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Full text of "A history of the Michigan State Normal School (now Normal College) at Ypsilanti, Michigan, 1849-1899"

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The Ontario Institute 

for Studies in Education 

Toronto, Canada 



FEB 25 1968 

^;-v 7-/^ 


















Michigan State Normal School 

(Now Normal College) 





Professor of Psychology and PStlagogy 

(Teacher in the School for Thirty Years) 


Copyright, 1899. 
By Daniel Putnam. 



It is not easy to write, with entire impartiality, the history 
of an institution in which one has been, for any considerable 
time, a personal actor. The writer has been connected, in vari- 
ous relations, for thirty years with the Michigan State Normal 
School. He has known prett}' intimatel}^ all the Principals of 
the school, and has taught with all these except Principal Welch. 
With a very few exceptions he has known personally all the 
teachers who have been connected with the school. 

Under such conditions it will be difficult to exclude the per- 
sonal element from the narrative or from the discussions which 
now and then occur. An attempt has been made, however, to 
prevent this element from giving any unfair or unjust coloring 
to any statements or conclusions in regard to persons, events, or 
the policy and administration of the school. It is too much to 
expect that the attempt has been in all cases entirely' successful, 
but it is hoped that no injustice has been done to any one who 
has, at any time, been connected with the institution in any 

This service of so manj^ years has created in my mind a 
strong attachment to the Normal School and to those with whom 
I have been, for so long a period, intimately associated both 
officially and in the bonds of strong personal friendship. To all 
these with whom I have been thus associated, whether teachers 
or students, I desire to express mj^ warmest regards, and my 
best wishes for their happiness and prosperity in all the coming 
days wherever a kind Providence may lead them. 

A few words of explanation and acknowledgment are due to 
those who have kindly aided in the preparation and publication 
of this book. It was originally proposed to have a chapter con- 
taining a complete list of all the classes graduated, together with 


brief sketches of the work of the different members of the 
classes. It was soon found that it would be impossible to secure 
the material for such a chapter with any effort which could be 
made, and consequently this plan was abandoned. A list of the 
names of all graduates, without note or comment, has been 
inserted. Much labor has been expended to make this list accu- 
rate, but probabh' some errors will be found. 

I wish here to thank those who volunteered to prepare 
sketches of their own classes, some of whom have devoted much 
time and labor to the work . T hope the valuable material which 
they have collected may yet be used for some g^ood purpose. 

To a few persons I am under special obligations which I 
desire to acknowledge in this public way. To Miss Frances 
Stewart I am indebted for assistance in many directions; to Miss 
Genevieve M. Walton I am indebted for a part of the history 
of the Librarj^; to Miss Gertrude E. Woodard for assistance in 
obtaining material for the cuts and for aid in other matters ; to 
Misses Marj^ and Ruth Putnam for reading and correcting proofs; 
to Professor Julia A. King for valuable assistance in various 
ways ; and to Professor Austin George for the preparation of the 
chapter on "The Normal School in the Civil War," and for his 
valuable aid in carr5ang the book through the press. No one 
can be more sensible than I am of the imperfections of this bis- 
torts but, notwithstanding these, I venture to hope that it may 
have some interest to the friends of the "Old Normal," and 
something of value to the cause of the professional education of 

Daniel Putnam. 

State Normal College, 

Ypsilaiiti, Mich., Dec. 1S99. 




Prefatory Note, 5 

Contents, ........ 7 

Introductory, ........ 9 

I. — Ivocation and Opening of the School, ... 13 

II. — Grounds and Buildings, 22 

III. — Development of Courses of Study and Instruction, 34 

IV. — Development of the Training School, . . .86 

V. — The Internal Administration of the School, . 114 

VI. — Certificates, Diplomas, Degrees, Funds, Library-, . 128 

VII. — Teachers of the School — Biographical Sketches, . 137 
VIII.— Alphabetical Ivist of Teachers, . . . .197 

IX. — Attendance of Students, etc., .... 203 

X. — Publications by the School and by Teachers, . . 206 

XI. — Societies in the Normal, . .215 

XII. —The Students' Christian Association, . . .239 
XIII.^Music— The Conservatory, .... 251 
XIV.— The Normal School in the Civil War, . . .255 
XV. —Graduates of the Normal School, etc., . . 281 
XVI.— The State Board of Education, etc., . . .327 

Indexes, ........ 261 




In 1681 the celebrated Abbe de la Salle established a school 
for teachers in the city of Rheims, France. About 1697 Augus- 
tus Herman Franke organized teachers' classes in connection 
with his famous school at Halle. These classes attracted the 
the attention of educators in all parts of Germany. Among who came to Halle to secure the advantages of Franke 's 
instruction was Johan Julius Hecker, who opened a seminar}' for 
teachers in Stettin in 1735, and another in Berlin in 1748. This 
latter school was afterwards removed to Potsdam and was made 
a State institution, as was also the school at Stettin. These were 
the first State Normal schools ever established. The school at 
Potsdam .still exists and has been the model after which most of 
the normal schools of Europe have been fashioned. 


In 1823 Rev. S. R. Hall established a private school in 
Concord, N. H., the chief purpose of which was to train teachers 
for the public schools. Mr. Hall has sometimes been called the 
American Hecker. 

The Massachusetts Board of Education was organized in 
1837 and immediateh' elected Horace Mann to be secretary of 
the Board. The first subject which occupied the attention of 
Mr. Mann was the necessity of providing for the better prepara- 
tion of teachers for the schools of the State. In March, 1838, 
Edmund D wight, a member of the Board of Education, offered 
to give $10,000, to be expended under the direction of the Board, 
to provide facilities for educating teachers, provided the Leg- 
islature of the State would appropriate an equal amount. The 
Legislature accepted the proposition of Mr. Dwight and placed 
$10,000 at the disposal of the Board. With the means thus 


furnished, the Board opened the first State normal school in this 
country' at Lexington on the third day of Jnl}-, 1839. This 
school was subseqiientlj' removed to West Newton, and later to 
Framino:ham where it still continues to prosper. A second normal 
school was opened at Barre on September 4, 1839. This school 
was aftervvards removed to Westfield. A third normal school was 
opened at Bridgewater on September 9, 1840. 

New York established a normal school at Albany in Decem- 
ber, 1844, with David P. Page as Principal. 

Connecticut opened a normal school in 1849 at New Britain 
with Henrj^ Barnard as Principal. These were the only State 
normal schools established before our own at Ypsilanti. 


In his report, made in 1837, outlining a school system for the 
State, Superintendent Pierce referred to the normal schools in 
Prussia, but did not recommend the immediate establishment of 
such an institution. He hoped that the proposed branches of 
the University would supply the facilities needed for the prepara- 
tion of teachers. The second Superintendent, Mr. Sawj^er, 
referred in his report to the newly established normal schools in 
Massachusetts, but did not urge the opening of one in Michigan 
at that time. He apparentl}^ anticipated the organization of a 
normal school in the near future, for he said, " Until a regular 
school for teachers shall be established in the State, it is right 
that one or more of the branches of the University shall make 
teaching a part of its instruction." The next Superintendent, 
Mr. Comstock, referred to normal schools and their work with- 
out any special recommendation. Superintendent Maj'hew de- 
clared normal schools to be indispensable to the perfection of 
any sj'stem of national education, and that " such an institution 
would be productive of incalculable good." 

The report of the Board of Visitors of the University, made 
in 1847 and probably written by " Father Pierce," urged the 
establi.shment of a normal school and an appropriation of Salt 
Spring Lands for this purpose. In his message to the Legisla- 
ture in 1847 Gov. Ransom said: " I am not aware that further 


legislation is necessary to our common school system, unless it 
be expedient to provide for the establishment of normal schools 
for the education and qualification of teachers. Such institutions, 
when properly conducted, have been productive of great good, 
and no doubt is entertained but that such would be the result of 
their introduction into this State." 

Bills were introduced into the Legislature in 1848 for estab- 
lishing a separate department of the University for the instruction 
of teachers, and also for the establishment of temporary normal 
schools or teachers' Institutes. The Senate passed a bill provid- 
ing that one of the branches of the University should be organ- 
ized as a normal school. Hgwever, no one of these bills became 
a law. Public sentiment was improving, but had not yet ripened 
sufficiently to take form in a definite and positive legislative 
enactment. The State Superintendent, in his report for 1848, 
said, " I would not, however, with our age as a State, and the 
advancement we have made in the department of public instruc- 
tion, recommend the establishment of a single normal school, 
and especially when we consider our present necessities." He 
believed that more could be done for the preparation of teachers, 
at that time, through Institutes, and through the newl}^ opened 
union schools than by the establishment of a normal school. 

Francis W. Shearman became Superintendent of Public 
In.struction in January-, 1849, and Mr. Comstock, who had 
previoush' been Superintendent, was made chairman of the 
committee on Education in the House of Representatives. Earlj'- 
in the sesson of the Legislature a bill was reported from this 
committee for establishing a normal school. This bill was zeal- 
ously urged fon^'ard b}' Mr. Com.stock, and others and finally 
became a law on the 28th of March. A supplementary^ act was 
passed which was approved on the 31st of March. At the next 
session of the Legislature these two acts were consolidated and 
amended by a new act, approved by the Governor March 25th, 
1850. The normal school was organized and opened under the 
provision of this last act. 

Adonijah Strong Welch. 


Location and Opening ofjtlie School. 

The act for establishing the normal school created also the 
State Board of Education. The first duties imposed upon this 
Board were to select a location for the normal school, provide for 
the erection of suitable buildings, and take general control and 
direction of the organization and management of the institution. 
By the original act, the Board was to consist of three members 
appointed bj^ the Governor, with the approval of the Senate, and 
the Lieutenant Governor and State Superintendent as ex officio 
members. The consolidated act increased the Board b^^ the ad- 
dition of the State Treasurer who was to be the treasurer of 
the Board. The first Board, under the original act, consisted of 
Randolph Manning, Samuel Barstow, Samuel Newbury, Super- 
intendent Francis W. Shearman, and the Lieutenant Governor. 
The first Board, under the consolidated act, consisted of Isaac 
E. Crary, Samuel Barstow, Elias M. Skinner, Superintendent 
Shearman, and the Lieutenant Governor and State Treasurer. 
By the revised constitution of 1850 the Board was reduced to 
three members to be elected bj^ the people, with the Superinten- 
dent of Public Instruction as a member and secretar>^ ex ofiicio. 
The Board organized in May 1849 by electing Samuel New- 
bury President with other necessary officers. At this meeting 
arrangements were make for locating the lands appropriated 
for the normal school, and for receiving propositions for the loca- 
tion of the institution. At the second meeting of the Board, held 
in September, propositions were received from Ypsilanti, Jack- 
son, Marshall, Gull Prairie, and Niles. These various propo- 
sitions, which were printed in the first report of the Board, made 
to the Legislature in 1850, offer matter of entertainment and in- 
terest. The most elaborate paper was from a committee of the 
citizens of Gull Prairie, a pleasant little village in the township 


of Richland, Kalamazoo County. They called attention to the 
facts that their place was central in the State, was sufficiently ac- 
cessible, and at the same time just enough retired to be free from 
dissipating and immoral influences, was verj^health^-, that living 
expenses were low, and that they were of the opinion that 
"nature or the God of nature," had arranged the place for the 
especial accommodation of "the State Normal School of Mich- 
igan." In addition to these natural advantages, they pledged 
to provide sufficient land, and to give $7,364 in cash. 

Jackson offered all the land desired, the free use of rooms 
for the school till buildings could be erected, and $10,335 in 

Marshall offered five acres of land valued at four thousand 

Niles proposed to give suitable grounds, and the sum of five 
thousand dollars to be paid in three equal annual installments. 

Ypsilanti offered a cash subscription of $13,500, temporary' 
rooms for the use of the school, and proposed to pay, upon cer- 
specified conditions, for five years, the salary- of the principal 
teacher of the model school, which salar^^ might be $700 per 

After full examination and investigation the Board decided 
to accept the proposition made by the citizens of Ypsilanti. 

In their report the Board say : 

"The advantages of this site, in point of health, accessibility, and 
locality, were deemed, under all the circumstances, not second to any 
other, while the proposition to the Board was by far the most liberal. The 
site selected is convenient of access to all parts of the State. The village 
of Ypsilanti is sufficiently large to furnish every facility for boarding 
pupils, and the character of its population, and the deep interest mani- 
fested by them upon the subject of education, cannot fail to surround the 
institution with good influences." 

The Board proceeded as rapidly as circumstances would 
permit to erect a suitable building for the school. A description 
of this building will be found in another connection. The build- 
ing having been completed, the formal exercises of dedication took 
place on the fifth of October, 1852. A complete account of the 



exercises and addresses was published in the report of the Board 
for 1853. 

As this report can not be readily obtained a tolerably full 
outline of the proceedings will be given here. The Superinten- 
dent of Public Instruction opened the exercises with the reading 
of appropriate selections from the Scriptures. The reading was 
followed by a prayer offered bj^ Rev. Mr. Reed of Ypsilanti, in 
which he invoked the blessing of God upon those who should be 
charged with the management of the institution, and upon "the 
many youth that should in the future, crowd these halls," closing 
with the petition that "streams of knowledge may flow out from 
this Institution in all directions, till they shall reach all parts of 
our State and bless ever>^ school, every family, and every child. " 

The following hj'mn, written for the occasion by D. Bethune 
Duffield of Detroit, was sung: 

Hail: spirit of immortal Truth, 
Bright emanation from on high, 
Now o'er our nation's glowing youth. 
Extend thy wings of purity, — 
To thy great purpose now we raise 
These noble walls, this song of praise. 

Here have we built a holy shrine, 
Where thy -true wcrshippers, may kneel, 
And seek to know the art divine, 
Of teaching what thy laws reveal; 
' Pour then thy flood of golden light. 

And cheer the groping student's sight. 

May thy disciples hence depart. 
Well girded for their toilsome life, 
And ever as they faiut at heart, 
Sustain them for the ceaseless strife; 
Give them to feel that by thy power, 
Bright hopes oft deck the darkest hour. 

Teach them our rising youth to lead 

In Wisdom's ways, whose paths are peace, 

And grant as the years succeed, " 

Our numbers here may still increase; 

Till from these heights bright streams shall flow. 

To cheer the drooping vales below. 


Great God: preserve this sacred fane, 
And let thy smile upon it rest, 
For Art and Science build in vain. 
Unless the work the Lord has blest; 
Take it within thine own embrace, 
And bless it to our land and race. 

An address was delivered by "Father Pierce," the first 
state Superintendent, upon the subject, " A Perfect School Sj^s- 
tem." Naturall}' enough Mr. Pierce was in an exultant state of 
mind. A purpose which he had most ardentlj^ desired had been 
accomplished; an institution especially designed for 'the educa- 
tion and training of teachers had been established. Among 
other things he said: 

"What we need, and what we must have, is a perfect school system; 
not perfect in degree, but perfect in kind; a system adapted in all its parts 
to the wants of a great and flourishing republic, — and it is certainly mat- 
ter of just pride, that we have already all the elements of such a system, — 
a foundation of solid granite, laid in the constitution, the fundamental 
law of the State. We have also the basis of a magnificent educational 
fund * * * * provision for a Normal school, now ready to enter upon 
its career of usefulness * * * * a university with buildings, library, and 
apparatus. At the head of the whole scheme standi the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction. * * * * Xhe system is comprehensive and grand, and 
amply sufficient to reach every child in the State, and furnish him with 
all the elements of a good education." 

After speaking in appropriate terms of the university and 
its work, he continues: 

"By acts of the Legislature a normal school has been created, and 
provided with a liberal funti for its support. And by the munificent 
donation of citizens of this place, this noble building has been erected, 
and just now is to be dedicated to the high purpose of the institution. 
Eulogy is no part of my vocation, but it is due to say that the Board of 
Education are entitled to the highest commendation for their faithfulness, 
good sense, and judgement, as well as economy and taste, which they 
have exhibited in fulfilling the trust reposed in them. * * * * They have 
aimed to lay the foundation of an institution which should promote the 
interests of the rising generation, and do honor to the age. What remains 
is, that the gentleman to whose care the institution has been committed, 
and those associated with him, do their duty. * * * * I can not but 
rejoice to witness this consummation, and feel myself highly honored in 
being called to participate in the ceremonies of the day. It was earnestly 


desired by me when the foundation of our school system was laid, that 
such an institution might be established. It has ever been ray deliberate 
judgement, that it was essential to perfect the system, and ensure suc- 
cess. * * * * To the guardians of this institution I would say, go on, then 
in the noble work; falter not in the good cause; persevere, that teachers 
may be qualified to train up the young spirits of our country to high 
and elevated sentiments, to form noble purposes; to act on fair and hon- 
orable ground, leading them onward and upward to virtue and the full 
enjoyment of the highest good, the To Kalon of the ancient Greeks; that 
ineffable good which Christianity has fully revealed and promised to the 
pure in heart and in life." 

After the close of Mr. Pierce's address, Hon. Isaac E. 
Crarjs President of the Board of Education, pronounced the 

formal dedication in these words : 

"Now, therefore, in the presence of that Being who is a God of 
knowledge, and in behalf of the Board of Education, I do dedicate this 
Building to the People of the State of Michigan, to promote the great 
cause of man — the cause of God, and may this dedication be not all in 
vain. May all those who shall hereafter have charge of this Institution 
be endowed with the spirit of Wisdom, and may all who come up to this 
high place of instruction be so imbued with that spirit as to become min- 
istering angels to the wants and necessities of humanity; — and may they 
thus continue ministering and to minister to each successive generation 
until there shall not be one solitary individual within our wide- extended 
borders who has not drank deeply of the healing waters that shall gush 
forth from this high fountain. * * * * And may the glory of the Divine 
Image be ever present within these walls, not standing in a thick cloud 
as in Judah's temple of old, but gladly tabernacled in the hearts of every 
one who shall come up here to teach, or be taught, until that time shall 
come when the lion and the lamb shall lie down together and a little 
child shall lead them." 

Hon. Chauncey Joslin then delivered his commission of 
office to the Principal, Mr. A. S. Welch, addressing him, in 

part, as follows: 

"The Board of Education, confiding in your capacity and integrity, 
have directed me to confer upon you the office of Principal of the 
State Normal School and the keys of the institution. Have you duly 
considered the vital importance of the obligation you are now about to 
assume, and the duties you will be called upon to perform? If, in the 
discharge of the duty imposed upon me, I, and those around us, shall 
seem to exhibit some emotion, you will find it to rise from the fact that 
we appreciate to the fullest extent the importance of the position you are 
to occupy. 


We have intrusted to your care the moral and intellectual training of 
those who in their turn, are to be the instructors of our children." 

In reply, Principal Welch spoke in substance as follows: 

"I receive with deference this commission and these sj'mbols of 
authority which you have presented. In so doing I am invited to make 
some brief remarks expressive of my own sentiments, and befitting the 
occasion. It may savor somewhat of enthusiasm, yet in my humble judg- 
ment, this day's work will form a prominent item in the history of west- 
ern progress. This side the Empire State it is the first experiment of a 
similar character made under the auspices of legislative enactment. Who 
will venture to predict the influence which its success will exert upon the 
educational interests of the entire Northwest. 

And it seems to me, sir, that in giving this edifice an elevation above 
the noble thoroughfare which threads our State, j'ou have happily sym- 
bolized the relative rank which your enterprise should hold, when com- 
pared with the great physical improvements of the age. 

It is no less than a systematic effort to give impetus to that cause 
upon which all other causes for human improvement are based, which 
indeed forms the very elements of all genuine progress. It is to aid 
those labors which though vitally essential to our prosperity, have been 
hitherto comparatively neglected. By giving mental refinement to the 
teacher, it is to create and strengthen a bond of sympathy between his and 
the other professions of learning. It is an effort to make the teachers' 
duties as desirable in practice as they are elevated in theory, and impor- 
tant in result. We may then regard this occasion as one of the harbin- 
gers of that day when all schemes for mental and for moral advancement 
shall have a firmer and closer alliance. When a universal conviction that 
vice and ignorance are inseparable, shall disclose the true position of the 
teacher, and elevate his profession to its true rank. Is it not precursory 
of the time when the preacher and the patriot shall regard the teacher as 
an equal and indispensible auxiliary; when the evidence of such estima- 
tion shall be visible everywhere — in the schoolhouse and the church 
exhibiting equally in their structure the proofs of elegance and taste — 
both rising in such equal proportion towards heaven that the last rays of 
the sun as he sets, shall gild alike the cupola of the one and the spire of 
the other. 

With such views, sir, I can give but feeble expression to the sense 
of responsibility which weighs upon me as I enter upon the duties of so 
noble an enterprise. Whatever imperfections I bring with me, (and 
from these I can claim no exemption,) I may still, with propriety per- 
haps, pledge myself ever to be actuated by an earnest and an ardent zeal 
to use the authority thus delegated, with an eye single to the interests of 
this institution, to be prompted in every effort by a strong unswerving 
attachment to the cause to which I have devoted the labor of my life. I 


thank you sincerely, gentlemen of the Board, for the confidence which 
your appointment implies. If freedom and candor in mv communica- 
tions, if an untiring effort to realize your hopes can avail, that confidence 
shall never be impaired, and the acknowledgements due for the honor 
you have conferred, will be better expressed by discharging with energy 
and fidelity the duties of the trust. 

In entering upon this new field of labor, I am cheered by the belief 
that the measures which I shall adopt and pursue will meet with your con- 
currence and co-operation. I shall look to be promptly sustained in all 
those wholesome regulations and discipline, without which no institution 
can succeed; and with equal freedom I would say that should I ever be 
forgetful of the high interests which you have placed in my hands, I shall 
expect to give an account of my stewardship. May I not also express the 
hope that while this institution is nourished by the genial regards of its 
friends in the State, they may not look too early for its fruits. That 
mental excellence which marks the true scholar is not the product of a 
day. It is found only in self denial and self application, and its treasures 
are open only as the hard earnings of intellectual toil. Not even among 
the marvelous inventions of the present age can there be found any labor- 
saving processes for the attainment of intellectual worth. Furnish what 
facilities you will, still that versatility of acquirement which forms the 
finished teacher will be attained only by stud\- — long continued, assidu- 
ous, unwearied. With due cultivation and care, this institution will pro- 
duce its full harvest in due season. In a State where so many are eager 
to enjoy its advantages, in a community so well known for liberality and 
just views of education, favored by all parties and all sects, how can it 
fail to accomplish its high objects, and become a permanent blessing to 
the people. Far off be the day when party animosity or sectarian zeal 
shall trammel its free spirit by making it a bone of contention. 

Let every well wisher of his country foster it, while without giving 
political bias it shall teach the rights and duties of an American citizen. 
So long as without the inculcation of doctrine or dogma, it has for its 
foundation the truths of the Bible— let the good man cherish it — and espec- 
ially may it be associated with the best and happiest thoughts of the 
teacher. May he regard it as his intellectual home, as the inexhaustible 
fountain whence he may draw those principles and precepts which shall 
secure his full success in the vocation which he has chosen." 

Later in the daj' an address was delivered by Hon. Ross 
Wilkins, Judge of the United States Court, upon the fundamental 
Laws of the United States and the Rights and Duties of Citizens. 
With this address the special exercises closed. An institute of 
four weeks' duration followed, under the direction of Principal 
Welch. During this institute the preliminary organization of 


the Michigan State Teachers" Association was effected. The 
regular opening of the Normal School was deferred until the 
Legislature should make an appropriation to meet the current 
expenses of the institution. Such an appropriation was made in 
the following February, and the first term of the institution was 
commenced on March 29, 1853, and continued seventeen weeks. 
The second term opened on the first Tuesday of October follow - 
ing and continued twenty -three weeks. 

Probably the language of the speakers at the dedication of 
the Normal School, some of which I have quoted, appear to 
most of us extravagant; seem to emphasize with unnecessary 
force an event which today would excite little interest, and cer- 
tainly no extraordinary enthusiasm. The explanation and justi- 
fication of these apparently extravagant forms of expression are 
found in the conditions then existing Today there are one 
hundred and fiftj^ schools for the education of teachers, receiving 
more or less support from public funds. Such institutions have an 
established and recognized position in systems of State education. 
When the Michigan State Normal School was opened, there were 
but five such schools in the United States, and the oldest of these 
was less than 14 years of age. No institution of the kind existed 
west of Albany. Only three States had established normal schools 
and these States were among the oldest in the Union, rich in de- 
veloped resources, and abundantly able to provide for educational 
experiments. Michigan, as a State, was still in her "teens"; 
only the foundation of her educational sj^stem had been fairly laid. 
The outline of the system was magnificent, but it was yet hardly 
more than an outline. 

The University was scarcely emerging from the period of its 
infancy, and but just beginning to take on the appearance of earl}' 
maturity. The report of the Regents for the year 1852, shows 
only the Medical and Literary departments; the first with 162 
students, the last with hardl}^ 60, a total of 222. The faculty 
numbered fourteen, but one of these was an Emeritus Professor 
and two others were not on diity, the working force being 
really but eleven. 

The public school system of Detroit had been in operation 


only ten years. Previous to the year 1841, there had been no 
public school in that cit>^ No public high school had been 
established there, and repeated requests for permission to form 
classes in Latin and Greek in the schools had been refused by 
the Board of Education of the citv". 

Union graded schools were just beginning to be organized 
in the larger villages of the State, mainh' through the zealous 
efforts and labors of Superintendent Maj-hew ; but onh' a ver>' 
few of these had high school departments. 

The denominational schools, of which several had been 
established, could, at that date claim no higher rank than that of 
respectable Academies. Facilities for secondary' instruction 
were exceedingly limited, and the incipient University alone 
offered an opportunity for collegiate instruction and study within 
our borders. 

It will conduce to clearness, and will also be most conven- 
ient, to trace the progress and development of the school, from 
this point, in turn, along several tolerably distinct lines. The 
headings of the successive chapters will indicate these lines. 



Grounds and Buildings. 


After the decision had been made to locate the school at Yp- 
silanti the Board of Education were allowed to select any one of 
several sites placed at their disposal. Among these the lot now 
occupied by the Central city school, with the building then upon 
it, was offered to them for the sura of seven thousand dollars. 
Their choice finally fell upon the site where the main building 
now stands. This plat, to the extent of four acres, was donated 
b}'^ the citizens of the then village ; .subsequenth' the Board added 
to this by, so that the original site, after some reduction 
by the opening of streets, contained nearly- six acres (5.^^?iooo). 
Upon this they proceeded to erect a three -stor^- brick building, 
102x56 feet, which was formally dedicated, as elsewhere describ- 
ed, on the fifth of October, 1852. The cost of the building, 
according to the terms of the contract, was SI 5, 200. Twelve 
thousand of this amount was paid from the proceeds of the sub- 
scriptions of the citizens of Ypsilanti and vicinity-. The remain- 
ing three thousand five hundred and the cost of furnishing were 
paid from the fund derived from the sale of salt spring lands. 
The amount drawn from this fund for this purpose was $8,096.64. 
The total expenditure for the building and its furnishing, not 
including the .sum paid for land, was $20,296.64. 

The interior arrangement of the house provided, on the first 
floor, a room for the model school, with seats and desks for eighty - 
eight pupils, a room for the department of physics and 
chemistr}', a small reception room, a library room, and cloak 
rooms; on the second floor the main school room, with seats and 
desks for two hundred and eight students, and several recitation 

Original Building, Erected 1832. 

xV" ^^-"4. :i:V 


rooms. The third story provided one room of considerable size 
and a number of smaller rooms for class purposes. The building 
was a good one for that time, but would not, of course, compare 
favorably, either externally or internally, with the school build- 
ings of to-day. 

On the night of Friday, October 28, 1859, this original build- 
ing with its furniture and the library, then numbering about fif- 
teen hundred volumes, was burned, nothing being saved but the 
chemical and philosophical apparatus, with a few cases of miner- 
als and insects, and the bare brick walls. 

The Restored Building. 

Fortunateh' there was an insurance upon the burned build- 
ing, from which eight thousand dollars were realized; but unfor- 
tunately there was none upon the furniture or librarj'. The actual 
loss to the school in propertj^ w^as estimated at six thousand dol- 

x\t the time of the fire Principal Welch was absent on account 
of impaired health and Professor J. M. B. Sill was temporarily 
filling his place. The emergency was met by Mr. Sill and his 
as.sociates with characteristic energy, and the exercises of the 
school were scarcely interrupted for a single day. The trustees 
of the Ypsilanti Union School tendered the free use of a number 
of rooms in their school building, and the Baptist society gave the 
use of the basement of their church. After a short time tem- 
porary quarters were furnished without charge for the school 
in a commodious building known as the "National Hotel." 

Within a week after the fire the Board of Education made a 
contract with Benjamin Follett to repair the burned building, pro- 
viding for some improvements upon the original plan. The work 
of restoration was pushed with such energj^ that the renovated 
house was ready for occupancy at the opening of the spring term 
in April of 1860. 

The external appearance of the building was improved by a 
change in the roof and by the addition of a small cupola. The 
interior was improved by some changes in the arrangement of 
rooms. The first floor was occupied by the laboratory, a small 


apparatus room, a museum, a small reception room, cloak rooms, 
and a lecture room seated for sixt^^ students, and a room of mod- 
erate size for the model school. The second floor contained the 
chapel or oreneral as.sembly room, which was also used for the 
ladies' study hall, and would accommodate about two hundred 
pupils, a small librar3' room, and another room used sometimes 
for a music room and sometimes for recitation purposes. The 
third floor was occupied by the gentlemen's study hall with seats 
for one hundred and twent}' students, the drawing rooms, and 
recitation rooms of the teachers of Mathematics and of the Ancient 
and Modern Languages. 

The Old Gymnasium. 

The matter of providing means for proper physical culture 
in connection with the normal school received attention from the 
very opening of the institution. The Principal and other mem- 
bers of the board of instruction were zealous in seeking to obtain 
apparatus and other conveniences to enable them to give training 
in g>-mnastics and calisthenics. The Board of visitors for 1859, 
in their report, earne.sth' seconded the efforts of the faculty. The 
Board of Education also labored in the same direction. In their 
report for 1860 they urged the need of a building for phj-sical 
culture and asked for a small appropriation for the erection of 
such a building. The Legislature failed to make the desired 
appropriation, and the request was renewed the next 3'ear, but 
without success. The Board, however, were so deeply impres- 
sed with the importance of the matter that they contrived to save 
enough out of the ordinary- appropriation made for the school, 
increased by some private contributions, to erect a small building 
at an of twelve hundred dollars, and to furnish it with a 
fair amount of inexpensive apparatus. 

Before the completion of the building, by the joint efforts of 
teachers and students, some cheap apparatus had been provided 
and arrangements had been made for regular instruction in phy- 
sical exercises. With the new building it became possible to make 
the work more systematic and thorough . But as no special teacher 
could be employed for this department, the instruction and train- 

Building Restored After the Fire, 1860. 


library and museum on condition that the Board of Education 
would appropriate an equal amount. 

These propositions were accepted by the Board, and the citi- 
zens of Ypsilanti were asked to raise fifteen hundred dollars of 
the required three thousand, "in consideration of the great local 
advantage to accrue to the community from the presence of such 
an agricultural museum." The citizens readily pledged the 
amount asked, and arrangements were immediately entered into 
for the erection of a building. This building was to be 70x40 
feet, two stories above the basement, and was to have a large 
lecture room for the winter meetings of the agricultural society, 
and ample accommodation for the cabinets and libraries of both 
the society and the nonnal school. It was anticipated that the 
proposed buildmg would be completed at an early day; but 
various unexpected obstacles caused delay so that it was not 
enclosed and roofed over until late jn the autumn of 1865. Then 
still other obstacles appeared, and furthur delays occurred. The 
agricultural society' lost its interest in the project, and after hav- 
ing expended $3,250, finally in 1868 assigned all its rights and 
claims in the building to the Board of Education. It should be 
stated, however, that the Legislature, by an appropriation in 
1871, reimbursed the agricultural society for the money which it 
had thus expended. At its session in 1869 the Legislature appro- 
priated $7,500 to complete the building and grade the normal 
school grounds. In January 1870, the Board accepted the fin- 
ished edifice and, by formal vote, changed its name from "nor- 
mal museum" to "new normal school building." The original 
plan and purpose of the building had been lost during the years 
of delay, and until the year 1882 it was devoted to the use of the 
Traing School. Since that time it has been occupied in part or 
in whole b}^ the Conservator>' of Music' In 1886 the hall in the 
upper story was fitted up by the Board of Education and set 
apart for the use of the Students' Christian Association. The 
association continued to occupy this room until the completion 
of "Starkweather Hall" in March of 1897. 


The Front Addition to the Main Building. 

In their report for 1874 the Board of Education made an 
earnest plea for a new building or for an addition to the old main 
building, setting forth ver}' full}- the imperative demand for more 
conveniences in the way of class and lecture rooms, and also the 
need of an assembly' hall with a seating capacitj^ of at least eight 
hundred. Thej^ asked of the Legislature an appropriation of 
thirty thousand dollars. The desired funds were not secured at 
that time, but the Legislature of 1877 appropriated the sum asked 
for and the work of enlargemant was completed during the fol- 
lowing year. The work included the addition, 88x93 feet, to 
the fron<", the tearing down and rebuilding of a large part of the 
rear wall of the old building, the raising of the roof to correspond 
to the roof of the addition, and the remodeling of most of the 
interior. While the specific legislative appropriation was only 
$30,000, the amount actually expended in making the enlargement 
and improvements was $43,347.18, a little over eleven thousand 
dollars being drawn from an accumulated current expence fund, 
and something more than two thousand dollars being contributed 
by citizens of Ypsilanti for the erection of the tower at the north- 
east corner. A detailed description of the interior arrangements 
of the building may be found in the State Superintendent's report 
for 1878. 

The Rear Addition. 

The continued growth of the school soon made demands for 
more room, especially for the proper accommodation of the prac- 
tice and training department. At the earnest request of the 
Board the Legislature of 1881 made an appropriation of $25,000 
for a new building or for another addition to the old one. After 
careful consideration the Board decided to make an addition in the 
rear about 112x53 feet and two stories in height, the rooms on the 
lower floor to be devoted to the purposes of the training school and 
those on the second floor to an increase of the working facilities 
of the normal department. A small obser\'ator3' was erected upon 
the new building at an expense of about seven hundred dol- 
lars. The building was completed and ready for use at the open - 


ing of the school in September, 1882. The facilities thus sup- 
plied rendered it possible to enlarge the training school, and to 
give it a more complete organization, thus greatly' increasing 
its usefulness and efficiency. 

The Third Addition. 

An appropriation of $7,700 was made in 1883 "for the pur- 
pose of grading the grounds, building out -houses, painting 
buildings, and making other needed repairs and improvements." 
The increasing number of students created still fresh demands 
for additional room. In his report for 1883, the acting Principal 
said, "The increase during the year just closed over 1881-2^ is 
sixty -eight. This number is a little larger than the increase of 
any year since 1870-1, and ver}- much larger than of any recent 
3'ear. The figures are of interest as seeming to indicate a 
restoration of public confidence in the work of the school, and 
the opening of a period of greater prosperity' and usefulness." 

In his report for 1884 Principal Willits presented the needs 
of the school at considerable length. Among other things he 
said, "We want more room; we need ample studj' halls. The 
three study halls we now have are full to overflowing. * * * * 
It is desirable that there should be one study hall large enough 
to seat all the ladies. The Preceptress has the special charge 
of the ladies as regards their deportment, etc., which makes it 
advisable that at least once a day she ma}' see them all at one 
time and alone. * * * * i suggest the erection of an addition, 
a building say 60x100 feet, in the second story of which shall 
be a stud}' hall of the full size, less the corridor, to accomodate 
about 500 students, for the ladies. * * * * The third storj- of 
the addition may be utilized for the department of physical 
sciences. The lower stor^' will be needed for enlarged facilities 
for the practice school. We need more room for the librarj'. 
* * * * All these facilities may be furnished by the addition above 
described. With them I believe we can handle twice the num- 
ber of students we had last year at 25 per cent extra cost; we 
can provide for 800 students in the normal school and do the 
work well." 

In his report for 1885 Mr. Willits said, "Last year I 


strongly urged an enlargement of the main school building. I 
repeat the suggestions of my last report, and most emphatically 
urge its adoption. * * * ^ j would wish to be emphatic enough 
to satisfy the most skeptical of the earnestness I feel on this 
subject. , • 

In the State report for 1886 both the Board of Education and 
the acting Principal urged the imperative necessity for additional 
facilities, and expressed the hope that the Legislature would 
make the needed appropriation. 

The Legislature finally yielded to these repeated and urgent 
representations, and an appropriation of $60,000 was made 
during the session of 1887, for the erection and furnishing of 
additional buildings. 

With this appropriation, wings were erected on the north 
and south sides of the old center building, each about 100 feet 
in length, including the connecting corridors, and something 
over 50 feet in width on an average, and two stories in height. 
The north wing contained, on the first floor, the library and two 
society rooms, and on the second floor two society rooms and a 
large room originally designed for the gentlemen's study hall. 
A change has since been made by which the whole of the first 
floor is devoted to the Library and Reading room, and the two 
society rooms are transferred to the second story. The south 
wing contained, on the first floor, several class rooms and on the 
second floor the ladies' study hall and another large room 
originally occupied by the Drawing department. Changes have 
since been made in the arrangement of rooms in the second 
story. At the same time a separate boiler house was put up 
and equipped with the necessary heating apparatus. This last 
addition to the buildings contributed to the general safety, but 
did not add to the beauty of the grounds ; and the building has 
now been taken down and erected in the rear of the main 

During the year 1892 two additions, each about 24x30 feet 
and two stories in height, were made, to furnish lavatories and 
water closets. The cost of these, with fixtures and connections, 
was about $8,000. 


The New Qymnasium. 

The interest in ph3'sical development and traininj^ during 
the early history of the school has been indicated in the account 
of the old g3'mnasium. After the destruction of that building 
occasional efforts were made, with some success, to introduce 
such exercise as could be carried on in the study halls and in 
the larger class rooms. These efforts, however, were intermit- 
tent and verj' little of a systematic character, could be accom- 
plished. After the last additions to the central building a room 
was fitted up in the basement of the south wing, some apparatus 
was procured, and considerable voluntarj^ work was done, enough 
to attract the attention of the visiting committees of the Legisla- 
ture and to engage their interest in the effort to secure an appro- 
priation for the erection of a regular gymnasium. 

In his report for 1892 Principal Sill said: 
"We are still in need of suitable means for exercise and for instruction 
in physical training. The demand for teachers skilled in this department 
of education grows more and more urgent as its claims for recognition and 
attention become better known. We need a special instructor in physical 
training and we also need more play and exercise grounds and a suitable 
gymnasium. The meeting of these wants is urged upon purely pedagogical 
grounds. No education can be deemed complete whose course of training 
has neglected the body and concerned itself only with the mental and moral 
development of the pupil. If the Michigan State Nonnal School is to hold 
its place in the front rank of institutions of its kind it cannot longer neglect 
this most important side of a symmetrical training." 

He urged the appointment of a stiitable teacher in physical 
culture, the providing of additional grounds, and the erection, at 
the earliest possible time, of a gymnasium building. The Board 
of visitors for the same year said in their report : 

"It would seem to your committee that the great need of the State Nor- 
mal School of the great educational State of Michigan, is a physical training 
department. Too long has our State sent her children to her normal school 
without providing them with the necessary facilities for physical develop- 

These persistent efforts were finall}'^ crowned with success. 
The Legislature of 1893 appropriated $20,000 for the erection of 
a building for physical ctilture. The problem of locating the 
building was a perplexing one. The original grounds were 









not extensive enough to afford a suitable site sufficiently removed 
from the other buildings for safety in case of fire. The appro- 
priation was not large enough to make it possible for the Board 
to purchase additional land without assistance from some quarter. 
In this emergency, as on other occasions, the public -spirited 
citizens of Ypsilanti came to the rescue. By voluntary' subscrip- 
tions they raised a sum which enabled the Board to secure a lot 
containing about one acre, on the south side of Cross street oppo- 
site the old campus. 

The Lecture Association of the Faculty of the school con- 
tributed five hundred dollars toward the purchase of the lot, and 
something over a thousand dollars to furnish the apparatus for 
the ladies' rooms in the gymnasium. The building completed 
and furnished cost, not including the price of the grounds, over 
$20,000. It was dedicated, with appropriate exercises, to the 
purposes for which it was designed, on the 18th of Ma^s 
1894. The structure is about 100x100 feet, is so divided and 
arranged that one half is devoted to the exclusive use of the 
young women, and the other to the exclusive use of the young 
men, and is, in every respect, a model building of its kind. The 
desires of the founders and early supporters of the normal school 
for ample facilities for appropriate physical culture have at last 
been gratified. It is not the design of the institution to train 
athletes, but to give symmetrical and fitting development to the 
human body, in a word, to secure for every student, as far as 
possible, the priceless blessing of a ' 'sound mind in a sound body. ' ' 

In his last report to the Board, Principal Sill wrote: 
"I desire to congratulate the school upon the happy outcome of our 
request for the means of physical culture, and wish in its behalf to express 
thanks for the interest taken by you, and for your energy in bringing this 
important matter to the attention of the Legislature; and to the Legislature 
for its wise and intelligent action, securing a great and fully appreciated 
advantage to the normal school and, through it, to the children and youth 
of our beloved commonwealth. The event marks a notable and honorable 
era in the history of free education in Michigan." 

The Training School Building. 

The department known at successive periods by different 
names but now usually designated as the Training School, has 


been somewhat mi^^rator}^ in.ils habits. It was first domiciled in 
narrow quarters in the old main building, afterwards, for several 
years, in the present Conser\-atory building, later in the rear 
addition to the main building. The large increase in the number 
of normal students from 1883-4 to 1891-2, and the consequent 
increase in the number of teachers, created an urgent demand 
for more rooms to accommodate the regular normal classes. 
The most natural way of securing the needed additional rooms 
seemed to be by providing a sepai ate building for the Training 
School. Yielding to the urgent solicitations of members of the 
Board and others the Legislature in 1895 appropriated $25,000 for 
the erection of such a building. The question of finding a suit- 
able location for the proposed structure was a ver}' serious one. 
It could not be placed upon the original normal grounds without 
crowding the buildings so close together as to increase very greatly 
the danger in case of fire, to say nothing of the general appear- 
ance. Tn this emergency the city of Ypsilanti again manifested 
its liberalit}' and public spirit, bj' purchasing and donating to the 
Board of Education a ver}- desirable site, consisting of something 
over three acres of land adjoining the old campus on the west 
side. For this the citj- paid $8,500. 

The plans originally adopted bj' the Board contemplated a 
structure 170 feet in extreme length and 107 feet in extreme 
depth, and consisting of a centre portion and two wings. In 
their report for 1896 the Board saj': "When the plans had been 
completed and submitted, it was found that the building called 
for in such plans could completed for the amount of the 
appropriation. It was therefore thought best to retain the model 
building plans, to complete the building for present use within 
the appropriation, and, whenever in the future it should seem 
necessary to add to the .building, to do so along the lines of the 
original plans." The building, according to the reduced plans, 
was completed so as to be occupied by most of the grades of 
the Training School about the first of April, 1897. At some 
subsequent time it will doubtless be finished in accordance with 
the original design, and it will then afford ample and excellent 
accommodations for the whole school. 


Starkweather Hall. 

Starkweather Hall, the beautiful home of the Students' 
Christian Association, erected by the beneficent liberality of 
Mrs. Mar}" Starkweather, of Ypsilanti, is fully described in con- 
nection with the history of the association. It o'^cupies a small 
portion of the grounds donated by the cit}^ of Ypsilanti for the 
use of the Normal school, and is, to a limited extent, under the 
care and control of the Board of Education. 


In their report for 1896 the Board of Education valued the 
land and buildings at $194,700. 



Development of Courses of Study and Instruction. 

Nearly everything peculiar to a normal school belongs 
under this head. It will be allowable, therefore, to give the 
discussion of this topic a pretty wide range, and to enter into 
some minuteness of detail. The progress and character of 
development can be fairly estimated only by ascertaining, as far 
as possible, the purpose in view, the ultimate object to be 
attained. The development, if legitimate, should be towards 
the accomplishment of this object. Did the earl}^ advocates of 
normal schools in this country have an}^ tolerably well defined 
notions of an ideal institution for the instruction and training of 
teachers ? and were their efforts directed to the establishment of 
such a school ? If they had an ideal of this sort and have left 
a description of it, we can readilj^ determine the direction which 
development should take, and can estimate the progress which 
has been made up to the present. 

A short time before the opening of the first normal school 
in the United States, Dr. C. E. Stowe, after visiting Europe and 
examining with much carefulness the teachers' seminaries 
recently established there, published the results of his investiga- 
tions, and set forth with considerable minuteness of detail the 
plan of an ideal normal school, without, as he himself acknow- 
ledged, expecting that the plan could be carried into immediate 
effect. His paper has great historical interes>t, as indicating the 
lines along which he and other men of his time believed the 
professional education and training of teachers would be 

The sum of what he proposed was embodied in a series of 


six formal propositions. The only one of these which is of 
special importance to our present purpose is that which gives 
an outline of the courses of study and instruction which should 
ultimately be provided for in the school. The extent and char- 
acter of these courses will probablj^ surprise those who have 
been accustomed to regard the province of the Normal school as 
a verj^ limited one, scarcely extending beyond the elementary- 
grades. In his sixth proposition, Mr. Stowe says: 

"The course of instruction in the Teacher's Seminary should 
comprise lectures and recitations on the following topics, together with 
such others as further observation and experience may show to be neces- 
sary : 

(1) A thorough, scientific, and demonstrative study of all the 
branches to be taught in the common schools, with directions at every 
step as to the best method of inculcating each lesson upon the children of 
different dispositions and capacities and various intellectual habits. 

(2) The philosophy of mind, particularly in reference to its suscep- 
tibilities of receiving impressions from mind. 

(3) The peculiarities of intellectual and moral development in chil- 
dren, as modified by sex, parental character, wealth or poverty, city or 
country, family government, indulgent or severe, fickle or steady, etc. 

(4) The science of education in general, and full illustrations of the 
difference between education and mere instruction. 

(5) The art of teaching. 

(6) The art of governing children, with special reference to impart- 
ing and keeping alive a feeling of love for children. 

(7) History of education, including an accurate outline of the 
educational systems of different ages and nations, the circumstances 
which gave rise to them, the principles on which they were founded, the 
ends which they aimed to accomplish, their successes and failures, their 
permanency and changes, how far they influenced individual and 
national character, how far any of them might have originated in 
premeditated plan on the part of their founders, whether they secured 
the intelligence, virtue, and happiness of the people, or otherwise, with 
the causes, etc. 

(8) The rules of health, and the laws of phj'sical development. 

(9) The dignity and importance of the teacher's office. 

(10) Special religious obligations of teachers in respect to benevolent 
devotedness to the intellectual and moral welfare of society, habits of 
entire self control, purity of mind, elevation of character, etc. 

(11) The influence which the school should exert on civilization and 
the progress of society. 


(12) The elements of Latin, together with the German, French, and 
Spanish languages," (Barnard on Normal Schools.) 

In Other propositions provision is made that, in order to enter 
a nonnal school, students must not be under sixteen years of 
age, and must be " well versed in all the branches usually taught 
in common schools ; ' ' that the studies should be arranged into a 
regular course of three years; that model or training depart- 
ments should be established, and that the senior class should 
teach in the model school under the immediate direction and 
oversight of their instructors. 

This ma}' be regarded as a sketch in outline of the ideal 
normal school as it appeared in anticipation, sixty years ago, to 
the most earnest friends of popular education. It provided for 
the study of education as a science, and of teaching as a corre- 
lated art ; for the study of mind in a philosophical aspect and 
direction, and for the study of children and of childhood in all 
directions, for a most exhaustive and fruitful studj' of educa- 
tional histor>' ; for proper attention to phj^sical development and 
training; for fitting moral and religious instruction, and for a 
fair degree of intellectual culture. An institution which should 
embrace in its curriculum of study and courses of instruction all 
this could not be created at once by an act of a Legislature or 
by the zeal, however intelligent, of a few leaders of educational 
thought. The beginnings must of necessitj', be ver^' humble, a 
long way below the ideal. Immediate surroundings, means, and 
the education needs of the State and of the times, must be taken 
into account. Circumstances demanded the best that was prac- 
tically possible ; the ideally desirable and beautiful must wait for 
more favorable conditions, and a higher stage of educational 

In their courses of studj' and instruction, and in their gen- 
eral arrangements, the newly established normal schools in the 
East could not be expected to approximate verj- closely to the 
ideal just described. 

At the opening of the first normal school in Massachusetts, 
at Lexington, on July 3, 1839, no formal course of studies had 
been prepared. Mr. Pierce, the Principal of the school writes: 

Main Building After Front Addition, 1878. 


"Nearly thirty years' experience in the business of teaching, I 
thought, had given me some acquaintance with its true principles aud pro- 
cesses, and I deemed it no presumption to believe that I could teach them 
to others. This I attempted to do in the normal school at Lexington; (1) 
didacticalh', that is, by precept, in the form of familiar conversations and 
lectures; (2) by giving every day and continually, in my own manner of 
teaching, an exemplification of my theory; (3) by requiring my pupils to 
teach each other, in my presence, the things which I had taught them; 
and (4) by means of the model school where, under mv general super- 
vision, the normal pupils had an opportunity both to prove and improve 
their skill in teaching and managing schools. At all our recitations, (the 
modes of which were very various,) and in other connections, there was 
allowed the greatest freedom, of inquiry and remark, and principles, 
modes, processes, everything indeed relating to school -keeping, was dis- 
cussed. The thoughts and opinions of each one were thus made the prop- 
erty of the whole, and there was infused into all hearts a deeper and deeper 
interest in the teachers' calling. In this way the normal school became a 
kind of standing teachers' institute." 

This method of conducting the school was natural and wise 
enough at the beginning, when the number of students was verj-- 
limited, and most, or all of them, were teachers of some exper- 
ience, but it soon gave way to a more formal and regular plan. 

A consecutive course of instruction was soon arranged which 
included all the ordinary common school branches, most of the 
studies of the academy or high school of that time, and in addi- 
tion mental philosoph}', vocal music, the constitution of Mass- 
achusetts and of the United States, the principles of piety and of 
morality common to all sects of Christians, and the science and 
art of teaching with reference to all the studies named. 

In theorj' at least, an experimental or model school was 
attached to each normal school. In the teaching of this school 
the students of the normal assisted under the supervision of the 
Principal. They also obser^-ed the instruction given by the 
regular teachers of the model school, and afterwards, with the 
Principal and teachers, met for free discussion of the merits and 
defects of the work which had been observed. 

The law establishing the first normal school in Connecticut, 
enacted in 1849, provided that the object of the school should be 
"not to educate teachers in the studies now required by law, but 
to receive such as are found competent in these studies, * =*" * 


and train them in the best methods of teaching and conducting 
common schools." 

The trustees were also authorized , but not required, to make 
provision for a Model Primary' School * ^ * * in which the 
pupils of the normal school shall have opportunity to practice 
the model of instruction and discipline inculcated in the normal 

The course of instruction included : " ( 1 ) A thorough 
review of the studies pursued in the lowest grade of common 
schools. (2) An acquaintance with such studies as are 

embraced in the highest grade of common schools, authorized by 
law, and which will render the teaching of the elementary- 
branches more thorough and interesting. (3) The art of teach- 
ing and its methods, including the historA' and progress of edu- 
cation, the philosophp}' of teaching and discipline, as drawn from 
the nature of the juvenile mind, and the application of those 
principles under the ordinarj^ conditions of our common 

The provision for professional instruction is stated a little 
more definatelj' than in Massachusetts. 

In place of providing a model school of their own, the trus- 
tees made an arrangement by which the several schools in one of 
the districts of New Britain, where the normal school was 
located, were to be used as schools of obser\-ation and practice 
b}' the students of the normal. These schools were attended by 
about four hundred children who were classified "into three 
Primary', one intermediate (Grammar), and one High School." 
This plan was, in theor>' at least, the best that could have been 
made, at that time, and possibly with proper arrangements for 
oversight and criticism, t..e best for any time. 

The normal school opened at Albany-, N. Y., in December 
of 1844, of which D P. Page was the first Principal, began with 
a course of studies essentially the same as that of the Massachu- 
setts schools. The course in the normal schools for female 
teachers, opened at Philadelphia, in 1848, was of the same gen- 
eral character, but a little less extensive. 

With the example of these pioneer institutions before them 




it was onl)' natural that the Board of Education and the teachers 
of the new Michigan normal school should adopt a similar cur- 
riculum. They went, however, a little beyond the previously 
established schools, and, " after careful inquir3'- into the wants of 
the schools and of the State," prepared a Classical course in 
addition to the usual English one. For convenience of future 
reference and comparison these courses are given in full, arranged 
by years and terms. 

English Course. 

Mitchell's Geography, (reviewed). 
Clark's Grammar, (reviewed). 
First Term. Davies' University Arithmetic. 
Swan's Elocution. 
Parker's Philosophy. 

Davies' Bourdon's Algebra, (begun). 
Gray's Chemistry. 
Second Term. Cutter's Anatomy and Phj'siology. 
Analysis of the English Sentence. 
Vocal Music and Drawing. 


Davies' Bourdon's Algebra, (finished). 
Wood's Botany. 
First Term.. Blair's Rhetoric. 

St. John's Geology. 

Davies' Legendre's Geometry, (begun). 

Davies' Legendre's Geometry, (finished). 
Davies' Plane Trigonometry. 
Second Term. Davies' Surveying. 

Winslow's Intellectual Philosophy. 

Lectures on Theory and Practice of Teaching. 

Constitution of United States. 

Composition and Declamation throughout the course. 

Classical Course. 

Latin and Greek Grammar, (reviewed). 
First Term. Cooper's Virgil's Aeneid. 

Lucian's Dialogues, or French and German. 
Davies' Bourdon's Algebra, (begun). 



Second Term. 

Anthon's Cicero's Orations. 

Owen's Xenoplion's Anabasis, or French and German. 

Lincoln's Livy, (begun). 

Davies' Bourdcn's Algebra, (finished). 

Analysis of English Sentence. 

First Term. 

Second Term. 



Lincoln's Livy, (finished). 

Owen's Homer's Iliad, or French and German. 
Davies' Legendre's Geometry, (begun). 
Ancient Geography. 

Anthon's Cicero De Senectute or De OfBciis. 
Xenophon's Memorabilia or French and German. 
Gray's Chemistry. 
Davies' Legendie's Geometry, (finished). 

First Term. 

Second Term. 


Anthon's Horace's Odes. 

Wood's Botany. 

Blair's Rhetoric. 

Plane and Spherical Trigonometry and Surveying. 

Euripides' Medea, or Spanish. 

Robinson's Mathematical Astronomy. 

WinsJow's Intellectual Philosophy. 

St. John's Geology. 

Lectures on Theory and Practice of Teaching. 

Composition and Declamation of original pieces throughout the entire 
course. A series of lectures on Agricultural Chemistry was promised in 
the winter term. 

The first catalogue states that " The Classical course is 
designed to prepare teachers for our union schools, which are rap- 
idly increasing in number and importance. As these institutions 
supply the place of Academies in the State, they should be con- 
ducted by men of thorough classical and scientific attainments." 
It was provided that pupils who could not complete either course 
might "take any of the branches in their order," and might 
receive a certificate of advancement after attending one term. It 


David Porter Mayhew. 


will be seen, at a glance, that the amount of distinctively pro- 
fessional instruction provided for was very small. Intellectual 
Philosophy, taken up toward the close of the course, was taught 
rather as an academic than as a professional study, although it 
could not fail to have some bearing upon the special purpose of 
the school. The lectures, during the last term, upon the Theory- 
and Practice of Teaching formed the main part of the direct 
professional instruction. In addition to this, however, the re- 
views of the common branches were without doubt conducted 
with special reference to methods of teaching them, and thus be- 
came professional in the best sense of that somewhat ambiguous 
term. In fairness this should be taken into account in judging 
of the professional character of the instruction given during the 
first years of our own and all other normal schools of that period. 

In the development of the Michigan normal school discus- 
sion and experimentation have, from the very beginning, cen- 
tered (l) around the conditions of admission, (2) the courses of 
studies and instruction, and (3) the form and character of the 
model or training department. The internal history of the insti- 
tution is made up largely- of such discussions and experiments 
and an account of their results. The school had scarcelj^ opened 
before the conditions of admission and the courses of instruction 
came under the fire of sharp criticism. 

The original act made the following provisions in relation 
to admission to the school. The Board of Education were 
authorized to make such rules and regulations as thej'' should 
deem "necessarj^ and proper," but ever}^ applicant was to 
"undergo an examination under the direction of the Board, and 
if it shall appear that the applicant is not a person of good moral 
character, or will not make an apt and good teacher, such appli- 
cant shall be rejected." It was also required that "the applicant 
shall, before admission, sign a declaration of intention to follow 
the business of teaching primar}^ schools in this State." A 
further provision was ' ' that pupils may be admitted without 
signing such declaration of intention to teach on such terms as 
the Board ma}- prescribe" Such pupils might be required to 
pay reasonable tuition fees; pupils who signed the "declara- 


tion" were, b}- implication, free from any charo^e for tuition. The 
statute also said that "each county shall be entitled to send 
pupils in the ratio of the representatives in the State Legislature 
to which it is entitled, not to exceed such number as the Board 
may prescribe." 

Before the opening of the first term, the Board adopted rules 
and regulations in relation to admission, etc., the substance of 
which was as follows : 

(1) Each member of the House of Representatives was authorized to 
appoint two pupils, (one of each sex) in his district. 

(2) Pupils admitted to the English course must not be less than 
fourteen years of age, those admitted to the Classical course not less than 

(3) Pupils appointed by members of the House of Representatives 
were to pay one dollar entrance fee at the commencement of each term, or 
two dollars if they took the Classical course. All other pupils preparing 
to teach were to pay three dollars per term, or four dollars if they pursued 
the Classical course. Those taking the English course, and not intending 
to teach, were to pay six dollars per term; the same class of pupils in the 
Classical course, eight dollars per term. 

(4) In respect to examinations this was stated: — "All pupils prepar- 
ing to teach will be examined for admission to any of the classes which 
they propose to enter. There will be regular examinations, occupying one 
week, at the close of each term." 

Practically, so far as appears, no formal examinations were 
required for entering the school, and no declaration of intention 
to teach was demanded. The result was that a considerable 
number of students came into the school who had no intention of 
becoming teachers, and the institution assumed, to a large extent, 
the character of an excellent academy or high school. It soon 
became obvious to the Principal and to the Board that a some- 
what radical and thorough change of policy, in certain directions, 
must be made as speedily as possible. During the progress of 
the fourth term the Board adopted resolutions pledging their best 
efforts "toward the accomplishment of the end sought by the cre- 
ation of the normal school", and declaring that contemplated 
"changes in the manner of conducting''' the .school should be 
made at the close of the present term, that is at the close of the 
second school j^ear. The most important of these changes had 


reference to the terms of admission and the courses of instruc- 

The new regulations provided that hereafter male pupils 
must have attained the age of eighteen, and female pupils the age 
of sixteen years, in order to be admitted to the school; and that 
all pupils on admission should be required to sign and file with 
the Principal the following declaration : "We, the subscribers, 
do hereby declare that it is our intention to devote ourselves to 
the business of teaching in the schools of this State, and that our 
sole object in resorting to the normal school is the better to pre- 
pare ourselves for the discharge of this imperative dutj^" 

Provision was made that "academic" students already in the 
school, who did not intend to teach, might remain, provided they 
hereafter pursue the regular normal course of studies, and pay a 
tuition fee of six dollars for the summer term and eight dollars 
for the winter term, in addition to the regular entrance fee of one 
dollar for the summer and two dollars for the winter term. It 
was also provided that pupils, not academic, then in the school, 
below the required ages, might remain on condition of signing 
the declaration of intention to teach. These provisions, together 
with some regulations concerning the "ratio of representation" 
of pupils from different counties, settled, for the time being, the 
vexed question of admission. 

Some radical changes were ordered in the courses of studies. 
It was directed that no new classes be organized in the Greek or 
French languages and that no additional pupils be admitted to 
such classes already organized. Classes were allowed in Latin 
and German, "provided thej- did not interfere with the general 
object and design of the school", and provided that these studies 
did not occup}' "more than one hour per da}' of any pupil's 
time." The intention evidently was to discourage the pursuit 
of these languages in the school without absolutely' prohibiting 
the stud}^ of them. Some slight changes were made in the Eng- 
lish studies, and strangelj' enough, as would now be thought, 
"Intellectual and Moral Philosophy were omitted" and that 
professorship discontinued. A normal school with no provision 
for the study of mind ! The following were the studies provided for 


in the regular course, which the Principal was directed to arrange 

"in such manner as, in his judgment, will best contribute to the 

interests of the Institution." The specific action of the Board as 

to studies was as follows : 

"The Board direct that the course of study include Orthography, 
with the Elementary Sounds of the Language; — Reading and Penman- 
ship; — Geography, including the use of Outline Maps and instruction 
in Map Drawing; — Oral and Written Arithmetic, including Higher 
Arithmetic; — English Grammar, English Composition, and English 
Literature ;~Logic and Rhetoric; — Philosophy of History, and History of 
the United States; — Elementary and Higher Algebra; — Bookkeeping by 
Single and Double Entry; — Geometry, Surveying and Mensuration; — 
Descriptive Astronomy, including Mathematical Geography; — Political 
Economy and the Science of Government; — Drawing, including Perspec- 
tive; -Physiology and Hygiene; — Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and 
Agricultural Chemistry; Botany, Geology and Meteorology; — Natural 
Theology ;— Theory and Practice of Teaching, Vocal Music, Composition, 
Declamation and Rhetorical Reading, throughout the course." (Records 
of Board of Education, pp. 72-73.) 

At the same time the Board adopted a somewhat formal 
code of rules for the government of the school, setting forth, with 
considerable detail, the powers and duties of the Principal and 
of the members of the "Board of Instruction." As these rules 
do not differ essentially from those u.sually found in similar 
institutions it is unneccessarv^ to quote from them. The Princi- 
pal and the teacher in charge of the model school were authorized 
to prepare regulations for the management of that department. 
(Records of Board of Education, pp. 74-78.) 

During the next two years some modifications were made 
in the regulations respecting admission to the school, and some 
changes were made in the course of studies. In the Catalogue 
for 1857-8, the Principal appegrs as teacher of Intellectual 
Philosophy, which shows that this stud}- had been restored to 
the curriculum. Joseph E. Cary appears as teacher of the Latin 
Language and Literature. This, with the announcement that 
Latin and German were optional throughout the entire course, 
indicates that the feeling against the introduction of other 
languages than the English into the school, had considerably 
abated. Representatives were allowed to appoint three ptipils in 


their districts without limitation as to sex. All candidates for 
admission were required to "pass a thorough examination in the 
following studies: Reading, Spelling, Penmanship, Elementar>' 
Grammar, Local Geography, and Arithmetic through Compound 
Numbers, Vulgar and Decimal Fractions." 

The studies of the course were arranged, not by years or 
terms, but by classes, named in the order of advancement, B, C, 
D, E, and senior, with the remark that the work of each class 
occupies at least one entire term. The professional instruc- 
tion was indicated with a good degree of definiteness, and was as 
follows : 

(1) "Specific instruction to all classes in the normal school, in the 
best methods of teaching the various studies usuall}^ pursued in our 

(2) Oral instruction in schoolroom duties, given to the B and C 

(3) A course of familiar lectures on the Science and Art of Teaching, 
given to the D class. 

(4) Practice in teaching, in the model school, by the E class. 

(5) Instruction in the Philosophy of Education, given to the Senior 

In addition to the above, lectures were given each Sabbath 
afternoon before the whole school on methods of teaching the 
Virtues; and a course on the laws of health, was given before 
the B class. Waj^land's Intellectual Philosophj' was studied, in 
the senior year, with reference to its applications to education. 
All other professional instruction was given in the form of 
familiar lectures and conversations. 

Vocal music appears as a regular part of the course in the 
B and C classes, and "Thorough Bass" was optional in the work 
of the D class ; but Drawing does not yet appear as a separate 

Public sentiment, in respect to the introduction of "the 
Languages" into the school, was still such that it was deemed 
necessary to make a somewhat apologetical explanation of their 
relation to the specific purposes of the institution. It was said. 
"The Latin and German languages are not integral parts of the 
regular course ; students pursue them at their option. Those who 


do SO, postpone to a second term, (not omit,) some single study 
of the course. The effect is, to enlarg^e and prolong, and not to 
abridge that course. Two objects, mainl}-, were contemplated, 
in creating these departments. First, to make the instruction of 
the normal school consistent with itself, and to adapt it to 
the necessities of our public school system. In other depart- 
ments, the course is laid out on a liberal scale — one that 
encourages the diligent normal student to look forward to an 
honorable position among the teachers of the State. To those 
hopes of preferment, an entire ignorance of the Latin and 
Modern tongues would, in man}' instances, p.ove ver}- embar- 
rassing, if not fatal. 

Again, the generous character of our system of free educa- 
tion, makes the classical and modern languages, j^ear by j'ear, 
more prominent branches of stud}- in our Union Schools, and it 
is held to be neither rational or expedient, that a course of study 
adequate in other respects to the instruction of teachers for those 
schools, should be wholly wanting in these." 

The second object was, "to secure for normal students the 
benefit of a class of studies which, nas instruments of mental 
discipline, have confessedl}- no superiors, if equals, to say 
nothing of the strong light which thej-, (especially the Latin) 
reflect upon the etj-mology and structure of our own tongue, and 
upon man}- most interesting points of general literature. This 
consideration alone will justifj' their introduction in the sight of 
all .scholars and persons of liberal views." 

The couise in both Latin and German was given briefl3% 
with the statement that it "will be as extended and varied as the 
student's attainments and stay in the institution will admit." 

The question of admission to the school, in spite of the 
regulations which had been adopted by the Board, still 
remained as a source of vexation. In Febniarj' of 1858, a reso- 
lution was adopted authorizing the Faculty "to restrict the 
attendance upon the institution after the present term, more 
exclusivel}' to those preparing themselves for teachers." It is 
probable that more pupils than were anticipated had been 
allowed to enter the school under the following proviso attached 


to the terms of admission : The requirement as to age might be 
"suspended at the discretion of the Principal, in favor of those 
who gave evidence of sufl&cient maturity of mind, and advance- 
ment in study," and also in favor of those "intending to study 
any ancient or modern language. ' ' The signing of the declaration 
of intention to teach had been exacted only of such students as 
entered the "normal school proper." 

The question of the position of the "Languages" in the 
school refused to remain settled, bj^ the action of the Board, 
practically excluded them from the regular courses. The report 
of the acting Principal, Professor J. M. B. Sill, at the close of the 
year 1859, saj^s, "The departments of Greek and Latin, under 
the charge of Joseph F. Gary, and the German and French, 
under the charge of Albert Miller, are doing their important 
work thoroughly and well. These languages do not form an 
integral part of the course, and a thorough knowledge of them 
is not made a condition of graduation, but I am happy to inform 
you that a large number of pupils, including many of marked 
abilit}^ and thorough scholarship, are availing themselves of the 
opportunity thus offered, and are, by these means, preparing for 
more extended usefulness in the teacher's profession." During 
the next year the Board adopted a resolution to this effect: 
"That the Board of Instruction of the normal school be author- 
ized to make the languages now taught in the institution a 
requisite to graduation, and to extend the course to not more 
than three and a half years, 'Latin and Greek being required of 
the males and Latin and French of the females." This require- 
ment was not to be applied to the students already admitted to 
the school. 

In accordance with this resolution the "course of study," 
as it appeared in the catalogue of 1861-2, contains among the 
required subjects, Latin and Greek, (for j'oung men) ; Latin and 
French or German (for ladies)." The English studies were not 
essentially' changed in the new normal course ; but the curriculum 
of the model school, which will receive separate consideration, 
shows that the "Object Teaching fever" had then reached 
Michigan. The " professional " instruction of the school is set 


forth at considerable length in this catalogue, and as the develop- 
ment of this work is what most of all concerns this sketch, I 
will quote quite freely from the explanations given. It is stated 
that the ' ' professional ' ' instruction given in the normal 
school embraces, substantially', the following topics: 

" Methods of teaching Spelling and Reading. 

Methods of teaching Arithmetic, Geography and Grammar, Lectures 
on Schoolroom Duties. 

Lectures on Object Lessons and Primary Education; Lectures on 
means of teaching the Virtues, Practice in teaching in the Model school. 

Methods in Chemistry; lectures on the Philosophy of Education." 

Then followed a somewhat detailed account of the work 
done for each of the classes, of which the essential parts are 
copied with some condensation. The classes in the school were 
designated in the order of advancement, by the letters B, C, D, E 
and F. The studies of the B and C classes occupied a half year 
each; the studies of the other three classes occupied in all two 
and a half years; the regular full course could be finished by a 
"diligent student" in three years and a half. A class named B 
was admitted at the beginning of every term, the applicants for 
admission being examined "in Elementary Grammar, Local 
Geography, Arithmetic as far as decimal fractions, Spelling, 
Reading, and Penmanship" , and being required to sign "a declar- 
ation of intention to attend the normal school two terms, and to 
teach subsequently in the State. ' ' 

Throughout the whole course an accurate and thorough 
knowledge of the various branches pursued was insisted on "as 
an indispensable condition to giving successful instruction in the 
best methods of teaching them". Those who join the B class 
come to the school, it was said, with loose intellectual habits and 
feeble powers of application. They must, consequently, spend 
a term in a rigid review of the common branches in order to gam 
systematic habits of thought. Even with these immature pupils 
something is attempted in the way of professional training. They 
are taught by uniform methods and these methods are made sub- 
jects of special explanation. 

"In addition to this a course of familiar lectures on personal 


habits and the acquirements requisite to eminence in teaching are 
given to the class, and they thus gain an ideal which they are 
urged to realize in their own characters." 

In the C class professional instruction is made more system- 
atic and thorough. The pupil recites by topics, and is required 
to give, unaided, a strict analysis of the topic assigned him. 
"In this, as well as in all the higher classes, every instructor 
regards method -teaching as his special duty, and endeavors to 
secure for his pupils such proficiency in the study pursued, that 
it may be successfullj^ imparted. Moreover, the methods and 
processes thus taught, are, in each class, made the subjects of a 
separate examination at the close of the term." 

"Instruction which is entirely special, is given to the C class 
in the form of a full course of lectures on the 'Art of Teaching,' 
'School room Duties,' Object I^essons,' etc. In these lectures 
are presented the characteristics, manners and personal habits 
which are requisite to success in teaching. They also embrace 
such topics as 'Organization of District Schools, ' ' Means of secur- 
ing steady attendance,' 'How to excite interest in studies,' 
'Government, Discipline,' and others of a similar nature. The 
studies of the D and E classes include the higher English 
branches and Eatin, Greek, French and German." "These two 
classes are rigidly drilled in the best methods of teaching the 
studies they pursue. They also listen to a course of lectures on 
'Object Eessons on Color and Form', and Means of Moral Train- 
ing. ' The E class has practice in experimental teaching accord- 
ing to a regulation which requires that each pupil shall teach at 
least one term in the Experimental School." 

The senior class occupy twenty -four weeks in the study of 
Trigonometry, Chemistry, and Mental Philosoph}^ and the mem- 
bers of the class are taught how to make simple apparatus, how 
to prepare experiments, and are required to make some five hun- 
dred experiments, each, in the action of chemical reagents." 
"The class occupy ten weeks of the senior term in studying 
Wayland's text-book on Intellectual Philosophy. The object 
sought in this study, is accuracy and precision, rather than 
extent of knowledge, and the seniors are thus prepared for listen- 


ing to a course of lectures on the philosophy of education, which 
occupies the remainder of the term. 

The lectures embrace the following topics : 

(1) The order of development of the various faculties. 

(2) The order of studies which corresponds to the order of develop- 

(3) Errors of present system in this regard. 

(4) Cultivation of the powers of observation by object lessons and 
by the study of objective sciences. 

(5) Cultivation of the powers of reflection by the study of subjective 

(6) The order of development and modes of cultivating the sensi- 

(7) Religious instruction." 

Two Courses Introduced. 

The introduction of the " Languages " into the single pre- 
scribed course, while it provided for a higher grade of scholar- 
ship, exposed the management of the school to severe criticism 
on the ground that no direct and adequate provision was being 
made for the preparation of teachers for the district schools, 
while the need of such teachers was yerj' urgent, and the origi- 
nal purpose of the institution was to aid, most of all, in supplying 
this need. Consequently, simultaneouslj^ with the admission of 
the languages, the Board directed that "such professional 
instruction should be given to the C class (the .second class) as 
would fit the members of that class to teach in the Primary' 
schools of the State." The Principal was authorized, a little 
later, " to exact a pledge of the B class (class of the first year) 
not to teach until they shall have attended the .school one year. ' ' 

The provision for giving professional instruction to the C 
class was followed, earlj^ in 1863, bj' another complete revision of 
the studies of the school, and the preparation of two distinct 
courses, " A Normal Training Course," elementar)^ in its char- 
acter, and a "higher Normal Course," designed "to prepare 
students for conducting Union and Graded .schools." As this 
was a somewhat radical departure from the previous policy of the 
institution, I quote freely from the circular issued by authority 
of the Board of Education. (Records p. 129 and Report for 

Joseph Estabrook. 



1863.) This document says: "Prominent Educators of the 
West are aware that a radical change is taking place in tbe meth- 
ods of Primary Education. In our best schools there is a grow- 
ing conviction that the old routine of early studies, and old 
methods of teaching, are out of harmonj- with the wants and 
instincts of childhood. Manj^ parents are beginning to inquire, 
why it is that their little ones, though kept faithfuUj^ at school 
most of the 3^ear, make no satisfactory^ intellectual progress; and 
thinking men everj^where, who have this subject at heart, are 
perceiving the worthlessness of a sy'stem under which the pre- 
cious years of earl}' life have been so often worse than wasted." 

The purpose was, as stated, to introduce the Pestalozzian 
system of instruction which, " recognizes the fact that the facul- 
ties of the child follow an invariable order of evolution, and it 
seeks to cultivate each facultj- during the period of its growth, 
by supplying its appropriate food. It calls the pupil's attention 
to such objects as will gratify a natural curiosit}' and thus make 
the acquisition of knowledge a source of perpetual pleasure. 
It gives a quickness and accuracy to the eye and ear; disciplines 
the perceptive powers, whose activity is natural to early life; 
renders the pupil familiar with those objects which are most 
closely related to his future happiness, develops in him the love 
of the beautiful, and makes even his amusements contribute to 
his education. Finall}', while it lays the foundation of genuine 
culture in habits of close observation, it imparts that kind of 
knowledge which is of greatest worth in practical life. 

The ofl5cers of the Michigan Normal School, impressed 
with these facts, have, during the last three 5'ears, drilled its 
pupils in the new method, so far as possible without infringing 
upon the usual studies laid down in the catalogvie. The Board 
of Education are now convinced that the time has come when 
the school can render no greater serv-ice to the State than to 
so modifj' its courses of studj^ that all its pupils may receive 
instruction in the Pestalozzian system of Primary Teaching. 
* * * * Accordingl}' the program of instruction in the normal 
school, will, from this date, comprise two courses of study, so 
arranged that one third of the entire time shall be given to sub - 


jects which are strictly professional. The first course, which is 
designed to prepare pupils for teaching a primary or common 
school, will be called the ''Normal Training Course,'' and will 
embrace the following topics : 

First Term— A Class. 

(1) Concrete Arithmetic; Mental and Practical Arithmetic. 

(2) Object Lessons in Geography; Synthetical Geography and Map 

(3) Drawing of Lines; Plane and Solid Geometrical Figures, and 
Leaf Forms. 

(4) Reading, Spelling by Object Lessons, Penmanship; Composi- 
tion by Object Lessons; Elementary Philosophy. 

Second Term — B Class. 

(1) Higher Arithmetic; Method of Teaching Arithmetic. 

(2) Synthetical Grammar; Composition. 

(3) Drawing of Fruits, Flowers, and Animals. 

(4) Elocution; Vocal Music, with the Method of Teaching it. 

Third Term— C Class. 

(1) Analytical Grammar, with Method of Teaching. 

(2) Physical Geography, with IMethod of Teaching. 

(3) Object Lessons in Common Things, Colors, Geometrical Figures, 
Botany, Zoology, Properties of Bodies; Lectures on Primary Teaching. 

(4) Attendance and Practice in Experimental School." 

While the course, as laid out, occupied a year and a half, 
the hope was expres.sed that many persons would enter with such 
knowledge of geography, arithmetic and grammar, that they 
could, at once, take up the professional work, and " finish the 
entire Training Course in a single term." On completing this 
course the student would receive a certificate to that effect, and 
no one, leaving the school hereafter without such certificate 
would be recommended by the Board of Instruction to teach in 
the common schools of the State. No one would be admitted to 
the Training who did not signify' an intention of complet- 
ing it. 

With the change of a few terms and of some forms of 
expression, it would not be difficult to imagine that the descrip- 
tion of this course and its had been recentlj' written to 
set forth the excellency of methods supposed by many to be 
entirely new. 


The advanced course embraced all the academic studies 
above the C class, including Latin and Greek for young men, 
and Latin, and French or German for ladies, with vocal music 
for all. The statement was made that " The professional studies 
will occupy two -thirds of the time during the senior term, here- 
tofore employed in Intellectual Philosophy and Trigonometry. 
The senior class will listen to a course of lectures on the num- 
erous topics embraced under the 'Laws of Development,' the 
'Philosophy of Instruction,' and the ' Organization and man- 
agement of Graded Schools. ' * * * * They will also have one 
term of actual practice in the Experimental School under the 
instruction of the Principal." 

These courses remained practically unchanged during the 
remainder of Principal Welch's administration. They were onlj' 
slightly modified during the five years of the immediateh' suc- 
ceeding administration of Principal Maj'hew. The close of 
Professor Maj'hew's term of service in the school, in 1870, 
naturally marks the conclusion of the first series of experiments 
upon the courses of stud}- and instruction in the Normal School. 

Administration of Principal Mayhew. 

As alread}' indicated, a few, but, in the main, unimportant 
modifications were made during the administration of Principal 
Mayhew, from 1865 to 1870. Constant enlargement was going 
on, but the same general policy was pursued. A separate depart- 
ment of English Literature was created in 1868, and the profes- 
sional work of the school, in some directions, became more 
distinct and better defined. 

The arrangement for a short "Training Course" and for 
granting Training Certificates, while it met to a degree a strong 
demand for teachers in the district schools, 'did not work entirely 
satisfactorily. The distinction between this certificate, which 
had no legal value, and the certificates given to full graduates of 
the school, entitling them to teach in any of the public schools 
of the State, was not generally understood, and the Training 
Certificate was sometimes used for other than legitimate purposes. 
In consequence it came into disrepute among the alumni and 


anions the best friends of the institution generally; and an 
effort was made to guard and modif\- ihe Training Couise without 
abandoning it entireh'. 

In 1867 Principal Maj'hew suggested to the Board the fol- 
lowing plan as "a modification of our present system which will 
meet more fully the demand upon the school." 

1st. That all pupils must (as now) first pass the studies requisite for 
the Training certificate. 

2d. All pupils who, having the "Training Certificate," shall pursue 
in addition thereto, the studies of the higher English course, shall receive 
a "Certificate of Graduation," with the privilege which the law at present 
gives to graduates of the the Normal School, of teaching without the 
legal necessit}' of further examination. 

3d. There shall be given to ladies who, in addition to certificates of 
the 1st and 2d grade, shall have attained the knowledge requisite to teach 
German and French, a Preceptress' Diploma. 

4lh. Tliere shall be given to gentlemen who, in addition to the 
studies of the 1st and 2d grade shall have attained such knowledge of 
Latin and Greek as is requisite to prepare pupils for College or the 
University, a Principal's Diploma. 

And, lastly, that ladies desiring to study Latin or Greek, or gentle- 
men desiring to study French or German, may do so subsequent to their 
graduation. ~ 

While the plan was not adopted, it is of historical interest, 
as indicating the direction of thought in the Faculty of the Insti- 
tution at that time. 

In March 1869 the Board of Education, after considerable 
discussion, requested the Principal to report to the Board such 
revision of the course of studies as might be deemed necessar}'. 
The course as revised, appears in the Stiperintendent's report for 
1869, and in the catalogue of the school for 1868-9. It is appen- 
ded to show the exact work of the school at the close of the first 
period of its existence. The "explanation of courses" is given 
only so far as professional study and instrtiction are concerned. 

Course of Study. 


Practical Arithmetic Reading. Spelling. 

English Grammar, Synthetic. Geography. Penmanship. 



In Normal School. 


Winter Term. 

Elementary Algebra. 

Reading or Vocal Music. 

Geography, Physical. 


Grammar, Analytical. 

Winter Term. 

Summer Term,. 


Vocal Music or Elocution. 

Arithmetic, Analytical. 

Training Class. 

Writing and Bookkeeping. 


Summer Term. 

Experimental School and 

Training Lessons. 
Natural Philosophy. 

Latin, begun, (for Gentlemen), 
German, begun, (for Ladies.) 

Experimental School and 

Training Lessons. 
Higher Algebra. 

Latin (No. 2) and German (No. 2) 
Professional Training. 

Normal Training Certificates Conferred. 


Winter Term. 

Sutnmer Term.. 

Latin (No. 3) and German (No. 3). 
Experimental School Work. 
Trigonometry and Applied 

French and Greek begun ; Greek by 

Gentlemen, French by Ladies. 

Latin (No. 4) and German (No. 4) 

Experimental School. 

Greek (No. 2), French (No. 2). 



Winter Term. 

Sum.mer Term. 

Intellectual Philosophy. 
Latin (No. 5), German (No. 5). 
Greek (No. 3). French (No. 3). 
History of Education and School 

Laws of Michigan. 
Experimental School. 

Philosophy of Education. 
Latin (No. 6), German (No. 6). 
Professional Ethics. 
Greek (No. 4), French (No. 4). 

Note. — The numbers in the course in Languages indicate the number 
of terms the pupil has pursued the study. 


Professional Instruction. 

Professional Instruction given in the Normal School, consists of: 
Methods of teaching Spelling and Reading; methods of teaching Arith- 
metic, Geography, Grammar, and generally whatever subject is taught 
in classes is given with reference to the best methods of teaching it 
together with the pedagogic axioms applicable to each step, by which 
to test the correctness of the methods, as, e. g: 
The ICducational principle relating — 

To a Thorough knowledge of the Subject; 

To presentation in Logical order; 

To the Pupils' degree of Maturity; 

To the Pupils' Self Activity. 

To the Pupils' Progress from the Known to the Unknown; 

To the Pupils' Progress from the Eas}- to the Difficult; 

To the Pupils' Progress from the Simple to the Complex; 

To the Pupils' Progress from the Single to the Combined; 

To the Pupils' Progress from the Concrete to the Abstract; 

To the Pupils' Progress from the ICinpirical to the Rational, etc. 
Differing in this respect from mere Academic Instruction , the chief 
aim of which is attainment of knowledge concerning the subject of stud)* 
only with an incidental, often uncertain aim at what is called "IMental 
discipline." We cannot well dispense with a curriculum having the 
Form of the "Academic." Where is there a Normal School without it? 
In this Country? In Europe? In F;utopia J" The Idea may grasp it. It 
is not yet in the reach of the practical. Consider the material out of 
which Teachers are to be developed, and is it not evident to the judicious 
that each step of progress through any branch of study i.^; an occasion for 
impressing a method or applying a pedagogic axiom, not so surely within 
the attainment of the pupil, when the occasion is but memory? Our 
method enables us to begin this kind of professional training with our 
earliest classes and continue it through the entire course." 

Special Professional Instruction. 

For convenience, we designate our classes by letters: 

fA and-B) are Preparatory. The (C) class pursue studies belonging 
to the First Year. The (D) class those of the Second Year. The (E) 
those of the third Year, and the (F) those of the P'ourlh Year. 

Special Training begins with the (C) class, second term, according to 
the following outline: 

(A.) p:i.kmknts of Piiysic.\i. Eikcwtion. — Value of the Body — 
importance of its development and training. The bones— muscles — 
nervous system— Digestive apparatus— Circulatory apparatus — Apparatus 
for Breathing The Skin and its appendages. 

The uses of each of these divisions of the body, and the means 



uecessary to their proper development and right action — importance of 
good habits in respect to position in silting, standing, etc., — in respect to 
food, exercise, rest, and sleep. Bodily health and vigor necessary to the 
best and highest mental activity, and success in the work of teaching. 

Intellectual Education.— General divisions and definitions of the 
Faculties of the mind. 

A brief discussion of the order in vphich these faculties are developed. 

The means of development and training. 

The three natural divisions, or periods, of intellectual development 
and growth. 

Childhood, Youth, and Early Maturity, — the powers which are espec- 
ially developed in each period. 

The Perceptive Powers.— how best developed and trained— the 
nature and purpose of Elementary and Primary instruction — Oral Teach- 
ing or Lessons by means of objects — Designs— Matter — Preparation — Meth - 
ods of Teaching. 

In the (D) Class instruction will be continued in Methods of Training 
the perceptive powers, by — 

Colors and Forms of Natural Objects — Sounds — Elementary — of Human 
Voice — of Animals — of Birds — Modification of, by distance, etc. How to 
make up and present developing lessons on Trees, Shrubs, Bushes, Vines, 
Flowers, Grains, Vegetables, Fruits, Nuts, Seeds, etc. — On Parts of Human 
Body, Air, Water, Rain, Snow, Hail, Vapor, Steam, Dew, Frost, Fog, 
Clouds, Sun, Moon, Stars. 

Number. — Counting by objects, Currency, Drawing straight lines. 
Object Lessons in Language — words by Word-Method, without a book; 
Stories, objects enumerated. Moral Stories, etc. Gymnastics for Children — 
Singing. Discriminate carefully between Object Lessons and Lessons on 

By referring to the Course of Study in the Preparatory Department, 
the usual list of subjects for training the observing faculties may be found. 

