its term and was not reor- 

The 56th Regiment, referred to in the sketch of the 5'2nd. was 
designed to be composed of railroad men, marshalled under J M. 
Smith as Colonel, but owing to the fact that many railroaders had 
already volunteered into other regiments, Col. Smith's volunteers 
were incorporated with the 52nd, and this number left blank in the 
army list. 

The 57th Battalion, actually organized by two ministers of the 
gospel, — the Rev. I. W. T. McMuUen and Rev. F. A. Ilardin, of 
Richmond, Ind., mustered into service on the IStli of Novem- 
ber, 1861, under the former named reverend gentleman as Colonel» 
who was, however, succeeded by Col. Cyrus C. Haynes, and he in 
turn by G. W. Leonard, Willis Blanch and John S. McGrath, the 
latter holding command until the conclusion of the war. The 
history of this battalion is extensive, and if participation in a num- 
ber of battles with the display of rare gallantry wins fame, the 57th 
may rest assured of its possession of this fragile yet coveted prize. 
Like many other regiments it concluded its military labors in the 
service of General Sheridan, and held the post of Port Lavaca in 
conjunction with another regiment until peace dwelt in the land. 

The 58th Regiment, of Princeton, was organized there early in 
October, 1861, and was mustered into service under the Colonelcy 
of Henry M. Carr. In December it was ordered to join Gen- 
eral Buell's army, after which it took a share in the various 
actions of the war, and was mustered out on the 25th of July, 1865, 
at Louisville, having gained a place on the roll of honor. 

The 59th Battalion was raised under a commission issued by 
Gov. Morton to Jesse I. Alexander, creating him Colonel. Owing 
to the peculiarities hampering its organization, Col. Alexander could 
not succeed in having his regiment prepared to muster in before 
the 17th of February, 18G2. However, on that day the equipment 
was complete, and on the 18th it left en route to Commerce, where 
on its arrival, it was incorporated under General Pope's command. 
The list of its casualties speaks a history, — no less than 793 men 
were lost during the campaign. The regiment, after a term char- 


acterized hy distinguislied service, was mustered out at Louisvillo 
on tlie 17th of July, 1S65. 

The 60th Regiment was partially organized under Lieut.-Col. 
Kicliard Owen at Evansville during November 1861, and perfected 
at Camp Morton during March, 1862. Its first experience was its 
gallant resistance to Bragg's army investing Munfordsville, which 
culminated in the unconditional surrender of its first seven com- 
panies on the 14fh of September. An exchange of prisoners took 
place in November, which enabled it to joine the remaining com- 
panies in the field. The subsequent record is excellent, and forms, 
as it were, a monument to their fidelity and heroism. The main 
portion of this battalion was mustered out at Indianapolis, on the 
21st of March, 1S65. 

The 61sT was partially organized in December, 1861, under Col. 
B. F. Mullen. The failure of thorough organization on the 22d of 
May, 1862, led the men and ofticers to agree to incorporation with 
the 35th Regiment of Volunteers. 

The 62d Battalion, raised under a commission issued to Wil- 
liam Jones, of Rockport, authorizing him to organize this regiment 
in the First Congressional District was so unsuccessful that consoli- 
dation with the 53d Regiment was resolved upon. 

The 63d Regiment, of Covington, under James McMauomy, 
Commandant ot Camp, and J. S. Williams, Adjutant, was partially 
organized on the 31st of December, 1861, and may be considered 
on duty from its very formation. After guarding prisoners at 
Camp Morton and Lafayette, and engaging in battle on Manassas 
Plains on the 30th of August following, the few companies sent 
out in February, 1862, returned to Indianapolis- to find six new 
companies raised under the call of July, 18G2, ready to embrace 
the fortunes of the 63d. So strengthened, the regiment went forth 
to battle, and continued to lead in the paths of honor and fidelity 
until mustered out in May and June, 1865. 

The 64th Regiment failed in organization as an artillery corps; 
but orders received from the War Department prohibiting the con- 
solidation of independent batteries, put a stop to any further move 
in the matter. However, an infantry regiment bearing the same 
number was afterward organized. 

The 65th was mustered in at Princeton and Evansville, in July 
and August, 1862, under Col. J. W. Foster, and left at once e/b 
route for the front. The record of this battalion is creditable, not 
onlv to its members, but also to the State which claimed it. Its 


last action daring the war was on the ISth and 20th of February, 
1865, at Fort Anderson and Town creek, after whicli, on the 22d 
June, it was disbanded at Greensboro. 

The 66th Regimext partially organized at New Albany, under 
Commandant Roger Martin, was ordered to leave for Kentucky on 
the 19th of August, 1^62, for the defense of that State against the 
incursions of Kirby Smith. After a brilliant career it was mus- 
tered out at Washington on the 3d of June, 1865, after which it 
returned to Indianapolis to receive the thanks of a grateful people. 

The 67th Regiment was organized within the Third Congressional 
District under Col. Frank Emerson, and was ordered to Louisville 
on the 20th of August, 1S62, whence it marched to Munfordville, 
only to share the same fate with the other gallant regiments en- 
gaged against Gen. Bragg's advance. Its roll of honor extends 
down the years of civil disturbance, — always adding garlands, un- 
til Peace called a truce in the fascinating race after fame, and insured 
a term of rest, wherein its members could think on comrades forever 
vanished, and temper the sad thought with the sublime mem- 
ories born of that chivalrous fight for the maintenance and integri- 
ty of a great Republic. At Galveston on the 19tli of July, 1S65. the 
gallant 67th Regiment was mustered out, and returning within a 
iew days to its State received the enthusiastic ovations of lier citi- 

The 68th Regiment, organized at Greensburg under Major Ben- 
jamin C. Shaw, was accepted for general service the 19th of August, 
1862, under Col. Edward A. King, with Major Shaw as Lieutenant 
Colonel; on the 25th its arrival at Lebanon was reported and with- 
in a few days it appeared at the defense of Munfordville; Imt shar- 
ing in the fate of all the defenders, it surrendered uuconditionallv to 
Gen. Bragg and did not participate further in the actions of that 
jear, nor until after the exchange of prisoners in 1S63. From this 
period it may lay claim to an enviable history extending to the end 
of the war, when it was disembodied. 

The 69th Regiment, of Richmond, Ind., under Col. A. Bickle, 
left for the front on the 20th ot August, 1S62. and ten days later 
made a very brilliant stand at Richmond, Kentucky, against 
the advance of Gen. Kirby Smith, losing in the engagement two 
hundred and eighteer; men and officers together with, its liberty. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was reorganized under 
Col. T. "W. Bennett and took the field in December, 1862, under 


Generals Sheldon, Morgan and Sherman of Grant's army. Chick- 
asaw, Vicksburg, Blakely and many other names testify to the valor 
of the 69th. The remnant of the regiment was in January, 1865, 
formed into a battalion under Oran Perry, and was mustered out in 
July following. 

The 70th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 12th of 
August, 1862, under Col. B. Harrison, and leaving for Louisville on 
the 13th, shared in the honors cf Brace's division at Franklin 
and Russellville. The record of the regiment is brimful of honor. 
It was mustered out at Washington, June 8, 1865, and received at 
Indianapolis with public honors. 

The 71sT OR Sixth Cavalry was organized as an infantry regi- 
ment, at Terre Haute, and mustered into general service at Indian- 
apolis on the 18th of August, 1862, under Lieut. -Col. Melville D. 
Topping. Twelve days later it was engaged outside Richmond, 
Kentucky, losing two hundred and fifteen otScers and men, includ- 
ing Col. Topping and Major Conklin, together with three hundred 
and forty-seven prisoners, only 225 escaping death and capture. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was re-formed under 
Col. I. Bittle, but on the 28th of December it surrendered to Gen, 
J. H. Morgan, who attacked its position at Muldraugh's Hill with a 
force of 1,000 Confederates. During September and October, 1863, 
it was organized as a cavalry regiment, won distinction throughout 
its career, and was mustered out the loth of September, 1865, at 

The 77th Regiment was organized at Lafayette, &nd left en route 
to Lebanon, Kentucky, on the 17th of August, 1862. Under Col. 
Miller it won a series of honors, and mustered out at Nashville on 
the 26th of June, 1865. 

The 73kd Regiment, under Col. Gilbert Hathaway, was mustered 
in at South Bend on the 16th of August, 1862, and proceeded im- 
mediately to the front. Day's Gap, Crooked Creek, and the high 
eulogies of Generals Rosencrans and Granger speak its long and 
brilliant history, nor were the welcoming shouts of a great people 
and the congratulations of Gov. Morton, tendered to the regiment 
on its return home, in July, 1865, necessary to sustain its well won 

The 74th Regiment, partially organized at Fort Wayne and made 
almost complete at Indianapolis, left for the seat of war on the 22d 
of August, 1S62, under Col. Charles W. Chapman. The desperate 
opposition to Gen. Bragg, and the magnificent defeat of Morgan, 


together with the battles of Dallas, Cliattahoochie river, Kenesaw 
and Atlanta, where Lieut. Col. Myron Baker was killed, all bear evi- 
dence of its never surpassed gallantry. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice on the 9t]i of June, 1865, at Washington. On the return of the 
regiment to Indianapolis, the war Governor and people tendered it 
special honors, and gave expression to the admiration and regard 
in which it was held. 

The 7oTH Regiment was organized within the Eleventh Congress- 
ional District, and left Wabash, onthe2Ist of August, 1862, for the 
front, under Col. I. W. Petit. It was tlie first regiment to enter 
Tullahoma, and oneof the last engaged in the battles of the Repub- 
lic. After the submission of Gen. Jolinson's army, it was mustered 
out at Washington, on the 8th of June 1865. 

The 76th Battalion was solely organized for thirty days' service 
Under Colonel James Gavin^ for the purpose of pursuing the rebel 
guerrilas, who plundered Newburg on the 13th July, 1862. It was 
organized and equipped within forty-eight hours, and during its 
term of service gained the name, " The Avengers of Newburg." 

The 77th, or Fourth Cavalry, was organized at the State capi- 
tal in August, 1862, under Colonel Isaac P. Gray. It carved its 
way to fame over twenty battlefields, and retired from service at 
Edgefield, on the 29tii June, 1865. 

The 79th Regiment was mustered in at Indianapolis on the 2nd 
September, 1862, under Colonel Fred Kneiler. Its history may be 
termed a record of battles, as the great numbers of battles, from 
1862 to the conclusion of hostilities, were participated in by it. 
The regiment received its discharge on tiie 11th June, 1865, at 
Indianapolis. During its continued round of field duty it captured 
eighteen guns and over one tliousand prisoners. 

The SOth Regiment was organized within the First Congress- 
ional District under Col. C. Denby, and equipped at Indianapolis, 
when, on the 8th of September, 1862, it left for the front. During 
its term it lost only two prisoners; but its list of casualties sums 
up 325 men and officers killed and wounded. The regiment may 
be said to muster out on the 22nd of June, 1865, at Saulsbur3% 

The 81sT Regiment, of New Albany, under Colonel W. W. 
Caldwell, was organized on the 29th August, 1862j and proceeded 
at once to join Buell's headquarters, and join in the pursuit of 
General Bragg. Throughout the terrific actions of the war its 
influence was felt, imr did its labors cease until it aided in driving 
the rebels across the Tennessee. It was disembodied at Nashville 


on the 13tli J\me, 1865, and returned to Indianapolis on the 15th, 
to receive the well-merited congratulations of Governor Morton 
and the people. 

The S2nd Regiment, under Colonel Morton C. Hunter, was 
mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 30th August, 1S62, and 
leaving iinnicdiately for the seat of war, participated in many of 
the great battles down to the return of peace. It was mustered out 
at Washington on the 9th June, 1865, and soon returned to its 
State to receive a grand recognition of its faithful service. 

The S3ku Regiment, of Lawrenceburg, un<ler Colonel Ben. J. 
Spooner, was organized in September, 1S62, and soon left en route 
to the Missi»sip])i. Its subsequent history, the fact of its being 
under tire for a total term of 4,800 hours, and its wanderings over 
6,285 miles, leave nothing to be said in its defense. Master of a 
thousand honors, it was mustered out at Louisville, on the 15th 
July, 1865, and returned home to enjoy a well-merited repose. 

The SrtTii Regiment was mustered in at Richmond, Ind., on the 
8th September, 1862, under Colonel Nelson Trusler. Its first 
military duty was on the defenses of Covington, in Kentucky, and 
Cincinnati; but after a short time its labors became more con- 
genial, and tended to the great disadvantage of the slaveholding 
■enemy on many well -contested fields. This, like the other State 
regiments, won many distinctions, and retired from the service on 
the Uth of June, 1865, at Nashville. 

The 85th Regiment was mustered at Terre Haute, under Colonel 
John P. Bayard, on the 2d September, 1862. On the 4th March, 
1863, it shared in the unfortunate affair at Thompson's Station, 
when in common with the other regiments forming Coburn's Bri- 
gade, it surrendered to the overpowering forces of the rebel 
General, Forrest. In June, 1863, after an exchange, it again took 
the field, and won a large portion of that renown accorded to 
Indiana. It was mustered out on the 12th of June, 1865. 

Tlie 86th Regiment, of La Fayette, left for Kentucky on the 26th 
August, 1862, under Colonel OrvilleS. Hamilton, and shared in the 
duties assigned to the S4th. Its record is very creditable, particu- 
larly that portion dealing with the battles of Nashville on the 15th 
«nd 16th December, 1864. It was mustered out on the 6th of June, 
1865, and reported within a few daj's at Indiana{)olis for discharge. 

The 87th Regiment, organized at South Bend, under Colonels 
Kline G. Sherlock and N. Gleason, was accepted at Indianapolis 
on the 31st of August, 1862, and left on the same day en route to 


the front. From Springfield and Perryville on the 6th and 8th of 
October, 1862, to Mission Ridge, on the 25th of November, 1863, 
thence througii the Atlanta campaign to the surrender of the South- 
ern armies, it upheld a gallant name, and met with a true and en- 
thusiastic welcome- home on the 21st of June, 1865, with a list of 
absent comrades aggregating 451. 

The 88th Regiment, organized within the Fourth Congressional 
District, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, entered the service on th& 
29th of August, 1862, and presently was found among the front 
ranks in war. It passed through the campaign in brilliant form 
down to the time of Gen. Johnson's surrender to Gen. Grant, after 
which, on the 7th of June, 1865, it was mustered out at Washing, 

The 89th Regiment, formed from the material of the 
Eleventh Congressional District, was mustered in at Indianapolis, 
on the 2Sth of August, 1862, under Col. Chas. D. Murray, and 
after an exceedingly brilliant campaign was discharged by Gov. 
Morton on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 90th Regiment, ok Fifth Cavalry, was organized at 
Indianapolis under the Colonelcy of Felix W. Graham, between 
August and November, 1862. The different companies, joining 
headquarters at Louisville on the 11th of March, 1863, engaged in 
observing the movements of the enemy in the vicinity of Cumber- 
land river until the 19th of April, when a first and successful 
brush was had with the rebels. The regiment had been in 22 en- 
gagements during the term of service, captured 640 prisoners, and 
claimed a list of casualties mounting up to the number of 829. 
It was mustered out on the 16th of June, 1865, at Pulaski. 

The 91st Battalion, of seven companies, was mustered into 
service at Evansville, the 1st of October, 1862, under Lieut-Colonel 
John Mehringer, and in ten days later left for the front. In 
1863 the regiment was completed, and thenceforth took a very 
prominent position in the prosecution of the war. During its ser- 
vice it lost 81 men, and retired from the field on the 26th of June, 

The 92d Regiment failed in organizing. 

The 93d Regiment was mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 
20th of October, 1862, under Col. De Witt C. Thomas and Lieut.- 
Col. Geo. W. Carr. On the 9th of November it began a move- 
ment south, and ultimately allied itself to Buckland's Brigade of 


Gen. Sheiiiiairs. On the litli of May it was among the first regi- 
ments to enter Jackson, the capital of Mississipj)!; was next pres- 
ent at the assault on A^ickshurg, and made a stirring campaign 
down to the storming of Fort Blakely on tlie 9th of April, 1S65. 
It was discharged on the 11th of August, that year, at Indianapo- 
lis, after receiving a public ovation. 

The 94th and 95th Regiments, authorized to be formed within 
the Fourth and Fifth Congressional Districts, respectively, were 
only partially organized, and so the few companies that could be 
mustered were incorporated with other regiments. 

The 96th Regiment could only bring together three companies, 
in the Sixth Congressional District, and these becoming incoroo- 
rated with the 99th then in process of formation at South Eend, the 
number was left blank. 

The 97th Regiment, raised in the Seventh Congressional Dis- 
trict, was mustered into service at Terre Haute, on the 20th of 
September, 1861, under Col. Robert F. Catterson. Reaching the 
front within a few days, it was assigned a position near Memphis, 
and subsequently joined in Gen. Grant's movement on Vicksburg, 
by overland route. After a succession of great exploits with the 
several armies to which it was attached, it completed its list of 
battles at Bentonville, on the 21st of March, 1S6.5, and was dis- 
embodied at Washington on the 9th of June following. During its 
term of service the regiment lost 341 men, including the three 
Ensigns killed during the assaults on rebel positions along the 
Augusta Railway, from the 15th to the 27th of June, 1864. 

The 98th Regiment, authorized to be raised within the Eighth 
Congressional District, failed in its organization, and the number 
was left blank in the army list. The two companies answering to 
the call of July, 1862, were consolidated with the 100th Regiment 
then being organized at Fort Wayne. 

The 99th Battalion, recruited within the Ninth Congressional 
District, completed its muster on the 21st of October, 1862, under 
Col. Alex. Fawler, and reported for service a few days later at 
Memphis, where it was assigned to the 16th Army Corps. The va- 
ried vicissitudes through which this regiment passed and its remark- 
able gallantry upon all occasions, have gained for it a fair fame. 
It was disembodied on the 5th of June, 1865, at Washington, and 
returned to Lidianapulis on the 11th of the same month. 

The 100th Regiment, recruited from the Eighth and Tenth 
Congressional Districts, under Col. Sandford J. Stoughton, mustered 



into the service on tlie 10th of September, left for the front on the 
11th of November, and became attached to the Army of Tennessee 
on the 26th of that month, 1862. The regiment participated in 
twenty-live battles, together with skirmishing during fully one-third 
of its term of service, and claimed a list of casualties mounting up 
to four hundred and sixty-four. It was mustered out of the ser- 
vice at Washington on the 9th of June, aud reported at Indianapolis 
fur discharge on the 14th of June, 1865. 

The lOlsT Regiment was mustered into service at "Wabash on 
the 7th of September, 1862, under Col. William Garver, and pro- 
ceeded immediately to Covington, Kentucky. Its early experiences 
were gained in the pursuit ofBragg's army and John Morgan's 
cavalrj', and these experiences tendered to render the regiment one 
of the most valuable in the war for the Republic. From the defeat 
of John Morgan at Milton on the 18th of March, 1863, to the fall 
of Savannah on the 23rd of September, 1863, the regiment won 
manj' honors, and retired from the service on the 25th of June, 
1865, at Indianapolis. 


The 102d Regiment, organized under Col. Benjamin M. Gregory 
from companies of the Indiana Legion, and numbering six hun- 
dred and twenty-three men and officers, left Indianapolis for the 
front early in July, and reported at North Vernon on the 12th of 
July, 1863, and having completed a round of duty, returned to In- 
dianapolis on the 17th to be discharged. 

The 103d, comprising seven companies from Hendricks county, 
two from Marion and one from Wa^'ne counties, numbering 681 
men and officers, under Col. Lawrence S. Shuler, was contemporary 
with the 102d Regiment, varying only in its service by being mus- 
tered out one day before, or on the 16th of July, 1863. 

The lOlrTe Regiment of Minute Men was recruited from mem- 
bers of the Legion of Decatur, La Fayette, Madison, Marion and Rush 
counties. It comprised 714r men and officers under the command 
of Col. James Gavin, and was organized within forty hours after the 
issue of Governor Morton's call for minute men to protect Indiana 
and Kentucky against the raids of Gen. John H Morgan's rebel 
forces. After Morgan's escape into Ohio the command returned 
and was mustered out on the ISth of July, 1863. 

The 105th Regiment consisted of seven companies of the Legion 
and three of Minute Men, furnished by Hancock, Union, Randolph, 


Putnam, Wayne, Clinton and Madison counties. The cunmiaiid 
numbered seven hundred and thirteen men and officers, under Cul. 
Sherlock, and took a leading part in the pursuit of Morgan. Ke- 
turningon the ISth of July to Indianapolis it was mustered out. 

The 106th Regiment, under Col. Isaac P. Gray, consisted of 
one company of the Legion and nine companies of Minute Men, 
aggregating seven hundi'ed and ninety-two men and officers. The 
counties of Wayne, Randolph, Hancock, Howard, and Marion were 
represented in its rank and file. Like the other regiments organized 
to repel Morgan, it was disembodied in July, 1863. 

The 107th Regiment, under Col. De Witt C. Rugg, was organ- 
ized in the city of Indianapolis from the companies' Legion, or 
Ward Guards. The successes of this promptly organized regiment 
were unquestioned. 

The 108th Regiment comprised five companies of Minute Men, 
from Tippecanoe county, two from Hancock, and one from each of 
the counties known as Carroll, Montgomery and Wayne, aggregat- 
ing 710 men and officers, and all under the command of Col. W. C. 
Wilson. After performing the only duties presented, it returned 
from Cincinnati on the 18th of July, and was mustered out. 

The 109th Regiment, composed of Minute Men from Coles 
county. 111., La Porte, Hamilton, Miami and Randolph counties, 
Ind., showed a roster of 709 officers and men, under Col. J. R. 
Mahon. Morgan having escaped from Ohio, its duties were at an 
end, and returning to Indianapolis was mustered out on the 17th 
of July, 1863, after seven days' service. 

The HOth Regiment of Minute Men comprised volunteers from 
Henry, Madison, Delaware, Cass, and Monroe counties. The men 
were ready and willing, if not really anxious to go to the front. But 
happily the swift-winged Morgan was driven away, and conse- 
quently the regiment was not called to the field. 

Tlie 111th Regiment, furnished by Montgomery, Lafayette, 
Rush, Miami, Monroe, Delaware and Hamilton counties, number- 
ing 733 men and officers, under Col. Robert Canover, was not 

The 112tu Regiment was formed from nine companies of Min- 
ute Men, and the Mitchell Light Infantry Company of the Legion. 
Its strength was 703 men and officers, under Col. Hiram F. Brax- 
ton. Lawrence, Washington, Monroe and Orange counties were 
represented on its roster, and the historic names of North Vernon 
and Suninan's Station on its banner. Returning from the South 


after seven days' service, it was mustered out ou the I7th of 
July, 1S63. 

The lloTii Rkgiment, furnished by Daviess, Martin, Wasliington, 
and Monroe counties, comprised 526 rank and tile under Col. Geo. 
W. Burge. Like the 112th, it was assigned to Gen. Huglies' 
Brigade, and defended North Vernon against the repeated attacks 
of John 11. Morgan's forces. 

The 114rTH Regiment was wholly organized in Johnson county, 
under Col. Lambertson, and participated in the afiair of North 
Vernon. Returning on the 21st of July, 1863, with its brief but 
faithful record, it was disembodied at Indianapolis, 11 days after 
its organization. 

All these regiments were brought into existence to meet an 
emergency, and it must be confessed, that had not a sense of 
duty, military instinct and love of country animated these regi- 
ments, the rebel General, John H. Morton, and his 6,000 cavalry^ 
would doubtless have carried destruction as far as the very capital 
of their State. 

SIX months' regiments. 

The 115th Regiment, organized at Indianapolis in answer to the 
call of the President in June, 1863, was mustered into service on 
the 17th of August, under Col. J. R. Mahon. Its service was short 
but brilliant, and received its discharge at Indianapolis the 10th. 
of February, 1864. 

The 116th Regiment, mustered in on the 17th of August, 1863,. 
moved to Detroit, Michigan, on the 30th, under Col. Charles Wise. 
During October it was ordered to Nicholasville, Kentucky, where it 
was assigned to Col. Mahon's Brigade, and with Gen. "Willcox's 
entire command, joined in the forward movement to Cumberland 
Gap. After a term on severe duty it returned to Lafayette and 
there was disembodied on the 24rth of February, 1864, whither Gov. 
Morton hastened, to share in the ceremonies of welcome. 

The 117th Regiment of Indianapolis was mustered into service 
on the 17th of September, 1863, under Col. Thomas J. Brady. 
After surmounting every obstacle opposed to it, it returned on the 
6th of February, 1864, and was treated to a public reception on 
the 9th. 

The 118th Regiment, whose organization was completed on the 
3d of September, 1863, under Col. Geo. W. Jackson, joined the 
116th at Nicholasville, and sharing in its fortunes, returned to the 


State capital on the 14th of February, isei. Its casualties were 
comprised in a list of 15 killed and wounded. 

The 119th, or Seventh Cavalry, was recruited under Col. John 
P. C. Shanks, and its organization completed on the 1st of Octo- 
ber, 1863. The rank and tile numbered 1,213, divided into twelve 
companies. On the 7th of December its arrival at Louisville was 
reported, and on the 14th it entered on active service. After the 
well-fought battle of Guntown, Mississippi, on the 10th of June, 
1864, although it only brought defeat to our arms. General Grier- 
son addressed the Seventh Cavalry, saying: " Your General con- 
gratulates you upon your noble conduct during the late expedition. 
Fighting against overwhelming numbers, under adverse circum- 
stances, your prompt obedience to orders and uiiflincliing courage 
commanding the admiration of all, made even defeat almost a vic- 
tory. For hours on foot you repulsed the charges of the enemies' in- 
fantry, and again in the saddle you met his cavalry and turned his 
assaults into confusion. Your heroic perseverance saved hundreds 
of your fellow-soldiers from capture. You have been faithful to 
your honorable reputation, and have fully justified the confidence, 
and merited the high esteem of your commander." 

Early in 1865, a number of these troops, returning from impris- 
onment in Southern bastiles, were lost on the steamer "Sultana." 
The survivors of the camjiaign continued in the service for a long 
period after the restoration of peace, and finally mustered out. 

The 120Tn Regiment. In September, 1863, Gov. Morton re- 
ceived authority from the War Department to organize eleven regi- 
ments within the State for three years' service. By April, 1864, 
this organization was complete, and being transferred to the com- 
mand of Brigadier General Alvin P. Ilovey, were formed by him 
into a division for service with the Army of Tennessee. Of tliose 
regiments, the 120th occupied a very prominent place, both on ac- 
count of its numbers, its perfect discipline and high reputation. 
It was mustered in at Columbus, and was in all the great battles 
of the latter years of the war. It won high praise from friend 
and foe, and retired with its bright roll of honor, after the success 
of Right and Justice was accomplished. 

The 121st, or Ninth Cavalry, was mustered in March 1, 1864, 
under Col. George W. Jackson, at Indianapolis, and though not 
numerically strong, was so well equipped and possessed such excel- 
lent material that on the 3rd of May it was ordered to the front. 
The record of the 12 1st, though extending over a brief period, is 


pregnant with deeds of war of a high character. On the 26th of 
April, 1865, these troops, while returning from their labors in the 
South, lost 55 men, owing to the explosion of the engines of the 
steamer " Sultana." The return of the 386 survivors, on the 5th of 
September, 1865, was hailed with joy, and proved how well and 
dearly the citizens of Indiana loved their soldiers. 

The 122d Regiment ordered to be raised in the Third Congres- 
sional District, owing to very few men being then at home, failed 
in organization, and the regimental number became a blank. 

The 123d Reoiment was furnished by the Fourth and Seventh 
Congressional Districts during the winter of lS63-'64, and mus- 
tered, March 9, 1864, at Greensburg, under Col. John C. McQuis- 
ton. The command left for the front the same day, and after win- 
ning rare distinction during the last years of the campaign, par- 
ticularly in its gallantry at Atlanta, and its daring movement to 
escape Forrest's 15,000 rebel horsemen near Franklin, this regi- 
ment was discharged on the 30th of August, 1865, at Indianapolis, 
being mustered out on the 25th, at Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 124th Regiment completed its organization by assuming 
three companies raised for the 125th Regiment (which was intended 
to be cavalry), and was mustered in at Richmond, on the 10th of 
March, 1864, under Colonel James Burgess, and reported at Louis- 
ville within nine days. From Buzzard's Roost, on the 8th of May, 
1864, under General Schofield, Lost Mountain in June, and the 
capture of Decatur, on the 15th July, to the 21st March, 1865, ia 
its grand advance under General Sherman from Atlanta to the 
coast, the regiment won many laurel wreaths, and after a brilliant 
campaign, was mustered out at Greensboro on the 31st August^ 

The 125th, oe Tenth Cavalry, was partially organized during^ 
November and December, 1862, at Vincennes, and in February, 
1863, completed its numbers and equipment at Columbus, under 
Colonel T. M. Pace. Early in May its arrival in Nashville was. 
reported, and presently assigned active service. During September 
and October it engaged rebel contingents under Forrest and Hood, 
and later in the battles of Nashville, Reynold's Hill and Sugar 
Creek, and in 1865 Flint River, Courtland and Mount Hope. The 
explosion of the Sultana occasioned the loss of thirty-five men with 
Captain Gaffney and Lieutenants Twigg and Reeves, and in a 
collision on the Nashville & Louisville railroad. May, 1864, lost 
live men killed and several wounded. After a term of service un- 


surpassed for its utility aud ciiaracter it was disembodied at Vicks- 
burg, Mississippi, ou tlie 31st August, 1S65, and returning to 
Indiaiiajwlis early in September, was welcomed by tlie Executive 
and people. 

Tlie 120tii, ok Eleventh Cavalry, was organized at Indian- 
apolis under Colonel Robert R. Stewart, ou the 1st of March, 186i, 
and left in May for Tennessee. It took a ver}' conspicuous part in 
the defeat of Hood near Nashville, joining in the pursuit as far as 
Gravelly Springs, Alabama, where it was dismounted and assigned 
infantry duty. In June, 1865, it was remounted at St. Louis, and 
moved to Fort Hiley, Kansas, and thence to Leavenworth, where it 
was mustered out on the 19tli September, 1865. 

The 127th, or Twelfth Cavalry, was partially organized at 
Kendallville, in December, 1863, and perfected at the same place, 
under Colonel Edward Anderson, in April, 1864. Reaching the 
front in May, it went into active service, took a prominent part in 
the march through Alabama and Georgia, and after a service bri.- 
liant in all its parts, retired from the field, after discharge, on the 
22d of November, 1865. 

The 128th Regiment was raised in the Tenth Congressional Dis- 
trict of the period, and mustered at Michigan City, under Colonel 
R. P. De Hart, on the 18th March, 186J-. On the 25tli it was 
reported at the front, and assigned at once to Schotield's Division. 
The battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, 
Kenesaw, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Daltoii, Brentwood Hills, Nashville, 
and the six days' skirmish of Columbia, were all participated in by 
the 128th, and it continued in service long after the termination 
of hostilities, holding the post of Raleigli, North Carolina. 

The 129th Regiment was, like the former, mustered in at 
Michigan City about the same time, under Colonel Charles Case, 
and moving to the front on the 7th April, 1864, shared in the for- 
tunes of the 128th until August 29, 1865, when it was disembodied 
at Charlotte, Notrh Carolina. 

The 130th Regiment, mustered at Kokomo on the 12th March, 
1864, under Colonel C. S. Parrish, left eti route to the seat of war 
on the 16th, and was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, 
Twenty-third Army Corps, at Nashville, on the 1.9th. During the 
war it made for itself a brilliant history, and returned to Indian- 
apolis with its well-won honors on the 13th DecemDer, 1865. 

The 131sT, OR Thirteenth Cavalry, under Colonel G. M L. 
Johnson, was the last mounted regiment recruited within the State. 


It left Indianapolis on tlie 30th of April, 1864, in infantry trim, 
and gained its first honors on the 1st of October in its magnificent 
defense of Huntsville, Alabama, against the rebel division of 
General Buford, following a line of first-rate military conduct to 
the end. In January, 1865, the regiment was remounted, won 
some distinction in its modern form, and was mustered out at 
Vicksburg on the ISth of JSTovember, 1865. The morale and 
eervices of the regiment were such that its Colonel was promoted 
Brevet Brigadier-General in consideration c)f its merited honors. 


Governor Morton, in obedience to the offer made under his auspices 
to the general Government to raise volunteer regiments for one hun- 
dred days' service, issued his call on the 23rd of April, 1864. This 
movement suggested itself to the inventive genius of the war Gov- 
ernor as a most important step toward the subjection or annihila- 
tion of the military supporters of slavery within a year, and thus 
conclude a war, which, notwithstanding its holy claims to the name 
of Battles for Freedom, was becoming too protracted, and proving 
too detrimental to the best interests of the Union. In answer to 
the esteemed Governor's call eight regiments came forward, and 
formed Tlie Grand Division of the Volunteers. 

The 132d Eegiment, under Col. S. C. Vance, was furnished by 
Indianapolis, Shelbyville, Franklin and Danville, and leaving on 
the 18th of May, 1864, reached the front where it joined the forces 
actinfif in Tennessee. 

The 133d Regiment, raised at Richmond on the 17th of May, 
1864, under Col. R. N. Hudson, comprised nine companies, and 
followed the 132d. 

The 134Tn Regiment, comprising seven companies, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis on the 25th of Maj, 1864, under Col. James 
Gavin, and proceeded immediately to the front. 

The 135th Regiment was raised from the volunteers of Bedford, 
Noblesville and Goshen, with seven companies from the First Con- 
gressional District, under Col. W. C. Wilson, on the 25th of May, 
1864, and left at once en route to the South. 

The 136th Regiment comprised ten companies, raised in the 
same districts as those contributing to the 135th, under Col. J. W. 
Foster, and left for Tennessee on the 24th of May, 1864. 

The 137th Regiment, under Col. E. J. Robinson, comprising 
volunteers from Kokomo, Zanesviile, Medora, Sullivan, Rockville, 


and Owen and Lawrence counties, left en route to Tennessee on the 
28th of May, 1864, having completed organization the day previous. 

The 138th Reqiment was formed of seven companies from the 
Ninth, with three from the Eleventh Congressional District (un- 
reformed), and mustered in at Indianapolis on the 27th of May, 
186i, under Col. J. H. Shannon. This fine regiment was re- 
ported at the front within a few days. 

The 139th Regiment, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, was raised from 
volunteers furnished by Kendallville, Lawrenceburg, EHzaville, 
Kuightstown, Connersville, Newcastle, Portland, Vevay, New 
Albany, Metamora, Colnmbia City, New Haven and New Phila- 
delphia. It was constituted a regiment on the 8th of June, 1864, 
and appeared among the defenders in Tennessee during that month. 

All these regiments gained distinction, and won an enviable po- 
sition in the glorious history of the war and the no less glorious 
one of their own State in its relation thereto. 

THE president's CALL OF JULY, 1864. 

The 140th Regiment was organized with many others, in response 
to the call of the nation. Under its Colonel, Thomas J. Brady, it pro- 
ceeded to the South on the 15th of November, 1864. Having taken 
a most prominent part in all the desperate struggles, round Nash- 
ville and Murfreesboro in 1864, to Town Creek Bridge on the 20th 
of February, 1S65, and completed a continuous round of severe duty 
to the end, arrived at Indianapolis for discharge on the21st of July, 
where Governor Morton received it with marked honors. 

The 14 1st Regiment was only partially raised, audits few com- 
panies were incorporated with Col Brady's command. 

The 142d Regiment was recruited at Fort Wayne, under Col. I. 
M. Comparct, and was mustered into service at Indianapolis on the 
d of November, 1864. After a steady and exceedingly effective 
service, it returned to Indianapolis on the t6th of July, 1865. 

THE president's CALL OF DECEMBER, 1864, 

Was answered by Indiana in the most material terms. No less 
than fourteen serviceable regiments were placed at the disposal of 
the General Government. 

The 143d Regiment was mustered in, under Col J. T. Grill, on 
the 21st February, 1865, reported at Nashville on the 24th, and af- 
ter a brief but brilliant service returned to the State on the 21st 
October, 1865. 


Tlie 144tu Regiment, under Col. G. W. Kiddle, was mustered in 
on tlie 6th March, 1S65, left on the 9th for Harper's Ferry, took au 
effective part in the close of the campaign and reported at Indian- 
apolis for discharge on the 9th August. 1S65. 

The 145th Rkuiment, under Col. W. A. Adams, left Indianapolis 
on the 18th of February', 1865, and joiningGeii.Steadiuairs division 
at Chattanooga on the 23d was sent on active service. Its duties 
were discharged with rare lidelity until mustered out in Januar}*, 

The IItGth Regiment, unJer Col. M. C. Welsh, left Indianapolis 
on the 11th of March en route to Harper's Ferry, where it was as- 
signed to the army of the Shenandoah. The duties ot this regiment 
were severe and continuous, to the period of its muster out at Bal- 
timore on the 31st of August, 1S65. 

The l-i7TH Regiment, comprised among other volunteers from 
Benton, Lafayette and Henry counties, organized under Col. Milton 
Pedeu on the 13th of March, 1S65, at Indianapolis. It shared a 
fortune similar to that of the 146th, and returned for discharge on 
the 9th of August, 1865. 

The 14Sth Regiment, under Col. N. R. Ruckle, left the State 
capital on the 28th of February, 1865, and reporting at Nashville, 
was sent on "guard and garrison duty into the heart of Tennessee. 
Returning to Indianapolis on the 8th of September, it received a 
final discharge. 

The 149th Regijient was organized at Indianapolis by Col. W. 
H. Fairbanks, and left on the 3d of March, 18G5, for Tennessee, 
where it had the honor of receiving the surrender of the rebel 
forces, and inilitar}' stores of Generals Roddy and Polk. The reg- 
iment was welcomed home by Morton on the 29th of September. 

The 150th Regiment, nnder Col. M. B. Taylor, mustered in on the 
9th of March, 1865, left for the Suuth on the 13th and reported at 
Harper's Ferry on the 17th. This regiment did guard duty at 
Charleston, Winchester, Stevenson Station, Gordon's Springs, and 
after a service characterized by utility, returned on tiie 9th of 
August to Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 151sT Regiment, under Col. J. Healy, arrived at Nashvilleon 
the 9th of March, 1865. On the 14th a movement on Tullahoma 
was undertaken, and three months later returned to Nashville for 
garrison dut}' to the close of the war. It was mustered out on the 
22d of September, 1865. 

The 152d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis, under Col. 





W. W Griswold, and left for Harper's Ferry on the 18th of March, 
1865. It was attached to the provisional divisions of Shenandoah 
Army, and engaged until the 1st of September, when it was dis 
charged at Indianapolis. 

The 153d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 1st of 
March, 1865, under Col. O. H. P. Carey. It reported at Louis- 
ville, and by order of Gen. Palmer, was held on service in Ken- 
tucky, where it was occupied in the exciting but very dangerous 
pastime of fighting Southern guerrillas. Later it was posted at 
Louisville, until mustered out on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 154rTH Regiment, organized under Col. Frank Wilcox, left 
Indianapolis under Major Simpson, for Parkersburg, W. Virginia, 
on the 2Sth of April, 1865. It was assigned to guard and garrison 
duty until its discharge on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 155th Regiment, recruited throughout the State, left on tlie 
26th of Ajiril for Washington, and was afterward assigned to a 
provisional Brigade of the Ninth Army Corps at Alexandria. The 
companies of this regiment were scattered over the country, — at 
Dover, Centreville, Wilmington, and Salisbury, but becoming re- 
united on the 4th of August, 1865, it was mustered out at Dover, . 

Tlie 156th Battalion, under Lieut.-Colonel Cliarles M. Smith, 
left en route to the Shenandoah Valley on the 27th of April, 1S65, 
where it continued doing guard duty to the period of its muster 
out the 4th of August, 1865, at Winchester, Virginia. 

On the return of these regiments to Indianapolis, Gov. Morton 
and the people received them with all that characteristic cordiality 
and enthusiasm peculiarly their own. 


The people of Crawford county, animated with that inspiriting 
patriotism which the war drew forth, organized this mounted com- 
panv on the 25tli of July, 1863, and placed it at the disposal of 
the Government, and it was mustered into service by order of the 
War Secretary, on the 13th of August, 1863, under Captain L. 
Lamb. To the close of tlie year it engaged in the laudable pursuit 
of arresting deserters and enforcing the draft; however, on the 
18th of January, 1864, it was reconstituted and incorporated with 
the Thirteentli Cavalry, with which it continued to serve until the 
treason of Americans against America was conquered. 



The 2Sth Regiment of Colored Troops was recruited through- 
out the State of Indiana, and under Lieut. -Colonel Charles S. 
Eussell, left Indianapolis for the front on the 24th of April, 1864. 
The regiment acted very well in its first engagement with the 
rebels at White House, Virginia, and again with Gen. Sheridan's 
Cavalry, in the swamps of the Chiekahominy. In the battle of 
the "Crater," it lost half its roster; but their place was soon filled 
by other colored recruits from the State, and Russell promoted to 
the Colonelcy, and afterward to Brevet Brigadier-General, when he 
was succeeded in the command b}' Major Thomas H. Logan. 
During the few months of its active service it accumulated quite a 
history, and was ultimately discharged, on the Sth of January, 
1866, at Indianapolis. 

batteries of light artillery. 

First Battery, organized at Evansville, under Captain Martin 
Klauss, and mustered in on the 16th of August, 1861, joined Gen. 
Fremont's army immediately, and entering readily upon its salu- 
tary course, aided in the capture of 950 rebels and their position 
at Blackwater creek. On March the 6th, 1S62 at Elkhorn Tavern, 
and on the Sth at Pea Ridge, the battery ])crformed good service. 
Port Gibson, Champion Hill, Jacksou, the Techo country, Sabine 
Cross Roads, Grand Encore, all tell of its efficacy. In 1864 it was 
subjected to reorganization, when Lawrence Jacoby was raised to 
the Captiancy, vice Klauss resigned. After a long term of useful 
service, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 18th of August, 

Second Battery was organized, under Captain D. G. Rabb, at 
Indianapolis on the 9th of August, 1861, and one month later pro- 
ceeded to the front. It participated in the campaign against Col. 
Cofiee's irregular troops and the rebellious Indians of the Cherokee 
nation. From Lone Jack, Missouri, to Jenkin's Ferry and Fort 
Smith it won signal honors until its reorganization in 1864, and 
even after, to June, 1S65, it maintained a very fair reputation. 

The Third Battery, under Capt. W. W. Frybarger, was organ- 
ized and mustered in at Connersville on the 24th of August, 1861, 
and proceeded immediately to join Fremont's Army of the Mis- 
souri. Moon's Mill, Kirksville, Meridian, Fort de Russy, Alex- 
andria, Round Lake, Tupelo, Clinton and Tallahatchie are naniea 


which may be engraven on its guns. It participated in the affairs 
before Nashville on the 15th and 16th of December, 1864, when 
General Hood's Army was put to route, and at Fort Blakely, out- 
side Mobile, after which it returned home to report for discharge, 
August 21, 1865. 

The FocRTH Battery, recruited in La Porte, Porter and Lake 
counties, reported at the front early in October, 18i>l, and at once 
assumed a prominent place in the army of Gen. Buell. Again 
under Roseucrans and McCook and under General Sheridan at 
Stone River, the services of this battery were much praised, and it 
retained its well-earned reputation to the very day of its muster out 
— the 1st of August, 1866. Its first organization was completed 
under Capt. A. K. Bush, and reorganized in Oct., 1864, under Capt 
B. F. Johnson. 

Tiie Fifth Battery was furnished by La Porte, Allen, Whitley 
and Noble counties, organized under Capt. Peter Simonson, and mus- 
tered into service on the 22d of November, 1861. It comprised 
four six pounders, two being rifled cannon, and two twelve-pounder 
Howitzers with a force of 158 men. Reporting at Camp Gil- 
bert, Louisville, on the 29th, it was shortly after assigned to the 
division of Gen. Mitchell, at Bacon Creek. During its term, it 
served in twenty battles and numerous petty actions, losing its Cap- 
tain at Pine Mountain. The total loss accruing to the battery was 
84 men and officers and four guns It was mustered out on the 
20th of July, 1864. 

The Sixth Battery was recruited at Evansville, under Captain 
Frederick Behr, and left, on the 2d of Oct., 1861, for the front, 
reporting at Henderson, Kentucky, a few days after. Early in 
1862 it joined Gen. Sherman's army at Paducah, and participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th of April. Its history grew in 
brilliancy until the era of peace insured a cessation of its great 

The Seventh Battery comprised volunteers from Terre Haute, 
Arcadia, Evansville, Salem, Lawrenceburg, Columbus, Vin- 
ceniies and Indianapolis, under Samuel J. Harris as its first 
Captain, who was succeeded by G. R. Shallow and O. H. Mor- 
iran after its reorganization. From the siege of Corinth to the 
capture of Atlanta it performed vast services, and returned to 
Indianapolis on the 11th of July, 1865, to be received by the peo- 
ple and hear its history from the lips of the veteran patriot and 
Governor of the State. 


The Eighth Batteey, under Captain G. T. Coclirau, arrived at 
the front on the 26th of February, 1862, and subsequently entered 
upon its real duties at the siege of Corinth. It served with dis- 
tinction throughout, and concluded a well-made campaign under 
Will Stokes, who was appointed Captain of the companies with 
which it was consolidated in March, 1865. 

The Ninth Batteey. The organization of this battery was 
perfected at Indianapolis, on the Ist of January, 1862, under Capt. 
N. S. Thompson. Moving to the front it participated in the aftairs 
of Shiloh, Corinth, Queen's Hill, Meridian, Fort Dick Taylor, Fort 
de Russy, Henderson's Hill, Pleasant Hill, Cotile Landing, Bayou 
Rapids, Mansura, Chicot, and many others, winning a name in 
each engagement. The explosion of the steamer Eclipse at Johnson- 
^alle, above Paducah, on Jan. 27, 1865, resulted in the destruction of 
58 men, leaving only ten to represent the battery. The survivors 
reached Indianapolis on the 6th of March, and were mustered out. 

The Tenth Battery was recruited at Lafayette, and mustered in 
under Capt. Jerome B. Cox, in January, 1861. Having passed 
through the Kentucky campaign against Gen. Bragg, it partici- 
pated in many of the great engagements, and finally returned to 
report for discharge on the 6th of July, 1864, having, in the mean- 
time, won a very fair fame. 

The Eleventh Batteey was organized at Lafayette, and mus- 
tered in at Indianapolis under Capt. Arnold Sutermeister, on the 
I7th of December, 1861. On most of the principal battle-fields. 
from Shiloh, in 1862, to thecapture of Atlanta, it maintained a high 
reputation for military excellence, and after consolidation with the 
Eighteenth, mustered out on tlie 7th of June, 1865. 

Tiie Twelfth Batteey was recruited at Jeffersonville and sub- 
sequently mustered in at Indianapolis. On the 6th of March, 1862, 
it reached Nashville, having been previously assigned to Buell's 
Army. In April its Captain, G. W. Sterling, resigned, and tiie 
position devolved on Capt. James E. White, who, in turn, was suc- 
ceeded by James A. Dunwoody. The record of the battery holds 
a first place in the historj' of the period, and enabled both men and 
officers to look back with pride upon the battle-fields of the land. 
It was ordered home in June, 1865, and on reaching Indianapolis, 
on the Ist of July, was mustered out on the 7th of that month. 

The Thieteenth Batteey was organized under Captain Sewell 
Coulson, during the winter of 1861, at Indianapolis, and proceeded 
to the front in February, 1862. During the subsequent months it 



was occupied in the pursuit of John H. Morgan's raiders, and 
aided effectively in driving them from Kentucky. This artillery 
company returned from the South on the 4th of July, 1865, and 
were discharged the day following. 

Tlie Fourteenth Battery, recruited in Wabash, Miami, Lafay- 
ette, and Huntington counties, under Captain M. 11. Kidd, and 
Lieutenant J. W. H. McGuire, left Indianapolis on the 11th of 
April, 1862, and within a few months one portion of it was cap- 
tured at Lexington by Gen. Forrest's great cavalry command. The 
main battery lost two guns and two men at Guntown, on the Mis- 
sissippi, but proved more successful at Nashville and Mobile. It 
arrived home on the 29th of August, 1865, received a public wel- 
come, and its final discharge. 

The Fifteenth Battery, under Captain I. C. H. Von Sehlin, 
was retained on duty from the date of its organization, at Indian- 
apolis, until the 5th of July, 1862, when it was moved to Harper's 
Ferry. Two months later the gallant defense of Maryland Heights 
was set at naught by the rebel Stonewall Jackson, and the entire 
garrison surrendered. Being paroled, it was reorganized at Indian- 
apolis, and appeared again in the field in March, 1863, where it 
won a splendid renown on every well-fought field to the close of 
the war. It was mustered out on the 24rtli of June, 1865. 

The Sixteenth Battery was organized at Lafayette, under 
Capt. Charles A. Nay lor, and on the 1st of June, 1862, left for 
Washington. Moving to the front with Gen. Pope's command, it 
participated m the battle of Slaughter Mountain, on the 9th of 
August, and South Mountain, and Antietam, under Gen. McClel- 
Ian. This battery was engaged in a large number of general en- 
gagements and flying column affairs, won a very favorable record, 
and returned on the 5tb of July, 1865. 

The Seventeenth Battery, under Capt. Milton L. Miner, was 
mustered in at Indianapolis, on the 20th of May, 1862, left for the 
front on the 5th of July, and subsequently engaged in the Gettys- 
burg expedition, was present at Harper's Ferry, July 6, 1863, and 
at Opequan on the 19th of September. Fisher's Hill, New Mar- 
ket, and Cedar Creek brought it additional honors, and won from 
Gen. Sheridan a tribute of praise for its service on tiiese battle 
grounds. Ordered from Winchester to Indianapolis it was mus- 
tered out there on the 3d of July, 1S65. 

The Eighteenth Battery, under Capt. Eli Lilly, left for the 


front in August, 1862, but did not take a leading part in tlie cam- 
paign until 1S63, when, under Gen. Rosencrans, it appeared jirom- 
inent at Hoover's Gap. From this period to the affairs of West 
Point and Macon, it performed first-class service, and returned to 
its State on the 25th of June, 1865. 

The Nineteenth Battery was mustered into service at Indian- 
apolis, on the 5th of August, 1862, under Capt. S. J. Harris, and 
proceeded immediately afterward to the front, where it participated 
in the campaign against Gen. Bragg. It was present at every post 
of danger to the end of the war, when, after the surrender of John- 
son's army, it returned to Indianapolis. Reaching that city on 
the 6th of June, 1865. it was treated to a public reception and 
received the congratulations of Gov. Morton. Four days later it 

was discharged, 

The Twentieth Battery, organized under Capt. Frank A. Rose, 
left the State capital on the 17th of December, 1862, for the front, 
and reported immediately at Henderson, Kentuck}'. Subsequently 
Captain Rose resigned, and, in 1863, under Capt. Osborn, turned 
over its guns to the 11th Indiana Batter}', and was assigned to the 
charge of siege guns at Nashville. Gov. Morton had the battery 
supplied with new field pieces, and by the 5th of October, 1863, it 
was again in the field, where it won many honors under Sherman, 
and continued to exercise a great influence until its return on the 
23d of June, 1865. 

The Twenty first Battery recruited at Indianapolis, under the 
direction of Captain W. W. Andrew, left on the 9th of September, 
1862, for Covington, Kentucky, to aid in its defense against the 
advancing forces of Gen. Kirby Smith. It was engaged in numerous 
military affairs and may be said to acquire many honors, although 
its record is stained with the names of seven deserters. The battery 
was discharged on the 21st of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-second Battery was mustered in at Indianapolis 
on the 15th of December, 1862, under Capt. B. F. Denning, and 
moved at once to the front. It took a very conspicuous part in the 
pursuit of Morgan's Cavalry, and in many other affairs. It threw 
the first shot into Atlanta, and lost its Captain, who was killed in 
the skirmish line, on the 1st of July. While the list of casualties 
numbers only 35, that of desertions numbers 37. This battery was 
received with public honors on its return, the 25th of June, 1865, 
and mustered out on the 7th of the same month. 


Tlie Twenty-third Battery, recruited in Octolier 1S62, and 
mustered in on the 8th of November, under Capt. I. II. Myers, pro- 
ceeded south, after having rendered very ef&eieiit services at honn' 
in guarding the camps of rebel prisoners. In July, 1865, the battery 
took an active part, under General Boyle's command, in routing 
and capturini^ the raiders at Brandenburgh, and subsequently to 
the close of the war performed very brilliant exploits, reaching 
Indianapolis in June, 1865. It was discharged ou tlie 27th of that 

The Twenty-fourth Battery, under Capt. I. A. Simms, was ' 
enrolled for service on the 29tli of November, 1862; remained 
at Indianapolis on duty until the 13thof March, 1863, when 
it left for the field. From its participation iu the Cumberland 
River campaign, to its last engagement at Columbia, Tennessee, it 
aided materially in bringing victory to the Union ranks and made 
for itself a widespread fame. Arriving at Indianapolis on the 2Sth 
of July, it was publicly received, and in five days later disembodied. 

The Twenty -FIFTH Battery was recruited in September and Oc- 
tober, 1864, and mustered into service for one year, under Capt. 
Frederick C. Sturm. December 13th, it reported at Nashville, and 
took a prominent part in the defeat of Gen. Hood's army. Its 
duties until July, 1865, were continuous, when it returned to 
report for final discharge. 

The Twenty-sixth Battery, or "Wilder's Battery," was re- 
cruited under Capt. I. T. Wilder, of Greensburg, in May, 1861; but 
was not mustered in as an artillery company. Incorporating itself 
with a regiment then forming at Indianapolis it was mustered as 
company "A," of the 17th Infantry, with Wilder as Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the regiment. Subsequently, at Elk Water, Virginia, 
it was converted into the "First Independent Battery," and became 
known as " Rigby's Battery." The record of this battery is as 
brilliant as any won during the war. On every field it has won a 
distinct reputation; it was well worthy the enthusiastic reception 
given to it on its return to Indianapolis on the 11th and 12th of 
July, 18G5. During its term of service it was subject to many 
transmutations; but in every pliase of its brief history, areputation 
fir gallantry and patriotism was maintained which now forms a 
living testimonial to its services to the ])ul)lic. 

The total number of battles in the " War of the Rebellion " in 
whicli the patriotic citizens of the great and noble State of Indiana 
were more or less engaged, was as follows: 



Locality. No. of Battles. Locality. No of Battles. 

Virginia 90 Maryland 7 

Tennessee 51 Texas 3 

Georgia 41 South Carolina 2 

Mississippi 24 Indian Territory 2 

Arkansas 19 Pennsylvania 1 

Kentucky 16 Ohio , 1 

Louisana ig Indiana 1 

Missouri 9 

North Carolina 8 Total 308 

The regiments sent forth to the defense of the Republic in the 
hour of its greatest peril, when a host of her own sons, blinded by 
some unholy infatuation, leaped to arms that they might trample 
upon the liberty-giving principles of the nation, have been passed 
in ver}' brief review. The authorities chosen for the dates, names, 
and figures are the records of tlie State, and the main subject is 
based upon the actions of those 267,000 gallant men of Indiana 
who rushed to arms in defense of all for which their lathers bled, 
leaving their wives and children and homes in the guardianship of 
a truly paternal Government. 

The relation of Indiana to the Republic was then established; 
for when the population of the State, at the time her sons went 
forth to participate in war for the maintenance of the Union, is 
brought into comparison with all other States and countries, it will 
be apparent that the sacrifices made by Indiana from lS61-'65 
equal, if not actually exceed, the noblest of those recorded in the 
history of ancient or modern times. 

Unprepared for the terrible inundation of modern wickedness, 
which threatened to deluge the country in a sea of blood and rob, 
a people of their richest, their most prized inheritance, the State 
rose above all precedent, and under the benign influence of patriot- 
ism, guided by the well-directed zeal of a wise Governor and 
Government, sent into the field an army that in numbers was 
gigantic, and in moral and physical excellence never equaled 

It is laid down in the official reports, fnrnisiied to the War De- 
partment, that over 200,000 troops were specially organized to aid 
in crushing the legionsof the slave-holder; that no less than 50,000 
militia were armed to defend the State, and that the large. l)nt abso- 
lutely necessary number of commissions issued was IT, 114. All 
this proves the scientific skill and military economy exercised by 
the Governor, and brought to the aid of tlie people in a most terri- 
ble emergency; for he, with some prophetic sense of the gravity of 
the situation, saw that unless the greatest powers of the Union 
were put forth to crush the least justifiable and most pernicious 


of all rebellions holding a place in the record of nations, the best 
blood of the country would flow in a vain attempt to avert a catas- 
trophe which, if prolonged for many years, would result in at least 
the moral and commercial ruin of the country. 

The part which Indiana took in the war against the Rebellion is 
one of which the citizens of the State may well be proud. In the 
number of troops furnished, and in the amount of voluntary con- 
tributions rendered, Indiana, in proportion and wealth, stands 
equal to any of her sister States. " It is also a subject of gratitude 
and thankfulness," said Gov. Morton, in his message to the Legis- 
lature, " that, while the number of troops furnished by Indiana 
alone in this great contest would have done credit to a first-class 
nation, measured by the standard of previous wars, not a single 
battery or battalion from this State has brought reproach upon the 
national flag, and no disaster of the war can be traced to any want 
of fidelit}', courage or eSiciency on the part of any Indiana officer. 
The endurance, heroism, intelligence and skill of the officers and 
soldiers sent forth by Indiana to do battle for the Union, have shed 
a luster on our beloved State, of which any people might justly be 
proud. Without claiming superiority over our loyal sister States, 
it is but justice to the brave men who have represented us on 
almost every battle-field of the war, to say that their deeds have 
placed Indiana in the front rank of those heroic States which 
rushed to the rescue of the imperiled Grovernraent of the nation. 
The total number of troops furnished by the State for all terms of 
service exceeds 200,000 men, much the greater portion of them 
being for three years; and in addition thereto not less than 50,000 
State militia have from time to time been called into active service 
to repel rebel raids and defend our southern border from inva- 


In 1867 the Legislature comprised 91 Republicans and 59 Dem- 
ocrats. Soon after the commencement of the session. Gov. Morton 
resigned his office in consequence of having been elected to the tf 
S. Senate, and Lieut.-Gov. Conrad Baker assumed the Executive 
chair during the remainder of Morton's term. This Legislature, 
by a very decisive vote, ratified the 14th amendment to the Federal 
Constitution, constituting all persons born in the country or sub- 
ject to its jurisdiction, citizens of the United States and of the 
State wherein they reside, without regard to race or color; reduc- 


ing the Congressional representation in any State iu which thera 
should be a restriction of the exercise of the elective franchise on 
account of race or color; disfranchising persons therein named 
wiio shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States; and declaring that the validity of the public debt 
of the United States authorized by law, shall not be questioned. 

This Legislature also passed an act providing for the registry of 
votes, the punishment of fraudulent practices at elections, and for 
the apportionment and compensation of a Board of Registration ; 
this Board to consist, in each township, of two freeholders appointed 
by the County Commissioners, together with the trustee of sncli 
township; in cities the freeholders are to be appointed in each 
ward by the city council. The measures of this law are very strict, 
and are faithfully executed. No cries of fraud m elections are 
heard in connection with Indiana. 

This Legislature also divided the State into eleven Congressional 
Districts and apportioned their representation; enacted a law for 
the protection and indemnity of all officers and soldiers- of the 
United States and soldiers of the Indiana Legion, for acts done in 
the military service of the United States, and in the military ser- 
vice of the State, and in enforcing the laws and preserving the 
peace of the country; made definite appropriations to the several 
benevolent institutions of the State, and adopted several measures 
for the encouragement of education, etc. 

In 1S68, Indiana was the first in the field of national politics, 
both the principal parties holding State conventions early in the 
year. The Democrats nominated T. A. Hendricks for Governor, 
and denounced in their platform the reconstruction policy of the 
Republicans; recommended that United States treasury notes be 
substituted for national bank currency; denied that the General 
Government had a right to interfere with the question of sutfrage 
in any of the States, and opposed negro suffrage, etc. ; while the 
Republicans nominated Conrad Baker for Governor, defended its 
reconstruction policy, opposed a further contraction of the currency, 
etc. The campaign was an exciting one, and Mr. Baker was 
elected Governor by a majority of only 96L In the Presidential 
election that soon followed the State gave Grant 9,572 more than 
Se}'mour. , 

During 1868 Indiana presented claims to the Government for 
about three and a half millions dollars for expenses incurred in the 
war, and .Si. 058. 917. 94: was allowed. Also, this year, a legislative 



coiTimission reported that $413,599.48 were allowed to parties suf- 
fering loss by the Morgan raid. 

This year Governor Baker obtained a site for the House of 
Refuge. (See a subsequent page.) The Soldiers' and Seamen's 
Home, near Knightstown, originally established by private enter- 
prise and benevolence, and adopted by the Legislature of the 
previous year, was in a good condition. Up to that date the insti- 
tution had afforded relief and temporary subsistence to 400 men 
who had been disabled in the war. A substantial brick building 
had been built for the home, while the old buildings were used for 
an orphans' department, in which were gathered 86 children of 
deceased soldiers. 


By some mistake or liberal design, the early statute laws of 
Indiana on the subject of divorce were rather more loose than those 
of most other States in this Union; and this subject had been a 
matter of so much jest among the public, that in 1870 the Governor 
recommended to the Legislature a reform in this direction, which 
was pretty effectually carried out. Since that time divorces can 
be granted only for the following causes: 1. Adultery. 2. Impo- 
tency existing at the time of marriage. 3. Abandonment for two 
years. 4. Cruel and inhuman treatment of one party by the other. 
5. Habitual drunkenness of either party, or the failure of the hus- 
band to make reasonable provision for the family. 6 The failure 
of the husband to make reasonable provision for the family for a 
period of two years. 7. The conviction of either party of an infamous 


Were it not for political government the pioneers would have got 
along without money much longer than they did. The pressure of 
governmental needs was somewhat in advance of the monetary 
income of the first settlers, and the little taxation required to carry 
on the government seemed great and even oppressive, especially at 
certain periods. 

In November, 1821, Gov. Jennings convened the Legislature in 
extra session to provide for the payment of interest on the State 
debt and a part of the principal, amounting to $20,000. It was 
thought that a sufficient amount would be realized in the notes of 
the State bank and its branches, although they were considerably 
depreciated Said the Governor: " It will be oppressive if the 
State, after the paper of this institution (State bank) was author- 
ized to be circulated in revenue, should be prevented by any assign- 
ment of the evidences ot existing debt, from discharging at least 
so much of that debt with the paper of the bank as will absorb the 
collections of the present year; especially when their notes, after 
being made receivable by the agents of the State, became greatly 
depreciated by great mismanagement on the part of the bank 
itself. It ought not to be expected that a public loss to the State 
should be avoided by resorting to any measures which would not 
comport with correct views of public justice; nor should it be 
anticipated that the treasury of the United States would ultimately 
adopt measures to secure an uncertain debt which would inter- 
fere with arrangements calculated to adjust the demand against the 
State without producing any additional embarrassment." 

The state of the public debt was indeed embarrassing, as the 
bonds which had been executed in its behalf had been assigned. 
The exciting cause of this proceeding consisted in the machinations 
of unprincipled speculators. Whatever disposition the principal 
bank may have made of the funds deposited by the United States, 
the connection of interest between the steam-mill company and the 
bank, and the extraordinary accommodations, as well as their amount, 
effected by arrangements of the steam-mill agency and some ^■^f 
the oificers of the bank, were among the principal causes which 


liad prostrated the paper circulating raediura of the State, so far as if 
was dependent on the State bank and its branches. An abnormal; 
state of affairs like this very naturall}' produced a blind di&busBe»- 
nient of the fund to some extent, and this disbursement wouldi fee:' 
called by almost every one an " unwise administration." 

During the first 16 years of this century, the belligerent condi- 
tion of Europe called for agricultural supplies from America^ andi 
the consequent high price of grain justified even the remote pio- 
neers of Indiana in undertaking the tedious transportation of the 
products of the soil which the times forced upon them. The large- 
disbursements made by the general Government among the peo- 
ple naturally engendered a rage for speculation; numerons banks 
with fictitious capital were established; immense issues of paper 
were made; and the circulating medium of the country was in- 
creased fourfold in the course of two or three years. This infla- 
tion produced the consequences which always follow such a scheme,, 
namely, unfounded visions of wealtii and splendor and the wild 
investments which result in ruin to the many and wealth to the 
few. The year 1821 was consequently one of great financial panic, 
and was the first experienced by the early settlers of the West. 

In 1822 the new Governor, William Hendricks, took a hoi>eful 
view of the situation, referring particularly to the "agricultural' 
and social happiness of the State." The crops were abundant this- 
year, immigration was setting in heavily and everything seemed to-' 
iiave an upward look. But tlie customs of the white race still com- 
pelling them to patronize European industries, combined with the- 
remoteness of the surplus produce of Indiana from European mar- 
kets, constituted a serious drawback to the accumulation of wealth. 
Such a state of things naturally changed the habits of the people 
to some extent, at least for a short time, assimilating them to those 
of more primitive tribes. Tiiis change of custom, however, was 
not severe and protracted enough to change the intelligent and 
social nature of the people, and they arose to tlieir normal height 
on the very first opportunit}'. 

In 1822-'3, before speculation started up again, the surplus 
money was invested mainly in domestic manufactories instead of 
other and wilder commercial enterprises. Ilome manufactories 
were what the people needed to make them more independent. 
They not only gave employment to thousands whose services were 
before tliat valueless, but also created a market for a great portiore-- 


iif the surplus produce of the farmers. A part of the surphis cap- 
ital, however, was also sunk in internal improvements, some of 
which were unsuccessful for a time, but eventually proved remu- 

Noah Noble occupied the Executive chair of the State from 1831 
to 1837, commencing his duties amid peculiar embarrassments. 
The crops of 1832 were short, Asiatic cholera came sweeping along 
the Ohio and into the interior of the State, and the Black Hawk war 
raged in the Northwest, — all these at once, and 3'et the work of 
internal improvements was actually begun . 


The State bank of Indiana was established by law January 28, 
1834. The act of the Legislature, by its own terms, ceased to be a 
law, January 1, 1857. At the time of its organization in 1834, its 
outstanding circulation was $4,208,725, with a debt d ue to the insti- 
tution, principally from citizens of the State, of $6,095,368. During 
the years 1857-'58 the bank redeemed nearly its entire circulation, 
providing for the redemption of all outs:anding obligations; at this 
time it had collected from most of its debtors the money which they 
owed. Tlie amounts of the State's interest in the stock of tiie bank 
was $1,390,000, and the money thus invested was procured by the 
issue of five per cent bonds, the last of which was payable July 1,1866. 
The nominal profits of the bank were $2.7s0,604.36. By the law 
creating the sinking fund, that fund was appropriated, first, to pay 
the principal and interest on the bonds; secondly, the expenses of 
the Commissioners; and lastly the cause of common-school educa- 

The stock in all the branches authorized was subscribed by indi- 
viduals, and the installment paid as required by the charter. The 
loan authorized for the payment on the stock allotted to the State, 
amounting to $500,000, was obtained at a premium of 1.05 per 
per cent, on five per cent, stock, making the sum of over $5,000 on 
the amount borrowed. In 1836 we find tliat the State bank was 
doinjrgood service; agricultural products were abundant, and the 
market was good; consequently the people were in the full enjoy- 
ment of all the blessings of a free government. 

By the year 1843 the State was experiencing the disasters and 
cmbarassment consequent upon a system of over-banking, and its 
natural progeny, over-trading and deceptive speculation. Such a 
ttateof things tends to relax the hand of industry by creating false 


notions of wealth, and tempt to sudden acquisitions by means as delu- 
sive in their results as they are contrary to a primary law of nature. 
The people began more than ever to see the necessity of falling 
back upon that branch of industry for which Indiana, especially 
at that time, was particularly fitted, namely, agriculture, as the 
true and lasting source of substantial wealth. 

Gov. Whitcomb, lS43-'49, succeeded well in maintaining the 
credit of the State. Measures of compromise between the State 
and its creditors were adopted by which, ultimately, the public 
works, although incomplete, were given in payment for the claims 
against the Government. 

At the close of his term, Gov. Whitcomb was elected to the 
Senate of the United States, and from December, 1848, to Decem- 
ber, 1849, Lieut-Gov. Paris C. Dunning was acting Governor. 

In ISol a general banking law was adopted whicli gave a new 
impetus to the commerce of the State, and opened the way for a 
broader volume of general trade; but this law was the source of 
many abuses; currency was expanded, a delusive idea of wealth 
again prevailed, and as a consequence, a great deal of damaging 
speculation was indulged in. 

In 1857 the charter of the State bank expired, and the largo 
gains to the State in that institution were directed to the promotion 
of common-school education. 


During the war of the Rebellion the financial condition of the 
people was of course like that of the other Northern States generally. 
1870 found the State in a very prosperous condition. October 31 
of this year, the date of the fiscal report, there was a surplus of 
$373,249 in the treasury. The receipts of the year amounted to 
$3,605,639, and the disbursements to $2,943,600, leaving a balance 
of $1,035,288. The total debt of the State in November, 1871, was 

At the present time the principal articles of export from the State 
are flour and pork. Nearly all the wheat raised within the State 
is manufactured into flour within its limits, especially in the north- 
ern part. The pork business is the leading one in the southern 
part of the State. 

When we take into consideration the vast extent of railroad lines 
in this State, in connection with the agricultural and mineral 
resources, both developed and undeveloped, as already noted, we can 


see what a substantial foundation exists for the future welfare of 
this great commonwealth. Almost every portion of the State is 
coming up equally. Tiie disposition to monopolize does not exist 
to a greater degree than is desirable or necessary for healthy compe- 
tition. Speculators in flour, pork and other commodities appeared 
during the war, but generally came to ruin at their own game. 
The agricultural community here is an independent one, under- 
standing its rights, and " knowing them will maintain them." 

Indiana is more a manufacturing State, also, than many imagine. 

^t probably has the greatest wagon and carriage manufactory in the 

-^world. In 1875 the total number of manufacturing establishments 

•in this State was 16,812; number of steam engines, 3,68-1, with a 

iota! horse-power of 114,961 ; the total horse-power of water wheels, 

38.611; number of hands employed in the manufactories, 86,102; 

i;apital employed, is $117,462,161 ; wages paid, $35,461,987; cost of 

auaterial, $104,321,632; value of products, $301,304,271. These 

figures are on an average about twice what they were only live years 

previously, at which time they were about double what they were 

tea years before that. In manufacturing enterprise, it is said that 

Indiana, in proportion to her population, is considerably in advance 

-of Illinois and Michigan. 

In 1870 the assessed valuation of the real estate in Indiana was 
$460,120,974; of personal estate, $203,334,070; true valuation of 
.lx>th, $1,268,180,543. According to the evidences of increase at 
that time, the value of taxable property in this State must be double 
•the foregoing figures. This is utterly astonishing, especially when 
-ws consider what a large matter it is to double the elements of a 
ilarge and wealthy State, compared with its increase in infancy. 

The taxation for State purposes in 1870 amounted to $2,943,078; 
sfor county purposes, $4,054,476; and for municipal purposes, 
'.$3,193,577. Tiie total county debt of Indiana in 1870 was $1,127,- 
-^69, and the total debt of towns, cities, etc., was $2,523,934. 

In the compilation of this statistical matter we have before us the 
■statistics of every element of progress in Indiana, in the U. S. 
Oensus Reports; but as it would be really improper for us further 
■to burden these pages with tables or columns of large numbers, we 
■will conclude by remarking that if any one wishes further details in 
these matters, he can readily find them in the Census Reports of 
'the Government in any city or village in the country. Besides, 
-almost any one can obtain, free of charge, from his representative in 


Congress, all tliese and other public documents in which he may be 


This subject began to be agitated as early as 1818, during the 
administration of Governor Jennings, who, as well as all the 
Governors succeeding hitn to 1843, made it a special j)oint in their 
messages to the Legislature to urge the adoption of measures for 
the construction of highways and canals and the improvement of 
the navigation of rivers. Guv. Hendricks in 1822 specified as the 
most important improvement the navigation of the Falls of the 
Ohio, the Wabash and White rivers, and other streams, and the 
construction of the National and other roads through the State. 

In 1S26 Governor Ray considered the construction of roads and 
canals as a necessity to place the State on an equal financial footing 
with the older States East, and in 1829 he added: "This subject 
can never grow irksome, since it must be the source of the bless- 
ings of civilized life. To secure its benefits is a duty enjoined upon 
the Legislature by the obligations of the social compact." 

In 1830 the people became much excited over the project of con- 
necting the streams of the country by "The National New York 
& Mississippi railroad." The National road and the Michigan 
and Oliio turnpike were enterprises in whicii the people and Legis- 
lature of Indiana were interested. The latter had already been the 
cause of much bitter controversy, and its location was then the 
subject of contention. 

