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Pioneers and Prominent Men. 


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The History of Middlesex G)untY, contained in these volumes, has been prepared by the 
publishers with a due sense of the responsibility resting upon them, and with an earnest effort 
to meet the just expectations of the public. Their undertaking was a formidable one, in- 
volving, a.s it did, histories of six cities and forty^eight towns, together with histories of 
the county proper, with its courts and officers, and of the bench and bar, as well as 
notices of many of its prominent men. As far as it was possible these histories and notices 
have been confided to local historians of acknowledged capacity for the work, a few of them 
only having been prepared by other writers accustomed to historical research and po-ssessing 
liter.iry skill. The chapters relating to the county, and the bench and bar, will be found of 
especial value, entering, as they do, a field hitherto unexplored. In presenting these volumes, 
while the publishers cannot expect to wholly escape criticism, they look with hope, if not 
with confidence, for an approval of their work. 




Middlesex County 

Bench and Bab xxiv 



Cambridge 1 


CxyiBRiTXiE—iContimied) 4 

The IndiaDS of Cambridge aod Vicinit}*. 

Cambridge— ( 0)»i<inu€rf) 11 

Ecclesiastical History. 

Cambridge— I Continued) 77 

Harvard Univereity. 

Cambridge — {ContinuM) 140 

The DiviDUj School of Harrard Uoivervity. 

Ca.mbridge— ( C)n(mu«<i) 142 

Tbe Public Schools. 

Cambridge — {Continued) 151 


Cambridge — {Continued) 153 



Cambriikje — {Continued) 158 

Medical Uistory. 


Cambridge — (Continued) 176 



Ca-MBRIDGE — (Continued) 190 

Civil History. 


Cambridge— (Continued) 198 

Baoldog and losarmDce. 


Cambridge — {Continued) 201 

MaDufactariDg aud Industrial. 

Ca.mbridge — {Continued) 210 


Acton 238 


ASHBY 306 



AsHBY — (Continued) 314 

MecbAnical lodustriee. 


AsHBY — [Continued) 

Ecclesiastical Affairs. 




A SUBY— {Continued) 319 

The Great Cirll War. 


AasBY— {Continued) 319 



AsHBY— {Continued) 325 

Civil Huturj. 


ASHBY— {Continued) 327 

Poat'Officea, PbyBicianB, Agricultural, Peraooa) Notices, 




WoBL-RH— {Continued) 3.?6 

Civi] Hiator; to 1800. 


WoBrRN — {Cojitinued) 355 

CiTil Hlatai7 from 1800 to Present Time. 


WoBUBN — {Continued) 365 

Woburn as a City. 


Woburn— (OwUmu**/) 366 

The M«dlc&l and Legal Prefeetiolu: Golooiat, ProTiDcial and 
Later Periods. 


WoBFRN — (CoTUinued) ■ 377 

Military Uistory— Tbe Colonial and Provincial Periods, 


WoBtJBN— (CbTirinued) 389 

MUitarr History — The Revolutionarr and Later Periods to 
1861, etc.— The Civil War vt 1861-65. 


VfoBVRV— (Continued) 410 

Biographical Notices. 

Woburn — (Continued) 414 

Eocleaiaatlcal History. 

Shirley 466 

Weston 486 


Weston— (CWinittid) 498 




Natural Features And Productjoos. 


Natick — (Continued) 

lodian SettlemeDt. 1650-1700. 




j Natick — [Continued) . . ■ 520 

1700-1800: ADomaloDB ConditioD of the Townehlp— Change 
io the IndlaD GoverDmenl — Their Records — Population-- 
Acts as Proprietors — Allotment of Lands— Sale of the 
Same— Xatick as a Parieh— Acts of General Court Belnt- 
ing to it — Parish Meetings— Warning Out of Town — In 
the Revolutionary War — Parish Declanttion Regarding 
Independence — Natick Soldiers — <.»ach of Allegiance — 
Town Incorporated. 


XatijTK — {Continued) 525 

1800-1890; Prospects of the Town more Encouraging — 
General Progreas — Town Ac'ion Respecting the Pastors of 
the Church — Town Hall Erected — The Town in Suppress* 
IDR the Great Rebellion— Losses in the same — Financial 
Condition— The Centenniiil Celebnition— Town Ofttcers 
and Representative in the General Court. 


'Sktics.— (Continued) 536 

Ecclesiastical: Or^nization or (lie Indian Churcb — 
Eliot's Translation of tbe Bible— The Printing and Dis- 
tribution or the same— Mr. Eliot's Death— Memorial ^yin- 
dows to Perpetuate his Memory— Pastor Takawambait — 
Rev. Messrs. Peabody and Badger Missionaries to the 
Natick Indians — Organisation of tbe Congregational 
Church in the Centre of the Town — Sketches of its Pas- 
torx— The Baptist Church— Tbe Methodist Episcopal 
Church — St Paul's Episcopal Church — Tbe Roman Catho- 
lic Churches— The Unitarian or Eliot Church— The John 
Eliot Church— The Univetsalist Church. 


Nat'ick — (Continued) 546 

Edpcattonal; Schools — Libraries — Morse Institute— College 
and UniTersity Honors. 


Natick — (Continued) 553 

MlecELUkHEous: Population — Water Department — Fire De- 
partment— Natick Gas-Light Company— Natick Electric 
Company— Natick National Buk— Natitk Five-Centa 
SaTings Bank— Henry Wilson Cooperative Bank— Poat- 
Offlces- ManufActoren — South Natick Business— Ceraeter- 
iea — Lawyers — Physicians — iCxpress ITompanies — Coal, 
Wood, etc.— The Press— Biographical. 



Lexington 604 

Topography and Scenery. 


Lexington — { CoiUintied) 606 

Civil History. 



Lexington — iConlinued) 615 , jj^ 

MilitHry History. 


Lkxixgton — (Continued) fi21 

Education— Scliool.i aDd Librariei. 


Lexington — {Continued) 



Ecclesiastical Affairs — Churches, Sunday-Scbools huJ Beuev- 
cleDt OrganizatioDd. 

Lexington' — (Continued) 







Dunstable 736 

Present CoQtiitiou of the Towo— TupograpUy— Bofiiaess 


Dunstable— (CWinuerf) 738 

Origin and Early Settlement— IC43-I723. 


DiN^TABi.E — (CorUinued) 742 

<-'uutinued Attacks from the Indians — Growth of tbe Town — 
Church and School Affairs — 1723-1708. 

Stow 637 


CHAPTER L. I r. f^ ,. ,. _^. 

I DiNSTABLE— (Con<inued) 751 

BlRI-INGTON 663 ! The Town as Bapresented lu the American Berolntlon— 

Introduction. Educational, Religious and other Aflain— 176S-I820. 


BcRi.iNiiToN- (Con/iTiKet/) t'65 ! 

Civil History. 


BuKLixcTON — (Continued) 670 

Ecclediaslical History. 


Dunstable — (Continued) 757 

Church Erected — Soldiers in tbe War of the RebellioD— Dun- 
stable Cornet Band Formed — Naahaa, Acton and Boston 
Railroad Opened— Bl-Centennial Celebration— I82I-I890. 

.Shebborn 680 j 


Dunstable — ( CojUinued) 







Though it may be assumed that the reader is fam- 
iliar with the history of the settlement of Massachu- 
setts Colony, it may be well to hastily recount its chief 
incidents occurring before the incorporation of the 
county which includes a part of its territory. 

On the 20th of April, 160(), Kiu^ James issued let- 
ters-patent dividing a strip of land one hundred miles 
wide along the Atlantic coast of North America, ex- 
tending from the thirty-fourth to the forty-fifth de- 
gree of nortli latitude, between two companies, gener- 
ally called the Southern and Northern Virginia Com- 
panies. This territory was known as Virginia, so 
called after Queen Elizabeth. The Southern Company 
was composed of knights, gentlemen, merchants and 
adventurers of London, and was granted all the lands 
between the thirty-fourth and forty-first degrees ; 
while the Northern Company, composed of persons of 
the same description, was granted the lands between 
the thirty-eighth and forty-fifth degrees. That por- 
tion lying between the thirty-eighth and forty-fifth 
which was included in both grants was open to the 
company first occupying it; and it was stipulated 
that neither company should settle within one hun- 
dred miles of any previous settlement of the other 
company. On the 3d of November, 1620, Sir Ferdi- 
nand Gorges aud his associates, the members of the 
Northern Virginia Company, received a new patent, 
which passed the seal on the 3d of the following 
July under the title of "The council established at 
Plymouth, in the county of Devon, for the planting, 
ordering, ruling and governing of New England in 
America." Under this patent the company was au- 
thorized to hold territory extending from sea to sea 
and in breadth from the fortieth to the forty-eighth 
degree of north latitude ; and to make laws, appoint 
governors and other officers and generally to estab- 
lish all necessary forms of government. 

The motive inspiring the i^sue of this new patent 
seems to have been to show special favors to this com- 

pany and to inflict thereby a slight on the Southern 
Company. The King had for some reason fallen out 
with Sir Edwin Sandys the governor and treasurer of 
the Southern Company, and forebade his re-election. 
The Earl of Southampton, the successor of Sir Ed- 
win, was equally obnoxious to the King, and the new 
charter of the Northern Company was the conse- 
quence. The new patent included all the terri- 
tory between Central New Jersey and the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence on the Atlantic coast and the north- 
ern part of California, Oregon and nearly all of 
Washington on the Pacific, with a line running 
through Lake Superior for its northern boundary 
and one through Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana and 
Illinois for its southern. 

The colony settling at Plymouth in 1620 had re- 
ceived a patent from the Southern Company author- 
izing a settlement within their territory at some point 
south of New York harbor ; but finding themselves 
outside of the jurisdiction of the company from whom 
they had received their patent, they sent by the " May- 
flower," on her return, for a patent from the Northern 
Company. The Northern Company, under its new 
charter, consequently issued a patent, under date of 
June 1, 1621, to John Pierce and his associates in 
trust for the Plymouth Colony. This patent was 
brought to Plymouth in 1621 in the ship " Fortune," and 
is preserved in Pilgrim Hall in that town. It is en- 
grossed on parchment and bears the signatures of the 
Duke of Lenox, the Marquis of Hamilton, the Earl 
of Warwick, Lord Sheffield and Sir Ferdinand Gor- 
ges. Another signature is illegible, which may be 
that of either Thomas, Earl of Arundel, or the Mar- 
quis of Buckingham. This is the oldest state paper 
in New England. 

On the 30th of December, 1622, the Northern Com- 
pany, which, for convenience, may be still so called, 
notwithstanding its new charter and change of title, 
granted to Robert Grorges all that part of the main 
land " commonly called or known by the name of the 
Messachusiack " situated " upon the northeast side of 
the Bay called or known by the name of the Messachu- 
sett." This included the shore " for ten English 
miles towards the northeast and thirty English miles 
unto the main land through all the breadth afore^ 



said," with all the rivers, islands, etc. This grant in- 
cluded a part of Middlesex Connty. Up to this date 
the only white men known to have visited this local- 
ity were John Smith, the navigator, who visited it in 
1614, and a party of ten members of the Plymouth 
Colony who came by water from Plymouth on an ex- 
pedition, partly to trade and partly to conclude peace 
with the Massachusetts Indians. It is probable that 
on this expedition Point Allerton and the Brewsters, 
, at the entrance of Boston harbor, received their names 
from Isaac Allerton and William Brewster, two of 
the " Mayflower " Pilgrims. 

John Smith, after his expedition to Virginia in 
1606, in the service of the Southern Virginia Com- 
pany and some years connection with the Virginia 
colony, returned to England, and in 1614 sailed with 
two ships under the auspices of English adventurers 
'' to take whales and also to make trials of a mine of 
gold and copper." He anchored his vessels near the 
mouth of the Penobscot River and sailed with eight 
men in a shallop along the coast as far as Cape Cod, 
giving the name of New England to the country and 
" drawing a map from point to point, isle to isle, and 
harbor to harbor, with the soundings, sands, rocks and 
landmarks.'" After his return to England Prince 
Charles, afterwards Charles the First, attached names 
to many places on the coast as indicated on the map, 
of which only Plymouth, Charles River, named after 
himself, and Cape Anne, named after his mother, 
Anne of Denmark, still adhere to the localities then 
designated. Among the many other names affixed to 
the map by Prince Charles were Cape James for Cape 
Cod, Milford Haven for Provincetown Harbor, Stu- 
ard's Bay for Barnstable Bay, Point George for 
Branches Point, Oxford for Marshfield, London for 
Cohasset, Cheviot Hills for the Blue Hills, Talbot's 
Bay for Gloucester Harbor, and Dartmouth, Sandwich 
and Cambridge for places near Portland. It is possi- 
ble that besides John Smith and the Pilgrim party, 
De Mont«, with Champlain, may have also visited this 
locality in 1604. 

Robert Grorges, having received the grant above- 
mentioned in 1622, was appointed by the Plymouth 
Council in 1623 Lieutenant-General of New England, 
and arrived in Maasachusetta Bay in September of 
that year, with what are described in the record as 
" passengers and families." At the end of a year, 
after futile eflbrts to establish his colony, he returned 
to England, and at his death, which soon after oc- 
curred, his brother John, to whom his rights had de- 
scended, leased a portion of his grant to John Old- 
ham and John Dorrill. This lease included " all the 
lands within the Massachusetts Bay between Charles 
River and Abonsett (now Saugus River) containing in 
length by straight line five miles up the Charles 
River into the main land northwest from the bord»r 
of said bay, including all creeks and points by the 
way ; and three miles in length irom the mouth of 
the aforesaid river Abousett up into the main land. 

upon a straight line southwest, including all creeks 
and points; and all the land in breadth and length 
between the foresaid rivers, with all prerogatives, 
royal mines excepted. 

la the mean time the same territory which had been 
granted to Robert Gorges had been granted, with 
other lands, to the Massachusetts Company. By this 
grant, dated March 19, 1627-28, the Plymouth Council 
issued a patent to Sir John Roswell, Sir John Young, 
Thomas Southcoat, John Humphrey, John Endicott, 
and Simon Whitcomb covering a territory extending 
from three miles north oi the Merrimac River to three 
miles south of the Charles River. The following is the 
text of the letters-patent issued March 4, 1628-i!9 : 

"Charles By The Grace of God Kinge of England, Scuttand, Fraunce 
and Ireland, Defender of the Fayth etc. To All to whonie these Presents 
shall cume Greeting. "Wliereas our most deare and rovHll father Kioge 
James, of blessed memory, by his Highness letters jiatents beareing -date 
at Westminster the third day of November in the eighteenth yeare of 
his raigne, hath given and graunted unto the Cuuncell eslablished at 
Plymouth, in the county of Devon, for the planting, ruling, ordering 
and governing of Newe England in .\nierica, and to their successors 
and assignes for ever ; .\I1 that parte of .\merica lyeing and being in 
bredtb from forty degrees of northerly latitude from the equinoctiall 
lyne to forty-eight degrees of the saide northerly latitude inclusively, 
and in length of and within all the breadth aforesaid throughout the 
maine landes from sAa to sea, together also with all the llnne lands, 
soyles, groundes, havens, portes, rivers, waters, fishery, myuesand myn- 
er&lls, as well royall mynes of gould and silver as other mynes and 
myneralls, precious stones, quarries and all and singular other contodi- 
ttea, jurisdiccons, royalties, priviledges, franchesies and prehemynences, 
both within the said tract of lande upon the mayoe and also within the 
islandes and seua adioining ; Provided alwayes That the said islandes or 
any the premises by the said letters patents intended and meant to be 
graunted were not then actuallie possessed or inhabited by any other 
Christian Prince or State now within the bounds, lymitts or territories 
of the Soutbeme Colony then before graunted by our said deare father, 
to be pUnted by divers of his loving subiecta In the south paites. To 
Have and to houlde, posseese and enioy all and singular the aforesaid 
continent, landes, territories. Islands, hereditaments and precincts, seas, 
waters, flsherys, with all and all manner their comudities, royalties, 
liberties, prehemynences and prohtts that should from thenceforth arise 
from thence, with all and singular their appurtenances and every parte 
and parcell thereof unto the aside Councell and their successors and 
aaeigoes forever. To the sole and proper use, benetitt and behoofe of 
them the saide Coancell and their successors and assignes forever ; To 
be honlden of otir said most deare and royall father, his heires and suc- 
ceawiv as of his manaor of Eaatgreeoewich, in the County of Kent in 
free and comon Soccage, and not in capite nor b}' Knights service. 
Yeildlnge and paying tbeiefure to the saide late Kinge, his heir%s and 
successors, the flfte parte of the oare of gould and silver which should, 
from tyme to tyme and at all tymes thereafter, happen to be found, 
gotten, had and obteyned in, att or within any of the saide landes, 
lymltta, territories and precincts, or, in or within any parte or parcell 
thereof, for or in respect of all and all manner of duties, demauuds and 
services whatsoever to be don, made or paide to our saide dear father, 
the late Kinge, his heires and successors, as in and by the said letters 
patent (amoogest sundrie other clauses, powers, priviledges and grauntes 
therein couteyned) more at large appeareth. And whereas the saide 
Councell established at Plymouth, in the County of Devon, for the 
plantings, ruling, ordering and governing of Newe England in America, 
have by their deede indented under their comon seale bearing date the 
aynetaentb day of March Isst past in the third year of our raigne, given, 
graunted, bargained, soulde, enfeoffed, aliened aud confirmed to Sir 
Henry Roeewell, Sir John Young Knightes, Thomas Southcott, John 
Humphrey, John Endecott and Symon Whetcombe, their heirs and as- 
sociates for ever. All that parte of Newe England in America aforesaid 
which lyes and extendes betweene a greats river there comonlie called 
Monomack alhia Merriemack and a certen other river there called 
Charles river, being in the bottome of a ceriayne bay there comonly 
called Maaachtiaetts alias Mattachusetts alias Massatnsetts bay, and also 
all and aingalar those landes and hereditaments whatsoever lying with* 



in the space of three English miles oo tlie south parte of the said 
Charles river, or of any or overie parte thereof: And also all and ain^- 
lar the landcs and hereditaments wtmtsoever lyeing and being within the 
space of three English niyles to the suuthwarde of the soutliermoat parte 
of the said bay called Massachusetts ulias Slat tochtisetts alias Massatusets 
bay : and also all those luudes and hereditaments whatsoever which lye 
and be within the space uf three English myles to the northward of the 
saido river called MoQomack alias Merrymack, on to the northward of 
any and every parte theieof: And all landea and hereditaments whatso- 
ever lying within the lymitts aforesaide, north and south, in latitude 
and hredth, and in length and longitude, of and within all the bredtb 
aforesaide throughout the niayne landes there, from the Atlauttck and 
westerne sea and ocean on the east parte^ to the south sea on the west 
parte, and all landes and grouudes, place and places, aoylbs, wotides and 
wood grouudes' }inveiui, portes, rivers, waters, flslnngs and lieredita- 
uieiits, whatsoever, lyoing within the said bonndes aud tymittsand 
everie parte and parcell thereof ; Aud also all islundes lyeiugin America 
aforesaide in rtaid seas ur either of them on the westerne or eaateme 
constes or partes of the eaide trades of lande by the saide indenture, 
menroe^l to he given, graunted, bart;uined, sould, enfeoffed, alieneit and 
confirmed or any of them : And iilsii all iiiyiies and utynemlls, as well 
royall mynes of gonld aud silver sis other niyni'S and inynerall^ what- 
soever in the saide landes aud prerniiics or any |iarte thereof: And all 
jurisdiccons, rights, royalties, liberties, frcedonies, ymuitinities, privi- 
ledges, franchises, iireheni'-ninci's and cutULtJities whatsoever which 
they, the said Councell. ciilahlisht-d al Plymouth, iu the I'ounty of 
Devuii, for the planting, nileing, ordereing and governing of Newe 
England in America, then bad or might use, exercise or enioy in and 
within the saiil landcs aud premisses by the suide indenture uiencoeil to 
be given, gniunted, bargained, ^^oiild, t^nfeott'ed aud confirmed or iuor 
within any parte or parcell thereof. To have aud to honid the saide 
parte of Newe Knglaud in America, which lyes and exteudes and is 
abutted iis aforesaide, and evfry iKirte ami parcell thereof; And all the 
saide iilandes, rivers, iwrtt's, havens, waters, fishings, inynes aud min- 
eralls, jurisdiccons, fmuL'IiiscH, royalties, liberties, priviledges, comodi 
ties, hereditaments aud premisses whatsoever with the appurtenances 
unto the said 8ir Henry Hosewell, Sir John Vouuge, Thomas Southcottf 
John Uuuifrey, John Endecott aud Simon Whetcombe, their heires 
and assignes and their aasociats to the oiilie proper and nbsotuie use and 
behoofo of the paid ^^i^ Henry Uosewell, Sir John Younge, Thomas 
^outhcott, John llumfrey, John Kiidecott ami Symon Whettccombe, 
their heirea and asei^ues aud their ossociatts for cvermon*. To be 
lloulden of us, our hrin-^ ami succetsurs, its uf uur mannornf East- 
greetiewich in the Cuiinty of Kent, in tree* and conion socage and not 
in capite, nor by ICnightes Kwrvice, ycilding and payeing therefore unto 
Its, our licircs aud successors, the (iftc parte of the oare of gouhl and 
dilver which f-hall, from tyme tn lyme and all tyniea hereafter, happen 
to be founde, gotten, hail ami ubtjiyued in any of the saide lauiles with- 
in the Mrtide lymitts ur in or within any gtnrte thereof, for and in 'Vitis- 
facon of all manner, duties, deniuunds and services whatsoever, to be 
doun. made or |iaid to us, uur heirea ur .succeioors, as in and by the 
saide recid--d indi.*ntnre more at large maie apfteare. Nowe knowe yee 
that wee, ut the humble »<uito ami jwlicon uf the »aid Sir Henry Rose- 
well, Sir John Vonugt-, Thomas Aouthcott, John Hurafrey, John Ende- 
cott and Siuiun Whetcombe and of utiiers whi>m they have associated 
unto them, Havo fur divers good causes and cuus-.deracons us movcing, 
graunted and oontirmed, And by thea presents, of our own especiall grace 
certon knowledge and mei-re mocon.tloe graunt and conlinne unto the 
saide Sir Henry Itosewell, Sir John Younge, Thomas Southcutt, John 
llumfrey, John Endecott and Simon Whetcombe, and to their aaaociats 
hereafter named [videlicet] Sir Richard Saltonstall Knight, laaack 
Johnson, Samuel Aldersey, John Yen, ^lathew Cradock, George Har- 
wood, Increaee Nowcll, Richard Perry, Richard Detlingham, Nathaniell 
\Vright, Samnell Vassall, Theophiius Eaton, Thomas Goffe, Thomas 
AJams, John Browne, Samnell Browne, Thomas Hutchina, William 
Vassall, William Pincbconand Geurge Foxcrofte, their heirea and as- 
signea, all the said parte of New England in America, lyeing and ex- 
tending betweene the L>ouade8 aud lymitts in the said recited indenture 
expressed, and all landes and groumles, place and places, soylea, woodes 
and wood gronndes, havens, portea, rivers, waters, mynee, mineralls, 
jurisdiccons, rights, royalties, liberties, freedomea, immunities, privi- 
ledges, franchiaes, prebeminences, hereditaments and comodities what- 
soever to them, the saide Sir Henry Rosewell, Sir John Tonnge, 
Thomas Southcott, John Humfrey, John Endecott and Simon Whet- 
combe, their heires and asaignes and to their associates by the aaide 
recited indenture given, graunted, bargayned, sold, enfeoffed, aliened 

and confirmed or mencoed or intended thereby to be given, grmonted, 
bargayned, sold, enfeoffed, aliened and confirmed. To have and to 
bould the saide parte of Newe England in America and other the prem- 
isses hereby mencoed to be graunted and confirmed, and every parte and 
parcell thereof with the appurtenances to the said Sir Henry Roeewell, 
Sir John Younge, Sir Richard Saltonstall, Thomas Southcott, Joho 
Humfrey, John Endecott, Simon Whetcombe, Isaack Johnson, Samnell 
Aldersey, John Yen, Mathewe Cradock, Qeorge Harwood, Increaie 
Nowell, Richard Pery« Richard Betlingbom, Nathaniell Wright, Sam- 
uoll VasBalt, Theophiius Eaton, Thomas Goffe, Thomas Adams, John 
Browne, Samnell Browne, Thomas Hutcbins, William Vassall, William 
Pincheon and George Foxcrofte, their heires and assignee forever to 
their oulie proper and absolute use and behoofe for evermore. To be 
holden of us, our heirea and successors as of onr mannor of Eastgreene* 
wich aforesaid in free and comon socage and not in capite nor by 
knights service, and alao yeilding and paying therefore to us, our heires 
and Huccetfsors, the fifth parte onlie of all oare of gould and silver which 
from tyme to tyme aud att all tymes hereafter sbalbe ther^ gotten, had 
or obteyned for all services, e\acona and demaunda whataoever accord- 
ing to the tenure and reservacion in the said recited indenture expressed. 
Aud further knowe yee That of our more especiall grace, certen knowU 
edg and meere niocon Wee have given and graunted. And by thels 
presents doe for ua, our heires and aucceasors, give and graunt unto the 
said Henry Rosewell, Sir John Younge, Sir Richard Saltonstall, Thomas 
Southcott, John Humfrey, John Endecott, Symon Whetcombe, Isaack 
Johnson, Samuell AlJersey, John Yen, Mathewe Cradock, George Har- 
wood, Increase Nowell, Richard Pery, Richard Billingham, Nathaniell 
Wright, Samuell Vitasall, Theophiius Eaton, Thomaa Goffe, Thomas 
Adams, John Browne, Samuell Browne, Thomas Uutchens, William 
Vaasall, William Pincheon and George FoxcroHe, their heires and aa- 
signes, All that parte of Newe England in America whiob lyes and ex- 
tondea betweene a great river there comonlie called Monomack river 
alias Slerrimack river and a cerien other river there called Charles 
River, being in the bottome of a certen t>ay, there comonlie called 
Maasacbusetta alias Mattachusetta alias Maasatnaetts bay: And also all 
those landea and hereditaments whatsoever which lye and be within the 
space of three English mylea to the northward of the saide river called 
Monomack alias Merrymack, or to the norward of any and every 
parte thereof, and all lands and hereditaments whatsoever lyeing within 
the lymitts aforesaide north and south in latitude and bredtb and In 
length and longitude of and within all the bredtb aforeoftide throughout 
the mayne landea there from the Atlantick and westerne sea and ocean 
on the east parte to tbeaouth sea on the west parte ; And all landea and 
groundes, place and places, soylea, woodes and wood groundea, havens, 
portea, rivers, waters and hereditaments whatsoever lying within the 
said boundesaud lymitta, and every parte and parcell thereof, and also 
all isiandes iu America aforeaaide in the said aeas or either of them on 
the westerne or easteme coastes or parts of the said tracts of landes here- 
by mencoed to be given and graunted or any of them, and all mynes 
and myneralta whatsoever in the said landes and premisses or any parta 
thereof and free libertie of fishing in or within any the rivers or waters 
within the bonndes aud lymytts aforesaid and the aeu thereunto ad- 
ioining : And all fishes, royal fishes, whalea, balan, sturgeons ana other 
fishes of what kiude or nature soever that shall at any tyme hereafter 
be taken in or within the said seas or waters or any of them by the said 
Sir Henry Boeewell, Sir John Younge, Sir Richard Saltonstall, Thomas 
Southcott, John Humfrey, John Endecott, Simon Whetcombe, Isaack 
Johnson, Samuel Alderaey, John Yen, Uathewe Cradock, George Har- 
wood, Increase Noell, Richard Pery, Richard Belllngham, Nathaniell 
Wright, Samuell Yoasall, Tbeopbelna Eaton, Thomas Goffe, Thomas 
Adama, John Browne, Samuell Browne, Thomas Hntcbens, William 
Vassall, William Pincheon and Geerge Foxcrofte, their heires and 
oaaignes or by any other person or peraons whatsoever there inhabiting 
by them or any of them to be appointed to fishe therein. Provided 
alwayes that yf the said landea, ialandea or any other the premiases 
herein before mencoed and by their presents intended and meant to be 
graunted were at the tyme of the granntlng of the saide former letten 
patents dated the third day of November in the eighteenth year of oar 
said deare fathers raigne aforesaid actually possessed or Inhabited by 
any other Cbriatian Prince or State, or were within the^boondev, lymytts 
or territories of that aonthem colony then before graanted by nor said 
late father, to be planted by diverB of hia loveing subjects in the sooth 
partes of America, That then this present grannt shall not extend to 
any such partes or parcella thereof soe formerly inhabited or lyeing 
within the boundes of the soatheroe plaotacon as aforesaide, bat as to 
those partes or parcelU soe possessed or inhabited by snch Christiaa 



Prince or State or being within the bounders aforesaid shalbe utterly 
Toydf their preeents or any thinge therein conteyned to the coiitrarie 
notwithstanding. To Have and to honld, poasesse and enioy the satde 
partes of Newe England io America which lye, extend and are abutted 
asaforraaide and every parte and parcell therof; And all the islandes, 
rlTeTB, portee, bavena, waters, fisbinge, flehea. mynes, minoralts, juns- 
dlccons, franchises, royalties, liberties, priviledges, comoditleB and prem> 
iees whataoerer with the appurtenances unto the said Sir Ilenry Roee- 
well. Sir John Tounge, Sir Richard Saltonstall, Tbomae Sonthcott. John 
Humfrey, John Eudecott, Simon Whetcombe, Isaack Johnson, Samuell 
Aldeney, John Yen, Mathewe Cradock, George Harwood, IncreaM 
Nowell. Richard Perry, Bichard Bellingham, Nathaniel Wright, Sam- 
uel Vaasall, Tbeophllns Eaton, Thomas Goffe, Thomas Adums, John 
Browne, Samnelt Browne, Thomas Hatcbons, William Yaasall, William 
Plncbeon and George Foxcroft, their heires and assignee foi-erer to the 
onlie proper and absolute urn and befaoufe of the said Sir Henry 
Roeewell, Sir John f ounge, Sir Richard Saltonetall, Thomas Soutbcott, 
John Hampbrey, John Endecott, Simon Whntcombe, Isaac Johnson, 
Samnell Aldersey, John Ven, Mathewe Cradocke, George Harwood, In- 
crease Nowell, Richard Pery, Bichard Belllngbam, Nathaniell Wright. 
Samuel Yaasall, Tbeopbtlus Eutoo, Thomas Goffe, Thomas Adams, John 
Browne, Samuell Browne, Thomas Hutcliena, William Yassall, AVilliam 
PIncheoD and George Foxcroft, their beires and assigaee forevermore. 
To be bolden of us, our heires and successors ne of our mannor of East- 
greenewicb, in our Ckiuntie of Keut, within our realme of England, in 
free and comoo socage, and not in capite nor by Knight's service ; and 
also yeilding and payeing therefore to ua, our heires and successora (he 
flfte parte onlie of all oare of ^uld and silver which from tymetotyme, 
and at all times hereafter, shalbe there gotten, had or obteyned for all 
aerrices, exaccons and demaundes whatsoever, Pro\ided alwaies and 
our expresae will and meanenge isThat onlte one-fifte parte of the gould 
and silver oare abovemencoed in the whole and noe more be reserved 
or payeable unto us, our beires and succeseors by collour nr verttie of 
their presents. The double reservacons or recitals aforesaid or any 
thinge herein conteyned notwitbatandiog. And foreosmuch as the good 
and proeperons successe of the plantacon of the saide parteR of Newe 
England aforeeaide intended by tbe said Sir Henry Roeewell, Sir Jnhn 
Younge, Sir Richard Saltonstall, Thomas Soutbcott, John Humphrey, 
John Endecott, Simon Whetcombe, Isaack Johnson, Samuell Aldersey, 
John Yen, Mathewe Cradock, George Harwood, Increase Noell, Richard 
Perry, Bichard Bellingham, Nathaniell Wright, Samnell Yaasal, Tbe- 
opbilus Eaton, Thomas GuSe, Thomas Adams, John Browne, Samuell 
Browne, Thomas Hutchena, William Vossall, William Pincbeon and 
George Foxcrofte to be speedily set upon, cannot but chiefly depend next 
under the blessing of Almightie God and the support uf our royal 
anthoritie npoD the good government of the same, To tbe ende that the 
affaires, bnyssiaesBes which ftom tyme to tyme shall happen and arise 
concerolnK the sold landes and tbe plantation of the same maie be the 
better managed and ordered. Wee have furiber, hereby, of ourespeciall 
grace, certan knowledge and meere mocon given, grauuted and confirmed 
And for us, our heires and successoredoe give, grauntaud confirme unto 
tbe saide tmstee and welbeloved subjects,Sir Henry Roeewell, Sir John 
ToDOge, Sir Richard Saltonstall, Thomas SouthcotC, John Humphrey, 
John Endecott, Simon \Yhetcombe, Isaack Johnson, Simon Aldersey, 
John Yen, Mathewe Cradock, George Harwood, Increase Nowetl, Rich- 
ard Pery, Richard Bellingham, Nathaniell Wright, Samuel Yaasal, The- 
opbilos Eaton, Thomas Goffe, Thomas Adams, John Browne, Samnell 
Browne, Thomas Hntcfaens, William Vasaall, William Pincbeon and 
George Foxcrofte: And for us, our heires and succenora wee will and 
ordeyne That the saide Sir Henry flosewell. Sir John Young, Sir Bichard 
Saltonstall, Thomas Soutbcott, John Humphrey, John Endecott, S) mon 
Whetcombe, Isaack Johnson, Samuel Aldersey, John Yen, Mathewe 
Cradock, George Harwood, Increase Noell, Richard Pery, Richard Bell- 
ingham, Nathaniell Wright, Samnel YasBall, Theopliilus E^ton, Thomas 
Goffe, Thomas Adama, John Browne, Samuell Browne, Thomas Hutch- 
ens, William Yaasall, William Pincbeon and George Foxcrofle and all 
snch others as shall hereafter be admitted and made free of the Com- 
pany and Society hereafter mencoed shall from tyme to tyme and at all 
^mes for ever hereafter be by vertne of tbeis presents one body cor- 
porate and politique, in fact and name, by the name of the Governor and 
Company of the Mattachuselts Bay, in Newe England : And them by 
tbe name of the Crovernor and Company of the Mattachusetts Bay in 
Newe England, one bodie politique and corporate in deede, fact and 
name. Wee doe for nt, our beires and successors make, ordeyne, consti- 
tota and conflrme by thels presents, and that by that name they shall 
hare parpetnall snocealon. And that by the same name they and their 