Then follow Lessons on Organization of District Schools, Principles of 
Classification, Discipline, Management — Government, Attendance, Truant- 
ism, Tardiness— Incitements to Study, School Room Duties— Relation of 
Teacher to Pupil — to Parents— to Society, Moral and Religious Training 
in Schools. 

In both the (D) and (E) Classes, work in the Experimental School is 
assigned to pupils, to be done under the supervision of experienced teach- 
ers, and so arranged that special practice may be given in each branch of 

Careful observation of the pupil's practice is made and his Aptness in 
teaching, his Interest therein, and Earnestness and Success are made the 
criteria on which to found special recommendations for future employment. 


According to the time which may be spared for the purpose, to the (E) 
or (F) Classes, Lectures on the School Laws of Michij^an and upon the 
History of Education, Oriental, Classic, and Modern, will be given. 

In the (F) class, (Senior), beside the Text-Book istruction in Intel- 
lectual Philosophy, Lectures are given on the Philosophy of Educa- 
tion, with mainl}' the following range of topics: Education, What; of 
Man — Physical, importance of a well -developed body. Mental — Philosophy 
of Education based upon a knowledge of Psychological powers, analysis 
of such powers. Minute and careful analysis of the Mental acts concerned 
in each; The precise definition of each power based on such analysis; 
The order of development and growth of each group of faculties. Tran- 
sition — Out of the law of development and growth, are evolved certain 
Pedagogic or Educational axioms or principles useful as tests of all 
methods of instruction — to determine the selection of materials therefor 
and the proper presentation of the same; Examination of the studies and 
subjects employed in school education — The peculiar Culture required by 
each. How only symmetrical culture can be reached, grouping of studies 
for each period of mental and physical growth. Classification of the 
sensibilities, their culture and control : The immense importance of 
careful attention to such culture and control. The will; how to strengthen 
and guide it. Culture of conscience. — Direct and reflex influence of body 
and spirit." 

This bring.s us to the close of the first period in the history 
of the development and progress of the normal school in the 
direction followed in this chapter; and to the opening of a new 
era and of a new administration commencing with the school 
year 1870-71. 

Second Period. 

In their report for 1870 the Board of Education expressed the 
purpose of taking measures to secure a more extended and com- 
plete course of professioyial trainiiig than had up to that time 
been given in the school. During the early part of the 3'ear 1871 
the newly elected Principal, Joseph Estabrook, accompanied a 
portion of the time by Mr. Putnam, visited several of the best 
normal schools in the East for the purpose of obser\'ing their 
practical working, and to gather information which would be of 
value in improving the courses of instruction and the general 
organization and arrangement of the Michigan normal school. As 
a result the Board decided to transfer as much of the purelj' aca- 
demic work as could be conveniently separated from the profes- 

Charles Fitz Roy Bellows. 


sional instruction to the high school department, which had just 
been organized in connection with the school of observ^ation and 
practice. At the same time the professional work of the normal 
department was revised and re -arranged, and three courses of 
study and instruction were provided ; one course with especial 
reference to the wants and demands of the common district 
schools, another with reference to graded schools which required 
only English studies, and still another with reference to the 
larger schools in which the ancient and modern languages were 
taught. The names, extent and character of these courses will 
be seen by the following " synchronistic view," taken from the 
report of 1871. 



Synchronistic View of the Normal Courses of Study. 


English Common School Course. 


Full English Course. 


Winter Term. 

Summer Term. 

winter Term. 

Summer Term. 




1. Arithmetic, 

2. Geography, 

3. English 


4. Writing, 


1. Physiology, 

2. U. S. 


3. English 


4. Reading 

Vocal Music. 

Same as the English 
Common School Course. 

1. El. Algebra, 

2. Natural 

3. Professional 

1. Analysis of 

2. Botany, 

3. Professional 

Same as the English 
"Common School Course. 






1. Geometry, 

2. Physical 

Geog. and 

3. Chemistry, 

4. Rhetoric, 


1. Geometry, 

2. Zoology and 


3. Science of 
Gov. (lectures) 

4. English 


1. Higher 


2. Psychology, 

3. Professional 


1. Trigonom'y, 

2. Psychology, 

3. Moral 
Science and 









Synchronistic View of the Normal Courses of Study. 


Classical Course. 

Course in Modern Languages. 

Winter Term. Futnmer Term. 

WiDter Term. Sammer Term. 

Same as the English 

Common School Course. 

Same as the English 

Common School Course. 


Same as the English Common 
School Course, except that 
Latin will take the place of 
Professional Studies. 

Same as the 

Classical Course. 

Same as the English Common 
School Course, except that 
Latin will take the place of 
Chemistry and Science of 

1. Higher 


2. Latin, 

3. Greek, 

4. Chemistry. 

1. Latin, 

2. Greek. 

1. Trigonom'y, 

2. Latin, 

3. Greek, 

4. Science of 

1. Latin, 

2. Greek. 

Professional Studies the same as 
in the full English Course. 

Same as the Classical Course, 
except that German will 
take the place of Latin. 

Same as the Classical Course, 
except that German and 
French will take the place 
of Latin and Greek. 

Same as the Classical Course, 
except that German and 
French will take the place 
of Latin and Greek. 


The explanation of these courses, found in the catalogue of the 
school for 1871-2, gives a pretty full account of the professional 
work included in each course. The "Common School Course" 
included (l) "a review of the studies taught in the common 
schools, with special reference to methods of teaching and illus- 
tration; (2) a full year of strictly professional instruction and 
training, embracing the work of observation and practice teach- 
ing." This year of professional instruction included, (l) "the 
general elementary principles of Psychologj^ in the form of famil- 
iar lectures, wuth references to such books as pupils at this stage 
of advancement can read with profit; (2) the general principles 
of elementarj' teaching; order, laws, and means of developing 
and training the faculties and powers of children, and the ends 
to be kept in view and attained in the instruction of the young; 
(3) general methods of elementary' teaching, applicable to all 
branches of study, and special methods, applicable to particular 
branches, and to particular classes of pupils; (4) the subject of 
common school organization, government, discipline, etc. ; and 
(5) the work of observation, practice teaching, criticism, etc." 

The "Full English Course" included all the professional 
instruction of the common school course, all the English studies 
taught in any department of the public schools, and one year of 
higher 'professional instruction and training. This instruction 
embraced, (l) "a thorough knowledge of Psychology, with its 
applications to the work of education in respect both to princi- 
ples and methods in the higher departments of study and teach- 
ing; (2) the principles and methods of school government, 
grading and classification; (3) school systems and school laws, 
and the historj' of education; (4) relations of teachers to pupils, 
parents, each other, and to society; (5) obser\'ation, practice 
teaching, criticism, etc." The language courses included the 
same professional instruction as the full English course. 

The Board provided that a diploma from the common school 
course should serve as a legal certificate for three years, and that 
such certificate might be renewed, if the holder should present to 
the Faculty of the normal school satisfactory evidence of success 
in teaching. A diploma from any one of the higher courses 


served as a legal certificate without limitation as to time. It was 
provided, however, that no student could receive a diploma from 
any course until he had been in attendance at least twenty -two 

The conditions of admission required that ladies should not 
be less than sixteen and gentlemen not less than eighteen years 
of age in order to enter the normal classes. Graduates from the 
model school were exempted from this rule, and the Principal 
was permitted to exercise his discretion in case of younger pupils 
who gave evidence of unusual maturity and advancement in 
studies. All members of the normal classes were required to 
subscribe to a declaration of intention to teach in the schools of 
the State. In order to enter the common school course pupils 
were to possess a "good common school knowledge of Arith- 
metic — intellectual and written — English Grammar, Local Geog- 
raphy, Reading and Writing." To enter either of the higher 
courses it was necessary to pass an examination in all the 
studies of the first year of the common school course. 

During the school year 1876-7 some slight changes were 

made in the courses of study. A District School course was 

arranged and published in the catalogue of that year. The object 

of this course was to provide special instruction for pupils who 

intended to teach in the district schools. It covered the period 

of one year and required a thorough review of all the branches 

usually taught in such schools, and in addition an elementary 

knowledge "of Vocal Music, Drawing, Natural Philosophy, 

Botany, and Natural History." A course of lectures was also 

given to this class on the best methods of conducting district 

schools. Students completing this course received no diploma, 

but simply a certificate showing the work which they had done. 

This short course continued only for one or two years. 

The organization of a course of this sort grew out of an honest 

effort to satisfy the demand for a better supply of teachers for the 

common district schools of the State. This demand went so far 

as to question the propriety of continuing to provide instruction 

in the higher branches of English and in the ancient and modern 

languages in the normal school. There was some danger of a 


reaction which should sweep all these studies out of the curric- 
ulum. " In his report for 1873 the State Sujierintendent of Public 
Instruction said, "So long as we are maintaining but one school 
for the training of persons for the teacher's work, the expediency 
of continuing in the Normal courses those branches of study that 
are rarely reached by pupils in the highest department of our 
graded schools even, is verj' qiiestioyiable. Should not that pol- 
icy be adopted which will furnish to the State the greatest num- 
ber of skillful teachers in the shortest time?" Such language 
from the highest educational officer of the State foreshadowed 
that radical revision of the normal courses of instruction which 
took place at a little later period. The demand that academic 
instruction, so-called, should be more completely eliminated from 
the courses continued to grow stronger for several successive 
years. Referring to this demand, the Principal said in his report 
for 1874, "It is claimed by those who now criticise the normal 
school most severel)', that all academic instruction should be 
excluded, and the whole time should be devoted to pedagogics 
and methods. But nine-tenths of all who come here for instruc- 
tion need a thorough review of the common English branches, 
and are, therefore, unfitted to receive instruction in the theory 
and practice of teaching. *=!«** The attempt to eliminate all 
academic instruction from the normal school would result if suc- 
cessful, in the most partial and superficial qualification of those 
who should go out to teach in our schools. Unless thorough 
knowledge is acquired here, it will not be acquired at all. The 
illustration of methods would be less clearly impressed upon the 
minds of pupils when given once or twice for the purpose of illus- 
tratipn, than if they were made daih' witnesses of good methods, 
by competent instructors, and they themselves the subjects of the 

The Board of visitors for the same year, said, in their report, 
The theor>' that normal instruction should have the same 
place iii our State system of education that law and medicine 
have, is at first view plausible, but will hardly be practicable 
until the district school teacher shall receive larger remuneration 
than the people are at present willing to give." The visiting 


Board agreed with the Principal that it would be unwise to 
attempt to eliminate all academic studies and work from the 
normal courses at that time. The sentiment in favor of a 
thorough revision of the courses of instruction in the school, 
which should largel}' reduce the amount of academic work, 
became still more pronounced during the next two or three years, 
and finall}^ in 1878 led to a more radical experiment than had ever 
before been tried in the history of the institution. In a circular, 
explaining the new courses of instruction and the reasons which 
had influenced the Board of Education in adopting them, the 
Board said, "In its earlier days the normal school met, by 
means of its strong course of academic instruction, a need felt 
most urgently throughout the state, and in no other way could 
it so well have supplied the educational wants of a region 
confessedly lacking in schools maintaining a high degree of 
scholarship ; but it cannot be denied that a widespread feeling 
exists in the state that this institution has been too much of an 
academy or high school ; that the growth of our excellent graded 
school system has obviated the necessity of academic work to a 
large degree in the normal school, and the time has now come 
when it should be a specialized school, doing in a creditable 
way an essential work not elsewhere done in the state." 

The plan adopted by the Board to secure this result pro- 
vided for the enlargement of the school of observation and practice, 
as explained in the sketch of that department, and directed that 
students, desiring to enter the normal but found deficient in 
academic preparation, should be required to complete their 
preparation in this school. Three normal course of study and 
instruction, of one year each, were adopted; these were named 
the Common School Course, the Higher English Course, and 
the Classical Course. It was stated that "aside from general 
reviews in connection with professional instruction, the normal 
school proper would be confined to purely professional instruc- 
tion." The several professional courses, and the requirements 
for admission to them, were as follows: 



Common School Course. 

Requirements for admission: A thorough knowledge of practical 
arithmetic, English grammar, local geography, orthography, reading, 
history of the United States, elements of physiology, of vocal music, and 
of drawing, and elementary algebra. 


1. Elementary principles of education - - 20 weeks 

2. School organization, government, school laws, history 

of education, methods of reading and study, etc. 20 weeks 

3. Practice teaching - . - - 40 weeks 

4. Reading and orthography - - - 10 weeks 

5. Arithmetic ..... jq weeks 

6. English grammar - - - - - 10 weeks 

7. Geography - .... iq weeks 

8. Hi.story of United States - - - - 5 weeks 

9. Vocal Music ..... iq weeks 

10. Drawing - - - - - - 10 weeks 

11. Penmanship ..... 5 weeks 

12. Algebra ------ 5 weeks 

13. Physiology ..... 5 weeks 

14. Objective teaching — botany, zoology, physics - 15 weeks 

Advanced Professional Course. 

Requirements for admission: "In addition to the requirements 
for admission to the common school course, a good knowledge of the fol- 
lowing branches of study. A course equal to that of our best high schools 
is understood : Higher arithmetic, algebra, geometry, bookkeeping, Eng- 
lish composition, rhetoric, English literature, general history, mental 
science, botany, zoology, physical geography, natural philosophy, chem- 
istry, civil government. 

Equivalents for any of these branches or of those required for admis- 
sion to the course in languages will be accepted, at the discretion of the 
faculty; and students will be required to pursue those studies only in the 
advanced professional courses for which preparation was required at ad- 


1. Elementary professional work, - - - 5 weeks 

2. Advanced professional work, . . . 35 weeks 

3. History of education, school government, civil gov- 

ernment, etc. - - - - - 20 weeks 

4. Practice teaching, - . . . 40 weeks 

5. Arithmetic, ------ 5 weeks 


6. Algebra, - - - . . 5 ^eeks 

7. Geometry and trigonometry, and use of instruments, 10 weeks 

8. Geography, . - . . . 5 weeks 

9. Physiology ami Zoology, . - . . 5 weeks 

10. Botany, ------ 5 weeks 

11. Astronomy, ----- 5 weeks 

12. Geology. - - - - . 5 weeks 

13. Natural philosophy and laboratory practice, - 5 weeks 

14. Chemistry and laboratory practice, - - 5 weeks 

15. Rhetoric, grammar and composition, - - 5 weeks 

16. History and literature, - - - 10 weeks 

17. Reading, etc. - ... - 5 weeks 

18. Penmanship, - - - - . 5 weeks 

19. Drawing, ...... 5 weeks 

20. Vocal music, . . . _ _ 5 weeks 

Professional Course in Languages. 

Requirements for admission: In addition to the requirements for 
admission to the common school course, a good knowledge of the follow- 
ing branches of study: A course equal to that of our best high schools is 

Latin and Greek, or German and French, algebra, geometry, general 
history, mental science, botany, zoology, physical geography, natural 
philosophy, chemistry, civil government. 

Course of Professional Instruction. 

1. Elementary professional work - - -5 weeks 

2. Advanced professional work - - - 35 weeks 

3. History of education, school government, civil 

government, etc. - - - - 20 weeks 

4. Practice teaching - - - - - 40 weeks 

5. Latin and Greek or German and French - 30 weeks 

And any ten of the subjects, numbered 5 to 20 inclusive, in the pre- 
ceding course. 

Special Courses. 

Students may take, with the approval of the faculty, special courses 
which shall require attendance at not less than 17 lectures, recitationss 
and exercises per week. 

The explanations of these courses and of the character of the work 
to be done in the various subjects, is of peculiar interest as indicating the 
nature of what was called professional instruction. The explanations are 
too extended to be given in full, out a few selections will show their gen- 
eral tenor. The work in psychology and pedagogy remained essentially 
unchanged, receiving only very slight modifications. 


The description of the work in Algebra, which occupied five weeks in 
the common school course, and five weeks in the advanced course will 
serve as an illustration of the mathematical instruction. 

"The work in this study consists first in a rapid review, or a cursory 
examination of the student as to his preparation, touching particularly 
the following points: 

1. As to knowledge of the contents of the general subject, the 
natural order and dependence of the various topics. 

2. As to ability to give examples of operations under the principal 
divisions of the subject, also under the sub-divisions or cases. 

3. As to readiness and accuracy in the statement of principles and 

4. As to thoroughness of explanation of processes, and facility of 

Note: — Particular attention should be paid to this part of prepara- 

In connection with the above, and properly supplementing it 
throughout, occur the various professional considerations bearing upon 
the different parts of the work. Among these may be mentioned the 
following : 

1. The utility of Algebra as a practical and disciplinary study; its 
relation and value as an educational factor; and the objects, consequently, 
to be kept in view in teaching it. 

2. The application of the principles of the Science of Education in 
the development of a true art of teaching the subject. 

3. Practice in teaching, drilling, and conducting classes, supple- 
mented by criticism, theses, and examinations." 

The explanation of the work in Phj'sics, which had the 
same length of time as algebra, will indicate the nature of the 
instruction in the various branches of the natural and biological 
sciences : 

"The work in this branch in the Common School Course will be 
devoted to methods of giving object lessons to children upon the ordinary 
physical properties of matter, and upon simple physical phenomena. 
Particular attention will be given to simple experiments, by means of easily 
devised and inexpensive apparatus, to illustrate the physical operations 
that are going on all around us, such as evaporation and condensation of 
water, capillary attraction, effect of heat, reflection of sound and of light, 
and the practical illustration and explanation of such simple mechanical 
contrivances as levers, geered wheels, pulleys, pumps, etc. 

In the higher courses, in addition to the points above named, attention 
will be given to methods of teaching the subject objectively to more 
advanced pupils, to use of text books, to experimentation, use of instru- 

IVIalcom IVIcVlcar. 


ments, and the construction, care, and repairing of philosophical appar- 
atus. Notice will also be called to the inductive method of learning the 
truths of nature, and to the practical and edutational value of physics as a 
means of training the powers of observation and of generalization and of 
acquiring manual skill and useful knowledge." 

Five weeks were given to United States History in the com- 
mon school course, and ten weeks to History and Literature in 
the advanced course. The work in these branches is described 
as follows : 

An intelligent knowledge of \h& facts of history is necessary 
for admission to the Norma' Department. 

The training in History is in three grades, to correspond to 
that in Geogj aphy : 

History stories, associating them with localities, and following true 
order of time; use of maps, of blackboard, of text book. 


How the narrative of History can best be taught. 

Selection of important topics; grouping events, and associating them 
with prominent persons; use of maps. 

Consideration of means by which pupils may be led to learn not only 
ih^ story, but the philosophy of history; to look for the causes which 
produce results; to follow the progress of thought as well as nations; the 
growth of principles as well as power; to find history in architecture, 
sculpture, painting, and poetry; all things by which the study may be 
made a delight. 


The preparation for the Normal work in Literature must be an acquain- 
tance with authors in the following particulars: 

1. Times in which they lived. 

2. Leading events of their lives, especially such as influenced their 
writings. t 

3. Names and character of their principal works. The training will 
be on the two divisions of the work. 

1. History of Literature. 

2. Direct study of Authors. 

It is first considered as an essential topic of General History. If taught 
separately, to be similarly arranged for study by grouping authors in 
various ways: first chronologically; second, according to character of works. 


Aids to thorough acquaintance with authors: Critical reading with 
others; collecting opinions of reviewers and critics, and comparing them ; 
writing reviews and criticisms. 

The instruction in English is indication by the description of the work 

Composition and Rhetoric. 

Candidates for admission are expected to have a practical knowledge 
of punctuation, diction, properties of style, figure, versification, and prose 

Subjects before the class will be: — 

1. How to develop the idea oi form by copying from models, by dic- 
tation exercises, etc. 

2. How to lead out the child's own thought by means of object lessons. 

3. How to suggest to the child the further use of materials about him. 

4. How to secure readiness and consecutiveness by writing upon 
subjects at sight, and from outlines. 

5. How to adapt all work to the grade. 

6. How to combine in lower grades the work of grammar and com- 

7. How, in the higher grades, to secure best results, by persistent 
invention and just criticism. 

8. How to make Composition and Rhetoric but means to an end — an 
intelligent appreciation of English Literature. 

Incidentally will be considered how to aid the child in acquiring a vocab- 
ulary, how to sharpen his eye and ear concepts, and how to lead him to think 
by thinking with him. 

These courses remained without essential modifiations until 
the close of the administration of Principal Estabrook in 1880. 
In their report for that year, the Board of Education said. "The 
Board realized that the change was one quite in advance of any- 
thing previously undertaken, but they believed the conditions in 
the State were especially favorable to the success of such an tinder- 
taking. ^ * 'i= * It ^vas not thought that in a new and untried 
character of work the Board was likelj^ to attain the perfect and 
exact adjustment of all demands withotit some experience and 
experiment. Time has already shown some points wherein the 
scheme may be better adjusted to the wants of the schools. 
Yet it is safe to say that no change so important and so radical 
in its principles was ever undertaken and carried so far toward 
a successftil issue with less shock and friction. * * * * What- 
ever adjustments or modifications may become necessary they 


will be in the way of making the "new departure" more com- 
plete in its character and more perfect in its working. ' ' 

Principal Mac Vicar's Administration. 

Dr. Malcomb MacVicar, who succeeded Principal Esta- 
brook and entered upon his duties in October, 1880, made, with 
the approval of the Board and the concurrence of the Faculty, a 
complete revision of the courses of study and instruction. The 
effort to eliminate all academic work from the normal curriculum 
was abandomed, and five distinct courses were arranged, called the 
Scientific, the Language, the Literary, the Art, and the Common 
School. In addition, provision was made for special courses by 
the substitution of equivalent studies for prescribed ones. Full 
explanations of all these courses were published, but it will be 
sufiicient here to copy only so much as relates to the professional 

The Elementary Course. 

This course embraces a discussion in a familiar form, of the 

(1) Nature and purposes of education. 

(2) Forces and agencies employed in the work and processes of 

(3) True province of schools and teachers. 

(4) Nature, powers and faculties of the child. 

(5) Laws or conditions, which govern the development and training 
of those powers and faculties. 

(6) General applications of these laws to means and methods of 
elementary teaching. 

(7) Organization, government, and general management of district 
and elementary schools, including a consideration of the duties, rights, 
and cbligations of teachers. 

(8) School system and school laws of Michigan. 

(9) Progressive development of improved methods of elementary 
teaching, illustrated by reference to the lives, labors, and principles of the 
great leaders in educational reform and progress. 

The Advanced Course. 

The instruction in this course embraces all the topics of the elemen- 
tary course, elaborated in a manner adapted to the needs of teachers in the 
higher departments of schools. 


In addition to these it includes discussions of the methods of organ- 
izing, grading, and managing graded schools; school systems; history 
of schools and education, etc., etc. 

Special Professional Training. 

Under this head are included the following classes of work : 

1. During the first year of the Common School course and the first 
and second years of the other courses, each pupil is required to note care- 
fully the method of instruction pursued by the teacher, and to be able, 
when the subject is completed, to give anacurate account, either orally or 
in writing, of the following points: 

(a) The order in which each topic was discussed. 

(b) The illu.strations and devices used to enlist the attention of 
the pupils, and to make plain the truth presented. 

(c) The method of drill pursued to fix the truth permanently in 
the memory. 

2. During the second year of the Common School course and the 
third year of the other courses, the principles of teaching and of school 
organization, based upon the constitution and laws of the body and mind, 
are carefully discussed. This is followed by special professional training 
in a sufiicient number of subjects in each course to secure in the pupils 
habits of teaching and governing in harmony with the principles discussed. 
This part of the work includes the following: 

(a) A discussion of the order which should be pursued in present- 
ing the given subjects to a class. 

(b) A discussion of the illustrations and devices that should be 
used to enable the pupils to understand thoroughly the subject pre- 
sented, and to fix a sharp outline of it in the memory. 

(c) The preparation of sketches or outline lessons which are sub- 
mitted to the teachers for criticism. 

(d) Teaching and governing in the Practice school under the guid- 
ance of competent teachers, whose duty it is to observe caiefully, criti- 
cise and correct all defects. 

The requirements for admission to the normal classes were 
at the same time somewhat increased and rendered more definite. 

No changes of importance were made in the courses of instruc - 
tion during the interregnum which followed the resignation of 
Principal Mc Vicar, nor during the two years of the administra- 
tion of Principal Willits, nor during the interregnum which fol- 
lowed his resignation. The demand for innovations seemed to 
have been temporarily satisfied, and the energies of the Board of 
Education and of the Faculty were occupied in other directions. 

John 1.1. B. Sill. 


Third Period. 

Administration of Principal Sill. 

During the administration of Principal Sill no radical or 
sudden changes were made in the general character of the curric- 
ulum of studies. Improvements were made here and there, some 
new branches were introduced, and bj- the processes of enlarge- 
ment and differentiation the catalogue came to show a large num- 
ber of apparently distinct courses. In many cases, however, the 
differences between courses were verj- slight. In his report for 
1888 Principal Sill said, "The true function of our Normal 
School is to equip teachers for all grades of schools, including 
not only primary and grammar schools, but high schools, and the 
superintendence of village and city schools as well. Manj- of 
our students, graduates in our longer courses, would gladly 
return to us for further study and preparation if opportunity 
were afforded. The Normal School ought to cover the ground 
marked out above so thoroughly that there could be no question 
concerning the competency' of our graduates for the lines of edu- 
cational activity- thus outlined. To this end I would be glad to 
see provision made for optional courses in advanced studj- — 
courses which would justh' lead to a literar}- or pedagogical 
degree. Such a plan would not onlj- meet the wants of our own 
graduates, but it would give also a needed opportunity- to grad- 
uates of colleges and of the Universitj- to obtain, in a brief post- 
graduate course, that necessan,' professional training under expert 
super\-ision and criticism, which onh* thoroughly equipped normal 
schools can offer. Any one of the present four year courses 
could be so extended with ver^- small additional cost in operating 
the school." 

In accordance with this recommendation, a course was 
adopted for graduates of colleges. In addition to the adoption of 
the course for college graduates the regular three and four years' 
courses were so modified as to render them more flexible and to 
provide for a considerable amount of elective work. In respect 
to these modifications the Principal said, "Heretofore there have 
been only two English four -years' courses — the literan,' and the 


scientific. Of these, the first was almost exclusively literary- and 
historical, the second ignored literature and history- and was 
almost purely scientific and mathematical. Therefore, any stu- 
dent desiring a strong English course was compelled to take an 
unsj^mmetrical body of work. We gave him his choice between 
two kinds of mental distortion, but insisted that he should take one 
or the other. ^ * * * The new scheme allows each student to 
employ his time upon such studies as are most advantageous to 
him, knowing that he will not be defeated of graduation provided 
he has satisfactorily completed the prescribed amount of work, 
including all required studies." 

An advanced course of two added j'ears was also provided 
leading to the degree of Bachelor of Pedagogics, one of the degrees 
which the Board of Education had been empowered, by a recent 
legislative act, to bestow. Provision was also made for giving 
the degree of Master of Pedagogics upon conditions stated in 
connection with the courses of instruction. Finally in the school 
year 1890-1 special courses were arranged for graduates of high 
schools. At the close of the administration of Principal Sill in 
1893 the requirements for admission to the normal school, and 

the courses of studj- and instruction were substantially as follows : 

1. Students entering were required to sign a declaration of intention 
to teach in the schools of Michigan. 

2. Graduates of approved high schools were admitted without an 
entrance examination. 

3. Other applicants for admission were required to sustain a satis- 
factory examination in the following subjects: 

(a) Arithmetic, including the facts, principles, and operations 
of simple and compound numbers, of fractions, of ratio and propor- 
tion, of percentage and its applications, and of square root. 

(b) English Grammar, including the parts of speech and their 
uses or relations in connected discourse, and the structure and 
analysis of sentences. 

(c) Geography, including position, boundaries, and coast lines 
of grand divisions; location of the great plateaus and the lower lands; 
position and direction of mountain ranges; the source, course, and 
discharge of rivers; boundaries, capitals, and chief cities of political 
divisions, and, in general, the contents of the maps of a good 
Grammar School Geography. 

(d) Spelling. 


(e) Algebra. The preparatory work in Algebra includes the 
following topics: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, 
Factoring, Least Common Multiple, and Fractions. 

Accepted standings did not exempt any student from exam- 
ination in those branches required by law for the lowest legal 
license to teach. It was also provided that students, admitted 
on diploma, might be required to pursue in the normal any study 
in which they were found seriously deficient. 

The courses of studj^ were, a Ninth Grade English and 
Scientific course, and a separate language course. A three 
years' course leading to a five years' certificate, and a three 
years' Kindergarten course. 

The following were the four years' courses: 

(1) Literary, (2) Scientific, (3) Literary Scientific, (4) Ancient 
Classical, (5) Modern Classical, (6) English German, (7) English 
French, (8) Latin German, (9) English Latin, (10) Shorter German (two 
years of German), (11) Music Course. 

The following courses were provided for graduates of high 

schools : 

(1) A course of one year, leading to a five years' certificate, (2) a one 
year Kindergarten course, leading to a five years' certificate, (3) a two 
years' Kindergarten course, and these additional two years' courses; 
(4) Literary, (5) Scientific, (6) Ancient Classical, (7) Modern Classical, 
(8) English German, (9) English French, (10) Latin German, (11) Literary 
Scientific. All these courses were drawn outiin detail in the catalogue for 

The following was the course prepared for graduates of col- 
leges, with the explanations: 

Persons holding an academic degree from the University of Michigan 
or from an incorporated college, may receive a life license to teach and 
the degree of Bachelor of Pedagogics, upon completion of the following 
course, provided the academic work done in college, be equivalent to the 
requirements made of Normal students for the degree of B. Pd. 

1. Mental Science applied to teaching - - 20 weeks 

2. Professional Training in Common Branches - 20 weeks 

3. History of Education - - - - 10 weeks 

4. Practice Teaching and Supervision - - 20 weeks 
The applicant must furnish satisfactory evidence by examination or 

otherwise that he has thorough knowledge of common branches as 
follows: Spelling and Orthoepy, Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic, 
History of the United States, Civil Government, and Physiology and 


Hygiene so far as they have reference to the effects of narcotics and 
stimulants upon the human system. A residence of one -half year is also 

Requirements for the Degrees. 

The requirements for obtaining the dej^ree of Bachelor of 
Pedagogics were essentiall}' the following : 

Persons who had completed one of the three years' courses were requir- 
ed to complete three years of additional work; those who had completed a 
four years' course were required to complete two years of additional work. 
The work was to be selected according to certain prescribed rules, and 
must include all the work offered by at least two of the following depart- 
ments of the School, viz., Mental and Moral Science and Theory and Art 
of Teaching, History and Civics, Mathematics, French and German, Latin 
and Greek, Physical Sciences, Natural Sciences, and English Language 
and Literature, and that the studies selected outside of these two depart- 
ments be pursued at least to the extent required for completing such 
studies in this School. 

The requirements for securing- the degree of Master of 
Pedagogics were the following: 

Any person holding the degree of Bachelor of Pedagogics of the 
Michigan State Normal School, may upon application, receive the degree 
of Master of Pedagogics upon the following conditions: 

(a) He shall furnish evidence satisfactory to the Faculty that he 
has been engaged in teaching or in school supervision continuously 
and with pronounced success for five years since receiving the Bach- 
elor's degree. 

(b I He shall prepare and present a thesis acceptable to the said 
F'aculty, upon some subject connected with the History, Science, or 
Art of Education, the Faculty reserving the right to assign the subject 
of such thesis. 

The strictlj' professional instruction at this time is described 
as follows : 

General Instruction in the Science and Art of Teaching. 

"This course precedes the special courses in methods of teaching the 
various branches, and is designed to prepare the student to receive such 
special instruction with advantage. At least ten weeks of instruction in 
Psychology must precede any such special instruction in methods of 

(1) The course includes the study, for one full term of twenty weeks, 
of the Elements of Psycholos^y, embracing the elementary principles of 
both mental and moral science. The truth is recognized that the art of 
teaching must be based upon the science of education, and that the science 


of education has its ultimate basis in the science of mind. Methods of 
teaching can be only empirical to those who possess no knowledge of the 
powers of the soul or of the various modes of mental activity. 

(2) After this preliminary study of the mind, instruction is given for 
twenty weeks in the General Application % of Psychology to the theory of 
education and to the art of teaching, including the subjects of school 
organization, school government, and related topics. 

The discussions under this head include a consideration of the nature 
and purposes of education ; of the agencies and forces employed in the 
work of educating the child; the province and work of schools and teach- 
ers; and the extent and limitations of their responsibility. 

The order in which both the physical and mental powers are devel- 
oped ; the conditions of harmonious and healthy development, and the means 
by which such development is best secured, are also considered. 

From the laws of development and from the fundamental laws of the 
mind's activity, which together constitute the most essential principles of 
the science of education or pedagogics, both general and special laws of 
teaching and pedagogy are deduced. An effort is made, by familiar illus- 
trations and examples, to show the practical value of these laws in the 
work of the school and in the class room. Special applications of these 
laws to particular branches of instruction are made by the heads of the 
various departments, and also by those in charge of the Training School. 

(3) Instruction is given in respect to the School System and School 
Laws of Michigan; and in this connection the duties, obligations, and 
rights of teachers are considered. Attention is also given to the powers 
and duties of School Boards, of Superintendents and Principals of graded 
schools, and the subordinate teachers in such schools. 

The character of ungraded schools ; the peculiar nature of graded 
schools; the processes of grading and classifying; the principles which 
should guide in the promotion of pupils; modes of examination with their 
benefits and evils, and other related topics, are fully discussed. 

(4) The History of Education oczw^i^s )[X3\i oi on& \.&xva.. Attention 
is given to the history of schools, of school systems, and of education 
generally. Instruction is given partly by lectures with references for 
abundant reading, and partly bv the use of a text book. 

The progressive development of methods of teaching is illustrated by 
reference to the lives, labors, and principles of the great leaders in 
educational reform and advancement. In this way the relation of the 
present to the past is clearly shown and the direction of real progress is 

(5) The advanced courses leading to the degree of Bachelor of 
Pedagogics include more extended study and instruction in Psychology 
embracing the principles of moral as well as mental science; and an 
examination of portions of the history of philosophy, especially with 


reference to its connection with systems of education, and more extended 
study of educational history, of systems of education, of general methods 
of instruction, and of educational literature. The seminary methods will 
be adopted as far as circumstances will permit." 

Special Professional Instruction. 


"Professional work constantly enters in with the Academic, the aim 
being to make the course as a whole, and each lesson in particular, a 
model for the future teacher. Lectures are given in the historical 
development of each subject, and the best methods of presenting the 
various topics are set forth. 

The Teacher's Review of Arithmetic, designed to be taken after the 
completion of the rest of Elementary Mathematics, is in charge of the 
head of the department. It consists of a rapid review of those chapters of 
applied arithmetic in which the teacher is most apt to need special 
instruction, both as to subject-matter and methods of presentation. 

The class in Professional Training attends a series of lectures by the 
head of the department. These lectures consider the subject of teaching 
both historically and scientifically. The former view is designed to show 
what has been and is considered the proper sphere of arithmetic and 
methods of teaching the subject. The latter, to show the best methods, in 
the light of present criticism, of presenting typical chapters in the various 
grades. Especial attention is directed to the bibliography of the subject, 
the Normal Library being quite complete in works of reference." 

A special ten weeks' teachers' course in reading and grammar is given; 
and instruction in methods of teaching rhetoric and literature is given in 
connection with the academic work upon those subjects, the daily lessons 
being designed to illustrate methods. 


"A special course in^methods of teaching history is given, including 
somewhat in detail, both the matter and the method of its presentation as 
adapted to certain classes, with the preparation of written lessons with 
criticisms on the same. This course, completes and follows all other 
courses in history. ' ' 


"A five weeks' course is given in methods of teaching the Physical 
Sciences. It aims to set forth the scientific method in brief terms and to 
show how it may be applied in the ordinary work of the school room." 

It is stated that "the courses are all planned to meet the needs of pupils 
considered as students and as prospective teachers. From those coming 

Richard Cause Boone. 



fully within its grasp the department endeavors to secure the following 
results : 

1. The training of the senses, particularly the eye, in close, accurate 

2. The preparation of written records of observation in clear, accurate, 
concise language, supplemented with truthful delineation of the same by 
means of drawings. 

3. Logical reasoning upon these observations, the deduction of truth, 
and generalization. 

4. The acquisition of knowledge, academic and professional. 

5. The skillful manipulation of apparatus, the use of scientific 
methods in obtaining knowledge, either from Nature direct or from books, 
and hence the ability to carry on independent investigation. 

6. A love for scientific truth. 

The Training School affords opportunity for practice teaching and 
for the presentation of talks and object' lessons to the pupils of the various 


"A special course in methods of teaching geography is given, includ- 
ing a detailed outline of the course of instruction and full illustrations of 
the method of conducting the lessons. Members of the senior class teach 
geography in the Training School under the supervision of the head of 
the department." 


A special course in methods of teaching drawing is given, including a 
detailed statement of suitable lessons and the methods of giving them, with 
full examples of the work for each year. Members of the senior class 
teach drawing in the training School under the supervision of the head 
of the department. 

Special teachers' classes are formed, and methods of teaching music 
both in graded and ungraded schools are explained and illustrated. 
Provision is made for practice in conducting a choir and in teaching singing. 

Methods of instruction are taught and illustrated in connection with 
the regular daily lessons. A special course of five weeeks in methods is also 
given, and opportunities are afforded for practice teaching in the ninth 
grade . 

The third period in the development of the courses of 
study and instruction naturally closes here with the close of the 
administration of Principal Sill and with the close of the 
school year 1892-3. 


Fourth Period. 

Principal Boone's Administration. 

A history of events can not be written while the events are 
still going on. The history of an administration can not be 
fully sketched until it has closed. Consequently nothing more 
will be attempted here than to give a brief statement of the 
substance and the general arrangement of the present course of 
studies and instruction. 

At the opening of the new administration the usual 
discussion of courses of studies, etc., took place. The reports 
of the various committees of the National Educational Associa- 
tion were considered, and the subjects of concentration, 
co-ordination and correlation were quite thoroughlj- debated. 
It was generally conceded that a rearrangement of studies was 
desirable, while no essential changes in the studies themselves 
were necessary. A single prescribed course took the place of a 
large number of special courses, provision being made in this 
course for the introduction of a considerable niunber of optional 
and elective studies. The number of different courses is 
probably larger under the new arrangement than under the 
previous one ; but by restricting the choice of electives to certain 
properly related groups of subjects, something more of unity is 
secured in the work of the student. 

The strictly professional instruction was somewhat modified 
and increased. Provision was also made for more optional work 
in advanced academic studies, such studies being extensive 
enough to entitle the student to admission to the third year of 
college and university courses. The special course for graduates 
of colleges has been extended to a full year instead of one 

The following conspectus of courses, with the necessary 
explanations, affords a tolerably complete view of both the 
academic and professional work of the school at this time 
(1898). A comparison of this with the course of prescribed 
studies at the opening of the school will enable one to see the 
direction and extent of the development which has taken place. 


Four Years' Course. 


I. Academic Work.'^ 260 weeks. 

1. English — rhetoric, 20; hterature, 40 - - - 60 weeks 

2. Science — botany, 20; physics, 40 - - - 60 weeks 

3. History— EngUsh, 20; United States, 20; Advanced, 20 60 weeks 

4. Mathematics — algebra ir, 20; plain and solid 

geometry, 40 ------ 60 weeks 

5. Drawing — elementary, 20 - - - - - - 20 weeks 

II. Professional Work. 220 weeks. 

1. Psychology -------- 20 weeks 

2. Psychology Applied ------ 20 weeks 

3. History and Science of education - - - 20 weeks 

4. Teachers' courses - - 120 weeks 

1. Music . - . - . 10 weeks 

2. Drawing ----- 10 weeks 
3.' \ Reading and Language - - 10 weeks 

4. Grammar ----- 10 weeks 

5 . Arithmetic . - - - - IQ weeks 

6. Geography - - - - 10 weeks 

7. PhN'siology - - - - iQ weeks 

8. Physical Training - - - 10 weeks 

9. Nature Stud}- — Primary - 10 weeks 

10. Nature Study — Secondary - 10 weeks 

11. History - - . - iq weeks 

12. Civics - - . _ 10 weeks 

5. Observation and teaching in the Training School - 40 weeks 

In addition to the prescribed subjects, the following elective are offered: 
The electives are chosen subject to approval, and at least 80 weeks of the 
elective work must be taken from one department or from one group of 
related subjects. 


I. Academic Work. 1480 weeks. 

1. Historj- — Greek and Roman, Continental, General, 
U. S. Political, English Constitutional, Institutes, 

and Political Science, and Political Economy 140 weeks 

2. Music — Vocal, Instrumental, Voice Culture, Har- 
mony, Counterpoint, History of IMusic, Composition 260 weeks 

3. Mathematics — Higher Algebra, Theory of Equa- 
tions, Trigonometry, Surveying, Analytical Geo- 
metry and Calculus - - - - 80 weeks 



English— Advanced English Literature, Reading, 
Public Speaking, Old and Middle English, Eng- 
lish Masterpieces, Shakespeare - - 90 weeks 
German — Four years . . . . 160 weeks 

French — Two years . . - - 80 weeks 

Latin— Six years ----- 240 weeks 

Greek — Three years - - - - 120 weeks 

Physical vScience— Chemistry, Advanced Physics, 

Astronomy - - - - - 110 weeks 

Biological Science — Zoology, Geology, Advanced 

Botany ------ 80 weeks 

Drawing— Advanced, Advanced B. B. Sketching. 

Life Sketching ----- 50 weeks 

Geography— Physical, Universal - - 40 weeks 

Physical Training — One year - - - 40 weeks 
II. Professional Work. 240 weeks. 

1. Advanced Psychology - - - - 20 weeks 

Educational Systems and Theories - - 20 weeks 

Kindergarten Instruction, I. - - - 20 weeks 

Kindergarten Instruction, II. - - - 20 weeks 

Method in History - - - - - "lO weeks 

Elementary Historical Material - - 10 weeks 

Method in Geometry - - - - 10 weeks 

Method in Algebra - - . - iq weeks 

History of Mathematics - - - - 10 weeks 

Method in Modern Classics - . - lo weeks 

Method in Ancient Classics - - - 10 weeks 

Laboratory Practice . - . . iq weeks 

Physical Technics - - - - - 10 weeks 

Physiological Demonstration - - - 10 weeks 

Biological Technique - - - - 10 weeks 

Method in Drawing - - . . iq weeks 

Geographical Material - - - - 20. weeks 

Method in Physical Training - - . iq weeks 

Kindergarten Music - - - - 10 weeks 

Course for High School Graduates. 

This course covers two years, and includes all the prescribed professional 
work and 100 weeks of electives, besides one year of physical training. 

Specializing Course. 

In case a student wishes to prepare to teach some particular line or 

group of .subjects, his electives both in kind and amount are arranged to 

that end. His work is then under the personal direction of the head of the 

department to which the major subject belongs. Such head of department 















become thereby a "patron" to the student and has charge of his classifica- 
tion, the arrangement and sequence of his studies, and his interests 
before the faculty. 

Degree Course. 

The following four years' course leading to the degree of B. Pd. is 
arranged for graduates of High Schools. Graduates from the regular four 
years' courses can enter the junior j-ear of this course. 

First Semester. Second Semester. 

1. Psychology 

2. Teachers' Courses. 

(1) Arithmetic 

(2) Grammar 

3. Physical Training I. 

4. Elective 

20 weeks 

10 weeks 
10 weeks 

40 weeks 

Psychology Applied 20 weeks 
Teachers' Courses. 

( 1 ) Geog'y and Drawing 20 weeks 

( 2 ) Primary Work 20 weeks 
Physical Training II. 

Elective 20 weeks 


1. Science of Education 20 weeks 

2. Teachers' Courses. 

( 1 ) Hist, and Civics 20 weeks 

(2) Prim. Nat. Study 10 weeks 

(3) Sec. Nat. Study 10 weeks 
-K. Elective 20 weeks 

1. Teaching 

2. Teachers' Courses. 

(1) Music 

(2) Physiology 

3. Elective 

1. Prescribed 

2. Professional Work 

3. Elective 

20 weeks 1. Prescribed 

20 weeks 2. Professional 

40 weeks 3. Elective 

40 weeks 

10 weeks 
10 weeks 

20 weeks 

20 weeks 
20 weeks 
40 weeks 


1. Prescribed 20 weeks 1. Secondary Prof. Work 20 weeks 

2. Secondary Prof. Work 20 weeks 2. Elective 60 weeks 
3 Elective 40 weeks 

Course for College Graduates. 

The following course of one year is arranged for College graduates : 

First Semester. 

1. History and Science of Education - - 20 weeks 

2. Psychology and Pedagogy - - - - 20 weeks 

3. Teachers' Courses ----- 20 weeks 

4. Elective .-.--- 20 weeks 

Second Semester. 

1. Teaching - - - - - - 40 weeks 

2. Professional Courses ----- 20 weeks 

3. Elective ----- ^ 20 weeks 


The Master's Degree. Provisions are made for taking the Master's 
degree as follows: Any one holding the degree of Bachelor of Pedagogics 
of the Michigan State Xonnal School, may, upon application, receive the 
corresponding Master's degree ( M. Pd. ) upon certain prescribed conditions. 

It will be observed that the development of the courses of 
stud3- and instruction in the school has taken three directions: 
(l) methods of teaching, so-called, both general and special, 
have received more and more attention. (2) The principles, 
theories, and history of education have also received more and 
more attention. (3) Advanced academic studies have been 
gradualh- introduced into most departments, and conseqtiently 
provision has been made for broader scholarship and for more 
general culttire. This normal school can not justly be charged 
with a disposition to emphasize the method at the expense of the 
matter of instruction. 

By comparing the original course of study and instruction 
with the present courses an estimate can be made of the extent 
and character of the development of the strictly professional 
work of the school. 

Since the preceding was prepared for the printer, the fotirth 
period in the development of the school has unexpectedlj^ termi- 
nated with the close of the administration of President Boone. 

The development during this period has been along the lines 
indicated in the last paragraphs of the previous writing, and 
presents nothing essentialh' new. 

The scope and purposes of the college have been enlarged 
and extended in certain directions. It is stated that teachers are 
prepared for the following named positions : 

1. For positions in rural, ungraded and village schools. 

2. For public and private Kindergartens. 

3. For primary work and the lower grades of the elementary schools. 

4. For the upper grades of the graded schools. 

5. For general grade work. 

6. For special subjects and departments. 

7. For supervisors of particular branches, such as music, drawing, 

8. For principals, superintendents, directors, etc. 

Rear Addition to Main Building, Erected 1882. 



The college is authorized to bestow certificates, diplomas, 
and degrees as follows : 

1. A certificate good for two j'ears. 

2. A certificate good for three years. 

3. A certificate for five years. 

4. A Life certificate. 

5. The degree of Bachelor of Pedagogy. 

6. The degree of Master of Pedagogy. 

By a recent arrangement the school year is divided into four 
terms of twelve weeks each, making a year of forty-eight wrecks. 

The conditions of admission have been slightly increased, 
and modified in certain directions so as to admit more students 
without examination. The classes of students so admitted are 
these : — ( 1 ) Teachers holding first grade certificates endorsed 
by the Superintendent of Public Instruction ; ( 2 ) Teachers 
holding second grade certificates on special conditions; (3) Per- 
sons bringing standings for the work of two or more years, in an 
accepted high school, but not graduates; (4) Graduates of 
approved high schools. 

The present courses of study are given as follows : 

1. The general degree course of two years. 

2. The specializing degree course of two years. 

3. The general diploma course of four years. 

4. A four year specializing course. 

5. Course, of one year, for college graduates. 

Partial courses, not leading to a diploma or certificate may be taken 
by permission. 

The development of courses of study and instruction has 
now reached the condition indicated above. The amount of pro- 
fessional work, properly so-called, has been constantlj' increased, 
and purelj- academic work has been more and more relegated to 
the high school, and other advanced institutions. 



Development of the Training School. 

First Period. 

The original act establishing the Normal School required 
the Board of Education to provide a Model or Experimental 
school in connection with it. The people of Ypsilanti, in their 
offer of land and money to secure the location of the school in 
their city, proposed to defray-, for a time, a large part of the 
expense of supporting this Model department. Such a school 
was opened at the commencement of the second term of the 
Normal. The history of the progress and development of "The 
Model", as it was called for a long while, is of peculiar interest 
to any one engaged in tracing the slow growth of means and 
appliances for the proper and profitable practical training of 
teachers. "The Model" has shared, to the fullest extent, in 
the changes and experiments made in the courses of study and 
instruction in the Normal school proper. 

At the time of its organization the Board had space and 
conveniences for only a small number of pupils. A single room 
and a single teacher were all that could be provided. The 
attendance during the first term was twenty -seven, and during 
each of the years 1854 and 1855 the number of pupils was about 
seventy -five. By changes in the courses of studies and in the 
terms of admission to the Normal, in 1856, the number nominally 
belonging to the Model, was raised, according to the report of 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction for that year, to two 
hundred and thirty -seven. The same authoritj' gives the 
number of "model school pupils and academics" for the year 
1857 as three hundred. It is hardly necessary to say that these 


figures do not agree with those found in the tables of attendance 
made out at a later period, by officers of the school. The 
discrepancy probably arises partly from the fact that so-called 
"academic" pupils were sometimes reckoned as normal students 
and sometimes not ; and partly from the fact that members of the 
"teachers' classes" or institutes, held for a few years, at the 
beginning of each term, were not, in all cases, carefully 
distinguished from regular normal students. 

The accomodations which could be furnished for the Model 
school in the original building, apart from the rooms occupied 
by the Normal department, were ver^- meager, not sufficient for 
a hundred pupils. It is, consequently, evident that the number 
of Model pupils, separated in classification and seating from 
Normal students, could not have reached the figures of the 
Superintendent's report. 

The impossibility of making suitable provisions for an 

experimental or training school of any size in the rooms at their 

command, and probably other considerations also, induced the 

Board, after the experience of a few terms, to authorize and 

instruct their secretary. Superintendent Ira Mayhew, "to confer 

with the Union School Board of Ypsilanti concerning the 

adoption of their school as a Model School in connection with 

the Normal School, instead of the one heretofore conducted 

there, * * * * and to advise the Board of Education of the results 

of the conference". After conference and correspondence, the 

secretar>^ reported that "the plan contemplated is not feasible." 

Consequently the effort to bring about such an arrangement was, 

for the time abandoned. Many years later, as • will appear in 

the progress of our sketch, the effort was renewed. 

In connection with his report of failure in the negotiations 

\Tith the Ypsilanti School Board, made in 1855, the secretary' goes 
on to say : 

"The Model School has hitherto been open to but a limited number of 
pupils (usual!}- from twenty to thirty) who, under the tuition of a lady em- 
ployed as the Principal, have received instruction in the elementary branches 
only; and this without any aid from Normal pupils, and without their presence 
and attention to school arrangements, plans of government, or methods of 
instruction. The Board of Education are well pleased with this school, and 


are highly delighted with its arrangements, considering it merely as a small 
select school. Indeed, in a qualified sense, they regard it a 'model school." 
But in no sense do they consider it an experimental school for practice, in 
whose exercises normal pupils may participate, under the directions of a 
judicious superintendent — an idea which should be inseparably connected 
with a model school as an appendage to a normal school." 

The Superintendent continues: 

■'In this view of the case, and being unable to make the arrangement 
that seemed most desirable, because of the unwillingness of the Union School 
Board and of the citizens of Ypsilanti to pass the management of their school 
into the hands of the Board of Education, — an arrangement which would 
have enabled the Board to have opened a school embracing every grade of 
scholarship from the alphabet upward to the extent of the Normal School 
course, through the whole extent of which normal pupils might have had 
experience in teaching, under the advice and direction of a judicious super- 
intendent; — in this view of the case, it only remained for the Board to do 
what they conceived to be best for the interests of the institution under the 
circumstances. They, therefore, decided to enlarge the Model School, to 
extend the course of study, and, as speedily as practicable, to place this 
Department of the Nonnal vSchool upon a basis which, while it shall fully 
answer the requirements of the law, will, at the same time, furnish a course 
of instruction equal in extent and thoroughness to that of the best 
Academies in our countrv. 

In accordance with the thus set forth a course of 
study was arranged for the experimental school which included 
the Elementan,' and Higher English branches, Vocal Music, 
Drawing, and both the Ancient and Modern Languages. Tuition 
in the elementary English branches was fixed at $10 per j'ear; in 
the Higher English at $15, and in the Languages at $20. These 
rates were, however, soon afterwards modified and considerably 

Mr. D. F. Mayhew, who had been Superintendent of schools 
in Columbus, Ohio, was appointed Principal of the enlarged 
Model School, and was to be assisted by an "accomplished lady" 
and by members of the senior class. The new arrangement was 
to go into effect at the opening of the year 1856. In his report 
for that year the State Superintendent .says: "Arrangements have 
been made for the enlargement of the Model School ; ' ' and in 
the report for the next year he states "that the changes referred 
to in my former Report" have been made and that great benefit 


was expected to follow the new conditions. He speaks of the 
experimental school as "a feature of crowning excellence to the 
Normal School, and one which no institution, intended for the 
education of teachers, can dispense with without iminent haz- 
ard." The report of the Principal for that 3'ear, however, makes 
little allusion to this department, and in the catalogue for 1857-8 
Mr. Mayhew appears as in charge of the department of "Natural 
Sciences", and Miss Susan G. Tyler as "Teacher in the Model 

In the announcements respecting the "Model School" it is 


"The Board of Education, in establishing the Model or Experimental 
School, had in view two prominent objects, namely: to give to advanced 
classes in the Normal School practice in actual teaching, and to furnish a 
course of study preparatory to the regular course. To attain this object, 
each student in every E class is required to take charge of one daily recita- 
tion throughout an entire term, under a system of careful supervision and 
weekly reports. It is found that teachers who have been disciplined by sev- 
eral years' training in the Normal department, are well qualified for the work 
of instruction in the Model School. The greater number of classes, 
however, are instructed by thorough and competent teachers, who are 
regularly employed for the purpose, or by members of the Normal School 
Faculty. It will be readily seen that pupil swho expect to enter the Normal 
School will enjoy an obvious advantage over' others, in pursuing their 
preparatory studies in this department, where instruction is made entirely 
harmonious with that received in the regular Normal course." 

It is obvious, from these statements, that comparatively 
little of the teaching in the Model School was done by Normal 
students. The E class, at that time, numbered only t\\'enty 
members, and these were required to teach only one class per 
day for a single term. Evidently the remark that "the greater 
number of classes are instructed by regular teachers", was 
entirely correct. The department, as then organized and 
conducted, was a preparator}^ rather than a practice school. 

The arrangement by which the Experimental School, as 
distinct from the Normal department, was to be made equal to 
an academy of high rank, continued but a short time, and was 
quietly abandoned. It was impossible to organize and conduct 
such a school in the limited number of school rooms at the 


disposal of the Board. In his report for 1860 the Principal says, 
in speaking of the "Experimental Department": "There are 
seats for fifty pupils, which is the limit of the number received." 
In describing the institution, he writes: "It is the design in this 
department to make the course of study correspond to the 
natural order of mental development. First, the senses are 
trained to the stud\' of objects and objective sciences, and 
aftenvards the reflective faculties are developed by means of 
studies adapted to this end. In pursuance of this design, the 
course is arranged as follows : First object lessons and the 
elements of natural science, and afterwards arithmetic, 
grammar and elementary history, thorough training in reading, 
penmanship, spelling, drawing, composition, singing, and moral 
lessons, is also included in the course." It will be seen that 
the course of instruction is intended for a school embracing 
•about four of the primar}- grades. 

Two j^ears later the course was given as follows: "Object 
lessons, (color and form) ; elementary- sounds b}- object lessons; 
drawing, preparatory- to learning the alphabet; alphabet b\' 
drawing lessons; mathematical forms; reading, penmanship; 
natural philosoph}-, (Swift's Lessons) ; elementary- 
philosophy ; object lessons in botany ; primarj- arithmetic ; 
elementar}- geometry-, (Hill's), philosophj-, (Swift's Second 
Part); local geography by outline maps and map drawing; 
descriptive geography ; vocal music ; arithmetic ; English 
grammar; botany, (Gray's "How Plants Grow"). A com- 
parison of the matter of this course with the substance of some 
popular courses of the present day suggests some valuable 
lessons in educational history-. The past often repeats itself 
with change of names, and forms and unessential conditions. 
Just about that time Mr. Sheldon of Oswego was publishing his 
" I-llementar^' Instruction" and "Object Lessons;" Principal 
Welch in the same year had published his "Object Lessons." 
In these and other similar works, "Lesson Plans" were given 
with great minuteness of detail and abundance of illustrations. 
Enthusiasm for "Object Lessons" and "Oral Instruction" was 
spreading through the whole country. The National FMuca- 


tional Association had reports and discussions upon the new 
matter and methods of instruction, and "pilgrimages" to 
Oswego were frequent and continued. 

A knowledge of these facts is necessary- to an intelligent 
understanding of the reasons for the frequent modifications in 
the courses of instruction and stud}' in the Michigan Normal 
School. In the preface to his book Principal Welch writes: 

"The first instruction given to the child in school should be based on 
the fact that his intellectual activity consists in seeing and hearing rather 
than in reasoning and reflecting. His restless curiosity about material 
things is natural and proper to childhood * * * * Since the senses of sight 
and hearing are first in exercise and development, the first step in school 
trainine should be to give theni a svstematic culture. * * * * The order of 
instruction which I have thus briefly indicated, was announced sixty years 
aero bv Pestalozzi * * * * It has prevailed in the schools of Germanv and 
England, and is now being adopted in the better class of schools in this 

He goes on to saj^ that the need of a proper book had been 
felt, and that his work was published to supph' this want. The 
lessons which it contained had been prepared especially, he 
says, for use in the Experimental department of the Normal 

In their report for 1863, the Board of Education state that 
"important modifications have been made" in the arrangements 
of the Normal School, among these the "changing of the model 
school into a regular graded school," with a full course of 
graded instruction. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
in speaking of "The Principal and his coadjutors," saj^s: 

"Not content to repeat the past, and to tread again the round of 
former achievements, they have pressed forwa-'d with an intelligent zeal 
into new fields of effort and truth, and have thus made the Normal School 
the most progresssive, as it was already the most perfect school in the State. 
Not forgetting to maintain its old character for sound and thorough 
scholarship, it has pushed its teachings into new and profounder realms of 
educational philosophy, and has added to its course, drill in the newer and 
more natural methods of instruction." 

It will be desirable to know the complete course of 
instruction in the "Experimental School." as it was then called, 
at the close of Principal Welch's administration in 1865. 


It is given in pretty full detail in the Superintendent's 
report for that year, and was as follows: 

Primary Department. 


Facts in Natural Sciences. 

Priniarj- Colors. 

Botany — Trees, Shrubs, Bushes, Vines, Flowers, Grains, \egelables, 
Fruits, Nuts, Seeds. 

Physiology — Human Body. 

Natural Philosophy —, Water, Rain, Snow, Hail, \'a])or. Steam, 
Dew, Fog, Clouds, .Sun, Moon, vStars. 

Mathematics. — Counting by Objects, Time Table, Drawing Straight 

Lafiguage — Words, things before Names, Moral Stories, Concert 

Gymnastics and Singing. 


Botany (continued) — Simple Leaf Forms and Flower Forms, Trees, and 

Zoology — Animals, Mammals. 

1. Two Handed, 2. Four Handed, 

3. Flesh Eating, 4. Cud Chewing, 

5. Thick -Skinned. 6. Gnawers; Color, Form, 

Size, Habits, Food, Use and Speed of Domestic .\nimals. 

Natural Philosophy — Color, Scale of Tints and Shades, Primarv, 
Simple Properties of Matter. 

Mathematics — Counting by Objects, Addition; Long Mea.sure by 
Objects; Drawings, Angles and Plane Figures. 

Lattguage — Webb's Primary Reader, Soimd of Vowels, Combinations 
of Consonants; Moral Stories, Concert Verses, Maxims, Singing and 


Botany (conimwit A) — Leaf and Flower I'-onns, Compound T,eavts. Parts 
of the I'lower, Root P'orms. 

Zoology — Birds — 1. Flesh Platers; 2. Perchers; 3. Climbers; 4. Scratch- 
ers. 5. Waders; 6. Swimmers. 

Natitral Philosophy — Simple I^xperiments, Secondary Colors. 

Mathematics — Subtraction, Multiplication and Division Tables by 
Objects. .\nalysis of Numbers, Drawing PlauL- Figures, Table of 
Miscellaneous Things. 

Language — Reading, Webb's First Reader begun, S])elling by Sound, 
Concert Verses, etc., Singing, etc. 


Grammar Department. 

Sill's Synthesis, Davies' Arithmetic continued, Fourth Reader; Spelling, 
Composition, Declamation, Penmanship, Drawing, Vocal Music. 

Welch's Analysis, Davies' Arithmetic finished. Zoology, Fifth Reader, 
Spelling, Composition, Declamation, Penmanship, Vocal Music. 

History, Entomology, Algebra begun, Latin or German, Composition. 

High School. 

Algebra finished, Latin, German, or French, Botany, (Summer Term), 
Physical Geography. 

Phj^siology and Astronomy, Geometry begun, Latin; German or French, 


Chemistry, Geometry finished, Rhetoric, Latin, German or French 

This course remained essentially unchanged, or with only 
slight modifications, for several j^ears, and no important changes 
were made in the organization or management of the Experi- 
mental School until after the close of the administration of 
Principal Mayhew. A large proportion of the instruction 
continued to be given by regular teachers, and the amount of 
practice teaching by Normal students was comparatively small. 

The first period of our history naturally closes at this point. 

Second Period. 

In their report for the year 1870 the Board of Education say : 
"It is the purpose of the Board to take measures to secure a more 
extended and complete course in professional training than has as yet 
been given. The faculty are harmonious in the conviction that more pro- 
fessional instruction shculd be given, and are earnestly desirous that such 
changes should be made as to enable them to devote more time to this 
peculiar work than they have been able to do heretofore. The effort has 
been to gradually raise the standard of admission to the school. This has 
been done to some extent. The time has now come when a more radical 
change must be made. The preparatory instruction, which the Faculty 
have been compelled to give, has been given in connection with other 
work, thus to some extent mingling the usual academic instruction with 
professional training. This has seemed a necessity, as students have 


applied for admission whom it was not wise to reject, they being prepared 
to enter in a part of the required branches, and as there were no classes 
but those in the regular course for them to enter, they have been received, 
conditioned, it may l)e in part, and placed in these classes. The result 
has been a demand for a large amount of academic labor and less profes- 
sional. The new edifice (The present conservatory building) will enable 
the Faculty to form prt-paratory classes outside the Normal proper, and to 
advance the standard for admission at once." 

In their report for the next 3'ear, 1871, the Board state that 
the purpose indicated in the report of the previous 3'ear, had been 
carried out; W\2Xz. Preparatory Department \\2i.^ been organized 
and put in operation; and that "arrangements had betn made 
with the School Board of Ypsilanti b^' which the pupils of the 
High School are permi'ted to attend the Normal preparatory 
department, and all the departments of the city graded schools 
are opened to inspection for Normal training classes." 

This brinjjs us to one of the most important experiments in 
the development of the Training School, attempted hy the man- 
agement of the Michigan State Normal School. An effort had 
previously been made to effect an arrangement b}' which the 
public schools of Ypsilanti should serve the purpose of schools 
of obser\'ation, and, to a limited extent, of practice also, for the 
students of the Normal School. That effort failed. It was 
thought that the time and conditions were now peculiarly favor- 
able for the success of anew effort of this kind. Mr. Estabrook, 
the newly elected Principal of the Nonnal, had been for many 
years Superintendent of the Ypsilanti Schools, and possessed the 
full confidence of the people of the city. Mr. Putnam, the newly 
appointed head of the Training School, had been Superintendent 
of the city schools during the previous year and was well known 
by the citizens generally. After prolonged conferences and con- 
sultations between the Board of Education and the Ypsilanti 
School Board, an arrangement was entered into by which a High 
School department of the Model School was to be organized by 
the Board of Education. The city High School was to be dis- 
continued, for the time, and the pupils of that department were 
to be admitted to the corresponding department of the Normal, 
the City School Board paying the tuition of such students. It was 


thought that by this arrangement the Normal classes proper 
would, to a large extent, be relieved of pureh' academic work, 
and more time and energy could be given by the teachers to 
Stricth' professional instruction. 

The arrangement also provided that all other, grades of the 
city schools should become in effect, schools of obser\'ation, and, 
within carefully defined limits, schools of practice for the Nor- 
mal. The State Board of Education assumed no responsibility 
for the general management or government of the city schools, 
and incurred no expense in connection with them. No strictlj' 
organic union was made between them and the normal school. 
The Director of the training school was appointed by the city 
school Board, Superintendent of instruction in the citj- schools 
and this supervisory work was recognized by the State Board as 
an important part of his regular normal duties. 

The State Board had also the privilege of nominating, through 
the Principal of the Normal and the Director of the Training school, 
two or three teachers to be employed in some of the primary and 
intermediate grades. This provision was deemed important in 
order to secure experienced and thoroughh' competent instruc- 
tors who should make their grades of the school models for the 
obser\"ation of Normal students. The courses of study in the 
Normal were revised and modified, as far as necessary, to adapt 
them to the new order of things. An English course of three 
years and a course in the ancient and modern languages of four 
3^ears were provided in the academic or high school department. 

Much advantage was anticipated from this connection with the 
city schools. The acting Principal of the Normal for the year 
1870-71 said, in his report: 

"For observation and practice teaching a Model School is provided, 
which, by a recent favorable arrangement with the public schools of the 
city is graded from the lowest primary up through all the intermediate 
departments i grades) to the most advanced classes of the high school. 
Thus opportunities are afforded the pupils of the Normal to observe the 
workings of a school conducted by skillful teachers, and to gain practical 
experience in any grade of the public schools for which they may be pre- 
paring — and this, too, in a real school, and not in a 'moot' or fictitious 


This relation between the Normal School and the city schools 
continued only two years. Various causes conspired to render 
the plan but moderately successful. Among these were the dis- 
tance between the schools, the difficulty of securing proper 
super\-ision of pupil teaching, and especially the aversion of 
many parents to the idea that their children were being "prac- 
ticed upon" by inexperienced teachers. While this experiment 
was going on the old "Model" or practice school, consisting of 
primar}^ and grammar grades, had ceased to exist. The work of 
organizing and building up a school for observation and practice 
was necessarily begun anew. At first, in 1872, the primar>^ 
grades only were organized. These were placed under the 
charge of a single teacher who was aided in the instruction, as 
far as necessar>', by pupil teachers. The work of these teachers 
was largeh' voluntary and the supervision and criticism of their 
teaching were very limited. In 1874, upon the earnest recom- 
mendation of the Principal and the Director, the school was 
enlarged by the organization of the grammar grades. These 
were put in charge of a single regular instructor whose work was 
supplemented b}- pupil teaching. The supervision of practice 
teaching was increased to some extent, but was still ver>' inade- 
quate from the fact that the regular teachers were occupied most 
of the time in the instruction of classes. The grading of the 
primary' and grammar departments was made to conform to that 
of the public schools of the State and a full course of studies was 
arranged and published. To render the supervision more satis- 
factory the Director suggested that "those who gave instruction 
in the various branches in the Normal School would most natur- 
ally and efficiently do the supervision of the practice teaching in 
the branches under their charge." 

In a special report to the Board of Education, in January, 
1876, it was stated that proper supervision might be secured in 
either of two ways : 

1. "First, provision may be made so that each teacher of the Normal 
School shall supervise and criticise the practice teaching done in the 
branches of study under his especial charge. 

2. The other plan is to employ suitable persons to perform the special 

Elmer Adelbert Lyman. 



duties of critic teachers -under the general direction of the person in charge 
of the department of Observation and Practice." 

Somewhat later the Faculty', to whom the report had been 
referred by the Board, expressed approval of the first of the t\vo 
plans suggested. 

At the close of the next 3^ear the Director said, in his report: 

"In theory this method is doubtless correct, and if the time of teachers 
was not too much occupied^by other imperative duties, it would probably 
prove efficient in practice. As circumstances are, the results thus far 
attained are only moderately satisfactory. * * * * Experience has proved 
that the present plan, however apparently correct in theory, can not be 
made to work efficiently in practice." 

It was consequently urged that special and competent critic 
teachers be employed to'take charge of the work of supervision 
and criticism. This plan was approved and adopted b}^ the Board 
at a later period and has proved to be, on the whole, the most satis- 
factory arrangement. 

Proportion of Pupil Teaching. 

In connection with the discussion as to the best arrangements 
for supervising the work of practice teachers, another matter of 
vital importance which has been frequently overlooked or disre- 
garded, was considered; that is, the question as to how large a 
proportion of the instruction in a training school may be safely 
given by pupil teachers, and how much of it should be given by 
the regular critic teachers. It was said : 

"Theoretically the Practice School exists for the sole purpose of securing 
the necessary means and conveniences for giving proper training to Normal 
pupils. It may be urged therefore, with much plausibility, that all the 
teaching in such a school should be done b}- pupil teachers. Experience 
has proved, however, that no school of practice, in which the attendance is 
voluntary, can be successfully maintained by such a method of working. 
With any practicable amount of supervision the instruction of young children 
cannot safely be committed entirely to pupil teachers. Enough work, both 
in teaching and oversight, must be done by regular teachers to give a proper 
and desirable tone and character to the school. Something is due to the 
children as well as to the practicing teachers. Righ-minded and intelligent 
parents will be sure to keep this in remembrance if the managers of 'normal 
schools do not. * * * * From somewhat protracted and careful observation 
in respect to this matter, my present impression is that in the two lowest 


primary grades, at Itasl one-half the teaching, in any practice school, should 
be done by rej^ular and superior teachers; in the intermediate grades a larger 
part of the instruction can be given by pupil teachers; in the grammar grades 
fully a third of the work demands the experience of regular teachers." 

The Kindergarten. 

Effort.s and recommendations for the establishment of a 
Kindertjarten , in connection with the train inj^ school, were made 
early in the administration of Principal Kstabrook, and were 
repeated at every favorable opporttinity by Mr. Putnam, the 
director of that department. In his report for 1875, he said: 

"I desire to invite your attention to one other subject of growing impor- 
portance. I refer to Kindergarten schools and Kindergarten teaching. The 
public mind is becoming more and more interested in this subject. Kinder- 
gartens are being established in many of our larger cities and villages. 
* * * * Out of these, at no very distant period. I have no doubt, will come 
valuable results. One of these results, and perhaps the most important and 
desirable one, will be, I trust, the e.ssential modification of the emplovments, 
studies, teaching and training of our primary schools. These schools cannot 
be made Kindergartens: it is not even desirable that an attempt should be 
put forth to so change them. But .some of the Kindergarten material and 
employments, or plays, can be introduced into our primary and district 
schools, I am confident, to the very great advantage of all concerned. And 
more than this, and better than this, the spirit and tone of the Kindergarten 
may be infused into and made to pervade the entire organization and work- 
ing of these schools. * * * * The normal schools of the country should /^aa' in 
this good work, and .should, by carefully conducted ex])erinients, determine 
how much and what of the kindergarten material, work and methods can be 
made useful in the schools referred to. 

We have been using some kindergarten material and doing .some kinder- 
garten work in the experimental school for the last two vears, not with the 
desire or purpose of establishing a kindergarten, but with the hope of doing 
a little labor in the direction suggested. Tlie results, thus far, have been all 
that could be expected from the limited means at our command. I refer to 
this subject, at this time, with the earnest hope that the Hoard will, at an 
early day and after careful consideration, provide suitable means and accom- 
modations for thoroughly testing the value and practicability of the effort 
to introduce the changes and modifications suggested, into our primarv and 
common schools." 

In his report for the next year he said : 
" During the year just passed we have made considerable use of kinder- 
garten material in the lower primary classes. We have not attempted to 
establish a regular kindergarten, but have rather sought to learn what value 


the gifts, so-called, may have in a primary school. I am satisfied that many 
of the gifts and pla^-s of the kindergarten can he introduced with great 
advantage into the primary departments of our graded schools, and even 
into our common district schools. Space will not pennit me to enter full}- 
into a discussion of this subject at this time. I desire, however, to invite 
the attention of the Board of Education to it, and to express the belief that 
the interests of the normal school and of education in our State, would be 
advanced by employing, as an experiment for a year, a regular trained kin- 
dergarten teacher. Public sentiment will certainly justify the small expenses 
necessar}' to make this experiment. The kindergarten is not an old-fashioned 
"infant school." nor an institution for the care of poor and neglected 
children. It is founded upon principles in harmony with the nature of 
childhood, and is destined, I have no doubt, to produce, sooner or later, a 
complete revolution in the manner, means, and methods of elementarv edu- 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction in his report for 
1876, said, referring to the recommendation as to the kindergarten : 
"As this is a matter which is engaging, to a considerable extent, the 
attention of our educators and school boards, ever}- needed facility should be 
provided to thoroughly test the system. It seems highlv appropriate that 
the Normal School should test early by experiment, the value of all new 
methods of instruction, and thus be in a condition — which is certainly its 
province — to lead public opinion, rather than be forced to follow it with 
humble tread." 

While the Board looked with some favor upon the sugges- 
tion, other matters, connected with the normal department itself, 
so occupied the attention of both the Board and the Facultj' that 
no action was taken at that time, for the opening of a kindergar- 
ten. This unfortunate delaj^ deprived the Normal School of the 
honor, which it should have secured, of leading the movement 
in Michigan for the establishment of free kindergartens in con- 
nection with the public schools. 

Courses of Study. 

The curriculum of studies and the general arrangements of 
the Training School remained essentiallj- unchanged until the rad- 
ical reorganization of the courses of the normal department, 
spoken of elsewhere, took place in 1878. The Board, at that 
time, upon the recommendation of a committee, decided, 

"( 1 ) To enlarge the School of Observ^ation and Practice so as to consti- 
tute a graded school, representing all the departments of our best graded 


schools, and that students applying for admission to the Xonual School 
deficient in academic preparation, be allowed to make such preparation in 
the school of Observation and Practice. (2 I This school of Observation and 
Practice shall be under the supervision of the Principal of that school, with 
two skilled assistants; but the teaching shall be done by Normal students, 
under the direction and inspection of the respective professors of the Normal 

In accordance with the action of the Board complete courses 
of stitdies were prepared for all the departments, including courses 
in Latin, Greek. French and German in the High school grades. 
Tbese courses generall}' differed but little from those then existing 
in the "best graded schools" of the State. Provision was made, 
however, for the studj^ of French and German in the third and 
fourth grades of the primary- department and in the seventh and 
eighth grades of the grammar department; for kindergarten work 
in the first and second grades of the priman,- department, and for 
drawing and vocal music in all departments, in addition to the 
studies usual!}- pursued. The courses in detail were as follows: 




tory of the 
, with tieog-- 
nited States 
truction in 

lent of the 


;, through fun- 
amplesin frac- 

ates money, 


in writing 

in French 
t the option 

rimary His 
lited States, 
phy of theU 
d "oral ins 
storj-, etc. 


:>nie equ 
lird Rea 
honic ex 

mental r 
imple ex 

nited St 

[arks us 
d printii 
ral lessi 
the Dire 


"^SesS^ ! 

X £ M Hi CC 

Hrt-x.^PS-i 1 

i4 M 2 E O ■:; >t; « 



§= 1 

>x 1 

hi /• i 1 

fcr 3 '-IS 







oral lessons 

s of differe 


oral and 


and readii 
J places, 
y text-book 

ins inlanguai 

pitals. etc., a 


ons in Fieii 

1, at the opti 









with text-t 

countries, i 


Third Rei 
Phonic ex 

numbers ti 

R a ]) i d 


Use of cai 

Oral less 
or Germai 
of the Dire 



hr X X . 






II 11 

Second Reader. 
Spelling, oral and by 
writing or printing. 
Phonic exercises. 

^ «:i X. 





Courses of Stud 




i >• 


Oral lessons in ( 

raphv,on plants, anii 

colors, qualities, etc. 

Formation of sente 

Drawing, and Writ 

Counting and writi 

to 1000. 
Combining- number 
Making and memor 
tables, etc. 
Kindergarten Play 

E 'J o u 

e ij 1) a;, bi 







1 lessons on conn 
rs — distance, di 
natural objects, 
rect use of words 
wing, and writin 

sons on Blackbo 
St Reading book. 
1 spelling, 
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111 the explanation of courses it was stated that the work in 
the Modern languages in the third and fourth grades would be 
"short oral lessons conducted entirely in German or French, 
and embracing a number of words and phrases naturally used by 
children," and in the seventh and eigth grades, "practical 
lessons on the different parts of speech, conversational exercises 
and reading lessons." 

The result of these changes in the organization and 
arrangements of the Normal School was to place a verj- large 
number of the students nominally in the high school depart- 
ment of the Practice School, although practically, for various 
reasons, such students could not be separated in seating or 
classification from the professional students, so-called. The 
catalogue, for the year 1878-9, shows 473 pupils in the "school 
of Observ^ation and Practice" and only 104 in the "Professional 
department," and for the year 1879-80, 404 in the school of 
Obser\'ation and 71 in the Professional department. This 
experiment closes the second period in the historj' of the 
development of the Training School and brings us to the termina- 
tion of the administration of Principal Estabrook. 

Third Period. 

The re -arrangement of courses of studj^ and instruction, 
during the brief administration of Principal MacVicar, 
eliminated the high school department from the Training School, 
and left the primary and grammar departments, each under the 
immediate charge of a single regular teacher. So long as the 
school remained in the building now occupied by the Conserv^a- 
ioT}' of Music the lack of suitable rooms for class work 
prevented an}' extended use of practice teaching. 

By action of the Board of P^ducation in 1882, the powers of 
the Director were enlarged and his duties more clearly defined. 
He was given the position of head of a department with the 
same rights and privileges in respect to the appointment of his 
assistants as those enjoyed by the heads of other departments. 
The appointment of Mr. Putnam to the place of acting Principal, 
during the interregnum which followed the resignation of 

New Training School, Erected 1897. 




Principal Mac Vicar, left the Directorship of the Training School 
vacant and Mr. Austin George was elected to the position. At 
the opening of the fall term in 1882 the school was transferred 
to its new quarters in the west -side addition to the main 
building. It was now possible to give the department more 
complete organization and to provide regular and systematic 
practice and training work for normal students. From this time 
a definite amount of such work has been required of every 
candidate for graduation. 

This requirement of practice teaching, as a part of the 
prescribed duties of every member of the senior class, introduced 
several problems which have proved perplexing and diflficult to 
solve satisfactoril3^ One problem was to arrange the periods 
for the teaching and the class work of students so as to avoid 
conflicts; another was to secure a proper division of the student's 
time and labor between the requirements of class and training 
school duties ; and still another was to provide opportunity^ for 
sufficient practice work for the large number of student teachers, 
with the limited number of pupils and the limited accomodations 
in the Training School. To obviate the first difiiculty the plan 
was adopted in 1884 of having all the instruction in the Training 
School confined to a singlesession a day in the afternoon. Exper- 
ience, however, showed that this single short daily session did 
not afford sufl&cient time for the work of the school, and since 
1890 both morning and afternoon sessions have been held. This 
return to the old arrangement left the question of adjustment 
of periods and division of labor unsettled. The suggestions of 
Principal Sill in his report for 1888, touching these points, are 
worthy of careful consideration. He says: 

"Every school of observation and training should be free to do its best 
work. It ought not to be trammeled by any unnecessary limitations. The 
pupil teacher who seeks its advantages should be as free as possible from all 
other school exercises. Practice in such a school should be the crowning 
and most profitable work of every prospective normal school graduate, and 
nothing should be allowed to interfere with his giving his best interest and 
utmost energy to it. I am in favor of adding, if necessary, a half year to 
every one of our courses in order that our students may first complete all 
their academic work, and then give their full time, or certainly as much as 

106 HISTORY OF thp: 

may be needed, to getting, to the utmost, the advantages which a perfectly 
equipped school of observation and training offers. I am satisfied that our 
students are at present pressed with too much parallel work while thev are 
getting their special training. They ought to come to this work fresh, and 
full of vigor and enthusiasm, and not jaded and wearied with the exactions 
of other duties." 

Speaking of the rettirn to two sessions a day he saj's : 
"This means continual conflict between the recitations of pupil 
teachers and their training school duties, and also weary and perfunctory 
work, unless it is provided that all or nearly all academic courses be 
finished before the work of observation and training begins. This I 
believe to be the true and only solution of the difficulty, and I ask your 
serious attention to it." 

Those who have been familiar with the internal workings of 
the different departments of the normal school, and with the 
practical difficulties in the way of properly adjusting the work of 
pupil teachers will readily concur in the conclusion reached by 
Mr. Sill, that the other work of the student teacher should be 
practicall}' completed before the training course is entered upon, 
so that the whole time and energy of the student may be given 
to that work. 

The addition to the main building of the North and South 
wings, completed in 1888, made it possible to enlarge the Train- 
ing school by the organization of a model first primary- depart- 
ment and of a Kindergarten, each being placed in charge of a 
special teacher. In his report for 1888, Principal Sill had repeat- 
ed the recommendations, made some years previousl}', for the 
opening of a Kindergarten, and the Board were now prepared 
to adopt the recommendations. He said: 

"We should have a competent kindergartner who. in my judgement, 
will be needed ahroughout the entire school year. She should look to the kin- 
dergarten, give instructions in its methods and supersise pupil teachers taking 
a special kindergarten course; and the entire training school corps should be 
active in finding out and practicing the best methods of adjusting Kinder- 
garten methods to the finst four primary grades. ' ' 

Two years later Mr. Sill refers to the increased value and 
efficiency of the Training School resulting from the establishment 
of the model first primary and the opening of the Kindergarten. 

In 1X92 anditional changes were made in the organization 


of the Training- school in accordance with the recommendation of 
a report made by a committee of the State Board of Education 
and Mr. George, the Director of the School. 

This report affirmed that a school for observation and prac- 
tice, with a complete course of studies and instruction carefully 
prepared, was essential to a normal school ; that the time given by 
normal students to the training school work should be divided 
between obser\-ation and practice teaching; and that, in all cases, 
the interest of the children should be carefully protected. To 
secure these ends it was arranged that each of the eight grades 
of the primary and grammar departments, should be placed in 
charge of an expert teacher, and that about one-half of the teach- 
ing in each grade should be done by this teacher. By this pro- 
vision the interests of the children were to be protected and 
model teaching was to be secured for observation. A ninth 
grade was also provided for, but the pupils in this grade were 
not to be separated, so far as seating and studj- rooms were con- 
cerned, from the regular normal students. In respect to this 

grade the Principal said, in his report for 1892 : 

"This is a very valuable addition to our Training School, the design 
being to detail members of the senior class to do the work of instruction 
under thorough and careful supervision by the heads of the departments 
immediately concerned, thus securing excellent instruction for the pupils 
taught, and advanced practice teaching for normal students; yet everything 
depends upon the thoroughness of the supervision. The heads of depart- 
ments lack time for the full and satisfactory perfonnance of this work. 
* * * * A similar plan of instruction for pupils in studies above the eighth 
grade was tried several years ago and it resulted in failure, and serious 
depletion of attendance on account of such inadequate super^-ision. The 
present plan is open to the same danger, which can be successfully guarded 
against only by strengthening in this direction. The plan is a good one 
and full of promise for the professional reputation and usefulness of the 
Normal School, if sufficient means for carrying it out are provided. There 
is a prejudice against pupil teaching even in the lowest high school grades, 
which can be overcome speedily if the conditions are made favorable, but 
which will work serious harm if the work is to be continued under its present 
disadvantages. I believe that four additional assistants will be needed." 

For the reasons indicated in this extract the work of the 

ninth grade, as a part of the Training School, has thus far been 

onlv moderatelv successful. A decided advance in the work and 


the character of the school was made b}' the employment of a 

competent model and critic teacher for each of the eiijht grades. 

Observation, practice teaching, and supervision became more 

systematic and thorough after this arrangement went into effect. 

About the same time a librarj-, composed of books selected for 

the use of pupils and for reading and other purposes in the various 

grades, was provided. This has proved to be of great service in 

the regular work of the school . In connection with this re - organ - 

ization of the training department a complete course of study and 

instruction was prepared b\' Mr. George, with a detailed outline. 

of the course, showing the work of each quarter, and explaining 

methods and devices for class use. This was published for the 

convenience of the critic and practice teachers, and affords a 

pretty correct view of the work done in the training school at 

that time. 

In his final report Principal Sill says: 

"The development of the Training School has fulh- kept pace with 
the best thought in this direction. The Kindergarten has been established 
and is now doing most excellent service in the promotion of the educational 
spirit. The Training School is now in reality and truth a school of obser- 
vation and enlightened practice, as it was not even five years ago. With 
its corps of nine critic teachers, it is doing its full share in sustaining and 
increasing the reputation of the Normal School." 

This brings us to the end of the administration of Principal 
Sill and of the school year 1892-3, and naturally closes the third 
period of our history*. 

Fourth Period. 

The present period has been characterized by changes and 
experiments. The courses of study formulated and in successful 
operation at the close of the last period have been discarded. 
The change was begun in 1894, when it was sought to employ 
the principle of concentration in a more obvious manner than 
had hitherto been done. Tentative efforts were made b}- the 
director and the critic teachers under his charge to arrange the 
work of the primary grades with the "Nature study" as the basis 
or center. 