In 1832 the work of internal improvements fairly commenced, 
despite the partial failure of the crops, the Black Hawk war and 
the Asiatic cholera. Several war parties invaded the Western 
settlements, exciting great alarm and some suffering. This year 
the canal commissioners completed the task assigned them and had 
negotiated the canal bonds in New York city, to the amount of 
$100,000, at a premium of 13J- per cent., on terms honorable to the 
State and advantageous to the work. Before the close of tnis year 
§54.000 were spent for the improvement of the Michigan road, and 
$52,000 were realized from the sale of lands appropriated for its 
construction. In 1832, 32 miles of the Wabash and Erie canal was 
placed under contract and work commenced. A communication 
was addressed to the Governor of Ohio, requesting him to call the 
attention of the Legislature of that State to the subject of the 
extension of the canal from the Indiana line through Ohio to tjje 


Lake. In compliance with this request, Governor Lucas promptly 
laid the subject before the Legislature of the State, and, in a spirit 
of courtesy, resolutions were adopted by that body, stipulating that 
if Ohio should ultimately decline to undertake the completion of 
that portion of the work within her limits before the time fixed by 
the act of Congress for the completion of the canal, she would, on 
just and equitable terms, enable Indiana to avail herself of the bene- 
fit of the lands granted, by authorizing her to sell them and invest 
the proceeds in the stock of a company to be incorporated by Ohio; 
and that she would give Indiana notice of her final determination 
on or before January 1, 1838. The Legislature of Ohio also 
authorized and invited the agent of the State of Indiana to select, 
survey and set apart the lands lying within that State. In keeping 
with this policy Governor Noble, in 1834, said:. "With a view of 
engaging in works of internal improvement, the propriety of 
adopting a general plan or system, having reference to the several 
portions of the State, and the connection of one with the other^ 
naturally suggests itself. No work should be commenced but such 
as would be of acknowledged public utility, and when completed 
would form a branch of some general system. In view of this 
object, the policy of organizing a Board of Public "Works is again 
respectfully suggested." The Governor also called favorable atten- 
tion to the Lawrenceburg & Indianapolis railway, for which a 
charter had been granted. 

In 1835 the Wabash & Erie canal was pushed rapidly forward. 
The middle division, extending from the St. Joseph dam to the 
forks of the Wabash, about 32 miles, was completed, for about 
$232,000, including all repairs. Upon this portion of the line nav- 
igation was opened on July 4, which day the citizens assembled 
"to witness the mingling of the waters of the St. Joseph with 
those of the Wabash, uniting the waters of the northern chain of 
lakes with those of the Gulf of Mexico in the South." On other 
parts of the line the work progressed with speed, and the sale of 
canal lands was unusually active 

In 1836 the first meeting of the State Board of Internal Im- 
provement was convened and entered upon the discharge of its 
numerous and responsible duties. Having assigned to each mem- 
ber the direction and superintendence of a portion of the work, 
the next duty to be performed preparatory to the various spheres of 
active service, was that of procuring the requisite number of 
engineers. A delegation was sent to the Eastern cities, but returned 


without engaging an Engineer-in-Chicf for the roads and railways, 
and without the desired number for the subordinate station; but 
after considerable delay the Board was fully organized and put in 
operation. Under their management work on public improve- 
ments was successful; the canal progressed steadily; the naviga- 
tion of the middle division, from Fort Wayne to Huntington, was 
uninterrupted; 10 miles of the line between Huntington and La 
Fontaine creek were filled with water this year and made ready for 
navigation; and the remaining 20 miles were completed, except a 
portion of the locks; from La Fontaine creek to Logansport prog- 
ress was made; the line from Georgetown to Lafayette was placed 
under contract; about 30 miles of the Whitewater canal, extending 
from Lawrenceburg through the beautiful valley of the White- 
water to BrookviUe, were also placed under contract, as also 23 
miles of the Central canal, passing through Indianapolis, on which 
work was commenced; also about 20 miles of the southern divis- 
ion of this work, extending from Evansville into the interior, 
were also contracted for; and on the line of the Cross-Cut canal, 
from Terre Haute to the intersection of the Central canal, near 
the mouth of Eel river, a commencement was also made on all the 
heavy sections. All this in 1836. 

Early in this year a party of engineers was organized, and 
directed to examine into the practicability of the Michigan & 
Erie canal line, then proposed. The report of their operations 
favored its expediency. A party of engineers was also fitted out, 
who entered upon the field of service of the Madison & Lafayette 
railroad, and contracts were let for its construction from Madison 
to Vernon, on which work was vigorously commenced. Also, con- 
tracts were let for grading and bridging the New Albany & Vin- 
cennes road from the former point to Paoli, about 40 miles. 
Other roads were also undertaken and surveyed, so that indeed a 
stupendous system of internal improvement was undertaken, and 
as Gov. Noble truly remarked, upon the issue of that vast enter- 
prise the State of Indiana staked her fortune. She had gone too 
far to retreat. 

In 1837, when Gov. Wallace took the Executive chair, the 
reaction consequent upon '• over work " by the State in the internal 
improvement scheme began to be felt by the people. They feared 
a State debt was being incurred from which they could never lie 
extricated; but the Governor did all he could throughout the term 
of his administration to keep up the courage of the citizens. He 


told them that the astonishing success so far, surpassed even the 
hopes of the most sanguine, and that the flattering auspices of the 
future were sufhcient to dispel every doubt and quiet every fear. 
Notwithstanding all his efforts, however, the construction of pub- 
lic works continued to decline, and in his last message he exclaimed: 
" Never before — I speak it advisedly — never before have you wit- 
nessed a period in our local history that more urgently called for 
tlie exercise of all the soundest and best attributes of grave and 
patriotic legislators than the present. * . * * The 

truth is — and it would be folly to conceal it — we have our hands 
full — full to overflowing; and therefore, to sustain ourselves, to 
preserve the credit and character of the State unimpaired, and to 
continue her hitherto unexampled march to wealth and distinction, 
we have not an hour of time, nor a dollar of money, nor a hand 
employed in labor, to squander and dissipate upon mere objects of 
idleness, or taste, or amusement." 

The State had borrowed $3,827,000 for internal improvement pur- 
poses, of which $1,327,000 was for the Wabash & Erie canal and 
the remainder for other works. The five per cent, interest on 
debts — about $200,000 — which the State had to pay, had become 
burdensome, as her resources for this purpose were only two, 
besides direct taxation, and they were small, namely, the interest 
on the balances due for canal lands, and the proceeds of the third 
installment of the surplus revenue, both amounting, in 183S, 
to about $45,000. 

In August, 1839, all work ceased on these improvements, with 
one or two exceptions, and most of the contracts were surrendered 
to the State. This was done according to an act of the Legislature 
providing for the compensation of contractors by the issue of 
treasury notes. In addition to this state of aflairs, the Legisla- 
ture of 1839 had made no provision for the payment of interest on 
the State debt incurred for internal improvements. Concerning 
this situation Gov. Bigger, in 1840, said that either to go ahead 
with the works or to abandon them altogether would be equally 
ruinous to the State, the implication being that the people should 
wait a little while for a breathing spell and then take hold again. 

Of course much individual indebtedness was created during the 
progress of tlie work on internal improvement. When operations 
ceased in 1839, and prices fell at the same time, the people were 
left in a great measure without the means of commanding money 
to pay their debts. This condition of private enterprise more than 


ever rendered direct taxation inexpedient. Hence it became the 
policy of Gov. Bigger to provide tlic means of paying tlie interest 
on tlie State debt vvitliout increasing tlie rate of taxation, and to 
continue that portion of the public works that could be immedi- 
atelj- completed, and from which the earliest returns could be 

In ISJrO the system embraced ten difterent works, the most im- 
])ortantof which was the Wabash & Erie canal. The aggregate 
length of the lines embraced in the system was 1,1G0 miles, and 
of this only 140 miles had been completed. The amount expended 
had reached the sura of $5,600,000, and it required at least $14,000,- 
000 to complete them. Although the crops of 1841 were very 
remunerative, this perquisite alone was not sufficient to raise the 
State again up to the level of going ahead with her gigantic 

We should here state in detail the amount of work completed and 
of money expended on the various works up to this time, 1841, 
which were as follows: 

1. The Wabash & Erie canal, from the State line to Tippe- 
canoe, 129 miles in length, completed and navigable for the whole 
length, at a cost of $2,041,012. This sum includes the cost of the 
steamboat lock afterward completed at Delphi. 

2. The extension of the Wabash & Erie canal from the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe to Terre Haute, over 104 miles. The estimated 
cost of this work was $1,500,000; and the amount expended for the 
same $408,855. The navigation was at this period o])ened as far 
down as Lafayette, and a part of the work done in the neighbor- 
hood of Covington. 

3. The cross-cut canal from Terre Haute to Central canal, 
49 miles in length; estimated cost, $718,672; amount expended, 
$420,679; and at this titneno part of the course was navigable. 

4. The White Water canal, from Lawrenceburg to the mouth 
of Nettle creek, 76i miles; estimated cost, $1,675,738; amount 
expended to that date, $I,099,'^67; and 31 miles of the work 
was navigable, extending from the Ohio river to Brookville. 

5. The Central canal, from the Wabash & Erie canal, to 
Indianapolis, including the feeder bend at Muncietown, 124 miles 
in length; total estimated cost, $2,299,853; amount expended, 
$568,046; eight miles completed at that date, and other portions 
nearly done. 


6. Central canal, from Indianapolis to Evansville on the Ohio 
river, 194 miles in length; total estimated cost, $3,532,394; amount 
expended, $831,302, 19 miles of which was completed at tiiat date, 
at the southern end, and 16 miles, extending south from Indianao- 
olis, were nearly completed. 

7. Erie & Michigan canal, 182 miles in length; estimated cost, 
$2,624,823; amount expended, $156,394. No part of this work 

8. The Madison & Indianapolis railroad, over 85 miles in 
length; total estimated cost, $2,046,600; amount expended, $1,493,- 
013. Koad finished and in operation for about 28 miles; grad- 
ing nearly finished for 27 miles in addition, extending to Eden- 

9. Indianapolis & Lafayette turnpike road, 73 miles in length; 
total estimated cost, S593, 737; amount expended, $72,118. The 
bridging and most of the grading was done on 27 miles, from 
Crawfordsville to Lafayette. 

10. New Albany & Vincennes turnpike road, 105 miles in 
length; estimated cost, $1,127,295; amount expended, $654,411. 
Forty-one miles graded and macadamized, extending from New 
Albany to Paoli, and 27 miles in addition partly graded. 

11. Jefferson ville & Crawfordsville road, over 164 miles long; 
total estimated cost, $1,651,800; amount expended, $372,737. 
Forty -five miles were partly graded and bridged, extending from 
JeS'ersonville to Salem, and from Greencastle north. 

12. Improvement of the Wabasii rapids, undertaken jointly by 
Indiana and Illinois; estimated cost to Indiana, $102,500; amount 
expended by Indiana, $9,539. 

Grand totals: Length of roads and canals, 1,289 miles, only 
281 of which have been finished; estimated cost of all the works, 
$19,914,424; amount expended, $8,164,528. The State debt at 
this time amounted to $18,469,146. Tiie two principal causes 
which aggravated the embarrassment of the State at this juncture 
were, first, paying most of the interest out of the money borrowed, 
and, secondly, selling bonds on credit. The first error subjected 
the State to the payment of compound interest, and the people, 
not feeling the pressure of taxes to discharge the interest, natu- 
rally became inattentive to the public policy pursued. Postpone- 
ment of the payment of interest is demoralizing in every way. 
During this period the State was held up in an unpleasant manner 
before the gaze of the world; but be it to the credit of this great 


aud glorious State, she would not repudiate, as many other States 
and municipalities have done. 

By tlie year 1850, the so-called "internal improvement" system 
having been abandoned, private capital and ambition pushed for- 
ward various "public works." During this year about 400 miles 
of plank road were completed, at a cost of $1,200 to $1,500 per 
mile, and about 1,200 miles more were surveyed and in progress. 
There were in the State at this time 212 miles of railroad in suc- 
cessful operation, of wliich 12'4 were completed this year. More 
than 1,000 miles of railroad were survej'ed and in progress. 

An attempt was made during the session of the Legislature in 
1869 to re-burden the State with the old canal del)t, and the matter 
was considerably agitated in the canvass of 1S70. The subject of the 
Wabash & Erie canal was lightly touched in the Republican plat- 
form, occasioning considerable discussion, which probably had 
some effect on the election in the fall. That election resulted in 
an average majority in the State of about 2,864 for the Democi'acy. 
It being claimed that the Legislature had no authority under the 
constitution to tax tlie people for the purpose of aiding in the con- 
struction of railroads, the Supreme Court, in Aoril, 1871, decided 
adversely to such a claim. 


In 1869 the development of mineral resources in the State 
attracted considerable attention. Rich mines of iron and coal were 
■discovered, as also tine quarries of building stone. The Vincennes 
railroad passed through some of the richest portions of the mineral 
region, the engineers of which had accurately determined the 
quality of richness of the ores. Near Brooklyn, abi)ut 20 miles 
from Indianapolis, is a fine formation of sandstone, yielding good 
material for buildings in the city; indeed, it is considered the best 
building stone in tiie State. Tlie limestone formation at Gosport, 
continuing 12 miles from that point, is of great variety, and 
includes the finest and most durable building stone in the world. 
Portions of it are susceptible only to the chisel; other portions are 
soft and can be worked with the ordinary tools. At the end of this 
limestone formation there commences a sandstone series of strata 
which extends seven miles farther, to a point about 60 miles from 
Indianapolis. Here an extensive coal bed is reached consisting of 
seven distinct veins. The first is about two feet thick, the next 
three feet, another four feet, and the others of various thicknesses. 


These beds are all easily worked, having a natural drain, and they 
yield heavy profits. In the whole of the southwestern part of the 
State and for 300 miles up the Wabash, coal exists in good quality 
and abundance. 

The scholars, statesmen and philanthropists of Indiana work- 
ed hard and long for the appointment of a State Geologist, with 
sufficient support to enable him to make a thorough geological 
survey of the State. A partial survey was made as early as 1837-'S, 
by David Dale Owen, State Geologist, but nothing more was done 
until 1869, when Prof. Edward T. Cox was appointed State Geolo- 
gist. For 20 years previous to this date the Governors urged and 
insisted in all their messages that a thorough survey should be 
made, but almost, if not quite, in vain. In 1852, Dr. Ryland T. 
Brown delivered an able address on this subject before the Legis- 
lature, showing how much coal, iron, building stone, etc., there 
were probably; in the State, but the exact localities and qualities 
not ascertained, and how millions of money could be saved to the 
State by the expenditure of a few thousand dollars; but "they 
answered the Doctor in the negative. It must have been because 
they hadn't time to pass the bill. They were very busy. They had 
to pass all sorts of regulations concerning the negro. They had to 
protect a good many white people from marrying negroes. And as 
they didn't need any labor in the State, if it was ' colored,' they 
had to make regulations to shut out all of that kind of labor, and 
to take steps to put out all that unfortunately got in, and they didn't 
have time to consider the scheme proposed by the white people " — 
W. W. Clayton. 

In 1853, the State Board of Agriculture employed Dr. Brown to 
make a partial examination of the geology of the State, at a salary 
of $500 a year, and to this Board the credit is due for the final 
success of the philanthropists, who in 1869 had the pleasure of 
witnessing the passage of a Legislative act '' to provide for a Depart- 
ment of Geology and Natural Science, in connection with the State 
Board of Agriculture." Under this act Governor Baker immedi- 
ately appointed Prof. Edward T. Cox the State Geologist, who has 
made an able and exhaustive report of the agricultural, mineral 
and manufacturing resources of this State, world-wide in its celeb- 
rity, and a work of which the people of Indiana may be very 
proud. We can scarcely give even the substance of his report in a 
work like this, because it is of necessity deeply scientific and made 
up eiitiruly of local detail. 



The coal measures, says Prof. E. T. Cox, cover an area of about 
6,500 square miles, in the southwestern part of the State, and 
extend from Warren county on the north to the Ohio river on the 
south, a distance of about 150 miles. This area comprises the fol- 
lowing counties: Warren, Fountain, Parke, Vermillion, Vigo, Clay, 
Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike, Dubois, 
Vanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry and a small part of Crav?ford, 
Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. 

This coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well-marked 
varieties: caking-coal, non-caking-coal or block coal and cannel 
coal. The total depth of the seams or measures is from 600 to 800 
feet, with 12 to 14 distinct seams of coal; but these are not all to 
be found throughout the area; the seams range from one foot to 
eleven feet in thickness. The caking coal prevails in the western 
portion of the area described, and has from three to four workable 
seams, ranging from three and a half to eleven feet in thickness. 
At most of the places where these are worked the coal is mined by 
adits driven in on the face of the ridges, and the deepest shafts in 
the State are less than 300 feet, the average depth for successful 
mining not being over 75 feet. This is a bright, black, sometimes 
glossy, coal, makes good coke and contams a very large percentage 
of pure illuminating gas. One pound will yield about 4J cubic feet 
of gas, with a power equal to 15 standard sperm candles. The 
average calculated calorific power of the caking coals is 7.745 heat 
units, pure carbon being 8,080. Both in the northern and southern 
portions of the field, the caking coals present similar good qualities, 
and are a great source of private and public wealth. 

The block coal prevails in the eastern part of the field and has an 
area of about 450 square miles. This is excellent, in its raw state, 
for making pig iron. It is indeed peculiarly fitted for metal- 
lurgical purposes. It has a laminated structure with carbonaceous 
matter, like charcoal, between the lamina, with slaty cleavage, and 
it rings under the stroke of the hammer. It is " free-burning," 
makes an open fire, and without caking, swelling, scaflTolding in the 
furnace or changing form, burns like hickory wood until it is con- 
sumed to a white ash and leaves no clinkers. It is likewise valuable 
for generati ng steam and for household uses. Many of the principal 
railway lines in the State are using it in preference to any other 
coal, as it does not burn out the fire-boxes, and gives as little trouble 
as wood. 


There are eight distinct seams of block coal in this zone, three of 
which are workable, having an average thickness of four feet. In 
some places this coal is mined by adits, but generally from sliafts, 
40 to 80 feet deep. The seams are crossed by cleavage lines, and 
the coal is usually mined without powder, and may be taken out in 
blocks weighing a ton or more. When entries or rooms are driven 
angling across the cleavage lines, the walls of the mine present a 
zigzag, notched appearance resembling a Virginia worm fence. 

In 1871 there were about 24 block coal mines in operation, and 
about 1,500 tons were mined daily. Since that time this industry 
has vastly increased. This coal consists of SI^ to 83^ percent, of 
carbon, and not quite three fourths of one per cent, of sulphur. 
Calculated calorific power equal to 8,283 heat units. This coal also 
is equally good both in the northern and southern parts of the field. 

The great Indiana coal field is within 150 miles of Chicago or 
Michigan City, by railroad, from which ports the Lake Superior 
specular and red hematite ores are landed from vessels that are able 
to run in a direct course from the ore banks. Considering the 
proximity of the vast quantities of iron in Michigan and Missouri^ 
one can readily see what a glorious future awaits Indiana in respect 
to manufactories. 

Of the cannel coal, one of the finest seams to be found in the 
country is in Daviess county, this State. Here it is three and a 
half feet thick, underlaid by one and a half feet of a beautiful, jet- 
black caking coal. There is no clay, shale or other foreign matter 
intervening, and fragments of the caking coal are often found 
adhering to the cannel. There is no gradual change from one to 
the other, and the character of each is homogeneous throughout. 

The cannel coal makes a delightful fire in open grates, and does 
not pop and throw off scales into the room, as is usual with this 
kind of coal. This coal is well adapted to the manufacture of 
illuminating gas, in respect to both quantity and high illuminating 
power. One ton of 2,000 pounds of this coal yields 10,400 feet of 
gas, while the best Pennsylvania coal yields but 8,680 cubic feet. 
This gas has an illuminating power of 25 candles, while the best 
Pennsylvania coal gas has that of only 17 candles. 

Cannel coal is also found in great abundance in Perry, Greene, 
Parke and Fountain counties, where its commercial value has already 
been demonstrated. 

Numerous deposits of bog iron ore are found in the northern part 
of the State, and clay iron-stones and impure carbonates and brown 


oxides are found scattered in the vicinity of the coal field. In some 
places the beds are quite thick and of considerable commercial 

An abundance of excellent lime is also found in Indiana, espe- 
cially in Huntington county, where many large kilns are kept in 
profitable operation. 


In 1852 the Legislature passed an act authorizing the organization 
of county and district agricultural societies, and also establishing a 
State Board, the provisions of which act are substantially as follows: 

1. Thirty or more persons in any one or two counties organizing 
into a society for the improvement of agriculture, adopting a consti- 
tution and by-laws agreeable to the regulations prescribed by the 
State Board, and appointing the proper officers and raising a sum 
of $50 for its own treasury, shall be entitled to the same amount 
from the fund arising from show licenses in their respective 

2. These societies shall oS"er annual premiums for improvement 
of soils, tillage, crops, manures, productions, stock, articles of 

, domestic industry, and such other articles, productions and improve- 
ments as they may deem proper; they shall encourage, by grant 
of rewards, agricultural andhousehold manufacturing interests, and 
so regulate the premiums that small farmers will have equal 
opportunity with the large; and they shall pay special attention to 
cost and profit of the inventions and improvements, requiring an 
exact, detailed statement of the processes competing for rewards. 

3. They shall publish in a newspaper annually their list of 
awards and an abstract of their treasurers' accounts, and they shall 
report in full to the State Board their proceedings. Failing to do 
the latter they shall receive no payment from their county funds. 


The act of Feb. 17, 1852, also established a State Board of Agri- 
culture, with perpetual succession; its annual meetings to be held 
at Indianapolis on the first Thursday after the first Monday in 
January, when the reports of the county societies are to be received 
and agricultural interests discussed and determined upon; it shall 
make an annual report to the Legislature of receipts, expenses, 
proceedings, etc., of its own meeting as well as of those of the local 


societies; it shall hold State fairs, at such times and places as they 
may deem proper; may hold two meetings a year, certifying to the 
State Auditor their expenses, who shall draw his warrant upon the 
Treasurer for the same. 

In 1861 the State Board adopted certain rules, embracing ten 
sections, for the government of local societies, but in 1868 they 
were found inexpedient and abandoned. It adopted a resolution 
admitting delegates from the local societies. 


As the Board found great difficulty in doing justice to exhibitors 
without an adequate building, the members went earnestly to work 
in the fall of 1872 to get up an interest in the matter. They 
appointed a committee of five to confer with the Councilor citizens 
of Indianapolis as to the best mode to be devised for a more 
thorough and complete exhibition of the industries ot the State. 
The result of the conference was that the time had arrived for a 
regular " exposition," like that of the older States. At the Janu- 
ary meeting in 1873, Hon. Thomas Dowling, of Terre Haute> 
reported for the committee that they found a general interest in 
this enterprise, not only at the capital, but also throughout the 
State. A sub-committee was appointed who devised plans and 
specifications for the necessary structure, taking lessons mainly 
from the Kentucky E.xposition building at Louisville. All the 
members of the State Board were in favor of proceeding with the 
building except Mr. Poole, who feared that, as the interest of the 
two enterprises were somewhat conflicting, and the Exposition being 
the more exciting show, it would swallow up the State and county 

The Exposition was opened Sept. 10, 1873, when Hon. John 
Sutherland, President of the Board, the Mayor of Indianajiolis, 
Senator Morton and Gov. Hendricks delivered addresses. Senator 
Morton took the high ground that the money spent for an exposi- 
tion is spent as strictly for educational purposes as that which goes 
directly into the common school. The exposition is not a mere 
show, to be idly gazed upon, but an industrial school where one 
should study and learn. He thought that Indiana had less untill- 
able land than any other State in the Union; 'twas as rich as any 
and yielded a greater variety of products; and that Indiana was 
the most prosperous agricultural community in the United States. 


The State had nearly 3,700 miles of railroad, not connting side- 
track, with 400 miles more under contract for building. In 15 
or 18 months one cau go from Indianapolis to every county ia 
tlie State by railroad. Indiana has 6,500 square miles of coal field, 
450 of which contain block coal, the best iu the United States for 
manufacturing purposes. 

On the subject of cheap transportation, he said: " By the census 
of 1870, Pennsylvania had, of domestic animals of all kinds, 4,006,- 
589, and Indiana, 4,511,094. Pennsylvania had grain to the amount 
of 60,460.000 bushels, while Indiana had 79,350,454. The value of 
the farm products of Pennsylvania was estimated to be $183,946,- 
000; those of Indiana, $122,914,000. Thus you see that while 
Indiana had 505,000 head of live stock more, and 19,000,000 
bushels of grain more than Pennsylvania, yet the products of Penn- 
sylvania are estimated at $183,946,000, on account of her greater 
proximity to market, while those of Indiana are estimated at only 
$122,914,000. Thus you can understand the importance of cheap 
transportation to Indiana. 

" Let us see how the question of transportation affects us on the 
other hand, with reference to the manufacturer of Bessemer steel 
Of the 174,000 tons of iron ore used iu the blast furnaces of Pitts- 
burg last year, 84,000 tons came from Lake Superior, 64,000 tons 
from Iron Mountain, Missouri, 20,000 tons from Lake Champlain, 
and less than 5,000 tons from the home mines of Pennsylvania., 
They cannot manufacture their iron with the coal they have in 
Pennsylvania without coking it. We have coal in Indiana with 
which we can, in its raw state, make the best of iron; while we are 
250 miles nearer Lake Superior than Pittsburg, and 430 miles 
nearer to Iron Mountain. So that the question of transportation 
determines the fact that Indiana must become the great center for 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel." 

"What we want in this countr\' is diversified labor." 

The grand hall of the Exposition buildings is on elevated ground 
at the head of Alabama street, and commands a tine view of the 
city. The structure is of brick, 308 feet long by 150 in width, and 
two stories high. Its elevated galleries extend quite around the 
building, under the roof, thus affording visitors an opportunity to 
secure the most commanding view to be had in the city. The 
lower floor of the grand hall is occupied by the mechanical, geologi- 
cal and miscellaneous departments, and by the offices of the Board, 
which extend along the entire front. The second floor, which is 


approached by three wide stairways, accommodates the fine art, 
musical and other departments of light mechanics, and is brilliantly 
lighted by windows and skylights. But as we are here entering 
the description of a subject magnificent to behold, we enter a 
description too vast to complete, and we may as well stop here as 

The Presidents of the State Fairs have been: Gov, J. A. "Wright, 
lS52-'4; Gen. Jos. Orr, 1855; Dr. A. C. Stevenson, lS56-'8; G. D. 
"Wagner; 1859-60; D. P, Holloway, 1861; Jas, D.Williams, 1862, 
1870-'l; A. D. Hamrick, 1863, lS67-'9; Stearns Fisher, lS64-'6; 
John Sutherland, 1872-'4; "Wm. Crim, 1875. Secretaries: John B, 
Dillon, 1852-'3, 1855, 1858-'9; Ignatius Brown. 1856-'7; "W.T. Den- 
nis, 1854, 1860-'l; "W. H. Loomis, 1862-"6; A. J. Holmes, 1867-'9; 
Joseph Poole, 1870-'l; Alex. Heron, lS72-'5. Place of fair, Indian- 
apolis every year except: Lafayette, 1S53; Madison, 1854; New 
Albany, 1859,- Fort Wayne, 1S65; and Terre Haute, 1867. In 
1861 there was no fair. The gate and entry receipts increased from 
$4,651 in 1852 to $45,330 in 1874. 

On the opening of the Exposition, Oct. 7, 1874, addresses were 
delivered by the President of the Board, Hon. John Sutherland, 
and by Govs. Hendricks, Bigler and Pollock. Yvon's celebrated 
painting, the " Great Republic," was unveiled with great ceremony, 
and many distinguished guests were present to witness it. 

The exhibition of 1875 showed that the plate glass from the 
southern part of the State was equal to the finest French plate; that 
the force-blowers made in the eastern part of the State was of a 
world-wide reputation; that the State has within its bounds the 
largest wagon manufactory in the world; that in other parts of the 
State there were all sorts and sizes of manufactories, including roll- 
ing mills and blast furnaces, and in the western part coal was mined 
and shipped at the rate of 2,500 tons a day from one vicinity; and 
many other facts, which " would astonish the citizens of Indiana 
themselves even more than the rest of the world." 


This society was organized in 1842, thus taking the lead in the 
West. At this time Henry Ward Beecher was a resident of Indian- 
apolis, engaged not only as a minister but also as editor of the 
Indiana Fanner and Gardener, and his influence was very exten- 
sive in the interests of horticulture, floriculture and farming. 
Prominent among his pioneer co-laborers were Judge Coburn, 


Aaron Aldridge, Capt. James Sigarson, D. Y. CuUej, Reuben 
Raijaii, Stephen Hampton, Cornelius Ratliff, Joshua Lijidley, 
Abner Pope and many others. In the autumn of this year tlie 
society held an exhibition, probably the first in the State, if not 
in the West, in the hall of the new State house. The only pre- 
mium offered was a set of silver teaspoons for the best seedling 
ajjjile, which was won by Reuben Ragan, of Putnam county, for 
an apple christened on this occasion the " Osceola." 

The society gave great encouragement to the introduction of 
new varieties of fruit, especially of the pear, as the soil and cli- 
mate of Indiana were well adapted to this fruit. But the bright 
horizon which seemed to be at this time looming up all around the 
field of the young society's operations was suddenly and thoroughly 
darkened by the swarm of noxious insects, diseases, blasts of win- 
ter and the great distance to market. The prospects of the cause 
scarcely justified a continuation of the expense of assembling from 
remote parts of the State, and the meetings of the society therefore 
soon dwindled away until the organization itself became quite 

But when, in 1852 and afterward, railroads began to traverse the 
State in all directions, the Legislature provided for the organization 
of a State Board of Agriculture, whose scope was not only agri- 
culture but also horticulture and the mechanic and household arts. 
The rapid growth of the State soon necessitated a differentiation of 
this body, and in the autumn of 1860, at Indianapolis, there was 
organized the 


October 18, Reuben Ragan was elected President and "Wm H. 
Loomis, of Marion county. Secretary. The constitution adopted 
provided for biennial meetings in January, at Indianapolis. At 
the first regular meeting, Jan. 9, 1861, a committee-man for each 
congressional district was appointed, all of them together to be 
known as the "State Fruit Committee," and twenty-five members 
were enrolled during this session. At the regular meeting in 1863 
the constitution was so amended as to provide for annual sessions, 
and the address of the newly elected President, Hon. I. G. D. Nel- 
son, of Allen county, urged the establishment of an agricultural 
college. He continued in the good cause until his work was 
crowned with success. 


In 1864 there was but little done on account of the exhaust- 
ive demands of the great war; and the descent of mercury 60° in 
eighteen hours did so much mischief as to increase the discourage- 
ment to the verge of despair. The title of the society was at this 
meeting, Jan., 1864 changed to that of the Indiana Horticultural 

The first several meetings of the society were mostly devoted to 
revision of fruit lists; and although the good work, from its vast- 
ness and complication, became somewhat monotonous, it has been 
no exception in this respect to the law that all the greatest and 
most productive labors of mankind require perseverance and toil. 

In 1866, George M. Beeler, who had so iudefatigably served as 
secretary for several years, saw himself hastening to his grave, and 
showed his love for the cause of fruit culture by bequeathing to 
the society the sum of §1,000. This year also the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction was induced to take a copy of the 
Society's transactions for each of the township libraries in the State, 
and this enabled the Society to bind its volume of proceedings in 
s substantial manner. 

At the meeting in 1867 many valuable and interesting papers 
■were presented, the office of corresponding secretary was created, 
and the subject of Legislative aid was discussed. The State Board 
of Agriculture placed the management of the horticultural depart- 
ment of the State fair in the care of the Society. 

The report for 1868 shows for the first time a balance on hand, 
after paying expenses, the balance being $61.55. Up to tliis time 
the Society had to take care of itself, — meeting current expenses, do- 
ing its own printing and binding, "boarding and clothing itself," 
and dift'using annually an amount of knowledge utterly incalcu- 
lable. During the year called meetings were held at Salem, in the 
peach and grape season, and evenings during the State fair, which 
was held in Terre Haute the previous fall. The State now assumed 
the cost of printing and binding, but the volnme of transactions 
was not quite so valuable as that of the former year. 

In 1870 $160 was given to this Society by the State Board of 
Agriculture, to be distributed as prizes for essays, which object 
was faithfully carried out. The practice has since then been con- 

In 1871 the Horticultural Society brought out the best volume 
of papers and proceedings it ever has had published. 


In 1872 the office of corresponding secretary was discontinued; 
the appropriation by the State Board of Agriculture diverted to 
the payment of premiums on small fruits given at a show held the 
previous summer; results of the exhibition not entirely satisfac- 

In 1873 the State officials refused to publish the discussions of 
the members of the Horticultural Society, and the Legislature 
appropriated $500 for tlie purpose for each of the ensuing two 

In 1875 the Legislature enacted a law requiring that one of the 
trustees of Purdue University shall be selected by the Horticultu- 
ral Society. 

The aggregate annual membership of this society from its organ- 
ization in 1860 to 1875 was 1,225. 


The subject of education has been referred to in almost every 
gubernatorial message from the organization of the Territory to 
the present time. It is indeed the most favorite enterprise of the 
Hoosier State. In the first survey of Western lands, Congress set 
apart a section of land in every township, generally the 16th, for 
school purposes, the disposition of the land to be in hands of the 
residents of the respective townships. Besides this, to this State 
were given two entire townships for the use of a State Seminary, 
to be under the control of the Legislature. Also, the State con- 
stitution provides that all fines for the breach of law and all com- 
mutations for militia service be appropriated to the use of county 
seminaries. In 1825 the common-school lands amounted to 
€80,207 acres, estimated at $2 an acre, and valued therefore at 
$1,216,044. At this time the seminary at Bloomington. supported 
in part by one of these township grants, was very flourishing. The 
common schools, however, were in rather a poor condition. 


In 1852 the free-school system was fully established, which has 
resulted in placing Indiana in the lead of this great nation. Al- 
though this is a pleasant subject, it is a very large one to treat in 
a condensed notice, as this has to be. 

The free-scliool system of Indiana first became practically oper- 
ative the first Monday of April, 1853, when the township trustees 


for school purposes were elected through the State. The law com- 
mitted to them the charge of all the educational affairs in their 
respective townships. As it was feared bj the opponents of the 
law that it would not be possible to select men in all the town- 
ships capable of executing the school laws satisfactorily, the 
people were thereby awakened to the necessity of electing their 
very best men ; and although, of course, many blunders have been 
made by trustees, the operation of the law has tended to elevate the 
adult population as well as the j'outh; and Indiana still adheres to 
the policy of appointing its best men to educational positions. 
The result is a grand surprise to all old fogies, who indeed scarcely 
dare to appear such any longer. 

To instruct the people in the new law and set tlie educational 
machinery going, a pamphlet of over 60 pages, embracing the law, 
with notes and explanations, was issued from the office of a super- 
intendent of public instruction, and distributed freely throughout 
the State. The first duty of the Board of Trustees was to establish 
and conveniently locate a sufficient number of schools for the edu- 
cation of all the children of their township. But where were the 
school-houses, and what were they? Previously they had been 
erected by single districts, but under this law districts were abol- 
ished, their lines obliterated, and houses previously built by dis- 
tricts became the property of the township, and all the houses were 
to be built at the expense of the township by an appropriation of 
township funds by the trustees. In some townships there was not 
a single school-house of any kind, and in others there were a few 
old, leaky, dilapidated log cabins, wholly unfit for use even in sum- 
mer, and in " winter worse than nothing." Before the people could 
be tolerably accommodated with schools at least 3,500 school-houses 
had to be erected in the State. 

By a general law, enacted in conformity to the constitution of 
1852, each township was made a municipal corporation, and every 
voter in the township a member of the corporation; the Board of 
Trustees constituted the township legislature as well as the execu- 
tive body, the whole body of voters, however, exercising direct con- 
trol through frequent meetings called by the trustees. Special 
taxes and every other matter of importance were directly voted 

Some tax-payers, who were opposed to special townships' taxes, 
retarded the progress of schools by refusing to pay their assess- 
ment. Contracts for building school-houses were given up, houses 


half finished were abandoned, and in many townships all school 
operations were suspended. In some of them, indeed, a rumor was 
circulated by the enemies of the law tliat the entire school law from 
beginning to end had been declared by the Supreme Court uncon- 
stitutional and void; and the Trustees, believing this, actually dis- 
missed their schools and considered themselves out of office. Hon. 
W. C. Larrabee, the (first) Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
corrected this error as soon as possible. 

But while the voting of special taxes was doubted on a constitu- 
tional point, it became evident that it was weak in a practical point; 
for in many townships the opponents of the system voted down every 
proposition for the erection of school-houses. 

Another serious obstacle was the great deficiency in the number 
of qualified teachers. To meet the newly created want, the law 
authorized the appointment of deputies in each county to examine 
and license persons to teach, leaving it in their judgment to lower 
the standard of qualification sufiiciently to enable them to license 
as many as were needed to supply all the schools. It was therefore 
found necessary to employ many " unqualified " teachers, especially 
in the remote rural districts. But the progress of the times 
enabled the Legislature of 1853 to erect a standard of qualifica- 
tion and give to the county commissioners the authority to license 
teachers; and in order to supply every school with a teacher, while 
there might not be a sufficient number of properly qualified teach- 
ers, the commissioners were authorized to grant temporary licenses 
to take charge of particular schools not needing a high grade of 

In 1854 the available common-school fund consisted of the con- 
gressional township fund, the surplus revenue fund, the saline 
fund, the bank tax fund and miscellaneous fund, amounting in all 
to $2,460,000. This amount, from many sources, was subsequently 
increased to a very great extent. The common-school fund was 
intrusted to the several counties of the State, which were held 
responsible for the preservation thereof and for the payment of the 
annual interest thereon. The fund was managed by the auditors 
and treasurers of the several counties, for which these officers were 
allowed one-tentii of the income. It was loaned out to the citizens 
of the county in sums not exceeding $300, on real estate security. 
The common-school fund was thus consolidated and the proceeds 
equally distributed eacli year to all the townships, cities and towna 


of the State, in proportion to the number of children. This phase 
of the law met with considerable opposition in 1854. 

The provisions of the law for the establishment of township 
libraries was promptly carried into effect, and much time, labor 
and thought were devoted to the selection of books, special atten- 
tion being paid to historical works. 

The greatest need in 1854 was for qualified teachers; but never- 
theless the progress of public education during this and following 
years was very great. School-houses were erected, many of them 
being fine structures, well furnished, and the libraries were consid- 
erably enlarged. 

The city school system of Indiana received a heavy set-back in 
1858, by a decision of the Supreme Court of the State, that the 
law authorizing cities and townships to levy a tax additional to the 
State tax was not in conformity with that clause in the Constitu- 
tion which required uniformity in taxation. The schools were 
stopped for want of adequate funds. For a few weeks in each year 
thereafter the feeble " uniform " supply from the State fund en- 
abled the people to open the schools, but considering the returns 
the public realizes for so small an outlay in educational matters, 
this proved more expensive than ever. Private schools increased, 
but the attendance was small. Thus the interests of popular edu- 
cation languished for years. But since the revival of the free 
schools, the State fund has grown to vast proportions, and the 
schools of this intelligent and enterprising commonwealth compare 
favorably with those of any other portion of the United States. 

There is no occasion to present all the statistics of school prog- 
ress in this State from the first to the present time, but some 
interest will be taken in the latest statistics, which we take from the 
9th Biennial Eeport (for 1877-'8) by the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, Hon. James H. Smart. This report, by the 
way, is a volume of 480 octavo pages, and is free to all who desire 
a copy. 

The rapid, substantia) and permanent increase which Indiana 
enjoys in her school interests is thus set forth in the above report. 



of School 

No of 



Am't Paid 


In Diiys. 


at School. 








1 23i),924 
































The increase of school population during the past ten years has 
been as follows: 

Total in 1868, 592,865. 

Increase for year ending Increase for year ending 

Sept. 1,1869 17,699 May 1, 1874 13,923 

" 1,1870 9,063 " 1,1875 13,373 

" 1,1871 3,101 " 1,1876 11,494 

" 1,1873 8,811 " 1,1877 15,476 

May 1, 1873 (8 months) 8,903 " 1,1878 4,447 

Total, 1878 .699,153 

No. of white males 354,271 ; females 333,033 687,304 

" "colored" 5,937; " 5,913 11,849 


Twenty-nine per cent, of the above are in the 49 cities and 212 
incorporated towns, and 71 per cent, in the 1,011 townships. 

The number of white males enrolled in the schools in 1878 was 
267,315, and of white females, 237,739; total, 505,054; of colored 
males, 3,794; females, 3,687; total, 7,481; grand total, 512,535. 

The average number enrolled in eacli district varies from 51 to 56, 
and the average daily attendance from 32 to 35; but many children 
reported as absent attend parochial or private schools. Seventy- 
three per cent, of the white children and 63 per cent, of the colored, 
in the State, are enrolled in the schools. 

The number of days taught vary materially in the different town- 
ships, and on this point State Superintendent Smart iterates: "As 
long as the schools of some of our townships are kept open but 60 
days and others 220 days, we do not have a uniform s)'stera, — such 
as was contemplated by the constitution. The school law requires 
the trustee of a township to maintain each of the schools in his 
corporation an equal length of time. This provision cannot be so 
easil}' applied to the various counties of the State, for the reason 
that there is a variation in the density of the population, in the 
wealth of the people, and the amount of the township funds. I 
think, however, there is scarcely a township trustee in the State 
who cannot, under the present law, if he chooses to do so, bring his 
schools up to an average of six months. I think it would be wise 
to require each township trustee to levy a sufficient local tax to 
maintain the schools at least six months of the year, provided this 
can be done without increasing the local tax beyond the amount 
now permitted by law. This would tend to bring the poorer schools 
up to the standard of the best, and would thus unify the system, 
and make it indeed a common-school system." 


The State, however, averages six and a half months school per 
year to each district. 

The number of school districts in the State in 1878 was 9,380, in 
all but 34 of which school was taught during that year. There are 
396 district and 151 township graded schools. Number of white 
male teachers, 7,977, and of female, 5,699; colored, male, 62, and 
female, 43; grand total, 13,781. For the tea years ending with 
1878 there was an increase of 409 male teachers and 811 female 
teachers. All these teachers, except about 200, attend normal 
institutes, — a showing which probably surpasses that of any other 
State in this respect. 

The average daily compensation of teachers throughout the 
State in 1878 was as follows: In townships, males, $1.90; females, 
$1.70; in towns, males, $3.09; females, $1.81; in cities, males, 
$4.06; females, $2.29. 

In 1878 there were 89 stone school-houses, 1.724 brick, 7,608 
frame, and 124 log; total, 9,545, valued at $11,536,647.39. 

And lastly, and best of all, we are happy to state that Indiana has 
a larger school fund than any other State in the Union. In 1872, 
according to the statistics before us, it was larger than that of any 
other State by $2,000,000! the figures being as follows: 

Indiana 18,437,593.47 Michigan $2,500,214.91 

Ohio 6,614.816.50 Missouri 2,525,252.52 

Illinois 6,348,538.32 Minnesota 2,471,199.31 

New York ... 2,880,017.01 Wisconsin 2,237,414.37 

Connecticut 2,809,770.70 Massachusetts 2,310,864.09 

Iowa 4,274,581.93 Arkansas 2,000,000.00 

Nearly all the rest of the States have less than a million dollars 
in their school fund. 

In 1872 the common-school fund of Indiana consisted of the 

Non-negotiable bonds $3,591,316.15 Escheated estates 17.866.35 

Common-srhool fund,.... 1,666,^24.50 Sinking fund, last distrib- 

Sinking fund, at 8 percent 509,139.94 ution 67,068.72 

Congressional township Sinking fund undistrib- 

fund 2,281,076.69 uted 100,165.93 

Value of unsold Congres- Swamp land fund 43,418.40 

sional township lands.. 94,245.00 

Saline fund 5,727.66 18,437,593 47 

Bank tax fund 1,744.94 

In 1878 the grand total was $8,974,455.55. 

The origin of the respective school funds of Indiana is as follows: 

1. The "Congressional township" fund is derived from the 

proceeds of the 16th sections of the townships. Almost all of these 


have been sold and the money put out at interest. The amount of 
this fund in 1877 was $2,452,936.82. 

2. The "saline" fund consists of the proceeds of the sale of 
salt springs, and the land adjoining necessary for working them to 
the amount of 36 entire sections, authorized by the original act of 
Congress. By authority of the same act the Legislature has made 
these proceeds a part of the permanent school fund. 

3. The " surplus revenue " fund. Under the administration of 
President Jackson, the national debt, contracted by the Revolutionary 
war and the purchase of Louisiana, was entirely discharged, and a 
large surplus remained in the treasury. In June, 1836, Congress 
distributed this money amcng the States in the ratio of their repre- 
sentation in Congress, subject to recall, and Indiana's share was 
S860,254. The Legislature subsequently set apart $573,502.96 of 
this amount to be a part of the school fund. It is not probable that 
the general Government will ever recall this money. 

4. " Bank tax " fund. The Legislature of 1834 chartered a State 
Bank, of which a part of the stock was owned by the State and a 
part by individuals. Section 15 of the charter required an annual 
deduction from the dividends, eqiial to 12^ cents on each share not 
held by the State, to be set apart for common-school education. 
This tax finally amounted to $80,000, which now bears interest in 
favor of education. 

5. " Sinking " fund. In order to set the State bank under 
good headway, the State at first borrowed $1,300,000, and out of 
the unapplied balances a fund was created, increased by unapplied 
balances also of the principal, interest and dividends of the amount 
lent to the individual holders of stock, for the purpose of sinking 
the debt of the bank; hence the name sinking fund. The 114th 
section of the charter provided that after the full payment of the 
bank's indebtedness, principal, interest and incidental expenses, the 
residue of said fund should be a permanent fund, appropriated to 
the cause of education. As the charter extended through a period 
of 25 years, this fund ultimately reached the handsome amount of 

The foregoing are all interest-bearing funds; the following are 
additional school funds, but not productive: 

6. " Seminary " fund. By order of the Legislature in 1852, all 
county seminaries were sold, and the net proceeds placed in the 
common-school fund. 


7. AH lines for the violation of the penal laws of the State are 
placed to the credit of the common-school fund 

8. All recognizances of witnesses and parties indicted for crime, 
when forfeited, are collectible by law and made a part of the 
scliool fund. These are reported to the office of the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction annually. For the five years ending 
with 1872, they averaged about $34,000 a year. 

9. Escheats. These amount to $17,865.55, which was still in 
the State treasury in 1872 and unapplied. 

10. The "swamp-land" fund arises from the sale of certain 
Congressional land grants, not devoted to any particular purpose 
by the terras of the grant. In 1872 there was $42,418.40 of this 
money, subject to call by the school interests. 

11. Taxes on corporations are to some extent devoted by the 
Constitution to school purposes, but the clause on this subject is 
somewhat obscure, and no funds as yet have been realized from tiiis 
source. It is supposed that several large sums of money are due 
the common-school fund from the corporations. 

Constitutionally, any of the above funds may be increased, but 
never diminished. 


So early as 1802 the U. S. Congress granted lands and a charter 
to the people of that portion of the Northwestern Territory resid- 
ing at Vincennes, for the erection and maintenance of a seminary 
of learning in that early settled district; and five years afterward 
an act incorporating the Vincennes University asked the Legisla- 
ture to appoint a Board of Trustees for the institution and order the 
sale of a single township in Gibson county, granted by Congress in 
1802, so that the proceeds miglit be at once devoted to the objects 
of education. On this Board the following gentlemen were ap- 
pointed to act in the interests of the institution: William H. Ilar- 
rison, John Gibson, Thomas H. Davis, Henry Vanderburgh, Wal- 
ler Taylor, Benjamin Parke, Peter Jones, James Johnson, John 
Rice Jones, George Wallace, William Bullitt, Ehas McNamee, 
John Badolett, Henry Hurst, Gen. W. Johnston, Francis Vigo, 
Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel McKee. Nathaniel Ewing, George 
Leech, Luke Decker, Samuel Gwathmey and John Johnson. 

Tiie sale of this land was slow and the proceeds small. The 
members of the Board, too, were apathetic, and failing to meet, the 
institution fell out of existence and out of memnry. 


In 1816 Congress granted another township in Monroe county, 
located within its present limits, and the foundation of a university 
was laid. Four years later, and after Indiana was erected into a 
State, an act of the local Legislature appointing another Board of 
Trustees and authorizing them to select a location for a university 
and to enter into contracts for its construction, was passed. The 
new Board met at Bloomington and selected a site at that place for 
the location of the present building, entered into a contract for the 
erection of the same in 1822, and in 1825 had the satisfaction of being 
present at the inauguration of the university. The first session was 
commenced under the Rev. Baynard R. Hall, with 20 students, and 
when the learned professor could only boast of a salary of $150 a 
year; yet, on this very limited sum the gentleman worked with 
energy and soon brought the enterprise through all its elementary 
stages to the position of an academic institution. Dividing the 
year into two sessions of five months each, the Board acting under 
his advice, changed the name to the " Indiana Academy," under 
which title it was duly chartered. In 1827 Prof. John H. Harney 
was raised to the chairs of mathematics, natural philosophy and 
astronomy, at a salary of $300 a year; and the salary of Mr. Hall 
raised to $400 a year. In 1S28 the name was again changed by the 
Legislature to the " Indiana College," and the following professors 
appointed over the different departments; Rev. Andrew Wylie, 
D. D., Prof, of mental and moral philosophy and belles lettres; 
John H. Harney, Prof, of mathematics and natural philosophy ; and 
Rev. Bayard R. Hall, Prof, of ancient languages. This year, also, 
dispositions were made for the sale of Gibson county lands and for 
the erection of a new college building. This action was opposed 
by some legal difficulties, which after a time were overco>ne, and 
the new college building was put under construction, and continued 
to prosper until 1854, when it was destroyed by fire, a-nd 9,000 
volumes, with all the apparatus, were consumed The curriculum 
was then carried out in a temporary building, while a new struct- 
ure was going up. 

In 1873 the new college, with its additions, was completed, and 
the routine of studies continued. A museum of natural history, 
a laboratory and the Owen cabinet added, and the standard of the 
studies and morale generally increased in excellence and in strict- 

Bloomington is a fine, healthful locality, on the Louisville, New 
Albany & Chicago railway. The University buildings are in the 


collegiate Gothic style, simply and truly carried out. The buildiDg, 
fronting College avenue is l-iS feet in front. It consists of a 
central building 60 feet by 53, with wings each 38 feet by 26, and 
the whole, three stories high. The new building, fronting the 
west, is 130 feet by 50. Buildings lighted by gas. 

The faculty numbers thirteen. Number of students in the col- 
legiate department in 1879-'80, ]S3; in preparatory, 169; total, 
349, allowing for three counted twice. 

The university may now be considered on a fixed founaation, car- 
rying out the intention of the President, who aimed at scholarship 
rather than numbers, and demands the attention of eleven pro- 
fessors, together with the State Geologist, who is ex-officio member 
of the faculty, and required to lecture at intervals and look after 
the geological and mineralogical interests of the institution. The 
faculty of medicine is represented by eleven leading physicians 
of the neighborhood. The faculty of law requires two resident 
professors, and the other chairs remarkably well represented. 

The university received from the State annually about $15,000, 
and promises with the aid of other public grants and private dona- 
tions to vie with any otlier State university within the Republic. 


This is a " college for the benefit of agricultural and the mechanic 
arts," as provided for by act of Congress, July 2, 1862, donating 
lands for this purpose to the extent of 30,000 acres of the public 
domain to each Senator and Representative in the Federal assem- 
bly. Indiana having in Congress at that time thirteen members, 
became entitled to 390,000 acres; but as there was no Congress 
land in the State at this time, scrip had to be taken, and it was 
upon the following condition (we quote the act): 

" Section 4. That all moneys derived from the sale of land 
scrip shall be invested in the stocks of the United States, or of 
some other safe stocks, yielding no less than five per centum upon 
the par value of said stocks; and that the moneys so invested shall 
constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall remain undi- 
minished, except so far as may be provided in section 5 of this act, 
and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated by each 
State, which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the 
endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college, where 
the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and 


classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, in such a manner as the Legislatures of the States may re- 
spectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and pro- 
fessions of life. 

" Sec. 5. That the grant of land and land scrip hereby author- 
ized shall be made on the following conditions, to which, as well as 
the provision hereinbefore contained, the previous assent of the 
several States shall be signified by Legislative act: 

" First. If any portion of the funds invested as provided by the 
foregoing section, or any portion of the interest thereon, shall by 
any action or contingency be diminished or lost, it shall be replaced 
by the State to which it belongs, so that the capital of the fund 
shall remain forever undiminished, and the annual interest shall be 
regularly applied, without diminution, to the purposes mentioned 
in the fourth section of this act, except that a sum not exceeding ten 
per centum upon the amount received by any State under the pro- 
visions of this act may be expended for the purchase of lands for 
sites or experimental farms, whenever authorized by the respective 
Legislatures of said States. 

" Second. No portion of said fund, nor interest thereon, shall 
be applied, directly or indirectly, under any pretence whatever, to 
the purchase, erection, preservation or repair of any building or 

" Third. Any State which may take and claim the benefit of 
the provisions of this act, shall provide, within five years at least, 
not less than one college, as provided in the fourth section of this 
act, or the grant to such State shall cease and said State be bound 
to pay the United States the amount received of any lands pre- 
viously sok^., and that the title to purchase under the States shall 
be valid. 

" Fourth. An annual report shall be made regarding the prog- 
ress of each college, recording any improvements and experiments 
made, with their cost and result, and such other matter, including 
State industrial and economical statistics, as may be supposed use- 
ful, one copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free, by each, 
to all other colleges which may be endowed under the provisions 
of this act, and also one copy to the Secretary of the Interior. 

''Fifth. When lands snail be selected from those which have 
been raised to double the minimum price in consequence of railroad 


grants, that they shall be computed to the States at the maximum 
price, and the number of acres proportionately diminished. 

"Sixth. No State, while in a condition of rebellion or insur- 
rection against the Government of the United States, shall be 
entitled to the benefits of this act. 

"Seventh. No State shall be entitled to tlie benefits of this act 
unless it shall express its acceptance thereof by its Legislature 
within two years from the date of its approval by the President." 

The foregoing act was approved by the President, July 2, 1862. 
It seemed that this law, amid the din of arms with the great Rebel- 
lion, was about to pass altogether unnoticed by the next General 
Assembly, January, 1863, had not Gov. Morton's attention been 
called to it by a delegation of citizens from Tippecanoe county, who 
visited him in the interest of Battle Ground. He thereupon sent 
a special message to the Legislature, upon the subject, and then 
public attention was excited to it everywhere, and several localities 
competed for the institution ; indeed, the rivalry was so great that 
this session failed to act in the matter at all, and would have failed 
to accept of the grant within the two years prescribed in the last 
clause quoted above, had not Congress, by a supplementary act, 
extended the time two years longer. 

March 6, 1865, the Legislature accepted the conditions ot the 
national gift, and organized the Board of " Trustees of the Indiana 
Agricultural College." This Board, by authority, sold the scrip 
April 9, 1867, for $212,238.50, which sum, by compounding, has 
increased to nearly $400,000, and is invested in U. S. bonds. Not 
until the special session of May, 1869, was the locality for this col- 
lege selected, when John Purdue, of Lafayette, offered $150,000 
and Tippecanoe county $50,000 more, and the title of the institution 
changed to " Purdue University." Donations were also made by 
the Battle Ground Institute and the Battle Ground Institute of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The building was located on a 100-acre tract near Chauncey, 
which Purdue gave in addition to his magnificent donation, and to 
which 86^ acres more have since been added on the north. The 
boarding-house, dormitory, the laboratory, boiler and gas house, 
a frame armory and gymnasium, stable with shed and work-shop 
are all to the north of the gravel road, and form a group of build- 
ings within a circle of 600 feet. The boiler and gas house occupy 
a rather central position, and supply steam and gas to the boarding- 
house, dormitory and laboratory. A description of these buildings 


may be apropos. The boarding-hou^e is a brick structure, in the 
modern Italian style, planked by a turret at each of the front angles 
and measuring 120 feet front by 68 feet deep. The dormitory is a 
quadrangular edifice, in the plain Elizabethan style, four stories 
high, arranged to accommodate 125 students. Like the other build- 
ings, it is heated by steam and lighted by gas. Bathing accommo- 
dations are in each end of all the stories. The laboratory is almost 
a duplicate of a similar department in Brown University, R. I. It 
is a much smaller building than the boarding-house, but yet suffi- 
ciently large to tneet the requirements. A collection of minerals, 
fossils and antiquities, purchased from Mr. Richard Owen, former 
President of the institution, occupies the temporary cabinet or 
museum, pending the construction of a new building. The military 
hall and gymnasium is 100 feet frontage by 50 feet deep, and only 
one story high. The uses to which tiiis hall is devoted are exer- 
cises in phj'sical and military drill. The boiler and gas house is an 
establishment replete in itself, possessing every facility for supply- 
ing the buildings of the university with adequate heat and light. 
It is further provided with pumping works. Convenient to this 
department is the retort and great meters of the gas house, capable 
of holding 9,000 cubic feet of gas, and arranged upon the principles 
of modern science. The barn and shed form a single building, 
both useful, convenient and ornamental. 

In connection with the agricultural department of the universit}', 
a brick residence and barn were erected and placed at the disposa' 
of the farm superintendent, Maj. L. A. Burke. 

The buildings enumerated above have been erected at a cost 
appro.xi mating the following: boarding-house, $37,807.07; labora- 
tory, $15,000; dormitory, $32,000; military hall and gymnasium, 
$6,410.47; boiler and gas house, $4,814; barn and shed, $1,500; 
work-shop, ^1,000; dwelling and barn, $2,500. 

Besides the original donations. Legislative appropriations, vary- 
ing in amount, have been made from time to time, and Mr. Pierce, 
the treasurer, has donated his official salary, $600 a A-ear, for the time 
he served, for decorating the grounds, — if necessary. 

The opening of the university was, owing to varied circumstan- 
ces, postponed from time to time, and not until March, 1S74, was a 
class formed, and this only to comply with the act of Congress in 
that connection in its relation to the university. However, in 
September following a curriculum was adopted, and the first regu- 
lar term of the Purdue University entered upon. This curriculum 


comprises the varied subjects generally ]>ert:iining to :i first-class 
university course, namely: in the school of natural science^ 
physics and industrial mechanics, chemistr}' and natural history; 
in the school of engineering — civil and mining, together with the 
principles of architecture; in the school of agriculture — theoret- 
ical and practical agriculture, horticulture and veterinary science; 
in the military school — the mathematical sciences, German and 
French literature, free-hand and mechanical drawing, with all the 
studies pertaining to the natural and military sciences. Modera 
languages and natural history embrace their respective courses to 
the fullest extent. 

There are this year (1880) eleven members of the faculty, 86- 
students in the regular courses, and 117 other students. In respect 
to attendance there has been a constant increase from the first. 
The first year, 1874:-'5, there were but 64 students. 


This institution was founded at Terre Haute in 1870, in accord- 
ance with the act of the Legislature of that year. The building is 
a large brick edifice situated upon a commanding location and 
possessing some architectural beauties. From its inauguration 
many obstacles opposed its advance toward efficiency and success; 
but the Board of Trustees, composed of men experienced in edu- 
cational matters, exercised their strength of mind and body to 
overcome every difficulty, and secure for the State Normal School 
every distinction and emolument that lay within their power, 
their efforts to this end being very successful; and it is a fact that 
the institution has arrived at, if not eclipsed, the standard of their 
expectations. Not alone does the course of study embrace the 
legal subjects known as reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, 
geography, United States history, English grammar, physiology, 
manners and ethics, but it includes also universal liistory, the 
mathematical sciences and many other subjects foreign to older 
institutions. The first studies are prescribed by law and must be 
inculcated; the second are optional with the professors, and in the 
case of Indiana generally hold place in the curriculum of the nor- 
mal school. 

The model, or training school, specially designed for the training^ 
of teachers, forms a most iinpDrtant factor in State educational 
matters, and prepares teachers of both sexes for one of the most 
important positions in life; viz., that of educating the youth of the 


State. The advanced course of studies, together witli tlie higlicr 
studies of the normal school, embraces Latin and German, and pre- 
pares young men and women for entrance to tlie State University. 

The efficiency of this school may be elicited from the following 
facts, taken from the official reports: out of 41 persons who liad 
graduated from the elementary course, nine, after teaching success- 
fully in the public schools of this State from two terms to two 
years, returned' to the institution and sought admission to the 
advanced classes. They were admitted; three of them were gentle- 
men and six ladies. After spending two years and two terms in the 
elementary course, and then teaching in the schools during the 
time already mentioned they returned to spend two and a half or 
three years more, and for the avowed purpose of qualifying them- 
selves for teaching in the most responsible positions of the public 
school service. In fact, no student is admitted to the school who 
does not in good faith declare his intention to qualify himself for 
teaching in the schools of the State. This the law requires, and 
the rule is adhered to literally. 

The report further says, in speaking of the government of the 
school, that the fundamental idea is rational freedom, or that free 
dom which gives exemption from the power of control of one ov^i' 
another, or, in other words, the self-limiting of themselves, in their 
acts, by a recognition of the rights of others who are equally free. 
The idea and origin of the school being laid down, and also the 
means by which scholarship can be realized in the individual, the 
student is left to form his own conduct, both during session hours 
and while away from school. The teacher merely stands between 
this scholastic idea and the student's own partial conception of it, 
as expositor or interpreter. The teacher is not legislator, executor 
or police officer; he is expounder of the true idea of school law, so 
that the only test of the student's conduct is obedience to, or 
nonconformity with, that law as interpreted by the teacher. This 
idea once inculcated in the minds of the students, insures industry, 
punctuality and order, 



This institution was organized Sept. 16, 1S73, with 35 studentsr 
in attendance. The school occupied the building known as the 
Valparaiso Male and Female College building. Four teachers. 


were employed. The attendance, so small at first, increased rap- 
idly and steadil}', until at the present writing, the seventh year 
in the history of the school, the yearly enrollment is more than 
three thousand. The number of instructors now employed is 23. 

From time to time, additions have been made to the school 
buildings, and numerous boarding halls have been erected, so that 
now the value of the buildings and grounds ojvned by the school 
is one hundred thousand dollars. 

A large library has been collected, and a complete equipment of 
philosophical and chemical apparatus has been purchased. The 
department of physiology is supplied with skeletons, manikins, 
and everything necessary to the demonstration of each branch of 
the subject. A large cabinet is provided for the study of geology. 
In feet, each department of the school is completely furnished 
with the apparatus needed for the most approved presentation of 
every subject. 

There are 15 chartered departments in the institution. These 
are in charge of thorou^^h, energetic, and scholarly instructors, and 
send forth each year as graduates, a large numberof finely cultured 
young ladies and gentlemen, living testimonials of the efficiency 
of the course of study and the methods used. 

The Commercial College in connection with the school is in itself 
a great institution. It is finely fitted up and furnished, and ranks 
foremost among the business colleges of the United States. 

The expenses for tuition, room and board, have been made so 
low that an opportunity for obtaining a thorough education is 
presented to the poor and the rich alike. 

All of this work has been accomplished in the short space of 
seven years. The school now holds a high place among educational 
institutions, and is the largest normal school in the United States. 

This wonderful growth and development is wholly due to the 
energy and faithfulness of its teachers, and the unparalleled exec- 
ntive ability of its proprietor and principal. The school is not 


Nor is Indiana behind in literary institutions under denomina- 
tional auspices. It is not to be understood, however, at the present 
day, that sectarian doctrines are insisted upon at the so-called 
" denominational" colleges, universities and seminaries; the youth at 
these places are influenced only by Christian e.xample. 



Notre Dame Unioertiiti/, near South Bend, is a Catholic institu- 
tion, and is cue of tlie most noted in the United States. It was 
founded in 1842 by Father Sorin. The first building was erected 
in 1843, and the university has continued to grow and prosper until 
tlie present time, now having 35 professors, 26 instructor.-*, 9 tutors, 
213 students and 12,000 volumes in library. At present the main 
building has a frontage of 224 feet and a depth of 155. Thousands 
of young people have received their education here, and a large 
number have been graduated for the priesthood. A chapter was 
held here in 1872, attended by delegates from all parts of the world. 
It is worthy of mention that this institution has a bell weighing 
13,000 pounds, the largest in the United States and one of the finest 
in the world. 

The Indiana Anbury University, at Greencastle, is an old and 
well-established institution under the auspices of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, named after its first bishop, Asbury. It was 
founded in 1S35, and in 1872 it had nine professors and 172 

Howard College, not denominational, is located at Kokomo, and 
was founded in 1S69. In 1872 it had five professors, four instrnctora, 
and 0!) students. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at Merom, was organized in 
1858, and in 1872 had four resident professors, seven instructors 
and 156 students. 

Moore's Hill College, Methodist Episcopal, is situated at Moore's 
Hill, was founded in 1854, and in 1872 had five resident professors, 
five instructors, and 142 students. 

Earlhain's College, at Richmond, is under the management of 
the Orthodox Friends, and was founded in 1859. In 1872 they 
had si.\ resident professors and 167 students, and 3,300 volumes in 

Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, was organized in 1834, and 
had in 1872, eight professors and teachers, and 231 students, with 
about 12.000 volumes in the library. It is under Presbyterian 

Concordia College, Lutheran, at Fort Wayne, was founded in 
1850; in 1872 it had four professors and 148 students: 3,000 volumes 
in library. 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was organized in 1833, at Han- 
over, and in 1872 had seven professors and 118 students, and 7,000 
volumes in library. 


Hartsville University, United Brethren, at Hartsville, was 
founded in 1854, and in 1872 liad seven professors and 117 students. 

Northwestern Christian University, Disciples, is located at 
Trvington, near Indianapolis. It was founded in 1854, and by 
1872 it had 15 resident professors, 181 students, and 5,000 volumes 
in library. 


By the year 1830, the influx of paupers and invalid persons was 
so great that the Governor called upo!i the Legislature to take 
steps toward regulating the matter, and also to provide an asylum 
for the poor, but that body was very slow to act on the matter. 
At the present time, however, there is no State in the Union which 
can boast a better system of benevolent institutions. The Benevo- 
lent Society of Indianapolis was organized in 1843. It was a 
pioneer institution; its field of work was small at tirst, but it has 
grown into great usefulness. 


Inbehalf of the blind, the tirst effort was made by James 'SL. Ray, 
about 1846. Througii his etibrts William II. Churciimaii came 
from Kentucky with blind pupils and gave exhibitions in Mr. 
Beeclier's church, in Indianapolis. These entertainments were 
attended by members of the Legislature, for whom indeed they 
were especially intended; and the effect upon them was so good, 
that before they adjourned the session they adopted measures to es- 
tablish an asylum for tiie blind. The commission appointed to carry 
out these measures, consisting of James M. Ray, Geo. W. Mears, 
and the Secretary, Treasurer and Auditor of State, engaged Mr. 
Churchman to make a lecturing tour through the State and collect 
statistics of the blind population. 

The " Institute for the Education of the Blind " was founded by 
the Legislature of 1847, and first opened in a rented building Oct. 
1, of that year. The permanent buildings were opened and occu- 
pied in February, 1853. The original cost of the buildings and 
ground was $110,000, and the present valuation of buildings and 
grounds approximates $300,000. The main building is 90 feet 
long by 61 deep, and with its right and left wings, each 30 feet in 
front and S3 in depth, give an entire frontage of 150 feet. The 
main building is five stories in height, surmounted by a cupola of 


the Corinthian style, while each wing is similarly overcapped 
The porticoes, cornices and verandahs are gotten up with exquisite 
taste, and the former are molded after the principle of Ionic archi- 
tecture. The building is very favorably situated, and occupies a 
space of eight acres. 

The nucleus of a fund for supplying indigent graduates of the 
institution with an outfit suitable to their trades, or with money in 
lieu thereof, promises to meet with many additions. The fund is 
the ont-come of the benevolence of Mrs. Fitzpatrick, a resident of 
Delaware, in this State, and appears to be suggested by the fact 
that her daughter, wiio was smitten with blindness, studied as a 
pupil in the institute, and became singularly attached to many of 
its inmates. The following passage from the lady's will bears 
testimony not only to her own sympathetic nature but also to the 
efficiency of the establishment which so won her esteem. " I give 
to each of the following persons, friends and associates of my blind 
daughter, Margaret Louisa, the sura of $100 to each, to wit, viz; 
Melissa and Phoebe Garrettson, Frances Cunditi', Dallas Newland, 
Naomi Unthunk, and a girl whose name before marriage was 
Rachel Martin, her husband's name not recollected. The balance 
of my estate, after paying the expenses of administering, I give to 
the superintendent of the blind asylum and his successor, in trust, 
for the use and benefit of the indigent blind of Indiana who may 
attend the Indiana blind asylum, to be given to them on leaving 
in such sums as the superintendent may deem proper, but not more 
than $.50 to any one person. I direct that the amount above direct- 
ed be loaned at interest, and the interest and principal be distributed 
as above, agreeably to the best judgment of the superintendent, 
80 as to do the greatest good to the greatest number of blind 

The following rules, regulating the institution, after laying down 
in preamble that the institute is strictly an educational estab. 
lishment, having its main object the moral, intellectual and phys- 
ical training of the young blind of the State, and is not an asylum 
for the aged and helpless, nor an hospital wherein the diseases of 
the eye may be treated, proceed as follows: 

1. The school year commences the first Wednesday after the 
15th day of September, and closes on the last Wednesday in June, 
showing a session of 40 weeks, and a vacation terra of 84 days. 

2. Applicants for admission must be from 9 to 21 years of age; 
but the trustees have power to admit blind students under 9 or 


over 21 years of age; but this power is extended only in very 
extreme cases. 

3. Imbecile or unsound persons, or confirmed immoralists, 
cannot be admitted knowingly; neither can admitted pupils who 
prove disobedient or incompetent to receive instruction be retained 
on the roll. 

i. JMo charge is made for the instruction and board given to 
pupils from the State of Indiana; and even those without the State 
have only to pay $200 for board and education during the 40 weeks' 

5. An abundant and good supply of comfortable clothing for 
both summer and winter wear, is an indispensable adjunct of the 

6. The owner's name must be distinctly marked on each article 
of clothing. 

7. In cases of extreme indigence the institution may provide 
clothing and defray the traveling expenses of sucli pupil and levy the 
amount so expended on the county wherein his or her home is 

8. The pupil, or friends of the pupil, must remove him or her 
from the institute during the annual vacation, and in case of their 
failure to do so, a legal provision enables the superintendent to 
forward such pupil to the trustee of the township wliere lie or she 
resides, and the expense of such transit and board to be charged to 
the county. 

9. Friends of the pupils accompanying them to the institution, 
or visiting them thereat, cannot enter as boarders or lodgers. 

10. Letters to the pupils should be addressed to the care of the 
Superintendent of the Institute for the Education of the Blind, so as 
the Ijetter to insure delivery. 

11. Persons desirous of admission of pupils should apply to the 
superintendent for a printed copy of instructions, and no pupil 
should be sent thereto until the instructions have been complied 


In 1843 the Governor was also instructed to obtain plans and 
information respecting the care of mutes, and the Legislature also 
levied a tax to provide for them. The first one to agitate tlie subject 
was William Willard, himself a mute, who visited Indiana in 1843, 
and opened a school for mutes on his own account, with 16 pupils. 


The next year the Legislature adopted this school as a State insti- 
tution, appointing a Board of Trustees for its management, consist- 
ing of the Governor and Secretary of State, ex-officio,aiid Revs. Henry 
Ward Beecher, Phineas D. Gurley, L. II. Jameson, Dr. Dunlap, 
lion. James Morrison and Rev. Matthew Simpson. They rented the 
large building on the southeast corner of Illinois and Maryland 
streets, and opened the first State asylum there in 1844; but in 1846, 
a site for a permanent building just eastof Indianapolis was selected, 
consisting first of 30 acres, to which 100 more have been added. 
■On this site the two first structures were commenced in 1849, and 
■completed in the fall of 1S50, at a cost of $30,000. The school 
was immediately transferred to the new building, where it is still 
flourishing, with enlarged buildings and ample facilities for instruc- 
tion in agriculture. In 186!)-'70, another building was erected, 
and the three together now constitute one of the most benefi- 
cent and beautiful institutions to be found on this continent, at 
an aggregate cost of $220,000. The main building has a fagade of 
260 feet. Here are the oflices, study rooms, the quarters of officers 
and teachers, the pupils' dormitories and the librar}'. The center 
of this building has a frontage of eighty feet, and is five stories high, 
with wings on either side 60 feet in frontage. In this Central 
structure are the store rooms, dining-hall, servants' rooms, hospital, 
laundry, kitchen, bakery and several school-rooms. Another struct- 
ure known as the " rear building " contains the cha])el and another 
set of school-rooms. It is two stories high, tiie center being 50 feet 
square and the wings 40 by 20 feet. In addition to these there are 
many detached buildings, containing the shops of the industrial 
department, the engine-house and wash-house. 

The grounds comprise 105 acres, which in the immediate vicinity 
of the buildings partake of the character of ornamental or pleasure 
gardens, comprising a space devoted to fruits, flowers and veget- 
ables, while the greater part is devoted to pasture and agriculture. 