successors shall and maie be capeable and enabled, as well, to implead 
and to be impleaded, and to prosecute, demaund and auoFwere and be 
aunsweared unto on all and singular suites, causes, quarrelf) and accone, 
of what kiod or nature eoever. And also to have, Ixike, possesee, acquire 
and purchase auy laodea, tenemeuta or lieriditameuts or any goods or 
chattella, and (he same to leave, graunt, deniene, alien, bargaine, sell 
and dispose of as other our liege people of this our realme of England or 
any other corporacon or body politique of tbe same maie lawfnllie doe : 
And further that the said Governor and Companye and their eucceesors 
male have forever one conion eeale, to be used in alt causes and occa- 
sions of the said Company, and the game aeule maie alter, chatinge, 
breake and newe make from tyme to tyme at their pleasures, And our 
will and pleaaure is, And we do hereby, fur ua, our lieirea and aucceasors, 
ordeyne and g^untc That from henceforth, for ever, there shalbe one 
Governor, one Deputy Governor aud cigbteene aseistnuts of the same 
Company to be from tyme to tyme constituted, elected and L-liosen out of 
the freemen of the saide Company fur the tjme being in such manner 
and forme as hereafter in theia preaenta is expressed. Which t;aid offi- 
cers ahall applie themselvea to take care for the best (iisposeing and or- 
dering of the general! buyainee aud affitires of, for and concerning the 
saide lands and premisses hereby meocood to be graiinied, and the plan- 
tacion thereof, and the governnieut of the people theie. And for the 
better execucon of our royal pteaHure, and graunt in their behalf, wee 
iloe, by tbeia presents, for ua, our heires and successors, uoniinate, or- 
deyne, make and constitute our wet)>eloved, the isnide Mathewe Crad- 
ock, to be the first and pff^aent Governor of the fjaid fniupauy, aud tbe 
aaid Thomas Goffe to be Deputy Governor of thesaidf Company, and the 
«aid Sir Richard Saltonstall, Isaack .lohnson, Sdnmell Aldersey, John 
Ven, John Humphrey, John Eudecott, Simon W hetconibt-, Increase 
Noell, Richard Pery, Nathaniell Wright, Suniuell A'assall, Tlieoi>hilU8 
Eaton, Thomas Adamti, Thomas Hutchena, John Bron ne, George Fox- 
crofte. William Vassal I and AVjIlium Pincbeon ro he tbe present Assist- 
ants of the saide Company, to continue iu the saiiie aevenill offices re- 
apectivelie for sucli tyme and in t-iich manner un in and by theis pres- 
ents ia hereafter declared and appointeil. And further we will and by 
theis presenta for us, our heires and successors, doe unlayno and graunt, 
That tbe Governor of the saide Company, for the tyme being, or, in his 
absence, by occasion of slcknes, it other^vise, the Deputie tiovernur, for 
the tyme being, ahall have authoritle, from tyme to tyme, upon all oica- 
aions, to give order for the auscmbling of the snide ('ompHny and calling 
them together to consult and adviHe of the Uucinesses and affaires of the 
saide Company ; And that the said Governor, Deputie Governor and As- 
sistants of the saido Company, for the t}nie being, e>ha)l or maie, once 
every nionelb, or oftener,nttbeir pleasures assemble and houldeand keepe 
a Courte or Assemblie of themselves for the better ordering aud direct- 
ing of their affairea, .\nd that auy aeaven or more persons of the Assist- 
ants, together with the Governor or Deputie Governor, aoe aaeenibled, 
ijhalbe saide, taken, held and reputed to be and Bhalbc a full and suf- 
ficient Courte or Assemblie of the saide Comiiany for the haudliug, or- 
dering and dispatching of all such buysinessea and occuranta aa shall, 
from tyme, to tyme happen, touchiug or conceruiug the said Company 
or plantacon, and that there ahall or maie be held aud kept by the Gov- 
ernor or Deputie Governor of the said Company, aud seaven or more of 
tbe said Assistants, for the tyme being, upon every last Wednesday in 
Hillary, Eaater. Trinity aud Michas terms respectivelie, for ever, one 
greate general! and solempe Assemblie, which four Genendl Atg^embliea 
shalbe stiled and called the Foiire Create and Gcucrall Courts of the 
saide Company: In all and every or any of which said Create and 
Generall Courta aoe assembled We doo for ua, our heirea and ouccessors, 
give and praunte to the said Governor and Company and their auccessorH 
That the Governor, or, in his absence, the Deputie Governor of the saide 
Company, for tbe tyme being, and such of the Aasiatanta and freemen 
of tbe saide Company as shalbe present or the greater number of them 
soe assembled, whereof the Governor or Deputie Governor and six of the 
Aaaifitanta at tbe least, to be aeaveu ahall have full power and anthoritie 
to choose, nominate aud appoint; such, andsoo many others as they ahall 
thiuke fitt, and that shall l>e willing to accept the same to be free of the 
said Company and Body and them into the same to adniitt and to elect 
and constitute such ofTicprs as they shall think fitt and requisite for the 
ordering, mannaging aud dispatching of tbe affairea of the saide Gover- 
nor and Company and their successors. And to make lawes aud ordinn- 
ces for the good and welfare of the saide Company, and for the govern- 
ment and ordering of the eaid lands and plantacon, and the people in- 
habiting and to inbabite the aame as to them from tyme to tyme abalbe 
thought meet, Soe as such lawes and ordinances be not contrarie or re- 
pugnant to the lawea and statute of this our realme of England; And 


our will and pleasure is And we do hereby for us, our heires and suc- 
cespors, establish and ordeyne Tliat yearely once in the yeare forever 
liereafter, namely : the last Wednesday in Easter tearme yearely the 
Governor, Deputy Governor and Assiptants of the said Company, and all 
other officers of the saide Company shalbe in the Generall Court or 
Assembly, to be held for that day or tymo newly chosen for the yeare 
ensuelng by such greater parte of the said Company, for the tynie being, 
then and there preseut as is aforesaide ; And yf it shall happen the 
present GoTenior, Deputy Governor and Aasistanta by theis presents 
appointed, or such as shall hereafter )« newly choaen into their roomes 
or any of them or any other of the officers to be appointed for the said 
Company to dye or to be remouved from hia or their several! offices or 
places before the saide generati day of elecoo (whome we doe hereby de- 
clare for any misdemeanor or defect to be removeable by the GoTemor, 
Deputie Governor, .Vssistants and Company, orsuch greater parte of them 
in any of the publique Courts to he assembled as aforesaid), Tbat then 
and in every such case it shall and maie be lawfull to and for the Gov- 
ernor, Deputie Governor, Assistants and Company aforesaide or such 
greater parte of them soe to be assembled, as Is aloresaid, in any of their 
assemblies to proceade to a new eleccon of one or more others of their 
Company iu the roome or place, roomes ur places of such officer or offi- 
cers soe dying or removed according to their discrecons. And ymediately 
upon and after such eleccon and eleccons made of such Governor. Dep- 
utie Governor, Assistant or Assistants, or any other offlceniof the saide 
Company in manner and forme afuretuiid, the authoritie, office and 
power before given to the former Governor, Deputie Governor, or other 
officer and officers sife removed in whose steede and place newe shalbe 
soe chosen, shall as to him and them and everie of them, cease and de- 
termine. Provided also — and our will and pleasure i^ That as well such 
as are by theis presents appointed to be the present Governor, Deputie 
Governor and Assistants of the said Company as them tbat shall succeed 
them, and all other officers to he appointed and chosen as aforesaid, — 
shall, before they undertake the exaccon of their saide offices aud places 
respectivelle, take their corponli oathes for the due and faithfnll per- 
formance Df their duties in their severall offices and places t}t!fore sach 
person or persons as are by theis presents hereunder appointed to take 
and receive the same ; That is to saie, the said Mathewe Ct*adock — whoe 
is hereby nominated and appointed the present Gov«rnor of the saide 
Company — shall take the saide oathen before one or more of the Masters 
of our Courte of Chauncery, for the tyme being, unto which Master or 
Masters of the Chauncery Wee doe by theis presents give full power and 
authoritie to take and administer the said oathe to the uaid Governor 
accordingly. And after the saide Governor nhalbe soe sworne, then the 
said Deputy Governor anil Assistants— before by theis presents nomi- 
nated and appointed — ahall take the autl severall outhes to their offices 
and places reapectlvelie Iwlonging, before the said Mathew Cradock, the 
present (joveruor, soe fomierlie svvorne. :w aforesaide. .\nd every such 
person as shalbe at the tyme of the annunll eleccon, or otherwise, upon 
death or removeall, be appointed ti> be the newe Governor of the said 
Company, shall take the oathes to that place belonging, before the Dep- 
uty Governor or two of the Awietants of the said Company, at the least, 
for the tyme being. And the newe elected Depntte Governor and Assist- 
ants, and all other otficerB to he hereafter chosen, as aforesaide, from 
tyme to tyme. to take the oathes to their places respectivelie tKlonging, 
before the Governor of the said Company, for the tyme being, Unto 
which said Governor, Deputie Governor and Assistants Wee doe by theis 
presents give full power and authoritie to give and administer the said 
oaths respectively, according to our true meaning, herein before de- 
clared, without any comission or further warrant, to be had and ob- 
teyned of us, our heires or successors, in that behalf, And Wee doe far- 
ther, of our especiall grace, certain knowledge and meere raocon, for ns, 
our heires and successors, give and grannt to the said Governor and 
Company and their successors forever by theis presents That it shalbe 
lawfull and free for them and their aasignes at all and every tyme and 
tymes hereafter, oat of any oar realmeti or domynione whatsoever to 
take, leade, cary and transport for and into their voyages, and for and 
towards the said plantacon in Newe England, all sncb and soe many of 
oar loving gubjecta or any other strangers that will become oar loving 
subjects and live under onr allegiance, as shall willJDglie accompanie 
them in the same voyages and plantacon, and also shipping armour, 
weapons, ordenance, mnnicon, powder, shott, come, victaalls and all 
manner of clothing, implements, furniture, beaates, cattle, borves, 
mares; merchandizes and all other thinges necesaarie for the saide plsn- 
tacon, and for their use and defence, and for trade with the people there, 
and in passing and returning to and fro, any lawe or statute to the con- 
trarie hereof in any wise notwithstanding, and without payeing or yield- 

ing any CQStome, or subsedle, either Inward or outward, toua, our heires 
or successors for the same by the space of seaven yeares from the day of the 
dateoftbels presents, Provided that none of the saide persons be such as 
shalbe hereafter byespecioll name restrayned by us, our heires or succes* 
sors. And for their further encouragement of our eepeclall graca and favor 
wee doe by theis presents for ua, oar heirs and succesora, yield and grannt 
to the saide Governor and Company and their BuccesBora and every of 
them their factors and assignes. That they and every of them shalbe free 
and quitt from all taxes, subsidleB and customes in New England for the 
like space of aeaven ye&rv, and from all taxefl and impoeicoiu for the 
space of twenty and one yeares upon all goodes and merchandises at any 
tyme or tymes hereafter, either upon importacon thither or exportacon 
from thence into onrrealmeof England, or into any otherourdomyneons 
by the saide Governor and Company and their succeaBors, their deputies, 
factors and aasignes or any of them except onlie the five poundes per 
centum due for custome opon all such goodes and mercbandises aa after 
the aaide seaven yeares shalbe expired shalbe brought or imported into 
our realms of England or any of onr dominions according to the aun- 
cient trade of merchants, which five poande6 per centum onlie being palde 
it shall be thenceforth lawfull and free for the said adventurers the 
same goods and mercbandlBes to export and carry oat of our said domin- 
ions into forrane partes without any costome, tax or other dutte to be paid 
to na, oar heirs or sncceflsors, or to any other officers or ministers of us 
our heires and succeaBora. Provided that the said goodes and merchandise* 
be shipped out within tblrteene monethes after their first landing wlthia 
any parte of the saide domynions. And wee doe for us, our heirs and suc- 
cessors, give and grannte unto the saide Governor and Company and their 
successors Tbat whensoever or soe often as any custome or subeidle shall 
growe due or payiable unto us, our heirs or successors, according to the 
lymittacoQ and appointment aforesaide by reason of any goodes, wares, or 
merchandises to be shipped out or any retoroe to be made of any goodes, 
wares or merchandise onto or from the said partes of Newe Sngland 
hereby mencoed to be graunt«d as aforesaide or any the lands or terri- 
tories aforesaide. That then and soe often and in snch case the farmers, 
customers and officers of our costomes of England and Ireland and everie 
of them for the tyme being, upon reqnest mode to them by the saide 
Governor and Company or their succeasora, factors orassignes, and upon 
convenient security to be given in that t>e half, shall give and allows unto 
the said Governor and Company and their succeasoisand to all and everie 
person and persons free of that company as aforesaide six monethes tyme 
for the payemeot of the one half of all such cnstome and subsidy as 
shalbe due aud payeable unto us, our heirs and successors, for the same. 
For which theis our letters patents or the duplicate or the enroUm* 
thereof shalbe unto onr saide officers a sufficient warrant and discbarge. 
Nevertheless onr will and pleasure is Tbat If any of the saide goodes, 
wares and merchandise which be or sbalbe at any tyme hereafter landed 
or exported out of any of our realmes aforesaide and shalbe shipped with 
a purpose not to he carried to the partes of Newe England aforesaid, but 
to some other place. That then such payment, dutle, custome, Lmpoeicon or 
forfyture sbalbe paid or belonge to us, our heires and successora, for the 
said goodes, wares aud merchandise soe fraudulently sought to be trans- 
ported,as yf this our graunte had not been made nor graunted. And Wee 
doe further will. And by theis presents oar heira and socceBsors firmely 
enioine and comannde as well the Treasurer, Chauncellor and Barons of 
the Exchequer of ua, our heires and auccesaors, as also all and singular the 
customers, farmers, and collectors of the cnstomes, subsidies and imports 
and other the officers and ministers of ua, oar heirs and sacceasors, what- 
soever for the tyme being. That they and every of them upon the shew- 
ing forth unto them of these letters patents or the duplicate or exempil- 
flcacon of the same, without any other writtor warrant whatsoever from 
us, our heirs or successors, to be obteyned on said faith, doe and shall 
make full, whole, entire and due allowance and clears discharge unto 
the saide Governor and Company and their succeasoraof all cnstomes, 
subsidies, imposicons, taxes and duties whatsoever that shall or maie be 
claymed by us, our heirs and snccessora, of or from the said Governor and 
Company and their succeasora, for or by reason of the said goodes, chat- 
tells, wares, mercbandises and premises to be exported out of our saide 
domynions or any of them Into any parte of the saide landes or premises 
hereby mencoed to be given, graunted and conferred or for or by reason 
of any of the saide goodes, chattells, waresor merchandises to be import- 
ed &om the said landes and premises h^-reby mencoed to be given, 
graunted or conferred into any of our saide dominions or any part* 
thereof as aforesaide, exepring onlie the saide five poundes per centnm 
hereby reserved and payeable after the expiracon of the saide teime of 
seaven years as aforesaid and not before. And theis our letters patents 
or the enrollment, daplicate or exempliflcacon of the same shalbe for 



6Ter hereafter from time to tyme as well to the Treasurer, Chancellor 
and B&rons of the Exchequer, of as, oar heirea aod encceaK>ra« as to all 
and sliigiilar the cuBtomera, farmers and collectors of the cnstomea, sub- 
sidies and imports of us, our beiis and auccesBora, and all searchers and 
others, the officers and ministers whatsoever of as, our heirs and succes- 
sors, for the time beioga BUfflcleot warrant and discharge in this behalf, 
And farther oar will and pleasure ia, And Wee doe hereby for us, oar heirs 
aod sDcceaora, ordayne, declare and graunt to the saide Governor and 
Compaoy and their sacceflBora, That all and every of the subjects of 
ns, oar heirs or sacceasors, which shall goe to and inhabite within 
the saidee laneds and premises hereby mencoed to be graunted and 
every of their children which shall happen to be borne there on 
the seas in going thither or retomeing from thence shall have 
and enjoy all liberties and immnnitlea of free and natvrall subjects 
within any of the domynioDs of us, our heiers or successors, to all 
intents, construccoas and purposes whatsoever as yf they and everie 
of them were borne within the realme of England. And that the 
Governor and Deputie Governor of the said Company for the tyme 
being or either of them and any two or more of such of the saide 
Assistants as abalbe thereunto appointed by the said Governor and Com- 
pany at any of their courts or assemblies to be held as aforesaide shall 
and maia at all tymee, and from tyme to tyme hereafter, have full power 
and anthoritfe tn minister and give the oathe and oathes of sopremacie 
and allegiance or either of them to all and everie person and persons 
which shall at any tyme or tymes hereafter goe or passe to the lander 
and premises hereby mencoed to be graunted to inhabite the same. 
And wee doe, of our further grace, certen knowledg and meere mocon, 
give and grannt to the saide Governor and Company and thelruuccessors. 
That it shall and mate be lawfull to and for the Governor ur Deputie 
Governor and such of the Amistants and Freemen of the said Company, 
for the tyme being, usshalbe assembled in any of their General Coiirts 
aforesaide, or iu any other Courts to be specially sumoned and osBeni- 
bled for that purpose or the greater parte of them (whereof the Governor 
or Deputie Governor and six of the Assistants to be alwaleseeaven) from 
tyme to tyme to make, ordalne and establish all manner of wholesome 
and reasonable orders, lawes, statntas and ordlnnces, direccons and iu- 
stmccon not contrarie to the laws of this our realme of England, as well 
for setling of the formes and ceremonies of governmi, and magistracy 
fltt and necessery for the said plantacon aod the inhabitants there, and 
for n&melng aod stiliog of all sortee of otflcersbotb superior and inferior 
which they shall find needeful for that government and plantacon, and 
the distinguishing and setting forth of the severall duties, powers and 
lymitts of every such office and placu aod the formes of such uathes war- 
rantable by the laws and statntesof this our realme of Eoglaod, osshalbe 
respectlvetie mioistered unto them for the execucon of the said aeverull 
offices and places, as also for the disposing and ordering of theeleccooa uf 
such of the said officers as abalbe annual! and of auch others aa 
shalbe tosuccede in caseof death or renioveall, and ministring the said 
oathes to the newe elected officer? aod for impoeicons of lawfull fynes, 
mulcts, imprisonment or other lawfull correction according to the course 
of other corporacons in this our realme of England, and for the direct- 
ing, ruling and disposelng of all other matters aod thinges whereby 
oar said people inhabitants there maie be so religiously, peaceablie and 
ciTllly governed u their good life and orderlie conversacoo maie wyoo, 
and iodte the natives of country to the knowledge and obedience of the 
oolie true God and Saviour of mankinde and the Christian fayth, which in 
oar royal lotencon and the adventurers free profearion is the peacefull 
ende of this plantacon. Willing, comaonding and reqnireiog aod by 
their presents for ua, onr heira or snccenora, ordeyniog and appointing. 
That all such orders, lawen, statnts and ordinnces, instmccons and dii^c- 
con as shalbe soe made by the Governor and Deputie Governor of the 
said company and such of the Asaistanta and Freeman as aforesaide and 
published in writing under their comon seale shalbe carefollle and dulie 
observed, kept, pformed and putt in execucon according to the trua in- 
tent and meaning of the same, AikI theis our letters patents, or the du- 
plicate or exempllcacon thereof, shalbe to all and everie auch officer super- 
tor and inferior, fh)m tyme to tyme, for the putting of the same orders, 
lawes, statutes and ordinnces, instmccons and direccons in due exetucon 
against ua, our heirea and saccessora, a sufficient warrant and discharge, 
Aod wee doe further, for as, our heiree and successors, give aod graunt 
to tbs said Governor and Company and their successors by theis 
presents, That all and everie such chiefe comaundera, captainea, gover- 
noia and other officers and ministers aa, by the said orders, laws, statute, 
ordinnoM, tnstmccon or direccons of the said Governor and Company 
for ths tyme being, shalbe from tyme to tyme hereafter ymploied either 
la the government of the said inhabitants and plantacon ur in the waye 
by sea thither or from theoce according to the natures and lymytts of 

their offices and places respectively shall from tyme to tyme hereafter 
forever within the precincts and partes of Newe England hereby men- 
coed to be graunted and conformed or in the waie by sea thither or from 
thence, have full and absolute power and autboritie to correct, punishe, 
pardon, goveme and rule all such the subjects of us, our heirs and suc- 
cessors, as shall from tyme tn tyme adventure themselves in any voyadge 
thither or from thence or that shall at any tyme hereafter inhabite 
within the precincts and partes of Newe EngUnd aforesaid according to 
the orders, lawes, ordinnces, instruccons and direccons aforesaid not 
being repngnant to the lawes and statutes of our realme of England as 
aforesaid. And wee doe further, for us, our heirs and auccessors, give 
and grannte to the said Governor and Company and their successors by 
theis presents. That it shall and maie be lawfull to and for the chiefe 
coraannders, governors and officers of said company for the time being 
who shalbe resident in the said parte of Newe England in America by 
tbeispresents graunted and others there inhabiting by their appointment 
and direccon from tyme to tyme :iiid at all tyriifa hereafter for iheir 
speciall defence and nafety tniocounter, expnl^e, re|iell,aod res rat by force 
of amies as well by sea ;w by lande and by all titling wuies and means 
whatsoever, all such person and persons as rsliall at any tyme hereafter 
attempt or enterprise the destruccon, invasion, detriniKiit or anuoyaunce 
to the tiaid plantation or inhabitants; and to take snd surprise by all 
waies and meanes whatsoever all and every such pei^on and persona 
with their shippes, armour, nmnicon and other goodes as fhall in hostile 
luanuer invade or attempt the defeating uf the said phuitacon or the hurt 
uf thesanl roinpnny ami inhabitauts. Neverth^les. nur will and pleasure 
is, and wee doe hereby declare to all Chrialian Kiui^reti, Princes and states 
tbatyf any person or i>er8uns which shall hereafter be of the said Com- 
pany ur planlacuu, or any other by ]ycent>u or itpp<iintment uf the said 
Governor and Cunipany for the tyme being, aluill at any tyme ur tymes 
hereafter mbb or apoyle by sea or by land, ur dne any hurt, violence ur 
unlawful! hostility to any uf the subjects of us, our bcires or successors, 
ur any of the subjects uf any Prince nr State being then in league and 
umytie with us, our beires and auccessors, and that upon such iniury 
don and upon iust complaint of such Prince or State ur their subjects 
Wee, our heires or successors, uball make upon proclaniacon within any 
of tbe partes within our realme of England comodiuus fur that purpose. 
That the person or persons bavetng comltted any such ruberie or apoyle 
shall within the terme lymytted by such a proclainocun make full resti- 
tncon or aatisfaccon of all auch ininries don soe as the said Princes or 
others soe cuuiplayniog maie bould themselves fullie siitisfied and con- 
tented. And tbat yf the said person or persons having cnmitted such 
robbery or apoile shall not make or cause to be made satiafaccou accurd- 
inglie within such time soe to be lymytted, That then it »halbe lawfull 
fur us, our beires and successors, to putt tbe said pson or peons out of uur 
allegiance and proteccon : And that it abalbe lawfull and free for all 
Princes to prosecute with hoatilitie the said offendors and every of them, 
their and every of their procurers, aydere, abettors and comforters in 
that behalf. Provided also and our expresse will and pleasure ia, and 
wee due by theis presents fur us, onr heires and successors, ui-deyne and ap- 
point That theis presents shall not in any manner enure or be taken to 
abridge, barr or hinder any of our loving subjects whatsoever to use and 
exercise the trade of fishing upon that coast of New England in America 
by theis pesents mencoed to t>e gi-aunted ; But that they and every or 
any of them shall have full and free power eind liberty to continue and use 
their said trade of flshiog upon the said coast in any the seas thereunto 
adioyuing on any armes of the seas or saltwater rivers where they have 
byn wont to Aabe and to build and sett up upon the landes by theis 
presents graunted such wharfes, stages and workehouses as shalbe neces- 
sorie for the salting, drying, keeping and tacking up of their fish to be 
taken or gotten upon that coast ; and to cutt downe and take such trees 
and other materialls there groweing or t>eiug or shalbe needfuU for that 
purpose, and fell all other neces^arie easements, helpes and advantage 
concerning their said trade of flshiog there in such manner and form aa 
they have byo heretofore at any tyme accustomed to doe without mak- 
ing any wilful! waste or spoyle, anything in theis preaents conteyned to 
the contrarie notwithstanding. And Wee doe further fur us, our heireg 
and Bacceaurs, ordeyne and grauota to the said Governor and Company 
and their successors by theis presents, That theis, our lettera patents, 
shalbe flnne, good, effectuall and availeoble in all thinges and to all in- 
tents and constraccons of laws according to our true meaning herein 
before declared, and shalbe construed, reputed and adindged in all cases 
most favourable on the behalf and for the beoefitt and behoufe of the 
saide Governor and Company and their successors, although expresse 
menoon of the tme yearely value or certenty of the premisses or any of 
them or of any other gnifles or grauntes by us or any of our progenitors 
or predecessors to the foresaid Governor or Company before this time, 


niade in theis presentJ or not mado, or any Htatute, acte, ortliDnce, pro- 
TiflloQ, proclamacon or realrainte to the contrarie thereof heretofore had, 
made, publiahed, ordeyned or provided or any other matter, cauee or 
thinge whatsoeTer to the contrarie thereof in any wise notwithstanding- 
In witnes whereof wee have caiieed theis our letters to be mtide patents, 
Witnee ooiself at WeatminBter the fourth day of March, in the fourth 
yeare of our raigne 

" Per Breve de Private SIglllo, 


" Fnedict Mattbfpua Cmdoctte JuratuB est de Fide et Obedientia Eegi 
et Succeasoribus auia, et de Debita Exeqautione OfflcU Gulwmatoria 
inxta Tenoreoi P'sentium 18'>. Martij, 1628, Coram me Carolo Oeeare, 
Uilite in Cancellaria Mro. 

" Cbah. Cssae." 

By this charter the claim of John Gorges, the as- 
signee of his brother Robert, and also that of John 
Oldham and John Dorrill, the lessees of John, seem 
to have been extinguished. But another claim had, 
in the mean time, sprung up which it was necessarj' 
to silence before the Massachusetts Company could 
become unobstructed possessors under their charter. 
John Gorges, under the grant made to his brother by 
the Plymouth Council, conveyed, by a deed dated 
January 10, 1629. to Sir William Brereton, of Hand- 
forth, in the County of Chester, England, "all the 
land in breadth lying from the east side of Charles 
River to the easterly part off the cape called Nahant, 
and all the lands lying in length twenty miles north- 
east into the main land from the mouth of the said 
Charles River, lying also in length twenty miles into 
the main land northeast from the said Cape Nahant; 
also two islands lying next unto the shore between 
Nahant and Charles River, the bigger called Brereton 
and the lesser Susanna." This claim also was finally 
rejected by the Massachusetts Company with a propo- 
sition to the claimant, dated February 10, 1630, to 
join the company according to their charter and re- 
ceive all courteous respect and be accommodated with 
land and whatever might be necessary. 

Sir Henry Rosewell,Sir John Young and Thomas 
Southcott sold out their interest to John Winthrop, 
Isaac Johnson, Matthew Cradock, Thomas Goffe and 
Sir Richard Saltonstall, who, with John Humfrey, 
John Endicott and Simon Whitcomb, the remaining 
original grantees, formed a new company. The finan- 
cial affairs of the company were at first managed in 
England, and Matthew|Cradock, who had been named 
by the King as Governor, was chosen to that ofiBce. 
John Endicott was sent out with a company in the 
summer of 1G28, arriving at Salem in the ship "Abi- 
gail," on the 6th of September of that year. Endi- 
cott waa followed by Rev. Franciu Higginson, and 
about two hundred persons with him, embarking in 
the "George Boneventure," reaching New England 
on the 22d of June, and the " Talbot " and " Lion's 
Whelp " reaching New England on the 29th. WTiile 
Cradock remained the Governor of the company in 
England, Endicott was, in a certain sense, the Gov- 
ernor of the Colony, and so remained until the arrival 
of John Winthrop with the charter, in 1630. The 
" Boneventure " brought from the company a letter 

to Endicott, urging him to occupy the lands aboat 
Massachusetta Bay claimed by Oldham and Brereton, 
which extended from Charles River to Nahant along 
the coast and from five to twenty miles inland. They 
wrote as follows: 

** We fear that as be (Oldham) hath been obetioate Etnd violent in bla 
proceedings here, 80 he will peraist and be ready to draw a party to bim- 
eelf there to the great btodrmnce of the common qnlet ; we have, therefore, 
thought fit to give you notice of bla djapooition to the end you may be- 
ware how yon meddle with blm, aa alao yon may uae the beet means yon 
COD to settle an agreement with the old planters ao aa they may not 
hearken to Mr. Oldtiam's dangerous though vmine propositlona. 

" We pray yon and the council there to advise seriously together for 
the niaiotenaoce of our privileges and peaceable gitvemment, which, if it 
may be done by a temperate course, we mucll desire it, though with some 
inconvenience so as our government and privileges be not brought in 
contempt, wishing rather there might b& such an union as might draw 
the heathen, by our good example, to the embracing of Christ and his 
Gospel, than that offence should be given to the heathen and a sca n dal to 
oar religion throagh our dieogreement amongst otuselves. But if ne- 
cessity reqnire a more severe coarse when fair means will not prevail, 
we pray yon to deal as in yonr discretion you ahall think fittest for the 
general good and safety of the pUutatlon and preservation of our privi- 
leges. And becanse we would not omit to do anything which might 
strengthen our right wn would have you (as soon as the ships or any of 
them arrive with you, whereby you may have men to do it) send forty or 
fifty persons to Uaaachasetta Bay to iaiiabit there, which we pray yon 
not to protract bnt to do it with ail speed ; and if any of our company In 
particular ahall desire to settle themselves there or to send servants 
thither we desire all accommodatioa and encouragement may be given 
them thereunto whereby the better to strengthen oar posseflsion there 
against allor any that shall intrude upon us which we would not have 
you by any means give way unto ; with this caution notwithstanding — 
That for such of our coantrynien as you find there planted so as they 
be willing to live under government yon endeavor to give them all fit- 
ting and due accommodation as to any of ourselves ; yea, if you see cause 
for it, though if It be with more than ordinary privileges in point of 

In accordance with the above instructions, on the 
24th of June, only two days after the arrival of the 
" Boneventure," Thomas Graves and Rev. Francb 
Wright arrived at Charlestown from Salem, and, as it 
is now agreed, gave the date to the foundation of that 

On the 20th of October, 1629, at " a Generall Court 
holden in England, at Mr Goffe the Deputye's House,'' 
the record states that 

" Now the Coart proceeding to the election of a new t^nemor, Depa- 
tie and Assistants, which upon seriotis deliberation hath been and is con- 
ceived to be for the especial good and advancement of their affairs, and 
having received extraordinary great commendations of Hr John Win- 
throp both for bis integrity and anfflciency as being one every way weU 
fitted and accomplished for the place of Governor, did put in nomination 
for that place the said Hr. John Winthrop, Sir R. Saltonstall, Mr. Isaac 
Johnson and Mr. John Hnrofreys ; and the said Mr. Winthrop was with 
a general vote and full consent of this court by erection of bands chosen 
to be Governor for the ensaing year, to begin on this present day ; who 
was pleased to accept thereof and thereupon Took the oath to that place 
appertaining. In like rrranner and with like tree and full consent Mr. 
John Humfrey waa chosen Deputy Governor, and 

" Sir B : Saltonstall Mr Thomas Sliarpe 

Mr Isaac Johnson Mr John Bevell 

Mr Thomas Dudley Mr Matt : Cradock 

Mr Jo : Endecott , Mr Thomas Goffe 

Mr Noel I Mr Alderaey 

Mr Wm Vaasall Mr John Venn 

Mr Wm PInchon Mr Nath : Wright 

Mr Sam : Sharps Mr Theopfa : Eaton 

Mr ijklw : Bossiter Mr Tbo : Adams 

were chosen to be Anlstanta ; which said Deputy and the greatest part 



of the said Ajsistants beiug present took the oaths to their said places 
appertaining respectirelj.*' 

In April, 1630, Winthrop sailed from England and 
arrived in Massachusetts on the 12th of June, at once 
assaming power in the place of Endicott as Governor 
under the charter which he had brought with him. 

The first Ckturt of Assistants, according to a statement 
of Johnson, in " Wonder- Working Providence," was 
heldatCharlestown, August 23d,on the ship "Arbella." 
The date mentioned is probably correct, but the place 
of the meeting has been doubted by antiquaries. At 
that meeting it was ordered that the next meeting 
should be held at the Giovernor's house on the 7th of 
September and the third meeting was held at the same 
place September 28th. 

On the 19th of October the first General Court was 
held in Boston, and at its first session an important 
change was made in the form of government. The 
record states that at this General Court " it was pro- 
pounded if it were not the best course that the free- 
men should have the power of choosing assistants 
when they are to be chosen, and the assistants from 
amongst themselves to choose a Governor and Deputy 
Governor, who with the .issistants shall have the 
power of making laws and choosing officers to exe- 
cute the same. This was fiilly assented unto by the 
general vote of the people and erection of hands." 
Thus the only power retained by the freemen or 
people was the power to choose Assistants. 

At a General Court held at Boston on the 9th of 
May, 1632, another change was made, and "it was gen- 
erally agreed upon by erection of hands that the Gov- 
ernor, Deputy Governor and assistants should be 
chosen by the whole court of Governor, Deputy Gov- 
ernor, Assistants and freemen, and that the Governor 
shall always be chosen out of the assistants." 