History-, literature, geography and reading were correlated 
to some extent. Mathematical work was connected with science, 


with geography, and with the affairs of everj'day life. The facts 
and ideas derived from the stiidy of nature were treated in their 
relations to man, thus introducing the humanistic element into 
the work. Drawing and writing were treated largely as modes of 

In the j^ear book for 1894-5, a summary- of the work of the 
year was given and the statement was made that "in the thi;ee 
primar}' grades, nature study as suggested by the onward march 
of the seasons, was, in the main, the center of instruction. The 
topic selected would usually run for a week, and the work of 
the grade in other branches would be related to it as far as could 
convenienth' be done, no attempt being made to establish arti- 
ficial or forced relations." "Geography, arithmetic, writing, 
form, language, and reading, were usually connected with the 
central subject, or with each other, without difficulty," The 
work, however, was regarded as experimental, and subject to 
modification from week to week. 

In 1895-6, under the direction of a Supervisor of instruction, 
the course of studj- was entirely abandoned and concentration 
and correlation were attempted throughout all the eight grades. 

During the year 1896-7, the courses of study and instruc- 
tion assumed a more definite form, and were arranged in five 
different lines of work — science, histor5^ geograph}^ arithmetic, 
and language, wath drawing, music, and penmanship, as supple- 
mentary' subjects. A consecutive elementary course in science 
for the eight grades appeared, and a similar course in elementarj- 
histor}'. The course in geography "represented a systematic 
attempt to work out a sequential course of study in the subject 
which should possess such flexibility as to render its correlation 
with historj' and science natural and eas}'." The courses in 
arithmetic, language, reading, and literature were drawn out in 
considerable detail. 

At present the Training School .follows the plan adopted in 
1892 and embraces a kindergarten and eight elementary grades, 
each grade being under the control of a competent critic teacher; 
and the school, as a whole, is managed by a director or super- 
intendent. The courses of study are still tentative and exper- 


imental. There is a pretty full outline of Nature study arranged 
for each .s^rade by months. A similar arrangement is made of 
Historical material, beginning with the child's own home as 
the basis for the work of a year. The subject matter of geog- 
raphy, arithmetic, language, reading, music, and drawing, is 
treated in essentially the same way. Physical training is also 
provided for in a systematic and thorough manner. 

The following detailed outline of the work for a single grade, 
the fourth, will indicate, in a general way, the nature of the 
work done in all the grades. 
Nature Study: 

September — Study of walnut tree. 

Observation of fruits of trees studied in the spring. 
October — Fresh water mussel — , oyster. 
November — Limestone and its uses — , carbon dioxide. 
December — Sandstone, gypsum, coal, iron ores and salt. 
January — Magnetism and compass. 
February — Solution and crystallization — , snow. 
March — Bones and joints. 

April — Identification of trees of vicinity. Special reference to distri- 
bution over State. 
May — The snail. 
June — Observation of flowers, insects, frogs, birds, etc. 


September — Review home community, also the historic community. 
Octol)er — Sea Rover community. Material — Northmen of France. 
November — Castle life. 

December — American explorers and discoverers. 
January — American explorers and discoverers. 
February — French in Canada. 
March — French in Mississippi. 
April — French in Michigan. 
May — Old missions in California. 

June — Summary of the work on the community idea. 
King's Outlines, page 41. 



September — Form, size, surface. 

October — Movements, zones, latitude, longitude. 

November — Land and water forms. 


December — North America, South America. 
January — Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia. 

February — Position, form, size, surface, drainage. 
March— Climate, natural advantages, occupations, productiors. 
April — Distribution of population, development and location of centers 
of population. 

May — Cities, governments- 
June — Historic places and legends. 

September — Review of third grade work. 
October — Addition and subtraction. 
November — Multiplication . 
December — Division. 
January — Division. 
February — Fractions — multiplication . 
March — Fractions — division. 
April — Fractions — addition . 
May — Fractions — subtraction . 

June — Simple business forms involving the four operations. 

September — Written reproductions — margins. 

October — Letter writing. 

November — Direct quotations. 

December — Direct quotations. 

January — Indirect quotations. 

February — Verb forms. 

March — Synonyms . 

April — Words often misused — who or whom. 

May — Paragraphs. 

June— Written reproduction of longer stories in connected discourse. 


Harper's Fourth Reader. 

Appleton's Third Reader. 

Swinton's Third Reader. 

Sea Side and Way Side, Vol. III. 

Book of Tales. 

Golden Book of Choice Reading. 

Hans Andersen's Stories. 

Stories of Heroic Deeds. 

Wonder Book. 


Stepping Stones to Literature, No. 4. 

Type-written Stories. 



Daily exercises for the speaking voice. 

Daily exercises for the singing voice. In exercises (a), (b) and (c), 
8 is pitched from c to g' or a; in (d), 5 is pitched from a to g'. 

Rhythm. — Same as third grade. The ability cultivated to name the 
number of pulses to a measure; to name the number of measures 
to an exercise or little song when heard. The use of the divided 

Triads. — The ability to sing the tones of the tonic, dominant, and 
sub-dominant triads, when they are called for by name. 

Chording in two parts, using thirds and humming. 

Reading.— Four days per week from charts and books; two part exer- 
cises and songs from notes. Rounds sung, using tonic sol-fa or 
numerical notation. Introduction of chromatic intervals. 

Writing. — One day per week from musical dictation. Rote songs 
related to the seasons and to language work. 

September — Once I Got Into a Boat, - - Stories in Song. 

October — Good-bye to vSummer, - The Howliston Collection. 

November — A Thanksgiving Hymn - - Songs in Season. 

December — The Christmas Rose, - - Songs for Children. 

January — Winter Song, - - Song Twigs and Branches. 

February — Flag Song, - - - The Howliston Collection. 

March — In the Snowing and the Blowing, - W. W. Gilchrist. 

April — Little Cherry Blossoms, - - - Songs in Season. 

May — How Do Robins Build, - - Song Twigs and Branches. 

June — Vacation Song, .... Songs in Season. 


New Prang Elementary Course, Book for fourth year. Continuation 
of work as outlined for third grade, introducing light and shade. 
Physical Exercises: 


1. Position, stride, alignment forward, walk, positions (forward 
and backward), march steps, side steps, two different march steps 
at one command, right face, about face, left face. 

2. Heel raising, change of feet, knee bending (each taken from 
various suitable positions of arms and feet and later with arm 
movements), marking time, marching, cross step march, side step 
and cross step march. 

4. Wing, rest, arm raising and flinging, bend, arm stretchings, 
repeated arm stretchings, two different arm stretchings at one 
command, arm flinging sidewise from cross. 

5. Toe standing, knee bend standing (each with various foot posi- 
tions), raising one foot sidewise, knee bending upward. The 

Ruth Hoppin, 



above positions to be held, with the arms in various positions, and 
later while various arm movements are taken. 

9. Run in place, run, preparation to jump, jump (upward, forward, 
sidewise), repeated jumps, hopping exercises. 

11. Breathing with arm raising. 

The work of the critic teachers is two fold in its character : 

I. They do, for a portion of the time, the duties of the ordinary grade 
teacher, teaching all subjects during two or more weeks at the opening of 
each quarter, and a few days also at the close of each quarter, and usually 
two full days of every week. This arrangement gives the pupils the 
advantages of regular and skilled instruction for considerable time. 

II. They direct the work of pupil-teachers, requiring the careful 
preparation of lesson plans, and meeting them at regular times for criticism 
upon their lesson plans and upon their work in the classes. 

In connection with this work, pupil teachers are required to make 
reports upon children specially assigned to them for observation and study. 
Reports are made upon points indicated of which the following are 

1. Name, age, sex, grade, class, nationality, as above. 

2. External appearance as regards dress, cleanliness, posture when 
sitting, standing, expression of face, hair, eyes. 

3. Punctuality as regards school and tasks. 

4. Home environment and intercourse outside of school. 

5. Capabilities (talents), interests, games, fears, thoughts, concern- 
ing future vocation. 

6. Behavior toward teacher, classmates, students, strangers. 

7. Any defects of speech, senses, motor ability, or any nervousness 

8. In what does the child excel? 

9. Veracity, honesty. 

10. Suggestions as to remedy of faults or defects. 


Do not let the child know that you', are observing him. Take time, 
obser\'e closely and be accurate. If unable to answer any of the above, 
better omit statements than be incorrect. Consult the critic teacher. If 
possible, visit the child in his home. As soon as you have completed the 
description, please hand it in at the Training School oflSce. 

The development of the Training School has been slow, but progress 
has been generally in the right direction, and the department is now in a 
condition to do excellent service both to the pupils and to the pupil - 



The Internal Administration of the School. 

The history of the internal administration of the school, 
during a period of nearl}' fifty years, affords an excellent oppor- 
tunity to obser\'e the evidence of a gradual change in public sen- 
timent in relation to school management and govemient ; and 
also to observe the natural tendency of a controlling body to pass 
from one extreme to another in certainjnatters of administration. 
No specific rules for the government of the school were adopted 
by the Board of Education at the opening in 1853. The exper- 
ience of the first three or four terms disclosed the need of some 
definite regulations in regard to the rights and duties of the 
members of the teaching body in order to prevent misunder- 
standings and friction. Consequently, in 1855, the Board 
adopted a code of laws for the internal administration of the 
school, the substance of which was as follows: (Records p. 77). 

1. The teachers in the school were held individually responsible to 
the Board of Education for the proper discharge of their duties. 

2. The Faculty were authorized to make temporary rules for the imme- 
diate government of the school as occasion might require at any regular 
meeting, such rules to be in force till the next following meeting of the 
Board, and to become permanent rules if approved by the Board. 

3. Provision was made for meetings of the Faculty at its own pleas- 
ure. But the Principal could call meetings whenever he deemed it neces- 
sary to do so; and was required to call such meetings at the request in 
writing of any member of the Faculty. Two thirds of the Faculty con- 
stituted a quorum, but a majority of all the members was necessary to give 
validity to any action. 

4. The Board of Instruction constituted the Judiciary of the school, 
but their action was subject to review by the Board of Tiducation. 

5. The more immediate charge of female pupils, in all matters 
pertaining to their sex, was confided to the Preceptress." 


The obvious effect of these rales was to place the internal 
control of the institution in the hands of the teaching body with 
the Principal as their executive oflficer. 

In 1858, the Board of Education, b}- formal resolution, 
approved certain rules previously adopted by the Faculty (Records 
p. lOO). The precise nature of these rules can not be ascer- 
tained, as the}' are not recorded in the proceedings of the Board, 
and the records of the Facultj- of that period can not be found. 
The following, under the head of " discipline " in the catalogue 
of 1857-8 suggests the probable character of the rules referred to: 

" The system and discipline of the Normal School will furnish, it is 
hoped, a model for the schools of this state. No feature of our educa- 
tional interests requires more attention; a school can not long prosper 
whose pupils are not submissive to wholesome regulations. In this 
respect, more than in all others, there is necessity for reform. The first 
requisite for success in the teacher, is the ability to sustain a discipline 
which is strict, impartial and just. It will be seen, then, that the disci- 
pline of the Normal School has a higher object than the mere convenience 
resulting from perfect order. The teacher must learn the art of governing 
a school, by studying the operation of a genuine svstem, and by yielding 
implicit obedience to salutary laws." 

This extract indicates clearly the purpose and character of 
the internal regulations and government of the institution during 
the administration of Principal Welch and his immediate suc- 
cessor. The design was to make the school, in all essentials, a 
model for the imitation of its students when they went out into 
the schools of the State. This purpose, steadily kept in mind by 
the earl}^ executives of the school, makes evident the reasons for 
the adoption and enforcement of some rules and regulations not 
altogether in accord with the ideas and methods of today. Pos- 
sibly a mean between the extremes of that time and those of the 
present ^vould yield the best results. 

Modifications of one kind and another were made from j^ear 
to year in the rules relating to the Facultj' and the school tintil, 
as presented bj' Principal Ma^'hew in his last report, thej' had 
assumed the following extended form. They are of especial 
historic interest, for several reasons, and are, therefore, given in 


Rules and Regulations of the Michigan State Normal School. 


1. Meetins:: of the Faculty. — A regular meeting of the Faculty shall 
be held on Monday afternoon of each week, during term time. 

2. Officers of the Faculty. — At the last regular meeting of each 
term, the following officers shall be elected by ballot, to serve during the 
ensuing term, viz: A Secretary, who shall keep a careful record of the 
business transacted; a Librarian, who shall have charge of the library; a 
Chairman, who shall in the absence of the Principal, perform his duties; 
a committee on boarding arrangements, a committe of two, on grounds, 
who shall act in connection with the Principal. 

3. Order of Bu%iness. — The meetings of the Faculty shall be con- 
ducted according to the usual rules of deliberative bodies, and business shall 
be taken up in the following order: 

1. Calling the roll. 

2. Reading the minutes of the last meeting. 

3. Report of classes. 

4. Reports of absences and delinquencies. 

5. Reports on rooms and halls. 

6. Reports as to study hours. 

7. Reports as to health, etc. 

8. Miscellaneous business. 

4. School Sessions, etc. — The daily sessions of the school shall com- 
mence at 8:30 a. m., and close at 12:30 p. m. Teachers, unless necessa- 
rily prevented, will be in their rooms at and after 8 a. m., for business 
with students. The time of session, unless otherwise directed by the 
Faculty, shall be divided into five school hours. Classes may meet for 
recitation, or examination, out of study hours, by permission of the Prin- 
cipal, or by vote of the Faculty. 

5. Examinations, Charge of Rooms, etc. — Each Teacher is an exam- 
iner in his own department for admission, promotion, and graduation, and 
is responsible for the order and progress of his classes. Teachers in charge 
of the rooms in which pupils are seated, and of the experimental school, 
are responsible for the good order and proper management of the same, 
and have sufficient authority, subject to the general rules of the school 
and of the Board of Education, to secure these ends. 

6. Granting Excuses, etc. — Excuses for absence from lesson, from 
school, or to be released from study hours, when asked before the 
occurrence, or when made unavoidable by sickness or its equivalent, are 
granted by the Principal. Excuses from reciting are granted by teachers 
in charge of the class; all other cases of alisence, and all other 
delinquencies shall be reported to the Faculty ior their action at the next 
meeting. In all cases of excuse by the Principal, for sickness or its 


equivalent, the facts upon which the excuse is granted may be the subject 
of investigation by the Faculty on the request of any member thereof, 
and any student who has obtained such excuse on false representation 
shall be liable to expulsion. 



1. Admissio7i. — Pupils are not received for less than an entire term; 
and, excepting graduates from the Experimental School, must, if ladies, 
be not less than sixteen, and if gentlemen, not less than eighteen years 
of age. The Principal has discretionary power, based upon maturity or 
advancement in studies, to admit pupils at earlier ages. 

All pupils must sign, in good faith, a declaration of intention to teach 
in the schools of the State, and, if unknown to the Faculty, must 
present testimonials of good moral character. 

2. Classification . — New students enter and are classified by examina- 
tion, and may enter the classes of any year for which they are prepared. 
A student behind a class in a single study, may be allowed to go on with 
the class on condition of making up the study during the first term. 

Students returning at the opening of a term are classified from the 
record; returning later than the day of opening, unless detained by 
sickness, or for reasons entirely satisfactory to the Faculty, they also, are 
classified by examination. 

3. Boarding, if/'t.— Students can board only at such places, and 
under such regulations, as are approved by the Faculty. Gentlemen and 
ladies of different families, when self-boarding, cannot occupy rooms in 
the same house, unless by special permission first obtained. 

4. General Deportment, <?/ff. — Students, in all their relations to 
teachers and to each other, must observe the usual rules governing the 
intercourse of ladies and gentlemen ; must observe carefully the rules and 
regulations of the school, and be regular and punctual in the performance 
of all duties. 

5. Absences and Excuses.— ^\.\xA&r\\.s desiring to leave town, or to be 
absent from school, or to be released from study hours, must obtain pre- 
vious permission from the Principal. Students having been absent by 
permission or on account of sickness, or its equivalent, must bring a written 
excuse from the Principal to their teachers within two days after return- 
ing. Excuses from reciting must be obtained from the teacher of a class. 
Any student who has obtained any excuse on false representation shall be 
liable to expulsion. 

6. Study Hours, ,;-/r.— Students must carefully observe study hours, 
which, except on Saturday and Sunday, are, during the months from 
November to March inclusive, from 2 to 4 p. m., and in the evening from 
and after 7:30 o'clock; and during the remainder of the school year from 


2:30 to 4:30 p. m., and in the eveninj^ from and after 8 o'clock. Students 
are excused to attend Lyceum on Friday evenings; but must be in their 
rooms at and after 10:30 on all evenings. 

7. Sc/iolaiship, 3/arking, ^/f.— Scholarship is marked on a scale from 
to 3. AVhenever the total averaj^e of a pupil's markinj^ falls below 1.50, 
during two successive months, the connection of such pupil with the school 
ceases. In order to pass a study, the scholarship standing must not be 
less than 2.25. 

S. General Order in the Biiildin_^. — Un entering the building pupils 
must go directly to their seats, and remain in them during the session, 
unless occupied in recitations or by business with the Principal or teachers. 
The time for such business, unless otherwise directed, is from S to 8:20 
o'clock \. M. 

Pupils must not rvin up and down stairs, or through the halls, nor 
tarry in the recitation rooms or halls, nor when moving in bodies, break 
lines; they must pass each other to the right, and at all times, avoid noise 
and confusion. 

While in the building, students are not to communicate with each 
other in any mauner, except at the short recesses, and then onlywith seat- 
mates, or by special permission of a teacher, with other pupils in the room. 

9. Penalties. — Students violating rules incur demerit marks as 

Breaking rules, disorder in halls, "wandering,"' coming forward, 1 

Being tardy or communicating, . . . . 2 

Absence or violating study hours, - - - - .3 

Being out after 10:30 p. m. - - - - - 8 

Other irregularities or misconduct incur demerits according to the 
degree of the offense. 

Eight unexcused demerits in one term sever a student's connection 
with the school. 

\0.-~ Removal from School. — Whenever students are obliged to leave 
school before the close of the term, they must obtain excuse from the 

Whenever, in the judgment of the Faculty, a student's attendance is 
no longer profitable to him, or is detrimental to the school, he may be 
expelled or dismissed. 

A student excluded ffom the school, either by his own act or by the 
action of the Faculty, can be restored only by vote of the I'aCult}', or by 
the Board of Education. 

Dtiring the first decade of the life of the school undoubtedly 
the infiiience of the executive predominated in the internal 
administration, and in determining^ questions of j^eneral policy 
and regulations for the conduct of students. As a rule the life 


and associations of pupils were confined pretty closely to the 
institution ; the}' were not encouraged or allowed to mingle 
much in the social or religious life of the comnlunit^^ Their 
time, attention, and energy' were supposed to be absorbed in the 
special objects and purposes which had brought them to the 
school. By the close of the second decade, or a little later, verj^ 
considerable changes had taken place in the regulations for the 
conduct of students, as well as in the internal administration of 
school affairs. The changes resulted partly from the increase 
in attendance, parti}' from the modification of public sentiment 
in respect to school management, and partly from the personal 
characteristics of the teaching body. 

The regulations in respect to the duties and conduct of 
students had taken essentially the following form before the 
year 1880, and were only slightly modified during the 
succeeding ten years. 

Principles of Administration, Etc. 

"It is taken for granted by the administration of the school that 
students enter the Normal solely for purposes of study and instruction, 
and that they will devote their time and attention to these purposes; that 
thev will abstain from everything which would tend to hinder their own 
progress in their appropriate work, or would, in any degree, interfere with 
the progress or rights of others. 

"It is also assumed that the}- are acquainted with the usages and 
rules which govern the conduct and intercourse of ladies and gentlemen 
in general society and in well-regulated families, and that they will 
conform to these usages and rules at all times and in all places. 

"It is required that students devote proper hours of the day, and 
evening hours of school dajs, commencing at 7:30 from the beginning of 
the Fall term to the first of April, and at 8:30 during the remainder of the 
year, to the preparation of lessons and other school work in their own 
rooms, and that they 'be in their own rooms at and after 10:30 on all 
evenings. This requirement is made, not only to encourage regular and 
systematic study, but also to protect industrious and faithful students 
against loss of time occasioned by improper and unnecessary interruptions. 
Students are at liberty to attend public meetings, lectures, concerts, and 
other entertainments of proper character, provided such attendance does 
not intefere with the punctual and thorough performance of their school 

"It is suggested that students seek counsel and advice of their 


instructors in all cases of doubt in respect to the propriety or advantages 
of any proposed employment of time, or any course of life and conduct. 
The interests of teachers and pupils in all such matters are identical." 

An impression prevailed, to some extent, that in the internal 
administration of school affairs during the years 1875 to 1880, 
the judiciary body had, perhaps unintentionally', encroached, in 
certain directions, upon the province and rights of the executive. 
Standing committees had been provided for by the Faculty upon 
(l) Grounds and Buildings, (2) Programs and Classification, 
(3) Pupil Teaching, (4) Boarding Arrangements. These 
committees were to be elected antmally by the Faculty'. 

As doubts existed in the minds of some members of the 
teaching body as to the extent of the authority of such 
committees, the Board of Education was requested to define 
their duties and their authority. Before any formal repl}' was 
made to this request a change took place in the executive office. 

To correct any errors which might possibly have arisen from 
lack of definite rules for the internal management of the school, 
the Board of Education, at the opening of Principal MacVicar's 
admini-stration adopted a somewhat extended code of regulations, 
drawn up by that officer, defining " The Duties and Functions of 
the Principal,'' and by natural inference the duties and functions 
of the F'aculty and of all committees. Space will not allow their 
reproduction here in full, but the essential points were as 

1. The Principal was declared to be the executive officer of the Board 
in all matters pertaining to the internal working of the school, and was 
made responsible for the prompt enforcement of all regulations adopted 
by the Board for the government of the school. 

2. The Principal had power "to devise, adopt and execute" such 
measures as in his judgment, might be necessary to protect the buildings 
and other property of the institution, to maintain good order in all meet- 
ings of the school, or of the various organizations and societies connected 
with it. In the exercise of this extensive power he was authorized, but 
not required, to call to his assistance, by way of counsel, one or more of 
the teachers as he might deem advisable. 

3. He had the right of advice (-n the appointment and removal of all 
teachers. He was made the medium of communication between the Board 
of Education and the Board of Instruction. The wants and needs of the 


various departments were to be presented to the Board through him. All 
tuition and other fees were to be collected by him, or by some person 
appointed by him. 

4. He was required to report, at the regular meeting of September of 
each year, everything of interest and importance relating to the Normal 
School, accompanying his own report with the reports of his subordinate 

5. The matter of classifications, examinations, etc., were put abso- 
lutely into his hands; and he was authorized to assign to the various 
teachers their work. 

6. He was required to call a meeting of the teachers, at least once in 
two weeks, "for advice and counsel in determining measures for the good 
of the school." This body had no authority to do more than advise and 

7. He was to exercise careful supervision over all the classes and all 
the instruction in the school. 

8. He was to be the official representative of the school before the 
Legislature and other authorities of the State, subject to the direction of 
the Board of Education. He was also to represent the school before the 
people of the State by lectures, addresses, and discussions of educational 

9. The principles of government relating to students were the follow- 
ing: 'Tt shall be the duty of the Principal to observe himself, and to see 
that all subordinate teachers and all others connected with the school 
observe, in performing their work, the following: 

(1) The golden rule, "Do unto others as ye would that others 
should do unto you," shall be made the foundation of every require- 

(2) The relation of teacher and pupil shall be regarded as involv- 
ing a pledge on the part of both to regard the interests of each other 
as sacred, which pledge shall be assumed to be given when the pupil 
enters the school. 

(3) From the very nature of the relation between teacher and 
pupil, the teacher shall always be considered the proper judge of what 
is to be viewed, under any given circumstances, as right or wrong, 
but, before making any decision, all the circumstances in each case 
shall be fully canvassed. 

(4) The highest good of the individual, so far as it is compatible 
with the highest good of the whole school, shall be regarded as the 
fundamental principle in all discipline. 

(5) No requirements shall be made of any pupil that are not, 
under similar conditious, made of every pupil in the school. 

(6) The spirit in which anything is done shall be considered 


more important, in its effect upon the pupil and the school, than the 

(7) Pupils shall not be allowed to remain in the school after it 
becomes apparent that they fail to devote their entire time and strength 
to the work assigned to them by their teachers, nor after it becomes 
apparent that they exercise a bad influence, in any respect, over other 

(8) Character and correct deportment shall be regarded as the 
crowning excellence of true scholarship, and shall receive the first 
attention of all teachers and others connected with the school. 

(9) The various regulations and requirements of the school shall 
be arranged and executed so constitute a course of instruction, 
study, and practice which shall cultivate in the pupil correct views of 
the relation of the governing to the governed, correct habits, and the 
power of self-government." 

The Principal was authorized to require, whenever it should seem 
desirable to him, "a statement upon honor, written or otherwise, from 
any pupil upon any matter pertaining to the cpnduct and management 
of the school." 

The practical effect of these regulations, if administered 
according to the letter, would have been the concentration of 
both judicial and executive authority in the hands of the Prin- 
cipal, leaving to the Faculty' the privilege of giving advice and 
counsel when requested to do so. Principal Mac\'icar resigned 
at the close of his first year of ser\nce, and, consequently, no 
opportunity was afforded for testing full}^ the merits of this plan 
of management under the administration of its author. 

At the suggestion of the retiring Principal, the executive 
duties were temporarily divided and assigned to two members of 
the Faculty. This anomalous arrangement was abandoned after 
a trial of a few weeks, and the Board voted " That the acting 
Principal, Prof. Putnam, be regarded during his term of service, 
as clothed with the same authoritj' as was the fonner Principal, 
and as governed by the same rules and regulations as were in 
force for the guidance of said Principal, and that any action 
heretofore taken which is in conflict with this position is hereby 

While no change was made in the letter of the regulations, 
they were so interpreted that no friction occurred in the adminis- 
tration of internal affairs during this interregnum, nor during 

Julia Anne King, 


the administration of the succeeding Principal, Mr. Willits, or 
during the second interregnum which followed his resignation. 

The growth of the school and the necessary increase in the 
number of the Faculty during the administration of Principal 
Sill, caused some changes in the mode of internal administration. 
In the earlj' 3'ears of the school no such distinction as ' ' Heads 
of Departments" and " Assistant Teachers" existed. No for- 
mal action of the Legislature, or of the Board of Education, or 
of the Faculty itself, was ever taken creating this distinction. 
It grew up naturally from changing conditions, and came to be 
generalh' recognized as " a fact accomplished. ' ' Its first legal 
recognition is found in the revised act of the Legislature of 1889 
concerning the Normal School and the authority and duties of 
the Board of Education. That act provided that all questions as 
to the recommendation of students for graduation should be 
determined b}' " the Principal and Heads of Departments." This 
enactment necessitated arrangements for separate meetings of the 
Facultj^ as a whole, and of the Heads of Departments. This 
condition of affairs led Principal Sill, in 1892, to recommend to 
the Board of Education the formal organization of the Heads of 
Departments into a bodj^ to be known as the " Normal Council." 
The Board adopted this recommendation, and the Council was 
organized with authority to make recommendations to the Board 
upon the following subjects-: as to 

1. Courses of study. 

2. Graduation of pupils completing the several courses of study. 

3. The conferring of degrees and the conditions on which they shall 
be conferred. 

4. The conditions of admission of pupils. 

5. The approval of schools. 

6. The general policy of the school and its welfare. 

7. "The Council shall also, when so requested, advise the Principal 
upon questions concerning societies, and organizations connected with the 
School, and in case of discipline of individual students." 

In respect to the functions of the Facultj' as a whole, the 
Board decided that the choice of participants in commencement 
exercises, and in oratorical and other contests should be made 
by that body, and also that the Faculty should "make any needed 


recommendations to the Board of Education concerning the 
the library- and its administration and concerning other school 
matters not named above as belonging to the jurisdiction of the 

The evident intention of the Board was to delegate to the 
Council exclusive jurisdiction over certain specific subjects, and 
to leave all other matters relating to school affairs in the hands 
of the general Faculty as before. The arrangement was undoubt- 
edl}' a desirable and wise one so long as the original division of 
powers and duties, as made by the Board, continued to be 
observ^ed. It usually- happens, however, that the smaller and 
more compact of two bodies, having administrative relations, 
gradually encroaches upon the province of the larger and less 
compactly organized body. The details of the present organiza- 
tion of the Council show some results of this natural tendency. 

The functions of the Council are now performed mainly 
through certain standing committees consisting of three members 
each, elected by the body for a term of three years, one being 
chosen each year. At present the committes are as follows : 

1. On Lectures and Entertainments. 

2. On Library. 

3. On Approved Schools. 

4. On Advanced Standings. 

5. On Athletics. 

6. On Year Book. 

7. On Student Affairs. 

The Principal is ex-officio a member and chairman of all committees. 

The processes of evolution , some times directed and some 
times apparently undirected, have left the organization for the 
internal management of the school in essentially this condition. 
The early provision by which the Faculty was constituted a 
judicial body and the Principal an executive, revoked by the 
Board in 1880, has never been formally restored. We have, con- 
sequently, so far as the letter of the law is concerned: 

1. The Principal, clothed with both judicial and executive 

2. The Council, authorized b}' the action establishing it, to 
make recommendations to the Board upon certain specified sub- 


jects, and to advise the Principal, if requested bj' him to do so, 
upon some matters of administration. 

3. The Facultj', as a whole, having little more than a nom- 
inal existance as an organized body. 

Practicallj- the Council, in the administration of school affairs, 
exercises a controlling influence in many directions; but it does 
this rather bj' sufferance and assumption than b}' any distinctly 
delegated authoritJ^ 

The stud}^ of the development of the internal administration 
of the school leaves an impression of an unfortunate oversight 
in one direction. The first formal code of regulations for the 
management of the institution provided that "the more immed- 
iate charge of the female pupils, in all matters pertaining to their 
sex, was confided to the preceptress." In subsequent formal 
revisions and additions little or no direct allusion has been made 
to the special duties of the preceptress or to the special care and 
oversight of the female students. At the same time the relative 
proportion of ladies in the school has greatly increased. It is 
true that provisions have been made for certain examinations and 
care of female students in connection with the department of 
"physical culture," but these provisions do not extend to other 
matters of equal or greater importance. It is evident that the 
best interests of the school require that a large part, if not the 
whole, of the time and attention of some one ladj- teacher should 
be devoted to the special charge of the female students. This 
person ma^- be called preceptress or dean. The title is not of 
importance, but the ofiice should be provided for and filled with 
a lad}- of the highest character and abilit5^ 

The New Arrangement. 

The establishment of the Central Normal School at Mount 
Pleasant, and the provision, made by the Legislature of 1899, for 
opening still another Normal School at Marquette, led the Board 
of Education to adopt a plan for unifying the Normal work of 
the State, and to prevent the springing up of any undue rivalr\- 
between the different schools. This plan will cause some modi- 
fications in the internal manggement of the Normal College, but 


how extensive these modifications may be, cannot now be deter- 
mined. The practical working of the new plan for some consid- 
erable period will show what changes must be made. The 
following is the action of the Board adopted by unanimous vote : 

Whereas, — In the judgment of the State Board of Education, by reason 
of the rapid growth of the normal school interests in the State, it has become 
necessary to unite all the Normal Schools of the State, and to place them 
under one general control or supervision in order that they may be more 
efficient in their work, to increase their influence upon the educational 
interests and welfare of the State, and to bring them into closer relation with 
each other, to the end that the various departments of work in the various 
schools may be co-ordinated and subordinated, and that the work may be 
duplicated as little as desirable ; therefore be it 

/Resolved by the State Board of Education: — 

1. That there be elected a man whose official title shall be that of 
"President of the Normal Schools of Michigan," who shall have general 
supervisory control of the educational welfare and best interests of all the 
State Normal Schools of the vState of Michigan, and who shall have power, 
subject to the approval of the State Board of Education, and together with 
the advice and counsel of the Principals of said schools to prescribe courses 
of instruction for said system of schools, to recommend men and women for 
the various positions of instruction, and to dismiss the same when their ser- 
vices cease to be efficient for the best interests of the State, or for any other 
just and reasonable cause. 

2. That there shall be elected by the said Board of Education a person 
for each of the State Normal Schools whose official title shall be "Principal 

of the School," and who shall, subject to the co-operation of 

the "President of the Normal Schools of Michigan," have supervisor}- con- 
trol of the particular school for which he has been elected, during the absence 
of the said President. 

3. That it shall be the duty of the "President of the Normal Schools of 
Michigan," to give one or more courses of instruction in each of the said 
Schools each year upon the general subjects of philosophy, theory and art 
of teaching, and the history of education, which courses shall constitute a 
part of the courses of instruction in the particular school. 

4- That the "President of the Normal Schools of Michigan" shall be 
paid a salary and necessary expenses incurred in his management of the said 
schools, which salary shall be paid out of the funds of the various schools 
in proportion to the appropriation for current expenses for the particular 

5. That it shall be the duty of the President to keep the State Board of 
Education informed at all times upon request, concerning the courses of 
instruction, professors and teachers, number of students, receipts and dis- 


bursements, and general needs of the schools, etc., and he shall annually at 
the close of each school year, make a detailed report to the State Board of 
Education concerning the general welfare and needs of each of the various 
schools, which reports shall be spread upon the records of the said Board. 

6. That it shall be the duty of the President, with the approval of the 
State Board of Education, together with the advice and counsel of the said 
Principals, to so arrange, subordinate, and co-ordinate the courses of instruc- 
tion in each of the various Normal Schools of the State, that there shall be 
an interchange of credits between all of the said Schools." 

The present President and Principals of the Schools are as 

follows : 

1. President of the Normal Schools of ^Michigan, . 

2. Principal of the State Normal College at Ypsilanti, Professor 
Elmer E. Lyman. 

3. Principal of the Central State Normal School at Mount Pleasant, 
Professor Charles McKenny. 

4. Principal of the Northern State Normal School at Marquette, 
Professor D. B. Waldo. 



Certificates, Diplomas, and Degrees Conferred, Funds, Library, etc. 

The "consolidated" act establishing the Normal School 
contained this provision : 

"As soon as any person has attended said institution twenty -two 
weeks, said person may be examined in the studies required by the Board, 
in such manner as may be prescribed, and if it appear that said person 
possesses the learning and other qualifications necessary to teach a good 
common school, said person shall receive a certificate to that effect from 
the Principal, to be approved by the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 

One can not be quite sure whether it was the intention of 
this section of the law to make the certificate provided for, a 
legal license to teach or not; but whatever the intention may 
have been, the certificate was not regarded by the school officers 
of the State as a legal license. This is evident from the follow- 
ing extract from the Superintendent's report for 1855-6. In 

his recommendations for new legislation, he says: 

"Provision should be made for granting suitable Diplomas to 
graduates of the State Normal School, which should serve them in lieu of 
the ordinary certificate of qualification, for leaching primary schools in 
any township in the State, for the period of two years. If during this 
time they should prove to be successful teachers, they might, on applica- 
tion to the Superintendent, receive a State Certificate. At present, 
graduates of the State Normal School have to submit to an examination 
before the township board of school inspectors, before they can be 
recognized as qualified teachers within the meaning of the law. It is not 
so in other States; and the Legislature, I doubt not, will unhesitatingly 
supph- this statutory omission, which has hitherto subjected many worthy 
teachers to needless humiliation and in some instances deprived the 
community of their services." 

In accordance with this suggestion, an act was passed by 
the Legislature during the session of 1857, authorizing the 

Lewis IMcLouth. 


Board of Instruction of the Normal School to grant to graduates 
of the institution "diplomas, which, when signed by the State 
Board of Ec^ucation, shall be regarded as evidence that such 
graduates have completed the prescribed course of study." 
The law also provided that, 

"Each diploma so conferred shall be accompanied by a Certificate, 
signed by the Board of Instruction, which, when recorded in the office of 
the clerk of any township in the State, shall serve the teacher as a 
Certificate of qualification to teach any primary school in the township, 
until the same shall be annulled by the school inspectors of such town- 
ship under the provisions of law for annulling Certificates". 

This act authorized the Board of Instruction of the school, 
not the Board of Education, to grant diplomas, and to issue 
certificates; it made the certificates unlimited in respect to time, 
and it left them liable to be annulled by anj- board of school 
inspectors in any township. Some of these defects were 
remedied by amendments made in 1863. As this amended act 
remained essentially unchanged for many years, it is copied in 
full. Slight changes were made in 1871 and in 1881, to adapt 
the provision of the second section to the changed provisions of 
the law relating to the examination of teachers. 

Section 1. "The State Board of Education is authorized to grant to 
such students as shall have completed the full course of instruction in the 
the State Normal School, and shall have been recommended by the 
Board of Instruction, a diploma, which when signed by the members of 
Board of Education and the Board of Instruction, shall be evidence that 
the person to whom such diploma is granted is a graduate of the State 
Normal School, and entitled to all the honors and privileges belonging 
to such graduates. 

Section 2. The Board of Instruction of the Normal School shall 
give to every graduate receiving such diploma a certificate, which shall 
serve as a legal certificate of qualification to teach in the primary schools 
of any township in this State, when a copy thereof shall have been filed 
or recorded in the office of the clerk of such township. Such certificate 
shall not be liable to be annulled, except by the board of instruction, but 
its effect may be suspended \n any township, and the holder thereof may 
be stricken from the list of qualified teachers in such township, by the 
school inspectors, for any cause that would authorize them to annul a 
certificate given by themselves." 

In 1871 the Board of Education and the Faculty of the 


school, without any express provision of law, began to give 
to graduates from the "Common School English Course," 
certificates valid as legal licenses to teach in the public schools 
of the State for a period of three years. These certificates could 
be renewed for another term of three years, if the holders 
presented to the Faculty "satisfactory evidence of success in 
teaching." Subsequently it was required that an applicant for 
the renewal of a certificate, in addition to presenting satisfactory- 
testimonials of success in teaching, should also pass examination 
in two studies of an advanced course. The character of the 
certificates given for the completion of the advanced courses 
remained unchanged. 

In 1882 the "Common School Course" was abolished, and 
no more certificates valid for three years only were given. All 
certificates given in 1883 were life certificates. In 1884 a 
provision was made by which graduates from the "English 
Course" of three years, received certificates valid for five 
3-ears. These certificates were not renewable. In 1889 a some- 
what radical change in the law relating to courses of 'studies, 
diplomas, and certificates was made by the Legislature. The 
Board was required to provide "a course of stud}' intended 
especially to prepare teachers for the rural and elementary 
schools of the State." To students of the Normal School 
completing this course a certificate is given entitling them to 
teach in the schools for which the course is provided, for a 
period of five years. It is required that the certificate shall 
contain a of the studies included in the course. Life 
certificates are given to those who complete a course of not less 
than four years. These certificates must also contain a list of 
the studies embraced in the course pursued. Certificates of 
both kinds may be revoked by the Board of Education for 
sufficient cause ; and their validity may be suspended in any 
county by the Board of Examiners "for immorality or incompe- 
tency to instruct and govern a school" on the part of the person 
holding the certificate. 

The law authorizes the Board of Education to grant "such 
diplomas as it may deem best," and these diplomas may carrj' 


with them such honors as the extent of the course for which 
they are given will warrant. In the exercise of the authority 
thus granted the Board has provided for bestowing the degree of 
Bachelor of Pedagogics (B. Pd.), and also the degree of Master 
of Pedagogics (M. Pd.). The specific conditions upon which 
these degrees are given are not yet permanently settled, but 
are modified, from time to time, as experience suggests. It is 
intended, however, that the degree of Bachelor of Pedagogics 
shall indicate scholarship equal to that required for the degree of 
B. A. from a reputable college; and the degree of Master of 
Pedagogics shall indicate, in addition to the scholarship just 
mentioned, that the person receiving it "has been engaged in 
teaching or in school supervision continuously and with pro- 
nounced success for at least five years since receiving the 
Bachelor's degree," and "has prepared and presented a thesis 
acceptable to the Faculty of the school upon some subject 
connected with the history, science, or art of education." 

At the session of 1895 the Legislature passed an act 
establishing the "Central Michigan Normal School" located at 
Mt. Pleasant. At the next session, in 1897, an act was passed 
defining the "relations of existing Normal Schools." This act 
provided that "substantial uniformity and reciprocity" should 
be maintained in the courses of study in the two schools, so that 
students could be transferred from one school to the other 
without loss of time or of standing. Provision was also made 
that the "Central Normal School" might grant the following 

certificates : 

1. Upon the completion of a course of study containing the branches 
of instruction required by law for a third grade county certificate, and such 
work in the science and art of teaching as said Board of Education may require, 
the Board shall issue a certificate, valid for two years, authorizing the holder to 
teach in any district school of this State employing not more than one 
teacher: Provided, that said two years' certificates may be once renewed for 
a like period upon satisfactory evidence to the granting power of successful 
experience in teaching. 

2. Upon the completion of a course of instruction containing the 
branches of instruction required for a first grade count}- certificate, and such 
additional work in the science and art of teaching as said Board of Educa- 
tion may require, said Board shall grant a certificate, valid throughout the 


State for a period of three years: Provided, that said three years' certificate 
may be once renewed for a like period, upon satisfactory evidence to the 
granting power, of successful experience in teaching. 

The following section of this act bestowed upon the Normal 
School at Ypsilanti, atithoritj' to grant certain certificates which 
it had not hitherto been authorized to grant. It also empowered 
the Board of Education to designate the school in the courses 
leading to a certain certificate and degree by the name of ' ' The 
Michigan State Normal College." 

Sec. 2. The State Board of Education may, through the State Normal 
School at Ypsilanti, grant similar certificates for elementary, graded and 
rural schools as in their judgment shall seem wise, and shall through the 
same institution continue to grant certificates good for five years, life certifi- 
cates, diplomas and degrees, as are now provided by statute and custom; 
and in recognition of the work now being done under existing laws, in those life 
certificate and degree courses in the State Normal School at Ypsilanti, the 
State Board of Education is empowered to designate that school in the 
courses leading to such certificate and degree by the name, "The Michigan 
State Nonnal College." 

Funds of the Normal School. 

The original act establishing the Normal School contained a 
provision that, "For the purpose of defraying the expenses of the 
erection of the building, * * * * and for the purchase of the 
necessary apparatus and books for the instittition, and for various 
other incidental expenses of the school, there is hereb}' appro- 
priated ten sections of the Salt Spring Iqnds." These sec- 
tions were to be located and known as the "Normal School 
Building lands. ' ' The same act directed that fifteen sections 
of the same lands should be located and that the proceeds 
from the sale of these should constitute the "Normal School 
Endowment Fund." The "consolidated" act. passed in 1850, 
provided that the proceeds derived from the sale of the entire 
twenty-five sections, should be set apart for the "Normal School 
Endowment Fund," with the proviso that ten thousand dollars 
of this fund might be used for building purposes, if this should be 
found necessary. 

The Legislature of 1853 passed an act appropriating to the 
Endowment fund "the moneys arising from the Swamp Lands 


previously sold by the general government, not exceeding S30, 
000." It was found afterwards, however, that the "General 
Government" had sold onh- a ver}- small amount of these lands, 
and nothing came to the endowment fund from this source. 

The amount of monej' derived from the sale of Salt Spring 
lands up to 1857, as shown by the report of the State Superintendent 
for 1858, was $73, 246. 51 , about twelve hundred acres of land at that 
time, still remained unsold. Of this amount, $8,096.64, had been 
expended for building purposes. Consequently the Endowment 
fund, at that time, was $65,149.87. Subsequent sales have 
increased the fund to the amount of about $71,000.00, according 
to the Report for 1894. 

This is held by the State as a "trust fund," and the interest 
at six per cent, is paid annually to the treasurer of the Board of 
Education to be used for the current expenses of the Normal 
School. The expenses of the school, above this small sum, are 
provided for bj- biennial appropriations of the Legislature and by 
the entrance fees of the students. 


The outfit of the school during the first years of its existance, 
in the way of books and periodicals, was verj- limited. The 
library destroyed by the fire of 1859 contained about 1,500 vol- 
umes. A considerable number of these, however, were books 
of little value for the work of the school. An appropriation of 
$2,000 was asked by the "Board of Education of the Legislature of 
1860 to replace the librar>^ which had been burned. But the 
exciting events connected with the opening of the great Civil War, 
absorbed the attention and interest of the people so fuUj- that 
ordinary- matters were, of necessity-, neglected. Consequently 
no appropriation was made, and the Faculty and Board were left 
to devise such means as they could to supply the demand for 
even the most common books of reference. 

The Principal sa^'s in his report for 1861 : 

' 'After the destruction of our librarj- by fire, in the fall of '59, our entire 
stock of books was comprised in a few Congressional documents which, 
however valuable in other respects, did not answer the peculiar necessities 
of the Normal School. It was painfully felt that the school could not long 


sustain the reputation it had won, if its Faculty were to teach and its 
pupils study a professional course without appropriate works for reference 
and research. " 

The Board sympathized with the views presented, but had 
no means left, after paying current expenses, for replacing the 
library which had been lost. At the opening of the following 
summer term, as a last resort, an appeal was made to the normal 
students, which met with a ver}'- generous response. Thej' 
agreed unanimously, that the}- would pay a dollar each, over and 
above the regular entrance fee, for two consecutive terms, and 
that the sum accruing should be applied to the purchase of need- 
ful books. 

By subsequent action of the Board, two dollars of the annual 
entrance fee of each student w^as set apart for the increase of the 
library. This plan, however, continued in force but a short 
time, and afterwards, during a brief period, each student was 
required to pay annually a library- fee of fift}- cents for the pur- 
chase of books. Later some appropriations w^ere secured from 
the Legislature for the increase of the library-. 

When Principal Welch closed his work in the school, the 
library numbered about two thousand volumes, such as the}- 
were. General reading, however, w-as not encouraged. It was 
stated in the catalogues published during this period that "mem- 
bers of the school have access to the library for reference rather 
than for general reading, as the regular studies of the course 
leave little time for that purpose. ' ' 

For nearly twenty years there w-as scarcely any increase in 
the number of books. In 1872 the Principal reported that the 
library contained only about 1,200 volumes. The Board of 
Visitors, in 1873, say: 

"The library has given no indication that it is a part of the equipment 
of a normal school. It has lacked, with insij^nificant exceptions, the pro- 
fessional treatises, sets of text-books in the common school branches, etc., 
which seem necessary to its best use." 

A small appropriation was secured from the Legislattire, at 
its session in that year, for the purchase of nuich- needed books, 
and the Visitors of 1875 say: 


"Friends of the school will be glad to learn that the want of a profes- 
sional library, which was spoken of by the Board of Visitors for 1873, has 
been in part supplied, and that conveniences for using and handling the 
books have been so multiplied that the library has come to be used very 
generally by the pupils, especially in the latter part of their course." 

In 1876 the number of books had increased to 1,600, although 
nearly 300 of these were old text -books or public documents of 
little value. In 1881, the Board authorized the establishment of 
departmental libraries, and added 1,100 volumes to the general 
library. From that time the growth of the library has been reg- 
ular and fairly rapid. In 1884 it numbered nearly 6,000 volumes, 
and the card catalogue contained 18,000 cards. The calls for 
books by students during that year were 30,000. With the 
increase of books the habit of reading also rapidly increased. 

For several years Professor Putnam served as librarian with- 
out compensation. During his administration the books were 
catalogued and arranged by departments. A beginning was also 
made of a card catalogue, and the use of the books greatly 
increased. Prof. Lodeman succeeded Prof. Putnam as librarian, 
serving without pay. Under his administration the library was 
largely increased, and the process of catalogueing was carried on 
quite rapidly. 

In 1884 Miss Florence Goodison was appointed librarian, 
with a regular salary, and served until 1890. Mr. William S. 
Bums served as librarian during the year 1891. Mr. Burns 
added much to the effectiveness of the library by introducing 
methods which were growing more necessary as the size of the 
library' increased. For two years Mrs. L. B. Graham served as 
assistant librarian. In 1892 Miss Genevieve M. Walton was 
made librarian, and Miss Gertrude E. Woodard assistant librarian. 

The last score of 3^ears has marked constant growth and 
improvement. The accessions have been over a thousand vol- 
umes a year, and have been distributed in fairly equal propor- 
tion in the various departments. In 1897 an appropriation of 
$1,500 was made for library improvement. This resulted in giv- 
ing the entire first floor of the north wing of the building (56x80 
feet) to the library. Connected to the main building by a wide 


corridor, it has the combined advantages of a separate building, 
and the easy accessibilit}- afforded by being under the same roof. 
Large arches were cut, throwing the whole convenienth' together, 
while windows on ever>' side give admirable light and ventilation. 
Iron stacks were introduced and the Dewey system of classifica- 
tion adopted. Librarv* hours were lengthened, and Mr. Francis 
L. D. Goodrich added to the library staff. The system of .stu- 
dent assistance in the library was begun many years ago, and has 
gradually increased. Since the library was enlarged more diffi- 
cult limits have been set to their service, access to the stacks 
being one privilege, which with the knowledge of books and of 
library work is considered a good equivalent for one hour's work 
daily. Five students during each of the ten daily periods render 
verj^ efficient service. Generally they work one semester only, 
as there are constantly more applicants than vacancies. 

The library now numbers over 20,000 volumes, including 
Public Documents and pamphlets, of which there are less than 
2,000, and all are of value. The librarj' has been designated a 
"Remainder depository" for United States documents, and only 
.such documents and reports as are of value to this, library are 
asked for. 

The Reading Room (40x56 feet) has tables and chairs for 
150 readers. The available wall space is filled with cases for 
2,000 volumes, and on the north and south sides, double cases 
extend into the room. These contain the general magazines, and 
reference books. With the purchase of reproductions of works 
of art, this room has been made most attractive, with pictures, 
and with casts of masterpieces of sculpture. 

The increase in library work has constantly more than kept 
pace with library additions both of books, room, and service. 
Best of all is the growing effectiveness on the part of students in 
literary- research and a more affectionate appreciation of bo(jks as 
books. It is growing nearer to the ideal librars- which is not a 
work shop but "The world's sweet inn from care and wearisome 

Lucy Aldrich Osband. 



Teachers of the School.— Biographical Sketches, etc. 

Buildings, grounds, funds, libraries, apparatus, and appli- 
ances of various kinds, are necessary to the progress and 
efficiency of an institution of learning. But all these may be 
provided in abundance, and still the institution may have little 
real value. The most essential element in any school is the 
teaching force, the corps of instructors. The buildings, and 
other materials provided, constitute the visible and tangible 
outward form and sign of a school ; the teachers furnish the 
indwelling spirit, the principle of life, which vitilizes this visible 
form, and gives it character and power for useful service. 

It is not within the scope of this sketch to give any very 

extended account of the various teachers who have been employed 

from time to time in the different departments of the school. 

However, simple justice demands that, in addition to a mere 

alphabetical list of names, some brief mention, at least, should 

be made of a few of those who have been, on account of length 

of services or for other reasons, especially influential in building 

up the Institution, and in giving direction and character to the 

course of its development, especially during the early years of 

its existence. The pioneer teachers, of necessity, did their 

work largely in an experimental way; they were laboring, for 

the most part, without precedents or patterns. It is not difficult, 

looking backward from the vantage ground of to-day, to discover 

mistakes and errors of judgement on their part. But, on the 

whole, the wonder is that mistakes were not more abundant, and 

errors were not serious. The somewhat frequent changes of 

policy and practice in the general management of the school, the 

changes in the courses of study and instruction, and in the 

form of the " Model School," all indicate a readiness to recog- 


nize and acknowledge the fallibility of judgment, and a prompt 
determination to profit by the lessons of experience. Their 
work should not be estimated bj' the standards of the present, 
nor be subjected to the criticism which may justly be visited upon 
the blunders of their successors. 

First Published List of Teachers. 

1. Mr. A. S. Welch, Principal and Professor of the Greek and Latin 

2. Miss A. C. Rogers, Preceptress and teacher of Botany and Belles- 

3. Mr. Orson Jackson, Professor of Mathematics. 

4. Rev. J. A. Wilson, Professor of Intellectual Philosophy. 

5. :\Ir. J. M. B. Sill, Teacher of English Grammar and Elocution. 

Of two or three of these we shall speak more at length fur- 
ther on, after a few other teachers of the earh' 3'earsof the school 
have been briefly mentioned. Miss H.-K. Clapp was employed to 
take charge ofthe Model School at its opening, and remained in that 
position until 1856. She was succeeded by Miss Susan G. Tyler, 
who resigned in July, 1863, to visit Europe. Miss Lottie Pomeroy 
followed her and continued in charge till 1869. She was suc- 
ceeded, for a short time, b}' Mrs. Evans, who was followed, in 
1870, by Miss Minerva R. Rorison who served until the radical 
reorganization of the Training School in the following year. 

Professor Jackson continued in the chair of Mathematics 
until March of 1856, when he resigned on account of ill-health. 
Mr. John E. Clark than occupied the position for one year. Mr. 
George S. Jewell held the Professorship of Mathematics from 
April 1857, till July 1858. Mr. George E. Dudley succeeded Mr. 
Jewell, and held the position tmtil his much lamented death in 
1860. Mr. E. E. Ripley of Jackson was Professor of Mathemat- 
ics from 1861 to 1867. He was succeeded by Prof.C. E. R. Bellows 
who continued in the chair until the close of the school j'ear 
1890-91 . He was followed by Dr. David luigene vSniith, who held 
the position till June, 1898, when he resigned to take the Prin- 
cipalship of the Normal School in Brockport, N. Y. Professor 
Elmer A. Lyman became the head of the Mathematical depart- 
ment in the fall of 1898, to succeed Dr. Smith. 


The first teacher in the department of Modern Languages 
was Mr. Albert Miller. He was succeeded by Mr. John Bengel, 
and he, in turn, by Professor August Lodeman in July of 1872. 

The teachers in the department of the Sciences have been 
Professor L. R. Fisk, later President for many years of Albion 
College; Professor D. P. Mayhew, at a later period Principal of 
the school; Professor L. Mc Louth, who was succeeded in 
1884, by Professor Edwin A. Strong. 

The chair of Ancient Languages was first filled by Principal 
Welch. He was followed, in 1856, by Professor J. F. Car>^ who 
resigned the position in 1866, and was succeeded by Professor 
E. Darrow, who held the Professorship till his death in 1872. 
Professor J. P. Vroman next occupied the position, resigning it 
in 1886 to be followed by Professor B. L. D'Ooge at the opening 
of the next school j^ear. 

Among other early teachers, whose names only can be men- 
tioned here, were Professor E. M. Foote in the department of 
music, and Professor John Goodison in the department of Draw- 
ing and Geography, who will be spoken of in another place. If 
space allowed other names would be added to this list. 

Sketches of the Principals and Preceptresses. 

Brief sketches of the successive Principals and Preceptresses, 
and of a few other teachers, will be given at this place. For lack 
of success in getting desired material some of them will be short. 
Principal Adonijah Strong Welch. 

The first Principal of the Michigan State Normal School was 
Professor A. S. Welch. The fact that he was largely instrumen - 
tal in giving form and character to the institution, and in deter- 
mining the direction of its early development, justifies as full a 
sketch as space will permit, of his life, work and character, both 
as a teacher and as a man. 

Principal Welch was of New England origin, being born at 
East Hampton, Conn., in April of the year 1821. He came to 
Michigan at the age of eighteen and fitted for college at a school 
in Romeo. He entered the sophomore class of the University of 
Michigan and graduated in the class of 1846. In addition to his 


regular university work, he acted, during the last two )'ears of 
his course, as Principa'l of the preparator}' department, then 
maintained in connection with the University. After graduation, 
he studied law for a year and was admitted to the bar. The 
practice of law, how^ever, was not to his taste; and, in 1847, he 
became Principal of the Union School at Jonesville, the first 
school of the kind organized in the State. His marked success 
at Jonesville brought hira so prominently before the friends of 
education in the State that he was appointed to the Principalship 
of the newly established Normal School, and entered upon his 
duties in October of 1852, although, the first term of the insti- 
tution did not open until the 29th of the following March. Dur- 
ing the winter of 1852-3 he was emplo5'ed in educational mis- 
sionary work wherever opportunities presented themselves, and 
in perfecting arrangements for the opening of the school. He 
conducted an institute, in connection with the dedication of the 
Nonnal School building in October of 1852, and another in con- 
nection with the opening of the first term of the institution in 
the spring of 1853. In connection with these institutes he aided 
in the organization of the State Teachers' Association, and 
became the first President of that body. 

His labors, in the school and throughout the State, were so 
incessant and so exhausting that his health became so 
seriously impaired that in 1859, the Board of Education gave 
him leave of absence, and he spent a year or more traveling in 
Europe, Professor Sill acting as Principal during his absence. 
After his return he continued his labors with his accustomed 
zeal and energy until September, 1865, when failing health com- 
pelled him to resign the Principalship, which he had held for 
thirteen years, and to close his connection with the school. On 
accepting his resignation the Board addressed the following letter 
to him as an expression of their official esteem and personal 

friendship: — 

Lansing, Nov. 9tli, 1865. 
Prof. A. S. Welch, 

Dear Sir: — In accepting your resignation as Principal of the State 
Normal School, the State Board of Kducation desire to present to yon 
some expression of their high personal regard for you, and also to 


acknowledge the profound sense of obligation that both themselves and 
the people of the State are under to you, for the deep interest you have 
always exhibited, not only in the prosperity of the Normal School, but in 
the cause of education generally throughout the State. 

It is not senseless flattery, but simple justice for us to say that the 
complete success of the Normal School has been very largely owing to 
your earnest and untiring labors. 

Many of the best years of your life have been devoted to building up 
the Normal School, and during these years your influence has been 
extended beyond the limits of the State, and this influence has been both 
at home and abroad, that of a successful educator. 

You have rendered essential aid in developing our Public School 
System. You have always been present at the meetings of the State 
Teachers' Association except when necessarily absent from the State. 
You have not been present as a silent spectator, but as one of its most 
active and influential members. 

Many of the best features both of the constitution and by-laws of the 
Association are either the product of your own pen or the result of your 
wise suggestions. 

Since the organization of the State Teachers' Institutes you have 
been one of the most popular and successful lecturers. This has brought 
you into immediate contact with the most cultivated, and best minds of 
the State, who cherish for you feelings of the highest regard and esteem. 

We accept your resignation with many regrets, and were it not that 
your health demands a change of climate and occupation, we should not 
willingly consent to your leaving your present responsible position. 

In going from us, you will leave behind you a host of the warmest 
of friends, not only those who have been your pupils and fellow teachers, 
but your fellow citizens, who will cherish for you a kind and grateful 

Your intercourse with the Board of Education, has ever been of the 
pleasantest character. Although questions of the gravest moment 
relative to the interests of the Normal School have often arisen, and 
questions at once revealing the fact that there were decided differences of 
opinion, yet their discussion has been conducted with great candor, and 
the conclusions reached have been most satisfactory to all. 

Please accept our warmest thanks for the deep interest you have ever 
exhibited [in the cause of education in our State, and for j'our earnest 
efforts to aid in developing our Public School System. 

Our prayer shall ever be that the same kind Providence may continue 
to guide you in the future, which has aided you in the past, and may 
your life be prolonged, and strength and wisdom given you, that you may 
yet do as noble a work as that you have already accomplished." 


The first three j^ears following his resignation he spent in 
Florida, and, during the reconstruction period, he was elected 
by the Legislature, in 1867, to the United States Senate, to fill 
out a short unexpired term. In 1868 he accepted the Presidency 
of the newly organized Agricultural College of Iowa, which posi- 
tion he occupied for fifteen years. Resigning the Presidency 
on account of impaired health, he remained in the college as 
professor of the History of Civilization and Practical Pyschology 
until his death in March of 1889. 

The University of Iowa conferred upon him the degree of 
LL. D. in 1873, and his Alma Mater bestowed the same honoi 
in 1878. 

Prof. Welch published several valuable educational works, 
among which are "An Analysis of the English Sentence," "A 
Treatise on Object Lessons," "Talks on Psychology," and 
"Psychology for Teachers". I quoteJ;he following estimate of 
his character, and description of his prominent personal char- 
acteristics, from an article written by one of his early students: 

"Professor Welch had native abilities of high order. His intellectual 
powers were clearly above the average, and they were cultured and disci- 
plined by severe study and patient meditation. He was a man of dauntless 
courage and immovable firmness. He had keen insight as to men and affairs, 
and was wise in counsel; and thus was naturally and easily a leader. He 
had great executive ability, and was a disciplinarian of phenominal power. 
As a teacher he was master of both the art and .science of teaching, deliberate 
yet intense in thought, measured and careful in speech, he held the wrapt 
and undivided attention of all who were before him; and so a subject under 
consideration became paramount, and its facts and principles were easily 
grasped by his pupils. His power to develop and help young men and 
women was remarkable: he knew when and how to encourage, and when 
and how to restrain with an iron hand: and he was so just and wise that his 
decisions and acts received the approval of those affected by them. 

Our Michigan Normal School and the cause of education throughout the 
State, owe to Professor Welch a debt of gratitude which time can never 
diminish. His thoughts and deeds will live on in our institutions, and the 
influence of his high character and noble cjualities will be perpetuated in 
the manhood and womanhood of our .State through generations yet unborn." 

Principal D. P. Hayhew. 

David Porter Mayhew was born in Columbia county, New 
York, in 1817. He was prepared for college by Dr. David 


Porter, and graduated from Union College in 1837, at the age of 

In the following year he took charge of the "Lowville 
Academy" in Lowville, N. Y., and continued in charge of that 
institution about fifteen j^ears. His success in teaching and 
managing the school was very marked. After closing his work 
in lyowville he spent two years in Ohio, one in the schools of 
Cleveland and one in Columbus. He began his work in the 
Normal in Januar}^ 1856, and continued in the school fifteen 
years, first as teacher of sciences, and afterwards as Principal. 
He resigned the Principalship and left the institution in January, 
1871. From this time he resided in Detroit. 

Mr. Mayhew was a tireless worker, and always came before 
his classes fully prepared. His knowledge of the subject, his 
enthusiasm, and his affectionate regard for his pupils, always 
secured their closest attention. His disposition was cheerful 
and hopeful ; he loved children and understood and sympathized 
with child nature. In society he was a leading spirit, being 
fluent in speech and always ready with entertaining .thoughts. 
He spoke without self-assertion or offensive forwardness. 

One of Principal Mayhew's intimate friends says: 
"Prof. Mayhew was genuine; his love for the low down was inspired 
from above; he was a scientific and skillful teacher, a born teacher, a trained 
teacher. He had a conscious existence in a higher and better environment 
that surrounds ordinary men in this common life. His genuineness, his 
skill, his resources of spiritual power, constituted him, in my judgment, 
the most remarkable teacher I ever met, and my acquaintance with him has 
inspired a fervent affection ever to be treasured in my memory." 

Another friend writes : 

"In character he was gentle, yet strong. He was honest in the 
truest sense of the word. He was unassuming and seldom spoke of him- 
self. He was a teacher who loved his work, and in that love found inspir- 

His attachment to his pupils remained undiminished to the 
end, and in accordance with his dying request, his pall bearers 
were selected from them. The esteem of his most intimate 
friends may be expressed in the words of one who writes : 

"His character makes me think of the beatitude, 'Blessed are the pure 
in heart, for they shall see God.' " 


On occasion ot the death of Mr. Maj'hew the Board of 
Education placed upon their records the following minute, and 
sent a copj' of it to the bereaved family : 

Whereas,— li has pleased the Master and Maker of all men to call Prof. 
D. P. Mayhew from his home on earth to the place prepared for him in the 
heavens, and 

Whereas, — By his earnest work and loving Christian sympathy he aided 
largely in advancing the Normal vSchool to the high position to which it has 
now attained, 

Resolved: — That we cherish with loving memory the recollections of 
the time when he was connected with the school and his labors in its behalf 
and that this Board by this means feebly expresses its appreciation of his 
worth as a man, his excellence as a teacher and the many graces of heart 
and mind which he possessed. 

Resolved: — That while we extend to the widow and family of our 
deceased friend our most earnest sympathy in their sorrow, we cannot avoid 
congratulating them because of the man}' tender recollections and happy 
memories, which, till they are each in turn called upon to join him in the 
land of the Blessed, must be constantly present with them." 

Acting Principal C. F. R. Bellows. 

Professor C. F. R. Bellows was born in Charlestown, New 
Hampshire, in October, 1832, and came, as a mere boy, with 
his parents to Michigan in 1837. The family settled in the 
township of Climax, Kalamazoo count}^ where 3'oung Bellows 
had only the advantages of the ordinary district school of that 
day. At the age of seventeen he was sent to the Olivet Institute 
(now College), where he spent two years, boarding in the 
family of Professor Oramel Hosford, wdio at a later period 
became State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

In the fall of 1852 he was present at the dedication of the 
original Normal School Building, witnessed the inauguration of 
Principal Welch, and attended the Teachers' Institute which 
followed. He entered the school at the opening of the first 
regular term in March of 1853, and graduated with the second 
class which completed the prescribed course of studies in 1855, 
having in the meantime taught school for .several months. 

After leaving the Normal he organized the graded school at 
Constantine in the western part of the State, and remained there 


one year; he then went to Mishawaka, Indiana, teaching in that 
place for a period of six years. At the close of this time he 
returned and taught for two years more in Constantine. 

During these years, while teaching and managing a school, 
Mr. Bellows had, by private study, completed a considerable 
part of the University course. He entered the Universit>^ in 
1863 and graduated in the following year from the course in 
Civil Engineering. From the University he went to Decatur, 
Michigan, and remained for three years as Superintendent of 
the graded school in that place. In April, 1867, he was elected 
first County Superintendent of VanBuren county'. He had 
ser\^ed but a short time in that ofhce when he resigned it to 
accept an appointment to the chair of Mathematics in the 
Normal School. He entered upon the duties of this position at 
the opening of the school j-ear 1867-8, and continued to occupy 
the place for a period of twenty -four years, resigning at the 
close of the school year 1890-1. The most important educa- 
tional work of Professor Bellows was undoubtedly done in the 
Normal School. In addition to his services in the class room 
and in the teacher's chair he has published a large number of 
mathematical text-books, which are named elsewhere. After 
leaving this school he took charge of the "Central Michigan 
Normal School" located at Mount Pleasant. This institution 
was subsequently, by act of the Legislature, made a State 
normal school, and placed in charge of the State Board of 
Education. Upon accepting and organizing the school as a 
State institution, the Board appointed Professor -Bellows to the 
position of Principal. This position he held for considerable 
time, laboring with his usual energy and zeal. In consequence 
of impaired health he subsequently resigned the Principalship of 
the school and engaged in various kinds of educational work, 
mainly- editorial. He is now living in Ypsilanti. 

Principal Joseph Estabrook. 

Joseph Estabrook was born July 3, 1820, at Bath, New 
Hampshire. He was a decendant of Joseph Estabrook who was 
a graduate of Har\'ard college and pastor of a church in Concord, 


Mass., for forty-four N'ears. The family moved from New 
Hampshire to Alden in New York in 1833, and a few years after- 
wards to Clinton in Lenawee county. 

The earliest education of Mr. Estabrook was obtained in the 
district schools. A little later he worked on a farm during the 
summer and taught school in the winter. He thus fitted him- 
self for college, and in 1843 entered Oberlin from which he 
graduated in 1847. He received the degree of A. M. in course, 
and a short time before his death his A/ma Afafer bestowed upon 
him the well-deserved degree of D. D. When he^left college 
he had already taught seven years in the district schools of 
Lenawee county and "boarded round." He continued to teach, 
first in Clinton, next in Tecumseh, and 1853 became Principal 
of the public schools of Ypsilanti, where he remained till the 
close of the school year 1865-6. He then became Superin- 
tendent of the schools of East Saginaw, and held this position 
until he was appointed Principal of the Normal School in 1871. 
He remained at the head of this institution for nine 5'ears. In 
1880 he became connected with Olivet College and remained 
there until his death. 

He was Regent of the Universitj'- for six j-ears and the State 
Superintendent for four years. 

We are especially interested in his labors as principal of the 
Normal. During his administration the school enjoj-ed a high 
degree of prosperit3^ The scope of the professional work was 
greatl}" extended and the attendance of students was largelj' 
increased. The most potent element of his power in the school 
was his own personality. Without attempting any complete or 
critical analysis of his character, it will be sufficient to speak of 
two or three of his most obvious and prominent characteristics. 

First of all he was blessed with abounding physical vitality, 
an organism full of energj' and elasticity, forming a strong and 
reliable basis for a grand and noble intellectual, moral, and 
spiritual temple. The body is not all, it is not the highest or 
the best, but it is much; it is the living temple, not of the 
human soul alone, but also of the divine spirit. 


Next, with a well -developed intellect, he was blessed with 
unusual depth and strength of emotional nature. Feeling goes 
down deeper and rises higher than mere thought; it vitalizes 
thinking, makes it warm with life, renders it fniitful and 
fragrant. Bej-ond these qualities he had an abiding faith in 
goodness and in God; and a profound spiritual apprehension and 
experience which enabled him to lay fast hold upon the unseen 
and eternal, and to make them real in his daily life. 

No teacher ever connected with the school was more loved, 
was remembered with kindlier feelings, or greeted wherever he 
went, with warmer or more sincere words of personal regard. 
His influence upon the moral and religious life of the Normal 
was most marked. He was able to enter further than most 
teachers into intimate fellowship with the spiritual, the religious 
life of his pupils. He sought to develop in them the same faith, 
the same trust, the same hopes, the same assurance of life 
beyond, which he himself felt and cherished. 

One of his colleagues at Olivet says with much of truth and 
beautj' : 

"Lapse of time may cause some things to grow dim. The day may 
come when Professor Estabrook, the teacher, the preacher, the citizen, 
will be less clearly outlined in our thoughts that at present. But the time 
will never come when Professor Estabrook, the friend, will live less vivid 
or dear to our memory. What he did in class room, in pupils, and in the 
State may grow dim; but what he, our friend, did for us will never fade." 

lyike US, Professor Estabrook was human ; he was a man 
among men; he lived in the flesh subject to its infirmities and 
its limitations. He had fewer limitations and faults than most 
of his fellows; and he struggled more manfully and successfully 
than most of us against the narrowing limitations which hemmed 
him in and made him conscious, as we are conscious, of the 
imperfections of oitr common humanit3^ 

Take him all in all, he was one of the noblest examples of 
true Christian manhood that I have ever known. The world is 
better today because he has lived in it, and has gone about 
among his fellows ; and his personal acquaintances and friends 
are truer and purer because he has been with them. The whole 


strength of Hi's character, the whole force of his life has always 
been a mighty power to uplift the commvinity in which he made 
his home, and the State of which he was a citizen. The Normal 
School has need of such men in the executive chair and in its 
class and lecture rooms. 

Principal M. Mac Vicar. 

Malcomb Mac Vicar was born in Argyleshire, Scotland. His 
father, John Mac Vicar, was a farmer, and a man of great phy- 
sical and intellectual vigor. The familj- moved from Scotland to 
Canada in 1835, and settled on a farm at Chatham, Ontario. 
Malcomb entered Knox College in Toronto in 1850 to study for 
the ministry. He was ordained to the Baptist ministry in 1856, 
and in 1858 he entered the Senior class of the Rochester Univer- 
sit}^ taking the degree of B. A. in the following summer. Imme- 
diately after graduating he accepted a position in the Faculty of 
the Brockport Collegiate Institute. This institution was trans- 
formed, soon afterwards, into a normal school of which Mr. 
Mac Vicar was made Principal. 

He was soon recognized b}' the Regents of the University of 
the State of New York as one of the foremost teachers and prin- 
cipals of the State. The first year of the normal school work, 
carried on in connection with planning and supervising the erec- 
tion of new buildings for the school, proved a very trjang one to 
Principal Mac Vicar, and his health gave way under the pressure. 
Under these circumstances he resigned his position in the school, 
but the State Superintendent preferred to grant him leave of 
absence for a year rather than to lose his services to the State. 

During the summer of 1868 he went West, and was invited 
to become Superintendent of the schools of the city of Leaven- 
worth, Kansas. He accepted the position and remained there 
until April of the next year, when he returned to New York and 
became Principal of the Normal School then recently located at 
Potsdam, but not yet fully organized. 

In 1868 the Regents of the University of the State of New York 
conferred upon Mr. Mac \'icar the degree of Doctor of Philo.sophy, 
and in the following 5'ear the University of Rochester added the 
degree of Doctor of Laws. 


In December, 1880, he was elected Principal of the Mich- 
igan State Normal School of Ypsilanti. He remained here only 
a single year, but this 3'-ear he devoted very largely to the work 
of reorganizing the courses of studj', the societies, and other 
matters connected with the institution. He resigned his position 
in the Normal School to become a member of the Faculty of the 
Baptist College at Toronto. For seven j-ears he filled, in the 
College, the chair of Christian Apologetics, and Biblical Inter- 
pretation in English. 

When the Mac Master University was founded in 1888, Dr. 
Mac Vicar was made Chancellor, a position which he accepted 
ver>' reluctanth^ Having accepted the responsibility, he devoted 
himself with his accustomed energy to the labor before him, and 
completed the full organization of the institution in two years. 
He then resigned the Chancellorship and became the Superin- 
tendent of the Educational Work done by the American Baptist 
Home Mission Society- for the Colored People of the South, and 
for the Indians, Chinese, and Mexicans. He has now, 1898, 
under his supervision one Theological Seminary- , seven Colleges, 
and twenty -four Academies. Dr. Mac Vicar has peculiar adap- 
tation to the work in which he is engaged, and is bringing the 
institutions under his charge, into a condition to do the best pos- 
sible servdce to the colored people and to the denomination which 
supports them. 

He excells as a mathematician and as a metaph3^sician. As 
a writer, and in the class room, he is characterized by the utmost 
clearness and force, and his career as an educator has been 
eminently successful. It has fallen to his lot to perform a vast 
amount of hard work in organizing institutions of learning of 
various kinds. His investigation in the science of education 
has been original and critical, being based upon extensive obser- 
vation and a large inductionof facts. 

The views which Dr. Mac Vicar holds of the qualifications 
of a true teacher are of a verj- high order. The building of a 
strong and reliable character he regards as the crowning excel- 
lence of true scholarship, both in the teacher and in the scholar. 


Acting Principal Daniel Putnam. 

(by a friend.) 

About 1640 John Putnam, leaving England, settled in that 
part of Salem, Massachusetts, which is now called Danvers. In 
process of time some members of the Putnam family moved to 
Lj'ndeboro, New Hampshire. At this place Daniel Putnam was 
born on the eighth of Januar3^ 1824. The earl}- years of his 
life were spent on a farm, in a lumber mill, and in a carpen'er's 
shop. His early education was such as a New England district 
school gave at that period. After his tenth or twelfth year he 
attended school only in the winter season. This was the only 
schooling he received until twenty years of age. During the 
latter part of this earl^^ period he received much advantage from 
a kind of Lyceum which was organized in many of the school 
districts of the countr3^ In this'society he gained considerable 
practice in writing, speaking, and debating, and cultivated a 
love for reading. This was his first step above the ordinar>' 
work of the common district school, and opened the wa}' for 
the broader education and wider culture which were gained 
in later years. 

By manual labor and by teaching school in the winter 
months, he earned the means necessary to fit himstlf for college. 
His preparatory' course was taken in an academy at New Hamp- 
ton, N. H. From this place he went to Dartmouth College from 
which he graduated wilh the class of 1851. After graduation he 
taught for a time in the school at New Hampton, and later for a 
year in Vermont. 

Professor Putnam came to Michigan in the summer of 1854, 
and held the Professorship of the Latin Language and Litera- 
ture in Kalamazoo College for four or five years. He left the 
college to take charge of the public schools of the city of Kala- 
mazoo. In this field of labor he showed good executive ability 
and .^kill in the work of organization. In 1865 he returned to 
the college and labored two or three years under the direction of 
Dr. John M. Gregory. On the resignation of President Gregory 
he was acting executive of the college for one j'ear. In 1867 he 

Daniel Putnam. 



was elected Superintendent of the schools of Kalamazoo county. 
He resigned this position to accept a Professorship in the Normal 
School, entering upon his duties at the opening of the school 
year 1868-9. His connection with the school has extended over 
a period of thirty' 3-ears During three years he was acting 
Principal of the institution. 

In addition to his labors in the school room and in the man- 
agement of schools and of school affairs, Professor Putnam has 
been efl&cient in other departments of human activity. He served 
two years as alderman and two years as mayor of the cit>' of 
Ypsilanti. He has always manifested a deep interest in the 
welfare and prospeiitj^ of the community in which he has had 
his home. 

For more than fifty years he has been a member of the Bap- 
tist church and active in the work of the denomination. Though- 
not an ordained minister he has supplied pulpits frequently dur- 
ing most of his religious life. He has been a member of the 
Baptist Convention of Michigan for many years, its treasurer for 
about ten jxars, and one 3'ear its President. For tw^enty-five 
years he sustained the position of Chaplain of the Asjium for 
the Insane at Kalamazoo, and published two small books relat- 
ing to his work in that institution, and for the use of the inmates. 
He has published a number of educational works, a list of which 
is given in another place in this history. 

As a man Professor Putnam is unassuming and retiring in 
his character, but positive in his opinions and firm in his con- 
victions of duty in all the relations of life. As a teacher he 
appeals to a student's sense of honor, and seeks to develop the 
higher and nobler elements of his character. He seeks to make 
of his pupils men and women of the best kind rather than simply' 
scholars and teachers. That nobleness of spirit which shines 
out through all his life and teaching has shed a strong but quiet 
influence upon the lives of scores of young men and women. 
Many a former Normal student, now at work in the schools of 
the State, declares that the calm serenitj^ of Professor Putnam's 
life and character goes with him as an inspiration in all his work. 
But the true dignitj' and purit\' of his life can be best under- 


Stood by those who have come into close association with him as 
he has gone in and out in his daily labors. His deeds are as 
light -houses, " they do not ring bells or fire cannon to call atten- 
tion to their shining — the}' just shine." 

As an indication of the high esteem in which he was held as 
a scholar, he received, in 1897, the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from the University of Michigan. 

Principal Edwin Willits. 

The life work of Mr. Willits was wide and varied. We are 
concerned cliiefl}- with his work in connection with the Normal 
School, but a brief summary of his life and labors will be of 

Mr. Willitts was born in Otto, Cattaraugus Co., New York, 
on April 24, 1830. He came to Michigan with his parents in 
1837. He was graduated from the Uuiversitj' of Michigan in 
1855, and for ten years thereafter he was editor of the Monroe 
Commercial. In 1856 he began the studj- of law, and was admitted 
to the bar Hn 1858. In 1860 he became prosecuting attorney of 
his county. For twelve yeaxh from 1862 he was a member of 
the State Board of Education. From 1863 to 1866 he was' post- 
master of Monroe. He was a member of the constitutional 
convention of 1873, and from 1876 to 1880/was a member of 
Congress. In 1883 he was made Principal of the State Normal 
School at Ypsilanti, and he remained in that position until called 
in 1885 to the Presidency of the Agricultural College of Michigan. 
In 1889 he was called from the College to the position of first 
assistant secretary of agriculture at Washington. In 1894 he 
was removed from this position by Secretary Morton, whereupon 
he opened a law office in Washington. He died there October 
23. 1896. 

The first connection of Mr. Willits with the Normal School 
was as a member of the State Board of Education. The Board 
was originally created mainly for the purpose of locating and 
managing this institution. Mr. Willits became, a member of 
this Board at the opening of the year 1861 and served 
continuously for twelve j'^ears, contributing his full share of 


energy' to the interests of the school. After the severance of his 
official relations with the school, and while a member of the 
national House of Representatives, he continued to manifest a 
warm interest in its prosperity. At the close of his two terms 
in Congress he was elected by the Board to the Principalship of 
the Normal School. The considerations which influenced the 
Board in placing him at the head of the institution are thus 
stated in their report: 

"In appointing to so important a position as the Principalship of the 
Normal School one whose life work had been in other callings than the 
profession of teaching, one who had not through experience and study a 
systematic course of pedegogy behind him, the Board were mindful that 
they were departing from the ordinary course of procedure; but they 
desired especially to emphasize that clause in the legislative action of this 
State, which, in instituting a Normal School for the preparation of teach- 
ers, required that the State Board of Education should also provide for the 
instruction of its pupils 'in the fundamental laws of the United States, and 
in what regards the rights and duties of citizens. ' With this in view, no one 
seemed to the Board to combine, as Mr. Willits does, so many of the requis- 
ites necessary to lead the Normal School on to that great future which its 
founders confidently expected for it. * * * * por full twenty years he was 
a leading member of the local Board of E'lucation of Monroe; for twelve 
years (from June 1, 1861, to December 31, 1872) he served as a member of 
the State Board of Education, in which position he became familiar with, 
the affairs of the State Normal School; in the State Constitutional Com- 
mission of 1873 he served as chairman of the committee on education. His 
scholarship and scholarly tastes, his large experience, his acquaintance 
with men and affairs coupled with his thorough knowledge of the subjects 
assigned to him to teach, justify, in the opinion of the Board, their 
going outside of the profession of teaching in selecting a man for the 
responsible position of Principal of the State Normal School." 

In entering upon his duties in the school Mr. Willits kept 
in mind the department of labor which the board, in effect, had 
marked out for him. He gave instruction in civil government, 
in constitutional law, in the forms of congressional procedure, and 
in other subjects which touched upon social relations and upon 
the rights, duties, and obligations of citizens. He brought into 
the institution somewhat more of the tone and spirit of practical 
and political life than had been in it before. He emphasized the 
fact that the teacher is also a citizen, and, in common with his 


fellow citizens, should be concerned in the management of 
public affairs, — should be, in the highest and best sense of the 
word, a politician and a "man of affairs" 

The connection of Mr. Will its with the Normal School was 
too brief to allow him to establish any new policy- for its man- 
agement, or to seek to change, in any radical wa}^ the character 
of its instruction or the curriculum of its studies. He labored 
honestly and earnestly to advance its interests, to enlarge its 
sphere of usefulness, to give greater efficiency to its work, and 
to give it a stronger hold upon the confidence and good will of 
the people of the State. In these directions his administration 
was eminenth' successful. The school prospered under his 
direction, increasing in numbers, in general character, and in the 
extent of its professional instruction. 

He commanded the respect and confidence of his associates 
in the institution, and carried with him, when he resigned the 
principalship, their affection and kindlj^ remembrances. 

Gov. Rich, in speaking at the memorial services at the 
Agricultural College said: 

"It was my good fortune to know Hon. Edwin Willits well. Like 
many another man in this country he owed his success in life to his own 
exertions. While not born in ^lichigan he was practically a IMichigan 
product, as he came here when only six years of age. He came of good 
stock from the Empire State, to which Michigan i.-^ indebted for many a 
man whom she has delighted to honor as well as being honored by them. 
Mr. Willits did what he attempted well. In all the positions of trust and 
honor which he was called upon to fill he acquitted himself with honor; 
and in all these positions his work was done in such a manner as to make 
his administration more than ordinarily conspicuous." 

Principal J. M. B. Sill. 

Mr. Sill was born October 23, 1831, at Black Rock, a little 
town now absorbed by the city of Buffalo. He is of English 
descent, tracing his lineage through six generations to John Sill 
who settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1637. In 1834 the 
family removed to Oberlin, Ohio; two years later they again 
removed to the vicinity of Jonesville, where for six years the 
subject of this sketch lived on a farm with his father, attending 
the district school a few months each year. In September, 1842, 


his father and mother both died and were buried in the same 
grave. During the next two years he remained on the farm with 
his eldest brother, and during a part of each year, attended the 
village school in Jonesville. For five or six 5^ears, beginning 
with 1844, he supported himself by working on the farms of the 
neighborhood, and at the same time kept himself in school during 
the larger portion of the year. 

In 1847 Jonesville established a Union School, one of the 
earliest opened in the State; of this school Mr. A. S. Welch was 
the first principal. Mr. Sill began preparation for entering the 
University under the instruction of Mr. Welch at Jonesville. He 
taught his first school in a district of the township of Scipio in 
the winter of 1849-50. He spent the next year in Kalamazoo 
where he studied dentistry as it was then taught. 

Returning to Jonesville he went on with his academic studies 
considerably beyond the point of preparation for the University. 
While thus studying he taught a portion of the time as assistant 
in the Union School under Mr. Welch. He came from Jones- 
ville with Mr. Welch when the latter became Principal of the 
Normal School. During the winter preceding the opening of the 
Normal, he taught Latin and English in the Ypsilanti Union 
School ; and at the actual opening of the Normal in the spring of 
1853, he entered the school, pursuing advanced studies and 
teaching one -half of each day until the spring of 1854 when he 
graduated from the full course, being one of the three forming 
the first graduating class of the institution. Soon after gradua- 
ting, in March 1854, he was married to Miss Sally Beaumont of 
Jonesville, a lady who understands the art of making home 
attractive and domestic life beautiful. Four children have been 
born to them, two dying in infancj' and two surviving, one a 
daughter, Mrs. Cram, of Detroit, and a son Joseph, who has 
completed a literary- and medical course at the University. Before 
graduating from the Normal School the Board of Education 
appointed Mr. Sill a regular instructor in the school, making him 
director of the model department and Professor of the English 
Language and Literatuie. He remained in this position until he 
was elected Superintendent of the Detroit Public Schools in 1863. 


He resigned the Superintendency at the end of two years and 
took charge of the Detroit Female Seniinarj-. He continued in 
the management of this institution from 1865 to 1875, during 
which time it became one of the largest and most successful 
schools of the kind in the Xorth-West. In 1875 he was again 
unanimously elected, by the Detroit Board of Education, to the 
Superintendenc}" of their city schools. He continued in this pos- 
ition, by reelections, until the spring of 1886, when he was made 
Principal of the State Normal School. He remained in this posi- 
tion till 1893, when he retired from the active work of teaching and 
took up his residence in Ann Arbor. He filled the principalship 
of the school with great acceptance and with his usual energy- 
and efficiency. During his administration the Normal enjoyed 
marked prosperity ; the number of students increased constantly, 
and important improvements were made in various directions. 
The professional work was largely increased, and the school was 
brought into closer relations with the schools of the State. His 
administration was one of the most successful in the history of 
the school. 