Tiie first instructor in the institution was Win. Willard, a deaf 
mute, who had up to 1844 conducted a small school for the instruc- 
tion of the deaf at Indianapolis, and now is employed by the State, 
at a salary of $800 per annum, to follow a similar vocation in its 
service. In 1853 he was succeeded bj' J. S. Brown, and subse- 
■quently by Thomas Mclntire, who continues principal of the 



The Legislature of 1832-'3 adopted measures providing for a 
State hospital for the insane. This good work would liave been 
done much earlier had it not been for the hard times of 1837, 
intensified by the results of the gigantic scheme of internal improve- 
ment. In order to survey the situation and awaken public sympa- 
thy, the county assessors were ordered to make a return of the 
insane in their respective counties. During the year lSi2 the 
Governor, acting under the direction of the Legislature, procured 
considerable information in regard to hospitals for the insane in 
other States; and Dr. John Evans lectured before the Legislature 
on the subject of insanity and its treatment. As a result of these 
eflForts the authorities determined to take active steps for the estab- 
lishment of such a hospital. Plans and suggestions from the 
superintendents and linspitals of other States were submitted to the 
Legislature in lS-i4, which body ordered the levy of a tax of one 
cent on the $100 for the purpose of establishing the hospital. In 
1845 a commission was appointed to obtain a site not exceeding 
200 acres. Mount Jackson, then the residence of Nathaniel Bolton, 
was selected, and the Legislature in 1846 ordered the commissionera 
to proceed with the erection of the building. Accordingly, in 
1847, the central building was completed, at a cost of §75,000. It 
has since been enlarged by the addition of wings, some of which 
are larger than the old central building, until it has become an 
immense structure, having cost over half a million dollars. 

The wings of the main building are four stories high, and entirely 
devoted to wards for patients, being capable of accommodating 

The grounds of the institution comprise 160 acres, and, like 
those of the institute for the deaf and dumb, are beautifully laid 

This hospital was opened for the reception of patients in 1848. 
The principal structure comprises what is known as tiie central 
building and the right and left wings, and like the institute for the 
deaf and dumb, erected at various times and proba'jly under various 
adverse circumstances, it certainly does not hold the appearance of 
any one design, but seems to be a combination of many. Not- 
withstanding these little defects in arrangement, it presents a very 
imposing appearance, and shows what may be termed a frontage 


of 624 feet. The central building is iive stories in height and con- 
tains the store-rooms, oflSces, reception parlors, medical dispensing 
rooms, mess-rooms and the apartments of the superintendent and 
other officers, with those of the female employes. Immediately 
in the rear of the central building, and connected with it by a 
corridor, is the chapel, a building 50 by 60 feet. This chapel 
occupies the third floor, while the under stories hold the kitchen, 
baker}', employes' dining-room, steward's office, employes' apart- 
ments and sewing rooms. In rear of this again is the engine- 
house, 60 by 50 feet, containing all the paraphernalia for such an 
establishment, such as boilers, pumping works, fire plugs, hose, 
and above, on the second floor, the laundry and apartments of male 


The first penal institution of importance is known as the "State 
Prison South," located at Jeffersonville, and was the only prison 
until 1859. It was established in 1821. Before that time it was 
customary to resort to the old-time punishment of the whipping- 
post. Later the manual labor system was inaugurated, and the 
convicts were hired out to. employers, among whom were Capt. 
Westover, afterward killed at Alamo, Texas, with Crockett, James 
Keigwin, who in an aflVay was fired at and severely wounded by a 
convict named Williams, Messrs. Patterson Hensley, and Jos. 
R. Pratt. During the rule of the latter of these lessees, the atten- 
tion of the authorities was turned to a more practical method of 
utilizing convict labor; and instead of the prisoners being per- 
mitted to serve private entries, their work was turned in the direc- 
tion of their own prison, where for the next few years they were 
emploj'ed in erecting the new buildings now known as the " State 
Prison South." This structure, the result of prison labor, stands 
on 16 acres of ground, and comprises the cell houses and work- 
shops, together with the prisoners' garden, or pleasure-ground. 

It seems that in the erection of these buildings the aim of the 
overseers was to create so many petty dungeons and unventilated 
laboratories, into which disease in every form would be apt to 
creep. This fact was evident from the high mortality character- 
izing life within the prison; and in the eflbrts made by the 
Government to remedy a state of things which had been permitted 
to exist far too long, the advance in prison reform has become a 
reality. From 1857 to 1871 the labor of the prisoners was devoted 


to the manufacture of wagons and farm implements; and again the 
old policy of hiring the convicts was resorted to; for in the latter 
year, 1871, the Southwestern Car Company was organized, and 
every prisoner capable of taking a part in the work of car-building; 
was leased out. This did very well until the panic of 1873, when 
the company suffered irretrievable losses; and previous to its final 
down-fall in 1876 the warden withdrew convict labor a second time,, 
leaving the prisoners to enjoy a luxurious idleness around the 
prison which themselves helped to raise. 

In later years the State Prison South has gained some notoriety 
from the desperate character of some of its inmates. During the- 
civil war a convict named Harding luutilated in a most horrible 
manner and ultimatel}' killed one of the jailors named Tesley. In 
1874, two prisoners named Kennedy and Applegate, possessing^ 
themselves of some arms, and joined by two other convicts named 
Port and Stanley, made a break for freedom, swept past the guard. 
Chamberlain, and gained the fields. Chamberlain went in pursuit 
but had not gone very far when Kennedy turned on his pursuer, 
fired and killed him instantly. Subsequently three of the prisoners, 
were captured alive and one of theni paid the penalty of death, 
while Kennedy, the murderer of Chamberlain, failing committal for 
murder, was sent back to liis old cell to spend the remainder of his 
life. Bill Rodifer, better known as "The Hoosier Jack Sheppard,'* 
effected his escape in 1875, in the very presence of a large guard,, 
but was recaptured and has since been kept in irons. 

This establishment, owing to former mismanagement, has fallen 
very much behind, financially, and has asked for and received an 
appropriation of $20,000 to meet its expenses, while the contrary- 
is the case at the Michigan City prison. 


In 1859 the first steps toward the erection of a prison in the 
northern part of the State were taken, and by an act of the Legis- 
lature approved March 5, this year, authority was given to construct 
prison buildings at some point north of the National road. For this- 
purpose §50,000 were appropriated, and a large number of convicts 
from the JeSersonville prison were transported northward to 
Michigan City, which was just selected as the location for the new 
penitentiary. The work was soon entered upon, and continued to 
meet with additions and improvements down to a very recent 
period. So late as 1875 the Legislature appropriated $20,000 


toward the construction of new cells, and in other directions also 
the work of improvement has been going on. The system of 
government and discipline is similar to that enforced at the Jeffer- 
sonville prison; and, strange to say, by its economical working has 
not only met the expenses of the administration, but very recently 
had amassed over $11,000 in excess of current expenses, from its 
annual savings. This is due almost entirely to the continual 
employment of the convicts in the manufacture of cigars and 
chairs, and in their great prison industry, cooperage. It differs 
widely from the Southern, insomuch as its sanitary condition has 
been above the average of similar institutions. The strictness of its 
silent system is better enforced. The petty revolutions of its 
inmates have been very few and insignificant, and the number of 
punishments inflicted comparatively small. From whatever point 
this northern prison may be looked at, it will bear a very favorable 
comparison with the largest and best administered of like establish- 
ments throughout the world, and caimot fail to bring high credit to 
its Board of Directors and its able warden. 


The prison reform agitation which in this State attained telling 
proportions in 1S69, caused a Legislative measure to be brought 
forward, which would have a tendency to ameliorate the condition 
of female convicts. Gov. Baker recommended it to the General 
Assembly, and the members of that body showed their appreciation 
of the Governor's philanthropic desire by conferring upon the bill 
the authority of a statute; and further, appropriated $50,000 to aid 
in carrying out the objects of the act. The main provisions con- 
tained in the bill ma}' be set forth in the following extracts from 
the proclamation of the Governor: 

" Whenever said institution shall have been proclaimed to be 
open for the reception of girls in the reformatory department 
thereof, it shall be lawful for said Board of Managers to receive 
them into their care and management, and the said reformatory 
department, girls under the age of 15 years who may be committed 
to their custody, in either of the following modes, to-wit: 

" 1. When committed by any judge of a Circuit or Common 
Pleas Court, either in term time or in vacation, on complaint and 
due proof by the j)arent or guardian that by reason of her incorrig- 
ible or vicious conduct she has rendered her control beyond the 
power of such parent or guardian, and made it manifestly requisite 


that from regard to the future welfare of such infant, and for the 
protection of society, she should be placed under such guardianship. 

" 2. When such infant has been committed by such judge, as 
aforesaid, upon complaint by any citizen, and due proof of such 
complaint that such infant is a proper subject of the guardianship 
of such institution in consequence of her vagrancy or incorrigible 
or vicious conduct, and tliat from the moral depravity or other- 
wise of her parent or guardian in whose custody she may be, 
such parent or guardian is incapable or unwilling to exercise the 
proper care or discipline over such incorrigible or vicious infant. 

"3. When such infant has been committed by such judge as 
aforesaid, on complaint and due proof thereof by the township 
trustee of the township where such infant resides, that such infant 
is destitute of a suitable home and of adequate means of obtaining 
an honest living, or that she is in danger of being brought up to 
lead an idle and immoral life." 

In addition to these articles of the bill, a formal section of 
instruction to the wardens of State prisons was embodied in the 
act, causing such wardens to report the number of all the female 
convicts under their charge and prepare to have them transferred 
to the female reformatory immediately after it was declared to be 
ready for their reception. After the passage of the act the 
Governor appointed a Board of Managers, and these gentlemen, 
securing the services of Isaac Hodgson, caused him to draft a plan 
of the proposed institution, and further, on his recommendation, 
asked the people for an appropriation of another $50,000, which 
the Legislature granted in February, 1873. The work of construc- 
tion was then entered upon and carried out so steadilj', that on the 
6th of September, 1873, the building was declared ready for the 
reception of its future inmates. Gov. Baker lost no time in 
proclaiming this fact, and October 4 he caused the wardens of the 
State p>-i8on8 to be instructed to transfer all the female convicts in 
their custody to the new institution which may be said to rest on 
the o>dvanced intelligence of the age. It is now called the 
" Indiana Reformatory Institution for Women and Girls." 

This building is located immediatelv north of the deaf and 
dumb asylum, near the arsenal, at Indianapolis. It i? a three- 
Btorj' brick structure in the French style, and shows a frontage of 
174 feet, comprising a main building, with lateral and transverse 
wings. In front of the central portion is the residence of the 
superintendent and his associate reformatory officers, while in the 


rear is the engine house, witli all the ways and means for heating 
the buildings. Enlargements, additions and improvements are 
still in progress. There is also a school and library in the main 
building, which are sources of vast good. 

October 31, 1879, there were 66 convicts in the " penal" depart- 
ment and 147 in the " girls' reformatory " department. The 
" ticket-of-leave " system has been adopted, with entire satisfaction, 
and the conduct of the institution appears to be up with the 


In 1867 the Legislature appropriated $50,000 to aid in the 
formation of an institution to be entitled a house for the correction 
and reformation of juvenile defenders, and vested with full powers 
in a Board of Control, the members of which were to be appointed 
by the Governor, and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 
This Board assembled at the Governor's house at Indianapolis, 
April 3, 1867, and elected Charles F. Coffin, as president, and 
visited Chicago, so that a visit to the reform school there might 
lead to a fuller knowledge and guide their future proceedings. 
The House of Refuge at Cincinnati, and the Ohio State Reform 
school were also visited with this design ; and after full consider- 
ation of the varied governments of these institutions, the Board 
resolved to adopt the method known as the " family " system, 
■which divides the inmates into fraternal bodies, or small classes, 
each class having a separate house, house father and family offices, 
— all under the control of a general superintendent. The system 
being adopted, the question of a suitable location next presented 
itself, and proximity to a large city being considered rather 
detrimental to the welfare of such an institution. Gov. Baker 
selected the site three-fourths of a mile south of Plaintield, and 
about fourteen miles from Indianapolis, which, in view of its 
eligibility and convenience, was fully concurred in by the Board 
of Control. Therefore, a farm of 225 acres, claiming a fertile soil 
and a most picturesque situation, and possessing streams of running 
water, was purchased, and on a plateau in its center a site for the 
proposed house of refuge was fixed. 

The next movement was to decide upon a plan, which ultimately 
met the approval of the Governor. It favored the erection of one 
principal building, one house for a reading-room and hospital, two 
large mechanical shops and eight family houses. January 1, 1868, 


three family houses and work-shop were completed; in 1869 the 
main building, and one additional familj' house were added; but 
previous to this, in August, 1867, a Mr. Frank P. Ainsworth and 
liis wife were appointed by the Board, superintendent and matron 
respectively, and temporary quarters placed at their disposal. In 
1869 they of course removed to the new building. This is 64 by 
128 feet, and three stories high. In its basement are kitchen, 
laundry and vegetable cellar. The first floor is devoted to offices, 
visitors' room, house father and family dining-room and store- 
rooms. The general superintendent's private apartments, private 
oflices and five dormitories for officers occupy the second floor; 
while the third floor is given up to the assistant superintendent's 
apartment, library, chapel and hospital. 

The family houses are similar in style, forming rectangular build- 
ings 36 by 58 feet. The basement of each contains a furnace 
room, a store-room and a large wash-room, which is converted into 
a play-room during inclement weather. On the first floor of each 
of these buildings are two rooms for tiie house father and his 
family, and a school-room, which is also convertible into a sitting- 
room for the boys. On the third floor is a family dormitory, a 
clothes-room and a room for the " elder brother," who ranks next 
to the house father. And since the reception of the first boy, from 
Hendricks county, January 23, 1868, the house plan has proved 
equally convenient, even as the management has proved efficient. 

Other buildings have since been erected. 



History of Miami County, 


Geology — General Features — Soil and Boundary — Lime — • 
The Pillared Rocks. 

MIAMI COUNTY is situated in the Upper Silurian forma- 
tion. The weatherings of silico-calcareous rock (or mag- 
nesian Hmestone, as it may also be termed), have mingled with the 
Drift, which has reached this latitude, to form the soils of the 
county. The}' are also often charged with iron which has filtered, 
while held in solution b}' water, into many of the rock cavities, and 
been deposited there until again mingled with the soil. This union 
has given rise to a soil of varied character, but usually of sufHcient 
fertility to produce good crops. 

This county is traversed from east to west by the Wabash and 
Eel Rivers, and the Mississinewa passes across the south-eastern 
part. As a consequence a considerable part of the county is allu- 
vial, fertile and productive as such soils usually are. 

The highest seam exposed is a limestone equivalent to the rocky 
band at Delphi, in Carroll county. A light brown colored magnesian 
limestone, which, from false bedding, is often seen with strata dip- 
ping at every angle almost to a perpendicular. In fact this appar- 
ently disturbed condition is often referred to oscillations in the 
earth's crust instead of the true solution. This bed was formerly 
burned for lime at Duke's quarr\', adjoining Peru, but the kiln is 
not now in use. It is crowded with skeletonized fossils, \-et still 
retaining a sufficient modicum of animal matter to prevent the lime 
from so fuUv slackening in the short time usually allowed for that 
purpose h\ workmen. Hence, this lime is not suited for plasterers' 
use, unless the mortar is permitted to remain in damp vats several 
months before being spread upon the walls of houses. This is too 
slow a process for our fast age. Yet the Roman architect who 
built for ages, would onl\- use mortar which had been prepared a 
year or more before it would be needed by the artificer. The fo.s- 
sils contained were Crinoid stems, plates and heads, Pcii/aiucrus 


■^'.Vdapti'cl for thin volume from tho State Gcolot^ical Keport for 1872, and from the "Geological 
onnoiuunce of Indiana," by Kicliard Owen, IHtiO. 


Kiiiohtii and Occidciilalis ( .''), Platyccras^ B 11 mast is, Barriciisis, 
Calymcuc Bliimcnbacltii var. A /a_<^arc/is/s and corals. 

Beds of this stone are generally local and of no great extent, 
but an outcrop, somewhat purer and ten or more feet in thickness, 
was formerly worked a mile to the north on the farm of E. H. 
Shirk, and appearances indicated that this stone could be found in 
all the intervening area. Similar beds of stone are well developed 
at John Trippier's, two miles east of Peru and south of the Wabash 
river; and at Wallick's mill, on the Peru & Indianapolis Railroad, con- 
taining the fossills mentioned as occurring at Dukes' quarry, 
\\'ith F'azvsites and Cyathophylloid corals, Ilalysltcs catcitulata and 
Brvozoa. At both of these localities lime is burned for exportation 
as well as local use. It is similar, if not equal, to Delphi lime, 
slakes perfectly, works "cool" bears transportation well, makes a 
stroncr and almost hydraulic cement, and deserves a more extended 

Below these beds of lime rock is found stone which I have 
called "silico magnesia limestone," adopting the name applied to it 
by R. Owen. A surface opening has been made at Dukes' quarry, 
in the northern part of Peru, and it is believed that although a tirst 
rate stone has not been produced yet because exposed to the action 
of drought and winters for man}' thousand years, but when mining 
operations shall have been extended to parts not exposed to atmo- 
spheric influences, the product will prove much more satisfactor}-. 

Lower beds of stone are found along the river. This is 
worked at Lyde's quarry, two and a half miles west of Peru, in 
the low bank and bottom of the river. It is distinctly laminated, or 
divided by partings containing pyrites and argiUaceous matter. 
Protected from the weather, this will serve for foundations; but on 
exposure the argo-pvrite decomposes, and breaks the rock into 
small shelly fragments. The stone quarried at Tracy's for founda- 
tions, although less argillaceous, ought not to be exposed to 
extreme changes of temperature and moisture. Near the mouth 
of the Mississinewa are extensive beds of rock suitable for build- 
ing, showing an outcrop of more than one mile. On the right bank 
is the brick residence and well-appointed farm of Godfroy, chief 
(and son of the distinguished leader) of the Miami Nation of 
Indians. Across the valley is the Osage village, once the residence 
of Chief Pecan, who was distinguished as statesman and warrior, 
and lived to the extreme age of one hundred years, universally 
respected. Many Miami Indians still live in this county, descend- 
ants from the princely line of chieftains who bravely led this once 
powerful Nation in its ineffectual struggle for supremacy. 

Ascending the Mississinewa to a point three miles east of Peru 
we tind the "Pillared Rocks," full of geological as well as roman- 
tic interest. Here the river flows directly to the north and 


infrin<res aoainst a solid wall of chert v silico magnesia limestone, 
and diverted from its course flows thence to the westward. The 
action of the rushing river and the unequal disintegration of the 
rocks has carved the precipitous wall, which diverts the river's 
course, into a system of pillars, rounded buttresses, alcoves, cham- 
bers and overhanging sides, ever beautiful and interesting. The 
whole is covered with evergreen cedars. It is a picnic ground 
widely known and justly celebrated. In the overlaying gray limestone 
an Orthoccras, two feet long, and an obscure Crinoid head, not less 
than six inches in diameter, were seen. The main wall of stone is 
straw color, the natural tints of which contrasted well with the 
autumnal foliage, at the time of my visit, of scarlet, gold and crimson. 
Still ascending this stream we find a wall-like precipice bound- 
ing this ri\er on the north side. On the farm of H. H. Hahn, the 
following section was taken : 


Soil, sandy 4 ft. in. 

Whito ;,'l;iss and irrit stone 1 (I ft. U in. 

Porous lime rock 3 to 18 ft. in. 

Cherty laminated ngillaceous limestone to river. . 35 ft. in. 

67 ft. in. 

The porous limestone of this section is not easily broken. 
Blocks of a large size may be obtained, and the unexplored beds, if 
found sufficiently compact, u ill prove valuable for quarry purposes, 
as well as for "burning." This deposit shows much false bedding, 
and dips to the south at an angle of twenty degrees. 

At Thomas' quarry, in the pool of Peoria mill dam, fine square 
blocks of stone are quarried at the water's edge, below the cherty 
division of the silico magnesia division. This is the best stone seen 
in tiie count\', but being at or below the ordinarv water line, it will 
be difficult, if not impracticable to prove its value. 

Still higher on the Mississinewa, near Brouillette's, a quarry 
was opened, and stone obtained for pilaster coping for the Catholic 
Church at Peru. The modest, neutral tint of this stone contrasts 
well with the ruddv brick wall, and promises to weather well. 
This bed will justify its development, as it is very similar to the 
Delphos stone brought from Ohio. 



Indian History — Early Tribes — The Miamis — Treaties — 
The Pottaw atomies — Indian Villages — Miami Chiefs — 
Killing of Shoc-cot-wah — Fr.\nces Slocu.m — B.vttle of 


OF the tribes that inhabited the countrj- East of the Mississippi, 
the Miami was the most powerful. And as early as the 
latter part of the seventeenth century, exercised general control over 
the greater part of the territory embraced in the present State of 
Indiana. Subsequenth' encroachments upon the lands claimed b}- the 
Miamis began to be made by other tribes of same family (_ Algonquin) 
among whom were the Pottawatomie, Shawanee, Delaware and 
Kickapoo tribes. But the History of Miami County has to do prin- 
cipally with the Miami and Pottawatomie tribes, the former occu- 
pants of the territorj- South of the Wabash and the latter of the 
territory North of that river. 

The first general treaty, perhaps, in which the several tribes 
of the Algonquin familv in the original Northwestern Territory — 
embracing those named above — were participants, was that at 
Greenville, in the Territory' of the United States Northwest of the 
Ohio River, on the 3d day of August, 1795. It was there that the 
various tribal interests were fully discussed, and the separate rights 
of each considered with reference to their past and future relations 
with the white people. Fifteen tribes and branches were represen- 
ted in that council, the deliberations of which commenced on the 
i6th day of June and terminated on the 3d day of August, 1795, 
with the unanimous acceptance, bj- the several representatives pres- 
ent, of the several provisions of that important treaty in which they 
were respectivelv interested. It was during the continuance of this 
council that Little Turtle, a representative chief of the Miamis, de- 
fined the traditionary boundaries of their territory. Addressing 
Gen. Wayne, he said: 

■ "I hope vou will pay attention to what I now say to you. I 
wish to inform \ou where your younger brothers, the Miamis, live, 
and also the Pottawatomies of St. Joseph, together with the Wa- 
bash Indians. You have pointed out to us the boundary line 
between the Indians and the United States, but I now take the lib- 
ertv to inform \ou that the line cuts off from the Indians a large 
portion of country which has been enjoyed by my fore-fathers, time 

•A Considerable portion of this Chapter is taken fri)m a sketch of the Miami Tribe as prepared 
by Hon. John A. Graliam. 


immemorial, without molestation or dispute. The prints of mv 
ancestor's houses are everywhere to be seen in this portion. ... It 
is well known bv all mv brothers present, that mv forefathers 
kindled the tirst tire at Detroit; from thence he extended his lines 
to the head waters of the Scioto; from thence, to its mouth; from 
thence down the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash; and from 
thence, to Chicago, on Lake Michigan." 

One of the pro\isions of this treatv, which materiallv affected 
the interests of this locality, was that which allowed "to the people 
of the United States a free passage by land and water, as one and 
the other shall be found convenient, through their country . . . from 
Fort Wayne, along the portage aforesaid, which leads to the 
Wabash, and thence down the Wabash to the Ohio." Allowing, 
also, to the people of the United States the free use of the harbors 
and mouths of rivers along the lakes adjoining Indian lands, for 
sheltering vessels and boats, and liberty to land their cargoes when 
necessarv for their safetv. 

The Miamis were a branch of the Algonquin familj- — which 
primitivelv occupied the region surrounding the great lakes. The 
Miamis, according to Schoolcraft, occupied a high position among 
the tribes of North America. Thev were leading and influential, 
and were superior to manv in point of intelligence and moral char- 
acteristics. The}- were strict observers of treaty stipulations, and 
were not easily influenced bv neighboring tribes to commit deeds 
of desperation or take up arms without what they believed to be a 
just cause. When once aroused the\' fought with the skill of 
trained warriors, and under Little Turtle, in some respects the great- 
est warrior of his race, won on many a battle-field. 

The great treatv entered into bv the Miamis and the commis- 
sioners on the part of the United States, under the provisions of 
which the first important cession of territory in this part of Indiana 
was made, was concluded on the 6th of October, iSiS, at St. Mary's, 
Ohio. The boundaries of the territory embraced in this cession 
were substantiallv the following: "Commencing near the town of 
LaGro, on the Wabash, where the Salamonie unites with the 
Wabash River: running thence through Wabash and Grant Count- 
ies into Madison Countv, its southeast corner was about foiu" miles 
southeast of Independence, at the center of section 1 7 : thence run- 
ning south of west, with the general course of the Wabash River 
across Tipton Countv, close to the town of Tipton, just north 
thereof, to where it intersects a line running north and south from 
Logansport, which is the western boundary of Howard County, 
one mile west of Range line No. i, east; thence north to Logan- 
sport; thence up the Wabash to the mouth of the Salomonie, the 
place of beginning. There was contained within these boundaries 
930,000 acres. The greater part of this reservation remained in 


the hands of the Indians until November, 1840, when it was relin- 
quished, being the last of their claims in Indiana. 

By the treaty of October 23, 1826, held at Paradise Springs, 
known as the old "Treaty Grounds," the chiefs and warriors of the 
Miamis, in council with Lewis Cass, James B. Ray and John Tip- 
ton, Commissioners representing the United States, ceded to the 
latter power "aU their claim to lands in the state of Indiana, north 
and west of the Wabash and Miami Rivers, and of the cession made 
by the said tribe to the United States, by the treaty concluded at 
St. Mary's, October 6, 1818." By further provision of the same 
treaty, the state of Indiana was authorized to lay out a canal or road 
through any of the reservations, and for the use of a Canal, six 
chains along the same were appropriated. 

In payment for this, they received $31,040.53 in goods, $31, - 
040.53 in cash. The following year, 1827, they received $61, 259.- 
47 in addition; of which $35,000 was annuities, and in 182S, $30,000. 
After that date, they were to receive a permanent annuity of $25- 

Again, in 1834, the Government purchased of them 177,000 
acres, including the strip seven miles wide, off the west side of the 
reserve, in what is now Cass, Howard and Clinton Counties, which 
was transferred to the state of Indiana, to be used for the comple- 
tion of the Wabash and Erie Canal from the mouth of the Tippeca- 
noe River. A strip five miles wide, along the Wabash, had been 
previously appropriated to the construction of the canal to the 
mouth of the Tippecanoe. The consideration paid for this was 

Bv treatv of No\ember 6, 1838, they made a further cession 
to the United States of certain lands reserved by former treaties. 
Finallv, on the 28th of November, 1840, they relinquished their 
right to all the remaining lands in Indiana, except certain specific 
reservations, for which they received the sum of $550,000 and 
agreed to vacate these lands within five years. They did not move, 
however, until 1847. 

Pottawatomies — This tribe is also of the Algonquin family, 
being a branch of the great Chippewa, or, as some write, Ojibway, 
nation, which, at the time of our first account of them, about the 
middle of the seventeenth century, occupied and held the country 
from the mouth of Green Bay, to the head waters of Lake Superior. 
This nation was visited at an early date by the French at Sault St. 
Mary and Chegoimegon. 

At a later dav, they appear to have migrated southward: formi- 
dable bands of them having gained a footing on the territory of 
the Miamis near the southern extremity of Lake Michigan, partl)^ 
bj' permission and partly by force. Since that time, they have 
been recognized as occupving the territory to the southward of 


Lake Michigan, on ihc Tippecanoe River, thence to the borders of 
the Wabash on the north. 

On the iSth of July, T815, the Pottawatomies, desiring to enter 
into. relations of friendship vvitii the United States and place them- 
selves in a proper position before the world, concluded a treaty, the 
first separate one made by them, the chief element of which is set 
forth in Section 2, in the following words: 

"There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all 
the people of the United States of America and all the individuals 
composing the said Pottawatomie Tribe or Nation." 

By the provisions of a treat}', made and concluded at St. 
Mary's, on the 2d day of October, 1818, they ceded to the United 
States all the countrv comprehended within the following limits: 
" Beginning at the mouth of the Tippecanoe River, and running up 
the same to a point twenty-five miles in a direct line from the 
Wabash River: thence, on a line as nearh" parallel to the general 
course of the Wabash Ri\'er as practicable, to a point on the Ver- 
million River, twentv-five miles from the Wabash River: thence 
down the Vermillion River to its mouth, and thence up the Wabash 
River to the place of beginning. The Pottawatomies also cede to 
the United States all their claim to the countr\- south of the Wabash 

The treatv of most iuTjiortance to the people of this locality, 
made by this tribe with the United States, was at Paradise Springs, 
near the mouth of the Mississinewa, upon the Wabash, on the i6th 
da\' of October, 1S26, bv the provisions of which the United States 
acquired the right to all the land within the following limits: 
" Beginning on the Tippecanoe River, where the northern bound- 
ary of the tract ceded by the Pottawatomies to the United States, 
by the Treaty of St. Marj-'s, in the year 1818, intersects the same, 
thence, in a direct line, to a point on Eel River, half-way between 
the mouth of the said river and Pierish's village: thence up Eel 
River to Seek's village, near the head thereof; thence, in a 
direct line to the mouth of a creek emptying into the St. 
Joseph's of the Miami, near Metea's village; thence, up the St. 
Joseph's to the boundary line between the States of Indiana and 
and Ohio; thence, south to the Miami; thence up the same to the 
reservation at Fort Wayne; thence, with the lines of the said reser- 
vation, to the boundary established b}- the treaty with the Miamis 
in 1818; thence, with the said line to the Wabash River; thence, 
with the same river to the mouth of the Tippecanoe River, and 
thence, with the said Tippecanoe Ri\er to the place of beginning. 
And the said tribe also cede to the United States all their right to 
land within the following limits: Beginning at a point on Lake 
Michigan, ten miles due north of the southern extreme thereof, run- 
ning thence due east to the land ceded b\- the Indians to the United 


States bv the treat}- of Chicago; thence south with the boundan' 
thereof, ten miles; thence, west to the southern extreme of Lake 
Michigan : thence; with the shore thereof, to the place of beginning." 

In addition to the treaties ah'eadv referred to, the Pottawato- 
mies concluded nineteen other treaties with the Ll^nited States, ceding 
certain reserved interests, from time to time withheld, until, by the 
the provisions of the final treaty concluded by them on the nth of 
Februarv, 1837, with John T. -Douglass, a Commissioner on the 
part of the United States, at the City of Washington, they ceded all 
their remaining interest in the lands in the State of Indiana, and 
agreed to remove to a country provided for them by the President 
of the United States, southwest of the Missouri River, within two 
y^ears from the ratification of said treaty. The treaty was ratified 
at the end of one week from its consummation, and the\- were 
removed westward in the fall of 1838 and 1839 following."' 

Indian Villages. — The Indian villages in this county were: 
We-Saws, on the north bank of the Eel River, below Denver, at 
the mouth of We-Saw Creek: Flower's village, on the south side, 
opposite Chili ; and Squirrel's Village, on the north side, near Stock- 
dale. The Indians living at Flower's Village were Weas, subse- 
quently designated on the pay roll of Eel Rivers; at We-Saw's, 
Pottawatomies, and at Squirrel's, Miamis. After a few years they 
all became known as Miamis, and signed treaties and participated 
in annuities as such. The Osage Village, t)n the west bank 
of the Mississinewa, one mile above its mouth, was the 
most important village in the count}'. This was, doubtless, the 
largest village of the Miami tribe. It took its name ftom that of its 
first chief. She-pa-can-nah, or Deaf Man, was the war chief of 
this \illage. 

Principal Chiefs of tlic Miamis. — No authentic account of 
the chiefs of the Miamis can be given prior to the reign of Ague- 
nack-gue, who signed tlie first treaty between the English and 
Miamis on the 23d of July, 1748. He lived in Turtle \'illage, a 
few miles northeast of Fort Wayne, and it was at this place in the 
year 1747, his son. Little Turde, was born. Upon the death of his 
father Little Turtle became chief of the tribe. His mother was of 
thi tribe of Mohegans, and transmitted man\- of her superior quali- 
ties to her son. His courage, sagacity and extraordinary talent 
were developed at an early age, and, when but a boy, his influence 
with his own tribe, as well as with others of the confederation, was 
iinbounded. His .skill in the management of an army was not sur- 
passed even bv those trained and schooled in the profession. He 
was victorious in many a hotly contested battle, and it was not uiUil 
he met "the man who never sleeps," as he spoke of General Wa}ne 
while addressing a council of war, did he meet his equal. He died 
at Fort Wavne Julv 14th, 181 2. and was buried by the whites with 


tlic highest honors, hi tlie grave with him were huried the sword 
and medal presented him by General Washington. 

The successor of i^ittle Turtle was Pe-che-wa, commonly 
called John ]i. Richarchille. His father was of French extraction, 
and his mother was the sister of Little Turtle. He was bom about 
the year 1761. His election to chieftaincy was the result of a most 
daring feat of voluntaiy heroism. A white captive had been con- 
demned to be burned at the stake. He had been bound and the 
faggots placed in jiosition, and the one who had been commissioned 
to apph' the torch began the performance of his dut}-, and as 
the flames began to wreathe, the young Richardville, in obedience 
to a siijnal from his mother, dashed througrh the wild crowd and 
cut the cords that bound the captive and bade him go free. So 
heroic was the act that he was at once accepted as chief. He was 
a man of great executive ability and fine business sense. He died 
in 1 84 1, and was buried b\' the Catholics at Fort Wa3'ne. 

Francis LaFontaine, whose Indian name was To-pe-ah, became 
principal chief of the Miamis after the death of Richardville. His 
father was of French descent and his mother a Miami woman. 
He was born at Fort Wayne in 1820. At the age of 
twenty-one he married Catharine Po-con-go-qua, daughter of 
Richardville. He manifested great interest in the welfare of his 
tribe, and on this account was elected chief. When his tribe was 
removed to the reservation west of the Mississippi he accompanied 
them, but after a short stay started to return, and at Lafayette was 
taken suddenly ill, where he died April 13th, 1847. His remains 
were taken to Huntington for interment, where one of his daughters, 
Mrs. Archangel Englemaii, still lives. 

i\lc-s/iin-gu->nc-sia. His ancestors and dcscciidaiits. — No relia- 
ble account of the ancestors of Me-shin-go-me-sia can be traced 
fin-ther back than the fourth generation, or to the time of Osandiah, 
who, at the head of one division of the tribe, left Fort Wavne (at 
what date no one knows) and settled on the Big Miami River, in 
Ohio. Soon after his settlement at this point he visited Gen. Wash- 
ington, at that time President, who presented him with tokens of 
regard. This aroused the jealousy of the other tribes, b\' whom it 
is believed he was poisoned. 

Upon the death of Osondiah his son, Ataw-ataw, became chief, 
and he, in turn, was succeeded by his son, Me-to-cin-yah, who re- 
moved with his tribe to Indiana and settled in what is now Wabash 
and Grant Counties, and after a successful reign of many years 
died, and his remains were buried in Wabasli County. 

He was the father of ten children : Me shin-go-me-sia, Ta-con- 
saw, Mack-quack-yno-nun-gah, Shop-on-do-sheah, Wa-pe-si-taw, 
Me-tack-quack-cpiah, So-lin-jes-\ah, Wa-cau-con-aw, Po-kung-e- 
yali and We-coji-eme-nah. 


Upon the death of Me-to-cin-vah, his eldest son, Me-shin-go- 
me-sia, succeeded to the chieftaincy. He was born in Wabash 
County about the beginning of the last quarter of the eighteenth 
century ( the precise date not known). At the age of about thirty 
he married Tac-ka-quah, a daughter of So-a-nah-ke-kah, and to 
them were born two sons Po-kung-gah and Ataw-ataw. He was 
a man of great firmness, though not obstinate. He was ordinarily 
intelligent and always displayed judgment and good business sense 
in the management of the affairs of his band. His death occurred 
December — ,1879. 

The following sketch, as well as many other extracts, are taken 
from the Indian History of the county written by Hon. John A. 
Graham : 

F'raiicis Gocifrov — '-A great war-chief of the Miamis, 
called by the Indians, Pa-lons-wa, was the son of Jacques, or 
James Godfroy. a French trader among the Indians. He and 
his brother Louis were distinguished men in their tribe from 
early manhood, and took a leading part in its important affairs. 
They were prominent in the battles of Fort Wayne, Tippecanoe 
and the Mississinewa. Their high appreciation in the tribe is 
eyidenced by the fact that, in the treat}- of St. Mary's, in 1818, 
Francis was granted a reseryation of six sections of land on the 

. ... ... r^ 

Salamonie, at La Petit Prairie, and Louis six sections on the St. 
Mary's, aboye the reservation of Anthony Shaw. The affection 
of the brothers for each other is shown by an article of agree- 
ment, made on the 2nd of December, 1S24, witnessed by Gen. 
Tipton and Joseph Barron, in which thev agree to exchange one 
section of these reseryations, and bind themselves not to sell or 
otherwise dispose of the same, unless bv mutual consent — the 
sole object and purpose of the exchange being that -the broth- 
ers jnay live near each other.' 

•' Francis was a man of splendid physical development, being 
six feet high and weighing about three hundred pounds. He was 
genial, generous and dignified; sincere in his friendship, paternal in 
his rule, and princely in his hospitality. He was known and 
esteemed by the most distinguished men of his day, and among 
them those against whom he fought in battle. He was a prompt 
and liberal contributor on all public calls for money : was gracious 
and hospitable to white visitors, and. like one of the old barons, 
always kept about his ' Mount Pleasant' home a large retinue of his 
own people. 

"In the spring of 1840 he was taken sick, and, after a linger- 
ing illness, died on the first day of May of that year. A numerous 
concourse of white citizens, as well as his own people, manifested 
their respect for the chief bv attending his funeral, which took 
place at his own house, his grave being but a short distance 


from it on tlie rising ground to the south. Wap-pa-pin-sha, 
called also Black Raccoon, a chief and noted orator, delivered a 
funeral discourse on the occasion, from which the following 
extracts are taken: 

"Bkotheiis: Tlie (Jreat Spirit liiis tMlicii to liimself anothor of our oiuc jiower- 
ful and happy, Init now rapidly dccliniug- nation. Tlic time lias liocn wlii'n these 
forests were densely popnlated liy the red man; Imt the same hand, whose Mighting 
touch witliered tlu^ niajeslie frame before us, and eaused the nolile sjiirit liyVhieh 
it was animated to seek another liome, has dealt in a like mamier with liis and onr 
fatliers; in a like manner will it deal with us. Death, of late, lias been eomnion 
amonir us — .so much so that an occurrence of it scarcely elicits our notice. Ikit 
when the brave, the generous and the patriotic are blasted by it, then it is that the 
tears of sorrow freely How. 

"Such is now the c;ise; our brother, who just left us, was brave, generous and 
patriotic, and as a tribute to his merit, and a reward for goodness, the tears, not only 
of his own iicople, but of many white men, who are here assembled to witness the 
funeral rites, freely flow. 

"At this scene the poor of his people weep, because at his table they were wont 
to feast and rejoice. The weak mourn his death, because his authorit}' was directed 
to their protection. But he has left the earth, the place of ve.\ation and contention, 
and is now particii>ating with Pocahontas and Logan in those joys prepared by the 
Great Spirit for such as well and faithfully discharge their duties here. Brothers, 
let us emulate his example and practice his virtues." 

" From 1838 until their removal west, the Miamis grew reck- 
less and dissipated. Their dissipation led to frequent quarrels 
and homicides, so their number decreased rapidly in the live 
years preceding their removal. The following are some of the 
cases which attracted the special notice of the whites: Shoc- 
cot-wah, a half-brother of Ne-con-zah (Squirrel), was a bad 
Indian — quarrelsome and treacherous. Old Mother Tap-po, who 
had several daughters, and Ah-lin-de-ze-quah, who had two 
daughters and a son named Wa-ca-co-nah, lived in what is now 
the David Hohn farm, in Butler township. Their cabins were 
close together, and the Indians resorted there. At the time of 
the occurrence about to be related, several Weas, among ihem 
the brothers of Shap-pan-do-ce-ah and Qua-com-ah-cot-wah and 
Shoc-cot-wah, Ne-con-zah, Shoc-com-wah and Me-ze-quoh, of 
the Ne-con-zah, or Squirrel party of Miamis, were there drink- 
ing. They had spent the night in their carousal, in the course 
of which Shoc-cot-wah caught Mother Tap-po bv the hair and 
struck her in the face with his list, bruising it and causing the 
blood to flow freel)'. This made the old woman mad for revenge, 
and she told her daughters to load her pistol heavily for she was 
going to kill Shoc-cot-wah. They loaded the pistol and gave it 
to her. This was the ne.\t morning after the "night's deliauch, 
and the Indians were outside the house sitting and standing, and 
Shoc-cot-wah was in a half recumbent position resting on his 
elbow. The old woman came to him, pointing the pistol at 
him, and told him she was going to shoot him, but just as she 
was about to pull tiie trigger Wap-pa-pin-sha, who was gener- 


ally called the Black Raccoon, a man of rank and distinction as 
an orator among the Indians, came arovnd the house, caught 
her hand and inquired what she was going to do. She told 
him how she had been abused, showed her bruised and bloody 
face, and said she was going to kill Shoc-cot-wah. Wap-pa- 
pin-sha took the pistol and told Shoc-cot-wah that he was a bad 
Indian, that he was no man, was a coward to abuse an old 
woman in that way, and that he must die. Shoc-cot-wah did 
not move from his position, and his antagonist, standing above, 
fired downward, the ball passing between the collar-bone and 
the throat. After being shot, Shoc-cot-wah, spitting blood, got 
up and walked toward Wap-pa-pin-sha, who had walked away 
from where Shoc-cot-wah had been l}ing. As Shoc-cot-wah 
passed the Indians they thought he wanted a weapon, and Shap- 
pan-do-ce-ah said to Wap-pa-pin-sha, who was paralyzed in one 
arm and unarmed, "He will kill you, take this," handing him 
a large Bowie knife. He took the knife, upon seeing which 
Shoc-cot-wah began to plead, saying to Wap-pa-pin-sha, 'Don't 
kill me mv friend; you have done enough; I am your friend.' 
To which Wap-pa-pin-sha answered, 'No, you are not my 
friend: vou are nobodv's friend; vou abuse the Indians, and you 
must die,' and he plunged the knife into Shoc-cot-wah's heart. 
He drew it out of the breast of Shoc-cot-wah, a stream of 
blood spouting from the wound, and, after wiping it on the 
grass, handed it back to Shap-pan-do-ce-ah. 

"The squirrel party, to which Shoc-cot-wah belonged, threat- 
ened revenge, and the whites, who thought substantial justice 
had been done bv Wap-pa-pin-sha, brought him to town and 
protected him from his enemies. 

"Another case, which was regarded by the whites in a dif- 
ferent light, and aroused their horror and indignation, was the 
killing, by Peashwa, a Pottawattomie, of two men and a woman 
of the Flowers or Wea part}'. He had lived at Wesaw Village and 
had two ^viyes of the FloAvers party. After the removal of the Weas 
from Eel River to the reserve, south of the Wabash, he and his 
wives and the two half-brothers of one of these women settled 
on Pipe Creek, near where the Strawtown road crosses the 
same. Their names were Ah-lah-loon-dah and Shap-pan-do-ce- 
ah. and were married and had houses at the same place. Shap- 
pan-do-ce-ah's wife was named Kil-so-quah, and Ah-lah-loon-dah's, 
Me-shoc-co-to-quah. These two Weas and their wives went on 
a hunt some six miles southwest of where they lived, on Little 
Deer Creek, and camped. The men went hunting and the 
women remained in camp. The pony of Me-shoc-co-to-quah got 
loose at the camp and started back toward home. She followed, 
and did not catch it until it had nearly reached there. When 



she returned near to the camp she approached it Indian-like, 
cautiously, and seeing Kil-so-quah sitting very quietly and in a 
curious position, her fears of something being wrong were 
aroused, and she crept quietly up to the camp. She found her 
sister-in-law, whom she had left but a few hours before well, sit- 
ting in a half reclining position, dead, with a wild turkey she had 
been picking, in her lap. She retreated in terror, got on her 
pony and went with all haste to the Wea Village, on Deer 
Creek, to give the alarm. A party at once started for the camp. 
They soon came upon the trail of the hunters in a swampy 
thicket. They followed it but a short distance when they found 
the body of one of the Indians, shot from behind through the 
back of the head, and his pon\' shot; following the trail still 
further, they found the other, shot through the body." 

"The Indians were furious and the whites turned out with 
them to hunt the murderer, but the search was fruitless. It 
was considered a cruel murder, and if Peashwa had been found,, 
the whites whould have seconded the Indians in takin"- sum- 
mary vengeance. 

"At his home, on Pipe Creek, he left two children, by a for- 
mer wife, a Pottawattomie woman. They were kept under 
strict sur\-eillance by the Weas, as hostages, and it was under- 
stood that if Peashwa was not caught they would be sacrificed. 
The boy was got away, and, like his father, found refuge at 
Ephriam Bearss'; but the girl remained, and shortlj' afterward 
disappeared, and the legend is — and it is believed by Pim-wy- 
oh-tem-ah, a Miami, now living in this neighborhood, to be true — 
that the old woman of the Flowers party kilUed the girl by the 
most cruel method of cutting her to pieces. This she, no doubt, 
regarded as a sacred duty, to avenge the killing of her own 
people by the child's father. 

"The date of the foregoing murders is not remembered 
exactly, but it is somewhere about 1S41 or 1S42." 

Among other cases of killing, the following ma^" be men- 

"Wah-puck-co-se-ah was killed by Win-gon-sah, in 1844. 
Shap-pan-do-ce-ah's wife, a Pottawattomie woman, killed Mah- 
qua-co-non-gah, in 1S45, at the Osage village. Pung-ah-shin-gah 
killed Man-ce-ah, or Muncie, as he was called by the whites, in 
1845. Keel-oh-com-e-ke-ah, who died but a few years ago, 
at his home, near the Mississinewa — a peaceable, manly 
Indian, and remarkable for his great weight, some four hun- 
dred pounds — killed Shoc-co-com-wah, under almost ludicrous 
circumstances. They had been in town, drinking, and on 
their way home, somewhere near the old limekiln, on the 
road between Peru and the Mississinewa. Shoc-co-com-wah. 


who was quarrelsome, wanted to tight. Keel-oh-com-e-ke-ah 
said lie did not want to tight, was not mad, and had noth- 
ing to tight about. The other insisted, at least to tight 
white fashion, with their lists. So, to gratify his friend, Keel- 
oh-com-e-ke-ah consented, and thev got off their horses. Thev 
were both under the influence of liquor, and, before commencing, 
Shoc-co-com-wah took out his bottle, took a drink, and handed 
it to Keel-o-com-e-ke-ah, inviting him to drink. While the lat- 
ter had the bottle to his mouth, the other struck at him with a 
knife, cutting through his coat and inflicting a severe wound in 
his breast. Keel-o-com-e-ke-ah seized him by the throat, crushed 
him to the ground, held him there with one hand, while with 
the other he reached into his vest-pocket, got out a clasp dirk- 
knife, opened the blade with his teeth, and then struck it into 
the breast of his treacherous friend. He repeated his blows 
with the knife until he effectually cured the pugilistic Miami of 
all further disposition to tight white-man fashion. 

"Keel-o-com-e-ke-ah, for -sears before his death, had been 
falling awav in flesh, until, at the occurrence of that event, he 
did not weigh more than, perhaps, a hundred pounds. Once, 
years ago, when he was at his greatest weight, he was arrested 
in town for being drunk, and perhaps fifty men and boys were 
engaged in taking him before the mayor. His great strength 
enabled him to throw them off as though thev were children: 
but, about the time they got him to the office, he was exhausted, 
and gave up, exclaiming, 'oh, too many — can't.' The entrance 
to the Maj'or's othce was by an outside rickety stairs. The 
Ma3-or looked out of the window, and, seeing the elephantine 
proportions of the prisoner, dismissed the case for want of suf- 
ficient stairs." 

Frances Slociiiii — Earlv in the thirties, it was discov- 
ered by Gen. George W. Ewing, that the widow of one of 
the distinguished war-chiefs was a white woman, who had been 
captured bv the Delaware Indians when but a child of prob- 
ably six years. He learned from her, the name of her father 
and the further fact that the family lived on the Susquelianna 
in Penns^'lvania, and he accordingly addressed a letter to a gen- 
tleman in Pennsylvania requesting its publication, thinking it might 
thereby reach some of the relatives. The following is an ex- 
tract from the letter of Gen. Ewing: "There is now near this 
place among the Miami tribe of Indians, an aged white woman, 
who a few days ago, told me, whilst I lodged in the camp with 
her one night, that she was taken away from her father's home 
on or near the Susquehanna River, when she was very young, 
say from five to eight years old: she thinks, by the Delaware 
Indians who were then hostile to the whites. She savs her 




father's name was Slocum, that he was a Quaker, rather small 
in stature, and wore a large broad-rimmed hat; was of sandy 
hair, light complexion and much freckled; that he lived about 
half a mile from a town where there was a fort; that they lived 
in a wooden house two stories high, and had a spring near the 
house. She says three Delawares came to the house in the day 
time, when all were absent but herself and perhaps two other 
small children; her father and brothers were absent making hav. 
The Indians carried her off and she was adopted into a family 
of Delawares who raised her and treated her as their own child. 
They died about forty years ago in Ohio. She was then mar- 
ried to a Miami, by whom she had four children, two of whom 
are now living, both daughters, and she living with them. She 
is old and feeble and thinks she will not live long, and these 
considerations induced her to give the present histor}- of 
herself which she never would do before, fearing her kindred 
would come and force her away." 

The letter, after being given up by the writer as having 
failed of its purpose, was accidentally discovered, some two years 
after it was written, and published in a Lancaster, Pa., paper. The 
facts it narrated regarding the captive satisfied the Slocums that 
she was, be3'ond a doubt, their long lost relative, and thev at once 
opened a correspondence with Col. Ewing on the subject. The 
following letter will explain itself as a part of the present nar- 

"WiLKESBAKRE, Pa., AugUSt 9, 18S7. 

"Geo. W. Ewing, Esq., 

"Dritr Sir: At the snrrgestion of my father and other relations I have taken the 
liberty to write toyo\i although an entire stranger. We have received but a few days 
since, a letter written b)' you to a gentleman in Lancaster, in this State, upon a sub- 
ject of deep and intense interest to our family. How the matter should have lain so 
long enwrapped in obscurity we cannot conceive. An aunt of mine, sister of my 
father, was taken away when five years old, by the Indians, and since then we have 
had only vasiue and indistinct rumors on the subject. Your letter we deem to have 
entirely revealed the wliole matter and set everything at rest. The description is so 
perfect and the incidents (with the exception of her age) so correct, we feel confi- 

"Steps will be taken immediately to investigate the matter, and we will endeavor 
to do all in our power to restore a lost relative who has been sixty years in Indian 
bondage. * * * * * 

"Your friend and servsmt, 

"Ion J. SLocf-M." 

The narrative of the life of Frances Slocum, as given her- 
self to the interpreters who went with her relatives, as above 
related, is as follows: 

"One evening about dusk, in the year i777> while Frances 
and other children were at play, near her father's house, at 
Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, the hostile Delawares approached 
them, killed one boy and bore off another and herself prisoners. 
She was taken by two Delawares and by them transferred to 



Tuck-hos, a chief of that nation, whom she represented to be a 
man of great distinction. This chief after receiving his little 
prisoner, dressed her in the gavest manner, decorating her with 
wampum, beads and hne feathers, and treated her with great 

"Shortly after her captivity, the party left the Wyoming 
Valley, and went to Genesee Falls; from thence, after a transient 
stay, they preceded to the falls of Niagara, where they remained 
during Gen. Wayne's war, and were supplied with provisions 
and munitions of war by the British. The Chief, Tuck-hos, and 
his party, of whom Frances was one, remained at this place two 
winters, and during the time, she says, the Indians frequently 
went out and returned with many white men's scalps, being hos- 
tile at the time. From Niagara the party went to Sandusky, 
where they remained a short time and then returned to the 
falls, Some time after this, she states, the Indians made bark 
canoes, and several thousand of them went to Detroit, where 
they remained three ^ears; from thence they removed to 
Brownstown, w'here Frances lived for a time with a Delaware 
as his wife but had no issue by him. From Brownstown they 
proceeded to Fort Wayne, in this state, and remained there 
some years during the late war. While at Fort Wayne, the 
Indians suffered much from want of pro\isions and other neces- 
saries, and were for a time at the very point of starvation, hav- 
intr nothinij but wild meat whereon to subsist." 

"About forty-four years ago [this narrative was given in 
1837] she was married to Deaf Man [She-pah-can-nah, war 
Chief of the Osage village] by whom she had four children, 
two sons and two daughters, and her husband has been dead 
about four years. From Fort Wayne, she, with her husband, 
came to the Osage Village, and Avent thence to the place 
known as Deaf Man's Village, where she resided when she first 
disclosed her history to Col. Ewing, and until she died. 

Thus ends the story of Frances Slocum's captivity and sub- 
sequent life, as published in the Peru Forester fort}- years ago. 

This now noted woman died on the 9th of March, 1847, 
aged seventA'-five years. Her Indian name, as given by her 
Indian relatives, was Mah-cones-quah, which means Young Bear. 
Her daughter, Ke-ke-na-kush-wa, wife of Capt. John B. Brouil- 
lette, died on the 13th of March, 1847, aged forty-seven years. 
The other daughter mentioned in the narrative, was, at the time 
of the visit of her white relatives, the wife of Tah-co-nah. Her 
name was O-zah-wah-shing-quah. She was afterward married 
to Wah-pa-pe-tah (Peter Bondy), and several children, now 
adults, are the offspring of this marriage. She died in January, 
1877, — tlie last of the Children of Frances Slocum. 


In the Pa-u Forester, of September 26th, 1837, there is an 
editorial article which says: 

" A few evenings ago, Mr! Isaac Slocuin, a younger brother 
of Frances, arrived in town from Sanduskv Countv, Ohio, and, 
in company with James T. Miller, of this place, interpreter, pro- 
ceeded to the place of her residence known by the appellation 
of ' Deaf Man's V^illage,' about nine miles above Peru, on the 
Mississinewa River. 

" Mr. Slocum. on the wa}% remarked to his guide that if 
the woman (Frances) was really his sister, he would recognize 
her by a scar upon the forefinger of her left hand, caused by a 
blow from a hammer upon an anvil, while at play with her 
brother before she was taken captive, but he knew not in what 
other wa}' he should be able to convince either her or himself 
of the relationship which existed between them. 

" Mr. Miller proceeded to the house alone, in order to pre- 
pare the old lady for the reception of her brother, but found 
her unwilling to believe that such a thing could be. The brother 
then entered the house, and, gazing upon the changed appear- 
ance of Frances, involuntarily exclaimed. 'Good God! is this my 
sister?' Then, grasping her hand, he drew her toward the light 
and beheld the scar! the identical scar which he had described. 
He was then satisfied; but Frances was still unwilling to believe 
Mr. Slocum her brother. Mr. Miller, at the request of Mr. 
Slocum, interrogated her in the Indian language (as she speaks 
or understands no other) concerning the scar upon her hnger, 
and she related the same story which her brother had told him 
on the way; and finally, before they separated, Frances was 
satisfied to acknowledge Isaac to be her own brother, but 
expressed no inclination to leave her wigwam to partake of the 
comforts of his hospitable mansion, after a residence of near 
sixty years among the red men of the wilderness. Mr. Slocum 
states that his brother Joseph and sister, Mrs. Mary Town, will 
be here in a few dajs and that he will await their arrival." 

The parties referred to arrived in due time, and the follow- 
ing letter, written from -here to their relatives in Pennsylvania, 
and published in the Wyoming Republican, will give the further 
historv of Frances: 

Extract from a letter dated Peru, Miami Count\-, Indiana, 
September 27th, 1S37: 

'•We arrived here on the 21st inst. The town is new and 
flourishing; situated on the north side of the Wabash, a little 
below tlie mouth of the Mississinewa, which empties in from 
the south. The last twenty-five miles was through the Miami 
Reserve, without any white inhabitants. We found Isaac Slo- 
cum here awaiting our arrival. He had visited the woman in 


the Reserve, mentioned in the letter of Mr. Ewing, and is per- 
fectly satisfied that she is the sister taken captive in 1778. The 
next day we repaired to the village with Mr. Miller, the inter- 
preter, together with Mr. Hunt, a half-breed that was educated 
at Col. Johnson's school, in Kentuckv, and another gentleman. 
Fording the Wabash at this place, we passed up the river to 
the Mississinewa, and in about five miles came to an Indian 
town, surrounded with blue grass pasturage and corn fields 
intermixed without order. Some of the natives were about 
their houses; others were at tents pitched in corn fields, gather- 
ing corn, their ponies standing saddled near the tents. When- 
ever they have any work to do at ever so short a distance 
from their houses, they pitch a tent, and cook and live there 
until the work is done, a few only returning to their houses at 
night. We soon after came to the seat of Godfroy, the second 
war chief of the Miamis, consisting of five or six two-story 
houses, within an inclosure of perhaps half an acre, which we 
entered through a gate wide enough for a carriage to pass. 
Upon entering the house we were all introduced to the Chief 
by Mr. Miller, who told him our business in the nation. He 
received us very courteously, and proffered us all the assistance 
in his power. He is probably over 50 vears of age, of portly 
and majestic appearance, being more than six feet high, well 
proportioned and weighing about 320 pounds. He was dressed 
in leggings and a blue calico shirt that came down to the knee, 
profusely ornamented with ruffles of the same, his hair nearly 
half gray and tied in a queue hanging elegantly down his back. 
After taking leave of the Chief, we proceeded to Deaf Man's 
Village, the residence of the captive woman, a distance of about 
four miles further up the Mississinewa, where the natives were 
employed in the same way as before described. At one of 
which we found the husband of the youngest daughter of the 
captive woman. He mounted his pon}- and went with us to the 
\illage. where we were introduced to the captive, her two 
daughters, and Capt. Brouillette, the husband of the elder. The 
girls are aged, one thirty-three and -the other twenty-three. 
The youngest has three small children, but not bv this husband. 
The elder had two, but both are dead. Capt. Brouillette is a 
half-French breed Indian, of elegant appearance, very straight and 
slim, and about six feet high. Uncle Joseph at once recognized 
his sister, and, after conversing with them some time, in the 
course of which we endeavored, by all means in our power, to 
gain their contidence, it was proposed to them to accompany us 
to Peru to see Mrs. Town. Mr. Miller had to give the old 
lady very strong assurances that we had no intention to take 
her away contrary to her inclination before she would go; but 


at length she consented, and, accompanied by her two daughters 
and llieir husbands, she returned with us to town, where they 
were introduced to Mrs. Town, who recoixnized her Ion"' lost 
sister. They then joined us at the supper table and appeared 
to bt perfectl)' at ease. They liad now become perfectly satis- 
fied that we were their relations, and their confidence was so 
much strenghtened that she felt justified in proffering us their 
friendship. This was done by one of them placing on the 
stand something wrapped in a white cloth, after which thev 
spoke with the interpreter in a solemn manner, when he rose 
up and said the\' were our friends, and by way of acknowledg- 
themselves as such, the}' presented us with a piece of fresh 
venison, which they wished us to receive as a token of friend- 
ship, as that was their manner of confirming their friendship. 
We then arose and thanked them and received the token, Mrs. 
Town taking up the ham of venison and removing the cloth, 
which made them satisfied. The next morning they all came to 
breakfast with us, and the captive gave us, in the course of the 
dav, all the historv of her life which she could recollect. Mr. 
Miller, to whom we are greatly indebted, and Mr. Hunt acted 
as interpreters. I wrote down the narration in the words of the 
interpreter. There are not manv striking incidents in her life, 
but she and her familv, in their native costume, their extreme 
simplicitv of manner, the natural modesty and solemnit}- of their 
deportment, formed the most interesting group I ever beheld. 
They are decidedly the most respectable family in the nation, 
and they are also very " wealthy, having upward of a hundred 
horses, and man\- cattle and hogs. Capt. Brouillette is the only 
Indian who cultivates corn with the plow. He has a yoke of 
oxen, and wagon, and frequently takes beef and other articles 
to market." 

Jlississinezva Exfedition. — In a letter addressed to the 
Secretary of War bearing date of October 13, 181 2, Gen- 
eral Harrison called the attention of the War Department to the 
fact that the Miamis had taken up the tomahawk and were com- 
mitting depredations upon the settlements along the frontier, 
citing such eviilence as the besieging of Fort Wayne and the 
attack on Fort Harrison. Notwithstanding these unfriendly 
movements the\- were still claiming to maintain a neutral posi- 
tion in the war between the United States and Great Britain. It 
was soon determined that a force should be sent against those 
living along the banks of the Mississinewa for the purpose of 
destro\ing their villages. This duty was assigned to Lieut. Col. 
John B. Campbell of the Ninteenth Regiment of United States 
Infantry, with a detachment of six hundred mounted men. The 
•detachment was composed mainK- of a regiment of Kentucky 


dragoons under command of Col. Simrall, a squadron of United 
States Volunteer Dragoons, under Maj. James V. Ball and a 
corps of Infantrv, consisting of Capt. Elliott's company of the 
19th. U. S. Regiment, Butler's Pittsburgh Blues and Alexander's 
Pennsylvania Riflemen. The detachment was commanded to 
march on the 25th of November, and in his letter of instructions 
to Col. Campbell General Harrison commanded him to march 
by the "Greenville route" in order that he might not come in 
contact with the Delaware towns, and suggested that any trouble 
with them would be unfortunate, for the reason that the Gov- 
ernment was pledged for their safet}-. He further stated that 
some of the Miami Chiefs had exerted themselves to keep their 
warriors quiet. He named among others Richardville, Silver 
Heels, White Loon and the son and brother of Little Turtle, 
and asked that thev be left unmolested. Well-knowing the 
methods of Indian warfare he advised Col. Campbell to keep his 
men at all times ready for action by night as well as b}- day, 
and when in the enemy's country to have his men lie' upon their 

The expedition did not reach the villages on the Mississin- 
ewa until the morning of December 17, and a full description of 
what followed will be found in the following official report of 
Col. Campbell to General Harrison, which is now on file in the 
War Department at Washington: "Early in the morning of the 
17th, I reached, undiscovered an Indian town on the Mississinewa, 
inhabited by a number of Delawares and Miamis. The troops 
rushed into the town, killed eight warriors and took forty-two 
prisoners eight of whom are warriors, the residue women and 
children. I ordered the town to be immediatelv burned, a house 
or two excepted, in which I confined the prisoners. I then left 
the infantry to guard the prisoners, and with Simrall's and Ball's 
Dragoons advanced to some Miami villages a few miles down 
the Mississinewa, but found them evacuated. I burned on this 
occasion three considerable villages, took several horses, killed 
manv cattle and returned to the town I tirst burned, where I 
had left the prisoners, and encamped. Mv camp was in the 
usual form. The infantrv and riflemen were in the front line, 
Captain Elliott's companv on the right. Butler's in the center, 
Alexander's on the left: Major Ball's squadron occupied the right 
and one-half of the rear line. Col. Simrall's regiment the left, 
on the other half of the rear line. Between Balls right and Sim- 
rall's left there was an interval which had not been filled uji. I 
now began to deliberate upon our future movements whether to 
go on further encumbered with prisoners the men much 
fatigued and many frost-bitten, and horses suffering for want of 
forage. At 4 o'clock on the morning of the iSth, I ordered the 


reveille to be beaten and the officers convened at my lire a 
short time afterward. While we were in council and about half 
an hour before dav, my camp was most furiously attacked b\- a 
large party of Indians, preceded by and accompanied with a 
most hideous yell. This immediately broke up the council and 
every man ran to his post. 

"The attack commenced upon that angle of the camp 
formed Ijv the left of Capt. Hopkins' troops and on the right 
by Capt. Garrard's, but in a few seconds became general from 
the entrance of the right to the left of Ball's squadron. The 
enem}' boldly advanced to within a few yards of the line and 
seemed determined to rush in. The guards posted at the differ- 
ent redoubts retreated to camp and dispersed among their differ- 
ent companies, thus leaving me without a disposable force. 
Capt. Smith, of the Kentucky Light Dragoons, who commanded 
one of the redoubts, in a handsome and militarv manner kept 
his position, although abandoned bv half his guards, until ordered 
to fill up the interval in the rear line, between the regiment and 

" The redoubt at which Capt. Pierce commanded was 
first attacked. The Captain maintained his position until it was 
too late to get within the line. He received two balls through 
the body and was tomahawked. He died bravely and much 
lamented. The enem\- then took possession of Capt. Pierce's 
redoubt and poured a tremendous fire upon the angle, to the 
right and left of which were posted Hopkins' and Garrard's 
troops, but the tire was as warmly returned. Not an inch of 
ground was yielded. E\ery man, officer and soldier, stood firm 
and animated and encovu-aged each other. The enemy's fire 
became wariu on the left, at which Capt. Markle's troops were 
posted; and the right of Elliott's company, which, with Markle's, 
formed an angle of the camp, was severeh' annoyed b}' the 
enemy's fire. 

" I had assisted in forming the infantry composed of Elliott's 
company of the 19th U. S. Regiment, Butler's Pittsburg Blues, 
and Alexander's Pennsylvania Riflemen, and ordered them to 
advance to the brink of a declivity from which they could more 
effectually defend themselves and harrass the enemy should they 
attempt an attack on that line. While I was thus engaged 
Maj. I3all rode up to me and observed that he was hard pressed 
and must be relieved. I gallo]5ed immediately to the left wing 
with the intention of ordering Capt. Trotter's troops to reinforce 
the squadron, but was there informed that the enemy was approaching 
in that direction, and believing it improper, on second thought, 
to detach a large troop from that line, which also covered an 
angle of the camp, I determined to give relief from the infan- 


try. I wheeled ni}' horse and met Maj. McDowell, who 
observed that the spies and guards under Capt. Patterson Bain, 
consisting of ten men were unemployed. We rode to them 
together and ordered Capt. Bain to the support of the squadron. 
Seven of them, to-wit: James Adrian, William Conner, Silas 
McCullough, James Thompson, James Noggs, John Ruland and 
Joseph G. McClelland, followed their bra\e leader and rendered 
most effectual assistance. I then ordered Capt Butler, _ with the 
Pittsburg Blues, to repair immediately to reinforce the squadron, 
and Capts. Elliott and Alexander to extend to the right and left 
and till up the interval occasioned by the withdrawal of the 
Blues. Capt Butler in a most gallant manner, and highly worth}- 
the name he bears, formed his men immediately and in excel- 
lent order, and marched them to the point to which he was 
ordered. The alacrity with which he formed and moved was 
never exceeded by any troops on earth. The Blues were 
scarcely at the post assigned them before I discovered the effect 
thev produced. A well directed fire from them and Hopkins' 
Dragoons nearly routed the enemy in that quarter. The enemj^ 
then moved in force to the left of the squadron and right of 
the infantr}', where Capts. Markle and Elliott's companies were 
posted. Here again they were warmly received. At this time 
daylight began to dawn. I then ordered Capt. Trotter, whose 
troops had been ordered by Col. Simrall to mount for that pur- 
pose, to make a charge. The Captain called to his troops to 
follow him and they tilted off at full gallop. * * * Major 
McDowell, with a small party, rushed into the midst of the 
enemy and exposed himself very much. I cannot sav too much 
for this gallant veteran. Capt. Markle, with about fifteen of his 
troops, and Lieut. Warren also made a daring charge on the 
enemy. Capt. Markle avenged the death of his relative, Lieut. 
Waltz, upon an Indian with his own sword. * * * Fearing 
that Capt. Trotter might be too hard pressed, I ordered Capt. 
Johnson, of the Kentucky Light Dragoons, to advance with his 
troops to support them. Capt. Johnson did not join Trotter 
until the enem}- was out of reach. The cavalry returned and 
informed me that the enemy had fled precipitately. I have on 
this occasion to lament the loss of several brave men." 

The battle lasted about one hour and resulted in a loss to 
the whites of eight killed and forty-two wounded. The number 
of horses killed, was, according to one of the colonels, 107. 
Fifteen Indians were found dead upon the battle field, and it 
was estimated bv Col. Campbell that as many more had been 
carried away dead or mortalh- wounded. The Indian force was 
estimated at 300. 

The account of this battle is given for the reason that a 



large number of the Indians engaged were from Miami County. 
The scene of the conflict was in Grant County, at a command- 
ing point on tlie Mississinevva River. It is probable that more than 
half the number were from Miami County, and the occurrence 
was long an interesting topic to those that lingered here after 
the whites had become firmly located. The accompan3'ing dia- 
gram of the battle ground is given as an interesting feature. 



JIOHNING OF DEC. 18tii, 181-3. 


j_^ C»pl. Hopki 


nilcd by 
Capt. Smith's Co. 



I'Jlli. U.S. Fittiiljur^ 

Infantry Blues 








County Organization — Acts of the Legislature — Proceed- 
ings OF the County Board — Public Buildings — Creation 
OF Townships — County Finances — Expenses of the Poor 
— Wabash and Erie Canal — Rail Roads — Gravel Roads 
— Medical and Agricultural Societies — Elections — 
County Officers. 

MIAMI COUNTY became a distinct political organization 
on the 1st day of March, 1S34. It occupies an area of 
384 square miles or 245.760 acres. The surface is level or 
undulating, e.xcept along the course of the Wabash and its tribu- 
taries, the banks of which are fringed by ranges of hills prob- 
ably not exceeding an average altitude of one hundred feet. The 
countv was iriven the name of the tribe of Indians that had for 
so many years owned and occupied the territory. 

The several acts of the General Assembly establishing the 
new count}- and fixing its boundaries are as follows: 

Ak Act Establishixg the County of Miami. Aim'hoved February 2, 1832. 

Be it Eimeted hy the General .Usemhli/ (if the Stiite nf fniiinnn, That from .ind 
after the first Monda)' in April next, all the territory imluded within the foUowing^ 
bounds to- wit: Beginuins at the northwest corner of Section .5, Township 29, of 
Ranjre 5, being the northwest corner of Wabash county: thence south with the west- 
em boundary line of said county twenty-four miles to the north-west corner of Grant 
County: thence south six miles;" thence west to a point due sontli of range line divid- 
ing townships three and four, east of second |)rincipal meridian line: thence north 
from said range line to a jjoint due west from the place of beginning: thence east to 
the place of begiiming: shall form and constitute a county to be known and desig- 
nated by the name of the County of Miami. 

A Subsequent Act. Api'koved .Jakuauv 30, 1833. 

Be it further enacted by tlie General Assembly, That the boundaries of the 
County of Miami, as described in the act referred to in the foregoing, be and they 
are hereby changed as follows: Beginning at the north-east corner of Section 3, 
Township 2'j north, being the north-west corner of Wabash County, running thence 
south with the western boundary of said county twenty-four miles: thence from the 
south-west corner of the County Wabash, east four miles to the north-west west 
corner of Grant County: tlience soulli six ndles; thence west fourteen miles: thence 
north with the range line dividing ranges tliree and four east of the second princi- 
pal meridian thirty niiles: thence east ten miles on the township line dividing town- 
ships twent) -nine and thirty, to the place of beginning. 

Subsequent Act. Appkovkd, .January 2, 1834. 

Section 1. /?c it Enacted Jii/ the Genera! Axxeinhli/ nf the Stale of Indianti, 
That from and after tlie first day of' March, next, tlie County of Miami sliall enjoy the 
rights and jurisdiction which to separate and independent counties do or may prop- 
erly belong. 

Sec. 2. That Daniel Harrow, of the County of Putnam, Smallwood Xoel.of the 
County of Allen, .Joseph Tatman, of the County of Tippecanoe, and Harry Chase and 
John Baer, of the County of Carroll, be and are hereby aiipointed Commissioners for 
the purpose of fixing the permanent seat of justice of said County of Miami, agree- 


ably to the provisions of an act to pstablisli tlie seats of justice in new counties. The 
coiumissioneis or a majority of them shall convene at the house of Benj. Scott iu 
said county, on the tirst day of June noxt or soon thereafter as a majority shall 

Sec. 4 The circuit and other courts of said county shall be held at the house of 
Benj. H. Scott, or at any other jilace in said County to which said court nuiy adjourn 
until suitable acconiuiodafious can be had at the seat of justice thereof, alter which 
the court shall be held at the county seat. 

Skc. .5. The ajrent who shall be appointed to superintend the sale of lots 
at the county scat of said Miami County, shall reserve ten per centum out of the 
proceeds thereof, and also ten per centmn out of all donations to said county, and pay 
the same over to .such person or persons as may be lawfully ajijiointed to receive the 
same, for the use of a county library for said county. 

Sec. 6. The Hoard doins;- count}' Imsiness, when elected and qualified, may 
hold special sessions not exceeding three during the first year after the organization 
of said county, and shall appoint a lister and make out all necessary appointments, 
and do and perform all other uei'essarv Imsiness wluch might have been necessary to- 
be performed at auy other regubn- session, and take all necessary steps to collect the 
State and County revenue. 

Sec. 7. The territory included in the following, boundary to-wit: Beginning at 
the soutlnvest corner of the County of Miami, running thence west two miles; thence 
north with the section lines, thirty (3U) miles to the uortli-east of Section 3, iu Town- 
ship '2S), Hangf' o: thence east two miles on the line dividing Townshii)s 2!) and 30, to 
the north-west corner of the County of Miami (being a jjortion of the territory now 
belonging to the County of Cassj, shall be and is hereby attached to the Coimty of 
.Miami, and sh.-dl hereafter constitute and form a part and portion of the territory of 
the said County of Miami. 