At a General Court held on the 14th of May, 1G34, 
still more power was assumed by the people. " It was 
agreed that none but the General Court hath power 
to choose and admit freemen." " That none but the 
General Court hath power to make and establish laws 
nor to elect and appoint officers as Governor, Deputy 
Governor, Assistants, Treasurer, Secretary, Captain, 
Lieutenants, Ensigns or any of like moment, or to re- 
move such upon misdemeanor, as also to set out the 
duties and powers of the said officers." " That none 
bat tb& General Court hath power to raise moneys 
and taxes and to dispose of lands, viz., to give and con- 
firm proprieties." An important change was also 
made at this court in the constitution of the court it- 
self. It was ordered "that it shall be lawful for the 
freemen of every plantation to choose two or three of 
each town before every General Court to confer of and 
prepare such public business as by them shall be 
thought fit to consider of at the next General Court, 
and that such persons as shall be hereafter soe deputed 
by the freemen of the several plantations to deal in 
their behalf in the public affairs of the Commonwealth 
shall have the full power and voices of .ill the said 

freemen derived to them for the making and estab- 
lishing of laws, granting of lands, etc., and to deal in 
all other atfairs of the Commonwealth wherein the 
freemen have to do, the matter of election of magis- 
trates and other officers only excepted, wherein every 
freemen is to give his own voice." 

For the election of officers the whole body of free- 
men met annually in the meeting-house in Boston, 
but at last the inconvenience of this arrangement was 
found to be so great that it was provided that Salem, 
Ipswich, Newbury, Saugus, Weymouth and Hingham 
might retain as many of their freemen at home at the 
annual elections as the safety of the towns required, 
and that the votes of them might be sent by proxy. 
A general law was passed at a later date to the same 
effect applicable to all the freemen in all the towns. 

Through all these changes such judicial power as 
existed was in the hands of the Court of Assistants. 
At first the Assistants and Deputies met together, but 
in 1644 it was agreed that the two branches should sit 
apart aini that each should have a negative on the 
other. Under this new arrangement the (Tovernor 
presided in tlie Court of Assistants and the office of 
Speaker was appointed for the popular branch, which 
had now become a Court of Deputies. In this form 
the General Court became the model from which the 
General Court of our own day took its shape. 

During the colonial period the Governors were : 
John Endicott, 1020, 1044 to 1045, 1649 to 1650, 1651 
to 1654, 1655 to 1065 ; John Winthrop, 1630 to 
1634, 1637 to 1640, 1642 to 1644, 104<; to 1649; 
Thomas Dudley, 1634 to 1635, 1640 to 1641, 1645 to 
1646, 1650 to 1051; John Haynes, 1635 to 1636; 
Henry Vane, 1036 to 1637; Richard Bellingham, 
1641 to 1642, 1654 to 1655, 1665 to 1672 ; John Lev- 
erett, 1672 to 1679 ; Simon Bradstreet, 1679 to 1686, 
1689 to 1692. From 1686 to 1689 Joseph Dudley and 
Edmund Andros had jurisdiction over New England 
by appointment of the K'ng. 

The Deputy Governors were : Thomas Dudley, 1629 
to 1634, 1637 to 1640. 1046 to 1650, 1651 to 1653; 
Roger Ludlow, 1634 to 1635; Richard Bellingham, 
1635 to 1636, 1640 to 1641, 1653 to 1654, 1655 to 1665; 
John Winthrop, 1636 to 1637, 1044 to 1646; John 
Endicott, 1641 to 1644, 1050 to 1651,1654 to 1655; 
Francis Willoughby, 1605 to 1671 ; John Leverett, 
1671 to 1673 ; Samuel Symonds, 1673 to 1678 ; Simon 
Bradstreet, 1678 to 1679 ; Thomas Danforth, 1679 to 
1686, 1689 to 1692. During the careers of Dudley 
and Andros, 1686 to 1689, there was no Deputy-Gov- 

The assistants were: Humphrey Atherton, Samuel 
Appleton, Isaac Addington, Simon Bradstreet, Rich- 
ard Bellingham, Robert Bridges, Peter Bulkley, Wil- 
liam Browne, William Coddington, Thomas Clarke, 
Elisha Cooke, Thomas Dudley, Joseph Dudley, Rich- 
ard Dummer, Daniel Denison, Thomas Danforth, 
Humphrey Davy, John Endicott, Thomas Flint, 
Daniel Fisher, Edward Gibbons, John Glover, Daniel 



Grookin, Bartholomew Gednej, Elisha Hutchinson, 
John Humphrey, John Haynes, Atherton Hough, 
Roger Harlakenden, William Hibbens, William 
Hawthorne, John Hull, John Hawthorne, Isaac 
Johnson, William Johnson, Roger Ludlow, Eliezer 
Lusher, John Leverett, Increase Nowell, Samuel 
Nowell, Robert Pike, William Pynchon, Herbert 
Pelham, John Pynchon, Oliver Purchase, Edward 
Rossiter, Richard Russell, John Richards, Samuel 
Sewall, Thomas Savage, Richard Saltonstall, Richard 
Saltonstall, Jr., Thomas Sharp, Israel Stoughton, 
William Stoughton, Samuel Symonds, Nathaniel Sal- 
tonstall, John Smith, Edward Tyng, Peter Tilton, Wil- 
liam Vassall, Henry Vane, John Woodbridge, Fran- 
cis Wiiioughby, Thomas Wiggin, Simon Willard, 
John Winthrop, John Winthrop, Jr. 

The Speakers of the House of Deputies during the 
same period, beginning May 29, 1644, were : William 
Hawthorne, May 29, 1644, r,o October 2, 1645, May 6, 
1646, to November 4, 1646, May 10, 1648, to 
October 18, 1648, May 23, 1650, to October 15, 
1650, May 6, 1657, to May 19, 1658, May 22, 1661, 
to May 7, 1662 ; George Cooke, October 2, 1645, to 
May 6, 1646 ; Robert Bridges, November 4, 1646, to 
May 26, 1647 ; Joseph Hill, May 26, 1647, to October 
18, 1647 ; Richard Russell, October 18, 1647, to May 
10, 1648, October 18, 1648, to May 2, 1649, May 3, 
1654, to May 23, 1055 ; May 14, 1656, to May 6, 1657, 
May 19, 1658, to May 11, 1659; Daniel Denison, May 

2, 1649, to May 23, 1650, October 14, 1651, to May 
27, 1652; Daniel Gookin, May 7, 1651, to October 
14, 1651 ; Humphrey Atherton, May 18, 16.53, to May 

3, 1654; Edwiird Johnson, Jlay 23, 1655, to May 14, 
1656; Thomas Savage, May 11, 1659, to May 22, 
lOtil, May 31, 1671, to May 15, 1672, May 24, 1677, 
to May 28, 1679 ; Thomas Clarke, May 7, 1662, to 
May 27, 1663, May 3, 1665, to May 23, 1666, May li), 
1669, to May 31, 1671; John Leverett, May 27, 1663, 
to May.3, 1665 ; Richard Waldron, May 23, 1666, to 
May 19, 1669, May 7, 1073, to January 6, 1673-74, 
May 27, 1674. to February 21, 1675-76, May 28, 1679, 
to February 4, 1679-80; Joshua Hubbard, January 
6, 1073-74, to May 27, 1674; Peter Bulkley, Febru- 
ary 21, 1675-76, to May 24, 1677 ; John Richards, 
February 4, 1679-80, to .May 19, 1680; Daniel Fisher, 
May 19, 1680, to May 16, 1683; Elisha Cooke, May 
16, 1683, to May 7, 1684; John Wayt, May 7, 1684, 
to May 27, 1685 ; Isaac Addington, May 27, 1685, to 
May 12, 1686; John Saffin, May 12, 1686. 

The other officers of the Colony provided for at an 
early date were treasurer, commissioners of the Uni- 
ted Colonies, secretary and beadle or marshal. The 
treasurers were : Richard Bellingham, May 17, 1637, 
and June 6, 1639; Wm. Coddington, May 14, 1634; 
Richard Dummer, May 25, 1636; William Pynchon, 
Sept. 4, 1632; William Tyng, May 13, 1640-June 2, 
1641 ; Richard Russell, November 13,1644; John HulL 
May 3, 1676; James Russell, May 9, 1680; Samuel 
Nowell, May 11, 1686; John Usher, June 1, 1686. 

The secretaries were: William Burges, chosen May 
13,1629; Simon Bradatreet, 1630; Increase Nowell, 
June 6, 1639, May 13, 1640, June 2, 1641; Edward 
Rawson, May 22, 1650 ; Edward Randolph, Septem- 
ber 21, 1685. 

The commissioners of the United Colonies of Plym- 
outh, Massachusetts, Connecticut and New Haven 
were: John Winthrop, chosen 1643-46; Thomas 
Dudley, 1643, '47-49 ; Simon Bradstreet, 1644, '48-54, 
'56-61, '63-67 ; William Hathcrne, 1644, '50-54, "73 ; 
Herbert Pelham, 1645; Daniel Denison, 1655-57, 
'59-62; John Endicott, 1646-48, '58; Thomas Dan- 
forth, 1662-79; John Leverett, 1668-69; William 
Stoughton, 1674-76, '80-86 ; Joseph Dudley, 1677-79; 
Peter Bulkley, 1682-83 ; Samuel Nowell, 1684-86. 

The beadles or marshals, who were somewhat anal- 
ogous to the sheriffs of the present day, were : James 
Penn, appointed by the Court September 25, 1634 ; 
Edward Michelson, who is mentioned in the records 
of the Court May 27, 1668, as having occupied the 
office " divers years ; " John Greene, chosen May 27, 
1681 ; and Samuel Gookin, appointed in 1691. 

The above lists are confined to officers appointed 
or chosen after the Massachusetts Company was es- 
tablished in New England, and are inserted by the 
writer in this sketch of Middlesex County, together 
with other matters relating to the early history of the 
Colony, to show the ground-work and foundation on 
which the counties into which the Colony became 
divided rested. 

Until 1639 the whole judicial power rested with the 
Court of Assistants. On the 9th of September of 
that year it was enacted by the General Court that 
" for as much as the businesses of the ordinary Court 
of Assistants are so much increased a.s they cannot 
be despatched in such season as were fit, it is therefore 
ordered that such of the magistrates as shall reside 
in or near to Boston or any five, four or three of them, 
the Governor or Deputy to be one, shall have power 
to assemble together upon the last fifth day of the 
eighth, eleventh, second and fifth months every year, 
and then and there to hear and determine all civil 
causes whereof the debt or trespass and damages shall 
not exceed twenty pounds, and all criminal causes 
not extending to life or member or banishment accord- 
ing to the course of the Court of Assistants, and to 
summon juries out of the neighbor towns, and the 
marshal or necessary officers are to give their attend- 
ance as at other Courts." 

It had been previously been enacted on the 3d of 
March, 1635-36, that 

" there ahall be four coorts kept ererj quarter — ODe at Ipowich, to 
wbtcb Newbary eball belong ; two at Salem, to which Saagaa shall be- 
loDg ; two at NewtowD to which CharltoQ (Charleetown), Coocord, Hed- 
ford and WatertowD shall belong ; four at Boeton, to which Boxburf, 
Dorchester, Wejmoutb and Uiogham shall belong. 

** Every of these courts shall be kept by sach magistrates as dnall be 
dwelling in or near the said towns, and by such other persons of worth 
as shall from time to time be appointed by the General Conrt ao as no 
court shall be kept without one magistrate at the least, and that none 
of the magistrates be excluded who can and will attend the same ; yet 


the General Coort shall appoiDt which of the mAgistrates shall specially 
belong to every of the said court. Snch persons as shall be joined aa 
aaBociatea to the magistrates in the said conrt shall be chosen by the Gen- 
eral Court out of a greater number of such as the several towns shall 
Dominate to them so as there may be in every of the said courts so 
many as (with the magistrates) may malfe five in all. These courts shall 
try all civil cases whereof the debt or damage shall not exceed ten 
pounds, and all criminal canseii not concerning life, member or banish, 
ment. And if any p6fw>n shall find himself grieved with the sentence 
of any of the said courts he may appeal to the next great quarter court 
provided that he pat in sufficient caution to present bis appeal with ef- 
fect and to abide the sentence of the magistrates in the said great quar. 
ter court, who shall see that all such that shall bring any appeal with- 
out just canse be exeraplarily punished. 

" There shall be four great Quarter Courts kept yearly in Boston by 
the Governor and the rest of the magistrates : the firat, the first Tuesday 
in the fourth month, called June ; the second, the first Tuesday in Sep- 
tember; the third, the flrrt Tuesday in December ; the fourth, the first 
Tuesday in the first month, called March." 

It must be remembered that the assistants were 
called magistrates, and therefore still retained after 
the above enactments judii-ial power. On the 25th of 
May, 1636, the following magistrates and other per- 
sona were appointed by the General Court to hold the 
courts referred to in the above enactment of the pre- 
vious March, to wit : For Salem and Saugus, John 
Humphrey, John Endicott, magistrates or assistants, 
Capt. Turner, Mr. Scruggs and Mr. Townsend His- 
hopp, associates ; for Ipswich and Newbury, Thomas 
Dudley, Richard Dummer, Simon Bradstreet, magis- 
trates, and Mr. Saltonstall and Mr. Spencer, associ- 
ates ; for Newtown, Charlestown, Medford and Con- 
cord, John Haynes. Roger Harlakenden, Increase 
Nowell, magistrates, and Mr. Beecher and Mr. 
Peakes, associates ; for Boston, Roxbury, Dorchester, 
Weymouth and Hingham, Richard Bellingham, Wil- 
liam Coddington, magistrates, and Israel Stoughton, 
William Hutchinson and William Heath, associates. 

On the 6th of June, 1639, it was enacted that "for 
the more speedy dispatch of all causes which shall 
concern strangers who cannot stay to attend the ordi- 
nary courts of justice, it is ordered that the Governor 
or Deputy, being assisted with any two of the mag- 
istrates (whom he may call to him to that end), shall 
have power to hear and determine (by a jury of twelve 
men or otherwise, as is used in other courU) all causes 
which shall arise between such strangers or wherein 
any such stranger shall be a party, and all records of 
snch proceedings shall be transmitted to the secretary 
(except himself be one of the magistrates who shall 
atisist in hearing such causes), to be entered as trials in 
other courts at the charge of the parties. This order 
to continue till the General Court in the seventh 
month come twelve month and no longer." 

These various enactments show the condition of 
governmental affairs and the distribution of judicial 
powers at the time of the division of the Massachu- 
setts Colony into counties in 1643. On the 10th of 
May in that year it was enacted " that the whole 
plantation within this jurisdiction is divided into 
four shires. 

"Essex shire — Salem, Lynn, Enon, Ipswich, Row- 
ley, Newbury, Gloucester and Chochicawick. 

"Mdd/e»er— Charlestown, Cambridge, Watertown, 
Sudbury, Concord, Woburn, Medford, Linn Village. 

"Suffolk — Boston, Roxbury, Dorchester, Dedham, 
Braintree, Weymouth, Hingham, Nantasket. 

"Xorfolk — Salisbury, Hampton, Haverhill, Exeter, 
Dover, Strawberry Bank." 

In order that the reader may not be misled it is 
proper to state that the Norfolk County as above 
formed was extinguished by the General Court on the 
4th of February, 1679-80, after New Hampshire be- 
came a royal province, and its Massachusetts towns 
were annexed to Essex County. In Middlesex County 
the towns forming it were incorporated or founded as 
follows: Charlestown, June 24, 1629; Cambridge, 
Sept. 8, 1633; Watertown, Sept. 7,1630; Sudbury, 
Sept. 4, 1639 ; Concord, Sept. 2, 1635 ; Woburn, May 
18, 1642; Medford, Sept. 28, 1630; Linn Village, 
which was incorporated as Reading after the county 
was formed, May 29, 1684. Of these, Charlestown 
was incorporated as a city February 22, 1847, 
and annexed to Boston May 14, 1873 ; and Cambridge 
was incorporated as a city March 17, 1846. 

In Essex County, Salem was incorporated June 24, 

1629, as a town, and as a city March 23, 1836 ; Lynn 
(formerly Saugus), Nov. 20, 1637, as a town, and as a 
city April 10, 1850; Enon (now Wenham), was incor- 
porated May 10, 1643; Ipswich, Aug. 5, 1634; Row- 
ley, Sept. 4, 1639 ; NewbUry, May 6, 1635; Glouces- 
ter, as a town May 22, 1639 ; as a city May 26, 1871 ; 
and Chochicawick (now Andover), May 6, 1646. 

In Norfolk County, Salisbury was incorporated 
Oct 7, 1640 ; Haverhill as a town in 1645, and as a 
city March 10, 1869. Hampton, Exeter, Dover and 
Strawberry Bank (now Portsmouth), were included 
within the limits of New Hampshire. 

In Suffolk County, Boston was incorporated as a 
town Sept. 7, 1630, as a city Feb. 23, 1822 ; Roxbury, 
as a town Sept. 28, 1630, as a city March 12, 1846. 
annexed to Boston June 1 , 1867 ; Dorchester, Sept. 7, 

1630, annexed to Boston June 4, 1869 ; Dedham, 
Sept. 8, 1636; Braintree, May 13, 1640; Weymouth, 
Sept. 2, 1635 ; Hingham, Sept. 2, 1635 ; and Nantas- 
ket (now Hull), May 29, 1644. 

When the present Norfolk County was incorpor- 
ated, March 26, 1793, all the towns above mentioned 
in Suffolk County, except Boston, were included in 
the new county. Hingham and Hull, being dissatisfied 
with their new connection, were subsequently, at the 
same session of the General Court, exempted from 
the act of incorporation, and were finally annexed to 
Plymouth County. 

In addition to the towns above mentioned as a part 
of Middlesex County, Acton was incorporated July 3_ 
1735; Arlington, February 27, 1807 (name changed 
from West Cambridge, April 30, 1867) ; Ashby, March 
5, 1767 ; Ashland, March 16, 1846 ; Ayer, Febuary 14, 
1871 ; Bedford, September 23, 1729 ; Belmont, March 
18, 1859 ; Billerica,May 29, 1655 ; Boxborough, Feb- 
ruary 25, 1783 ; Brigbtou, February 24, 1807 ; Bur- 


lington, February 28, 1799; Carlisle, April 28, 1780; 
Chelmsford, May 29, 1655; Dracut, February 26, 
1701 ; Dunstable, October 15, 1673 ; East Sudbury, 
April 10, 1780 (name changed to Wayland, March 11, 
1835); Everett, March 9, 1870; Framingham, June 
25, 1700 ; Groton, May 25, 1655 ; HoUiston, Decem- 
ber 3, 1724; Horfkinton, December 13, 1715; Hud- 
son, March 19, 1866 ; Lexington, March 29, 1712 ; 
Lincoln, April 19, 1754; Littleton, November 2, 
1714; Lowell as a town, March 1, 1826 (aa a city, 
August 5, 1836) ; Maldea as a town, May 2, 1649 (as a 
city, March 31, 1881); Marlborough, Maj» 31, 1660; 
Maynard, April 19, 1871; Melrose, May 3, 1850; 
Natick as a district in 1762 (aa a town February 10, 
1781) ; Newton as a town, January 11, 1688 (aa a citj', 
June 2, 1873); North Reading, March 22, 1853; 
Pepperell. April 6,1753; Sherborn, May 27, 1764; 
Shirley, January 5, 1753; Somerville aa a town, 
March 3, 1842 (as a city, April 14, 1871); South 
Reading, February 25, 1812 (name changed to Wake- 
field, June 30, 1868); Stoneham, December 17, 1725; 
Stow, May 16, 1683 : Tewksbury. December 23, 1734 ; 
Townsend, June 29, 1732 ; Tyngaborough as a dis- 
trict, June 22, 1789 (as a town, February 23, 1809) ; 
Waltham as a town, January 4, 1737 (as a city, June 
2,1884); Wayland, April 10,1780; Westford, Sep- 
tember 23, 1729 ; Weston, January 1, 1712; Wilming- 
ton, September 25, 1730 ; Winchester, April 30, 1850. 

The town of Acton contains a part of Concord ; Ar- 
lington of Cambridge; Ashby of Townsend, Fitchburg 
and Ashburnham ; Ashland of Hopkinton, Framing- 
ham and Holliston ; Ayer of Groton and Shirley ; 
Bedford of BiUerica and Concord ; Belmont of Arling- 
ton, Watertown and Waltham; Boxborough of Stow, 
Harvard and Littleton ; Brighton of Cambridge; Bur- 
lington of Woburn. Cambridge haa had annexed to 
it parts of Charlestown and Watertown ; Carlisle of 
Concord, Acton, Chelmsford and Billerica. Charles- 
town has had annexed to it part of Medford ; Dun- 
stable of Groton ; Everett of Maiden ; Framingham 
6f Holliston; Groton of Pepperell;' Holliston of 
Sherborne; Hudson of Marlboro', Bolton and Stow ; 
Lexington of Cambridge and Burlington ; I^incolnof 
Concord, Lexington and Weston ; Lowell of Chelms- 
ford, Tewksbury and Dracut; Maiden of Medford; 
Marlborough of Framingham and Southborough ; 
Maynard of Stow and Sudbury ; Medford of Maiden 
and Everett ; Melrose of Maiden and Stoneham ; 
Natick of Sherburne; Newton part of Boston ; North 
Reading of Reading; Pepperell of Groton; Shirley 
of Groton ; Somerville of Charlestown ; Stoneham of 
Charlestown; Tewksbury of Billerica; Tyngaborough 
of Dunstable; Wakefield of Reading; Waltham of 
Watertown and Newton ; Wayland of Sudbury ; 
Westford of Chelmsford ; Weston of Watertown ; 
Wilmington of Woburn and Reading; Winchester of 
Woburn, Medford and West Cambridge. 

A large part of Middlesex County in the earliest 
colonial times waa occupied by two Indian nationa : 

the Pawtacketa and the Massachusetts. The Massa- 
chusetts, whose chief sachem waa Chikatanbut, had 
been a powerful nation and occupied a territory ex- 
tending from Charles River on the north and west to 
Weyworth and Canton on the south and east. At the 
time of the arrival of Winthrop its numbers had much 
diminished, having suffered from the same scourge 
which had carried off the tribes in and abont Plym- 
outh in 1616, and from the effects of which it had 
never recovered. The Pawtuckets extended fivm 
Charles River as far as Piscataqua on the east, and 
Concord, New Hampshire, on the north. Their nation 
included the Pennakooks or Concord Indians; the 
Agawomes or Ipawich Indians ; the Naumkeeks about 
Salem ; the Pascatawayes and Accomentas at York, 
and along the coast of Maine. The sachem of the 
Pawtuckets waa Nanepashemit, or the New Moon, who 
lived in the neighborhood of what is now Lynn. In 
1637 the aquaw sachem or widow of Nanepashemit, 
who had continued his government, conveyed to the 
English a large tract of land, and in 1639 a tract ot 
land, which is now within the limits of Charlestown 
and Somerville, was conveyed by her to the town of 
Charlestown. In 1644 she, with other sachems, sab- 
mitted themselves to the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. 

Since the incorporation of the county the following 
changes in the county lines have been made: The in- 
corporation of the town of Ashby, March 5, 1767, 
took a portion of Ashburnham and Fitchburg, in 
Worcester County ; the incorporation of Boxborough, 
February 25, 1783, took a portion of Harvard, in Wor- 
cester County. The annexation of Charlestown to 
I Boston, May 14, 1873, and the annexation of Brifhton 
10 Boston, May 21, 1873, added those places to Suffolk 
County ; the incorporation of Harvard, in Worcester 
County, gave a portion of Groton and Stow to Wor- 
cester; a part of Holliston was annexed to Milford, in 
Worcester County, April 1, 1859; the incorporation of 
Upton, in Worcester County, June 14, 1735, gave a 
part of Hopkinton to Worcester ; the incorporation of 
Bolton, June 24, 1738, Northborough, January 24, 
1766, and Southborough, July 6, 1727, gave a part of 
Marlborough to Worcester. There were some defini- 
tions of town boundaries which may have slightly 
changed the county lines. These were the lines 
between Holliston, Hopkinton and Medway, March 
27, 1835 ; between Natick and Wayland, April 20 
1850; between North Reading and Lynnfield, May 
27, 1857 ; between Wakefield and Lynnfield, April 2, 

Middleaex County, of which Cambridge and Lowell 
are the shires, is situated in the northeast central part 
of Massachusetts, and has an area of a little more than 
eight hundred square miles. It is bounded on the 
north by Essex County and the State of New Hamp- 
shire, on the east by Essex and Suffolk Counties, on 
the south by Norfolk County, and on the west by 
Worcester County. It is watered by the Charles, 
Concord, Merrimack and Nashua Rivera and several 



smaller streams, and is so thoroughly intersected by 
railroads as to make Boston easily accessible to almost 
every town. The business of the county is chiefly 
manufactnring and agricultural, though the latter 
interest is showing symptoms of a positive decline. 
Market gardening has largely increased in the towns 
near Boston, and this branch of agricultural industry 
never was more prosperous than to-day. The field of 
its activity has been pushed, however, farther from the 
city as the city grows and available lands near its 
limits become needed for residences of city business- 
men. The conversion of farms into town lots has 
largely enhanced their value and made owners who 
for many years struggled for a livelihood men of 
wealth and ease. The following list shows the popu- 
lation and property valuation of each town accord- 
ing to the census of 1885 : 





Acton .... 

. 1785 


Muynard . . 

. 2703 


Arlington . . 

. 4673 


Medford . . 

. 9042 


Aahby . . . 

. 871 


Melrose . . . 

. 6101 


Ashland . . 

. 2C.-« 


Natick . . . 



Ayer .... 

. 2190 


Newton . . . 



Bedford. . . 

. 930 


North Beading 



Belmont . . 

. 1639 


Pepperell . . 

. 2587 


Billerica . . 

. 21fil 


Beading . . 

. 3539 





Snerborn . . 

. 1391 


Burlington . 

. 634 


Shirley . . . 

. 1242 


Cambridge . 



Somerville . 



CarllBle . . 

. 520 


Stonebam . . 

. 50.19 


Chelmsford . 

. 2304 


Stow .... 

. 976 


Concord . . 

. 3727 


Sudbury . . 

. 1105 


Dracat . . . 

. 1927 


Tewksbury . 

. 23:vi 


Dunstable . . 

. 431 


Townsend . . 

. 1848 


Everett . . . 

. 5S25 






. 8275 


Wakeflold . . 

. onon 


Groton* . . . 

. 1987 


Waltham . . 

. 14,009 


Holliston . . 

. 2220 


Watertown . 

. 6238 


Hopkinton . 

. 3922 


Wayland . . 

. 194C 


Hadaon . . . 

. 3988 


Westford . . 

. 2193 



. 2718 


Weston . . . 

. 1427 


Lincoln . . . 



Wilmington . 

. 991 


Littleton . . 

. 1067 


Winchester . 

. 4390 


Lowell . . . 
UaMen . . . 

. 04,107 
. 10,941 


Wobom . . 

. 11,750 




In 1643, at the time of the incorporation of Middle- 
sex County, as baa been stated, the judicial power 
was vested in the General Court, the Court of Assist- 
ants (or Great Quarter Court), the Quarter Courts 
and the Stranger's Courts. After the formation of the 
county the above courts continued, though the Stran- 
gers' Courts were modified, and the Quarter Courts in 
their respective counties were called County or Inferior 
Quarter Courts. It had also been provided before the 
above date, by an act passed September 9, 1639, that 
records be kept of all wills, adminstrations and inven- 
tories of every marriage, birth and death, and of all 
men, houses and lands. It had before the last date 
been provided, by a law passed April 1, 1634 — 

" that the conatabla and fuur or more of the chief iDhabitanta of every 
town (to be ohoeen by all the freemen there at aome meetiog there), 
with the advice of some one or more of the next aaBistanta, sbalL make a 
BQireylDg of the houses, baduidea, cornfields, mowing ^ronnd, and 
other lands improved or inclosed or granted by special orders of the 

court, of every free inhabitant there, aod ehall enter the same in a book 
(fairly written in words at length and net in ftgnn-B), with the several 
boumlsandquantitiea by the nearest eetiQiation, and shall deli\'eratmn- 
script thereof into the court within six months now next ensuing, and 
the same so entered antf recorded shall be a sutticient assurance to every 
auch free inhabitant, bis and their heire and asaigns, of such estate of in- 
heritance or OS they shall have in any auch hoiiaes, lands or frank ten- 
ements. The like coursH shall be taken forosenmnce of all houses and 
town lota of all such as shall be hereafter enfraAhised, nod every sale or 
grant of such houses or lota as shall be from time to time entered into 
the said book by the said constable and four Inliabltunta or their suc< 
ceasore (who shall be still supplied upon death or removal), for which 
ontry the purchusera shall pay sixpence and the like sum for a cupy 
thereof umler the hands of the said aurvevora or three of them." 

A further provision of law conceniing lands and 
titles was made on the 7th of October, 1640, as fol- 
lows : 

** For avoiding all fraudulent conveyances, and that every man 
may know what estate or intereat other men may have innny 
bonsea, lands or other hereditaments they are to deal in, it is there- 
fore ordered that after the end o^ the month no mortgage, bargain 
sale or grant hereafter to be made of unyhouses, lands, rents or 
other hereditaments, shall be of force against any other person, except 
the grantor and his heirs, unless the same he recorded as ia here- 
after expressed ; and that no auch bargain, sale or grant already made in 
way of mortgage where the grantor remains iu posMjssion, .••hall l»e wf force 
against iiny uther but the ^;ran^or ur his htira, e\cepl tlie fame ahull be 
entered aa Is hereattfr expressed within one mouth iifJer the eud uf this 
coui-t, if the party be within this jun»licttou, or elae within three 
months after he bhail reiuru. And if any such grantor, etc., be re- 
quired by the grantee, etc., t'> make an acknowledgment of any grant, 
etc., by him made, shall refusR so to do, it shall be in the power of any 
magistrate to send for the party so refuaiug and commit him to prison, 
without bail or mayneprise, until be shall acknowleilge the same. 

*' And the grantee ia to enter bis caution with the recorder, and thia 
shall save his interest In the meantime ; and if it be doubtful whether 
it be the deed or grant of the party, he shall be bound with sureties to 
the next court and the caution ahall remain good ns aforesaid. 

" And for reconling of all such bargaina, etc., it is further ordered 
that there shall he one appointed at Ipswich, for which Mr. Samuel Sy- 
monds is chosen for tliHt court to enter all such Itargains, sales, etc., of 
all lands, etc., within tjie Juri6<liction of that court ; and Mr. Kmanuetl 
Dowing is chosen in like part for the jurisdiction of the court of Salem ; 
and all the rest to be entered by Mr. Stephen Winthrop, the recorder of 

This condition of things of course ceased on the for- 
mation of counties iu 1643, and then the clerk of the 
court in each county became the recorder of deeds. 

After the incorporation of the counties it was pro^ 
vided by law that '* there shall also be county courts 
held in the several counties by the magistrates living 
in the respective counties, or any other magistrates 
that can attend the same, or by such magistrates as 
the General Court shall appoint from time to time, 
together with such persons of wealth, where there 
shall be need, as shall from time to time be appointed 
by the General Court (at the nomination of the free- 
men of the county), to be joined in commission with 
the magistrates so that they may be five in all, three 
whereof may keep a court provided there be one 
magistrate ; every of which courts shall have full 
power to hear and determine all causes civil and 
criminal not extending to life, member or banishment 
(which, with causes of divorce, are reserved to the Court 
of Assistants), and to make and constitute clerks and 
other needful oflBcers and to summon juries of inquest 
and trials out of the towns of the county." These 



County Courts, besides the jurisdiction given to them 
in the preceding law, retained that which had been 
held by the Inferior Courts before the formation of 

On the i5th of September, 1638, another class of 
courts was established which continued after the 
counties were formed. At that date it was ordered 
"that for avoiding of the county's charge by bringing 
small causes to the Court of Assistants that any mag- 
istrate in the town where he dwell may hear and de- 
termine by his discretion all causes wherein the debt 
or tresspass or damage, etc., doth not exceed twenty 
shillings, and in such town where no magistrate dwells 
the Gener^il Court shall from time to time nominate 
three men; two thereof shall have like power to hear 
and determine all such actions under twenty shillings; 
and if any of the parties shall find themselves grieved 
with any such end or sentence, they may appeal to the 
next Quarter Court or Court of Assistants. 

"And if any person shall bring any such action to 
the Court of Assistants before he hath endeavored to 
have it ended at home (as in this order is appointed), 
he shall lose his action and pay the defendant's co>t8." 

It was further enacted in 1647 and 1649, for the 
purpose of more clearly detining and enlarging the 
jurisdiction of this petty court, that "any magistrate 
in the town where he dwells may hear and determine 
by his discretion (not by jury), according to the laws 
here established, all causes arising in that county 
wherein ihe debt, trespass or damage doth not exceed 
forty shillings, who may send for parties and witnesses, 
by summons or attachment directed to the marshal or 
constable, who shall faithfully execute the same." 
And " that in such towns where no magistrate dwells 
the Court of Ass'istants or County Court may from 
time to time, upon re([uest of the said town signified 
under the hand of the constable, appoint three of the 
freemen as commissioners in such cases, any two 
whereof shall have like power to hear aud determine 
all such causes wherein either party is an inhabitant 
of that town, who have hereby power to send for par- 
ties and witnesses by summons or attachment directed 
to the constable, ;is also to administer oaths to wit- 
nesses and to give time to the defendant to answer if 
they see cau-e; and if the party summoned refuse to 
give in his bond or appearance, or sentenced refuse 
to give satisfaction where no goods appear in the same 
town where the [lany dwells, they may charge the 
constable with the party to carry him before a magis- 
trate or shire court (if then sitting), to be further 
proceeded with according to law, but the said com- 
missioners may not commit to prison in any case. 
And where the parties live in several towns the de- 
fendant shall be liable to be sued in either town at 
the liberty of the plaintiff." 

And "that in all small causes as aforesaid, where 
only one magistrate dwells in the town and the cause 
concerns himself, as also in such towns where no mag- 
istrate is, and the cause concerns any of the three 

commissioners, that in such cases the selectmen of the 
town shall have power to hear and determine the 
same, and also to grant execution for the levying and 
gathering up such damages for the use of the person 
damnified as one magistrate or three commissioners 
may do. And no debt or action proper to the cog- 
nizance of one magistrate or the three commissioners 
as aforesaid shall be received into any county court 
but by appeal from such magistrate or commissioners, 
except in cases of defamation and battery." 

The selectmen were also authorized to try offences 
against their own by-laws where the penalty did not 
exceed twenty shillings provided the offence was not, 
as it was called, a criminal one. 