In addition to his regular school work JNIr. Sill has filled a 
number of important positions. In 1867 he was appointed, with- 
out his previous knowledge, to fill a vacanc}' in the Board of 
Regents of the University. He served in this position till 1870. 
This appointment w-as peculiarly complimentarj-, as it was made 
by a Republican governor, while Mr. Sill was known to be a 
Democrat in politics, though never an active partisan. In 1871 
he received from the University the well merited degree of Mas- 
ter of Arts, and in 1890 he received from the authorities of the 
Normal School the degree of Master of Pedagogics. Mr. Sill 
has been closely connected with the State Teachers' Association 
from its organization in 1853, was its first Secretary-, and its 
President in 1861-2. 

He was ordained a deacon in the Protestant Episcopal church 
in the 3^ear 1880. He is loyal to the church of his choice, but 
catholic in his feelings and cordial in his good -will toward all 
denominations and organizations of Christians. Soon after his 
retirement from the Normal School he was appointed by Presi- 


dent Cleveland, CInited States Minister to Corea. He filled this 
position with much acceptance for four 5'ears, and until an 
administration of different political faith came into power. At 
present, (Oct. 1899), Principal Sill is residing in the city of 
Detroit, where he is always ready to lend his aid to every good 

In addition to regular school duties Professor Sill prepared 
and published in 1856 an elementarj^ work on English, entitled 
" S3''nthesis of the English Sentence." In 1878 he published a 
larger work on English grammar, called " Lessons in English." 
These works were both prepared on original and progressive 
lines and greatly simplified the study of our language. 

Principal and President Richard G. Boone. 

Mr. Boone was born at Spiceland, Indiana, in 1849, of 
Quaker parentage. He received his early schooling at the 
Friend's Academj^ in Spiceland. He began teaching at the age 
of seventeen, and was engaged for several years in the country 
and village schools of central Indiana. 

From 1871 to 1876 he had charge of graded and high 
schools. In the latter 5^ear he became Superintendent of the 
city schopls of Frankfort, Indiana, and remained in that position 
ten years. 

While teaching in Frankfort, the Department of Pedagog>^ 
was projected in the Indiana University, and Mr. Boone was 
invited to organize it. After one year at the head of this depart- 
ment, during which time he was acting Professor of Philosophy 
also, he was granted leave of absence to spend a year in Johns 
Hopkins University in pedagogical and philosophical studies. 

He returned to the University of Indiana in 1888, and 
resumed the work in pedagogy, somewhat extended courses being 
given in the theory of education, history" of education, school 
administration and super\dsion, methods in both elementary and 
secondary subjects, and the foreign school systems. 

While Superintendent of the Frankfort Schools he began in 
teachers' meetings and in contributions to educational journals, 
the system of educational doctrine, subsequently elaborated in 


the University class room and later introduced into the Michigan 
State Normal School. 

With a relativelj' limited school training, he made the years 
fruitful also in private studies in both scholastic and professional 
subjects, especially in general literature and history, sociology 
and modern philosophy. 

Since 1872 he has been a constant instructor and director in 
teachers' institutes in his native state first, then, at times, in 
Ohio, Illinois, Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia, Ken- 
tuck}', Texas, Arkansas, Minnesota and Michigan. 

While in Frankfort, De Pauw University conferred upon him 
the degree of Master of Arts, and in 1889 the Universit}^ of Ohio 
conferred the degree of Doctor of Philosoph3^ In 1888, while 
Professsor of Pedagogy^ at Bloomington, Indiana, he published, 
as a volume in the International Education Series. " Education 
in the United States." This book has been widely used as a 
text in Teachers' Reading Circles. Two j^ears later he published 
a " History of Education in Indiana." 

Dr. Boone has been for fifteen years a member of the 
National Educational Association, and for some j^ears a member 
of the National Council of Education, and also of the Superin- 
tendent's section of the same bod3^ 

Dr. Boone was elected Principal of the Michigan State 
Normal School in the autumn of 1893, and President of the 
Normal College in 1898, which positions he held till September 
1, 1899. He carried into this work the same zeal and energy 
which characterized his labors in other positions. He is now 
Superintendent of the Cincinnati Public Schools. 

Principal E. A. Lyman. 

Elmer A. Lyman was born at Manchester, Vermont, July 
27, 1861, and in 1869 moved to Indiana, and settled on a farm. 
At the age of seventeen he left the farm and prepared for college 
in the public schools of Kendallville. He entered the Univer- 
sity of Michigan in 1882 and was graduated with the degree of 
A. B. in 1886. He decided upon the profession of teaching 
and at once entered upon this work as Assistant Superintendent of 


Schools of Paola, Kansas. The next year he became Principal 
of the high school at Troj', Ohio, which position he held for 
three years. In 1890, he was appointed instructor in Mathemat- 
ics at his Alma Mater. In addition to his duties in the mathe- 
matical department he was, from 1894 to '98, chairman of the 
University of Michigan Summer School ; and for several years 
in connection with his teaching he did graduate work in mathe- 
matics and astronomy. In 1898 Mr. Lyman was elected by the 
State Board of Education, Professor of Mathematics in the Mich- 
igan State Normal College; and in August 1899, on the adoption 
of the new Normal Sj'stem, he was made Principal, and contin- 
ued as Professor of Mathematics. He has the distinction of being 
the first Principal under the new regime. His administration 
starts off under prosperous conditions, enjoying the confidence of 
the communit}^ faculty and school, with an increased number 
of students in attendance. 

President Albert Leonard, A. fl., Ph. D. 

The position of President of the Normal Schools of Michigan, 
created recentlj' by the Board of Education, has been filled b}' 
the election of Dr. Albert Leonard of the S3^racuse University. 

Dr. Leonard is a native of Ohio, born near Logan in 1857, 
was educated at the Ohio Central Normal School, and the Ohio 
University. In college, in addition to the regular course for the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, he took the four j-ears' course in 
Pedagogy', and received the degree of Bachelor of Pedagogy. 
After teaching in several positions, he returned to the Universitj' 
for three j^ears' of further study. Since that time he has been 
Principal of the high school at Dunkirk, N. Y., for five years, 
and of the Central high school of Binghamton for considerable 

In June, 1897, he was appointed Professor of Pedagog>^ in 
Syracuse University' , and was, at the same time, made Dean of 
the College of Liberal Arts. Since 1887, Dr. Leonard has been 
connected with the Jouryial of Pedagogy , and has been sole editor 
for the last half dozen years. This Journal is one of the ablest 
publications of the kind in this countr>^ 


Personally the Doctor is a gentleman of genial and agreeable 

temperament; plain and unassuming in manner, generous in 

disposition, and obliging to an unusual degree. He is said to be 

a strong executive, and accomplishes his purposes with little 

apparent effort. He will be cordially received by the Faculty of 

the College at Ypsilanti, and given every needed support and aid 

in working out the new plans for the management of the Normal 

Schools of our State. The position which he will occupy is in 

practical importance, scarcel}^ second to any educational position 

in Michigan. 

Preceptress Abigail C. Rogers. 

The first Preceptress of the Normal School was born in 
Avon, New York, in 1818. She early show-ed remarkable 
abilitj^ and attained unusual proficiency in her studies as a 
student in a school at Lima, New York. She completed a more 
advanced course than was common ~for young ladies at that 
period. At the age of nineteen she was engaged to take charge 
of a Seminary for girls at Coburg, Canada. After a few 5^ears 
she returned to her native state to' fill the position of Preceptress 
in a Seminarj^ at White Plains. Later she was, for several 
years, at the head of the Female Department of the Wesleyan 
Seminar}^ at Lima, New York, where she had been educated. 
At that time this school was one of the largest and most 
important institutions for the advanced education of ladies in the 
country. In 1847, at the age of twenty-nine, she came to 
Michigan, teaching first at Albion, and soon after in the High 
School at Ypsilanti. At the opening of the Normal in 1853 she 
was appointed Preceptress and remained coimected with the 
school two 3'ears. Resigning her place here in 1855, she 
went to Lansing, the then new Capital of the State, and spent 
the remaining years of a very active life in efforts to establish an 
institution of collegiate rank for women. At that period ladies 
were not admitted to the University, and no adequate provisions 
had been made for their higher education in any school or 
college in the State. She died suddenly in the midst of her 
labors in the year 1869. Her death and the opening of the 
University soon after to all the people of the State without 


regard to sex, prevented the permanent establishment of the 
Institution for which she had labored with great zeal and 
untiring energj^ 

The last product of her pen was the address to her 
graduating class of 1869 in which she held up to the j^oung ladies, 
just going out into the world, "The Perfect Woman" of Proverbs 
as a model upon which character should be fashioned. To 
those who knew her best she herself seemed a living example 
of this model with all its list of virtues. 

A lady who knew Miss Rogers, and to whom I am largely 
indebted for the material of this sketch, writes: "There are 
those living today who will remember the kind and S5'mpathetic 
interest with which she met their timid and self -distrusting 
beginnings, as scholars in the 'Old Seminary;' the tact and 
firmness with which she encouraged the eager learners and 
repressed anj' ovei -confident zeal; and, above all, the lofty 
standard of honor, and truth, and conscientious sincerit3', which, 
in everything, was impressed upon all who were ever under her 
instruction. In every sense, her thorough education, her 
courtesy, her refinement, made their mark upon her pupils. 
She was a lady of 'the old school' and the ceremonious 
courtesies cf old-time forms had their last exponent in her. 

I well remember how, at the close of the session each day, in 
in the 'old Seminar}-', as the j'oung ladies passed, in a long, 
decorous line from the school room, each one turned at the door 
and 'made a courtesy' which was so graciously- and kindly 
returned bj- her stately figure standing at the desk. In all this 
there was no assumption of a personal sense, either in teacher or 
pupil. It was that reciprocal consideration which honors both 
the giver and the recipient. 

The work of Miss Rogers, as first Preceptress of the 
Normal School, set the high standard which has always 
continued to mark this position. The exalted aims and large 
success which so many j'oung women have shown, who have 
been trained here, had" their beginnings in the foundation which 
she laid in the first years of the school. 


In an account of her life given shortly after her death, these 
words were spoken of her: 'She was the acknowledged and 
leading champion of the higher education of women in Michigan. 
To her, more than to anj' other, or perhaps than to all other 
women of the State, is due the present elevation of sentiment in 
regard to the higher education of women , and her work shall 
follow her through all coming j^ears.' " 

Preceprtess Sarah Allen-Patton. 

Sarah A. Allen, the second Preceptress of the Normal School, 
was born in the little village of Aspj^ville, Crawford county, Pa., 
on May 25, 1830. She says, "About four years later, three or 
four wagon loads of household goods with one woman, a couple 
of men, and half-a-dozen children, promiscuousl}- scattered in 
and over these goods, were started for Ohio. This was the Allen 
family and their 'flittin.' Their destination was the little town 
of Magadone in Portage county. As I was not long in attaining 
school age, my education began here in the little log school house 
about a mile from our home. This building was of the most 
primitive type; desks, which consisted simply of a slanting 
board, were arranged along two sides of the room. The 'high 
benches' were arranged in front of the desks, and the 'low benches' 
immediately below the high ones. On one of these low benches 
I took my seat one beautiful June morning. In those days 
instruction held a place subordinate to discipline. Discipline 
was the end ; instruction an incident, so it fell out that on this 
first day at school, I was transferred from my seat on the 'low 
benches' to one on the stove hearth, (a great box stove occu- 
pied the center of the room), because I laughed 'outloud' a 
little tiny laugh that 'laughed itself. ' I can feel today the agony, 
for it was little less than agony, of the cruel humiliation which 
that experience cost me. 

But I was diligently instructed according to the views of the 
times; and I can remember following with keenest interest the 
penknife of the 'school ma'am' as she dexterously skipped about 
among the letters of the alphabet ; and the pride I felt as I began 
to read, was something delicious. 


In the course of a few years the family made another removal, 
and this same thing occurred several times during my childhood 
and early youth ; and I was occasionally put at a disadvantage in 
the matter of schools. Still I continued to climb the 'Hill of 
Knowledge' and when I had reached a height at which I could 
leave the 'three R's' behind me I had an occasional term in a 
select school, and once three successive terms in an ,' Academy.' 
In 1852 I entered Oberlin College and graduated from the 
'Literary course, in 1854. Immediately after my graduation I 
was employed as a teacher in the high school at Canton, Ohio; 
but early in the spring of 1855 I v/ent back to Oberlin to take the 
place of Assistant Principal of the Ladies' Department in the 

The work of the College year of 1855-6 was only fairly com- 
menced when one day a very solemn looking man called at the 
Lady Principal's ofhce. This gentleman said he was in search 
of some one to take the place of Preceptress in the State Normal 
School at Ypsilanti, Michigan. It seemed to be the opinion of 
my friends that I could fill that place and as they thought it a 
very desirable one they urged my acceptance of it. I had taught 
quite a little in public schools and in private school, having 
entered the 'profession' at fifteen years of age; but I knew little 
about normal schools and nothing at all about the Normal School 
at Ypsilanti. Naturally I felt very great hesitancy about making 
the venture which my friends so warmly advised. I did how- 
ever, settle the matter before Mr. Mayhew left, and a week or 
two later I was in my place in the Normal School. 

I entered upon my work with a good deal of trembling, and 
the trembling never entirely ceased during my four years' stay. 
It was a very responsible position and I never for a moment got 
out from under the load. I tried to do good work in the class 
room and in this I was, perhaps, fairly successful, but my great 
anxiety was to do what one in my position ought to do for the 
young ladies, and be to them what one ought to be; and for all 
this I sorely felt my inadequacy. 

My successors have all brought to their work riper exper- 
ience and maturer judgment, and so I trust their work has been 


better done and its fruits, in the growth of Christian and wom- 
anly- character, have been richer. Sure I am that no one has put 
more heart into her work than did I. 

My term of service in the Normal School ended in June, 
1859. In August of the same year I was married to James Law- 
rence Patton, then a student in Oberlin Theological Seminary. 
In 1862 m}^ husband graduated, and accepted a call to the Congre- 
gational Church at Clarksfield, Ohio. During the first j'ear of 
our life there I taught the village school. This was the last of 
mj' teaching except as I have had now and then a private pupil ; 
and it is a long time since any one has been put t > such straits as 
to be compelled to applj^ to me for help in this way. My hus- 
band ser\'ed as chaplain during the last j-ear of the Civil War, 
and not long after his return, at the close of the war, he 
accepted a call to the Congregational Church in Greenville, Mich- 
igan. We removed to that place in January 1866, and there, 
after twenty-four years of faithful service he laid down his life 
April 19, 18^0." 

The above inteiesting sketch of her life and labors is copied 
from Mrs. Patton's own hand writing. She saj^s, "It will soon be 
nine j-ears since my husband left us." Four of these years, 
1891-5, she spent with her two daugh ers in Oberlin. The elder 
of these graduated in 1895; the younger wnll graduate with the 
Conservator}^ class of 1899. Mrs. Patton returned to her home 
in Greenville in the spring of 1896, but is spending the present 
school j-ear with her elder daughter who is Principal of the high 
school in Piano, 111. She will go back to the old home in Green- 
ville in June. She writes, "I have visited the Normal School but 
twice in all these )-ears, my last visit having been made twelve years 
ago. Of course I should hardly recognize the buildings or any- 
thing about it, and I should find no one in the Faculty whom I have 
ever known unless Miss King may still be with you. She was one 
of 'my girls.' " It is to be hoped that Mrs. Patton will live long 
and enjoy much, in the home where her husband spent so many 
years as Pastor of the church, and where she herself labored so 
long and faithfully as his helper. Those who have known Mrs. 
Patton at the Normal School and also as the wife of a Pastor, 


Speak in the highest terms of the excellency of her character and 
the goodness of her heart. 

Preceptress Mrs. Aldrich^-Ripley. 

Mrs. Ripley was a student in Oberlin College and graduated 
about 1858. After her graduation she was Assistant Principal in 
the Ladies' department for two j'ears. At this time she married 
Mr. Aldrich, an educated gentleman and a physician practicing 
in Oberlin. Dr. Aldrich lived only two or three years after their 
marriage. After the death of her husband, Mrs Aldrich, with 
her young daughter, lived for some time with relations in Pen- 
field, Ohio. 

Before coming to Ypsilanti she was, for a year or two. 
Chaplain in the Monticello Seminar}^ at Godfrey, 111. She became 
Preceptress of the Normal School in 1859 and continued in that 
position until 1867. While connected with the school she mar- 
ried Professor Riple}' at that time a teacher in the institution. 
She left the Normal with her husband at the close of the year 
1867, and went to teach with him in the normal school at Colum- 
bia, Missouri. After having taught there for a few years, she 
returned to live with her parents in Penfield, where she died not 
long after. 

Preceptress Ruth Hoppin. 

Miss Hoppin 's father was a Massachusetts man from th^ 
Berkshire region. On his mother's side he was from the Curtis 
family, some of the members of the famil}^ having been very 
active in the affairs of the Revolutionary war. He was one of 
the early pioneers upon that section of Western New York 
which was known at the time as " The Holland Purchase." 
He served, for a time, in the war of 18 12-: 4. 

Miss Hoppin 's mother was of Scotch and English descent. 
She had played, as a child, at the feet of Bishop Asbury, the 
first of the Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal church in Amer- 
ica. The Bishop was a frequent visitor at her father's house in 
Byram, N. Y. Miss Hoppin says "Some of the ver^^ best 
things which came into my earlj^ religious life, came from this 


Preceptress Hoppin was born in Chantauqua County in New 
York in December, 1833; and witliiier father's family migrated 
to Michigan in 1837, when she waslSu^^'ears old, and settled in 
the southwestern part of the State, in or near the township of 
Prairie Ronde. 

She writes thus of their location and of her life there. " We 
had Indians for neighbors ; droves of deer were sometimes seen 
from our windows; a bear was occasionally tracked down and 
killed in the neighborhood. Once in a while packs of wolves 
made hideous music not far away from our home. We had all 
the rough experiences of pioneer life for several years. Much of 
the time until fifteen years of age my only schooling was 
obtained by walking two miles and a quarter through the dust of 
summer, and the drifting snows of winter. The teaching in the 
countr3^ schools, then might not have been as scientific as now, 
but those schools had an element tliat the district school of 
today has nearly lost, namel}-, the stimulus, moral and intel- 
lectual, of all the best minds in the district." She says, " I look 
back to this portion of my life with pleasure, as one of real 
^value in fitting me for mj^ life work." From early childhood 
he was always playing teach school, and at a very early age, 
nally decided what her occupation should be. 

At the age of fifteen she accompanied some relatives to New 
York, and for a year had much better educational advantages 
than at home. The next year, in company with a brother, she 

•^went to Oberlin ; and during a period of several years she alter- 
ynated between attendirg school and teaching school, until she 

^nally graduated from the literar}^ department of Oberlin in 1856. 

VShe learned that, in those days self -education required energy 

^"and a strong will. There were no good preparatory .schools near 
her home, so that she was obliged to seek even the elements of 
an education at some institution as far away as Oberlin. During 
her last two years at Oberlin she was employed to teach classes 
in the preparatory department of the college. After graduating 
she taught two years in a Ladies' Seminary in Jonesville, 111. 
At the close of these two years Miss Hoppin returned to Michi- 
gan, and become Preceptress in the High School at Three Rivers. )£'^^ 


She served in this position five 5'ears, the first four with Pro ^^j^«- ^jj /<i^ 
fessor Wm. H. Payne, who later had charge of several schools ^ 

in Michigan, and, at the time of this -writing is connected with 
the University of Tennessee. •o^£^-^»-v***'^^*^ 

She next served for three years in the High School at Ann 
Arbor, and resigned this position in 1867, to become Preceptress 
of the Normal School. This place she continued to fill until 


June 1881, when she resigned to accept the chair of Botany in i/ 

Smith College, at Northampton, Massachusetts. Upon receiving 
her resignation the Board of Education took the following 
action : 

Whereas Miss Ruth Hoppin, for the past 14 years Preceptress of the 
State Normal School, has tendered her resignation in order to accept a 
position in the Faculty of an Eastern College, therefore, 

Resolved, that we, the members of the Board of Education, accept her 
resignation with unfeigned regret; that we are deeply sensible of the loss 
the Normal School is sustaining in thus releasing Miss Hoppin from so 
responsible a position, — a position to which she has brought accurate 
scholarship, rare tact and unusual executive abilitj'; and in which, during 
this long service, she has merited the fullest confidence and esteem of this 
Board; and that we extend to Miss Hoppin our sincere wishes for her 
continued prosperity and happiness in her new field of labor." 

As previously stated, Miss Hoppin's new field of labor was 
in Smith College, located in Northampton, Massachusetts, where 
she filled a Professorship with great credit to herself and advan- 
tage to the institution until compelled to resign her position on 
account of serious failure of health. » 

After a period of five years spent in rest, recreation, and 
travel, she went to Ann Arbor, entered the University, and 
received the degree of Master of Arts from the institution in June ^7 (A^^ %-» 
1891. Ditring the next year she taught in the University of ^ ^ h 
North Dakota, but was obliged to leave her position there on A 
account of impaired health. Since that time she has made her 
home at Three Rivers, spending her time and strength in teach- 
ing private pupils, and in leading work in women's clubs. 

Miss Hoppin says: "I commenced my first term of teaching 
when only fifteen years of age and am still engaged in my much 
loved work so that my teaching covers a period of fifty j^ears, but 


not of continuous teaching, since some years of the fifty have 
been devoted to stud5s to rest, and to travel." Several summer 
vacations were given to the study of botany at Har\^ard, one in 
the scientific laboratory at Anisqtaam, and while in the South- 
west, during the j^ears 1887-8, she was' employed as collector for 
-,_ y—, J the Agassiz Museum of natural history at Cambridge, Massachu- 


A bare sketch, like the one given above, show^s very little of 
the real life and character of the person spoken of. Those who 
have known Miss Htppin for a third of a century or more, could 
fill up the outlines, and present to us something of the real woman 
and real teacher and real friend as her most intimate associates 
have known her. 

As a student in her own special department, both in her 
early life and in her advanced j^ears, Miss Hoppin had few equals 
and no superiors. Having chosen teaching as her vocation she 
sought to magnify her office. She taught, not merely because it 
was her duty and her business to teach, but because it was a 
pleasure to teach, and especiallj" a pleasure to watch the unfold- 
ing of the minds of her pupils. She taught not alone to develop 
the intellectual abilities, not alone that students might know, but 
that the moral and religious powers might be aroused and excited 
to activitj'. She believed in the development of the whole being; 
she believed in helping the pupil to look beyond and above the 
materialism with which we are all more or less surrounded ; and 
in which the young especially are verj^ likely to become involved. 
She sought earnestly to make her own life an example and pat- 
tern for the j'oung men and women whom she taught Some 
characteristics of Miss Ht)ppin could be known only to her most 
intimate associates. She was generous almost to a fault, help- 
ing those who needed help, and lifting up those who needed to 
be lifted up, giving strength and courage to those who had especial 
need of strength and courage. In her later years her sight has 
become impaired, so that she has labored under great disadvan- 
tages. But still she has retained her cheerfulness, and has 
worked on with her accustomed zeal and earnestness. 


Preceptress Julia Anne King. 

Miss King is of Puritan stock. Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. 
Hiram King, left their home in Vermont for the Territory of 
Michigan, and took up land in the township of Milan. Several 
children were born to them in their new home, one of whom 
was the subject of this brief sketch, who was born in Milan, 
Monroe county. At six years of age she began her school days 
in a log house in the district where the family resided. «' 

When thirteen years old , her father died ; soon after she 
entered the Adrian Public School, where for the next three years 
she studied Latin and the higher English branches. She left 
this High School, and then entered the Michigan State Normal, 
and found her ideal school, with a Principal, Professor A. S. 
Welch, at its head, whom she feared, but regarded as a man among 
men. The Preceptress, at that time, was Miss Sarah Allen, a 
lady whom Miss King held in the highest estimation, and 
whose influence over her pupils was of the best possible kind. 
In 1858 she graduated from the Normal School ; but graduation 
from this institution did not put an end to her work as a student. 
She studied French and German, and other branches in vacations, 
and at other times while she was engaged in teaching. This 
habit of studying has kep't up during her whole life. Teaching 
and studying have gone on together in whatever position she 
has been placed. 

Miss King began in St. Clair her lifework of teaching which 
has been continued without interruption to the present time. 
Her first experience was gained in a mixed school in St. Clair 
where she taught one year, after which she assisted Hon. J. M. 
Gregory, the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, to 
organize a regular graded school, the high school department of 
which she took in charge. On leaving the position in St. Clair 
she returned for a year of post-graduate work in her Alma 
Mater. During the whole of this year she taught one or two 
Normal classes. 

The next position which she filled was that of Principal of 
the Lansing High School. This place involved the manage- 
ment of all the public schools of the city, and afforded an 


opportunity for the exertion of a strong moral influence over the 
whole body of pupils. This influence Miss King exercised in 
such a way as to make her work highly satisfactory to all 

At the end of the year, she accepted the offer of the 
po»-ition of Lady Principal, or Principal of the Ladies' 
Department, of Kalamazoo College. At that time Hon. J. M. 
Gregory' was President of • the college, having declined the 
nomination to the State Superintendency to accept this position. 
Miss Kirg taught for three years in the college, filling the 
Principalship with much acceptance to those who had the 
opportunity of enjoying her teaching and her other college work. 
At the close of her labors in Kalamazoo she spent a summer 
vacation among the Green Mountains, and returned to enter the 
public schools in Flint. She here took charge of the girls' hall, 
and taught modern languages, history, and literature for nine 
3'ears. A large number of the girls whom she instructed in 
those years have since filled most important positions in Michi - 
gan and elsewhere, passing on the ideas and influence which 
they received from the woman whom they took as their ideal. 
During all those years, in addition to her labors in the public 
schools, she was active in all kinds of religious and church 
work, in the prayer- meeting as well as the social; in the 
Sunday school, now as teacher, and now as superintendent. 

Her next field of labor was Charlotte. After being Princi- 
pal in that place for one year she was promoted to the Superin- 
tendency, which she filled for five years with marked success, 
proving her ability to manage satisfactorily a system of graded 

At this time the position of Preceptress in the Noniial School 
was made vacant by the resignation of Miss Hoppin to accept the 
chair of Botany in Smith College. The Board of I'Mucation 
unanimously gave the highest honor it had to confer, at that time, 
upon Miss King by electing her Preceptress of the institution. 
She came to this position thoroughly prepared in scholarship, in 
experience, and in reputation. 

Having a love for the department of history, she soon made 


that department her specialty, and from that time to the present 
has continued to enlarge the boundaries of her work, and to make 
her methods of teaching history worthy of imitation not onlj- in 
the Normal School, but in the high schools and other first-class 
schools in the State. 

The department of historj^ now affords opportunity' for 
obtaining broad culture, for acquiring exact scholarship, and for 
the most thorough preparation for the profession of teaching. 

In the Faculty, in the Council, and in the deliberation of 
committees, Miss King has sustained a position equal to that of 
any other professor in the school. Her executive work has 
always been done in an able manner, and she has alwaj^s been 
found a reliable coadjutor in all cases of discipline which have 
come under her jurisdiction. 

A most important feature of her work in the school has been 
the "Conversations," so-called, which she has held with the 
ladies on Friday afternoons. In these she has attempted to sup- 
ply a want which all connected with the institution have felt. 
She has sought to furnish the girls with an ideal after which they 
can model their lives and their work, With this constantly' in 
view, the most practical questions are discussed, — such as dress, 
manners, morals, etiquette, religion, and the Bible. Not a few 
of the most succeessful teachers in Michigan have acknowledged 
the help derived from these conversations. Miss King has never 
ceased to be a thorough and hard-working student, and has con- 
stantly kept herself in touch with the modem trend of thought. 
To do this has required much of self-determination, and not a 
little of mental acumen and energ>'. 

In addition to the ordinarv' duties and lab^r of a teacher in 
the class room, special duties alwaj's devolve upon one charged 
with the care, to a greater or less extent, of a large number of 
young ladies in a mixed school. In addition to cares of this 
kind, and to the labors which they bring, the Preceptress alwa3'S 
finds herself loaded with a weight of social and domestic duties 
which the good of students requires should be discharged in the 
best possible manner. 

These things, added to the many duties of a more strictly 


professional and executive character connected with so large an 
institution, have left no time for an5'thing but earnest, faithful, 
loving work; work often done in weariness and amid discour- 
agements, but always in the hope of helping, elevating, and 
blessing the rising generation of our State. Miss King has 
remembered, as some teachers have not always remembered, that 
something is needed in dealing with students besides mere men- 
tal acumen and intellectual vigor. The human soul knows, and 
rejoices to know, but it does more than merely to know. The 
teacher should be able to lead the student bej^ond knowing alone ; 
there is need of feeling as well as knowing. 

Of this truth Miss King is fully aware ; she leads those whom 
she instructs in the paths of uprightness and righteousness, and 
keeps constantly in mind that to lift up the soul above that which 
is merely temporal, is of more value than to gain an abundance 
of the things which perish with the using. 

Professor Albert Miller. 

Professor Albert Miller was born October 24, 1821, at 
at Geschwande, province of Thuringia, Germany. He received 
a thorough classical education at the gymnasium of 
Sondershausen, and at the University of Jena, where he was a 
member of the Thuringian corps. He came to Detroit first in 
1847, and resided there till 1854. During this period he 
organized and conducted the Detroit Lyric Society, the first 
successful musical organization of the city. From 1854 to 1866 
he was Professor of music for a time; and afterwards of German, 
in the Normal School. After leaving the Normal he resided for 
a short season in Saginaw, and afterwards in the State of 
Virginia; and returned to Detroit in 1871, where he lived until 
his death which occurred on March 20, 1896. 

After his return to Detroit in 1871 he devoted himself to 
teaching both vocal and instrumental music for ten j^ears. He 
was successively organist at St. John's church and the Scotch 
Presbyterian church, and also leader of the Detroit Chorus 
Union. In 1882 he was appointed instructor in German in the 
Detroit High School and served continuously in that capacity 
during the remainder of his life. 


Until the last three years of his labors the entire German 

work of the school was in his hands, and a large proportion of 

the graduates of the institution were under his instruction. 

One who knew him well says: "his gentle refinement of nature, 

and his love for all that was best in the literature of his native 

land, have deeply influenced the character of many of the youth 

of Detroit." As had been the wish of his life "he died in the 


Professor Frederic H. Pease. 


Mr. Pease is a native of Farmington, Ohio. His parents 
were Peter P. Pease and Ruth Crocker Pease who were among 
the founders of Oberlin College. 

Young Pease attended the college for some time, but did not 
graduate there. At the age of eighteen he left Oberlin and trav- 
eled with Professor E. M. Foote, holding musical conventions 
until 1859, when he settled in Ypsilanti as teacher of the piano. 
In December, 1863, he was appointed Professor of Music in the 
Normal School, which position he has held with marked success, 
until the present time. 

For the purpose of preparing himself more thoroughly for 
his work, he spent the year 1863 m Boston under the instruction 
of the best teachers that city afforded. A few years later, "under 
leave of absence," he went abroad to study with the masters of 
Germany and Italy, and to make himself acquainted with the 
European schools of music, and their methods of teaching. He 
visited the schools of Germany, Switzerland, Italy and Eng- 
land, and gathered up in each place whatsoever he thought 
would be of advantage to him in his own work. He has since 
visited Europe several times. The labors of Professor Pease 
have not been confined to Ypsilanti or the Normal School. He 
taught voice culture and singing in the Detroit Conservatory of 
Music for nine ye^rs, and conducted the musical department in 
the Bay View Assembly for three years. He has done the same 
sort of work at several other places. He has made the pipe 
organ a specialtj^ and has conducted the music in different 
churches for several years. 


The Ypsilanti " Musical Union" was organized in 1870 with 
Mr. Pease as conductor. He continued in the position for fifteen 
years. His work in the Normal Conservatory is treated in 
another place. Prof. Pease has been twice married, first to Miss 
Josephine A. Dolson, and, several years after her death, to Miss 
Abby Jean Hunter. He has always been a prominent figure in 
the social life of Ypsilanti, and has aided, by his musical ability 
and experience, in everj^ good work in the city. 

Professor John Goodison. 


Professor John Goodison was born in Sheffield, England, Oc- 
tober 25, 1834, and died in Ypsilanti, October 19, 1892. His par- 
ents moved to London in 1838, and resided there until their 
removal to this country. Mr. Goodison 's education was both 
extended and varied; in science, literature, and art, time was 
taken for growth and development. When very young he was 
sent to a boarding school at Banberry, Essex, and afterwards 
attended Markham Hall, Edmonton, the place made famous as 
the home of Charles Lamb. Later he attended the Philological 
School in London, Doctor Abbott head master. At this time he 
was thirteen years old. 

He was always very fond of books, and it was his habit to 
haunt the old book -stalls of London, until he knew the backs of 
the books by heart. His art instruction began at a verj' tender 
age under his father, and was continued at various schools from 
time to time. When quite a small boy he accompanied his father 
on a sketching tour through Scotland, and at the age of sixteen 
assisted him as decorator on the interior of the British Museum. 
About this time he had a great fondness for chemistry, and spent 
much of his spare time in a laboratory which he had fitted up for 

His parents came to this country in 1851, but John remained 
behind and came over in the fall of 1852. He was a student in 
the Normal School for four years, and graduated in March, 1860, 
having taught geography and drawing during his senior year. 
He was employed as a regular teacher for the next year. In 


August, 1861, he was married to Miss Harriet H. Hawkins, and 
removed to Eaton Rapids, where he was Principal of the public 
schools for one year. At the close of this year he returned to 
the normal, at the earnest solicitation of Principal Wtlch, and 
took charge of the subjects of geography and drawing, at the 
same time doing some work in teaching classes in Latin and 
Greek. Later his work was confined entirely to geography and 
drawing. In 1869 he was employed by D. Appleton & Co. as 
their agent in Michigan for the introduction of their books into 
the public schools. He held this position until 1883, when he 
became manager of the educational department of the publishing 
house of Thorndyke Nourse & Co., of Detroit. In 1885 he was 
reappointed to his old department in the Normal School which 
he filled with distinguished success till his death. 

In June, 1891, he received from the State Board of Educa- 
tion the honorar}^ degree of Master of Pedagogics, and on the 
same day learned that he had been made a member of the Her- 
bart Vercin, a German society of scientific Pedagogy. For the 
last three years of his life he was a member of the National Geo- 
graphical Society whose headquarters are at Washington, D. C. 

It was a great good fortune to know Professor Goodison for 
a full third of a century. The specific qualities that most 
strongly impressed me as characteristics of him were his high moral 
and intellectual integrity; and, next to these, there stand out 
clearly before me the great virtues of industry, perseverance and 
patience. While he was a thorough student, he was always 
extremely modest in putting forward his views ; and in differing 
with others was backward almost to diffidence. His industry 
was limited only by the time at command and his powers of 
endurance. Patience he possessed to a remarkable degree. In 
his work as a teacher his patience was well nigh boundless. Let 
him once feel that a student was making an effort to advance, and 
progress might be never so little or never so slow, he had for 
such student only words of cheer and encouragement. 

During all the years of our acquaintance and intimacy no 
harsh or unkind word or act occurred to mar our friendship or dis - 
turb our pleasant relations, and so I thankfully avail mj^self of the 


opportunit}' that is given me to testify to his manly worth, and to 
add my tribute of affectionate regard. 

Mrs Mary Rice Fairbanks. 

Mrs. Fairbanks' father was a direct descendant of Theophilus 
Eaton, the first governor of the New Haven colony. This 
accounts for the Puritanism in her make up. Her mother was 
a decendant of a New Jersey family, the Bonds, who were 
patriots ever}- one, and well known throughout the state. 

Her parents were pioneers, coming into Michigan while it 
was yet a Territor>'. She saj^s of herself that "she was, in a 
sense, a child of nature, of the forest." 

The education received in her childhood was somewhat 
desultor}^ A sister, who was a thorough scholar for her age, 
and whose forte was mathematics, taught her younger brother 
and sister the mysteries of Colburn's arithmetics, both mental 
and written, algebra, and the elements of Latin; and through 
the use of a neighbor's well selected library she and the other 
children became quite at home in the English classics. 

Later on, Mrs. Fairbanks visited friends in Erie, Pa., and 
while there drifted into a schoolroom. The school building was 
a simple country- school house standing at the foot of a steep hill 
which was crowned by a snug farm house. Its surroundings 
were idylic ; in front a mountain stream hurried over bright 
pebbles, its banks being flower -fringed and overhung with 
great forest trees. Here she commenced her work of teaching. 
Of this she says: "I scarcely remember what I taught them, but 
we formed a close friendship, and understood the joy of living. 
There was but one turbulent boy in school, and he was 
converted to a new life when I proved to him that he was 
indispensible to mj- happiness in supplying us with wood and 
water. Then I learned to select the worst or most unfortunate 
pupil as a helper always." 

Finding that she loved the teacher's work she went up to 
the academy at Kingsville, Ohio, to improve her qualifications. 
Here she met an ideal teacher, a born teacher, one Professor 
Graves. Leaving Kingsville she returned to Michigan which 
has ever since been her home. She spent several years teaching 


in the schools of Saginaw. She was made Principal of the first 
graded school organized there, a school of four departments. Her 
work in Saginaw was delightful, and she remembers with great 
pleasure many of the teachers and others with whom she then 

After teaching several years in Saginaw she went to the 
Normal School at Ypsilanti and graduated in 1860, just at the 
outbreak of the Civil War. Subsequently she became a teacher 
in the school through the influence of Principal A. S. Welch, 
who had been a firm friend through her student life. She says: 

"I can never forget the bright morning in October, when as 
teacher elect, I ascended normal hill. I had been slightly 
tremulous lest I should fail to meet the expectation of the 
Principal. I never thought of the Board, believing that the 
concensus of opinion of the pupils of the school must be the 
teacher's crown of glor>^" Her reminiscences of teaching 
in the Normal are of the most satisfactory- and delightful 
character. She was always able to secure the most hearty 
co-operation of the students in her classes. Her subjects, 
language, and literature, interested and charmed her, and gave 
life and beauts* to her work. She remembers with the greatest 
pleasure the noble men and women who were teachers with her 
in the school, but especially she remembers with gratitude and 
affection the Principals under whom she labored. Professors 
Welch, Maj'hew, and Estabrook. 

After teaching fourteen j-ears in the normal, Mrs. Fairbanks 
left the profession which she had honored and loved. She went 
abroad for one season with a part}- conducted bj- Professor 
Lodeman, and was both delighted and profitted b}' her visit to 
England, Switzerland, Italy, and some other countries. After- 
wards she entered into the marriage relation with a most excellent 
man, Dr. Fairbanks, and became a home -keeper in the best sense 
of the word. Though called to mourn for the loss of the loved she 
still retains her old fondness for the good and beautiful in life. 
As she herself saj's: "She seems endowed with a natural 
happiness, something quite independent of fortune; a singing in 
the heart in all sorts of weather ; and even when weeping by the 


open grave of loved ones, feeling in the soul 'blessed intimations 
of immortality.' " Mrs. Fairbanks' home is in the beautiful city 
of Flint. 

Professor Lewis Mc Louth. 

Professor McLouth graduated from the Universit}- in 1858, 
and for ten j^ears taught in the schools of Lapeer, Ontonagon, 
Owosso, Monroe, and Battle Creek. He was appointed Professor 
in the Normal School in 1869, where he remained for sixteen 
years, most of the time in charge of the department of physics 
and chemistry, and was always influential in directing the affairs 
and determining the policy of the institution. 

He left the Normal School in 1885 to take the professorship 
of mechanics and astronomy in the Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege. He was President of the State Teachers' Association for 
1886. In 1887, he accepted the Presidency of the South Dakota 
Agricultural College. He held this position for nearly ten years, 
when he removed to New York City and in 1898 became con- 
nected with the Cosmopolitan University, a great correspondence 
school of over twenty thousand pupils. 

Professor J. P. Vroman. 

Professor Vroman for a short time had charge of the gram- 
mar department of what was known as the academic school, and 
was then appointed to the headship of the department of Ancient 
Languages. This position he filled for nearlv fifteen years, when 
in 1887 he resigned to engage in other employments. Subse- 
quently he studied law, and is now practicing his profession 
successfully in the city of Detroit. 

Anna M. Cutcheon. 

Miss Cutcheon came from a family of teachers, and has 
devoted her life to the work of teaching. She taught eight years 
in Tennessee and Illinois, and entered the Faculty of the Normal 
School in January, 1872, taking charge of the work in literature. 
After nearly eight years' service here, she taught four j'ears in 
the Minnesota Normal School at Mankato; she then became 
Senior Principal of the Detroit Seminary, which position she 

August Lodeman. 



filled for thirteen years. Miss Cutclieon is now an honored resi- 
dent of Ypsilanti, prominent in social and literary circles. 

Professor August Lodeman. 

Professor lyodeman is a native of Germany and came to this 
country in 1867, at the age of twenty-five. After a short stay in 
the East he was induced by friends to come to Michigan and, 
early in 1868, settled at Kalamazoo, where he took out his first 
naturalization papers, being subsequenty admitted to citizenship. 
He had'received his education in the secondary and higher insti- 
tutions of his native country and, besides, pursued the study of 
languages in France and Switzerland- In accordance with his 
training and tastes he soon began to give instruction in the ancient 
and modern languages and in mathematics and, in 1869, accepted 
a position in the Grand Rapids high school as teacher of German 
and French. During one year he als>o had charge of the classes 
in Greek. Three years later, in the summer of 1872, he was 
appointed to his present position in the State Normal School and 
has continued in the same ever since. While being confined, as 
far as teaching is concerned, to the German and French lan- 
guages, Prof. Ivodeman began early to interest himself in educa- 
tional questions of a more general nature. By meeting with the 
teachers of the State at their annual gatherings, and by other 
means, he soon made himself familiar with the practical side of 
school affairs, while at the same time following, in the educa- 
tional literature, the various movements and ideas that have 
engaged the teachers of the United States during the last quarter 
of a century. Aside from this, impelled by the natural desire to 
keep abreast of the times in his own department, Prof. Lodeman 
has at frequent intervals spent his vacations in France and Ger- 
many and, with the additional aid of foreign publications, followed 
the course of educational aud literar>^ events in those countries. 
The revival of, and the important changes in, the methods of 
teaching the modern languages have been carefully watched by 
him, and, occasionally, he has himself made contributions in 
this line to various journals and at the meetings of associations. 
As a teacher Prof. Lodeman stands in the front rank of the 


profession, being fully master of the subjects which he teaches, 
and of the best methods of teaching them. As an associate and 
companion he has few equals. 

Professor Austin George. 

Mr. George is a Michigan man. He was born June 15th, 
1841, at Litchfield, Hillsdale count}-. He came from New 
England stock, his father being a native of Massachusetts and 
his mother of New Hampshire. At the age of twelve years he 
lost his right arm in the machinery of a flouring mill at 

His educational advantages were good and were well 
improved. He attended the Union School at Jonesville while it 
was still under the charge of Professors Welch and Sill. In 
1858 he graduated from the Detroit Commercial College. He 
kept books for a time in a general store, taught a five months' 
term in a district school, and then became a student in the State 
Normal School. In the summer of 1863 Mr. George was largely 
instnmiental in raising the Normal Co. "E" of the I7th Michi- 
gan Infantry, with which he went to the front as company 
clerk. After the battles of South Mountain and Antietam he 
held the positions of Regimental postmaster and clerk at Brigade 
and Division headquarters.' He returned to the normal and 
graduated in March, 1863, and at once became Principal of the 
Kalamazoo High School. Feeling the need of higher education, 
he resigned his position at the close of the school year of 1864, 
and took a year's work in historj' and law at the University, 
and then entered Kalamazoo College, graduating from the 
classical course in 1866. He received the degree of A. M. in 
1869; and the degree of Master of Pedagogics was conferred 
upon him in 1892 by the State Board of Education, on recom- 
mendation of the Normal Council. After completing his college 
course he engaged for a time in the business of life insurance. 

In 1872 he accepted the chair of Rhetoric and Literature 
in Kalamazoo College. In July 1873 he became Superintendent 
of the Kalamazoo Public Schools, which position he held until 
the fall of 1879, when he was appointed Professor of Rhetoric and 


Literature in the State Normal School. While in charge of the 
Kalamazoo schools he established a Teachers' Training School 
and designed and opened a departmental school for the upper 
primary and grammar grades. 

In 1882, Professor George was placed in charge of the 
Normal Practice School ; the position was raised to the rank of a 
department, and he was made Director, with the same privileges 
in regard to assistants as were accorded to other heads of 
departments. His work in this department was characterized 
by his accustomed energy and good judgment. At his request 
the name "Practice School" was changed to "Training School." 
He prepared a broad plan of organization which included in its 
scope a Kindergarten in charge a professional Kindergartner 
and a fully equipped primary and grammar school of eight 
grades with a critic teacher for each grade. As the department 
had but two teachers when Professor George took charge, it 
required considerable time, under the limitations then existing, 
to put in full operation so comprehensive a plan. The Kinder- 
garten was opened in 1888, the Model First Primary in 1889, 
and the full complement of nine critic teachers was reached in 
1892. The work of pupil -teaching was divided into observation 
and practice, and thoroughly systematized; and regular meetings 
of pupil -teachers were held three times a week for cri.icism, 
conference, and general instruction. 

Besides attending to the work of his department, Mr. George 
was alwaj^s active in every enterprise looking to the good of the 
school. In 1881 he proposed and started The Normal News, a 
journal designed to be the organ of the students and alumni. 
The Faculty, having once had financial experience with a school 
paper, declined to allow The News to proceed unless Mr. 
George would assume its financial management. He accepted 
the responiibility and managed the business until Feb. 1898, 
when he turned the paper over to the Faculty, with a cash 
balance of over $700. For this extraordinary^ result in school 
journalism, he was voted the thanks of the Normal Council. In 
connection with The Normal News, Mr. George, in 1889 


secured the establishment of the Oratorical Contest, which has 
since been an annual event in the life of the school. 

In the winter of 1892-93, Mr. George brought before the 
Council the question of asking the Legislature for an appropria- 
tion to erect a suitable building for a gjmiuasium. The 
project was considered impracticable, but on his urgent request 
was adopted, and a committee consising of Professors Sill, 
Barbour, and George was appointed to take charge of the matter 
and present it to the Legislature. Professor George acted as 
chairman of the committee. A memorial to the Legislature was 
prepared, and after several visits to Lansing, and meetings with 
committees of the two Houses by Professors George and Barbour 
and President Powers of the State Board of Education, a bill 
appropriating $20,000 for a gymnasium passed both Houses and 
received the approval of Governor Rich. During the vacation 
following, Professor George raised by subscription the sum of 
$1,700 to secure the purchase of the ground on which the 
gymnasium now stands; and on the dedication of the building, 
May 18, 1894, he delivered the address in behalf of the Faculty. 

Mr. George was one of the principal movers in the estab- 
lishment of the Normal Lecture and Music Course in 1884, and 
continued an active member of the committee for the period of 
eleven years, during which time a surplus of over $2,600 was 

His large acquaintance in the State and the fact that he fol- 
lowed the policy of giving no general letters of recommendation, 
but of writing instead only special letters pertaining to the 
candidate and the position, made the services of Mr. George 
highly valuable in securing situations for teachers, as many 
normal graduates can attest. 

Professor George was President of the State Teachers' Asso- 
ciation for 1881. 

Throughout his whole career as a teacher, Mr. George has 
exemplified his conviction that the teacher should first of all be 
a citizen and perform the duties of citizenship. He has accord- 
ingly been outspoken in politics, attended the ward primaries, 
and taken an active part in the social and business affairs of the 


community. He was Alderman from his ward for two years and 
member of the board of public works for four years. During 
his term as Alderman he was especially active in the development 
and building of the city water-works, being chairman of the 
special committee having the matter in charge and also chairman 
of the committee on ways and means; and while he was a mem- 
ber of the board of public works, the sewer system of the city 
was devised and the principal sewers constructed. 

Mr. George left the normal in 1S96 and accepted the Super- 
intendency of tht Ypsilanti Public Schools, which position he 
holds to the general acceptance of the community. During his 
administration the schools have prospered in all departments, and 
the high school has increased fifty per cent. 

Professor Lucy A. Osband. 

(by a friend.) 

Mrs. Lucy Aldrich Osband was bom in Arcadia, N. Y., 
October 27, 1835. Because of frail health her early school oppor- 
tunities were limited, but this was more than compensated by 
careful home -training, her parents having been teachers. At 
sixteen, she entered the Newark Union School, prepared for col- 
lege, and at nineteen began teaching. She was for two years 
Preceptress in Walwarth, N. Y., Academy, and three j^ears 
Principal of Sylvan Villa Seminarjs near Stannardsville, Va. 
Returning north, she entered Genesee College, graduating in 
1861 with the dt-gree of A. B. In 1864, she received the degree 
of A. M., in nirso, from her Alma Mater, and some years later, 
from Syracuse Universit3^ 

In August, 1861, she was married to William M. Osband, 
and with him taught three years in the Wesley an Seminary, at 
Gouverneur, N. Y. ; one year in Belleville, Ont., College; three 
years in the High School at Northville, Mich. ; one year at Olivet 
College and six years in Albion College. Then Mr. Osband 
retired from teaching and they made their home in Ypsilanti. 

In 1882, Mrs. Osband entered the normal Facultjs taking 
the classes in natural science which had been previouslj- distri - 
buted among the other departments. In 1884, the Natural 


Science department was formally established and placed under her 
charge. With the co-operation of Principal Edwin Willits, plans 
were adopted to provide the new department with apparatus, 
collections and other means of illustrations. When Mr. Willits 
left the school, these plans had to be dropped, but the purpose 
was kept in view. Gradually, by solicitation of gifts from friends, 
bj^ students' collecting and by purchase, collections were built 
up in Geology and Zoologj-, which for teaching purposes, illus- 
trated fairly the outlines of those subjects, the osteological col- 
lection, enlarged bj' the work of students in the department, 
becoming one of the best in the State. 

In 1893, when Mr. C. D. McLouth, the efficient assistant in 
the department, resigned, the department was divided, Mrs. 
Osband becoming Professor of Botanj^ and Physiology. In the 
two years preceding her retirement from teaching in 1895, the 
work in these subjects was extended to meet the growing needs 
of the school, and the herbarium begun by Miss Hoppin, was 
classified and enlarged by the addition of several thousand speci - 

This equipment of the department, while requiring much 
time and labor, was in addition to Mrs. Osband's real work, 
which was in the class room. There she aimed not onlj- to arouse 
enthusiasm and furnish a solid foundation for special work in 
Science, but to awaken in those whose work lay in other lines, a 
love of nature so genuine and so comprehensive as to broaden 
the intellectual horizon and to enrich the entire after life. 

The personal element in Mrs. Osband's work was strong. She 
was the sj'mpathetic friend as well as the courteous and consid- 
erate teacher. Her influence in shaping the lives of young peo- 
ple who came in touch with her has always been marked, and 
hundreds of her pupils acknowledge that they owe to her an 
inspiration to higher living, to earnest and broadening study and 
to helpfulness, which has borne fruit many fold. 

Professor Edwin A. Strong. 

In preparing this sketch we avail ourselves of material 
placed by Professor Strong in the hands of a friend for use on a 
similar occasion. 

Edwin Atson Strong. 



He says: "I was born in Otisco, Onondag^a Co., N. Y., Jan- 
uary 3, 1834. During boyhood I worked on a farm in summer 
and attended a district school, nearly two miles distant, during 
the winter, making extended visits also, one of a 3'ear in length, 
to my grandparents in Southampton, Mass. The people of Otisco 
were almost exclusively of New England origin and were filled 
with the old puritan zeal for religion, education and high politics. 
R turned missionaries and long-haired reformers abounded and 
alwaj^s secured a respectful hearing. M}'^ father was an old-line 
abolitionist and I often accompanied him to the numerous con- 
ventions of that party, so that the faces and earnest eloquence of 
Parker, Phillips, Douglass, Garrison, George Thompson, and 
others, early became familiar to me. I was present as a distant 
spectator at the rescue of Jerrjs the fugitive slave, and was fam- 
iliar with the operations of the Underground Railroad. 

Between the j^ears 1849 and 1855 I carried forward in a 
'desultory way preparation for college at Cortland Academy, the 
main influences while here being the excellent lecture courses, 
constant familiarity with the works then appearing of Emerson, 
Carlyle, Rus'^in and Browning, and association with two mem- 
bers of the faculty, Mr. Sanford, afterward Professor of Latin in 
Syracuse Univeisity, and Mr. C. D. Lawrence, author of a once 
popular c mrse of mathematics. Hy Mr. Lawren e I was intro- 
duced to the French m ithematical writers and to Descriptive and 
Analj^tical Geometry, the Calculus and advanced Physics. Our 
text-book in the last subject was the first two-volume edition of 
Young's Natural Philosophjs now so rare, a book which pro- 
duced a profound impression upon me and to some extent fixed 
my life woik. I never knew a better teacher than Mr. Lawrence. 

During this course of preparation I taught a district school 
one winter, a private school one winter, and gave one year to the 
duties of instructor in Onondaga Valley Academy, teaching 
Cicero, Vergil, Trigonometry, Conies, ?nd the Calculus. This 
work had been brought up to a high degree of excellence by J. 
D. Runkle, afterwaids of the Mass. Institute of Technologj% an 
account of whose zeal and knowledge were a great inspiration to 
me. Rev. Samuel T. May, a man of national_reputation, was 


President of the Board of Trustees and influenced me greatly in 
many ways. 

I attended Union College between the 3'ears 1855 and 1858, 
taking the A. B. degree the latter year and A. M. in 1862. I was 
drawn to Union College by the fame of Dr. Nott, the venerable 
President and Dr. Hickok, the psephologist, but my favorite 
professors were Dr. Taylor Lewis, the famous Greek and Oriental 
scholar, and Prof. Gillespie, in mathematics and engineering, 
both inspiring men and masters of an unusuallj' pure and strong 

Professor Strong left college for Grand Rapids, Mich., where 
he was Principal of the High school from 1858 to 1862 ; Super- 
intendent from 1862 to 1871; and again Principal of the High 
School from 1873 to 1885. The break from 1871 to 1873 was 
occasioned by his taking up the work of the science department 
at the State Normal School, Oswego, N. Y. While in Grand 
Rapids his work outside of school was mainly on behalf of the 
Kent Scientific Institute, of whose collection he was for many 
5'ears curator, and in connection with the Sanitary' Science Asso- 
ciation of that city. 

Prof. Strong commenced his work in the Normal School in 
the autumn of 1885, and since that time has had charge of the 
department of physics and chemistry, which under his direction 
has attained a high degree of excellence. 

He was married August 8, 1861, to Harriet Jane Pomeroy, 
of Auburn, N. Y., who died December 19, 1888. 

He has held no official position except as member of the 
State Board of Health for a brief term by appointment of Gov. 

Prof. Strong is a man of rare poetic genius, a humanitarian 
in the highest and best sense of the term, although his depart- 
ment of work is in the realm of science. He is a charming com- 
panion in the social circle, and the impress which he leaves upon 
his associates is always calculated to raise them up to a higher 
and purer life. The students who have received the instruction 
given in his classes go out into the world belter men and women, 
and with a profound conviction of the inestimable worth of a true 


and exalted moral and religious life, such as they have seen 
exemplified in the "dail}- walk and conversation" of Professor 
Strong. An}^ institution of learning is fortunate in having in its 
band of teachers men of his character and manner of living. 

Prof. F. A. Barbour. 

Professor Florus A. Barbour was born at Flint, Michigan, 
in 1856. In his early infancy his parents moved to Pontiac, 
Oakland County, and the latter place was the home of his boy- 
hood and 5'outh until he entered Michigan University in the fall 
of 1873. From this time on he paid his own way, graduating 
from the Universitj" in the Classical course in 1878. He 
specialized upon Latin and Greek with a view to studying 
theology, and at the same time took all the Universit>^ offered 
in the English Language and Literature. For some 3'ears he 
read along the lines of theology and philosoph3^ and in his early 
youth was granted a permit to preach by the Congregational 
Society. Several vacations were afterward spent in occupying 
vacant pulpits. 

Teaching was at first taken up, as in the case of many young 
men, merelj' as a stepping stone to a course in theology. 
Steadily, however, the importance of public school work and the 
largeness of opportunitj- for ser\-ice in the profession of teaching 
grew upon his mind, until, finalh*, as a teacher of literature he 
felt that a congenial and useful life-work was before him. He 
yields to know one, therefore, in his loyalty- to the Normal 
College, and in his enthusiastic encouragement of young people 
to enter upon the profession of teaching. 

Immediately upon graduating from the University, Professor 
Barbour went to Coldwater, Branch count>', Mich., as Principal 
of the high school, teaching Latin, Greek, and Mathematics. 
He was employed here for two years, and then accepted the 
Principalship of the Central Grammar School at Grand Rapids, 
his work including both grammar and high school studies. 
Remaining here but one year, he was called back to Coldwater 
as Superintendent of Schools, a position which he resigned in 


1885 to accept an appointment to the chair of English language 
and literature in the State Normal School. He felt th;it his 
varied experience in public school work would make him an 
intelligent member of a Normal School Facultj^ and that his 
specialization upon the Ancient Classics had laid broad the 
foundation for a sound and scholarlj' study of English Literture. 

The work of the department has grown quietly and steadily 
upon his hands. Enthusiastically devoted to the field of liter- 
ature, he nevertheless has a heart>' interest in the growth of 
other departments and in the general welfare of the college. 

Professor Barbour is a man of sterling integrit}'; he believes 
in the value and importance of moral and religious character in 
teachers, and that the teacher's character and life should afford 
an example worth}" of imitation b}^ all who come under his 
influence either as a man or an instructor. No amount of 
learning or knowledge, in his opinion, can atone for the lack 
of sound moral piinciples or for lack of uprightness of life. 

Professor Benjamin L. D'Ooge. 

Professor D'Ooge was born at Grand Rapids in 1860, His 
parents were descendants of the French Hugut-nots. The famil)- 
went to Holland in 1598, and Piofessor D'Ooge's parents came 
to America in the forties of the present century. After a short 
residence in the East they came to Michigan, and settled in 
Grand Rapids. 

His education began in the public schools of that cit}', and 
when but seventeen years of age hf graduated from the high 
school in the Ancient Classical course. Professor E. A. Strong 
was then Principal of the high school. Mr. D'Ooge entered the 
freshman class ot the University of Michigan at the opening of 
the next school year. During the first half of the sophomore 
year, lack of funds compelled hm to leave college for a time to 
acquire the means necessary to enable him to continue his 
studies. He returned to the University in February, 1879, and 
by dint of continued per.severence he succeeded in making up 
the term's woik which he had lost. He supported himself to a 


considerable extent, during the rest of his course, by giving 
private lessons in Greek and Latin. He graduated, in the class 
of '81, at the age of 21, with the degree of B. A., but he had 
done almost work enough in exct ss of what was required for 
that degree, to obtain the degree of M. A. 

During his college course he specialized in both ancient and 
modern languages and the natural sciences. He early recognized 
the necessity of concentrating his energies upon some one line 
of work if he hoped to attain eminence in his chosen profession 
of teaching; he hesitated for some time between the languages 
and natural sciences. Finally his tastes led him to adopt that 
line of work for which his present position shows his peculiar 

After leaving the University he became Principal of the 
Coldwdter High School. Here he taught Latin, Greek and Phy- 
sics, but his mierest centered more and more in language, espec- 
ially in Greek. In working for the decree of M. A. he made 
Greek his major study. He continued his efforts for the dt-gree 
during his three years at Coldwater, and at the end of that time, 
he passed a successful examination, and was appointed instructor 
in Latin in the University. He held this position two years, 
devoting his leisure time to the study of Sanskrit and Com- 
parative Philology. 

Professor D'Ooge came to the Normal at the opening of the 
school year 1887-8, and has since held the chair of Ancient 
Languages. His work in that department has been thorough, 
and has greatly increased the number of students in his classes. 
As an instructor he has a peculiar faculty for obtaining the max- 
imum of effort from the pupils with a minimum of friction. 
Bringing to his classes a large amount of positive knowledge, 
through which a vein of genial humor constantly gleams, he 
seeks to build up that very necessary part of an education, the 
power of acquiring definite knowledge rather than vague con- 
ceptions of misty generalizations. 

In his religious views Professor D'Ooge is liberal, but at the 
same time he is a firm believer in the importance and value of 
the fundamental doctrines of Christianity. He is an earnest and 


faithful worker in the Congregational church of which he is a 
member. He has been a frequent contributor to educatiimal 
magazines and papers, and has published several books which 
are noticed elsewhere. In 1891 he was appointed by the Regents 
of the Universitj^ to give a course of lectures upon the Italic 
Dialects, a subject to which he has given a good deal of careful 

Professor D'Ooge has a great reverence for culture, and a 
keen enjo^-ment of the results of genuine slud3\ 

Doctor David Eugene Smith. 

Professor Smith was born at Cortland, N. Y., Januar>^ 21, 
1860. His preparatory- education was pursued in the State Nor- 
mal School in that place, but he enjoj-ed unusual advantages in 
training in science through the instruction of his mother who 
had made that branch of knowledge a specialt}^ He prepared 
for a classical course at Harv-ard, but just as he was ready for 
college it became necessary for him to remain nearer home and 
he entered Syracuse. He here came under the influence of Dr. 
Bennett in history, Dr. French in mathematics, and Dr. Comfort 
in modern languages, and these three men had most to do with 
his subsequent work. He soon dropped his Greek and devoted 
himself to acquiring a practical reading knowledge of French, 
German, Italian and Spanish, added to which he took courses in 
Hebrew and Anglo-Saxon. The French, German and Italian 
he put to full use in his history of mathematics, and he has, in 
later years, published numerous translations from these lan- 

Upon the completion of his undergraduate work he entered 
the law office of his father, Judge P. Smith, and was in due time 
admitted to the bar. But even during this period he carried on 
graduate work under his three favorite teachers, going to the 
university twice a week for personal conferences. In this way 
he secured his master's and doctor's degrees. 

Having at one time, as an accommodation, assisted for a 
few weeks in the department of mathematics at the Cortland 


Normal School, he was asked, when the chair became vacant in 
1884, to take the place. This he did, and remained in that posi- 
sition for seven years. At the end of that time, having been 
granted a leave of absence for study at Gottingen, he was pre- 
paring to leave, when he was asked by the State Board of Edu- 
cation to take the chair of mathematics at Ypsilanti. This he 
decided to do, and he filled this position for seven years. 

During his term at Ypsilanti he wrote and published, in 
collaboration with Professor Reman of the University of Michi- 
gan, a Plane and Solid Geometr3^ (1895), a Geometry Tablet 
(1896), a translation of Klein's Vortrage iiber ausgewahlten 
Fragen der Elementar- Geometric (1897), a Higher Arithmetic 
(1897), together with various keys and answer books. He also, 
during this period, published a Historj^ of Modern Mathematics, 
in Merriman and Woodward's Higher Mathematics (1896), and 
numerous articles in the Educational Review, School Review, 
Bulletin of the American Mathematical Societ}'-, Hoffman's Zeits- 
chrift, L' Inter mediaire des Mathematiciens, and other period- 
icals of prominence. 

After seven j-ears of service at Ypsilanti he was asked to 
take the principalship of the State Normal School at Brockport, 
N. Y., and he accepted, severing his connection with the college 
in June, 1898. 

Since taking up his work at Brockport he has, in collabora- 
tion with Professor Beman, published a New Plane and Solid 
Geometry' (1899) and a translation of Fink's Geschichte der 
Elementar-Mathematik (1899). A text-book in Algebra is also 
ready for the press and will appear in 1900. Dr. Smith has also 
in preparation a work on the Teaching of Elementary Mathe- 
matics, which will appear in 1900. During the year a number 
of reviews from his pen have appeared in various periodicals. 

For a long time Dr. Smith has made it a practice to go 
abroad every other year in time to visit the schools before thej' 
close. He has thus come into touch with foreign education in a 
way which has been yery helpful to him in his normal school 

His labors in the Normal College here were eminently 


successful. The work in his department became thoroughly 
systematized, and a large number of students, year by year, took 
special instruction in the Various branches of mathematics. The 
department alcove in the library became one of the best, if not the 
best, in the country, in that line. He commenced a special card 
catalogue in his department which opened the way for similar 
catalogues in other departments. He was the leader in securing 
the organization of a mathematical section in the State Teachers' 
Association, and also in the Schoolmasters' Club. In both these 
organizations his work was of great value to the teachers of the 
State. His resignation of his chair in the college was much 
regretted by his associates, and by all frieads of the institution. 

Professor W. H. Sherzer. 

Professor Sherzer was born, and spent his boyhood, at 
Franklin, Warren county, Ohio, a place about thirty miles north 
of Cincinnati. His early education was in the Franklin schools; 
he graduated from the high school in 1878 in both the classical 
and scientific courses. During the last two years of his high 
school course he worked, during his leisure hours, in a printing 
office, and after graduation spent the next three years in teach- 
ing district schools. 

In that part of Ohio there is much out-cropping of the Lower 
Silurian limestones, containing manj' interesting fossils. This 
gave Mr. Sherzer an opportunity for geological observaiions of 
which he was very fond. His purpose, at that time, was to study 
civil engineering, as this profession would give him a chance to 
make a practical study of geology. 

He entered the University of Michigan in Februarj-^ of 1883, 
joining the engineering class. He remained in the University 
until the end of his junior year, when he was elected Principal 
the Saginaw City high school. He taught mathematics and 
science there for three years, and then returned to the University 
and graduated in 1889 in general science. The next year he 
took post-graduate work and received the degree of Master of 
Science. In the fall of '91 he taught science in the Houghton 
high school, and at the same time did special work in the mining 


school. In December of that j^ear he was elected a Fellow of 
the Geological Society of America, and in the following 
February he was called temporaraily to occupy the chair of 
geology and paleontulogj^ at the University, the chair having 
been left vacant by the death of Dr. Winchell, under whom Mr. 
Sherzer had studied. 

He was appointed Professor of the biol^gical sciences in 
the Normal College in 1892, and .-till remains in that position. 
Under his supervision a biological laboratory has been equipped, 
and the work of the department has been gteatly enlarged in 
varitius dire-tions, so that the normal now offers rare advantages 
for thorough instruction in the different branches of natural 
histor3\ Professor sherzer posesses the traits of a true teacher 
as shown in his manner of conducting the recitation, while he is 
always courteous in his dealings with his students. 

Professor C. T. ric Farlane. 

Professor McFarlane was educated in New York, and became 
connected with the Normal College in 1893, as bead of the depart- 
ment of drawing and geograph5^ Since he to -k charge of the 
department the work has been greatly enlarged and improved. 
During the school year of 1898-9, Professor McFarlane was 
absent, on leave, studying in Europe under the best masters in 
his own special work. He resumed charge of his cla::ses in 
October 1899. 

Professor Wi'bur P. Bowen. 

Professor Bowen was born near Chelsea, in July, 1863. The 
family moved to southern New Jersey in 1865 and returned to 
Chelsea again in 1880. Young Bowen attended the high school 
in Chflsea; taught a union country school for one year; entered 
the Normal School in April, 1884, and graduated in 1886; taught 
Mathematics in the Noimal, as assistant to Professor Bellows, 
from 1887 to 1892 ; then taught physical training in the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska two and a half ytars, spending the long vaca- 
tions in study at Chautauqua and Harvard. He took charge of 
the Gj-mnasium and of the physical training work in the Normal 
School in the spring of 1894. Under his charge the depart- 


ment has been well developed and is doing excellent service 
for the college. 

Professor Charles O. Hoyt. 

Professor Hoyt was educated in the schools of Michigan, and 
subsequently proved himself a thoroughly competent and suc- 
cessful teacher and superintendent. In 1896 he was called by 
the State Board of Education from the superintendency of the 
Lansing schools to take charge of the training department of the 
Normal College. After serving for a time in that position he 
became assistant in Pedagogy, and in 1899 was made Professor 
in charge of this department. 

Professor Charles T. Grawn. 

Mr. Grawn was born on a farm in Salem, Washtenaw Co., 
Michigan, October 4, 1857; his parents having emigrated from 
Sweden in 1855. He attended district schools and the Newaygo 
high school, taught district school for three terms in Kent Co., 
and then entered the Normal School, graduating in 1880 from 
the classical course. He took charge of the Plymouth schools in 
1880, and in 1884 succeeded to the superintendency of the 
Traverse City schools, which position he held till June 1899, 
when he was appointed Superintendent of the Normal College 
Training School. Professor Grawn is always a student; he took 
special work in physics and chemistry at the Agricultural Col- 
lege in 1891-2, and received the degree of B. Pd at the Normal 
in 1892, and M. Pd. in 1897. He was President of the State 
Teachers' Association in 1894, and has for some years been a 
lecturer at teachers' institutes. 

Professor Samuel B. Laird. 

Mr. Laird is a native of Prince Edwards Island and was born 
May 28, 1849. He attended the Chelsea, Michigan, high school, 
entered the Normal School in 1870 and completed the classical 
course in 1874. Professor Laird's long teaching experience has 
been wholly in Michigan : he was Principal at Wayne one year, 
Tawas City nine years. East Tawas five years, vSuperintendent at 
Dowagiac six years and at Lansing three years. He received 
the degree of B. Pd. from the Normal in 1896, and the same year 


took the degree of M. S. on examination at McKendrie College, 
111. He became a member of the Normal Facult5- in the fall of 
1899 as Associate Professor of Psychology- and Pedagogy. 

Miss Lois McMahon ser\-ed the institution faithfully and 
well, for about twelve years in the department of English. She 
had a strong hold upon the affections of those who knew her 
most intimately, and her sudden and untimely death caused deep 
and sincere grief to all who had known her and her work in 
the school. 

Miss Annie A. Paton, for a long time assistant in the 
department of Modem Languages, was forced to resign her 
position b}' continued ill -health. No teacher in the school held 
a higher place in the esteem, respect, and love of her associates 
and her pupils. Her influence was alwaj's exerted on the 
side of "the true, the beautiful and the good." She carries 
with her the kindest remembrances and the best wishes of all 
who knew her as a teacher or as a friend and a companion. 

Space will permit onh" the bare mention of the names of 
several teachers who have for considerable time done and are 
still doing valuable service in the school, and of some who are 
not now connected with the institution. 

Mr. Fred R. Gorton in Sciences, 

Mr. Lambert Jackson in Mathematics, 

Miss Helen A. Muir in Latin and Greek, 

Miss Ada A. Norton in -Mathematics, 

Miss Abbie Pearce in English, 

Miss Mar3- B. Putnam in History and Civics. 

Miss Florence Shulies in History, 

Mrs. Fannie Cheever Burton in Physical Training, 

Mr. Fred L. Ingraham in English, 

Miss Annie H. Schryver in Botany, 

Miss Margaret E. Wise in Training School, 

Miss Hester P. Stowe in Kindergarten, 

Miss Hatiie M. Plunkett in Training School, 

Miss Abbie Rpe in Training School, 

Names of some not now connected with the school. 

Emma C. Ackerman in Mathematics, 
Maude Ball in Training School, 


Alice B-\rr in Training School, 

Wui. H. Brooks in Traininj^ School, 

Ency J. Coleman in Traininj^ SjIiooI, 

Lillian Crasvford in Training School. 

K. M lude Caily in Training School, 

Maud E. C-innel in Kindtrr^art -n, 

Chloe N. Dmiels in English and History, 

Amelia Hale in Mathematics, 

Ella M. Hays in Mathematics, 

George F. Key in Mathematics, 

Ida Wall Lewis in Training School, 

Walter F. Lewis in Scieiue 

Mary Lockwook Mil lis in Kindergarten, 

Hiram W. Mdler in English, 

Clarence D. McL'JUth in Sciences, 

Helen Post in Training School, 

Annah M. Soule in History, 

Charles E. St. John in Sciences, 

Lla Taylor in Training School, 

Nina C. Vdw lewalker m Training School, 

Flora VVdbir in Training School. 



Alphabetical List of Teachers. 

The following is an alphabetical list of the teachers who 
have served in the Normal School, and in the Training depart- 
ment, with their line of work and tune of service. Probably- 
some errors have occurred, although all posssible care has been 
taken to make it correct. 

Aulls, Miss Sarah M., Assistant, Geography and Arithmetic, 1856-7. 

Allen, Miss Sarah M., Preceptress, Botany and Physioloy, 1S55-9. 

Aldrich, Mrs. A. D., (later Mrs. Ripley) Preceptress, 1859-67. 

Ackerman, Miss EmmaC, Assistant, Mathematics, 1892-8. 

Anderson, Miss Nellie F., Assistant, Geography, 1897 8. 

B-llo\vs, Prof. C. F. R., Mathematics, 1867-91. Acting Principal, 1871. 

Bt-ngel, Prof. John, Modern Languages, 1864-72. 

Bigsby, Mr. Bernard, Lecturer, English Composition and Literature, 1873. 

Barr, Miss Alice, Training School, Primary Department, 1873-8. 

Bignell, Miss Anna J., Training School and Instructor in English, Nor- 
mal, 1S81-4. 

Brooks, Mr. William H., Instructor in Latin and Greek, and Critic in 
Grammar Grades, Training S?liool, 1883 90. 

Barton, Miss Rose V., Instructor, History and German, 18^3 4 

Bar hour. Prof. Florus A., English Language and Literature, 1885 — 

Bowen, Prof. Wilbur P., Assistant, Mathtmathics, 1887-92. Physical 
Training, 1894 — 

Buell, Miss Bertha, Assistant, History, 1899— 

Byrd, Miss Myra, Assistant, Music, 1899 — 

Ball, Miss Maud, Training School, Critic, Second Grade, 1892 6. 

Blount, Miss Mary J., Training School, Critic, Fourth Grade, 189J-3. 

Boone, Dr. Richard G., Principal. (President) 1893-9. 

Burton, Mrs. Fannie Cheever, Assistant, Physical Training 1894 — 

Bacon, Miss Helen E., Assistant, English Language, 1896 — 

Berkey, Miss Mary E., Training School Critic, Fifth Grade, 1897 — 

Brown, Mr. Forest E H., Assistant, Natural Sciences, 1897 — 


Burk, Miss Nellie M., Instructor in Modern Lan^iages. 1898-9. 

Clark, Mr. Sereno B., Instructor, English and Latin, 1895-6; and '99. 

Calkins, Mr. R. D., Instructor, Drawing, 1897— 

Caffee, INIiss Belle, Training School Critic, Second Grade, 1896. 

Clapp, Miss H. K., Assistant, Model School, 1853-6. 

Clark, Prof. John E., Mathematics, 1856-7. 

Car}-, Prof. J. F., Ancient Languages, 1856-66. 

Claj-ton, Miss Kate, Assistant teacher, 1855-6. 

Cutcheon, Miss Anna M., Historj- and Literature, 1872-9. 

Coates, Miss Elizabeth, Training School, Primary Grades, 1879-81. 

Cleary, Prof. P. R., Penmanship, 1885-99. 

Coleman, Miss Ency J., (Now Mrs. Charles Caryl,) Training School, 

Primary Grades, 1882-5. 
Coe, Mr. Henry T., Instructor, Matbematics, 1884-86. 
Crawford, Miss Lillian, Training School Critic, First Primary, 1889-93. 
Caniiell, Miss MHude E., Kindergarten, 1891-96. 

Cady, Miss K. Maude, Training; School Critic, Eighth Grade, 1892-96. 
Cramer, Mr. Wm. D., Assistant. Nalural Sciences, 1893-98. 
Clark, Miss Clara L., Training School, Critic, Fourth Grade, 1893-95. 
Chapman, ]\Ir. W. H., Assistant, Physical Sciences, 1898-99. 
Dudley, Prof. George E., Mathematics, 1858-60. 
Darrow, Prof. E., Ancient Languages, 1868-72. 
D'Ooge, Prof. B. L., Latin and Greek, 1886— 

Dansenburg, Mr. Fred J., Conservatory, Instructor, Music, 1891-92. 
Daniels, Miss Chloe N., Assistant, Hi.story and English, 1894-96. 
Downing, P^stelle, Instructor in English, 1898 — 
Estabrook, Prof. Joseph, Principal, 1871-80. 
Eddy, Mi.'is Alice M., Assistant, Latin, 1897-99. 
Fisk, Prof. L. R., Sciences. 1853-56. 
Foote. Prof. E. M., Vocal Music, 1858-63. 

Freeman, Miss Ida A., Training School, Primary Grades, 1878. 
Fairchild Miss Elizabeth N. Instructor in Mathematics, 1896-98. 
Foster, Clyde, Assistant, Music, 1899 — 
Gaskill, Mr. L. F., Assistant teacher, 1855-6. 

Gooilison, Prof. John, Drawing and Geography, 1858-69, 1885-93. 
Griffith, Prof. A. A., English Literature and Elocut'on, 1868-71. 
Goffe, Miss Fannie E., Drawing and Penmanship. 1880 1884. 
George, Prof. Austin, Rhetoric and Literature, 1879-82, Director of 

Training School, 1882-96. 
Gorton, Mr. Fred R.. Assistant, Natural Sciences, 1892 — 
Gareissen, Mr. Oscar, Conservatory, Assistant, Music, 1892-98. 
Grawn, Prof, diaries T., Superintendent of Training School, 1899 — 
Hoag. IMr. E. B.. Assistant. Natural Sciences. 1899 — 
Hubbard, Miss Nellie, Assistant teacher, i855 6. 


Hulburt, Miss Ellen A., Assistant teacher, 1856-63. 

Hoppin, Miss Ruth, Preceptress, Botany and History, 1867 81. 

Hale, Miss Amelia, Instructor, Mathemstics, 18S5-9. 

Hays, Miss Ella M., Instructor, Mathematics, 1888 92. 

Harris, Miss Ada Van Stone, Training School, Assistant Director, Super- 
visor of Instruction, 1895-7. 

Hoyt, Prof. Charles O., Director of Training School, 1896 7, Assistant 
in Psychology and Pedagogy, 1S96-8, Professor of Psychology 
and Pedagogy, 1898— 

Hand, Miss Lillian, Training School, Critic, Fifth Grade, 1886. 

Hull, Miss Bertha, Assistant Drawing, 1897 — 

Ingrahani, Mr. Fred. L., Assistant, English Language, 1896-9. 

Jackson, Prof. Orson, Mathematics, 1853-6. 

Jewell. Prof. George S., Mathematics, 1857-8. 

Jackson, Mr. Lambert J., Assistant, Mathematics, 1891 — 

Jackson, Miss Adella, Training School, Critic, Second Grade, 1896 — 

King, Prof. Julia A., Preceptress, Histor}- and Civil Government, 1881 — 

Kimball, Miss Eliza, Instructor, Mathematics, 1882 3, History, 1897. 

Key, Mr. George F., Instructor, Mathematics, 1883-91. 

Kniss, Mrs. Lydia, Assistant, History, 1886-8. 

Kennedy, Mr. A. Dwight, Instructor, Drawing, 1895-8. 

Lodeman, Prof. August, Modern Languages, 1872 — 

Lamb, Miss Addie, Assistant, Training School and Normal, 1875-7- 

Lockwood, Miss Mary, Kindergarten, 1888-91. 

Laird, Prof. S. B., Associate Prof, of Psychology and Pedagogy, 1899 — 

Lathers, J. Stewart, Assistant, English, 1899 — 

Lodeman, Miss Hilda, Assistant, Modern Languages, 1890-1, Drawing, 

Lewis, Mr. Walter F. , Instructor, Physical Seiences, 1891-3. 

Lewis, Miss Bertha M., Instructor, Latin, 1896-7. 

Lickley, Miss Iva M., Instructor, Physical Training, 1896-7. 

Lyman, Prof. Elmer A., Mathematics, 1898-9, Principal, 1899— 

Miller, Prof. Albert, Modern Langages, 1854-64. 

Mayhew, Prof. D. P., Physical Sciences, 1856-71, Principal, 1865-71. 

Murphy, Miss Ellen H., Instructor, History, 1885-6. 

Miller, Mr. Hiram W., Assistant, English Language, 1887-96 

Muir, Miss Helen B., Assistant, Latin and Greek, 1889 — 

Montgomery', Miss Jessie B., Training School, Critic, Eighth Grade, 

Martin, Miss Julia, Training School Assistant, Seventh and Eighth 
grades, 1897. 

Mann, Miss Mary Ida, Assistant, Physical Training, 1897 — 

Marsh, Miss Florence, Assistant, Music, 1897-9. 

Morse, Mr. John A., Instructor, Geography and Drawing, 1898. 


Murray. Ellen B., (M. D. ) Examining Physician for Women, 1895 — 

McLouth, Prof. Lewis, Drawing and Geography, 1S69-71, Physical Sci- 
ences, 1871-84. 

MacVicar, Dr. Malcomb, Principal, 18S0-1. 

Mac Vicar, Miss Ada. Instructor, Vocal Music, 1881-2. 

McMahon, Miss Lois, Assistant, English Language and Lilerature, 

McLouth, Mr. Clarence D., Assistant, Natural Sciences, 1887-92. 

McFarlane, Prof. Charles T.. Drawing and Geography, 1893 — 

Nelson, Prof. Theodore, English Language and Literature, 1884-5. 

Norton, Miss Ada A., Assistant, Mathematics, 1891 — 

Norton, Miss Carolyn Weed, Training School, Critic, Seventh and 
Eighth Grades, 1897— 

Osband, Prof Lncv A.. Natural Sciences. 1882-95. 

Ponierov, Miss Lottie. Assistant, Model School, 1863-69. 

Post, Miss Helen, Assist --nt, 1857, Training School, Grammar depart- 
ment and Assistant, Ncrnial, 1874-88. 

Pease, Prof. F. H., Music, 1861. Full Profes'^or after 1863. 

Putnam, Prof. Daniel, Natural Sciences, 1868; Dircctnr of Training 
School, and Professional Training. 1870-82; Acting Principal, 
1881-83. 1885-86. Psychology and Pedagogy, 1882-99. 

Putnam, Miss Alice M., Assistant, Training School, Primary Grades, 

Pearcf, MissAbhie, Critic in Training School, 1885-88 ; Assistant, Eng. 
Lan>iuaj?e and Literature, 1888 — 

Paton, Miss Annie A , Assistant, Frt-nch and German, 1885-99. 

Pjinani, Miss M ry B., .Assistant, History au'l Civics, 1892 — 

Plunkett. Miss Hallie M., Training School Critic, Third Grade, 

Peet. Mr B. W. Assistant, Physical Sciences, 1899. 

Putnam, Mr. Richard R., Assistant, Physical Sciences, 1895-98. 

Phelps, Miss Jessie, Instructor, Natural Sciences. 1898 — 

Rogers, Miss A. C, Preceptress, Bitany and Belles-Leltres, 1853-55. 

Ripley, Prof E L.. Mathematics. 1861-67. 

Rice, Miss Mary, Enj^lish Grammar, 1863-78. 

Rorison Miss Minerva B., Assistant, Training School, 1870-1. 

Robinson, Miss Winnie J., Training School Critic, Sixth Grade, 

Robinson, Miss Georgia, Assistant, History, 1896-98. 

Roe, Miss Abbie. Training School, Critic, Filth Grade, 1896— 

Robson, Miss Alice, Assistant, Modern Languages, 1S99 — 

Stickney, Miss Isabella. Instructor, Drawing, 1S98 — 

Simmons, Prof.] James W., Superintendent of Training School, 


Stratford, Miss Emma F., Assistant, Drawing, 1896-97. 

Stowe, Miss Hester P., Kindergarten, 1896 — 

Starks, Miss L. Zella, Training School, Critic, Third Grade, 1896— 

Sill, Professor J. M. B., English Grammar and Elocution and Principal 
of Model School, 1853-63, Principal of Normal, 1886-93. 

Selleck, Miss Rhoda E., Dra^\^ng and Penmanship, 1878-9. 

Stockley, Mr. W. W., Instructor, Normal, 1876-7. 

Sterling, Miss Nellie M., Instructor, History, 1889-92. 

Soule, Miss Annah May, Assistant, History, 1889-92. 

Smith, Mr. Clarence E., Instructor, English, 18S6. 

Strong, Prof. Edwin A., Physical Sciences, 1884 — 

St. John, Mr. Charles E., Assistant, Physical Sciences, 1885-92. 

Smith, Dr. David Eugene, Mathematics, 1891-8. 

Shultes, Miss Florence, Assistant, History and Civil Government, 1892 — 

Spindler, Mr. Frank A., Assistant in Psychology, 189S-9. 

Sherzer, Prof. Will H., Natural Sciences, 1892— 

Stuart, Prof. D. R., Ancient Languages, 1899 — 

Stickney, Isabella, Instructor, Drawing, 1898. 

Severance, Mr. Thomas C, Assistant, Psychology and Latin, 1894-5. 

Schryver, Miss Anna H., Assistant, Natural Sciences, 1895 — 

Thompson, Miss Letitia, Assistant, ^Mathematics, 1899 — 

Tyler, Miss Susan G., Assistant, Model School, 1856-63. 

Trowbridge, Mr. Perry F., Assistant, Psychology, 1892-3. 

Taylor, Miss Ida, Training School, Critic, Fifth Grade, 1892-6. 

Taylor, Mrs. Grace, Training School, Critic, Fourth Grade, 1895-6. 

Thorpe, Mr. Ira G., Instructor, History, 1896-7. 

Thompson, Miss KateR., Assistant, Mathematics, 1896 — 

Todd, Miss Edith, Assistant, History, 1898— 

Vroman, Prof. J. P., Academic Department, 1871-2. Ancient Lan- 
guages, 1872-86. 

Vanderwalker, Miss Nina C, Training School, Critic, Primary' Grades, 

Van Buren, Mr. Dennis C, Instructor, Mathematics, 1894-5. 

Welch, Professor A. S., Principal, Intellectual Philosoph}', 1852-65. 

Wilson, Rev. J. A., Intellectual Philosophy, 1853-5. 