Sec. 8. The territory shall be attached to the eighth judicial circuit of this 
State for judicial purposes, and to the Count}' of Cass for representative purjioses. 

First term of commissioners court held in Miami County 
was at the house of John McGregor in Miamisport, on Wednes- 
day the 3rd day . of June, 1834. '^^'^ members of the board, 
Alexander Jamison, John Miller and John Cruidson were for- 
mally qualified by the Sheriff, after which they appointed Ben- 
jamin H. Scott clerk pro-tem. The tirst business of the board 
was the appointment of Wm. M. Revburn, County Agent, and 
Abner 0\erman, Count\' Treasurer. Petitions were then read 
praying the honorable board to grant a license to Nathan Mc- 
Guire and William Thompson to vend foreign merchandise at 
Miamisport. After some deliberation the prayer of the petition 
was granted, and the rate for such license fixed at $12.50. The 
second day's session was held at the house of Benjamin H. 
Scott. The principal business was the division of the county into 
two townships, viz: Peru and Jefferson with boundaries as else- 
where described. An election for a Justice of the Peace of 
the township was ordered held in the former at the house of 

on Saturday, the 21st day of June, and in the 

latter at the house of Widow Wilkinson on the same day. The 
board then appointed William Bain inspector of election, and 
John Plaster, Constable for Jefferson Township, and William 
Coats inspector of elections and James Pett}-, Constable for Peru 


The first monev paid into the treasury was $25, for a license to 
vend merchandise at Miamisport and the first allowance made 
by the board was two dollars per day each for their services as 
Commissioners. Lewis Drouillard was assessed $5- ^^r the 
privilege of operating a ferry on the Wabash River opposite 
his store (wherever that may have been), for which the follow- 
ing rate was fixed: Each person, 6% cts., man and horse 25 cts. 
each wagon, 50 cts. each horse or ox attached to wagon, 12 }4 
Cts. Each hog or sheep, 3 cts., all children under twelve years 
of age attached to the family to pass free of charge. The first 
country road was surveyed and laid out September, 1834 and 
was described as beginning at a stake at the foot of a hill near 
an old elm tree in section 20, Township 27, range 4. and run- 
ning to the town of Mexico. This was deemed by the viewers 
to be of public utilit}- and therefore declared a public highway. 

At a special meeting held June 19th the first Grand and 
Petit Juries were selected and was composed of the following 
citizens: Grand Jur}- — Zephaniah Wade, George W. Holman, 
Jacob Linsee, Abner Overman, William Coats, John Hoover, 
Joseph Clvmer, Aaron Rhenberger, Ira Evans, John Plaster, 
John M. Jackson and William N. Hood. Petit Jur}- — George 
Townsend. John Wiseman, J. T. Liston, Wm. M. Reyburn, Robert 
Wade, Richard Rausford, Isaac Marquiss, Isaac Stewart, John 
Ray. Wm. Wilkerson, John Smith, Joseph C. Taylor, Wm. Can- 
non, Stewart Forgy, "Alexander Jameson, Joseph B. Campbell, 
Walter D. Nesbit, Ratliff Wilkerson, John Saunders, Nathaniel 
McGuire and Jesse Wilkerson. 

The commissioners appointed bv the Legislature for the 
purpose of fixing the permanent seat of justice met at the house 
of Benjamin H. Sett, in Miamisport, sometime during the sum- 
mer of 1834. ^o report of their proceedings was recorded and 
if filed was doubtless destroyed by the fire in 1843. It is 
known however, that in consideration of the donation of ground 
for a public square and the erection of a court house and jail 
by the proprietor, the county seat was located at its present 
site. The court house was not completed until 1843 and court 
was held in consequence at private residences and in the Presby- 
terian Church. 

In June of the same year William Reyburn was appointed 
County Agent. The principal duty of said officer was to 
superintend the sale of lots, receive donation money and dispose 
of funds as directed by board of commissioners. The school 
commissioner, road commissioner, tax collector and surplus reve- 
nue agent were offices that have long since been disposed of. 

In the spring of 1835 the ofilces were removed to Peru. 
A tax of three-fourths of one per centum was levied on each 


town lot in Miami County, eighty cents on c\ery Imndred acres 
of first rate land, sixty cents on every hundred acres of second 
rate land, and forty cents on every hundred acres of third rate 
land: polls, lifly cents: work oxen, per pair, fifty cents: pleasure 
carriages, fifty cents; watches, fifty cents. 

Public Buildings. — At the March term of Commissioner's 
Court 1835, it was ordered that a county jail he built on the 
northeast corner of the public square, and a court house in the 
center of said square. Plans and specifications were accordingly 
adopted for the erection of a court house. The plans provided 
for a brick building forty feet square, and two stories high with 
a stone foundation. The building was substantially built, con- 
veniently arranged, and, at that time was considered a very 
credible structure. The house was built by the proprietors of 
the town of Peru. Samuel McClure was the contractor in con- 
sideration of the location of the county seat at its present site, 
and it was accepted by the Commissioners in 1843. The house 
had been used but a short time when it was, with all the 
records, entirely destroyed b}' fire on the night of March 16, 

Second Building. — April the 7th, 1843, it was ordered by 
the Board that a fire proof building be erected for the county 
offices and the safe keeping of the records. In furtherance of 
such orders, Samuel Glass and James UeFrees were appointed 
to advertise and recieve bids for the construction of said build- 
ing according to the following specifications: To be 16x45 feet, 
built of brick with stone foundation, and, when completed, to be 
divided into three rooms of suitable dimensions for an auditor's 
office, a clerk's ofTice and a treasurer's office. The contract was 
purchased by George W. Goodrich for the sum of $769.00, to 
be paid in two equal installments, the first to become due on 
the first of June, -1844, and the second in one year after that 

In June 1848, the Commissioners contracted with George 
Goodrich for the erection of a recorder's office, dimensions 16x20 
feet. The site of said building was near the clerk's office, in 
the public square. 

The first jail was a small log building erected by Matthew 
Fenimore on the northeast corner of the public square, and, although 
built of logs and containing no iron cells, it was sufficiently substantial 
to retain the prisoners, who at that time, were uneducated in 
crime. This old building answered the purpose of the county 
until 1852 when it was destroyed by fire. The present building 
was completed September 1858. Nathan Crawford, of Hancock 
County, was the contractor. The contract was purchased for 
$29,600, but owing to a few changes in the original plans and 


specifications the cost was somewhat in excess of the con- 
tract price. The building is 60x80 feet, four stories high, includ- 
ing the basement, and is of the " Norman Castle" style of archi- 
tecture. The basement is used for a jail: on the first floor are 
the Clerk, Recorder, Treasurer and Auditor's offices. Each of 
these offices is provided with a fire-proof vault in which the 
records and papers are kept. On the second floor is the court 
room; the third floor is unoccupied. 

Organization of Tozvnsliips. — During the first term of Commis- 
sioners Court, which was held at Miamisport, June 1834, '^^ County 
was divided into two townships by commencing at the east line 
of the county and running on the line dividing Sections 22 and 
15 to the west line of the county, the township north of said 
line to be known and designated as Jefferson township, the one 
south to be known and designated by the name of Peru township. 

Perry Tozvns/iip. — Beginning at the southeast corner of 
Section 34, Township 29, north Range 5 east: thence west west 
to the county line; thence north to the northwest corner of said 
county; thence east to the place of beginning. 

Union Toivnshif was organized November 7, 1837, with 
the following boundaries: Beginning at the northwest corner of 
Section 4, Township 29, Range 4 east; thence west five miles 
to the northwest corner of the county; thence south nine miles to 
the southwest corner of Section 14, Township 28, Range 3 east; 
thence si.x miles to the southeast corner of Section 15 of the 
same township; thence north three miles to the northeast corner 
of Section 3, TowUvship 28, Range 4 east; thence west one mile 
to the northwest corner of Section last named: thence north six 
miles to place of beginning. 

Richland Tozunsfiip, organized November 7, 1837, with the 
following boundary: Commencing at the northeast corner Sec- 
tion 3, in Township 28, Range 5 east: thence west six miles to 
the northwest corner of Section 2, Township iS, Range 4 east; 
thence south si.x miles to the southwest corner of Section 35, 
Township 28, Range 4; thence east si.x miles to southeast corner of 
Section 34, Township 28, Range 5 east: thence north on the 
county line to the place of beginning. 

ycfferso)i Tozcns/iif, re-organized and with the following 
boundary: Commencing at the northeast corner of Section 22, 
Township 28, Range 4 east; thence west to the northwest cor- 
ner of Section 23, Township 28, Range 3 east; thence south on 
the county line to the center of Section 14, Township 27, Range 
3 east; thence west six miles to the line di^■iding Sections 14 and 
15 of Township 27, Range 4 east: thence north on the section 
line to the place of beginning. 

Ordered. That on and after this date all the territory lyinii 


east of Jefferson and south of Richland Townships, included in 
the following boundary, be attached to and form a part of Peru 
TtKciis/iip: Commencing at the northeast corner of Section 3, 
Township 27, Range 5 east; thence west to the northwest cor- 
ner of Section 2, Township 27, Range 4 east; thence south on 
the line of Sections 2 and 3 two miles and a half to the county 
line; thence on said line north to the place of beginning. 

Blnck Havjh and Eric Tozviis/iips. — On a petition of the inhabit- 
ants of the eastern porton of Peru Township, the following described 
territory was organized into the first named township: All 
that portion of the territor}' of Peru Township lying east of the 
recently established Range line and entireh' east of the Wabash 
County line, form and constitute said new township. Two years 
later, September 1847, the name of said Black Hawk Township, 
was changed to that of Erie. 

Lake Tozvns/iip. — The following described territory was 
organized into the above named township, June *], 1842, Com- 
mencing at the northeast corner of Miami County in Section 
22; thence west with said Section line and the northern boun- 
dar\' of the county, to the northwest corner of said county of 
Miami on Section 19; thence south with the Section line, and 
western boundary of this portion of said county, to the south- 
west corner of Section 31; thence east with the Section line 
between Townships 29 and 30 Range 5 to the center of Section 
five on said line; thence south through said Section 5. Town- 
ships 29 and 30, Range 5 ^'^ t^h^ center of Section five on said 
line; thence south through said Section 5, Township 29, Range 
5, to the Hne between said Section 5 and 8, Township 29, Range 

5, thence east with the Section line to southeast corner of Sec- 
tion 3, thence north with the eastern boundary of the County 
of Miami to the place of beginning. 

VVashi)igto)i Tozjiiship was organized and laid out June 

6, 1843, and bounded as follows, to-wit, : Commencing at the 
northeast corner of Township 26, Range 4, east, thence west on 
said north Hne of Township 26, until it intersects the Godfrey 
Reserve No. 7; thence south with said reserve to the southeast 
corner thereof; thence west along the southern line of said 
reserve to the Godfro)- Reserve No 8; thence south to the 
southeast corner of said reserve; thence west on the south line 
of said reserve to the Northwest corner of Section 4, Township 
26, Range 4, thence south on the section line to Indian boundary; 
thence east to the southwest corner of Butler Township, thence 
north on the west line of said Butler Township and the range 
line to the place of beginning. 

It was further ordered that the boundary line of Butler, 
Washington and Pipe Creek Townships be extended to the 


southern line of the county and have jurisdiction over said ter- 
ritorv for township purposes. 

About the same date the Wabash River was made the 
northern boundary of Butler Township. 

Deer Creek Toivmhip was organized September i, 1845 and 
bounded as follows: Commencing at the northwest corner of 
Section 2, Township 25. Range 3: thence east to the northeast 
corner of Section 5, Township 25, Range 4; thence south to the 
southern boundary of Miami County: tlience west to the south- 
west corner of said countv: thence north to the place of begin- 

yacksoii Tozviis/iip was organized September 2, 1845 and 
bounded as follows: Commencing at the northwest corner of 
Section 2, Township 25, Range 5; Thence east to the northeast 
corner of section 5, Township 25, Range 6: thence south to the 
southeast corner of the county; west to the southwest corner of 
section 35, Township 25, Range 5: thence north to the place of 

Clay Township was organized March 3, 1846, as follows: 
Beginning at the northwest corner of Section 4, Township 25, 
Range 4, it being the northeast corner of Deer Creek Town- 
ship; thence east with the Congressional, to the northeast corner 
of Section i, Township 25, Range 4; thence south with the Range 
line dividing Ranges 4 and 5 east to corner of said Congression- 
al Township, on the south line of Miami County; thence west 
with the county line to the southeast corner of Deer Creek 
Township, at the southwest corner of Section 33, Township 25, 
Range 4; thence east to the place of beginning. 

harrhon Towiisliip was organized September 8, 1846, and 
is bounded as follows: Beirinninfr at the southeast corner of 
Section 3, Tow^nship 25, Range 5; thence west to the range 
line dividing ranges 4 and 5, at the northwest corner of Section 
6: thence south on said range line to the southern boundarv of 
Miami County, at the southwest corner of section 31, Township 

25, Range 5: thence east with the southern boundarv aforesaid, 
to the southeast corner of section 34, Township and range afore- 
said, thence north to the place of beginning. 

Ordered, that Sections 3, 10 and 15. Township 28 north, 
Range 4 east, be detached from Union Township and be attached 
to and form a part of Richland Township. 

Butler Tozi'iisliip was organized September the ist, 1841, 
and bounded as follows: Commencing at a point w'here a north 
line of Township 26. north Range 5 east intersects the line 
between Miami and Wabash Counties: thence west on the line 
of Townships 26 and 27 to the northwest corner of Township 

26, Range 5 ; thence south with said Township line to the south- 





west corner of said Township 26, Range 5; thence east with 
the south line of said Township to the boundary line between 
Miami and Wabash Counties; thence north with said boundary 
line to the place of beginning, being all of said Township 26, 
Range 5, which lies in Miami County. 

Allen Tozvuship was organized September 6th,' 1859, '^"^ 
bounded as follows: Beginning at the half-mile on the west side 
of Section 26, Township 29, Range 3; thence north on the line 
dividing the Counties of Miami and Cass and Fulton to the line 
dividing Townships 29 and 30 to the northwest corner of Section 
2, Township 29, Range 3; thence east with the line dividing 
the Counties of Miami and Fulton to the present line dividing 
the Townships of Union and Perry to the northeast corner of 
Section 4, Township 29, Range 4; thence south with the line 
dividing the said Townships of Union and Perrv to a center 
point on the east line of Section 28, Township 29, Range 4; thence 
west with the line dividing Sections 29 and 30, Township 29, Range 
4, and Sections 25 and 26 Township 29, Range 3, to the place of 
beginning. And it is further ordered that the said Township of 
Union, from which said Township of Allen is taken, retain its 
original name — Union — and that the original lines now bounding it 
continue to be its boundary, except that the above line separating 
the Townships of Allen and Union shall be the north boundary of 
the Township of Union. 

The following are the receipts and expenditures of the 
county for each fiscal year since 1843: 

Date. Receipts. Expenditures. 

1843 $4,428 00 |1,780 80 

1844 4,()(i2 34 5,8,56 24 

1845 5,067 84 6,517 20 

1846 .5,962 48 7,275 75 

1847 7,712 05 7,.562 96 

1848 8,748 27 7,173 27 

1849 7,682 50 8,824 17 

1850 10,719 78 10,906 78 

1851 11.249 83 8,444 14 

1852 16,855 49 11.826 35 

1853 18,280 51 15,305 21 

1854 21,349 03 16.740 20 

1855 26,883 40 21,256 05 

18.56 30,792 30 27,690 13 

1857 31,,550 16 28,366 08 

1858 32,842 87 25,976.52 

18.59 42,879 91 36,211 46 

I860 37,005 76 3(1.139 41 

1861 35,475 86 33,659 41 

1862 33,494 97 30,148 .59 

1863 36,965 29 39,124 24 

1864 56,329 .59 46,329 59 

1865 83,512 38 63,110 21 

1866 1,5.S..506 66 110.99!i 45 

1867 130,325 76 1' 4,309 20 



Date. Receipts. Expenditures. 

1868 116,194 73 101,052 87 

1869 105,347 47 101,476 94 

1S70 87.862 15 8:S.669 .59 

1«71 78,131 40 72,754 46 

1872 93,317 64 78,6.50 04 

1873 100,641 12 81,612 06 

1874 •. 106,815 67 86,278 96 

1875 109,864 39 88,500 85 

1876 117,827 55 110,510 53 

1877 73,0.58 77 ,58.076 85 

1878 86,776 00 83,691 23 

1879 72,93^ 84 55,806 30 

1880 105,723 12 96,581 83 

1881 89,049 43 74.505 37 

1882 222,.5.53 13 167,511 73 

1883 202,635 99 149,681 50 

1884 347,4.55 73 282,100 63 

1885 281,231 41 196.751 44 

1886 171,749 80 130,945 93 

Following is a statement of taxes together with the amount 
of taxable property in the count\- for each decade since the cre- 
ation of the county. 

Date. PoU. Total Taxables Total Taxes. 

1841 559 $ 401,354 | 3.933 42 

1850 1,851 977,270 16.200 20 

18(i0 3,606 4,265,763 3!I.S2ij 48 

1870 3,278 5,346,505 116,595 75 

1880 4,059 7,358,540 135.877 34 

Poor. — To properly care for the indigent of the county was 
a matter that called for attention from those in whose hands the 
public affairs had been intrusted, at the very beginning of the 
county's existence. At the first term of commissioners court 
William N. Hood and William M. Re^burn were appointed 
overseers of the poor of Peru Township. It was the dutv of 
these overseers to look after the needy of their respective Town- 
ships. The children were "bound out" while the adults were 
"farmed out" to the person who would properlv care for them 
and pay the highest price for their services. Those who by 
indolence and prodigality', had been thrown upon the public for 
support, found the svstem verv objectionable, and finding that 
they would be compelled to work for those to whom their labor 
had been sold, thev would refuse to accept the charities of the 
public and devise some other means of lively-hood. For those 
unfortunates who had properly became objects of charitj' the system 
not unfrequently worked a hardship. A County Asj-lum was soon 
provided and the old method abandoned. 

Poor Fiiriii. — In IMa}', 1835, an order was made by the Board 
of Commissioners authorizing William N. Hood to purchase for 
the location of a county poor asylum, the northeast fraction of Sec- 
tion 3, Township 27, Range 4. The counl^• paid for said land 


$20.8o. From the experience of other counties it had become a 
well established fact that the poor of each count}' could be better 
provided for and more cheaply kept in an as3lum provided for that 
purpose than under the old svstem of township overseers. The 
Board, in accordance with the above conclusion, appointed I. M. 
DeFrees and Samuel Glass to contract for the erection of two 
houses described as follows: Houses to be constructed of hewn 
logs, 12x8 inches, the buildings to be two stories high. The first 
story to be 8 feet, 6 inches in the clear, and the second to be 7 feet, 
6 inches in the clear. One house to be 26x18 feet, and the other 
18 feet square. The contract provided that the buildings should be 
placed eight feet apart, and in the center of the land previouslv 
bought by said county. The contract was purchased by George 
W. Meeks for the sum of $365.00. The buildings were accepted 
by the Board in March, 1846, and a superintendent appointed to 
take charge of said asylum and provide for the wants of those un- 
fortunates who were dependent upon the charity of the world for 
support. O. E. Noland was appointed superintendent, and his re- 
port for the first vear showed that not a single pauper had been 
sent to the asylum. 

After several years the provisions were found to be inadequate, 
and the old farm \Vas sold to Charles Pefferman for $r,ooo.o6, and 
the southwest quarter of Section 3, Township 26, Range 4, in 
Washington Township, containing 160 acres, was purchased for the 
sum of $6,400.00. John Clifton was awarded the contract for the 
erection of a new house, which was completed and accepted July 
12, 1864. 

The following are the annual expense for the poor of the county 
for the dates as below given: 

Date. Expenditures. Date. Expenditures. 

1845 1 310 20 18(56 2,812 84 

184G .506 25 1867 .3,;310 18 

1847 155 94 1868 8,27156 

1848 490 65 1869 5,8:3160 

1849 662 09 1870 7,780 49 

185<i 8:38 78 1871 10,8,57 51 

1851 435 10 1872 6,:309 65 

18.52 6,37 18 1873 5,882,59 

18.58 :365 66 1874 5,8,59 02 

1854 609 70 1875 7,624 83 

18.55 2,327 62 1876 6,4:38 44 

18.56 2,869 28 1877 9,622 70 

18,57 1,8,54 71 1878 6,8:36 64 

1858 1.220 90 1879 .5.131 14 

18,59 1,002 68 1880 7,115 73 

186(1 969 92 1881 6,744 71 

1861 1,002 78 1882 7,795 45 

1862 1,4:W 68 1888 8,971 61 

18(W 1,1,57 88 1884 0,112 14 

1864 2,185 65 1885 8,864 40 

186.5 1,964 49 1886 8,470 91 


The Wabash and Erie Canal. — To the early and rapid 
development of Miami County, this Canal contributed very 
larfrely. It furnished means of transportation for the products 
of the county, which would of necessity have been delaved 
many year. In regard to its construction, the first boat, &c., 
Hon. John A. Graham wrote as follows : 


"From the letting in 1834, ^'^^ work has progressed steadih',. 
and it was expected that the division from Fort Wavne to Peru 
would be open for the navigation of boats bv the 4th of July, 

" Its completion was an important event, and had been waited 
for with interest and anxiety. Hence the Eorester says: 'Before 
12 o'clock of that day, the town was filled with people of the 
county, to witness the grand display to be made on the occasion. 
Unfortunately, the boats did not arrive. The banks, being porus, 
absorbed the water much faster than was anticipated. 

" P. S. — Since the above was written, we were informed that 
the packet boat Indiana, Capt. Columbia, had arrived at the head 
of the lock, about one mile above town, and that it would be 
impossible for her to reach the basin in consequence of the 
canal not having been sufficiently filled with water to buoj' her 
up.' The Indiana was the first canal boat, freighted with 
passengers alone, who left the canal boat at the lock above, and 
came down to town during the e\ening, where thev were most 
cordially received by Mr. Cooper, proprietor of the National 
Hotel [northwest corner of Canal and Miami Streets, familiarh- 
known as the Stag Hotel in earlv daj-s and burned down some 
years ago], at which place they were joined by a large and 
respectable party of ladies and gentlemen, and a few turns of 
the 'light fantastic toe,' accompanied with music, told how much 
the company were gratified at the long expected event. Capt. 
Columbia informs us he will make another trip to this place 
next week.' " 


"The treat}' of 1834 ^^'^^ "^^ ratified by Gen. Jackson, on 
account of the numerous individual reservations; but in 1837, 
the bargain was struck by Martin Van Buren. This brought 
many lands within the canal land limits. Chauncy Carter com- 
menced the surveys in 1838. 

"Early in the spring of 1840, under the direction of J. L. Wil- 
liams, the Canal Commissioner, these lands were rated and booked, 
preparatory to the public sale in the fall of 1840. 

"John M. Wilt, Clerk of the Land Office at Fort Wayne, was- 


•engaged in selecting and rating the land in the spring of 1840, and 
in the summer the safe and other ofhce property was removed to 
Peru. The building occupied was the Wilson row, northeast cor- 
ner of Second and Miami streets. 

"The individual reservations referred to interrupted the canal 
grant of e\ery alternative Hve miles on either side, in lieu of this 
loss the state was allowed to select from anv unsold nfovernment 
land the equivalent in quantity of what she was deprived of by these 
reservations. These selections were made in 1844 and a public 
sale of them took place in the Fall of the same yeav, at the office, 
south side of Second street, third lot from Miami. 

"After the failure of the internal improvement system, large 
amounts were due contractors for work on the W. & E. Canal, 
which the State had no means to pay- These amounts were at first 
represented by certificates of indebtedness, issued to the contractors, 
on vellovv paper, which had a limited circulation under the name of 
"vellow dog." At the session of 1840, an act was passed by which 
this was taken up and a neatly-engraved bill, of the denomination of 
teij dollars, and afterward of live dollars, issued in its stead. This 
was made receix'able for interest, and subsequentlv for the principal, 
due on canal lands, and went under the name of "wjiite dog."' It 
was worth from forty to sixty cents on the dollar — a disastrous 
value for the contractor, but a blessing for those indebted for canal 
lands. "Dog" was a name given bv common consent to corporate 
promises to pav that were deemed of little value, hi the financial 
smash of 1S37, Michigan Bank paper, which constituted a large 
share of the currency, was called "red dog." The canal furnished 
"vellow dog." "white dog," and for the debts west of Tippecanoe, 
"blue pup."" 

A verv interesting and deeplv pathetic episode in the his- 
tory of the early settlement of that portion of Miami County lying 
south of the Wabash River, occurred in the year 1847, which is 
deserving of a more detailed notice than our limits will permit: 

Nearly half a century ago, shortly after its acquisition bv 
the Government, the territory known as the " Miami Cessions," 
or the " Great Miami hidian Reserve," began to be settled by 
a sturdy, honest and industrious class of citizens with a view of 
making it their permanent home by purchase of the respective 
tracts settled upon. In view of the extravagant representation 
■of the value of these lands, a pre-emption law was obtained 
with great difficult}' in 1845 at the increased minimum rate 
of two dollars per acre. This tract of land, consisting of 
thirt\' miles square, containing nine hundred square miles, at a 
former treaty with the Government of the United States had 
been reserved by the Miami tribe of Indians, and, at the time 
referred to, had only recently been acquired by the Federal 


Government, and, for the reason assigned, had become cele- 
brated as the prospective "garden of the State," and in view of 
the immense value attached to it. Congress refused to embrace 
it within its pre-emption laws until 1845, as above stated. 

The years 1845 and 1846 will be remembered by the few- 
remaining fathers who came to the wilds of Indiana and settled 
on the great " Miami Indian Reserve," as years of unparalleled 
sickness, suffering and destitution throughout the Reserve. 

It was in the month of June 1847, when the inhabitants of 
this territory were without means to procure the necessaries of 
life, that a proclamation of President Polk for the immediate 
sale of these lands for cash down came upon this distressed peo- 
ple. They " spontaneously laid aside their implements of hus- 
bandry and congregated together" at the town of Peru for the 
purpose of imploring at the hands of the Executi^•e a postpone- 
ment of the sale. There were gray-headed men there, bowed, 
not so much with the weight of years as by excessive toil to 
acquire a home in the wilderness for their declining years, who 
wrung their hands and cried, " Alas, too late to begin again." 

An adjourned meeting was held on the 12th day of June, 
1847, to pass upon petitions, one by John U. Pettit, a candidate 
for the State Senate, one by Andrew J. Harlan, a member of 
Congress from the Grant County District, and one' by James B. 
Fulwiler, of Peru. The last named petition was adopted b\- the 
meeting unanimouslv, and a responsible and trustworthy person 
was delegated to deliver it in person to the President himself, 
which dutv was faithfully discharged, and the sale was post- 
poned agreeable to the prayer of the petitioners. 

This petition, which was instrumental in saving the homes of 
some 1500 families from the grasp of avarice, should be perpet- 
uated, and, as it more fully conveys to the mind of the reader 
the exigencies of the case, we give it in full, omitting the names 
of the signers: 

To His Excellency, James K. Polk, 

President of the United Stutes. 

We, the undersi.ined, be.s le;ive rcspectfiillj' to reprpsent to your Kxt'elleiu'V, 
that we are settlers upon the lands known a.s the "Jlia'iu Cessions." in Indiana: Ihat 
we are not i.anorant of theextraoriinarv cost of these lands to the iiovernnient, main- 
ly owiujr to extravajrant representations of their value by distini;uislied men whose 
foot-prints have nevertracked the soil; that, I0 the serious ))redjudice of settlers, it has 
continued to lie represented as immensely valuable, and surrounded liy a hisjlily de- 
veloped and densely |io|iulated country: thus creatinjr and fosterintr that bitter sec- 
tional predjudiee whi.h manifesti'd itself in unwonted hostility to the passa.^e of the 
late pre-emption law. That these re])resentations have been made at random and 
without a knowledire of the country, and that the impressions which jirevails abroad 
in resrard to the worth of the lands is incorrect, must sufficiently aiipear by reference 
to maps and field notes of the survey.s. Instead of meritinir the reputation of being 
the "sarden of the State," a cosrnomen jrained for it by stransrers to its (|uality and 
strangers to the surrounding country, it is, in fact, a body of ordinary land: the 


choicest jiortions thereof liaviim' been reserved by individual Indians by treaty stipu- 
lations, and these, together witli numl)erless tracts selected liy the State for canal 
purposes, comprise nearly all the best U'ud and most desirable locations. That the 
adjacent country, instead of beinj;' densely pojiulated and valuable, is, in truth, sparse- 
ly settled, and its unimproved lands will scarcely command the miuimuni govern- 
ment price. That a large majority of the present occui)ants of this territory settled 
thereon prior to the passage of the pre-em]ition law, knowing that in the event of its 
becoming Stale land, they would have the benotit of easy and extended payments, 
and hoping, sliould it become Federal lands, that their improvements, in case of 
their inability to purcliase, would not be taken from them without remun(>ration. 
That, were it possible to blot out these improvements and transform the country in 
to its primeval state, the condition in which we found it, our honest convictions are 
that not one-half the tracts, now rendered valuable by our labor, could be sold at 
their minimum rate. 

Permit us further to represent, th;it the number of families occujjjing this ter- 
ritory, as actual settlers, is nearly two thousand, the value of whose improvements 
will probably average three hundred dollars each, and of this number not more than 
two hundred will lie prepared to avail themselves of the benefit of the late pre-emp- 
tion law. unless the sale sliall Vie [lostponed until the Fall of 184S, affording time to 
reali/<' the proceeds of the labor of tlie present and succeeding years. Unless the 
sale sliall be thus deferred, the consequences will be, that two hundred settlers will 
be able to secure eighty acres of laud each, which will bring into the I'nited States 
Treasury the inconsiderable smn of 80,000 dollars. Eighteen hundred will be unable 
to buy and must necessarily lose .'540,000 dollars expended in improvements, while 
the sale of these lands, on account of the improvements, will add to tlie National Ex- 
chequer 288,000 dollars, selling at the minimum rate of two dollars per acre, which 
may be the case, when the settler has not the me.ans to compete with an organized 
band of speculators. 

In view of this state of facts, the jiroclamation of Your E.vcellency designating 
so early a day for the sale of these lands has given rise to the most lively emotions of 
regret in the breasts of those for wliose benefit the late pre-emption law was enacted, 
and we have spontaneously laid aside our implements of liusbandary, and have con- 
gregated together for the purpose of imploring at the hands of Your Excellency, a 
posti>onement of this sale. Vi'e came here as ]iioneers of a country usually come, in 
humble circumstances, many of us have large families claiming support at our hands, 
have suffered the privations incident to a settlement in a new country, our labor and 
the jiroducts thereof have been alisorbed in opening our lields and erecting our cab- 
ins, and the general sickness which has prevailed to a fearful extent for the past two 
j'ears, producing an incalculalile .amount of human .suffering and destitution, has 
swept away the means that otherwise miglit have been spared to secure at this time 
our wilderness homes — homes w hich are dear to us, not on account of the supei-ior- 
ity of the soil, nor in view of their desirable localities, but because we have reclaim- 
ed them and rendered them valuable by the sweat of our brows — because of our la- 
bor, highways of communication now traverse the vast wilds where a short time ago 
the trail of the Indian ventured not — homes rendered dear by social and domestic 
ties, and thrice sacred as the burial ground of dep.arted friends. Yet, if this appli- 
cation for po.-itpouement fails, the homes of eighteen hundred families who have thus 
contributed their toil and treasure to render them valuable, will pass into the hands 
of heartless speculator.-*, and these families will become houseless, homeless, dispir- 
ited w.anderers after new lields of labor for a subsistence. 

In concluding this appeal. Your Excellency will permit us to say, while we are 
sensible that no ordinary circumstances, at this crisis, should be allowed to check the 
flow of money into the Xational Treasury, we at the same time feel contident that the 
voice of humanity, though it comes from the w ilderness, will not plead in vain. 

Therefore, we ask, if within the scope of Executive discretion, that Your Excel- 
lency may cause the sale of the "Miami Cessions" to be postponed, at least, until the 
Fall of 1848 or \mtil after the next shall convene, and your petitioners will 
ever pray. 

Miami Keskkve. 

June 12th. 1847. 

Hail JRoads. — ^January 19, 1846, by the efforts of William J. llol- 


man, the Indianapolis & Peru R. R. Compan}- was incorporated. 
In the election of the first Board of Directors Miami County was 
represented by J. T. Miller, G. S. Fenimore, William Kesler, R. L. 
Britton, W. J. Holman and N. O. Ross. In June 1849, a proposi- 
tion was submitted to the people of the county a.sking for a sub- 
scription of $20,000 for the encouragement of the project. This 
was carried by a large majority of the taxpayers, and $10,000 
of said appropriation was immediately borrowed and placed in the 
hands of the directors. After much delay and many appeals to the 
people for additional help, the road was completed to Peru in the 
spring of 1854. The road was afterward extended to Michigan 
City, and is now known as the Indianapolis, Peru & Chicago R. R. 
The entire length of the road in the county is nearly forty miles, and 
has contributed much to the deyelopment of its resources and added 
largely to its material prosperity. 

Another project, which was contemporaneous with the fore- 
going, and in which the people of Miami County were much inter- 
ested, proyided for the construction of a road from Marion, Ind., 
to Chicago, yia Peru. The compan}' was incorporatdd under the 
name of the Marion, Peru & Chicago Railroad Company. The 
object of the scheme was to connect with another proposed route 
from Marion eastward with Cincinnati the terminal point. Thus 
the two great trade centers would haye been connected by a road as 
practicable as any that has since been constructed. In the election 
of othcers Mr. James B. Fulwiler, of Peru was chosen Vice-Presi- 
dent, and be it said to his credit, that if aU others connected with 
the company had displayed the same energy and zeal, the project 
would not haye failed. The following account of the project is in 
Mr. Fulwiler's own words: 

" In the year 1853 a compan}' was organized for the construc- 
tion of a railroad from Peru to Marion, Grant County, Indiana, 
composed of nine directors, to-wit: Judge M. G. Mitchell, of Piqua, 
Ohio, President: James B. Fulwiler, of Peru, Vice-President: Ira 
Stanley, X. O. Ross, C. S. Ellis, John A. Graham, Jesse Higgins, 

L. D. Adkinson and Peirce, of Marion. A large amount of 

stock was subscribed by substantial men along the yalley of the 
Mississinewa, and a written contract was entered into with the 
the President and Directors of the Mississinewa Valle\' Railroad 
Company, and the agents, legally appointed, of the Columbus, Piqua 
& Indiana Railroad Company, and duly adopted and confirmed by 
the respectiye companies, pro\iding for a perpetual business con- 
nection between the said companies at Union City, on the State 
line, of such a character as to full}- authorize and empower either of 
said parties to giye through tickets and freight bills either way over 
the several roads; providing for a uniform gauge, using the T rail, 
and for the erection of water stations, depots, switches, etc. As 


the road shall then be completed to Peru, Miami County, Jndiana, 
the Columbus Company agreed to put upon the roads a sutticient 
amount of rolling stock for the business of the same as soon as the 
road should be completed in parts to justify it, and after the roads 
are completed, the said Columbus Conipan\- shall run the same for 
ten years upon fair and equitable terms to be agreed upon by the 
parties in interest. It was further agreed, upon the completion of 
the road, that, upon the election of either company to consolidate 
the stock, it should be done, and that the stock of each company 
should be put in at its fair cash value at that time, and new stock 
certilicates issued for the same. This contract was to be binding 
upon the parties so soon as confirmed by the boards of directors of 
the respective companies, and certified copies of this resolution, 
under seal, were interchanged between them. 

This secured to Peru the certainty of the road, and J. B. Ful- 
^viler and Jesse Higgins, who were instrumental in accomplishing 
these perpetual connections upon which depended the successful 
negotiations of their bond, returned to Peru from Marion, Grant 
County, where the representatives of the various roads had con- 
vened, flushed with victory over the combined wealth and talent of 
Logansport, only to find, to their mortification, that the director}' of 
the Union, Peru & Chicago Railroad Company had, during their 
absence, been beguiled by two adventurers, representing themselves 
as railroad men and capitalists, into a consolidation with another 
road from Peru to Chicago, and changing the eastern direction from 
Peru to a southern route by way of Cambridge City, the home of 
one of the adventurers. 

Thus Peru lost the benefit of contracts with the Marion & 
Mississinewa Valley Railroad Company and Columbus, Piqua & 
Indiana Railroad Company (by which the construction of the road 
from Peru to Marion was assured), as assurance had been given 
the Union, Peru & Chicago Company by certain New York capi- 
talists that, with the above connection duh' and legally entered into 
thev would furnish sufficient means for the construction of the road 
upon the bonds of the company." 

Toledo (£• IVaha^/i. — The first encouragement given to the con- 
struction of this line was at a public meeting held at Logansport, 
June 23, 1852. The road was completed between Peru and 
Logansport in 1856. It is now incorporated under the name of the 
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific, with its termini at St. Louis and 
Toledo. This road, like all other public enterprises, received the 
financial encouragement of the people of Miami County, who have 
always showed their liberalit\- h\ their suj port of every movement 
tending toward public good. 

Pan Handle, or Pittsburg, Cincinnati & St. Louis, was built 
through the county about the year 1867. This affords the people 


of the southern portion of the county the means of transporting their 
products direct to Chicago and Cincinnati, and reaching tiie best 
markets of the country. Several prosperous towns have been built 
along the line of this road, which adds much to the wealth of the 

The Eel River Road was completed through the county 

. It entered the county from the west, in the Section 8, 

Township 27, Range 3; thence in a northeasterly direction to Mex- 
ico and Denver; thence east through Chili to the eastern limits of 
the county. While the line is not so successfully operated as other 
roads of the county, yet the benefits to this section of the county 
have been incalculable. This road traverses the county a total dis- 
tance of about seventeen miles. 

Gravel Roads. — During the past few vears there has been 
greatl improvement in the matter of public highways. In various 
parts of the count}- gravel roads have been made, and perhaps 
nothing contributes more to the welfare and progress of a commun- 
ity than good highways. 

The following table gives the date of the establishing of the 
several roads, together with the total estimated cost of the roads, 
including interest on the bonds and all other expense up to the lime 
they are to be paid for in full : 

1883. Shrock— Wa.shington and Clay Townsliijis 5; 31,992 80 

" Miller — Harrison, and a little in .Jackson Twp.. 9,067 36 

" Marsh— Butler and Harrison Townships 28,240 08 

" Ellis— in Pipe Creek Townshi]) 18,478 35 

" DiKkwall— in Pipe Creek Township 6,735 82 

" Ballard— in .Jackson Township 23,467 70 

1883. Cole— in Washinjnon Township 7,107 13 

" Zehring — in Deer Creek Township 10,199 44 

" Phelps— in Clay, and part in Deer Creek Twp.. Il,l4l 06 

" Squirrel Village — in Pipe Creek Township. .. . 8,173 57 

1885. Peru and Strawtown— in Washington Township. 7,000 00 

All free. 

The toll roads are : Peru & Mexico Turnpike Companv, 
Peru & Chili Turnpike Companv, Peru & Paw Paw Turnpike 
Company, Peru & Mississinewa Turnpike Compan\', Peru & Santa 
Fe Turnpike Companv. There are no reliable statistics at hand 
showing the cost of these, as they are private property. 

Medical Society. — The Miami Count\- Medical Societ\' was or- 
ganized, and articles of association filed Januar\' 3, 1875. The object 
of the society as set forth in the article of association, are to 
advance medical knowledge, improve the health and protect the 
lives of the communitv, and elevate the professional character of its 
members. Any regular graduate from a reputable medical college, 
of good moral character may become a member of said society by 
paving into the treasury the sum of three dollars. The original 
signers of the articles of association are as follows: J. H. Helm, 


M. D. Ellis, E. M. Bloomfield, E. J. Kendall, W. II. Brenton, J. O. 
Ward, W. A. McCoy, James A. Meek, E. C. Friermood, S. S. 
Marsh, W. T. Wilson, O. C. Irwin, James M. McKee and C. B. 
Higgins. The present membership as shown by Secretary's books 
is as follows : W. K. Armstrong, U. A. A. Ager, E. M. Bloomfield, 
C. C. Brady, W. H. Brenton, Ezra K. Friermood, B. R. Graham, 
John H. Helm, Carter B. Higgins, James A. Meek, S. S. Marsch, 
Henry P. McDonald, Rollin Pence and A. F.. Smith. The present 
officers are W. K. Armstrong, President; Carter B. Higgins, Secre- 
tary; Edwin M. Bloomfield, Treasurer and A. F. Smith, H. P. 
McDowell and E. K. Friermood Censors. 

Agrictdtural Societies. — Early in the history of the common- 
wealth of Indiana, did the la\y-maker recognize the value that would 
accrue from the incorporation of such societies, and accordingly 
provided b}- law for their organization. The first effort to organize 
a society in Miami County was in the early part of the fifties. After 
repeated efforts the Miami County Agricultural Society was organ- 
ized. The grounds were located east of the city of Peru on land 
owned by William Smith. Fairs were held here for many years, 
from which much good resulted. 

The ne.xt organization of this character was the Peru Driving 
Park and Fair Association which was incorporated September 20, 
1873. The object as set forth in the articles of association were to 
promote the agricultural, horticultural, mechanical and household 
interest of the county. The authorized capital stock was $22,000 
divided into shares of $100 each. The largest stockholders were 
J. T. Stevens, J. C. Kratzer, Wm. Rassner, G. and G. W. Conradt. 
No fairs have been held by this society for several years. 

Elections. — From various sources, the following figures have 
been compiled, showing the results of the Presidential elections for 
the years named: 



Polk and Clay and Birney and 

Dallas. Frelinguuysen. Morris. 

Peru 256 282 

Union 44 26 1 

.lefforson 52 54 

Richland 70 00 

Perrv 44 78 

WiLsiiinifton 10 20 

Pipe Crei-lt 22 20 

Butler li) 23 

Total 517 569 

No returns for Lake and Erie Townships. 





Caes and 

Peru 171 

Jefferson 73 

Kichbmd 87 

Perry 69 

Union 55 

Erie 34 

Wasbinj!:ton 77 

Pipe Creek 60 

Deer Creeli 30 

Clay 39 

Jackson 28 

Butler , 47 

Total 770 

No returns from Harrison. 



Taylor and 

YanBoren and 



























Pierce and 

Peru 253 

Jeilerson 92 

Erie 47 

Washington 114 

Deer Creek 74 

Clay 89 

Union 99 

Pipe Creek 74 

Richland 97 

Perry 91 

Butler 69 

Jackson 43 

Harrison 55 

Total 1196 



Scott and 

Hale and 


























NOVEMBER, 1856. 


Buchanan and 

Deer Creek 66 

Kichl.mcl 132 

Perry 98 

Peru 370 

Union 138 

Clay 98 

Jackson 55 

Harrison 69 

Pipe Creek 112 

Butler 66 

Jefferson 124 

Washington 131 

Erie 54 

Total 1513 



Fremont and 

Filmore and 





























NOVEMBER, i860. 


BreckenriilKe Lincoln anil Dous-liis and Boll and 
and Lane. Humlin. jDJinson. Everett- 
Peru 7 369 881 

Jefferson 7 151 ll(i 

Union 81 73 

Allen 5 63 77 

Perry i 174 121 

Richland 186 148 

Erie 3 57 58 

Washinfcton 113 121 

IJutler 165 87 

.Jackson 138 45 

Harrison 69 86 

Clay 55 117. 

Deer Creek 124 67 

Pipe Creek 90 111 

Total 26 1835 1608 00 



McClellan and Lincoln and 

Pendleton. JohuBon. 

Peru 434 384 

Jefferson 134 139 

Perry 110 163 

Union 79 81 

Hichland 126 195 

p;rio 57 61 

Butler 103 153 

Washington 123 101 

Pipe Creek 114 82 

Deer Creek 63 168 

Clay 145 51 

Harrison .- 94 59 

Jackson 62 120 

Allen 74 69 

Total 1717 1831 



Seymourand Grant and 

Blair. Colfax. 

Peru 569 485 

Jefferson 178 129 

Union 110 108 

Perry 1,54 200 

Richland 126 212 

Erie 60 74 

Butler 128 163 

Washinffton 167 123 

Pipe Creek 154 111 

Deer Creek 103 146 

Clay 147 51 

Harrison 147 103 

Jackson 134 196 

Allen 94 93 

Total 2271 2193 






Greely and ami 

Brttwn. Wilson. 

Peru G-10 7.58 

Jefferson 117 141 

Deer Creek 79 152 

Clay 140 57 

Butler 132 150 

Perry 138 180 

Richlimcl 112 209 

Erie 77 50 

Allen 63 129 

Union 71 124 

Jackson 132 227 

Washington 158 116 

Pipe Creek 165 115 

Harrison 95 127 

Total 2119 2535 

NOVEMBER, 1876. 


Hayes and Tilden and 

Wheeler. Hendricks. 

Allen 154 123 

Peru 714 794 

Jeffer-son 165 206 

Perry 201 166 

Union 125 130 

Richland 223 172 

Erie 76 88 

Butler 177 172 

Washinirton 132 201 

Pipe Creek 163 201 

Deer Creek 163 112 

Clay 54 124 

Harrison 112 135 

Jackson 265 171 

Total 2724 2785 



O'Conor and 







Cooper and 



Garfield and 

Allen 168 

Peru 511 

Jefferson 216 

Perry 203 

Union 121 

Kicliland 224 

Erie 77 

Butler 135 

Wasliiuiiton 165 

Pipe Creek 204 

Deer Creek 176 

Clay 61 

Harrison 125 

Jackson 284 

T(>t;il 301G 



Hancock and 

Weaver and 






























Cli'vclnnd ami Hlaincaml Butler. St. John. 

Hendricks. LoKau. 

Allen l'2t) 1()7 13 

Peru 1103 840 18 1 

Jefferson 2.")1 217 6 

Perry li)3 201 1 

Union Ill 113 1 

Kichland 143 205 23 2 

Erie 85 75 2 1 

Bi tier 165 169 13 

Wiishington 216 151 1 1 

Pipe Creek 209 182 5 

Deer (.'reek 158 168 1 3 

Clay 188 81 

Harrison 180 108 1 14 

Jackson 183 309 15 5 

Total 3810 2996 98 29 

Co)iiiiiisswiicrs. — Di.strict, John Crudson, 1834; Wm. M. 
Reybui-n, 1835; Z. W. Pendleton, 183S; D. R. Bearss, 1840; John 
Hiner, 1841; George Wilson, 1844; George C. Smith, 1847; Sam- 
uel Jamison, 1850; David A. Carr, 1853; Cornelius Cain and E. B. 
Masse}-, 1854; N. D. Nicoles, 1856; John Hann, 1861; Thomas 
Dillard, 1864; William Zehring, 1867; Joseph B. Mills, 1S73; 
Stephen Cranor, 1876; D. H. Cain, 1880; G. S. Evans, 1882. 

Second District, John W. Miller, 1834; James Gillett, 1839; 
Henry Zern, 1848; F. S. Hackley, 1851; George Wilson, 1854; 
Allen Skillman, 1857; David Charters, i860; Paul Burk, 1S63; 
David Charters, 1866; R. C. Harrison, 1869; Absalom Wilson, 1875; 
Geo. Eikenbery, 1878: Fred Meyers, 1884. 

Third District, Alexander Jamison, 1834; Euther Chapin, 1840; 
Samuel Jamison, 1841: Martin M. Scruggs, 1842; Hiram Butler, 
1849; E. A. Deniston, 1855; James R. Leonard, 1861; R. K. 
Charles, 1864; James R. Leonard, 1865; Benjamin Graft, 1870; 
John C. Davis, 1876; J. W. Hunt, 1882; J. C. Davis, 1884: Noah 
Miller, 1886. 

Clcrls: — Benjamin H. Scott, 1S34; J^mcs B. Fuhviler, 184S; 
Alexander Blake, 1855: Darius C. Darrow, 1863; John A. Graham, 
1867; Jesse S. Zern, 1871; C. A. Parson, 1879; Joseph Lari- 
mer, 1887. 

Auditors. — James M. Defrees, 1841; Ira Mendenhall, 185 1; 
Elam Henton, 1855; Thomas Jav. 1859; Franklin T. Foote and 
Elam Henton, 1862: Charles Efferman, 1864: Milo D. Ellis, 1865; 
Louis B. Fuhviler, 1870: R. B. Runyan, 1878: Wm B. Miller, 1886. 

Recorders. — Benjamin H. Scott, 1834; William C. Buckhanan, 
George Wilkerson, 1855: Abel L. Hurtt, 1859: William S.Todd, 
1863: William F.Ege, 187 1: Wm. A. Gibney, 1879: Michael Bap- 
pert, 1887. 


Treasurers. — Abner Overman, 1834: A. M. Higgins and 
Albert Cole, 1836: Zach. W. Pendleton and William R. Mabrav, 
1837; Samuel Glass, 1842; Carlton R. Tracy, 1848: Daniel Brower, 
1853: Silas Enyart, 1855; Henrv Dutton, 1857: David R. Todd, 
1859; James T. Miller, 1863: Otto P. Webb, 1865: James T. Mil- 
ler, 1867: Charles Spencer, 1871: William B. Deniston and Ira B. 
Meyers, 1873: Jno. R. Porter, 1879: Ebenezer Humrickhouse, 
i88"i; J. C. Clymer, 1885. 

Sheriff. — Jacob Linzee, 1834; A. Leonard and L. D. Atkinson, 
1838; John A. Graham, i84i;Noah S. Allsbaugh, 1S45; Coleman 
Henton, 1847; Jonas Hoover, 1851; Hiram Moore, 1854; John 
Wertz, 1855; Joseph Hiner, 1857: John T. Miller, O. H. P. Macv, 
1858; Wesley Wallick, i860: O. H. P. Macy, 1862: Wesley Wal- 
lick, 1864; Samuel Ream, 1868; Willard Griswold, 1872: Vincent 
O'Donald, 1876; A. J. Parks, 1880: Edward T. Gray, 1884. 

Surveyor. — Joseph B. Campbell, 1835; A. A.Cole, 1840:8. 
Holman, 1841: Ira Mendenhall, 1843: George W. Goodrich, 1847; 
Milton Cook, 1852: H. Beane. 1854: J. M. Moorhead, 1S56: Henry 
Krauskoff, 1S58; C.J. Kloenne, i860; Henry Krauskoff, 1861, A. 
J. Phelps, 1863; G. W. Goodrich, 1864: D.'C. Goodrich, 1866; S. 
E. Haacken, 1868; W. W^ Sullivan, 1872: Richard H. Cole, 1876; 
Michael Horan, 1880. 

Coroner. — James Crowell, 1836; James Mowbraj-, 1846: Wm. 
S. White, 1848: Robert Miller, 1854: James Crowell, 1862; Adam 
Beck, 1869: Joseph Oldham, i874:Joseph C. Ogle, 1876; Charles 
Broadbeck, 1878: A. B. Scott, 1879: Abner C. Kimball, 1880; 
George Nelp, 1882; Eli J. Jamison, 1886 

Senators. — George W. Ewing, 1837; William Wright, 1840; 
William M. Re\burn, 1843; Cyrus Taber, 1846: Jacob D. Cassatt, 
1847: Benjamin Henton, 1850: John Shellenberger. 1852; Daniel 
R. Bearss, 1854: Samuel S. Terry, 1864; Stearns Fisher, 1868; 
Robert Miller, 1870; Daniel R. Bearss, 1874: Milton Garrigus, 
187S; L. D. Adkinson, 1882: B. F. Harness, 1886. 

Representatives. — Gillis McBean, 1835: William N. Hood, 
1836: Alexander Wilson, 1838: William M. Reyburn, 1840; Daniel 
R. Bearss, 1841; Gabriel Swihart, 1842; Daniel R. Bearss, 1843; 
John U. Pettit, 1844: Benjamin Henton, 1845: George W. Holman, 
1846; Alphonso A. Cole, 1847: Natlian C. Ross, 1848: Alonzo A. 
Cole, 1849: Richard F. Donaldson, 1850: Benjamin Henton, 1852; 
N. W. Dickerson. 1854: Reuben C. Harrison, 1856: William Smith, 
1858: Richard F. Donaklson, 1862: Jonas Hoover, 1864: Nathan 
O. Ross, i866:Jonathan D. Cox, 1868: J. W. Edward, 1872; David 
Charters, 1874; Samuel Woodv. 1874: William Zehring, 1876; 
W. H. Thomson, 1876: G. I. Reed (Miami and Howard): A. C. 
Bearss, 1878; C. A. Cole, 1880: N. N. Antrin, 1882; Henry V. 



Passage, 1884: Jabez Cox, 1886; Charles Cox (Miami and Cass), 


Military History — The Early Militia System — The Mexi- 
can War — Public Sentiment Prior to 1861 — The Call 
TO Arms — First Troops for the Front — Miami County 
Regiments in Detail — Roll of Honor — Bounty and Re- 

FROM the earliest settlement in Miami County by the whites, 
there was but little military display to interrupt the peaceful 
pursuits of its citizens until that deluge of civil discord which began 
in 1 86 1. When the first permanent homes were established here, 
the hidian troubles that attended the second war with Great Britian 
had been settled. The celebrated Miami Confederacy had been 
entirely broken up, leaving the country undisturbed by the red war- 
riors. Some of them yet linger in the county, reluctant to quit the 
scenes of their nativity, but the tide of immigration has submerged 
most of them, and thev are now scarcely known except in the fad- 
intj memor\- of the oldest settlers. 

c) ■ . . . . 

The militia, which had done such effective service in the early 
Indian wars, was fostered by the early laws of the State. All able- 
bodied men of proper age were enrolled and required to attend cer- 
tain da\s in each year for the purpose of drilling in militar\- tactics. 
At lirst the people took active interest in learning the different mili- 
tary movements and studied in their homely way the strategies of 
war. Each man furnished a gun in the beginning, and all were 
skilled in the manual of arms. These musters took place several 
times a year and were generally held at the county seat or some 
other important point in the county. They were always attended 
by large and motley crowds. A long period of peace had some- 
what impaired the efficiency of these musters, and the occasions 
became more of the nature of holidays. As the men were privileged 
from arrest on "training days" a general jollilication usually took 
place, and fun of the more rough and boisterous kind was indulged 
in, frequently mingled with fights. This system was maintained 
almost uninterrupted until the time of the Mexican war. 

Mexican War. — Affairs between the United States and Mex- 
ico having assumed a hostile attitude, the President of the United 
States by proclamation. May 11, 1846, announced that a state of 



war existed between this country and Mexico. Conijress immedi- 
ately authorized a call for 50,000 volunteers, one-half to be mus- 
tered in at once, and the remainder to be used as a reserve. May 
23d, 1846, James Whitcomb, Governor of Indiana, issued a procla- 
mation, in conformity with the orders of the President. Immedi- 
atel\- upon the call of the Governor, Capt. John M. Wilson com- 
menced the enlistment of volunteers for the war. Failing to enlist 
a full compan}- from Miami County, volunteers from the counties of 
Tippecanoe and Johnson joined in sufficient numbers to complete 
the roster. Owing to the incompleteness of the records in the 
Adjutant-Generars Ofiice, only a partial enrollment of the company 
can be given. Privates — Jno. Mellen. Wm. Passons, Geo. Carpen- 
ter, W. L. Price, Richard Bell, Joseph Bishop, C. M. Drouillard, 
Martin Wey, Phillip Parcels, Wm. McClain, Q. A. Fisk, Jesse 
Rowdle, J. Richardson, Luther Bush, Valentine Prester, G. Gor- 
don, J. Brown, James Rellahor. Wm. Dought\', L. B. Lynch, Bar- 
net Judge, H. Davenport, S. Segraves, Levi Shelenberger. J. W. 
Nichols, J. C. Harvey, J. H. Reed. Edward Anibal, S. S. Bottow, 
P. I. Brown, S. L. Clark, W. L. Clark, Samuel Collyer, Jackson 
Castor, J. S. Denton, Wm. Flagg, J. B. Franklin, Nathan Gibson, 
Joseph Gertes, Jonas Hoover, W. Humphrer, Isaac Ilarter, Alex. 
Hoiliday, Wm. Kelley, I. Keicher, L. Alarquiss, Conrad Metzer, 
Edward McManus, Michael McDonald, Dennis Naughton. Michael 
O'Niel, H. W. Penny, James Parr, Adam Pence. S. Rodger, Geo. 
Roundebush, James Shahan, Jno. Scarce, Edward Wilson, Abram 
Wright, D. R. Todd, Jno. S. Crooks, Howard Shadinger, W. G. 
Kersner, Henrj' Collins, L. Curtis, A. A. Hunter, James Coleman, 
Charles Smith, Major Miller, Harvey Tucker, D. M. Dunn, Cap- 
tain Sanderson, A. F. Smith, W. T. Wilson. 

Captain Wilson, with company-, left Peru for New Albany, the 
place of rendezvous, June i6th, 1846. In the organization of regi- 
ments. Captain Wilson's company was assigned to the position of 
B in the First Regiment. The regiment was officered by James 
P. Drake, Colonel: C. C. Na\'e, Lieutenant-Colonel, and I^enry S. 
Lane, Major. At the expiration of one year the company was 
mustered out with regiment June 15th, 1847. 

For several years prior to 1861 the country had been drift- 
ing surely toward civil war. The two sections, the North and 
the South, had different interests to serve in the administration 
of national affairs. Until that time the contest had often been 
vigorous between the two sections, but always peaceful. The 
Republican party was then in its infancy, but it contained some 
elements that foretold destruction to the greatest institution of 
the Southern States — slavery. It is true that the part\' had not 
then taken an\- direct stand upon the question of slavery, but 
its leaders were among the avowed opponents of that institution. 


and nianv liad been identified with the movement for its aboli- 
tion. Abraham Lincoln had publicl}- declared that it was his 
deliberate conviction that the Government could not exist half 
sla\e and half free. His election to the Presidency, therefore, 
the Southern Stales accepted as a menance to their institutions, 
w-hich had long been sanctioned by the laws, and, as they 
thouirht, with apparent right. In that section of the Union the 
doctrine of State rights as paramount to national rights had long- 
been taught under the leadership of John C. Calhoun. Accord- 
inglv the\' did not long hesitate to secede from the Union when 
it was known that Lincoln had been dul}- elected President. 
The South had for many years been dominant in the affairs of 
the nation, and with them it was rule or ruin. In the election 
of 1S60 thev had seceded from the Democratic part>-, with 
which they had always acted, and refused to support Stephen 
A. Douglas for President. On the 20th of December, i860, 
following the election of Lincoln, South Carolina took the first 
active step and passed an ordinance of secession from the Union. 
In this movement she was followed in rapid succession by Miss- 
issippi, January 9; Alabama and Florida, January 11; Georgia, 
Jainiarv 19: Louisiana, January 26; Texas, February i ; Virginia, 
April 17: Arkansas and Tennessee, May 6; North Carolina, 
Ma\' 21. No President ever assimied the duties of that high 
ollice under more tr\ing times than did Abraham Lincoln. 
Seven States had declared themselves out of the Union and 
refused to recognize his authority, and in less than two months 
foiu- others had followed into the Confederacy. In February, 
1861, a peace conference was held at Baltimore, attended h\ 
some of the most influential men from most of the States. The 
object was to effect a compromise between the different sections 
of the L'nion and to prevent a disruption and war. After a 
laborious sitting of several days it adjourned without ha\ing 
accomplished the purpose for which it was called. Excitement 
was at the greatest tension throughout the country and public 
spirit ran high. The extreme partisans that had supported the 
new President were for a time disap]U)inted when thev saw that 
other States were allowed unmolested to leave the Union and 
join the Confederacy. All over the North there was a divided 
sentiment in regard to the cause and responsibility of this attempt 
to sever the Union. There were many who believed that if 
the South wanted to withdraw from the Union there was no 
legitimate way of preventing it. In other words thev thoiufht 
a State could not be "coerced." I'he condition of affairs was so 
strained that meetings were held in all parts of the country to 
•discuss the state of the Union and advise the best course to 
pursue. It was in the midst of this excitement of the public 


mind that the firing upon Fort Sumpter took place. That deed, 
more than all others, united the loval hearts of the North in de- 
fense of the national flag that had heen fired upon hv those 
in rebellion. They welcomed it, perhaps, as the only solution 
to the questions of the hour, and gladly responded to the call 
to arms. 

The Call to Arms. — No portion of the Union responded to 
the President's call for 75,000 volunteers with more alacrity than 
did the Slate of Indiana. And of Indiana's thousands of loyal 
sons none were more eager for the fray than the citizens of 
Miami Countv. Hardly had the echoes from the last guns at 
Fort Sumpter died away before the stirring scenes that attended 
a public volunteering were arousing the people of Peru and 
vicinity. The thought of our flag being lowered at the com- 
mand of a rebellion inspired new patriotism in all those who 
loved that flag for the principles of union and toleration that it 
represented. If there had been any in this community who held 
that obnoxious idea that the General Government could not coerce 
a State into compliance with its laws, they were prudently quiet 
when that question first came to the test. The sentiment of the 
people was almost wholly and unanimously in favor of maintaining 
the Union unimpaired. 

Volunteer iiig. — The smoke from the guns of Fort Sumpter had 
scarcely blown away before the people of Miami Countv, with the 
patriotism that had characterized their action in the past, had come 
forward and proffered their services for the defense of the country. 
The proclamation of President Lincoln calling for 75,000 troops 
was issued April 15th, 1862, the news reaching Peru on the follow- 
ing day. .This was immediately followed by the proclamation from 
Governor Morton, which was responded to by the offer of 
a full company organized and ready for the front. The company 
was organized by J. M. Wilson, who was at the time the most 
prominent military man in the county, having served as captain in 
the Mexican war. The compan\- at once reported at Indianapolis, 
but the quota under the first call had been filled and the company 
was in consequence held as reserve until the call for enlistment for 
three years service was issued, when it was mustered in and assigned 
the position of B in the Thirteenth Regiment. The commis.sioned 
officers of the company with the dates of commissions were. Cap- 
tain. J. M. Wilson, April 23, 1861; William H. Shields. May 10. 
1862. First Lieutenants, William H. Shields, April 23, 1861; Wm. 
F. M. Wallick, May 10, 1862; William B.Vance, July 15, 1863. 
Second Lieutenants, were Wm. F. M. Wallick, May 6, r86i : 
George W. Rader, May 18, 1862; Henry Sterne, September i, 
1862; Silas Clark, June 3, 1863. The latter became First Lieuten- 
ant, Company A reorganized. The original number of enlisted 


men of the company was 96. It was recruited with 22 men. There 
were 17 non-commissioned and enHsted men died, and 11 deserters. 
John M. Wilson was promoted Major of tliis regiment Mav 10, 
1862, and was rccommissioned November 14th of the same \ear, 
promoted Lieutenant-Colonel June 13, 1863; term expired August 
3, 1S64; re-entered the service as Colonel of the 155th regiment. 
George W. Rader was promoted quartermaster. 

Sketch of the Thirteenth Re;j;imciit. — This was one of the 
four Regiments that first entered the service from Indiana 
for the term of three years, and was mustered in at Indi- 
anapolis .on the 19th of June, 1861, with Jerry C. Sullivan, as 
Colonel. On the 4th of July it left for the field, and on the 
morning of the loth joined Gen. McClellan's forces at the foot 
of Rich Mountain, Western Virginia. On the next day it par- 
ticipated in the battle of Rich Mountain, under Gen. Rosecrans, 
losing 8 killed and 9 vv'ounded. On the 13th it moved to Bev- 
erlv and thence to Cheat Mountain Pass, and on the 12th and 
13th of September took part in the engagement which resulted 
in the defeat of Gen. Lee's forces. It marched to Alleghany un- 
der Gen. Milrov. and on the 13th of December participated in 
the battle at that place. After several movements of minor im- 
portance, it moved to Winchester, where it pru-ticipated in the 
battle of Winchester Heights on the 22nd of March, and then 
followed in the pursuit of Stonewall Jackson's army as far as 
New Market. It participated in the battle of the Deserted 
Farm on the 30th of January, 1863, and the defeat of Long- 
street in his attempt to seize Suffolk. Whjle stationed at Folev 
Island it took part in the operations on Morris Island, during 
the seige of Forts Wagner and Greirc:- and was the first to en- 
ter in the assault on Fort Wagner on the 7th of Septem- 
ber. The Thirteenth was engaged in nearly all the operations 
of Gen. Butler's arm}- south of Richmond, in all of which the 
loss was about two hundred. On the 13th of June, 1S64, the 
Regiment was transferred to the Army of the Potomac. After 
which it participated in the battle of Cold Harbor, assault of 
the rebel works in front of Petersburg, the battle of Strawberry 
Plains and operations against Richmond. On the 6th of De- 
cember, 1864, was reorganized into a baltallion of five compan- 
ies. Was mustered out on the 5th of September, 1865, with 
29 officers and 550 enlisted men. 

Non-commissioned officers of Company B were Henr}' 
Sterns. James Carney, James Robinson. Jno. H. Ream and Dan- 
iel Baker, Sergeants; S. E. Chamberlain, William Starr, A. 
B. Andrews, Alexander Leach. John Powell, William Vance, 
Francis Moore, Jno. F. Wagoner, Corporals. 

Conipaiiv F Sixteenth jRegiiiicnt, was the second company to 


enlist from this county. The commissioned officers of the company 
with dates of commissions were, Captains: J. C. Jones. Greencastle, 
August 13, 1862:}. R. S. Cox, Indianapolis, November 25, 1862; 
Elijah Hawkins, Peru, April 14, 1865. First Lieutenants: Elijah 
Hawkins, August 12, 1862: George Cline. INIav i, 1865. Second 
Lieutenants: J. R. S. Co.\, 1862: Henry L. Boyce, Januar\- 25, 
1863; WiUiam A. Walker, May i. 1865. The original number of 
enlisted men was 88, with 30 recruits. Of the 88 enlisted men 
48 were credited to Miami county, while the whole number of 
recruits were from this county. There were 24 non-commis- 
sioned officers and enlisted men who died, and five deserted. 
The whole number accounted for, 120. None of the regimental 
officers were from Miami count}-. 

Sixteenth Regiment, was organized at Richmond in May, 
1 861. It was intended to serve within the limits of the State 
for one year, but was offered to and accepted by the Govern- 
ment on the same day that the news of the disaster at Bull Run 
reached Indianapolis, and on the 23 of July left Richmond. It 
was the first regiment that marched through the streets of Bal- 
timore after the firing upon the Sixth Massachusetts regiment in 
April. The terni* of service expired in May 1862, but was 
reorganized May 27th for three years service, but was not 
mustered in until August 19th. Thomas J. Lucas who was 
Lieutenant of the original organization succeeded to the Colonelcy 
upon the promotion of Colonel Hackleman to the Brigadier 
Generalship. The regiment left the same day it was mustered, 
for Kentucky, to repel the invasion of Kirby Smith, and on the 
30th of August took part in the battle of Richmond. Kentuck}', 
losing 200 men killed and wounded, and 600 prisoners. Decem- 
ber the 1st it moved down the Mississippi to participate in the 
Vicksburg campaign, but on the 25th, with the brigade of which 
it was a part, was sent to Dallas, Texas, to destroy the Shreve- 
port railroad. January nth took part in the battle of Arkansas 
Post and was the first regiment to plant its colors within the 
fort; its loss was 77 killed and wounded. On the 30th of April 
the regiment marched to Port Gibson and on the following day 
formed a part of the reserve of Gen. Hovey's division. Later 
in the day it was marched forward and engaged the enemy, 
drawing him from the hill in front. On the 2nd day of May 
marched with its advance into Port Gibson. After a severe 
skirmish at Edwards' Station and an engagement at Black River 
Bridge it proceeded to the rear of Vicksburg and went into 
trenches on the 19th of May and participated in all the opera- 
tions of the siege. In the assault on the enemy's works on the 
2 2d of May the Si.xteenth bore a conspicuous part, holding an 
important position for nearly ten hours continuous fighting. Dur- 


ing ihe siege the regiment lost sixty men killed and wounded. 
The regiment was transported to New Orleans where it was 
mounted and attached to a cavelry corps. It marclied as a part 
of cavalry of Banks" expedition up Red River, during which 
campaign it had sixteen engagements with the enem\\ It 
returned to New Orleans where it was mustered out June the 
30th. 1865, and arrived in Indianapolis the loth of July with 365 
men and officers. 

Seventeenth, — Miami Country was represented in companies 
F and K of the Seventeenth Regiment. In the former seven 
men were credited to Miami county. The only commissioned 
officer from the count}- was George F. Ha3'den, of Peru, who 
was commissioned First Lieutenant November 9th, 1862, and 
promoted Captain April 25th, 1864. In Company K there 
were four men credited to Miami county. Included in the 
number was Julius C. Kloenne, of Peru, the first captain of the 
compan\'. His commission -bore date of April 25th, 1S61. He 
was discharged December 23rd of the same year, and cashiered 
Januar\- 5th, 1862. The Seventeenth was organized at Camp 
Morton during Mav, 1861, and mustered in June 12th. the same 
year, for three years, with Milo S. Hascall, Colonel. The 
Regiment participated in the battle of Green Brier, siege of 
Corinth and was engaged in numerous expeditions, until Feb- 
ruar\-. 1863, when it was ordered to mount itself, which was done 
by foraging and pressing horses into the service. Armed with 
Spencer rifles, with which each man was equal to sixteen rebels, 
it moved to Hooker's Gaji. where it encountered the enemy and 
did effecti\e work. Other engagements in which the Seventeenth 
participated were at Manchester, Chattanooga, Ringgold, Chick- 
amauga. Thompson's Cove, Farmington, Belle Plain, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Marietta, Ebenezer Church, near Selma, Selma, and 
many others. During its term of service it marched over 4,000 
miles, captured o\-er 5.000 prisoners, more than 6,000 stands 
of arms: seventy pieces of artillery, eleven stands of col- 
ors, and more than 3,000 horses and mules. All this was done 
with a total loss in killed and wounded of but 258 men and of- 
ficers. Few regiments of the war had a better record. 

Coinpaiiv A, Ticentiet/i Re<^-iniriit. — The commissioned of- 
ficers of this company were: Captains: John Van Valkenburg, 
July 22, 1861; William B. Reyburn, December 28, 1861; Jonas 
Hoover, January 16, 1863: John F. Thomas, May 21. 1863; 
James DeLong, August i. 1864. First Lieutenants: William 
B. Reyburn. July 22, 1861: Jonas Hoover, December 28, 
1861: C. R. Pew, January 16, 1863; James DeLong, April 
16, 1863; William Trippeer, August i, 1863. Second Lieuten- 
ants: Jonas Hoover, July 22, 1861; Jno. F. Thomas, Decem- 


ber 28, 1861: C. R. Pew, Aujjust 30, 1862: James DeLong, 
January 16, 1863; W. J. Hawk, April 11, 1863, and Wallace 
Richardson, August i, 1864. 

The original enrollment of the company was 98, all of 
whom were credited to Miami count_\'. The total number of 
recruits was seventeen, sixteen of whom were from Miami 
county. There were eleven died while in the service, four 
deserted and thirtv-si.\ were unaccounted for. 

The only regimental officers of the Twentieth, from Miami 
County, were John \'anValkenburg, who was commissioned as fol- 
lows: Major, December 28, 1868: Lieutenant-Colonel. February 
16, 1862, and Colonel, August 30, 1868: and John F. Thomas, 
Adjutant, December 21, 1861. The report of the x\djutant-General 
shows that Col. VanValkenburg was di-shonorably discharged from 
the service Februar\- 11, 1863. The charge was that he had writ- 
ten a letter in which he had expressed a disloyal sentiment.' It is 
claimed, however, by those best acquainted with the facts, that tlie 
letter was misinterpreted, and that the language used was intended 
to convey an entirely different meaning, and that the hasty investi- 
gation made by the authorities deprived the Union cause of one of 
its most loyal supporters. The character of a soldier is best known 
bv those who have fought by his side, and be it said to the credit 
of Col. VanValkenburg that whatever public opinion may have 
been, his comrades remember him as a brave, patriotic and loyal 

The Tifcntictli Kcginiciit was organized at Lafayette in July 
1861, but \vas mustered into the service at Indianapolis on the 22d 
of said month. The Regiment went to Baltimore and from there 
sailed to Hatteras Inlet, N. C. While there it was attacked by 
the enemy's gunboat and forced to retreat. On the 9th of Novem- 
ber it embarked for Fortress Monroe, where it lay in camp till 
March 1862, then moved to Newport News where it participated in 
the engagement between the Merrimac, Cumberland and Congress. 
On the loth of Ma\- it moved to Norfolk and assisted in the capture 
of that city, after which it joined the Army of the Potomac and 
Peninsula, and was assigned to' Jameson's Brigade. Took part in 
the battle of Orchards, sustaining a loss of 144 men and officers in 
killed, wounded and missing. It covered the retreat of the 3d 
Corps in the celebrated Seven Days' Fight, participating in all the 
battles, especiall}- that of Glendale or Frazier's farm, in which the 
regiment lost heavily. The next engagement in which it took part 
was that of Manassas Plains, where its first colonel, William L. 
Brown, was killed. On the i8th of November it took part in the 
battle of Fredeticksburg and aided in saving from capture three 
Union batteries. On the 30th of April, 1863, it crossed the Rappa- 
hannock and took part in the battle of Chancellor.sville, capturing at 


one time the whole of the T\\eiit\-tliird Georgia, ininiberiniif more 
than its own men. It tlien moved willi the Army of the Potomac in 
pursuit of Lee and arrived at Getty-sburg in time to participate in 
the second day's fight. It occupied a position in Sickle's Corps, on 
the extreme left of the army, where it was \ery much exposed, and 
lost Col. Wheeler and 152 men and ollicers. It took an active part 
on the third and fourth days and lost heavih. It followed in piu"- 
suit and was again engaged at Manassa^ Gap; took part in the 
engagements at Locust Grove and Mine Run, after which it was 
reorganized at Culjiepper. 