Up to the year 1685 the judicial system of the 
Province of Massachusetts continued as has been 
above narrated. First, there was the General Court, 
with legislative powers and a limited appellate juris- 
diction from the Court of Assistants ; second, the 
Court of Assistants or Great Quarter Court, with ex- 
clusive jurisdiction in all criminal cases involving lifei 
member or banishment and concurrent jurisdiction 
with the County Courts in civil cases involving not 
more than one hundred pounds and appellate juris- 
diction from the County Courts; third, the County 
Courts or Inferior Quarter Courts, with jurisdiction 
in civil and criminal cases, except cases of divorce 
and cases involving life, member or banishment, 
having power to summon grand and petit jurors and 
to appoint their own clerks and other necessary offi- 
cers, to lay out highways, license taverns, see that a 
proper ministry was supported, and have general 
control of probate matters, prove wills, grant admin- 
istration, record deeds and mortgages and have ap- 
pellate jurisdiction from the Commissioners' Courts; 
fourth. Strangers' Courts held at first by the Go.vernor 
or Deputy-Governor and two magistrates, or in the 
absence of the Governor and Deputy, by three magis- 
trates, with the same jurisdiction as the County Courts 
so far as strangers were concerned, and whose judg- 
ments were final; fifth, Commissioners' Courts, and 
sixth. Selectmen's Courts. 

On 18th of June. 1684, a judgment vacating the char- 
ter of the Province of Massachusetts Bay was issued, 
and a copy was received by the Colonial Secretary, 
Edward Rawson, on the 2d of July of the next year. 
Joseph Dudley was thereupon appointed by the 
King, President of Massachusetts, Maine, New Hamp- 
shire and the Narragansett country, and received his 
commission May 15, 1686. The King also appointed 
as members of the Council, Simon Bradstreet, Robert 
Mason, John Fitz Wiiithrop, .Tohn Pynchon, Peter 
Bulkley, Edward Randolph, Wait Still Winthrop, 
Richard Wharton, John Usher, Nathaniel Saltonstall, 
Bartholomew Gedney, Jonathan Tyng, Dudley Brad- 
street, John Hincks, Francis Champemon and Ed- 
ward Tyng ; of whom Simon and Dudley Bradstreet, 
Nathaniel Saltonstall and Francis Champernon de- 
clined. The President and Council possessed no leg- 


islative power, except to establish auch courts as 
might be necessary. They were a court of them- 
selves and had authority to appoint judges. They 
established a Superior Court with three sessions a year 
at Boston, and " Courts of Pleas and Sessions of the 
Peace" in the several counties. The President as- 
sumed probate jurisdiction, but in some counties ap- 
pointed judges of probate. William Stoughton was 
appointed to preside in the County Courts of Middle- 
sex, Suffolk and Essex, and John Richards and Simon 
Lynde were appointed assistants. The appointments 
were made July 26, 1686, and appeals could be had 
from these courts to the President and Council. Be- 
fore the year 1686 had expired, Edmund Andros ar- 
rived in Boston, on the 19th of December, and, as 
Governor, assumed jurisdiction over the whole of New 
England, including the Plymouth Colony, which was 
not included in the commission of Dudley. 

He appointed thirty-nine members of his Council, 
and he assumed for the Governor and Council the 
exclusive power of makiug and executing the laws, 
subject only to the royal approval. He gave to jus- 
tices of the peace civil jurisdiction in cases not 
affecting lands and not involving a sum exceedinf 
forty shillings. He established the " Quarterly 
Sessions Court," held by the several justices in their 
respective counties, and " the Inferior Court of Com- 
mon Pleas," to be held in each county by a single 
judge assisted by two or more justices of the county. 
Their jurisdiction was limited to cases involving sums 
not exceeding ten pounds, and no question of free- 
hold except in Boston, where the limit was twenty 
pounds. He established, finally, a .Superior Court of 
Judicature, in which no action could be begun in- 
volving less than ten pounds, unless it concerned a 
question of freehold, and this court was to be held in 
Boston, Cambridge, Charlestown, Plymouth, Bristol, 
Newport, Salem, Ipswich, Portsmouth, Falmouth 
(Portland), Northampton and Springfield. Joseph 
Dudley was appointed chief justice of this court. 

The act establishing these courts was passed by the 
Governor and Council March 3, 1687. Though the 
judiciary system thus established was a complete re- 
versal of the old court system, it was a vast improve- 
ment on the old and became the model on which 
the judicial -system under the Provincial charter 
was finally shaped. A Court of Chancery was also 
created with full equity powers, to be held by the 
Governor or by a chancellor of his appointment, to 
be assisted by five or more of the Council. Special 
Courts of Oyer and Terminer were also created for the 
trial of offenden. The Commiasioneri' Courts were 
retained. Appeals lay from the Quarter Sessions and 
the Court of Common Pleas to the Superior Court, 
from the Superior Court to the Governor and Council, 
and from the Giovemor and Council and the Court of 
Chancery to the King. 

The Superior Court was organized with Joseph 
Ddley, chief justice, and William Stoughton and 

Peter Bulkley associates. At a later time Samuel 
Shrirapton, Simon Lynde and Charles Lidget are 
mentioned as having sat as associates. John Palmer 
sat as chief justice in 1688. The courts, however, 
during the administration of .Yndros were mere 
mockeries of justice. As the supple tool of a tyrant, 
his whole career while Governor served to exasperate 
the people and to lay one of the stones in the founda- 
tion of a structure which was destined, under the 
pressure of tyrannical hands, to become a free and in- 
dependent republic. When the news of the landing 
of the Prince of Orange in England reached Boston, 
a revolution broke out on the 18th of April, 1689, 
and Andros wa.« seized and imprisoned. In February, 
1690, he was sent back to England, and in 1692 was 
uppointedGovernorof Maryland and Virginia. From 
this last position he was removed in 1698, and, return- 
ing home, died in 1714. After the overthrow of 
.\ndros and his government the old judiciary sy.'item 
which had existed under the charter was resumed, 
and continued in operation until the union of the 
Colonies, in 1692. 

On the 7th of October, 1691, a new charter was 
issued, which embraced Massachusetts, Plymouth, 
Maine, Nova Scotia, with intervening territories, to- 
gether with Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, which 
had previously belonged to New York, under the 
name of the " Province of the Massachusetts Bay in 
New England." This charter reached Boston on the 
14th of May, 1692, and iinder its provisions the gov- 
ernment consisted of a Governor, Deputy-Governor 
and Secretary, appointed by the King and Councillors, 
chosen by the General Court, and a House of Repre- 
sentatives, chosen annually by the people. The Gov- 
ernor had the power of veto, and all acts and elec- 
tions by the General Court must, in order to be valid, 
receive the approval of the King. The General 
Court was authorized "to erect and constitute judica- 
tories and courts of records or other courts," and the 
Governor and Council could appoint judges, sheriffs, 
justices of the peace and other officers of the courts. 
The charter gave to the Governor and Council the 
control of probate matters, but this control was dele- 
gated by them in each county to judges of their ap- 
pointment. No judicial power remained in the hands 
of the General Court, as under the colonial charter. 
The first court organized under the new charter was a 
special Court of Oyer and Terminer, created by Wil- 
liam Phipps, the first Provincial Governor, for the 
purpose of trying persons charged with witchcraft. 
On the 2d of June, 1692, the Governor issued his 
commission appointing William Stoughton chief 
justice ; Nathaniel Saltonstall, John Richards, Bar- 
tholomew Gedney, Wait Winthrop, Samuel Sewall 
and Peter Sergeant, associate justices ; Stephen Sew- 
all, clerk ; Thomas Newton, attorney-general, and 
George Corwen, sheriff. Nathaniel Saltonstall de- 
clined, and Jonathan Curwin was appointed in his 
place, and Thomas Newton was succeeded as attorney- 



general on the 22d of July by Anthony Checkley. 
Nathaniel Saltonstall seems to have been a man of 
sagacity and prudence. He had declined to serve as 
a meml>er of Dudley's Council, and now evidently 
avoided the precarious complications of the prevail- 
ing witchcraft mania. The tirst meeting of this court 
was at Salem^ on the 2d of June, 1692. Its subsequent 
meetings were on the 28ih of June, the 3d of August, 
and 9th and 17th of September, after which the court 
dissolved. During this period nineteen persons were 
tried, condemned and hung for witchcraft, and one 
was pressed to death. There is nothing in the history 
of New England so revolting as the record of this 
court. That men like Samuel Sewall, called by hiy 
eulogists a man of " learning, integrity and piety," 
should have been carried away by such an infatua- 
tion impresses us with the conviction that human na- 
ture, in all the centunej*, is the same, and that what 
are called the barbarities of a dark age can be fully 
paralleled by the atrocities of an age of boasted civil- 
ization. If we seek an apology for the mania it is 
possible that we may find a shadow of one in the fact 
that our fathers believed in the verbal inspiration 
from God of the Scriptures which inculcated a belief 
in witchcraft, and which declared, in the 18th verse of 
the 22d chapter of Exodus : " Thou shall not sutfer a 
witch to live." 

The first meeting of the General Court under the 
new charter was held on the 28th of June, 1G92. Its 
first act was the following, continuing the local laws 
to stand in force till November the lOth, 1692 : 

'* Be it ortlered iind enacted by tlio (Jovernor, Council and Repreaeuta- 
Itves conveneii in Geueml .\t*sembly, and it is hereby unlured :idi1 f>a- 
iirted by tlie authority of the aume. that all the local laws respectively 
ordered and nuulp by the late r.uvornor and company of the Maiwiichu- 
setts Bay and the late !;overnnienl of New Plyinuuth beinj; nut repug- 
nant to the Irtwa of EoplanJ, nor inCMnsiatent with the preaeni coiiBti- 
tntion and settlement by their lUrtjestiea royal charter, -lo remain nuil 
continue in full force in the respective plai ub for which they wt-re mude 
itnd used, until the tenth day of N'uveniber next ; except in cases »vhere 
other provibion in or bhall he made by this ■ ourt ur ;i8tiembly. 

" And all peruoQB are requireil to mnforai theni»elveH accunlinyly ; 
and the Heveral justices are hereby empowt^re^l to the ex»H:ution of aaid 
lawa as the magistrates formerly were." 

A subsequent act was passed continuing the local 
laws in force until the General Assembly should 
otherwise order. On the 25th of November, 1602, an 
act was passed entitled " An Act for the Establishing 
of Judicatories and Courts of Justice within thi^ Prov- 
ince," from which the following are extracts : 

" Sec. 1. Be it enacted aud ordained by his excellency, the Ouvernoi-, 
roimcil and representatives convened in (leneral Asuenibly, and it is 
berely enacted and ordained by the authority of the Witne, that all man- 
ner of debts, treapasBea and other nuitters not exceeding the value of 
forty shilling wherein the title of land i^ not concerocd, Thailand may 
be heard, tried, adjudgeil and determined by any of their nmjesties' 
justices of the peace of this ProTince within the respective counties ' 
where he resides ; who is hereby empowered, upon complaint made, to : 
irrant a warrant or summons against the party complained of seven days 
before the day of trial or hearing, etc. 

*' Sec. "J. Be it further enacted and ordained by the authority afore- 
said that there shall be held aud kept in each respective connty within 

this ProTioce yearly, at the times and places hereafter named and ex- 
pressed four courts or quarter sessions of tbe peace by the justices of 
the peace of the same county, who are hereby empowered to hear and 
determine all matters relating to the conservation of the peace and pun- 
shnient of otfenders and whatsoever is by them cognizable according 
to law, that ia to say, For the county of Suffolk, at Boston, on tbe first 
Tuesdays in March, June, September and December : For the county of 
Plymouth, at Plymouth, on the third Tueadaye in March, June, Septem- 
ber and December: For the county of Essex, at Salem, on the last 
Tuesdays in June and December; at Ipswich on tbe last Tuesday in 
March ; and at Newbury on tbe last Tuesday io September: For the 
county of Middlesex, at ChartefltowD, on the second Tuesdays in March 
and December ; at Cambridge on the second Tuesday in September and 
At Concord on tbe second Tuesday of June: For the county of Bam- 
-jtable, at Barnstable, on the first Tuesdays in April, July, October and 
January : at Bristol for the county of Bristol on the second Tuesdays in 
April, July, October and January : For the county of York, at York, on 
the first Tuesdays in April and July ; and at Wells on tbe firet Tuesdays 
in October and January: And for the connty of Hampshire, at North- 
ampton, on the first Tuesdays in March and June ; at Springfield on the 
last Tuesdays in September and December: And that there be a general 
>iB68ionB of the peace held and kept at Edgartown, upon the island of 
Capawock, alias Murtha's Vineyard, and on the island of Nantucket 
respectively upon the last Tuesday in filarch and on tbe first Tuesday of 
October yearly, from time to time. 

"Sku. :}. And it is further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That 
Ht the times and places above-mentioned there shall be held and kept 
in e&ih respective county and iblande before named within this Province 
HD Inferior Court of Common Pleas, by four of tbe Justices of, and 
residing within the same county and islands respectively to be appointed 
and commissioned thereto ; any three of whom to be a quorum for the 
hearing and detemiining of all civil actions arising or happening with- 
in the same, triable at the common law, of what nature, kind or quality 
M>ever ; and upun judgment given therein to aw«nl execution, etc. 

"Sec. 4. Anil it is further enacted by tbe authority aforesaid that 
there shall be a Su|>erlor Court of Judicature over tbla whole Province, 
to be held and kept annually at the respective times and places here- 
after mentioned by one Chief Justice and four other Justices to heap- 
pointed and commisstonate«l for the same: three of whom to be a 
quorum, who shall have cognisance of all pleao, real, personal or mixt, 
js well in all plena of tbe crown and in all matters relating to the con- 
servation of the peace and punishment of offenders, as in civil causes or 
actions between party and [tariy and t>etween their majesties and any of 
their subjects, whether the same do concern tbe realty and relate to any 
light of freehold and inheritance or whether the same do concern the 
[H^rsoiialty and relate to matter of debt, contract, damage or personal 
injury ; and also in all mixt actions which may concern both realty and 
pr'r»)ually ; and after deliberate hearing to give judgment and award 
t'xecutiou thereon. The said Superior Court to be held and kept ,at tbe 
times and places within the respective counties following; that is to 
Miy, Within the county of Suffolk, at Boston, on the last Tuesdays of 
April and October ; Within the county of Middlesex, at Charlestoim, on 
the lost Tuesdays of July and January ; Within tbe county of Essex, at 
Salem, on the s<cond Tuesday of November ; and aC Ipswich on tbe 
second Tuesday of May ; Within tbe counties of Plymouth, Barnstable 
and Bristol atPlyitiouth, on the last Tuesday of February and at Bristol 
on the last Tuesday of August. 

'* Sec. 12. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
that there be a High Court of Chancery within this Province, who shall 
have power and authority to hear and determine all matters of equity 
of what nature, kind or quality Hoever, and all controversies, disputes 
and differeuces arising betwixt co-executors, and other matters proper 
and cognizable to said court not relievaole by common law ; tbe said 
court 10 be holden and kept by the Governor or snob others as he shall 
;ippoint to be Chancellor, assisted with eight or more of the Conocil, 
who may appoint all necessary officers to the said Council." 

This act continued in force until advice of its dis- 
allowance or repeal by the Privy Council was re- 
ceived. The repeal was dated August 22, 1695, and 
its reasons were expressed in the following words: 
" Whereas, by the act, etc., divers courts being estab- 
lished by the said act, it is hereby further provided 
that if either party not being satisfied with ye judg- 



ment of any of ye said courts in personal! actions not 
exceeding £300 (and no other), they may appeal to 
His Majesty in Council!, which proviso not being ac- 
cording to the words of the charter, and appeals to 
the King in Council! in real! actions, seeming thereby 
to be excluded, it hath been thought fit to repeal 
the said act." 

On the 19th of June, 1697, another act was passed 
establishing courts, which was disallowed Nov. 24, 
1698, because it provided, among other things, "that 
all matters and issues in fact shall be tried by a jury 
of twelve men," which proviso was looked upon as 
directly contrary to the intention of the Act of Parlia- 
ment entitled An Act for preventing frauds and regu- 
lating abuses in the plantation trade, by which it was 
provided that all causes relating to the breach of the 
Acts of Trade might, at the pleasure of the officer or 
informer, be tried in the Court of Admiralty in which 
court trials were not held with juries of twelve men. 

On the 26th of June, 1699, three acts were passed 
establishing a Court of General Sessions of the Peace, 
and an Inferior Court of Common Pleaa in each coun- 
ty and a Superior Court of Judicature for the Prov- 
ince. The Court of General Sessions of the Peace 
was required to be held in each county, yearly, at 
specified times and places by the justices of the peace 
of said county, who were empowered to hear and de- 
termine all matters relating to the conservation of the 
peace and punishment of offenders. The Inferior 
Court of Common Pleas was to be held in each coun- 
ty by four substantia! persons to be commissioned as 
justices, any three of whom were to be a (juorum who 
should have cognizance of all civil actions arising or 
happening within the county triable at common 
law, provided that no action under forty shillings 
be brought into said court unless where freehold 
was concerned, or upon appeal from a justice of the 
peace. The Superior Court of Judicature was to be 
held at specified times and places in the Province by 
one chief justice and four other justices, who should 
have cognizance of all pleas, real, personal or mixed, 
as well as all pleaa of the crown and all matters relat- 
ing to the conservation of the peace and punishment 
of offenders. It was to be held at Boston for the 
county of Suffollc on the first Tuesdays of November 
and May ; for the county of Middlesex at Cambridge 
on the last Tuesday in July, and at Charlestown on 
the last Tuesday of January ; for the county of 
Hampshire at Springfield on the second Tuesday of 
August ; for the county of York at Kittery on the 
Thursday before the Ipswich Court ; for the counties 
of Plymouth, Barnstable and Dukes at Plymouth on 
the last Tuesday of March ; and for the county of 
Bristol at Bristol on the second Tuesday of September 

The Court of Chancery established by the act of 
November 25, 1692, was re-established by a separate 
act in 1693, and Admiralty jurisdiction, as has been al- 
ready stated, was reserved for the King. Besides these 
couitB,and completing the Hat of courts, was the Court 

of Justices of the Peace. The disallowed act of 1691" 
gave the justices of the peace jurisdiction "in all 
manner of debts, trespasses and other matters not ex- 
ceeding forty shillings in value, wherein the title of 
land was not concerned." In 1697 a special act was 
passed re-enacting substantially the provisions of the 
act which had been disallowed, so far as the civil jur- 
isdiction of the justices was concerned. From time 
to time subsequently, the powers of justices, both in 
civil and criminal matters, were enlarged. But one 
other important court remains to be mentioned, but 
one established not by any law of the General Court, 
but by the Governor and Council under the charter. 
In probate matters jurisdiction had been exercised 
during the colonial period by the common law courts. 
During the administration of Audros it was assumed 
by the Governor, but by the charter it was conferred 
on the Governorand Council, who, claiming the power 
of .substitution, delegated these powers to a judge of 
[>robate of their own apiiointment in each county, 
reserving to themselves appellate jurisdiction. 

The Superior Court of Judicature, which was per- 
manently established June 20, 1609, continued until 
February 20, 1781, during which time the following 
appointments of justices were made: 

IC9J, William StouKliton (cliief justice), Thomas Dsufuitli Waiutlll 
Wiuthrop (cbief justice 1708), Jobn Richards, Saiiuicl Sewa 11 (chief jus- 
lice 1718) ; lilOS, KlishaCooke ; 170:), .liihn Wailey ; 1701, Jolin Safttn ; 
170.!, Isaac AildiDgton (chief justice 17o:i), Jolia nathorne, .lolin Lev- 
erett; 1708, Jonatbau Curwin ; 1712, Benjamin I.jniJe (chief justice 
1728), Nathaniel Thomas; 1715, Addingtou Davenport; 1718, Edward 
Quincy, Paul Dudley (chief justice 1745); 1728, .luhu Cushiiig; 17;i3, 
Jonathan ilemington : 17:>6, Richard Saltonstall ; 1738, Thomas Graves; 
1739, Stephen Sewall (chief justice 1752) ; 17i5, Nathaniel Hubhard, 
Denjamin Lynde (chief justice 1771); 1747, John Cusb ug ; 1752, 
Chambers Russell ; 175C, Peter Oliver (chief justice 1772) . 17C0, Thomas 
Hutchinson (chief justice 1760) ; 17C7, Edmund Trowbridge ; 1771, Fos- 
ter UutchiuBOn ; 1772, Nathaniel Ropes ; 1774, William Brown ; 1775, 
William dishing (chief justice 1777), John ,\dams (chief justice 1775), 
Nathaniel P. Sargeant, William Reed. Robert Treat Paine ; 1776, Jedi- 
diah Foster, James Sullivan ; 1777, David Sewall. 

Of these, Thomas Danforth, Chambers Russell and 
Edmund Trowbridge may be said to have been Mid- 
dlesex County men. 

On the 20th of February, 1781, an act was passed 
by the General Court of Massachusetts, establishing 
the Supreme Judicial Court as the successor of the 
Superior Court of Judicature. It was established 
with one chief justice and four associates. In the 
year 1800 the number of associates was increased to 
six and the State was divided into two circuits, the 
east including E^sex County and Maine, and the west 
including the remainder of the State except Suffolk 
County. In 1805 the number of associates was re- 
duced to fotu, and in 1852 was increased to five. In 
1873 the number of associates was increased to six, 
and the court has continued up to this time with one 
chief justice and six associates. The justices of this 
court have been : 

Increase Sumner, 1782 to 1797 ; Francis Dana, 1785 to 1806 (chief 
justice 1791); Theophiloa Parsons, 1806 to 1813 (chief jnsUce IfS) ; 
Robert Treat Paine, 1790 to 1804; Nathan Cushing, 1790 to 1300; 



Thomas Dawee, 1792 to 1802; Theophilus Bradbury, 1797 to 1803; 
TJamuel Sewall, 1800 to 1828 (chief joatice 18141 ; Simeon Strong, 1801 to 
1805 ; George Thacher, 1801 to 1824 ; Theodore Sedgwick, 1802 to 1813 ; 
Isaac Parker, 1806 to 1830 (chief justice 1814) ; Chailea JacksoD, 1813 
to 1823; Daoiel Dewey, 1814 to 1815; Samuel PutDam. 1814 to 1842; 
Samuel Sumner Wilde, 1815 to 1860 ; Levi Lincoln, 1821 to 1823 ; Mar- 
cus Morton, 1825 to 1840; Lemuel Shaw, 18:!0 to 18fi0 (chief justice 
1830) ; Charles Augustus Dewey, 1837 to 1866; Samuel Bubbanl, 1642 to 
1847; Charles Edward Forbes, 1848 to 1848; Theron Metcalf, 1848 to 
I860 ; Richard Fletcher, 1848 to 1853 ; George Tyler BIgelow, 1860 to 
1868 (chief justice 1860) ; Caleb Gushing, 1S62 to 1853 ; Benj. Franklin 
Thomas, 1853 to 1889; Pliny Merrick, 185.1 to 1864 ; Ebenezer Rockwood 
Hoar, 1859 to 1869 ; Reuben Atwater Chapman, 1860 to 187.'! (chief 
justice 1368) ; Horace Gray Jr., 1864 to 1882 (chief justice 1873) ; James 
Denison Colt, 18&5 to 1866 ; Dwight Fester, 1866 to 1809 ; John Wells, 
1866 to 1875; James Denison Colt, 1868 to 1881 ; Ssth Ames, 1869 to 1881 ; 
M. Jlorton, 1869 (chief justice 1882 to 1890) ; W. C. Endicott, 1873 to 
1882; Charles Devens, Jr., 1873 to 1877 ; Otis Phillips Lord, 1875 to 1882 ; 
A. L. Soule, 1877 to 1881 ; W. A. Field, 1881 (chief justice 18U0) ; 
Charles Deyens, 1881 ; William Allen, 1881 ; Charles Allen, 1882 ; Waldo 
Colburn, 1882 to 1885; Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., 1882; \Vm. Sewall 
Gardner, 1885 to 1887 ; Marcus Perrin Knowlton, 1887 ; James M. 
Morton, 1890. 

Of these justices, Fi-ancis Dana, George Tyler 
Bigelow, Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar, Seth Ames and 
Charles Devens, Jr., were Middleses men, and refer- 
ence to them will be made in the chapter on the 
Bench and Bar. 

The judges of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas 
lor the county of Middlesex were as follows : 

John Phillips, December 7, 1092, to December 9, 1715 ; James Russell, 
December 7, 160-2, to April 28, 1700 ; Joseph Lynde, December 7, 1692, 
to June 27, 1719; Samuel Ilayman, December 7, 1002, to June 29, 1702; 
Jonathan Tyng, Juno 29, 1702, to June 27, 1T19 ; Francis Fo.\cruft, June 
2.3. 1709, to June 27, 1710 ; Jonathan Ilemington, December 1i, 1715, «o 
June 22, 173:1; Jonathan Dowse, June 27, 1719, to July 21, 1741 ; Charles 
Chambers, June 27, 1719, to December 21, 1739 ; Francis Fulhara, Juno 
27, 1719, to Juue 20, IT.iS ; Thomas Greaves, June 22, 1733, to March 9, 
1737-38 ; Francis Foxcroft, March 0, 1737-38, to March 7, 17W ; Thomas 
Greaves, December 21, 1739. to .\ugiist 19, 1747 ; Samuel Danforth, 
July 21, 17;i; Chambera liuceell, August 19, 1747, to April 7, 1752; 
Andrew Boardman, April 7, 1752, to 3lny 20 1709 ; William Lawrence, 
June 26, 1755, to September 7, 17r.3 ; John Tyng, September 7, I7C3 ; 
Richard Foster, March 7, 1754, to May 16, 1771 ; Joseph Lee, May 24, 
1769 ; James Russell, May 16, 1771. 

The special justices of this court were : 

Elisha Hutchinson, appointed June 8, 1705, and February 25, 1708 ; 
John Foster, June 8, 1705, and February 25, 1708 ; John Higgin- 
.■jon, June 8, 1705, and February Zi, 1708 ; Penn Townsend, Febru- 
ary 25, 1708 ; Jonathan Tyng, February 2), 1708 ; Jonatbuu Dowse, 
December 3, 17IS ; Jonas Bond, December :, 1718, and September 6, 
1723 ; Nathaniel Carey, November 25. 1719 ; Spencer Phipe, September, 

6, 17-23, July 18,1726, and July 9, 1731; Thomas Greaves, November 26, 
1719, and July 9, 1731 ; Henry Phillips, August 3, 1729 ; Fraucis Foi- 
crofl, March 19, 1729-30, and July 9, 1731 ; Hiihijah Savage, December 
1.5, 1732; Samuel Wells, December 15, 1732 ; Samuel Danforth, Decem- 
ber 13, 1732 ; Jacob Wendell, December 29, 1730 ; Benjamin Prescott, 
December 29, 173G ; Simon Tufts, July -25, 1741; Ephraini Curtis, July 
■2.5, 1741 ; William Lawrence, August 12, 1749, and Juue 21, 1751 ; John 
Tyng, July 19, 1702 ; Oliver Fletcher, July 29, 1762 ; Joseph Lee, March 

7, 1764 ; Samuel Liverniore, September 7, 1703; Charles Prescott, Sep- 
tember 7, 1768. 

The last term of this court under the Province 
charter was held May 21, 1774. On the 2d of No- 
vember, 1775, commissions were issued to John Tyng, 
Henry Gardner, John Remington and Samuel P. 
Savage, which superseded the old commissions held 
by John Tyng, Samuel Danforth, Joseph Lee and 
James Russell. The court continued in its old form 
until July 3, 1782, when the Court of Common Pleas 

was established, to be held within each county at 
specified times and places, with four judges appointed 
by the Governor from within the county. The jus- 
tices of this court, which continued until June 21, 
1811, were the following: John Tyng, Henry Gard- 
ner, John Remington, Samuel Phillips Savage, Abra- 
ham Fuller, James Prescott, Nathaniel Gorham, 
James Winthrop, William Hull and Ephraim Wood. 
The special justices were : Josiah Stone, Ebenezer 
Bridge, John Pitts, Eleazer Brooks, James Winthrop, 
William Hull, Ephraim Wood, Joseph |B. .Varnum, 
Loammi Baldwin, Abiel Hayward, Phillips Payson, 
Joseph Cordes, Joseph Heald and Asahel Stearns. 
At the last-mentioned date an act was passed dividing 
the Commonwealth — except Nantucket and Dukes 
County — into six circuits, as follows : the Middle Cir- 
cuit, consisting of the counties of Suffolk, Essex and 
Middlesex ; the Western Circuit, consisting of the 
counties of Worcester, Hampshire and Berkshire ; 
the Southern Circuit, consisting of the counties of 
Norfolk, Plymouth, Bristol and Barnstable ; the 
Eastern Circuit, consisting of the counties of York, 
Cumberland and Oxford ; the Second Eastern Cir- 
cuit, consisting of the counties of Lincoln, Kennebec 
and Somerset, and the Third Eastern Circuit, con- 
sisting of the counties of Hancock and Washington. 
The act provided that there should be held in the 
several counties, at the times and places appointed for 
holding the Courts of Common Pleas, a Circuit Court 
of Common PIeaj>, consisting of one chief justice and 
two associate justices, to whom were to be added 
two sessions justices &om said county, to sit with 
the court in their county. 

The Court of General Sessions of the Peace, which 
was established in 1692, remained without material 
change during the Provincial period, and up to June 19i 
1807, when an act was passed providing that it should 
consist of one chief justice and a specified number of 
associates for the several counties, to be appointed by 
the Governor. These justices were to act as the General 
Court of Sessions instead of the justices of the peace 
in each county. On the 19th of June, 1809, the juris- 
diction of the General Court of Sessions was trans- 
ferred to the Court of Common Pleas, and, on the 
25th of June, 1811, a law was passed providing *' that 
from and after the first day of December next an 
act made and passed the 19th of June, entitled 'an 
Act to transfer the powers and duties of the Courts of 
Sessions to the Courts of Common Pleas,' be and the 
same is hereby repealed, and that all acts or parts of 
acts relative to the Courts of Sessions which were in 
force at the time the act was in f jrce which is hereby 
repealed, be and the same are hereby revived from 
and after the said first day of September next." 

Again, on the 28th of February, 1814, it was enacted 
that the act of June 25, 1811, reviving the Courts of 
Sessions, be repealed except so far as it relates to the 
counties of SuflFolk, Nantucket and Dukes County, 
and that all petitions, recognizances, warrants, orders, 


certificate?, reports and processes made to, taken from, 
or continued or returnable to the Court of Sessions 
in the several counties, except as aforesaid, shall be 
returnable to and proceeded in and determined by 
the respective Circuit Courts of Common Pleas, which 
were established, aa above mentioned, June 21, 1811. 
The act containing the above provision also provided 
"that from and after the first day of June next the 
Circuit Courts of Common Pleas shall have, exercise 
and perform all powers, authorities and duties which 
the respective Courts of Sessions have, before the pas- 
sage of this act, exercised and performed, except in 
the counties of Suffolk, Nantucket and Dukes County, 
and that the Governor, by and with the advice of the 
Council, be authorized to appoint two persona in each 
county, who shall be session justices of the Circuit 
Court of Common Pleas in their respective counties, 
and sit with the justices of said Circuit Court in the 
administration of the affairs of the county and of all 
matters within said county of which the Courts of 
Sessions had cognizance." 

The administration of county matters wa<> in the 
hands of the Circuit Court of Common Pleas until 
February 20, 1819, when an act was p.issed repealing 
the act which transferreil the powers and duties of 
the Courts of Sessions. to that court, and providing 
that " from and after the first day of June next the 
Court of Sessions in the several counties shall be held 
by one chief justice and two associates, to be ap- 
pointed by the Governor, with the advice and consent 
of the Council, who shall have all the powers, rights 
and privileges, and be subject to all the duties which 
are now vested in the Circuit Courts of Common 
Pleaa relative to the erection and repair of jails and 
other county buildings, the allowance and settlement 
of county accounts, the estimate, apportionment and 
issuing warrants for assessing county taxes, granting 
licenses, laying out, altering and discontinuing high- 
ways, and appointing committees and ordering juries 
for that purpose." 

The Court of Sessions continued as above described 
until March 4, 1826, when the jurisdiction over high- 
ways was vested by law in a board of " Commissioners 
of Highways." The act providing for this board 
enacted " that for each county in the Commonwealth, 
except the counties of Suffolk and Nantucket, there 
shall be appwinted and commissioned by His Excel- 
lency the Governor, by and with the advice and con- 
sent of the Council, to hold their offices for five years, 
unless removed by the Governor and Council, five 
commissioners of highways, except in the counties of 
Dukes and Barnstable, in which there shall be ap- 
pointed only three, who shall be inhabitants of such 
county, one of whom shall be designated as chairman 
by his commission." The proceedings of the com- 
mission were to be reported to the Court of Sessions 
for record, and that court was to draw its warrant on 
the county treasurer for expenses incurred in the con- 
struction of roads laid out by the commissioaers. 

Such was the condition of county affairs until the 
26th of Februa.'y, 1828, when a law was p.issed pro- 
viding " that the Act entitled ' An Act to establish 
Courts of Sessiont', passed February 20, 1819;' also an 
Act in addition thereto jiassed February 21, 1820; 
also an Act entitled ' An Act increasing the numbers 
and extending the powers of Justices of the Courts of 
Sessions, ' passed February 6, 1822; also an Act enti- 
tled 'An Act in addition to an Act directing the 
method of laying out highways,' passed March 4, 
1826, be and the same are hereby repealed." It pro- 
vided for the appointment by the Governor of four 
persons to be county commissioners for each of the 
counties of Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk and Worcester, 
and three persons to be county commissioners for each 
of the other counties of the Commonwealth, except 
the county of Suffolk ; that the clerks of the Courts of 
Common Pleas within the several counties should be 
the clerks of the commissioners, and that for each of 
the counties except SuflTolk, Middlesex, Essex, Wor- 
cester, Norfolk and Nantucket, two persons should 
be appointed to act as special commissioners. 

The first meeting of the Board of County Commis- 
sioners appointed under the above act was held May 
13, 1828, and the board consisted of Caleb Butler, 
-Vuguatus Tower, Benjamin F. V.arnum and David 
Townsend. In 1831 Abner Wheeler was appointed 
in the place of Mr. Varnum, and no other change oc- 
curred on the board while the appointment of its 
members rested with the Governor and Council. 