Webb, Georgiana. Assistant teacher, 1855-6 and 1871-2. 

Warren, Mr. William, Penmanship, 1875-8. 

Willets, Hon. Edwin, Principal, 1883-5. 

Wood, Miss Fannie H., Assistant, 1886. 

Weeks, Mr. Willis A., Assistant, Latin and Greek, 1885-9. 

Wall, Miss IdaL., (later Mrs. Lewis) Training School, Critic, Gram- 
mar Grades, 1890-2. 

Wilber, Miss Flora, Training School, Critic, Seventh Grade, 1892-5. 

Wimer, Mr. Milton W., Assistant, Physical Sciences, 1893-5. 


Wise, Miss Marj^aret E., Trainiu.u School. Critic, I'irst Grade, 1894 — 
Whitnev. ]Miss Eloise C, Assislanl, Drawing and Geography, 1894-7. 
Warner, ]Miss IMartha M.. Instructor, Mathematics, 1895-6. 
Waldo, Miss Clara, Training School, Assistant in Seventh and Eighth 

Grades, 1897. 
Whittaker, Mr. J. A., Instructor, Music, 1898— 
Yost, Miss Elizabeth, Instmctor. History, 1898— 

John Goodison. 




Attendance of Students, Etc. 

The following statistical table of attendance in the school 
down to the year 1868, is taken, somewhat condensed, from the 
report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction for the 
year 1868. It will be observed that the aggregate only is given, 
and not the whole number in attendance during any one year. 
The early records of the school having been destroyed, it is 
impossible to determine the number accurately. 


No. of 


for Year. 


for Year. 


No. of 











































































































































293 (?) 












285 (?) 












252 (?) 



























This table is of interest and value ; although being made out 
by terms, it fails to give us what we most of all desire to know, 
that is, the exact number of different students attending the 
normal department of the school during each school year. The 
aggregate for a year, obtained by uniting the figures denoting 
the attendance of two terms, is of no material value, as all 
students attending both terms are thus counted twice. It is true 
that after 1858 the whole number of individual students for the 
year is given, but unfortunately no distinction is made between 
members of the normal department and the pupils in the experi- 
mental school. The early records of the school were destroj-ed 
when the original building was burned in 1859 : during the first 
years of the existence of the institution catalogues were 
published only occasionally. It is, consequently, impossible to 
obtain exact statements of the number of different students in 
attendance during this period. The following table, made up 
from reports of the Board of Education and from other avail- 
able sources of information, is believed to be approximately 
correct : 

Attendance in the Normal Department and Training School and 

Number of Graduates. 

In this and the preceding table calendar rather than school 
3'ears are indicated. The previous table gives the calendar 
years in which the school years began; this table gives the cal- 
endar years in whicli the school years closed. 1854 takes the 
place of 1853, and so on. (Where the numbers given in this 
table differ essentiall}' from those given b}' others, the authority 
is indicated.) 


Normal Department. 






253 (State Report. 1856.) 




290 (Catalogue. 1857-8.) 


285 (Report, 1859.) 







I Training 























Normal Department. 




406 (Report, 1863.) 




342 (, Report, 1864.) 




255 (Report. 1865.) 












381 (Report, 1869.) 




342 (Catalogue, 1868-9.) 




419 (Report, 1870.) 








296 (Report, 1872, and Catalogue.) 




329 (Catalogue of 1872-3.) 











































































































Total number of graduates to 1899, 3347. 
Life certificates, 1915. 
Five year certificates, 1432. 



Publications by the School, and by Teachers Connected at Some 

Time with the School. 

Before the formal opening of the school several circulars and 
notices of various kinds were published and circulated by the 
Board of Education. The Board, also, made a regular annual 
report, each year, both before and after the organization of the 
institution. These reports, however, contain nothing of suffi- 
cient permanent interest to justifj' copjing here. 

Soon after the school had been put in operation, a catalogue 
w^as published with the following title : 



Officers and Me?nbers 


Michigan State Normal School, 
State Teachers' Institute, and 
State Teachers' Association. 

The Board and its officers at that time were : 

Hon. Francis \V. Shearman, Supt. of Public Instruction and Secretary 
of the Board. 

Hon. Isaac H. Crary, President of the Board. 
Hon. Chauncy Joslin. 
Hon. Gideon O. Whitemore. 


Geo. W. Peck, Ingham Co. 
S. Wright, Calhoun Co. 
E. C. Walker, Detroit. 



Mr. A. S. Welch, Principal. 

Miss A. C. Rogers, Preceptress. 

Mr. Orson Jackson, Mathematics. 

Rev. J. A. Wilson, Intellectual Philosophy. 

Mr. J. M. B. Sill, Eng. Grammar, and Elocution. 


Principal A. S. Welch. 

Mr. Orson Jackson . 

Silas H. Douglas, M. D., Ann Arbor. 

Mr. John Brainard, Cleveland, Ohio. 

During the first years of the existence of the school, catalogues 
were published only occasionally. The one has been noticed 
above, at some length as an interesting matter of history'. Another 
was issued in 1857-8, and still another in 1861-2. Since 1868-9 
catalogues have been published annuallj^ and regularly. It is 
possible, and perhaps probable, that some others were published 
between 1861 and 1868, but no copies have been found. Principal 
Mac Vicar issued only a small circular for the 3'ear 1880-1. 

For several succeeding 3^ears the publication was called the 
"Calendar of the Michigan State Normal School." Later it was 
named the ' ' Register. ' ' 

During the last few years it has been named the "Year Book, ' ' 
and has been enlarged in its scope and contents. 

The school published a number of documents for the Ceu - 
tennial Exposition at Philadelphia in 1876. 

It did the same for the great Exposition at Chicago in 1893. 
A considerable number of valuable charts were prepared at that 
time, and a pamphlet setting forth the plan and purpose of the 
school. A good number of papers prepared by the Pedagogical 
Society- have been published and circulated by authorit}' of the 
Board. In addition to these, circulars of various kinds have 
been prepared and distributed throughout the State, especiallj' to 
the high schools and County- Superintendents and Commissioners. 
The purpose has been to keep the school men of Michigan well 
informed as to the work and plans of the institution. 


The School. 

Ill January, 1872, the Facultj- of the Normal School com- 
menced the publication of a monthly paper with the title 
"The School." The introductory editorial said: "It has 
been, for several j^ears past, in the minds of members of the 
Faculty of the State Normal School to publish an educational 
journal. Many students who have received instruction in this 
institution, and others engaged in teaching in different portions 
of the State, have expressed an earnest wish for a periodical 
devoted especially to philosophical methods of instruction, and 
to the best practical applications of these methods, in all the 

* , , , , 

different grades of our schools. =i= ^ '-^ =^ Our design in the publi- 
cation of this journal, is to give a greater efficiency to the work 
for which the Normal School is established, namely the elevation 
of the teacher's profession, the unfolding of broader and clearer 
views of the philosophy of education, and guiding the practice 
of teaching by the light thus evolved. We shall aim to present 
from time to time the psychological principles that lie at the 
foundation of methods and processes which we shall recommend ; 
and to give such suggestions as years of experience in the school 
room have proved to be essential to the highest success. * * * * 
We shall give special prominence to primary methods and school 

A change was made after the close of the third year of the 
publication. The Faculty, as a whole found the publication 
unprofitable so far as monej' was concerned, and the paper was 
turned over to "C. F. R. Bellows & Co." ; ihe company consisted 
of Professors Vroman and McLouth. They continued the pub- 
lication until five volumes had been issued. In the last number 
it was said: "The School has become one of eight or ten month- 
lies of the great Northwest which have been consolidated into 
the Educational Weekly, published by Winchell & Klein, Chi- 
cago." This closed the career of the first regular normal paper. 

The Normal News. 

The Normal News was established in the year 1881 by action 
of the Faculty. The Faculty while making the publication 


essentially a students' paper, retained its general control in their 
own hands. They appoint the editor-in-chief and the business 
manager, and place these officers under the advice and direction 
of a special committee. At the beginning of the enterprise the 
Faculty, as a body, assumed no pecuniary responsibility for the 
publication. Professor George, who was very zealous in the 
effort to establish the paper took the position of business man- 
ager during the first year, and became personally responsible for 
all expenses. Although not acting directly as business manager 
after the first year, he continued to act as advisor in all pecuniary 
affairs connected with the publication until 1897. During this 
time several hundred dollars had been accumulated which were 
turned over to a committee of the Faculty. 

Walter C. Hewitt was the first editor-in-chief, being 
assisted bj^ a staff consisting of one member of each of the four 
literary societies. The aim of the paper is to subserve the best 
interest of the school, and of the students and alumni. The 
News began as a monthly, containing ten pages of reading mat- 
ter and a number of pages of advertisements. The first year its 
circulation reached onlj^ two hundred and fifty. Two years later 
the circulation had reached five hundred. Since that time it has 
varied from year to year, but, on the whole the paper has enjoyed 
a good degree of prosperity, and has been of much service to 
the school. 

Arrangements were made in the year 1889 for an annual 
Normal News Oratorical Contest, the management of the News 
becoming responsible for all expenses. The contest has proved 
eminently successful. The prize is a fine gold medal and a $20 
gold piece. One prize is awarded to the most successful gentle- 
man and one to the most successful lady. The contestants are 
chosen by the advanced classes, the societies, and one or two by 
the Faculty. 

The following have been the winners in the contests : 


1889, W. N. Lister. Mary F. Camp. 

1890, F. M. White. Mary Latson. 

1891, A. L. Marvin. Minnie Goodes. 



1S92, D. C. Van Buren. 

1893, J. S. Lathers. 

1894, L. O. Holbrook. 

1895, F. J. Tooze. 

1896, Clyde Young. 

1897, Byron Cook. 

1898, D. W. Kellv. 

Winnie Robinson. 
Angeline Sherwood. 
Mabel W. Smith, 
Carrie Bart)our. • 
Lillian Cutler, 
Lillian Downing. 
Estelle Downing. 

The editors-in-chief and the business managers have been 

the following: 


1881-2, \V. C. Hewitt. 
1882-3, L. G. Mecham. 
1883-4, A. J. Murray. 
1884-5, E. E. Keny'on. 
1885-6, \V. W. Chalmers. 
1886-7, C. D. McLouth. 
1887-8, W. D. Hill. 
1888-9, P. F. Trowbridge. 
(Associate. Ransom George. 
1889-90, S. D. Brooks. 
1890-1, H. T. Blodgett. 
1891-2. R. L. Holloway. 
1892-3, M. J. Withington. 
1893-4, D. G. VanBuren. 
1894-5, S. G. McAlpine. 
1895-6, Harriet L. Bouldin. 
1896-7, Eloise S. Bradshaw. 
1897-8, H. G. Lull. 
1898-9, M. Maude Manley. 


Prof. Austin George. 
A. J. Murray. 
W. J. Champion. 
W. \V. Chalmers. 
J. \V. Kennedy. 
J. W. Kennedy. 
W.-F. Lewis. 
F. J. Hendershott. 

F. L. Ingraham. 
M. \'. Rosenberrv. 
C. W. Curtis. 
E. P. Goodrich. 
C. L. Norton. 
C. D. Livingston. 
Wm. M. Gregory-. 
Irving Cross. 
H. G. Agjiew. 
VV. S. Li.ster. 

The Aurora. 

The class of 1893 began the publication of an Annual called 
The Aurora. The publication is designed to afford an oppor- 
tunity to show the character and spirit of the class ; and as stated 
in the preface of one of the later volumes, "to represent the 
school in her true light, giving her different organizations, 
showing the ability of her students, and, throughout, trying to 
reflect the inner life our Normal." The Aurora has, without 
exception, been so edited as to be an honor to successive classes, 
and a credit to the institution. 


List of Publications. 

The following list of books published by persons at some 
time connected with the school is as accurate as it could be 
made by the means at hand : 


1. Analysis of the English Sentence, 
1853, A. S. Barnes & Co., N. Y. 

2. Object Ivcssons, 

1862, A. S. Barnes & Co., N. Y. 

3. Talks on Psjxhologj', 
1889, E. L. Kellogg & Co., X. Y. 

4. Teachers' Psychologj^ 
1889, E. L. Kellogg & Co., N. Y. 


1. Synthesis of the English Sentence, 
1856, Ivison & Phinney, N. Y. 

2. Practical Eessons in English, 
1880, A. .S. Barnes & Co., N. Y. 


1. Education in the United States. 
1889, D. .\ppleton & Co. 

2. Education in Indiana, 1892. 


1. The Western Bell, 

(In connection with Mr. A. Perkins.) 1857, Oliver Ditson & Co., 

2. Musical Lyra, 

1867, Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston. 

3. The Crystal, 
1872, S. Brainard. 

4. Pease's Singing Book for Teachers and Classes, 
1886, Ginn & Co., Boston. 

5. A Harmony Manual, 

(In connection with W. Hewitt.) 

6. A large number of select music pieces, some of which 

are the following: 

(a) Aria and Recitative, 
Remember thy Creator, etc. 


(b) Longfellow's Psalm of Life, 
(for solos and choruses.) 

(c) The Reaper and the Flowers. 
( for women's voices, etc.) 

(d) The Pilgrim and Stranger, 
(for mixed choruses,) 

(e) Te Deum Laudamus, 
(for organ, etc.) 

(f) Memory's Refrain, 
(a quartette. ) 


1. Grundriss der Geschichte der deutschen Literatur, 
Boston, 1874. 

2. The Students' Manual of Exercises for Translating into 

Putnam's Sons, 1885. 


1. A. Manual of Drawing. 


1. Plane and Solid Geometr>^ 
Ginn & Co., 1896. 

2. Higher Arithmetic, 
Ginn & Co., 1897, 

3. Famous Problems of Elementary Geometry, 
Ginn & Co., 1897. 

4. High School Algebra, 
Ginn & Co., 1899. 

(The above were prepared in connection with Prof. W. W. 
Beman of University of Michigan.) 

5. History of Modern Mathematics, 
John Wiley & Sons, 1896. 


1. Sunbeams through the Clouds, in 1871, 

( A little manual for the special use of inmates of asylums for the 

2. A Geography of Michigan, 1877, 
(Published with Colton's geography.) 

3. A Sketch of Michigan StateTeachers' Association, 1877, 

(Published by the Association.) 


4 Outline of the Theory and Art of Teaching, 1883. 

5. A series of School Readers, 

(In connection with another gentleman. ) 1882-3. 

6. Twenty-five Years with the Insane, 1885. 

7. Elementar3^ Psychology, 1889. 

8. A Primary of Pedagogy, 1890. 

9. Manual of Pedagogics, 1895. 

10. History of the State Normal School. 


1. An Outline Course in Histor>'. A Teachers' Manual. 

2. Civil Government of Michigan, 1896. 


1. A series of Arithmetics, including Primary, Practical 
and Higher. 

2. A Teachers' Manual of Arithmetic. 

3. A Teachers' Handbook of Arithmetical Exercises. 

4. MacVicar's Spelling Blanks. 

5. An Arithmetical Apparatus and Manual for presenting 
12,000 Exercises for Practical and Rapid Work in the Four 
Fundamental rules, including Fractions. 

6. A Tellurian Globe, published by Andrews Co., Chicago. 

7. A Manual on the use of the Globe, including Exercises. 

8. Volume entitled Principles of Education. 


1. Analysis of Arithmetic, being a syllabus of the topics of 
Arithmetic in their logical sequence. 

2. Arithmetic, Its What, How, and Why; — A Manual for 

3. Elements of Algebra for common schools. 

4. A Treatise upon Plane and Solid Geometry. 

5. A Treatise upon Plane and Spherical Trigonometry. 

6. A Manual of Eand Sur\'eying. 

7. A Common School Arithmetic. 


1. Outlines for Kindergarten and Primary Classes. 1897. 



1. Colloquia Latina, 
Heath & Co., Boston. 188S.; 

2. Viri Romse, 
Ginii & Co.. 1895. 

3. Easy Latin for Sight Reading, 
Ginn & Co.. 1897. 

4. Ne\v Caesar with Vocabular}-, 

(with Professor James B. Greenough and Mr. Grant Daniell. 
Ginn & Co.. Boston. 1898.) 

5. Cicero, Select Orations, 
Benj. Sanborn & Co.. Boston, 1899. 

6. Latin Composition Tablet, 

Ginn & Co., Boston, 1895. ' 

7. Greek Composition Tablet, 
Ginn & Co., Boston, 1896. 

.8 Help to the Stud3- of ClassicalMj'thology, 
George Wahr, Ann Arbor, 1899. 

9. First Selections in Latin, 

(with J. B. Greenough, and M. G. Daniell.) 
Ginn & Co., Boston, 1899. 



Societies in the Normal. 

Societies are an essential element in the life and develop- 
ment of any institution of learning. They usually afford a 
tolerably reliable index of the tone, taste, and general culture 
of the student body, and, inferentially at least, of the teaching 
and governing bodies. The management of the societies, the 
subjects of discussion, the modes of relaxation and of social 
intercourse connected with them, all combine to mark the 
development and progress of the community and the State. 
This is especially true in a school in which the students are 
drawn largely from the homes of the common people and from 
the rural neighborhoods, where artificial distinctions and 
artificial manners have exerted very little influence in fashioning 
character and conduct. It will not be possible to trace with 
any minuteness of detail all the various organizations, of one 
sort and another, which have had a very brief existence in the 
school. Little more than the names of them can be given. A 
few of those which have lived through a considerable period of 
years and have exerted a permanent influence upon the 
intellectual, moral, and social life of the institution as a whole, 
as well as upon their own membership, maj- justly claim more 
extended notice. Among such socities w^e have, first of all the 


A month after the opening of the first term of the school, 
that is, on the 30th of April, 1853, the teachers and students 
came together to consider the question of organizing a single 
society, or two or more societies, to promote the literary improv- 


ment of the students. It is noteworthy- that the teachers of the 
institution entered into the matter of organization and manage- 
ment in common with the student bod5\ The same thing is 
obser\'abIe to a considerable extent, during the subsequent 
history of the Lj'ceum. Some members of the Faculty' habitually 
attended the weeklj^ meetings, frequently delivered lectures, and, 
at times, participated freeh' in the debates. Their presence, no 
doubt, tended to elevate the tone of the papers and discussions, 
and to give a more conservative and orderly character to the 
gatherings. During periods when such attendance was inter- 
mitted, as it sometimes was, the good order and decorum of the 
meetings occasionally suffered. 

Principal Welch was made chairman of the committee to 
prepare a constitution. A week later the constitution was 
formally adopted and the organization was completed by the 
election of officers as follows : 

Prof. A. S. Welch, President; H. P. Sly, C. R. Miller, A. 
Hollenbeck, Vice-Presidents; J. M. B. Sill, Corresponding 
Secretary; Kate M. Clayton, Recording Secretary'; I. Horner, 

Of these officers Mr. Sill subsequently became a Professor 
in the school and later Principal; and Miss Clayton became, at a 
later period, Mrs. Joseph Estabrook. 

As this was the only societ}' of importance in the institution 
for many years, and as it remained without any essential changes 
in its organization and objects until 1880-1, its constitution and 
histor>' will have more interest for the earlier graduates and friends 
of the school than those of any other society. Consequently a 
little more space will be given to the old "Normal Lyceum" than 
to other and later organizations. 

The original constitution presented no very marked peculiar- 
ities; its regular officers were chosen for a school term, and their 
duties were of the usual kind. Standing committees of three 
members were provided for, on P'inance, on Literar>^ Exercises, 
on Communications and Resolutions, on Librar>- and on Music. 
Somewhat later a Committee on Order was added. The duties 
of the committees are sufficiently indicated by their names. 


Membership was confined to persons connected with the school ; 
signing the constitution and pajdng twentj'-five cents were the 
conditions of membership : the finance committee was empowered 
to levy a tax upon members, to defray the expenses of the societj'- 
whenever this should be necessary. It is impossible to determine 
with certainty the names of all the original members. Among 
the early members were A. S. Welch, C. F. R. Bellows, Orson 
Jackson, A. Wilkinson, William Campbell, John Goodison, J. 
O. Miller, J. M. B. Sill, S. L. Rorison, J. W. Childs, J. W. Van 
Cleve, C. J. Thorp, A. Miller, A. Campbell, Mary Wells, Ellen 
Hurlbut, Julia Hathaway, Kate M. Clayton, Helen C. Norris, 
Olive C. Tyler, Julia A. King, Miss A. C. Rogers, Miss A. K. 
Clapp, Kate Brearly, Jane Flint, Helen Post. 

Many of these are still well known and others might be men- 
tioned equalty well known if space would permit. 

Some of the topics discussed during the first year or two of 
the existence of the Lyceum show the direction of thought at 
that period in the community at large- The following was the first 
resolution taken for discussion: "That men engaged in manual 
labor act a greater part in the formation of the character of a com- 
munity than men of scientific research." Some other topics 
were: "That genius is indispensible to the attainment of emin- 
ence;" "That there is sufficient evidence aside from Revela- 
tion to warrant a belief in the immortalitj- of the soul;" "That 
aid and instruction, cheerfully and freely imparted, serv^e to 
advance the educational interests of the student more than self- 
reliance unattended b}' timelj^ assistance;" "That American 
excitability is the principal cause of American progress ; ' ' "That 
Phrenology is the true science of mind." 

Among the officers of the second term were Prof. O. Jack- 
son, President; Julia Bacon, Recording Secretary; C. Fitzroy 
Bellows, Corresponding Secretarj^; C. R. Miller, Treasurer. 

During this term the subject of corporal punishment, of 
capital punishment, and of the study of the "dead" languages 
were vigorously debated. The Lyceum favored the retention of 
corporal punishment, the abolition of capital punishment, and 
the study of the "dead" languages. 


The following topic shows the excited spirit of the country- 
between 1850 and 1860: Resolved, "That the signs of the times 
indicate the dissolution of the Union. " The L^'ceum, however, 
was of an optimistic temper and the resolution, after an animated 
discussion, was lost. 

The following resolution was debated for a whole session 
and finally adopted : ' ' That for ladies to speak in this Lyceum 
is right, proper and expedient." The present generation of 
students will doubtless smile and think it strange, if not absurd, 
that a resolution of this sort should cause a protracted discus- 
sion." At that period, however, it was neither strange nor 
absurd. Fort}' and five years have wrought wonderful changes 
in public sentiment, and in the position of women. In the early 
years of its existence the State Teachers' Association of Massa- 
chusetts did not allow women to take any part in its public exer- 

From 1854 to 1860 the debates and papers of the Lyceum 
reflected, to a considerable extent, the pervading political senti- 
ment of the period, although educational subjects were not by 
any means lost sight of. 

The following are some of the questions debated; " That 
Congress ought to prohibit the introduction of slavery into the 
Territories;" " That Congress ought to give to each actual set- 
tler a hundred and sixty acres of land after he remains upon it 
five years ; " " That Representatives ought to be governed bj- 
the will of their constituents ; " " That the aims and tendencies 
of the so-called ' Know -Nothing ' part}' are detrimental to the 
institutions of our government;" "That the discovery of the 
California gold mines has been detrimental to mankind ; " " That 
in a Republican government no citizen should disobey the laws 
on the plea of conscientious scruples." This debate took place 
at the time of great excitement concerning the " fugitive slave 
law." "That ladies should enjoy the same privileges in our 
literary institutions that gentlemen now do." This topic 
reflected the public interest at the time upon the question of 
opening the State University and other higher institutions of 
learning to women. " That the admission of Kansas as a free 


state is the true policj' of the Republican party." " That dis- 
embodied spirits have no power to communicate with the living. ' ' 
It does not appear clearl}' in what waj' this last resolution was 
disposed of. " That the acquisition of Cuba is an object much 
to be desired b}' the government of the United States." The 
Ljxeum rejected this resolution. "That politics should be 
excluded from the pulpit. ' ' This also was lost. ' ' That schools 
should be supported by a direct tax on property and should be 
free to all." This topic grew out of the discussions in the State 
upon the " rate bill " question. " That the reading of the Bible 
should be made a daily exercise in all our schools." " That the 
dissolution of the Union is preferable to union under the present 
circumstances." This was decided in the negative. "That 
the decision of Justice Taney in the ' Dred Scot ' case exceeded 
the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, and should not be 
regarded by the citizens of the United States." The society 
adopted this resolution and thus settled one of the vexed ques- 
tions of that period. " That negroes in the Free States should 
be allowed the right of suffrage." " That the Harper's Ferry 
Insurrection is the natural result of the policy adopted by our 

At this point in the histor\' of the Lyceum we reach the 
opening of the fateful year 1860. Among the ofl&cers elected in 
March of that 3-ear were Gabriel Campbell, President; Austin 
George, first vice President; Mr. J. T. Morgan, Corresponding 
Secretary-; and E. P. Allen, member of Committee on Resolu- 
tions. The breaking out of the war depleted the school of a 
large number of young men, and the interests of the Lj'ceum 
suffered in common with those of the institution generally. The 
topics for debate, selected from the proceedings of the society 
during the 3'ears immediately preceeding the outbreak of hostili- 
ties, have been given as affording an interesting view of the 
the history- of that time. The excitements of the period per- 
vaded the schools of all grades as they did every nook and 
corner of society. 

During this period a few amendments were made to the con- 
stitution, but none affecting the general purposes or methods 


of the organization. The effect of certain provisions was to give 
the Principal of the school more direct control over some of the 
exercises and acts of the Ljxeum. The literary exercises of the 
ordinary- meetings were determined by the proper committee, but 
all appointments for public meetings were subject to the approval 
of the Principal. The Committee on Order were required to 
report to the Principal. Provision was made for the election of 
honorary members of the Lyceum, such members not having the 
right to vote or to hold office. The President and Recording 
Secretary- were eligible to honorary membership at the close of 
their terms of office ; any other persons might be elected by a 
two-thirds vote of the societJ^ An extended code of by-laws 
had been adopted in which very elaborate and minute provisions 
were made in respect to voters and voting at the election of offi- 
cers. One cannot help inferring that it was deemed necessarj' to 
guard the repetition of some evil practices which had 
made their appearance at previous elections. 

Among the honorary members, elected at an early time, 
were E. P. Allen, Austin Blair, J. M. Gregory, W. J. Baxter, 
President Haven, Professors Frieze, Wood, Tyler, Olney and 
Ruth Hoppin. 

As the successive scenes of the great drama of the Civil War 
appeared, the discussions of the Lyceum naturally responded to the 
discussions and debates of the community. On the evening of 
April 19. 1861, the subject of debate was a resolution "That the 
North would be better off morally, socially, commercially, and pol - 
itically without the vSouth." The report of the Secretary- says: 
"The discussion was of much interest; gentlemen on the affirm- 
ative producing unanswerable statistics, which were nevertheless 
overborne by patriotic enthusiasm and union sentiment. ' ' The 
resolution was voted down, and then, the report continues, 
' 'There followed the singing of the magnificent Marsellaise hymn, 
stirring deeper depths than the discussion had agitated." The 
report is signed Mar>- A. Rice, Secretary-; Austin George, Pres- 

At the next meeting a solo "The vSword of Bunker Hill," 
was sung by Mr. G. Campbell the report says: "in his own 


highly effective style." "Speeches were made by several mem- 
bers of^the society who were" about to join the army and fight 
under the 'stars and stripes;' much enthusiasm was manifested." 
The following resolution was unanimously adopted: "That we 
highly admire the patroitism and courage of those who are called 
from among us to fight their country's battles — to guard, protect, 
and uphold the constitution of our common country; and while 
duty calls them from among us we sincerely regret their absence, 
and they may be assured of our prayers to Him who is omnip- 
otent in battle that He may^bless their patriotic efforts to save this 
country, and that He may watch over and protect them, and 
ultimately return them to us in safety." The chapter on "The 
Normal School in the Civil War' ' gives a full account of the 
relations of the institution to the great conflict, and no further 
reference can be made to the matter in this place. 

The character and work of the Lyceum, during the early 
years *are described in one of the catalogues of that time as fol- 

"Its sessions are held in the Normal chapel on each Friday 
evening, and are preceded by an informal meeting for social 
intercourse. The regular exercises consist of debates, original 
papers, declamations and vocal music. Once a month, lectures 
on various topics of interest to the students are delivered by men 
of ability from abroad. Connected with the Lyceum is a library 
from which all its members are entitled to draw books. The 
Board of Instruction are happy to recommend this society to all 
future normal students, as having answered, in an unusual degree, 
all the objects of its organization." 

This excerpt leads naturally to the remark that, during the 
entire existence of the society, in its original form, it filled, in a 
good degree, the office of a lecture association, supplying the 
school and the community, each year, with a series of instructive 
and able addresses at small expense. 

It suggests also reference to the fact that the Lyceum com- 
mencedithe gathering of a library immediately after its organiza- 
tion and continued this policy until its division into sections. 
After the library of the .school was removed to its present quar- 


ters in 1888 the society allowed its books, more than a thousand 
volumes, to be absorbed into the general library' of the institution. 
The credit due the societj' for its work in this direction may be 
estimated from the fact that in almost ever\' year a small tax was 
levied for the purchase of books, and that in the single year 1878, 
nearly $150.00 were expended for this object. 

Allusion has alread}- been made, in another connection to 
the position of women in teachers' associations and similar organ- 
izations. Sentiment in the Normal Ljxeum, upon this matter, 
manifested the same stages of growth as sentiment in the com- 
munity at large. The barriers which had hitherto limited and 
hedged in the so-called sphere of woman were being gradually 
broken down. The doors of higher institutions of education and 
of the "learned professions" were being thrown open to her; in 
some cases, it must be admitted, grudgingly and with verj' bad 
grace, but nevertheless they were opening wider and wider year 
by j-ear. A somewhat similar process of enlargement is observ- 
able in the exercises and management of the L^'ceum. At first, 
and for several years, lad}^ members of the society read essays, 
served on committees, and held certain minor oflBces. But they 
did not act as presiding officers, nor take part, to an}^ consider- 
able extent, if indeed at all, in extemporaneous debates. It 
should, however, be borne in mind, in considering the relative 
positions, duties, and privileges of ladies and gentlemen at that 
time in the Lyceum, that the relative numbers of the two sexes 
were not by any means the same as at present. In the year 
1857-8 there were 140 male and 170 female students, the pro- 
portion peing as 14 to 17. Ten j'ears later the numbers were 
149 gentlemen and 193 ladies, the proportion being about as 15 
to 19, while the proportion in the year 1896 7 w^as about one 
gentleman to three ladies. 

In 1870 the following resolution, not indeed elegant in forrii 
but tolerably clear in meaning, was discussed and adopted. 
"That the ladies ought to be allowed to debate ; that the interests 
of the society and its existence depend upon their debating." 
One cannot help suspecting that there was something below in 
the mind of the author of the resolution which does not appear 


on the surface; but however that may have been, the names of 
ladies are found among the "debaters" and also among the vice 
presidents in the following years. But no ladj^held the office of 
president in the Old Lyceum. 

The society was incorporated under the general law of the 
State, in Januarj' 1876, with the legal name of the "Normal 
Lj'ceum of the Michigan State Normal School." The member- 
ship was limited to four hundred ; members were divided into 
active and honorary ; any student of the school in regular 
attendance might become an active member by the payment of 
the required fees ; but membership in the society ceased 
when attendance at the school ceased. The affairs of the 
organization were to be managed by a board of five directors, 
but this board was composed of the regular officers, elected from 
term to term. All appointments for public literary- exercises 
were subject to the approval of the Principal of the school, and 
the Committee on Order was to report all cases of disorder to the 
same officer. The regular meetings of the Lyceum w^ere to be 
held on Friday evenings during term time ; but the hour of 
adjournment was fixed at 9:30 in the winter months and at 10 
o'clock during the remainder of the j^ear. The force of this 
rule, however, could be "suspeifded" by a two -thirds vote, if 
circumstances required. The rules in respect to the election 
of officers and voting were quite extended and elaborate. 

The ordinarj^ routine work of any societ}^ of this sort affords 
verj' little matter for the historian. It is onlj^ the unusual and 
extraordinary^ which attracts attention and excites interest. A 
few incidents which caused, for the time, some ripples in the 
current of Lj^ceum life may be briefly noted. 

Those who were active members of the society in 1871-2 
will readih' recall the excited and prolonged discussions upon 
the question of the right of students in the "Academic" depart- 
ment, so-called, to active membership in the Lyceum. At that 
time, b3' an arrangement of the School Board of the city of 
Ypsilanti, and the State Board of Education, the high school 
department of the cit3" schools was suspended and its students 
were transferred to the corresponding department of the Training 


School, their tuition being paid by the city. The rules of the 
Lyceum had, at times, though not uniformly, recognized the 
right of members of this department to such membership. 
Taking advantage of this fact the advanced students of the 
high school department, of whom there was a considerable num- 
ber, both gentlemen and ladies, vigorously asserted their 
claim to membership, while leading students in the normal 
department as vigorouslj' opposed this claim. Party feeling ran 
high, and the regular work of the society' was entirelj- interrupted 
for several weeks, the meetings being occupied with heated 
debates upon the question of membership. One or two meet- 
ings were adjourned by the Principal, or at his request. The 
matter was finallj" referred to the Board of Education and 
the Facult}', who decided adversely to the claim of the 
"Academic" students, den3-ing their right to membership. 
The controversy was unfortunate in several respects. It tended 
to create friction bet^-een the members of the two depart- 
ments, and helped to render it inexpedient, if not impossible, to 
continue the arrangement entered into between the State Board 
of Education and the School Board of the city. One of the 
immediate results was the organization of an "Independent 
Lyceum" which will be briefly noticed further on. 

Occasionally a question was introduced into the society, the 
discussion of which stirred up a considerable degree of 
excitement, not only in the Lyceum but in the school and even 
in the city itself. Such a discussion took place during the 
spring term of 1876 upon the Resolution "That the Bible should 
be retained in the public schools." The resolution was debated 
vigorously for one evening by members of the Lyceum and one 
or two gentleman from outside. Two evenings more were 
occupied by the discussion, in which, in addition to the members 
of the society, Professors Vroman, Estabrook, and Putnam, and 
E. P. Allen, Esq., took the afirmative, and Professors Bellows 
and McLouth and Mr. Whitman and Mr. Campbell the negative. 
The debate was very animated, and the resolution was finally 
adopted by a vote of 110 to 27. This discussion in the Lyceum 


was little else than a sympathetic response to discussions going 
on among teachers and in the State generally at that period. 
About this time a warm debate upon the subject occurred in the 
State Teachers' Association, which terminated by the adoption, 
with almost entire unanimity, of the following: "That we 
believe the Bible should not be excluded from our public schools 
and that such exclusion would not, in our opinion, render them 
more acceptable to any class of our citizens." 

As years went on the growth of the school had a tendency 
to render the lyyceum a somewhat unwieldy body ; the younger 
members came to feel that they were practically debarred from 
participation in its exercises by the large number of older 
students. In consequence several other societies sprang into 
existence, some of which promised to become permanent bodies. 
Taking advantage of this undesirable condition of affairs Princi- 
pal Mac Vicar, with the sanction of the Board of Education, in 
1880-1, made a pretty radical reorganization of societies in the 
scsool. All the other old organizations were abolished, and the 
Lyceum itself was subdivided into sections or subordinate 
societies with limited membership. This was practically the end 
of the original Normal Lyceum. This new organization retains 
little more of the old one than the name. The following list of 
presiding officers will show the sort of men who have been 
students in the school and have helped to give character to the 
Lyceum and to the institution itself : 

Presidents of the Old "Normal Lyceum". 

(Three names in any year indicate a resignation. ) 

1853, Prof. A. S. Welch, Prof. Orson Jackson. 

1854, John Horner, John M. B. Sill. 

1855, Charles R. Miller, G. P. Sanford. 

1856, Walter S. Perry, L. A. Willard. 

1857, C. C. Clark, C. W. Adams. 

1858, F. G. Russell, James S. Wilber. 

1859, C. E. Baker, M. W. Dresser. 

1860, Gabriel Campbell, Oscar S. Straight. 

1861, Austin George, James T. Morgan. 

1862, Willard Sterns, R. Montgomery, Marshall D. Ewell. 

1863, C. L. Whitney, Edward P. Allen. 


1864, Selwin Douglas, Edward Haight. 

1865, F. D. Hart, L. C. Donaldson, 

1866, J. G. Plowman. John S. Maltman. 

1867, H. C. Burroughs, George H. Hopkins. 

1868, C. E. Davis, L. E. Hall, S. G Burked. 

1869, Peter vShields, Edwin C. Thompson. 

1870, Thomas Shields, F. W. Bacon, Eugene K. Hill. 

1871, Geo. A. Cady, H. C. McDougall. 

1872, James O. Butler. Ferris S. Fitch. 

1873, Herbert S. Reed, Samuel B. Laird. 

1874, Worth \V. Wendell, John R. Campbell. 

1875, J. Romeyn Miller, A. C. Brower. 

1876, Alfred E. Lucking, Durbin Newton. 

1877, H. J. Curran, Neil S. Phelps. 

1878, Henry S. Wilson, John A. Bobb. 

1879, Edmund Haug, Charles T. Grawu 

1880, James H. Stevens, James Hettinger. 

During the last few years of the existence of the old Lyceum, 
ladies were frequentl3^ elected to the oflEce of Vice-President, but 
never to the olhce of President. Ladies also appeared as regular 
debaters in these later years. 

The New Lyceum. 

The societies organized at the dissolution of the old Lyceum 
formed, when taken as a whole, what may be called the New 
Lyceum. At the outset three societies were organized. A short 
time afterwards a fourth was formed. At first the membership of 
of each division was limited to forty ; subsequently the limit was 
raised to sixty. Space will not allow a detailed history of these 
societies. Each section has its own constiution, b^'-laws, and 
minor rules ; but all must agree in ever>'thing essential. The offi- 
cers and their duties are such as usually belong to the officers of 
similar organizations. The regular meetings are held on Friday 
evenings of each week . The chairmen of the Executive Committees 
of the several divisions constitute the General Committee which 
has charge of the business of the association as a whole, includ- 
ing all public exercises. The Ljxeum holds two or three gen- 
eral public meetings each year, an equal number of participants 
being selected from each of the divisions. A very brief sketch 
will be made of each society. 


The Olympic Society. 

This society is regarded, in some sense, as the successor of 
the Riceonian. The following sketch has been prepared by one 
of the original members of that organization. The writer says: 

"During the winter of 1874-5 there was in the Normal School a Rhetoric 
class of special interest, under the direction of Miss Mary Rice, at that time 
the teacher of English in the institution. The class had developed unusual 
interest in the work, and had been led further afield and had gained a 
broader glimpse of the land beyond than was usual, and had tasted that 
which fired their blood, and would not let them rest by the way. The 
desire was in them to carry forward work along the lines laid out, and 
from this desire was born the Riceonian Society, named for Miss Rice. 

At first but a thought in the midst of a few, it soon formulated itself 
into acts, the results of which may yet be traced in the school, and whose 
traditions still linger. At that time, the normal societies included the 
Lyceum, a general society open to all. From its nature it was an unwieldy 
affair, and could not be used for literary work; but it was very pleasant 
and an excellent field in which to train up budding lawyers and to afford 
exercise in the manly art of politics. The ladies had a society of their own, 
the Pleiades, meeting on Saturday nights; and the gentlemen had also an 
exclusive organization in the Zealots, whose most redeeming quality was 
that it met on the same night as the ladies. As neither of these societies 
did the work which an ideal literary society was supposed to do, it was 
decided to try a new venture. 

Consequently on one Saturday afternoon in the early summer of 1875 
about a dozen students met in the old librar}' room and organized the 
Riceonian Literary Society. As they sat around the old library table dis- 
cussing ways and means, the spirit of devotion to the society and its 
intere.sts was aroused never to down as long as the center of that inter- 
est was in existence. The motto of the society was "True culture, self- 
culture;" and the constitution declared the purpose of the society to be 
that true culture which is brought about bj- actual contact with the thoughts 
of the good and the great. * * * * if one were asked why the Riceonian 
was successful, one might say that it arose from the following: each mem- 
ber believed in the purpose of the societj' and acted up to his belief; the 
government of the society was simple and informal; the membership was 
small and great care was exercised in selecting new members, and there 
were no shirks. The membership was limited to twenty (20), and the 
smallness of the number bound them close together, especially when war 
was waged from without, as it soon was, and each felt his full share of 
responsibility. The meetings were held, for a time, in the librarj', then 
in the Principal's private office or recitation room. On the completion of 
the main front in 1878, the Board of Education granted the society room 


31, and gave a written contract. * * * * Affairs went on smoothly until 
the fall of 1880 when a new administration came into power, and then 
trouble began. The edict went out that the normal societies should be 
reorganized, whether they^wanted to be or not, and after stormy^times, 
arose the reorganized Lyceum composed of the Riceonian, the name being 
soon changed to that of Olympic, the Atheneum, the Adelphic, and the 

The Riceonian came'out of this contest, if it came out at all, shorn of 
its room, furniture, their old constitution, and their limited membership." 

Presidents of the Olympic Society. 

The following is a list of the Presidents of the society from 
1881 to the present time. 

1881, Peter T. McKinney. 

1882, W. A.-Hearn, Fannie Cheever. 

1883, Fannie Cheever, Adam Mackie. 

1884, J. B. Montgomery, W. W. Chalmers. 

1885, Geo. A. Dennison, J. W. Kennedy. 

1886, C. \V. Mickens, \V. J. McKone. 

1887, W. H. Dogan, W. F. Lewis. 

1888, W. H. French, F. I. Cobb. 

1889, Sheridan Mapes, G. H. Warne. 

1890, F. W. Wells, Wm. B. Hatch. 

1891, L. N. Tupper, M. J. Sweet. 

1892, J. B. Nicolson, T. W. Paton. 

1893, Harley Harris, L. G. Holbrook. 

1894, Clarence \V. Greene, D. C. Van Buren. 

1895, Ada Benedict, J. P. Everett. 

1896, Herbert Lull, A. Whitbeck. 

1897, Clyde L. Young,'.H. Lull. 

1898, Wm. Bolger, L. E. C. Thorne. 

1899, L. E. C. Thorne, Gilbert W. Hand. 


This Society was first organized in 1878. and reorganized in 

The Presidents have been as follows : 

1878, H. C. Wilson, J. A. Bobb. 

1879, Edmund Haug, C. T. Grawn. 

1880, J. H. Stevens, James Hettinger. 

1881, H. A. Lockwood, C. S. Pierce. 

1882, C. E. Bird, L. J. Meacham. 

1883, W. H. Brooks, A. J. Murray. 


1884, B. F. Buck, U. G. Race. 

1885, E. J. Freeman. 

1886, Ed. DeBarr, Hattie Bray. 

1887, W. H. Foster, J. B. Miller. 

1888, Charles Clapp. F. J. Hendershot. 

1889, T. A Conlon, J. H. Thompson. 

1890, B. G. Richardson, F. J. Wheeler. 

1891, H. C. Miller, J. C Galbraith. 

1892, D. M. Stegenga, G. W. Gordon. 

1893, T. S. Langford. 

1894, J. G. Leland. 

1895, J. B. Gower, Christina Paton. 

1896, Joseph Ocobock, H. E. Straight. 

1897, S. O. Mast, Zach Kinne. 

1898, O. O. Norris, N. H. Bowen. 

1899, N. H. Bowen, H. S. Bowen. 


The following is a list of the Presidents of the Crescent 

Society . 

1881, Mr. Mac Mullen, Eugene Straight, Evan Essery. 

1882, E. J. Quackenbush, G. H. Renwick. 

1883, C. O. Townsend, \V. G. Stewart. 

1884, William A. Ellis, Howard Fenton. 

1885, George H. Purchase, O. I, Woodley. 

1886, C. D. McLouth, S. D. Brooks. 

1887, W. E. Hicks, A. C. Snow. 

1888, Milton Pamialee, Ernest G. Knight. 

1889, Wm. Lister, M. Rosenberry. 

1890, S. E. Potts, H. O. Severance. 

1891, M. B. Boers, D. Voorheis. 

1892, C. F. Vreeland. W. W. Wilcox. 

1893, E. H. Ryder, Irving Hunter. 

1894, E. P. Goodrich, O. L. Burdick. 

1895, E. E. Dohany, F J. Mellencamp. 

1896, Gertrude Slingerland, W. H. Pearce. 

1897, Harper Maybee, W. Videto . 

1898, W. S. Lister, W. S. Lister. 

1899, W. Sherman Lister, Arthur Turner. 


The following is list of the Presidents of the Atheneum 
Society : 

1882, L. H. McLouth, W. C. Hewitt. 

1883, Geo. F. Key, W. C. Hull, 


1884, Geo. H. Rowe, F. E. Aldrich. 

1885, Jessie Hazzard, E. F. Gee. 

1886, H. Mcintosh, H. Mcintosh. 

1887, Kittie M. Stewart, Geo. Fl Rogers. 

1888, D. F. Wilson. Win. R. Moss. 

1889, Claude S. Larzelere, Samuel Gier 

1890, D. L. Munger, H. A. Sprague. 

1891, A. W. Dasef, C. W. Curtis. 

1892, R. L. Holloway, C. H. Morton. 

1893, M. J. Withington, C. D. Livingston. 

1894, F. E. Wilcox, V. S. Bennett. 

1895, S. B. Clark, Frank Sinclair. 

1896, Herbert Bell, F. E. Ellsworth, 

1897, Geo. W. Wood, Earl Rhodes. 

1898, D. W. Kelley. D. W. Kelley. 

1899, D. W. Kelley, J. W. Mitchell. 


The Independent Lyceum, as previously stated, was organ- 
ized by the students of the academic or high school department, 
in the year 1871-2, in consequence of the denial of their right to 
membership in the old Iv^'ceum. The society was similar, in its 
purposes and arrangements, to the regular lyj^ceum, and it was 
conducted with a good degree of energj- and success, while it con- 
tinued. The termination of the official relations between the 
schools of the city and the normal school terminated the exist- 
ence of this society as a normal organization. 


This society', composed exclusively of gentlemen, was organ- 
ized in 1870-1, or about that time, by the younger students of 
the school who desired to make improvement in ptiblic speaking. 
It was, in some sense, a preparatory- school to the L^'ceum, and 
had generally a prosperous and useful life. It ceased to exist at 
the time of the radical reorganization of all the normal societies. 
Superintendent C. T. Grawn was President in 1878, and Mr. A. 
A. Hall in 1880. The records of the society have apparently been 
lost so that no full account can be given of its membership or of 
its work. 



The Pleiades was a society organized and sustained b}' ladies 
of the school. It began its existence about the same time as the 
Zealots, and departed this life at the same date as the other 
society'. Its object, as stated in its constitution, was the improve- 
ment of its members in literary composition, in an understanding 
of parliamentary rules and usages, and in a knowledge of the 
literature of the day. Its exercises consisted of readings, essays, 
discussions, orations, and reviews of books and other literar>^ 
productions of the day. For several years it occupied a prom- 
inent place in the school and did excellent ser\'ice in its chosen 
field of labor. The failure to find its records prevents a more 
complete account of its membership and its work. 


In the year 1874, or about that time, the R. H. Societjs 
named in honor of Miss Ruth Hoppin, then Preceptress of the 
school, was organized, having for its object the improvement of 
the younger members of the school in literary' composition. 
Society organizations, at that time, were somewhat numerous, 
and this one had only a brief existance, although its work was 
of much advantage to its members while it continued. 


A scientific society was organized in 1884, which, however, 
had only a brief existance. The object of the society^ was to pro- 
mote interest in scientific reading, study and investigation. Mem - 
bership was confined, mainly, to seniors of the scentific courses. 
The management of the organization was placed in a board of 
control, consisting of the officers of the society and the heads of 
departments of Mathematics, and the Physical and Natural .sci- 


During the administration of Principal Willits, who had 
charge of the work in civil government in the school, some steps 
were taken toward the organization of a society for the discus - 
sion of current political questions ; but a permanent organization 


was not effected until the fall term of 1888. The society at first 
took the name of "Political Debating Societ}." Subsequently 
the name was changed to the "Mock Congress" of the State 
Normal School. For a time the Congress acted alternately in 
the capacity of the ' ' House of Representatives and Senate. ' ' The 
plan of alternating did not work quite satisfactorily, and in 1890-1 
it was decided to attempt to represent only the House. The 
change has been, on the whole, productive of good results. 

The objects of the organization are acquisition of knowledge 
of parliamentary law and improvement in debate. The proceed- 
ings of the societ}^ and its officers are made to conform, as closelj- 
as possible, to the order of business in the national "House of 
Representatives," and to the officers of tliat body. Naturally 
the presiding officer is called the "Speaker." The membership 
is limited and the present number is fortj^-five (45). 


In the notes on the old gymnasium building the early work 
in athletics, or more properly in ordinary physical exercises, was 
briefly described. Nothing of a systematic character was done 
in this direction for several years after the destruction of that 
building. Occasionally, for a brief period, provision was made 
for practice in light g^-mnastics; but as this practice was vol- 
untan,- and no regular instructor was employed, the zeal which 
had introduced it soon died awa}-. The feeling, however, that 
physical training was an important element in any sjunmetrical 
course of education was constanth' growing, and in the fall of 
1887, the beginning of a regular and formal organization was 
made. Among those who were especially active in this matter 
were G. F. Key, Claud Larzelere, W. B. Hatch, Rolf Patrick, 
and W. P. Bowen. A constitution was adopted in which the 
purpose of the association was stated to be, "to promote 
and foster all legitimate sports and athletic exercises, and to 
afford facilities to its members for participating therein." The 
lack of interest on the part of the great body of the students, 
however, prevented the accomplishment of much real work for 
the next two years. 


A reorganization of the society took place in January 1890, 
and W. P. Bowen was elected President. From that time the 
growth of interest, both among students and teachers, in the 
legitimate work of the society, has been healthy and promises to 
be permanent. For a time the use of a room upon the second 
floor of the main building was granted to the association on con- 
dition that the society should furnish the necessary apparatus. 
Apparatus of a general nature was purchased with the membership 
fees while individual member provided themselves their own 
clubs and bells. At the opening of the school year 1890-91 the 
room in the basement of the south wing of the main building 
was fitted up for the association, and remained in their possession 
for some' time. 

The erection of the new gymnasium building opened the 
way for making physical culture " a part of the regular and 
required work of the school. It also made it possible for the 
Athletic Association to enlarge the field of its operations and to 
enter into proper relations with other similar organizations in the 
higher educational institutions of the State. The organization 
has held an honorable rank among the athletic societies with 
which it has been matched in games of foot-ball, base -ball, and 
other out-of-door sports. 

Some Smaller Societies. 

There are several societies of limited membership among the 
students, organized partly for literary and partly for social pur- 
poses. Among these is the 

The organization is "dedicated to genuine, genial, good- 
fellowship." It meets every third Saturday evening, transacts its 
business, and enjoys a good supper, according to the statement of 
one of its active members. It holds an annual banquet, which 
is made enjoyable by good speaking, good singing, and good 
cheer generally. 


Another of these small organizations is the Arm of Honor. 
It is stated that "the direct purpose of this society is to 


foster in its members the ability- to think, and to speak extempo- 
raneousl}"," and its carefullj^ formulated constitution is especially 
designed to attain this end. 

The societ}' meets regularly- once a month, the executive 
committee having entire charge of the program of exercises. It 
is said that "the initiatory- exercises, without which the organ- 
ization would scarcely be deemed complete, are so well regulated 
as to detract nothing from the dignity of the society, but rather 
to impress upon the candidate the depth of its purpose." Social 
enjoyment constitutes an important element in the meetings, and 
an occasional banquet affords occasion for exercise in extempo- 
raneous speaknig and for a general good time. 

A number of other societies have been organized at various 
times and for various purposes, but space does not permit any 
extended account of these. Among these is the Oratorical Asso- 
ciation, the object of which is sufficiently indicated b}' the name. 
This society has done some very excellent work in the line for 
which it exists. 


This organization is usuallj^ known as the Pedagogical soci- 
ety or club. It is composed of members of the Facult}-. It was 
first organized in April, 1885. The constitution states the pur- 
poses of the society^ to be "the investigation and discussion of 
principles of education and methods of teaching, and the con- 
sideration of such other professional subjects as may conduce to 
the success of our united efforts as teachers." The organization 
is very simple, the officers consisting of a President, vice Presi- 
dent, and Recording Secretary', who together constitute an 
Executive Committee. This committee arranges and directs the 
business of the organization. The meetings are held regularly 
on the third Tuesdays of each month when the school is in ses- 
sion. The exercises are made up of essays and discussions upon 
such topics as the committee selects. Usually a continuous line 
of work is laid out at the beginning of the school year, but the 
program may be varied or changed to meet changed con- 
ditions or new circumstances. During some years two papers 


have been prepared for each meeting, one of a historical or bio- 
graphical character, involving the consideration of educational 
principles, or the work of some distinguished teacher or 
reformer, the other paper being devoted to some current topic or 
to some recent publication upon educational affairs or related 

During one year a series of papers were prepared and dis- 
cussed upon the work of the several departments of the school, 
the purpose being to discover some basis upon which the work 
of the various instructors might be unified and correlated. 

Among the subjects treated another year were the following: 
"Education as a dialectic process;" "Language as a center of 
instruction;" "History as a unifying element in a course of 
study ; " " Concentration of studies with science as a basis ; ' ' 
"Selections of the subject matter of instruction." 

The histor>' of methods of teaching the various subjects has 
been discussed: "The old and new education;" "The old and 
new ps3^chology ; " and many other topics of kindred character. 
The society has done much to improve the professional spirit of the 


This society, under the name of the "Current Topics Club," 
was organized in March, 1895, the name being changed to its 
present form on June 15, 1896. The membership was limited 
to ladies who were assistant teachers in the normal department 
of the college, and the society grew out of a desire, on the part 
of some dozen ladies, to know each other better, and to enjoy 
together some literarj- and social evenings. The programs, at 
first, were devoted to a study of political and social science, but 
the}' have varied from time to time to suit the tastes of the mem - 
bers of the club. The anniversary^ of the founding of the club, 
March 4, 1895, is usually celebrated in some social waj', which 
includes outside friends. 

The members of the club at the time of its organization 
were, Misses Ackerman, Daniels, lyodeman, Muir, McMahor, 
Norton, Pierce, Paton, Putnam, Shultes, Whitney, and Mrs. 
Burton. The organization is ver>' simple, the officers being a 


President, vice President, and Secretary- -Treasurer. Their 
duties are those belonging to similar officers in other organiza- 

Presidents:— Miss Putnam, 1895-1898. Miss Bacon, 1898-. 

Vice Presidents:— Mrs. Burton, 1895-1898. Miss Norton, 1898-. 

Secretar\- and Treasurer: — Miss Ackerman, 1895-1896. Miss Shultes, 
1896-1898. Miss Muir, 1898-. 


Among the many college organizations mention must be 
made of the Graduate Club, which was born March 12, 1896. 
The purposes of the club are to establish sociability' and insure 
good fellowship among members of the Alumni who return to 
the college for study, or at the reunion times of Foundation day 
and Commencement. 

Its constitution provides for a Dean, a Scribe, a Steward, 
who is always a member of the Faculty, and an Executive Com- 
mittee of five members. 

The Deans have been thus far, 1898, Benj. Gregor, F. L. 
Ingraham, and Washington Chapman. Meetings are subject to 
call of the Dean and are held only when some necessary- business 
is to be transacted or for social gatherings. It is hoped ultimately 
to form a chain of graduate clubs all through Michigan in order 
that direct communication may be had between the Normal Col- 
lege and her Alumni. Such societies are alreadj' in existence in 
the University' of Michigan, Detroit, Jackson, and Grand Rap- 
ids, and steps are being taken in other places to follow their 


An Alumni Association was formed quite a number of j-ears 
ago, but the organization has had somewhat of an intermittent 
life. Recentl}', however, it has held its annual meetings with a 
good degree of regularity', and several local societies have been 
formed in the larger cities of the State. The form and purpose 
of these organizations are similar to those of other alumni asso- 

It has not been possible to find the early records of the 
society. Consequently it is not possible to state the date of the 


organization of the original societ3^ or to give anything like a 
consecutive historj^ of its life, or of the work which it has per- 

Its presidents, since 1880, have been the following: 

1881, J. G. Plowman. 

1882, S. G, Burkhead. 

1883, Eugene Miller. 

1884, E. C. Thompson, 

1885, C. T. Grawn. 

1886, W. S. Perry. 

1887, C. F. R. Bellows. 

1889, F. J. Hendershot. 
•1890, J. M. B. Sill. 

1891, Walter H. Cheever. 

1892, Walter C. Hewitt. 

1893, A. J. Murray. 

1894, J. R. Miller. 

1895, W. C. Hull. 

1896, Austin George. 

1897, W. P. Bowen. 

1898, Gertrude Elstner Woodard. 

1899, Fred. h. Ingraham. 

Some of the recent addresses and papers have been the fol- 
lowing : 

1891, W. C. Hewitt, The Teacher as a Specialist. 

1892, C. T. Grawn, Moral Culture. 

1893, Mary F. Camp, Amateurism. 

1894, Cora Smith, The Teacher's Needs, paper. 
R. G. Boone, Address. 

1895, Prof. J. A King, The School and its Alumni. 

1896, W. J. McKone, Address. 

1897, H. O. Severance, The Teacher and Advanced Scholarship. 


State Normal School, we sing to thee, 

Michigan, my Michigan! 
Within thy courts we love to be, 

Michigan, my Michigan! 
Thy towers high and gray old walls, 
Thy lecture rooms and study halls. 
Inspire us yet when duty calls, 

Michigan, my Michigan! 


In '52 with hope and pride, 

Michigan, my Miclugan! 
Thy Normal doors swung open wide, 

Michigan, my Michigan! 
The clustered years our memories fill 
With names that' give the heart a thrill, — 
Welch, Mayhew, Estabrook and Sill, 

Michigan, my Michigan! 

The Normal takes thy choicest youth, 

Michigan, my Michigan! 
Instructs in pedagogic truth, 

Michigan, my Michigan! 
Commencement day, a well-trained band 
She sends them forth with torch in hand 
To light new flames throughout the land; 

Michigan, my Michigan! 

Though Normal "Green and White" we love, 

Michigan, my Michigan! 
Old Glory's folds e'er float above, 

Michigan, my Michigan! 
When traitors war on Union made. 
Thy Normal sons sprang to her aid, 
Their lives upon her altar laid, 

Michigan, my Michigan! 

The student life in Ypsi. town, 

Michigan, my Michigan! 
Through all thy realm holds high renown, 

Michigan, my Michigan! 
Lyceum, S. C. A's fond spell, 
The rush, the club, the dinner bell — 
The Normal girl! the Normal yell!! 

Michigan, my Michigan! 

This song was written by Professor George for the meeting of the 
Alumni held in Lansing Diceuiber 27, 1895, and was sung with enthusiasm 
by the large gathering. 

starkweather Hall. Students' Christian Assoi iatioii. 
Erected 1897. 




The Students' Christian Association. 

The Christian Association had its origin in a weekly meet- 
ing of students and teachers for prayer and conference. This 
meeting began very early in the administration of Principal 
Welch. Mrs. S. A. Allen Patten, the second Preceptress, wrote 
from Greenville in February, 1897: "I went to Ypsilanti in the 
fall of 1855, two years, I think, after the organization of the 
school. I found the Students' Prayer Meeting one of the 
institutions of the school, and, so far as I know, its beginning 
was contemporaneous with that of the school. It seemed to fit 
into its place and be so thoroughly alive and efficient to meet as 
real a want as the recitation hours, the Lyceum, or anything 
else that was an essential to the life of the school." She men- 
tions the names of some of the students who were "active, 
bright scholars, and earnest christians, young people who were 
living for a high purpose. Of course the meetings must be rich 
and inspiring, and blessed in their results." 

The meetings were held, sometimes in the assembly room, 
and sometimes in some of the class rooms. The attendance 
upon the meetings was usually good. Preceptress Ruth Hoppin 
wrote from Three Rivers in January, 1897, as follows: "It was 
a joy to see all those noble young people so seriously in earnest 
in the great work to which they were called, and I was sure that 
when the schools of the State should go into such hands our 
educational interests would be safe. Very few of the teachers 
attended in those days, but no evening passed that did not bring 
noble President Mayhew into our midst. He would drop in 
after we were well started and give us the uplift of his inspiring 
words. How many scenes and faces this writing and especially 


3'our inquiries called up! Beautiful departed days! The 
memory of them .will keep my days of darkness bright and 
sweet. ' ' 

In 1871, when Professor Estabrook entered upon the duties 
of his ofi&ce, the students requested him to take charge of the 
weekly religious meeting. He acceded to their request, and 
during the whole time of his connection with the school he led 
and directed the exercises of the meeting. In one of his reports 
he says: "There was almost ever>^ term more or less religious 
interest which resulted in leading many students to commence a 
new life." During the latter part of his administration the 
meetings were held in the room then known as "number two," 
but which is now the main public office. The following quota- 
tion is from a letter written by Mrs. Mary L,. Rice Fairbanks, 
who was a teacher in the normal when Professor Estabrook was 
Principal. She saj's: "He was a grand leader and had the rare 
power of securing expression from others. There was a spirit- 
ual baptism, — decisions were made that have moulded many 
lives. That old chapel was a sacred place in which were formed 
some of memory's best pictures. A crowd of j^oung people in 
the benches, the leader standing in front of the desk, what 
expostulations fell from his lips, what songs, what prayers, what 
confessions, what resolves responded! Never can I forget the 
fair upturned faces. And to me the tall, lithe figure is still 
standing, the large sympathetic eyes still beaming, and the long, 
loose grey hair still floating about a face whose radience was not 
of this world." When Principal Estabrook severed his connec- 
tion with the school the interest in the meetings was lessened for 
some time. Within a comparativel}-^ short period, however. Dr. 
Mac Vicar reorganized the various societies of the .school. The 
Students' Prayer Meeting became the Students' Christian Asso- 
ciation in 1881. A new form and a new name were added to the 
old spirit; and new life and energy^ were immediatelj' infused 
into it. From that time its place in the school was enlarged. If 
it has not deepened it has at least broadened, as it has come 
more and more to realize that it is a life of service and sacrifice 
to which it has been called. The first article of the constitution 


adopted at that time read as follows: "The name of this soci- 
ety shall be the Students' Christian Association of the Michigan 
State Normal School, and its object shall be the promotion of 
growth in grace in Christian fellowship among its members, and 
aggressive Christian work, especiallj^ for and by the students of 
the school." The other articles provided for the proper work- 
ing of the society, for membership, officers, and for all necessary 

The only regular meetings arranged for by the constitution 
were the Wednesda}' evening praj-er meeting and a business 
meeting for the election of officers and the transaction of other 
necessar>^ business. All other meetings were to be arranged at 
the discretion of the President and the General Committee. 
During this period the association enjoj^ed a large degree of 
prosperity, and accomplished much good in the school. The 
increase of attendance in the institution and the consequent 
increase in the membership of the society made it necessary to 
find a larger room than "number tw^o" for the weekly meet- 

Through the kindness of the Board of Education the upper 
room in the conservatory building was fitted up, put into excel- 
lent condition, and granted to the Christian Association for their 
exclusive use until such time as it should be needed for school 
purposes. Sixty dollars were raised by subscription to be 
expended in adorning it; and on its walls several appropriate 
pictures were hung, to which were added ten photographs of bas- 
reliefs from the church of St. John and St. Paul in Venice. The 
room looked so prett}^ and attractive in its new dress that the 
members welcomed their friends to their first reception with not 
a little pleasure and pride. This reception was a sort of dedica- 
tion of the new hall. The association felt that at last it had a 
home, and this emphasized its distinctive character and individu- 
ality. Self -consciousness and faith in itself and in its mission 
gave an impulse for the next six years, during which time it 
verified the promise, "I am come that ye might have life and 
that ye might have it more abundanth^" 

But in 1891 the association was obliged to give up the key 


of the hallowed place set apart for its use. More room was 
needed for the conservatory'^ classes, and soon the illuminated 
texts and mottoes which adorned the blackboards gave place to 
written lessons, which constantly served as reminders that the 
society was without a home; and, for a time, hope and courage 
seemed dead. But a passiv^e, an inactive condition, cannot long 
be the state of those who listen to the throbbings of the Eternal 
heart, and feel the pulse of the Infinite. 

The next special work of the society was evidently to secure 
a new and more ample home, a home not onl}^ adapted to public 
worship but to all other purposes for which the Christian Asso- 
ciation had been organized. A place was needed for social 
meetings and for the studj^ of the Bible, and the reading of 
appropriate papers and periodicals. One of the members of the 
society writes thus: — 

"It was not long before a few members of the Executive 
Committee began to meet at each other's rooms an hour before 
the morning church service to talk and pray about that which lay 
nearest their hearts; and they soon began to plan for raising 
funds for a home. That God was with them at this inceptive 
moment, can he doubt who sits within these walls tonight?" 
The reference here is to the evening of the dedication of the new 
building. Their thoughts turned to Mrs. Starkweather, to 
whom a letter was written, which was taken to her by Miss 
LfOwry. The faith of the few was contagious. The whole society 
was soon aglow with enthusiasm. Early in 1892 a mass meeting 
was held in normal hall at which about $960.00 were pledged. 
Shortly afterwards upwards of $100.00 were placed in the bank to 
the credit of the society, most of which was the proceeds of a 
concert given by Professor Pease for its benefit. At this time 
they were led to hope, through Principal Sill, that Mrs. Stark- 
weather would assist them when they had a lot on which to 
build. The work went on; the funds increased; and on Novem- 
ber 11, 1895, giving and asking corresponded; benevolence finds 
its object; the dream of years is realized; the prayer is answered. 
God's purpose is revealed. On that day Mrs. Starkweather 
gave with habitual large-hearted generosity $10,000, which have 


changed stone and wood into this beautiful symbol of benevo- 
lence and good -will to men. Ever>' stone of it speaks of the 
tightness of thinking, giving, teaching, and living of all con- 
nected with the school. Every stone tells of unity, reality, 
truth of all that gives poise, worth and dignity to character; of 
"Whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, what- 
soever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever 
things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report." 

In watching the story of this society, the overruling of 
Divine Providence is so evident that there is no need of further 
proof that there is a hand that guides. God's purpose can be 
traced, and the lesson on every page gives assurance of a larger 
and fuller life in the future. Because its life is hid with Christ 
in God, it may hope to do greater work than this in the spiritual 
hidden life of the school where is its distinctive field of labor. 
It looks, "not at the things which are seen but at the things 
which are not seen ; for the things which are seen are temporal ; 
but the things which are not seen are eternal." 

The generous gift of $10,000.00 by Mrs. Starkweather enabled 
the association to go on with the erection of its house during the 
summer of 1896. The building was completed and dedicated on 
the 26th of March, 1897. The exercises of the dedication con- 
sisted of a report of the Building Committee, a response by 
the President of the Association, a prayer of dedication, an 
address by Professor Julia A. King on the subject "The Chris- 
tian Association," an address by the Hon. Perry F. Powers on 
behalf of the State Board of Education, a history of the Associ- 
ation by Miss Annie Paton, and an address by President Boone 
on behalf of the school. Some extracts will be given from these 
reports and addresses. The chairman of the Building Committee 
said : 

"The committee desire at this time to make only a general report of 
its work, leaving minor details to be presented to those specially interested 
at some subsequent time. The first care of the committee was to secure 
an acceptable plan of a building the cost of which should not exceed the 
funds placed at their command, as they deemed it an imperative duty not 
to incur any indebtedness. A contract was finally entered into with the 
firm of Malcolmson & Higginbotham of Detroit to have the building com- 


pleted by the 24tli day of October, unless unforeseen and unexpected 
obstacles should prevent. The contract cost was to be $9,638.00, not includ- 
ing any extra work which might be found necessary. Obstacles occurred 
which have prevented the full completion of the building until the pres- 
ent time. The total expenditure thus far has been |10,981.65, the amount 
above |10,000 being provided for by private subscription. Some small 
accounts remain to be adjusted which will make the whole cost of the 
building something over $11,000.00, but no indebtedness will be lelt to be 
provided for. 

' ' In addition to this merely formal financial statement, the committee 
feel that they owe at least a brief report to several parties, and especially 
and first of all to her whose beneficence furnished the means for the erec- 
tion of this beautiful building. In the discharge of the trust committed to 
us, and of the duties imposed upon us, we have felt at every step in the 
progress of the work that it was due to you that the funds placed in our 
hands should be carefully and wisely expended. Great caution was exer- 
cised in the adoption of plans and in entering into contracts. We desired 
to secure a full equivalent for all money paid. The measure of our suc- 
cess can best be determined by looking about you. We shall leave these 
walls and these rooms to speak for themselves and for us, and shall only 
say that we have done the best we could. 

' ' You will pardon us for congratulating j-ou upon the good judgment 
and rare wisdom which have guided you in the use of the abundant 
means which a kind providence has placed at your disposal. If those are 
blest whose works follow them after they have rested from their labors, 
surely those are doubly blest whose good deeds go before them while they 
are still able to labor. 

" Permit us also to congratulate you upon the good work which you 
will continue to do, through and by means of the gift which has created 
this edifice, long after you shall have entered into rest. In all the com- 
ing years this structure, though mute, will speak to the )-oung who shall 
gather here, lessons of truth, and beauty, and goodness; and it will 
greatly help to make the Students' Christian Association a perennial 
source of blessing, not only to the Normal School and the city of Ypsi- 
lanti, but to the whole grand commonwealth of Michigan." 

The committee presented the building to the Association in 
the following language : 

"We present this completed building to the association for which it 
has been erected as its future home. It is yours, in some sense for per- 
sonal enjoyment, but in a higher sense as a means of ser\-ice to your asso- 
ciates and to humanity. You will fail to comprehend the full significance 
and value of this beautiful gift of your generous benefactor if it does not 
inspire you to struggle for a higher life, and incite you to a more earnest 

Mrs. IVIary Ann Starkweather. 


and vigorous activity in the work for which your organization exists. 
Increased means and facilities, whether material or spiritual, always bring 
increased obligations and responsibilities. To whom much is given, of 
them may much be rightfully required. While, therefore, you have 
abundant reason to rejoice, let your joy be tempered and restrained some- 
what by the weight of the added measure of accountability, and by a more 
profound consciousness of human weakness and of the need of Divine 
help. Remember that the disciple can do all things only through Christ 
Who giveth strength. We deliver to you these keys and the full possession 
of these ample and convenient rooms with confidence that you will, by 
their right use, honor her through whose beneficence they have been pre- 
pared, and the Master Whose you are and Whom you serve." 

To the school as a whole the committee said : 

' ' Permit us to say that while this building has been erected for the 
special use and service of the Association in its peculiar and appropriate 
work, it will stand as an important factor among the educating forces and 
agencies of the school. It represents an element that cannot safely be 
ignored in the instructing and training of the citizens of a free and self- 
governing community. It typifies the ethical and spiritual in our com- 
posite humanity. In an age much given to the material and temporal it 
means the distinct recognition of the authority of conscience, of the fact 
of human responsibility, of the binding force of a law higher than the 
constitutions of states or the enactments of legislative bodies. It acknowl- 
edges a belief in a Supreme Ruler both of individuals and of nations, and 
a belief in a revelation of His character. His will and His purpose, not 
alone in the stars and the rocks, but in the institutions of the human soul 
and in the Divine Word. It looks towards the development of the high- 
est type of manhood and womanhood, that type which finds its perfect 
example and embodiment in the person and character of the Divine Man, 
and the Teacher Who spake and taught, not as the scribes, but with 
authority from Heaven . 

A few words were spoken to the Board of Education. It 
was said : 

' ' No funds of the State have been expended for the grounds or the 
building which adorns them. These gifts come to you free of cost, with- 
out money and without price. It is only asked that you accept and care 
for this beautiful present so far as it shall need your fostering care. 

' ' We cannot refrain from congratulating you upon the sound judg- 
ment and true wisdom which can recognize the intimate and inseparable 
relation existing between the various elements and factors of man's 
complex nature. The gymnasium stands as evidence of your estimation 
of the importance of the development and culture of the body. The main 


normal buildings, with their laboratories and libraries, bear witness to the 
value which you attach to the work of unfolding and training the intellect. 
This beautiful building is the outward and material sign and symbol of 
that in our humanity which is higher and nobler than the physical or the 
merely intellectual. It stands as a visible recognition of the esthetic, the 
ethical, and the spiritual elements in our nature. Without the proper 
culture of these the education of the man. and especially of the teacher, 
is incomplete. 

"While the State is wisely prohibited from making direct provision 
for religious education and culture, it can well afford to permit and to 
encourage private individuals to furnish means and facilities for such edu- 
cation at their own expense. Indeed by so doing the State is only fulfill- 
ing the obligation imposed upon it by the provisions of the famous ordi- 
nance of 1787 — provisions which, according to Justice Campbell, constitute 
an unwritten but essential part of the constitution of every commonwealth 
organized out of the great Northwest Territory. In taking upon your- 
selves the charge of this gift, and in fostering and helping the association 
to which it belongs, you are simply recognizing in a practical way the 
truth of the declaration that "Religion, morality, and knowledge 
being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, 
schools and the means of education shall be forever encouraged." 

The following^ is a part of the prayer of dedication: 

"Our Father in Heaven, we Thank Thee for the kindly leadings of Thy 
providence which have caused the erection of this beautiful house, as a 
gathering-place and spirit-home for the Students' Christian Association. 
We thank Thee that the spirit of Christian beneficence prompted Thy serv- 
ant to give of her means and to make it possible for this edifice to be 
built. We pray that Thy choicest blessings may rest most abundantly 
upon her. Continue to her, we beseech Thee, for a long time to come, 
health and strength, and that peace and satisfaction of soul which comes 
from a consciousness of good deeds done for the benefit of humanity and 
the glory of Thy Name. 

"We have come together, our Father, to set apart to the purpose for 
which it has been erected, this house. We cannot make it sacred or holy, 
but we beseech Thee to accept it, to cause Thy favor and Thine especial 
blessing to rest upon it. Make it a means of great service and usefulness 
to the association to which it belongs, to the school with which it is con- 
nected, and to the whole commonwealth of which we are a part. 

"Bless the school in all its interests and relations. Bless the Board 
of Education to whose care this house is committed. Bless this city in 
which we dwell, and the great State of which we are citizens, and the 
greater countrj- of which the State is a part. 

"And now we commend ourselves, our interests, our desires, and 
our hopes to Thee. Deal very graciously with us; day by day lift us up 


into higher and purer ways of living; make us more worthy to be called 
thy children, and finally receive us into Thy kingdom above for the sake 
of Him Who gave Himself that He might redeem us from sin and evil, and 
make us sons of God." 

Appropriate responses were made to the report of the com- 
mittees, (l) by the President of the Association, Mr. Wilber, on 
behalf of the society, (2) by Hon. Perry F. Powers on behalf of 
the Board of Education, (3) by President Boone on behalf of 
the school. The address of Miss Paton on the history of the 
association is made a part of this article. It is possible to give 
only a very brief epitome of Professor King's address, although 
it is worthy of being reproduced in full. In opening she says: 

"The first Christian Association registered thirteen names — a leader 
and twelve disciples. Simply organized with perhaps only two officers, no 
constitution or written creed, few regulations or by-laws, no equipment 
the association began the realization of a new idea, a new life. The out- 
ward manifestation of this new life was in no way peculiar. The members 
of the association were inured to daily toil which still went on. * * * * 
The association was bound together, one Lord, one spirit, one body. This 
association, organized nearly twenty centuries ago, and still holding its 
place among the evangelized agencies, will furnish us some suggestions 
helpful for the hour. ' ' 

The discussion considered ( 1 ) the power of organization ; 
(2) the significance of Christian association. Both topics were 
fully considered, and in such a way as to make clear the won- 
derful power of the religious and Christian organization. 

"Spiritual life is not an isolated and solitar)' possession, but a citi- 
zenship in a spiritual empire. The Christian is born into an immense 
company, a new race. * * * * gut look at St. Paul's figure. He 
sees the Christian not as one of a vast aggregate but as part of an organic 
whole — the body of Christ and the members in particular. The figure is 
a very strong one. * * * * There is need, never more than today, of a 
full, strong, masterful organization " 

After treating, in a general way, of the power of organiza- 
tion, the significance of Christian association is pretty fullj^ 
considered ; 

"Christian, the distinctive name of this society, is peculiarly sug- 
gestive both of the organization — the body of Christ — and of its work — 
the work of Christ. As a society in this school-community it is the 
means through which the Christian life of the community finds expres- 


sion. Individual Christian life finds many avenues for itself in the 
churches of the city; but of the common religious thought, emotion, 
hope, love, life, there is but one organic form, the Christian Association. 
This body, then, is the measure of the religious power of the school. 

* * * * The Christian Association is the organ of the school by which 
its religious life is realized ; it is also the organ of God through which 
Divine power becomes a practical working factor in the community. 

* * * * The nature of christian power is two-fold. In the gospel it is 
figured under the leaven and the mustard seed. It is a vital force. Its 
motions are unseen, save in effect. But again the same Christian power is 
not inaptly figured under St. Michael, the captain of the heavenly hosts, 
in whom is centered all the might and radiance of thrones, dominions, 
virtues, and powers. 

" 'The kingdom of heaven is within, but we must also make it with- 
out,' said Florence Nightingale * * * * To realize the kingdom within 
furnishes the principles of life. The Christian Association is the organ of 
the school by which its religious life is realized; it is also the organ of 
God through di\ane power and becomes a practical working factor in the 
community. Among some of the conditions by which the inner life 
becomes an outer force working among men, is unflinching honesty in 
dealing with known truth. If every member of this association could at 
this mpment begin to do what he himself knows for truth, the kingdom of 
God would indeed appear among us and within us. You need moral 
enthusiasm. Can this day with the beneficient and never to be forgotten 
gift bring it? Can your prayers bring it? God grant that the hours be 
indeed a pentacost, and that you go in the strength of it for all days to 
come. Through you may He see the travail of His soul and be glad; 
through you may there come a strong, enthusiastic movement towards the 
Kingdom of Eternal Truth." 

In order to possess and hold property it became necessary 
for the association to organize under the law of the State. In 
making this new organization neither the form of the societj' nor 
its purposes were es.sentially changed. Article first says, "This 
organization has corporate existence under the name of the 
Students' Christian Association of the State Normal School, 
located at Ypsilanti, Michigan." 

The purposes of the association are to lead its members and 
others to an earnest study of the Scriptures ; to a knowledge of 
Jesus Christ as their Divine Lord and Master; to an acceptance 
of His words as the guide of life; to strive after purity and 
uprightness of character and conduct; to promote Christian 


fellowship and to incite to active, aggressive Christian work. 

At the beginning of each school year the President appoints 
an Executive Committee of not exceeding twenty -five. Practi- 
cally the committee controls the affairs of the society. Sub- 
committees are appointed with specific duties to perform. 

The activities of the members of the association take on 
almost every possible form. A large number of Bible classes, 
both for ladies and gentlemen, are organized earlj^ in the year. 
Some of these are taught by members of the Faculty, others by 
advanced students, whose religious life seeks some method of 
doing good to their associates. 

Starkweather Hall. 

As already related, the home of the association will here- 
after be the beautiful edifice built by the monej^ so generously 
donated by the benevolent lady whose name adorns the building. 
The history of the erection of the hall has been given in the 
preceding pages in sufficient detail. It only remains to describe 
briefly the building itself. The outline of the building is irreg- 
ular, but the length is about 62 feet and the breadth about 56 
feet. The interior is so arranged as to afford most excellent 
conveniences for all the work of the society. 

The body of the building is constructed of field stone; the 
tower, of Ionia sandstone surrounded by a band of ornamental 
brick. The roof is covered with tile. The finish within is 
throughout of carefviUy selected hardwood. The walls are 
plastered and tinted so as to give a very agreeable effect. 
The main entrance is on the east side and presents a 
double archway leading into a waiting room from which 
access is had to all the rooms on the first floor. A stair- 
way in the tower leads to the second floor. This floor, 
with the exception of a small room for the janitor, affords 
an assembl}' hall which accommodates four hundred persons. 
On the first floor there are six rooms, easily- thrown together for 
receptions, socials, and other gatherings, when large numbers 
are to be accommodated. These rooms, when separated by 


slidino: doors, afford conveniences for Bible classes, committee 
meetings, and other small gatherings. The arrangements for 
ser\-ing refreshments are excellent, and a good kitchen is pro- 

The whole building is furnished with both gas and electric 
lights, and when lighted in the evening presents a most beautiful 
appearance. The hall and all its surroundings presents an 
object lesson in that sort of beauty which elevates the soul, and 
opens the heart to the reflection which ever shines from the 
beauty of holiness. 

Frederic Henry Pease. 



riusic.— The Conservatory. 

It has been the policy of the Normal School to have 
music taught as a regular study from the second year of its 
existence. The amount and quality of the work done have 
varied from time to time, but the idea has been kept prominently 
in mind that the students should have a certain amount of musi- 
cal instruction and training eveiy term. The regular teaching 
of music began in 1854, under the direction of Professor Albert 
Miller, a most excellent instructor. He gives the following 
statement of the condition of affairs at that time in the insitu- 
tion : 

"Up to the spring of 1854 the State Normal School had no musical 
department. I was invited to assist in organizing one, and to have charge 
of it. There were at that time, and indeed during the four years of my 
incumbency, no musical instruments of any kind in the building, a fact 
which made it exceedingly awkward to render teaching effective or 
interesting. Nevertheless we organized classes in vocal music, all of 
them starting with the first rudiments as laid down in Taylor's text-book, 
The Chimes. Students procured their own books, all other music I 
furnished myself, as there was no other provision made for that purpose. 

"My directions from the State Board of Education were very meager; 
the only one I remember was to the effect that every student should be 
taught music and no one should be allowed to graduate who could not 
pass a satisfactory examination, even where it should be found that he 
had very inferior, or no singing qualifications at all. There was no 
exception to this rule. I remember the case of a young lady who applied 
for excuse from the music classes on the ground that she disliked, nay 
even hated, the sound of music. She was sent back to her seat with the 
comforting assurance that she was exceptionally susceptible to musical 
effect. The same person became a teacher in a school where she could not 
have been received except for the fact that she was found capable to 
teach music and to lead her pupils in singing. Among the more success- 
ful pupils in my department were many who besides the prescribed course 


took lessons in harmony and composition as far as that was practicable 
without an instrument. There were also those who did commendable 
work in quartet and solo singing." 

Professor Miller was an accom])lished and successful 
teacher, and laid a solid foundation for the musical department. 
A considerable portion of his music was of the classical order, 
and was somewhat above the culture and taste of the pupils 
jjenerally. Professor Miller closed his work in teachinj^ music 
in the Normal in 1858. In that 3'ear Professor E. M. Foote, of 
Lockport, N. Y., was appointed to the chair of music in the 

school. Of Mr. Foote, Professor Pease says: 

"He was one of that famous class of convention leaders who did so 
much to arouse an interest in music throughout our land. He possessed 
a fine, ringing voice, commanding presence, and other qualifications 
which a popular leader required. The change from the classical and 
somewhat severe work which had been done, to this light and pleasing 
study of songs of the day, was highly appreciated by the students and 
citizens, and proved conclusively that the first had been of too high an 
order, and was too far above the heads of the people. The music sung 
was descriptive, sentimental, patriotic, and told sweet tales of love and home. 
.Vll this could not last, but it served its purpose of leading to better 
things ; and Professor Foote will be remembered by the normal students 
of that time with love and thankfulness." 

Professor Foote closed his connection wath the Normal 
School in 1863, and was succeeded by Professor F. H. Pease, 
who has held the position of head of the department of music 
from that time to the present. 

Of his early efforts. Professor Pease says: 

"For several years the work was continued in the same popular line. 
But a great change was seen to be coming. Greater interest was everywhere 
manifested in regard to music, and more was being required of students 
who went out to teach, and a higher and better kind of music was more 

In 1868 vocal music was made a part of the rejj:ular course 

of the school, and the work of the different ji:rades was fully 

explained in the cataloj.jues. Professor Pease says: 

"In 1870 a full year was given to music. In 187.'i an outline history 
of music was introduced, and a common school and professional course 
was instituted. In 1880 an art course was introduced in which vocal 
music was given a desirable place. A^ may be seen by the foregoing 
history the study of music was from the beginning increasing in impor- 

Conservatory of Music, Erected 1864—1870. 




tance, and was every year growing in interest and demanding more from 
the department." 

The Normal Conserv^aton- of Music was organized in 1881, 

chiefly by the efforts of Dr. Mac Vicar, the Principal of the 

school at that time. The following from the catalogue of that 

year explains the reasons for the organization of the conserv^a- 

tory : 

"The course in vocal music in the Normal School is suflSciently long 
and thorough to prepare teachers to give the elementary instruction 
usually required in this subject in the public schools; yet there is a great 
demand for teachers who can do more advanced work as well. In view 
of this fact the State Board of Education arranged with the pro- 
fessor of music in the Normal School to organize and become director of 
the Normal Conservatory of Music. Thus associating with himself able 
and efficient instructors in the various departments of the science and art 
of music, and providing, without any additional expense to the State, 
ample opportunities to the students in the Normal School to pursue, to 
an)- desired extent, the study and practice of vocal and instrumental 

In 1882-3 a special course with music was arranged in the 
normal, and this course, with modifications and additions, has 
continued to the present time. The courses in the conservators- 
are now essential!}" as follows, as given by Professor Pease: 

"The Faculty of the Con.servator\' consists of fourteen members, of 
which the following is a list : 


Miss Lulu M, Loughray. Miss Myra L. Byrd. 

Mrs. Jessie P. Scrimger. Mr. John Whittaker. 

Mr. F. L. York. Herr Herman Brueckner. 


Mrs. Bertha Day-Boyce. Miss Georgia M. Cheshire. 

Mr. Frederic H. Pease. Mr. John Whittaker. 

Miss Abba Owen. Herr Herman Brueckner. 

Mr. Henry W. Sampson. 

Miss Myra L. Byrd. Miss Carrie Towner. 

Mr. John Whittaker. Mr. Marshall Pease. 