The regiment cro.ssed the Raj)idaii with Grant's army, and in 
May, 1864, took part in the battles of the Wilderness. Todd's Tav- 
ern, Po River, Spottsvlvania, Tallopotanni and Cold Harbor. 
After this it was consolidated with the Fourteenth and Nineteenth, 
and \\ as a<rain en<ra<red at Preble's House and Hatcher's Run. In 
all the enoaoements on the left from Hatcher's Run to the fall of 
Richmond the regiment took active part. Its last engagement Vi'as 
that of Clover Hill April 9th 1865. On the 12th of July it was 
mustered out at Louisville. 

Company H, reorganized, contained seventeen men from 
Miami County with William Tripjieer, of Peru, Captain, December 
2, 1864, and "Edward B. Weist, of Peru, First Lieutenant, May 16, 

Tivcnt\-Aiuth Regiment. — Miami cou^t^■ was represented in 
two companies of the Twenty-Ninth. In Compan\- F Perry 
Butler was the only representative, and was commissioned Cap- 
tain May 17, 1864. Company H was represented b}' twenty- 
six originally enlisted men and seventeen recruits. The original 
enrollment of the company was 61, and was recruited with no. 
There were twenty-six who died in the service and eight de- 
serters. The commissioned officers were: Captains — William 
W. Shuler, September 10, 1861; Adams S. Loventhal, Novem- 
ber 12, 1863; Hiram B. Bates, January i, 1865. First Lieu- 
tenants — Henry Boyce, September 10, 1861; W. A. Duey, 
Januar}' 20, 1863; Hiram B. Bates, November 21, 1863. Sec- 
ond Lieutenants — C. Perrj- Butler, September 10, i86i:John 
Posey, January 14, 1862; Thomas C. Reese, March i, 1862. 
The only regimental officer of the Twenty-Ninth from Miami 
county was C. Perry Butler, March i. 1865. 

The TiventY-JViiil/i was organized at LaPorte and muster- 
ed into service for three years, on the 27th of August, 1861, 
with Jno. F. Miller as Colonel. It joined General Rousseau's 
command at Camp Nevin, Ky., mo\-cd to Munfordville. Bowl- 
ing Green, and later to the Tennes.;ee River, and participated 
in the battle of Shiloh on the 7th of April, 1862, was imder 
fire for more than 5 hours and suffered severely. Took an ac- 


live part in the siege of Corinth. After which it moved with 
Buell's x\rmy in pursuit of Bragg and returned to Nashville, 
and with Rosecrans' took part in the battle of Stone River, 
losing many men and officers. After the occupation of Mur- 
freesboro the Regiment remained there till May, 1863, when it 
moved forward with Rosecrans' to Tullahoma and Chattanoo<ra. 
Also participated in the skirmishes at Lavergne, Triune and 
Liberty Gap. In the battle of Chickamauga the regiment was 
engaged both days and lost heavily. In January, 1864, the 
Regiment re-enlisted as a veteran organization, leaving for home 
the same month on a veteran furlough. After it returned to 
the field was engaged in a skirmish at Decatur, Alabama, and 
Dalton, Georgia. 

T//e Thirty-jVinih. — The two Companies A and M of the 
ThirtA'-Ninth were composed largelv of Miami countv men. The 
entire original enrollment of Company A, 98 in number, was 
credited to Miami countv. There were 91 recruits, twent\'-ni?ie 
deaths and five lost bv desertion. The commissioned oliicers 
were: Captains — Orris Blake, September 2. 1861; Horace S. 
Foote, Ma\- 10, 1864: Albert Downing, January i, 1865. First 
Lieutenants — E. V. Peterson, September 2, 1861; Horace Foote, 
Januarj^ 5, 1864: P. Blake, May 10, 1864: Nelson Hurst, Janu- 
ary I, 1875. Second Lieutenants — Horace S. Foote, September 
2, 1861: P. Blake, Januar\- 5, 1864: Albert Downing, ^Iarch 6, 
1864; Andrew Huffman, January i, 1865. In Company M 
there were 100 enlisted men, with fourteen recruits. Eighteen 
of these died in the service and ten deserted. Twentv of the 
original enrollment were credited to Miami countv. The only 
commissioned officer from the count}' was Elhanan V. Peter- 
son. Date of commission, January 5, 1865. The only regi- 
mental officer from the countv was A. S. Lakin, of Peru, who 
was commissioned Chaplain, August 28. 1861. 

The El^'hth Cavalrv {3gtlt ) Rciriuicnt was organized as 
an infantrv regiment at Indianapolis on the 29th of August, 
1 86 1, and left for Kentucky early in September. After camp- 
ing at several points it marched with BuelTs Arm\- into Ten- 
nessee and took part in the battle of Shiloh, April 7lii. 1862, 
losing two killed and thirtv-four wounded. It next participated 
in the seige of Corinth. After which the\- moved with Buell's 
Army into Alabama, through Tennessee into Kentuck}- and 
back to Nashville, and there joined Rosecrans" Armv and with 
it participated in the battle of Stone River. In this engage- 
ment the Regiment suffered severely, losing in killed, wounded 
and missing three hundred and eighty. In April, 1863, the 
Regiment was mounted and served as mounted infantrv during 
that year. In June it reinforced the Second Indiana Cavalry 


and parlii-ipati'd in tlie skirmishes at Middleton, Libert}' Gap 
and Winchester, and on the 19th and 20tli of September was 
in the battle of Chickamauga. Authority being given to change 
the organization from infantry to cavalrj', Companies L and 
M were organized in September and on going to the com- 
mand in the tield the Regiment, on the 15th of October, 1863, 
organized into the Eighth Ca\ah-v. On the 22nd of February, 
1864, the Regiment re-enlisted as a veteran organization, and 
soon after participated in the Rousseau's raid in Alabama, and 
McCook's raid around Atlanta. It was next engaged in Kil- 
patrick's raid in Georgia, and at the battle of Lovejoy Station 
did effective work. In the campaign against Savannah and 
through the Carolinas it participated in the battles and skirm- 
ishes at Wavnesboro, Buckhead Church, Browne's Cross 
Roads, Rc\nold"s Farm, Aiken, Bentonville, Averysboro and 
Raleigh. The Eighth Cavalry whipped Hamilton's entire force 
at Morrisville, and thus had the honor of fighting the last bat- 
tle with the enemy in that State. During its term of service 
the Regiment lost 9 officers killed in battle, 300 in prisoners, and 
captured from the enemy 1,500 men, 1,000 stands of arms, three 
railroad trains, 1,400 horses, fourteen pieces of artiller}- and four 
battle flags. 

Conipduv B of the Fortieth was .made up almost entirely of 
Miami County men, and was officered as follows: Captains — A. 
Ewing. November 27, 1861; O. C. Harvey, June 16, 1862; Charles 
S. Smith, March i. 1865. First Lieutenants — John C. Bellew, No- 
vember 27, 1861; Willard Griswold, June 16, 1862; J. C. Brower, 
July I. 1864: C. S. Smith, December 4, 1864; N. Y. Buck, March 
20. 1865: Franklin Cranor, June 20, 1865. Second Lieutenants — 
J. C. Thompson, November 27, 1861; 6. C. Harvey, March 30, 
1862: Albert Olinger, June 16, 1862; Franklin Cranor, June i, 
1865: John Debarr, September i, 1865. In Company I, same regi- 
ment, Mark Dwire, First Lieutenant; Alfred Warwick, Second 
Lieutenant, aad two others in the rank of private, were enrolled 
from this countv. Willard Griswold, of Peru, became Adjutant of 
the regiment July i, 1864. 

The Fortieth Rei>iiiiciit was organized at Lafayette the 30th of 
December, 1S61. and at once jiroceeded to Bardstown, Ky. In 
February, 1862, it marched with BuelFs Army to Nashville, and 
thence to Northern Alabama, after which it joined in pursuit of 
Bragg through Kentucky. The regiment returned to Nashville in 
November, where it was assigned to the 6th Division of the 14th 
Arm\- Corps. In December it marched toward Murfreesboro' and 
participated in the battle of Stone River, losing in killed, wounded 
and missing eighty-five. It remained at Murfreesboro' for some- 
time after the battle, and when the army was reorganized it was 


assigned to the command of Major-General Crittenden. Tiae regi- 
ment next participated in the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout 
Mountain and Mission Ridge, after which it re-enlisted as a veteran 
organization. The regiment joined the Atlanta campaign, and, 
under General Howard, took part in all the engagements and skir- 
mishes of said campaign, and in the battles of Dallas, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Chattahoochie River and Peach Tree Creek, took a very 
conspicuous part. After the occupation of Atlanta the regiment 
was sent back to Chattanooga, and from there moved to Nashville, 
and on the 15th of December participated in that battle. In the 
following year went to New Orleans and from there to Texas and 
joined General Sheridan. 

Fifty-first. — The commissioned officers of Company C, Fifty- 
first, were: Captains — Francis M. Constant, October 11, 1S61; 
William Wallick, June 30, 1863; Avery B. Charpie, December 15, 
1864. First Lieutenants — Joseph Y. Ballou, October 11, 1861; 
A. G. Murray, June 30, 1863: John C. Young, February 6, 1865. 
Second Lieutenants — William \\'^allick, October 18, i86i; Jasper 
N. Brown, June 30, 1863; A. B. Charpie, November 23, 1864; 
Louis P. Holman, Ma}^ i, 1865. Si.xty-one of the ninety-two 
enlisted men, and eight of the tifty-six recruits were credited to 
Miami County. William Morehead, of Peru, was assistant surgeon 
of the regiment. It was organized at Indianapolis on the nth of 
October, 1861, and was mustered in December 14, with Abel D. 
Streight as Colonel. The regiment joined Buell in Kentuckj^ and 
marched into Tennessee where it participated in the siege of Cor- 
inth, and after the evacuation marched to Stevenson, Ala. It next 
joined Buell in pursuit of Bragg through Kentuck\-, and in Decem- 
ber, 1864, returned to Nashville, where it joined Rosecrans" army 
and participated in the battle of Stone River, losing in killed, wounded 
and»missin<>" fortv-nine men. After the en<jairement at Stone River 
it left on the Streight expedition. This was a provisional brigade 
ortjanized bv Col. Slreiirht and consisted of the Fiftv-tirst and Sev- 
enty-third Indiana, Third Ohio and Eightieth Illinois, with two cav- 
-alr}' companies and two pieces of artillery. The expedition pro- 
ceeded to Rome, Georgia, via Palmvra. Fort Henry and Eastport, 
Miss., where they purposed making a raid on the rear of Bragg's 
army. The expedition reached the base of Sand Mountains on the 
29th of April, where a battle ensued with Forrest's cavalry, which 
resulted disastrously to the latter. On the ist of May another fight 
took place at Crooked Creek, in which the enemy was repulsed, 
and again defeated at Blunt's Farm. The command pushed for- 
ward with the hopes of capturing Rome, but on the 3d of May was 
overtaken near Gaylesville, Ala., by General Forrest and com- 
pelled to surrender. The whole force was consigned to a rebel 
prison, but after some time the enlisted men were paroled for ex- 


change. On tlie 9th of Februarx' ColonL'l Slreight escaped from 
Libbv Prison by means of a tunnej. In November, 1863. the regi- 
ment was exchanged and at once returned to the held. In Febru- 
ary, 1864, a portion of the regiment re-enhsted as veterans. The 
14th of December the non-veterans were mustered out of service. 
On the 15th of December it participated in the battle of Nashville. 
In the following year the regiment moved to New Orleans and 
thence to Te.\as. 

Eip^hty-seventh. — During its term of service Compan}- C of the 
Eighty-seventh was officered as follows: Captains — llenrv Calkins. 
August 9, 1862, and Milo D. Ellis, May 3, 1863. First Lieuten- 
ants — Milo D. Ellis, August 9, 1862; Burr Russell, May 3, 
1883; John Demuth, December i, 1883, and Irwin Hutchinson, 
August 23, 1884. Second Lieutenants — I. H. Cockran, August 
9, 1882; Burr Russell, February 14, 1883; Elisha Brown, May 
3, 1883, and William H. Reyburn, May i, 1885. The coni- 
pany as it was mustered was composed exclusively of Miami 
county men — 92 in number. There were twent^■-four died in 
the service and three deserted. In Company H there was one 
commissioned officer from Miami County — James S. Duret, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant. 

Movements of E igthty-Scventh. — After its organization at 
South Bend, August 28th, 1862, it moved to Indianapolis and 
was mustered in on the 31st, with Kline G. Shr\'ock. as Col- 
onel. It left for Kentucky on the day of muster and was as- 
signed to the Third Brigade, Third Division, Fourteenth Army 
Corps, and with it took part in Buell's campaign in Kentucky, 
and participated in the engagements at Springfield and Perr\- 
ville. After the Kentucky campaign it moved into Tennessee, 
and in March, 1883, was engaged in a skirmish with General 
Forrest at Chapel Hill. In June it mo\'ed with the Armj-.of 
the Cumberland and engaged in campaigns against Tullahoma. 
It returned to Tennessee in the Fall and took an active part in 
the battle of Chickamauga, and in November was in the front 
line in the storming of Mission Ridge. In February it engaged 
the enemy at Buzzard Roost and proceeded to Ringgold where 
it went into camp. It was ne.xt engaged in the Atlanta cam- 
paign and participated in all the principal battles and skirmishes, 
confronling the eneni\- at Rocky Face, Resacca, Cassville. Dal- 
las, Kenesaw, Peach Tree Creek and before Atlanta. From 
Atlanta it went in pursuit of Hood through Northern Georgia, 
but soon returned to Atlanta. The Regiment left Atlanta about 
the middle of November, and after a long march, with one or 
two minor engagements, it reached the defenses of Sa\anah on 
the loth of December and participated in the siege. It was in 
the campaign of the Carolinas and from Raleigh went to Wash- 


ington City with Sherman's Army where it was mustered out 
of the service. 

The ]Viiiet\'-Nintli. — In the Ninety-Ninth regiment which 
was raised from the Ninth Congressional District, there were 
two companies of Miami countv men. The first company, which 
was assigned to the position of G, was organized hite in tlie 
summer of 1862, and under the command of Josiah Farrar, Cap- 
tain, left for the place of rendezvous. Stopping at Logansport 
they were there given a reception and banquetted by the patri- 
otic people of the city. The second company, which was com- 
manded by Capt. William V. Powell, left for the camp early in 
the fall, and in the organization of the regiment was gi\en the posi- 
tion of I. 

Company D during its term of service was officered as 
follows: Captains: Josiah Farrar, August 19, 1862, and George 
W. Norris, Ma\- i, 1865. First Lieutenants: John Clifton, 
August 19, 1862; George W. Norris, August 22, 1863, and 
John Harvey, Mav i, 1865. Second Lieutenants: J. H. Ham- 
lin, August 19, 1862; G. W. Norris, January i, 1863, and 
Jacob D. Smith, May i, 1865. 

Company I had the following named commissioned ofHcers: 
Captains: William V. Powell, October 10, 1862, and Ira B. 
Myers, May 2, 1865. First Lieutenants: Ira B. Myers, Octo- 
ber 10, 1862, and L. U. Powell. June i, 1865. Second Lieu- 
tenants: James B. McGonigal, October 10, 1862. and John C. 
Parks, May i, 1865. 

The regimental officers of the Ninety-Ninth from Miami 
count\' were: Josiah Farrar, Colonel, May i, 1865. Lieuten- 
ant Colonels: Josiah Farrar, May i, 1865, and William V. 
Powell, May 2, 1865: William V. Powell, Major, May i, 1865. 
The Ninety-Ninth Regiment was organized in the Ninth Con- 
gressional District, and mustered into the service October 21, 

1862, with Ale.xander Fowler Colonel. The Regiment left in 
November for Memphis, Tennessee, and with the Sixteenth 
Army Corps took part in the Tallahatchie campaign. In Ma\-, 

1863, it sailed down the Mississippi River and joined in the be- 
seisrino- forces of General Grant in the rear of Mcksburg; thence 
to Jackson, Mississippi, and with Sherman's Army participated 
in the siege at that place. The Regiment in the latter part of 
^September marched to Memphis and from thence to Chatta- 
nooga, where it at once took possession of Indian Hill, the east 
extremity of Mission Ridge, and with tin plates as intrench- 
ing tools, improvised a full line of defense, and on the 25th 
participated in the battle. After the battle of Mission Ridge 
the Regiment moved east for the purpose of cutting com- 
munications between Bragg and Longstreet and relieve Burnside, 



then beseiyed al Kno.wilk'. The Regiment accomplished this 
drear\' march, ahuosl entirely destitute of clothing, blankets and 
shoes, and \vilhout regnlar rations or supplies of anv kind, and 
marched through mud and over rocks and compelled Longslreet 
to raise the seige. It marched with Sherman's Army to Atlanta, 
and under the gallant McPherson was engaged in every skirmish, 
battle or assault in which the army took part. The Ninety-Ninth 
was engaged every day in the skirmishes from the 3rd of Au- 
gust to the 15th. Leaving Atlanta it marched with Sherman to 
the sea, and on the march was eniiajied in skirmishes at Cannou- 
chee and Ogeechee Ri\ers. On the 15th of December the Regi- 
ment took part in the charge upon Fort McAllister, which, after a 
desperate hand to hand struggle, its garrison surrendered and 
opened Sherman's communications with the sea. From Savannah 
the Regiment marched with Sherman through the CaroHnas on to 
Washington City where it was mustered out with Col. Farrar in 
command. The Ninetv-Ninth left for the field with 900 and re- 
turned with 425 men and otHcers. It marched during its term of 
service more than 4,000 miles. 

Mr. Farrar, under whose command the regiment was mustered 
out, was one of three of the Miami Countv Volunteers who rose to 
the position of Colonel. While holding a Lieutenant Colonel com- 
mission he was much of the time in command of the regiment and 
on different occasions commanded a brigade. His promotions were 
always a reward of merit, he having filled every position to which 
he was called with distinguished ability. 

M()roaii's Raid. — In July, 1S63, a division of rebel troops 
under the command of General John H. Morgan, crossed the 
Ohio at Brandenburg and proceeded northward into Indiana. 
All the available regular troops had been sent to General Boyle, 
at that time commanding the District of Kentucky, which thus 
left Indiana seemingly at the mercy of the '-raiders." Governor 
Morton, having the utmost confidence in the patriotism of the 
people of his State, addressed a dispatch to the various portions 
of the State, requesting that companies be organized and imme- 
diately sent to Indianapolis. The citizens of Miami County, with 
their characteristic patriotism, organized two companies, and one 
in less than forty-eight hours, were en route to the Capital. 
Both companies were assigned to the One Hundred and Ninth 
Regiment Minute Men. The first was mustered in July 10 and 
was assigned to the position of F, and was otlicered as follows: 
Captain, Wm. B. Reyburn: First Lieutenant, Jonas Hoover, and 
Second Lieutenant, W. F. M. Wallick. The enrollment of the 
Company was ninety-five. All were mustered out on the 17th 
of same month except three, who deserted. Company D was 
mustered in on the nth of July, and consisted of sixty-live en- 


listed men, and willi the following commissioned officers: Cap- 
tain, Joseph Y. Ballou: First Lieutenant, Jo.ui C. Bellew, and 
Second Lieutenant, Ira H. Stevens. The company was mustered 
out with regiment on the 17th of July. The One Hundred and 
Ninth Regiment was composed wholl\- of minute men. The 
regiment was organized on the loth of July, 1863, with John 
R. Mahan as Colonel, and contained an aggregate of 709 rank 
and file. It left Indianapolis by rail on the 13th, arriving at 
Hamilton, Ohio, the next morning. Thence it proceeded to 
Cincinnati, when the emergency being past, the regiment re- 
turned to Indianapolis, and on the I7lh of July was mustered out. 
Public Sentiment in 186J-4. — In the latter days of the war 
opinion was divided as to the best means of suppressing the 
rebellion. Many were in favor of prosecuting the war, while 
others were in favor of conciliatorv measures. Those who 
favored the latter gave expression to their feelings through 
the resolution in the Senate, which body declared '■ that 
it was the imperative duty of the Chief Executive of the 
Nation to prDclaim, and we, therefore, and in the name of the 
people of Indiana, demand the establishment, as soon as prac- 
ticable, of an armistice to the end that a coinention of all the 
States mav be held for the adjustment of our national difficulties." 
Thev called upon Congress to use their power to provide for 
such a convention, but in the event that Congress should fail, 
declared further, " that we hereby, in the name of the people of 
Indiana, invite all States to meet delegates from Indiana at 
Nashville, Tenn., June i, 1863." This expression was indorsed 
by the Democracy of many counties in Indiana, and while the 
party was not unanimous in its support of this policy, there 
were many in Miami County who believed such a course would 
restore the Union and save much suffering and bloodshed. The 
Democrac\- of this as well as other counties of the State, was 
opposed to the war policy of the Administration, and did not 
hesitate to express their disapproval either on the slump or 
through the press. In response to this freedom of expression. 
Brig. -Gen. Hascall, Commander of the District of Indiana, 
issued an order, known as " Order No. 9." in which he 
declares that editors of newspapers and public speakers who 
oppose the war policy of the Administration are as much 
opposed to the government and therefore liable to arrest. This 
order was published April 25, 1863, and during the time it was 
in effect caused much e.xcitement and bitter feeling. It was 
considered by many to be unconstitutional, believing that the 
right of the people to criticize all public acts is inherent. The 
Democrats of Miami County met in convention soon after this 



order was issued, and, among other resolutions, adopted the 

'■'■ licsolvcd, That the will of the people is the foundation of 
all free government, and that free thought, free speech, and a 
free jiress are inherent and constitutional rights of the people 
and that no military officer, whether in time of peace or war, 
has a right to restrain the people from discussing the measures 
and policy of their servants and to decide upon the wisdom and 
expedienc}' of their acts." 

So unpopular had this order become that Gov. Morton, who 
was always quick to discern the effect of any movement by the 
military authorities, advised that it be rescinded, which was done 
June 6, 1863. 

/;/ t/ic Twelfth Cavalry {i2y~) Hcgimoit, Miami County 
was represented in two companies, viz. : L and M. The for- 
mer consisted of loo originall)' enlisted men, all from Miami 
County, and ten recruits. There were eleven killed and two de- 
serted. The commissioned officers of Compan\' L were: Cap- 
tain, Ethan E. Thornton, January '], 1862; First Lieutenants, J. 
Y. Ballou, January 7, 1864, and George N. Osgood, Ma}' i, 
1865; Second Lieutenants, G. N. Osgood, January 7, 1S64; J. M. 
Ilouk, May i, 1865, and James Highland, July i, 1865. Com- 
panv M had but one commissioned officer from Miami County, 
Joseph Y. Ballou, Captain, May i, 1865. In this companv there 
were twenty-two enlisted men from said county. Six of those 
died in the service. The regimental officers from the county 
were: Orris Blake, Major, March i, 1864, and William Pew, 
Adjutant, May 8, 1865. The Twelfth Cavalry (127) Regiment, 
was organized at Kendall ville on the ist of March, 1864, with 
Edward Anderson as Colonel. But six companies were mounted. 
The regiment was ordered to Nashville, Tenn., and after a few 
weeks' instructions proceeded to Huntsville, Ala., the mounted 
portion under Col. Reed and the dismounted portion under Col. 
Anderson. Col. Anderson was assigned to the command of the 
railroad defenses from Decatur to Point Rock, and the district 
around Huntsville. The mounted companies had numerous 
skirmishes with the guerrilla bands that infested that region. 
In September, 1864, the regiment was ordered to Tullahoma, 
Tenn., to garrison that post, and while there Col. Anderson was 
ordered to Indiana for special service, and in his absence Major 
Blake, of Peru, was assigned to the command of the post. 
While stationed there the regiment had several skirmishes with 
the command of Gen. Forrest. Leaving Tullahoma the regi- 
ment proceeded to Murfreesboro and participated in the battle 
of Wilkinson's Pike and Overall's Creek, and was employed in 
several skirmishes in defense of Murfreesboro. The regiment 


went into winter quarters, where it remained until February 
II, 1865, when it was ordered to New Orleans and from thence 
to Mobile Bay where it participated in the operations against 
the forts and defences of Mobile. After the fall of Mobile, the 
regiment under command of Maj. Wm. H. Calkins participated 
in a raid of over 800 miles through Alabama, Georgia, to Col- 
umbus, Mississippi. Headquarters were changed to Grenada, 
from which detachments of the regiment were sent to various 
places to protect government propert}-. The regiment was mus- 
tered out of the service at Vicksburg, Nov. 10, 1865. * 

In the One Hundred and Twentv-Eig/ith (according to 
the Adjutant-General's report ), there were four men from Aliami 
County, viz.: Geo. S. Evans, Jas. Duncan and Israel Leedy, 
privates, and Richard K. Miller, who was commissioned Captain 
of Compan}- I, March 3, 1864; Adjutant, December 3, 1863: 
Major, May i, 1865, and Lieutenant Colonel, June i, 1865. 

Company K of the One Hundred and Thirt\'-Fourth (lOO 
da^-s), was composed to a large extent of Miami county men. 
The company was mustered in May 24, 1864. The only com- 
missioned officers of said company from the county were Alex- 
ander Jamison and Isaac J. C. Guv, Second Lieutenants. 

Company A One Hundred and Thirtv-Eighth ( 100 daysj, 
consisted of eighty-one enlisted men, all from Miami county. 
The company was mustered in May 27, 1864, and was officered 
as follows: Captain, Jonas Hoover, May 7, 1864: First Lieutenant, 
Wesley Wallick, May 7. 1S64. and IIenr\- D. Moore. May 7, 
1864. " " 

Each of these regiments was assigned to dut\' along the 
line of Nashville & Chattanooga. Tennessee & Alabama, and 
Memphis & Charleston railroads, which was the onh' service 
performed by them. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-First. — Under the President's last 
call, issued December 19, 1864, for three thousand troops, Miami 
count\' responded with no fewer than three hundred men. These 
were assigned to the One Hundred and Fift\-First and One 
Hundred and Fifty-Fifth regiments, for one years' service. 
Companies C and D of the 151st were made up almost exclu- 
sively of Miami county men, while in Companies H and I 
there were as many as ten of Miami count\'s veterans. Com- 
pany C was officered as follows: Captain, William A. Nichols; 
First Lieut. I. J. C. Guy, and Second Lieut. William H. Vance. 
Of the ninety-nine originall)- enlisted, five were killed and three 
deserted. The commissioned officers of Company D were : Cap- 
tain. Nathan Stephens: First Lieutenants, J. H. Morgan and John 
B. Winters, and Second Lieutenants, Andrew J. Haynes, Thomas 
R. Ellis, and Charles H. Gould. There was lost in killed ten, and 


one bv desertion. John H. Ream, C.iptain of Company H, was 
the only commissioned officer of said company from Miami county. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-First was composed of com- 
panies raised in the Ninth Congressional District, and was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis March 3, 1865, with Joshua Healy as Colonel. 
On the 6th of March left for Naslnille. It moyed on the 14th to 
Tullahoma, where it remained on duty until June 14th, when it 
returned to Nashyille. There it did post and garrison duty until the 
19th of September, 1865, when it was mustered out of the seryice. 
Compan/ K of the 155th was composed largely of Miami county 
men, and was officered by Henry D. Moore, Captain; J. H. Jamison, 
First Lieutenant, and James Bell, Second Lieutenant. Eight of the 
company deserted. The regimental officers from this county were 
John M. Wilson, Colonel; John W. Smith, Surgeon; Joseph A. 
Chandler and Martin B. Arnold, Assistant Surgeons. The regi- 
ment was organized at Indianapolis April 18, 1865. It left for 
Wasliington the latter part of the mouth and from there was sent 
to Alexandria and assigned to the proyisional brigade of the Third 
Diyision of the Ninth Army Corps. On the 3d of May it was 
transferred to Dover, at which place the companies were detached 
iind sent to Centeryille, Wilmington, Del., and Salisburg, Maryland. 
On the return to the regiment of two of these companies a railroad 
accident occurred by which a number were seriously injured. The 
regiment was mustered out at Dover, Delaware, August 4, 1865. 

Col. J. M. Wilson, the commander of the last regiment in 
which Miami county was represented, as well as the first company 
to the front, deserves a leading place in the militaiy histor}' of 
Miami county. He was by profession a lawyer, and while he pre- 
ferred civil to military life, he never hesitated to lay aside the duties 
of the former for the latter when he believed his country was in 
danger. While entering upon a professional career with much 
promise, he abandoned it to lead a company against the forces of 
Santa Anna. At the close of the war with Mexico he returned to 
the practice of his profession, only to again relinquish it at the first 
call for assistance. For this unselfish devotion to his country he 
deserves a pla.ce in the heart of every loyal citizen. 

The Fourteenth Baltcrv of Lisfht Artillery was recruited 
mainly in Wabash, Huntington, Miami and Fayette Counties dur- 
ing the winter of 1861-2, and was mustered into the service in 
March, 1862, with M. H. Kidd, of Wabash, captain. It was com- 
posed of 138 enlisted men, 85 recruits and 68 re-enlisted veterans, 
making a total enrollment of 291. Twent\--two were citizens of 
Miami County. Of this number twenty-five died and thirty-eight 
deserted. Henry C. Loveland. of Peru, was commissioned Second- 
Lieutenant January 20, 1862, and died at Bethel, Tenn., June 14, 
1862. The tribute of respect to his memory by the members of 


his section shows the universal esteem in whicli he was held h\' his 
comrades. The battery left Indianapolis for St. Louis on the nth 
of April, 1862, and thence to Pittsbury Landing. It next proceeded 
to Corinth where it participated in the siege of that place; thence to 
Jackson and Lexington, Miss., where a section of the batterv, con- 
sisting oi thirty men, were captured by Forrest's cavalry. After 
spending the greater part of 1863 in Tennessee, it embarked for 
Vicksburg, and from thence, with a force under General Sherman, 
to Meridian, Miss., and participated in that famous raid. After 
returning to Vicksburg, Captain Kidd was promoted Major of the 
Eleventh Cavalry, and was succeeded as Captain by F. W. Morse. 
At Gunport, Miss., the batterv lost two pieces of artillery and live 
men killed or wounded. On the 15th and i6th of December it par- 
ticipated in the battle before Nashville. Its last engagement was 
in the operations against Mobile, after which it marched to Mont- 
gomery, Ala., where it was mustered out August 13, 1865. 

hidiana Legion. — The following companies of the Indiana 
Le<rion, in Miami Countv, with names of officers, are: 

j\[iai)ii Gmtrds. — James Highland. Captain: Thomas R. Ellis, 
First-Lieutenant, and John Pearson, Second-Lieutenant. 

Morton Raii<^crs, — Thomas E. Cassingham, Captain; James 
W. Campbell, Captain; Alexander Stanley and Lucus A. Adams, 
First-Lieutenants; T. R. Ellis, Second-Lieutenant. 

Union Gmirds. — Joseph Y. Ballou and Daniel Griswold, Cap- 
tains; JameS L. Wilson, First-Lieutenant, and John Lesley and 
Daniel Harter, Second-Lieutenants. 

Whcatvillc Guards. — John Old, Captain; W. A. Cover, First- 
Lieutenant, and R. W. Butt, Second-Lieutenant. 

jMisccUaneoHS. — Fourth Heavy Artillery, U. S. Colored Troops 
was represented by fifteen men from Miami Countv. This com- 
pany was mustered into the service in the fall of 1864. 

There were other regiments in which Miami Countv was rep- 
resented, of which the following is a partial list: Eighth, Thirtv- 
first, Fort^'-sixth, Sevent^'-Third, One Hundred and Thirteenth 
(two Companies, E and G), One Hundred and Thirty-ninth, One 
Hundred and Forty-Second (Companies I and K), One Hundred 
and Forty-Seventh (Companies B and F), Twelfth Battery, Light 
Artillery, Seventh Battery of Light Artiller\- and Twenty-first Bat- 
ter}- of Light Artillery. There were doubtless many others who 
enlisted from this county that were not accounted for in the official 
report of the Adjutant-General. 



Aker, Nelson, killed at Weir Church, May 30, 1864. 
Baker, Daniel, died in Aiidersonville Prison, Sejit. 80, 18G4. 


Cassadv, .Tiio. R., died at FoUv Island, Oct. 12, 1863. 
Dav, William, killed at Alleirhanv, Dec. i:i, ISlil. 
Do'laii, I'atrick, killed at Chester Station, .Ma\ U), 1864. 
Fa,i;aii, Matthew, killed at Allp.diany, Dec. 13, 1861. 

Fox, William, June 7, 1804. 

(iouser, Levi, died Folly Island, Oct. 31, 1863. 

<jiohn, .John, died of wounds. Hay 20, 1804. 

<ionser, .Jonathan, killed at Weir Church, May 21), 1864. 

Gravius, Ernest, died at Beaufort, .Jan. 15, 1804. 

McFarland, Garrison, killed at Blackwater, Va., Dec. 12, 1862. 

>itevenson, W. H. died Folly Island, Oct. 14, 1803. 

Warner, .John F., killed at Rich Mountain, .July 11, 1861. 

Watson, Robert, died at Folly Island, Nov. 3, 1803. 

Widour, Francis, died at Clarksburg, Va., Aug. 6, 1861. 


<'oromster, Alex., killed at Ft. Fisher, .Jan. in, 1865. 
Hamilton, Daniel, died in Andersonville Prison, Dec. 9, 1864. 
Marquiss, .1. JI., died of wounds received near Peters! lurjr, .July 2, 1864. 
McQuiston, J. C, died in Andersonville Prison, Aug. 30, 1864. 


Braudorn, Abraham, died of wounds, .July 5, 1863. 
Brooks, Isaiah, died at Indianapolis, .July 11. 1863. 
Bi'Miictt, Donald W., died of wounds: Sejitember 0, 1802. 
Bucklev William P.. killed at Richmond, Ky., Aug 30, 1862. 
Colay, .Jesse P., died at ludianaiiolis. Nov. 20, 1862. 
Gerrard, David I)., died at Vicksburg, .Jan. 28, 1863. 
Garrett, Salathiel, died of wounds, April ITi, 1864. 
House, Daniel, died at Indianapolis, Nov. 2, 1862. 
Jav, Alfred, died .MiUikeu Bend, April 27, 1803. 
Jones, Daniel W., died at Millikcn Bend, April 15, 1863. 
Jester, Madison, died at St. JjOuis, April 8, 1803. 
Johnson, William, killed Mansliehl, La., April 8, 1804. 
Keefe, James, killed JIanstield, La., April 8, 1804. 
I>ee, ,\ndrew .1., died at St. Louis, July 23, 1803. 
Lanhorn, Burton, died at Milliken's Bend, May 20, 1863. 
McDonald, William A., died at Millken's Bend, March 30, 1863. 
Pond, Josiah, died at St. Louis, June 28, 1803. 
Robinson, Andrew, died at Vicksburg, June 28, 1803. 
Kidde, Darius A., died at .Milliken's iSend, April 8, 1863. 
Sloan,, killed at Mansfield, April 8, 1864. 
Seger, Florian, died at Donaldsville, May 11, 1804. 
Payne, Aaron E, died at New Orleau.s, Ajiril 18, 1864. 
Vaughn, Jeremiah M., died at Young's Point, Feb. 23, 1863. 
Venis, Henry, died of wounds, Sept. 12, 1862. 


Jones, Newton, died at Holing, Ky., Sept. 1862. 


Thomas, John F., killed May 12, 1864. 

Ash, .\mos T)., killed at Gettj'sburg. 

Brownlee. David P.. killed at Gettysburg. 

Cook, Bciij. F., died at Washington, July 4, 1864. 

Irviii, Henry, died at City Point, Va. 

Robinson, (ieorge W., died at Alexandria, March 2.'), 1864. 

Smith, Nicholas J., killed at Oak Grove, Va., June 25, 1862. 


Seger, John M., killed at Gettysburg. 

Smith, Charles. W., killed at Gettysburg. 

Stowe, George W., killed at C'hickahoniiny. 

Tice, Jno. M., killed at (iettysburg. 

Wright, Daniel G., killed probably at Gettysburg. 


Reese, Thomas H., died in Libby Prison. 

Goodbo, .Jocko, died at Louisville, JIarch 4, 1864. 

Killian, .John, killed at ChiikamauEra, Sept. 19, 1803. 

MeXair, .James, died at Camp Wood, Ky., .Jan. 14, 1862. 

McCain, .James, died at Nashville, April 18, 1864. 

Potter, Theron, died at Nashville, March 1862. 

Rider, Leonard, wounded at Chickaniauga, died Nov. 3, 1863. 

Roccoon, Jackson, died at Nashville, 1865. 


Hicks Abraham, killed at Stone River. 

Renbo Wm., died at Chattanooga, Sept 29, 1863. 

Bigle)', James L. died of disease. 

Clark, Jno. H., Died at Nashville, Dec. 4, 1863. 

Harvey, Wm., killed at Shiloh, April, 1862. 

Hicks, Patrick, died at Evansville. July o, 1862. 

Jackson, Jno,, died of wounds at Sliiloh, April 9, 1862. 

Jones, William W., killed at Stone River. 

Landrum, Rufus, died 

Lock wood, Geo. W.. died April 1862. 

Pearson, Perry D., died 

Pontious, Benj., killed at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1862. 

Powell, Wm. B., died 

Repp, Christopher, died 

Taylor, Geo. I., killed at Stone River, Dec 31, 1862. 
Utter, Thomas Q., died Dec. 26, 1864. 


Cate, JIartin, killed at Black River, March 16, 1865. 
Raynor, Alfred, killed at Black River, March 16, 1865. 
Shari>, llenrv, died at Camp Webster, Tenn., Oct. 15. 1864. 
Swengle, Sam., killed at Black l{iver, March 16, 1865. 
Thomas, Robert S., died at Nashville, June 16, 1865. 
Wilkinson, F. M., died at Nashville, June 23, 1864. 


Button, Jno. T., died Dec. 6, 1864. 

Brower, Jeremiah, killed at Franklin, Nov. 30, 1864. 

Thompson, Wm. I>.,died .at Evansville, Aus. 14, 1862. 

Atchison, Robt, killed at Stone River. DecC 31, 1862. 

Belew, Joseph A. killed at Kenesaw Mountain, June 27, 1864. 

Bank, J. H., killed at Mission Ridge, Nov. 25, 1863. 

Beard, (ieo. H., died of wounds, ilission Ridge. 

Cook, C. 31., died at Nashville, June 5, 1863. "' 

Collins, Onesmus, killed at Kenesaw Mountain, June 27, 1864. 

Doud, Arthur, killed .at Kenesaw Mountain, June 27. 1864. 

Everhart, Lewis II., killed at Kenesaw Mountain, June 27, 1868. 

Hahn, Jno., died of wounds, Nov. 29, 1S63. 

Hide, Austin D., killed at Shiloh, April 1.5, 1862. 

Koff, Fred, died of wounds, April 13, 1864. 

Lesley, Jlorris, killed at Jlission Ridge, Nov. 25, 1863. 


Miller, Milton, killed at Stoup Kiver, Dec. 31, 18fi2. 

Mote, Eli, killed at Mission Kidse, Nov. 25, 18G3. 

Null, .Ino. H., died at Tusrumliia, Ala., June 23, 1862. 

Ramsey, David, died Oct. 20, ISO.!. 

Smith, Jno. W., died at Nashville, Dec. 5, 1864. 

Stanley, Sanford, died of wounds, probably at Stone l{iver. 

Watter.s, .James, killed at Kenesaw, June 27, 1864. 

Walliui'-, J., killed at Stone Kiver, Dec. 30, 1863. 

AVooley, Jno., killed at Kenesaw, June 27, 1864. 


Baker, Robt., died at Sanford, Kv., Feb. 19, 1863. 
Crooks, William, died at Xashviile. Sept. 18, 1863. 
Dyer, Charles, died at Lebanon, Kv.. Feb. IS), 1862. 
Ewiiij;-, Thomas, died at Nashville, March 30, 1862. 
Falev, 'I'liomas, died at Houlini: Green, Sejit. 17, 1863. 
Jami""s, Martin V. B., died at I'eru, Aug. I.'i, 1863. 
Sullivan, Geor,!;e, died at Peru July 10, 1864. 

rO>n».\NV f, KIlillTY-SEVEKTII UKiil.MENT (THREE YE.\Us). 

Russell, Burr, died of wounds, Nov. 39, 1863. 

Demuth, Jno., killed Au.;;. 22. 1864. 

Brown. Elisha, killed at, Sc))!. 1863. 

Brown. Martin \'. died at Cliattauooira, Nov. 22, 1863. 

Clendenin, Andrew P., died at Dowd's Island, April 3, 18G5. 

Derick, Georsre, died at Nashville, Manh 6, 1863. 

Edward, Sylvester, died of wounds, at Chattanooga, Oct. 11, 1863. 

Foss, James G., died at Chattanooga, Oct. 11, 1863. 

Glaze Geo., died at Chattanooga, Nov. 8. 1863. 

Hart, Geo., died at Lebanon, Ky., Feb. 21,1863. 

Hawyer, "\Vm. IL, died of wounds, liiclnuoud, Va., Dec. 15, 1863. 

Kennedy, Joe J., died at (Jallaiin, Nov. 23, 1862. 

Keijler, "Jno., died at Hinirold. Ga., April 12, 1S64. 

Lord, \Vm. J., died at l.ouisxille. Dec. 19, 18(53. 

Jliirine, Asa W., Waldon Ridge, Oct. 1863. 

^larshall, Herman, died of wounds at Nasliville, Dec. 14, 1863. 

Newby, Isaiah J, died of wounds at Chattanooga, Oct. 17, 1868. 

Perkins, Ithamer, died at Gallatin, Tenn., Nov. 12, 1862. 

Petty, Miles C, killed at Chickamauga, Sept. 20, 1803. 

Reese, Jno., died at (Tallatin, Teun., Jan. 10, 1H6;(. 

Saxon, Wm. J., died at (Gallatin, Tenn., Dec. 14, 1863. 

Waller, Geo. F., died at Bowling (Jreeu, Dec. 33, 1863. 

\N'icker, \\'m., killed at Chickamauga, Sept. 20, 1863. 

Woolf, Jacob, died at Triune, Tenn., May 2, 1863. 


Connett. Jno. F., died at Memiihis, Nov. 33, 1862. 
IlitsnuUer, Samuel, died at Memiihis, Nov. 23, 1862. 
Reamer, Wm., died at Memiihis, Sept. 2o, 1863. 
Re.amer, Jesse, died at Jlemphis, April li, 1863. 
Snider, Reuben, died at Fort Fowler, March 4, 1863. 


Albaugh, Daniel, died at Indianapolis, Nov. 7, 1862. 
McGraw, Francis .M, killed at Jackson Miss., July 11, 1863. 
Studebaker, Andrew, died at Louisville, Feb. 4, 1865. 
Freermood, Geo., died of wounds, Aug. 5, 1864. 
Garsar, Jno., died at Scottsboro, Ala., Feb. 22, 1864. 


Sullivan, Jefferson, died at Fort Fowler, April, 1863. 
Wilson, Leander, died at Memphis, Oct. 11, 1863. 
Weeks, Jnc, killed near Atlanta, July 28, 1864. 



Houk, Johnson 51., died at Lojiansport, May 27, 1865. 
Blackburn, Jno. died at Murfreesboro, .Jan. 3, 1865. 
Burnett, Sam M., died at Jeffersonville, Feb. 15, 1865. 
Burk, Jno. W., died at Mobile, May 6, 1865. 
Benner, Samuel, died at Montsomen,-, June 16, 1865. 
Correll, Zacharas, died at Kendallvirie, April 7, 1864. 
Clark, Samuel L., died at Goshen, March 4, 1864. 
Ellison, Pleasant, died at Xew Orleans, April 16, 1865. 
Geiger, Geo. W., died at New All)any, Jan. 10, 186.5. 
Karr, Jno., died at Point Rock Kidsie. May 23, 1864. 
Wilson, Geo. W., died at Kendallville, M;irch 7, 1865. 


THREE years). 

Goodwin, Geo. W., died at Kendall. March 31, 1864. 

Laux, Ephram K., died at New Orleans, Mav 21, 1865. 

Shenkle, Wm., died at Huntsville, July 10, 1864. 

Wilcox, Martin, died at Madison, Ala., June 14, 1864. / 

Wilco.x, Ezra, died at Nashville, Feb. 15, 1865. 

Willey, Jno., died at Camp Anderson, .Jan. 21, 1864. 


King, Stephen A., died at Nashville, March 2.5, 1805. 
Smith, Adam W., died at Nashville, July 23, 1865. 


Bell, Jno. C, died at Nashville, June 24, 1865. 
Crider, Ephrian L., died at TuUahoma, May 31, 1865. 
Colemau, Geo. W., died at Nashville, .June 1, 186.5. 
Calvin, Jno. V., died at Mexico, March 4, 186.5. 
Harmon, David, died at Indianapolis, Feb. 20, 1865. 
Hakins, Thomas W., died at Nashville. July .5, 1865. 
Hoover, Mark R., died at Nashville, April 1, 186.5. 
Packard, Noah F., died at Nashville, July 25, 1865. 
Shanaberger, Geo. F., died at Tullahonia, Mav 1, 186.5. 
Whitney, Geo. W., died at Nashville, April 21, 1865. 


Loveland, Henry C, died at Bethel, Tenn., June 14, 1862. 
Hale, Ephrain, died at home, Oct. 26, 1863. 


Montgomery, Wm. A., died at Lexington, Dec 28, 1862. 
Despennet, Wm. S., died at Columbia, May 21, 1864. 
Sullivan, A. W., died at Columbia, June 4, 1864. 


Cole. Ethan, died of wounds, Aug. 9, 1864. 
Wilson. Taylor, died at Jlemjihis, Oct. 28, 1862. 
Hullinger, Jacob, died at Washington, I). C, Feb. 9, 1865. 

Note.— The foregoioK list is probably incomplete, as there are many nnaccoimted for in the 
official reports, who were no doubt kiUed. 

DRAFTS. 325 

Drafts. — The first draft occurred in Indiana on October 6, 
1862. This was held under the President's third call for troops 
dated August 4, 1862, asking for 300,000 soldiers. The enroll- 
ment for this draft was made September 19 and at that time 
Miami county was credited with a total militia force of 2844. 
To be deducted from this were 405 exempts and 118 conscien- 
tiously opposed to bearing arms, leaving 2,321 subject to the 
draft. At that time the County was credited with having fur- 
nished a total of 1,065 volunteers, of which 996 were then in 
the service. When this draft was ordered Miami county lacked 
98 men of having tilled her quota, distributed among the town- 
ships as follows: Jefferson, 2; Perry, 29; Union, 13; Richland, 
10; Washington, 11; Clay, 24; Harrison, 9. 

Under the call of October 17, 1863, for 300,000 men the 
quota for Miami was 196. The calls of February i, March 14, 
and July 18, 1864, required Miami county to furnish 1,056 in 
addition to those already given. To offset this the countv was 
credited with S39 new volunteer recruits, 152 veterans and 39 
by draft, a total of 1,030. This left a total of 21 men yet due 
from the county which, of course, were raised. The President's 
last call for troops was issued December 19, 1864, demanding 
300,000 more troops. Miami county's quota under this call was 
337. All efforts to raise troops in Indiana were abandoned on 
the 14th of April, 1865, and at that date the count}- was 
credited with the following to offset this last call: New volun- 
teer recruits 281, veterans 11, and by draft 45: thus just balanc- 
ing the account. This makes a grand total of men furnished 
by Miami county for the war, of 2,624. ^^ course there were 
not that many different men in the war, for some of them 
enlisted two and three times, and were counted for each enlist- 
ment. It is probable that not more than 2,200 or 2,300 were 
ever actually sent out from the countv. 

Bounty and Relief. — During the first }ear of the war the Con- 
gress passed an act authorizing the payment of $roo to volunteers 
enlisting for three years. This was followed by numerous orders, 
during the years 1863 and 1864, from the adjutant-general's office 
authorizing the payment of bounties ranging from $100 to $400, 
depending to some extent on the term of service. The inequality 
of the amount paid for the same term of service caused great dis- 
satisfaction. But it was claimed by the aiuhorities that the exi- 
gencies and demands of the service necessitated it and it could not 
be avoided. 

In addition to the bounties paid by the Government, large and 
extravagant local bounties were paid. Under the call of August, 
1862. the Board of Commissioners, at a meeting held September 8, 
appropriated ^10,000, which was placed in the hands of E. H. Siiirk 


and John A. Graham, to be paid out in sums of $25 to each person 
that had enlisted or should enlist on or before the 15th of said 
month. Other bounties, not exceeding in amount $50, were paid 
during the year 1863. 

There was expended by the County for bounties the following 
amounts : 

Jliami Countr $ ISO.o.'iO 00 

Peru Township ir),0UO 00 

.lefferson Township 8.000 00 

Perry •' Tj.OOO 00 

Union " 4,000 00 

Richland " 5,000 00 

Erie " -i.OOO (10 

Butler " • 1(1.0110 00 

Washington " Ki.iKlO 00 

Pipe Creek " ■J.dllO (K) 

Deer Creek " 14,(J00 00 

Clav " 4.1100 00 

Harrison " 4.000 00 

.Jackson " 4,(HK) 00 

Allen " 4.000 00 

Peru City I.KJO 00 

Total f 281,6.50 00 

These amounts were paid to stimulate enlisting and avoid the 
drafts under the calls of July i8th and December 19th, 1864. 
Under the former call the Board, at a special session held October 
ID, offered the bounty of $300 for the necessary number of recruits 
to fill the County's quota. This quota had scarcely been filled until 
a call for 300,000 additional recruits was issued. The county had 
seemingh' been taxed to its utmost, but with the zeal that had 
characterized the actions of the people of the county during the 
war, another effort was made. Petitions were circulated in the 
various townships in the county praying the Board of Commission- 
ers to offer an additional bounty of $500. This was granted at a 
meeting held January 24, 1865. Subjoined to this order is a pro- 
test of each County Commissioner, acting in the capacity of a pri- 
vate citizens, which states that they wish it to be known to poster- 
ity that it was their judgment that such action was impolitic and 
inexpedient, but granted the prayer of the petitioners because a 
majority of tax-payers of the count\' demanded said appropriation. 

A few months of experience in the field showed how ilh-pre- 
pared the Government was to provide the army with the necessary 
comforts for such a life. The inadequate .supply of clothing, such 
as woolen underwear, mittens, shoes, etc., was complained of b}' 
the soldiers. For the purpose of providing these necessities, the 
State Sanitary Commission was organized. Auxiliary societies 
were organized in each County, and tributary to these societies were 
organizations in the towns and townships. The County Society in 
Miami, like most other counties of the State, was officered and 


managed bv the patriotic women who, with the characteristic ten- 
derness of their sex, made a generous response to ever}- call to 
alleviate the suffering of the soldiers in the field and hospitals. One 
of the first relief committees consisted of Mrs. Wm. Ream, Mrs. 
D. R. Bearss, Mrs. W. W. Constant, Mrs. E. M. Talbot. Mrs. A. 
H. Tracv was Treasurer, Mrs. S. S. Benhan, Secretary, and Mrs. 
W. F. Hauk, President. These are the names of but few of the 
many noble women of the county who were prominent in this 
movement. The Societ^• was organized in October, 1861, and in 
March. 1S64, the following report was made at the State Sani- 
tary con\-ention, held at Indianapolis, which speaks for the generos- 
itv of the noble-hearted and patriotic women of Miami County. 

Shipped November, 1861. stores valued at $ 225 00 

" January, 1862, " " " 90 00 

" February, " " " " 1,600 (lO 

" March, ' " " " " 50 00 

" April, " " " " 150 00 

" Jlay, " " " " 400 00 

" Auji-HSt, " •' " " 400 00 

" March. 1863, " " '• 857 00 

" .June. " " " " 1,000 00 

" .A.uu'ust. " " " " 358 00 

" October, " " " " 62 00 

" November. " " " " 116 00 

" December, " " " " 151 00 

" January, 1864, " " " 65 00 

" Februarv, " " " " 40 00 

To soldiers' faiiiilies 100 00 

Cash in tresusury 165 00 

Total !{;5,323 GO 

The above is only a partial report of the supplies furnished. 

Greater care than that of providing the soldiers in the field 
with what the Government had failed to suppl}' was the relief 
of the destitute families of the soldiers. Many poor men volun- 
teered to defend their countrv, whose families were dependent 
upon their daily earning for support, while others left the farm 
at seed time, and winter came and found them without the nec- 
essarv subsistence. Few counties more readil}' and liberallv con- 
tributed to the relief of the families of their soldiers than did 
Miami, as mav be seen from the following statement: 

Relief furnished bv Coimty $29,890.86 

Relief furnished by ;U1 the Townships 15,000.00 

Jliscellaneous 4,800.00 

Total * 149,690.86 

Total number of beneficiaries 2,303 

The above amount, added to the whole amount paid by the 
county for bounty, shows a total amount paid by the county for 
bounty and relief, $331,340.86. This amount does not include 


the various sums contribufed by private individuals nor the Sol- 
diers' Aid Society. 


Bench and Bar — Early Courts — First Judges — -Destruc- 
tion OF Records — Early Cases — Early Attorneys — 
Courts Under the New Constitution — Official Seal 
— Important Criminal Trials — L.\ter Judges — Roll of 
Attorneys, Etc. 

THE measure of a people's civilization can always be determ- 
ined by the condition of its judiciary. Tyrants have but little 
use for courts, and in proportion to the decrease of their power 
the reign of incorrupt judges is asserted. Throughout the entire 
range of governments, from the most tyranical to the most leni- 
ent and indulgent, can be traced the progress and expansion of 
courts of justice. Americans being the freest of people have a 
right to expect most of their courts, and, as a rule, their ex- 
pectations are not in vain. Nearly all our laws are subject to 
review by our judicial tribunals, and our everv interest is in- 
trusted to their care. The prompt and speedv administration of 
justice is the safe-guard of our liberties and the promoter of our 
National moralitv. 

The transactions of courts in anv communitv make an im- 
portant item in its history. In Miami Countv the earlv proceed- 
ings at the bar of justice are unfortunatelv much obscured and 
mostly destroyed. There is scarcely a record of any kind that 
antedates the destruction of the court house by fire in March, 
1843. Whatever is here given relating to a time prior to that 
is founded almost whollv upon the hearsav evidence, a kind of 
evidence that is rarely admitted as proofs in courts. There are 
but few persons now living who were residents of the County 
in 1834, ^^^ '^'^^^ of 'ts organization, and of those there are not 
more than three or four who can bear testimony concerning 
the earliest courts. 

It is said that the first term of the circuit court held in 
Miami County was in September, 1834, at Miamisport. The pre- 
siding judge was Gustavus Everts, of La Porte. As Indiana 
courts were then organized, there were two' associate judges, 
whose duty it was to assist in conducting the business. As a 
matter of fact thev did but little trood towards furthering the 


ends of justice, as the_\' nearly always gave tlieir assent to 
whatever opinion the president judge announced. The cases 
where they dissented were very few and tlien of but little 
importance. About their only advantage was in expediting 
business by disposing of probate and other less important mat- 
ters. It is not now definitely known who the first associate 
judges were, but it is probable that George S. Fenimore and 
Jacob Wilkinson were; at least it is certain thev were in 1836, 
and no elections occurred between the time when the court 
first assembled and the above date. But the\' may have been 
first elected in 1836. If that is the case, their predecessors 
were appointed by the Governor and are not now known. 
Samuel C. Sample was prosecuting attorney, Benjamin H. 
Scott clerk, and Jacob Linzee, sheriff. Probably the usual 
routine of early courts prevailed, leaving little to be imagined 
bevond the primitiveness of the situation. Among the early 
attorneys are said to have been Charles Ewing, David H. Colerick 
and Henrv Cooper, of Fort Wayne; Henry Chase, John W. and 
Williamson Wright and Benj. Hurst, of Logansport. All these 
became prominent among the attorneys of Northern Indiana 
except the last, and at least three, Ewing, Chase and John W. 
Wright, became circuit judges. Colerick was one of the most 
irresistable of advocates. 

The second term was held in March, 1835, at Tarkington's 
Tavern, on the Northeast corner of Main and Miami streets, in 
Peru, and the third at the house of Hugh Peoples, also a log 
tavern that stood near the corner of Cass and Second streets. 
Of this, John A. Graham has written: "The room in which 
the term of the court last named was held was not over 
eighteen feet square. The judge, prosecutor, clerk and attorneys 
sat around a table near the North wall, and parties litigant 
and spectators stood wherever they found convenient places in 
the room and about the door outside. The indictments were 
generally for small infractions of the law, such as betting on 
shooting matches, selling whisky without license, and indulging 
in the innocent amusement of euchre or old sledge at twenty- 
five cents a corner." 

The judicial district over which Judge Everts then presided 
was the Eighth, and was composed of the counties of Cass, 
Miami, Wabash, Huntington, Allen, LaGrange, Elkhart, St. Joseph 
and La Porte. Bj- act of February 4, 1836, the following were 
attached to and made a part of that circuit: Porter, Marshall, 
Fulton, Kosciusko, Noble and Adams. The District comprises 
the best portion of Indiana and was an exceptionally large one 
even for that da\'. 

Judge Everts was an able and leading lawyer of this por- 


tion of the State, and Judge Biddle thus speaks of him : . " He 
was a lawyer of great tact and fine address; extreme!}' astute in 
the management of witnesses and facts; not remarkably studious 
nor deepl}- learned in the law. In cases that moved emotion, or 
touched passion, or appealed to the feelings which stir our com- 
mon nature, he was very powerful — far more successful than 
when he attempted to convince the understanding. His peculiar 
talent made him personally very popular. He was indeed a 
very prince of good fellows." 

The immediate successor of Judge Everts was Samuel C. 
Sample. He held but one term in his county, in the fall of 1836. 
Judge Sample was a man of no ordinary ability, but was plain 
and practical in all his acts. He represented his district in Con- 
gress, and was always at his post among the workingmen of 
that body. At the bar, and as presiding judge of the Circuit 
Courts, he stood high among the most efficient and able practi- 
titioners, and one of the purest judges that has graced the 
bench. His person was fine, his head and forehead large, and 
hair dark. 

Charles W. Ewing came upon the bench as president judge 
of the Eighth Judicial Circuit, the immediate successor of 
Judge Sample. His associates were the same as those who sat 
with Judge Sample, with Thomas Johnson, prosecuting attorney. 
Judge Ewing was a lawyer of superior ability, and stood high 
in the profession, locally and generally. As a judge, he was 
ready in grasping facts pertinent to the issues involved, and sel- 
dom committed an error in disposing of questions submitted to 
him for consideration. He was deservedly popular, both as 
lawyer and judge, and his untimely taking off was a source of 
regret to all with whom he was acquainted. His term of service 
as judge of the Miami Circuit Court closed with the March 
term, 1839. He died by his own hand on the 9th of January, 
1843, in the meridian of his life and usefulness. 

Henry Chase, a resident of Logansport, became the fourth 
Circuit Judge in line of succession upon the Miami County bench. 
He was appointed August 20, 1829, b}- David Wallace, Gov- 
ernor, during the interim preceding the session of the Legisla- 
ture of 1839-40, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation 
of Judge Ewing. Another has said of him: "He was a close 
and ready pleader, seldom or never asking for time to prepare 
his papers: had a clear, logical mind and great force of char- 
acter. As a judge he was dignified, self-reliant and unequivocal, 
making no mistakes in the enunciation of his decisions; his style 
brief yet exhaustive." 

John W. Wright was elected president Judge of the Eighth 
Judicial Circuit b\- the Legislature of 1839-40, the circuit being 


composed of the same counties as when Judge Chase was ap- 
pointed, excepting that Carroll County was added. He was a 
man of peculiar make-up; not a profound lawyer, but ready in 
arriving at conclusions and prompt in announcing them. During 
his term of service the amount of business that came up for his 
consideration was uiiusualh- large, and vet few appeals were 
taken from his decisions, which, though not always satisfactory', 
were generally concurred in by the parties litigant. 

It was during Judge Wright's term that the court house 
was destroyed by hre, as before stated, and with it all the court 
records up to that time were destroved. To alleviate in some 
measure the trouble that would naturally follow from the de- 
struction of important judgments of the court, the Legislature 
not long after passed a law to provide for their restoration. The 
title, preamble and first section of this act are here given. 

Ax Act For the Bkmvfit of Persons Who are Likely to Suffer by the Des- 


W/teredK, On tlie — day of , 1843, the court house iu the Couuty of Miami 

was burned and all the records of the Probate and Circuit Courts and the liecorder's 
Office destroyed; and, 

Wliei-ea.i, Many persons are affected by the destruction of the records aforesaid. 

Section 1. Jle it Emirted hy the General AuMmhlij of the State of Tndianii, Tliat 
for the purpose of perpetuatinii; testimony of, or rchttinir to any judjrments, orders, 
decrees, or otlier proceedinirs of tlie Probate or Circuit Courts of the County of 
Miami, had jirevious to the destruction of the records thereof, and for the purpose 
of iierpetuatiusr testimony coiicerninjr, of, or relating to, any patents, deeds, mort- 
gages, bills of sale, wills, inventories, powers of attorney, or other instruments of 
writing of record in the books of the Recorder of said county and destroyed as 
aforesaid, M. W. Seely, of said county, is hereby appointed a commissioner to 
receive evidence of and concerning any such judgments, orders, decrees, or other 
proceedings of said Probate and Circviit Courts, and in relation to any patent, deed, 
will, bill of sale, mortgage, power of attorney, inventory, or other instrument in 
writing by any person who may wish to have such testimony perpetuated. 

The commissioner, M. W. Seely, appointed by this act, 
was at that time a resident attorney of Peru. There was but 
little w6rk done bv this commissioner, and the restored records 
are very brief concerning the prior transactions of the courts. 
One thing that is of some interest recorded in this volume is 
the will of Francis Godfroy, the last chief of the Miami tribe 
of Indians. The manner in which he disposes of his large 
property shows that he was a man of no ordinary ability. 
His several wives are provided for with seeming impartialit}-. 

The absence of the early records is a matter of regret as 
it prevents the narration of many important occurrences that 
took place in the early days of the county's history, while peo- 
ple were seeking justice. From the early commissioner's record 
which was not destro\-ed by the fire, the following names of 
the Grand and Petit Jurors have been ascertained. Grand Jur- 
ors: Zephnmiah Wade. Geo. W. Holman, George Linzee. Abner 


Overman, Wm. Coats, John Hoover, Joseph Clymer, Aaron Rhen- 
berger, Ira Evans, John Plaster, John M. Jackson, Wm. H. Hood. 
Petit Jurors : George Townsend, John Wiseman, James T. Liston, 
Wm. M. Reyburn. Robt. Wade, Richard Ransford, Isaac Marquiss, 
Isaac Stewart, John Rav, Wm. Wilkinson, John Smith, Joseph C. 
Tavlor, Wm. Cannon, Stewart Forgv, Alexander Jamison, Joseph 
B. Campbell, Walter D. Nesbit, A. B. Rattiff, John Sanders, Na- 
thaniel McGuire, Jesse Wilkinson. 

The first authentic records begin with the September term of 
the Miami Circuit Court, which began at the Court house in the 
town of Peru on the eleventh day of September, A. D., 1843, and 
adjourned therefrom to the Presbvterian Church in the same town, 
the Court house having been destro\'ed b}' fire since the last term. 
Present — the Hon. John W. Wright, President Judge of the Eighth 
judicial Circuit of the State of Indiana, and his associates, George 
S. Fenimore and Albert Cole, Esquires, for the Count}- of Miami, 
and Benj. H. Scott, Clerk, and John A. Graham. Sheriff, of said 
Court and Countv. 

The Sheriff returned into court the following list of Grand 
Jurors : Willvs Remch, Stephen Bradlev, Josephus Austin, Benja- 
min Austin, Benjamin Cady. Thomas Black, Eli Cook, Enos Bald- 
win, James B. Savers, Jonathan Bishop, Matthew Murden, Samuel 
Fisher and Jacob Flora, for the regular panel, and these men for 
the petit jurors: Samuel Ga3er, Eli Flora and Washington Ab- 
bott, a total of fifteen, that being the number then required on the 
Grand Jurv bv the State laws. The same number is now in de- 
mand by the United States for a Grand Jury. 

Spier S. Tipton was at that time prosecuting attorney and 
because of the destruction by fire of all indictments pending in 
the court at that time, he entered a nolle prosequi to them all. 

Among the causes on the docket at this time were two for 
divorce, between Hannah and Joseph Read, John and Luthania 
Cressman; one for a writ of ad quod danuuim by the Peru 
Bridge Co., against the heirs of Wm. N. Hood and of George 
Washington Godfroy; two for slander b\- Fletcher and wife 
against Thomas Gowdy, and Richard Gillaspel against Horace 
Mason. Besides these were a number for debt, assumpsit, tres- 
pass, promise and other important matters. The Grand Jury 
returned a number of indictments but the records do not dis- 
close what thev were for except that one was for perjury. 

The names of the attorneys that appeared at tha. term 
were Daniel D. Pratt, A. A. Cole, Horace P. Biddle, Ii'athan 
O. Ross, Wm. Z. Stewart, Spier S. Tipton, Ebenezar P. Love- 
land, M. W. Seely. 

At the March term following there were some State cases 
on record for betting, two for perjur}', one for violation of the 




estray law, and in addition to these were iive for contempt of 
court against John A. Graham, Wm. World, Jacob Stroup, Jere- 
miah Shaffer and Daniel Chrosuster. 

In September, 1S44, the suit of ad quod daiiDiiiin by the 
Peru Bridge Company, was brought to a termination b}' the 
granting of a right to erect and maintain a bridge across the 
Wabash river on Broadway street. In the award of the court 
in this cause there is the following : " That it will be of no 
damage to the several proprietors, and that the mansion houses 
of none of the several proprietors (along the river) nor the officers, 
curtitage, or gardens thereunto, immediately belonging will be 
oxerflowed by the erection of said bridge nor the abutments, toll- 
house nor causeways thereof ; and it appearing further to the satis- 
faction of the court that ordinary navigation of fish or passage 
will not thereby be obstructed, and that the health of the neighbor- 
hood will not be annoyed by the stagnation of the water occa- 
sioned by the construction of said bridge, abutments, toll-houses 
and causeways * * it is therefore ordered, etc., etc." 

At this term Z. W. Stewart was prosecuting attorney. It was 
at this term also that the first verdict, now on record, imposing the 
penaltv of confinement in the State Prison was returned. It was 
against James INI. Thompson who was convicted of grand larceny 
and sentenced to two years imprisonment and fined nineteen dollars 
for the benefit of the Miami County Seminar}-. Nathan O. Ross 
was allowed five dollars for defending him. This is the first case 
shown by the records, but there may have been others of this kind 
prior to the burning of the records in 1S43. 

At the Februarv term, 1845, W. M. Cadien was fined five dol- 
lars for violation of the election laws. It seems that the people 
were as eager to exercise the right of suffrage then as now. 

Phillip Hester was found guilty of grand larceny and sen- 
tenced to four years in the penitentiary. David Kistler was sent 
for one year on a charge of petit larceny. The Grand Jury re- 
port that the jail is sufficient for the safe-keeping of the prisoners. 
Josiah Watterson was given five years because he was guilty of 
forgerv. Hester and \Vatterson were defended by D. D. Pratt, 
and Kistler by E. P. Loveland, A. A. Cole and N. O. Ross. 

In August, 1845, Noah Allebaugh presented his commission 
as sheriff of Miami County and he proceeded to perform the 
duties of the office. 

In February, 1846, David M. Dunn presented a commission 
as prosecuting attorne}' of the Eighth Judicial Circuit of Indiana. 
At this time all causes that required publication were published in 
the Democratic Pharos^ of Logansport, that being the nearest 

In 1847, at the March term, Hon. Horace P. Biddle came 


to the bench in Miami County as president judge. His com- 
mission was signed by James Whitcomb as Governor. For that 
term Wm. S. Palmer was sworn as prosecuting attorney. 
During this term Samuel Smith was tried on an indictment for 
murder, but the jury failed to agree. 

At the March term, 1848, Nathaniel McGuire assumed the 
duties of prosecuting attorney and at the same time Coleman Hen- 
ton was sheriff, and during the term James B. Fulwiler succeeded 
Benjamin H. Scott as clerk. In September, 1848, Albert Cole, 
who had been so long one of the associate judges upon the 
circuit bench, retired, and his place was occupied by Daniel 

William Potter became prosecuting attorney at the Septem- 
ber term, 1849. ^^ ^^'^ term Mary x\nn Reese and Jesse 
Washburn were prosecuted for murder, and a jury said they 
were not guilty. Both of these cases were brought to this 
County on a change of venue from Fulton county. 

In September, 1850, Caleb Fonce was found guilty of mur- 
der in the second degree. The gist of all the record that 
remains of it is contained in the following verdict of the jury: 
" We, the jury, find the said defendant guilty of voluntaril}^ 
killing said Godfrey, as charged in said indictment, upon a sud- 
den heat, without malice expressed or implied, and with delib- 
eration and premediation, and say and find that the said defend- 
ant is guilty of manslaughter, and that he be imprisoned in the 
State Prison, to be there kept at hard labor for the term of 
two years." 

Upon the convening of court at the March term, 185 1, it 
adjourned from the Presbyterian Church to the Methodist 
Church. At the. September term of that year John B. Clemens 
was acquitted on a charge of murder. This cause was on a 
change of venue from the Fulton circuit court. At that term, 
also, the court audited the accounts of this County against 
Fulton County arising on the trials of Mary Ann Rees and Jesse 
Washburn, who were also tried here on a change of venue. 
These two, with the Clemens case, amounted to $766, which 
amount Fulton County w'as called upon to pay. 

Judge Biddle was succeeded upon the Circuit bench at the 
September term, 1852, by Hon. Robert H. Milroy. John M. 
Wilson was at the same time special Prosecuting Attorney. 
Judge Milroy was destined to sit upon the Miami Circuit bench 
but a short time. It was during this year that Indiana adopted 
the new constitution, and thereby changed very much the man- 
ner of holding courts and the methods of practice. Before proceed- 
ing further with an account of the court proceedings, it will be 
well to take a retrospective view of the judges and attorneys w^ho 


tigurt'd largel}' in the Miami Circuit Court up to this time. The 
Judges up to March, 1847, have, ah-eady been noticed. At that 
time Judge Wright was succeeded by Horace P. Biddle. In 
Judge Biddle Miami County had one of the most distinguished 
jurists. In 1852, he was elected senatorial delegate to attend the 
convention which met at the capital that }ear for the purpose of 
forming a new Constitution for the State Government. As a 
member of that convention he distinguished himself in the advo- 
cacy of provisions which experience has shown were wholesome 
and judicious, imparting additional dignity to the political and ju- 
dicial economy of the State. Resuming the practice of law dur- 
ing the interval after the conclusion of his convention service, he 
continued his professional labors until the fall of i860, when he 
was re-elected president judge of this circuit, designated at that 
time as the Eleventh. His commission was dated October 26, 
i860, and extended over a period of six years from the da}' pre- 
ceding. The circuit was then composed of the counties of Car- 
roll, Cass, Miami, Wabash, Huntington and Grant. Judge Biddle 
was re-elected in 1S66 for another term of six years, as judge of 
the Eleventh Circuit, composed of the same counties, and left the 
circuit bench at the close of the spring session in 1872. Two 
years later, however, he was elected one of the judges of the Su- 
preme. Court of the State, and served a full term of six years as 
such, leaving that high position full of judicial honors. Aside 
from his experience in the field of law as practitioner and judge, 
he has not been unknown to fame in the field of literature, hav- 
ing produced many valuable works in the department of science 
and general knowledge. He was then and is now a resident of 

Robert H. Milroy was appointed the successor of Judge 
Biddle at the time of his resignation in 1852. Judge Milroy, 
prior to his accession to the bench, was a lawyer of consider- 
able abilit}% of wide experience and high integrity, and carried 
these qualities with him in the discharge of the duties pertain- 
ing to his more responsible position, leaving no stain upon the 
judicial ermine. His earh- life was spent chief!}- in Carroll 
Countv, Ind.. but having an inherent desire for distinction in 
the science of arms, he entered the militarv school at Norwich, 
Vt., where he became proficient in the theoretical details of 
militarv life. Upon the announcement of a declaration of war 
against Mexico, and a call for volunteers by Gov. Whitcomb, 
without delav he enlisted a companv for that service, of which 
he was made captain, and tendered his and their services for 
the strife alreadv inaugurated. Again, at the outbreak of the 
rebellion, he enlisted one or more companies for three months' 
service and was commissioned colonel of the re<jiment known as 


the " Bloody Ninth." He was subsequently promoted to a 
major-generalship and served with distinction during the war. 
He now resides in one of the territories of the great West. 