On the 8th of April, 1835, a law was passed pro- 
viding that in every county except Suffolk and Nan- 
tucket the Judge of Probate, Register of I'robate and 
clerk of the Common Pleaa Court should be a board 
of examiners, and that on the first Monday of May in 
the year 1835, and on the first Monday of April in ev- 
ery third year thereafter, the people should cast their 
votes for three county commissioners and two special 
commissioners. This law remained in force until 
1854. Under its operation the board consisted of the 
following members, chosen in the years set against 
their respective names : 1835, Caleb Butler, David 
Townsend, Abner Wheeler ; 1838, Caleb Butler, Ab- 
ner Wheeler, Timothy Fletcher; 1841, Leonard M. 
Parker, Timothy Fletcher, Seth Davis; 1844, Joaiah 
Adams, Timothy Fletcher, Joaiah B. French ; and 
Ebenezer Barker was chosen in 1845 to fill a vacancy ; 
1847, Josiah Adams, Ebenezer Barker, Joshua Swan ; 
1850, Daniel S. Richardson, Ebenezer Barker, Leonard 
Huntress; 1853, Leonard Huntress, Daniel S. Rich- 
ardson, John K. Going. 

On the 11th of March, 1854, the law in force at the 
present time was pa-^sed, providing that the county 
commissioners then in office in the several counties, 
except Sufiblk and Nantucket, should be divided into 
three claaaea — the first class holding office until the 
next annual election for Governor — the second class 
until election day in 1855, and the third class until 
election day in 1856, the commissioners then in office 


determining by lot to which class each should belong, 
and that at each annual election thereafter one com- 
missioner be chosen for three years. The commis- 
sioners since that time have been the following: 
Leonard Huntress, John K. Going, Paul H. Sweetser, 
Edward J. Collins, J. H. Waitt, Harrison Harwood, 
Daniel G. Walton, J. Henry Reed, William S. Frost, 
AlphoDZO M. Lunt and Samuel O. Upham. 

The commissioners of Middlesex County include 
within their jurisdiction Chelsea, North Chelsea and 
Winthrop.^which belong to Suffolk County. Chelsea 
and North Chelsea were placed under their jurisdic- 
tion by an act passed May 3, 1850, and when Win- 
throp was set off from North Chelsea, March 27, 1852, 
it continued within its old jurisdiction. It was pro- 
vided by law, April .30, 1852, that for expenses appli- 
cable to those towns they should pay in such propor- 
tions as the commissioners should decide. 

The Circuit Court of Common Pleas, which was es- 
tablished June 21, 1811, was abolished on the 14th of 
February, 1821. The justices of this court, during its 
continuance, for the middle circuit, consisting of Suf- 
folk, Middlesex and Essex Counties, were Samuel 
Dana, chief justice ; William Wetmore and Stephen 
Minot, associate justices. The 6rst session of this 
court was held at Cambridge December 1(5, I8I1, and 
its last at Concord, June 11, 1821. The Court of 
Common Pleas was established at the above date with 
a chief justice and three associate justices, and the 
Krst session in Middlesex County was held at Cam- 
bridge September 10, 1821. On the Ist of March, 
1843, the number of associates was increased to four, 
on the 18th of March, 184.3, to six, and on the 24th of 
May, 1851, to seven. This court continued until Ihe 
establishment of the present Superior Court, by a law 
passed April 5, 1859. During its continuance the 
following judges sat upon the bench: 

ArtomM Ward, 1821 to 1839 (chief justice 1821) ; Solomon Strong, 
1821 to 1.142 ; John Mason Williams, 1821 to 1844 (cliief justice 1830) ; 
Samuel Howe, 1821 to 1S28; David Cummins, 1828 to 1844; OhrirliM 
Henry Warren, 1839 to 1844 ; Charles Mleo, 1842 to 1844 ; Pliuy Mer- 
licli, 1843 to 1848 ; Daniel Wells, 1844 to IS54 (chief justice 1844) ; 
.loehua Uoljoke Ward. 1844 to 1848 ; Emorj- Washburn, 1844 to 1847 ; 
Luther Stearns Cashing, 1844 to 1848 ; Harrison Gray Otis Colby, 1845 
to 1847 ; Charles Eilward Forbes, 1847 to 1848 ; Edward Mellen, 1847 to 
1859 (chief justice 18i4) ; George Tyler Bigelow, 1848 to 1850 ; JonaUian 
Coggswell Perkins, 1848 to 1859; Horatio Byington, 1848 to 186g; 
Thomas Hopkinsou, 1848 to l»49 ; Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar, 1849 to 
1853; Pliny Merrick, 18,Vl to 1854 ; Henry Walker Bishop, 1851 to 1839 ; 
George Nixon BriggB, IS53 to 1839; George Partridge Sanger, 1854 to 
1859 ; Henry Morris, 1853 to 1869 ; David Aikin, 1856 to 1859. 

Of these, Edward Mellen, George T. Bigelow, 
Thomas Hopkinson and Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar 
were Middlesex men. 

On the 5th of April, 1859, the Superior Court was 
established as the successor of the Court of Common 
Pleas, with ten justices, which number was increased, 
May 19, 1875, to eleven, and February 27, 1888, to 
fourteen. The justices of this court have been as fol- 
lows : 

Charles -illen, 1859 to 1807 (chief justice 1859) ; Julius Rockwell, 

1859 to 1886 ; Otis Phillips Lord, 1859 to 1875 ; Marcus Morton, Jr., 18S9 
to 1869; Seth Amee, 1859 to 1869 (chief justice 1867) ; Ezra WilkinMn,* 
1859 to 1882 : Henry Voee, 1869 to 1869 ; Tbomaa Bnaaell, 1859 to 1867 ; 
John Phelps Putnam, 1859 to 1882 ; Lincoln Flagg Brigbani, 1869 
(chief justice 1869 to 1890) ; Chester I. Reed, 1807 :o 1871 ; Charlea 
Devens, Jr., 1867 to 1873 ; Henry Austin Scudder, 1869 to 1872 ; Francis 
Henshaw Dewey, 1869 to 1881 ; Robert Carter Pitman, 1869; John 
WiUiam Bacon, 1871 to 1885; William Allen, 1872 to 1881 ; PelegBmory 
Aldrich, 1873 ; Waldo Colburn, 1876 to 1882 ; Wm. Sewall Gardner, 1876 
to 1886; Hamilton Barclay Staples, 1881; Marcus Perrin Enowltou, 
1881 to 1887 ; C. Blodgett, 1882 ; A. Mason, 1882 (chief justice 1890) ; J. 
Madison Barker, 1882 ; Charles P. Thompson, 1885 ; John Wilkea Ham- 
mond, 1886 ; Justin Dewey, 1886 ; Edgar J. Sherman, 1887 ; John 
Lathrop, 1888 ; James R. Dnnbar, 1888 ; Robert R. Bishop, 1888. 

Of these, Seth Ames, Charles Devens, Jr., John 
William Bacon, John W. Hammond, Wm. Sewall 
Gardner and Robert R. Bishop were Middlesex men. 

During the Colonial period under the charter, Pro- 
bate matters as has been stated, were in the hands of 
the County Court. During the presidency of Dudley 
he assumed Probate jurisdiction but delegated it in 
some of the counties to judges of Probate whom he 
appointed. During the administration of Andros the 
settlement of estates exceeding fifty pounds he per- 
sonally directed, delegating others to judges of his ap- 
pointment. After the deposition of Andros the 
colonial method was resumed, and continued until the 
union of the Colonies, in 1692. Though the Provincial 
charter conferred the jurisdiction of Probate affairs on 
the Governor and Council, they claimed and exer- 
cised the right to delegate their powers to judges and 
registers of Probate in the several counties. There 
was no regular Probate Court established by law until 
March 12, 1784, when it was provided that a judge 
and register should be appointed by the Governor 
and Council. Under an amendment of the Constitu- 
tion ratified by the people on the 23d of May, 1855, 
it was provided that at the annual election in 1856, and 
in every fifth year thereafter, the register should be 
chosen by the people for a term of five years. The 
judge remained as the appointee of the Governor. In 
1856 a Court of Insolvency in each county was estab- 
lished by law, with a judge and register, and in 1858 
the judge and register of this court were abolished, as 
well as the judge and register of Probate, and the 
otficea of judge and register of Probate and Insol- 
vency were created. In the same year, 1868, it was 
provided that the register of Probate and Insolvency 
should be chosen at the annual election in that year 
and every fifth year afterwards for a term of five years. 

The following persons have filled the offices of 
judge and register of Probate, judge and raster of 
Insolvency, and judge and register of Probate and 
Insolvency since the union of the Colonies, in 1692 : 

Judge* of Probaie. — James Russell, appointed Jane 18, 1692 ; John 
Leverett, appointed Oct. 23, 1702 ; Francis Foxcroft, appointed July 8, 
1708 ; Jonathan Remington, appointed Sept. 30, 1725 ; Samuel Danforth, 
appointed Dec. 20, 1745 ; John Winthrop, appointed Sept. 6, 1775 ; Oliver 
Prescott, appointed about July, 1779 ; James Prescott, appointed Feb. 1, 
1805 ; Samuel Phillips, Prescott Fay, appointed May 9, 1821 ; William 
Adams Richardson, appointed April 7, 1856, and held untU Jnly 1, 1858 -, 
Luther J. Fletcher, appointed judge of Insolvency 1857; William 
Adams Rlchartiaon, appointed judge of Probate and Insolvency May 



13, 1898, to take offloi July L, 1858 ; George M. Brooka, appointed judge 
'of Probate and loaolTeDcy, 1872. 

B^giaten of Probate. — Samuel Phippe, appointed June 18, 1692 ; Thomas 
Swan, appointed Oct. 23, 1702 ; Nicholas FewendeD, appointed Sept. 15, 
1706 ; Daniel Foxoroft, appointed Bee. 28, 1709 ; Tbomal Foxcrofr, ap- 
pointed Dec. 9, 1715 ; Frsncil Foxcrofl, appointed July 3, 1729 ; Samuel 
Danforth, appointed July 9, 1731 ; Andrew Boardoian, appointed Dec. 
20, 174fi ; Andrew Boardman, Jr. (appointed special register on death 
of hU father), 1769 ; William Kneeland, appointed May 29, 1769 ; Jiunee 
Winthrop, appointed Sept 6, 1776 ; James Fueter, appointed May 26, 
1817 ; Isaac Fiske, appointed Oct. 29, 1817. 

BsguUn of haoloeniqi. — Alonzo V. Lynda, appointed July 1, 1851 ; 
Alfred A. Prescott, appointed March 10, 1853 ; Joseph H. Tyler, ap 
pointed register of Insolvency 1856; Joseph U, Tyler, appointed regis- 
ter of Probate and Insolvency Nov., 1858 ; Isaac F. Jones, appointed 
assistant register of Probate and Insolvency January, 1859; Samuel H. 
Folsom, appointed assistant register of Probats and Insolvency 1877. 

Daring the period of the Colony the oflBcer corre- 
sponding to the sheriff of later times was called mar- 
shal. The names of the marshals of the Colony have 
already been given. Since the charter creating the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay the sheriffs of the 
county have been the following : 

SAsTj^i.— Timothy Phillips, appointed 1602; Sauiuel Gookin, ap- 
pointed 1702; Edmund GofTe, appointed 1715; Samuel Gookin, ap* 
pointed 1728 ; Samuel Dummer, appointed 1729 ; Richard Foster, Jr., 
appointed 1731; Richard Foster, appointed 1761 ; David Phippe, ap- 
pointed 1764; James Prescott, appointed 1779 ; Loammi Baldwin, ap- 
pointed 1781 ; Joseph Hosmer, appointed 1794 ; William Hitdrelli, ap- 
pointed 1808 ; Nathaniel Austin, Jr., appointed 1813 ; Benjamin F. Var 
nam, appointed 1831 ; Samuel Chandler, appointed 1841 ; Fisher A. 
Hlldreth, appointed 1851 ; John S. Keyes, appointed 1853. 

Under the nineteenth article of amendments to 
the Constitution, ratified in 1855, a law was passed in 
1866 providing that at the annual election in that 
year, and in every third year thereafter, a sheriff should 
be choeen in each county by the people. Under that 
law the following sheriffs have been chosen : 

John S. Keyes, 1868 ; Charles Kimball, 1859, '62, '66, '68, '71, '74, '77 ; 
Ebeneier W. Fiske, 1880 ; Henry O. Cushing, 188.'!, '86, '89. 

Up to the year 1654 the treasurer of the Colony 
acted as treasurer for the county. In that year, and 
by renewal in 1692, a law was passed providing that 
in each county a treasurer should be annually chosen 
by the people. A similar law remained in force until 
1855. The following treasurers have held office in 
Middlesex County : 

Thomas Danforth, until 1667 ; Edward Goffe, until 1698 ; John Stsd- 
man, until 1683 ; Samnel Andrew, until 170U (except during the admin- 
istration of Androe) ; Ebsnezer Bridge, until 1807 ; John L. Tnttle, 
natll 1813; John Keyes, until 1837 ; Stedman Buttrick, until 1866. 

In 1865 it was enacted that a county treasurer 
should be chosen in that year in each county, and 
every third year thereafter, for the term of three 
years. Under the new law the following were 
chosen : • 

Amo« Stone, 1856, '58, '81, '64, '67, '70, '73, '76, '79, '82 ; Joseph 0. 
Haydsn, 1886, '38. 

During the Colonial period the clerks of the courts 
were appointed by the courts. During the Provincial 
period the clerks of the County Courta and those of 
the Superior Court of Judicature, and afterwards, 
until 1797, of the Supreme Judicial Court, were dis- 

tinct, and the latter two clerks had their offices in 
Boston. Until 1811 the appointment of clerks lay 
with the courts, when it was vested in the Governor 
and Council and so remained until 1814, when it was 
given to the Supreme Judicial Court. In 1856 it was 
provided by law that in that year and every fifth year 
thereafter, clerks should be chosen by the people in 
the several counties. The following is probably a 
correct list of clerks from the incorporation of the 
county, in 1643, to the present time : 

Thomas Danforth, under the Colonial charter ; Samuftf Phippe, 1689 ; 
Francis Foxcroft, 1721 ; John Foxcroft, 17il6 ; Thadous Mason, 1774 ; 
Tbadeus :Mason and Wm. Swan, 178.'> ; .Abraham Big. Ion, 17911; Elias 
Phinney, 1831 ; Seth Ames, 185 >, 'oi'' ; Marshall Preston, assist, clerk, 
1852; Benjamin F. Ham, 1861, '66; Theodore C. Hurd, 1871,76, 81, '86 ; 
John L. .\nibrose, second assist, clerk, 1880. 

During the Colonial period, and until 1715, the 
clerks of the courts were registers of deeds, but in 
that year it was provided " that in each county some 
person having a freehold within said county to the 
value of at least ten pounds, should be chosen by the 
people of the county. As ofiicers of the court the 
clerks were under the Colonial charter called record- 
ers, and as recorders kept the registry of deeds. Up 
to the present time the registers of deeds have been 
as follows : 

Thomas Danforth until 1689 ; Samuel Pliipps until 1721 ; Francis Fox- 
croft until 1766 ; John Foxcroft iintil 1776 ; Ebenezer Bridge until 1781 ; 
Thadeus Masou until 1786 ; William Wiuthrop until 1796 ; Samuel 
Bartlett until 1819 ; Isaac Fiske until 1820 ; Samuel Bnrtlett until 1822 ; 
William F. Stone until 1816 ; Caleb Haydeu until \iAh. 

In 1855 it was provided by law that in that year, 
and every third year afterwards, a register of deeds 
should be chosen for three years in each county, and 
in the county of Middlesex two registers, one for 
Cambridge and one for Lowell. Under the law the 
registers have been : 

Caleb Hayden, for Cambridge, 1655, '58, '01, '64 ; Asahel B. WriKlit, 
for Lowell, 1855, '58, '61, '64 ; Charles B. Stevens, for Cambridge, 1807, 
70, 'T3, '76, '79, '82, '85, '88 ; Ithamar W. Beard, for Lowell, 1867-70 ; 
Joseph P. Thompson, for Lowell, 1873, '76, '79, '82, '8.S 'S8. 

Under a law passed March 3, 1635-36, Cambridge 
was designated »s one of the four towns in which courts 
were to be held. Ipswich, Salem and Boston were the 
other three. When Middlesex County was incorpor- 
ated, in 1643, Cambridge continued the shire-town of 
the county. On the 19th of October, 1652, it was or- 
dered by the General Court that two sessions of the 
courts besides those held at Cambridge should be held 
at Charlestown. A court-house and jail were built, 
and the courts at some of their terms were held there 
until the Revolution. Precisely when the first court- 
house was built in Cambridge is uot known. It was 
burned in 1671, and there is no positive knowledge of 
any other court-house until 1708, when one waa built 
in Harvard Square. Another was built in Harvard 
Square in 1767 or 1758. 

Under the administration of Andros, Captain Law- 
rence Hammond, of Charlestown, was appointed clerk 
of the courts and register of probate and of deeds. 



He removed all the records from Cambridge to 
Charlestown, and after the Revolution of 1688 refused 
to surrender them. On the 18th of February, 1689- 
90, the General Court ordered " that Capt. Lawrence 
Hammond deliver to the order of the County Court 
for Middlesex the records of that county ; that is to 
say, all books and files by him formerly received from 
Mr. Danforth, some time Recorder of that county, as 
also all other books of record and files belonging to 
said county in his custody.'" On the 4th of Febru- 
ary 1690-91, the order not having been obeyed, the 
marshal-general was directed to arrest Mr. Lawrence. 
The records remained in Charlestown until 1717. On 
the nth of May, 1716, the town of Cambridge passed 
the following vote : " Whereas the Register's oflBce in 
the county of Middlesex is not kept in our town of 
Cambridge, which is a grievance unto us, voted that 
our Representative be desired to represent said griev- 
ance to the Honorable General Court and secure, if 
possible, the passage of an Act of said Court that said 
office may forthwith be removed into our town ac- 
cording to law, it being the shire-town in said county." 
The town of Charlestown objected to the removal 
and contested it in the General Court. Finally, as 
Mr. Richard Frothingham states in his "History of 
Charlestown," the question came squarely up before 
the Council on the 12th of June, 1717, whether Cam- 
bridge or Charlestown should be considered the shire- 
town. " Mr. Auchmuty pleaded very well for Charles- 
town. His discourse was very well worth hearing. 
Mr. Remington alleged and proved for Cambridge 
very pertinently and fully." On the 13th the Council 
decided in favor of Cambridge. The next day there 
was a spirited contest in the House of Deputies on 
the question of concurring with the Council. Sewall 
writes : " Could not tell by lifting up the hands — were 
fain to divide the House. They for Cambridge went 
to the north side — they for Charlestown to the south. 
Cambridge had forty-six — Charlestown forty-one." 
The registries were consequently removed to Cam- 
bridge, and that town has continued to the present 
time a shire of the county. The courts continued to 
be held in what is commonly called Old Cambridge 
until 1816. On the M of March, 1810, the General 
Court incorporated Thomas Handasyde Perkins, 
James Perkins, William Payne, Ebenezer Francis 
and Andrew Cragie aa the " Lechmore Point Corpora- 
tion." This was a land corporation, ambitious, active 
and thrifty, like all such before and since. One of the 
schemes devised to promote its interests wtis the re- 
moval of the county buildings to East Cambridge, 
where its property was situated. On the 1st of No- 
vember, 1813, the company offered to convey to the 
county a square bouuded by Otis, Second, Thomdike 
and Third Streets, together with a lot seventy-five 
feet in width across the westerly side of the square 
bounded by Thomdike, Second, Spring and Third 
Streets, and build a court-house and jail at a cost not 
exceeding $24,000, on condition that they should be 

used by the county when finished. The Court of 
Sessions, at its December term, in that year, accepted 
the proposal, and at the March term of the court, in 
1816, a committee reported the buildings finished at 
a cost exceeding the proposed expenditure by the 
company by the sum of $4191.78, which sum was 
paid by the county. The old court-house in ELarvard 
Square was used for town and other purposes until 
April 19, 1841, and was afterwards removed to Palmer 

The court-house at East Cambridge was enlarged 
by the addition of two wings in 1846, and on the 27th 
of March, 1877, the county commissioners were 
authorized by the Legislature to borrow the sum of 
forty thousand dollars for a new building for the 
registry of deeds. The building, still proving too 
small, was moved back from its old site and enlarged 
by the addition of the structure now approaching 

The courts were first held at Concord in 1692, 
under the law establishing courts under the Provin- 
cial charter. Until 1719 they were held in the old 
meeting-house, but in that year a court-house was 
built which, according to the specifications, was to be 
thirty-four feet by twenty-six and not less than four- 
teen nor more than sixteen feet between joists. In 
1754 a jail was built and in 1794 a new court-house, 
which continued in use as long as Concord remained 
a shire. On the 9th of November, 1775, the Charles- 
town sessions of the courts were ordered to be held at 
Concord, and Charlestown ceased to be a slilre. For 
many years after it was settled by the Provincial 
Court that Cambridge should be the chief shire and 
the depository of the county records considerable dis- 
satisfaction existed in that part of the county of 
which Concord had become a more convenient and 
accessible centre. 

This dissatisfaction finally displayed itself in an at- 
tempt to form a new county, of which Concord should 
be the shire-town. After the incorporation of Worces- 
ter county, in 1731, which seemed to furnish a favor- 
able opportunity for some decisive movements, a con- 
vention of delegates from various towns was held 
at Concord, whose deliberations culminated in an 
agreement, May 26, 1732, to petition the General 
Court to incorporate a new county, with Concord the 
shire, to include the towns of Concord, Sudbury, 
Framingham, Marlboro', Groton, Chelmsford, Bil- 
lerica. Stow, Littleton, Bedford, Dunstable, West- 
ford, Dracut and Northtown. The movement of course 
failed, and time finally dissipated the uneasiness of the 
towns in the central and upper parts of the county. 
Concord remained a shire until the 7th of May, 1867, 
when a law was passed providing that the session of 
the courts which had before that time been held in 
that town, should be transferred to Cambridge, and 
authorizing the county commissioners to sell the 
court-house to the town. The conveyance was made 
May 24, 1867. 



A law was passed April 16, 1836, making Lowell a 
shire, to take effect on the condition that the town 
should, before the Ist day of March, 1837, provide a 
suitable conrt-room and a jail, the expense of which 
jail should not exceed $10,000, and execute and deliver 
to the county a sufficient lease or other instrument to 
secure the use thereof for the purposes aforesaid per- 
manently to the county. A supplementary act was 
passed March 24, 1837, reviewing the above act but 
providing that it should be void unless the city of 
Lowell, on or before the Ist of the ensuing April, 
should pay to the commissioners the sum of $10,000, 
to be expended by them in the erection of a jail, and 
should also before said day finish the court-room then 
begun, and make the or conveyance required in 
the actof 1836. Until 1855 no registry of deeds was es- 
tablished at Lowell. On the 24th of March in that year 
a law was passed providing that Lowell, Dunstable, 
Tyngsboro, Dracut, Tewksbury, Billerica, Chelmsford, 
Carlisle, Wilmington and Westford should constitute 
the Northern Registry District of Middlesex County. 
It also provided that the Governor should appoint on 
or before the 1st day of July, a register of that dis- 
trict, to hold office until the November election of 
that year. On the 23d of March, 1886, the county 
commissioners were authorized to have all records 
prior to said July 1st copied and deposited in the 
Northern Registry. 

The list of courts will of course be incomplete with- 
out a reference to the Police and District Courts in dit- 
ferent parts of the county. Of Police Courta there are 
four — 

Lowell: with Somnel P. Hadley, justice ; Joho J. Pickmao and John 
F. Frye, special jusUceH ; James F. SaTa^e, cleric. 

Marlboron^h : with Edward F. JuhnsOD, justice ; James W. McDonald 
and Wm D. Burdett, special justices ; James F. J. Otteraon, clerk. 

Nevton : with John C. Kennedy, justice ; Henry U. Mather and Ed- 
ward a. Mason, special justices ; Edward W. Gate, clerk. 

Somervilla : with Isaac Story justice ; Charles G. Pope and John 
Haskell Bntler, special justices ; Herbert A. Chapin, clerk. 

Of District Courta there are seven — 

FirU Norihem Middlatx, held at Ayer, with jurisdiction in Ayer, 
Qroton, Pepperell, Towusend, Ashby, Shirley, Westford, Littleton and 
Boxborough. LeTi Wallace, justice ; John Spaulding and Warren H. 
Atwood, special justices ; Ueor^e W. Sanderson, cleric 

^rM Southern Middleaex, held at Framingham, with jnrisdlction in 
Ashland, Framingham, Holliston, Sherborn, Sudbury and Wayland. 
WiUis A. Kingsbory, justice ; Lucius H. Wakefield and Walter Adams, 
special justices ; Joseph H. Ladd, clerk. 

Fim BaMem Middlnex, held at Maiden and Wakefield, with jurisdlc- 
tioD In North Beading, Reading, Stoneham, Wakefield, Melroee, Mai- 
den, Everett and Medford. John W. Pettingill, justice ; Thomas S. 
Harlow and Solon Bancroft, special justices; William N. Tyler, clerk. 

S«o(md Ea»Urtt MiddUaex , held at Waltham, with jurisdiction in 
Waltbam, Watertowo and Weston. Enos T. Lace, justice ; Henry 3. 
Milton and Samuel P. Abbott, special justices ; All)ert 0, Delano, clerk. 

Third EaMlem 3fiddUs«x, held at Cambridge, with jurisdiction in Cam- 
bridge, Arlington and Belmont. Chester F. Sanger, justice ; Samuel 
W. McDaniel and Jabez Fox, special justices ; Emerson W. Law, clerk. 

Avrtib EoMterm MiddUtex, held at Wobum, with jurisdiction in Wil. 
mington, Wobum, Winchester and Burliugton. Parker L. Converse, 
justice; George 3. Littlefield and Charles D. Adams, special justices ; 
Edward E. Bond, clerk. 

Ctniral Middieaax, ht-ld at Concord, with jurisdiction in Acton, Bed- 
ford, Carlisle, Concord, Lincoln, Maynard, Stow and Lexington. John 

3. Keyes, justice ; Charles Thompsou and Robert P. Clapp, special 
justices ; no clerk. 

The officers of the county in 1889 were as follows : 

Judge of Prol)ate and Insolvency ■ George M. Brooks, of Concord. 
Begister of Probate and Insolvency : Joseph H. Tyler, of Winchester. 
Assistant Register of Probate and Insolvency; Samuel H. Folsom, of 
Winchester. SheritT: Henry G. Gushing, of Lowell. Clerk of Courts : 
Theodore C. Hurd, of Cambridge. Assistant Clerks of Courts : John L. 
Ambrose, of Somerville ; Wm. C. Dlllinghani, of Maiden. Treasurer: 
Joeeph O. Hayden, of Maiden. Kegisters of Deeds : Northern District, 
Joseph L. Tbompeon, of Lowell ; Southern District, Charles B. Stevens, 
of Cambridge. County Commissioners ; Wm. S. Frost, of Marlborough ; 
J. Henry Read, of Westford ; Samuel 0. Upham, of Waltbam. Special 
Commissioners; Edward E. Thompson, of Wobum ; Lyman Dike, of 
Stoneham. Commissioners of Insolvency; Frederick T. Greenhaipe, of 
Lowell ; John C. Kennedy, of Newton ; George J. Burns, of .\yer. 
Masters in Chancery : Walter Adams, of Framingham ; Samuel L. 
Powers, of Newtou ; Joseph H. Tyler, of Winchester; Charles H. Conant, 
of Lowell ; Gilt>ert A. A. Pevey, of Cambridge ; Robert P. Clapp, of 
Lexington ; Wm. H. Bent, of Lowell. Trial Justices : James T. Joslin, 
of Hudson ; William Nutt, of Natick ; George L. Hemmenway, of 

The sessions of the Supreme Judicial, Superior and 
Probate Courts, as now provided, by law are : 

Supreme JudicUil Court : Law Term for Barnstable, Middlesex, Nor- 
folk and .Suffolk, at Boston on the first Wednesday of January in each 
year. Jury Terms at Lowell on the third Tuesday of April, and at 
Cambridge oil the third Tuesday of October. 

Superior Oouri: Civil Business, at Lowell on the second Monday of 
March and the first Monday of September ; and at Cambridge on the 
first Monday of June and the second Monday of December. Criminal 
Business, at Cambridge on the second Monday of February and the first 
Monday of June ; and at Lowell oo the third Monday of Octolwr. 

Probate Court : at Cambridge on tba first, second and fourth Teusdays ; 
and at Lowell on the third Tuesday of every month except August. 

The records of admissions to the bar of Middlesex 
County is very incomplete. A perfect record can 
only be obtained by searching the records of the dif- 
ferent courts. Such a search is now being made 
under the direction of the county clerk, but the fol- 
lowing partial list of admissions is given as the best 
that can at present be obtained: 

Julian Abbot, Dec., 1K!9. 
Caleb F. Abbott, Sept., 1835. 
James C. Abbott, June, 1849. 
John W. P. Abbott, June, 1830. 
Henry Adams, June, 1806. 
Josiah Adams, Juno, 1807. 
Sbubael P. Adams, Dec., 1848. 
John F. K. Adams, Sept, 1851. 
John B. Adams, SepC 1821. 
JosI Adams, Sept, 1828. 
John E. Avery, Jnne, 1872. 
Henry Adams, Sept., 1826. 
Joeeph Adams, Sept., 1826. 
Wm. George Alden, March, 1872. 
Uiram A. Alger, June, 1850, 
Alpbeos Brown Alger, June, 1877. 
Edwin A. .Alger, fiept., 1845. 
John W. Allanl, Dec., 1883. 
John H. Appleton, July, 1878. 
John H. Atwood, Oct., 1884. 
Amos Allen, Oct., 1817. 
Seth Ames, Oct., 1830. 
Elgin A. Angell, Sept , 1775. - 
Isaac Angell, June, 1872. 
Wm. T. Andrews, Oct., 1822. 
Benjamin H. Andrens (no date). 
Christopher C. Andrews, Oct., 1850. 
Arthur W. Austin, Sept., 1828. 
Nathaniel Austin, Jr., June, 1833. 

Clark A. Batchelder, April, 1873. 
Elbridge Gerry Austin, Oct.. 1834. 
Henry D. Austin, Sept., 1842. 
William Austin, Nov., 1843. 
Lunian W. Aldrich, July, 1878. 
George Bancroft, April, 1842. 
John W. Bacon, Jnne, 1846. 
Loammi Baldwin, Sept., 1843. 
Stephen BeaI^ March, 1844. 
James U Boewell, June, 18U0. 
Itbamar W. Beard, Sept., 1844. 
NinUn C. Betton, Nov., 1819. 
Charles C. Barton, April, 1873. 
Charles Bemis, Oct., 1832. 
Alpheus W. Buell, March, 1876. 
Isaac Berais, Jr, Oct., 1821. 
Leonard Blake, May, 1875. 
Wm. P. Barry, July, 1886. 
.Alpheus Bigelow, Oct., 1821. 
George T. Bigelow, Dec., 1833. 
Wm. P. Bigelow, Oct., 1820. 
Joseph 0. Burdett, April, 1873. 
Tyler Bigelow, June, 1824. • 

Edward C. BllUngs, Oct., 1855. 
Charles R. Blaisdell, Oct., 18.'i9. 
Harrison G. Blaisdell, March, 1846. 
Frank T. Benner, Jnne, 1877. 
Benjamin F. Blood, March, 1843. 
Francis E. Bond, Dec., 1831. 


Charles T. Bond, July, 1880. 
Arthur P. BoDuey, Sept., 184«. 
James BowdotD, !Tot., 1819. 
Francis Brinley, Jr., March, 1825. 
William Brigham, Oct., IS-W. 
Elias Bullard, Oct., 1828. 
Edward Blake, Oct., 1831. 
James 0. Boswell, June. ISGO. 
Benjamin F. Butler, Sept. 1840. 
Caleb Butler, Oct., 1819. 
Ephnum Buttrick, March, 1825. 
George A. Butterfield, Sept, 1843. 
Anson Burlingame, Sept., 1846. 
Willard Brown, March, 1S80. 
William Locke Brown, June, 1850. 
Alphens B. Brown, Sept., 1839. 
Wm. L. Brown, Jane, 1850. 
Samuel R Brown, Oct., 1841. 
Charles Burrell, iiept., 1858. 
Nathan Brooks, Oct., 1877. 
Geo. Merrick Brooks, Sept., 1847. 
Harry A. Brown, Feb., 1881. 
Charles H. Bordis, June, 1802. 
George J. Bunut, July, 1878. 
George A. Bnice, April, 1866. 
Charles U. Bennett, April, 1869. 
Benjamin E. Bond, Oct., 1870. 
Charles F. Blandio, Oct., 1870. 
George H. Ball, June, 1871. 
John Cahill, Dec., 1874. 
George H. Clement, Jan., 1888. 
Jamea H. Carmichoel,! July, 18S0. 
Z. B. Caverly, Dec., 1846. 
Andrew J. Carr, April, 1852. 
.Toaathan Chapman, Jr., Oct., 1830. 
Wm. L. Chaplin, June, 1829. 
Henry M. Chamberlain, Dec, 1832. 
John M. Cheney, Sept., 1828. 
Albe C. Clark, Oct., 1832. 
Hobart Clark, Dec, 18i'8. 
Ira Cleieland, Oct., Ia3i. 
Edwin Coburn, filarch, 1844. 
Lemuel D. Cole, Feb., 1881). 
Felil Cunlan, July, I8811. 
Joshua P. Converse, June, ls4T. 
Charles Cowley, .\pril, 1836. 
Charles C. Colton, Sept., 1840. 
Horatio 11. F. i'urlias, Sept., 1834. 
Timothy A. Crowley, Oct., Wm. 
Timothy D. Crocker, Dec., 1S4T. 
Francis B. CrowninshieM, octbr. , 

Francis P. Currao, July, 1885. 
Peter J. Carey, June, 1883. 
Isaac Jones Cutler, Oct., 1855. 
Luther Stearns Cushing, March, 

Alfred D Chandler, Dec, 1369. 
Jamea P. Campbell, March, 187G. 
Edward W. Cate, July, 1878. 
John S. Cram, June, 1875. 
John Conlao, July, IS78. 
Wm. F. Courtney, July, 1878. 
Timothy A. Crowley, Oct., 1360. 
Charles U. Conaot, March, 1873. 
James 0. Catter, Jan., 1874. 
Samuel Dexter, Oct., 1821. 
E. H. Darby, (Jet., 1831. 
John Devereux, Oct, 1823. 
Chaa. De Blanc, Jr., Dec, 1848. 
Jamea Dana, Dec, 183.1. 
Benjamin Dean, Oct., 1845. 
Wm. N. Darenport, June, 1883. 
Robins Dinsmure, Sept., 1845. 
James Dinsmore, .Vpril, 1846. 
Epe« 3. Diiwell, Oct., 1835. 