Mr. and Mrs. Frederic H. Pease. 

Professor August L,odenian. 


The Conservatory offers courses in piano, organ, singing, violin, vio- 
loncello, each course three years in length; and a two years' public school 
course; and a two years' theory course. A new course has just been added 
for music and drawing, this being really a normal school course, the 
music being taken in the conservatory. The present senior class numbers 
twenty-five, the largest since the organization of the department. Seven 
pianos are in use, and a large organ in the assembly hall. Many students 
take studies both in the conservatory and in the college. 

The pupils number on an average from 150 to 200, not including those 
who come from the college for music alone. The studies are music and 
drawing; elementary music and sight-reading; advanced classes in 
elementary music; teachers' course for public schools; harmony and 
counterpoint; musical form and composition, history of music; voice 
culture aud singing; in instrumental music, piano, organ, violin, violon- 

The conservatory has had a very prosperous life, and grows more and 
more prosperous." 

Austin George. 



The Michigan State Normal School in the Civil War. 


When the war of the Rebellion broke out, the Michigan State 
Normal School had been in operation but eight years. The last 
half of this time was a period of great political excitement. The 
aggressiveness of the slave power had aroused the conscience of 
the North. Threats of rebellion and mutterings of war were 
borne from the South, but people did not believe a civil war 
probable or possible. All optimistic notions were, however, 
rudely and quickly dispelled by the firing on Fort Sumter. 
The great North rose up almost as one man, and put forth its 
strength and lavished its resources for the preservation of the 
Union. How the State of Michigan did its duty, is a matter of 
history. How municipalities and neighborhoods and communi- 
ties behaved, is told in local annals and traditions which will 
ever be handed down as a local pride and inspiration. How the 
schools and colleges of the land heaved and throbbed with 
emotion, and how the fires of patriotism glowed and burned in 
the hearts of the students, may be imagined, but can hardlj^ be 
portrayed in sober speech. The excitement among citizens was 
exhibited in an intensified form among students: they were 
young and excitable ; they regularl^^ assembled day by day — they 
did not need to be called together ; the}' were warmed by constant 
personal contact and kept at fever heat. The Normal School 
was no exception. It was grandly in line with other institu- 
tions, and nobly it did its duty. 

I entered the Normal in the fall of 1859, and was a student 
in the institution when the war began, and had personal knowl- 


edge of the school durinc^ the entire war period; and it is now 
given to me to present a brief account of the part borne by our 
school in the great conflict. 

To realize the condition of the student mind at that time, 
let us pass in brief review some of the stirring events that hap- 
pened in quick succession. October 16, 1859, John Brown 
made his raid into Virginia to liberate the slaves; he was 
captured on the 17th, tried and convicted October 29th, and 
hanged Dec. 2. The Democratic part}- split on the slavery 
question in April, 1860, the southern wing nominating Brecken- 
rige, and the northern, Douglas. Abraham Lincoln was 
nominated by the Republicans in June, and a heated canvass 
terminated in his election in November. Dec. 20th, South 
Carolina seceded. In Januar>', 1861, the steamer Star of the 
West, bearing reinforcements to Fort Sumter, was fired on. 
February 8th, six states organized the Southern Confederacy, 
and the next day Jefferson Davis was chosen Confederate Presi- 
dent and Alexander Stevens Vice President. On entering office 
Stevens made a speech stating that slavery was to be the corner 
stone of the New Confederacy. The Southerners now seized 
national custom houses, arsenals- munitions and ships of war. 
Lincoln was inaugurated March -1-th. March 5th, commissioners 
from the Southern Confederacj^ arrived in Washington to open 
negotiations for a separation. The surrender of Fort Sumter was 
demanded April 11th, it was fired on April 12th, and surrendered 
April 14th. April 15th, President Lincoln issued a call for 
75,000 men. On the 17th Virginia seceded. April 19th, a 
Massachusetts regiment going to Washington in response to the 
President's call, was attacked in the streets of Baltimore, and 
the first blood of the war was shed. 

Meanwhile exciting events were occurring in our own State. 
Januar>- 1st, 1861, Austin Blair was inaugurated Governor. In 
his message he discussed in no uncertain manner the affairs of 
the nation in the light of coming possibilities. The following 
sentences show the spirit of the message : 

" Secession is revolution, and revolution in the overt act is treason 
and must be treated as such. The Federal Government has power to 


defend itself. I do not doubt that that power will be used to the utmost 
It is the question of war that the seceding States have to look in the face. 
They who think that this powerful government can be disrupted peace- 
ably, have read history to no purpose. * * * * Most deeply must we 
deplore the unnatural contest. On the heads of the traitors who provoke 
it, must rest the responsibility. In such a contest the God of battles has 
no attributes that can take sides with the revolutionists of the slave 

Februaty 2d, the Legislature passed a joint resolution de- 
claring the adherence of the State to the government of the 
United States, and pledging and tendering to it all the militan,' 
power and material resources of Michigan. April 2d, Governor 
Blair issued a proclamation calling the Legislature for special 
session on the 7th of May. 

In the President's call of April 15th, Michigan was assigned 
to furnish one regiment of infantrj^ April 16th, the Governor 
called for ten companies of militia, and directed the Adjutant 
General to accept the first ten companies offered. The response 
was instantaneous. Two companies were accepted from Wash- 
tenaw county, — one from Ypsilanti, and one from Manchester. 
Into this regiment went several Normal boys, — James N. Wallace, 
William Widdicomb, John W. Horner, and others; and Charles 
T. Allen from the High School; while several who sought to 
go were shut out because the companies were full. The war 
fever ran high among the Normal students, and at a meeting of 
the Lyceum the next Friday evening, E. P. Allen stated that he 
learned from his brother that the Manchester company could 
take three more men. Morgan and Stanway at once volunteered 
to go with Allen to make up the number. The boj^s made 
solemn speeches bidding farewell to Normal scenes and friends, 
and started the same night for Manchester ; but the next Monday 
saw them back in Ypsilanti, the companj^ having reached its 
limit of men before they arrived. Stanway finally' succeeded in 
getting into the 1st regiment. These three men all subsequently 
became Captains. The organization of the 1st regiment was com- 
pleted April 29th. It was mustered into the service of the 
United States May 1st, left Detroit May 13th, and arrived in 
Washington May 16th, being the first western regiment to reach 


the Capital, where they were received and reviewed by President 
Lincoln and General Scott, and addressed b}' the President. 
April 26th, the Governor called for the 2nd regiment, which was 
mustered in May 25th and left for Washington June 6th. The 
3rd regiment was mustered in June 10th. The 4th regiment 
was mustered in June 20th, and of this Jonathan W. Childs, an 
old Normal student, was Major. Before their three months" 
ser\'ice had expired, the 1st began reorganizing as a three years 
regiment, in which George P. Sanford, Normal graduate 1856, 
was Captain. 

After the disastrous battle of Bull Run matters were some- 
what quiet on the Potomac for nearly ten months ; though there 
was activity in the west under Grant, and along the Atlantic 
coast operations were actively carried on b\' Burnside and the 
navy. During this time twelve new regiments of infantn,' had 
been organized, seven of which were sent to the west, and 
five to the east; and four regiments of cavalry had been formed. 

May 29th, 1862, an order was given to organize the 17th regi- 
ment of infantry. The Peninsular campaign was under wa}', 
and as it progressed during the month of June, excitement 
throughout the countrj' increased. On the 30th, the Governors 
of New York, Pennsylvania and Michigan united in a memorial 
to President Lincoln to call out men enough to crush the re- 
bellion; and on July 1st, the President issued his call for 
300,000 men, and Governor Blair soon issued orders for raising 
seven more regiments of infantry and four of cavalry. The ex- 
citement increased daj'' by day. The Normal was still in session, 
as the summer term did not close till July 18th. The war feeling 
among the students became more intense. War meetings were 
held, and at one of these it was suggested that as so many 
students talked of enlisting, it would be a good plan to organize 
a Normal Company. On July 15th, the State Board of Educa- 
tion passed the following: 

"Resolved that leave of absence he given to any member of the 
institution who may wish to enlist in the military service of his country in 
the present war for the preservation of the Union 


The idea of a Normal Company "took;" but in the midst 
of the excitement the school closed and the students left for their 
homes, with no organization perfected. 

It was my fortune to reside in Ypsilanti at that time, and 
being thoroughly aroused on the subject, I assumed responsi- 
bility to hang out the flag and open a recruiting ofl&ce at Kinne & 
Smith's book store on the north side of Congress street. A 
circular letter was prepared and mailed to the boys all over the 
state. Responses came quickly, in person. David S. Howard 
of Pontiac was the first, James T. Morgan of Muskegon, the 
second, while Mathews, Safford, Billings and others, came in 
rapid succession. . Many of the Normal boys were, however, 
drawn into their own home companies, for regiments were form - 
ing in everj^ congressional district. The company was soon full. 
It was made up of three parts: the first composed of Normal 
students who enlisted directly in the company; the second, of 
men enlisted bj^ Morgan in Jackson county-; the third, a body of 
about 30 men enlisted by Gabriel Campbell in Washtenaw count}- 
before and while the Normal Company was forming, and which 
he induced them to enter. Campbell had graduated from the 
Normal in '61, and was a student in the Universitj- during the 
academic year of 61-62, as was also Delos Phillips. 

The full number of men being secured, the company organ- 
ized by the election of ofl&cers, after which the roster was as 
follows : 

Captain, Gabriel Campbell. 

First Lieutenant, Thomas Mathews. 

Second Lieutenant, James T. Morgan. 

First Sergeant, Delos Phillips. 
Second Sergeant, Benjamin D. Safford. 
Third Sergeant, George W. Hough. 
Fourth Sergeant, John S. Maltman. 
Fifth Sergeant, John A. McDougall. 

First Corporal, William C. Weir. 
Second Corporal, Salmon E. Haight. 
Third Corporal, G. Myron Hawley . 
Fourth Corporal, David S. Howard. 
Fifth Corporal, Henry C. Clark. 



Sixth Corporal, George W. Harmon. 
Seventh Corporal, Philo M. I<onsbury. 
Eighth Corporal, Fred S. Webb. 

Vifer, James C. Leggett. 
Drummer, William Weeks. 
Wagoner, J. INIichael Hreining. 



William 11. .\rndt, 




Foster Ames, 



Samuel F. Aulls, 



Edwin A. Bush, 



Augustus T. Billings, 



Wm. H. Brearley, 



Henry D. Burr, 



Henry Brander, 



Arthur W. Chapman, 



Silas W. Chapman, 



Charles J. Cady, 



William L. Dorr, 



William T. Daines, 



Herbert Deuel, 



Gregory C. Dibble, 



Seth E. Engle, 



William H. Eckler, 



Robert Fleming, 



Oscar Foster, 



William Ferrier, 



Hayes C. French, 



Pyron V. Fellows, 



William Farnell, 



Thomas W. Gretton, 



Edward A. Haight, 



Henry Hardy, 



Dan G. Hopkins, 



Francis J. Hotchkin, 



Alfred Hardy, 



Charles C. Huttenlocker, 



John Horning, 



Monroe E. Hillman, 



George P. Hathaway, 



Henry H. Hudson, 



Austin Herrick, 



George H. Hopkins, 


George D. Herrick, 
Robert C. Irwin, 
Charles H. Jones, 
Lucian M. Jones, 
Francis E. King, 
Andrew J. Kelly, 
.Vlonzo Lewis, 
Benjamin C. Lewis, 
John I\I. Lawrence, 
Herbert M. Lonsbury, 
John H. Marvin, 
Schuyler McFall, 
Daniel McFall, 
Harrison Mc Fall, 
Walter R. :\raxfield, 
Stuart C. Moon, 
Squier Mathews, 
George W. Mc Michael, 
James ^Masters, 
John Mason, 
Gilbert B. Peck, 
Thomas Parr, 
Ralzemond A. Parker, 
Webster Ruckman, 
William H. Sweezy, 
Delevan D. Slack, 
Irwin Shepard, 
Albert S. Smedley, 
Grove Sevey, 
Ruggles M. Stiles, 
Theron .\. Stevens, 
Heman B. Sturdevant, 
Seth H. Tolles, 
Martin C. Thorn, 
L. Freeman Thompson, 
Robert E. Vining, 




Jacob Wash, 


Theodore E. Wood, 


Alfred F. Wilcox, 


William A. Woodard, 


Jonathan M. Wood, 


Robert T. Wheelock, 


Venony Watson, 


John L. Yaw, 


Hiram H. Webb, 


Alexander Mc Kinnon. 


Andrew J. Wood, 

While not composed entirely of Normal students, it was 
appropriately named the Normal Company : it originated at the 
Normal; all 3 of the Commissioned officers, 4 of the 5 Sergeants, 
4 of the 8 Corporals, and nearly one -third of the men were 
Normal students, while 7 of the Normal soldiers brought brothers 
into the company who had not attended the Normal. Several 
students from the Ypsilanti High School, or Seminary as it was 
then commonly called, also joined the company; aLso three 
former High School students who were then studying in the 
University — thus materially increasing the student element. In 
April, 1864, several recruits joined the company, among these 
was Jacob Engle, a Normal student. Not being eligible to 
military- ser\nce I could not regularly enlist and be sworn in, but 
entered the organization as company- clerk and remained in the 
service four months, doing duty at the front as regimental post- 
master and clerk at brigade and division headquarters. 

The recruiting and organizing of the company made stirring 
times in Ypsilanti. It was at first expected that Professor Sill 
would take command of the company, but he considered that 
inasmuch as it was a student organization the offices and honors 
of the company" should properl}'^ go to students. He then raised 
a fund by subscription and purchased a sword, belt, and sash 
for the commander of the compan^^ which he presented to the 
Captain in a handsome speech at Hewitt (now Light Guard) Hall. 
On this occasion each member of the company received some 
gift from the ladies of Ypsilanti ; mine was a pocket edition of 
the Testament and Psalms, with the name of 'Louise Loveridge' 
written inside the cover. This little book I carried through the 
Mar\dand campaign, and I still retain it as one of mv treasures. 
The Sunday before we left Ypsilanti the company attended the 


Methodist Church in a body, and the pastor. Doctor B. F. 
Cocker, afterwards Professor in the University, preached an elo- 
quent and appropriate sermon. At the close of the service the 
boys stood up and sang "We are coming. Father Abraham, six 
hundred thousand more," Safford taking the solo, and it can be 
said literally, that there was not a dry eye in the house. It may 
be remarked here that singing was ever a strong feature with the 
company. Apropos of this, Captain Campbell writes me: 

"On the way to the front how magnificently they .sang at Pittsburg 
after supper in the Market Hall, and what an ovation the boys had from 
the ladies at the depot! The singing of the company was known far and 
wide — called to be choir not only for regimental .services, but for brigade 
and division as well. How charming the voices of the quartet used to 
ring out through the evening — Larboard Watch, for instance; or the voices 
of many in. Nearer, My God, to Thee, in the weekly jirayer meeting 
'under the pale stars'!" 

The company' proceeded to Detroit in August, was mustered 
in on August 19th, and assigned to the 17th Infantry as Com- 
pany E, and left for Washington, August 27, 1862. The regi- 
ment was encamped at one of the outlj-ing forts, but Companj' 
E was stationed at the Navy Yard bridge as guard, and was there 
during the second battle of Bull Run and the battle of Chantilly, 
August 30th and September 1st. The cannonading at the front 
was distinctly audible, and wounded men and fugitives were 
soon seen in the streets of Washington. 

The rebels now crossed the Potomac and invaded the North. 
Our regiment was attached to the 1st brigade, 1st division, 9th 
corps, and was almost immediately sent into the Maryland cam- 
paign. September Llth the regiment marched through Frederick 
City, which Stonewall Jackson had occupied but a day or two 
before, and where the Barbara Frietchie incident is reported to have 
occurred. On the next day, Sunday, September 14th, only a little 
over two weeks after leaving Michigan, the regiment received 
its "baptism of fire" in the battle of South Mountain. A mag- 
nificent and successful charge was made on the enemy posted 
behind stone fences, and the regiment was known thereafter as 
the "Stonewall Regiment." In this battle the regiment lost 27 
killed and 114 wounded, out of less than 500 actually engaged, 


and it captured nearly 300 prisoners. Company E lost 4 killed 
and 1 mortally wounded. Among the badly wounded were two 
Normal students, David S. Howard and Lucian Jones. McKin- 
non was among the killed ; his case is peculiarly sad and 
demands a special record. Brearley writes me in regard to 
him: — 

" When I was at the Normal in 1861, I had as my seat mate Alexander 
McKinnon. My age then was 14, and he was two years older. He tried 
to enlist with us, but could not be taken as our number was complete. 
Although the company was full, he went with us to the barracks at 
Detroit and, as you know, tried to get in, and woiild not leave us; and he 
finally got accepted as a substitute for Stiles, who was taken sick and dis- 
charged. We walked and talked and slept together on the way all along 
from Washington to South Mountain. He said he didn't expect to live, 
but that he thought it was his duty to give his life to his country. You 
must know all about this, and yet you didn't know him personally to such 
an extent as I did, nor know how sweet and patriotic a spirit he had. He 
was b}' mj- side at South Mountain, and when he fell, I stopped for a 
moment beside him to see if he was dead, and then went on. He was 
instantly killed. I did not see him afterwards. M}' eyes fill with tears 
as I think of him. No loftier or purer life went out that day on the slope 
of South Mountain, than that of dear McKinnon. His name and mem- 
ory cannot be too highly honored by the Normal of today." 

When the regiment moved on, I was left in charge of the 
burial party, and I saw McKinnon's bodv placed with the 26 
other Michigan dead in one long grave, and marked the spot 
with a head -board for each. 

On next Wednesday, September 17th, was fought the great 
battle of Antietam, in which the 17th, with diminished numbers, 
lost 18 killed and 87 wounded. The loss in Company E was 4 
killed, including two Normal boys, Mar\an and Ruckman, and 
Fred S. Webb was mortally wounded. 

Many incidents illustrate the hardship and distress of the 
war in which our regiment was so soon immersed. In the com- 
pany, as is shown bj^ the roster, were several pairs of brothers. 
These ties of blood relationship were naturallj- a source of keen 
anxiety ; but they aroused a watchful care and attention at all 
times, and secured a tender and loving ser\nce when the suffer- 
ings and calamities of battle befell a brother. Dan G. Hopkins, 


desperate!}' wounded at South Mountain, was tenderly nursed 
b}' his brother George. The following maj- receive special rec- 
ord : At the battle of Antietam. Fred S. Webb and E. A. 
Haight were severelj^ wounded — each being struck squarely 
in the forehead by musket balls. Their brothers were allowed 
to take care of them as they were moved from place to place. 
On the news becoming known in Michigan, Doctor Webb hast- 
ened to the front in search of his son. He came to the camp of 
Company' E, and throwing his arms around Captain Campbell, 
exclaimed in anguish, "Where are my boys?" He was given all 
the information possible and started on the trail of the wounded. 
He soon was on the track of two brothers, one wounded in the 
forehead, the other caring for him. What was the Doctor's 
amazement when he came up with them to find that he had been 
following the Haight boN's. They, however, gave him some 
clue and ultimatel}' his boys were found. The Doctor was given 
an appointment as Hospital Surgeon and remained with the 
boys. The sad vicissitudes of war are well illustrated by these 
cases: Hopkins and Webb died of their wounds; Ed Haight 
recovered; but his brother Salmon, who cared for him on the 
field and in the hospital, was stricken with t3'phoid fever and 
died at Falmouth, Va. 

After Antietam the regiment encamped in the vicinity- , and 
was present when the armj' was reviewed by President Lincoln. 
Towards the last of October the regiment crossed the Potomac 
into Mrginia and started on the march to Falmouth, opposite 
Fredericksburg, where it encamped November 18th. On this 
march Professor Welch. Principal of the Normal, visited Com- 
pany E, at a place called Waterloo. This was an event in the 
life of the company, which one of the boys describes to me in a 
recent letter: — 

' ' I remember we were stopping for three or four days, and he was 
disappointed at not witnessinj? .some fitjhtinji, and expressed a wish to 
take a gun and go in with the boys, if such an occasion occurred while he 
was there. The evening before he was to leave we had a 'spread,' with 
singing and speeches. Morgan gave me his horse and I went out three 
or four miles and 'found' some potatoes and chickens. Other boys also 
foraged. Rubber blankets were spread on the ground for tables, around 


which we sat like Turks and had our banquet, while an outside rim of 
spectators were interested admirers of the occasion. The Professor again 
spoke of his desire to be with the company in actual fighting, and had 
hardly more than finished speaking when the long roll beat, as we heard 
some picket-firing. Everyone sprang for his gun, and the Professor soon 
rigged himself up in the accouterments of a soldier who had that day 
gone away sick. I well remember how comical he looked, — so little, with 
a silk hat on, and a belt, and a gun! He turned in with the company, 
and was as good as his word. Fortunate!)-, it proved to be only a scare, 
and no further test of valor was required.* 

Dec. 12th the regiment crossed the Rappahannock for the 
battle of Fredericksburg and was assigned a position about mid- 
way- between the river and Marj^e's Heights, where the heaviest 
fighting occurred. It la}^ under the artillerj^ fire, but was not 
actively engaged, though expecting ever^' moment to be ordered 
to charge. 

In February-, 1863, the regiment began a famous journey. 
It went to Aquia Creek, and thence to Newport News opposite 
Fortress Monroe, where it remained one month, to a day. 
March 19th it embarked up the Chesapeake for Baltimore ; thence 
by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to Parkersburg, W. Va. ; thence 
by steamboat down the Ohio River to Louisville, having a 
sunny delightful trip; on the 28th it marched to Bardstown ; 
April 3rd to Lebanon ; then to Columbia; then to Jamestown, just 
south of which, at Horse Shoe Bend, on May 10th, the 20th Mich- 
igan had their first real fight— Co. E being witnesses. (Co. E 
had desired to go out in this regiment. ) The 9th corps having 
been ordered to reinforce General Grant in Mississippi, the 
regiment left Jamestown June 4th, post haste for Louisville. The 
weather was hot, and the forced march was ver>^ severe, covering 
33 miles in oi?e day. Proceeding by rail through Indiana and 
Illinois to Cairo, and by the Mississippi River to the Yazoo, the 
regiment disembarked, and went into camp near Haines' Bluff, 
Miss. June 22nd, it went to Milldale, a few miles back and 
directly east of Vicksburg, and there engaged in erecting fortifica- 
tions to keep General Johnson from attacking Grant in the rear. 

"Mailman and Brearle.v .-ach sent me an account of this— one from Los Anpeles, 
Cal., the other from New York City; these accounts, g-'ven thirty-seven years after the 
event, differ only slightly in substance. (A. G.) 

266 HISTORY OF thp: 

July 4th, after the surrender of Vicksburg, the reg^iment joined the 
advance on Jackson, the capital of Mississippi, arriving before the 
town on the 10th, after several skirmishes. Johnson fled to the 
east. Returning to Milldale, the regiment took steamer Aug. 3rd 
for Cairo; thence bj- rail to Centralia, 111.; thence east to Cin- 
cinnati; thence south to Nicholasville, Ky., stopping a couple of 
weeks at Camp Parke. Of this camp one of the bo3's writes: 

"It was the finest we were ever in. Farm products abounded, and 
we lived for two weeks on the fat of the land." 

Thence the regiment went to Crab Orchard, Aug. 24th. The 
17th Infantry- had thus traveled over 2,100 miles during its first 
year, and the division was facetiouslj- called "Burnside's Class 
in Geograph}'." 

Soon orders came for each man to take 15 days" rations on 
his person, and for the rest, — "to live on the countr>^" The 
regiment now engaged in the movements made by the Arm}' of 
the Ohio into East Tennessee in September and October. It 
passed through Cumberland Gap, where the scenery' was wild 
and mountainous. While somewhere up in these mountains, 
two of the Normal boys had a little experience which was told to 
me as follows : 

"One day Irwin Shepard and Will Brearley got a meal at a crack- 
er's' cabin,' which consisted of bacon swimming in a dish of grav}', and of 
corn pones. The woman of the cabin put her guests at ease, — breaking 
off a bit of corn bread, and reaching over to the center of the table and 
stirring it about in the gravy and then putting it in her mouth, she said: 
'We uns haint got no butter, but you uns can wobble your dodger in the 
ham-fat.' As imitation is ever the subtlest form of flattery, and as a 
Normalite could never be anything other than the soul of politeness, they 
took her suggestion, and followed her example." 

The regiment arrived at Knoxville Sept. 26th, and in a few 
days was loaded hurriedly on the train and sent to Blue Springs. 
Here was a skirmish, and then an assault on a rebel position 
armed with wooden guns ; but the position had been deserted 
during the night. The regiment returned to Knoxville Oct. 14th, 
and on the 20th marched via. Loudon to Lenoir Station, and 
went into camp till Nov. 14th, when it marched to the Tennessee 
River below Loudon to oppose the advance of Longstreet, who 


was moving on Knoxville. It lay under arms during the night, 
and on the following morning began falling back on Knoxville, 
32 miles, with Longstreet at its heels. Of this retreat Brearley 
writes : 

"Our regiment was made rear guard, and Cos. E, I, and K were de- 
tailed as skirmishers. Cos. I and K were held in reserve, and Co. E was 
deployed. Capt. Swift had charge of the line. I happened to be near the 
center of the company, and was told to keep the middle of the road, and 
the others to guide on me, right and left. This was Nov. 16th, and our 
duty that day was a desperate resistance to overwhelming numbers, who 
crowded us back eight or nine miles towards Campbell's Station. It was 
as severe as South Mountain. Our company was for a time alone, then 
we formed on the regiment; and then it was our regiment alone for a time; 
then our regiment had six or seven regiments to hold in check until we 
got back to where our brigade with artillery there in waiting; then back 
to Campbell's Station where all the rest were with 48 cannon, and where 
Longstreet tried to crush Burnside by assault, and was repulsed several 
times. It was a desperate hght. Here Capt. Mathews and Serjt. Malt- 
man were wounded, and Capt. Morgan was taken prisoner. That night 
we retreated to Knoxville, 17 miles, and on the morning of the 18th of 
November, the siege of Knoxville began and lasted till Dec. 5th, when 
Longstreet abandoned the siege and fled to Virginia. Starvation, constant 
fighting, etc., made this a memorable epoch of our experience." 

On the night of Nov. 20th, the regiment was ordered to go 
out from Knoxville and burn a house occupied by rebel sharp- 
shooters, who were annoying our men. The New York Tribune 
contained an account of this, under the heading "Brilliant Sortie 
of the 17th Michigan." It said: 

"The work was handsomely accomplished, and the house was set on 
fire. They then fell back, but as the light of the burning building burst 
forth, it revealed the position of our men as they were deploying into the 
road, and the enemy swept their ranks by discharges of shell and solid 
shot. The object was accomplished, though after the sacrifice of valuable 
men, and the Michigan boys deserve much praise for the handsome 
manner in which they executed their task." 

Irwin Shepard, late president of the Winona, Minn., State 
Normal School, now permanent Secretary of the National Educa- 
tional Association, was in the little squad of "burners." For 
his personal valor in this campaign Shepard received a Congres- 
sional medal. 


The regiment remained in the vicinit}- of Knoxville during 

the winter, suffering much from the want of shoes, clothing and 

supplies, and some of the time living on quarter rations. But 

nothing could dampen the ardor of the troops to such a degree 

that they could not find something humorous. Word had come 

that Capt. Morgan was in Libby Prison. He had occasionally 

written letters to the Detroit Advertiser and Tribune, and on Jan. 

1, 1864, a new correspondent took up the pen as follows: 

"As your former correspondent of the brigade ('J. T. M.') has had the 
misfortune to 'fail to connect,' in other words has been captured, and is 
now paying his devoirs to Miss 'Libbie Prison,' perhaps you will consider 
it no intrusion if another — an old friend — takes up his fallen mantle, "etc., 

March 22nd, '64, the regiment commenced its march back 
over the Cumberland Mountains to Nicholasville, K3'., accomp- 
lishing the 186 miles in ten and a half days. Thence it pro- 
ceeded by rail to Annapolis, Md., and marching with its division 
via. Washington and Alexandria, it again joined the Armj' of the 
Potomac near Warrenton Junction, Va., for the terrible campaign 
of 1864. On May 6th, it was engaged in the battle of the 
Wilderness, losing 7 killed and 39 wounded. One of the Normal 

boys writes : 

■'It was a very severe day; we lost heavily, and it was very trying 
from the heat and the suffocating smoke from the woods on fire." 

On May 9th the regiment made a brilliant charge, stamped- 
ing an entire brigade and capturing nearly a hundred prisoners, 
without losing a man. But war's vicissitudes are many, and 
they are sudden and sharp, and on Maj' 12th, at Spottsylvania 
Court, the regiment was completelj' surrounded in a 
dense wood, and was well nigh annihilated, losing 23 killed, 73 
wounded, and 93 taken prisoners out of a total of 225 engaged. 
Phillips, Safford, Maltraan, and others were captured here. 
May 16th Gen. Wilcox, who commanded the division, detailed 
the entire surviving lot to act as "Engineers." and get a rest 
from active duty for a time. The regiment serv^ed in this 
capacity for the remainder of the year. It moved with the corps 
to Cold Harbor and across the James River to the front of Peters- 


burg, building bridges and doing other engineering work, some- 
times under exciting circumstances of artillery' fire, etc. 

The siege of Petersburg lasted from June 17th, 1864, to 
April 3rd, 1865. On March 25th, the rebels captured Fort 
Steadman, and{in its re -capture Major Mathews took the regiment, 
composed of but 80 men, and made a vigorous and successful 
charge, capturing 65 prisoners. April 2nd occurred the final 
assault on the works of Petersburg, in which the 17th acted as 
reserve. That night Petersburg and Richmond were abandoned, 
and Lee started for Appomattox, where he surrendered April 
9th. The regiment now did Provost dut}^ for two weeks in the 
country beyond Petersburg, and on April 23rd at 11 a. m. it 
began the welcome homeward march, arriving that night within 
6 miles of Petersburg, a distance of 27 miles; on the 24th it 
moved to City Point, and the next day embarked on transports 
for Alexandria. On the 29th it marched via. Washington to 
Tenallytown, Md., and remained in camp until Maj^ 23rd, '65, 
when it took part in the grand and memorable review of the 
Union Armies at Washington. It returned to Tenallj^town, 
where it was mustered out June 3rd, and started for Michigan 
the next day, arriving at Detroit June 7th, where it was paid off 
and discharged. 

Rank of the Normal Company. 
The relative rank of Company E as compared with the other 
companies of the regiment maj' be seen from the following: 

The total membership of the regiment was 1079 officers and men, 
including recruits received during the war. 

The original membership was but - - - 982. 

The number killed in battle was 89 for the 10 companies. 

Co. E lost of this number - . - - 13. 

In specific engagements the record stands : 

At South Mountain, the Regiment lost - - 27 killed. 

Co. E lost ----- 4 killed. 

At Antietam the Regiment lost - - - IS killed. 

Co. E lost ----- 4 killed. 

At Campbell's Station the Regiment lost - - 7 killed. 

Co. E lost ----- 3 killed. 

All of which would indicate that the Normal Company gave 
a good account of itself and did its full duty. 


War Experiences of other Normal Students. 

From the number of reports that have been sent to me of 
the deeds and experiences of Normal students in the war, I have 
made such selections as ma}- be considered t3'pical. Foremost, 
of course, stands the experience of the organization known as 
the Normal Company, which I have already described. Three 
individual experiences will now be given ; these exhibit various 
phases of arm^- life, and show us what Normal students did and 
suffered in the ser\'ice of their country. And when w^e reflect 
that these deeds and these experiences are not singular, nor 
peculiar to Normal students, but were thousands of times re- 
peated b}' organizations and individuals in all the different armies 
of the Union, we may form some slight conception of the efforts 
put forth and of the sacrifices made 'that this government of the 
people might not perish from the earth ; ' and we may be led to 
form some estimate of the worth of a country' that could inspire 
such heroic service. 

When the Second Infantr>^ was forming, Alfred N. Beal, of 
Northville, a Normal boy, went to Detroit to look about and 
decide in what company to enlist. His army experiences are 
recorded in his home letters, from which I make extracts as 
follows : 

"May 21, 1861. I have joined the Kalamazoo Co. K, and am well 
satisfied with my choice. The officers are gentlemen and wish such in 
their company; but of course there are some rough ones. I am perfectly 
satisfied with the position I have taken on the war question, and though 
others may have doubts about duty, I have none. 

M.w 23. Our company is more than full. Had a sifting today; 
whether for the better or not I can hardly tell, though the loafers are 
fewer. I am retained, though some who have been here a good while were 
rejected. I hear that our company is called the 'Christian Company.' 

May 24. We were partly mustered in, when our captain stepped for- 
ward and ordered that we stop mustering. He gave no reason; but we 
afterwards learned that it was because one of our lieutenants was being 
thrown out. Next <iay the captain had us muster, and said that none of 
our officers were to be picked off till they fell in battle. So goes our pri- 
vate war. 


Mav 26. This is my first Sabbath among soldiers. We arose at the 
usual time; marched out to the parade ground; roll was called, and copies 
of the New Testament were distributed ; the captain made an excellent 
speech on the presentation. 

June 8. Arrived in Harrisburg this afternoon somewhat tired, having 
been traveling two days all the time, except when standing in the streets 
with all our goods and effectsonour backs, waiting our turn. But we have 
been a hundred times paid for all the fatigue. Our reception could not 
have been more enthusiastic and cordial had we been returning home 
triumphant. It seemed a sort of gala day with the Ohio people when we 
passed through that State; they appeared to be dressed in theirbest, and 
ranged along the railroad track, saluting, and cheering, and kissing their 
hands. At Hudson the cars had hardly stopped before the}' were besieged 
by cadets in uniform, with baskets of cakes, pies, biscuits, cheese, pickles, 
etc. They came very acceptably, you may believe, as we had eaten noth- 
ing but pilot bread and salt meat since leaving Detroit, except coffee at 

Washington, June 10. We heard at Harrisburg that our passage 
through Baltimore would be opposed, as the 1st Michigan boasted so much 
about getting through; but I saw no disturbance, except at a point about 
five miles before reaching the city. Some villians there tried to pull up 
the track, and several were shot. When marching through the streets of 
Baltimore I could not refrain from touching my hat to the ladies when 
they saluted us and said, 'do your duty.' i answered, 'we will try.' And 
as I was at the end of a platoon, and nearest the crowd when marching by 
platoon, I heard many remarks. Some Baltimoreans laughed when our 
boys told them that we expected a fight when we passed through the city ; 
yet I think the mob there treacherous and uncertain. I look upon our 
passage through Baltimore in the night as quite hazardous; it was some- 
thing no other regiment had done. The day after we arrived in Wash- 
ington, we were at liberty, and went to see places of interest. We were 
reviewed by the President and General Scott. We know nothing of how 
long we shall stay here, but expect to stay three or four weeks. Several 
of us went in bathing in the Potomac the other day, and it became a strife 
to see who would first land in Virginia, and your humble servant was the 
first to arrive and hurrah for the 'Flag of our Union,' on the Virginia 

Camp Winfield Scott, June 25. — Northern money will pass only at a 
discount. State Bank of Michigan 12;,^ per cent; Indiana, 10 per cent. 
I had a New Jersey bill which passed at par. There has been some talk 
that we were to be assigned the first post of honor, — either to guard the 
navy yard at Washington, or to lead the army in Virginia. 

June 29. — Have visited the Smithsonian Institute, also Mount Vernon. 
I may attempt description at another time. 


JlTLY?.— Went to Washington yesterday and secured plenty of reading 
matter; bought a 'Philadelphia Press.' 

July S. — Last night we heard that Gen. Patterson's command had 
encountered the enemy in Virginia, and was driven back with great 
loss. We know not what to believe. The 1st Massachusetts regiment, 
one of our brigade, went by this morning bound for Virginia." 

Beal's regiment soon crossed into \'irginia, and serious 
business now began. The regiment had a slight engagement at 
Blackburn's Ford on the 18th; was not actuall}' engaged at Bull 
Run on the 21st, but had the honor of covering the retreat of the 
Union forces from that disastrous field. In a letter of July 23rd, 
Beal describes these two engagements as he saw them : 

"Our cannons had been slowly firing for a half hour. W'e marched 
into a field and the stars and stripes were carried to the front and waved 
from the top of a haj^ stack. We were maneuvered about, expecting every 
minute to be led into battle. We were placed on a hill within reach of the 
enemy's bullets which whistled about us; cannon balls came plowing the 
earth near us. We were afterwards placed in the rear of a batterj' to 
support it, and then cannon balls came screeching near us. An old 
Crimean soldier in our company said it required more courage to stand 
where we were than it did in active engagement; the suspense was awful. 
We were kept in this position till 5 p. m., when we withdrew to Centreville 
about three miles away. That night we stayed on the field. The next night 
our company held a house in an adjoining portion of the field so that the 
enemy could not plant batteries there. We were so near the enemy that 
our pickets, hidden in bushes, could hear theirs talk. 

"Sunday morning about 8 o'clock our batteries commenced' firing; but 
the fiercest fighting was off on our right, near Manassas Junction. That 
night we, for no good reason we think, made a retreat, — a shameful, 
disgraceful retreat. The ofiicers may try to stave the disgrace upon us, but 
there was no panic among the men that we saw; but there seemed to be 
imbecility of officers. Our regiment stayed till left alone, and then retreated. 
We had heard all day that our men were driving the enemy on the right of 
us where most of the fighting was; and at about 5 p. m. there were heavy 
volleys of musketry on our left. We were told that the rebels, about four 
thousand strong, were trying to break our lines and make good their retreat, 
or attack us in the rear, we knew not which. Our artillery opened on 
them and we started on the double quick to litlp drive them back, when we 
saw others retreating and were called back and obliged to follow them. We 
thought that perhaps we were to make a circuit and head them off, or fall back 
two or three miles into the open fields and spend the night. We did stop about 
lYi, miles away and drew ourselves up into line of battle, and stayed there 
till midnight; while the rattling of wagons, the commands of officers, and 


the tramp of men, told us that the others were retreating. When we were 
left alone, we followed. When we arrived at Arlington Hights at 10 p. m. 
the next day, after a round-about march of 40 miles without stopping to eat 
and through a drizzling rain, we realized that we had been on a retreat." 

In the winter of 1861-62, as a result of exposure on picket 
duty in very severe weather, Beal took cold, and was very sick 
with pneumonia in the regimental hospital. His health was per - 
mantly impaired, and on April 3rd, while on the march to 
Yorktown, he broke down and was sent to Chesapeake General 
Hospital, which he did not leave until discharged for disability 
in November, 1862, just in time to reach home on Thanksgiving 
day. He lingered and suffered till Maj' 1863, when he passed 
away. ^ 


Hiram F. Daniels, who was a prisoner at Richmond, Ander- 
sonville and other places, writes me: 

"In July, 1862, I was asked to enlist in the Normal Company, but 
being only seventeen I did not consent. But as the weather grew hotter, 
so the war grew hotter, and I got the war fever, and in August enlisted as 
it was my duty to do. I can truly say that I have no regrets for all that I 
passed through during my entire enlistment. Still words cannot tell it, 
nor has the pen been made that could write up the sufferings of my eigh- 
teen months a prisoner of^war in those prison pens of the South. It was 
there that I lost all — my education, my mind, my nerves; in fact, all except 
the living frame. When I got home in March 1S65, I weighed less than 
75 pounds; when I enlisted I weighed 140. Out of twenty-seven of my 
company captured at Chickamauga when I was, only five ever came home, 
and I am one_of three still living." 


L,ieut. Col. Buckbee, one of our boys who enlisted before the 
age of 18, writes me in regard to one feature of his experience: 
"When I was taken prisoner in June, 1864, the Libby prisoners had 
been sent to Macon, Ga., and I was sent there, where I met Capt. Morgan. 
We messed together from that time till our escape, with the exception of 
some ten days that I was out in an unsuccessful attempt to get away. 
Morgan and I ran the guards at Camp Sorghum near Columbia, in Nov- 
ember, 1864. Traveling nights, we reached the mouth of the Edisto river, 
and were picked up by the U. S. sloop of war St. Louis, on the morning 
of November 21st, after just 16 nights' travel— a distance of over 160 miles. 


Pretty good time considering roads, swamp travel, etc., and that Morgan's 
health had been very much impaired by his long imprisonment. In fact, 
he was not fit to make the attempt, and nothing but his pluck and nerve 
carried him through." 

Man)' other accounts might be given, but these are sample 


Extreme Youth of some of the Volunteers. 

A noteworthy feature of the Union Armies was the extreme 
youth of many of the volunteers. This was especially noticeable 
among our student soldiers. 

The case of Samuel W. Burroughs is a good illustration. 
He left the Normal School and enlisted in Februar\' 1863, in the 
7th Michigan Cavalry, and went to Virginia with the regiment 
and served] in its first campaign. In the summer he was 
honorably discharged on account of youth. He soon re-enlisted 
in the 15th Infantrj' and served under General Shemian, carrj-- 
ing a musket through the entire Atlanta campaign and during the 
famous march to the sea; and then through the Carolinas till the 
surrender of Johnson in April, 1865. Aug. 13th, he was honorably 
discharged with the rank of sergeant, in the 18th year of his age. 

Of the 102 members of the Normal Company when it 
entered the service, 12 were scheduled as 18 years of age. 
During a recent examination of the original muster roll in the 
office of the Adjutant General at Lansing, I called the attention 
of the deput}', Col. Cook, to this feature, and he said "Yes, the 
army was full of boys of 18; but these figures do not tell the 
whole story. Many of the boys were younger, but were obliged 
to give their age as 18, in order to be accepted." On in.spect- 
ing the roll more closely, I noticed that in the case of Brearley, 
who at the time of enlistment had just turned 16, the age entry 
had been erased and the figures "18" written on the scraped 
surface. The army records contain manj' such cases. Who 
can that this little exaggeration for the opportunity' to 
risk life and limb in the hoi}' service of country will be re- 
membered in the judgment against these patriotic 3'ouths? 
Rather shall we not believe that the "Recording Angel, as he 


marked down the offence, dropped a tear on the sacred page and 
washed the marks away." 

The Normal Lyceum. 

The work of a school literarj' societj' is naturally affected 
by the outside "current events." A few extracts from the min- 
utes of the proceedings of the Normal Lyceum during the war 
period may be of interest, as they are certainly suggestive. 

April 19, 1861, following the firing on Fort Sumter, the 
President's and Governor's calls for troops, etc., the minutes 

" On motion the special order of the evening was then taken up. The 
house resolved itself into a committee of the whole to discuss the ques- 
tion [selected the week before], 'Resolved, That the North would be bet- 
ter off morally, socially and politically without the South.' The discussion 
was of much interest: gentlemen on the affirmative producing unanswer- 
able statistics, which were nevertheless overborne by patriotic enthusiasm 
and Union sentiment. The question on being referred to the house was 
lost. Then followed the magnificent Marseillaise Hymn, stirring deeper 
depths than the discussion had agitated. Miscellaneous business being 
taken up, this question was selected for the next discussion: 'Resolved, 
That the South has no right to secede.' A quartet, The Red, White and 
Blue, was then sung, and after a chorus of real live cheers, the societj^ 

April 26. After the excitement of the first Normal enlist- 
ments, (Allen, Morgan, Stanway, etc.) the following action was 
taken : 

''Resolved, That we highly admire the patriotism and courage of those 
who are called from among us to fight their country's battles, to guard, 
protect, and uphold the constitution of our common country; and while 
duty calls them from us, we sincerely regret their absence, and they may 
be assured of our prayers to Him who is omnipotent in battle that He ma}- 
bless their patriotic efforts to save this country, that He may watch over 
and protect them, and ultimately return them to us in safety." 

The minutes are signed: — Austin George, Pres. Marj^ A. 
Rice, Sec. 

As indicating the patriotic stress and influences under which 
work was carried on in the school during the summer of 1862, 
I quote again from the Lyceum minutes. At the meeting of 
May 30th, a committee was appointed to draft resolutions con- 


cerning the death of James S. Lane, who was wounded May 5th, 

and died at Fortress Monroe, Ma}' 25th. At the next meeting the 

committee reported. From the preamble I take the following: — 

"Painful intelligence again reaches us from the l^attle field that 
another associate and Normal graduate has fallen. James S. Lane is no more 
among the living. His friendly face will be missed at the campfire, his calm 
courage will never again inspire his comrades to deeds of valor on the field 
of strife. As private he enlisted in Company I, 5th Regiment, Michigan 
Infantry. He received his fatal- wound in the battle of Williamsburg dur- 
ing a bayonet charge against a foe of superior numbers. * * * * 
Foremost in battle, he sacrificed his life to his patriotic attachment to the 
stars and stripes. * * * * fje was a favorite among the members of 
the companj' and an equal partaker with his companions of the vicissi- 
tudes of the camp. In his last moments he was resigned to his fate and 
expired a willing martyr at the shrine of freedom. Today he reposes in 
no hireling's grave, but reclines loved and honored in a soldier's shroud. 
His character is worthy of imitation, his name of our proudest recollec- 

Then follow appropriate resolutions expressive of personal 
bereavement, condolence with friends, order to publish, etc. 
The report is signed by Andrew^ J. Itsell, Chas. E. Root and 
Thomas Mathews, Committee: and the proceedings are counter- 
signed by Willard Stearns, President of the Lyceum. Three of 
these men afterwards achieved high rank as soldiers. 

On the opening of the fall term in October, 1862, a special 
election had to be held to fill vacancies in four of the Lixeum 
offices, — most of the officers elected at the close of the summer 
term having entered the army. At the first regular meeting the 
question for discussion was: ''Resolved, That the Emancipation 
Proclamation of the President will hasten the suppression of the 

As time passed on, students who had been in the serv^ice 
and had been discharged by reason of wounds or other disabili- 
ties, or by expiration of terms of service, began to make their 
appearance in the school ; and their names occur in the minutes 
of the Lyceum. Prominent among these were Edward A. 
Haight, who was wounded at Antietam, and E. O. Durfee, who 
lost his right arm at Gettysburg. In the committee appoint- 
ments of March, 1864, are the names of Joshua S. Lane and 


S. S. Babcock, returned soldiers. Later on, Geo. H. Hopkins, 
David E. Haskins, Henr\' C. Rankin and others appear. In the 
minutes of January 6, 1865, occurs the following: — 

' ' Mr. John INIaltman then favored the society with an account of his 
experiences as prisoner of war in Andersonville and Florence prisons." 

Influence of the War on Subsequent Work in Life. 

After leaving the army, comparativeh' few of the boys 
returned to scholastic pursuits, and fewer still took up the work 
of teaching. The current of their lives had been turned from its 
old channel, and their purpose changed. The excitements, 
dangers, and sufferings experienced, and the years of added age, 
gave new purposes in life and new necessities, and stimulated new 
endeavors. Some, however, returned to the Normal and completed 
their course, and several completed professional courses in the 
Universit}'. Prominent among those who continued their aca- 
demic studies and entered the Profession of teaching are Gabriel 
Campbell, Irwin Shepard, A. J. Itsell, and Edward A. Haight. 

One incident which has direct relation to the service of the 
Normal Company, may properly be given here. After his honor- 
able discharge from the servnce. Captain Campbell re-entered the 
Universit\' and graduated with the literarj- class of 1865. He 
delivered the "Class Da}"" poem, which contains the following 
spirited description of the famous charge at South Mountain of 
the 17th Michigan Infantr^^ the "Stonewall Regiment", in which 

he commanded the Normal Company. 


Quick rations are finished, the rammers are sprung. 

And waist-belts are buckled, and knapsacks are slung; 

As soon all are marshaled and fearlessl_v stand 

Awaiting impatient the word of command. 

'Tis given. As quick as the word they face 

And advance by the flank — every man in his place. 

The old starry flag waves proudly and high, 
So fondh- caressed by the soft autumn sky; 
While the eagle, extending his wings on the air. 
Seemed to whisper of Victory hovering there. 
The low, rumbling sounds that rise on the ear 
Inspire to valor, yet waken to fear, 


As louder and nearer with ponderous roll 
The death knells of Orcus toll— toll— toll. 

We reach the hill-top, and fearfully riven 
South IMountain before us aspires to Heaven, 
While round his huge head incessant is curled 
The smoke of those cannon that quiver the world- 
Those traitorous cannon! Their air rending shells. 
With echoing voice, a monody swells 
In dirges forlorn. With demon-like sound 
They crash in the air or recoil to the ground. 
At length the voice of Withington 

Makes every heart enlarge. 
Up-springing at the welcome word. 

We rally for the ' 'Charge ! ' ' 
Sudden from right to left arose 

A wild, unearthly yell, 
As on the foremost rebel line, 

Like maddened wolves we fell. 
Back driven from their firm stockades, 

They rush with hideous groan, 
And rally with redoubled strength, 

Behind a wall of stone. 
On comes the line of Michigan, 
With bristling bayonets all; — 
Three volleys aud a charge! Great God! 

It clearly scales the wall . 
They rally yet, — and yet again — 

Fiendish mid reeking blood: 
Nor rebel steel nor walls of stone 

Can check the loyal flood; — 
But just as o'er that mountain top, 

Reflects the setting sun. 
Our victor shouts sent Heavenward 
Proclaim the battle won. 

Back o'er the heaps of mangled men, 

We move as shuts the day, 
.\nd there recline upon our arms. 

To watch the night away ; 
And as to Heaven's calm, peaceful vault, 

We turn the weary eye, 
We feel that we have struck one blow 

For God and Liberty. 


Normal Students who Died in the War. 

Some ten years ago 1 began the sad ser\nce of getting the names 
of those who had attended the Normal who gave their lives that 
their country might live. The list has been made as complete 
as the material at my command would permit.* To disclose 
and perpetuate these honored names to the students of today and 
succeeding years, a marble tablet has been prepared and placed 
upon the north wall in the Normal chapel. The tablet is inscrib- 
ed as shown on page 280. 

This tablet is the School's Roll of Honor. Their sacrifice 
was a willing one and grandh^ given. Most of them, through 
the efforts of loving friends, repose in the earth of their own 
Michigan; but some sleep on southern plains and mountains, 
and a few in unkown graves. Of all it may be said: 

"On Fame's eternal camping ground 
Their silent tents are spread, 
And Glory guards with silent round 
The bivouac of the dead." 

*It is probable that other names should be added to this list, and space has been 
left on the tablet for this purpose. If any reader of this chapter knows of any omission 
and will communicate with the writer of the chapter or the Principal of the Normal 
College, Ypsilanti, the matter will receive proper attention. 'A. G.', 








Enlistments and Individual Records. 

The following is a roster of the Normal students who enlisted, 
with a record of their military service and a brief statement of 
their careers since the war, as far as these could be ascer- 
tained: — 

Allen, Edward /'.—Entered service July, 1864, Private, Co. A, 29th In- 
fantry; 1st Lieutenant, Adjutant, Captain Co. H, mustered out Sep- 
tember 6, 1865, and honorably discharj^ed. 

Graduated State Normal School and Law Dept., U. of M.; School 
Inspector, Alderman, City Attorney, Mayor of Ypsilanti, Prosecuting 
Attorney; Assessor Internal Revenue; U. S Indian Agent; Member 
Legislature, Member Congress four years, Member State Board of Agri- 

Andrews, CAar/^5 ^4.— Enlisted February 12, 1863, Co. E, 7th Cavalry; 
died May 9, 1863, of injuries received at Chantilly. 

Babcock, Samuel S. — Enlisted May 2, 1861, 3rd N. Y. Infantry. Private, 
Sergeant, Provost Sergeant, Ft. McHenry, 1st Sergeant. Honorably 
discharged June 20, 1863. 

Graduated Michigan State Normal School, 1865; Superintendent 
of Schools at Howell, Greenville, Mt. Clemens; Department Natural 
Science, Ypsilanti High School; Chair of Mathematics, Kansas State 
Normal; Member Michigan State Board of Education. Lawyer, Det- 

Bateman, Christopher T.— Enlisted August 8, 1862, Sergeant Co. H, 18th 
Infantry. Discharged August 8, 1864. Commissioned in U. S. C. T. 

^<?a/, ^//Vf^A^.— Enlisted May 21,1861, Co. K, 2nd Infantry. Dis- 
charged for disability, November 1862, died of same May 19, 1863. 
-Bentley, Oscar A^.— Enlisted August 1. 1862, Sergeant Co. H, 22d Infantry; 
taken prisoner at Chicamauga September 30, 1863. Honorably dis- 
charged June 26, 1865. 

Bigelow, Albert i5".— Enlisted August 1862, 3rd Sergeant Co. I, 24th 
Infantry; Orderly Sergeant; Wounded at Gettysburg and the Wilder- 
ness; honorably discharged November 11, 1864. 
Lumber dealer, Detroit. 

Bigelow, Edward — Enlisted August 28, 1861, Co. C, 5th Infantry; died 
of disease in Virginia, February 23, 1862. 

Billings, Augustus 7".— Enlisted August 4, 1862, Co. E, 17th Infantry. 
Discharged for disability December 12, 1862. 

Bitighatn, James IV. — Died in service — record not obtainable. 

Blount, Lemuel— Unlifited October 21, 1863, Co. A, 1st Cavalry; killed 
in action May 11, 1864, at Yellow Tavern, Va. 

Bonney, Samuel B. — Enlisted February 21, 1865, Co. A, 4th Infantry; 
died in service, December 11, 1865. 


Brearley, H^ilh' am //.—Enlisted August 15, 1862, Co. E, 17th Infantry; 
Wounded at Antietam. Honorably discharged June 7, 1865. 

Journalism — Detroit Tribune, News, and Journal; Magazine — 
Spirit of '76, New York; now Secretary New York City Baptist Mis- 
sion Society. 

Buell, Frank J/.— Enlisted August 25, 1862, Battery D, 1st Light Artil- 
lery ; died July 24, 1863, at Winchester, Tennessee. 

Buell, Legrand A.— Enlisted September 4, 1863, Co. D, 10th Cavalry; 
honorably discharged November 11, 1865. 

Biickbee, J. Edward — Enlisted 1861, not mustered, under age. Entered 
service January 1, 1863, 1st Lieutenant and Adjutant ^Michigan Sharp- 
shooters; Major 1865; Brevet Lieutenant Colonel, April 2, 1865, "for 
meritorious service before Petersburg' ' ; wounded at Spottsylvania Court 
House, May 10, 1864, and at Fort Steadman, March 25, 1865; taken 
prisoner before Petersburg June 17. 1864; escaped November 21, 1864; 
honorably discharged July, 1865. 

Chief Clerk, Land Department Chicago & North- Western Railway 
for the last 24 years; residence, Winetka, 111. 

Bullock, Silas W.— Enlisted December 3, 1862, Sergeant Co. C, 9th Cav- 
alry; discharged July 21, 1865, at Lexington, N. C. 

Burr, James E. — Enlisted August 16, 1861, Co. C, 1st Cavalry; died, 
Washington, September 16, 1862. 

Burrotighs, Samuel W^-'.— Enlisted February, 1863, discharged summer 
following, "on account of youth;" re-enlisted in the fall, Co. I, 15th 
Infantry; Sergeant; honorably discharged August 13, 1865. 

Lawyer, Detroit; Prosecuting Attorney, Wayne County, 1891-2. 

Campbell, Gabriel — Entered service June 17, 1862, Captain Co. E, 17th 
Infantry. Resigned and honorably discharged November, 4, 1863. 

Graduated A. B., University of Michigan 1865; B. D., Chicago Theo- 
logical Seminary 1868; Student University of Berlin 1870-2; vice Presi- 
dent and Professor Philosophy University of Minnesota 1867-81, same 
chair Bowdoin College, two years, same Dartmouth College since 1883. 
Campbell, Robert— Entered service July 1 1862, 1st Lieutenant. Co. E, 4th 
Infantry; Quartermaster, September 1. 1862; Brevet Captain; honorably 
discharged June 30, 1864. ' 

Teacher, Inspector, Superintendent of Schools; Farmer; Township 
Treasurer, Drainage Commissioner; Real Estate Dealer, Ann Arbor. 

Carnaby, William A. — Served in a Western regiment; reported killed; record 
not obtainable. 

Chapman, Arthur ?F.— Enlisted August 4, 1862. Co. E, 17th Infantry; dis- 
charged for disability October 27, 1862. 

Chase, Wm. /^.—Enlisted December 16, 1863; discharged November 4, 1864; 
2nd Lieutenant, 29th Infantry September 14, I865; 1st Lieutenant July 
7, 1865; mustered out September 6, 1865. 


Childs, Jonthan W. — Entered service May 16, 1861, Major 4th Infantry; 
Lieutenant Colonel September 25, 1861; Colonel July 1, 1862, "for meri- 
torious conduct on the field of battle;" resigned November 25, 1862, and 
honorably discharged. 

Member Florida Constitutional Convention; U. S. Deputy Surveyor, 
Special Agent U. S. Land Office, clerk in Pension office, Washington, D. 
C; died, Hanover, Maryland, May 24, 1896, buried at Arlington Heights. 

Childs, Lewis £".— Entered service August 24, 1861, 1st Lieutenant Co. I, 
11th Infantry; Captain Co. H, March 12, 1862; wounded and taken 
prisoner Chickamauga, September 20, 1863 — exchanged; mustered out 
and honorably discharged September 30, 1864. 

Board of Trade, Detroit; produce business and greenhouse, Ypsil- 
anti; died February 1, 1889. 

Churchill, Owen — Enlisted August 24, 1864, Hospitalj Steward, 24th Infan- 
try; mustered out June 30, 1865. 

Cunjiingham, Philip— 'En\is\.&di August 14,1862, Co. B, 6th Cavalry; mustered 
out October 10, 1865. 

Curtis, O. ^.—Enlisted August 12, 1862, Co. D, 24th Infantry, Corporal; lost 
left arm at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862; mustered out March 5, 

Graduated University of Michigan 1865; Principal Sturgis Schools 
three years; Superintendent of Schools, Bay City one year, Tecumseh one 
year, Muskegon four years; Publisher Muskegon Chronicle four years; 
U. S. customs service, Detroit. 

Dairies, William T. — Enlisted July 3, 1862, Co. E, 17th Infantry; gunshot 
wound through the neck; discharged January 1, 1863, at Frederick City, 

Occupation, Farmer. 

Daniels, Hiram /^.—Enlisted August 12, 1862, Co. D, 22d Infantry. Cor- 
poral; captured at Chickamauga; imprisoned at Richmond, Anderson- 
ville, and elsewhere; paroled March 10, 1865. Discharged at Camp Chase, 
Ohio, June 9, 1865. 

Township and local offices. Retired farmer, on account of ill health. 

Dennis, Ceo. E. — 20th Infantry. Record not obtainable. 

Dennison, William E. — Enlisted August 8, 1862, Co. B, 21st Infantry; dis- 
charged for disability, February 19, 1863. 

Douglas, Benjamin — Enlisted March 30, 1863, Sergeant Battery L, 1st Light 
Artillery; discharged May 22, 1865. 

Douglas, 5^/z£/jj/«— Enlisted April 4, 1863, Co. M, 1st Michigan Cavalry; 
discharged March 25, 1866. 

Lawyer in Kansas for several years, now practicing at Oklahoma 
City, Oklahoma. 

Dresser, Malvin W. — Entered service 1st Lieutenant 15th Infantry, January 
1, 1862; killed in action at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862. 


Durfee, Edgar <9.— Enlisted August 8, 1862, Co. C, 24th Michigan Infantrj". 
lost right arm at Gett\'sburg; discharged December 28, 1863. 

Lawyer, Detroit; Judge of Probate, Wayne Co., for the last 24 years. 

Easton, Ade/dcri J.— 'Enlisted January 10, 1865, Co. H, 10th Cavalrj-; dis- 
charged September 5, 1S65. 

Eaion, A I deri— 'Enlisted August 12, 1862, Co. I, 18th Infantry; discharged 
June 26, 1865. 

Occupation, Farmer. 

Eafon, Charles //.—Enlisted August 12, 1862, Co. I, iSth Infantry; wounded 
in ankle and captured at Athens, 1864; prisoner at Cahowba, and Ander. 
sonville; discharged June 26, 1865; died 1878. 

Elliott, O. JF.— Enlisted August 22, 1861, Co. M, 1st Cavalry; discharged 
November 24, 1865. 

Ellis, Edwin— EnX\sted November 20, 1862, 2d Lieutenant Co. A, 8th Mich- 
igan Cavalry; Captain April 15, 1864; mustered out July 20, 1865. 

Ellis, [f^zV/Zawi//'.— Enlisted November 18, 1861; discharged March 14, 1865. 

Engle, Jacob— EnXisted April 9, 1864, Co. E, 17th Michigan Infantry; trans- 
ferred to 2d Infantry June 1865. 

Etiglish, David //.—Enlisted August 5, 1862, Sergeant Co. I, 21st Infantry; 
2nd Lieutenant September 1, 1864; mustered out Jnne 8, 1865. 

Farnuvi, Herbert C— Enlisted January- 4, 1864, Co. A, 4th Michigan Cav- 
alry; discharged August 15, 1865, at Edgefield, Tennessee. 

Nurserj-man, Lumberman, Journalist; for the last 16 years proprietor 
Island Home Stock Farm, Grosse Isle. 

Fellows, Augustus JF.— Enlisted March 19, 1862, Co. I, 14th Michigan 
Infantry; discharged January 8, 1863. 

Field, Edwi7t 7.— Enlisted April 13, 1864, Co. A, 15th Michigan Infantry; 
mustered out August 13, 1865. 

Fish, Charles /'.—Enlisted September 3, 1861, Hospital Steward 3rd Michi- 
gan Cavalry; mustered out February 12, 1866. 
' Fosdick, /?. //.—Enlisted Ausfust 1, 1862, Co. K, 4th Michigan Cavalry; 
Sergeant; discharged July 1, 1865. 

Gage, Stephen M. -Enlisted August 15, 1862, Co. B, 20th Michigan Infan- 
try; mustered out August 16, 1865. 

Gale, Eugene -Enlisted August 21, 1862, Co. C, 5th Michigan Cavalry-; dis- 
charged July 1, 1865. 

George, Austin— Clerk Co. E, 17th Infantry July, 1862; Regimental Post- 
master; clerk brigade and division headquarters, serving four months. 

Graduated Normal 1863, A. B., Kalamazoo College 1866; Principal 
Kalamazoo High School and Superintendent of Schools; chair Rhetoric, 
Kalamazoo College; chair Rhetoric and Literature, and Training Depart- 
ment, Michigan State Normal SchooLl? years; Superintendent Schools, 


George, S. Warren— 'EnWsi^A April 29, 1863, Co. D, 1st Michigan Sharp- 
shooters; mustered out July 28, 1865. 

Engineer U. P. R. R.; Silver Smelting Works; Now lives in Texas. 
Goodutg, Be?ijamin /^.—Enlisted August 5, 1862, Co. A, 4th Michigan Cav- 
alry; Quartermaster's Sergeant; wounded near Marietta, Georgia; dis- 
charged July 1, 1865. 

Farmer, Urania; now lives in Ann Arbor. 
Gould, Henry M. — Belonged to a New York regiment, was killed in the 

Peninsular campaign, near Richmond, June, 1862. 
Gregg, Charles £".— Enlisted September 9, 1861, Corporal Co. E, 9th Mich- 
igan Infantry; Sergeant; mustered out September 15, 1865. 
Green, Philip L. — Entered service 1864, 1st Lieutenant, Co. D, 138th 
Indiana Volunteers. Discharged for disability after 5 months service. 
Physician, Vermontvillc, Michigan, for the last ii years. 
Guinan, James — Enlisted August 6. 1862, Co. K, 17th Michigan Infantry; 

discharged July 2, 1863. 
Haight, jEdward A .—Unlisted August 5, 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan In- 
fantry; wounded at Antietam, September 17, 1862, and discharged 
December 9, 1862, on account of wound. 

Graduated at the Normal, class of 1865. Principal Preparatory 

Department Shurtleff College, 111. Superintendent of Schools, Alton, 

111., Superintendent Kirkwood Missouri Military Academy, for the last 

18 years. 

Hall, Lewis C— Enlisted April 3, 1865, Co. M, 8th Michigan Cavalry; 

mustered out September 22, 1865. 
Hall, Morris 5.— Enlisted July 11, 1862, Co. I, 18th Michigan Infantry ; 2d 
Lieutenant U. S. C. Infantry; 1st Lieutenant; Captain; Aid-de-camp — 
Acting Ordnance Officer, and Brigade Commissary. Captured at Dal- 
ton, Georgia. Discharged May 5, 1866. 

Teacher six years; inventor and manufacturer; plumber and steam- 
fitter, Ypsilanti. 
Haskijis, David E. — Enlisted August 6, 1862, Co. F, 18th Michigan Infan- 
try. Chief of Orderlies on General Granger's Staff. Wounded at 
Decatur, Alabama, in the famous charge when 45 volunteers captured 
130 prisoners. Mustered out July 13, 1865. 

Graduated at the Normal, Class of '67, Superintendent of Schools 
at Parma, Brooklyn, Hanover, and Union City; Commissioner Jack- 
son Co., 12 years. P. M., Concord, Justice of Peace, Farmer, Mosher- 
Hawkins, Alphonzo ^.—Enlisted April 10, 1863, 7th Michigan Cavalry; 

died Annapolis, Maryland. May 19, 1864. 
Herrick, George /?.— Enlisted July 11, 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan Infan- 
try. Sergeant Major; mustered out June 13, 1865. 

Graduated from the Normal, iw absentia, class of 1864. Music 


Teacher, Grand Rapids Public Schools; Dealer in Musical Instruments 
and Merchandise. 

Hibbard, Charles E.—'EnWsi^A September 17, 1861. Co. G, 8th Infantry; 
discharged September 23, 1864. 

Hillman, Monroe E. — Enlisted August 7, 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan In- 
fantry; discharged on account of wounds, December 25, 1862. 

Holmes, George L. — Enlisted August 16, 1861, Co. C, 1st Michigan Cavalry; 
Sergeant Major in 1864, 2d Lieutenant, May, 1865; commanded Co. B, 
crossing the phuns to Salt Lake City. Three times wounded, three horses 
shot under him. Participated in 31 important battles and many minor 
engagements; discharged March 29, 1866. 
Merchant; Real Estate Dealer in Detroit. 

Hopkins, George H. — Enlisted August 6, 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan Infan- 
try ; discharged May 3, 1865. 

Graduated at the Normal 1867; Law Dept. University of Michigan 
1871. Private secretar}- of Gov. Bagley four years and of Gov. Croswell 
one year; member of the State Legislature two terms; twice Chairman 
Republican State Central Committee; Collector Port of Detroit; Adjutant 
General G. A. R., one year; Executive t^ommittee National Council G. 
A. R. , three years; connected with manufacturing and business enter- 
prises in Detroit, where he has resided since 1871. Major and Assistant 
Adjutant General during the Spanish American war and assigned todutj' 
with the Secretary of War. 

Horner, John W. — Entered service May 1, 1861, 1st Lieutenant (3 months) 
1st Infantry, mustered out August 7, 1861 Captain 18th Infantry, July 
22, 1862. Major August 13, 1862. Lieutenant Colonel February 21, 
1864. Colonel March 21, 1865. Mustered out June 26, 1865 and honor- 
ably discharged. 

Graduated from the Normal, class of 1855, then from the University 
Principal Adrian High School. After the war settled in Kansas. Teacher 
in Lawrence Public Schools, Superintendent of Schools Chetopa; Presi- 
dent of Baker University ; died in State Asvlum for the Insane, August 
16, 1874. 

Hough, George fF.— Enlisted July 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan Infantrj- 
Sergeant; discharged for disabilitj-, February 23, 1863. 

Editor, commercial traveler and merchant; member of Common 
Council and President Board of Health, Detroit. Lumber business in 
northern Michigan, 

Howard, David S. — Enlisted July 1S62, Co. E, 17th Michigan Infantry; 
wounded September 14, 1862, at South Mountain, and discharged on 
account of same, June 1, I863. 

Hubbard, Samuel yl/.— Entered service 2d Lieutenant 19th Michigan Infan- 
try-, July 28, 1862; 1st Lieutenant May 1, 1863; wounded in action May 
28, 1864; honorably discharged November 30, 1864. 

Teacher; Principal of Union School at Otsego, Michigan; died 1867. 


Humphrey, George /'.—Enlisted August 14, 1862, Co. A, 20tli Michigan 
Infantry; prisoner September 30, 1864, paroled March 2, 1865, discharged 
May 30. 1865. 

Itsell, Andrew J. — Entered service July 25, 1863; Captain Co. K, 10th Mich- 
igan Cavalry. Acting Major, honorably discharged at Memphis, Tenn., 
November 1, 1865. 

Graduated at the Normal 1863. Superintendent of Schools Grand 
Haven and Almont; vice Principal in San Francisco, California, Public 
Schools, for the last 29 years. 

Jones, Charles H. — Enlisted August 4, 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan Infan- 
try; Corporal; mustered out June 3, 1865. 

Jones, Lucian, 71/.— Enlisted August 4, 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan Infan- 
try; wounded at South Mountain; discharged October 21, 1862, on 
account of wound. 

Kane, AncilJ. — Enlisted May 25, 1861, Co. I, 2nd Michigan Infantry; dis- 
charged for disability in 1862. 

Kanonse, /?////^r— Enlisted September 14, 1862, Sergeant Co. D, 6th Mich- 
igan Cavalry; 1st Lieutenant July 1, 1864; mustered out November 24, 

Farmer, Byron, Michigan. 

Keeler, .fi'sra— Enlisted August 7, 1862, Co. B. 22d Infantry; transferred 
to Signal Corps, U. S. A., October 18, 1863. 

Kidd, James H. — Entered service August 28, 1862, Captain Co. E, 6th 
Michigan Cavalry; Major, May 9, 1863; wounded at Falling Waters, 
July 14, 1863; Colonel, May 19, 1864; wounded at Winchester, Septem- 
ber 19, 1864; Brevet Brigadier General, June 15, 1865, "for gallant and 
meritorious service during the war" ; mustered out November 7, 1865, 
at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 

Has engaged in the State Military service as follows: Captain 
Michigan National Guard 1876-96; Lieutenant Colonel and Assistant 
Quartermaster General 1879-81; Lieutenant Colonel and Assistant In- 
spector General 1881-5 ; Brigadier General and Inspector General 
1885-7; Quartermaster General 1895-6. 

Manufacturer, Register U. S. Land Office eight years; Publisher 
Ionia Sentinel, Secretury U. S. Deep Water Ways Commission. 

Lane, James 5— Enlisted August 27, 1861, Co. I, 5th Michigan Infantry; 
Corporal; died May 25, 1862, of wounds received at Yorktown. 

Lane, Joshua 5".- Enlisted May 25, 1861, Co. K, 2d Michigan Infantry; 
Corporal; discharged for disability, December 3, 1862. 

Lawrence, Henry C. — Enlisted August 15, 1862, Co. H, 18th Michigan 
Infantry; died April 13, 1863, of disease. 

Lawrence, /<?^«i)/.— Enlisted August 9, 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan Infan- 
try; Commissary Sergeant; mustered out June 3, 1865. 


Loomis, John //.—Enlisted September 2, 1861, Co. F, 2d Michigan Cav- 
alry; discharged May 5, 1862, for disability. 

Lonsbury, Philo J/.— Enlisted August 4, 1862, Corporal Co. E, 17th Mich- 
igan Infantry; captured at Spottsylvania Court House, imprisoned at 
Andersonville and Florence until February 22, 1865, when he escaped 
and rejoined the Union army at Wilmington, N. C; mustered out 
June 3, 1865. 

Teacher until 1874; Principal of Reed City Union School; Druggist 
Reed City; School Trustee, Township Treasurer; member Michigan 
House of Representatives, 1895-6. 

Loveland, William 6>.— Enlisted August 5, 1862, Co. B, 20th Michigan 
Infantry; wounded June 18, 1864. Captured September 30, prisoner at 
Petersburg, Richmond, and Salisbury until February 22, 1865; mus- 
tered out June 12, 1865. 

Mailman, John .9.— Enlisted August 4, 1862, Sergeant Co. E, 17th Mich- 
igan Infantry; 1st Lieutenant June 30, 1864; wounded at Catiipbell's 
Station; captured with the Regiment at Spottsylvania and imprisoned 
seven months at Andersonville and Florence; mustered out June 3, 

Re-entered the Normal and graduated in 1867; graduated Literary 
Department of the University 1870, and from Law Depattment 1871; 

Attorney at Law, Chicago until 1882, since then at Los Angeles, California. 

Manning, Rejiben £".— Enlisted July 22, 1862, Co. B, 20th Michigan In- 
fantry; discharged May 20, 1865. 

Graduated at Kalamazoo College, 1872; teacher Beaver Dam, Wis- 
consin; ^Minister of the Gospel, Detroit; Financial Agent Kalamazoo 
College; City Missionary Work, Chicago. 

Marsh, Richard H. — Enlisted September, 1864, Co. E, 4th Infantry. 
Clerk, Auditor General's office, Lansing. 

Marshall, A'o Wow,— Enlisted August 22, 1862. Sergeant Co. D, 5th Cav- 
alry; died of wounds at Point Lookout, Maryland, July 20, 1864. 

Marvin, John H. — Enlisted August 4, 1862; killed at Antielam, Septem- 
ber 17, 1862. 

Mathews, Thomas— VA\teTed service June 17, 1862, 1st Lieutenant Co. E, 
17lh Michigan Infantry; Captain May 13, 1863; wounded at Campbell's 
Station, Tennessee, November 16, 1863; Major October 14, 1864; mus- 
tered out June 3, 1865. 

Commission Merchant at Oswego, N. Y. ; Manufacturer at Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Maxwell, C^or^^ >?.— Enlisted August 15, 1861, Corporal Co. K, 1st Mich- 
igan Cavalry; Sergeant; 1st Lieutenant Co. E, July 30, 1862; wounded 
at Monterey, Maryland, July 4, 1863; Captain August 22, 1863; wounded 
at Hawes' Shop, Virginia, May 28, 1864; Lieutenant Colonel October 


25, 1864; lost leg at Five Forks, Virginia. April, 1, 1865; Brevet Col- 
onel March 13, 1865 "for con><picuous gallantry in action." Honor- 
ably discharged August 4, 1865. 

Lawyer and Register of Deeds, Monroe, Michigan; U. S. Mar- 
shal, Salt Lake City, Utah; deceased. 

McKinnon, Alexander— 'E\\\\%\.^A. in Co. C, 17th Michigan Infantry, 
August, 1862, but was not accepted until early in September. Kdled at 
South Mountain. Maryland, September 14. 1862. 

Miller, Charles A".— Enlisted July 1. 1862, Co. C. isth Michigan Infan- 
try; 1st Lieutenant Jul}' 27, 1863; Captain August 13, 1862; mustered 
out June 26. 1865. 

Lawyer, Adrian; Prosecuting Attorney Lenawee Co., four years; 
member Board of Control Industrial Home for Girls. 

Miller, Madison— ^n\\s\.&A July 6, 1862, Co. B, 20th Michigan Infantry; 
detailed as musician; mustered out May 30. 1865. 

Farming until 1879; Painter and Painters' Supplies at Cadillac. 

Morehouse, A. H. /'.—Enlisted August 9. 1862. Co. A, 20th Michigan Infan- 
try; died of disease, December 14. 1862. 

Moore, O. ,1/.— Enlisted August 11, 1862. Co. D, 24th Michigan Infantry; 
Invalid Corps, March 31, 1864; mustered out July 6, 1865. 

Morgan, Jatnes T. — Entered service June 17, 1862, 2d Lieutenant 17th Mich- 
igan Infantry; 1st Lieutenant February 23, 1863; Captain October 19, 
1863; captured at Campbell's Station, Tennessee, November 16, 1863; 
imprisoned at Libby Prison and Columbia, N. C; escaped November 21, 
1864; mustered out as 1st Lieutenant January 8, 1865; Captain Co. F, 
. 30th Michigan Infantry, to rank from November 28, 1864; Commandant 
of the Post at Wyandotte, Michigan, and died in the service May 31, 1865. 

Morris, Joseph W^.— Enlisted October 14, 1861, Battery C, 1st Light Artil- 
lery; discharged November 5, 1862. 

Morse, Samuel v^.— Enlisted February 13, 1865, Sergeant Co. K, 11th Mich- 
igan Infantry; died March 28, 1865. 

Nute, Joseph v?.— Enlisted July 31, 1862, Sergeant Co. A, 22d Michigan In- 
fantry; missing in action September 20, 1863, returned February 16. 1864; 
2d Lieutenant June 7. 1864; captured; died in rebel prison at Millen, 
Georgia. October 8, 1864. 

Onderkirk, JF^^/^y— Enlisted August 5, 1862, Co. B, 20th Michigan Infan- 
try; discharged March 15, 1863, for disability. 

Park hurst, Ryerson, — Enlisted May 1, 1861, Co. H, 1st Michigan Infantr>', 
three months' service; discharged August 7, 1861. 

Phillips, Z>,?/o5— Entered service August 4, 1862, Orderly Sergeant Co. E, 
17Lh Infantry; Brevet 2d Lieutenant October 17, 1862, "for gallant con- 
duct at Antietam"; 2d Lieutenant December 6, 1862; 1st Lieutenant 
March 4, 1863; Captain October 19, 1863; taken prisoner at Spottsylvania, 
May 12, 1864; escaped May 23; appointed Lieutenant Colonel 28th Infan- 


try August 15, 1864, but declined. Resigned as Captain 17th Infantry, 
October 22, 1864, and honorably discharged. 

Re-entered the University and was graduated in 1865. Manufac- 
turer of cabinet organs and dealer in musical merchandise at Kalama- 
zoo; Supervisor six years representing Kalamazoo village; State Senator 
from Kalamazoo Co., 1869-70; Presidential Elector 1876, and messenger 
to carry the vote of Michigan to Washington. Died February 23, 1887. 

Phillips, Samuel JT.—Enhsted Augusts, 1862, Co. C, 24th Michigan Infan- 
try; mustered out June 26, 1865. 

Pinkerton. Charles — Enlisted August 9, 1862, Corporal Co.C, 24th Michigan 
Infantry; Sergeant; killed at Wilderness, Virginia, May 5, 1864. 

Power, Abrain L. — Enlisted February 16, 1864, Co. I, 22d Michigan Infan- 
t'y; transferred to 29th Michigan Infantry; Corporal; mustered out Sep- 
tember 6, 1865. 

Pratt, William A. — Enlisted March 14, 1864, Sergeant 2d Co. Sharp-shooters 
attached to 27th Michigan Infantry; 2d Lieutenant April 20, 1864; 
wounded in action June 30, and August 21, 1864; honorably discharged 
December 1, 1864. 

Preston, Spejicer N. — Enlisted August 24, 1861, Co. H, 2d Missouri Cav- 
alry; Sergeant; discharged September 15, 1864. 

Rankin, Henry C. — Enlisted September 6, 1861, Co. C, 9th Michigan Infan- 
try; honorably discharged October 14, 1864. 

Entered the Normal and graduated with the class of 1876. Super- 
intendent ot Schools, Buchanan, Cassopolis, Leslie, and Lapeer; Insti- 
tute worker in many counties of Michigan. 

Rankin, yoiza/z— Enlisted vSeptember 2, 1864, Co. G, 23d Michigan Infan- 
try; mustered out June 12, 1865. 

Reed, Albert //^«rj/— Enlisted February 28, 1865, Co. K, 24th Michigan 
Infantry; mustered out June 30, 1865. 

Reilly, Barnard S. — Graduated from Normal in 1863, and Medical Depart- 
ment University 1865; appointed Assistant Surgeon Regular Anny; died 
of yellow fever at Ringold Barracks, Texas, 1867. 

Root, Edwin N. — In hospital service, Washington, D. C. 

Rounds, David ii.— Enlisted August 12, 1862, Co. D, 24th Michigan Infan- 
try; killed in action July 1, 1863, at Gettysburg. 

Ruckman, Webster ,—V.v\\\'-X^d. August 4, 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan In- 
fantr}-; killed in action September 17, 1862, at Antietam. 

Rudd, Gaines, — Enlisted April 10, 1863, Battery L, 1st Michigan Light 
Artillery; died September 1, 1863, of fever. 

Safford, Benjamin D. — Entered service August 15, 1862, Sergeant Co. E, 
17th Michigan Infantry; 2d Lieutenant I'ebruary 23, 1863; 1st Lieutenant 
September 14, 1863; Captain May 12, 1864; taken prisoner at Spottsyl- 
vania May 12, 1864; escaped; Brevet Major April 2. 1865, "for gallantry 


and meritorious service before Petersburg"; mustered out June 3, 1865. 
Superintendent Schools, Grand Haven; Merchant; Mayor of Grand 
Haven three terms. Now resides at Lansing. 

Sanford, George P. — Entered service September 15, 1861; resigned May 5, 
186'; Major and Paymaster U. S. Volunteers September 1864; Brevet 
Lieutenant Colonel June 21, 1865; mustered out July 1, 1866, and honor- 
ably discharged. 

Graduate of the Normal, class of 1856, then graduated from the Uni- 
versity. After the war entered Journalism and Politics. Published 
Lansing Journal twelve years, State Democrat five years. Died January 
15, 1894. 

Shepard, /rze/zw,— Enlisted August 7, 1862, Co. E, 17th INIichigan Infantry; 
Corporal; Sergeant; Orderly Sergeant. Wounded at the Wilderness May 
6, 1864; discharged on account of wounds May 23, 1865. 

Superintendent Schools Charles City, Iowa; Principal High School 
and Superintendent Schools Winona, Minnesot-i; President State Nor- 
mal School, Winona. 1879-98. Secretary National Educational Associa- 
tion since 1892, made Permanent Secretary 1898. 

Smith, Arthur Z>.— Enlisted March 24, 1865, Co. A, 6th Michigan Cav- 
alry; transferred to Co. B, Ir.t Cavalry; mustered out March 10, 1866. 

Snidecor, John N. — Enlisted August 30, 1864, 8th Cavalry. 

Farmer, Monroe County, Michigan, Teacher; Farmer and now mer- 
chant. Cherokee. Iowa. 

Spear, Freeman — Died in service — record not obtainable. 

Stanway, David — Enlisted July 5, 1861, Co. A, 1st Michigan Infantry; 
Sergeant; Orderly Sergeant; 2d Lieutenant August 30, 1862; 1st Lieuten- 
ant March 10, 1863; Captain Co. G, January 1, 1864 Wounded at Fred- 
ericksburg, Gettysburg, and Wilderness; discharged October 4, 1864, for 

Furniture business in Ypsilanti. Farming in Missouri; now retired 
and lives in Warrensburg, Missouri. 

Stearns, Willard — Entered service August 1, 1863, 1st Lieutenant Co. H, 
11th Michigan Cavalry; was rejected on first enlistment, but commis- 
sioned on recruiting the Company. Resigned October 29, 1864, and 
honorably discharged. 

Graduated from State Normal School, and from Law department of 
University in 1866. School examiner Lenawee County four years. Pub- 
lisher of Adrian Press since 1877. Candidate for Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction in 1872, Secretary of State in 1878, and member Congress 
in 1888; Post Master at Adrian 1885-90. Mayor 1899. 

Stevens, A. /Q.— Enlisted August 27, 1861, Co. C, 5th Michigan Infantry; 
discharged August 27, 1864. 

Stevens, Theron A^.— Enlisted August 4, 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan Infan- 
try; mustered out June 3, 1865. 


Stevenson, Isaiah — Enlisted June 20, 1861, Co. I, 4th Michigan Infantry; 

discharged June 21, 1864. 
Stiirdevant, Neman i?.— Enlisted August 12, 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan 

Infantry; discharged March 5, 1863, for disability. 
Swift, Francis J/.— Enlisted April 29, 1861, Co. C, 70th N. Y. Infantry; 

transferred to 16th U. S. Infantry. 
Taylor, Nelson— 'En\is\.&6. August 8, 1862, Co. M. 4th Michigan Cavalry; 

mustered out July 1, 1865. 
Terrill, Jared /?.— Enlisted August 15, 1861, Co. H, 1st Michigan Cavalry; 

lest right arm at Second Bull Run; honorably discharged December 6, 


Township Treasurer; graduated Poughkeepsie Commercial College, 
and Columbia Law College of Washington, D. C; Clerk and Chief of 
Division in U. S. Treasury Department. 

Thayer, iJ/or^c«— Enlisted August 25, 1862, Co. A, 4th Michigan Cavalry; 
mustered out July 1865 ; deceased. 

Titbits, William S".— Enlisted January 21, 1864, Co. M, 11th Michigan Cav- 
alry; died of disease, June 5, 1864. 

Tower, Osmond S. — Entered service August 16, 1864, Captain 6th Michigan 
Cavalry; honorably discharged May 15, 1865. 

Farmer and Merchant; Receiver U. S. Land Office Ionia; vice Pres- 
ident First National Bank, and vice-President Michigan Clothing Com- 
pany, Ionia. 

Tyler, Byron ^.—Enlisted April 3, 1865, Co. M, 8th Michigan Cavalry; 
mustered out September 22, 1865. 

Tyler, yc»A«— Entered service as private May 1, 1861, Co. A, 1st Infantry 
(3 months); mustered out August 7, 1861. Re-entered service July 19, 
1862, 1st Lieutenant Co. F, 17th Michigan Infantry; Captain February 
2, 1863; wounded in action at Campbell's Station November 16, 1863; 
Captain Veteran Reserve Corps May 3, 186^; Brevet Major March 13, 
1865, "for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Campbell's 
Station"; 1st Lieutenant 43d U. S. Infantry July 28, 1866; Brevet Cap- 
tain U. S. A. March 2, 1867, "for gallant and meritorious service in the 
battle of South Mountain"; Brevet Major U. S. A. March 2, 1867, "for 
gallant and meritorious service in the attack on Campbell's Station"; 
transferred to 1st Infantry April 8, 1869; retired May 29, 1874, "for loss 
of left arm from wound received in line of duty." 