Early Attorneys. — The records for the ten years before the 
adoption of the new constitution showed that about thirty attor- 
neys were admitted to practice at the Miami circuit court. At 
the September term, 1843, there were these eight practicing in 
court: D. D. Pratt, A. A. Cole, Horace P. Biddle, Nathan O. 
Ross, W. Z. Stewart, Spier S. Tipton, Ebenezer P. Loveland 
and M. W. Seelev. Of this number D. D. Pratt is too well 
known to need an extended notice here. Suffice it to say that 
he was then a resident of Logansport and continued such until 
his death. Having completed the study of law with Calvin 
Fletcher, of Indianapolis, early in the year 1836, he went to 
Logansport, was admitted to the bar there on the 9th of Aug- 
ust of that year and immediately entered upon a very successful 
and lucrative practice. He was studious, careful and judicious 
in the preparation of his legal papers, painstaking and thorough 
in their presentation to the court, and frequently secured ver- 
dicts at the hands of a jury by skillful and elaborate arguments, 
which were presented with great magnetic force. Eminently 
popular in the practice of his profession he w-as equally so as 
a man and a citizen, representing the people of his county one 
term in the State Legislature and the State of Indiana in the 
Senate of the United States. In both these positions his char- 
acteristic energy and industry were everj^where manifest. He 
died on the 17th of June, 1877, at the age of sixty-four years. 

Hon. William Z. Stuart settled in Logansport at nearly the 
same time with Mr. Pratt, having partly completed his studies 
elsewhere. He was admitted to practice on the 20th of Febru- 
ary, 1837. From 1843 he served one term as prosecuting 
attornev in this circuit, and discharged the duties pertaining to 
that office with signal ability. During the period of his practice, 
which took a very wide range, he was ranked among the most 
thorough and logical lawyers in the Sfate. At the time of his 
death, and several years anterior thereto, he was principal attor- 
nev for the Wabash Railway Company. From 1853 to 1857 he 
served one term as judge of the Supreme Court of the State of 
Indiana w^ith distinguished credit to himself and the profession 
he honored. 

Alphonso A. Cole was for several years the leader of the 
Peru Bar. He was a man well educated and of irreproachable 
character. As a pleader he was unexcelled by any attorney that 
has lived in Miami County, and his papers were models of their 
kind. Although he did not excel as an advocate, he yet pos- 
sessed considerable abilitv in that direction. His speeches were 



£feiierally delivered in a plain and unostentatious manner, and 
were couched in model sentences'. At times, howexer, he would 
mount to a convincing and une.xpected degree of eloquence that 
nearly alwaj'S carried his hearers with him. He was a man of 
much natural ability in addition to educational advantages. In 
the old time equity proceedings, his name appears as solicitor 
more than an\' of his contemporaries. 

Ebenezer P. Loveland had been practicing at the Miami 
County Bar since 1840. For a period of about fifteen years he 
continued in the active practice and from the frequency of his 
name in the records, it is presumed that he was one of the 
leading attorneys of that period. He later engaged in railroad 
speculation and other matters that required nearly all his atten- 
tion and compelled him to relinquish, to a large extent, the law. 
Later in life he returned to a some what more active practice. 
His death earlv in 187 1 was caused by an accident at the burning 
of the Howe Machine Works. The resolutions of the Bar upon 
his death were as follows: 

'■Ebenezer P. Loveland, Esq., an esteemed citizen of our 
Countv and one of the oldest member of the Bar, suffered a horri- 
ble death by being crushed beneath the ruins of the Howe Sew- 
ing Machine factor}-, which was destroyed by fire on the loth 
of February, 1871. At a meeting of the Bar of Peru, convened 
to take such action on the melancholy occasion as should be 
deemed fitting, the following resolutions were adopted: 

ResolDed, Th;it tlie siiddcu and fearful death of E. P. Loveland, Esq., has cast 
a srioom o\er the entire tonimuuity and wrapped his professional brethren in pro- 
found sorrow. 

Ixrsiilnd, Tliat by this dreaded visitation our County has lost a worthy citizen, 
and the Bar a memlier who had the aliility to liuve achieved its highest honors. 

Hrxiilri'd, Tliat we tender to the family of our deceased brother our earnest 
sympathy in their dee]) affliction. * 

liiKiih-cd, That the secretary of this meeting jiresent a copy of these resolu- 
tions to the bereaved family; also that he furnish copies to the press of the city for 

Henohcil, That X. O. Hoss be apiiointed to present these resolutions at the next 
term of the Comnmn Pleas Court and Col. .loliii M. Wilson at the next term of the 
Circuit Court, with the request of this meeting that they be spread upon the records 
of said courts as a tribute to the memory of the deceased. 

N. O. Ross, ~] 

John JI. WrLsON, 

E. T. Dickey, ^Committee. 

IT. .T. Snn{K, I 

.1. L. Fakiiau, J 

Nathan O. Ross was one of the earliest resident attorn e3's of 
Miami Countx', and from that time to this he has been one of the 
leadinir members at the bar. Throuo-hout all he has maintained his 
standing as an able and successful advocate. He has had for his 
opponents the ablest men of the early bar in this portion of the 
State. In later years he has been the attorney for the C. St. L. & P. 


Railway, and now spends a large portion of his time at Logansport 
in the practice. He has been a diligent student and has acquired a 
knowledge of statute laws and the court decisions that is probably 
unequaled by any attorney in this portion of the State. This has 
made him one of the safest of counsellors. He takes high rank as 
a lawyer, based entirely upon his knowledge of the law and not as 
a brilliant and showy orator. 

Courts Under the JTczv Constitution. — The courts of Indiana 
received a radical change under the new constitution. Thev were 
organized throughout the State in the early part of 1853. Hither- 
to the old common law methods had been in yogue, but under the 
new order of things the practice was much simplified and many of 
the long and tedious forms were done away with. The change 
brought about much opposition from some of the older members of 
the bar throughout the State. They had studied the common laws 
for years, imtil they had become imbued with its principles. To 
them it embodied the ijenuine wisdom of the ajfes that concerned 
law and liberty. They admired it for its grandeur and its equality. 
It had been so long the recognized channel through which justice 
had been sought that "the memory of man runneth not to the con- 
trarj-," and they were reluctant to give up any of its well known 
avenues. Indeed, to many of these older practitioners the common 
law practice had grown to be of such paramount importance, and 
had assumed, to them, such beauty and symmetry that they held it 
in awe and reverence. It was therefore little short of sacrilege to 
attempt the pruning of this system even in its smallest branches. 
To such an extent was this opposition carried that many never be- 
came reconciled to the change, while some even went so far as to 
abandon the practice altogether. 

One distinctive feature of the change was the abolishment of 
the office of associated jud§e. This was an office more for orna- 
ment than for utility. The circuit judge then held court in several 
counties, and in each he was assisted by two associate judges, who 
resided in the county. They were men that seldom, if ever, had 
any knoNN^ledge of the law and their decisions usually followed in 
harmony with the president judge. At this time, however, they 
folded away their ermine and took their final leave of the Indiana 
courts, leaving the task of supporting the scales of justice to a single 

yolni Doc vs. Richard Roc. — The present code practice in 
Indiana has been in operation since May 9, 1853. Under the old 
system many relics of feudal times were still lingering. Several 
fictions of the ancient common law were still retained, but under the 
new code the methods of pleading were much simplified and the 
fictions were all abolished. Thencefort^h all actions were to be 
prosecuted and defended in the names of the real parties. It was 


at that time that the famous m3'thical personages John Doe and 
Richard Roe were forever banished from the courts of Indiana. 
These were fictitious phiintiffs and defendants that were used in all 
actions to recover the possession of real propertv. This common 
law action of ejectment originated about the beginning of the 
fourteenth century on account of " the thousand nicities with which 
real actions are harassed and entangled." The readiness with 
which John Doe always came forward to assert the alleged right of 
the man out of possession, and the equal promptness of Richard 
Roe to maintain that the man in possession was the lawful owner, 
were such as to command the devotion and sincere attachment of 
all true lovers of the old system. It was with deep regret that the 
old practitioners took leave of these knights errant of the common 

The first term in this countj^ after the adoption of the New 
Constitution began March 14, 1853, with Hon. John U. Pettit as 
Judge; John Connell was Prosecuting Attorney, James B. Fulwiler 
and Jonas Hoover, Sheriff. Perhaps no man in the State was bet- 
ter adapted to the trying duties of reorganizing the Circuit Court 
under the new methods of practice than Judge Pettit. He was a 
resident of Wabash County. His mind was a storehouse of infor- 
mation on almost everv conceivable subject. A ripe scholar and a 
great reader, he was thoroughlN' acquainted w'ith the history, poetry 
and the current literature of the country. In law no man in Indi- 
ana had a more comprehensive knowledge. While sitting as judge 
but few appeals were taken from his decisions, and the Supreme 
Court rarelv reversed his judgments. Prior, to this time he had 
been a member of the Indiana Legislature, and had been United 
States Consul in Brazil. Beginning in 1854 he served four terms 
as a member of Congress, the first three as a Democrat and the 
last as a Republican. In 1862 he was commissioned colonel of the 
Sevent^'-fifth Regiment of the Indiana Volunteers, but was com- 
pelled to resign on account of feeble health. 

Adoption of Seal. — The first regular adoption of a seal that 
appears in the Circuit Court records was at the September term, 
1853. The order reads as follows: 

" I, .Johu Upfokl Pottit, .Judge of the Alianii Circuit Court, within and for said 
county and Stale, do hereby devise and adopt the followinjr as the seal of llie said 
court, to-wit: To be of metal circular, in its disk upon tlie face, of tlie exact dimen- 
sions of the impression tliereof at tlie lower left hand corner of this paye and so 
enirraved upon its face as to make the followinjr impression in relief, viz: A dotted 
circle around and at its maririn, just witliin, the words "Circuit Court Miami County 
Indiana," the word Indian.i sei>arated from tlie other words at both ends by lour 
leaved roses, said words in Roman capital letter and in direction parallel with the 
exterior and interior dotted circles, .lust within said words a second dotted circle 
in the same direction and in the open space within said circle a riijht hand huliliuir a 
pen in the position of writing, th^ lingers directed to the left, a true impression of 
which said seal, I certify the foregoing impression to be and leaving so devised the 


same, I Lerebj' declare the above and foregoins; to be a true discription thereof and 
to l)e henceforth the seal of the Miami Circuit ("ourt. 
"Done in oi)en session of this said court at Peru, in said county, this 13th day of 
"September A. 1). 1853. John Upfold Pettit." 

Accession of Judge Wallace. — At the September term, 1854, 
Hon. John Brownlee came to the Circuit Bench in this countj'^ 
in the place of Judge Pettit, who had been elected to Congress. 
Judge Brownlee was then and is now a resident of Grant county. 
He was commissioned by Joseph A. Wright as Governor. This 
was his onl}" term in Miami County, and at the March term, 
1855, he was succeeded b}- Hon. John M. Wallace. He too 
was a resident of Grant Count\- at the Bar of which he was at 
that time foremost. Judge \\'allace was a brilliant man, aad was 
a fluent speaker. As an advocate he was surpassed bv but 
few, and his knowledge of the law enabled him to become an able 
and efficient judge. At this same term Hiram Moore assimied 
the duties of County Sheriff. Isaiah M. Harlan, who had been 
Prosecuting Attorne}' one year, still continued in that office. 

In September, 1855, James B. Fulwiler was succeeded in the 
office of Clerk bv Alexander Blake, and John Wertz became 

It ma\' be worthy of mention that the sessions of court were 
still held in the Methodist Church. Since the fire in 1843 there had 
never been a suitable room prepared by the county for that purpose. 

Orris Blake became Prosecuting Attorney in 1856, R. P. De- 
Hart, October, 1859, W. S. Benham, October, i860, and M. H. 
Kidd, September, 1861. 

An order that was of some importance to Attorneys was 
placed on record at the March term, 1856. It was as follows: 

Inasmuch as the practice of attorneys testifying in behalf of clients 
is in many cases of questionable propriety, calculated frecjuent to give 
occasion for unfriendly insinuiitions and grave charges of a criminal character, 
and generally to prejudice that good understanding which should every where 
prevail among the members of the legal profession, it is ordered that in the 
courts of the Eleventh .Judicial Circuit the practice of attorneys testifying in behidf 
of their clients, at their own instance, or at the instance of co-counsel, will be re- 
garded uitli great disfavor, unless when it is absolutely necessary to jjrevent great in- 
jury to jiarties, and when the facts can be established by no other creditable witness. 

The October term, i860, was the last of Judge Wallace, and 
most of that was held by John Brownlee, under appointment. In 
April, 1861, Horace P. Biddle, after several years absence from the 
Miami Circuit Court, returned to the duties of Circuit Judge. 
Judge Biddle has alread\" been extensively noticed in this chapter. 

Important Criminal Cases. — Among the criminal trials of the 
county the following are specially mentioned. In September, 1853, 
Nathaniel Myers was tried on a charge of forgery, was convicted 
and sentenced to two years in the penitentiar\' and fined $100. At 
the same term James Williams was given two years and fined forty 


dollars for grand larceny. In March, 1854, George Chesrown re- 
ceived two years and $100 for forgery. A large number of cases 
came on about this time in which the Logansport and Northern In- 
diana Railroad Co. was a party. They were mostly trials resulting 
oyer the right of way and for stock subscription. These were 
nearly the tirst railroad cases in the county. Nathan Kimble was 
acquitted of murder in September, 1S54. 

One of the most important criminal trials in the earh- daj-s was 
the case of the State of Indiana ys. Abner Dillon, for murder. 
This was tried at the March term, 1857- John M. Wilson assisted 
in the prosecution with much yigor. Dillon was charged with hay- 
ino- killed his wife, by beatin<r her with a shoyel. The e\'idence 
showed him to haye been guilty of a long course of cruelty to her. 
The jury found him guilty and fixed his punishment at imprison- 
ment for life. On an appeal to the Supreme Court the proceedings 
of the court below were fully sustained and the jurj- said to have 
been lenient with the pnsoner. 

In April, 1858, Wade Blackburn was giyen one year for lar- 
ceny, and on the same charge James W. Fitzgerald received two 
j-ears in Oct., i860. Chas. Warrenburg also was sentenced to t\\"o 
3-ears about the same time for recei\ing stolen goods. In April, 
1868, Charles Ager was sentenced to twenty-one }ears imprison- 
ment for murder. 

Later yudg-es. — The October term, 1872, was the last of 
Judge Biddle upon the Miami Circuit Bench. He was succeeded 
by John U. Pettit in March following who remained a full term pf 
si.\' years. 

In October, 1879, Lyman Walker assumed the duties of Cir- 
cuit Judge, and was the first and only resident of Miami County 
who had been elevated to that excellent position. It is probable, 
too, that none have ever discharged the duties of that office with 
more credit to themselves or satisfaction to the public than did 
Judge Walker. His abilities as a jurist are of a high order, and 
his education is liberal. Another has said of him : " He is a sup- 
erior man in eyer\' respect." His decisions upon the bench stood 
the test of the Supreme Court far better than the average of Cir- 
cuit Judges. He possesses a good judicial mind, and in the trial of 
a cause gave close attention to the evidence, and decided according 
to the natural equity, or the right of the case. In all cases involv- 
ing fraud he seemed intuitively to anticipate the minutia. Since 
his retirement from the bench in 1885 he has been actively engaged 
in the practice at Peru. As an advocate he has but few superiors. 
Being a good speaker and of commanding personal bearing, he has 
large influence with the jury. On the whole he can be deemed a 
brilliant lawyer and one of a still more promising future. 

The present Judge J. D. Connor, first performed the duties of 


that office in this county at the October term, 1885. He is a pains- 
taking official and one who is determined on administering justice 
without partialit}-. He is a resident of Wabash where he was for 
many years engaged in a successful practice, and where he earned 
the reputation of being an able lawyer. 

Later Attorneys. — It is not within the province of a work of 
this nature to make special mention of the attorneys now living. A 
considerable portion of them are now represented in another part of 
this volume. Such attorneys as H. J. Shirk, R. P. Effinger, Josiah 
and John L. Farrar, James M. Brown and John Mitchell, men who 
have nearlv all been in the active practice in Miami Countv for 
more than thirtv years, might perhaps be more extensively noticed 
here. But a sketch of each will be found elsewhere. Suffice it to 
saj' that they have taken front rank in their profession, and for 
many years have been foremost at the Peru Bar. Besides these 
the bar is well represented by a large number of \oung men, many 
of whom give evidence of eminence in their profession. 

Concerning the death of Albert J. Davidson, who was at one 
time a leader among the younger law3'ers of the county, the follow- 
ing record was made at the October term, 1S74: 

licKnUed, That in the suddoii, painful and nntiniely death of our brother, Albert 
.1. Davidson, we boar the loss of one who. by his natural talents, his aequireil endow- 
ments and many noble qualities had early olitaincd an enviable position in liis pro- 
fession and in society; and whose death in early manhood has destroyed the hope of 
future eminence and usefulness, of which his brief professional life gave such abun- 
dant promise. 

That wp tender to his stricken family and friends our sincerest sympathy and 
condolence in their terrible bereavement. 

That the court now in session be adjourned on the tV.iy of the obsequies of our 
deceased lirother. and that we attend the same in a body. 

That we will reipiest this memorial to be entered upon the records of the 
Miami Circuit Court. 

Death of Col. Wilson. — At the April Term, 1876. the fol- 
lowing record was made concerning the death of Col. John M. 

Comes now R. P. Effinger, Esq., and presents to the Court the followinir resolu- 
tions passed by the members of the Har at a meeting of the Har on Monday, the 
20th day of March, A. D., 187 (i, and asks that they be spread upon the records of this 

HciKilved, That we, the professional associates of Col. .John M. Wilson, late a 
member of this Har, tender to his bereaved family our condolence and -sympathy in 
the affliction that has deprived them of a loved and honorable father, and his rela- 
tions and companions of a warm-hearted and faithful friend. 

ReKolrril, That in the death of Col. Wilson we recognize and deplore the loss of 
a brave soldier, an able lawyer and an lionost man. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resohitions be j^resented to the Sliami Circuit 
Court at its next ses.sion, with the request that the same be spread upon the record 
and a copy thereof, under the seal of the court, be presented to the family of the de- 
ceased. K. P. Effinokh, Chairman. 
Lyman Walker, Secretary. 

Judge Petitt then spoke at considerable length in praise of the 


deceased, in the course of which lie said: "In many respects Col. 
Wilson was a remarkable man. To his last he had the warmth, 
and cheeriness, and loving conlidence of a child. Here at this bar 
he is best known. He had, so to express it, a genius of speech — 
sentences not contrived, measured and modulated, clothed in the 
drapery of chosen language, warm with thought and feeling, and 
on proper occasions said with just resentment, were often full of 
eloquence. If he had any fault of mental character, it was that to 
natural resources, so ready and always at hand, they were relied on 
for the occasion, sudden, instead of being husbanded and trained 
and disciplined for great opportunities." As a further mark of 
remembrance, the bar secured a portrait of Col. Wilson and had 
it placed in the court room, where it now remains. 

Probate Courts. — Under the old laws the Associate Judges 
were ex-officio judges of the Probate Courts in the absence of a 
regular probate judge. What the exact method of conducting the 
earlv probate business of this countv cannot not now be surelv de- 
termined on account of the burning of the records in 1843. The 
first court of this kind of which there is any record began in May, 
1843, with Jonathan R. Smith, as judge. He continued in that ca- 
pacity until November, 1S48, when he was succeeded b}' Reuben 
C. Harrison. Judge Harrison remained upon the Probate Bench 
until that court was abolished by the adoption of the new constitu- 
tion in August, 1852. Up to that time it had jurisdiction in nothing 
but probate matters, although appeals could be taken to the Cir- 
cuit Court. 

The Common Pleas Court. — At its establishment the Court of 
Common Pleas was given exclusive jurisdiction of probate matters, and 
the old probate courts were abolished. This was another of the 
changes which the new practice brought about. It had the jurisdic- 
tion of all that class of offences which did not amount to a felony, except 
those over which Justices of the Peace had exclusive jurisdiction. 
State prosecutions were instituted by affidavits and information. 
Under certain restrictions this court had jurisdiction over felonies, 
where the punishment could not be death, and in no case was the 
intervention of the Grand Jury necessary. In all civil cases, except 
for slander, libel, breach of marriage contract, action on official 
bond of any State or County officer, or where the title to real estate 
was involved, this court had concurrent jurisdiction with the Circuit 
Court, where the sum of damages due or demanded did not exceed 
$1,000, exclusive of interest and costs. It also had concurrent 
jurisdiction with Justices of the Peace, where the sum due or 
demanded exceeded $50. When the court was organized ap- 
peals could be taken from it to the Circuit Court, but that right 
was afterward abolished, but appeals could be taken to the Su- 
preme court, and its jurisdiction was from time to time en- 



larged. The Clerk and Sheriff of the county officiated in this 
court as well as in the Circuit court, and the judge was ex of- 
jicio judge of the court of conciliation. This last had jurisdiction 
of causes of action for libel, slander, malicious prosecution, assault and 
battery, and false imprisonment, and extended to questions of re- 
conciliation and compromise only. No attorney was allowed to 
appear for his client before the court of conciliation, but the 
parties were required to appear before the judge apart from all 
other persons, except that an infant was required to appear by 
guardian, and a female by her husband or friend. This branch 
of the court was abolished in 1867. 

First Term. — The first term of the Common Pleas Court in 
Miami CountY began January 3, 1853, with Robert F. Groves 
as Judge. The first act of the court was the adoption of a seal. 
The various Common Pleas Judges, with their first terms in the 
Countj' after Judge Groves, were Samuel L. McFadin, Januarv, 
1857: "Kline G. Shryock, November, 1S60: D. D. Dykeman, No- 
vember, 1S62; T. C. Whitesides, Julv, 1865; James H. Carpenter, 
November, 1870; D. P. Baldwin, March, i87i;John Mitchell, De- 
cember, 1872. This court was abolished early in 1873, the last 
term in this countv being held in March of that vear. All matters 
pending in that court w'ere transferred to the Circuit Court. 

Roll of Attorneys. — In a hasty review of the court records it 
is next to impossible to obtain a complete list of all the attornevs 
as thev were admitted to the bar. In this countv of course it is 
impossible to give anv prior to 1843. The following list is given 
although it doubtless contains manv errors and omissions. 


D. D. Pratt. September, 184.3. 
Horace P. BidcUe, Sejrtember, 1843. 
W. Z. Stuart, Se|)tember, 1843. 

E. P. Lnveland, September, 1843. 
A. A. Cole, Seiitember, 1.843. 
Nathan O. H0S.-1, Septemlier, 1S43. 
Spier S. Tipton, September, 1843. 
M. W. Seelv, September, 1843. 
Williamson Wrisrlit, :Mareli, 1844. 
Wm. .T. Ilolraan,' March, 1884. 
Palmer, March, 1844. 

J. D. Connor, March, 1844. 
John F. Dodds. February, 1845. 
Mace i: Brand, .Vuiriist, "l84.i. 
Jos. B. Underwood, Felirnary, 184.5. 
John M. Wilson, Au.a'ust, 184."). 
Gregory ife Thayer, August, 184.5. 
John Bush, August. 1846. 
David M. Dunn, February, 1846. 
Nathaniel McGnire, ;March, 1848. 
Isaac Hartman, March, 1849. 
William Potter, Sejitember, 1849. 
Haryey J. Shirlv, September, 1849. 

Nicklin, April, 1861. 

B. F. William-s, April, 1861. 

Shuler, April, 1861. 

T. C. Whitesides. September, 1863. 
John Mitcliell, March, 1.864. 
Henry A. Brown, March, 18(>4. 
Nelson Perdham. .^larch, 1865. 
W. W. Sullivan, April, 1867. 
A. B. Charpie, September, 1867. 
W. E. Pew, September, 1867. 
Geo. H. AVilliams, April, 1369. 
Albert C. Ewing, March, 1869. 
Henry T. Underwood. March, 1869. 
Edwin Leas. October, 1869. 
Alexander Hess. Octolier, 1869. 
J. H. McNary, Octob.-r. 1870. 
Thos. B. Miller. April, 1871. 
John R. Parmelee, Ajiril, 1872. 
G. A. Osborn, April, 1872. 
F. M. ^Morgan, April, 1873. 
Stephen 1). Carpenter, June, 1873. 
Wm. :M. AVaters. October, 1873. 
Geo. W. Brizee, October, 1873. 



tAugustine O. Nelson, 1850. 
E. P. Dickey, prior to March, IS.'il. 
.Meredith II". Kidd, Septenilier, 1S")1. 
K. P. E(liii.';<r, pri(ir to March, ISoU. 
John .M. Connell, March, iy.")3. 

Heal, ])rior to September, 18r)3. 

Daniel M. Cox, prior to September, 1853. 
I. M. Ilarhm, Marcli, 1854. 
.J. A. lieal, March, 18r)4. 
E.Walker, .March, 18.55. 

Baird, September, 1855. 

Peters, Septendier, 185.5. 

.losiah Farrar, March, 1856. 
.J. r>. Farrar, March, 1850. 
Orris Blake, September, 1850. 
.Jas. A. Stretch, Seiitember, 1850. 
R. T. St. John, Sei)tenilier, 1850. 
J. Carvin, .March, 1857. 
J. M. Brown, March, 18.57. 

Christy, prior to September, 1857. 

R. P. Delhirt, April, 1859. 
John H. CoiTroth, April. 1859. 
W. S. Bciiham, April, 1859. 
James M. Talbott, October, 1859. 
Jolin .M. Washburn, October, 1859. 
Jas. X. Tyner, prior to Ajn-il, 1800. 
J. M. Kobinson. prior to April, 1800. 

Goodwin, October, 180O. 

S. W. Robertson, October, 1800. 
Lyman Walker, October, ISOO. 
Cidvin Cowgill, October, 1860. 
Peterson, April, 1801. 

'I'hos. A. Stuart, ^Mjireh, 1875. 
Hood Pratt I.oveland, March, 1875. 
Orlando .McNabb, .hnie, 1870. 
Ethan T. Keasouer, October, 1877. 
Spear S. Steele, prior to Jun<', 1877. 
Lyster T. Pitman, June, 1877. 
Jos. A. Faust, April, 1877. 
Chas. A. Cole, January, 1878. 
Thos. E. Sonnster, February, 1878. 
Abraham Diplioye, .April. 1878. 
AVm. J. Smith, .June, 1878. 
David W. Curtis, Jainiary, 1879. 
Wui. B. .McClintic, January, 1879. 
Henry T. Helm, January, 1879. 
Geo. E. Ross, January, 1879. 
Jay H. Xetr, .luno, 1879. 
Lynn Helm, June, 1879. 
Wm. E. Mowbry, jirior to June. 1879. 
Samuel F. Winter, October, 1879. 
C. M. Emeri<'k, prior to October, 1879. 
Clem J. Kern, December, 1879. 
Chas. S. DuiH!, .April, 1880. 
N. X. Antrim, prior to April, 1880. 
Robt. J. Loyeland, April, 1880. 
Geo. F. O'Byrne, April, 1880. 
Wm. C. Farrar, Ajiril, 18!S0. 
.los. H. Larimer, .April, 1880. 
Alfred II. Plummer, .\pril, 1881- 
Hiram S. Holt, October, 1881. 
.Alichael S. Etlinn'cr, October, 1881. 
Win Brentou, April, 1882. 
Charles R. Pence, June, 1882. 
Jabez T. Cox, May, 1883. 

Resident Attorney?,. — The Bar docket now contains these 
names of active resident attorne3'S of Miami County. 


N. O. Ross, 
H. J. Shirk, 
R. P. Elliuger, 
John L. Farrar, 
.losiah Farrar, 
James M. Brown, 
Lyman \\':dker, 
John Mitchell, 
W. !•:. Mowlirar, 
\V. W. Sulliyan, 
C. M. Kmeric k. 
Nott .A. .\ntrim, 
S. I). Carpenter, 
Henry B. Jamison, 
John W. Eward, 

Robt. C. Foor, 
Chas. A. Cole, 
A. J. Dipboye, 
Walter C. Bailey, 
Joseph A. Faust, 
Ethan T. IJeasoner, 
H. F. I'nderwood, 
AV. B. AlcClintic, 
William J. Snnth, 
Wm. C. Farrar, 
Robert J. Loyeland, 
Joseph 11. Larimer, 
Hiram S. Holt, 
Chas. R. Pence, 
Jabez T. Cox, 
Elmer S. Morris. 



Schools — Early Educational Advantages — First Schools — 
Teachers and Their Methods — Schools of Peru — The 
Townships in Detail — The County Seminary — The Con- 
gressional Township Funds — Normals and Institutes, 

WHEN our forefathers, a century ago, declared in the ordi- 
nance of 1787 that knowledge with religion and moral- 
ity was necessary to good government and the happiness of 
mankind, thev struck the kev-note of American libertv. Science 
and literature began to advance and the enthusiasm began to move 
forward with the tide of emigration. The declaration of the con- 
stitution of Indiana gave new life to the cause within the borders of 
the new State. The first who came to find homes upon the banks 
of the Wabash and its tributaries were illy prepared to provide the 
necessary means for the education of their children. So impor- 
tant an object, however, could not be delaj-ed, and struggling 
through the pressure of poverty and privation, they soon began to 
plant among them these early institutions of learning. The schools 
for many years were in a condition corresponding with the 
advancement in all other public matters. The teachers were, as a 
rule, illiterate and incompetent and selected not because of anj- 
special qualifications, but because they had no other business. The 
only requirements were that the teachers should be able to teach 
reading, writing and " ciphering." The teacher who could " cipher 
all the sums" in Pike's arithmetic up to and including the single 
rule of three was considered a mathematician of no mean ability. 
With such a condition of things, no system and no discipline could 
have been expected. Among the teachers there was no concert of 
action and consequently no uniformitv in work. No appliances 
were provided without which successful work can not be accom- 
plished. Blackboards were unknown; wall maps were not in use; 
text-books were few, and those provided were illogicallv arranged 
and unsuitable for use; classification was unknown, the number of 
classes always corresponding with the number of pupils. For 
many years there were in most districts only subscription schools 
and these presided over bv incompetent and inexperienced teachers. 
Several years had elapsed, after the first settler came to the 
county, before a school was open to the public. This delav was 
due the sparseness of the population — there being in no one neigh- 
borhood a sufficient number of white children to constitute a school 


until 1833. William Smith, now a citizen of Peru, was, according 
to good authority, the first to assume the role of the pedagogue. 
He opened a school during the winter of said 3'ear in a cabin tiiat 
stood on the present site of the town of Mexico. The cabin was 
built of unhewn logs, with a mud and stick chimney in one end of 
the building, and a fire-place wide enough to receive a four to 
six-foot back log. For windows a part of a log was cut out and the 
aperature covered with paper, which, with an application of 
grease became quite translucent. The writing desks consisted 
of hewn slabs or heavy oak plank laid upon wooden pins 
driven in the wall. The benches and floor were of the same 
material — puncheons. With these equipments the first term was 
opened. Tlie children presented themselves the first morning 
well supplied with Webster's spelling books, from which spell- 
ing, reading, writing and arithmetic were taught. The attain- 
ments of Mr. Smith were probably superior to the average 
teacher of to-day, yet it is safe to say that the organization was 
unsvstematic and the teaching immethodical, for such was cer- 
tainly true of the teaching of every Hoosier school-master of 
that period. It is claimed by one of the pupils who attended 
this school that whenever there was any manifestations of a 
lack of interest or enthusiasm on the part of the pupils the same 
was restored by a vigorous application of the rod, which, it is 
said, was vary potent in its influence. This school was patron- 
ized by the families who resided in that neighborhood, among 
whom were the Wilkinsons, Beards, Connors, Cooks, Banes and 

The second school in Jefferson Township was taught by the 
same teacher the following year, in a house built for the pur- 
pose. This was a log building 15x20 feet, and in convenience 
of arrangement was superior to the first. A school was taught 
by William Suewalt in the winter of 1834-35. The house was 
a log dwelling which stood on the Wynkoop farm, near where 
John Stanton now lives. The township was soon organized and 
other houses were erected at public expense. 

At present there are two graded school buildings in the 
township — one at Denver the other at Me.xico, the former con- 
sisting of four graded schools and the lattter of three depart- 
ments. There are nine country districts, and altogether the 
township employs sixteen teachers. 

Sc/iools of Peril. — The common schools of every State or 
county are the foundation upon which the general system of 
education must be built. These are the colleges of the people, 
and if neglected the great mass must grow up in ignorance. 
Although manv of these primitixe schools were but little more 
than a place at which the pupils would gather to receive their 


dailv '• tannings " by a teacher who was selected because of his 
physical, rather than his mental procli\ities, yet there is no 
doubt but that the influence was good. The first institution of 
learning was a log building 18x24 feet, located on Third street 
and erected bv the venerable William Smith, at his own expense. 
This building was probably completed in the fall of 1834, '^"'^ 
the first term taught the winter following. Mr. Smith, who had 
previously taught at Mexico, was the lirst teacher, and taught 
three consecutive terms. This was a subscription school, each 
pupil being required to pay a fee of .$2.50. It is claimed that 
in some instances this amount was paid in coonskins and venison 
hams, which, at a still earlier day, is said to have been very 
generally used as a medium of exchange. The attendance 
averaged about ten pupils daily, which brought to the teacher 
about $25 per term, he furnishing both house and fuel. The 
.second house was a frame structure, located on Third street 
opposite the residence of Dr. Bloomfield. Another house which 
was used but a short time, was erected on Broadwav. The 
Presbyterian and Catholic churches were both used for school 
purposes during the latter part of the thirties. About the vear 
1S37, what was known as the Peru Collegate Insticute, was 
estabHshed. A Presb3'terian minister by the name of John 
Stocker, a classical scholar, was the first principal, and his wife, 
who was an accomplished lady, associate principal. The build- 
ing used stood on the present site of the Presbjterian church, 
and at times when the attendance was too larfje to be accom- 
modated in one building, an old log house on Second street was 
used by the academical department. The institute was largely 
patronized not only by the people of Miami, but adjoining coun- 
ties as well. Among others who served as members of the 
board of trustees, were Rev. S. Newberry, Wm. N. Hood, 
Richard L. Britton, James B. Fulwiler and Alfred S. Keiser. 
Prof. H. Waldo. A. M., succeeded Mr. Stocker as principal. 

Since the establishment of the Colle<jiate Institute the schools 
of Peru have steadily developed into a system equal in the re- 
sults obtained to those of an}- citv in Northern Indiana. For 
man}- years there was no supervision other than that afforded 
bv the Trustees or Directors, but early in the sixties the neces- 
sity becoming more apparent, as the attendance increased, Ly- 
man Walker, a young graduate from the east, was appointed 
City Superintendent. Under his supervision many of the methods 
that proved successful in the older states were introduced, and 
in a short time there w'as a manifest improvement in the work. 
D. Eckley Hunter, one of Indiana's best known educators, 
served in the same capacity until 187 1, when he was succeeded 
by the present incumbent. Prof. G. G. Manning. The best tes- 


timonial of the eminent titness of Manning, and the satisfactoiy 
results obtained under his management, is the mention of the 
fact of his re-appointment each year for fifteen consecutive years. 
The city has provided and conveniently located a sufficient num- 
ber of buildings to accommodate an enrollment of 2,ioo child- 
ren. The following teachers were employed in the schools in 
1886-7 'ind assigned as follows: High School — W. E. Henry, 
Mamie G. Taylor and W. A. Woodring. Seventh and Eighth 
Grades — Eileen Ahern, Ida Stutesman and Carrie C. Puter- 
baugh. Sixth Grade — Alice Stahl and Nannie Rees. Fifth 
Grade — Belle Watson and Madge Calvert. Fourth Grade — 
Mamie Smith and Clara Stoneberger. Third Grade — Alice 
Reisecker and Ma}' Servoss. Second Grade — Emma Davidson 
and Rose Seyfert. First Grade — Minerva Beckwith and Eva 
McFarland. Brownell School — W. D. Whisler and German A. 
Gehring. The work is divided into eight grades and a High 
School course of four years. The school has been commissioned 
by the State Board of Education which entitles the graduates to 
admission into the State University without examination. 

The school history of Peru would be incomplete without 
more than passing memtion of the name of the venerable Will- 
iam Smith. To his wisely directed energies the efficiency of 
the early schools of Peru are largely due. He came at a time 
when his services were needed and at once entered into the 
work with little promise of reward. He taught the first school, 
erected at his own expense the first house, and dedicated it to 
the cause. For the first thirty years of the county's existence 
he lead in every movement that promised an increase of the 
schools, and in all his actions he has shown an unselfish de\o- 
tion to the cause of education. 

The first school house to make its appearance in Jackson 
Township was in 1848, and was located on the farm of Benja- 
mm Davis. During the same year another was built on the 
farm of Mr. Gates. The first board of trustees was constituted 
of the following named persons: O. H. P. Masey, Samuel 
Draper and Thomas Moore. Prominent among the early teach- 
ers were David Stanfield, Elizabeth Cook, Mason Sharp, 
Thomas Reese and Harvey Cooper. Several years later a 
graded school was established in Xenia. The school is divided 
into four departments, viz: High school. Grammar grade, In- 
termediate and Primarjr grades, presided over, respectiveh', by 
M. H. Hester, Principal, Edgar A. Smith, Ida Armstrong and 
Anna Tue}-. There are at present fourteen teachers emplo\-ed 
in the scliools of the township. The schools of Amboy have 
taken high rank, and under J. Z. A. McCaughan the course is 
sufficienth- advanced to prepare pupils to enter the State Uni- 


versitv, and to that end the school has been commissioned by 
the State Board of Education. The schools of Harrison Town- 
ship had their inception in a small log hut, which had been 
abandoned as a residence, that stood on the farm of Jesse Lee. 
It was a subscription school, 'taught by Mr. Lee, and, although 
the attendance was small, it is said that much interest was man- 
ifested. The vear following, 1849, Irwin Murden taught in a 
house that stood on the farm of William Smith, Jr. One of the princi- 
pal characteristics of these schools was the freedom and vigor with 
w'hich the birchen twig was bent about the larger boys. "Whip 
the large ones and the small ones will not need it," was the 
maxim of the pioneer pedagogue. The Township has at pres- 
ent six district school houses and a township graded school with 
two departments, at North Grove. The people of Clay Town- 
ship began to provide means for the education of their children 
in the beginning of the forties. At first, instructions were gi\en 
in spelling and reading in the houses of several of the earlj- 
settlers by a traveling pedagogue, who w^ould make dail}- trips 
and impart his knowledge in a way that was not calculated to 
over-work the student. Feeling the necessity for increased fa- 
cilities for school work, people living in the vicinity of Z. Hos- 
tettle's erected a house on the farm of said Hostettle, and, in 
the winter of 1843, the first school was taught by Elias Ho- 
baugh. The next house was built on the Lewis Hoover farm 
in the fall of 1850, and the first term of school was commenc- 
ed in the winter of the same year. To Henry Murden is due 
the honor of dedicating the new building. The Township is at 
present divided into eight school^ districts, each supplied with 
commodious buildings. 

The earlv settlers of Deer Creek Township were not slow 
in giving their children all the opportunities for an education 
that the circumstances would admit of. The first settlers came 
to the territory now included within the boundaries of the town- 
ship, in 1844, and in the following year, 1S45, they had pro- 
vided a small log cabin on the farm of Mr. Haines, and earlv 
in December the first school was opened, with Henr}- Garrett 
in charge. The inconvenience of having to walk three and four 
miles was verv great, and especially at a time when for a con- 
siderable portion of the winter the ground was covered with 
snow. This was at once overcome by the erection of another 
house the following }'ear on the farm of Austin Herrel, where 
John Truax was installed as teacher. Among the earlv families 
who patronized these schools were the Millers, Pearsons, Hoff- 
mans, McCrareys, Davises, Lewises, Armstrongs, McConnels, 
Busbys, besides a few others. The Township, at present, has 
eight school houses and employs nine teachers. 


The early settlers of Pipe Creek Township were not lack- 
ing their appreciation of education although they were not so 
earlv in providing the necessary means. The first school was 
taught in a hastilj- constructed cabin on the farm of the tirst set- 
tler, Joel Julian, in the winter of 1843-44. The name of the 
first teacher has been forgotten, but, a few years later, Jacob 
Brandt and Eliza Barnett taught in the same district. What 
was known as the Marquis school house, in the northeast part 
of the Township, stood near the residence now owned by Joseph 
Sullivan, and was used for manj- years. Another of the early school 
houses was erected on the farm of Samuel Dewese, near Bunker Hill. 
Mr. Dewese, a Baptist minister, was the first to occupy this house. 
He is said to have been a very serviceable man, being an excellent 
hunter, a good preacher and a fair teacher, and if occasion demanded 
it, he could serve in any other capacity with about equal ability. 
Daniel Puterbaugh w^as one of the prominent early teachers, and 
taught in various parts of the township. i\ house was erected 
at an early day on the farm of Jacob Brandt. A few years ago 
a graded school was established at Bunker Hill, in which four 
teachers are now employed, viz : J. H. Neff, principal; J. E. 
Rinehart, grammar grade; Jennie Haggerty, second primar}- and 
Eva Wilson, first primary. There are six houses in the town- 
ship, not including the graded school building at Bunker Hill. 
The first house in which school was taught in Washington 
Township, was erected on the farm of John Allen, in 1842, and 
in the following year was dedicated to God by Rev. Johnson, of 
Peru. The house had been built for a dwelling, but being un- 
suitable for the purpose, was converted into a school and church 
building. The first teacher was a young lady from Peru. In the 
fall of 1843 this house was abandoned for a small round log cabin 
that was erected on the farm of Patrick Colgan. A small Buckeye 
cabin was built on the Peter Weckler farm the same year. In this 
house Lucy O'Brien was the first teacher, and she is remembered 
bv the old settlers as being one of the most competent pioneer 
teachers of the county. The township is now divided into ten 
school districts, and each is supplied with a well arranged house, 
some being of the most modern style of architecture. 

Of the early school history of Peru and Erie Townships but 
little can be said. The residents of the former for many j'ears 
availed themselves of the privilege afforded by the town of Peru, 
which was for manv years a part of the Township system, and in 
consequence but little was done outside of what is now the city. 
There are at present school houses in the Township. In Erie 
Township seventeen years had elapsed after the coming of the first 
white man, in 1827, before a school was organized. This was not 
due however, to lack of zeal in educational matters, but for want 


of a sufficient number of settlers to organize and support a school, 
and, in consequence, there was no school taught until the winter of 
1844. There were at this time two houses built, one on the Phila- 
baum and the other on the Peer farm. The rapid growth of the 
school from the date of their inception was largeh' due to the in- 
fluence of Pheobe Cox, Robert Ta}lor and James Corwin, who 
were pioneer teachers of the Township. In school enumeration, as 
well as area, the Township is the smallest in the County, and em- 
ploys but five teachers. 

Butler Township has eleven school districts and emploj-s twelve 
teachers. The Santa Fe school is what is known as a district 
graded school and consists of two departments. The development 
of the schools into their present excellent condition speaks well for 
the citizens of the Township, who have been zealous in the 
cause of education since the opening of the first school. This was 
in the winter of 1842-43, in a house that stood on what was known 
as the J. Long farm. It is uncertain as to who was first teacher. 
The year following a house was erected near the present site of 
the Claj'ton cemetery. This was a \e\-y rudely constructed cabin, 
16.X16 feet. Jacob Elliott is said to have been the first to teach in 
this building. The school was made up of about an equal number 
of Caucasians and Indians, there being six of the former and eight 
of the latter. The patrons of this school were the Votaws, Sulli- 
vans, Millers, Claytons, and prominent among the Indian pupils 
were the children of Pymyotimah, a Miami Indian, who was con- 
spicuous among his tribe for the interest he manifested in educa- 
tion. Elliott was probably succeeded as teacher by Margaret 
Mackey, a native of Ohio and teacher of more than ordinary 
abilitv. John Bowman was also a pioneer teacher of the township. 
The Bradley school .house, in the northern part of the township, on 
the Wabash river, and the one on the land of John Miller, were 
also constructed at an earlv dav. Among those who wielded the 
birchen rod in a manner entireh' satisfactory to early settlers of the 
Township may be mentioned the name of Lewis Reeves. Union 
township was settled as early as 1835, the number of inhabitants at 
the close of the year being four. These were soon joined by new 
emigrants, and in 1S37 the township was organized. Churches 
were soon built, and in the winter of 1838 that most important fac- 
tor in the civilization of every communit}- — education — began 
to receive attention, and a school house was accordingly 
erected on the land erected of John Plaster. It was the same 
characteristic log house, with stick chimney, puncheon floor, paper 
windows that was provided for all the primitive schools. Mahala 
Scott was thought to be competent to perform the duties of teacher 
and was at once put in charge of the school. In literary attain- 
ments she was probably not equal to the requirements of the most 


fastidious. Yet slie was endowed b}- nature with good common 
sense, a qualification found wanting in many of tlie college bred of 
to-dav. The following year, 1S39, '^^^^ more houses were built, 
one on the farm of Mr. Kiplinger and the other near the residence 
of Mr. Cross. Other houses were built as soon as the}' became 
necessary, until there are now six houses in the township, which 
includes a township graded school building at Perrysburg. 

Probably to Robert Watson is due the credit of establish- 
ing the tirst school in Richland township. The house was built 
upon the land of said Watson in the fall of 1838, and in the 
winter of the same year he began teaching, It had been but 
two years since the first settler had erected his pioneer mansion 
within the limits of the township, and consequenth' in so short 
a time but few others had come. There were not to exceed 
ten enrolled during the term, and these represented nearly every 
family of the township at that time. The house was also used 
by the Methodists as a place of worship. The church was 
always given the right-of-way when appointments conflicted, for 
the reason any other course would have been considered sacri- 
legious in those days. The same year a house Was built on the 
farm of M. Martindale, and in the winter of 1838-39 the first 
term of school opened by M. Martindale. Jr. This was followed 
by the erection of a diminuti\e structure on the farm of R. C. 
Harrison, which was used for school purposes for several years. 
A house was built near Chili earh- in the forties. There are 
at present ten district school buildings and one township or dis- 
trict graded schojl building, making a total of eleven, requiring 
the services of twelve teachers. The school history of Perry 
Township begins with the winter of 1836-37. During said winter 
two buildings were erected, one on the land of Benjamin Landis, 
and the other three miles northwest of Gilead. The schools 
were attended by the children living in a radius of three and 
four miles and included nearly all settlers in the township at 
that time. The best informed now living differ as to who was 
the first teacher. Prior to 1840 there was a building erected 
near the present site of Gilead in which Samuel L. Thomas is said 
to have tanght the first school. Hiram Butler taught in the 
'southeast part of the township about the same time. These were 
followed b}' the location of houses in various parts of the town- 
ship. In the southwest part, at what was known as Paddytown, 
James Potter taught at an early day, John Gaerte taught in a 
log house that stood on the land of Jacob Hoffman. In the 
eastern part of the township, a log house was erected on the 
land of Joseph Grogg. Others who belong to the catalogue of 
pioneer teachers of the township, were Peter Smith, Alvin Dun- 
bar, Valentine Hobart, Amanda Doud, C. B. Ash, Joel Crum- 


packer, James Adams and John Whittenberger. The township 
is at present divided into thirteen districts and employ fourteen 

The first school taught within the present limits of Allen 
Township was taught by Sarah Brjant in 1839. '^^^ house in 
which this school was taught stood near the residence of Ma- 
thias Carvev, and had previously been used as a dwelling. She 
was succeed the following year by Betsy Bailey. This school 
was patronized b}- the Harveys, Baileys, Carveys, Bryants, Carrs 
and all the early families of that communitj-. The first school 
house was built in 1840, on land at that time owned b}- George 
Neese. George Wilkinson is said to have been the first to 
teach at the Neese school house. A house was built on the 
land of Mr. Wait, in the east part of the township, sometime 
in the fifties, and another about the same time at Five Cor- 
ners. S. S. Trac}- taught at an early day in a house that 
stood on the Fred. Beck farm. Joseph A. Howard taught in 
various parts of the township, and was one of the most success- 
ful of the earl)- teachers. In the township there are seven 
houses conveniently located, each well supplied with furniture 
and apparatus. The town of Macy is a distinct corporation for 
school purposes, and sustains a well regulated graded school of 
three departments of which A. M. Arnold is principal. 

Spelling Schools. — In many of the localities of Miami Coun- 
ty "spelling school" was the chief public evening entertainment 
for man}' years. Both young and old look forward to the next 
spelling-school with as much anticipation and anxiety as the 
people now look forward to a general Fourth of July celebra- 
tion, and when the time arrived the people for many miles 
around would flock together to witness the combat of the learn- 
ed individuals. If there was good sleighing the young folks 
would turn out. The wagon box would be placed on the "bob- 
sled," and with sufficient hay to secure a soft seat, the \oung 
"fellers" with the "gals" were off in great glee. 

When the appointed hour arrived the battle was com- 
menced by two of about equal attainments by "choosing 
up." The captains would then decide who should have first 
choice b}- guessmg at the number of a page of a book which 
the teacher held partly open before them. When this was de- 
cided each would choose alternately, always selecting the best 
speller, and the ultimate strength of the respective sides would be 
about equal. There were many methods of testing the relative 
strength of the opposing parties. One of the most popular in 
many sections of the county was for the captains to apen the con- 
tests. The}' would spell the words alternately until a word was 
missed — the person missing was required to take his seat, and 


the first chosen on the side of the defeated captain would be 
the next combatant, and so on until one side was defeated. It 
would occasionally happen that two or three good spellers would 
retain the floor so long that the exercises would become mon- 
otonous, when a few.difllcult words taken from the dictionary 
would break the monotony. A few minutes intermission which 
was usual!}' given was a time for all amusements common to 
the neighborhood, and was participated in by all present. While 
this method of teaching would not meet with the approval of the 
modern pedagogue there is no doubt but what much good resulted. 

County Seminary. — The old constitution of the State provided 
that all fines for the breach of the penal law and all commutations 
for military service be appropriated to the use of the countv semi- 
naries. Under the operation of this provision of the constitution 
monev began to accummulate at once. Upon the organization of 
a county, a trustee, whose duty it was to properly invest the 
money, was appointed bv the Board of Commissioners. The first 
to act in that capacity in Miami County was Wm. N. Hood, the 
proprietor of the town of Peru. Others who acted in that capacity 
prior to 1845 were Daniel Bearss, Eli Pugh, William Cole, E. P. 
Loveland, Albert Cole, I. R. Leonard and G. W. Goodrich. The 
accumulation of the fund was necessarily slow, and the growing 
demand for a school in which other than the rudiments of the ele- 
mentarv branches might be taught was so widely felt that private 
donations to the fund were solicted. The citizens of Peru donated 
in money, notes and building material $211.93. The people af 
Mexico, desirous of securing the location of a seminary, donated 
real estate and building material to the value of $1,000. The fund 
in 1843 aggregated about $1,700. 

In consideration of the donation made bv the people of Mexico 
and vicinitv, the site was selected at said place and the contract for 
the erection of a brick building, 35x45 feet, two stories high, was 
sold at public outcry. There was no halt in the work until the 
first stor}' was completed, when the donors failing to furnish the 
material promised, work was suspended. The money that had 
been invested was lost and whate\er of the fund was on hand was 
merged into the common school fund under the provisions of the 
new constitution. 

The Origi'ji of the Congressional Township Fund oj Miami 
Countv. — The congressional township fund originated from the sale 
of one section of land in each congressional township. This section, 
usually the i6th, was set apart b}' Congress for the purpose of 
creating a fund which might be utilized without delay. Miami 
count\- had ten of these sections, the sale and rent of which was 
managed by the School Commissioners; later by the County Audi- 


tor and Township Trustees. The following statement will show 
the origin of the fund in this count}-: 

















■ 3,400.00 




542 ■ 






































Total . 


A^ormah and Institutes. — During the summer of each year 
there is held, under the management of the County Superin- 
tendent, a Normal Institute. The usual length of the term is 
about six weeks, and the attendance varies from seventy-five to 
one hundred. The attendants are, as a rule, the voung and in- 
experienced teachers or those preparing to teach, who, as a re- 
sult, become better acquainted with the plans of the County 
Superintendent, learn more of the practical part of their work, 
increase their ability to orfjanize their schools and utilize their 
acquired knowledge. These normals are not without their so- 
cials features, which afford an opportunity for more intimate ac- 
quaintance among teachers of the county, thereby rendering uni- 
formity of work possible. The first institute was held in the 
summer of 1886, under an act of 1865, which provided for an 
annual appropriation of $50 to defray necessary expenses. There 
were about thirty-five teachers in attendance, and although there 
were no regular instructors — each teacher acting in that capac- 
ity — the institute was an acknowledged a success. Since that 
time institutes have been held annually, and with fee of $1.00 
(which each teacher voluntarly pays), the fund is sufficiently 
large to warrant the employment of instructors of experience and 
ability. The last institute, which was held in August, 1886, 
was attended by 116 teachers. Institutes were given by Profs. 
W. W. Parson, President of the State Normal; H. B. Brown, 
President of the Northern Indiana Normal, and R. I. Hamilton, 
of Madison, in all the branches appertaining to school work. 

The present method of teachers examining teachers was 
adopted earh" in the fifties. Under the provisions of the law, as 
it then existed, three persons were appointed to perform that 
duty. These examinations were conducted in an informal man- 
ner, usualh' oral, and were in no way a test of the qualifica- 
tions of the applicant. In 1861, the law was amended, providing 
for the performance of the duty by one examiner instead of three, 


as before. This change had little effect, however, in increasing the 
usefulness of the office; and it was not until the creation of the of- 
fice of Count)' Superintendent, in March, 1S73, that the school of- 
ficers of the county was given the general management of the school 
work. This marked the beginning of a new epoch in the school 
historj' of Indiana. The advancement in educational affairs since 
the creation of this office has been truly wonderful, and to no other 
influence may be attributed the growth and efficiency of the district 
schools of the State. Amon<j those who held the office of examin- 
er were H. H. Miller, G. I. Reed, and Prof. Dunham. The first 
regularly appointed to fill the position of County Superintendent 
was W. Steele Ewing, who was twice re-elected, serving in all six 
3-ears. N. W. Trissal became the successor of Mr. Ewing, and 
after serving one term was succeeded June, 18S1, b}' W. C. Bailj-, 
at present a member of the Peru bar. He was a practical teacher, 
and his experience of several 3'ears was proved to be one of his most 
essential qualifications and aided him much in the administration of 
his office. Mr. Bail}- carried into effect the plans introduced bv his 
predecessors, besides adopting better plans and introducing many 
new methods. In fact, an impetus was given to the cause of educa- 
tion, which has been followed bv fruitful results. The present in- 
cumbent, A. J. Dipboye, who succeeded to the ofiice in 1885, is 
a man of more than scholastic attainments, besides having had 
much experience in school work. He is a man of indomitable 
energy, and during his incumbency created much enthusiasm in 
school work. A manual, which was issued by the Countv Su- 
perintendent in 1SS5, shows that the work of the district schools 
has been divided into a primary, grammar and graduation di\i- 
sions or five district grades. The time fixed for the completion 
of the course is eight years, and those completing are presented 
with a certificate of <jraduation. The commencement or irraduat- 
ing exercise is held at some central point in the township, to 
which the people are invited to attend. The exercise consists 
of either an original essay or oration from each of the candi- 
dates for graduation. This brings prominentlv before the peo- 
ple the results of the pupil's work and has done much to popu- 
larize the svstem. 




Peru — The Original Owners — Laying Out ok the Town — 
MiAMispoRT — Sale of Lots — Early Business — Na\iga- 
tion of THE Wabash — The Canal — Early Families — 
Incorporation — Addition.s — Fire Department — Water 
Works — Newspapers — Churches — Secret Societies — 
Literary Societies and Libr.\ries — Banks — Manufac- 
turing Enterprises. 

THE history of Peru is all within the lifetime of living men. 
No Indian Bancroft has handed down to us an older record; 
no Indian Byron has touched with poetic associations the woods and 
hills around. It may be said to begin with the treaty at the mouth 
of the Mississinewa river, Oct. 23, 1826, between the United States 
and the Miami Indians. By this much land was transferred to the 
government, but large tracts were reserved to the influential chiefs. 
In this way the section on which the original plat of Peru was laid 
passed from the common ownership of the tribe to John B. Richard- 
ville, one of the chiefs. The next year, August 18, 1827, a deed 
was made by Richardville and his wife Peme-se-quah, conveying 
this section to Joseph Holman for $500, and there is a half tradition 
that this was not all cash but a thrifty trade was worked in on the 
bargain. This conveyance was approved by John Quincy Adams, 
March 3, 1828. This land is now probably worth a million and a 
half dollars. Thus began the boom in Peru real estate. Jan. 7, 
1829, Holman sold 210 acres of the east end of his 640 acres to 
Wm. N. Hood for just what he had paid for the whole. Before 
ever the transfer to Holman was made, John McGregor had in Feb. 
1827, located in the western part of what are now the limits of 
Peru, and is considered to be tiie first settler within those limits. 
Joseph Holman laid out at that place March 12, 1829, the town of 
Miamisport, David Burr being the surveyor, and the plat was re- 
corded in Cass Count)', of which this was a part, July 15, 1830. 
This town of Miamisport and the later town of Peru, were platted 
regardless of meridian lines and in conformity with the course of 
the river at that point, being nearly the same trend in both towns. 
At the founding of Miamisport, the canal which even then, eight 
)-ears before it was completed to this point, was looked forward to 
as the great future thoroughfare, was counted on and planned for 
accordingh'. The lots were laid out large, and a market and 
public square provided for. The site of the town is now in- 
- eluded by about the following boundaries in Peru : On the 

Peru's original owners. 363 

south, the river; on the east, Lafaj-ette street ; on the north, 
Main; on the west, Hohnan. The little village grew and pros- 
pered, and with the hopes of youth, looked forward to becom- 
ing the capital of the count}', \\'hich was soon to be separately 
organized. Its business and population increased and Peru was 
still among the things not 3'et, perhaps not thought of. A tan- 
nery was built by Andrew Marquiss. G. W. Holman run a 
boot and shoe store; tavern was kept bv John McGregor. The 
licenses granted the first few meetings of the first commission- 
ers which probably represent the businesses — already settled there 
in 1834, '^'"^^ ^'^ Louis Drouillard, to keep a grocery and also a 
ferry; Nathaniel McGuire, grocery; Wm. Thompson, grocery; 
James T. Liston, tavern; Patrick Aiurphy, tavern. In addition 
to these may be added the names of such early settlers as Ben- 
jamin H. Scott, first County Clerk; Wm. M. Reyburn, first 
Countv Agent; Abner Overman, first Count}- Treasurer; Geo. 
W. Holman, Wm. N. Hood, Zachariah Pendleton and Walter D. 
Nesbit. While Miamisport's hopes were thus rising there sprang 
up a rivalry between the two probabl}' most influential men in 
the community at that time, Joseph Holman and Wm. N. Hood. 
The former, the proprietor of Miamisport, had been in the Legisla- 
ture from the district composed of Allen and Cass, while this was 
a part of Cass County; the latter, two j^ears later, 1836, was 
elected a member of the Legislature, the first man who represented 
this count}' after it was made a separate Legislative district. The 
contest was this : Hood determined to found in the unbroken woods 
on his land east of Miamisport, a town which should dispute with 
that village the prize of the county seat. Holman was indignant 
and personal and violent words were passed, and it must ha\'e been 
for a time the absorbing topic in that little community. Vigorous 
measures were necessary to within a few months, make a forest 
outstrip a flourishing \illage of five vears growth. But destiny was 
with Peru. Hood had the town surveyed some time in the spring 
of 1834, by Stevens Fisher, then an engineer on the canal. An old 
document in our possession says: 

"When Peru was laid out the site was entirely covered with 
heavy timber and a thick, impenetrable growth of underbrush. 
Not a rod square was cleared. I have frequently heard Mr. 
Fisher say that the men had to precede him and clear away the 
underbrush so he could sjet a sioht throuirh his instrument." 

The Commissioners appointed bv a special act of the Leg- 
islature, January 2, 1834, which organized this county, met June 
3rd at the house of John McGregor. To secure the location of 
the county seat, the proprietor of Peru executed to the Com- 
missioners on that date, a bond offering inducements, of which 
the fcillowing are certainly part and probably all: He donated 


the public square and agreed to erect upon it a brick court 
house and a log jail, to donate a lot to each of the congrega- 
tions, Methodist and Presbyterian, and to give $125, probably 
for a town librar}'. These promises were all fulhlled. He en- 
listed the friendship of the merchants then in Miamisport by 
donating to them business lots or selling them for a nominal 
sum. Some of the best lots on Broadway were sold for $50. 
These liberal and energetic measures, accomplished their purpose, 
and though the commissioners continued to meet in Miamisport until 
May 1835, its hopes of greatness had departed. June 9, 1841, it was 
vacated by the County Commissioners bv request of those interested 
and has became the county seat only by the limits of Peru 
growing beyond and including it. In Julv, 1834, taking advantage 
of the crowd attracted by the letting of the work on a portion 
of the canal, the first sale of lots is believed to have taken place. 
This fact can not be ascertained from the records, nor the names of 
the first purchasers, the deeds, whate\er they were being among 
the burned records of the court house fire of 1843. The sale is 
believed to have been satisfactory, the lots bringing the best price 
being those near the canal, on account of the advantages which 
were hoped to be, and were afterwards gained by its nearness. 
The same month Hood enlisted additional influence for his town. 
July 26th he transferred to Richard L. Britton a third interest in the 
original plat for $3,000, and July 28th to Jesse L. Williams another 
third interest for, as stated in the deed, the same amount, which 
deeds are among the restored records of this count\'. The former, 
who is always referred to by old settlers as "Dickey L," or "Old 
Dicky" had come, with considerable wealth, from Fort Wayne. 
The latter, an important fact, was civil engineer on the canal. A 
feeder dam was to be located, and it was deemed desirable for Peru 
that, on occount of the water power and other advantages, it 
should be located at that point just above Peru. Williams became 
a third owner of the town. The feeder dam was located there. 
The best idea of Peru in earlier times can be gained from descrip- 
tions of different earlv settlers. Writes one: "When I went to 
vPeru in 1835, it was a new and a verv small village of between one 
and two hundred inhabitants, many of whom were laborers on the 
canal." Another writing of the same year, says: "I looked 
around and what did I behold ? A living forest, with about fifteen 
or twenty log shanties, and some eight or ten rather respectable 
houses. The ^■illage was tilled with people working on the Wabash 
and Erie canal, from different States." Another, describing Peru 
as it was in the fall of 1837 : " Peru was new and small. Felled 
trees lay scattered over much of the place: all of the buildings of 
the town were then situated on and between Canal and Fifth streets, 
and on and between Broadway and Cass, except on Fifth street west 

Peru's original o\\ners. 365 

of Cass street, three dwellings; and on Fifth street east of Wabash 
street, two dwellings; on Fourth street east of Wabash street, one 
dwelling; on Canal street east of Broadway, one dwelling. On the 
east side of Broadway, including the old court house and the jail 
were just five buildings; on the corner of Broadway and Canal 
streets, one; the corner of Broadway and Second, one; and on Broad- 
way between Third and Main, one. Outside of these all was the 
dense primeval forest, except on the west were some cultivated 

The canal trade, the settlers' needs and the Indian traffic 
attracted to this place, described by these witnesses, as so wild and 
rough, a swarm of enterprising merchants. Following the license 
mentioned abo^e as granted by the first Commissioners' Court, come 
rapidly a number, nearly all of which, probably, are for Peru. They 
are all for a 3ear from the date given; C. R. Tracey & Co., grocery, 
Oct. I, 1834; Lee & Cranor, same; John Prescott, same; Bearss & 
& Cole, merchandise, Oct. 3rd; Pike & Co., same; J. Evans & Co., 
merchandise, Nov. 4th; Alex. Wilson, merchandise, Dec. ist, 
I. Y. Sanger & Co., merchandise, March 3d, 1S35; James 
B. Fulwiler, same; Ezekial Cooper, tavern, March 3d; and 
so the}' came. The names of many others who either in these 
first years, or soon afterwards, engaged in business in Peru, have 
been preserved, but it is impossible to give them all. The methods 
of doing business differed widely from the present. The}' generally 
bought on long time and sold the same way, ever}' one in the com- 
munity counting the date of the Indian payment as the time of set- 
tling accounts. Before the canal was built, goods were brought 
here with much expense and trouble. One route, for instance, 
when the goods were bought east, was, by Lake to Toledo, by 
pirogues (boats pushed by men who walked from the front to the 
back of them, pushing with long poles) up the Maumee River to 
Fort Wayne, then by wagon over primitive roads to the destination. 
When J. B. Fulwiler brought from Leesburg, O., to Peru, the goods 
with which he stocked the store he named the " Emporium," he had 
five five-horse wagons, and one six-horse wagon. Some hopes were 
raised of the possibility of steamboat navigation up to this point on 
the Wabash. They were occasioned bv the arrival one dav in 
June, 1835, unexpected, of the little steamboat Science. The water 
was high, but already falling, and having thrown the whole com- 
munity into excitement, it steamed rapidly down the stream. The 
next spring the Tecumseh also reached this place loaded with goods 
from Cincinnati for the merchants. These experiments ha\e never 
since been succcssfullv repeated. The canal was pushed through 
very soon after the town was built, and it opened up a thoroughfare 
for comparatively cheap, easy and rapid transportation. The 4th of 
July, 1837, was the date announced, and the town was filled with 


people trom the surrounding country, come to see the wonderful 
sight. The boat " Indiana " reached the lock above, but on ac- 
count of the escaping water, was unable to get to Peru. The pas- 
sengers walked down, and joined by the citizens at the Stag Hotel, 
kept bv Mr. Cooper, had a jolly time. The canal continued until 
1854, '^he principal, until 1S75, a still important means of transporta- 

The friendless traveler could get food and shelter of almost an)- 
of the hospitable settlers, but of regular taverns, the one just men- 
tioned, was one of the tirst. The Stag Hotel, or Buck Tavern, 
was on the northwest corner of Main and Canal streets. It was 
named from the decorations hung on it by successful hunters. It 
was kept by Durgan & Cox, and by Cooper, son-in-law of the for- 
mer, for several years. Luscious venison steaks from that animal 
which gave the tavern its name, may have occasionallv graced the 
board, but we have the testimonj- of one who boarded at the famous 
hostelry, that the bill of fare consisted of " hard bread and stale but- 
ter, with an old potato and an egg, rotten." Patrick 
Murph\% who was licensed to keep tavern, September 3, 1834, was 
located a little to the west of this hotel. H. A. Tarkington, a local 
Methodist preacher, blended the duties of minister and host in a 
tavern, about where the Episcopal church now stands. Hugh 
Peoples, in whose house the September term of Court was held in 
1835, was near the corner of Cass and Second streets. James 
Ennis, C. Price and others are among the names of early " mine 

T/ic Peril Collegiate Institute, a bright promise of the early 
days of the town, was chartered by the Legislature. Rev. Samuel 
Newbury and Rev. John Stocker and wife, were the teachers from 
1836 to 1839. The school was attended by nearly all the children 
of the community. Two papers containing the names of scholars 
enrolled in 1839 is in existence still, worn and yellow, and the fol- 
lowing familiar names appear on them: J. Omer Cole, George 
Rettig, Caroline Zerne, George R. Barse, Jesse Zerne, David 
Hood, Joseph Re^burn. The college failed for lack of backing 
and is one of the things which will continue to be regretted. 

The histor)' of Peru, as a town corporation, begins about 
eight years after the town was platted. March 26th, 1S42, a 
mass meeting of the voters was held, and Joseph L. Reyburn 
elected president and James DeFrees, clerk, of the meeting. 
These two officers divided the town into five districts by north 
and south alleys, and the meeting elected one trustee for each 
district in the order named : John Lowe, Samuel Glass, J. L. 
Reyburn, John Coulter and Isaac Robertson. The trustees at 
their first meeting made permanent the president and clerk of 
the mass meeting; at its second meeting elected Wm. R. Mow- 


bray, treasurer; Samuel Hurst, lister, and John H. Griggs, 
marshal. A number of ordinances were passed, then for nearly 
a year the board did not meet. When it did it was to "pro- 
vide measures for the purpose of arresting ravages of fire," 
which will be referred to under the head of fire department. 
The board met once more. May 8th, 1843, and elected John 
Low its second president, then for nearly five years Peru gov- 
erned itself. The board never met again. March ist, 1848, the 
councilmen named in a special act of the Legislature, who were 
Albert Cole, Jacob Fallis, James M. DeFrees, George W. Good- 
rich, and Edward H. Bruce, met and elected Albert Cole, Ma}'- 
or, Ira Mendenhall, Recorder, and C. R. Trace}-, Treasurer. 
The first election was held March 13th, at which 'Wm. A. Mc- 
Gregor was chosen Mayor. For nearly two years the legal 
learning, the broad statesmanship and the burning eloquence of 
our cit}' fathers boiled and seethed around the question of hogs, 
to impound them or let them run. Ordinance after ordinance 
was framed, but there alwaj'S seemed a crack through which a 
pig could crawl. The no-hog party seems finally to have con- 
quered. The total revenue the first year, March, 1848, to March, 
1849, ^^''^ $341-79' '^"d the balance in the treasury at the end 
of that time, was $221.17. The most important question which 
has been continually before the council is that of the streets. 
The second month of the incorporation a grade of Broad- 
way, by S. Coleman, was adopted, and during the next j'ear 
the work was done at a cost of $387.59. In 185 1, Broad- 
way was partly paved, and so 3'ear after year the improvement 
went on. The city was incorporated by a vote of the electors, 
Feb. 25th, 1867 — 350 ayes and 37 noes. The city was divided 
into four wards. Major Orris Blake was the first Mayor or the 
new corporation, elected at the special election and succeeded by 
Josiah Farrar, elected at the first regular election. Peru has 
been from the first well governed. The names of the old, sub- 
stantial citizens appear as councilmen and corporation officers, 
and they seemed to have put the same thought into it as with 
their private business. The Water Works (treated of separate- 
ly) was an expense met by the sale of city bonds which are now 
outstanding. Aside from that the city is free from debt and 
with excellent credit. The following is a complete list of the 
Mayors: Under the town the term was for one year; under the 
city, two years. The date given is that of the election. Under 
first incorportion : Joseph L: Reyburn, March 26, 1842; John 
Low, May 8, 1843; the}' were called presidents of the board. 
Under the new incorporation: Albert Cole, March 1, 1848; 
Wm. A. McGregor, March 13, 1848; N. O. Ross, '49, D. C. 
Dryden, '50; Samuel Coulter, '51; D. C. Dryden, '52; N. O. 


Ross, '53; Jno. A. Beal, '54 and "55: E. T. Dicky, '56: Chan- 
dler C. Moore, '57; E.. T. Dicky, '58 and '59; James M. 
Browne, '60, '61, '62, '63; resigned Sept., 1S63, and E. T. 
Dicky tilling balance of term; N. O. Ross, '64; Alex. Blake, 
'65: Jesse Higgins, ^66. Under the city: Orris Blake, March 
to Mav, '67; Josiah Farrar, '67; Wm. A. McGregor, '69, '71, 
'73; W. B. Revburn '75, '77, '79, '81, died March, 1882; Jno. 
A. Graham '82", '83' '85. 

Additions to Peru have been steadily made. Those by the first 

proprietors were made a part of the original plat. Then 

follows that which was made bj' the will of Frances Godfrey, War 
Chief of the Miamis, who died in 1S40. It provided for the lay- 
ing out of 160 acres of his section of land situated in the Five 
Mile Reserve, which extended from the Wabash to Eel river. 
This quarter adjoined the Richardville Reserve on the 
east. It was to be so platted that the fractional lots 
would supplement and complete the fractions left along 
the section line of the original plat. This plat was entered for rec- 
ord bv Allen Hamilton, executor of Chief Godfroy, in June, 1840. 
The north and south streets named in that plat are St. Claire, Cal- 
houn, Clay, Adams and Columbia. The name of Clay only is re- 
tained. The next addition was Ewing's, east of Broadway from 
Sixth to Eighth, in 1845. Hood's addition in 1S49, between Hood 
and Lafayette, Canal and Main. Whistler's subdivision from Sixth 
street north, between Miami and Broadway, in 1862. Shirk's ad- 
dition, a portion of the old Hood farm, on w'hich one of the first brick 
houses in Peru was built, where the old residence of E. H. Shirk 
now stands, was made in "1863, from Hood to Lafayette and from 
Main to Eighth. Ewing's partition addition, from Fifth street north 
to Reserve line, east to Cass, between Fifth and Sixth, to the 
school grounds and the grounds north of Seventh to the railroad, in 
1S64. Brownell's addition, from Canal to one tier of lots north of 
Main and from Holman, which was the west line of Miamisport, to 
Forest, was laid out in 1866. Shirk's second addition in 1S68. Smith's 
addition, between Lafayette and Hood, Eighth and the railroad 
grounds, was laid out January 8, 1869. Duke's addition from Grant 
to old Logansport road, and Seventh to railroad ground May 5, 1870. 
Smith's second addition east of Grant and north of railroad, De- 
cember, 1870. Sterne's addition, from Grant two squares west and 
Main to Seventh, February, 187 1. Shirk's third addition, between 
Seventh and Eighth, Fremont and Hood, December, 1871. Duke's 
second addition, west of Grant and north of Boulevard, June, 1872. 
Smith's third addition from Canal street north to railroad, east of 
Godfrovs section, 1872. Run3-an's addition north of Boulevard to 
Thirteenth and between Runjan street on the west and Fremont on 
the east, June, 1873. Besides these additions of territory platted 


and sold, numerous sub-divisions of out lots have been made at 
\'ai"ious times as the growth of the town demanded additional build- 
ing lots. Some of the persons whose names appear in the records 
of sub-divisions are Ross & Fennimore, Fallis, Mendenhall, G. W. 
Ewing, Ross & Talbot, Whistler & Mitten, Brandon, Shields, Davis 
and Shirk, J. VV. Ellis, J. JM. Brown and O. P. Webb. The sub- 
urban corporations are South Peru and Ridgeview, the former hav- 
ing a population of perhaps two hundred. 