Henry R Dennis, June, 18.'i6. 
William Draper, Sept., 1856. 
.\Iexander Dustin, Dec, 1854. 
Thomas Dwight, Dec, 1832. 
Richard J. Dwyer, Jan , 1883. 
Joshua E. Dodge, Oct., 1877. 
Warren P. Dudley, Oct., 1877. 
Isaac S. Daley, July, 1878. 
William H. Drury, Juno, 1872. 
Samuel C. Eastman, April, 1859. 
Thos. J. Enwright, Oct., 1884. 
Luke Eastman, Oct., 1829. 
Samuel C. Eastman, April, 1859. 
Plercs Evans, Feb., 1874. 
Abraham Edwards, Sept., 1822. 
Wm. H. Eliot, Oct., 1820. 
James L. English, Oct., 1333. 
Charles O. Emerson, Sept., 1821. 
Charles 0. Emerson, Oct., 1834. 
Benjamin F. Emerson, Dec, 1S34- 
Constontine C. Esty, Oct., 1847. 
Wm. M. Evarta, Sept., 1841. 
George F. Farley, June, 1820. 
Richard Forwell, March, 18J1. 
Ira B. Forbes, June, 1876. 
Samuel Farnsworth, Oct., 1817. 
Peter A. Fay, Dec, 1886. 
3. P. P. Fay, May, 1802. 
John C. Fanvell. Mardi, 1848. 
Michael F. Farwell, June, 1871. 
Richard S. Fay, June, 1828. 
John Brooks Felton, Oct., 1853. 
Luther Fitch, Sept., 1810. 
John M. Fiske, Oct., 1S22. 
.Augustus H. Flake, June, 1.S28. 
Isaac Fiske, May, 1302. 
Joel W. Fletcher, Dec, 1840. 
Charles B. Fletcher, April, 18.50. 
Luther J. Fletcher, April, 18,54. 
Frederick A. Fisher, July, 18.15. 
Eugene Fuller, June, 18.':9, 
Elisha Fuller, Oct., ISJiI. 
John II Freocli, Feb., 1381. 
Charles R. Felch, Dec , 1Mi9. 
Daniel French, Dec, 1S.5S. 
Franklin Fiske (no dntet. 
.laniee W. Ilraham, <Vt., 187:j. 
KrctWii-k W. Griffin, Sept., 1776. 
Dana B. IJove, IMarch, 1870. 
John P. Gale, Feb., 1.181. 
Joseph H. Gui'.let, Feb, 188S. 
Wui. B. Gale, June, 18G0. 
Wm. H.Gardiner, Oct., 1321. 
Wm. S. Gardner, Oct., 1852. 
Samuel J. Gardner, Sept., 1810. 
Wm. P. Gibbs, June, 1848. 
Asahel W. Guo<lell, Dec, 1347. 
Charles W. Goodnow, June, 1850. 
Robert Gordon, June, 1856. 
William Gordon, Nov., 1819. 
A. J. Gray, June, 1340. 
EdwanlGray, Oct., 1.S31. 
William Gray. Oct., 18:i4. 
Oliver U. P. Green, April, 1348. 
Andrew J. Gunnison, Sept., 1844. 
John Q. A. Griaio, Oct., 1S49. 
Charles F. Gove,' Sept., 1820. 
Elisha Glidden, Oct., 1821. 
Isaac N. Goodhue, Sept., 1851. 
Ephraim D. Howe, June, 1S70. 
Simon W. Hathaway, Oct , 1366. 
Patrick J. Hoar, Feb., I8SII. 
Sherman Hoar, Nov., ;385. 
Samuel F. Haven, ^no date). 
Francis D. Holt, April, 1859. 
Abraham Harrington, Nov., 1819. 

George F. Harrington, Dec, 1847. 
Joseph Harrington, Sept., 1846. 
Peter Haggerty, April, 1854. 
William Hall, June, 1837. 
Walter Hastings, March, 1833. 
William A. Hayes, Sept, 1839. 
Benjamin F. Ham, March, 1852. 
Charles L. Hancock, Oct., 1834. 
Edward Francis Heard, Oct, 1843. 
George Heywood, June, 1852. 
Rufus Ilosmer, Jr., Oct, 1837. 
Thomas Beald, Sept, 180U. 
Jamas D. Home, June, 1836. 
George T. HIgley, Dec, 1872. 
Samuel K. Hamilton, Dec, 1872. 
Cornelius Hedge, Oct., 1856. 
Abraham Hllliard, March, 1857. 
John J. Harvey, Oct, 1884. 
John Holmes, June, 1840. 
Thonms Hopkinson, June, 1833. 
Moses O. Howe, April, 1850. 
Charles F. Howe, April, 1859. 
Nathaniel C. Holmes, Dec, 1883. 
Henry Holmes, Dec, 1859. 
Joseph G. Holt, June, 1860. 
Homer 0. Holt, June, 1873. 
Frederick Howes, Sept , 1810. 
Elisha Hinds, Sept, 1810. 
Charies U. Hudson, Sept., 1848. 
John L. Hunt, Jan., 1881. 
Wm. A. Hutchinson, Dec, 1850. 
D. Fletcher Hnntoon, April, 1850. 
John F. Haskel, Apnl, 1875. 
Win. A. Hutchinson, Dec, 1850. 
Tlieodore C. Hiird, Sept, 1860. 
Wm. Hunter, Feb., 1874. 
Henry .\. Harmon, June, 1871. 
John Uillis, Sept, 1871. 
diaries P. Iladley, Maich, 1876. 
Henry F. Hurlbort, Oct, 1877. 
.loseph A. Harris, July, 1878. 
Francis D. Holt, April, 1859. 
Samuel T. Hawes, June, 1872. 
Martiu L. Hamblet, Dec, 1872. 
Je!<8e C. Ivy, Oct, 1877. 
Benj . F. .lockson, March, 1S51. 
Charles Alien Jacobs, Jane, 1850. 
Russell Jarvis, Oct., 1822. 
Andrew F. Jewett, March, 1837. 
Lewis E. Josselyu, Sept, 1853. 
Henry R. Judkins, Dec, 1849. 
Samuel Jones, Dec, 1345. 
John N. Jordan, June, 1830. 
John F. Jandron, Sept , 1887. 
Edwin H. Jose, Oct., 1373. 
John Jameson, Jan., 1874. 
Byron B. Johnson, June, 1873. 
Justin Allen Jacobo, June, 1850. 
John .\. Kfl^on, Sept, 1844. 
Osmer 3. Keith, Dec, 1332. 
Theodore Keating, Oct, 1827. 
.\uroo Keyes, Oct., 1824. 
Wm. Kelnmn, March. 1874. 
John A. Kuowles, March, 1832. 
Edmund Kimball, Nov., 1319. 
J. Chellis Kimball, March, 1857. 
John Shephard Keyea, Mch., 1844. 
Wm. K Knight, Nov., 1885. 
Willis A. Kingsbury, Feb., 1331. 
Louis II. Kileaki, Oct, 1877. 
Frederick Lawton, March, 1880. 
Luther Lawrence, June, 1884. 
Rnfus Laphani, Sept, 1844. 
Jonathan Ladd, Oct., 1846. 
Samuel J. Lodd, Sept, 1353. 
Putnam W. Lock, Dec, 1871. 

John 3. Ladd, Dec, 1838. 
Asa F. Lawrence, Dec, 1828. 
Rufna B. Lawrence, Dec, 1837. 
George P. Lawrence, Feb., 1869. 
Edward 3. Leavitt, April, 1846. 
Nahnm Leonard, Jr., Sept, 1863. 
Charles Lewis, Oct, 1818. 
Wm. H. Livingwood, Oct, 1859. 
Ed. St. Loe Livermors, Mch., 1832. 
James Lewis, Jr., Sep., 1810. 
John Locke, Dec , 1853. 
Joseph Locke, Sept., 1800. 
Francis C. Loring, Oct, 1833. 
Charles B. Lowell, Oct, 1831. 
Alonzo V. Lynde, Jane, 1847. 
AmasaH. Lyon, Oct, 1837. 
Wyllia Lyman, Sept, 1820. 
Samuel V. Lyman, Oct , 1823. 
George S. Littlefield, Sept., 1872. 
A. J. Lothrop, July, 1880. 
Wm. H. Lambert, March, 1885. 
Seldon H. Loring, July, 1885. 
Wm. H. Longhlln, Sept., 1870. 
Gage F. Lawton, June, 1877. 
Charles S. Lllley, Jane, 1877. 
Thomaa F. Larkin, Jane, 1877. 
Alfred G. Lamson, June, 1872. 
Benjamin E. Mason, March, 1880. 
James 3. Mnrphy, Feb., 1885. 
George M. Mason, Sept., 1822. 
Samuel H. Mann, Oct., 1828. 
Joseph W. Mansur, June, 1834. 
James Warren Marcy, Dec, 1842. 
Lorenzo Marrett, Oct., 1843. 
Joshua N. Marshal, Dec, 1855. 
Leonard Uellin, Sept., 1800. 
Saninel N. Merrill, Sept., 1854. 
Horatio C. Merriam, Oct., 1834. 
Edward Mellen, Dec, 1828. 
Stephen Mernt, June, 1824. 
I. S. Morae, Sept, 1840. 
Leonard Mucw, 3Iay, 1800. 
Peter H. Moore, Sept., 1848. 
.\rad Moore, Sept, 1831. 
Mark Moore, October, 1820. 
Charles H. Morley, Sept , 18(ill. 
John G. McKean, June, 1834. 
.Matthew J. McCafferty,Mar.,IS87. 
John F. McEvoy, Sept., 1857. 
John McNeil, June, 1849. 
John W. McEvoy, Jan., 1888. 
Owen McNemara, June, 1869. 
OIICTC. Moulton, June, 1870. 
John G. Ma^uire, June, 1877. 
Richard J. McKelleget, June,1877. 
Wm. P. Mitchell, March, 1872. 
Wm. H. Martin, April, 1873. 
Peter J. McGuire, July, 1878. 
Frederick P. Marble, June, 1883. 
John T. Maaterson, June, 1883. 
Wm. H. NUea, April, 1871. 
Albert F. Nelson, Sept, 1836. 
Daniel Needham, April, 1850. 
Michael Norton, June, 1865. 
George B. Neal, Oct, 1849. 
.Arthur F. L. Norria, June, 1859. 
John C. Nonrse, Sept., 1843. 
Robert Ralston Newell, Dec, 1869. 
Edwanl B. O'Connor, Sept, 1872. 
Charles A. O'Conner, Sept., 1869. 
Wm. II. Orcntt, Jan., 1874. 
Wm. N. Osgood, March, 1880. 
Waldemer Otis, June, 1871. 
Thomas O'Keefs, July, 1880. 
John L. O'Neil, Doe., 1883. 
Samuel D. Partridge, Sept, 1830. 



Samiisl Parker, Oct, 1829. 
Thomu A. ParsoDj, Jane, 1846. 
John H. W. Page, Jnoe, 1832. 
Frederick Parker, Sept , 1841. 
OUl Parkburet, April, 1838. 
Samael Panona, Sept., 1861. 
Nathan Parka, March, 1855. 
John 3. Patton, July, 1880. 
Wm. E. Payne, Oct., 1831. 
George W. Pelt, Feb., 184«. 
Florentine W. Pelton, March, 1856. 
David Perbam, March, 1859. 
Horatio N. Perkins, Sept., 1832. 
Benjamin F. Perkins, April, 1855. 
Asa Peabody, Sept , 1856. 
John W. Pettingill, Dec., 18S8. 
George W. Phillipe, Oct., 1834. 
Wendell Phillips, Sept., 1&34. 
Albion A. Perry, April, 1886. 
Thomas W. Phillips, Nov., 1819. 
Benjamin J. Prescott, Sept., 1828. 
Alfred N. Prescott, Dec., 1844. 
Jonathan Porter, Nov., 1819. 
Henry C. Pratt, Feb., 1869. 
Buahrod W. Poor, Dec., 1846. 
3Iarshall Preston, Not., 1819. 
Willard Phillips, Oct., 1818. 
George W. Poore, Jnly, 1S8S. 
Henry A. Pinder, Oct., 1884. 
Jacob C. Patten, Oct., 1887. 
John 3. Patten, Jnly, 1880. 
John H. Punch, Feb., 1881. 
IrringS. Porter, April, 1870. 
John J. PIckman, Sept, 1871. 
Sidney A. Phillips, Jan., 1874. 
Charles H. Phelps, Feb., 1874. 
K. Henry Pedrick, Dec., 1874. 
Nathan D. Pratt, Sept , 1775. 
Edward B. Quinn. Feb., 1881. 
Francis W. Qna, July, 1878. 
Carlyle W. Qoimby, Oct., 1853. 
Wm. A. Boss, Oct, 1863. 
Edward 3. Rand, Oct, 1833. 
Isaac Q. Iteed, Dec., 1836. 
Bobert Rantonl, Jr., Oct, 1831. 
John H. BIchardson, Sept , 1828. 
Wyman BIchardson, Dec., 1828. 
Wm. N. Richardson, Dec., 1824. 
Daniel BIchardson, Dec., 1827. 
Charles O. Ripley, Sept, 1844. 
Ebenpzer Rockwood, June, 1845. 
John W. Re«l,Sept, 1865. 
Richard Babint,Oct., 1831. 
Jobn P. Bobinson, Oct, 1829. 
Charles Bobinson, June, 1852. 
Abner Bogen, March, 1856. 
John O. Sogers, Nor., 1819. 
Bradford Bnsaell, Sept., 1821. 
Charles Bnsssll, Sept, 1868. 
James Bossell, Oct, 1818. 
Joaiah Butter, June, 1843. 
Henry W. Robinson, July, 1885. 
Samuel B. Bogera, June, 1836. 
Daniel M. Blchardaon.'Jnne, 1836. 
Daniel E. RichardsoD, July, 1871. 
John S. Searie, Oct, 1873. 
George F. Stone, Feb., 1874. 
Henry J. Sargent Oct, 1833. 
Daniel Sanndera, Dec., 1844. 
George L. Sawyer, Dec. , 1858. 
Thomas O. Selfridge, Not., 1800. 
Nath. Shattnck, Jr, June, 1804. 
Horatio Shipley, Oct, 18.33. 
Wm. S. Spragne, Jane, 1866. 
Isaac Simon, Dec., 1861. 
Harrison Q. Sleeper, Oct, 1862. 

Ira Spanlding, April, 184S. 

Wm. Sawyer, Sept., 1831. 

Phillip H. Sears, Oct, 1849. 

Norman SeaTer, Oct., 1827. 

GustaTos A. Somerby, Oct., 1847. 

Ed. D. Sohier, Oct, 1834. 

Daniel Stone, Jr., Dec., 1829. 

John C. Shea, July, 1880. 

Ed. F. Sherman, Feb., 1847. 

John Sheple, Sept, 1810. 

Wm. Standish, March, 1857. 

George Stevens, Sept, 1854. 

George H. Stevens, March, 1880. 

Asahel Steams, Sept., I811O. 

Benjamin H. Steele, Oct , 1857. 

Martin L. Stone, March, 18^5. 

Henry W. Smith, March, 1843. 

Wm. H. L. Smith. April, 1848. 

Wm. F. Smith, Sept , 1842. 

John Stuart, Dec, 1847. 

Charles A. F. Swan, Oct., 1830. 

Theodore H. Bweetser, Sept, 1843. 

Erdii Tenney Switl, Dec, 1859. 

Solon W. Stevens, Jan., 1S88. 

George Sanderson, Dec , 1869. 

George B. Stone, June, 1871. 
Albert H. Skilton, Jan , 1876. 
Chariea F. Stone, Dec, 1870. 
Charles W Savage, July, 1878. 
.\ndrew J. Stockpole, June, liiCO. 
Charies A. F. Swan, Oct., 1858. 
John L. Spring, Dec, 166(>. 
Wm. N. Titus, Jan., 1886. 
John P. Tarbell, June, 1831. 
Ebenezer Thacher, Sept., 1831. 
Bazaleel Tafl, Jr., June, 1837. 
James Temple, Oct., 1831. 
John L. Tuttle, April, 1833. 
Joseph H. Tyler, April, 1863. 
George C. Travis, Dec, 1871. 
Louis K. TrRTis, Dec, 1875. 
Wm. H. H. Tuttle, Oct, 1877. 
James M. Troott, March, 1874. 
Stephen H. Tyng, Nov., 1875. 
Jonas P. Varnum, June, 1865. 
Atkinson C. Varnum, Sept., 1858. 
John Vamum, Sept, 1851. 
Samuel B. Walcutt, Oct., 1828. 
Owen Warland, June, 1827. 
S. H. Walley, Jr., Oct, 1831. 
John S. Wallls, Dec, 1838. 
George P. Waldron, Oct., 1846. 
Wm. A. Warner, Oct., 1820. 
Elibn B. Washburne, Dec, 1839. 
Wm. R. P. Washburn, Oct, 1821 
Francis O. Watts, Oct, 1827. 
Ezra Weston, Oct, 18.34. 
Paul WilUrd, Oct, 1823. 
Calvin Willard, Dec, 1829. 
Lemuel S. Williams, March, 1836. 
John M. Wilson, March, 18:13. 
David S. Wilson, April, 1849. 
Isaac G. Wilson, June, 1841. 
John Winneck, Dec, 1848. 
Bobert C. Winthrop, Oct, 18.33. 
John T. Winthrop, Oct., 1820. 
Samael H. Wilcox, Oct., 1859. 
Charles C. Woodman, Dec, 1851. 
Wm. E. Wording, April, 1847. 
John Wright, March, 1824. 
Wm. P. Wright Sept, 1856. 
Thomss Wright Sept, 1845. 
Nathaniel Wright, Jr., Sept, 1841. 
Lorenzo WeetoTer, June, 1843. 
Isaac W. Webster, April, 1849. | 

Wm. P. Webster, Sept, 1845. | 

I Franklin Worcester, June, 1871. 

Charles B. Wallingford, April, 
! 1871. 

! Henry S. Webster, Oct., 1877. 
I Salmon Whitney, March, 1860. 

Daniel Williams, March, 1860. 

George F. Woodward, Mch., 1873. 

Raymon E. Wilson, Feb., 1874. 

John H. Whalen, Feb., 1874. 

Herbert B. White, Dec, 1883. 

Thomas Wetmore, Nov., 1819. 
Alfred A. White, March, 1859. 
William White, Sep., 1810. 
Benjamin W. Whitney, Oct., 1843. 
George M. Ward, Dec, 1885. 
Charles F. Worcester, Dec, 1836. 
Prentiss Webster, Feb., 1881. 
John Warren, Feb., 1881. 
Edgar Wairen Washburn, Oct., 

The above list is not only incomplete so far as ad- 
(ni^^sion3 to the bar are concerned, but it is by no means 
confined to lawyers living or intending to settle with- 
in the county. It is presented in this chapter, rather 
than in that on the Bench and Bar, for the reason thai 
it includes many wlio never intended to practice with- 
in the county, but who were admitted at its different 
courts on account of their proximity to the Dane Law 
School at Cambridge, or the private offices in which 
they had pursued their studies. 

There is little that can be added to this sketch of 
Middlesex County, which lias already extended be- 
yond the limits assigned to it in these volumes. The 
special industries, many of them of large proportions, 
which abound in the county, the various charitable 
and reformatory institutions established within its 
boundaries, the highways and bridges laid out and 
built under county supervision, will all be referred to 
in the histories of the towns, to which this sketch may 
be considered a preface. The following chapter though 
entitled a sketch of the Bench and Bar, is separated 
from this by only an arbitrary line, and may properly 
be considered the second chapter of the History of the 


.Q^NCH AjXD bar. 


In the earlier days of Middlesex County the bar was 
divided into two classes, barristers and attorneys, 
and this division continued until 1836, though after 
1806, under a rule of court, counselors were substi- 
tuted for barristers. In the earliest days the lawyers 
were chiefly uneducated men, and of the judges few 
were educated to the law. Edward Randolph wrote 
home to England in January 1687-88, "I have wrote 
you of the want we have of two or three honest attor- 
neys (if any such thing in nature); we have but 
two ; one is West's creature, come with him from New 
York and drives all before him. He also takes ex- 
travagant fees, and for want of more the country can- 
not avoid coming to him, so that we had better be 
quite without them than not to have more." These 
two attorneys were very likely George Farwell and 
James Graham, the former of whom was clerk of the 
Superior Court, and until June 20, 1688, attorney-gen- 



eral, when he was succeeded by the latter. Little is 
known of the barristers before 1768. In that year 
there were twenty-five barristers in Massachusetts. 
Of these, eleven were in Suffolk— Richard Dana, Benj- 
amin Kent, James Otis, Jr., Samuel Fitch, William 
Refcd, Samuel Swift, Benjamin Gridley, Samuel 
Quincy, Robert Auchmuty, Jonathan Adams and An- 
drew Cazeneau. Five were in Essex— Daniel Farnham, 
William Pynchon, John Chipman, Nathaniel Peaselee 
Sergent and John Lowell. Two were in Worcester — 
James Putnam and Abel Willard. One was in Mid- 
dlesex-Jonathan Sewall. Two were in Plymouth- 
James Hovey and Pelham Winslow. Three were in 
Boston— Samuel White, Robert Treat Paine and Dan- 
iel Leonard, and Hampshire had one, John Worthing- 
ton. According to Washburn's " History of the Judi- 
ciary of Massachusetts," from whom the writer quotes, 
sixteen other barristers were made before the Revolu- 
tion — John Adams and Sampson Salter Blowers, of 
Boston ; Moses Bliss and Jonathan Bliss, of Spring- 
field ; Joseph Hawley, of Northampton ; Zephaniah 
Leonard, of Taunton ; Mark Hopkins, of Great Bar- 
rington ; Simeon Strong, of Amherst ; Daniel Oliver, of 
Hard wick ; Francis Dana, of Cambridge ; Daniel Bliss, 
of Concord ; Joshua Upham, of Brookfield ; Shearjas- 
hub Bourne, of Barnstable ; Samuel Porter, of Salem ; 
Jeremiah D. Rogers, of Littleton, and Oakes Angler, of 

It is by no means generally known what constituted 
a barrister in New England. The term is derived 
from the Latin word barra, signifying bar, and was 
applied to those only who were permitted to plead at 
the bar of the courts. It was necessary in England 
that a barrister before admission should have resided 
three years in one of the Inns of Court, if a graduate 
of either Cambridge or Oxford, and five years if not. 
These Inns of Court were the Inner Temple, the 
Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn and Gray's Inn. Up 
to the time of the Revolution the English custom was 
so far followed as to make a practice of three years in 
the Inferior Courts a qualification for admission as bar- 
rister. John Adams says in his diary that he became 
a barrister in 1761, and was directed to provide him- 
self with a gown and bands and a tie-wig, having 
practiced according to the rules three years in the In- 
ferior Courts. 

After the Revolution the appointment of barristers 
continued, and the following entry has been found by 
the writer in the records of the Superior Court of 
Judicature : 

" Suffolk as. Superior Court of Judicature st Boston, third TnMdaj 
of Febmary, 1781, preaant Wm. Cuahlng, Nathaniel P. Sargeant, David 
SewaU and Jnmea Sullivao, Justicei ; and now at thil term th« follow 
ing rule is made by the Court and ordered to be entered, viz. ; whereas, 
learning and literary sccompliabments are necesaary a« well to promote 
the happineaa aa to preaerve the freedom of the people, and the learning 
of the law, when duly encouraged and rightly directed, being aa well 
peculiarly subaerrient to the great and good purpoM aforeaaid aa pro- 
motive of public and private juatice ; and the Court being, at all tlmea, 
ready to bestow peculiar marks of approbation upon the gentlemen of 
the bar who, by a close application to the study of the science they pro- 

reaa, by a mode of conduct which gives a conviction of the rectitude of 
their minds and a fairness of practice that does honor to the profession 
of the law, shall distinguish as men of science, honor and integrity. 
Do order that no gentleman shall bo caUed to the degree of barrister 
until he shall merit the same by his conspicnons bearing, ability and 
honeuty ; and that the Court will, of their own mete moUon, call to 
the bar such petsona as shall render themselves worthy as aforeMid ; 
and that the manner of caUIng to the bar shall b* as follows : The gen- 
tleman who shall be a candidate shall stand within the bar; the chief 
Justice, or In his absence the senior justice, ahall. In the name of the 
Court, repeat to him the qualificationa nece«ary for a bairljter-at-law ; 
shall let him know that it Is a conviction in the mind of the Court of his 
being posaewed of those qualifications that Induces thsm to confer the 
honor upon him ; and shall solemnly charge him so to conduct himself 
aa to be of singnUr service to hia country by exerting bis abilities for 
the defence of her Constitutional freedom ; and so to demean himself as 
to do honor to the court and bar.** 

The act establishing the Supreme Judicial Court, 
July 3, 1782, provided that the court should and might 
from time to time make, record and establish all such 
rules and regulations with respect to the admission of 
attorneys ordinarily practicing in the said court, and 
the creating of barris lers-at-law. The following rule 
was adopted and entered on the records of that court : 

" Suffolk 38. At the Supreme Judicial Court at Boston, the hut Tuea- 
.lay of August, 1783, present William Gushing, Chief Justice ; and Na- 
thaniel P. Sargeant, David Sewall and Increase Snmner, Justices, 
ordered that barristers be called to the bar by special writ, to be ordered 
l»y the Court, and to be In the following form : 


" ' To A . B , Esq., of , Greeting : We, well knowing your abil- 
ity, learning and Integrity, command you that you appear before our 

luatices of our Supreme Judicial Court next to be holden at , in 

and for our county of , on the Tuesday of , then and 

there in our said Court to take upon you the state and degree of a 

Barristor-at-I*w. Hereof fail not. Witness , Esq., onr Chief 

JusUce at Boetou, the day of , In the year of our Lord 

and in the year of our Independence . By order of 

the Court, , Clerk." 

which writ shall be fairly engrossed on parchment and delivered twenty 
.lays before the session of the same Court by the Sheriff of the same 
county to the person to whom directed, and being produced In Court by 
Ihe Barriater and there read by the Clerk and proper certiBcato thereon 
made, ahall be redelivered and kept as a voucher of his being legally 
called to the bar : and the Barristers shall take rank according to the 
date of their respective writs." 

It is probable that no barristers were called after 
1784, and in 1806, by the following rule of court, coun- 
sellors seem to have been substituted in their place : 

" Suffolk SS. At the Supreme Judicial Court at Boston for the coun- 
ties of Suffolk and Nantucket, the second Tuesday of March, 1806, 
present Francis Dana, Chief Justice, Theodore Sedgwick, George 
Thatcher and Isaac Parker, Justices, oiderod : Finit. No Attorney shall 
do the businew of a CounseUor unless he shall havs boon made or ad- 
mitted as such by the Court. Second. All Attomeya of Uila Court, who 
have been admitted three years before the setUng of thU Court, shall be 
and hereby are enUtled to all the rights and privileges of such. Third. 
No Attornsy or Counsellor shall hereafter be admitted without a pre- 
vious examination, etc." 

In 1836 (Chapter 88, Section 23 of the Revised 
Statutes) it was provided by law that " every person 
admitted to practice in any court may practice in ev- 
ery other court in the state, and there shall be no dis- 
tinction of counsellor and attorney." The rule of 
court above mentioned, adopted by the Superior 
Court of Judicature in 1781, was probably made 
necessary by the new order of things brought about 



by the Revolution, and was probably only a new de- 
claration concerning barristers of a rule which had ex- 
isted in the Provincial courts. It has been thought 
by some that until 1781 the English rule prevailed re- 
quiring a probation in one of the Inns of Court, but 
it is absolutely certain that many of the barristers of 
1767, a list of whom has been given, had never been 
in Eoglaod. 

Among those on the bench in the Massachusetts 
Colonial and Provincial periods, aa has already been 
said, few of the judges were trained to the law. Up 
to the Revolution only four judges educated as 
lawyers had been appointed to the bench of the 
Superior Court of Judicature — Benjamin Lynde, 
Paul Dudley, Edmund Trowbridge and William Cash- 
ing. Of these, Edmund Trowbridge alone was a Middle- 
sex County man. Mr. Trowbridge was born in Newton 
in 1709, and graduated at Cambridge in 1728. In 
1749 he was appointed by Governor Shirley Attorney- 
General, and in 1767 a justice of the Superior Court, 
resigning his office in 1772. He presided at the trial 
of English soldiers charged with murder at the Boston 
massacre and won great credit for his ability and im- 
partiality. Though a Loyalist, he held the confidence 
and respect of all parties until his death, which oc- 
curred at Cambridge, April 2, 1783. It seems 
surprising at this day, when the highest and pro- 
foundest legal attainments are sought for the bench, 
to find how little legal knowledge the judges of the 
highest courts in the early days must have 
possessed, and how strikingly unfitted by tem- 
perament and education many of them must 
have been for the occupation in which they were 
engaged. William Stoughton was the chief justice 
of the Court of Oyer and Terminer, created as a 
special tribunal " assigned to enquire of, hear and 
determine for the time all and all marvcer of 
felonies, witchcraft, crimes and offences how or by 
whomsoever done, committed or perpetuated within 
the several counties of Suffolk, E^ex, Middlesex or, 
either of them." Its special mission was to try the 
cases of witchcraft then pending in Essex. Mr. 
Stoughton was born in Dorchester in 1631 and grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1650. He was educated for the 
ministry, became a fellow at Oxford and preached in 
England and in New England after his return. In 
1668 he preached the annual election sermon, and, 
though never settled, continued in the ministry until 
1671. Nathaniel Saltonstall, one of the associate 
justices of the court, was a military man, but declined 
to act, and was succeeded by Jonathan Uurwin, a 
merchant, and the other justices were Samuel Sewall, 
a clergyman ; John Richards, a merchant ; Waitstill 
Winthrop, a physician ; Peter Sergeant, probably a 
merchant, and Bartholomew Gedney, a physician. 
The strong men on the bench were undoubtedly 
Stoughton and Sewall, and on them, more than the 
others, the responsibility must rest for the barbarous 
results of the trials in which they were engaged. 

Of the Court of Assistants, which existed during 
the Colony of Massachusetts, there were some who, as 
Middlesex men, should be mentioned in this narra- 

Thomas Dudley, an assistant in 1635, '36, '41, '42, 
'43, '44, was one of the founders of Cambridge in 1631. 
He remained there, however, only a few years, and 
after a short residence in Ipswich became a resident 
of Roxbury in 1636, before the county of Middlesex 
was incorporated. He was Deputy-Governor from 

1629 to 1634, from 1637 to 1640, from 1646 to 1650, 
and from 1651 to 1653. He •was also Governor in 
1634, 1640, 1645 and 1650 ; commissioner of the four 
colonies of Plymouth, Massachusetts, New Haven and 
Connecticut in 1643, 1647 and 1649. While in Cam- 
bridge Mr. Paige, in his hi.story of that town, states 
that he lived on the northwesterly corner of Dunster 
and South Streets. He died in Roxbury, July 31, 

Simon Bradstreet, assistant from 1630 to 1678, 
was also one of the original founders of Cambridge, 
but became a resident of Andover in 1644. He mar- 
ried, in England, Ann, daughter of Thomas Dudley, 
and while in Cambridge, as Mr. Paige also states, 
lived on the easterly corner of Brighton Street and 
Harvard Square. He died in Salem, March 27, 

John Haynes, an assistant in 1634 and 1636, came 
to New England iu 1633, and lived a short time in 
Cambridge on the westerly side of Winthrop Square, 
removing thence to Connecticut in 1637, of which State 
he was the first Governor. He was also Governor of 
Massachusetts Colony in 1635. He died in 1654. 

Roger Harlakenden, an assistant from 1636 to 
1638, came to Cambridge in 1635 and lived on the 
Dudley estate, where he died of small-pox, November 
17, 1638. 

Increase Nowell, who for many years was an 
assistant, came to New England with Winthrop in 

1630 and was secretary of the Colony from 1636 to 
1649. He was a founder o( the church in Charle-stown 
in 1632, and died in Charleston, November 1, 1655. 

Herbert Pelham, an assistant from 1645 to 1649, 
though he remained in the country only a few years, 
was during his stay a Middlesex man. His grand- 
father, Edward Peiham, of Hastings, in Sussex Eng- 
land, was a member of Parliament, who was admitted 
at Gray's Inn in 1563, called to the bar in 1579, 
knighted and made Lord Chief Baron of the Ex- 
chequer of Ireland, and died in 1606. His son, 
Herbert Pelham, of Michelhan Priory, was admitted 
to Gray's Inn in 1588, and his son, the emigrant to 
New England, bore his father's arms in the Hastings 
muster-roll in 1619. The last Herbert, the subject of 
this short sketch, born in 1601, graduated at Oxford 
in 1619 and came to Massachusetts in 1638 and settled 
in Sudbury. He was the first treasurer of Harvard 
College, and returned to England in 1649, where he 
died in 1673 His will, proved in London, March 13, 


XXV 11 

1677, calls him of Bewere Hamlet, Essex, and speaks 
of Thomas Bellingham as the husband of his sister. 
By a first wife he had a son, Edward, and a daughter, 
Penelope, who married, in 1651, Governor Josiah 
Wioslow, of the Plymouth Colony. The son, Edward, 
married a daughter of Governor Benedict Arnold, of 
Rhode Island, aild died in Newport in 1720, leaving 
three children — Elizabeth, Edward and Thomas. Mr. 
Pelham, the assistant, married for a second wife 
Elizabeth, widow of Roger Harlakenden, who was also 
an assistant from 1634 to 1638, inclusive. The Pelham 
house in Hastings, built in 1611, was standing in 
1862, the oldest house in the town. 