Admitted to the Bar in 1874 and practiced law at Buffalo; Collector 
of the Port of Buffalo during Hayes' administration; lawyer Ithaca, N.Y.; 
retired on account of failing health; died at Dearborn, Michigan, 1889. 

Van Cleve, Augustus v4.— Entered service July 29, 1862, 2d Lieutenant 20th 
Michigan Infantry; 1st Lieutenant October 14, 1862; Captain November 
28, 1863; resigned January 12, 1865, and honorably discharged. 


Paper business Detroit and Ypsilanti; several years with Passenger 
Department M. C. R. R.; resides in Ypsilanti. 

Vospey, Benjamin— Enlisted August 9, 1862, Sergeant Co. I, 21st Michigan 
Infantry; 1st Lieutenant 2d Michigan Infantry April 1, 1864; honorably 
discharged for disability May 31, 1864. 

Graduate Law Department U. of M. 1868; lawyer, Ionia, Michigan. 

Voorhees, Angustus C. — Was in Co. C, 3d Michigan Cavalry. 

Waldroti, Leonard A. — Enlisted August 11, 1862, Co. E, 26th Michigan 
Infantry; mustered out June 4, 1865. 

Walker, Mori-is (J.— Enlisted May 25, 1861, Co. K, 2d Michigan Infantry, 
killed in action at Peach Orchard, Virginia, June 30, 1862. 

Wallace James N. — Enlisted April 22, 1861, Co. H, 1st Michigan Infantry 
(3 months); re-entered service 2d Lieutenant 9th Michigan Infantry, 
October 12, 1861 ; 1st Lieutenant July 28, 1862, mustered out October 26, 
1863, for promotion as Captain in 13th U. S. Colored Troops; mustered 
out and honoiably discharged January 16, 1866. 
Furniture dealer and Real Estate, Ypsilanti. 

Watkins, C^/M^;-/"^.— Enlisted August 12, 1861, Corporal Co. B, 9thMich- 
igan Infantry; taken prisoner at Murfreesboro, July 13, 1862; dis- 
charged; re-enlisted as veteran; Quartermaster Sergeant ; 2d Lieuten- 
ant October 8, 1864; 1st Lieutenant January 8, 1865; mustered out 
September 15, 1865. 

General agent for Michigan of Penn Mutual Life Instrance Co., 
Residence, Detroit; proprietor of Watkins Villa Shetland Pony and 
Jersey Stock Farm, Birmingham. 

Way, Joel ^.—Enlisted September 6, 1862, Co. I, 6th Michigan Cavalry; 
taken prisoner October 18, 1863; died August 1864, while a prisoner 
of war. 

Webb, Fred. 5.— Enlisted August 4, 1862, Corporal Co. E, 17th Michigan 
Infantry; wounded at Antietam September 17, 1862; died from his 
wound January 14, 1863. 

Weir, William C— Enlisted July 26, 1862, Corporal Co. E, 17th Michigan 
Infantry; honorably discharged to enter the 128th Indiana Infantry, as 
1st Lieutenant; mustered out April 10, 1866. 
Funeral Director, La Porte, Indiana. 

Widdicomb, William— Enlisted July 22, 1861, Co. B, 1st Michigan Infan- 
try; Sergeant; Commissary Sergeant; 2d Lieutenant June 22, 1862; 
1st Lieutenant August 30, 1862; Regimental Adjutant October 1862; 
Resigned March 10, 1863 and honorably discharged. 
Furniture Manufacturer at Grand Rapids. 

Wilcox, Alfred /^'.—Enlisted August 9, 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan Infan- 
try; wounded at Antietam September 17, 1862; discharged January 12, 
1863 on account of wound; re-entered service March 1, 1865 as 1st 


Lieutenant Co. K, 11th Michigan Infantry; mustered out September 
16, 1865. 

Student Literary Department Michigan University one year, Law 
Department two years. Lawyer and Real Estate dealer, Detroit. 

Whelan, Cyrus /^.—Enlisted June 1S61. 8th Kansas Infantry; Captain U. 
S. Colored Troops; Secret Service Department; wounded five times; 
dii;d in hospital at Little Rock, Arkansas. 

Whelart, H. (9.— Enlisted September 9, 1861, Co. K, 3d Michigan Cavalry ; 
Gunshot wound in shoulder Octobers, 1862, near Corinth, Mississippi; 
discharged December 19. 1863. 

Farmer; Supervisor aud Justice of the Peace. 

Wood, Audrt-cu 7".— Enlisted August 4, 1862, Co. E, 17th Michigan Infan- 
try; Sergeant; mustered out June 3, 1865. 

Teacher; Principal in Chicago Public Schools. 

Wood, Theodore— ^\\\\%\.&^ August 4, 1862, Co E, 17th Michigan Infan- 
try; Transferred to Veteran Corps; discharged July 7, 1865. 

Wood, Webster ^.—Enlisted August 5, 1862, Co. K, 24th Michigan In- 
fantry; mustered out June 30, 1865. 

Woodman, Hamilton J. — Enlisted August 9, 1862, Sergeant Co. I, 22d 
Michigan Infantry; 1st Lieutenant July 8th 1863; Captain December 5, 
1863; mustered out June 26, 1865. 

Contractor, Builder and Plumber, Detroit and Ypsilanti. 

Young, Edgar G. — Enlisted April 1, 1862, 14th Michigan Infantry; Cor- 
poral; honorably discharged April 26, 1865. 

Pliysician in Kansas; died San Diego, California, 1893. 

Young, William /'.— Eilisted September 18, 1861, Co. A, 8th Michigan 
Infantry; discharged for disability, December 2. 1862; re-enlisted 
January 28, 1864, Co F, 6th Michigan H. A. ; mustered out August 
20, 1865. 

Attended the Normal between his terms of service. Farming in 
Michigan, Kansas and Oregon. 




Graduates of the Normal School. 

The original purpose was to publish a brief historj^ of all the 
graduated classes, with full sketches of the most prominent mem- 
bers. A little effort proved that it would be impossible to obtain 
the material necessary for such a history. Good sketches of a 
few classes were secured, but of only a few. The conclusion 
finally reached was to publish as correct a list as possible of the 
names of all graduates. Doubtlesss some errors will be found, 
but all practicable effort has been made to secure a correct list. 

Morton, Alzina 

Sill, John M. B. 

Norris, Helen C. 

Bacon, Julia M. 
Beden, Selh N. 
Bellows, Charles F. R. 
Brown, Ruby A. 

Barnes, Harriet J. 
Clements, Clark P. 
Hurd, Fayette 
Heydenburk, Mary B. 

Aulls, Sarah M. 
Bancker, Enoch 
Campbell, William 
Carpenter, Mary 


Clayton, Kate M. 
Dennison, T. Riley 
Fuller, Cromwell M. 
Fairman, Mary J. 
Gorton, James R. 

Hurlbut, Ellen A. 
Hough, Mary B. 
Lyman, Mary C. 
Phillips, Fidelia 


Doty, Caroline E. 
Graves, Eleanor 
Henderson, James M. 
Lind, Marianne 
LeBaron, Charles F. 

Horner, John 
Miller, Charles R. 
Stark, James W. 
Tompkins, Rhoda A. 

Perry, Walter S. 
Sanford, George P. 
Smith, I. Marvin 
Tyler, Olive C. 

Munson, F. Walker 
Post, Helen M. 
Randall, Theresa E. 
Wood, Silas 



Adam, Channing W. 
Allen, Elvira M. 
Bigelow, Eilward 


Bradner, Addie S. 
Blackwood, S. W. P. 
Clark, Louisa M. 

Bateman, Christopher T. Farrand, Harriet A. 

King, Julia A. 
Lane, James S. 
Russell, Francis G. 
Willard, Levi A. 

Bennett, Clark S. 
Campbell, Andrew 
Campbell, Robert Jr. 
Hauglon, Ruth 


Hammond, Martha 
Littlefield. Orpha 
ISIowry, Sarah A. 
Phillips, Anu M. 

Price, Geraldine 
Thorp, Calvin J. 
Wilbur, James L. 
Whitney, Mary P. 

Buck, Francis A. 
Ciapp, Adaline H. 
Durfee, Parmelia, E. 
Dean, Nancy J. 
Dresser, Malvin W. 

Bush, Harvey F. 
Bu^h, Rufus T. 
Burroughs, Louisa C. 
Cros-s, Ella M. 
Campbell, Gabriel 
Dickinson, Al)bie W. 
Edwards, Byron F. 
Getman, Emma E. 

Goodison, John 
Houghton, Adelia J. 
Hough, Emily 
Lane, Hannah A. 

Hall, Emma A. 
Jones, Henry S. 
Kellogg, Mary J. 
Lock wood, Anna M. 
McArihur, Nancy J. 
Osborne, Annie H. 
Pattison, Juliet A. 
Parker, Mary W. 

Newman, Emeline A. 
Rorison, Jane L. 
Tibbits, Olive M. . 
Waltz, Elizabeth 

Race, Jehiel B. 
Robertson, Elizabeth 
Rice, Mary A. 
Spalding, Fannie M. 
Stewart, Frances L. 
Straight, Oscar S. 
Ta> lor, James 
Young, Suban E. 

Beal, Joseph O. 
Ballon, James M. 
Baker, Jejuiie A. 
Brearly, Kate 


Berger, Sarah A. 
Egbert, Helen M. 
Hall, Jennie 
Hdll, Sarah M. 

Lowe, Sarah A. 
Orinsby, Salmon B. 
Rorisun, N. Arda 
Stearns, Willard 

Ambrose, Emma O. 
Beaumont, Lillie 
Byington, Wm. W. 
Barry, James 
Crittenden, Alvira A. 
Cornwell, Adaline 


Curtis, Delia 
Ewell, Sarah A. 
George, Austin 
Itsell, Andrew J. 
Kelly, Ronald 
Lowe, Adelia M. 
Montgomery, Andrew 

Russell, Mary E. 
Reilly, Bernard S. 
Spence, Julia A. 
Wright, Louisa A. 
Welch, Lodisa 
Whitney, Chauucy L. 



Allen, Edward P. 
Artley, Emma 
Carus, Jerome W. 
Clarkson, Nettie M. 
Dunham, Rachel 
Dixon, Ella B. 

Artley, Lizzie 
Bannan, George C. 
Babcock, Siniuel S. 
Cram, Martha E. 
Chandler, Addie 
Clark, Frances V. 

Bradbury, Jaliette 
Bailey, Volney P. 
Bills, Mary A. 
Bills, Carrie 
Brown, Matilda S. 
Bishop, Ellen 
Bassett, Mary L. 
Creelman, Nellie S. 

Burroughs, Henry C. 
Coleman, Sophia J. 
Chittenden, Lucy A. 
Fox, Nina A. 
Follett, EUa E. 
Hill, W. Carey 

Bacon, Frances E. 
Dunlap, Fletcher W. 
Fisher, Lucia J. 
Gardner, Lizzie E. 
Hopkins, Lydia C. 

Armstrong, Louise 
Burkhead, Simuel G. 
Baker, Charles S. 


Ewell, Marshall D. 
Edwards, Sarah E. 
Gleason, Helen 
Gleason, Elizabeth 
Herrick, George D. 
LeBarou, Marshall 

Douglass, Selwyn 
Raton, Sera 
Gould, Betsey A. 
Griswold, Hannah 
Hepburn, Frederick C. 
Haight, Edward A. 

Donaldson, Lewis G. 
Edwards, Anna P. 
Green, Pliilip L. 
Goucher, Addie S. 
Hewitt, M. Estella 
Hall, Augusta D. 
Lathers, Edward N. 
Nichols, Amos C. 


Hayes, Mary G. 
Hopkins, George H. 
Lntta, Patroclus A. 
Mailman, John S. 
Muuson, Ida A. 
Olcott, Anna E. 

LeBaron, Anna 
Melville, Mary J. 
Palmer, William H. 
Phillips, S. Eliza 
Smith, Emma 


Brinkerkoff, Cora 
Benham, Emma E. 
Campbell, James C. 

Moore, Maria 
Montgomery, John 
Maltman, Alexander 
Stewart, Elizabeth 
Townley, Loretta M. 
Thayer, May 

Henry, Mary D. 
Knight, Myra A. 
Lane, Joshua S. 
Nelson, Lucy A. 
Wall, Mary 

Pierce, Orlando 
Ruckman, Anna P. 
Smith, Sarah M. 
West, Anna 
Williams, Helen F. 
Wall, Amanda C. 
Wilber, DeWitt E. 
Young, Josephine 

Plowman, Joseph G. 
Park, Levi A. 
Post, Leonora V. 
Roberts, Eunice 
Siedman, Gerrit J. 
Tupper, Hannah W. 

Smith, Alice 
Turnbull, James D. 
White, Lottie A. 
Widner, Belle 

Curtis, Edwin T. 
Davis, Charles E. 
Hall, Lucius E. 



Hubbard, Hattie 
Hayes, Ella M. 
Moutague, Luke S. 

Bauter, Frank M. 
Bacon, Frank W. 
Brewer, Mrs. A. C. 
Bodine, Mary E. 
Dole, Agj^ie 
Ferris, Emma E. 

Baker, Emma L. 
Congdou, Libbie S. 

Aiken, Fanny 
Barr, Alice 
Buller, James O. 
Bacon, Farrand E. 
Cady, George A. 
Crissey, Theodoret W. 
Capen, Minerva D. 

Belsher, M. Ernest 
Curtis, Sara M. 
Fair, J. Eugene 

Banks, Carrie 
Blanchard, Ernest J. 
Bucknum, Arvilla L. 
Courter, Rufus T. 

Barr, Robert J. 
Barr, Emma 
Barnes, George 
Bassler, Mary 

Meacham, Hattie E. 
Stark, Alice M. 
Sabin, Henry W. 
Shields, Peter 


Gambee, Mrs. S. A. 
Haskins, David E. 
Miller, Lewis C. 
McNeer, Hattie W. 
Rorison, Minerva B. 
Saville, Rhoda E. 


Fitch, Fanny Burr 
Goodrich, Emily O. 
Keeler. Ellen E. 


Underdonk, Marr H. 
White, Emmons 
Webster, A. Morse 

Swan. William L. 
Shields, Thomas F. 
Tupper, Mattie A. 
Tracy, Wallace E. 
Thompson, Edwin C. 

Loomis, Ada B. 
Lee, Charles S. 

Fitch, Fidelia E. 
Gage, Emma 
Garlick, Latham M. 
Hill, Eugenio K. 
Howe, Gertrude 
Girton, Nettie E. 
Joslin, Eugene M. 

Hall, Delimere R. 
Hopkins, Charles C. 
Johns, Wellington A. 
Whitney, S. Emery 


McDougall, Henry C. 
McXamara, William 
Phelps, Ezoa F. 
Rogers, Nettie I. 
VaiiFossen, S. Eugenia 
VanFleet, Mary E. 
Voorhies, Sarah 

Nowlin, ]Marv 
Nowlin, Laura A. 
Whitney, Milton J. 

Demorest, Ezra J. 
Hoatson, Agnes 
Howell, L. Mae 
Livingston, Helen J. 


Childs, Alma C. 
Fitch, Ferris S. Jr. 
Hill, Mrs. Jennie K. 
Kimball, Eliza 
Muir, James B. 

Preston, Mary E. 
Pardee, Sheldon J. 
Usinger, Conrad 
Wadsworth. Mina 

Pendill. Hattie 
Rogers, Emma L. 
Thomas, Mary 
Wan, Clara 



Aiken, Hattie 
Andrus, Enoch 
Irland, Lewis E. 

Beecher, Mary H. 
Baker, Mary A. 
Brown, Nelson J. 
Carr, Eli F. 
Finnigan, Bridget 

Boynton, Esther S. 
Cheever, Waller H. 
Crippen, Rufus 
Ferris, Charles R. 

Clark, Mary F. 
Davis, Jay K. 
Dodds, P. Fabian 
Freeman, Ida A. 

Brower, Eola A. 
Bacon, Harry K. 
Baker, Rose H. 
Bradner, Will F. 
Bradner, Mitlie F. 
Blanchard, Asa L. 
Burdick, A. Hall 
Crittenden, Dwight 
Craddock, Sarah E. 
Canning, Mary T. 

Benfey, Myra P. 
Bacon, Kate 
Conway, George 
Campbell, John K. 
Finley, Mark F. 


Mnir, Helen B. Shaw, Thomas E. 

Muir, Rosa M. Walker, Byron D. 

Pierce, David C. 


Hoyt, Anna L. 
Lowe, Edward G. 
McCausey, Joseph W. 
Nelson, Esther 
Peckens, Martha 

Simmonds, William I. 
Thomas, John H. 
White, Eva 
Warnock, James 



Forbes. Ella 
Gray, Mary L,. 
Haug, Ella G. 
Haug, Katie 


Haynes, Mary E. 
McW^ethy, Sarah 
Packer, Ella G. 
Stanclift, Julia M. 


Davis, Lydia S. 
Dunn, Joseph H. 
Frazer, Elsie 
Holdbworth, Fannie 
Hume, Emma H, 
Kernuhan, James 
Lewis, Agnes 
Little, Murion 
McConiber, Hattie 
McCoy, Mary 



Foote, Matie D. 
Lamb, Addle 
Littlefield, Ida M. 
Loughead, Ella 
Miller, J. Romeyn 

Laird, Samuel B. 
Reed, Herbert S. 
Sprague, Kiltie 

Towner, Carrie 
TenE} ck, Sarah 
Zimmerman, David 

McGrath, Annie S. 
Paine, Mary A. 
Preston, Anna A. 
Preston, Flora 
Ruel, Anna 
Stringer, Charles 
Scott, Elsie K. 
Wood, Anna S. 
Wood, Anna B. 

Nardin, Eugene C. 
Phelps, Edith C. 
Slay ton. Sue C. 
Tindall, Lizzie H. 
Wall, Josephine 



Cooper, Alice 
Coonradt, Jacob H. 
Clark. Kdward M. 
Deuel, Andrew L. 

Broderick, Sarah 
Beurman, Jennie 
Cutcheon, Anna 
Craft, Clarissa 
Cooper, John T. 
Dexter, Philo 
DuBois, Adelbert O. 

Krell, Henry P. 
Farley, Jennie C. 
Griffen, Darwin C. 
Hemingway, Mary J. 
Johnson, August D. 


Campbell, Milo D. 
Keeler, Edward 
Mills, Lucius W. 
jNIyrick, George F. 

Barnard, Martha 
Brower, Adilison C. 
Davis, \V. George 
Freeman, Frank A. 
Grant, George 

Brainard, Ira N. 
Comstock, Lizzie M. 
Dunn, Dennis 
Erwin, Mary Jane 

Atwood, Mrs. Margaret 
Billmeyer, Uriah D. 
Bassler, Rosa 
Beattie, Frances A. 
Blackwood, Sara 
Blackwood, Jennie B. 
Chase, Frank 
Coonradt, Philo D. 
Fox, Richard E. 
Fife, Delle 
Fullerlon, Jennie L. 
Gray, Emma C. 
Hollenbeck, Ernest 

Freeman, Bertha 
Ford, Kate 
Garton, Nettie 
Hdl, Anna 
Hume, Maria A. 
Hoyt, Lutie 
Hitchcock, Ettie 
Hotchkiss, Fannie 

Journeaux, Cornelia 
Lamb, Emma 
Lambie, Mary 
Miller, Frank B. 
Newnbam, Richard L. 
Spooner, ]Mary 
Webber, Martha E. 



Howe, Abbie E. 
Jennings, Emma 
May, John A. 
Miller, Eugene 
McMahon, Lois A. 


Foster, Ella L. 
Queal, Carrie 
Ransom, Walter E. 
Rosenberry, Alvan J. 
Reed, Samuel S. 


Pullen Libbie, A. 
Rankin, Henry C. 
St. John, Charles E. 
St. John, Frances A. 
Wall, Frances A. 

Spencer, James L 
Stockley, William W. 
Seamen, ElbeTt 
Wendell, Worth W. 

Herrick, Fred 
Murla, Daniel 
McGee, Sarah F. 
McGee, Zelos F. 
Nichols, Elmira 
Paine, Romine M. 
Prichard, Vernon P. 
Perry, Edmund E. 
Phillips, Norman L. 
Quackenbush, Susan 
Rundell, Nettie E. 
Rice, I'ayelte G. 
Salisbury, Ella L. 

Selleck, Sarah 
Stanley, John P. 
Sherwood, Ella F. 
Townley, Irving W. 
Thompson, Philip G. 
Upham, Albert A. 
Woodard, Ida Alice 
Wheeler, Aaron 
Webber, Emma A. 
Williams. Clara E. 
Young, Addie 
Young, Miranda 



Allen, Mary 
Beach, Effie 
Bellows, William E. 
Barnard, Martha 
Brooks, E. Andalusia 
Bellows, Eva A. 

Andrus, Walter M. 
Beach, Phebe S. 
Bellis, William 
Everett, Carrie 

Bird, Austin V. 
Blackmer, Charles C. 
B rower. C. Cass 
Black, Edward D. 
Babcock, Hattie 
Butrick, Josie M. 
Brokaw, Jennie H. 
Buckingham, H. Deckle 
Chandler, Alice A. 
Cramer, Annie 
Cranston, Ella A. 
Cranston, Ida A. 
Davis, Milo 

Allen, Jennie 
Cupples, James W. 
Dole, George Henry 
Gilbert, Emma L. 
Guthrie, Flora A. 

Ahnafeldt, Phebe 
Brabb, Alice A. 
Boyne, Nora 
Clapp, Nellie 
Grant, Robert 


Curran, Henry J. 
Carus, Luana 
Clayton, Mary S. 
Eggers, Ernest 
Hartman, Eugene 
Jordan, James F. 


Hawks, Addie M. 
McCutcheon, Chas. T. 
McAlpine, Enos J. 
McVean, Mary 

Judd, Elsie A. 
Munger, Christian 
Newton, Durbin 
Shaw, Levi F. 
Stockley, William W. 
VanTyne, Sarah E. 

Pardee, Joel S. 

Spinks, Agnes 
Yutema, Douwe 


Davis, Angle 
Ford, James B. 
Goodwin, Emma, E. 
Hicks, Charles 
Hicks, Rhoda C. 
Houghton, Mary A. 
Holten, Emma E. 
Jefferson, Maria 
Kimble, Lillian 
Mowry, Justin 
Miner, Hannah E. 
Phillips, Thomas C. 
Pooler, Lida 


Helber, Emma H. 
Jenks, Hettie P. 
Kahler, Louise C. 
Lambie, Anna 
Lee, Rose 

Harris, Lillie 
Hamilton, Ella A. 
Howell Phebe A.J. 
Jones, Lou Agnes 
Kittell. Mary A. 
Kellogg, Lyman M. 

Potter, Lura S. 
Quirk, Mattie 
Rice, William E. 
Randall, Albert J. 
Sutlen, Fred 
Shaw, Morris C. 
Stowe, Eugene A. 
Shaw, Josephine 
Sischo, Ella M. 
Travis. Jerome 
Wallace, Farrand A. 
Wells, Ida 

Phelps, Neil S. 
Pearce, Abbie 
Rice, Emma 
Wilson, Henry C. 

Lennon, Mary 
Merrill, Herbert L. 
Preston, Addie 
Rosenberry, Abram B. 
Shotwell, Ambrose 




Alexander, Lowella J. 
Beck with, Cora B. 
Brewster, Helen E. 
Buchanan. Florence A. 
Babbitt, Helen C. 
Brown, Leroy 
Clark, Walter H. 
Camp, Julia 
Clyburn, Frank S. 
Chess. Charles B. 
Duncan, Jennie 
Eastman, William H. 
Fairman, Lillie 
FitzgeraM, Ina 
Freeman, Libbie 
Fletcher, Azro 

Hoyt, Mattie E. 
Hoagland. Abbie R. 
Harper, Eliza 
Harris. Verna 
Hammond, David 
Jones, Sarah A. 
Judson, A. Retta 
Kelsej-, George E. 
Kiiapp, Frank J. 
McDonald, Mary M. 
McLaughlin, Alex. 
McMullen, Henry C. 
Mensch, Mar}' C. 
Newton, Mattie 
Osband, Eleanor 
Preston, Hopeful M. 
Pillard, George E. 

Pratt, S. Franklin 
Phillips, William B. 
Phillips, Laura C. 
Russell. Nettie L. 
Ruggles, Eunice A. 
Ramsey, Libt)ie 
Rathfon, Anna M. 
Shaw, Charles A. 
Smith, Maggie H. 
Smith, Minnie L. 
Tilden, Jennie E. 
Vetterle, Louisa 
Wright, Aura C. 
Whitmore, Hattie F. 
Wibster, Lodie M. 
Wright, John C. 

Blackwood, Nellie 
Baxter, Carrie L. 
Babb, John A. 
Clark, Cora 
Deland, Amy L. 
Haug, Edmund 

Andrus, Ada 
Bellows, Walter C. 
Bogardus, Fannie 
Chapman, LaBelle B. 
Collett, Frederica C. 
Chart, Susie E. 
Coop, Matilda J. 
Dodge, Albert 
Gorton, Lewis G. 

Alger, Julia C. 
Babcock, Emma 
Bailey Annie 



McMurtry. William J. 
Martin, Jennie E. 
Osinga, Gerbrandus A. 
Oliver, William H. 
Pickell, Charles W. 
Poole, Josephine A. 
Pullen, Ella 


Gilbert, Alice H. 
Hodge, George B. 
Hettinger, Frank P. 
Jenks, Mary E. 
Kishlar, Eva L. 
Lahuis, Albert. 
Lee, Lucinda 
Morrison, Nellie J. 
McKenzie, Julia 

Putnam, Mary B. 
Stark, Maggie H. 
Schofield, Hattie C. 
Strickland, M. Alida 
Tuller, Ellen N. 
Wilson, Eugene A. 

Rorison. Stella 
Rowle)-, Lina D. 
Roys, Lura D. 
Reynolds, Rose B. 
Shotwell, Ida A. 
Shaler, Villa 
Thomas, Belle 
Thompson, Mary G. 


Brown, Leon D. 
Bacon, Mary E. 
Barrett, John E. 

Crotzer. Lyman J. 
Clark, Eleanor 
Clark, Jennie 



Dudley, Harlan J. 
Edington, Maggie 
Ellis, Mary 
Foster, Ella M. 
Fullerton, Ida 
Gage, Jennie 
Hawkins, Ella A. 
Howell, Ivibbie 

Barrett, James 
Broesanile, Geortje H. 
Clizbe, Warren D. 
Cudworth, Blanche R. 
Crombie, Samuel M. 
Essig, Mary 

Atwood, Chas. H. T. 
Billmire, John \V. 
Bradshaw, Braddie 
Barnard, Minnie C. 
Bowers, Alberta J. 
Castle, May W. 

Abbott, Abbie C. 
Butler, Silas P. 
Bucknam, C. Evora 
Craft, Mary A. 
Gardner, Mary 
Gardner, Nellie 

Bettinger, Marcus C. 
Backus, Nellie M. 
Bignell, Ann Janette 
Ewell, Leona 
Farnura, Nellie L. 
Hollenbeck, Cassius 
Hettinger, James 

Hunt, Thomas J. 
Knapp, Frank J. 
Lord, Lucy 
McLennan, Hannah 
Nethaway, Ella M. 
Page, Anna 
Ro3'ce, Alice 
Simonds, Ella F. 


Grawn, Charles T. 
Mead, J. Newton 
Paton, Jessie 
Pattison, Lizzie 
Rurtherford, Lu D. 
Stevens, James H. 


Calkins, Carrie 
Cooley, Lottie 
Haven, Edgar 
Hughes, Ambrose ' 
Jones, Levi 
McQuillan, Theressa 
Paton, Anna A. 

Smith, Hattie H. 
Smith, Mattie C. 
Sargeant, Eva 
Seibley, Emma 
VanWickle, Frank W. 
Wright, Cora M. 
West, Ella I. 
Zimmerman, Samuel 

Stillwell, Orlando J. 
Smith, Milton W. 
Stafford, Mintie E. 
Thomas, Jessie 
Towner, Nannie 

Ray, Viola F. 
Shartau, Gustavus A. 
Stuff, Samuel F. 
Trump, Eliza C. 
Vischar, Johannes W. 
Walker, Eva H. 


Huston, Jason D. 
Lawrence, Stella H. 
Moynahan, Kittie 
Pinch, A. May 
Phillips, Clara 
Sutton, Mary M. 


Lamb, Ida A. 
Lovell, Herbert M. 
McCraken, Mary R. 
McVicar, John G. 
Martin, Sara M. 
Morley, Fred 
Orcutt, Etta 

Stack, Mary 
Stanley, Myron H. 
Scott, Emma 
Taffey, Beatrice 
Winney, Sidney 

Roberts, James Henry 
Stay, Jay D. 
Stone, Helen 
Stringer, Eliza E. 
Wallace, Jennie 
Williams, T. Coleman 



Arnold, George Edw. 
Brown, Mary J. 
Burr, Ambrose F. 
B.illMrd, Willinm E. 
Coltrin, Fanny 
Coltrin, Jessie 
Davy, Edith M. 
Ellis, Evfline L. 
German, Willard L. 
Garrat, John F. 
Hone}-, Cora Alice 
Harter, Cora Ebtelle 

Atchison, Nettie 
Avery, Lincoln 
Barnes, Estella 
Barry, Lillie 
Corwin, Ella F. 
Delf, Amelia E. 
Egery, Jennie F. 
Greig, Nellie 
Garlinghouse, Viollette 

Bird, Charles E. 
Beerman, Lena 
Ball, Sarah O. 
Bachm5jn, ilary A. 
Edwards, Adelbert D. 
Grimes, Lillian I. 
Hanlon, Martin 

Hambrook, William J. Smith, Dora E. 

How. 11, David P. 
Hand, M. Lillian 
Ki|.p, Mary 
Lee, Libbie 
Lockwood, Harry A. 
IMnthews, r'rances E. 
McCausey, Bessie 
Moore, Nettie May 
Moorman, Enos \V. 
Northniore, James 
Revnolds, Effie Mav 

Spoor, Alice 
Spoor, Ida A. 
Steers, Loretta May 
Trowbridge, Edw. G. 
Turner, Frank Neal 
Wheeler, Edwin M. 
Woodworth, Ch irles 
Woodworth, Helen E. 
Waite, Amelia L. 
Warren. Geo. Watters, 
Young, Lizzie E. 


Graves, James Lyman Norton, Mary E. 

Holcomb, Delia 
Hind 1 arch, INI wy 
Howk, Hattie M. 
Kern, Frank L. 
Lockwood, Anna M. 
Lathers, Alice 
Miller, Fanny A. 
Morrow, Margaret J. 


Hewitt, Walter C. 
Jack.son, John 
Kidney, Elliott E. 
Lee, Etta L. 
Miller, Hiram W. 
McKinney, Peter T. 
McLouth, Lawrence A. 

Renwick, George D. 
Smith, Henrietta 
Schermerhorn, Caro- 
line E. 
Teetzel, Viola May 
Wood, Persis M. 
Western, John 

Norton, Carrie W. 
Pierce, Charles S. 
Robinson, Mabel L. 
Robinson, Martha L. 
Silsby, Mary J. 
Webb, Mary E. 
Weeks, Willis A. 

Bird, Frances E. 

Gay, Ella D. 

Laflin, Ira B. 

Hinkley, Emma J. Laflin, Ella Kyle. 
Hoadley, Kate A. Miller, Kittie C. Wlieeler, Nettie E. 
Bailey, Benj. F. Hitclicox, Carrie B. 

Clark, May M. Hutcliiii.son, Silas P. 

Foster, Charles E. Lockwood, Gertrude 

Lockwood, Mary F. 

Nyland, Albertus 
Rogers, Cora L. 
Smith, Miles L. 



Aldricli, Edessa 
Ball, Kate 
Ballard, Walter W. 
Barrett, John E. 
Bell, Robert W. 
Bolton, Clara 
Cooke, T. Dale 
Cox, Lucy May 
Cross, Kittie 
Crawford, Lillian 
Dodge, Rettie 
Dolan, Mrs. Mary 
Carwell, Jessie 
Forger, Jennie A. 
Goodell, Geo. M. 

Biscome, Joseph 
Benton, Howard 
Boyd. Hattie I. 
Buell, Viola 
Benjamin, Henry P. 
Crittenden, Eloise 
Dennison, Geo. A. 
DeVVitt, Alton 
Ebling, Elva E. 
Ferguson, Edgar E. 
Freeman, Edwin J. 
George, Lucy 
Gardner, Eugene M. 
Hodge, Annie L. 

Andrews, Charles T. 
Bates, Eva 
Bracket, M. Ellen 
Brown, L'zzie A. 
Crittenden, Lillie C. 
Crippen, Luella 
Conrad, Hattie E. 



Gardiner, Stella M. 
Green, Maud B. 
Harper, Nellie 
Jones, Sarah E. 
Kelly, Ella 
Knight, Dora 
Lambie, Isabella 
Marsh, Jennie D. 
Miller, Florence 
Murphy, Nora 
Murray, Ellen B. 
Nichols, EmmaL. 
Purchase, George H. 
Rowe, Elesha 
Sleeth, Ada 


Hazzard, Jesse M. 
Hinckley, Frances 
Haskins, Edna 
Harris, James 
Hunter, Abbie 
Hale, Amelia 
Kenyon, Elmer A. 
Kelly, Anna M. 
Kedzie, Libbie M. 
King, Harry E. 
Lodeman, Ernest G. 
Miller, Owen L. 
McDonald, Pollock J. 
Miller, Andrew 



Cooper, Mary S. 
Dixson, Minnie L. 
Field. Florence A. 
Goodno, Bettie M. 
G&Men, Nellie E. 
Hammond, Mary Grace 
Helmuth, Louise A. 

Sweezey, George B. 
Saur, Albert 
Steward, William G. 
Stilson, Minnie B. 
Skinner, Clara E. 
Savigny, Katie 
Taylor, Fannie M. 
Trenbath, Mary E. 
Utter, Mary 
Visscher, Mary 
Wells, Leroy, V. 
Wilcox, Kittie 
Wilbur, Eloise M. 
Woodard, Luther B. 

Murphy, Maggie 
Murphy, Ellen 
Osband, William W. 
Pinney, Kate M. 
Porter, Nellie 
Rogers, Ella 
Remington, Blanche 
Race, U. Grant 
Straight, Sarah E. 
Schall, Henry A. 
Taft, Burton J. 
Tednian, Arthur S. 
Wallace, Maggie 
Yerkes, George B. 

Hess, Anna E. 
Hoffman, Julia 
Hyde, Minnie Z. 
James, Bessie 
Jessup, Will 
Johns, Emma 
Kelso, Lizzie 



Kidd, William T. 
Martin, H. Eugene 
Merritt, Carrie E. 
Merry, Mary 
Milroy, Ina A. 
Nichol, James E. 

Archer, Alice E. 
Bacon, Helen E. 
Bray, Harriet A. 
Bailey, Susan R. 
Burdick, May M. 
Burleson, Arthur H. 
Chalmers, William W. 
Clark, Gertrude 
Clark. Nora A. 
Day, Matie C. 
Deake, Cora A. 
DeWitt, :Mrs. C. Adams 
DeBar, Edwin 
Ditmar, Libbie 

Bates, Angie 
Barker, Georgia 
Bird, Alice J. 
Bissell, Minnie L. 
Briggs, Nettie B. 
Brown, May O. 
Buckingham, Alice 
Crawford, Belle 
Cottrell, Anna M. 
Cloves, Harriett A. 
Cummings, Haltie E. 
Dow, Grace 
French, Lois A. 
Funkey, Gertrude 
Graltan, Mary 
Gallatin, Jennie 
Gibson, Mamie E. 
Hainitt, Sarah C. J. 

Pratt. Fannie E. 
Phtlps, A. Belle 
Ressler, Jennie M. 
St. Cliir, Mary B. 
Smith, Eva 
Soper, Myra 


Gage, Iiiie M. 
Gee, Edward F. 
Goodisoii, Alice 
Hart, Dora S. 
Hart, Josephine A. 
Holman, Lilly 
Hcughtoii, Spencer L. 
Huston, Clifford R. 
Krell, Carrie 
Kniss, Lydia E. 
Lawrence, Glen C. 
Lodeman, Hilda 
Mitevy, Tibbie 
Metzger, Fannie 
McGee, George A. 



Harris, Eva C. 
Hamilton, Lizzie R. 
Hendrick, Lulu M. 
Hicks, Warren E. 
Ingram, Ida M. 
Jones, Richard D. 
Kemp, Adelaide J. 
Kief, Fannie S. 
Lamont, Sara 
Lowe, Lucy E. 
McCracken, L. May 
Millett, Minnie 
Millett. Nellie 
McDonald, Leonora J. 
McDonald, Eliza 
Osband, Meda L. 
Patrick, Helen M. 
Phelps, Esther K. 

Transue, Guy E. 
Transue, Charles J. 
Thompson, Isabella W. 
Walker, Ellis D. 
Weyers, Eleanor B. 
While, Auuie C. 

Miller, Mary E. 
Mickens, Charles W. 
Muir, Lillie S. 
Murray, Mildred M. 
Newton, Mattie 
Paton, Andrew 
Phillips, Willard A. 
Piunktt, Edward M. 
Smith, Clarence E. 
Thompson, Clara C. 
Turner, Kate 
Udell, Minerva M. 
Wliitney, Myrtelle 
Woodiey, Oscar I. 

Rogers, Jessie M. 
Shall, Frank E. 
Steward, Alma R. 
Sherwood, H. Annette 
Smith, Lillian A. 
Schlichting, Bertha 
Stone, Clara L. 
Stuart, Mary 
Titus, Edith R. 
Thurston, C. Milton 
Warren, Jessie R. 
Welts, John A. 
White, Mary 
Wise, ISIargaret E. 
Wiiitniap, Prentiss E. 
Williams, Ida M. 
Woodin, May E. 
Wood, Byron H. 



Blakeslee, Edwin A. 
Beebe, Clark L. 
Bowen, Wilbur P. 
Cushman, Alfred G. 
Chase, M. Emma 
Crippen, Anna F. 
Deake, Ettie V. 
Dorjjan, William H. 
Durfee, Nettie M. 
Evans, Thomas L. 
Estabrook, Joseph B. 
Essery, Evan 

Bartlett, Jennie 
Bennett, Edith M. 
Brown, Annie M. 
Bacon, George F. 
Bogue, Sadie 
Crawford, Carrie E. 
Crawford, Sarah L. 
Clark, Olive E. 
' Clark, Flora L. 
Crittenden, Addie 
Chase, Amorette 
Dansinj^burj^, Eva M. 
Dean, David 
Dodge, E<lith M. 
Dickerson, Charles D. 
Evans, Almira L. 
Eddy, Saninel 
Fitzgerald, William J, 
Foster, Archie C. 
Fowler, Alice M. 
Flowers, Alice M. 

Allen, Jessie May 
Allen, May 
Ackerman, Emma C. 
Bird, Alice 


Fanson, Mary 
Fletcher, Lomina J. 
Fimplc, Gertrude E. 
Foster, W. H. 
FoXvler, George 
Harnitt, Anna M. 
Hancorne, George E. 
Kennedy, James W. . 
Kimball, Alice P. 
Lamb, Fred S. 
Major, Kate 
McFarlane, Mattie A. 
Mcintosh, H. W. 



Foote, Eoline A. 
Graves, Anna A. 
Goodwin, Carrie L. 
Hinckley, Cora 
Kennedy, Charlotte E. 
Lockwood, Anna M. 
Lament, Margaret 
La Selle, Lillian 
Linabury, Charles E. 
Mattison, Kate S. 
Mdls, Blanche 
Marshall, Belle K. 
Mirks, James A. 
Miller, Lewis K. 
Moody, Jfssie 
Moore, Nellie F. 
McLachlin, Marie 
McEncroe, Josie 
McDonald, John E. 
Nesbitt, Maud 
Ostrander, Marie 


Berrigan, Edmund 
Chamberlain, EmmaC. 
Conklin, Warren E. 
Cook, Delia J. 

McDiarmid, Jean 
McKone, William J. 
Naylor, Charles H. 
Robinson, Georgia G. 
Robbins, Chas. M. 
Severance, Eugene 
Stewart, Maty K. 
Smith, Kittie I. 
Townsend, Josephine C. 
Wheaton, Sadie J. 
Whitley, Sarah 
Woodward, Luther B. 

O'Connor, Mollie M. 
Parsons, Viola M. 
Parkhurst, Meuella B. 
Roth, Lizzie 
Shattuck, Luna M. 
Seaman, Jno. F, 
Sherwood, Minnie J. 
Stewart, Estelle 
Stuart, Mary D. 
Stiirgis, Nellie B. 
Sullivan, Julia A. 
Smith, Harriett M. 
Toms, Alice G. 
Trowbridge, Ida M. 
Thorne, Euphemia 
Welsh, Mary H. 
White, Wellmena J. 
Wooden, Margaret A. 
Wiltsie, Katherine D. 
Watkins, Mary K. 

Dodge, Emma 
Dobson, Gertrude 
Ferguson, Eva 
French, Walter H. 



Ferris, Perlia B. 
Fox, Chas. Rossiter 
Hipp, Henry G. 
Hegardt, Emma R. 
Hill, Willis D. 
Jennings, Marian L. 
Lewis, Walter F. 
Merriman, Lewis H. 
Miller, May Alma 
Martyn, Annie 
Patrick, Rolfe S. 

Andrews, Amelia M. 
Adams, Augusta H. 
Allington, Harriet 
Allington, Sadie A. 
BIythe, Edith F. 
Brown, Anna J. 
Bishop, Mary A. 
Bunton, Cora E. 
Bowlby, Georgiana 
Brown, Alice L. 
Boyle, Roger C. 
Camburn, Lewis S. 
Cook, Alma 
Cook, Mary E. 
D'Cilley, Dora A. 

Bellows, Leda 

Begole, Fannie 
Brotl, Albert T. 
Bates, Alanson S. 
Bement, Jennie L. 
Cady, Catherine M. 
Coleman, Minnie F. 
Conlon, Thos. A. 
Carroll, George E. 
Camp, Mary F. 
Cook, Rachel 

Payne, Nina B. 
Phelps, Maggie A. 
Putnam, Ruth S. 
Rice, Wilfred D. 
Richart, Elva L. 
Richards, Mary R. 
Rogers, Ella 
Steward, Willard G. 
Schall, Hiram W. 
Stirling. Wellington D. 
Seed, William F. 


Dwyer, Lecia I\L 
Dorgan, Michael 
Dorgan, Thomas 
Edwards, Amelia A. 
Golden, Jessie M. 
Green, Alice K. 
Griffin, Etta M. 
Holmes, Hatlie W. 
Harper, Alice F. 
Keedle, Sarah J. 
Lockwood, Rosa I. 
Lindsay, Marie V. 
Morehouse, Emma M. 
Moss, Anna S. 
Monteith, Maggie S. 


Duffield, Daniel W. 
Pease, Marshall J. 

DenBleyker, Sara 
Eisenlord, Lena 
Fessenden, Agnes L. 
Hendershot, Fred J. 
Hayden, N. Howland 
Harlbeck, Flora IL 
Long, Nora V. 
Ladd, Inez M. 
Larzelere, Claude S. 
LaSelle, Lillian 

Sliney, James 
Stroup, Frank E. 
Shuler, Jennie 
Upton, Myrtle B. 
Wall, Ida LaVendee 
Wilson, Daniel F. 
Whitney, Rosetta M. 
Wood, Stanley O. 
Wood, Florence L. 
Watson, Evelyn 

Mapes, Sheridan 
Plowman, Luna M. 
Petrie, John 
Pierce, Marion 
Roth, Emily 
Roth, Mary 
Stoddard, Rena E. 
Stevenson, Alberta M. 
Southwick, Lois A. 
Skinner, Myron C. 
Terry, Seth B. 
Waldron^ Clara 
Walker, Lavancha F. 
White, May L. 
Waldo, Lulu 

Woodard, Gertrude E. 

Lodeman, Frank E. 
Lister, William N. 
Norton, Frank A. 
Parmelee, Milton R. 
Quirk, Nellie 
Rice, Wilfred D. 
Roberts, Arthur C. 
Stephen, John W. 
Stegenga, Peter M. 
Stuart, Marcia 



Simon, Kitlie C. 
Severance, Melvin B. 
Sclilichting, Clara 
Stackable, Robert C. 

Blount, Mar}- 
Burii-ess, H.ittie L. 
Cross, Carrie A. 
Cady, Louise M. 
Corbin, Hattis J. 
DuBois, Eva M. 
Darnells, Fannie A. 
Darling, Mate B. 
Funston, Carrie F. 
French, Leslie 
Gray, Nettie Christina 

Ames, Florence 
Bailey, Delia S. 
Bishop, Erma A. 
Bromley, Brownie 
Butler, Mariam 
Brooks, Stratton D. 
Bradshaw, Frank M. 
Campbsll. Hannah 
Curtis, Luella 
Creed, Luella L. 
Caniburn, Lewis S. 
Cobb, Frank I. 
Coates, Lemuel L. 
Davies, Nettie L. 
Daniell, Rose 
Dunham, Fred C. 
Duncan, Margaret J. 
Eisenlord, Belle 
French, Lois A. 
P'lower, Adaline W. 
Farnham, Chas. A. 
Gier, Samuel J. 
Green, Myra W. 
Green, Mary S. 
George, Ransom G. 

Trowbridge, Perry F. 
Tate, Rachel 
Witt, Estelle S. 
Wright, Eltha C. 



Higbee, Can-ie 
Hutton, Sadie E. 
Knight, Ernest G. 
Kennedy, BsUe 
Kingsley, James R. 
Keiser, Edward 
Levens, Mabel 
Lewis, Matis O. 
McAdam, Minnie 
Marvin, Nellie 
O'Grady, Annie L. 

Howe, Roy J. 
Hardy, Belle 
Hynes, Ella 
Huntington, Flora J. 
Hanford, Belle L. 
Ingraham, Fred. L. 
Jewett, Ida Belle 
Kimes, Byron C. 
Latson, Mary E. 
Lott, Henry C. 
La Pointe, Ellen 
Livingston, Hattie S. 
Monroe, Eleanor 
Mutschell, Tillie 
Munger, William L. 
Norbert, Delia J. 
Nicholls, Alfred C. 
Norton, Lucy S. 
Nethercott, Efferd R. 
Peet, Retta 
Pickett, Edwin E. 
Pickett, Abbie L. 
Potts, Samuel E. 
Pocklington, Ida M. 
Pattisou, Hattie A. 

Wilber, Flora 
W^aterbury, Harry S. 
Yost, Mary R. 

Prowdley, Flora 
Rieman, W^m. H. 
Robb, Grace D. 
Sullivan, Kittie 
Stebbins, Elva 
Shaw, Eva B. 
Smalley, Gertrude L. 
Tripp, Frances Ethel 
White, Nettie J. 
Walsh, Mary A. 

Pearson. Frances R. 
Reynolds, Carrie 
Richardson, Bert 
Rogers, Ella 
Spencer, Leah A. 
Swartout, Mae 
Sturgis, Alice 
Sanders, Adah 
Smith, Rush R. 
Sweezy, Irene 
Stirling, Nellie M. 
Strawseight, Lizzie 
Snow, Alfred C. 
Thompson, James H, 
Treat, Annie A. 
Thompson, Harry D. 
Turk, George O. 
Trempe, Minnie O. 
Valnave, Delphine M. 
Valentine, Miles E. 
Warne, G. Herbert 
White, Fred M. 
Watson, Marion 
Wells, Frank W. 
Whitehead, M. Fronia 



Adams, Metta A. 
Angel, Lucy 
Banwell, Susan Galpine 
Charbonneau, Celina A. 
Craw, Emma Ophelia 
Cutcheon, Josephine M. 
Clark, Bertha 
Cronk, Carrie Weltha 
Crumback, Allie Adele 
Covert, Ida Martha 
Davis, Eva Lena 
Dasef, Alem W. 
Doyle, Alice Clare 
Derbyshire, Willits M. 

Aldrich, Grace Asenath 
Austin, Robert Oliver 
Bishop, Mabel Irene 
Burridge, Judson G. 
Brown, Alice 
Blodgett, Herbert T. 
Buck, Benjamin F. 
Brophy, Ella 
Bradshaw, Elvira A. 
Beeman, Edmund 
Boyd, Frederic J. 
Chapin, Mary Bogardus 
Crippen, Lillian A. 
Cortright, Lillian M. 
Carrick, Charles H. 
Chase, Sara Thomasina 
Creasy, Olivia 
Dickinson, George H. 
Doolittle, Cora 
Doane, Harry Clifford 
Dickinson, Sara G. 
Davidson, Loana Maria 
Flower, Emily 
Goodspeed, Clara L. 
Goodes, Minnie May 


Freeman, Mary Ella 
Goflfe, Hattie A. 
Geer, Florence Eloise 
Hinckley, Mary Belle 
Hemingway, Delia Alice 
Houston, John D. 
Henderson, Lillian A. 
Jenkins, Joseph R. 
Loree, Ira Dean 
Lewis, Ema 
Morrison, Mae Emma 
Malcolm, Wm. Graves 
Munsell, May Augusta 
McNeil, Emma 


Hopkins, Ida May 
Hoover, Alice Etta 
Hale, Wm. H. C. 
Henderson, Adalynn P. 
Hawkins, Caroline \V. 
Hyzer, Herman Wm. 
Hale, Mable Elizabeth 
Jeffers, Fred A. 
Knooihuizen, Nicholas 
King, William H. 
Lambie, Eunice Morton 
Lane, Annie 
Landfair, Kate Alene 
Mandeville, James M. 
McPhail, Helen Louisa 
Moss, William Ray 
Mills, Rolfe Archibald 
McElheny, Bertha 
Maxwell, Catharine E. 
Marvin, Almon Lucius 
McEncroe, Josephine 
Mead, Ellsworth C. 
Norton, Aurilla 
Norton, Amy 
Otis, Libbie Grace 

McKeown, Cecelia 
Nichols, Henry H. 
Roode, John Q. 
Robbins, Amanda M. 
Sines, Carl Mortimer 
Slonaker, Harvey J. 
San ford, Lydia A. 
Tupper, Lewis N. 
Transue, Charles John 
Webb, Susan R. 
Weimer, Cora Belle 
White, Frank M. 
Warner, William E. 
Wilcox, Harry D. 

Overholt, Lester S. 
Osborne, Mary L. 
Prowdley, Frank 
Peck, Myrta Estelle 
Plunkett, Hattie Marie 
Palmer, Lucy Jane 
Pullen, Laura Belle 
Rogers, George E. 
Snure, John 
Sprague, Herbert A. 
Smith, Josephine 
Snure, Minnie 
Stanley, George A. 
Sheldon, Frances S. 
Sloan, Nettie D. 
Schafer, John G. 
Sloan, Lida 
Severence, Henry O. 
TefTt, Mary Lillian 
Tracy, Ina Lucinda 
Wente, Olive M. 
Walter, Minnie E. 
Weir, William W. 
Wheeler, Frank J. 
Zimmerman, Maria 



Atherton, Marvin M. 
Allen, Eugenie 
Allen, Fannie Irene 
Allen, Fred 
Abernathy, Eva Belle 
Andrews, Nanie 
Bassett, Edith 
Baldwin, Carrie 
Boice, Ethelyn L. 
Blackburn, Hattie S. 
Bristol, Orion I,. 
Brown, Clark Lester 
Camp, Jessie 
Card, Ada M. 
Cady, Guy V. L. 
Crittenden, Zena B. 
Connell, Mary 
Covert, Georgia L,. 
Castell, Daniel G. 
Carpenter, Florence 
Cady. Harriet A. 
Cromie, Elizabeth M. 
Dailey, Margaret A. 
Earl, Bessie Aurora 
Efferts, Lizzie Belle 
Foote, Lucy Ellen 



Ferguson, Lottie A. 
Graham, Laura R. 
Gregor, Benjamin 
Garner, Minnie 
Gardner, Altabel, 
Goodrich, Ida Sarah 
Howell, Viva A. 
Hardy, Caroline S. W. 
Hastings, Marthena E. 
Hayman, Frank D. 
Howell, John Chambers 
Jamison, Eva H. 
Josenhans, Rheinhold J. 
Kingan, Mar}^ Agnes 
Kinney, Laura M. 
Lawrence, Minnie B. "^ 
Lick ley, Nora May 
Little, Lucy Ellen 
Mann, Retta 
Murner, Eliza 
Metz, Maud Alice 
Mauzy, Grace E. 
Myhrs, Jennie Pauline 
Parker, Kitlie 
Pierce, Ella Louise 
Pierce, Jessie Emily 

Phillips, Lulu M. 
Pardee, Belle 
Robson, Antoinette E. 
Roe, Abbie 
Rogers, Louise 
Robinson, Winnie J. 
Shearer, Mary 
Shafer, Frederic D. 
Stewart, Linnie Maria 
Sickles, Mae Z. 
Slayton, Ada May 
Southwell, Maud L. 
Spencer, Ella M. 
Tanner, Belle 
Thompson, Martha A. 
Trask, Mabel 
Vreeland, Charles F. 
Vorenkamp, Etta 
Wait, Louis E. 
Wetherbee, John A. 
Waldron, Adah 
Wolf, Flora E. 
Warner, Minnie D. 
Wetmore, Bess H. 
Warren Frank E. 

Allen, Cora Belle 
Andrews, Frank E. 
Andrews, Mark S. 
Arthur, Frank E. 
Bovee, Mary E. 
Bend it, Eva 
Babbitt, Nora Campau 
Beardslej', Bessie C. 
Briggs, Flora B. 
Beers, Nelson B. 
Coats, Minnie E. 
Crittenden. Clifford D. 
Curtis, Carrie E. 


Carr, Etta May 
Carnahan, Lydia L. 
Camp, Elvira L. 
Curtis, Charles W. 
Culver, Hattie 
Dickinson, Sara G. 
Durfee, Stephen 
Eddy, Alice M. 
Ford, Arthur H. 
Glover, Elizabeth E. 
Glanville, Daisy 
Gibson, Marjory 
Gilmore, Elizabeth G. 

Gray, 'Margaret C. 
Gorton, Frederic R. 
Hardy, Caroline A. 
Hoffman, Oscar W. 
Horrigan, Mary 
Holloway, Ross L. 
Hazard, Eleanor S. 
Hinkley, Mary B. 
Lincoln, Minnie M. 
Lovell, Mary E. 
Millis, Mrs. Mary L. 
Marshall, William 
Miller, Flora B. 



Mosher, Edith R. 
Merritt, Jessie M. 
Moorman, Bertha E. 
McMichael, Mary A. 
McConncll, Frances M. 
McLouth, Clarence D. 
Nicholson, Judd B. 
Nelson, Nettie B. 
Prall, Satie E. 
Peyton, Elizabeth B. 
Paulin, Anna M. 
Prudden, Helen A. 

Allison, Jessie M. 
Basney, Burton E. 
Bates, Fronja 
Briggs, Nettie B. 
Buerman, Eva E. 
Bailey, Ella M. 
Coddington, Ralph W. 
Creagan, Anna M. 
Cole, Blanche A. 
Chapel, Winnie M. 
Canriglit, Alice B. 
Cope, Franklin L. 
Case, Willis E. 
Chaffin, r'aiinie 
Dickerman, Anna L. 
Douglas, Lola E. 
Elwell, Effie G. 
p:rbel(iing, Eliz'th M. 
Grihhle, Phoebe 
Glass, Ida M. 
Haskius, Carrie A. 
Ilavvley, Esther de R. 
Harris, Grace L. 

Angevine, Frank E. 
Adams, George H. 
Brown, Wells G. 
Blue, Peter B. 

Prudden, Adah J. 
Pease, Rubie W. 
Rienian, John F. 
Rouse, Grace A. 
Romine, John W. 
Randall, Minnie E. 
Stuart, Mary B. 
Stuart, jVIary A. 
Sigerfoos, Belle 
Snowdeii, Harry H. 
Sherman, Jennie A. 
Smith, Ida A. 
Shetterly, George A. 

Hyde, Mary O. 
Hall, Grace S. 
Haines, Ida M. 
Ives, Sarah A. 
Jackson, Alberta E. 
James, Jennie 
Kelb, Susan 
Kiilell, Willet E. 
Kinsman, Minnie V. 
Kerredge, May M. 
Loveland, Eiwin O. 
Lappeus, Ad die 
Loomis, Nellie M. 
Lee, Cora M. 
Lownsbury, Nellie 

Smith, Cora M. 
Tanner, Mary 
True, Myra B. 
Taylor, Nettie E. 
Vandandaigue, Arzelie 
Voorhees, Herbert S. 
Voorhees, Dclphine S. 
Voorhies, George O. 
Walker, Margarette A. 
Wimer, Mdton W. 
Wallace, James H. 
Woodward, Gertrude E. 

Richart, Franc A. 
Schwartz, Sophia 
Sherman, Mildred A, 
Smith, Grace A. C. 
Simpson, Mary A. S. 
Savage, Nettie M. 
Shaw, Inez P. 
Sheeley, Mary E. 
Sturdevant, Minnie L. 
Thompson, T. Letitia 
Tutlle, Lynn J. 
Tempel, Fern F. 
Titus, Winnie A. 
Ulrich, Mary A. 
Vanneter, Merritt C. 

Muenscher, Josephine L. Vanneter, Pearl W. 

Mackiiider, Milo M. 
McKinley, Charles R. 
Norgate, Frances A. 
Owen, Anna B. 
Peterson, Josie 
Pope, Elizabeth A. 
Pope, Louisa 

Bennett, Philip A. 
Bellinger, Fred 
Briggs, Altavene M. 
Beal, Miuuie 

Wood, Charles L. 
Wells, Jennie A. 
Wood, Lizzie M. 
Winches, Giace G. 
Wood, Mary W. 
Walsh, Millie W. 

Buell, Bertha G. 
Banks, Rush 
Cook, Clara M. 
Creasey, Frank E. 



Cramer, William D. 
Cowgill, Paul A. 
Davis, Lucia A. 
Dewey, Adaline F. 
Farmer, Sara L. 
Frary, Blanche E. 
George, Grace A. 
Green, Fred W. 
Harshbarger.Minnie A.S. 
Houtz, Bertha A. 
Harris, Katharine W. 
Hathaway, Maud C. 
Hall, Eniilie C. 
Harris, Harley 
Holbrook, Emma M. 
Heath, Stella h. 
Harris, Frances M. 
Hall, Grace 
Harrington, Frank J. 
Looiiey, Katherine M. 
Lynch, Alice E. 

Lathers, John S. 
Langford, Theron S. 
McDougall, Hugh D. 
McLaughlin, Owen M. 
McNeil, Mary 
Martin, Lawrence T. 
Millis, Mary F. L. 
McLouth, Clarence D. 
Marshall, Berthena M. 
Osband, Mania Ruth 
O'Connell, Nellie B. 
Phillips, Memie 
Pattison, Minnie 
Putnam, Virginia R. 
Paton, Thomas W. 
Roniine, Frank E. 
Robinson, Gertrude A. 
Ryder, Edward H. 
Stewart, Edith R. 
Smith, Thersea 
Sibley, Anna D. 

Smith, Burton E. 
Smith, Berton B. 
Stegenga, Derk 
Savage, Paul H. 
Sweet, MiloJ. 
Sherwood, Angeline 
Stoffer, John E. 
Thomson, Nellie 
Thomson, May E. 
Thompson, Helen M. 
Uren, Daisy 
Wilson, Florence 
Withington, Myron J. 
Webster, Nonette 
Webster, Estauce E. 
Wilcox, Willis H. 
Wilkerson, Nora D. 
Walker, Bella Jane 
Weber, Mathias 
Zimmerman, Cornelia 


Adams. Bertha M. 
Andrews, Euretta 
Aldrich, Helen F. 
Armstrong, Edwin T. 
Barker, Hattie 
Bartlett, Lucy A. 
Brakeman, Nannie C. 
Bailey, Mary M. 
Bartlett, Julia P. 
Bissell, Maude 
Buell, Flora C. 
Bunn, Sophie G. 
Buck, He!ena H. 
Bentley, Amy 
Bentley, Ada 
Crane, Edith M. 
Colby, Rose 
Cook, Moreland 


Carleton, Iva M. 
Cleaver, George 
Cochrane, Mary E. 
Cookingham, DeLette 
Cusick, Eunice E. 
Deane, Julia A. 
DeVee, Mrs. AdalJza 
Exelby, Elmer W. 
Eldred, Edith M. 
Fuller, Anna J. 
Foote, Jay B. 
French, Frank M. 
Finley, Bertha V. 
Gaw, Byrdie A. 
Gasser, Caroline 
Green, Wni. Austin 
Gordon, Donald C. 
Griswold, Frances M. 

Gilbert, Evelyn 
Hamlin, Alice L. 
Hanaford, Adaline 
Haddrill, Matlie L. 
Howard, Benjamin F. 
Hewlett, Bertrand J. 
Hollace, Ella M. 
Hopkins, Frances E- 
Hyder, Alice 
Isaacsen, A. Lizzie 
Ives, Fannie S. 
Jenks, Allie 
Krentel, Christian M. 
Kirker, Martha R. 
Lacey, Winifred V. 
Lean, Nina 
Lewis, Nina 
McClaskie, Carrie 



Mallison, Leona B. 
McKay, Julia A. 
McDougall, Mary B. 
McCutcheoii. Lillian 
Nott, Nettie M. 
Palmer. Lulu M. 
Passage, Emily A. 

Aldrich, Frank T. 
Arms, Anna V. 
Barr, Carrie B. 
Bartlett, Eva M. 
Bowers, Estella I. 
Bartlett, Jennie E. 
Baker, Kate I. 
Bockheim, Carrie 
Babbitt, Alice L. 
Conrad, Julia S. 
Campbell, Mary B. 
Clark, James E. 
Daley, Hiram C. 
Drake, Bertha 
Dean, Ralph B. 
Eraser, Maude 
Foster, Jessie J. 
French, Helen 
Goodrich, Ernest P. 
Goss, Etta C. 
Goodisou, Bertha 

Radford, Charles 
Rudesill, Hattie 
Smith, Emma L. 
Sweeting .May L. 
Stevens, Florence L. 
Simmons, Carrie B. 
Sickler, Lura 


Granville, Verona E. 
Holland, Rupert 
Hyser, Frank H. 
Holbrook, Lemuel G. 
Hunter. Irving B. 
Hall, Minnie O. 
Holmes, Marion 
Healy, Mury A. 
Hooper, Harriett 
Hollister, Alice M. 
Hulson, Agnes K. 
Johnson, Henry E. 
Ludwig, William A. 
Miller, Agnes C. 
]\IcCulcheon, Herbert 
MarMe, Stella M. 
Mack, Amelia E. 
Mftcalf, Nettie V. 
McFetridge, Mary E. 
Norton, Charles H. 
Orcutt, Rose H. 

Springstead, Julia M. 
Smith, Sarah E. R. 
Smyth, Geor^iia A. 
Trowbridge, Zelma 
Whitlock, Lucy E. 
Wortley, Myrtelle D. 

Post, Gardner A. 
Parsons, Sara A. 
Palmer, Nellie A. 
Palmer, Dora R. 
Ross, DeForest 
Sherwood, Lucy M. 
Sturgis, James W. 
Southgate, Helen A. 
Smith, U. Adelaide 
Smith, Mabel \V. 
Thomas, Christine 
Taggart. Mary A. 
Travis, Ora 
Uren, Mrs. Louise H. 
Van Buren, Dennis C. 
Vandeburg, Frank 
Vogt, Fannie 
Wilcox, Felix E. 
Waring, Charles H. 
Weed, IMillie L. 
Wilber, Minnie 


Allen, Mary E. 
Ayres, Nellie E. 
Alexander, John ^L 
Baker, Mabel E. 
Banford. Jessie K. 
Baker, Eslelle E. 
Brewer, Nora E. 
Bierkamp, Mary A. 
Barnum, Edna G. 


Bennett. Verne S. 
Bauer, Mary M. 
Brockway, Benj. W. 
Burnett, Phoebe 
Cromie, IMargaret 
Cromie, Mary B. 
Crysler, Mary E. 
Collins, Estelle 
Casswell, Inez E. 

Cole, Ira A. 
Carney, Grace B. 
C a wood, Minnie M. 
Conklin, Rena P. 
CaslcUa, Helen 
Dickinson, Sadie F. 
D\re, Marie E. 
Devero, William C. 
Foley, Jessie C. H. 



Fanner, Arthur E. 
Fletcher, Mamie Ella 
Fitzpatrick, Isabel J. 
Fowler, Bertha M. 
Ferguson, Lautetta M. 
Gierst, Charlotte A. 
Grave rock, Gyda 
Geiger, Minnie K. 
Grosvenor, Mildred A. 
Girzi, Lida A. 
Goldsworthy, Elsie M. 
Godfrey, Jennie M. 
Godfrey, :Minna M. 
Higgins, Jav P. 
Howell, Joseph W. 
Hill. Ada B. 
Howard, Myrtis A. 
Hemingway, Ada G. 
Houck, Hessie M. 
Hunker, Emma G. 
Harger, Lena L. 
Huff, Grace 
Hessen, Mary G. 
Hipp, Louisa M. 
Hankey, Amelia 
Herriiigtoii, Florence 
Haas, Harriet M. 

Janes, Eunice A. 
Kline. Leona 
Kopp, Edna G. 
Keane, Mayme E. 
King, Grace W. 
Krenerick, Mary E. 
Lowry, Sarah E. 
Laughlin, Margaret T. 
Lavigne, INIary E. 
Lean, Jennie E. 
Liixmore, Claude J. 
Lang, Mary Anne 
Myhrs, Cora Ellen 
Mead. Edith 
Mundy, Nellie D. 
McGinnis. Mary D. 
McDonnell, Lizzie E. 
Mead, Grace 
Moore, Harrj' E. 
McComiick, Minnie K. 
INIcMullen, Nettie 
McDiamiid, Lester 
Owen, Mary Alma 
O'Keefe, Esther 
O'Neill. Elnora 
Pope, Hattie 
Packard, Martha A. 

Palmer, Nellie 
Pickett, Grace N. 
Retallic, Anna 
Rentenbach, Tillie 
Reis, Elizabeth 
Read, Carrie E. 
Smith, Julia Elizabeth 
Smith, Gertrude I. 
Smith, Ernest H. 
Smith, Grace Leona 
Slocum, May A. 
Sherwood, Grace 
Stew.irt, Nellie 
Spokes, Agnes M. 
Straight, Bertha 
Smith, Alberta A. 
Townsend, Luella C. 
Tilden, Jessie L. 
Wooden, ^Etna M. 
Watkins, Laura A. 
Webb, Mabel E. 
Wilson, Jeanie E. 
Webster, Dana S. 
Waltz, Anna M. 
Whitlock, Etola M. 
Westgren, Abigail 
Walkinshaw, May L. 


Adams, Lottie M. 
Andrews, Frank E. 
Augustine, Lettie O. H. 
Barber, Carrie Anna 
Baker, Jessie M. 
Bartlett, Winifred E. 
Brown, Nellie A. 
Briggs, Etlielyn A. 
Burgess, Charles H. 
Clark, Irving A. 
Case, Edilh M. 
Clark, Sereno B. 
Comstock, Emilie O. 

Carpenter, Mary B. 
Cooper, Elsie E. 
Copeland, Cornelia A. 
Crippin, Carrie M. 
Cogshall, Chas. H. 
Diller, Harriet 
Delaforce, Anna E. 
Dimmick, Mary E. 
Ellis, Harriet R. 
Foley, Jessie C. H. 
Farnam, Florence A. 
Grigsby, Orrel 
Gower, John B. 

Greene, Clarence W. 
Glass, Susie 
Gould, R. Raymond N. 
Geaglian, Blanche 
Hall, Edward J. 
Heath, Sara M. 
Haj'iier. Earl 
Harding, Louise 
Hadlow, Nettie 
Hawkins, Eleanor A. 
Hendershott, Ella P. 
Heron, Alice I. 
Hughes, Mary Curran 



Isherwood, Maude 
Ingersoll, May H. 
Kimmell, William L. 
Kennedy, Andrew D. 
Langley, Jessie P. 
Leland, Joshua G. 
Livingstone, Charles D. 
Loomis, Leonard S. 
Marvin, Albert C. 
McAlpine, Schuyler C. 
McNicol, Jeanie 
McDonald, E. Delia 
Mosher, Clare D. 
McKenzie, Mary V. 
McLaren, Janet O. 

Arnold, Amy A. 
Ackermann, Minnie C. 
Andrews, MoUie P. 
Blair, Bertha L. 
Boals, Florence R. 
Boyrie, Alice M. 
Buck, Charlotte 
Blunt, Aclisa M. 
Brown, Ida L. 
Byrnes, Lulu 
Brewster, Dwight E. 
Bidleman, Anna M. 
Burlingame, Amy M. 
Berry, Phy 
Berrtholf. Maud C. 
Bacon, Lucy Annie 
Caldwell. M. Eithelyn 
Champion, Annie 
Creswell, Dexa Rose 
Caul, Myrta L. 
Cleveland, Julia A. 
Cleveland, Grace 
Chapman, Sara A. 
Cair, Clara L. 
Clinton, Ilelt-n 
Dohauy, Emmet E. 

Newcomb, Amy A. 
Parks, Jessie L. 
Pickett, Lulu E. 
Pickett, Mary M. 
Parsons, Gertrude L. 
Pomeroy, May E. 
Quackenbush, Edw'd J. 
Resch, Edith N. 
Rogers, Anna A. 
Spangler, Lydia A. 
Spencer, Leah A. 
Smith, Ada B. 
Scott, Alice Mary 
Stout, Mary Theresa 



Densmore, Lucia M. 
Downing, Ada Jewell 
Davis, Deland A. 
Eayres, Clara May 
Eldred, Katherine N. 
Erb, Clara L. 
Fulton, Blanche 
Fouche, EUa M. 
Howard, Olive 
Hunt, Mattie W. 
Harden, Lulu B. 
Hilton, Bertha R. 
Headsten, Anna Rose 
Hickman, F'lora H. 
Hurst, Jeannie B. 
Jeffrey, Margaret 
Judsf)!!, David H. 
King, Sarah A. 
Krumbeck, Rose L. 
Loud, Bessie Adtlla 
Lyon, M. Anna 
Livesay, Bessie E. 
Leonard, Louise 
Lewis, Helen E. 
T,eary, Daniel F. 
Leary, Katherine F. 

Taylor, Rose M. 
Taylor, Lillian 
Taylor, Bessie V. 
Travis, Mary L. 
VanDusen, Janet Y. 
Vanneter, Merritt C. 
Weir, Henrietta E. 
Wilson, Angelina 
Williams. Daisy M. 
Warner. Martha M. 
Webb, Florence S. 
Weed, Ethel M. 
Whitehead, Richard A. 
White, Nettie J. 
Zimmerman, Bessie 

Miller, Alice E. 
Malherbe, Margaret M. 
McCarthy. Agnes M. 
Murphy, Margaret 
McGee, Anna M. 
McDonald, INIeda 
Murray, Alice 
Mathews, Bertha W. 
McDougal, Jennie M. 
McCormick, Julia V. 
Osborn, Irene R. 
Prindle, May 
Pierce, Ida 
PauL.Mayme L. 
Peck, Edna J. 
Peck, Liz/ie M. 
Paxson, James B. 
Perkins, Mary 
Page, Sophia 
Poorman, BeDee M. 
Rabey, Annie J. 
Sands, Effie 
Sayles, Edith M. 
Stewart, Thomas E. 
Smith, Nellie M. 
Stokes, Belle 



Snowdon, Albert A. 
Sweet, Minnie G. 
Stevens, D. Annetta 
Snow, Mary L. 
Smith, Mabel L. 
Smith, Orra M. 
Smith, Anna H. 
Strong, Mar}- E. 

Aldrich, Susie M. 
Atkin, Edi'h Irene 
Bell, Hubert Edwin 
Bouldin, Harriet L. 
Bordine, Mina E. 
Barrows, Harlow H. 
Bement, Adelaide K. 
Bullard, E. May 
Benedict, Ada May 
Brown, Mary E. 
Becker, Isabella M. 
Burdick, Orion Iv. 
Beck, Jay M. 
Benson, Arthur F. 
Benson, Earl F. 
Brown, Forest B. H. 
Bates, Agnes A. 
Ball, Alice H. 
Bradley, Arthur 
Crosby, Bertha I. 
Coverdale, George H. 
Chapman, Wash 'lonH. 
Cobb, Myron A. 
Cooley, Georjie D. 
Clark, Esther M. 
Clark, Grace Lydia 
Chapel, Rosa B. 
Desmond. Julia 
Daker, Nellie 
Dunham, Mary A. 
Dunham, Katharine E. 
DuBois, Mary B. 
Delaforce, Nellie M. 
Dawson, Jean 

Tucker, E«lna L. 
Tiffiny, Minnie 
Tuthill, Blanche E. 
Town, Edna C. 
Thurston, Jennie B. 
Taylor, Grace E. 
Wood, Anne E. 
Williams, Anna G. 
Wise, Lena G. 

Estlow, Harriet E. 
Edwards, George Anna 
Everett, John P. 
Emer}-, Lottie M. 
Edgnr, Ernest J. 
Ford, Grace 
Fairbanks, Lola A. 
Fairchilds, Elizabeth N. 
Fox, Georgia E. 
Gardner, INIary E. 
Graham, Belle G. 
Gates, Mina M. 
George, Harriet, L. 
Gregor, Benjamin 
Greenaway, Flora 
Gregory, William M. 
Huyck, Sara Edna 
Harmon, Theron A. 
Holmes, Mary Edith 
Hurd, Virginia M. 
Hillard, Alta M. 
Hay, Caroline 
Horn, Mary 
Hetley, James H. 
Hadlow, Ella 
Hall, Nellie Hattie 
Hall, Carrie L. 
Hathaway, Dorothy M. 
Hunt, James Daniel 
Knapp, Bernice E. 
Kirby, Myrtle D. 
Kennedy, Belle 
Kemp, Florence 
Lickle}', Ivy May 

Wessels, Edithe 
Ward, Eva Fulton 
Walker, Myrtle A. 
Wood, Allen F. 
Worden, Orpha E. 
Wimer, Ida May 
Waltz, Mabel A. 
Wilhey, Kate A. 

Lindsey, Mabel C. 
Leins, Kalherine 
Loomis, Grace A. 
Lockwood, Lamont H. 
Lindcrman, William H. 
Mellencamp, Frank J. 
Mullen, Frank E. 
McCormac, Kate F. 
Mertz, Emma Jane 
McDiarmid, Warren L. 
Miller, Adelbert A. 
MacKenzie, Harriet M. 
Nagler,' Louise C. 
Overholt, Elmer E. 
Paton, Christina E. 
Parker, Mary Adelaide 
Pitts, George A. 
Robinson, Emma J. 
Ravmond, Samuel. W. 
Replogle, Ida B. 
Robins, Ida M. 
Radcliffe, Flora B. 
Ransom, Angle T. 
Rutherford, Grace 
Riopelle, Eva 
Robison, Eudora V. 
Stiles, Jessie M. 
Spaulding, Emma A. 
Slingerland, Anna G. 
St arks, Lily A. 
Steele, Ida A. 
Southgate. Mary F. 
Swaine, Florence L. 
Sinclair, Frank E. 



Shaw, Georgia A. 
Schermerhorn, Lizzie M 
Thorpe, Ira G. 
Tripp, Frances E. 
Tooze, Fred J. S. 
Tower, Ward 

Allen, Etta F. 
Averill. Mary E. 
Batt, Kalherine M. 
Burke, Anna R. 
Bryant, Maude L. 
Broesamle, Fred L. 
Bliss, Madge 
Blackmer, Bertha A. 
Brennan, Margaret J. 
Breene, Sara 
Campbell, Lavilla H. 
Clinton, Jennie 
Cavanaugh, Alphonso 
Chandler, Luella M. 
Feele\-, IVIargaret M. 
Gries, Lizzie M. 
Gordon, Julia A. 
Harris, John B. 
Hanna, Mary B. 
Hitchcock, Edith K. 
Hawkes, Maude E. 
Hoyt, Eleu 1. 

Aldrich, Helen F. 
Allison, Clara J. 
Bradshaw, Eloise S. 
Bentley, Ada E. 
Beniley, Amy S. 
Burkhart, Mary 
Burdick, Nina G. 
Bibbins, Carrie E. 
Brown, William L. 
Barbour, Rol)crt E. 
Beusou, Edwin C. C. 

Taj-lor, Fanny B. 
Thomas. Flora M. 
Taylor, Belle 
Urban, Adelaide J. 
Ulber, Margaret C. 
Warner. Alice A. 



Higgins, Marie E. 
Holmes, Bertha A. 
Howard, B. Adna 
Huntoon, Eva L. 
Hesse, Nina M. 
King, Fanny C. 
Lake, Clara J. 
Markham, Harry A. 
Marvin, ]\Iaude 
Marvin, Melta 
Mayze, Mary 
Millard. Emma L. 
Morse, Anna E. 
Markham, Awildia 
Marvin, Arthur F. 
Mastin, Alberta 
Morsnian, Beulah 
McArthur, Jennie H. 
McDonough, Margaret 
Metcalf, Jennie A. 
McCarthy, Kate 
Nester, Mary A. 
Pfaff, B. Isabelle 


Bartlett, Julia P. 
Bennett, Clara "M. 
Babcock, Elizabeth E. 
Bamborough, Renna E. 
Brown, Ida L. 
Brown, .*\nna Belle 
Brayton, Louise 
Brewster, Dwight E. 
Bowen, Nathan H. 
Champion, .\nna 
Chase, Clara A. 

Walsh, Hattie C. 
Williams, Roy E. 
Wickes, Gertrude M. 
Warren, Leo E. 
Woodin, Helen 
Young, Greta B. 

Pearce, Webster H. 
Pilkin, Ernest N. 
Powers, Carrie 
Robbe, Emma 
Robbe, Anna G. 
Rhodes, Earl N. 
Sherrod, Addie M. 
Selleck, Judson F. 
Soults, Hattie M. 
Starks, Blanche A. 
Shunk, May E. 
Shingler. Helen M. 
Smith, Edith 
Tooker, Herbert C. 
Valentine, Lulu M. 
Van Buren, Rosslyn H. 
Ward, C. Peter 
Welch, Edgar P. 
Watson, John H. 
Warner, George G. 
Wees, Mina B. 
Willctt, Flora C. 
Walters, Beuj. J. 

Chapel, .^vis G. 
Cowell. W. Glenn 
Cole, Florence M. 
Cady, Jennie L. 
Calkins, R. D. 
Chase, Alta B. 
Childs, A. Winifred 
Cook, Byron M. 
Cross, Irving 
Drake, Theo. F. 



Dole, Clara 
Downing, Lillian I. 
DePuy, Purnell A. 
Dean, Elsie M. 
Davis, Darrell H. 
Drew, Eula IM. 
Edwards, Daniel S. 
Edwards, Anna B. 
Ellsworth, Frank E. 
Ellis, William A. 
Farmer, Arthur E. 
Fuller, William C. 
Finch, Anna D. 
Fuller, Ida M. 
Freeman, Mary E. 
Field, Mabel D. 
Ferguson, Lois E. 
Fuller, Ada A. 
Gardner, Charlotte E. 
Grierson, Anna M. 
Greene, Florence A. 
Gingles, Ollie A. 
Gurd, Edith M. 
Ganiard, George E. 
Goodrich, Francis L.D. 
Gardner, Harry E. 
Godfrey, Kate 
Gibbs, Edith M. 
Rowland, Ethel M. 
Hawkins, Harrielte M. 
Harper, Anna M. 
Hall, Linda E. 
Hegner, Ida S. 
Howell, Maude M. 
Hathaway, Hope H. 
Howe, Emery D. 
Hetley, Alice B. 
Henne, Ezra S. 
Harrison, E. Wilbor 
Howard, Jerome W. 
Holmes, Estella 
Johnson, Alice E. 
Jordan, Belle C. 
Jerome, M3'ron 
Johuson, Lena M. 

Jacox, Nora D. 
Kapp, Edith M. 
Kaye. Elizabeth C. 
Kirk, Nettie R. 
Krepps, Deloria I. 
Keller, Myrtle B. 
Kitter}', Nora 
Knapp, Lois E. 
Kelly, James E. 
Kilgour, Bertha F. 
Loughnane, Emma C. 
Lovewell, Lucia A. 
Lathers, Adelbert E. 
Lockard, Abbie R. 
Lowell, Marj' I. 
Miller, Fannie 
Martin, Julia 
McCormick, Julia V. 
McDonald, Norman A. 
Mitchell, Catherine 
Maxson, Dora E. 
Miiller, John F. E. C. 
Marshall, Viola M. 
Myers, Ruth E. 
Maveety, Edith O. 
Maybee, John W. 
Murdoch, Albert H. 
Milner, Lou N. 
Mast, Samuel O. 
McNeil, Elizabeth, 
Nicholson, Joseph N. 
Ocobock, Joseph 
Oliver, Consuelo J. 
Palmer, B. Grace 
Paxson, James B. 
Perkey, Zora M. 
Piatt, Arthur L. 
Pomeroy, Esther C. 
Parmelee, Rena S. 
Parks, Fred H. 
Putnam, William S. 
Pliillips, William N. 
Rcinl, Alice E. 
Richardson, DeWitt 
Richmond, C. E. 

Randall, Ray A. 
Russell, Myrta 
Raikes, Helen F. 
Richardson, Annice T. 
Robertson, Jessie M. 
Rains, Ada R. 
Rappleye, Martha F. 
Savage, Rosamond F, 
Smith, Leslie G. 
Smith, Ruth L. 
Sellors, Lucile 
Snyder, William H. 
Sprague, Maude 
Snedicor, Jennie M. 
Stevens, Adah M. 
Steele, Frank N. 
Sisson, Perry L. 
Sheldon, Florence E. 
Smith, William A. 
Severance, Lucy 
Tuttle, Laura H. 
Thayer, Anna W. 
Thayer, Grace C. 
Thompson, INIary E. 
Tiffany, Allie F. 
Trounson, Elsie 
Traphagen, DelmarH. 
Van Patten, Nellie V. 
Van Valkenburg, Evelyn 
Whipple, Frank E. 
Warner, Florence M. 
Whitbeck. Albert J. 
Warner, William M. 
Wood, Mary B. 
Wimer, Ida M. 
Walter, Loan J. 
Wade, Richard H. 
Wykoff, Rosabelle V. 
W^arren, Marcella E. 
Wright, Winnifred 
Webb, Lester 
Whitney, Anna E. 
Wood, Andrew H. 
Young, Armena M. 
Young, Clyde L. 




Atherton, Catherine 'SI. 
Adams, Edith 
Adams, Gertrude 
Boyd, Edith M. 
Bird, Minnie 
Berry, Cora Z\Iay 
Bowen, Cora L. 
Carr, Gertrude 
Cherrj', Nettie C. 
Crosby, Jessie D. 
Cutler, Lillian B. 
Doench, Adaline L. 
Dennison, Bertha ^I. 
East, Mary E. 
Fisher, Emma E. 
Gillespie, Wilmer J. 

Allen, Fannie I. 
Allen, Winifred A. 
.\lexander, John M. 
Agnew, Hugh E. 
Aitken, Elizabeth 
Blakeslee, Bert N. 
Barnhart, Edwin A. 
Barnum, Mary E. 
Bay, Alena 
Ball, Nettie May 
Bangs, Florilla A. 
Benjamin, Fame 
Benedict, Olive S. 
Bellamy, Agnes L. 
Brennan, Margaret J. 
Bellamy, Ida Anna 
Bentley, Bertha M. 
Bliss, Madge 
Biesky, Augusta 
Bliss, Anna Mercy 
Brittan, Bessie M. 
Brooks, S. Jennie 


Gibson, Louise M. 
Holridge, Fannie L. 
Hammond, Lulu SI. 
Lamb, Eugenia 
Lee, Anna J. 
LaBounty, Orvice 
Knopf, Anna Sibyl 
Marshall, Bertha 
Marshall, Lois 
]Moore, Alice E. 
McCullough, Cyrus L. 
Perrin, Eleanor 
Powers, Grace E. 
Richmond, Nellie I. 
Reading, K. Irma 
Rumbaugh, Mary L. 
Ronan, Bertha M. 


Bolger, William A. 
Broesamle, Fred A. 
Boyer, Kate A. 
Bole, Simeon J. 
Bowdish, Grace M. 
Bowdish, Inez M. 
Burk, Nellie M. 
Bull, Anna M. 
Burke, Anna R. 
Bryce, Inez SI. 
Cassidy, Catherine E. 
Cameron, Marion A. 
Chapel, Winnie M. 
Carter, Minnie L. 
Cady, Adella H. 
Cady, Mary E. 
Calkins, Glenadine 
Clark, Louise 
Charbonneau, Anna M. 
Craw, Emma O. 
Creswell, Dexa R. 
Clement, Olive E. 

Shaw, Grace I. 
Stephenson, Ray W. 
Sampson, Eva SI. 
Shadek, Rosamond 
Tripp, Ada B. 
Vroman, INIaude C. 
Vester, William R. 
VanBuren, Marian 
Western, Sarah 
Wilkins, Olive M. 
White, Jennie B. 
Wilson, Rose 
Waterbury, Chas. E. 
Waterbury, Asahel R. 
Westland, Nellie M. 
Wilsey, Myrta M. 

Christensen, Magdelena 
Covert, Georgia L. M. 
Crostic, Lina 
Cooley, Myrtelle M. 
Crowley, Ella SI. 
Cooper, Kate M. 
Cope, Olive M. 
Cosper, Dolly N. 
DeCamp, Stella Jean 
Dennie, Ettie 
DeWitt, Clyde A. 
Drew, Leeta M. 
Doxtader, Guy O. 
Dougherty, Charlotte 
Downing, Estelle 
Dunlap, Anna K. 
Eadus, Lillian 
Edwards, Alice J. 
Egeler, Salome C. 
Fanson, Bertha C. 
rVyer, Maggie M. 
Gardner, Ella M. 