The Population of Peru at different dates was as follows: 
In 1850, 1,266; in 1854, as taken by the town, 2,351; in i860, 
2,506; in 1867, as taken by the town, 3,227; in 1870, 3,617; in 
1880, 5,280; at present, 7,000. 

The Fire Department had a humble origin. The first town 
board of trustees had a special meeting, March 25th, 1843, "to 
provide measures to arrest the ravages of fire." The means 
pro\'ided \\'ere, five ladders, twenty-four feet long; five ditto, 
fourteen feet long; five roof ladders, fifteen feet long; three hooks 
wdth poles twenty-two feet long. Alexander Porter furnished the 
lot for $52. These were distributed to the different districts, and 
were the only fire apparatus for years. One of the first acts of 
the new government organized 1848, was to set the Marshal to 
hunting this "fire departipent." After considerable search he 
found three long and six shorter ladders and two hooks. In 
1856, a number of incendiary fires occasioned the appointment 
of special policemen who served for a short time, and of a com- 
mittee "to take steps to secure a suitable fire engine." Anoth- 
er committee was later appointed to inquire as to the cost of 
the best hooks, ladders and fire buckets, and Jan. 1857, a small 
lot was ordered, but probably ne\-er obtained. It was not un- 
til March, i860, that a petition presented by the citizens induc- 
ed the council to send F. S. Hackley, as their agent, to Day- 
ton, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis, to examine engines and appar- 
atus. In May, the old hand fire engine was bought from the 
City of Indianapolis, and in September the contract for the en- 
gine house was awarded. The cost of engine, hose and other 
apparatus was about $2,300, of the engine house $1,100. The 
expense of the fire department was about $50 to $75 a A'ear, 
during the next twelve j-ears. The energetic citizen would grab 
his hat at the first alarm of fire and streak it for the engine 
house. Arriving at the conflagration he would give a few 
strokes on the levers of the hand engine, get knocked in the 
head, his arm jerked out of joint, and then retire and tell the 
fellow who took his place how it ought to be done. In November, 
1872, an ordinance was passed to establish a fire department, and 
a new steam fire engine was purchased. Geo. Crowell was the 
first chief. The present department is very effective. It consists 



of three companies and Alex. Appel is chief. The electric fire 
alarm was added about the time of the water works. 

The Water Works were first agitated in 1871 but public 
sentiment opposed them. In 1876, Messrs. Shirk, Dukes & Co. 
proposed to build works under a franchise, the city to rent fire pro- 
tection, but no action was taken on it. The discussion continuing, 
the council, to test the wishes of the people, ordered an election, 
July, 1877, at which ballots "For Water Works" and "Against 
Water Works" were voted, resulting two to one in favor of them. 
The council at once took steps toward the work, in October, the 
same year, the contracts for the different parts of the work and 
materials being let to a number of different parties. The pump 
house is situated on the river near the east end of the city, corner 
Canal and Wayne streets. The ground contains nearly three acres. 
The building is brick, handsome and modern in appearance. The 
pumping machinerN' consists of two engines, run by steam, which ha\'e 
a combined capacity of 2)^2 million gallons per day. The length 
of pipes laid is nearlj^ twelve miles. There are loi hydrants. An 
important feature in the safety, convenience and economy of the 
works is the reservoir, situated on the south side of the Wabash 
river on the hill, a little less than half a mile from the pump house. 
Most fortunately the elevation of this point, so convenient, is just 
what is needed to provide the force found the best means for ef- 
fectiveness and economy, the reservoir being 93 feet above the 
pumps. Five streams from 50 to 75 ^^^^ in height can be thrown 
b}' reservoir pressure alone. 

The engines were ready for operation March, 1879, '^"'^ '^'^^ 
reservoir completed August 3rd, the same year. Since then they 
have been uninterruptedly in operation. The enterprise of the city 
has been eminently satisfactory. The net cost of construction was 
$109,549.93. The funds to met this was mostly raised by the sale 
of city bonds. The cost of operation of the works being from the 
first less than the income the city is already prepared to redeem a 
portion of them, but unfortunately, although they were mostly sold 
at a discount, they are now held at par and cannot be redeemed 
for some j-ears. This, however, speaks well for the credit of 
the city. In addition to the net profits of the operation of the 
works, the city has had full amount of fire protection, which at the 
lowest rates usually charged by private companies, would be about 
$8,000 a year. 

Until May, 1880, the works were under the control of a com- 
mittee of three of the council. At that time, under a legislative en- 
actment, a board of Water Works Trustees, consisting of James M. 
Brown, Andrew Fasnacht and C. H. Brownell, were elected, and 
since then this Board of Trustees, elected by a direct vote, have had 
control of the works. 


The Gas Works were undertaken by the firm of H. E. and 
C F. Sterne & Co., the owners of the woolen mills at that time. 
Work was commenced June, 1S74, and they were first readv for 
lighting November 15, 1874. A contract was made with the cit}- 
to run 25 3-ears from date of lighting. Three and a half miles 
of mains were laid. The gasometer has a capacity of twenty 
thousand feet. The amount of gas made increases each vear, 
and last year it was about six million feet. July 27, 1S86, it was 
sold to the Peru American Gas Companj^ of Philadelphia, and 
Wm. Tracy is now superintendent. Since taking the works tiie 
comjianv has laid a half-mile of mains and intend laying three 
miles more, bringing the gas to many residences for which it 
was hitherto not ayailable. 

The Electric Light was added to the improyements of Peru 
October, 1885. The Thompson-Houston Company of Boston, 
Mass., put in a twenty-tiye light machine as a trial plant, operat- 
ing it with power furnished by Miller's mill. July i, 1886, V. 
Q. Iryine, of Crawfordsyille, purchased the plant and the ground 
and building, where now located on the canal next to the canal 
mill. He put in an 85-horse-power engine, a 112-horse-power 
boiler, and two nominal twent\'-tive light d\'namos, with an actual 
capacity of 55 lights. They are now running near their full ca- 
pacity, lighting stores, the depot and part of the streets. 

JVezi'spapcrs. — The press dates its existence in Peru from 
1S37, when an association of citizens was formed, the press and 
material purchased of the Richmond Palladiinii, and Samuel 
Pike, of Fort Wayne, put in charge. From Jul}' 22, 1837, to 
January, 1839, it continued, and then followed, one after another, 
and printed with the same press and materials: Peru Gazette, 
James B. Scott and Augustus Banks, a Whig paper, July 20, 1839, 
to April 16, 1842; Peru Gazette Veru Democrat, a double pa]5er, 
half Whig and half Democrat, James B. and John H. Scott, 
editors from the last date to October 15, 1842; the Cork Screiu, 
humorous: the Peru Observer. Whig; the Peru Herald, Demo- 
cratic, and finally June 28, 1848, the JMianii County Sentinel, the 
oldest paper, still in existence here. Its publication from that time 
has not been uninterrupted, it being continuous until 1861, when it 
suspended for about two j'ears. During this period was pub- 
lished in 1854 fo'" ''^bout a month a daily edition, the first daily 
published here. Graham was succeeded by W. B. Loughridge, 
he in turn "by McDowell, Loughridge again in 1867. The next 
few years ; the changes of firm ayeraged nearly one a year. The 
Daily and Weekly Times, started by T. J. McDowell & Sons, 1874, 
was for a time consolidated with the Sentinel under the name 
Times-Sentinel, then again separated and continued for a few years. 
The Sentinel was run by Ewing & Maxey, and they \\ere sue- 


ceeded by S. F. Winter, who continued for about three years. 
For the past six j-ears Fulwiler & Cole have been the editors and 
proprietors. To go back to the time just following the establish- 
ment of the Sciit/iiel, and we begin with the second printing press 
ever brought here. Its products w'ere all Whig — J^rce Press^ 
1852; IVdhas/i Olio, 1853; Rcfiihlicau Ar<;yts, 1854: Peru Aezvs, 
1855, all forerunners of the Peru Rcpuhlicau. That paper, still 
published, was started b}- E. P. Loveland October 9, 1856, and un- 
' furled above its columns the motto, " Liberty and Union, One and 
Inseparable, Now and Forever." where it remained until the con- 
clusion of the war. Other proprietors followed before one of the 
present owners became interested in it as one of the tirm of Reed 
& Brown, March, 1868. After Mr. Reed had been for a few years 
alone, Mr. Sinks became a partner in 1873. His place was taken 
bv W. W. Lockwood, the lirm being now Reed & Lockwood. 
Besides the pioneer dailv of 1856, there was published in 1874 a 
daih' edition of the Times. This and a later daih' enterprise failed 
to find sufficient support. In the summer of 1884 the Daily your- 
nal was started by Crowder & Miller, continued by C. F. Crowder, 
who was joined bv Ezra Roe. Richard Kilgore continued the 
paper, and January i, 1887, C. F. Crowder, one of the founders, 
and Wm. Brenton, purchased the office. 

T/ie Catholic Church, first in point of members to-dav, was 
first to build a church edifice. The first services were occasionally 
held bv Priests who came from Bardstown, Kv. Father Badin vis- 
ited Peru from 1834 ^^ ^^37. During this time, in 1835, the first 
church was built on two lots, donated by the proprietors of the 
town. In the summer of this year the Rev. John Corcorass, on one 
of his visits, died after a brief illness and is buried in Revburn's 
grave\ard. Rev. M. Ruff, priest of the diocese of St. Mncennes, 
visited Peru in 1837. From 1837 to '42 Father M. J. Clark was 
the first resident pastor, but only for a time. After him the occa- 
sional visits were resumed bv Maurice St. Palais, and continued dur- 
ing the time from 1842 to 1845. He was one of the pioneer Priests 
and his territory embraced-three States, from Vincennes to Chicago 
and Detroit. He had been ordained priest 1836, appointed 
Vicar General, Administrator 1848, Bishop of Vincennes 1849 
(now diocese of Indianapolis), and died from apoplexv June 28, 
1877, at St. Mary's of the Woods, near Terre Haute, where he 
was attending commencement. 1846 Father Fisher, '48 to '52 
Father McDermot, '52 to '57 Father F. A. Carius, '57 to '60 Father 
C. A. Zucker, April 15, i860. Rev. Bernard Force took permanent 
charge of the congregation, building the parsonage, at a cost of 
$2,000, and under him the Catholic cemeterv was bought and con- 
secrated. January i, 1864, Re\\ Bernard Kroeger succeeded him. 
Under him was built the present brick .church in 1865, at a cost of 


$21,000. He was followed by Father Lamour Oct. i, 187 1, to 
Sept. 8, 1875. , The lirst frame church, erected in 1835 which had 
been for years used as the Catholic school house, burned during 
his incumbency and was replaced by the present brick building 
at a cost of $16,000. Father Lamour was succeeded b}' Rev. 
Ilenr}- Meissner. the present pastor. Owing to the large outla\- 
necessary to rebuild the school house, and the hopes frustrated by 
the financial crisis through which the country had just passed, 
the congregation on his arrival was in debt to the amount of * 
$16,350. Through the liberal and united efforts of the people 
the last note was paid December 23, 1886, and Father Meissner 
had the pleasure of announcing to them New Year's Day 1887, 
that the church was free from debt. Besides the recrular con- 
gregation Father Meissner has spiritual charge of the Sisters of 
Providence at the school, seven in number, and of the Sisters 
of St. Francis, five in number, who are emplo\'ed as nurses at 
Peru Hospital of the Wabash Railroad. The total membership 
of the church is about 1.500. The church property, embracing 
a quarter of a square, is on the northwest corner of Miami and 
Fifth street. 

A school has been for vears connected with the church. 
As earl}' as the pastorate of Father M. J. Clark (1837-42), a 
school was established. The Reverend Father was a cultured 
gentleman, revered bv the entire communitv and children of all 
denominations attended the school. The school was then, for a 
long time, discontinued. Prior to the pastorate of Father i'"orce 
a school was taught for a few months bv G. Volkert, a Badin- 
ese student, in a house on 5th street, opposite the residence of 
Rev. W. L. Huffman. Father Force opened a school in the 
church building, Mr. Franz Edtler being the first teacher. He 
was a great favorite with both parents and children, leading his 
pupils on delightful excursions into the woods and entering into 
their enjoyment. Many non-Catholic children attended the 
school, especiallv on account of the instruction in German. The 
school increasing. Miss Mary Force, sister to Father Force, 
became an assistant. Prof. Edtler left Peru to accept the position of 
organist in the Fort Wayne Cathedral, which place he held until 
his death, a period of nearly twentv-five 3"eara. He was suc- 
ceeded as teacher by \'ictor Stevens who continued after Father 
Kroeger took the place of Father Force, being assisted until this 
change by Miss Force, who removed with her brother, after 
which Mr. Stevens was unaided. When under Father Kroeger the 
new church was built, the old building was used exclusively as a 
school. The desks were remodeled, a little later the school-room 
enlarged, singing made obligatory and the list of students increased. 
When Mr. Stevens resigned his position Mr. Theo. F. Wolfram was 


engaged, an excellent and systematic teacher. About Hie begin- 
ning of 1S67 he gave up the school and was succeeded by Miss M. 
Kinney, late of St. Mary's, Notre Dame. Other teachers about 
this time, in rapid succession and in part co-jointly were Thomas 
Miller, a Peruvian and an almunus of Notre Dame, Mr. John Schenk 
of North Vernon, Ind., and the imperishable Prof. Dr. Rudolph 
Ladislac Mueller, of Zanizow, the most popular teacher of the 
old regime, whose life reads like a romance. The second son of an 
• ancient baronial famil}- of Pomerania, the playmate of Pi'ince Otto 
Von Bismarck, at sixteen he bore a commission as lieutenant, at 
eighteen was professor in ordinary of mathematics in a Prussian mili- 
tary acadeni}-, at twenty lilled the chair of history, and at twent\'-one 
disinherited for professing the Catholic faith, enlistefl in the 
the English army, and bound for the Cape, in consequence of a 
mutiny was cast bj' fate upon these shores. He engaged in min- 
ing speculations in \'irginia and Pennsylvania, lost all he possessed, 
including a private library of 5,000 volumes, accepted a professor- 
ship in St. Vincent's College, Westmoreland County, Pennsyhania, 
taught the languages, in which he conversed fluentlv to th& number 
of fifteen, lectured on Geology and Ethnology, and became eccentric 
in his manners. He sought Father Kroeger. who had at one time 
been his pupil, and offered to teach the parish school, which he did 
for the space of foin- years, when Bishop Dwenger who esteemed 
highly his vast erudition, besought him to accept a professorship in 
the chief college of the Bishop's own order, which he did, and died 
there recenth', 1S85, in the habit of a monk, full of years and in 
great peace of soul. The doctor was the last teacher, of both girls 
and boys under the old system. Under Father Kroeger^ about 
1870, the Ursuline Nuns of Louisville, Ky., took charge of the 
girls' school and were succeeded in 1S74 by the Siste-rsof Provi- 
dence. They took charge of the boys' school also, Sept. I, 1881, 
the last lay teacher of the boys being Mr. Frank Horn. In the 
school at present are 300 pupils and seven teachers engaged in 
teaching, including the musical and painting departments. 

The Prcsbxtcrlan Church was organized Thursda\', November 
26, 1835, 'It the house of William N. Hood, and consisted of thir- 
teen members. Rev. Samuel Newbur\-, the first minister of the 
church, presided. For a time the meetings were held in the house 
where orf^anized, then in a double loEf cabin, remodeled into one 
large room on West Fifth street: then in the Smith school house on 
West Second street, the first school house in the county. Rev. 
Newbury divided his time between Peru and Wabash. During 
the year 1836 a church building was erected on the present church 
lot. John W. Timberlake and Henry Robinson being the carpenters. 
This was probabh" the first Protestant house of worship in the county, 
although the Methodist Church was in process of erection at the same 


time. During this time uas organized a Sabbath School, tiien, and 
for several years, the onh- one in the county. October, 1837, 
Re\\ Asa Johnson, the second pastor, took charge of the 
church, the Rev. Newbury giving all his time until Jul}', 1838, 
when he removed to the interests of the " Peru Collegiate Insti- 
tute." For a time Mr. Johnson preached on alternate Sabbaths, 
di\iding liis time over foiu" counties. In the winter of '42 and 
'43 a successfid protracted meeting was held. The Court House 
burning March, 1S43, court was for two 3'ears held in this 
church. From its erection to 1850 the church served the pur- 
pose of a town hall. Rev. Asa Johnson was succeeded with a 
few months' interval by Rev. Milton Starr, July 15, 1849, ^"^ 
he continued in charge of the chinxh two years. During this 
time the building was moved from the blocks of wood back on 
the lot and placed on a solid foundation. The store box steps 
and store box pulpit, covered with calico and green baize, were 
replaced, lamps took the place of tallow candles, and the church 
generallv improved. Mr. Starr ceasing the summer of 185 1, the 
pulpit for a vear was vacant. Rev. S. F. McCabe commenced 
his ministry Jul\' 10, 1852, and remained for fifteen years. The 
membership of the church when he began was about tifty. 
The salar}' was a little over $250. In the fall of 1854 '^'^^ pres- 
ent church was begun, and dedicated July 4, 1S5S. During his 
ministry in Peru Mr. McCabe preached 1,277 sermons in his own 
pulpit, baptized 177 persons, othciated at 282 funerals, and received 
into the church 210 persons. Mr. McCabe resigned May 20, 
1867, and removed to Illinois, thence to Topeka, Kansas. Rev. 
Everett B. Thomson commenced February 2, 1S68, and continued 
one year. April i, 1869, the Second Presb^'terian Church formed 
a union with the First, the history of which has thus far been 
followed. September 5, 1869, Rev. Henry L. Brown began, 
continuing one \ear. During this year unusually sticcessful reviv- 
als were held in this and the other churehes of the city, result- 
ing in 62 additions to this church. Rev. Samuel Wyckoff entered 
upon his duties Nov. 4, 1870, and continued until July, 1874. 
During this time the church was enlarged and improved and the 
lecture room built. The church was re-dedicated January 19, 
1873. Rev. J. B. Parmelee began his service October i, 1874. 
In April, 1876, he resigned, procured a letter of dismission from 
the Presb)-tery, and was the first minister of the Congregational 
Church, which continued for some years. Mav i, 1877, Rev. 
Matthew M. Whitford accepted the call of the church and was 
installed a few months later, being the only installed pastor. He 
continued to December 31, 1882. Rev. L. P. Marshall entered 
upon his duties July i, 1883, and continued to the present time. 
Thursday and Friday, November 26 and 27, 1885, was held the 


Jubilee, or tiftieth anniversary of the church's organization. The 
meetings were largely attended and were full of interest. G. I. 
Reed, editor of the Rcfuhlican, read a sketch on the history of 
Peru and J. H. Fetter a verv complete history of the Presbyter- 
ian Church, from which most of these facts are taken. A remi- 
niscence meeting was held, participated in by many, and letters were 
read from a number of the ex-pastors. The church is now entirely 
out of debt and in vigorous condition. The membership of the 
church is 256: of the Sunday School, about 180. 

The Methodist Church.— In 183 1 Col. Wm. M. Reyburn re- 
turned from Ohio and settled near Miamisport. He was a local 
preacher and at the request of Mrs. Dalla Moore, Mrs. Pendleton, 
Mrs. Jackson, Mr. Ilurst and a few others he organized a class 
meeting, and occasionally preached and held prayer meetings. With 
this organization in view the Methodist church would be entitled to 
the priority of age in Peru. In 1S32 this little band was reinforced 
by George S. Fenimore and wife, and several others. It was prob- 
ably this same year that the society was officially recognized by 
Rev. Miles Huffaker and reported to the annual conference. When 
Miamisport was deserted for the new town of Peru this little class 
was known as the Methodist Societ\' of Peru. It held its meetings 
at Matthew Fenimore's and besides Col. Re\burn, A. A. Tarking- 
ton, another local preacher, held services in this tavern. At the 
same time that the Presbyterian church was building, fall of 1835 
and spring of 1836, Geo. Fenimore and John Garrol put up the first 
Methodist church on Third street. It was ceiled with boards, and 
neither plastered nor painted. A wooden chandelier, on the arms 
of which candles were stuck, hung suspended b}' a rope which ran 
up through a hole in the ceiling. Through this hole and down the 
rope the playful mice would come and dine on the savory tallow. 
The country around was now organized as Peru Circuit, and the 
era of circuit riding began. An approximately correct list of the 
preachers in this period is as follows: Miles Huffaker, '35-'36; 
Burris Westlake, '36-'37; September 24, 1836, Rev. Jacob Col- 
clazer, so long identified with this communit}-, was licensed, in the 
little Third street church, to preach, by the Rev. Richard Hargrove 
and recommended for admission into the traveling connection; — 
Merchon '37; — Reed '38; John F. Truslow '37; Wm. Wheeler, 
Wm. Stonax, and Nelson Green, '42-'44; — Beach '46: E. Hold- 
stock '47: John F. Donaldson '48. In 1849 '^'^ the country appoint- 
ments were stricken off and Peru was made a station. Re\'. W. 
L. Huffman was sent as the first station preacher and organized the 
first station. Steps were at once taken towards the erection of a 
new church and the present Main street church was erected. The 
subscription for that purpose was contributed to b\- citizens of all 
denominations and paid in wood, plaster, work, brick, '-shoemaking," 


groceries, or cash as most convenient. At this time the lirst large 
revival was held, and lOO were added to the church. About i860 
the charge was di\ided by the conference, and Third street church 
was formed. A nCUt brick church was built, which proved too 
small, and the Second Presbyterian church, corner Miami and Main 
streets, was purchased and remodeled. The name of the charge 
was then changed to St. Paul's, in 1870, Rev. C. W. Miller 
being pastor at that time. He was followed bv W. F. Walker 
in 1872-3-4, who departed from here to the North China mis- 
sion. Charels E. Disbro, the last pastor of St. Paul's, was here 
in 1874-5. To return to the Main street church; it continued to 
prosper under the following ministers: C. W. Miller '51; F. A. 
Hardin '53; H. B. Beers '55; H. Phillips '56; T. Habler '57; 

A. S. Lakin '59: D. F. Stright '61; W. R. Kisder '64; J. Col- 
clazer '66; W. J. Vigus '68: W. E. McCarthy '70; R. Toby 
'71; Augustus H. Tevis '72; W. R. Jordan '74. It wiis at this 
time that the two charges were united, neither of the old. minis- 
ters returning and J. C. Makin being the lirst minister of the 
united church. The ministers since have begun their work on the 
following dates: H. J. Lacey '77; J. Colclazer '78: C. H. Brown 
'80; W. H. Daniels '83; A. S. Wooten '85. The value of the 
present church propertv is $10,000. The membership of the 
Sunday Scliool is 275, that of the Church 350. 

T/te J£piscopal Chttrch was organized hrst 1846 under the 
name of St. James parish. Every evidence pointed to a vigor- 
ous church. The Rev. Mr. Brown, a man very popular with 
the people of the community, had charge of the congregation, 
and the services were held over store rooms. Unfortunately he 
was called home to the East, and, his place being unsupplied, 
the organization was abandoned. In 1870 the people of the 
church began regular meetings under the charge of Rev. W. N. 
Dunham in the rooms in second storv, northwest corner Main 
and Broadwav, and December 9th an organization was made 
under the name Trinity Church. Ma\-, 187 1, the present lot 
was purchased and steps taken for the erection of a building. 
October, 1872, the building was opened. May i, 1873, Mr. 
Dunham's place- was taken by Rev. John Henry Weddell, who 
continued to May, 1875. He was in September followed by 
Rev. Andrew Mackie, and he, with some interval, bj- Rev. 
David L. Trimble, who served this parish, in connection with 
Delphi, until Februar}-, 1881. The church was vacant until 
November, 1882, when Rev. J. E. Martin was employed. The 
church was doing well under his charge, but January-, 1884, he 
resigned with the consent of the vestrj-. July, 1884, Rev. W. 

B. Burke was emploved and continues to the present time. 

The Jtvaii^rlicii/ Lutheran Church. — As early as 1849 ^'^''" 


vices were held here by Rev. Sturken, then of Loyansport. 
The congregation being, however, too small, he discontinued for a 
year, when he again began, and Re\'. Jungle also preaclied here. 
The church was regularly organized in 1859' and Rev. II. Ilorst 
called to the pastorate. He, after a short time, receiving 
another call, Rev. Sturken again preached to the congregation, 
and it was at this time that the first church was built, a small 
brick building on Second street, near Hood. In 1864, Mr. 
Sturken receiving a call to Baltimore, the services were held b}' 
Rev. Jox, also of Logansport, and his assistant, Rev. G. A. 
Hinkle. The latter received a call from Sturgis, Mich., in 1869, 
and the former, on account of too much work, could not attend 
to this church, so. Rev. Stricter was called and became settled 
pastor, remaining until 1873, when he responded to a call from 
Proviso, Illinois. In August of the same year. Rev. C. A. Ger- 
man became pastor. Under him was built, in 1875, the present 
church, corner of Main and Fremont. It is a fine brick build- 
ing, 40 feet wide, 75 long and with a spire 125 feet high. The 
bell is the largest in the city, and a fine pipe organ adds to the 
interior. The cost was about $11,000. The old church has 
since been used as a school building, where Mr. Feussner 
teaches about seventv children. Rev. German, in 1883, received 
a call to Utica, N. Y., and March, 1S84, Rev. H. Diemer, the 
present incumbent, began his work. The membership has increased 
from eight or ten to seventy-five \oting members, which repre- 
sents about 175 communicants. The Church is in good financial 

The Baptist Chtirch. — A meeting July 18, 1866, of those 
interested, organized a Baptist conference preparatory to organiz- 
ing a Baptist Church. Those participating were: F. M. Bacon, 
M" H. Waters, David DeLawter, E. H. Shirk, Moses Mercer, 
Rev. A. Virgil, H. J. Shirk, George Geves, Sarah Bacon. M. 
T. Waters, H. S. DeLawter, Mary Shirk, H. A. Mercer, Min- 
erva Shirk, Ellen Geves. 

Oct. 3, 1 866 a council met, pastors of a number of churches in 
Northern Indiana being present and formally recognized the newly 
established church. Rev. A. Virgil was in charge from organiza- 
tion until May, 1867, Rev. John Trennamon July 1867, to July 
1869, during which time the church building and parsonage were 
undertaken. The lecture room being occupied Jan. i, 1869. The 
meetings before this had for a time been in rooms over a store on 
Broadwav, opposite the court house, and then in the Presbyterian 
Church building then vacant on Main street. Rev. F. D. Bland, 
of Indianapolis, began Julv, 1869 and found the church membership 
28. six of whom were non-residents. He was a man of enthusiasm 
and verv successful as a revivalist. During his first vear 108 were 


baptised aiul 142 were added to the church. The church building 
being completed during this j'ear was dedicated the first Sabbath in 
1870. The cost of the church, parsonage and grounds was $22- 
000, In Xo\ember, 1870, Rev. Bland resigned. In response to a 
repeated call, Rev. Geo. E. Leonard came, taking charge of the 
church Ma\' 5, 1871 and continued until Jan, i, 1882, at which time 
he accepted the position of Secretary of the Ohio Baptist State Con- 
vention, where he still is. March 5, iSS2,the Rev. B. F. Cavins, 
then from New Albany, preached his first sermon and has since re- 
mained with the church. A fine pipe organ has been put in, the 
church and lecture room frescoed and carpeted, and the church gen- 
erallv has prospered under his care. The Sundav School is well at- 
tended ever Sundav morning. The church membership at the close 
of the church year, May, 1886 was 327. 

The A. AI. E. Church had as its first minister. Elder Patterson 
and meetings were held in the engine house. The present church 
on Third street was dedicated, August, 1874, ^"^ which time Rev. 
Robinson Jeffries was pastor. The only stationed minister ever 
here was the Rev. Wm. Knight in 1875. The congregation being 
small has generallj' been served in connection with some other 
charsre. Alto<rether there have been i 'X ministers here. The 
present one, J. W. Collins, is everv second week at Wabash. The 
church propert^• is worth about $2,500. 

In Secret Orders Peru is well supplied, there being 24 lodges, 
chapters, &c., at present here. The first in point of time was the 
Miami Lodge, 67, F. & A. M. It was organized about June iS44in 
upper storv of of the brick building used as the toll house at the 
bridge. It was instituted bv Logansport and Tipton lodges and 
worked under dispensation until the claarter was granted, May 29, 
1848. The names of the earliest members were; Col. Wm. M. 
Reyburn, the first Master; Isaac Marquis, the first Senior Warden; 
Richard L. Britton, the first Junior Warden: Geo. L. Dart, Secre- 
tar}'; John M, Jackson, Treasurer; John Bush, Senior Deacon; 
James Douglass, Judge Potter, Albert Cole, Peter Long and 
Matthew Fennimore. The earliest members taken in were: first, 
Moses Falk; second, Aaron Scott; third, A. Keiser; fourth Michael 
Lang. Thev occupied the room where they organized three or 
four years, then rented of the Odd Fellows. The}- fitted up a 
room in a new three storv building on the south-west corner of Second 
and Broadwav which burned six months later. They then again 
used the Odd Fellows hall, situated then where Deibert's grocery is, 
about three vears, then fitted up a room across the street now 70, 
south Broadway. About 12 years ago they fitted up the present 
lodge room. Their numbers have increased steadilv. They furnish 
most of the members who organized the Peru Lodge. The masons 
in Peru besides the two lodges named have for vears maintained a 


chapter and the council of Royal and Select Masters organized Feb. 
9, 1886, with Lvman Walker, as Illustrious Master. 

Miami Ldiiu^c, jVo. 32, I. O. O. /\— The oldest lodi,re of 
the order in Peru, was organized JanuarY 13, 184S, with the follow- 
ing charter members : DaYid Charters, James M. Reyburn, Brown 
McCIintic, John Reid, Augustus Hunter, John Pasmore and M. R. 
Crabill. Since its organization the lodge has admitted 396 mem- 
bers, and its present membership is 94. The lodge owns its own 
hall, has money enough to pa)- all demands, and has $1,250 loaned 
on good security. From January i to NoYember i, 1886, the lodge 
paid $750 for six benefits and charitable purposes. The Peru 
Lodge and Peru Encampment are later growths of the Order. The 
Lessing, a German lodge of the Order, was organized April, 1873. 
The Daughters of Rebekah, maintained bY the ladies, is in a flour- 
ishing condition. 

The Patriarch Militant, uniformed rank of Odd Fellowship, is a 
new degree. Peru Canton, No. 20, was organized August 25, 
1886, with 26 charter members, W. K. Armstrong, Captain. 

VV. B. Rcvlmrn Post, jVo. jd, Dcpartmcut of Indiana, G. 
A. R., was organized in Kumler's Hall, April 10, 1882, with a char- 
ter membership of 57. J. R. Carnahan. Department Commander, 
officiating. The tirst commander installed was Louis B. Fulwiler. 
The present membership is 144, who represent eleYen states. 
Michigan, Connecticut and West Virginia haYe each one regiment 
represented: New Jersey and Missouri each one caYalry regiment; 
Iowa, two; New York, three; Penns\lYania, tive: Illinois, one bat- 
tei'}' and six infantrY regiments; Ohio, sixteen, and Indiana, sixty- 
three, fifty-two of which are infantry-, seYcn caYalry and four bat- 
teries. The 99th Regiment lias eleYen representatiYes; the 13th, 
eleYen; the 151st, nine: the 155th, seYcn. The Post has taken part 
in four decoration ser^•ices, four camp-tires, and, as a bodY, has 
attended re-unions at Miami, DenYer, Macy, Bunker Hill and 
Wabash. The Post has furnished one Junior Department Com- 
mander, W. F. Daly. 

Hercules Lodge, Xo. 127, Knights of Pythias, instituted 
August 14, 1885, with 84 charter members. At the institution 
were present representatiYes of the Huntington, Kokomo, Marion, 
Logansport and Indianapolis lodges. They at once fitted up a 
lodge room oYer the Postoffice, 62 S. Broadway. The present 
membership is OYcr 100. The uniform rank, K. of P., was organ- 
ized in Peru, August 17, 1886, with 38 members. Louis N. 
Andrews, Captain. Many were present from a distance and a ban- 
quet was giYen in Bradley's Hall. 

The Knights of Honor, Knights of Maccabees, Royal 
Arcanum, two Councils of the National Union, two assemblies of 
the Knights of Labor, and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engin- 


eers are maintained here, besides a number of benevolent organiza- 
tions not belonging to secret orders. 

Militarv Organizations. — The lirst company was the Peru 
IMues, organized almost the first j-ear of the town, A. M. Higgins, 
Captain, and Vincent O'DonakL Sr., First Lieutenant. The com- 
pany consisted of most of the young men of the community. Its 
notable exploits seem to have been two in number. The first was 
taking" part in the patriotic celebration July 4, 1836, the day's festi- 
vities ending with the explosion of a gun in the hands of O'Donald, 
the first Heutenant, only slightly injuring him, but resulting in lock- 
jaw and death in about two weeks. The second exploit was march- 
ing to the scene of difficulty with some Indians on the Pottawattomie 
payment grounds on the Tippecanoe, near Rochester. Not a mo- 
ment faltered they, but the campaign was bloodless as either their 
presence or the efforts of diplomacy quieted the difficulty. This 
was the famous battle of Chippewanoc, the cause of many a smile 
to our older citizens. The next military company for peaceful pur- 
poses was the Reyburn Guards, organized February 25, 185S, G. 
A. Crowell, Captain, J. M. Reyburn, First Lieutenant, C. M. Wal- 
ker, Second Lieutenant. The}- at once uniformed handsomely in 
blue, and the same year organized, and conducted a big 4th of July 
celebration and ball which was largely attended from a distance, and 
at which they cleared $500. Cro\vell resigned and Reyburn 
became captain immediately after this. The next year, July 4th,' 
they, with the Teutonic Rifle Corps, now to be mentioned, attended 
a big encampment and celebration at Lafayette, at which were pres- 
ent eleven companies. The Teutonic Rifle Corps was organized 
about the same time as the guards with Julius Kloenne, Captain, 
Henry Kranskoff, First Lieutenant, Wm. Rassner, Second Lieuten- 
ant. The uniform was dark green with light green trimmings. 
They numbered between 50 and 60 members, all Germans. They 
were preceded by two pioneers, Philip Gahs and Jake Louis, wear- 
ing big drum-major hats and carrying axes. When wrought up 
by the martial spirit they sang a song the chorus of which ran : 

• "De Dutch coinpanee is de best coiniianee, 

Dat ever come over from the ohl coiiiitree." 

At the Lafayette encampment the\' had the glory of an award 
for tiieir excellent drill and soldierly bearing. These companies had 
nearly if not quite ceased their ineetings some time before the open- 
ing of the war, and the demand for their arms, and the enlistment 
of many of their members, was the end. Just after the war Cap- 
tain Wm. Wallick organized the Peru Zouaves, uniformed in red, 
and continued for a ^■ear or two. The Peru Grays, Captain Jack, 
was organized in 1875, spent a week in camp at Put-in-Bay, 
responded to a call by Gov. Hendricks in 1876 to quell some 


troubles in the southern part of the State, but only went as far as 
Indianapolis. In 1S77 they disbanded. The Peru Light Infantry 
organized December 1SS2, H. F. Bolev, Captain, continued for 
about two years. The Peru Zouaye Cadets organized Noyem- 
ber 1884, with 56 members, boys^from 14 to 20, Ed. Maxwell, 
Captain. They \vent to the 3d regiment encampment at 
LaPorte, August, 1885, and took first honors in the regiment. 
Disbanded Noyember, 1886. Gatling Gun Detachments Nos. i and 
2 were organized in the fall of 1885, and July, 1S86, respectiyely. 

Literary Societies and Public Libraries haye to some extent 
shaped the deyelopment of the communitv. The first "Lyceum *' 
was in the yery infancy of the to\\ n, being organized August 10, 
1837. It continued its discussions for some years, dealing with the 
highest questions of goyernment and philosophy. Of the members 
who still suryiye are N. O. Ross, L. D. Adkinson, John A. Gra- 
ham. J. B. Fulwiler and J. S. Fenimore. For some time after it 
ceased its meetintrs, there seems to haye been nothinsr of the char- 
acter indicated by the heading of this paragraph. It consisted of a 
good selection of standard books, which were for years kept in 
the Recorder's office. On the page of the yellow, dusty record 
can be traced the tastes and character of many a prominent Peru 
citizen. The books became scattered, the library fell into disuse, 
and in 1881 the remnants, consisting of a few yaluable books and 
a great many agricultural reports, were gladly handed oyer to the 
Peru High School, where they now are. The Miami County 
Workingmen's Institute was organized the latter part of 1856, the 
Town Council pursuing inquiries through a committee as to what 
had become of the " Corporation Library " ( never before men- 
tioned in the record ), after publishing notices and hiring " a boy — 
Ira Myers " — for three days to gather books, succeeded in getting 
together 140 yolumes. These were turned oyer to the Peru 
Township Trustee to add to the Township Library. The record 
of the latter begins with that year, 1S56. 

Taking adyantage of the terms offered by the will of Mr. 
McClure, of New Harmony, Posey County, who proyided that Jf 
an institute should be formed of " persons who labor with their 
hands and earn their liying by the sweat -of their brow," and con- 
tribute 100 yolumes, he would donate them $500. The earliest 
remaining record of a meeting is February 17, 1857, and for about 
three years they maintained semi-monthly and monthly meetings, 
the discussions partaking somewhat of the nature of a Hterary 
society. The constitution proyided for lectures, and at one time 
the society authorized the secretary, J. W. Shields, to correspond 
with Bayard Taylor, and how near this distinguished literary 
man came to addressing a Peru audience may be seen from the 
following reply. 


ViNCKXNKs, FcliniMry 10, IS.")'.). 
DE.\n Sir: It is quite impossililo. All nij' time up to the end of April \v;is 
engaged near three months ago, and I have since lieeu obliged to decline 150 
additional invitations. Very tndy yours, B.vvard Tayi.ok. 

The Institute made no further attempt to secure lecturers. 
The hist recorded meeting was March 2, i860, and, in the exciting 
years which followed, the organization was abandoned. Just be- 
fore the last meetings, the library was removed from the special 
room to the gallery of H. G. Fetter, and some jears later by 
him handed over to Dr. W. H. Gilbert, who has kept it in 
exxellent condition and still has it. The legal status of it is that 
it is the property of no one unless the old members, many of 
whom are still here, should reorganize the institute. The char- 
acter of the books was excellent, and the record shows a veiy 
dilligent use of them. Among the names, with the occupation 
stated by which they "sweat to earn their bread," are: Jonathan 
Statesman, wagonmaker; John W. Timberlake, carpenter: Peter 
Keegan, shoemaker, John Mitchell, tailor; J. M. Stutesman, sad- 
dler; C. Griggs, harnessmaker; John H. Jamison, cabinetmaker. 

For a number of years we find no literary organizations. 
In the winter of 1877-78 f course of lectures was successfully 
carried on by some enterprising citizens, which encouraged the 
fortnation October, 1S78. of the Peru Lecture Association, with 
capital stock of $5°° '" ^^ty shares of $10 each. The first 
president was R. P. Efhnger, the first secretary G. E. Leonard. 
The organization was maintained until Januaiy, 1883, during 
which time were furnished twenty-eight lectures and musical and 
literary entertainments, including Helen Potter, Theodore Tilton, 
Marj' A. Lixermore, J. W. Riley and other noted lecturers. 
The Opera House being completed December, 1882, philosophy, 
music, and literature went down before the popularity of the 
funny play and high tragedy, and the Association discontinued. 
Early in 18S4 in the study of the Presbyterian church was organ- 
ized a society for the study of literature, Rev. L. P. Marshall 
president. That spring and in the winter of 1884-85 the orig- 
inal plan was strictly pursued. In October, 1885, it was reor- 
ganized as a Chautauqua reading circle, under tlie name "The 
Hoosier C. L. ^. C, of Peru." It is now in its second year, 
with a membership of twenty, Miss Eileen Ahern, president. 
During the winter of 1884-85 the society, generally known as 
the Episcopal Literary Society, was organized, Rev. Wm. Burke 
president, and studied Shakspeare, the next winter studied gen- 
eral history and the present winter are studying general liter- 
ature. The society meets at the houses of members. October, 
1886, was organized the Vincent Cliautauqua reading circle, com- 
posed mosth', but not exclusivel\-, of members of the Methodist 


congregation, with a membership of twenty, Ed. T. Gregg, pres- 
ident. The same month was organized the Philomathean ^^lovers 
of learning) Chautauqua circle, through the efforts of Rev. B. 
F. Cavins, and though the youngest, is now the largest circle, 
numbering thirty members. They meet at the Baptist church, 
the meeting nhrht of all the circles beintr Monday. In the matter 
of musical ortranizations there has been little outside of the reor- 
ularly maintained church choirs. During the war musical and 
dramatic entertainments were frequent, but the Peru Choral 
Union, about 1872, with J. W. Shields, director, was the tirst 
regular organization. It was maintained about a year, giving an 
entertainment and old folks concert. In January, 1886, was or- 
ganized the Peru Musical Association, with W. E. M. Brown as 
director. For a half year it did good work, its abandonment at 
present being due to the removal of the director. 

T/ic J^/rst JWjtioiial Bank was organized April, 1S64, under 
the law of February 25, 1863, authorizing national banks. E. H. 
Shirk was the first president and continued until his death, 1886. 
The first directors were E. H. Sha-k, Robt. Miller, James Hol- 
lenshade, Jacob Kreutzer, Geo. L. Dart, W. M'. Constant, Abra- 
ham Leed\. The capital stock was $75,000, afterwards increased 
to $100,000. The first building occupied was a small frame 
building located between Third and Main, on West side of 
Broadway, but soon after organization removed to present loca- 
tion opposite public square. There is at present a large surplus 
fund in addition to capital stock. The officers are: President, 
Milton Shirk; Vice President, Elbert W. Shirk; Cashier, R. A. 
Edwards; Teller, G. R. Chamberlain. 

The Citizens^ A^aticnial Bank was the outgrowth of the pri\ate 
bank of Bonds, Hoagland & Co., organized February, 1S67. 
This in July, 187 1, was changed to the present corporation and 
present name, under the national banking laws. It was composed 
of nearly the same parties as the former bank, with some addi- 
tions. The first Board of Directors was: D. C. Darrow, A. C. 
Brownell, Wm. Smith, N. O. Ross, C. D. Bond, R. F. Donald- 
son, M. S. Robinson. Dr. Darrow was President until July, 
1883, when, he resigning, Chas. Brownell succeeded him. M. 
S. Robinson has been cashier continuoush'. The capital stock is 
$100,000, and the surplus $16,000. The room now numbered 6 
South Broadwa}' was occupied from first until September, 1S86, 
when the bank moved into its own new building, opposite the 
Court House. 

TJtc Tclcorafh bound Peru with the \\orld before the first 
railroad reached it. The canal line ran from Toledo through 
Lafayette to Indianapolis via Crawfordsville. The first operator 
was G. L. Daniels, who serving only a month, was succeeded by 


i S'ni^/K 



J. T. Henton, who served until January, 1853, beinq- succeeded by 
J. G. Dickey. In 1855, the Wabash Une along the railroad was 
established and the canal line abandoned. Jas. S. Duret was the 
first operator of this line and was succeeded by K. H. Wade, who 
is now General Superintendent of the Wabash Railway. The office 
was removed into the Citizens' Peru Bank building, Nov. 1886. Miss 
Alice Dunlap has been for some years the operator, and her ser- 
vices have been eminentlj- satisfactory to both companj^ and public. 

The Telephone Exchange was established June 13, 1881, the 
number of subscribers being 45. At present the number of sub- 
scribers is 70. Connections can be made with all Exchanges 
within 75 miles, and, under favorable circumstances, conversa- 
tion has been carried on with Louisville, Ky. The Exchange 
from the first has been in the telegraph office, removing with it 
to the new location. The present manager in Peru is Miss 
Bessie LaBonta. 

The Railroad Shofs were established in 1853, when this 
was the northern terminus of the Peru & Indianapolis R. R., 
then just building. The average number of men emploved in 
these shops was 40. In 1873, the shops, then under the man- 
agement of the I. P. & C, were removed to the present loca- 
tion, and the force increased to 130. When the road and shops 
passed into the hands of the Wabash, Sept., 1881, the force in- 
creased to 250. The shops on present location consist of Round 
House, capacit}- 15 stalls, area 33,210 square feet; Machine 
and Car Shops, 150 b}' 135 feet; Paint Shops, 153 by 45 feet; 
Blacksmith Shops, 105 by 36 feet: Freight Repair Shops, 200 
by 60 feet. The round house and main shops are brick, the 
repair shops, frame. There are in addition a number of build- 
ings and sheds for lumber, coal, ice, etc. Together the shops 
occupy an area of about ten acres. The business of these shops 
is the building, rebuilding and repairing of engines and cars. 
They are the most important industrv in Peru. 

The Woolen ]\filh have been, since their establishment in 1865, 
one of the important industries of Peru. The firm of H. E. & C. F. 
Sterne consisting of the two named and Henr}- Sterne, built the first 
mill on the canal. It was a "five set mill" consisting of five sets 
cards and about 1,500 spindles. They made flannels, jeans, blankets 
and yarns, and did custom work for farmers, a class of work no 
longer done. They employed from eighty to a hundred hands and 
were building up a prosperous business, mostly in the Western 
States. One afternoon in January 1868, the entire building and con- 
tents burned, being a loss of $100,000, on which the insurance was 
$30,000. It was probably caused by spontaneous combustion. 
With M. Oppenheimer added to the old firm as the "companv" 
they erected on their present location a building 300 by 66 feet and 


two Others which together are 300 by 44. This was a four set mill, 
now enlarged to a six set. In January, 1874, -'-'• Mergentheim 
became associated in the business. Feb. 1877, Henry Sterne went 
out and a new firm was organized, Harry W. Strouse taking his 
place. The mHl was enlarged to five sets cards and 1,900 spindles 
and looms with a capacity of 70 pieces at a time, no hands were 
employed and the trade was extended east and west. Of that firm 
H. E. Sterne died February, 1878, in Cincinnati, C. F. Sterne 
died August, 1879 in the same city, and M. Oppenheimer August, 
1885 in Philadelphia, where he had gone for his health. The 
present firm was organized June, 1886 and consists of L. Mergen- 
theim, II. W. Strouse and the estates of H. E. and C. F. Sterne. 
During the past fall the mills have been enlarged to six sets of ma- 
chinerv and 2,400 spindles. The fiim has always been financiallv 
in excellent standing and never missed a pay daj*. 

The Inciiaua Maniifactnriiig Coiiipaiiv, one of the most 
important industries of Peru, dates from 1870, when the Howe 
Machine Company, looking for a location for a factor}- for wood 
work, was induced to locate here. The name under which it 
began and continued for five years, was the Howe Factory. The 
first buildings had been completed but a short time when a fire 
occurred, destro3ing them almost entirely and occasioning the 
loss of two lives, E. P. Loveland and John Cummings, who wei^e 
caught by the falling roof while assisting to save the property. 
The shops were rebuilt in six months and, as before, some 500 or 
550 men were employed. In 1S75 a new compan\- was organ- 
ized under the name of The Indiana Manufacturing Compan}-. 
In 1 88 1 it passed into the hands of a receiver, Mr. A. N. 
Dukes, who has successfully conducted it since. Not connected 
especially with any machine company, sewing machine woodwork 
is made for 16 different companies. A large amount is shipped 
direct to foreign countries. The number of men employed is 
about 300 at present, and the value of the yearly product 

T/ic Basket Factory was built in 1872 by Gardiner, Blish & 
Co., who removed from Antioch in consideration of a donation 
by our citizens. This place was considered especially well sit- 
uated on account of the great plenty of elm timber found in this 
locality. In 1878, for some reason, the firm failed, J. M. Brown 
was appointed receiver, and it then passed into the hands of the 
Citizen's Bank. After standing idle for two years Lewis Benedict 
rented the building. April 18S2, Henton & Talbot purchased 
the interest of Benedict, and after eighteen months Henton with- 
drew and Frank M. Talbot continues to the present time. At 
the opening sixt}^ men were employed, the highest number at 
any time was 150, the present number ninety. The present 


product is exclusively baskets which are shipped to all parts of 
the country'. The daily capacity is 600 dozen. 

The Dow Factory, which promised to be so important an 
addition to the city, was established by B. F. Dow & Co., who 
had been manufacturing farm implements in Fowlerville, N. Y. 
The citizens donated ten thousand dollars to secure it. The 
buildings were erected in 1S80, and in Ma}' i88r, work was 
begun. The product was principally portable engines and thresh- 
ing machines and all kinds of repairs for farm implements. They 
were sold over a large territory, but collections being slow 
under the general depression of business at that time, the firm 
became deeper involved, and November 27, 1883, J. G. Blvthe 
was appointed receiver. He completed his last report the first 
■day of 1887. The buildings are well situated for manufacturing 
purposes and no doubt will be used in some way before long. 

The Mineral Waler Factory of A. Reed & Co., was 
established the Fall of 1880, by A. Reed. The product con- 
sists of the cooling drinks of Ginger Ale, Champagne Cider, 
Birch Beer, Cream Soda, and all kinds of pop. The territory 
supplied extends well over the State, the amount made being 
1,200 boxes (about 25 thousand bottles) a 3'ear. Five men are 
employed for this and the beer agency run in connection with it. 

Shearerh Ware House was established 1866, and is a building 
with the liberal capacity of 40,000 bushels of grain. It was 
built on the canal by which most of the shipping was at that 
time done. 

Wilkinson'' s Planing Mill was started by Dan. Wilkinson, 
who in i860, moved to Peru with a saw mill. This was located 
in the southwest part of the town; in 1865 was burned, mmedi- 
atel\- rebuilt, and sold in the Fall of 1867. The only planing 
mill then in Peru was that of Wampler & Kranzman, who suc- 
ceeded Coucher & Jamison, and which was located east, near 
the canal. Wilkinson erected a frame building on the lots at 
present occupied; in 1867 and 1872 it was burned, being a 
total loss, no insurance. The present brick building \\as 
immediately erected. The work done is mostly local, embrac- 
ing, however, the surrounding counties and some city work. 
In the spring of 1883, Walter Wilkinson became associated, and 
the tinu name is Wilkinson & Co. In building season ten men 
are employed. 

BrovjnclVs Planing Mill was started by John Mulhfield in 
connection with the lumber business and in partnership with 
New York parties, during the fall of 1879. In May, 1885, C. 
H. Brownell became owner, on the failure of the former man- 
agement. Charles Cox was made manager, and the mill is now 
doing an excellent business. From 12 to 15 men are employed. 


The First FoiDtdry was built by F. S. and George Hack- 
lev about 1843. Just before the war the present building was 
erected by the former, who continued the business until his 
death. It was then continued by his son Levant, then by 
Thomas Lovett. The firm of Lovett & Rettig, formed later, 
branched out extensivelv into the manufacture of agricultural 
implements. Last vear the foundrv was bought by A. J. Ross 
and now conducted bv him. 

M. F. Smith's j\Iachiuc Shop, Brass and Iron Foundry 
was established 1873. It is located corner Canal and Clay 
streets, and emplovs about nine men. 

Isaac Millers Roller Mill, on the railroad, is a descendant of 
the first mill in Peru, built on the feeder dam at the time 
the canal was made. The water power was exxellent, and for 
years the old stone burrs ground out the support of a good 
part of the countv. Having passed through various hands, Mr. 
Miller obtained it 1870. In 1876, the dam washed out and the 
mill was removed to the present location, more convenient for 
shipping, and is run b}- steam. In 1882-3 the improved roller 
machinery was put in. The capacity is lOO barrels per day, 
shipped mostlv in Indiana and Illinois, some however going as 
far as New York City. 

The Canal Roller Mill has been under the present man- 
agement of Jackson A. Neal onlv since February, 1886. He 
succeeded Collintine & Jackson. The mill is not a new insti- 
tution, but latel}- has put in the latest roller machinery and has a 
capacity for 75 barrels per day. 

The Peru Flax, Tow and Bagging Mill was started by 
John Coyle, spring of 187 1. Mr. Torrey, of New Jersey, joined 
him in 1872, and the bagging miU was built. A stock company 
purchased the mill some vears ago, and, with some changes, still 
run it. The product is mainly sold in the South, being used for the 
cotton crop. The mill affords employment to a number of men, 
women and children. 

In addition to these factories described are Ulrick's Wagon Fac- 
tory, Sullivan & Eagle, and Ellis Stiles & Co.'s Carriage Factories, the 
Cigar Factories of the Keeners, Webb and Arnold, and various 
shops, which together represent in the aggregate as great a por- 
tion of manufacturing interests as any city in the State. 


HON. LEWIS D. ADKISON, a prominent citizen and 
pioneer of Peru, is a native of Fa\ette Countv, Indiana, born 
about eight miles wt^st of Connersville, May 26th, 1816. His 
parents, Robert and Rebecca (Henderson) Adkison, were born 


in North and South Carolina respectively, of Irish lineage. The 
father in 1829 moved to Fountain County, where his death 
occurred one year later. The mother was born in the year 
1776, and departed this life on the 27th of August, 1846. 
Lewis D. Adkison, when thirteen years of age, accompanied 
his parents to Fountain Count}-, where for two years he worked 
on his father's farm. His early educational advantages were 
limited, being only those derived from attendance at the indifferent 
county schools of that period for about three months each year, 
until he arrived at the age of eighteen. He left home in the 
spring of 1S35, and went to Logansport, were he worked at 
brick making until the following Fall, at which time he came 
to Peru and secured employment on the Wabash and Erie 
Canal, then in progress of construction. After one year spent 
as workman on the canal Mr. Adkison accepted a clerkship 
in the mercantile house of D. R. Bearss, and later was engaged 
in the same capacity by Mr. Bearss' successor, Jacob Lindsey, 
acting as clerk in all about three years. In 1838, he was 
appointed by Governor Wallace Sheriff of Miami County to till 
the unexpired term of Asa Leonard, who died in office, and at 
the ensuing election in 1840 was chosen Sheriff, the duties of which 
position he discharged for about four years. On leaving the office he 
engaged in the plasters' and brick laying trades and after continuing 
the same for some four years, opened a general store in Peru, which 
he conducted with good success for sometime. He subse- 
quently abandoned that line of trade and for some ^■ears was 
engaged in the lumber business, which he carried on quite extensively 
in connection with a general hardware trade. In 1855 he dis- 
posed of his mercantile interests in Peru and emigrating to 
California opened a general store at Oak Valley, in the mines. 
He was subsequently elected Supervisor of Yuba County, that 
State, an office similar to that of County Commissioner in 
Indiana, and after serving one and a half years was chosen 
Sheriff, the duties of which office he discharged for about four 
years. In 1868 he returned to Indiana and settled in Fulton 
County, where, until 1874, ^^ ^^''^^ engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits, disposing of his farm at the end of that time and return- 
ing to Peru. In 1874-5 he was Assistant Doorkeeper of the 
Indiana State Senate, and in 1882 was elected State Senator 
from the counties of Miami and Howard. He took an active 
part in the deliberations of that body and served on some of 
the most important committees, among which were these: 
Banks and Banking. Public Printing, Public Buildings, Swamp 
Lands, Fees and Salaries, etc. Since the expiration of his 
term as legislator, Mr. Adkison has been engaged in the 
insurance business and loaning money at Peru. On December 


1 6th, 1840, he married Mrs. Lucy Davis, daughter of the late 
Judge Albert Cole, of Peru, by whom he had four children, only 
one of whom, Lucv A., wife of James H. Fetter, is living. Mr^. 
Adkison was born in the year 1820, and died March nth, 1885. 
Mr. Adkison was originally a Whig, but since the organization of 
the Republican party, he has been an ardent supporter of its prin> 
ciples. He is a member of the Presbyterian church and belongs 
to the Odd Fellows fraternity. 

NOTT N. ANTRIM," a prominent member of the Miami 
County bar and fourth son of Benjamin and Frances (Grey) 
Antrim, was born in Cass County, Indiana, on the 25th day of 
March, 1847. Left motherless at the age of four yeai-s and fath- 
erless at ten, he was early in life obliged to reh" almost wholly 
upon his own resources, and until attaining his majority worked on 
the farm, obtaining a common school education in the meantime. 
Possessing a desire to make law his life work, Mr. Antrim, in 1872, 
began his legal studies with Messrs. Mitchell & Shirk, of Peru, 
under whose instructions he continued until his admission to the bar 
in 1873. He began the active practice of his profession, April, 
1874, and within a short time thereafter won for himself a con- 
spicuous place among the lawyers of Miami and adjoining counties, 
having been elected the same year to the office of State's Attorney 
for the circuit composed of Miami and Wabash counties. He was 
re-elected to the same position in 1876, and in 1882 was chosen to 
represent Miami County in the General Assembly of Indiana. In 
1 88 1 he effected a copartnership in the practice with James M. 
Brown, Esq., and the firm thus formed still continues. As a law- 
yer, Mr. Antrim is painstaking and methodical, and has already an 
extensive and lucrative practice in the.courts of Miami and other 
counties of Northern Indiana. His official, as well as private life -is 
above reproach, and he enjoys in a marked degree the esteem snd 
confidence of the community around him. In politics, he is a Repub- 
lican, and, as such, has rendered valuable service to his party in this 
countv. Mr. Antrim on the nth day of February, 1875, was 
united in marriage with Miss S. Marilda Adkisson, of Crawford 
County, Illinois. 

DANIEL R. BEARSS (deceased) was born August 23, 
1809, in Geneseo, Livingston Countv, New York. His parents 
were Truman and Sabrina (Roberts) Bearss. His grandfather 
was a major in the Revolutionary Army, under General Wash- 
ington, and his father served in the war of 181 2. .\bout the 
}'ear iSii,the family removed to Painesville, Ohio, and in iBjJ 
to Detroit, Michigan. Mr. Bearss' boyhood was spent on a 
farm and his education was acquired in a log school house. In 
1828 he went to Ft. Wayne where he became a clerk for W. 
G. and G. W. Ewing. His employers soon opened a branch 


Store in Logaiispovt in whicli Mr. Rearss was engaged until 
1832. He then spent .two years in mercantile business on his 
own account in Goshen. In August 1834 with his young wife 
he settled in Peru where he resided the rest of his life. During 
his first year's residence here he carried on a general mercan- 
tile business in partnership with his father-in-law, Judge Albert 
Cole, whose biography appears elsewhere. This connection 
being disolved Mr. Bearss continued the business until 1844, 
when he formed a co-partnership with Charles Spencer under 
the firm name of Bearss and Spencer. Mr. Bearss being occu- 
pied with outside matters, Mr. Spencer took charge of the 
business, hi 1849, ^^- JE^earss sold his interest in the store and 
^nally retired from mercantile life, after a prosperous business 
career of about twent\--one years. With perhaps one exception 
Mr. Bearss was the largest tax payer in Peru. He owned con- 
siderable cit\' property among which were. the Broadway Hotel 
and a number of business blocks. He also owned several val- 
uable farms one of which just north of Peru he made his home. 
Mr. Bearss was one of the leading politicians of his county but 
was never known to resort to political trickery' in order that his 
party might triumph. No one in his locality labored more earn- 
estly for the promotion of Henry Clay to the Presidency. From 
the organization of the Republican party he was one of its 
warmest friends and through his great popularity succeeded in 
carrying many elections when said party was in the minority. 
Through his influence Hon. Schuyler Colfax was first placed 
before the people as a candidate for Congress. Mr. Bearss 
served his count}' in various minor public offices. He was in 
the slate Legislature twenty years, eight years as Representative 
and twelve as Senator. During the memorable and exciting 
period of the late civil war when many legislators seemingly in 
sympathy with the south sought to tie the hands of Governor 
Morton and prevent the state from furnishing support to the 
Union, no member of the Senate was more faithful to his country 
than Mr. Bearss. His age prevented him from entering the 
army but he did his duty in the halls of Legislation. He took 
an active part in the railroad enterprises of the countj^ and for 
a while served as director of the I. P. & C. and Wabash roads. 
With his family he attended the Congregational church and gave 
liberally towards its support. Mr. Bearss was a man of com- 
manding stature and in his prime possessed great physical 
strength and endurance. Few men were more favorably or 
better known not only in the county but throughout the state. 
He died April iS, 1884 at Hot Springs, Arkansas, where he had 
gone for the benefit of his health. January 14, 1834, ^^ Goshen, 
Indiana, he married Emma A. Cole, daughter of the late Judge 


Albert Cole. The following are the names of the children born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Bearss: George R., William, Albert, Oliver, 
Homer, Frank, Emma and Ella. 

ALBERT C. BEARSS, a native of Peru, was born April 
I, 1838, and is the third son of Daniel R. and Emma A. (Cole) 
Bearss, the sketches of whom appear elsewhere. Receiving his 
primarv education in the city schools of Peru, at the age of 14 
he entered the preparatory department of Kenj'on College at 
Gamfier, Ohio, where he pursued the studies of that institution 
for a period of four years, and then returned to Peru. In 1859 
he traveled westward and located in California, where he secured 
the position of salesman for a firm in the northern part of that 
State, and in 1862 he returned east as far as Nevada, where he 
engaged principalh' in silver mining and politics. In the year 1867 
he came back to his native State and established himself in the 
mercantile business in the town of Rochester, Fulton County, where 
he continued until 1875, and then again made Peru his home con- 
tinually since that time, devoting his attention to farming and also 
to public affairs. During his stay in Nevada he was three times 
elected to the lower house of the Legislature, and when he re- 
turned to Indiana, received the nomination on the Republican 
ticket for the same position and was elected in 1878, and in 1879, 
was by his very intimate friend, James N. Tyner, postmaster 
general, appointed postotfice inspector, which he filled in a cred- 
itable manner until his resignation took place — March, 1885 — - 
and since that time has been looking after his farm of 550 acres, 
situated in Peru township. Mr. Bearss was married to Miss 
Madeline V. Lamb, of Coshocton, Ohio, March 20, 1867. This 
union has been blessed with two children, Fannie Emma and 
Nellie Cole. Our subject is a staunch Republican, and believes 
in the Jacksonian motto: "To the victors belong the spoils." 
He was made Chairman of the Republican central committee of 
Miami county, and at present occupies that position. 

JOHN H BECK, City Treasurer, was born in Miami county, 
Indiana, October 23, 1845, and is the eldest son of Adam and 
Teresa Beck, parents natives of Germany. Adam Beck was 
born in 1816; was united in marriagfe with Miss Teresa Trefferd 
in 1844, and the year following emigrated to the United States, 
coming direct to the cit\- of Peru. Joiin H. Beck was raised in 
Peru, obtained a practical education in the city schools and at the 
age of 16 commenced the tinner's trade, at which he served a 
three year's apprenticeship. In 1879, in partnership with Edward 
E. Riley, he opened out in the business for himself. He still 
carries on the business in connection with the retail hardware 
trade, and is one of the successful merchants of the city. In 1883 
he was elected City Treasurer, re-elected in 1885 and is the present 



incumbent of the office. He was married April, 1866, to Miss 
Catherine Silberman of Peru, a daughter of F. B. Siiberman. 

NER. BLACK was born in Peru township May 3, 1837, 
and is the eldest son of Samuel and Mar}- (Haines) Black, natives 
of Virginia and Connecticut, who were of English descent. His 
father came to Peru township in 1834, and followed farming the 
whole of his life. Born in 1800 and died in 1880. The subject 
was raised on the farm and has always pursued the occupation 
of farming. His wife was Margaret Honan, daughter of Solomon 
and Mary Honan, who came to this country in 1832 or 1833, 
and remained until death, which occurred in 1852. The subject 
was the father of four children, whose names are Nellie A., 
Charles E., Milton W., and Fred G. He adheres to the prin- 
ciples of the Republican partv. 

EDMUND BLOOMFIELD, M. D., prominent physician and 
surgeon of Peru, is a native of Ohio, born near the city of 
Eaton on the 29th day of December, 1841., His father, Reuben 
Bloomfield, was born in Preble County, Ohio, in the year 1S09, 
and his mother, Ann (Hopkins) Bloomrield, was a native of the 
same state also, and died there about the year 1856. Dr. Bloom- 
field's early educational training was received in the schools of 
his native city, supplemented by a course in the Miami Universit}-, 
Oxford, Ohio, in which institution he pursued his literary studies 
for nearly two years, making substantial progress during that 
period. His early tastes leading him to a choice of the medical 
profession, the Doctor, in 1866, commenced preparing for the same 
by a course of reading with A. L. Dunham, M. D., of Eaton, under 
whose instruction he continued until the fall of the following year. 
He then entered the medical department of the Universit}' of Michi- 
gan, at Ann Arbor, completing the prescribed course in 1869, and 
graduating the summer of the same year in Pharmaceutical chemis- 
try. Having thus thoroughly familiarized himself with the profes- 
sion, he began the active practice in 1870 at Peru, Indiana, where 
his superior professional abilit\' soon won for him a conspicuous 
place among the successful medical men of the county. Dr. Bloom- 
field, as a skillful physician and surgeon takes high rank, possess- 
ing many of the elements of popularity, and, since locating in Peru, 
his practice has been eminently successful, both professionally and 
financially. His extensive acquaintance in this and adjoining coun- 
ties, together with his well known integrity and ability, has brought 
him a large an^ lucrative business, while his standing as a citizen is 
such as to make him popular with a large circle of friends and 
acquaintances. In politics he is a Democrat, but in no sense of the 
word a partisan : although firm in his convictions and intellectually 
qualified to till official position he avoids the strife of political con- 
tests, preferring to give his entire time to his profession. Dr. 


Bloomfield's marriage with Miss Helen Davenport, of Peru, was sol- 
emnized April 26, 1 87 1. They have three children, viz: Mary G., 
Guv D., and Nellie B. Bloomfield. Mrs. Bloomtield is a member of the 
Episcopal Church of the city. Dr. Bloomfield is a member of State 
Medical Society, American Medical Association and Countv Medi- 
cal Society. 

JOHN P. BOWMAN, a native of Montgomery County. Vir- 
ginia, was born September 2, 1826, to John and INIarv (Cromer) 
Bowman, natives of \'irginia, but of German descent. His father 
emigrated from Virginia to Tippecanoe County when the subject 
was only about twelve years old, and they then came to Peru 
Township. John C. was reared on the farm and received a medium 
education. His occupation has ahvavs been that of a farmer. He 
was married in 184S to Miss Catharine Meyers, a daughter of 
Nicholas Meyers. To them were born ten children, viz: Sarah J., 
Emeline, William R., Julia A., Noah, Amanda, Daniel, Phoebe, 
Charles and George W. (deceased). Mr. Bowman is the proprietor 
of 277 acres of fine land in Peru Township, and also 291 acres in 
Cass Countv, all of which is under good cultivation. His 
politics are Democratic. 

PHILIP H. BOYNTON, the immediate subject of this 
sketch is a native of Miami and son of Joseph D. and Hannah 
Bovnton. Captain Joseph Bovnton, the paternal grandfather, was a 
son of Joseph and Sallie (Goss) Boynton, who were early resi- 
dents of New Hampshire, the former born in Stratham and the 
latter in the town of Greenland, that State. Captain Joseph 
Boynton was a soldier in the war of the Revolution, was at the 
capture of Burgoyne and Cornwallis, and also took part in the 
celebrated eampaign against Quebec imder General Arnold. He 
was two years adjutant of the New Hampshire Division — died 
June 25. 1831, aged 76 years. Joseph D. Boynton was born in Cor- 
nish, Maine, June 4, 1793: was raised a farmer and wiiile \oung 
familiarized himself with several trades, among which were those of 
shoemaking, carpentering, tanning, plastering, etc., in all of 
which he became a skillful workman. He married November 
30, 1S15, Hannah Chick, daughter of Thomas and Sarah 
(Lord) Chick, who were members of one of the oldest and 
most respectable families of Maine. Mrs. Bovnton was born 
at the town of Parsonsfield, Maine, January 24, 1794, and died 
at Freeport, the same State, Februaiy 12, 1882. Mr. Boyn- 
ton departed this life earlv in the' eighties, exact date unknown. 
The following are the names of the children born to Joseph 
D. and Hannah Boynton, to-wit: Mary P. (deceased), Hannah, 
Frances A., Ammi L. (^deceased), Alvira P., Harriet O., Lucy A., 
Joseph W., Elizabeth B., Caroline N., Philip H. and Martha E. 
S. Bovnton. Philip H. Bovnton was raised to agricultural pursuits. 


received in the district schools the rudiments of an Enj^lish education, 
and later attended the Cornish high school where he acquired a 
knovvledtje of the higher branches of learning. When nineteen 
years of age he accepted a position in a cotton factory at Saco, 
Maine, and after working at the same for one year, went to 
Rochester, New York, and engaged as repairer of track on the 
Rochester & Niagara Falls railroad. In August, 1852, he came 
to Indiana, and for three years thereafter was engaged in the 
construction of what is now the Wabash railroad. At the end 
of that time he went to Indianapolis where, for a limited period, 
he worked in the freight office of the I., P. & C. railroad, and 
later engaged as brakeman for the same company. For about 
one year he had charge of the freight oflice in Peru, Indiana, 
and then took charge of an engine, running freight and con- 
struction trains for about three j-ears. In December, 1862, he 
began running a passenger engine on the I., P. & C, a position 
he has since filled, being at this time one of the oldest and most 
reliable engineers in Indiana. An estimate of his mileage since 
engaging as engineer would be difHcult to determine, but an 
approximation of the distance traversed in his engine would be 
equivalent to over forty trips around the earth. Mr. Boyn- 
ton has been twice married, the first time on the 4th day 
of July, i860, to Miss Elizabeth Livesay, of Virginia, 
who died July i6lh of the following year. He married his 
present wife. Mar}' J. Todd, daughter of H. S. and Agnes 
Todd, of Rockville, Indiana, in Januarv 1863, a union blessed 
with one child, Charles J. Boynton. Mr. Boynton is a 
member of the Masonic and K. of H. fraternities and belongs to 
the Baptist church. Mrs. Boynton is a member of the Presby- 
terian church of Peru. 

DR. WILLIAM H. BRENTON, M. D., eldest son of Francis 
and Mar)- (Giltner) Brenton, is a native of Clarke County, Indiana, 
born May 2, 1828. His grandfather, William Brenton, was one 
of the pioneers of Indiana, moving as earlv as the beginning of 
the present centurv to Clarke Countv, of which part of the State 
Francis and Marv Brenton were natives. The Doctor was raised 
on a farm and his earlv educational privileges were such as the 
public schools of that day and locality afforded. During the pro- 
gress of this primar\- course he decided upon the medical pro- 
fession for a life work, and at the age of 16 began preparing for the 
same, under the able instruction of Dr. Frank Taylor of Westport, 
Kentucky. He subsequently took a course of lectures in Memphis, 
Tennessee, and in 1852 graduated from the medical department of 
the Indiana Asbury University. Prior to that time [in 1849) '^^ 
engaged in the practice of his profession at Ta^ylorv-ille, Indiana, and 
after having completed his collegiate course went to Metropolis, 



Southern Illinois, where he continued until 1857. In the meantime, 
with a laudable ambition to increase his knowledge of the profession 
he, in 1853 and '54 attended the St. Louis medical college, and sub- 
sequently in 1866 graduated with honor from Belle vue Hospital medi- 
cal college. New York, one of the largest and most thorough medical 
institutions in the United States. In 1862 he joined the Seventy- 
third Indiana volunteer infantr\- as first assistant surgeon, in which 
capacity he continued until his resignation in 1863, acting as surgeon 
during the greater part of his period of service. He came to 
Miami Countv, Indiana, in 1857 and on leaving the army resumed 
his professional duties in Peru, where he has continued to enjoy a 
well merited reputation in his calling. He is a member of the county 
and district medical societies, and also belongs to the State and 
American Medical Associations. His professional career has been 
singularlv successful, the reputation being awarded him as one of 
the most skillful surgeons and thorough practitioners in Miami 
Count}-. Although a Democrat in his political affiliations, the Doc- 
tor has not been an aspirant for official honors, preferring to give his 
entire attention to the practice of his chosen profession. He was 
married December, 1851, to Miss Elizabeth T. Bills, a native of 
Louisiana, but at that time a 'resident of Bartholomew County, In- 
diana, by whom he had two children, both deceased. Mrs. Brenton 
died September, 1856. In 185S he married his second wife, Lucinda 
Marsh, who bore him two children, viz., Etfie M., deceased, and 
William M., who is at present in the employ of the Wabash railroad 
companv at Peru. The Doctor's third marriage was solemnized in 
the vear 1879 with Miss Loantha Search, of Peru, a union blessed 
with the birth of three children, viz., Emma E., Mary M., and John 
H. Brenton. 