Francis Willoughby, another assistant, was the 
son of Colonel William Willoughby, and was born in 
Portsmouth, England. He was admitted a freeman at 
Charlestown August 22, 1638, and was in publicservice 
almost continuously until his death, which occurred 
April 4, 1671. He was selectman of his adopted 
town seven years, was the representative two years, 
was assistant four years and Deputy-Governor from 
1665 until his death. He was a successful merchant, 
leaving at his death an estate valued at about £4000, 
of which he gave 300 acres of land to the schook of 

Daniel Gookin, another Middlesex assistant, was 
in various ways a prominent man. He was born in 
Kent, England, about 1612, and died in Cambridge 
March 19, 1687. He emigrated to Virginia from Eng- 
land in 1621 with his father, and came to New Eng- 
land in 1644. He was a captain in the militia, a 
deputy to the General Court from Cambridge and 
assistant from 1652 until 1686 inclusive. He was at 
different times superintendent of the Indians, licen- 
ser of the press and marshal-general of the Colony. 
He was the author of " Historical Collections of the 
Indians of Massachusetts," which were published by 
the Massachusetts Historical Society in 1792. He 
married, iu 1639, in England, Mary Dolling, of St. 
Dunstan in the West, London. 

Simon Willard, who was an assistant from 1654 : 
to 1675, was born in Kent, England, about 1605 and | 
died while holding court at Charlestown April 24, | 
1676. He came to New England in 1634 and lived I 
many years in Concord, Lancaster and Groton, finally ' 
removing to Salem, of which place he was a resident j 
at the time of his death. He was connected with the 
militia and wore the title of major. 

Richard Russell, an assistant from 1659 to 1676, 
came to New England from Hereford, in Hereford- | 
shire, England, and was admitted a freeman at ' 
Charleitown in 1640. He was a selectman of that 
town twenty-six years, a deputy to the General 
Court ten years, an assistant sixteen years, Speaker of 
the House of Deputies five years and twenty years 
the colonial treasurer. He was a merchant by pro- 
fession and accumulated a fortune that was large for 
the times. He died May 14, 1676, giving by his will 
£100 to his church, £50 towards a parsonage house, 

£200 to the town for the benefit of the poor and 
£100 to Harvard College. By a wife, Maad, whom he 
probably married in New England, he had James, 
bom in 1640 ; Daniel, who graduated at Harvard in 
1669 and died in Charlestown after his acceptance of 
an invitation to become its settled minister January 
4, 1678; Catharine, who married William Roewell, of 
Connecticut; Elizabeth, who married Nathaniel 
Graves and John Herbert. 

Thomas Danforth, an assistant from 1659 to 
1678, was the son of Nicholas Danforth, of Cambridge, 
and was born in Suffolk, England, in 1622 and came 
to Massachusetts with his father in 1634. He was 
admitted a freeman in 1643 and in 1657 was a deputy 
to the General Court from Cambridge. In 1659 he 
was promoted from assistant to Deputy-Grovemor and 
remained in ofiSce until 1686. In 1679 he was ap- 
pointed by the General Court president of the Prov- 
ince of Maine, and a General Court for that Province 
was held at York in 1681. He continued in that 
ofiice until the arrival of Dudley, in 1686, and after the 
old charter was resumed, upon the retirement of 
Andros, he was again made Deputy-Governor and 
continued in office until the union of the Colonies, 
in 1692, and the establishment of the Province. 
Under the Provincial charter he was made one of the 
Judges of the Superior Court of Judicature, and con- 
tinued on the bench until his death, which occurred 
at Cambridge November 5, 1699. • 

Peter Bdlkley, an assistant from 1677 to 1684, 
was the son of Rev. Peter Bulkley, of Concord, and 
was born August 12, 1643. He graduated at Harvard 
in 1660, and, though educated for the ministry, 
became an active man in the affairs of the Massachu- 
setts Colony. He was a deputy to the General Court 
from Concord from 1673 to 1676, and in the latter 
year was Speaker. He was one of the judges of the 
Superior Court under Dudley at Concord May 24, 
1688. He married, April 16, 1667, Rebecca, daughter 
of Lieutenant Joseph Wheeler, who, as his widow, 
married Jonathan Prescott. Peter Prescott a son of 
Jonathan, born April 17, 1709, dealt largely in wild 
lands in New Hampshire, and gave the name to Peter- 
boro,' in that State. He commanded a company at 
Crown Point in 1758, and before the Revolution re- 
moved to Nova Scotia, where he was appointed clerk 
of the courts, and died in 1784. 

Thomas Flint, an assistant from 1642 to 1651 and 
in 1653, came from Maclock, in Derbyshire, England, 
and settled in Concord in 1638. He was a man of 
wealth for New England, and is said to have brought 
with him £4000. He was a representative to the Gen- 
eral Court four years, as well as being an assistant. 
It was said of him that he was " a sincere servant of 
Christ who had a fair yearly revenue in England, but 
having improved it for Christ by casting it into 
ihe common treasury, he waits upon the Lord for 
doubling his talent, if it shall seem good unto him 
so to do, and the meantime spending his person for 



the good of his people in the respougible office of mag- 

James Kussell, an assistant from 1680 to 1686 
inclusire, was the son of Richard Russell, who has al- 
ready been mentioned in the list of assistants. He 
was bom in Charlestown, October 4, 1640, and mar- 
ried a daughter of John Haynes, who was Governor 
of the Colony from May 5, 1635,' to May 25, 1636, and 
was succeeded by Henry Vane. Mr. Russell was a 
deputy to the Gteneral Court, one of the Council of 
Safety at the deposition of Andros, and colonial treas- 
urer from May 19, 1680, to May 11, 1686. Under the 
Provincial charter he was named as one of the Council. 
He died April 28, 1709. 

On the 7th of October, 1691, the Massachusetts 
Colony ceased to exist, as on that date a new charter 
passed the great seal embracing Massachusetts, Plym- 
outh, Maine, Nova Scotia, Nantucket and Martha's 
Vineyard in a new government by the name of the 
" Province of Massachusetts Bay." Under this 
charter, which reached New England in 1692, the 
General Court was authorized to establish courts with 
power to try all kinds of civil and criminal causes. 
Before, however, the General Court had met under 
the new charter. Sir William Phipps, who had been 
appointed the first Governor of the Province, created 
the special Court of Oyer and Terminer, already re- 
ferred to, for the purpose of trying persons charged 
with witchcraft. The judges commissioned for this 
court June 2, 1692, were only a short time in service, 
and in August or September of the same year the 
court was dissolved. None of the judges were Mid- 
dlesex men, and consequently they have no place in 
this record. 

The courts, as has been already mentioned, perma- 
nently established under the charter were theSuperior 
Court of Judicature, the Inferior Court of Common 
Pleas, a Court of Chancery, and the lower courts of 
Quarter Sessions of the Peace and of Justices of the 
Peace. The Superior Court of Judicature consisted at 
firetof William Stonghton, chief justice; Thomas Dan- 
forth, Waitstill Winthrop, John Richards and Samuel 
Sewall, associates. Of these, Thomas Danforth, the 
only Middlesex man, has already been sufficiently 
referred to as one of the Colonial Court of Assistants. 

John Leverett, a justice on the bench of the 
Superior Court from 1702 to 1708, who was for many 
years a resident of Middlesex County, was born in 
Boston, August 25, 1662. He was a grandson of John 
Leverett, who was from 1671 to 1673 Deputy -Governor 
of the Massachusetts Colony. He graduated at Har- 
vard in 1680 and became president of the college on 
his retirement from the bench, which office he held 
until his death, which occurred on the 3d of May, 
1724. He lived in Cambridge some years before his 
accession to the presidency of the college, and repre- 
sented that town in 1700 in the General Court, of 
which he was Speaker. For some years before his 
appointment to the college he held the offices of judge 

of the Superior Court, judge of Probate and coun- 

Jonathan Remington, a judge of the Superior 
Court from 1733 to 1745, was born in Cambridge and 
graduated at Harvard in 1696. Before his accession 
to the Superior bench he had been a judge of the 
Common Pleas for Middlesex from 1715 to 1733 and 
judge of Probate for that county from 1725 to 1731. 
He died September 20, 1745. 

Thomas Greaves, a judge of the Superior Court 
in 1738, was born in Charlestown in 1684 and grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1703. He studied and practiced 
medicine in the place of his birth. Before his ap- 
pointment to the Superior Court he acted in 1731 as 
special judge of the Middlesex Court of Common 
Pleas, iu 1735 as special judge of the same court in 
Suffolk, and in 1737 as special judge of the Superior 
Court for Essex. In 1733 be was appointed a judge 
of the Common Pleas Court, on which bench he re- 
mained until his appointment to the Superior Court 
in 1738. In 1739, after leaving the Superior Court, 
having been superseded by Stephen Sewall on the 
16th of May in that year, he was reappointed to the 
Common Pleas and remained on its bench until his 
death, which occurred June 19, 1747. 

Chambers Russell, son of Daniel Russell, a judge 
on the bench of the Superior Court from 1752 to 1766, 
was born in Charlestown in 1713, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1731. He settled in Concord, in that part 
of the town which afterwards became a part of Lin- 
coln, and remained a resident of the new town after 
its incorporation in 1754. He was appointed a judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas in 1747 and continued 
on that bench until April 6, 1752, when he was com- 
missioned to the Superior Court. In 1747 he was also 
appointed judge of vice-admiralty over New Hamp- 
shire, Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and held the 
office until his death, which occurred at Guilford, 
England, November 24, 1767. The family of which 
Mr. Russell was a member was a distinguished one 
during many generatiouR. He was the great-grandson 
of Richard Russell, already referred to as one of the 
Court of Assistants from Middlesex County during the 
life of the Colony. James Russell, a brother of 
Chambers, who died in 1798, wrote as follows to his 
son, Thomas Russell, an eminent merchant of Boston : 
" Our family has great reason to bless God that the 
reputation of it has been preserved. You are the 
fifth generation. In the year 1646 Richard Russell 
entered into public life. From that time to the pres- 
ent I may say the family have had every office of 
profit and honor which the people could give them, 
in the town of Charlestown, in the county of Middle- 
sex, and the State of Massachusetts ; and I do not find 
that there was any one left out of office for misbe- 

Edmund Trowbridoe, who was ajudge of the Su- 
preme Court from 1767 to 1772, has already been re- 
ferred to. 


A list of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas 
during the life of the Province and during the Revo- 
lution has been already given in the preceding chap- 
ter, but some special mention of each should be made 
in a sketch of the Bench and Bar. 

John Phillips, commissioned a judge of the court 
December 7, 1692, and remaining on the bench until 
1715, was burn in Charlestown in 1631, and died 
March 20, 1725. He was also judge of the Admiralty 
Court, treasurer of the Province, and from 1689 to 
1715 colonel of a regiment. He was a member of 
the House of Representatives from 1683 to 1686, and 
at the time of the Revolution was one of the Com- 
mittee of Safety. 

James Russell, judge of the Common Pleas Court 
from December 5, 1692, to 1707, has already been 
sketched as one of the Colonial Court of Ansistants. 

Joseph Lynde, a judge of the same court from 
Dec. 7, 1692, to 1719, was born in Charlestown in 
June, 1636, and died January 29, 1727. It is doubt- 
ful whether he was ever, as stated by Washburn, one 
of the assistants under the Colonial charter. Under 
the charter of the Province he was named as one of 
the counselors, and previous to that had been one of 
the Committee of Safety in 1689, afler the deposition 
of Andros. 

Samuel, also one of the judges of the 
court at ita organization, Dec. 7, 1692, continued on 
the bench until 1702. He was born in Charlestown, 
but probably removed to Watertown after his ap- 
pointment to the bench. He had been a representa- 
tive to the Colonial General Court and a member of 
the Provincial Council. It has been noticed by the 
writer that the surname Hayman has been corrupted 
into Heman, and in that form has been often used as 
a Christian name by persons connected with the Hay- 
man family. 

Jonathan Tyng, a judge from July, 1702, to 1719, 
was the son of Edmund Tyng, and was born in 1642. 
He had been a member of the Councils of Dudley 
and Andros, and received his commission from Dud- 
ley when he came into power in 1702. He lived in 
Woburn, and died January 19, 1724. It is stated by 
Washburn, erroneously, that Edmund Tyng was the 
ancestor of the families of that name in New Eng- 
land. Rev. Dr. Stephen Higginson Tyng, of New- 
bury port and New York, Rev. Stephen Higginson 
Tyng, Jr., of New York, and Rev. Dr. Dudley Atkins 
Tyng were the sons and grandsons of Dudley Atkins 
Tyng, a distinguished la?vyer of Newburyport, who 
was the son of Dudley Atkins, and a descendant of 
Governor Dudley. He changed his name on his in- 
heritance of the estates of James Tyng, of Tynga- 
borough, and has been well known as the reporter of 
the Supreme Judicial Court and editor of seventeen 
volumes of the reports, covering a period from Sep- 
tember, 1804, to March, 1822. 

Francis Foxcroft, judee of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas from 1707 to 1719, and judge of Probate 

from 1708 to 1725, was bom in Cambridge in 1658. 
He was a commissioned judge under Andros, and 
opposed to the Revolution of 1688, maintained his 
opposition to the new order of things until he was 
finally rewarded by Dudley by a seat on the bench. 
He died in Cambridge Dec. 31, 1727. 

Jonathan Remington, who was judge from 1715 
to 1733, has already been sufficiently referred to as a 
judge of the Superior Coort. 

Jonathan Dowse, a judge of the court from 1713 
to 1741, wds a Charlestown man, and a graduate at 
Harvard in 1715. For many years he was prominent 
in town affairs. He was one of a committee of 
eleven to build a new meeting-house in his native 
town in 1716, and in 1717, when a motion was made 
in town-meeting " to have the lecture at Charlestown 
begin an hour sooner than heretofore," he was ap- 
pointed, with Michael Gill, a committee " to treat 
with the ministers, and to signify to them the town's 
consent." Little is known of Judge Dowse, and the 
year of his death is unknown to the writer. 

Charles Chambers, who was judge from 1719 to 
1739, was the grandfather of Chambers Russell, 
already alluded to as a judge of the Superior Court. 
He was a resident of Charlestown, and held his seat 
on the bench until his resignation, in the year above 

Francis Fullam^ a judge from 1719 to 1755, was 
a resident of Weston, and besides presiding as chief 
justice on the bench of this court, he was a colonel in 
the militia and a member of the Council. It is inter- 
esting to observe how many of the judges of the 
courts during the Provincial period were military 
men. It is not uncommon in our own day to find on 
the bench men who have, before receiving their com- 
mission, been in active military life, bnt none ever 
continue in the service after entering on their judicial 
duties. Chief Justice Wigham, of our Superior 
Court, and Chief Justice Bigelow, of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, were at one time one a captain and 
the other a colonel in the Massachusetts Militia, and 
Judge Devens, of the Supreme Court, if not a mili- 
tia oflicer, was at least in the volunteer service dar- 
ing the War of the Rebellion. Judge Fullam died 
Jan. 18, 1758, at the age of eighty-seven. 

Samuel Danforth, son of Rev. John Danforth 
and great-grandson of Nicholas Danforth, the family 
ancestor, was bom in Dorchester Nov. 12, 1696, and 
graduated at Harvard in 1715. He removed to Cam- 
bridge in 1724 as a schoolmaster, and lived on the 
easterly side of Dunster Street, between Harvard and 
Mt. Auburn Streets, as Mr. Paige states. He was 
selectman in Cambridge from 1633 to 1639, represent- 
ative from 1634 to 1638, a Councilman from 1639 to 
1674, register of Probate from 1731 to 1746, judge of 
Probate from 1745 to 1775, and judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas from 1741 to 1775. He died in Boston 
Oct. 27, 1777. 

Thomas Greavib, judge of the Common Pleas 



Court from 1733 to 1747, with the exception of one 
year when he sat on the bench of the Superior Court, 
haa already been referred to in connection with that 

Francis Foxcboft, the second son of Judge Fox- 
croft, above mentioned, and judge of the Common 
Pleas Court from 1737 to 1764, was born in Cambridge, 
January 26, 1694-95. He graduated at Harvard in 
1712, and was judge of Probate for Middlesex as well 
as Common Pleas judge He died March 28, 1768. 

Next in order to be mentioned are the judges of the 
Supreme Judicial Court who were residents of Mid- 
dlesex County, or who by birth may properly be con- 
sidered Middlesex County men. 

Francis Dana was appointed judge of this court 
in 1785, and in 1791 was made chief justice, and held 
that position until his resignation in 1806. He was 
the son of Richard Dana, of Charlestown, and was 
born in that town June 13, 1743, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1762, in the class with Elbridge Gerry, 
Andrew Eliot, George Partridge and Jeremy Belknap. 
He studied law with Edmund Trowbridge and was 
admitted to the bar in 1767. He was a delegate to 
the Provincial Congress in September, 1774, a mem- 
ber of the Executive Council from 1776 to 1780, a del- 
egate to Congress in 1776,1778 and 1789, a member 
of the Board of War in 1777, secretary of legation 
with John Adams in Paris in 1779, and Minister to 
Russia from 1780 to 1783. He died at Cambridge 
April 25, 1811. 

George Tyler Bigelow, son of Tyler Bigelow, 
was born in Watertown October 6, 1810, and gradua- 
ted at Harvard in the famous class of 1829, which 
contained among its members William Brigham, Wil- 
liam Henry Channing, James Freeman Clarke, Fran- 
cis B. Crowninshield, Benjamin R. Curtis, George T. 
Davis, Joel Giles, William Gray, Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, Samuel May, Benjamin Pierce, Chandler 
Robbins, Edward D. Sohier and Joshua Holyoke 
Ward. He received the degree of Doctor of Laws 
from his Alma Mater in 1853. He was admitted to 
the bar in Cambridge, and for a number of years 
practiced law in Boston in partnership with the late 
ManliuB Clark. In the early days of his professional 
life he was active in the militia and at one time com- 
manded the New England Guards of Boston, and was 
colonel of one of the Boston regiments. In 1847-48 
he was a member of the Massachusetts Senate, and in 
1848 was appointedoneof the justices of theCommon 
Pleas Court. He held this position until 1850, when 
be was appointed to the bench of the Supreme Judi- 
cial Court. On his accession to that bench his asso- 
ciates were Lemuel Shaw, chief justice ; Charles Au- 
gustus Dewey, Theron Metcalf and Richard Fletcher, 
associate justices. On the resignation of Lemuel 
Shaw in 1860 he was made chief justice, and resigned 
in 1868. During his service on the bench of this 
court his various associates included Judge Dewey, 
who died in 1866 ; Judge Metcalf, who resigned in 

1865; Judge Fletcher, who resigned in 1853 ; Caleb 
Cushing, who was .ippointed in 1852 and resigned in 
1853; Benjamin Franklin Thomas, appointed in 1853 
and resigned in 1859 ; Pliny Merrick, appointed in 
1853 and resigned in 1864 ; Ebenezer Rock wood Hoar, 
appointed in 1859 and resigned in 1869 ; Reuben At- 
water Chapman, appointed in 1860, appointed chief 
justice in 1868 and died in 1873 ; Horace Gray, Jr., ap- 
pointed in 1864, appointed chief justice in 1873 and 
resigned in 1882 ; James Denison Colt, appointed in 
1865, resigned in 1866, reappointed in 1868 and 
died in 1881 ; Dwight Foster, appointed in 1866 and 
resigned in 18G9; John Wells, appointed in 1866 and 
died in 1875. After his resignation Judge Bigelow 
was appointed actuary of the Massachusetts Hospital 
Life Insurance Company, and continued in that office 
until his death in 1878. 

Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar, son of Samuel and 
Sarah (Sherman) Hoar, was born in Concord, Febru- 
ary 21, 1816, and graduated at Harvard in 1835, re- 
ceiving a degree of Doctor of Laws in 1868. Among 
his classmates were George Bemis, Thomas M. Brewer, 
Amos Adams Lawrence, Charles W. Storey and 
Francis M. Weld. He was admitted to the bar in 
1840, and though always living in Concord, he haa from 
the beginning of his career occupied an office in Bos- 
ton, practicing, however, in Middlesex as well as Suf- 
folk County. In 1849 he was appointed a judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas, remaining on the bench 
until his resignation in 1853. In 1859 he was ap- 
pointed judge of the Supreme Judicial Court, finding 
as associates at his accession to the bench, Leonard 
Shaw, chief justice ; and Charles Augustus Dewey, 
Theron Metcalf, George Tyler Bigelow and Pliny 
Merrick. He remained on the bench until 1869. 
During his incumbency. Chief Justice Shaw resigned 
in 1860 and was succeeded by George Tyler Bigelow, 
who resigned in 1868, and was succeeded by Reuben 
.^.twater Chapman, who had been appointed to the 
bench iu 1860. Charles Augustus Dewey died in 1866 
and was succeeded by Dwight Foster ; Theron Met- 
calf resigned in 1865 and was succeeded by James 
Denison Colt, who resigned in 1866 and was suc- 
ceeded by John Wells, and was reappointed in 1868. 
In 1869 Mr. Hoar was appointed by President Grant 
.4.ttorney-General of the United States, and remained 
in office until July, 1870. In 1871 he was appointed 
joint high commissioner to treat with the British 
commissioners. He was elected from the Middlesex 
District to Congress in 1872, and served but one term. 
During his service he was largely instrumental in pro- 
curing the publication of the Revised Statutes of the 
United States, a work of great labor and of immense 
use to this country. Since that time' he has closely 
followed his profession, only mingling in politics and 
attending conventions at the call of the Republican 
party, to whose cause he has been and is de- 
voted. His learning in the law, his incorrupti- 
ble spirit, his fidelity to clients and his ability 



". /^ /■ 

r a/: 


to present a case either to court or jury with force, 
have won for him a rich reputation and a large prac- 
tice ; while his pungency of speech and simple clear- 
ness of statement have always made him an attractive 
speaker in tlie political arena. His reiuark that he 
had no objection to the Mugwumps going out of the 
Republican party, but that they need not slam the 
door after them, illustrates the sayings which charac- 
terize his conversation and speech. He has always 
been a faithful son of Harvard, and while a member 
of the Board of Overseers was the president of the 
Board. He is or has been the president of the 
National Unitarian Conference, and has always been 
an active member of the denomination which that 
conference represents. 

Charles Devexs was born in Charlestown April 
4, 1820, and graduated at Harvard in 1828, in the class 
with George Bailey Loring, James Russell Lowell 
and William W. Story. He read law at the Harvard 
Law School, and in the ottice of George T. Davis, of 
Greenfield, where, after his admission to the bar, he 
continued in practice until 1849, representing Franklin 
County in the Senate in 1848. From 18J9 to 185.3 he 
was United States marshal for Massachusetts, and in 
1854 returned to the law, settling in Worcester, in part- 
nership with George F. Hoar, now United States Sena- 
tor. In April, 18()1, he commanded a rifle battalion and 
was stationed, during three months' service, at Fort 
McHenry, in Baltimore Harbor. At the end of the 
three months' campaign he was made colonel of the 
Fifteenth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers on the 
24th of July, 18(il, enlisted for three years. He was 
at the battle of Ball's Bluff, and after the death of 
Colonel Baker, in command, and exhibited on that 
occasion rare bravery and good judgment. He was 
made brigadier-general of volunteers April 15, 1862, 
and was engaged in the battles of Wiiliamsburg, 
Fairoaks — where he was wounded — South Mountain 
and Antietam. At the battle of Chancellorsville he 
commanded a division of General Howard's corps 
(the Eleventh), and was severely wounded. In the 
Virginia campaign of 1864-(J5 he was attached to the 
Eighteenth Corp«, recognized as the Third Division 
of the Twenty-fourth Corps. In December, 1864, he 
was in temporary command of the Twenty-fourth 
Corps, entered Richmond April 3d, and April 15, 
1865, was made brevet major-general. He remained 
in the service commanding the district of Charleston 
until June, 1866, when, at his own request, he was 
mustered out. In 1862 he was the candidate of what 
was called the People's party for Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, in opposition to John A. Andrew, but was 
defeated. In 1867 he was appointed judge of the 
Supreme Court, and remained on the bench until his 
appointment to the bench of the Supreme Judicial 
Court in 1873. When he took his seat on the Superior 
Court bench his as-sociates were Seth Ames, chief jus- 
tice, and Julius Rockwell, Otis Phillips Lord, Marcus 
Morton, Jr., Ezra Wilkinson, Henry Vose, John 

Phelps Putnam, Lincoln Flagg Brigham and Chester 
Isham Reed. During his incumbency, Seth Ames 
resigned as chief justice on his appointment to the 
bench of the Supreme Judicial Court in 1869, and 
was succeeded by Lincoln Flagg Brigham ; Marcus 
Morton, Jr., was appointed to the bench of the 
Supreme Judicial Court in 1869, and was succeeded 
by Henry Austin Scudder, who resigned in 1872, and 
was succceeded by William Allen and Chester Isham 
Reed, who resigned 1871, and was succeeded by John 
William Bacon. 

Judge Devens, as above stated, was appointed judge 
of the Supreme Judicial Court in 1873, and continued 
on the bench until 1877, when he was appointed by 
President Hayes United States Attorney- General. On 
his retirement from the Cabinet, in 1881, he was re- 
appointed to the bench of the Supreme Judicial 
Court, to fill, with Walbridge Abner Field and Wil- 
liam Allen, the vacancies occasioned by the death of 
James Denison Colt and the resignations of Seth 
Ames and Augustus Lord Soul, and is still on the 
bench. Though never enjoying an extensive practice 
at the bar. Judge Devens has had a large judicial ex- 
perience, and has been eminently successful in the 
administration of his judicial duties. He has estab- 
lished a wide reputation as an orator, and has been 
repeatedly selected to deliver centennial and other 
occasional addresses. Not the least of his efforts 
on the platform was an oration delivered at the 
celebration of the anniversary of the battle of Bun- 
ker Hill, on the 17th of June, 1875. He has been 
president of the Bunker Hill Association, and has 
received the degree of Doctor of Laws from his alma 
mater. The connection of Judge Devens, then United 
States marshal, with the extradition of Thomas Sims, 
a fugitive slave, is so well stated by "Tavemer,'" of 
the Boston Post, in the issue of that paper of April 
5th of this year (1890), that the writer takes the lib- 
erty of making the statement a part of this record : 

" It IB noticeabtu that the act which fint brought Jadge Deveoa 
iuto proDiiDence here in BoatoD, and was the meaiu of ezcitiog a 
certaiD odium against him, was the perfonnance of an official duty 
I which, though extremely painful to his feelings, he did not feel at 
liberty to neglect, and bis subeeqoeut conduct shoved the noble 
spirit with which ua a man he endeavored to counterBct the effects of 
the policy which he enforced as an officer of the law. As United 
I States Quushal for the district of Masaachnsetts, from 1849 to 1853, 
I be executed the procefls of the court in remanding Thomas Sims as 
a fugitive slave. But after the extradition he endeavored to procure 
i the freedom of ^ima, offering to pay whatever sum was necessary 
for the purpose, though the effort was uusucceesfuL Some time after- 
ward he wrote to Mrs. Lydia Maria Child, whom he heard was try- 
! ing to raise uiouey to purchase the freedom of Sims, requesting the 
' return of tlie sums she had collected for this purpose, and asking her 
I to allow him the privilege of paying the whole amount. Thongfa 
Mra. Child assented to this propoeal, it was prevented from being 
carried out by the Civil War, which blocked the negotiatiotis. Hot 
the progreffi of the national armies at last brought freedom to Thomas 
{ Sims, and he wss aided by Judge Devens in establishing himself in 
civil life, and was, in course of time, appointed by him, while .Attor- 
ney-General of the United States, to an appropriate place in the De- 
partment of Justice." 

Seth Ames, the sixth of seven children of Fisher 



Ames, was bom at Dedbam, April 19, 1805, and died 
at Brookline, August 15, 1881. He waa descended 
in the sixth generation from Richard Ames, of 
Bruton, Somersetshire, England, two of whose sons 
came to New England in 1640. His mother was 
Frances, daughter of Colonel John Worthington, of 
Springfield. He attended the schools of Dedbam 
and Phillips Academy, and graduated at Harvard in 
1825. His college room-mate was Augustus H. Fisike, 
late of the Boston bar, and both married daughters of 
Gamaliel Bradford, a descendant from William Brad- 
ford, of the " Mayflower." He read law in the Dane 
Law School and in the office of George Bliss, of 
Springfield ; and on January, 1828, entered the oflice 
of Lemuel Shaw, of Boston. He was admitted to the 
bar at Dedbam in September, 1828, and opened an 
office in Lowell. In 1830 his wife, Margaret (Brad- 
ford) Ames, died, leaving four children. He waa a 
short time the partner of Thomas Hopkinson, and 
represented Lowell in the General Court in 1832. He 
was an alderman in 1836, 1837 and 1840 ; Senator 
from Middlesex County in 1841, and city solici- 
tor from 1842 to 1849. In 1849 he was appointed 
clerk of the courts for Middlesex County, and mar- 
ried, for his second wife, Abigail Fisher, daughter of 
Rev. Samuel Dana, of Marblebead. In the same 
year he removed to Cambridge. In 1859 he was ap- 
pointed judge of the Superior Court ; chief justice of 
that court in 1867; and judge of the Supreme Judicial 
court, January 19, 1869. He resigned January 15, 
1881. In 1869 he removed to Brookline. After his 
death, George Martin, Attorney- General, submitted 
in behalf of a meeting of the members of the Suffolk 
bar, the following resolutions to the full court : 

" Heaolved, That the death of Seth Amea, lately oaeuf the Justices uf the 
Supreme Jadidal Coojt, and for tbirtj-two yean honombly connected 
with the adminifltratioD of Justice io this GommoDwealth, is an event 
of which the bar desire to take notice by expressing their sense of the 
great value of bis public eerrices and their Admiration for his just and 
unblemished character, and for those attractive peraonal qualities which 
endeared him to all who had the privilege of his friendship. 

^ Aesolved, That in the socceasive Jodicial stations which he held 
as Justice and Chief Justice of the Superior Court and Associate 
Justica of the Supreme Judicial Court, he commanded the reepect 
and esteem of the bar and the commanity. He administered the 
criminal lawl with flrmneea, tempered by discretion and humanity, 
without noneoeaary hanbnesa and without vindictivenesa. In his 
interoonrae with the bar, and when presiding at trials he was a model 
of faimea and coorteay ; never forgetting, and therefore never finding 
it necessary to aaert arrogantly or offensively bis personal dignity. 
His opinions were characterized by adequate learning and by asimplicity 
and purity of English style which he seemed to have inherited from his 
distinguisbed father." 

Chief Justice Gray responded, and the resolutions 
were ordered to bo placed on the files of the court. 

William Sew all Gardner was born in Hal- 
lowell, Maine, October 1, 1827, and graduated at 
Bowdoin College and studied law in Lowell. He was 
admitted to the Middlesex bar in 1852, and entered 
into partnerahip with Theodore H. Sweetser of that 
city. In 1861 he removed his office to Boston, where 
he continued practice until 1875, when he was ap- 

pointed one of the justices of the Superior Court for 
the Commonwealth, which office he held until Octo- 
ber 1, 1885, when he was appointed a justice of the 
Supreme Judicial Court to fill the vacancy occasioned 
by the death of Judge Waldo Colburn. On the 7th 
of September, 1887, he resigned his seat on account 
of ill health, and died at his residence in Newton, 
.\pril 4, 1888. On the 27th of November, 1888, reso- 
lutions passed at a meeting of the Suffolk bar were 
presented to the full court by Andrew J. Waterman, 
the Attorney-General, and on that occasion addresses 
were made by the Attorney-General, Edward Avery 
and Charles Levi Woodbury, which were responded 
to by Chief Justice Marcus Morton. The resolutions 
were as follows ; 

*'Tbe members of the Suffolk bar desire to place on record their 
sense of the toes which the Commonwealth has sustained in the death 
of William Sewall Gardner, a former Justice uf this court. 

"His was a nature tliat endeared liim to those wlio knew him well, 
andBeciiied for him *he respect and cBleem uf the community, and t lie 
regard and confidence of lliose who were brought in contact with liini at 
the bar or on the bench. 

** His experience at tlie bar, for many yeara closely associated with one 
of the ablest lawyers uf his "lay, who studied the law as a science and 
tested it by the severest rules of logic, .'vnd his long service on the bench 
of the Superior Court, laid a Hubetantia) foundation for the successful 
discharge of the accurate and discriminating investigations demanded of 
the iiienibera of this court. 

** While (he kindliness of his nature plight have teniptpd him at 
times to take counsel uf his synipatbics, his keen appreciation of the 
right constraiiiedhim always toexercise the severe neutrality of an im- 
partial Judge." 

Timothy Farrar was the son of Deacon Samuel 
Farrar, and was born June 28, 1747, in that part of 
Concord which, by the incorporation of Lincoln, in 
1754, was included within the limits of the new town. 
He graduated at Harvard in 1767, in the class with 
Increase Sumner. He read law in New Ipswich, 
New Hampshire, and settled permanently in that 
town. In 1782 he was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of New Hampshire. He was a judge of 
the Common Pleas Court of that State under a tem- 
porary Constitution in January, 1776 ; was a Coun- 
cilor in 1780, '82, '83; judge of the Superior Court 
from 1790 to 1803 ; judge of the Common Pleas Court 
in 1803-4, and afterwards chief justice of the Circuit 
Court of Cotnmon Pleas. He was a Presidential 
elector in 1792, '96, 1800, 1808, and a trustee of Dart- 
mouth College. In 1847 he received a degree of Doc- 
tor of Laws from his alma mater, and died at HoUis, 
New Hampshire, Feb. 21, 1849. 

Nathaniel Wright, the oldest son of Thomas 
and Eunice (Osgood) Wright, was born in Sterling, 
February 13, 1785, four years after the incorporation 
of that town. He fitted for college with Rev. Reuben 
Holcomb, of Sterling, and graduated at Harvard, in 
1808, in the class with Walter Channing, Richard H. 
Dana and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, and read 
law with Asahel Stearns, then practicing in that part 
of Chelmsford which is now Lowell, and there lived 
until his death, which occurred November 5, 1858. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1814, and first opened 



an office in Dracut. He was the first representative 
from Lowell to the General Court, in 1826, and 
chairman of the first Board of Selectmen, and in 1842 
was chosen, on a citizens' ticket, the fourth mayor of 
the city, succeeding Dr. Elisha Huntington in that 
office. In 1843 he was re-chosen by the Whig party. 
He was chosen representative four years, and in 1834 
was a member of the State Senate. He was president 
of the Lowell Bank from its organization, June 2, 
1828, until his resignation, October 2, 1858. He mar- 
ried, March 5, 1820, Laura Hoar ; and two sons grad- 
uated at Harvard — Nathaniel, in 1838, and Thomas, 
in 1842. Thomas entered the profe'ssion of law, set- 
tling in Lawrence, and represented, one or more 
years, Essex County in the Senate. He died in 
Lawrence in 1868. Nathaniel, a lawyer in Lowell, 
died September 18, 1847. 