Gillespie, Grace E. 
Glaspie, A. Bird 
Grant, Agnes L. 
Green, Catherine B. 
Greenaway, Pearl 
Green wald, Emily H. 
Gregory, Anna L. 
Gibbs, Hugh E. 
Gordon, Julia A. 
Gordon, Grant W. 
Godfrey, Mallah V. 
Hawks, Earl B. 
Harlow, Leila M. 
Haskins, XeniajB. 
Harvey, Katherine 
Hansen, Lena B. 
Hamet, Florence H. 
Haight, Edith M. 
Halstead, James B. 
Haner, Edna H. 
Hendricks, Lauretta M. 
Hill, Ruth N. 
Hough, Lena L. 
Hookway, Gertrude V. 
Hope, Clara A. 
Houghton, Grace A. 
Huber, Allie E. 
Jackson, Adelia W. 
Jacka, Cordelia 
Jenks, Carolina L. 
Kinne, Zachariah Jr. 
Knolls, Mamie 
Kopp, Mary B. 
Lappeus, Anna L. 
Lawler, Anna L. 
Laird, Leora J 
Lamb, Frank M. 
LeGault, Marie J. 
Leonard, Carlotta B. 
Learv, Minnie 

Ackermann, Martha B. 
Alderman, Ida M. 

Lickly, Emma J. 
Longman, Marion W. 
Lloyd, Hetty 
Lull, Herbert L. 
Macklem, Ida A. 
Mann, Mary I. 
Manley, Minnie M. 
Mackey, Elizabeth S. 
Marshall, Margaret E. 
Mans, Louise S. 
Merrill, John 
Mikesell, Addie A. 
Mills, Carrie E. 
Mitchell, Gertrude L. 
Miller, Rutherford B.H. 
Miller, Henry C. 
Morseman, Beulah L. 
]\Iorse, John A. 
Murphy, Elvira M. 
McLaughlin, James H. 
MacArthur, Martha A 
McArdle, Mary E. 
McNevins, Bridget D. 
McGillis, Eliza 
McDonald, Tena 
McDonald, Wm. R. 
Newman, Sylvia M. 
Nunnely, Delia N. 
Pratt, Henry F. 
Paton, Ella M. 
Peterson, Laura C. 
Perry, Mabel J. 
Penglase, Bessie 
Pitkin, Ernest W. 
Pugsley, Edna L. 
Pullar, Nellie 
Rankin, Vera L. 
Ransom, Nina L. 
Rabjohns, Jennie 
Rossman, Grace W. 



Boulger, Martha L. 
Bennett, M. Antoinette 

Rhodes, Earl N. 
Small, Eugene L. 
Sawyer, Myrtle E. 
Sweetland, Tracy O. 
Snidecor, Frederic G. 
Smith, M. Louise 
Smith, Minnie A. 
Sattler, Thomas M. 
Smith, Lucy E. 
Springsteen, Rosalie A. 
Simon, Rose J. 
Sunderland, Ada G. 
Struble, Ralph H. 
Tanner, Lora D. 
Tayler, Myrta L. 
Tracy, Maud E. 
Taylor, Eva M. 
Travis, J. Bertrand 
Treiber, Minnie 
Todd, S. Edith 
Thompson, Martha A. 
Thompson, Kate R. 
Upton, Clifford B. 
Uren, Anna M. 
Vincent, Mabel A. 
Vincent, Harriet L. 
Walker, Myrtle B. 
Warner, George G. 
Watters, Benjamin J. 
Webster, Dana S. 
Willits, Clara M. 
Wilsey, Edith A. 
Wilson, Cora 
Wilson, Ella M. 
Wilber, Austin E. 
Wilson, Ebin 
Wilson, Gwyneth W. 
Wilde, Mina A. 
Woodruff, Eleanor E. 
Veomans, Luella M. 

Briggs, Margaret E. 
Burhans, Levi A. 



Crook, Ernest E. 
Crawford, Florence 
Cowan, Edith E. 
Cady, Blanche C. 
Doud, :Mand N. 
Dunham, Mar}- A. 
Dunstall, Agatha 
DuBois, Ella L. 
Eccles, Mary 
Flatt. Ella May 
Fairchild, Haltfe M. 
Fisher, Lillian 

Adams, Gertrude 
Ash, Ethel M. 
Allen, Maude E. 
Agnew, Claudia L. 
Allison, Jessie M. 
Armstrong, Vesta E. 
Austin, Edith E. 
Barnard, Donna L. 
Barber, Louesa C. 
Bandfield, Edna J. 
Baley, Anna I. 
Bacon, Nellie J. 
Batt. Katherine 
Baxter, Gertrude 
Bailey, Minnie 
Bay, Marion E. 
Berry. Cora M. 
Benjamin, Maude 
Bliss, Clara A. 
Briggs, Nettie B. 
Borchardt, Elizabeth I. 
Boutell, Horace S. 
Brown, Frances 
Borer, Carrie L. 
Butterfield, Frances M, 
Brown, Catherine M. 
Coddington, Ralph W. 
Cawley, Anna C. 
Campbell, Lois E. 
Champlin, Cora G. 

Hutchins, Abbie A. 
Hatter, Nellie A. 
Jones, Mary E. 
Junker, Anna 
Kelly, Margaret A. 
Lock wood, Jessie F. 
Lawson, Loltie 
La Munion, Minnie 
Lent, Mary L. 
Lyon. Alma 
Malcolm, Harriet J. 
Malcolm, Frank J. 
McDonald, Ora 

Chase, Lulu B. 
Chase, Martha I. 
Clark. Arthur P. 
Chapin, Mary C. - 
Cady, Mabel P. 
Cavanaugh. Alphonso 
Clarkson, Margaret L. 
Creech, May E. 
Cross, Genevieve 
Covert, Inez F. 
Coates, Elizabeth 
Cook, F^lorence 
Cooper, Cora B. 
Culver, Ida A. 
ChuTchill, Fred M. 
Cummings, Edna D. 
Culbertson, Stella E. 
Day, Allie 
Davis, Bertha E. 
Davis, Mary M. 
DeFeyter, Carrie C. 
Delaforce, Allie E. 
Deal, Lillian 
Defendorf, Neva G. 
Dicus, Alice I. 
Doerr, Emery 
Dodds, Alice M. 
Doane, Anna L. 
Dunnigan, Agnes 
Dunn, Ethelyn 

Mosely, Nellie A. 
Mann, Jessie E. 
Nesbilt, H. Beatrice 
Newfang, Myrtle 
Palmer. Darwin H. 
Reeve, Cora A. 
Ryder. Georgia 
Root, Mabel 
Riopelle, Mertie M. 
Ross, Charles R. 
Sail iotte, Gertrude E. 
Salisbur)', Maude 

Dohany, Emmet E. 
Dugas, Byrnina 
Eastwood, Florence A. 
Edwards, Mabel E. 
Engle, Emma J. 
Ellis, Mamie E. 
Elliott, Ina C. 
Eddy, Pearle 
Evans, Francis L. 
Everett, Henry 
Fox, John L. 
Faling, Lulu R. 
Flaherty, Mattie J. 
Fleming, Joseph E. 
Ferguson, Bae 
Freeman, F-mma E. 
F'riis, Lena L. 
Fritz, Minnie M. 
Fisher, Lovisa A. 
FoUmer, Laura M. 
Frost, Andrew J. 
Galloway, Kalista 
Gano, Harriet E. 
Gates, Alma A. 
Gilson, Christine A. 
Gilbert, Grace V. 
Grosvenor, Lou G. 
Goldsworthy, Josie 
Godfrey, Melanie C. 
Hampton, Gertrude L. 



Haskins, Carrie A. 

Harris, John B. 

Harris, William 

Han ford, May E. 

Harris, Mary L. 

Hansen, Sigrid A. 

Haggart, Laura J. 

Hathaway, Blanche L. 

Hesse, Nina M. 

Hinsliff, Minnie J. 

Howard, Bertha M. 

Holmes, John T. 

Hoppe, Nerissa 
Hutchins, Lou R. 
Hyde, Martha 
Howard, Benjamin F. 
Irwin, Edith C. 
Joy, Lydia O. 
Johnson, Thomas F. 
Juttner, Marian F. 
Knapp, Cora L. 
Kelly, Deane VV. 
Kelly, Margaret J. 
Krenerick, H. Ch'de 
Kellgren, Nellie W. 
Kellgren, Jennie C. 
Kennedy, May J. 
Kimball, Wm. D. 
Kinnicutt, Grace 
King, Sarah E. 
Klotz, Jay B. 
Keating, Rose A. 
Lancaster, Rachel 
Lander, Bessie 
Lawler, Tim A. 
Lawrence, Harriet K. 
Lister, Wm. Sherman 
Loupee, Sherman L. 
McCartney, Cloe E. 
McMahon, Bridget 
McRay, Isabell 
McGinnis, Daisy J. 
McGuinnis, Margaret L. 
McCullough, Cyrus L. 
Marvin, Metta 

Magauran, Josie 

Mason, John F. 

Marble, Allie E. 

Maegle, Wilhelmina 

Morse, Grace Alma 

Martin, E. Jaj- 

Metras, Louis H. 

Miller, Laura Lf 

Mills, Mabel L. 

Mitchell, Ida 

Miller, Lana Stella 

Mines, Grace E. 

Moore, Florence L. 
Moses, Vanchie P. 

Nichols, Arthur S. 

Newcombe, Jennie 
Newton, Bertha L. 

Nichols, Lizzie G. 
Parke, Cleantha 
Pascoe, Clara 
Parker, Ivis S. 
Parliam, Effie M. 
Pepper, Margaret 
Perkins, Ejima 
Phillips, Ethel L. 
Pierce, Harriett L. 
Priest, Irma 
Powers, Cecile 
Quirk, Florence 
Reed, Ernest J. 
Rankin, Walter J. 
Rappleye, Mollie S. 
Ray, Emma L. 
Reed, Jessie M. 
Rediin, Marie 
Riopelle, Nellie 
Riggs, Walter D. 
Rockwell, Ethel 
Roper, Gertrude L. 
Roberts. Mabel V. 
Robinson, Margaret B. 
Ruosa, Agnes 
Rorabeck, Linna 
P.orabeck, Euna L. 
Rohn, Emma A. 
Root, Florence E 

Rose, Bessie D. 

Russell, Minnie 

Shaw, Edith E. 

Sanford, Mary E. 

Shafer, Lennah P. 

Stewart, Manson A. 

Selleck, Judson F. 

Spencer, Katherine E. 

Stewart, Clara B. 

Sheldon, Alice M. 

Sweet, Lillian M. 

Steinbach, Charlotte A. 

Seagraves, John F. 

Stitt, Albert C. 

Smith, Winifred 

Smith, Jeannette E. 
Smith, Mildred S. 

Sturgis, Margaret G. 
Shupe, Katharine M. 
Snyder, Morris K. 
Stephens, Mary 
Slates, Effie M. 
Smith, Grace L. 
Snowden, Albert A. 
Thayer, Marion A. 
Thayer, Herbert B. 
Thomas, Lillian I. 
Thompson, Iva L. 
Turner, Lottie M. 
Van Zanten, Jecoba 
Van Orden, Agnes 
Vyn, Clara 
Walker. Maude 
Wallace, Lucile A. 
Waterbury, Charles E. 
Weippert, Minnie 
Weaver, Theodore 
Westgren, Amy 
Wilkinsin, Charlotte J. 
Whitcomb, Lemley P. 
Wilson, Laura N. 
Wright, Blanche 
Wilcox, Hattie :M. 
Worts, Edith C. 
Woodruff, J. A. 



List of those who have received the 

Pedagogics (B. Pd.) 

Brooks, William H. 

Blodgett, Charles L. 
Chalmers, William W. 
George, Ransom G. 
Hodge, George B. 
Havden, Norton H. 
Hull, Warren C. 
Haves, Ella M. 
Hewitt, Walter C. 
Jennings, Alfred E. 
King, Edna A. H. 
King, Harry E. 
Kniss, Lydia E. 
Pearce, Abbie 
Soule, Annah May 
Shartau, Gustavus A. 
Townsend, Charles O. 
Vandewalker, Nina C. 
Wall, Ida La Vendee 
Wilson, Robert H. 

Bronson, Jay J. 
Brown, Alice 
Brooks, Stratton, D. 
DeBarr, Edwin 
DeWitt, Alton D. 
Grawn, Charles T. 
Lightbody, William 
McMahon, Lois A. 
Nardin, Eugene C. 
Paton, .\nnie A. 
Putnam, Mary B. 
Smith, Clarence E. 

Trowbridge, Perry F. 
Woodard, Gertrude E. 

Freeman, Edwin J. 
Miller, Owen L. 


Flanegan, Oren S. 
Farnam, Charles A. 
Holden, Perry Greely 
Houghton, Spencer 
Holden, Burto Arnold 
Severance, Henry O. 


Camp, Mary F. 
Eagle, John C. 
Groner, Orel vS. 
Mc.\rthur, Duncan D. 
Wilson, Arthur G. 


Cowgill, Paul A. 
Collins, Nathan P. 
.Fisher, Royal S. C. 
Hume, George J. 
Laird, Samuel B. 


Anderson, Alice M. 
Beeman, S. Edmund 
Bateman, Albert N. 
Barnum, Cecil J. 
Cheever, Walter H. 
Cook, Darwin H. 
Ferguson, Edgar E. 
Kennedy, Andrew D. 

Degree of Bachelor of 

Kimes, Byron C. 
Lewis, Bertha A. 
Lewis, Alice A. 
Norton, Carolyn W. 
Potter, Milton C. 
Robinson, Georgia G. 
Sprague, Kate 
Stowell, Dor N. 
Wellman, Bertha M. 
Woodward, Herbert B. 
Wilcox, Willis H. 


Ackerman, Emma C. 
Bellis, William 
Bowen, Wilbur P. 
Clute, Robert L. 
Dewey, Grace T. 
Goodrich, Ernest P. 
Hall, Emilie C. 
Hardie, Carrie A, 
Kenaga, Nellie 
Miller, J. Romeyn 
Marshall, William 
Parmelee, Milton R. 
Pearson, Frances R. 
Upton, Myrtle 


George, Grace A. 
George, Harriet L. 
Gorton, Frederick R. 
Jackson, Lambert L. 
McCutcheon, Herbert 
Miiller, John F. C. 
Tripp, Frances E. 

List of those who have received the Degree of Master of 


Pedagogics (M 

Chittenden, Lucy A. 
King, Julia A. 
Perry, Walter S. 
Plowman, Joseph G. 
Sill, John M. B. 
Thompson, Edwin C. 

Bellows, Charles F. R. 
Goodison, John 


Campbell, Gabriel 
Ewell, Marshall D. 
George, Austin 
Plunkett, ICdward M. 


Hull, Warren C. 
King, Harry E. 
King, Edna A. IE 
Vandewalker, Nina C. 

Grawn, Charles T. 

Smith, David E. 


Brooks. Stratton D. 
Wilson, Eugene A. 



The State Board of Education, Etc. 

(A considerable part of the matter of this chapter is borrowed 
from "Historical sketches of Education in Michigan," published 
bj' the Department of Public Instruction.) 

The State Board of Education has a natural relationship to 
the Normal School. The Legislative act providing for the estab- 
tablishment of the school, provided also for the organization of a 
Board which should have control of the institution. At first the 
Board consisted of three persons appointed by the Governor with 
the advice and consent of the Senate. The Lieutenant Governor 
and Superintendent of Public Instruction were ex-ofl5cio 
members. The consolidated act provided for a Board of six 
members, three to be appointed by the Governor bj^ and with the 
advice and consent of both branches of the Legislature. The 
Lieutenant Governor, the State Treasurer, and the Superinten- 
dent of Public Instruction were made ex -officio members. The 
State Treasurer was, by virtue of his office, treasurer of the 
Board, and the Superintendent of Public Instruction was secre- 

The constitution of 1850 provided for a Board of three 
members, elected b}' the people, with the State Superintendent 
as a member, ex -officio, and secretary. This provision has re- 
mained unchanged. The primary dut^- of the Board was to have 
"general supervision of the State Normal School,"' its specific 
duties being prescribed bj^ statute law. The duties of the Board 
have, from time to time, been enlarged and extended until they 
embrace the whole common school system of the State, and, in 
certain directions, the higher institutions also. It will not be 
possible to obtain even brief sketches of all the State Superin- 
tendents, nor of all the members of the Board of Education. 



The following is a list of the Superintendents of Public 
Instruction : 


John D. Pierce, 
Franklin Sawjer, Jr., 
Oliver C. Comstock, 
Ira Majhew, 
Francis W. Shearman, 

Francis W. Shearman, 
Ira Mayliew 
John M. Gregory, 
Oramel Hosford, 
Daniel B. Briggs, 
Horace S Tarbell, 
Cornelius A. Gower, 
Varnum B. Cochran, 
Herschel R. Gass, 
Theodore Nelson, 
Joseph Estabrook, 
Ferris S. Fitch, 
Heniy R. Pattengill, 
Jason E. Hammond, 




We will, so far as circumstances permit, first make sketches 
of the State Superintendants. Later, sketches will be made of 
some of the most prominent members of the Board of Education, 
as fully as material can be obtained. 

Hon. John Davis Pierce. 

The first Superintendent of Public Instruction in Michigan 
was John D. Pierce, for many years of his later life called 
"Father" Pierce generally by the teachers of the State. He was 
born in Chesterfield, New Hampshire, February 18th, 1797. 
His father's name was Gad Pierce, and his mother's maiden 
name was Sarah Davis. From the age of two years to t%venty he 
lived with a paternal uncle in Worcester, Massachusetts, receiv- 
ing eight weeks' "schooling" each year after he was old enough 
to attend school. When he was twenty his uncle gave him the 
remaining year of his minority, and he worked on a farm until 
he had saved one hundred dollars. 

With this and a like amount given him by his grandfather 


Pierce, he started out to get an education. He walked fourteen 
miles on a December day of 1817, buying a Latin grammar on 
his way; on the evening of that day he took his first lesson 
in Latin under Rev. Enoch Pond, with whom he made his 
preparation for college. He entered Brown University in the 
following September. He taught school three months each year 
to maintain himself, but graduated with an excellent standing in 

The following j^ear he was Principal of Wrenthara Academy 
in Massachusetts, then spent one year in Princeton Theological 
Seminary, was then licensed by the Congregational Association, 
and settled as pastor of a church in Oneida county, New York, 
January 1st, 1825. He remained there until 1829, when, for a 
year, he acted as Principal of an academy in Goshen, Connecticut. 

In the spring of 1831 he was commissioned b}' the Home 
Mission Society to settle as missionarj^ in Michigan, or Illinois, 
as he might choose. In July of that year he came to Marshall, 
Michigan, and continued to labor there as missionar>^ until July 
of 1836, when, upon the organization of the State government, 
he was appointed Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

The first work that devolved upon Mr. Pierce was to draw 
up a plan for the organization of the school sj'stem of the State, 
and for disposing of the school and University lands. For this 
purpose he went east and consulted with Governor Marcj- of 
New York, Edward Everett, and many other prominent 
educators and statesmen. In Januar>^ 1837 he presented his 
plan to the Legislature, and, with very few amendments, it was 
adopted almost uaamimously. Mr. Pierce remained in the office 
of Superintendent of Public Instruction for five j-ears, and a re- 
view of his labors shows that he devoted himself with assiduity 
and rare judgment to the important duties devolving upon him. 

In 1842 he resumed his work of the Christian minibtry, and 
continued in it until 1847, when he was elected to the State 
Legislature from Calhoun count>'. He proved to be a very useful 
member of that body. In 1850 he was elected a member of the 
convention for framing a new Constitution for the State. Among 
other services, he secured the incorporation in the Constitution 


of the provision for free schools. In 1852 he delivered the 
leading address at the opening of the Normal School. Soon 
after he removed to Ypsilanti where he resided for the next thirty 
3"ears, much of the time engaged in the ministry-. During this 
period, the genial countenance of "Father Pierce'' was often 
welcomed at teachers' gatherings and Commencement exercises. 
In 1880 a long illness so impaired his health that he went to 
Waltham, Massachusetts, the home of his daughter, Mrs. Mary 
A. Emerson, hoping to be benefited by the bracing New Eng- 
land air. Here he spent two uneventful years, the monotony of 
his life being only once broken, which occasion was a reunion of 
the New England alumni of Michigan Universitj^, held at Boston, 
April 5th, 1882. In spite of much weakness and pain, he enter- 
tained this assembl}' with a recital of his experiences in connection 
with their Alma Mater ; but his effort was like the last flicker of an 
expiring candle, and six weeks later his lifeless body was 
brought back to the scene of his earthly labors and laid to rest 
in the cemeten*- at Marshall. 

Franklin Sawyer, Jr. 

It is impossible to learn much of the personal history- of Mr. 
Sawyer, the second Superintendent of Public Instruction of our 
State. He came to Michigan about the year 1830, having grad- 
uated a short time previous!}' at Har\-ard University ; he studied 
law in the office of General Charles Larned at Detroit, but pur- 
sued the practice of the law for only a few years. During this 
time he became one of the editors of the Detroit Courier, and 
later of the Detroit Daily Advertiser, of which he was one of the 

He was a man of much public spirit, and was among the 
founders of the Detroit Young Men's Society, and was the first 
president of that organization. He possessed a fine literarj- 
taste, and as a writer was brilliant and forcible, as will be seen 
by reference to his reports as Superintendent. At the expiration 
of Mr. Pierce's last term of ser\'ice, Mr. Sawyer was appointed 
to the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, in April, 
1841, and continued in the position until May, 1843. Mr. Sawyer 
seems to have comprehended the great extent of the educational 


system of the State, and also the importance of such an adminis- 
tration of the system as would adapt it to the immediate wants of 
the people. His work had an important bearing upon the future 
educational career of Michigan. After the close of his term of 
office, Mr. Sawyer went to New Orleans, I^a., where he held for 
several years the oflSce of Superintendent of Public Instruction. 
He afterwards removed to his early home in Cambridgeport, 
Mass., where he resided until his death in 1851. He was a man 
of untiring industry, and of unchanging fidelitj' to the interests 
of education wherever it fell to his lot to labor. 

Oliver Cromwell Comstock. 

The third Superintendent was Mr. O. C. Comstock, who 
was born in Warwick, Kent count>^ R. I., March 1, 1781. His 
father, Hon. Adam Comstock, was one of the most respected 
citizens and influential legislators of his day. The son was edu- 
cated in the schools of Schenectadj^ and Greenfield, N. Y. From 
his childhood he was known as a close student. He graduated 
from the medical department of the Universitj" of New York. 
He practiced medicine for a short time, but soon entered into 
political Iffe. He was a member of the Legislature from Seneca 
county from 1810 to 1812; judge of Seneca county in 1812; the 
first judge of Tompkins countj^ in 1817, and member of the 
House of Representatives during the 13th, l4tli and 15th ses- 
sions of the United States Congress. He was ordained a Baptist 
minister at Washington, D. C, in 1820, but after retiring from 
Congress resumed, for a time, the practice of medicine. Subse- 
quently he became pastor of a church in Rochester and remained 
there until 1834. Visiting Washington, he was elected chaplain 
of the House of Representatives and served one term. He then 
serv^ed, for about two years, as pastor of a church in Norfolk, 
Va. Soon after he left Virginia and came to Michigan, and 
served for some time as pastor of a church in Detroit, and later 
supplied the churches in Ann Arbor, Jackson, Marshall and 

May 8, 1843, Dr. Comstock was appointed to the office of 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, and held this position until 
April 17, 1845. In the discharge of the duties of his office he 


labored zealouslj- and for the his^hest interest of the State. His 
educational reports are filled with practical and fruitful sugges- 
tions, bearing the impress of the statesman and the Christian. 
In 1849 he was elected to the State Legislature as representative 
from Branch count3^ and in this office manifested the same 
interest in the public welfare and in the advancement of the 
highest interests of the State which had distinguished him in 
preceding j-ears. Dr. Comstock was a man of commanding 
presence, tall and well proportioned, having a magnetic power, 
and a voice which once heard was never forgotten; while ever}'^- 
where, in the practice of his profession, on the judicial bench, 
in legislative halls, as the chief officer of the educational depart- 
ment of the State, in the pulpit, in the social circle, he was the 
same courteous, warm-hearted, loving Christian gentleman. He 
died at the home of his son in the city of Marshall, Mich., on 
January 11, 1860, at the ripe age of seventy -nine years; he lives 
in the memory of many who will never cease to cherish his 
name, and the undying influence of his noble life. 

Ira Mayhew. 

Mr. Mayhew held the office of Superintendent of Public 
Instruction from 1845 to 1849 and again from 1845 to 1859. He 
was born in EUisburg, Jefferson county. New York, in 1814; 
received a common school education, and entered Union Academy 
at Belleville at the age of fourteen. He commenced teaching in 
1832, and followed his calhng with eminent success until 1836, 
when impaired health compelled him to cease from his work for 
a time and take a voyage to Newfoundland. 

In 1837, he was appointed Principal of Adams Seminary, in 
New York, and held this position until the fall of 1841, when 
he was elected County Superintendent of Schools in his native 
county. In 1843 he removed to Michigan where he performed 
most of his educational work. 

He was first appointed principal of the Monroe Branch of the 
University; in April, 1845, he was appointed by the Governor to 
the office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
re -appointed in 1847, and continued in the position until March, 


He contributed largely to the establishment of Union Schools, 
and also to the opening of the Normal School. He organized a 
large number of educational associations throughout the State, 
and for this purpose traveled hundreds of miles on horseback, 
often riding twentj^ or thirty miles a day, and addressing meet- 
ings of citizens in the evening. In some of his official reports he 
gives interesting accounts of his labors, and of the results of his 
work. In 1849 he delivered, bjMuvitation, a series of lectures on 
education in the State Capital. These were afterwards published 
in book form and widely circulated, under the title of "Means 
and Ends of Universal Education. " In 1851 he published a work 
on "Practical Bookkeeping," which was largely used as a text- 
book. He serv^ed one year as principal of Albion Seminary (now 
Albion College). Mr. Mayhew had the honor of serving four 
terms as Superintendent of Public Instruction. After the close 
of his last term as Superintendent he established the Albion 
Commercial College, which was subsequently removed to Detroit. 
In 1862 he was appointed to the office of Collector of Internal 
Revenue for the Third District of Michigan. This position he 
held till 1865. since which time he devoted his labors to the 
management of his Business College in Detroit. He resided in 
Detroit until his death, April 8, 1894. He lived to a good old 
age, retaining his interest in educational affairs as long as he was 
able to labor in his chosen sphere. To Mr. Maj^hew is due a 
large share of the credit for the advancement of educational 
interests in Michigan, and not a few of those, now active in the 
field of educational thought and labor, unite in saj'ing that the 
first inspiration for their life-work came from his intelligent, 
earnest, and devoted efforts in the cause of public instruction. 

Francis Willet Shearman. 

Mr. Shearman was a native of Vernon, Oneida county. New 
York, where he was born June 20, 1817. He graduated from 
Hamilton College at the age of nineteen. He was possessed of 
rare mental qualities, which were developed and cultivated bj- 
careful training. Hon. H. R. Schoolcraft engaged him, shortly 
after his graduation, as an assistant in negotiating treaties with 
the Indians; while thus employed he was first led to Michigan. 


111 1838 he located in Marshall, where he found congenial 
employment as editor of the Michigan Journal of Education, then 
the official organ of the State Department of Public Instruction. 
This Journal lived only a short time ; and soon after retiring from 
this paper, Mr. Shearman became connected with the Democratic 
Expounder, published at Marshall. As the leading editor he 
soon gained high rank as an able, sagacious, and forcible writer. 
In 1846 he was elected Associate Judge of Calhoun countj^ court 
with Judge Hall of Battle Creek. He held this office until 1848. 

In 1849 he was appointed State Superintendent b}- the Gov- 
ernor; the next year, 1850, under the provisions of the new con- 
stitution, he was elected to the same office by the people, 
re-elected in 1852, continuing in this position until Januar}- 1, 
1855. His services extended over a period of about six years. 
The annual reports of Superintendent Shearman were of great 
historical value. His report for 1852 was the most able, com- 
prehensive, and valuable work on the school system of the State 
then in existence, and was widely sought and quoted as author- 
ity upon the subject. At the close of his term of oflBce Mr. 
Shearman resumed his editorial work, and continued to conduct 
a department of the Expounder during the remainder of his life. 
In his last years he held several important trusts in his city and 
county with such acceptance as to command the popular sup- 
port without regard to political changes. He died at Marshall 
in December, 1874, honored and respected by all who knew him 
and knew his labors. 

Mr. Shearman's natural love of universal education was 
greatly strengthened by his broad cultivation and the wide exper- 
ience of a long and useful life; yet, though ever alive to the 
progress of art and science and all the vital interests of the 
nation, he still remained remarkabl}- domestic in his habits and 
held in the highest veneration the sacred obligation of the 
nuptial state. In expressing his views on this subject, he 
always became eloquent, and his daughter, Mrs. F. C. Page, of 
Marshall, testifies that he governed his home life in conformity 
with his own words, " The family bond is the dearest on earth, 
and home the holv oi holies of human society." 


John M. Gregory. 

Mr. Gregoty was bom in Sand Lake, Rensselaer countss 
N. Y., Juh' 6, 1822. From childhood he enjoj'ed the advan- 
tages offered to all American children whose parents are indus- 
trious and moral. Like other children of such parents in the 
rural districts, his education w^as not overlooked, and he was 
sent to the public schools in the summer while young, and con- 
stanth' in the winter until he reached the age of seventeen. The 
public schools of his native State had already been greatly 
improved, and he had opportunity to form and indulge his taste 
for reading b}- recourse to a district school librarjs of which he 
made good use. This fact probably made him, in his mature 
3'ears, a strong advocate of district and township libraries. At 
the age of seventeen he began his work as a teacher in the dis- 
trict schools. In 1842, at the age of twenty, he entered the 
freshman class in Union College, having previously attended, for 
a short time, Dutchess County Academy at Poughkeepsie. 

Graduating in 1846, he devoted himself to the stud}- of law 
for two 3'ears in the ofl&ces of Judges Paige and Potter at Sche- 
nectady, aud in an oflBce in Schoharie count}'. His clear per- 
ceptions, his studiousness, his logical mind and his read}' speech 
would have insured him great success as an advocate or jurist ; 
but at this time, under the influence of what seemed to him a 
religious duty, he relinquished his plan of pursuing a legal pro- 
fession, and entered upon the Christian ministry, his denomina- 
tional relations being with the Baptist church. Having spent a 
portion of his time, while completing his college and profes- 
sional studies, in teaching public and select schools in various 
places, among which may be mentioned Deposit and Hoosac 
Falls, in New York, it was ver}^ natural that he should find 
himself, as he did in 1852, at the head of a flourishing classical 
school in Detroit. While here, his labors in the school room, in 
teachers' associations, in the pulpit, and before Sunday schools, 
soon gave him a conspicuous place among the friends of educa- 
tion in Michigan. 

In 1854, he, in connection with several others, projected, 
and under the auspices of the State Teachers' Association, estab- 


lished the Micliio:an Journal of Education, which was committed 
wholly to the editorial charge of Mr. Gregory- in 1855, and 
edited by him alone for five years. Under his charge the Jour- 
nal attained a wide circulation and a high character, a large por- 
tion of it being the product of his own pen. He also contributed 
much to other periodicals, educational and literan.-. 

In 1859 he entered upon his duties as Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, an ofiBce to which he was afterwards twice 
re-elected, ser\-ing in all six ^-ears. In this office his labors 
were arduous, well directed and successful. Indeed, it was as 
Superintendent of Public Instruction that he became especially 
known as a man of broad views, accurate thought, and as an 
earnest, successful administrator. His six annual reports, mak- 
ing an aggregate of over four hundred pages, aside from their 
local and temporary' value, express truths and opinions of careful 
study. In 1864, having positively' declined a renomination as 
Superintendent, he accepted the Presidenc\' of Kalamazoo Col- 
lege. He served the college for about three 3-ears, spending 
the first months of his time in raising $30,000.00, or about that 
amount, to fiee the institution from the crushing weight of a 
huge debt. 

A writer, familiar with the conditions which surrounded the 
college, saj's: 

"His call to the Presidency of Kalamazoo in 1864. voiced not only by 
the Trustees and Faculty, but loudly by all friends of the institution, was 
at a crisis, when acceptance was to take the lead in a forlorn hope. The 
college, sinking with an indebtedness of $30,000.00, and almost no endow- 
ment, and suffering from unhappy changes of administration, had brought 
disheartetiment to many, and despair to some of its friends. The call was 
accepted on condition that the President should be aided in securing the 
means to pay the debt, and to provide for the current expenses. Then was 
illustrated the power of brave and masterly leadership." 

The money was gathered from all parts of the State, and the 
indebtedness disappeared. The progress of the college was not 
as rapid and as satisfactory- as the President had expected, and 
when a tempting offer came from the Illinois Industrial Univer- 
sity at Champaign, he was unable to resist the temptation, and 
accepted the regency of that institution. He remained at the 


head of the Universitj^ for thirteen years, doing there, as he had 
done elsewhere, most excellent work. 

After closing his connection with this institution, he was, 
for some time, a member of the Civil Ser\-ice Commission. Sub- 
sequenth' he spent considerable time in Europe, gathering up, 
wherever he went, knowledge which would be of ser\-ice to him 
and to any work in which he might hereafter be engaged. 

In the latter part of his life he made his home in Washing- 
ton, D. C, where he ended his career and his labors a few 
months ago. Dr. Gregorj- was a man of great energ3', both 
ph^'sicall}" and mentalh', and was a born leader. This trait was 
manifested in all the enterprises in which he engaged. Michi- 
gan owes him a debt of gratitude which can never be fully 

Dr. Gregory- had expressed, some time before his death, a 
wish to be buried in the University- grounds at Champaign. It 
is understood that this wish was granted b}- the Board of Trus- 
tees, and that he "rests in the midst of the scenes which were 
dear to him earlier in life. ' ' 

Oramel Hosford. 

Mr. Hosford was born in Thetford, ^'ermont, in Maj-, 1820, 
his parents being William and Linda Ellis Hosford. In 1834 he 
removed from Vermont toOberlin, Ohio, where he received a con- 
siderable part of his education in the Theological Seminan.-. In 
1844 he came to ]SIichigan and became connected with Olivet 
College as its first Professor of Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy. In 1851 he was ordained a Congregational minister. 
Besides his regular college work he supplied the pulpits of the 
neighboring churches, and frequenth- the college church itself. 
In 1864 he was elected Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
and retained this position for eight successive 3-ears. During 
this period he held a nominal Professorship in the college, and 
occasionalh- taught a few classes, when he could do this without 
detriment to the higher office which he was holding. In 1873, 
at the close of his fourth term as Superintendent, he returned to 
Olivet College, with which he remained connected during the 
remainder of life. He died at OUvet on December 9tli, 1893, 


having filled up the measure of responsibility, and carr>'ing with 
him the profound respect and high esteem of all who had been 
so fortunate as to be intimately acquainted with him, and with 
the educational work which he accomplished. During Mr. 
Hosford's terms in office a number of the most desirable reforms 
in the school system of the State were effected, among these was 
the abilition in 1869 of the "rate bill," so called, and the con- 
sequent making of school privileges free alike to all the children 
of the Commonwealth. The countj^ superintendency law was 
enacted during his encumbency, and for some time produced 
marked improvement in the rural schools. 

The annual reports of Mr. Hosford, extending, as thej' do, 
over a period of eight years, contain much matter of general 
interest, both to the people of Michigan and the people of other 
States. These reports may be ver^' profitably' consulted b}' all 
students of the history of the practical working of our school 
system. Mr. Hosford was a genuine Christian gentlemen of the 
best type. A friend said of him, "We thank God for his life 
and work. His name will abide. It will shine in the galaxy of 
those who have consecrated their lives to Christian learning. If 
you seek his monument, behold Olivet." 

Daniel Brown Briggs. 

Mr. Briggs was born at Adams, Berkshire countj', Mass., 
February 13, 1829. His parents were natives of the same state. 
After pursuing for some years an academic course of study, he 
entered Williams College in 1844, and graduated in 1848. He 
immediately commenced the study of law, and was admitted in 
1850 to practice in the courts of his native State. 

About the of that year his native town established, in 
compliance with legislative enactment, a free high school, and 
Mr. Briggs was chosen to the Principalship, and held this pos- 
ition for three years. During this. time he also ser\'ed as a mem- 
ber of the super\nsor>' school committee of the town. 

In March, 1854, he removed to Romeo, Macomb county, and 
entered upon the practice of law. The following year he became 
Principal of the Dickinson Institute, — formerly a branch of the 
State University', — located at that place, and was connected with 


the institution for three years. During the years 1858, 1859, and 
1860, he held the position of Superintendent of public schools of 
Ann Arbor. He removed from Ann Arbor to Jackson, where he 
held a similar position for five years. After closing his work in 
Jackson, in the summer of 1865, he returned to Macomb county 
and engaged in farming. In 1867, he was elected County Super- 
intendent of Schools for Macomb county, was re-elected and ser- 
ved in this office four years. 

He was Director of Romeo union school district for eight 
years. He also had charge, for one year, of the schools of Mount 
Clemens, the county seat of Macomb county. In November, 
1872, Mr. Briggs was elected State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction; was re-elected in 1874, thus holding the office four 
years. In 1879, he was appointed to the office of Deputy- Sec- 
retary of State, and held this position until 1883, when he with- 
drew from public life, bearing the enviable reputation of a high- 
minded, honorable man, and a faithful public official. 

Horace Sumner Tarbell. 

Mr. Tarbell was born in Chelsea, Vermont, August 19th. 
1838. His father. Rev. Sumner Tarbell, was a member of the 
Vermont conference of the M. E. church. Young Tarbell re- 
ceived his preparatory^ training in the Seminaries of Vermont, 
and afterwards took a classical course at Wesleyan Universitj-, 
Middletown, Connecticut, graduating in 1859, third in a class of 
thirty -six. After graduating he taught, as Professor of Natural 
Sciences, for three years in Belleville Seminan,-, Canada. From 
1862 to 1865, he was Principal of Farmer\nlle county Grammar 
School, and the following year was Principal of Central Academy. 
McGrawville, New York. From 1866 to 1871 he was connec- 
ted with the schools of Detroit, during a part of that time being 
a supervisory principal of the Bishop, Duffield and Washington 
schools of that cit3^ Mr. Tarbell organized the evening school 
at the Detroit House of Correction in 1869, which awakened 
much interest among prison managers, as it was the first success- 
ful attempt at a regularly organized prison school. In 1871 he 
was chosen Superintendent of the public schools of East Sag- 
inaw, which position he held six years. In the fall of 1876 Mr. 


Tarbell was elected Superintendent of Public Instruction. In 
September, 1878, he resigned this office and accepted the Super - 
intendency of the cit^' schools of Indianapolis, Indiana. He 
remained there six years, and in September, 1884, he accepted 
the position of Superintendent of the public school of Providence, 
R. I. This office he still holds. 

In addition to his work as Superintendent, in which he has 
been eminently successful, he has prepared for publication 
"Tarbell's Lessons in Language," and the Werner series of 
Geographies. In 1896 Brown Universit>^ conferred upon him 
the well merited degree of LL. D. and the same year the National 
Council of Education made him its President. 

Cornelius A. Qower. 

Mr. Gower was born at Abbot, Maine, in 1845. From the 
age of thirteen to seventeen he was surrounded by the wholesome 
influences of country life, attending school in winter and work- 
ing on his father's farm in summer. He took a short course in 
the Academy at Waterville, Maine, preparatory to entering 
Waterville College — now Colby University— situated at that place. 
Beginning when he was seventeen he taught four terms of wanter 
school on the Atlantic coast. Coming to Michigan in the spring 
of 1867, he entered our State University as a member of the sen- 
ior class, graduating from the classical course that year. He then 
entered the law department, where he remained for one year, 
teaching meanwhile in the Ann Arbor high school. In Septem- 
ber, 1868, he accepted the superintendency of the schools at Fen- 
ton, which position he held three years. He next became county 
superintendent of schools in Genesee county, to which office he 
he was twice elected, and three years later resigned to accept the 
superintendency of Saginaw city schools, remaining there for 
four years. 

In 1878 he was elected President of the City Superinten- 
dent's Association of Michigan, and in September of that year 
received his appointment as State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction. His name was also substituted for that of Mr. Tar- 
bell on the Republican State ticket, and he was duly elected. 
The three annual reports bearing his name show the painstaking, 


thoughtful labor bestowed upon his work ; and his final report 
contains a comprehensive summary of the school statistics com- 
piled by all his predecessors, showing not only the progress 
made, but also how broad a foundation those early pioneers of 
education laid for later years to build upon. At this time the 
the examination of teachers was in the hands of the township 
superintendent; and one of the things to which Mr. Gower 
directed considerable thought was the bringing about of some 
legislation which should provide for a new and better system of 
examination and supervision of schools, a system which should 
combine the best features of all those previously used in our 
schools. The agitation of this question resulted in the passing 
by the legislature of 1881, of an act revising and consolidating 
the school laws and making some new provisions which worked 
a radical change in the above named regulations. In February, 
1881, Mr. .Gower tendered his resignation, which did not 
take effect until the next June. He then took charge of the 
State Reform School, now known as the Industrial School for 
Boys. Under his superintendency, the humanitarian work, which 
had been so well inaugurated by Mr. F. M. Howe, was carried 
to a successful completion — a work which changed the school 
from a prison -like institution, with high, unsightl}^ fence and 
iron doors, to a cheerful, busy place which well merits it new 
name. The superintendent's report for 1883-4 is said to give 
more information in a few pages, concerning the school as it once 
had been and then was, than one could gain from reviewing the 
entire eighteen years within which the change occurred. On 
January- 8, 1892, Mr. Gower completed his work there, having 
been the guiding spirit for nearly eleven years, and became gen- 
eral manager and more recentty president of the Capital Invest- 
ment, Building and Loan ^Association, which position he still 
holds, being widely known as one of Lansing's most honored 

Varnum B. Cochran. 
Mr. Cochran was born in the township of Argentine, Gen- 
esee county in 1845. He received his early instruction in the 
schools of Linden and Fenton, completing his studies preparator}- 


to entering the University in the high school at Ann Arbor. 
Meantime he taught three terms in the schools of his native town, 
and for somewhat more than a 3'ear was in charge of the schools 
of Marquette. In the fall of 1866 he entered the literary- depart- 
ment of the Universit}', but, on account of ill health was unable 
to complete the full college course. Returning to the upper pen- 
insula he again became Superintendent of the cit>' schools in 
Marquette. After closing his work in the .superintendency of 
these schools, he was engaged, for some years, in the drug busi- 
ness, during part of the time holding the office of County Super- 
intendent of schools of Marquette county. Subsequently he took 
charge of the public schools of Negaunee, and left this position 
to accept the office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
to which he was appointed bj^ Governor Jerome to fill the vacan- 
c}' caused b}- the resignation of Hon. C. A. Gower. In 1882 the 
Universit}^ conferred upon him the honorarj- degree of Master of 
Arts. He was elected to the office of State Superintendent by the 
people in 1882. The annual compilation of the school laws issued 
bj' Mr. Cochran required much careful preparation, since nearly 
all the provisions contained in the compilation of 1879 had been 
repealed and replaced by new ones. In the fall of 1881, immed- 
iately after the forest fires .had devastated the counties of Huron, 
Sanilac, and Tuscola, he made a tour through these counties in the 
interest of the schools, gathering facts and statistics with which, 
at the special session of the legislature of 1882, he succeeded in 
securing an appropriation from the State of $15,000, forty-nine 
school houses being rebuilt in those counties. 

On March 1, 1883, he resigned his position to accept that of 
Register of the United States Land Office at Marquette, which 
latter position he held for five 3'ears. At the expiration of this 
period, he spent a summer in the Minnesota iron region, and 
subsequently a 3'ear in traveling through the South and West. 
He spent the winter and spring of 1892 in Europe; returning to 
Marquette after his European tour, he engaged in various kinds 
of successful business. He engaged in real estate and insurance 
business and in the manufacture of carriages, besides having 
large railroad interests, being, at one time, president of both the 


Marquette, Houghton & Ontonagon R. R., and the Hancock & 
Calumet R. R. He spent the remainder of his life in Marquette, 
securing, bj' his manliness in all departments of labor, the 
respect and esteem of the whole communitj'. 

Herschel R. Gass. 
Herschel R. Gass was born in the township of Ray, Macomb 
count}', on March 7, 1844. Having lived on his father's farm 
until twent>'-one years of age, his early instruction was all 
received in the common district school. In 1866 he spent one 
term at Oberlin College, going thence to the Utica High School 
to prepare for entrance to our State University. Graduating 
from Utica in 1869, he that fall entered the Literarj- department 
of the University-, graduating from it in 1873, having paid his 
way through college, and the preparatory school as well, by 
teaching in the district schools and working during vacations. 
From 1874 to 1877 he filled the position of teacher of mathe- 
matics and the sciences in the Vincennes Universit>^ Indiana, 
and while there received from Ann Arbor the honorary degree of 
Master of Arts. Returning to his native State in 1877, he 
assumed the principalship of the Vernon High School, remain- 
ing there one year and then, in 1878, accepting the superintend - 
ency of the Jonesville schools. It was in the fifth year of his 
service here that he received the appointment of Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, to fill the vacancy caused by the resigna- 
tion of Hon. V. B. Cochran, and took up his new duties in 
Februaiy, 1883. It was during his incumbency that the move- 
ment looking toward the self- improvement of the teachers by 
home reading and stud}-, culminated in the formation of the 
Teachers' Reading Circle, and Mr. Gass extended all possible 
aid and encouragement to the new organization, the examina- 
tion questions being partiallj- based upon the texts adopted in 
their course of reading. The new compulsory- school law had 
also taken effect but a few months before his appointment, and 
he devoted considerable attention to its proper enforcement. In 
1884 he was elected to continue in office, and his report for that 
year reviews the arguments favoring the township unit system, 
a measure that had been advocated by various Superintendents 


ever since it was first proposed by Superintendent John M. 
Gregory'. Mr. Gass strongl}' recommended legislation in this 
direction ; and a committee appointed by the State Teachers' 
Association prepared a circular on this subject to be distributed 
throughout the State. This gained many advocates for a cause 
which, though failing to pass the legislature, is still strongly 
urged by nearly all intelligent school men. As this was the 
year of the Cotton Exposition at New Orleans, Mr. Gass 
arranged a school exhibit which did great credit to Michigan. 
In April, 1885, Mr. Gass resigned his position, and has since 
been engaged in mercantile, mining and real estate business in 
various places. 

Since 1888 he has been engaged in looking after the inter- 
ests of the Mobile Land Improvement Company at Mobile, Ala., 
spending most of his time in that city. From 1890 to 1893 he 
was engaged in iron mining in the Upper Peninsula, but disposed 
of his interest there in 1893. Mr. Gass is spending most of his 
time in his business at Mobile, visiting Michigan occasionally. 

Theodore Nelson. 

Theodore Nelson was born in Madison, Lenawee county, 
Michigan, February- 11th, 1841. When Theodore was fourteen 
years old, his father removed to Gratiot county, then the frontier 
of Michigan settlements, and the lad grew up amid many priva- 
tions, yet making such good use of his limited advantages that 
he became a teacher in the common schools at the early age of 
seventeen. It was about this time that he took upon himself the 
Christian vows to which he ever remained so truly faithful. His 
desire for college education now became so great that he twice 
made his way, alone and on foot, to Hillsdale College, over a 
hundred miles away. There with an older brother, he lived with 
the most frugal economy, until the boom of confederate guns 
called him to the defense of his country, though his services 
were at first declined on account of his 3'outh. However, he 
finally returned to his home and enlisted in a company of which 
he afterward became captain. At the close of the war he entered 
Kalamazoo College but his popularity' at home having secured 
his election as register of deeds, he returned to take up the duties 


of that office. Having accumulated sufficient means, he declined 
a second term that he might return to college, going first to Ann 
Arbor, and finally graduating at Kalamazoo in 1872. 

From his early boj'hood he was known as a speaker of great 
promise, making stirring political speeches and religious ad 
dresses while yet in his minority. While a student, he was 
ordained at Ithaca as a regular minister of the Baptist denomin- 
ation. He supplied churches at Plymouth and elsewhere, and at 
length settled, for a time, at Ithaca. He went from Ithaca to 
East Saginaw where he labored most successfully for nine years. 
It was here that the sudden loss of four lovely children by one 
fell stroke of diphtheria, gave the shock from which he never 
entirely recovered; aided by generous friends, he traveled east, 
west, south, and in Europe in search of health. 

Having partiall}' recovered, he filled temporarily with 
marked success the position of president of Kalamazoo college, 
during a year's absence of President Brooks. He then accepted 
the professorship of English at the State Normal School, coming 
from there in April, 1885, to fill the vacancy in the State Super- 
intendency of Public Instruction caused by the resignation of 
Hon. H. R. Gass. He administered the duties of the office 
with painstaking care, giving especial attention to the advance- 
ment of the recently formed Teachers' Reading Circle, as also to 
the carrying out of his theory' regarding institute work; namely, 
that it should be regarded as a Normal School with a ver^^ small 
course of study. 

His next service was to aid in the establishment of Alma 
College, where a professorship was given him; but his love for 
:he pulpit soon led him to accept a call to Saginaw, West Side, 
where he labored under great physical disability for four years. 
Being then unanimously called to the presidency of Kalamazoo 
College, he greatly desired to respond, though hesitating on 
account of his ill health ; but being encouraged by good medical 
advice, after a period of recuperation, he took up the work he so 
much loved. For one term he worked hopefuU}^; but at the 
beginning of the second he was obliged to withdraw to the Alma 
Sanitarium, finally giving up all hope of added years of useful- 


ness, and sereneh' accepting the last summons, which came May 
1st, 1892. The funeral services were held in part at Alma, in 
part at Saginaw, where his remains were laid to rest bj^ the side 
of the lost loved ones ; and in both places the universal sorrow 
showed that a great and good man had gone to his reward. 

Ferris S. Fitch. 

Mr. Fitch was born upon a farm in the township of Bunker - 
hill, Ingham county, Michigan, Febniarj^ 1st, 1853, at a place 
now known as ihe village of Fitchburg, from the fact that his 
father, Ferris S. Fitch, was the first in this section to make a 
farm out of the unbroken wilderness. From his father he in- 
herited a thirst for knowledge, and at the age of sixteen he left 
the labors of the farm to enter the State Normal School at 
Ypsilanti. After completing the classical course in the Normal, 
he entered the same course at the State Universit}' in 1873, 
graduating four j-ears later. Soon after he accepted the chair of 
Latin and Greek in Smithson college, Indiana, and later became 
acting president of that institution. In 1878 he resigned this 
position to accept the principalship of the high school at Pontiac, 
Michigan. After three and one half years in this position he 
was promoted to the superintendency of the Pontiac schools, 
which position he held nine years. In March, 1890, he tendered 
his resignation, and became editor and manager of the Oakland 
Countj' Post. In the following month he was unamimously 
nominated to the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
by the Democratic State Convention, the nomination being 
entirely unsolicited. He was elected, served the term of two 
years, and was renominated in 1892, but was defeated with the 
rest of his party. 

While Superintendent of Public Instruction he, acting as 
chairman of the World's Fair Educational Committee for 
Michigan, was mainly instrumental in outlining the plan of the 
State educational exhibit for the Columbian Exposition of 1893 
in Chicago. Alter his term of office had expired, he was ap- 
pointed by the committee as superintendent and secretary' of the 
exhibit, and in this capacity arranged and installed it. In ad- 
dition to the several awards on the school work of the exhibit, 


he received an award on it as a whole, including the elaborate 
statistical charts and maps which he invented to illustrate the 
condition and growth of the educational sj^stem of the State. 

During his term of oflBce he directed his attention mainly to 
the improvement of the system of teachers' institutes as a means 
of raising the standard of the common schools. To this end he 
published a graded course of study for institutes, and. in con- 
nection with it, a course of study to be pursued by teachers 
during the school year. He also strongly advocated, as essential 
conditions to permanent improvement, the appointment of a per- 
manent, salaried corps of institute conductors, and the establish- 
ment by law of an organic connection between the State Normal 
and University on the one hand, and the teachers' institutes on 
the other. At the conclusion of his duties connected with the 
exhibit at Chicago, Mr. Fitch returned to Pontiac and resumed 
personal charge of the newspaper before mentioned. In 1895 he 
sold the Post, the paper just referred to, and the following year 
was appointed postmaster at Pontiac, which position he still 
holds at the time of this writing. 

Henry R. Pattengill. 

Mr. Pattengill was born in Mount Vision, Otsego count\% N. 
Y., January 4, 1852. A few months later the family' removed to 
Akron, Erie county, where the father. Rev. h- C. Pattengill, ser- 
ved as pastor of the First Baptist Church for six j^ears follow- 
ing. The family next moved to Wilson, Niagara county, where 
they remained seven years, and then came to Michigan, locat- 
ing at Litchfield, Hillsdale county. 

Mr. Pattengill 's earl}' education was obtained in the district 
and village schools, and later at the University' of Michigan, 
where he was graduated from the Literary department in 1874. 
The following ten years he was Superintendent of schools in St. 
Louis and Ithaca, and most of this time was president of the 
Gratiot county teachers' association and a member of the board 
of school inspectors, later of the county board of examiners. In 
1885, he became associate editor of the Michigan School Mod- 
erator, and a year later became sole proprietor and editor, which 
position he has continued to hold up to this time. He is the 


auther of a "Civil Government of Michigan," a Manual of Ortho- 
graphy," and several other books for teachers. From 1885 to 
1889 he was assistant professor of English in the Agricultural 
College. He was elected to the office of State Superintendent in 
1892, and re-elected in 1894, serving in that position for four 
years, with much acceptance to the teachers of the State and the 
people generally. He is one of the most efficient and popular 
Institute conductors in Michigan and is employed, a considerable 
part of his time in Institute work. 

Jason E. Hammond. 

Mr. Hammond, son of Luther and Roda Reed Hammond, 
was born Maj' 17, 1862, on a farm in Ransom township, Hills- 
dale county-, Michigan. In his early boyhood he began to make 
his way in the world, working on farms in the summer, and 
attending district schools in the winter. In 1880 he had, by 
industry and economy, accumulated enough to give him a ^-ear 
at college, and he took four terms at Hillsdale, afterwards 
attended the Agricultural College and was graduated from that 
institution with honors in the class of 1886. 

A College mate says of him and his influence in the M. A. C. : 
"Mr. Hammond soon became a force in the student body; from the very 
first he was a leader in good gos'ernment, in the class room and in his society. 
Almost everj' high office in class, society and student government was filled 
by him. Members of the Faculty soon recognized that he had right ideas of 
law and order, and that his influence was valuable in the student body," 

For the next five years Mr. Hammond had charge of the 
graded schools of Allen and North Adams. He spent one long 
vacation in the summer school at Ypsilanti, and three in reading 
law with Hon. A. B. St. John, Hillsdale. He was elected a 
member of the Hillsdale county board of school examiners in 
1888, and in 1891 was chosen school commissioner of Hillsdale 
county, in which position he served until his selection in 1893 as 
Deputy Superintendent of public instruction. 

Mr. Hammond's work as commissioner of Hillsdale county 
was marked with vigor and good sense. He perfected the grad- 
ing or classification of the rural schools; secured a nearly uni- 
form series of text -books for the county, and aroused a loj'al and 


enthusiastic school sentiment among people, teachers, and pupils. 
He was selected for the position of Deputy Superintendent by 
Mr. Pattengill without solicitation on his part. One who was in 
a position to know how he performed the duties devolving upon 
him in this office says : 

"It is not too much to say that he has been a model deputy. His organ- 
izing and executive power is marvelous. Every person coming to the office 
found a most courteous and obliging official in Mr. Hammond. His earlier 
experience in a law office gave him much assistance in considering questions 
of school law, and his compilation of the school laws and decisions is unex- 

During two sessions of the Legislature Mr. Hammond had immediate 
charge of educational measures advocated by the Department, and the large 
number of important laws enacted is proof of his ability. He not only won 
his measures, but by his honesty of purpose, loyalty, and never failing 
courtesy, won the esteem and good will of every legislator. The members 
did not always like his cause, but they always liked Hammond. It is prob- 
ably true that no Superintendent ever took the office who was so familiar 
with the details of the work, both in the office and in Legislative halls. 
Mr. Hammond has grown up in the country schools and has supervised 
them. He has attended higher institutions of learning and made much of 
private study. He has also had the discipline of a large experience with 

Mr. Hammond is very genial in conversation, and never for- 
gets a friend. His character is above reproach, and he is free 
from the bad habit of smoking, and some other bad habits too 
common in these days. 

Mr. Hammond was elected to the office of Superintendent of 
Public Instruction in 1896 and two years later was re-elected to 
the same high office. His administration of the affairs of the 
Educational Department has given great satisfaction, not only 
to teachers and school officers, but to the people of the State 

riembers of the State Board of Education. 


Samuel Newberry, March 30, 1849, 3 years. Resigned March 22, 1850. 

Samuel Barstow, March 30, 1849, 2 years. 

Randolph Manning, March 30, 1849, 1 year. 

Isaac E. Crary, March 29, 1850, in place of Samuel Newberry, 


George X. Skinner, March 29, 1S50, 3 years. Died during his temi of 

Elias M. Skinner, April 19, 1850, until close of session of Legislature, 1851. 

Consider A. Stac}-, April 2, 1851, 3 years. 

Chauncey Joslin, April 2, 1851, until March 28, 1853. In place of 
George N. Skinner. 


Isaac E. Crary, November 2, 1852, 6 years. Died during his term of 

Gideon O. Whittemore, November 2. 1852, 4 years. Resigned March 
28, 1856. 

Chauncey Joslin, November 2, 1852, 2 years. 

John R. Kellogg, November 7, 1854, 6 years. 

Hiram L. Miller, November 7, 1854. In place of Isaac E. Crary. Resign- 
ed, July 15, 1857. 

D. Bethune Duffield, March 28, 1856. In place of G. O. Whittemore. 

George Willard, November 4, 1856, 6 years. 

Witter J. Baxter, July 21, 1857. Appointed by the Governor, in place 
of H. L. Miller. 

Witter J. Baxter, November 8, 1864, elected for 6 years. 

8, 1870, elected for 6 years. 
" " '• 7, 1876, elected for 6 years. Resigned, 

April 6, 1881. 

Edwin Willits, November 6, 1860, 6 years, 
November 6, 1866, 6 years. 

Daniel E. Brown, November 4, 1862, 6 years. 

" " " November 3, 1868, 6 years. Died during his term of 

Edward Dorsch, November 5, 1872, 6 years. 

David P. Mayhew, January 3, 1874. Appointed in place of D. E. Brown. 

Edgar Rexford, November 3, 1874, 6 years. 
November, 2, 1880, 6 years. 

George F. Edwards, November 5, 1878, 6 years. 

Bela W. Jenks, April 21, 1881. Appointed in place of Witter J. Baxter. 
November 7, 1882, 6 years. 

James M. Ballon, Noveinber 4, 1884, 6 jears. 

Samuel S. Babcock, Novembsr 2, 1886, 6 j'ears. 

Pern,^ F. Powers, Novembers. 1888, 6 years. 
" " November, 1894, 6 years. 

Eugene A. Wilson, November, 1892, 6 years. 

David A. Hammond, November 4, 1890, 6 years. Resigned August 1896. 

James W. Simmons, August, 1896, appointed in place of D. A. Ham- 
mond, resigned. y 


James W. Simmons, November, 1896, elected for 6 years, resigned 
May 1S98. 

E Finley Johnson, May, 1898, appointed in place of J. W. Simmons, 

E. Finley Johnson, November, 1898, elected to fill out the unexpired 
tenn of Mr. Simmons. 

F. A. Piatt, November, 1898, elected for 6 years. 

Some Biographical Sketches. 

Space will allow only brief sketches of some of the members 
of the Board who have been, or are still, most active in serving 
the interests of the Normal School. 

Of many of the earliest members of the Board but little is now 
known. Several of these were business men, appointed espec- 
ially for the financial work connected with the erection of the 
building. For having done this work so carefully and faithfully 
thej' deserve much credit. It has been easier to obtain material for 
sketches of the more recent members. 

Isaac E. Crary. 

Hon. Isaac E. Crary was one of the first members of the 
Board of Education, having been appointed, March 29, 1850, in 
place of Hon Samuel Newberry who had resigned a few daj^s 
before. He remained a member of the Board for several years, 
and was its President at the time of the dedication of the first 
building, pronouncing the formal words of dedication as given on 
page 17. Mr. Crary rendered very valuable service in the organ- 
ization of the Michigan school S3^stem, being a warm personal 
friend of Superintendent Pierce and his confident and advisor in 
his educational work. 

Mr. Crary was chairman of the Committee on Education in 
the first constitutional convention, and probably did more than 
any other member of that body to give form to the Educational 
System of the new State. Mr. Crary had made a study of 
Cousin's report upon the Prussian system of education, and was, 
without doubt, greatly influenced by that report in framing the 
article on education in the fundamental law of the State. His 
plan provided for a library in each township, for the establish- 
ment of common schools and a university. 


The following sketch of Mr. Crary is taken from President 

Angell's oration delivered at the semi-centennial celebration in 

1887. The facts were obtained from Mr. Crary's widow, then 

residing in Marshall, Michigan. 

"Isaac Edwin Cran,- was born at Preston, Connecticut, October 2, 1804. 
He was educated at Bacon Academy, Colchester, and at Washington (now 
Trinity) College, Hartford. He graduated from the college in its first class, 
1829, with the highest honors of the class. For two years he was associated 
in the editorial work of The New England Review, published at Hartford, 
with George D. Prentiss, subsequently the well-known editor of the Louis- 
ville Journal. He came to Michigan in 1832. He was delegate to Congress 
from the Territory of Michigan and was the first Representative of the State 
in Congress. He was once speaker of the Michigan house of representatives, 
and was a member of the Convention which drafted the first constitution of 
the State. He died INIay 8, 1854." 

Mr. Crary deserv^es to be held in grateful remembrance by all 

friends of education in Michigan, and in the newer States whose 

systems of public instruction have been modeled somewhat after 

our own. 

Chauncey Joslin. 

Hon. Chauncey Joslin was a native of New York, educated 
at Temple Hill. After leaving school he taught five years, and 
then entered upon the study of law. He came to Ypsilanti in 
1837. In 1851 he was appointed a member of the Board of Edu- 
cation, and was active in the location of the Normal School and 
in the erection of the original building. At the dedication he 
delivered, on behalf of the Board, his commission to Principal 
Welch with an address, a part of which is found on page 17. 
He was always an earnest friend of the school. Mr. Joslin held 
various offices of trust and honor, was the first Ma3'or of Ypsi- 
lanti, and twenty years a member of its School Board. A man 
who knew him well, says: "Mr. Joslin was a man of genial 
and social qualities, being a great lover of fun. He told a story 
well; and often, in an argument, made his best illustration by an 
apt quotation or anecdote." 

D. Bethune Duffield. 

Hon. D. Bethune Duffield was a member of the Board of 
Education for a brief period, having been appointed in 1856 to 
fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Mr. G. O. Whit- 


temore. Mr. Duffield was a son of the Rev. George DufEeld, 
D. D., for a long time an influential pastor of a Presbyterian 
Church in the city of Detroit. He was an eminent scholar, a 
lawyer of high standing, a man of fine literary taste, and a poet 
of considerable reputation. The hymn written for the dedication 
of the original building, by him, is found on page 15. He was 
always a firm friend and advocate of the Normal School. 

George Willard. 

Hon. George Willard is a native of Vermont, having been 
born at Bolton in 1824. He came with his father to Michigan in 
1836, and was educated chieflj^ by his father, who was himself a 
graduate of Dartmouth College. Mr. Willard has held many 
public ofifices, having been a member of the State Legislature 
and of Congress. He was elected a member of the Board of 
Education in 1856, and served on the Board six years. During 
his term of office the Agricultural College, which was then under 
the control of the Board of Education, was organized and put 
into operation. He was always an active and efiicient worker 
while a member of the Board. In 1863 he was elected Regent 
of the University, and drew up the resolution for opening that 
institution to women For many years Mr. Willard has been 
editor and proprietor of a newspaper published in Battle Creek. 

Witter J. Baxter. 

Hon. Witter J. Baxter served as a member of the Board of 
Education for a longer period than any other person. He was a 
member from July 1857, when he w^as appointed to fill the vacancy 
made by the resignation of Hon. Hiram D. Miller, until his own 
resignation in April 1881. His membership extended over about 
twenty -five years, and he was President of the Board for fifteen 
years. During this long period he was probably more influential 
than any other man in determining the general policy of the 
Board and of the school. By the natural temper of his mind he 
was always cautious and conservative in his action, and weighed 
carefully the reasons for every new departure. It was a matter 
of pride to him that the school never incurred debt and could 
always account for every dollar of its'income. 


Mr. Baxter was a native of Sidney Plains, Delaware county. 
New York, being born there in 1816. In 1831 he removed with 
his father to Tecumseh, Michigan, remaining there until 1836. 
He then removed to White Pigeon, and from that place to Jonesville 
in 1848. Jonesville was his home during most of the remainder 
of his life. His education was received in the common schools, 
and at the branches of the University, in Tecumseh, White Pig- 
eon and Detroit. The honorary' degree of A. M. was conferred 
upon him by the University. 

He taught in various schools, among these, some branches 
of the University, for several years, meanwhile devoting his spare 
hours to the .study of law. He was admitted to the bar in 1844, 
practiced a few years in Detroit, and then returned to his home 
in Jonesville. He was an active business man and a member of 
several societies of various kinds, alwaj'S holding positions of 
honor and responsibility. He served for two years as a member 
of the State senate and was active in the business of that body. 
Mr. Baxter died at Jonesville. 

At the time of his resignation in 1881, the Board of Educa- 
tion adopted the following resolution : 

Resolved: That we part with Mr. Baxter with sincere regret, for we lose 
an efficient and honorable member of the Board, a pleasant and faithful co- 
worker, and the normal school loses a zealous and invaluable advocate and 

Resolved: That we tender to him our hearty wishes that his future may 
be attended with that full measure of success and prosperity which his long, 
valuable, and useful life so fairly and fulh- merits. 

Edwin Willits. 

Hon. Edwin Willits serv^ed as a member of the Board twelve 
years and did most efficient work. He is noticed elsewhere 
among the Principals of the normal school. 

Edgar Rexford. 

Hon. Edgar Rexford is a native of Ypsilanti, the son of Dr. 
F. K. Rexford. Dr. Rexford was among the earl}' settlers of 
Ypsilanti, having removed from New York to this place in 1837. 

In any historj' of the normal school, or of educational affairs 
generally in this city, he deserv^es to be mentioned. He was 


active in the efforts to secure the location of the school in Ypsi- 
lanti, and in all the early movements to increase its efficiency and 
to extend its influence. He accomplished his work, not by 
speech-making, but by careful and judicious planning and con- 
sultation in a private and personal way. 

Mr. Edgar Rexford inherited many of the characteristics of 
his father. He fitted for college in the schools of Ypsilanti, 
entered the University in 1863, and graduated in 1866. After 
graduation he became associated with his father in mercantile 
business, in which he has continued to this time. He was 
elected a member of the State Board of Education in 1874, and 
re-elected in 1880, serv'ing the State continuous!}^ for twelve 

During these years many enlargements and improvements 

were made on the buildings of the school, and in other directions. 

In carrying these forward Mr. Rexford was especially interested 

and active, and, being near at hand, was necessarily compelled 

to take a large share of responsibility. He brought to this work 

careful consideration and sound judgment. He continues to be 

a strong advocate of any measure which promises to increase the 

efiiciency and usefulness of the Normal College, as the school is 

now named. Mr. Rexford is a man of sterling integrit}^ and has, 

to a large degree, the confidence and respect of his fellow 


Bela W. Jenks. 

Hon. Bela W. Jenks was a native of Crown Point, Essex 
county. New York, the son of a farmer. He came to Michigan 
in 1848, settled in St. Clair, and entered into the mercantile 
business, later into the lumber business. He held several posi- 
tions of honor and trust in St. Clair and was a member of the 
State Senate for two terms. He was appointed a member of the 
Board of Education in 1881 to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of Mr. Baxter, and was subsequently elected for the 
term of six years, commencing in January' 1883. Mr. Jenks 
was a man of sterling integrity and of sound judgment. He 
took a deep interest in the affairs of the Normal School, labored 
zealously for its advancement, and was always ready to devote 


his time and energy to increase its efficiency and usefulness, and 
his business ability and experience were of great service in the 
management of the finances of the institution. 

James M. Ballou. 

Hon. James M. Ballou graduated from the Normal School 
in 1862. After teaching several years in schools of various 
grades, he engaged in farming and later in manufacturing busi- 
ness. He was elected a member of the Board of Education 
for the term commencing January', 1884, and served six years. 
He was a punctual and industrious member of the Board, doing 
promptly and efficiently^ whatever duties were imposed upon 
him. He took pride in ser\nng his Alma Mater and in advanc- 
ing the best interests of the institution in all directions. 

Samuel S. Babcock. 

Hon. S. S. Babcock graduated from the Normal School in 
the class of 1865, and immediately commenced the work of teach- 
ing. He taught in Howell three years, and subsequently in 
Ypsilanti, Greenville, in the State Normal School of Kansas, 
and in Mt. Clemens. Meanwhile he gave attention to the study 
of law and fitted himself for admission to the bar. For several 
years he has been practicing his profession verj' successfully in 
the city of Detroit. He was elected a member of the Board of 
Education for the term commencing January 1887, and served 
six years. 

Mr. Babcock carried into the business of the Board his 
accustomed zeal and energy, and became a leading spirit in all 
its deliberations and conclusions. He prepared a revision of the 
laws relating to the school and to the Board, and secured the 
passage of this revision through the Legislature. He labored 
for the enlargement of the library', for the erection of additions 
to the buildings, and for the progress of the institution in all 


Perry F. Powers. 

Hon. Perry F. Powers is a native of Ohio, and received 
such school education as his native town, Jackson, afforded. 
His father was killed in the civil war, and young Powers was 


compelled to provide for himself at an early age. He continued 
his studies by night and during spare hours of the day ; learned 
the printer's business at Jackson, Ohio, went to Davenport, 
Iowa, in 1879, and worked as reporter and printer four years. 
Since that time he has been engaged in editing and publishing 
Republican newspapers in various places. At present he is pro- 
prietor and editor of The Cadillac News and Express, Cadillac 
having been for several years, his place of residence. He has 
been president of the Republican Press Association, of the 
Michigan Republican League, and of the State Board of Educa- 
tion. He is now serving his second term as a member of the 
Board having been first elected for the term of 1889-95, 
and re-elected for the term of 1895-1901. Mr. Powers has 
been an active member of the Board from the time of his first 
election, has devoted his time and energy freely to advance 
the interests of the Normal School, and has always been ready 
to support any new measures which promised to increase the 
efficiency and enlarge the influence and usefulness of the institu - 
tion. In all his intercourse with the teachers of the school he 
has been uniformly considerate and courteous, and has had a 
proper regard for their wishes as far as circumstances would 
permit. He appears to have acted on the supposition that the 
Board and the Faculty have the same purpose and end in view, 
and that they are working for one common object. 

Eugene A. Wilson. 

Hon. Eugene A. Wilson was born in Ridgeway, Lenawee 
county, Michigan, in 1854. He attended school in his native town 
until nineteen years of age ; spent two years in the Tecumseh high 
school, graduating in 1875; entered the Normal School in 1876 
and graduated in 1879. He supported himself while in school 
by teaching winters and working in the har\'est field during the 
summer vacation. Since graduating he has been constantly 
engaged in school work, teaching first at Mount Pleasant and 
afterwards five years at Vassar. He was secretary of the county 
board of school examiners of Lenewee county in 1890-91, was 
Superintendent of schools at Paw Paw two years, and at present 


is Superintendent of the Benton Harbor schools, which by his 
efforts have been placed on the University list in all courses. 
His work as a teacher and instructor in institutes has been 
eminently successful. He was elected a member of the Board 
of Education for the term commencing January' 1, 1893, and 
ending December 31, 1898. As a member of the Board he was 
industrious, punctual in his attendance upon its meetings, and 
earnest and painstaking in the discharge of any duties imposed 
upon him in committees or elsewhere. 

David A. Hammond. 

Hon. David A. Hammond was born in the township of 
Augusta, Washtenaw county, Michigan, in 1855. At thirteen 
years of age he began life for himself, working on a farm during 
the summer months, and attending district school in the winters. 
He graduated from the Normal School in 1878; became prin- 
cipal of the schools in Blissfield, Lenawee count3^ holding this 
position four years. He was also township superintendent of 
schools and a member and secretary of the first county board of 
school examiners in that county. He was Superintendent of the 
schools of Tecumseh for six years, resigning this position in 
1888 to accept the superintendency of the Charlotte schools. 
He remained in Charlotte until 1893, when he removed to Ann 
Arbor, where he has since been connected with the publication 
of a newspaper as editor and part proprietor. In November, 
1890, he was elected a member of the Board of Education for 
for the terrr/ commencing January, 1891. He resigned this 
position in August, 1896. As a member of the Board he was 
characterized by activity and devotion to his work. He bore a 
prominent part in many of the measures for the improvement of 
the Normal School. 

James W. Simmons. 

Hon. James W. Simmons is a native of Michigan, having 
been born in Farmington, Oakland county, in 1849. He was 
the son of a farmer and learned by experience all the details of 
farming. His education began in the district schools, and was 
carried on further in Hillsdale college, from which he graduated 


in 1874. In the same year he took charge of the schools at 
Lawrence and remained there for five years. Since that time he has 
been constantly engaged in school work, superintending four 
years in Otsego, six years in Dowagiac, and eight years in 
Owosso. He has published a work on Qualitative Chemical 
Analysis. He has been a prominent worker in the State 
Teachers' Association, and president of that organization. He 
is recognized, not onlj^ as a capable and thorough superintendent 
of schools, but also as an active and efficient business man. On 
the resignation of Hon. David A. Hammond, he was appointed 
a member of the Board of Education in August of 1896, and in 
the following November he was elected to succeed himself for 
the term commencing January 1st, 1897. In May 1898 he re- 
signed his position on the Board, and was afterwards appointed 
Superintendent of the Normal Training School. This position 
he held for one j^ear, when he resigned, and was soon after 
elected Superintendent of the public schools at Stevens Point, 
Wisconsin, which position he still fills. Mr- Simmons is a man of 
great energy and strength of purpose, and has proved himself a 
successful teacher and superintendent. His connection with the 
Normal School was too brief to permit him to become a prominent 
factor in the management of the institution. 

E. Finley Johnson. 
Hon. E. Finle^' Johnson is a native of Ohio and was brought 
up on a farm. He graduated from the Ohio State University, 
working his way through college and teaching district school 
several terms. He was elected to the Ohio Legislature in 1885. 
He came to Michigan in 1888, and in 1890 was appointed to a 
professorship in the Law department of the University, a position 
which he still holds. In May, 1898. he was appointed a member 
of the State Board of Education b}^ Gov. Pingree, to fill the 
vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. Simmons, and subse- 
quently he was elected to fill out the remainder of the unexpired 
term. Mr. Johnson brings to his work on the Board experience in 
educational affairs, acquaintance with men and public matters, 
and an earnest purpose to advance the interests of the Normal 
Schools, and the interests of education generally in the State. 


Frederick A. Piatt. 

Hon. Frederick A. Piatt is a native of Michigan, having 
been born in Utica in 1856. He graduated from the Literary 
department of the Universit^^ of Michigan in 1875, and after 
graduation was a teacher and superintendent of the School for the 
Deaf at Flint for seven years. In 1883 he engaged in the mer- 
cantile business at Flint and still continues in that occupation. 
He was elected a member of the State Board of Education for the 
term commencing in Januarys 1899. He brings to his duties on 
the Board practical experience as a teacher, experience as a 
member of the Flint Board of Education for nine j^ears, and ex- 
perience in the management of business affairs. His earnest 
purpose, in his public work, is to serve the best interests of the 
State and of the Normal Schools. 



Index of Illustrations. 

Present Main Building, - - - Frontispiece 


Original Building, - - - - - 23 

Building restored after the fire, - - - 25 

Building after Front addition, - - - - 37 

Rear addition to Main Building, - - - 85 

Conservator^^ of Music, - - - - 253 

Gymnasium, - - - - - 31 

Training School, - - - - - 105 

Starkweather Hall, ----- 239 

Bellows, Charles Fitz Roy, - - - - 59 

Boone, Richard Gause, . . . . 79 

Estabrook, Joseph, - - - - - 51 

George, Austin, ----- 255 

Goodison, John, - . . . - 203 

Hoppin, Ruth, - - - - - 114 

King, Julia Anne, . . . . - 123 

Lodeman, August, - - - - - 179 

Lyman, Elmer Adelbert, - - - - 97 

Mayhew, David Porter, - - - - 41 

McLouth, Lewis, - - - - - 129 

Mac Vicar, Malcom, . . . . 69 

Osband, Lucy Aldrich, - - - - - 137 

Pease, Frederic Henry, - - - - 251 

Putnam, Daniel, - - - - ' - 151 

Sill, John M. B., - - - - - 73 

Starkweather, Mary Ann, . - . . 245 

Strong, Edwin Atsoh, . - - - 185 

Welch, Adonijah Strong, - - - - 13 

Willits, Edwin, . . - - - 65 



Personal Index. 

Allen, Edward P., 
Babcock, Samuel S., 
Ballon, James M. 
Barbour, Florus A., 
Baxter, Witter J., . 
Beal, Alfred N , 
Bellows, Charles F. R., 
Bengel, John, 
Boone, Richard G., 
Bowen, Wilbur P., 
Brearle}', William H., 
Briggs, Daniel B., 
Buckbee, J. Edward, 
Burroughs, Samuel W., 

Campbell, Gabriel, 
Campbell, Robert, 
Cary, Joseph P., 
Childs, Jonathan D., 
Childs, Lewis E., 
Clapp, Miss H. K., 
Clark, John E., 
Cochran, Varnum B., 
Corastock, Oliver C, 
Crar>', Isaac E., 
Curtis, OB., 
Cutcheon, Anna M., 

Daniels, Hiram F., 
Darrow, Prof. E., 
D'Ooge, Benjamin L-, 
Dudley. George E., 
Duffield, D. Bethune, 
Durfee, Edgar O., 
D wight, Edmund, 

Estabrook, Joseph, 

Fairbanks, Mar>' Rice, 
Fitch, Ferris S., 
Fisk, Dr. L. R., 
Follett, Benjamin, 
Foote, Prof. E. M. 











139, 188 


15, 352 






Gass, Herschel R., 
Georo^e, Austin, 
Goodison, John, 
Gower, Cornelius A. , 
Grawn, Charles T., 
Gregorys John M., 

Haight, Edward A., 
Hall, Rev. S. R., 
Hammond, David A., 
Hammond, Jason E., 
Haskins, David E., 
Hecker, Johan J., 
Herrick, George D., 
Holmes, George L. , 
Hopkins. George H., 
Hoppin, Ruth, 
Horner, John W., 
Hosford, Oramel, 
Hough, George W., 
Hoyt, Charles O., 
Hubbard, Samuel AL, 

Itsell, Andrew J., 

Jackson, Orson,. 
Jenks, Bela W., 
Jewell, George S., 
Johnson, E. Finley, 
Joslin, Chauncey, 

Kidd, James H., 
King, Julia Anne, 

Laird, Samuel B., . 
Lane, James S. , 
Leonard, Albert, 
Lodeman, August, 
Lonsbur>^ Philo M., 
Lyman, Elmer A., 

Maltman, John S., 
Mann, Horace, 
Manning, Reuben E., 
Mathews, Thomas, 
May hew, David P., 





. 139, 
















































53, 139, 



Ma3'hew, Ira, . . 87, 332 

Maxwell, George R., 288 

Miller, Albert, . . . 139, 172 

Morgan, James F. , . . . 289 

McKinnon, Alexander, . .263 

McLouth, Lewis, . .' 139, 178 

Mc Mahon, Lois, .... 195 

Mac Vicar, Malcom, . . .71, 148 

Nelson, Theodore, .... 344 

Osband, Liic}' A., . . . .183 

Page, David P., 

Paton, Annie A. . 

Pattengill, Henrj- R.. . 

Patton, Sarah A., 

Pease, Frederic H., 

Phillips, Delos, 

Pierce, Cyrus, . . ~ . 

Pierce, John D., . 

Piatt, Frederick A.. . 

Pomero\^ Lottie, 

Powers, Perry F. , 

Putnam, Daniel, 

Rankin, Henry C, 
Rexford, Edgar, 
Ripley, Prof. E. L.. . 

Ripley, Mrs. Aldrich. 
Rogers, Abagail C, . 

Rorison, Minerva B., 

Safford, Benjamin D., . 
Sanford, George P., 
Saw\'er, Franklin, 
Shearman, Francis W.. 
Shepard, Irwin, 
Sherzer, Will H , 
Sill, John M. B., 
Simmons, James W., 
Smith, David Eugene, 
Starkweather, Mar>^ A., 
Stearns, Willard, 
Stowe, Dr. C. E., 
Strong, Edwin A., 








10, 16, 




















. 10, 







^3, 30, 73, 















Tarbell, Horaces., • • • ^^ 

Terrill, Jared D., •  • tH 

Tyler, John, •  • •. ^9^ 

Tyler, Susan G. , • • . IM 

VanCleve, Augustus A., • • , .„ ? 7« 

Vroman, Joseph P., . • IJy, i/a 

Wallace, James N., • • • J^^ 

Watkins, Gilbert A., .  17 -..o oA 

Welch, AdonijahS.,  • 17, 139, 264 

Widdicomb, William.. • • 19 

Wilkins, Ross, . • • • 

Wilcox, Alfred F., •  ^^'i 

Willard, George, . • ' or i^? 

Willits, Edwin, • • • ^^' :^J; 

Wilson, Eugene A., . • 




General Index. 

Adelphic Society, Presidents of, 
Administration, Internal of the School, 

Code of rules, 

Principals of , . 

Admission, Terms of, 
Alumni, Association of, 
Ancient Languages, Professors of, 
Arm of Honor, 
Association, Students' Christian, 

Stale Teachers' 
Athenaeum Societ}', Presidents of, 
Athletic, The Association, 
Attendance, Tables of, 
Aurora, The, 

Board of Education, Massachusetts, organized, 

First Michigan, 

Powers of, . ~ 

Sketch of. 
Buildings, The original, 

Restored after the fire, 


Front addition, 

Rear addition. 

Third additions. 

Training School, 

Starkweather Hall, 

Central normal school established, 
Certificates granted. 

Christian Association, The students', . 
Club, The Monddy, 

The Graduate, 
College graduates, Course for. 
Common school course, Certificates from, 
Congress, The Mock, 
Contest, The Normal News oratorical. 
Courses of studies, First, 

Two established. 


Synchronistic view, 

Explanations of. 

District school, 

Common school, 

41-43, 63 








75, 83 





50, 52 



62, 67 




Special, . . . . 

For high school graduates, 
For college graduates, 
For Bachelor of Pedagogics, 
At close of Principal bill's administration, 
Later courses, 
Crescent Society, Presidents of, 

Dedication of original building. 

Of Starkweather Hall, 
Degrees, requirements for, 

Persons receiving them, 
Diplomas granted, 

Educational, The normal society, 

Funds of the normal school. 

Gymnasium, The old, 
The new, 

Hymn of dedication, 

Institute at dedication, 

Kindergarten . . . 

L,and, First donation of, . . 

For Gymnasium, 
For Training school. 

Languages, Other than English, 

Library, Sketch of, . . . 

Lyceum, The old normal. 


Presidents of, . 

The new, . . . . 

The Independent, 

The old, . . . . 

Mathematical department, Professors in, 

Michigan in Civil War, 

Model School, 

Modern Languages, Professors of. 

Music in the Normal school, 

Normal schools. The first 

Location of the Michigan, 

Stowe's report on, . 



75, 83 









. 128, 132 






. 98, 106 


40, 45, 46, 47 










Normal Company in the Civil War, . 259 

Losses, .... 269 

Individual records, •  281 

Olympic Societies, Presidents of, 228 

Paper, The School, . . • .208 

Pleiades societ}', • • 231 

Poem of Gabriel Campbell. •  277 

Practice teaching, .... 105 

Practice school, . ... 65 

Courses of studies for, 101 
Preparator\' department, Connection of with schools 

of Ypsilanti, , . 94, 96 

President of normal school system, . . 126 

Principals of normal schools, duties, etc., 127 

Professional Instruction, . 45, 48, 56, 66, 72, 76 

Propositions for location of normal school, 13 

Publications of the school and teachers, . . 211 

Pupil teaching. Proportion of . • 97 

Riceonian society, . • .227 

R. H. society, .... 231 

Rules for normal school, . • • 116 

Sciences, Professors of, . . • 139 

Scientific society, .... 231 

School, The paper, ... 208 

Song, The normal, .... 238 

Starkweather Hall, . . . 33 

Dedication of, . • • 243 

Studies in early normal schools . • 37 

Superintendents of Public Instruction, List of, . 338 

Tablet to students who died in the War, . 280 

Toastmasters' club, .... 233 

Zealots society, 

The R.W.B. Jackson 










--«-.-A-- i.--S.X«-\^L[2itj 








370.730973 P989H C.1 

Putnam # A history of the 

Michigan State Norma Sch 

3 0005 02050873 8 

W 370.730973 
S! P989H 


A history of the Michigan 
State Normal School (now 
Normal College) at Ypsilanti, 
Michigan, 1849-1899 



A history of the Michigan State 
Normal School (now Normal College) 
at Ypsilanti, Michigan, 1849-1899