JAMES M. BROWN, prominent member of the Miami 
County bar, is a native of Union County, Indiana, born October 
16, 1826. He is the son of Walter Brown who was born in 
Hamilton Countv, Ohio, and Keziah (Laboyseaux) Brown, a 
native of New Jersey. His paternal ancestors were English and 
on the mother's side he is descended from the French. Walter 
Brown was a prominent pioneer of Union County, moving to 
that part of the State in 1S20, where he was wideh' and favor- 
ably known for his many excellent qualities. James M. Brown 
was reared on a farm, and in earh' life attended the common 
schools. At the age of eighteen he entered Beech Grove 
Academv, an institution under the control of the Friends and 
conducted at that time by one William Haughton. Until he 
was twentv-two Mr. Brown was varioush" occupied in attending 
school, farming and teaching. In the fall of 1848 he married 
Emilv C. Willis, also a native of Union County. For five j-ears 
he continued teaching, farming and studying, spending eighteen 


months of the time in preparing to enter upon tlie practice of 
the law. hi the meantime he held the otfice of Township Trus- 
tee for one year in Preble County, Ohio. He removed to Con- 
nersville, Indiana, in 1854 ^°'' '^'^'^ purpose of completing his 
studies, and there entered the law office of Hon. Nelson Trusler 
and was soon after admitted to the bar. In October, 1855, Mr. 
Brown removed to Peru, Indiana, where he began the practice 
of his profession, and one year later effected a co-partnership in 
the law with Orris Blake, Esq. From 1859 ""''^ 1862, witli 
some intermission, he was associated in a law partnership with 
Hon. James N. Tyner, ex-Postmaster-General. In the spring of 
i860, Mr. Brown was elected Mayor of Peru, and being three 
times re-elected served for four successive terms. Immediatelv 
after he was elected City Engineer, the duties of which position 
he discharged for a period of about eight years. He also served 
as School Trustee two years, and from 1877 until 1879 ^^'^^ '^ 
member of the Peru City Council. He has always been identi- 
fied with the Republican part}-, and in 1868 was connected with 
G. I. Reed as part owner of the Peru Rcpiihlican, continuing 
as associate editor of the same the greater part of the succeed- 
ing three years. Mr. Brown is recognized by all who know 
him, as one of the most useful and upright citizens of the com- 
munit}' in which he lives. Possessing an extraordinary fund of 
exact information on many subjects, his qualifications to discharge 
with ability the duties of each official trust to which he has been 
called are unquestioned. A close student of history, science 
and ancient literature, he is also a genial, companionable gentle- 
man, beloved by his family, and honored and respected by his 
friends. His marriage has been blessed with the birth of two 
children, viz: Benjamin and Mary E. Brown. 

GEORGE W. CHAMBERLAIN, contractor and builder and 
son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Johnson) Chamberlain, natives of New 
Jersey, was born in that state on the 13th day of June, 1S22. He 
was reared in the state of his nativitv until his fourteenth vear, at 
which time (1836) he removed with his parents to Seneca Count}-, 
Ohio, where one year later he began working at the carpenter's 
trade. He soon acquired great proficiency in his chosen calling 
and worked at the same at different places until 1S51, when he 
' came to Peru, where he has since followed the trade with success 
and financial profit. He is at this time engaged in contracting and 
building principally in Peru and Miami County, and some of the 
most elegant residences and business houses in the city and adja- 
cent country were erected under his personal supervision. Mr. 
Chamberlain is an intelligent mechanic, and, with his family, pos- 
sesses in an eminent degree the respect and confidence of his fellow 
citizens. His marriage with Miss Margaret Morrison, a native 


of the State of Pennsylvania, has been blessed with the birth of 
two children, viz: George R., and Nellie Chamberlain. 

GEORGE R. CHAMBERLAIN, teller First National Bank, 
was born in Peru, Indiana, August 4, 1854, son of George W. and 
Margaret (Morrison) Chamberlain. He was educated in the city 
schools, which he attended until his sixteenth year, completing the 
High School course in 1870. He then engaged as clerk in the 
mercantile house of J. S. Hale, Peru, in which capacit}- he continued 
one year, severing his connection with the dry goods business at the 
end of that time and engaging February 17, 1872, as book-keeper 
in the First National Bank. In Mav, 1881, he was promoted teller, 
the duties of which responsible position he has since discharged 
in a manner eminently satisfactory to his employers. Mr. Cham- 
berlain is an accomplished business man, enjoys the confidence and 
respect of all with whom he comes in contact, and has before him a 
future fraught with much promise. He is a member of the K. of 
P. order, and politicallv votes with the Republican party. 

DAVID CHARTERS (deceased) was a native of Lewis- 
ton, Pennsylvania, and son of William and Elizabeth (Comfort) 
Charters, parents natives of the same state. The family moved 
to Miami County, Indiana, in 1846 and settled on a farm two 
miles west of Peru, where the mother died in 1873 and the 
father in 1865. David Charters was born, January- 24, 182 1, was 
reared a farmer and followed agricultural pursuits all his life. 
He came to Miami County in 1846 and from that time until 
his death lived upon the beautiful home place west of Peru. 
He was a man of much more than ordinary intelligence as is 
attested by the fact that he was several times chosen by the 
people of Miami to positions of trust, in all of which he acquit- 
ted himself with such commendable fidelity that no one was 
ever known to utter a breath of suspicion against his oflicial 
record. During the war and for several years thereafter, he 
served as County Commissioner and in 1874 was elected to rep- 
resent Miami in the State Legislature. In his business trans- 
actions he was uniformly successful and as a farmer he stood 
among the first in the county. On the 24th da}' of October, 
1852 he was married to Eliza Long, daughter of John and Elizabeth 
Tingle) Long, of Delaware. Mrs. Charters was born in Eaton, 


reble County, Ohio, and is the mother of nine children, seven 
of whom are living, to-wit: William, Juniata, Mifflin, Emmet, 
Margaret, Lafayette and Charle Charters. The deceased mem- 
bers of the family were Sarah and Catharine. Mr. Charters 
died on the nth day of March, 1882. His widow and several 
of the children still reside upon the home place, which is one of 
the best improved farms in Peru Township. 

JOSEPH C. CLYMER, County Treasurer, was born in Jef- 


ferson Township, Miami County, March 15, 1847. His pater- 
nal ancestors were Pennsjlvanians, his grandfather. Christian 
Clymer, emigrating from that State in an early day to Warren 
County, Ohio, where he lived until his removal to Miami County, 
about the 3-ear 1834. He, with his son Levi Clymer, father of 
subject, settled near Mexico, Jefferson Township, and was among 
the earliest pioneers of that section. He was a farmer by occupa- 
tion and died sometime in the latter part of the forties. Levi Cly- 
mer was born in Warren County, Ohio, January 15, 1811. He • 
was a resident of Jefferson Township, this county, until the year 
1848, at which time he removed to Clay Township, where he has 
since resided. He is one of Miami County's representative farmers 
and a man widely and favorably known for his manj- sterling quali- 
ties. Subject's mother, Elizabeth Clymer, was the daughter of 
Henry Kirby, one of the earl\- and substantial citizens of Warren 
Coun'tv, Ohio. She departed this life at her home in Clay Town- 
ship, in the year 1876. Mr. and Mrs. Clymer, were the parents of 
nine children, four of whom are living, Joseph C, being the 
voungest son of the family. He was reared on his father's farm in 
Cla\- Township, acquired in the common schools a practical education 
and subsequently attended the Peru High School and the Valpa- 
raiso Normal College. He began life as a farmer and followed 
agricultural pursuits until 1881, at which time he accepted the posi- 
tion of Deputy County Treasurer, under E. Humrickhouse, and 
continued in that capacity for a period of four 3'ears. In the mean- 
time, 18S4, he was nominated by the Democratic party as a candi- 
date for that office, and at the ensuing election received a large 
majority of the county vote, a fact which attested his great popu- 
larity with the people. He having discharged the duties of the 
responsible trust in a manner highly satisfactorj' to all he was 
in 1 886 re-elected and is now entering upon upon his second term. 
Mr. Clymer is an intelligent, thoroughly well posted business man, 
and his career has been a marked success. He was married January 
21, 1885, to Miss Emma, daughter of Isaac and Maria Miller, of 
Miami Count}-. 

JUDGE ALBERT COLE (deceased) was born May 13, 
1790, at Berlin Connecticut. He was the son of Stephen and Lucy 
(Deming) Cole. His father was a farmer and died in 1801. 
Albert, then eleven years old, went to live with his oldest brother, 
who was also a farmer, and until the age of fifteen attended the dis- 
trict schools during the winters. He spent the interval between fif- 
teen and twent}' in learning tanning and shoe-making at Meriden, 
Connecticut, illness obliging him to give up his trade, he engaged 
one year in selling notions through the country. In 181 2, he decided 
to go to Mississippi, where he had an older brother living. He hav- 
ing reached his destination he remained one year, a part of the time 



assisting his brother in a saw mill — on account of sickness, which he 
could not throw off, he purchased a pony at New Orleans and 
started Xorth by land — there being at that time only one steamer 
on the Western Waters. After a long and tedious journey, during 
which he passed through the possessions of the Choctaw and 
Chickasaw Nations, he reached a white settlement near Columbia, 
Tennessee, where, owing to a severe illness, he was obliged to 
remain four weeks. In the fall of 1813, he reached Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and remained there until the following spring. In the mean- 
time news came that peace had been declared between the United 
States and Great Britain. After leaving Cincinnati Mr. Cole 
returned to Connecticut. There in September, 1814, he married 
Mary Galpin, and started for the west. He purchased a farm of 
eighty acres in Zanesville, Ohio, where as a farmer, tanner and 
shoemaker, he remained until 1833. That year bv means of a four 
horse wagon — probable among the first seen in that section, he 
transferred his family tirst to Goshen, Indiana, and afterwards, July, 
1834, to Peru, in the same State. Miami County had then been 
recently organized and Peru selected as the County Seat. Con- 
siderable enterprise had, however, been manifested in the 
construction of the Wabash and Erie canal, the laying out of 
town lots, etc. Soon after going to Peru Mr. Cole formed 
a partnership w'ith Mr. D. R. Bearss, carried on a general 
mercantile business for one year and erected a store house. At the 
end of that time the firm dissolved. Mr. Cole taking his share of 
the goods to Lewisburg on the canal where he put up some log 
buildings, and sold goods for another year. He then returned to 
Peru and was engaged in mercantile pursuits for about six years, 
after which in 1848 he was elected postmaster, which office he 
held till 185 1 and then retired to a farm which he purchased in an 
early day just north of the city. After the death of his wife who 
had been a faithful companion for forty years, he returned to 
Peru, having disposed of his farm, and invested his capital in city 
property. Judge Cole w-as a Whig during the existence of that 
party and after its dissolution identified himself in the Republican 
party, voting the latter ticket until his death. He was elected 
Judge at the August election in 1840, when the circuit \vas com- 
posed of a President judge, elected by the Legislature and two 
associate judges, from each county, chosen by the people. He was 
United States Commissioner under President Harrison, for distribu- 
tion of Surplus Revenue. In 1857 he married Mrs. McCleary, of 
Zanesville, Ohio. Judge Cole had six children by his first wife, 
namely : Emma A., now Mrs. D. R. Bearss, Alphonso A., deceased, 
Lucy, wife of Lewis D. Adkison, Mary L., the late Mrs. James T. 
Miller, James O., and Ellen, wife of H. G. Fetter. Mr. Cole died 
November, 1878. 


RICHARD H. COLE, of the Miami County Sciilincl and one 
of the proprietors of the Cole Block, was born in this city, Nov. 
26, 1S53; son of Hon. Alphonso and Sarah H. (Henton) Cole, and 
is of English extraction. His father was born near Oberlin, Ohio, 
December, 25, iSi8. He came to Miami County in 1834. Bv oc- 
cupation he was a lawyer and one of the earl}- members of the 
Miami County Bar. In 1847 and '48, and in 1849 ^""^ '5°' '^^ '"'^P" 
resented this county in the Indiana Legislature. He was one of 
the early prominent men of this county. His death occurred 
August 4, 1862. Our subject is the elder of two living children. 
After graduating at the Peru High School, he was a student for 
two years at the University of Illinois, located at Champaign. In 
1876 he was elected Surveyor of Miami County, and in 1881 was 
elected City Engineer of Peru. In 1879 he purchased a half 
interest in the Miami Count}' Sentinel, and with which he is now 
connected. In politics he is a Democrat and is a member of the K. 
of P. fraternit}- of this city. He was married November 15, 1882, 
to Miss Belle M. Talbot, of this city, born March 15, i860. Mr. 
Cole is a representative of one of the early families of this county. 

HARVEY COMER, gunsmith, was born in Allen County 
Indiana, May, 30, 1846 and is the fifth child of James and Sarah 
E. (Somers) Comer, natives of Virginia. James Comer moved 
to Indiana in an earl}- day and settled in Allen County prior to 
the founding of the City of Ft. Wayne. He was a cooper by 
trade but after moving to Indiana engaged in farming which he 
carried on until his death in 1875. Mrs. Comer is still living on 
the home place in Allen County having reached a ripe old age. 
Harvey Comer was raised on a farm, enjoyed such educational 
advantages as were afforded by the common schools and at the 
age of nineteen began life for himself in the employ of the I. 
P. & C. rail road companj- at Peru. He worked in the shops 
here until 1S73 at whicfi time he took up his present trade, that 
of gunsmith and after following the same for some time in 
Peru, went to Terre Haute. He soon returned to Peru, where, 
since 1874, he has ceen actively engaged at his vocation, and is 
now in the enjoyment of a verj^ prosperous business. He is a 
member of the I. O. O. F. and National Union Orders and is in 
every respect an honorable and trustworthv citizen. On the 15th 
day of April, 1877, he was united in marriage with Miss Emma 
Marshall, daughter of John Marshall, of Peru. 

GODLOVE CONRADT, native of Wurtemburg, Germany, 
and son of Henry and Catherine Conradt, was born on the loth dav 
of July, 1834. When four years of age he was brought by his 
parents to the United States, and from 1840 until 1845 lived in 
Springfield, Columbiana County, Ohio. The family moved to Miami 
County, Indiana, the latter year, and settled in Peru, where the 




father for a number of years carried on a successful tannery busi- 
ness. The parents both departed this Hfe in the year- 1870. God- 
love Conradt received in the common schools a practical education, 
and at an early age learned the tanning trade, which he followed 
until his twentieth year. He then engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness, opening a leather and shoe-tindings store in Peru, which he ' 
carried on in connection with the tannery, operating the latter with 
encouraging success until 1884. In addition to his private enter- 
prises, Mr. Conradt has at different times been called to hll positions 
of trust, the first of u'hich was that of Township Cleik, to which he 
was elected in i860. He was subsequenth- chosen a member of 
the City School Board, the duties of which position he discharged 
in a manner highly satisfactorj- to all concerned for a period of nine 
years. In his business ventures Mr. Conradt has been successful, 
and at this time, in addition to other propert}-, owns a valuable tract 
of 200 acres of land in Deer Creek township. On the 27th day of 
December, 1857, he married Miss Mar}' Smith, daughter of Chris- 
topher Smith, of Germany, a marriage blessed with the birth of four 
children, three of whom, Matilda, Fred and Albert, are living. Mr. 
Conradt is liberal in his political views in State and National affairs, 
voting the principles of the Democratic party, and in local matters 
voting for the man best qualified for the position. Mrs. Conradt is a 
member of the Lutheran Church of Peru. 

JONATHAN D. COX, was born in Butler 
December 9, 1818, being the third son of David 
(Bake) Cox, native of Monmouth County, 
The father of Mr. Cox emigrated to Ohio, 
came to Decatur Count\-, Indiana. He was born in 1792 and died 
in 1837. The mother of Mr. Cox died in 1836. The subject of this 
biography, received a common school education. He came to Miami 
County in 1837, and for some years worked on a farm and later 
clerked in a store. In 1840 he, in partnership with Richard Miller, 
started a general store at Pawpaw. He continued this business for 
four years and then engaged in farming. February 2, 1842, he 
married the daughter of Richard Miller, who died in 1848. By 
that marriage were born two children, Wm. H. and Alphonso C. 
Mr. Cox was married again February 12, 1850 to Miss Caroline, 
daughter of Col. William M. Reyburn, (deceased), who was one 
of the pioneers of Miami County. They have two children, viz: 
Charles R. and Horace G. Mrs. Cox died in 1856. Mr. Cox was 
married again in 1859 ^^ Miss Jennie Thornburg, a native of Wayne 
County. Indiana. By this union they have one child, Jessie B. Mr. 
Cox removed to Peru in 1856. In 1857 he engaged in the stove, 
tinware and lumber business. This business he continued one year 
and then again engaged in the agricultural pursuits which he con- 
tinued until 1885, when he retired from active life. In 1867 he was 

County, Ohio, 
J. and Rosina 
New Jersey, 
and in 1826 


appointed Assessor for Miami County of Internal Revenue. In 1868 
he was elected to represent Miami County in the General Assem- 
bly of Indiana. He was re-eleeted to the same office in 1870. He 
is a Democrat and a member of the Masonic fraternity. 

HON. JABEZ T. COX. The gentleman whose biograph- 
ical sketch is herewith presented, was born in Clinton County, 
Ohio, January 27, 1846. His parents, Aaron and Mary (Skeggs) 
Cox, were natives respectivel}' of Ohio and Kentucky, the father 
of English-Welsh, and the mother of German lineage. Jabez 
T. Cox, in earl)' life attended the common schools and subse- 
quently entered the Westfield Academy, an educational institu- 
tion under charge of the Society of Friends at Westfield, Ind., 
in which he pursued his literarj- studies for a period of 
four years. Having early decided upon the legal profession as 
his hfe work, he, in 1865 entered the law office of the late 
Hon. N. R. Overman, of Tipton, Indiana, under whose instruc- 
tions he continued until his admission to the b;ir, a little later, 
and with whom he formed a partnership in the practice which 
lasted from 1867 till 1869. In the latter year he abandoned 
the law for a time and entered the field of journalism as editor of 
the Frankfort Crescent, of which paper he was proprietor until 
187 1, when he returned to Tipton and again took up the legal 
profession with his former partner. Judge Overman. From 1871, 
till 1875 ^'^ practiced with marked success in the courts of Tipton 
and adjoining counties, but in the latter year owing to his wife's 
ill health disposed of his interests in Indiana and removed to Hutch- 
inson, Kansas, In that state he soon acquired more than a local 
reputation, as is attested by the fact that in 1878 he was nominated 
on the Democratic state ticket for the office of Attorney General. 
Although defeated at the ensuing election, the Democratic party in 
Kansas being in a hopeless minorit}-, yet, when the vote was canvassed 
it was found that he had run 3,500 ahead of his ticket. Owing to 
continued ill heath of his wife he shortly afterward left Kansas and 
went to Colorado where he remained until 1883 when he returned 
to Indiana and located in Peru, where he has since been actively 
engaged in the practice of his profession. In politics Mr. Cox has 
always been a pronounced Democrat, believing earnestly in his politi- 
cal convictions. In 1886 he received the nomination for Representa- 
tive to the Lower House of the State Legislature and after a bril- 
liant canvass defeated his competitor by a very decided majority. 
Mr. Cox's legal career presents a series of continual successes and 
his acknowledged familiarity with the principles of law, and thor- 
oughly independent cast of his mind make him a safe and trusted 
counselor. He has a military as well professional career, entering 
the service of his country in 1864 as private in Company B, 136th 
Indiana Infantry, and serving with the same until honorably dis- 


charged at the close of the war. He is prominently identified w ith 
the G. A. R. and the Odd Fellows fraternities. He married his first 
wife, Miss Jennie Price, of Tipton, Indiana, in 1S67. She died in 
Colorado in the spring of 1882. Two children were born to the 
marriage, viz : Edward E. and Inez. His second marriage was 
solemnized in the year 1884 with Miss Lizzie Meinhardt, of Peru, 
who has borne him one child. Carl M. Cox. 

GEORGE A. CROWELL, retired business man and promi- 
nent citizen of Peru, is a native of Jefferson County, Virginia, born 
there June 25, 1820, the son of Samuel and Mary (Link) Crowell, 
natives of Pennsylvania and Virginia, respectiveh', and of English- 
Scotch and Irish-German ancestr\'. His early school experience 
embraced the studies appertaining to the educational course pre- 
sented by the usages of those days in Sandusky County, Ohio, to 
which he moved with his parents when but seven years of age. 
He was raised to agricultural pursuits and remained with his parents 
on the farm until after attaining his majority, when he began life for 
himself as clerk in a mercantile house in the town of Fremont, Ohio. 
He continued in the capacity of salesman at the above place until 
1843 and in 1845 came to Peru, Indiana, to take charge of a stock 
of goods for Sanford E. Main, in whose employ he remained for a 
period of about one and a half years. From the time of severing 
his connection with Mr. Main, up to 1850, he clerked for different 
parties, but in the latter j'ear effected a co-partnership in the general 
mercantile business with William Smith, which lasted until 1855. 
He purchased his partner's stock that year and conducted a suc- 
cessful business until 1876, at which date he retired from active fife, 
having by diligent and judicious management accumulated a hand- 
some competence in the meantime. In addition to his large busi- 
ness interests, Mr. Crowell always took an active part in all the 
enterprises for the city's welfare and was several times elected its 
treasurer, the duties of which position he discharged in an eminently 
satisfactory manner. He was largely instrumental in inaugurating 
the street improvements of Peru, in which he encountered much op- 
position, and also brought the first plate glass store front to the city, 
besides introducing a number of other modern improvements. He 
took an active interest in the internal improvement of the country, and 
to him, more than to any other man, is due the credit of securing and 
building up of the present efficient turnpike system of Miami County. 
At this time he is Superintendent of the following roads, to-wit: 
Peru and Mexico, Peru and Santa Fe, and Peru and Mississinewa 
Turnpikes, and their present superior condition is largely owing to 
his careful and judicious management. In the year 1869 he w^as 
appointed special Indian agent for the Miamis of Indiana and the 
Eel River bands of Miamis, and discharged the duties of 
the same until 1876. Mr. Crowell was married in May 185 1, to 


Mary A. Steele, daughter of Joseph S. Steele, one of the pioneers 
of Miami County. Mrs. Crowell was born in the State of Ohio, 
and is still lixing. Of the four children born to Mr. and Mrs. Cro- 
well, but one, Alice O., is living at this time. The following are 
names of the of the children, deceased, to-wit: Mary C, George 
G. and Byron F. Throughout a long and active life, during which 
he passed through many vicissitudes, Mr. Crowell's ruling ele- 
ments have been industr}- and honesty, qualities which have made 
themselves apparent to all with whom he has been associated in a 
business capacitj- or otherwise. And now in the sixty-seventh 
^•ear of his age, he is still an energetic, wide awake citizen, in pos- 
session of all his faculties and enjoying the full confidence and 
respect of all his friends and acquaintances. His portrait will be 
found elsewhere in this volume. 

PHILIP Q. CURRAN, merchant tailor, was born in the. 
City of Quebec, Canada, Jul}' 12, 1829, and is the third son of 
Patrick and Marv Curran, natives respectively of Ireland, and 
Scotland. Mr. Curran's early life was passed in his native cit\-, 
in the schools of which he received the rudiments of an Enirlish 
education. It may be said with .propriet\- that he is not an edu- 
cated man in the accepted meaning of that term, 3'et thoroughh- 
skilled in the details of practical business, such as is acquired 
only by the experience of years and the active observations of 
well developed common sense. At the age of twelve he appren- 
ticed himself to learn the tailor's trade, and after serving for a 
period of three years, during \\hich time he acquired great pro- 
ficiency, began working for himself in the city of Troy, New 
York. From there in 1848 he went to Massachusetts, and 
located at the citv of Cheshire, where he opened his first shop, 
and where he continued with encouraging success for a period 
of three years. He subsequentlv worked in various places, and, 
in 1854, experiencing a desire to move bevond the boundaries of 
the Eastern States, went to Detroit. Michigan, in which city he 
was cutter in a large tailoring establishment until the spring of 
1858. He then removed to Peoria, Illinois, where he followed 
cutting principally until 1866, at which time he located in Ander- 
son, Indiana, where he carried on a successful business until he 
removed to Peru in 1873. On locating in this city he at once 
took high rank as a cutter, and continued that branch of the 
trade until 1878, in the spring of which vear he opened a 
business of his own, which he has since successfuUv operated. 
Mr. Curran is a wide-awake, energetic man, alwavs alive to the 
interests of his business and the general prosperit}' of the city. 
He has a large and lucrative patronage, and the business, now 
conducted under the firm name of Curran & Co., is the leading 
tailoring establishment in the city. Mr. Curran has a military as 


well as a business record, of which he feels deservedly proud. 
He entered the army August, 1861, enlisting in the Forty-sev- 
enth Illinois Infantry, and served with the same until honorably 
discharged October, 1864. He went into the service as first 
sergeant, but early in 1S64 was promoted captain, a position he 
held at the time of his discharge. In politics Mr. Curran is an 
ardent supporter of the Republican party, but has never asked 
official position at the hands of his fellow-citizens. He belongs to 
the I. O. O. F. and Masonic fraternities, having taken a number 
of degrees in the latter, including that of Sir Knight. On the 
30th day of April, 1850, was solemnized his marriage witli Miss 
Ellen Brazee, of Canada, a union blessed with the birth of six 
children, only two of whom — Philip H. and James W. — are 
living. Mr. and Mrs. Curran are members of the Methodist 
Church of Peru. 

WILLIAM F. DALY, lumber inspector for Indiana Man- 
ufacturing Company, was born in North Bridgeport, Fairfield 
County, Connecticut, on the 25th dav of September, 1842. His 
father, Dennis Daly, was a native of North Ireland, and his mother, 
Alvira (French) Daly, was born in the State of Connecticut. 
Mr. Daly's parents dying when he was quite young, earlv threw 
him upon his own resources and he made his first start in life as 
a boot black. This employment he subsequentlv abandoned for 
mechanical pursuits, engaging at the age of fifteen, to learn the 
trade of carriage making, which he followed in his native city 
until the breaking out of the war. In September, 1861, he en- 
tered the army, enlisting in Company I, Sixth Regiment Connec- 
ticut Infantry, with which he served until honorabl}- discharged 
three years later. During his period of service Mr. Daly took 
part in a number of engagements, among which were the follow- 
ing: Fort Wagner, Mackey's Point, siege of Port Pulaski, 
seiges of Forts Walker and Beauregard, all the battles around 
Charleston, Alosta, Fla., and Drury Bluff, Cit\- Point, Deep 
Bottom, Pittsburgh and others of the Virginia campaigns. On 
leaving the army he returned to Bridgeport and resumed liis trade 
until 1 866, when he accepted a position with the Wheeler & 
Wilson sewing machine companv, in their shops in that city. Two 
years later he took charge of the wood-work department in the 
Howe machine shops at Bridgeport, and continued as foreman of 
the same until promoted superintendent of the company's shops 
at Peru, Indiana, in 187 1. He was identified with the shops here 
until 1875, when he became foreman of the Muhltield wagon 
and dimension works, Peru, the duties of which position he dis- 
charged until 1880. In the latter vear he ensjajjed with the In- 
diana manufacturing companv, with which he has since been 
identified, holding at this time the responsible position of lumber 


inspector. Mr. Daly is a public spirited citizen, takes an active 
interest in politics, and has been his party's candidate for different 
official positions. He served in the Common Council of Peru, 
and in the deliberations of that body bore a conspicuous part. 
He belongs to the G. A. R., Masonic, Roval Arcanum, and K. 
of H. orders; in politics, votes the Republican ticket. On the 
25th of September, 1873, he married Miss Hattie M. Scott, 
daughter of Aaron B. Scott, a union blessed with the birth of 
two children, one of which, Nellie, born September 23, 1877, is 

^GEORGE W. DEIBERT, assistant general foreman of the 
Wabash shops, came to Miami County in May, 1S54. Was born Octo- 
ber 28, 1833, in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, and is the second son 
of Jacob and Rosanna (Zimmerman) Deibert, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania, ^yho migrated to Indiana in 1854 and located in Peru. The 
father, who was b\' trade a carpenter, died in March, 18S1, and the 
mother and brother — Albert — in 1854, soon after their arrival in 
Indiana. The subject returned to his native counts', and on the 14th 
of February, 1857, was married to Miss Henrietta Wervert, a native 
of Schuylkill Count\-, Pennsylvania, of German origin. They were 
blest b}- the birth of five children, four of whom are now living — 
John, Frank, Florence, Georgie (girl), and Philip (deceased). 
In May, 1867, the subject returned to Peru and worked at the car- 
penter trade, which he learned when a boy. In the fall of 1868, 
engaged with the I., P. & C. R. R. in the car department, and con- 
tinued until June, 1872, when he assumed charge of that depart- 
ment. He is a Knight of Pythias and also an Encampment Odd 
Fellow, and was elected by the Republicans to the City Council, serv- 
ing from iSSoto 1884. 

REV. HERMAN H. DIEMER, pastor St. John's Luthern 
Church, Peru, and son of Christain Diemer, is a native of 
Wurtemberg, German}-, born on the 26th day of October, 
1851. When he was ten years of age his parents 
left their native country for America, but before the com- 
pletion of the voyage the mother died and was buried in the 
waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The father died shortly after reach- 
ing the United States, and Herman, thus early left an orphan, 
was sent to Perr\- Count\-, Missouri, where, until his thirteenth year, 
he attended school at the town of Altenburgh. In 1869. he entered 
Concordia College, at Fort Wayne, Indiana, in which institution he 
pursued his studies for a period of six years with the object of the 
ministry in view. After securing a thoroughly classical education 
he entered Concordia Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri, 
which he attended three 3ears, completing the prescribed course in 
that time. In 1874 he entered upon the active duties of his sacred 
calling at Elkhart, Indiana, being the first minister of the Lutheran 


Church to proclaim the gospel in that city. He remained at Elk- 
hart until 1877, at which time he went to Fulton County, Ohio, 
where he was actively engaged in pastoral work until 1S83, moving 
to Pomeroy, Ohio, the latter year and remaining there until the 
spring of 1884, when he accepted the pastorate of St. John's Church, 
Peru, Indiana. Rev. Mr. Diemer is a popular pastor and eloquent 
and forcible pulpit orator, and since locating in this city has made 
many warm friends irrespective of church and creed. He was mar- 
ried July 6th, 1876, to Margaret Schuster, a union blessed with four 
children, viz. : Emma, Gerhart, Paul and Martin. 

AARON N. DUKES. The gentleman whose name intro- 
duces this sketch is a native of Randolph County, Indiana, and 
son of William and Matilda (McKim ) Dukes, the father born. in 
Maryland, and the mother in the State of Ohio. On the father's 
side he is descended from English ancestors, his grandfather, 
Isaac Dukes, emigrating from England to the United States in an 
earlv dav and settlintj in Marvland. William Dukes in earlv life 
moved to Randolph County, Indiana, where for a number of 
years he was alternately engaged in merchandising, milling and 
agricultural pursuits. He subsequentlv disposed of his interests in 
that part of the State, and in 1846 moved to Miami County, 
locating near the village of Gilead, where he lived until he re- 
moved to a beautiful farm adjoining the city of Peru, several 
years later. He was a prominent farmer and stock raiser, and 
deserves mention as one of the successful men of his adopted 
county. His death occurred in the year 1S78. His wife, Matilda 
Dukes, was the daughter of William and Jane McKim, who came 
to the United States from Ireland about the beginning of the 
present century. It is related that on the voyage to the new- 
world, the vessel on which they sailed encountered a terrific 
storm, which for a time threatened the complete destruction of 
all on board. The sails were riddled and torn by the fierce gale, 
and in order to mend them Mrs. McKim spun threads on a little 
spinning wheel which she was bringing over with her, the Cap- 
tain holding the wheel and Mr. McKim holding the chair in which 
she sat. By this means the sails were repaired, and in due time 
the vessel was enabled to proceed on its course in safet\-. Wil- 
liam McKim settled near Chillicothe, Ohio, but subsequently 
emigrated to Randolph Count}-, Indiana, where he lived until 
his removal to Miami County, about the year 1855. He was a 
farmer by occupation and died in the county in 1862. His wife 
survived him about eight years, departing this life in 1870. Mrs. 
Dukes, the mother of our subject, died at her home near Peru 
in 1874. T^he following are the names of the children born to 
William and Matilda Dukes, viz: A. X., Levi, Lydia, wife of 
Oliver Wilson, Jane, wife of John McRea, Mary, wife of Mr. 


Parmley, Emma, wife of James Pugh, John, and Priscilla, wife of 
Dr. Frank Black. Aaron N. Dukes was born on tlie 27th day 
of October, 1S34; accompanied his parents to Miami County in 
1846, and has been one of its most successful and highly esteemed 
citizens ever since. He attended the public schools during winter 
seasons, where he acquired a good practical education, and when 
out of school improved his time working on the farm, early 
acquainting himself w^ith the details of that useful occupation. 
He remained with his parents until his seventeenth year, at which 
time he abandoned agricultural pursuits and accepted the position of 
salesman in the mercantile house of E. H. Shirk, Peru, in which 
capacity he continued one year, effecting a co-partnership with his 
employer at the end of that time, in a general store at the town of 
Gilead. After remaining in the latter place about two years he dis- 
posed of his interest, and in 1S56 removed to Mankato, Minnesota, 
where until 1S62 he was engaged in merchandising, milling and 
dealing in real estate, retaining his connection with Mr. Shirk in the 
meantime. He returned to Peru, Ind.. in the latter year and from 
that date until 1865 was a partner of Mr. Shirk in the general mer- 
cantile business, their house during that period being one of the 
largest and most successful of the kind in Northern Indiana. He 
withdrew from the firm in 1865, and in partnership with J. H. 
Jamison engaged in the grocery and pork packing business, which 
branches of industry were conducted with financial protit until 1868, 
Mr. Dukes purchasing his partner's interest that year. Two years 
later he sold out and purchased what is knovyn as the Holman farm, 
adjoining the city of Peru, a part of which he subsequently laid off 
in town lots, known as Dukes' first and second additions. In the 
meantime he began dealing in real estate, a business he carried on 
quite extensively until 1881. In 1877 he was appointed assignee 
of the Ulrich wagon works of Peru, the duties of which position 
required the greater part of his time, until the satisfactory arrange- 
ment of the business in iSSi. In the latter year he was appointed 
receiver of the Indiana Manufacturing company of Peru, one of the 
largest manufacturing enterprises of the State, to which he has since 
devoted his entire attention. Mr. Dukes took an active part in the 
Sioux war of Minnesota in 1862, having been for some time in com- 
mand of the militar\- post of Mankato. His has been a very active 
business life, throughout which he has discharged his duty with 
commendable fidelity, proving himself worthy the confidence of his 
fellow citizens and competent to fill responsible positions intrusted to 
him. He is a Republican in politics, and a consistent member of 
the Presbvterian church, with which he has been identified since 
about the year 1854. In September, 1859, he was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Mary A. Thompson, daughter of Rev. James Thomp- 
son, the projector and one of the founders of Wabash College, at 


Crawfordsville. Mr. Thompson was a man of deep piety and 
scholarlj- attainments, and was actively engaged in the work of the 
Master for over half a century. He died in Minnesota in the year 
1876. To Mr. and Mrs. Dukes have been born two children, 
to-wit: Elbert, born in i860, and William, born in 1862, died in 1871. 
JAMES S. DURET, Deputy Auditor Miami County, was 
born in Logansport, Indiana, Alarch 9, 1841, and is the second 
son of John B. and Elizabeth (Bell) Duret, natives respectively of 
Canada and Kentucky. John B. Duret accompanied General Louis 
Cass from Michigan to Indiana about the year 1824, and subse- 
quently in 1827 located permanently in Logansport. He took an 
active part in the organization of Cass County, and at the tirst elec- 
tion was chosen Clerk of the same, the duties of which position 
he discharged for a period of twenty-nine 3ears, or until his"death 
in 1855. He was married in 1828 to a daughter of Major Daniel 
Bell, who was the tirst person to make permanent settlement on the 
present site of Logansport, locating there as early as the year 1826. 
John B. Duret was a man of fine abiHty, and is remembered as one 
of the most accomplished officials of the county, in the welfare of 
which he took such an active interest. James S. Duret passed the 
years of his youth and early manhood in Logansport, attended the 
schools there until twelve years of age, when he entered Notre 
Dame University, in which institution he pursued his studies for a 
period of two years. Subsequently in 1857 and in 1858 he studied 
telegraphv, and for two years thereafter worked at the same. In 
Ma}-, 1863, he entered the army, enlisting in Company H, Eighty- 
seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and in August of the same 
^•ear was commissioned second lieutenant of his company, and as 
such served until honorably discharged. Previous to the war in 
1859 he came to Peru, and subsequently, in 1863, was appointed 
Deputy Treasurer of Miami Count}-, the duties of which position 
he discharged for a period of six years. Then for a number of 
years he was employed in the railroad business, and held several 
important positions in that capacity until his appointment as Deputy 
County Auditor in 1881. He is still connected with the ofiice, 
and being deservedly popular and possessing unusual ability, may 
yet serve the public in a wider and more extensive sphere. He has 
led a remarkably industrious life, full of energy and of great force 
of character, and as an accomplished business man none in Peru 
stand higher than he. In January, 1861, he was united in marriage 
with Mi'ss Mary Miller, adopted daughter of James T. Miller, of 
Peru. He is a Democrat in polities, and in religion adheres to the 
creed of the Roman Catholic Church. 

HENRY DUTTON, was a native of Schoharie County, N- 
Y.; was born June 25, 1824, and was a son of Julius Dutton. a native 
of Connecticut. At the a<re of fifteen he came to Fort Wavne and 


secured an engagement as clerk in a dry goods store, where he 
secured the greater part of his education. He then engaged in the 
retail dry goods business, in which he continued until the latter part 
of his life, when he emerged into the business of private banker 
and broker, which avocation he pursued during the eighteen years 
preceeding his death, which sad event occurred in July, 1877. 
Mr. Button was elected Count)- Treasurer on the Democratic 
ticket and was re-elected to the same office. He manifested 
a deep interest in the success of his party. Remaining at Fort 
Wayne for a number of years, he then came to Peru and resumed 
his former occupation — the dry goods business — in 1847. Was 
married in New York City July 20, 1847, to Miss Nancy M. Moore, 
daughter of John and Nancy (Wicks) Moore, natives of Duchess 
County, N. Y. To this union there were born four chil- 
dren, two of whom are living, viz: Mrs. Emma McWhinney, 
now residing at Richmond, Henry D. D., born November 
9, 1855, now a resident of St. Joseph, Missouri. Those 
deceased are: Mary M., born September 9, 1849, and died 
in 1877; Lillie D., born February 10, 1868, and died 1877. 
Mrs. Dutton was born in Schoharie Count)-, N. Y. The sub- 
ject of this sketch was a delegate to the National Con- 
vention at Baltimore which nominated Stephen A. Douglas for the 
Presidency, and was also for many years chairman of the Demo- 
cratic Central Committee for the County of Miami. 

RICHARD A. EDWARDS, cashier First National Bank, 
son of Prof. Richard and Betsey (Sampson) Edwards, was born in 
Bridgewater, Massachusetts, November 9, 1851. Richard Ed- 
wards, Sr., was born in Wales, and came to the United States in 
1832, settling originally in Ohio. He subsequently moved to Mas- 
sachusetts, where for a number of years he was principal of the 
State Normal School at Salem, in the organization of which institu- 
tion he took an active part. In 1859 he went to St. Louis, Mis- 
souri, to take charge of the City Normal School, a position he re- 
tained until 1862, at which time he .iccepted the presidency of the 
Illinois State llniversity. He held the latter position for a period of 
sixteen or eighteen j-ears, and was for some time pastor of the 
First Congregational Church at Princeton, Illinois. In 1886 he 
was elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Illinois, 
and is the present incumbent of that otllce. Prof. Edwards is a 
man of brilliant attainments, and as an educator ranks among 
the first in the country. He is the father of eleven children, nine 
of whom are living, the subject of this sketch being the second in 
number. Richard A. Edwards received his elementary education 
at Normal, Illinois, and subsequently attended Princeton and Dart- 
mouth Colleges, graduating from the latter in 1876. His literary 
education then completed, he accepted the position as instructor 


of Latin and Greek in the Rock River Seminary, Morris, Illinois, 
and two years later became Professor of Rhetoric and En<rlish 
Literature in Knox College, Galesburg. He held the latter posi- 
tion three years, and at the end of that time severed his connection 
with the college, and in i8Si came to Peru, Indiana. He entered 
the First National Bank in this cit}^ as assistant cashier in 1882, and 
in June, i886, became cashier, a position he holds at this time. On 
the ist of June, 1880, he married Miss Alice Shirk, daughter of the 
late E. H. Shirk, of Peru. Mr. and Mrs. Edwards have four chil- 
dren, viz. — Richard E., Milton A., Mary A. and Clara E. Polit- 
ically, Mr. Edwards votes with the Republican party, and in relig- 
ion adheres to the creed of the Congregational Church. Mrs. Ed- 
wards is an active member of the Baptist Church of Peru. 

WALTER H. EMSWILER. Mr. Emswiler was born in the 
city of Peru, May 10, 1858 and is the second son of John H. and 
Sarah E. (Miller) Emswiler, natives respectively of Pennsylvania 
and Indiana. The father came to Miami County in a very early 
day, was for many years one of the leading physicians and sur- 
geons of Peru and departed this life September, 1884. Walter 
Emswiler received a good practical education in the city schools 
and at the age of twenty began life for himself as clerk for his 
brother Charles, in the mercantile business, with whom he re- 
mained until his twenty-fourth year. In 1883 he became a part- 
ner with Schuyler Mercer in the livery business and subsequently 
purchased the entire interest which he still controls. Mr. Ems- 
wiler has already a well established business reputation and is 
meeting with encouraging success as a liveryman. He was married 
March 2, 1881 to Miss Rose Fisher, daughter of Joseph Fisher, 
one of the substantial residents of Jefferson Township, this county. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Emswiler have been born one child, Joseph, whose 
birth occurred September 2, 1883. 

JOHN J. ENGLISH. The subject of this biography is a 
native of Miami County-, born in Peru Township on the 6th day 
of April, 1848, and is the eldest son of Benjamin and Mary E. 
(Baker) English, of Licking County, Ohio. The father came to 
Miami County in 1846, settled in Peru Township, but subsequently 
lived in Pipe Creek and Erie Townships, and finallj^ purchased a 
home in Richland Township, where he is at this time living. John 
J. English remained at home until his mother's death, which 
occurred when he was eighteen years of age, at which time he 
abandoned the farm and took up the carpenter's trade. He served 
a four years apprenticeship at the same under W. D. Allen, of Rich- 
land, after which he began working for himself, and subsequently, 
August 27, 1877, accepted a position as skilled mechanic in the 
coach department of the railroad shops (I., P. & C.) at Peru,, 
which he still retains. He is one of the substantial employes of the 


company with which he is identified, and ranks amon<,f the best 
mechanics of Peru. His marriage with Miss Mar\- C. Bouslog, 
daughter of R. Bouslog, of this city, was solemnized on the 29th day 
of October, 1S78, a union blessed with three children, viz.: Nellie 
D., Hazel B. and John W. English. Mr. English is a Democrat in 
politics, but in no sense of the word a partisan. 

JOHN L. FARRAR, prominent member of the Miami 
County bar, was born in Jefferson County, New York, April 29, 
1824, and is the eldest son of Lloyd and Rachel Farrar, natives 
respectively of Vermont and Rhode Island. The family came to 
Miami County, Indiana, in 1847 and settled in Butler township, 
where for a number of years the father engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits. Lloyd Farrar was a man of local prominence, served as 
Justice of the Peace for Butler Township for a series of years and 
died in i860. Mrs. Farrar survived her husband four j-ears, 
departing this life in 1864. John L. Farrar spent the ^-ears of his 
youth and early manhood as a farmer, and received in the common 
schools the elements of an English education, supplemented by a 
course in a college at Kalamazoo, Michigan where he pursued his 
studies for a limited period. At the age of twenty he engaged in 
teaching, and during the time he continued at that profession, read 
law under the able instruction of Hon. Charles E. Stuart, of Kala- 
mazoo, who at one time represented the State of Michigan in the 
Senate of the United States. After acquiring a partial knowledge 
of the legal profession, Mr. Farrar was admitted to the bar in 1852 
and at once entered upon the active practice in the courts of Miami 
County, where his real ability as a criminal lawyer soon won for 
him a conspicuous place. He has practiced his profession in Peru 
continuously since 1852, and in addition to his large and lucrative 
business in Miami County, is frequently employed in important cases 
in various parts of the State. He is, without doubt, the most suc- 
cessful criminal lawyer in northern Indiana, and few attorneys in the 
State have presented the result of more labor and research in 
behalf of their clients than he. As a public speaker Mr. Farrar is 
forcible and logical, bringing his cases before the court with much 
skill, and in his addresses to the jury analyzing the testimony and 
conducting it upon the point at issue. In early life he was not 
favored with any peculiar advantages and his professional success 
must be attributed to the indomnitable will and energy which he has 
displayed in all his undertakings. He takes an active interest in 
politics, voting in conformity with the Democratic party, but is not 
a partisan in the sense of seeking official position. Mr. Farrar was 
married on the 26th day of March 1848 to Miss Everisa Foster, 
of Vermont. The issue of this union was one child, Arnold, born 
May 29, 1857. Arnold Farrar was a young man of much more 
than ordinary intelligence. He received a good literar\- educa- 


tion, early began the study of law with his father and subse- 
quentl)- graduated from the law department of the State Uni- 
versity at Bloomington. Before commencing the practice, how- 
ever, he met with a violent death, having been accidentally shot 
in the year 1877. 

JOSIAH FARRAR, a leading lawyer of Peru, is a native 
of Jefferson County, New York, and second son of Llovd and 
Rachel Farrar, He was born September 25, 1826, and grew to man- 
hood on a farm in his native county, receiving his early education 
and training in the common school from which he was subse- 
quently promoted to the academic grade. He took an academic 
course in which he acquired the knowledge of the higher 
branches of learning and while thus engaged decided upon the 
legal profession for a life work. In 1846 he came to Miami 
County, Indiana and selected in Butler Township a tract of land 
to which his father's family removed and settled the' following 
year. For some time after coming here he was engaged in 
teaching school and in the meantime pursued his legal studies as 
opportunities w'ould permit. Actuated by a laudable desire to in- 
crease his knowledge of the profession, Mr. Farrar, at the age 
of twenty-three went to Rochester, New York, where he read 
for some time under the able instruction of Lysander Farrar, one 
of the leading attorneys of the citv. In this county he read in 
the office of H. J. Shirk in 1849 and the following year re- 
turned to Rochester, where he w'as similarh' engaged until 1852. 
Having thus completed his preparatory reading, during which he 
made substantial progress in his profession, Mr. Farrar, in 1852, 
engaged in the practice at Peru, Indiana, in partnership with his 
brother John L. Farrar, and the firm thus constituted still con- 
tinues. In 1856, he was elected on the Democratic ticket, pros- 
ecutor for the counties of Miami and Cass, and in 1867, against 
his wishes, was elected mayor of the city of ■ Peru. Since his 
admission to the bar Mr. Farrar has, by close application 
to business and commendable studiousness gradually surmounted 
the obstacles in the course of every professional man and won 
for himself a fine reputation as a successful practitioner. In 
1862 he closed his office and tendered his services to his country 
recruiting in Ma}' of that year. Company D., 99th Indiana Infantry, 
of which he was chosen captain. He accompanied his command 
through all its varied experiences in the southwestern campaigns of 
the Mississippi department, and at the battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864. 
was in command of the brigade of skirmishers, a duty fraught with 
a great deal of danger. At the battle of July 28th, of the same 
year, he was second in command of the regiment, and while his 
Colonel was sick during the siege of Atlanta, he commanded the 
regiment one week when the duty was very difficult to perform. 


The confidence which the Hne officers reposed in his abiHty is 
attested by the fact that they frequently requested him to take com- 
mand on trying occasions, and it is also a conceded fact that in 
nearly every hotly contested battle in which the 99th was engaged 
he was at its head. He commanded the regiment during the recon- 
noisance toward Dalton and Rocky Face Crap, in February, 1864, 
and subsequently on the arrival at Savannah, being the ranking 
ofiicer succeeded to the command which he held until mustered out 
of the service. On May 20, 1865 he was mustered as Lieutenant 
Colonel, and on the mustering out of the regiment ix'ceived a com- 
mission as Colonel. Among the battles in which he participated 
were the following: Vicksburg, capture of Jackson, Mississippi, 
Mission Ridge, the numerous engagements in the advance upon 
Atlanta, the battle of the 22d of July, when General McPherson was 
killed, battle of the 28th, same month west of Atlanta, flank movement 
which resulted in the capture of that city, and battles consequent, 
Sherman's march to the sea and up through the Carolinas, and to 
the battle of Bentonville, the last fight in which the Ninety-ninth 
was engaged. At the close of the war his regiment marched to 
"Washington City, and after participating in the " Grand Review," 
he was honorabh' discharged. Col. Farrar was a brave and honor- 
able soldier, and his military record is bright with duty intelligently 
and faithfullv performed. In him were combined those qualities of 
mind which display under the most trying circumstances the pos- 
session of great executive abilit}', added to a personal courage, that 
made him the trusted leader on many blood}' battle fields. Return- 
ing, after an absence of three years, to the quiet of civil life, he 
resumed the practice of his profession, which he has since success- 
fully continued in Peru. He is an able lawyer, thoroughl}- acquainted 
with the methods and principles of legal jurisprudence, and stands 
high among his professional associates of the Miami County bar. 
He is and always has been a Democrat in politics. Though he ad- 
heres to his political faith with tenacity and expresses his senti- 
ments fearlessl}', he is far removed from partisan intolerance, and on 
several occasions has followed his convictions rather than the dictates 
of party. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity and takes an 
active interest in the G. A. R. post in the city. He married on the 
13th day of November, 1856, Miss Emma Gould, daughter of 
Solomon and Eliza Gould, of Peru. Mr. and Mrs. Farrar have 
three children, viz: William C, Ada and Maude Farrar. 

H. G. FETTER was born in Carlisle, Cumberland County, 
Pennsylvania, November 12, 1828. His father, Samuel Fetter, 
was a carpenter and contractor. His mother's maiden name was 
Mary Wise. The parents were both of German descent. While 
the subject was quite young his father removed to Sunbury, 
Pennsylvania, where he erected a number of the churches and 


principal buildings still standing in that city. H. G. Fetter, at 
the age of sixteen, went to Danville and learned the printer's 
trade, remaining in the office four years. His health then fail- 
ing, he learned the art of daguerreotvping, then in its infancy and 
conducted mostly by traveling artists in tents. For the next four 
years with a short interruption he pursued the art of picture- 
making in West Virginia, Ohio and Indiana, locating in Peru in 
1853. For a number of years he operated two galleries. In 1861 
he was appointed postmaster of Peru two weeks after Lincoln's 
inauguration, and held that position four years and a half, being 
succeeded by his brother, J. H. Fetter. In 1867 he removed to 
Logansport, and conducted a gallery there about ten years, when 
• he returned to Peru, where he has since resided. 

JAMES H. FETTER, dealer in furniture, is a native of Sun- 
bury, Pennsylvania, apd the eleventh of a family of twelve 
children born to Samuel and Mary (Wise) Fetter, of the same 
State. He w-as born on the 28th day of February, 1842, and 
after receiving a liberal education engaged, at the age of six- 
teen, as a salesman in a dry goods house in his native town. 
He continued in that capacity until his nineteenth year, at which 
time, October 14, 1861, he came to Miami County, Indiana, and 
became deputy postmaster at Peru, under his brother, H. G. 
Fetter. Subsequently, August 6, 1865, he succeeded his brother 
as postmaster, and discharged the diities of the office continu- 
ously till April I, 1879, when he effected a copartnership in the 
furniture and undertaking business with L. C. Gould. He is 
still engaged in that branch of the trade, carries a large stock 
of all kinds of furniture, and leads the business in Peru. Mr. 
Fetter's marriage with Miss Lucy Adkison, daughter of Hon. 
Lewis D. Adkison, of Peru, was solemnized March 9, 1873. 
They have two children — Robert A., born March 28, 1874, and 
Thomas C, born on the 26th da}' of August, 1883. Mr. Fet- 
ter is an active member of the I. O. O. F., belonging to the 
Encampment, and with his wife belongs to the Presbyterian 
Church. Politicallv he is a Republican. 

JAMES B. FULWILER was born in Perry County, Penn- 
sylvania, on the 6th day of September, 181 2. Was educated at 
Hopewell Academy and Gettysburg Gymnasium, now Pennsyl- 
vania College. His father, Abraham Fuhviler, was one of the 
early graduates of Dickinson College, Carlisle, Penns\lyania, where 
he was born and reared, and died in 1830, leaving a large estate. 
His paternal ancestry is traceable through centuries into Switzer- 
land, where the inevitable millions are said to be awaiting identi- 
fication of the descendants. His mother was a cousin of the late 
Jeremiah S. Black, a Cabinet officer of President Buchanan, and 
a daughter of the Rev. James Black, of Pennsylvania, a Scottish 

ft- ••r^ 

iifA^^-i-"^^ '^ AAy^'^-UA^ 



dixine of extensive erudition. In the year 1834, the subject of 
this notice came to Peru, Indiana, with a stock of merchandise 
under the management of one Samuel Pike, his employer, who 
who subsequentH became famous as a campaign editor of countless 
newspapers in many of the States, beginning with the Peru For- 
rester, the first newspaper printed and published in Miami County, 
Indiana.* In the j-ear 1838 Mr. Fulwiler's name was announced by 
his friends as a candidate to represent the counties of Miami and 
Fulton in the State Legislature, which he at first stoutly resisted 
'^or the reason that his views in regard to the simultaneous prosecu- 
.lon of all the public works which had been projected bv former 
Legislatures of the State, was so unpopular that there could be no 
hope of his election, but finall}- 3'ielded to the importunities of his 
friends, and he was defeated, as he expected to be. He was one of 
the few men of Indiana who at that time favored the classification 
of the public works, and the prosecution to completion of the most 
important work first. The people of the several counties had been 
led to believe that a road or canal would pass by their very doors 
and that "an additional hen and chickens would pay the additional 
tax." Hence a "classifier" was more odius to the people, if pos- 
sible, than an "aboHtionist." As they became more enlightened 
on the subject, however, they changed their views, and in the brief 
period of two years there was not to be found within the 
i^orders of the State a public man who would acknowledge him- 
self in favor of an indiscriminate prosecution of the thirteen 
projected works known as the "cow bill," ivnd classification became 
a popular word. In 1843 Mr. F. was called to the State of 
Pennsylvania to attend to the disposal of a large body of unpro- 
ductive land in Schuylkill County, being a part of his father's 
estate King in a mountainous region and traversed bv rich veins 
of anthracite coal, where, with the aid of miners from Potts- 
ville, in the spring of 1844, he located, opened up and leased 
thirteen veins of coal — among the number was the celebrated 
"mammoth vein," twenty-two feet in tiiicknes.s — and at the same 
time laid off the town of Fremont upon the premises. This 
town, situated as it is, in the midst of an extensive coal region, 
is now a prosperous little city. In 1847, Mr. F. was elected 
clerk of the Miami Circuit Court, which office he held until the 
6th day of June 1855, when he was succeeded b\' Alexander 
Blake. In the vear 1S60, he was selected as a delegate at large 
for the State of Indiana to the Deiuocratic National Convention 
which nominated Stephen A. Douglass, at Baltimore, for Presi- 
dent of the United States, and was one of the committee of two 

*0n tlio 7th day of Miirfh, 1837, he wa.s married to Pauliiip Avaline, daughter 
of Francis Avaliiif, of Fort Wayne, hid., and sister of Francis .S. Av.iline, late iiro- 
prietor of the Avaline House, of Fort Wayne, a beautiful and accomplished lady. 


from Indiana, who escorted Mr. Douglass, when on his presi- 
dential tour, from Cincinnati, Ohio, to hidianapolis, Indiana, and 
had Mr. Douglass been successful in the race, Mr. F. had rea- 
son to believe that a prominent position would have been reserved 
at Washington for his acceptance. In 1861 Mr. F. purchased 
of Messrs. Todd & Zerne, wholesale and retail grocers, their 
stock in trade: and in 1865 bought the undivided half of a 
furniture manufacturing establishment of Messrs. West & Jami- 
son, which burned to the ground within ten days after his pur- 
chase and before he had the same insured against fire. In 1868 
he embarked, with considerable capital, in extensive purchases 
and sales of Kansas and Iowa lands, which, for a time, yielded him 
an immense proHt, but which eventualh' proved disastrous. In his 
present coflrt of judicature in the citj- of Peru, his duties are 
greatly facilitated by a course of legal studies pursued at an earlj- 
period of his life. Mr. F. has six children living and one deceased. 
Julia, his eldest daughter, married to Harry F. Clark, late super- 
intendent of the western division of the W., St. L. & P. Rail- 
road, at present manager of a western road with headquarters 
at Keokuk, Iowa: his second child, William died at Portsmouth, 
Washington Territorv, some years ago: Louis Berthelet, second 
son, is one of the editors and proprietors of the Miami County 
Sentinel: Clarence, late clerk in the W., St. L. & P. Railway 
offices at Toledo, is now a resident of Peru. Marv Frank is 
married to J. R. Hamlin, of the Merchants' Exchange, St. Louis; 
Ada Pauline, wife of William E. Clark, of Edwards\ille, Illinois; 
Frank, the youngest child of Mr. F., is clerk in a railroad office 
of the W., St. L. & P. Railway Company at St. Louis. All of 
his children are naturally bright and have had the advantages 
of good educations. 

" LOUIS B. FULWILER, editor of the Miami County Scn- 
iinch and son of James B. and Pauline (Avaline) Fulwiler, was 
born in Peru, Indiana, on the 13th day of July, 1842. He 
received a liberal education in the schools of his native city and 
began life for himself by accepting a position in the office of 
the Toledo, Peoria & Warsaw Railway, at Peoria, Illinois, where 
he remained only for a limited period. In 1861 he entered 
the army, enlisting in Company A, 20th Indiana Infantry, for the 
three years service, and with that noted regiment took part in 
some of the bloodiest battles of the war. In the se\'en days 
fight before Richmond, June 25, 1862, he had the misfortune to 
lose a limb, and being incapacitated for further service he was 
honorably discharged and returned home in October of the same 
year. In 1862 he was appointed deputy clerk of the Miami 
Circuit Coui-t, the duties of which position he discharged for a 
period of seven years. In 1870 he was elected Auditor of 


Miami County, re-elected in 1874, ''""^ '^^^'^^ '^'^^ office two terms 
or ciijht years. In 1869 he entered the tield of journalism as 
editor of tlie Miami Count\- Sciiliiirl, with which paper he has 
since been identified and in which he now owns a one-half 
interest with Richard H. Cole. As the Sentinel is the 
exponent, so is Mr. Fulwiler's influence one of the prime fac- 
tors in moulding the character and action of, the Democratic 
party in Miami Count)'. He has proved himself a superior poli- 
tician, bold and zealous, undertaking what others deem impos- 
sible and being judicious and untiring, nearly always succeeds. 
Mental culture and strong common sense have developed and 
supplemented his natural talents, till all combined have made 
him one of the ablest newspaper writers in Northern Indiana. 
In 1869 he was united in marriage with Miss Cora L,. Scott, 
who was born in Logansport, Indiana, September 13, 1846. 
Mr. Fulwiler is prominently identified with the G. A. R. and 
K. of P. Orders. 

WILLIAM A. GIBNEY, Recorder of Miami County, the 
subject of this biographical sketch, is a native of Holmes Count}-, 
Ohio; the son of WilHam S. and Nancy (Landis) Gibney, and dates 
his birth from the 30th day of September, 1837. His parents were 
born in Faj'ette County, Pennsyhania, but early emigrated to Ohio, 
where they lived until their removal to Miami County, Indiana, 
in 1849. William S. Gibney was a farmer by occupation and died 
in Peru in 1873. His wife preceded him to the grave, departing 
this life in the year 186S. William A. Gibney passed the j^ears of 
his youth amid the active scenes of the farm, and in the common 
schools of the country received a fair English education, which, 
supplementing a practical knowledge such as books fail to impart, 
has enabled him to successfully discharge the duties of an active 
business life. He followed agricultural pursuits until 1865, at which 
time he abandoned the farm and engaged in saw-milling and rail- 
roading, which he followed some years, working at intervals, in the 
meantime, as deputy in the Sheriff's office. In 1871 he accepted a 
position in the railroad shops in Peru, later run as fireman on the I. 
P. & C, and was afterwards promoted baggage master at the depot 
in this cit\-, the duties of which position he discharged until 1879. 
In the meantime, 1878, he was elected Recorder of Miami County, 
and the following year severed his connection with the road in order 
to enter upon the discharge of his oflicial duties. He was re-elected 
in 1882, and at this time is nearing the close of his second term. In 
politics Mr. Gibney is an unflinching Democrat, evincing at all times 
a lively interest in the success of his jiarty upon the principles of 
political purity, rigidly averse to anything that savors of deception 
or trickery. His official record, together with his acknowledged 
integrity as a trustworthy and reliable Christian gentleman have 


won for him a prominent place in the estimation of his fellow 
citizens, irrespective of part}- affiliation. He was married Sep- 
tember, i860, to Miss >Iary E. Ninon of Fayette County, Penn- 
sylvania, which union has been blessed with the birth of eleven 
children, seven of whom are living, viz.: George M., Lillie M., 
lona, Dora, Mattie, Pearl and Albert C. Mr. Gibney is an active 
member of the K. of H. and Odd Fellows fraternities, and with 
his wife, belongs to the Methodist church. 

HON. JOHN A. GRAHAM was born in Baldmore, Maryland, 
January 8, 1S17. His parents were natives of Ireland and emigra- 
ted to this countrv in 1815. They landed in Baltimore after under- 
going great hardships during a prolonged vovage in which thev 
narrowlv escaped being ship-wrecked. In 1826 the family removed 
to Pittsburgh, in 1827 to Wheeling, and in 1828 returned to Balti- 
more. In 1830 the}' went to Harper's Ferry, and finally in 1832 
settled in Indiana." John A. Graham was employed at Harper's 
Ferry as clerk until 1835. I" May of that year, being then 
eighteen he started for Indiana. At Wheeling he took passage 
on a steam boat and was landed at mid-night, a solitary passenger 
at the mouth of the Wabash. He there expected to find a town 
filled with enterprising people; but he saw only a dreary waste of 
turbid waters. No sound greeted his ear but the hoot of the owl 
and the crash and crunch of the running drift. After sitting upon 
his baggage at the waters edge until near daylight, he discerned 
from the top of the bank something like a building in the obscurity 
of the morning fog and detected a faint sound of human voices 
coming from a point farther up the river. About a half mile from 
where he landed he found a steamboat bound for the upper 
Wabash: and after various adventures and detentions, he succeeded 
in reaching Peru. There he made arrangements for taking charge 
of a store in Logansport for Alexander Wilson. He remained in 
the latter place until the business was closed up, in June, 1835, when 
he returned to Peru. He acted as clerk for jNIr. Wilson until 1839 
when he became a partner. The firm of Wilson & Co., packed 
pork in 1839. It was the first undertaking of the kind in the place 
and proved a financial failure, owing to the low water in the Maumee 
which pre\ented its quick transportation to New York. They 
built flatboats and in 1840 commenced sending pork to New 
Orleans. This also proved a failure on account of hard times and 
low prices. In 1841 and 1843 Mr. Graham was elected Sheriff of 
Miami county. In 1846 he was appointed clerk in the Wabash and 
Erie Canal Land Office. He held this place until 1847 when 
the office was moved to Logansport, under an act of the Legislature 
adjusting the State debt, known as the Butler Bill. He then bought 
the printing office at Peru and June 28, 1848 issued the first number 
of the Miami County Sentinel. This paper was successfully man- 


agod liy him, as editor and proprietor until 1861, when he sold out 
and retired from the editorial chair. In 1850 Mr. Graham was a 
delegate to the State Convention to form a new State Constitution. 
In 1870 he was elected clerk of the Miami Circuit Court and at dif- 
ferent times served as a member of the town and city council. He 
was special agent of the United States to pay the Miamis in the 
years 1857 and 1S59 and has held many other positions of trust. 
In 1 88 1 he was elected Mayor of the Cit}- of Peru, a position he 
holds at the present time. He has been a life long Democrat and 
in religion is a Roman Catholic. He was married to Caroline A. 
A\ aline in Peru, June 28, 1842; a famih' of three sons and six daugh- 
ters were born to Mr. and Mrs. Graham. Mr. Graham is below 
the average height but is heavily and compacth" built. He poss- 
esses a strong constitution and although having reached the allotted 
three score and ten vears, manv years of usefulness and honor may 
j'et remain to him. His opportunities for an education were limited 
but he has been a constant reader and has a wonderful memorv. He 
is recognized as the "Historian of Miami." As a writer he is fluent 
precise as to dates and figures, and full of humor. Few men pos- 
sess the confidence of the comnuinit\' in a more eminent degree. 

EDWARD T. GRAY. Sheriff of Miami County, is a native 
of Markham. Canada, and the son of Thomas and Margaret 
(Hines) Gray, the father born in Canada and the mother in 
Southampton, England. Mr. Gray was born on the 24th of 
Ma\-, 1836, and at the age of sixteen commenced to learn the 
blacksmithing and carriage making trades, at Norwich, Canada. 
At the age of twentv-live he came to Miami County, Indiana, 
and began working at his trade in the city of Peru, where he 
has since resided. In 1872 he purchased an- interest in the firm 
of H. Armantrout & Co., manufacturers of carriages, after which 
the name was changed to that of Armantrout & Gra}', under 
which title thev continued business until 187S. In that year Mr. 
Gray purchased the entire interest, and under his efficient man- 
agement, the concern soon became one of the leading manufac- 
turing establishments of its kind in the citv. Mr. Gray has 
always taken an active interest in local politics, and in 1S84 was 
elected on the Democratic ticket Sheriff of Miami Count}-, the 
duties of wliich position he has since discharged, having been 
re-elected in 1886. As a citizen Mr. Gray has the respect and 
confidence of all who know him, and as an official he is faithful 
and diligent discharging the duties of his position in a manner 
highly satisfactor}' to all concerned. He is a man of conscien- 
cious scruples and is ever read\' to do what he can to promote 
the interest of the public welfare. He is prominently identified 
with the Masonic fraternity, being a Royal Arch Mason, and in 
religion holds to the creed of the Episcopal church. On the 


31st of December, 1863, he married Miss Kate M. Wilson, of 
Peru, who has borne him three children, viz. : Alice, Nellie and 
Lewis Grav. 

WILLARD GRISWOLD, of the tirm of Griswold & Geves, 
hvery stable, was born in Watertown, New York, August 8, 1833, 
the third son of Daniel and Sarah ( Barry ) Griswold : parents 
natives of Vermont and of English ancestrv. Daniel Griswold 
moved to Miami Countv in 1844 and settled at the village of 
Mexico, where he followed the plasterer's trade a number of 
years and later engaged in the mercantile business. He was a 
man of considerable local prominence: took, an active part in the 
earlv growth of his adopted town, and departed this Hfe in the 
year 1858. Mrs. Griswold survived her husband fourteen years, 
dving in 1872. Willard Griswold received the advantages of a 
common school education in his native State, and shortly after 
coming to Indiana engaged as salesman in a store at Mexico, 
where he remained for a number of vears. At the breakin</ out 
of the war he tendered his service to his country, and in Septem- 
ber, 1861, enlisted in' Co. B, 40th Indiana Volunteer Infantrv, 
with which he served imtil honorably discharged on the 21st day 
of December, 1865. He shared with his regiment the \-icissitudes 
of war in manv of the bloodiest battles of the southwestern cam- 
paigns, and was twice severely wounded, the first time at Stone 
River and later near Kenesaw Mountain. He entered the service 
as private, at the time of his discharge was adjutant of his regi- 
ment, and a short time after being mustered out was commis- 
sioned captain. Mr. Griswold's mihtarv record is one of which 
he feels justly proud, and in all the battles where his command 
was engaged he took an active and gallant part. His military 
career thus being completed he returned to Mexico, and engaged 
in the general goods business, which he continued until his election 
to the office of Sheriff, in 1872, when he moved to the countv 
seat. He discharged his official duties in a manner highly cred- 
itable to the people, who in 1874 re-elected him bv a decided 
vote, a fact which showed his popularity in the county, which 
had previously given decided Democratic majorities, he being a 
Republican. In 1878, in partnership with R. H. Segar, he en- 
gaged in the liven*- business, which he has since successfully 
continued, being at this time a partner with H. Geves, in the 
largest stable in the citv. Mr. Griswold is a public spirited 
citizen, and deserves mention as one of the representative business 
en of Miami County. He belongs to the G. A. R. and Masonic 
fraternities, is a decided Republican in politics, and as such has 
rendered valuable service to his party. He was married in 1867 
to Miss Harriet Graft, daughter of Benjamin Graft, of Mexico, 
a union blessed with the birth of one child, Charles Griswold. 


HENRY MAUPT, foreman wood machine department, 
Indiana Manufacturing Company, is a native of Germany- and 
dates his birth from the 19th day of May, 1835. He was 
raised on a farm, received in the schools of his native country 
the advantages of a good education, and at the age of fifteen 
commenced to learn the saddler's trade at the town of Barken, 
where he served a three years' apprenticeship. After becoming 
proficient in his chosen vocation he worked at the same at dif- 
ferent places in Germany until 1836, at which time thinking the 
new world offered a more remunerative held, sailed to the 
United States and located in liridgeport, Connecticut. Here he 
worked at his trade until 1861, where being infected with the 
war spirit he enlisted in the First Connecticut Infantrv, with 
which he served until August of the same year. He then rein- 
tered the service, volunteering in the Sixth Connecticut regi- 
ment, with which he shared the fortunes and vicissitudes of war 
until honorablv dischared in 1S65. He participated in a number 
of bloody battles in one of which. Fort Fisher, North Carolina, 
he received a severe wound. At the expiration of his term of 
service Mr. Haupt returned to Bridgeport, and engaged with 
the Howe Machine Company in that citv, where he remained 
until sent by the companv to Peru, Indiana, where for sometime 
he acted in the capacity of contractor and later as foreman. 
He subsequentlv severed his connection with the company and 
from 1880 until 1883 was superintendent of Muhltield's variety 
works. He engaged the latter year with the Indiana Manufac- 
turing Companv, and at this time holds the position of foreman 
of the wood machine department. Mr. Haupt's marriage on the 
ist of May. 1873, with Anna M. E. Kranzman. of Germany, 
has been blessed with the birth of two children, both deceased. 

JOHN H. HELM, M. D., of Peru, is one of the ablest phy- 
sicians in Northern Indiana. His early life was not like that of 
many here chronicled — a struggle with poverty — but was char- 
acterized bv the possession of ample means, and for some \ears 
by travel and adventure. Having previously acquired a literary 
and professional education, he was able to improve his opportu- 
nities for travel bv intelligent observation. Both physical and 
mental, he bears evidence of descent from superior stock. His 
paternal grandfather was a well educated German, who having 
settled in America, lielped in the Revolutionary war to defend 
the land of his adoption. His father. Dr. John C. Helm, an early 
settler of Miami County, and one of its most wealthy and influ- 
ential citizens, was a man of vigorous intellect and iron will, and 
his mother, Amy (Hampton) Helm, was the daughter of Major 
John Hampton, of South Carolina, who served with General 
Jackson in the war of 181 2, and ft second cousin of the noted 


Wade Hampton of the present day. Dr. John C. Helm was born 
at Charleston, in what is now West Virginia, November 7, iSoo. 
Two years later the familj- removed to Washington County, 
Tennessee. At eleven years of age he entered Washington Col- 
lege, and during the course walked every day to and from school, 
a distance of three and-a-half miles. He embraced the medical 
profession, and pursuing it with characteristic zeal and energy, 
became a well qualilied physician. In 182 1 he married Amy 
Hampton, above mentioned, by whom he had eight children. In 
1835 he removed to Preble County, Ohio, and there practiced 
medicine until 1844, when he came to Miami County, Indiana, 
built a large flouring mill at Peru, and afterward another at 
Peoria, in the same county, where he iinall}' established his home. 
There he continued the duties of his profession, and so invested 
the receipts as to amass a fortune. In 1865 occurred the death 
of his intelligent and devoted wife. After this severe affliction 
he divided most of his real estate among his three sons, giving 
to each property of much value. These sons are John H., 
Henry T., a prominent lawyer of Chicago, and David B., a 
farmer, who are respected wherever known. Sometime after making 
this liberal provision for his children, Doctor Helm married in 
Chicago, his son Henry's mother-in-law, an estimable lady, but 
she soon died, and he did not long survive her. On the 7th of 
September, 1847, the strong mart, who had never known weak- 
ness or defeat, yielded to the resistless enemy, death. He was 
a man of wonderful energy and tenacity of purpose. He had 
made and lost fortune after fortune, but no adversity could wholly 
overcome him, and finally, as if victorious over ad