AsAHEL Stearn.s was born in Lunenburg, June 17, 
1774, and graduated at Harvard in 1797, in the class 
with Horace Binney, William Jenks, William M. 
Richardson, John Collins Warren and Daniel Apple- 
ton White. He settled in Chelmsford in 1800, where 
he practiced until 1817, acting for a time as county 
attorney, and during the two last years of his resi- 
dence there he represented his district in Congress. 
In 1817 he was appointed professor in the Dane Law 
School, at Cambridge, holding that position until his 
death, February 5, 1839. In 1824 he published a 
volume of" Real Actions." and in 1825 received from 
Harvard the degree of Doctor of Laws. 

Sa.muel Dana was the son of Rev. Samuel Dana, 
of Groton, and was born in that town .June 26, 1767, 
He was the first postmaster of Groton, having been 
appointed in 1800, and held the office until July, 1804. 
He kept the post-office in his law-office in a building 
which has been removed from its original site, and in 
1887 was standing near the railroad station. He was 
succeeded as postma.ster by William Merchant Rich- 
ardson, afterwards chief justice of the Superior 
Court of New Hampshire. Mr. Richardson gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1797, and became Mr. Dana's stu- 
dent and partner. Mr. Richardson was followed 
in the post-office by Abraham Moore, January 31, 
1812, who was succeeded in 1815, on his resignation, 
by Caleb Butler and Henry Woods and George S. 
Boutwell, and again by Caleb Butler, who held the 
office until December 21, 1846. 

He was a representative to the General Court from 
Groton in 1802-03 and 1825-27, and senator, 1805-13 
and 1817, and president of the Senate in 1807, 1811, 
1812. He was a member of Congress in 1814-15, and 
of the State Constitutional Convention in 1820. On 
the establishment of the Circuit Court of Common 
Pleas, Mr. Dana was made chief justice for the mid- 
ille circuit, comprising Suffolk, Essex and Middlesex, 
and held that office until the court was abolished, 
February 14, 1821. In 1808 he removed to Charles- 
town, but returned to Groton 1815. He was a popu- 
lar speaker and a man of pronounced abilities. He 

married Rebecca Barrett, and died in Charlestown 
November 20, 1835, leaving several children, of whom 
the wives of Kelly Paige, of Boston, and John Seven, 
of Kingston, and his son, James Dana, of Charles- 
town, now living, are remembered by the writer. 

Timothy Bigelow, the son of Timothy and Anna 
(Andrews) Bigelow, was born at Worcester April 30, 
1767. He graduated at Harvard in 1786, in the class 
with John Lowell and Isaac Parker. He fitted for 
college with Benjamin Lincoln and Samuel Dexter, 
and studied law with Levi Lincoln, the father of Gov- 
ernor Lincoln. He was admitted to the bar in 1789, 
and settled in Groton, where he married, September 
3, 1791, Lucy, daughter of Dr. Oliver Prescott. His 
office was much sought by students reading law, and 
among these were John Harris, afterwards judge of 
the Superior Court of New Hampshire ; Thomas Rice, 
of Winslow, Me., member of Congress ; John Locke, 
of Ashby, member of Congress ; Joseph Locke, for 
thirteen years judge of the Police Court in Lowell ; 
John Leighton Tuttle; Professor Asahel Stearns; John 
Varnum, of Haverhill, member of Congress; Loammi 
Baldwin, who abandoned the profession and became 
a distinguished engineer; John Parke Little, of Gor- 
ham, Me.; Tyler Bigelow, of Watertown, the father of 
Chief Justice Bigelow; Luther Lawrence, of Groton 
and Lowell ; Augustus Peabody, of Boston, and Abra- 
ham Moore, of Groton and Boston. In 1806 Mr. 
Bigelow removed to Medford, and there died. May 18, 
1821. He was a representative to the General Court 
from Groton and Medford fourteen years, senator 
from 1797 to 1801, councilor from 1802 to 1804, and 
again in 1821, and speaker of the House in the ses- 
sions of 1805-6, 1808-9, 1809-10, 1812-13, 1813-14, 
1814-15, 1815-16,1816-17, 1817-18, 1818-19, 1819-20. 
In 1796 Mr. Bigelow delivered the oration before the 
Phi Beta Kappa Society of Harvard. Katharine, 
wife of Abbott Lawrence, of Boston, Rev. Andrew 
Bigelow and John Prescott Bigelow, Secretary of the 
Commonwealth from 1836 to 1843, and mayor of Bos- 
ton from 1849 to 1851, were his children. 

Luther Lawrence was born in Groton Septem- 
ber 28, 1778. He was a son of Samuel Lawrence, of 
that town, and, with his brothers, Abbott, Amos, Wil- 
liam and Samuel, made up a family of rare ability 
and distinction. The only one of the family receiv- 
ing a college education, he graduated at Harvard in 
1801, in the class with Tyler Bigelow, Timothy Fuller 
and Stephen Minot. He studied law with Timothy 
Bigelow, and married his sister Lucy, June 2, 1805. 
He was a member of the Legislature from Groton, 
and in 1822 speaker of the House of Representatives. 
He early secured a large practice, and among his 
students were Henry .^.dams Bnllard, Royal Bullard, 
Jonathan Porter, George Frederick Farley, Augtistua 
Thorndyke, Edward St. Loe Livermore, Jr., Norman 
Seaver and William Amory. He removed to Low- 
ell in 1831, five years after its incorporation, and in 
1838 and 1839 was chosen its mayor. On the 16th of 



April, 1839, sixteen days after entering on his second 
o£Scial term, while showing one of the factories to some 
visiting friends, he fell seventeen feet into a wheel- 
pit and waa instantly killed. He was buried in Gro- 
ton, his place of birth. 

Ebenezeb Champney, a descendant of Richard 
Champney, who came from Lancashire, England, and 
settled early in Cambridge, was born in Cambridge 
in April, 1744, and graduated at Harvard in 1762, in 
the class with Francis Dana, Andrew Eliot, Elbridge 
Gerry, Jeremy Belknap and George Partridge. In a 
class of forty-seven his name is placed in the catalogue 
next to the last, and as until 1773 the names were 
placed in the order of family rank, it is presumed that 
the immediate origin of Mr. Champney was compara- 
tively obscure. He first studied for the ministry and 
then for the practice of law. In 1764 he was admit- 
ted to the bar at Portsmouth, and settlgd in New Ips- 
wich, New Hampshire. In 1775 he was appointed 
Judge of Probate for Hillsboro' County, and in 1783 
removed to Groton. In 1789 he returned to New 
Ipswich, and died September 10, 1810. He married, 
October 9, 1764, Abigail, daughter of Rev. Caleb 
Trowbridge; in November, 1778, Abigail, daughter of 
iSamuel Parker, of New Ipswich, and in March, 1796, 
Susan Wyman. His son, Benjamin Champney, born 
August 20, 1765, studied law in his office and practiced 
in Groton from 1786 to 1792, when he removed to 
New Ipswich. 

Abraham Moore was born in Bolton January 5, 
1785, and graduated at Harvard in 1806, in the class 
with Jacob Bigelow, Jonathan Cogswell, Joseph 
Green Cogswell, Alexander Hill Everett, Daniel 
Oliver and William Pitt Preble. He studied law 
with Timothy Bigelow in Groton, and opened an 
office in that town. In 1812 he was appointed post- 
master of Groton and held office until his resigna- 
tion in 1815, when, in consequence of financial 
troubles, he removed to Boston, where he continued 
in the practice of law until his death, January 3, 1854. 
His wife, whose maiden-name was Mary Mills, had 
been twice married, to a Mr. Barnard and Mr. Wood- 
ham, and had been an actress on the stage. After 
the financial troubles of Mr. Moore she returned to 
the stage and appeared in Boston in 1816 as Lady 
Teazle. Mary Frances Moore and Susan Varnam 
Moore, two of his children by this marriage, married 
John Cochran Park, a distinguished member of the 
Sufiblk bar, and Grenville Mears, a well-known and 
esteemed merchant of Boston. He married for a 
second wife, in 1819, Eliza, daughter of Isaac Durell, 
and had at least one son, whom the writer remembers 
as a member of the Boston bar. During the last {e^ 
years of his life he occupied an office on the easterly 
side of Court Square, the site of which is now covered 
by the billiard-room of Young's Hotel. 

Richard Sullivan was the grandson of John 
Sullivan, who came from Ireland in 1723 and died 
July, 1795, at the a«;e of 104. James Sullivan, born 

in Berwick, Maine, April 22, 1744, and deceased in 
Boston, December 10, 1808, and General John Sulli- 
van were the sons of the American ancestor. Richard, 
the subject of this sketch, was the son of James, and 
was born in Groton, July 17, 1779. His mother was 
Mehetabel Odiorne. He graduated at Harvard in 
1798, in the class with William Ellery Chauning, 
Stephen Longfellow, Joseph Story and Sidney Willard. 
His father began practice in Georgetown, Maine, 
from which place he removed to Biddeford. In 
February, 1778, he changed his residence to Groton, 
and in 1782 to Boston. Richard, the son, was fitted 
for college at the Boston Latin School and after leav- 
ing college studied law with his father and was ad- 
mitted to the Sutlblk bar in 1801. He was a Slate 
Senator from 1815 to 1817, inclusive, member of the 
Constitutional Convention of 1810, councilor in 1820- 
21, and one of the overseers at Harvard College. He 
married. May 22, 1804, Sarah, daughter of Thomas 
Russell, of Boston, and died in (""ambridge, December 
11, 1861. 

William Prescott, though never a member of 
the Middlesex bar, was a native of Middlesex County. 
He was a descendant of .John Prescott, of Lincoln- 
ihire, England, who early came to New England and 
settled in Lancaster, Massachusetts. Judge Benjamin 
Prescott, son of John, was the father of Colonel 
William Prescott, of Bunker Hill memory, who was 
the father of the subject of this sketch, who was 
born in Pepperell, 19, 1762, and died in 
Boston, December 8, 1844. He graduated at Harvard 
in 1783, in the class with Harrison Gray Otis, his 
brother and Artemas Ward. He studied law with 
Nathan Dane, of Beverly, and practiced in that town 
and in Salem. He removed to Boston in 1808 and in 
1818 was appointed a justice of the Common Pleas 
Court for Suflblk County. William Hickling Pres- 
cott, the historian, and Edward Gordon Prescott, 
Episcopal clergyman in New Jersey, were his sons. 
He received a degree of Doctor of Laws from Harvard 
in 1815 and from Dartmouth in 1826. 

James Prescott, Jr., was the son of Col. James 
Prescott, of Groton, and was born in that town April 
19, 1766. He graduated at Harvard in 1788 and 
studied law in Westford, where he practiced ten years. 
He returned to Groton and was appointed judge of 
Probate, to succeed his uncle, Oliver Prescott, and was 
afterwards chief justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas. He married Hannah, daughter of Ebenezer 
Champney, and died October 14, 1829. 

Jonathan Sewall was, for a time during his 
professional career, a resident of Middlesex County. 
He was boru in Boston, August 24, 1728, and grad- 
uated at Harvard in the class of 1748 with only 
twenty-three associates. He was son of Jonathan 
Sewall and great-nephew of Stephen Sewall, chief 
justice of the Superior Court of Judicature. After 
leaving college he taught school in Salem until 1756, 
when he prepared himself for the law and settled in 



CharlestowD. He advanced rapidly in his profession, 
and in 1767 was a barrister and had been appointed 
Attorney-General for Massachusetts. In 1775 he re- 
moved to St. John, Xew Brunswick, where he was 
judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court until his death, 
which occurred at that place September 26, 1796. 

Homer Bartlett was born in Granby, in Hamp- 
shire Couuty, July 19, 1795. He fitted for college at 
Westfleld Academy and graduated at Williams in 
1818. He read law with Daniel Noble and Charles 
A. Dewey, of Williamstown, and was admitted to the 
Berkshire bar in 1821. After a residence of three 
years in Williamstown, after his admission, he re- 
moved to Ware in 1824, where he continued until 
1832 in the practice of his profession, in which year he 
was appointed agent of the Hampshire Manufactur- 
ing Company. In 1839 he was made manager of the 
Massachusetts Cotton-Mill, of Lowell, incorporated 
in that year, and removed to that city, entering on 
the duties of his new position on the 18th of October 
in that year. In January, 1849, he was appointed 
treasurer of the company, which position he held 
until his resignation, January 22, 1872. He was a 
representative from Ware in 1832, and from Lowell 
in 1849, Presidential elector in 1844, and a member 
of the Executive Council in 1854. Mr. Bartlett mar- 
ried, February 6, 1823, Mary, daughter of William 
Starkweather, of Williamstown. who died in Lowell, 
October 3, 1850. He removed to Boston while he was 
treasurer of the Massachusetts Mills, and married, 
June 4, 1861, Mre. Louisa (Fowler) Hubbell, of 
Albany, who died May 27, 1873. He survived his 
second wife only a year and died March 29, 1874, and 
was buried at Mount Auburn. 

Mr. Bartlett was descended from John Bartlett 
and wife, .Vgues (Beugan) Bartlett. of Cherington, 
Warwickshire, England, who died, one in 1613 and 
the other in 1615. Robert Bartlett, son of John, 
married, in 1603, Anne, daughter of Richard Livings- 
ton, and had nine children, of whom Robert, baptized 
March 8, 1606, came to New England in September, 
1632, and settled in Cambridge. He afterwards re- 
moved to Hartford, ;ind in 16.55 to Northampton, 
where he lived until March 14, 1675-76, at which date 
he was killed by the Indiana. Robert Bartlett had 
four children, of whom Samuel, born at Hartford in 
1639, married, in 1672, Mary Bridgeman, and, in 1675, 
Surah Baldwin, and had by the second wife twelve 
children. One of these children, Ebenezer, born in 
Northampton, September 27, 1685, married, Decem- 
ber 1, 1715, Martha Lyman, and had Ave children, of 
whom Ebenezer, born in Northampton, August 28, 
1721, died in (Tranby in 1788. The last Ebenezer had 
seven children, of whom another Ebenezer, born in 
South Hadley in 1745, died in Granby, February 2, 
1798. He married Betsey Barton, of Ludlow, and 
had ten children, of whom Asahel, born in Granby in 
1758, married three wives — Hannah Burohard, Sally 
Bonner and .\lmira Mellen. Bv the first wife he had 

six children and by the second five, and the first wife 
was the mother of the subject of this sketch. 

Joseph Locke was born in Fitzwilliam, New 
Hampshire, in 1772, and graduated at Dartmouth in 
1797; he studied law with Timothy Bigelow in Groton, 
and was admitted to the Middlesex bar in ISOO. In 
1801 he began the practice of his profession in Billerica, 
and there remained until 1833, when he removed to 
Lowell. While living in Billerica he presided eight 
years over the Court of Sessions, was Presidental elec- 
tor in 1816, member of the Constitutional Convention 
of 1820, eight years a representative to the General 
Court, and in 1821-22 a member of the Elxecutive 
Council. During his residence in Lowell he repre- 
sented that city one year in the General Court, and 
in 1834 was made judge of the Lowell Police Court, 
which position he held thirteen years resigning, in 
1847, at the age of seventy-five. His death occurred 
November 10, 1653. Judge Locke was a man of un- 
usual purity of character, and in whatever commonity 
he lived he always inspired reverence and love. 

Edward St. Loe Livermore was born in Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, April 5, 1762. He was the 
son of Samuel Livermore, chief justice of the 
Superior Court in that State, and his wife Jane, 
daughter of Rev. Arthur Browne. He was descended 
from John Livermore, who came to New England 
about the year 1634 and settled in Watertown, whence 
he removed in 1665 to Wethersfield, Connecticut, and 
later to New Haven. In 1670 the ancestor rettirned 
to Watertown and there died in 1685. Samuel Liver- 
more, agreatgrandson of John, born in 1732, graduated 
at Nassau Hall, New Jersey, and read law at Beverly, 
Massachusetts, with Edmund Trowbridge and settled 
in Portsmouth, and became Attorney-General of the 
Province. His son Edward was educated at London- 
derry and Holderness, New Hampshire, and read law 
with TheophiluB Parsons at Newbhryport. He 
began the practice of law at Concord, New Hamp- 
shire, and married Mehetabel, daughter of Robert 
Harris. He afterwards removed to Portsmouth, and 
was appointed by Washington district attorney, 
which office he held until 1798, and became chief 
justice of the Superior Court of New Hampshire. In 
1799 he married Sarah Crease, daughter of William 
Stackpole, of Boston. In 1802 he removed to New- 
buryport, and while a resident there was a representa- 
tive to the General Court, and a member of Congress 
from Essex North District. In 1811 he removed to 
Boston, and on the 4th of July, 1813, delivered the 
usual annual oration in that city. At the close of the 
War of 1812 he removed to Zanesville, Ohio, but 
soon returned to Boston, and in 1816 took up his final 
residence in Tewksbury. He purchased there the 
Gedney estate of about 200 acres, which he called 
Belvidere, and there died September 15, 1832, his 
body being deposited in the Granary bnrial-groond 
in Boston. 

Elisha Glldden was born in Unity, New Hamp- 


shire in 1789, and graduated at Dartmouth in 1815. 
He read law in Dover, New Hampshire, and with 
Samuel Hubbard in Boston, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1818 or 1819. In 1820 he went to Townsend 
to take charge of the legal business of Colonel Walter 
Hastings, where he remained until 1823, during which 
time Colonel Hastings died. Mr. Glidden afterwards 
married Mrs. Hastings, and after a short residence in 
Boston removed to Lowell, where the writer believes 
he was associated at different times with Luther Law- 
rence and with Thomas Hopkinson, who had been one 
of his students. He was a director in the Railroad 
Bank, and president of the Lowell Institution for 
Savings, and died April 2, 1835. 

LoAMMi Baldwin was a descendant of Henry 
Baldwin, one of the first settlers of Woburn. His 
father. Col. Loammi Baldwin, was an officer in the 
Revolution, and sheriff of Middlesex County. The 
subject of this sketch was born in Woburn, May 
16, 1780, and graduated at Harvard in 1800, in the 
class with Lemuel Shaw. He was admitted to the 
Middlesex bar in 1803, but abandoned his profession 
and became a distinguished engineer. The dry-dock 
at the'Charlestown navy-yard was built by him. He 
died at Charlestown, June 30, 1838. 

William Emerson Faulkner was the son of 
Francis Faulkner, and was born in Acton, October 
23, 1776. He graduated at Harvard in 1797, and read 
law with his brother-in-law, Jabez Upham, of Brook- 
field, with whom he was afternards associated until 
his death, which occurred October 1, 1804. 

JosiAH Adams, the son of Rev. Moses Adams, was 
born in Acton, Novembers, 1781, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1801. He read law with Thomas Heald, 
and atler his admission to the bar in June, 1807, set- 
tled in Framingham. He died in 1851. 

Aaron Keyes was born in Westford in 1791, and 
read law in Bfidgewater. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1822 and settled at Townsend Centre, where he was 
postmaster from 1826 to 1835. He married, in 1824, 
Martha, daughter of Moses Warren, and died in 1842. 
. Samuel Jackson Prescott, son of Dr. Oliver 
Prescott, of Groton, was bom in that town March 15, 
1773, and graduated at Harvard in 1795, in the class 
with Nathaniel Bradstreet and Benjamin Gorham. 
He read law with William Prescott, but left the pro- 
fession and embarked in business with Aaron P. 
Cleveland. Having suffered serious loss in conse- 
quence of the embargo, he finally retired from busi- 
ness and was for many years a popular notary public 
in Boston. He died in Brookline, February 7, 1857. 

Jonathan Porter was born in Medford Novem- 
ber 13, 1791, and graduated at Harvard in 1814, in the 
class with Benjamin Apthorp Gould, Francis William 
Pitt Greenwood, Alvan Lamson, Pliny Merrick, Wil- 
liam Hickling Prescott and James Walker. He 
studied with Luther Lawrence in Groton, and died in 
Medford, June 11, 1859. 

Joshtja Prescott was born in Westford November 

15, 1780. He read law with James Prescott in Gro- 
ton and died at Reading, January 1, 1S59. 

TH0M.A.S Rice was born at Powualborough (now 
Wiscasset), Maine, March 30, 1798, and read law with 
Timothy Bigelow at Groton. He died at Wiuslow, 
Maine, August 24, 1854. 

Sa.muel Emer!?on Smith was born in Hollis, New 
Hampshire, March 12, 1788. He studied at the Gro- 
ton Academy and graduated at Harvard in 1808. He 
read law with Samuel Dana at Groton and died at 
Wiscasset, Maine, March 3. 18t!0. 

Augustus Thok.vihke w!i8 born in Beverly, July 
8, 1797, and graduated at Harvard in 1S16, in the 
class with Samuel Dana Bell, George Frederick Far- 
ley, Oliver William Bourn Peabody and Joseph Wil- 
lard, and gave the college tweuty thousand dollar.^. 
He read law at Groton with Luther Lawrence and 
died at Boston, July 8, 1S58. He married Henrietta 
Stewart, of Aunapolis, Maryland, and had four chil- 
dren, of whom two sons, .fames Stewart and Charles, 
graduated at Harvard in 1S48 and 1854. 

Ethan Shepley was born in Groton November 
2, 1789, and received hid education at the academy in 
that town. He studied law in South Berwick, Maine, 
and in 1814 began practice at Saco, from which place 
he removed to Portland. From 1821 to 1833 he was 
United States district attorney of Maine, from 1833 
to 1836 United States Senator, from 1836 to 1848 asso- 
ciate justice on the bench of the Supreme Court of 
Maine, and from 1848 to 1855 chief justice. He re- 
ceived adegree of Doctorof Laws, from Colby Univer- 
sity in 1842 and one t'rom Dartmouth in 1845, and 
died in Portland, January 15, 1877. 

Willard Hall was born in Westford, December 
24, 1780, and was the son of Willis and Mehetabel 
(Poole) Hall, of that town, and grandson of Rev. Wil- 
lard Hall, the first minister of Westford. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1799 and read law with Samuel 
Dana at Groton, and was admitted to the bar of Hills- 
boro' County, New Hampshire, in 1803. Immediately 
after his admission he went to the State of Delaware 
and settled in Georgetown, from whence he very soon 
after removed to Dover, in the same State. In 1812 he 
was Secretary of State, holding the office three years ; 
from 1816 to 1818 he was a member of Congress, in 
1821 again Secretary of State and in 1822 a member of 
the Delaware Senate. On the (ith of May, 1823, he 
was commis-iioned United States judge for the Dela- 
ware district, holding the office forty-eight years, and 
resigning in 1871. He was actively interested in the 
cause of education, and created and perfected the pres- 
ent educational system of his adopted State. He was 
forty-eight years president of the Delaware Bible So- 
ciety, many years president of the Wilmington Sav- 
ings Funds Society, president of the Delaware His- 
torical Society and an elder of the Presbyterian 
Church from 1829 to his death, which occurred May 
10, 1875. 

John Abbot, the oldest son of John Abbot, of West- 



ford, was born in that town January 27, 1777. He 
graduated at Harvard in 1798, and for a time was 
preceptor of the Westford Academy. He read law 
in his native town and there began practice He was 
a trustee and treasurer of the academy, State Senator 
and member of the Constitutional Convention in 1820. 
He was active and prominent in the Masonic order 
and officiated as Grand Master at the laying of the 
corner-stone of Bunker Hill monument June 17, 1825. 
He died April 30, 1854. 

JoHX Wright was born in Westford November 4, 
1797. He fitted for college at Phillips Academy and 
graduated at Harvard in 1823 in the class with Wil- 
liam Amory, Francis Hilllard, Daniel Putnam King, 
William Parsons Lunt and George Ripley. He stud- 
ied law in Groton and after a short season of practice 
became interested ia manufactures and the agent of 
the Suffolk Mills of Lowell. He died in Lowell in 

John Merrick was born in Concord February 7, 
1761, and graduated at Harvard in 1784 in the class 
with Prentiss Mellen, Benjamin Pickman and Samuel 
Webber. He read and practiced law in Concord and 
died August 15, 1797. 

William Jones, son of Samuel Jones, of Concord, 
was born in that town September 15, 1772, and grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1793, in the class with Charles 
Jackson, John Pierce and Samuel Thatcher. He 
read law with Jonathan Fay, of Concord, and after 
practicing a short time in that town removed to Nor- 
ridgewock, JLiine, about 1801. He was appointed 
clerk of the Court of Common Pleas for Somerset 
County .rune 29, ISW, and on the 23d of April, 1812, 
clerk of all the County Courts. June 22, 1809, he 
was made judge of Probate. Asiile from his civil 
offices he was l)riga<lier-general in the Maine Militia. 
On the 4th of July, 1795, only two years after leaving 
college, he was selected to deliver the oration in his 
native town. He died at Norridgewock .January 10, 

Sa.mcel Phillips Pre-scott Fay, son of .Tonathan 
Fay, of Concord, was born in that town January 10, 
1778, and graduated at Harvard in 1803, in the class 
with John Farrar, James Savage and Samuel Wil- 
lard. He was admitted to the bar in 1803 
and first settled at Cambridgeport. He was a coun- 
cilor in 1818-19, member of the Con- 
vention of 1820, and an overseer of Harvard College 
from 1825 to 1862. On the 12th of May, 1821, he was 
appointed judge of Probate and afterwards lived in 
old Cambridge until his de.ath, M.iy 18, 1856. 

Rarus HosMER, son of .Joseph Hosiner, of Con- 
cord, was born in that town March 18, 1778, and 
graduated at Harvard in ISOO. He was admitted to 
the bar of Esssx County in 1803 and removed to 

Stephen Minott, son of Jonas Minott, of Con- 
cord, was born in that town September 28, 1776, and 
graduated at Harvard in 1801. After admission to 

the bar he settled in Haverhill, where he became a 
judge of the Circuit Court of Common Pleas. After 
the abolition of that court he was appointed in 1824 
county attorney for Essex, and resigned in 1830. 

Jonas Wheeler was the son of Jotham Wheeler, 
of Concord, and was born in that town Februarys, 
1789. He graduated at Harvard in 1810, in the class 
with James Grore King and Theodore Lyman. He 
read law with Eraatus Root, of Camden, Maine, and 
settled in that town. He was both Representative 
and Senator in the Maine Legislature and died May 
1, 1826. 

Edward Brooks was the oldest son of Peter C. 
Brooks, of Boston, and was born in that city in 1793. 
He graduated at Harvard in 1812 and read law in the 
office of his uncle, Benjamin Gorham. He was a rep- 
resentative in the General Court from Boston in 1834, 
1837 and 1842, and rendered important aid to Samuel 
G. Howe in establishing the Perkins Institution for 
the Blind. He became finally a resident of Medford 
and died in that town in 1878. 

Gorham Brooks, a younger brother of the above, 
was born in Medford, February 18, 1795. He fitted 
for college at Phillips Academy and graduated at 
Harvard in 1814. He read law with Joseph Lyman, 
of Northampton, but soon abandoned his profession 
and entered upon mercantile pursuits. In 1833 he 
was a member of the firm of W. C. Mayhew & Co., of 
Baltimore, and afterwards of the firm of Brooks & 
Harrison, in the same city. In 1840 he returned to 
Massachusetts and made Medford his residence. He 
was a member of the Legislature from Medford in 
1847 and died September 10, 1855. His wife was a 
daughter of R. D. Shepherd, of Shepherdstown, Vir- 

Ebenezer Bowman was born in Wilmington, July 
31, 1757, and graduated at Harvard in 1782. He 
practiced law at Wilkesbarre and died in 1829. 

Isaac Fletcher was bom in Dunstable, November 
22, 1784, and graduated at Dartmouth in 1808. He 
read law with Prescott & Dunbar at Keene, New 
Hampshire, and in 1811 removed to Lyndon, Ver- 
mont. He was eight years attorney for Caledonia 
County, a member of the- Legislature in 1837 and 
1841, and a member at one time of the Governor's 
statf. He married, in 1813, Abigail Sione, and died 
October 9, 1842. 

Amos Kendall was the son of Zebedee and Molly 
(Dakin) Kendall, of Dunstable, and was born in that 
town August 16, 1787. Until he was sixteen years of 
age he worked on his father's farm and then fitted for 
college at the academy at New Ipswich and at the 
academy at Groton. He graduated first scholar at 
Dartmouth in 1811, and while in college taught school 
a portion of the time in his native town. He read 
law in Groton with William M. Richardson, of 
Groton, and was admitted to the Middlesex bar. 
In 1814 he removed to Kentucky, where he was 
for a time a tutor in the family of Henry Clay. At 



Frankfort, Kentucky, he edited the Argus, and in 1829 
was appointed foorth auditor of the UnitedStates Treas- 
ury, by Andrew Jackson. From 1835 to 1840 he was 
Postmaster-General and afterwards devoted himself 
to his profession. He was the founder and the first 
president of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Washing- 
ton, and was for some years one of the trustees of 
Columbia College, in that city. He married, October 
1, 1818, Mary B. Woolfolk, by whom he had four 
children, and in 1826 he married Mary Kyle, by whom 
he had ten more, and who died in Washington in 
June, 1864. In 1849 he received a degree of Doctor 
of Laws from Dartmouth College. During his resi- 
dence in Washington he gave $115,000 to the Cavalry 
BaptistChurch, $20,000 to the Deafaad Dumb Asylum, 
$25,000 to found two mission schools, and $6000 to 
establish a scholarship in Columbia College. In 
1862 he removed to Kendall Green, New Jersey, 
and in 1866 visited Europe and the Holy Land. He 
died in Washington, November 12, 1869. Mr. Ken- 
dall was descended from Francis Kendall, who came 
to New England from England about 1640 and settled 
in Woburn. Francis Kendall married Mary Tidd in 
1644, and had John, bom 1646 ; Thomas, 1649; Mary, 
1651; Elizabeth, 1653; Hannah, 1655; Rebecca, 
1657 ; Samuel, 1659 ; Jacob, 1661 ; and Abigail, 1666. 
Jacob Kendall, one of these children, was the great- 
grandfather of Zebedee, the father of the subject of 
this sketch. 

William Merchant Richardson was born in 
Pelham, N. H., Jan. 4, 1774, and graduated at Har- 
vard in 1797. He practiced law a few years in Gro- 
ton, and was a member of Congress from 1811 to 1814. 
Removing to Portsmouth, he became distinguished at 
the bar, and was chief justice of the Supreme Court 
of New Hampshire from 1816 to 1838. He was the 
author of the " New Hampshire Justice and Town 
Officer," and performed a great amount of work on 
the New Hampshire reports. He died at Chester, N. 
H., March 23, 1838. 

William Austin was born in Charlestown March 
2, 1778, and graduated at Harvard in 1798. He prac- 
ticed law in the courts of both Suffolk and Middlesex, 
but was a member of the Middlesex bar. In 1801 he 
delivered an oration at Charlestown, on the 17th of 
June, and in 1807 published a volume entitled " An 
Essay on .the Human Character of Jesns Christ." 
In 1805 he was wounded in a duel with James H. 
Elliott, the result of a newspaper controversy. He 
died in Charlestown June 27, 1841. 

William Brattle was the son of Rev. William 
Brattle, of Cambridge, and was born in that town in 
1702. He graduated at Harvard in 1722, in the class 
with William Ellery and Richard Saltonstall. He 
combined in his practice the occupation of a lawyer, 
preacher, physician, soldier and legislator. He was 
captain of an artillery company in 1733 and a major- 
general in the militia, and at various times a member 
of the General Court and of the Council. Being a 

Loyalist he removed to Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1 776, 
and there died in October of that year. 

Richard Dana was the grandson of Richard 
Dana, who came early to New England and settled in 
Cambridge in 1640. He was born in Cambridge July 7, 
1699, and graduated at Harvard in 1718. He was 
eminent in his profession, and practiced in Marble- 
head, Charlestown and Boston. He married a sister 
of Edmund Trowbridge, and was the father of Francis 
Dana, already mentioned. He died in Cambridge 
May 17, 1772. 

Richard H. Dana was the son of Francis Dana, 
of Cambridge, and was born in that town November 
15, 1787. He graduated at Harvard in 1808, and 
read law with his father, and was admitted to the 
Suffolk barin 1811, and, not longafter, to the Baltimore 
bar. In 1812 he settled in practice in Cambridge, 
and at one time was a member of the General Court 
from that town. He is believed by the writer to have 
had DO other experience in public life. His taste for 
purely literary occupation was early developed, and 
as an essayist and poet he had wide distinction. In 
1814 he delivered a Fourth of July oration, in 1818 
and 1819 he was associated with Edward Tyrrel C'han- 
ning in the editorial management of the North ^imeri- 
can Review, and in 1839 and 1840 delivered a aeries of 
lectures on Shakespeare in Boston, New York and 
Philadelphia. As a poet, however, his name is better 
known. In 1825 he published in the New York- Re- 
view his first poems — " The Dying Raven " and the 
" Husband and Wife's Grave," .and in 1827 he pub- 
lished " The Buccaneer, and Other Poems." In 1833 
a volume of his poetical works was issued, and in 
1850 two volumes of his poems and prose writings 
were issued, which included all his literary efforts 
except his lectures on Shakespeare. He received a 
degree of Doctor of Laws from Williams College and 
died in 1867. 

Steven Scales, believed to have been born in 
Boston, graduated at Harvard in 1763, in the class 
with Josiah Quincy, Nathan Gushing, John Jeffries, 
Samson Salter Blowers, Timothy Pickering and Caleb 
Gannett. He removed, in 1772, from Boston to 
Chelmsford, and died November 5th, in the same year. 
Jonathan William Austin, the son of Benjamin 
Austin, of Boston, was born in that town April 18, 
1751, and graduated at Harvard in 1769, in the class 
with James Winthrop, Peter Thacher and Theophi- 
lus Parsons. He read law with John Adams, and 
was admitted to the Suffolk bar July 27, 1772. In 
1773 he removed to Chelmsford and began his pro- 
fessional life. He was a member of the Middlesex 
Convention in 1774, and passed through the several 
grades of captain, major and colonel in the War of 
the Revolution. He died in 1778, while in the army, 
on one of the Southern campaigns. 

John Wythe, whose time and place of birth are 
unknown to the writer, graduated at Harvard in 
1760, in the clajsa with John Lowell and William 



Baylies. He settled as a lawyer in Chelmsford in 
1778, and subsequently removed to Lexington and 
Cambridge, at which latter place he died in ISll. 

Samuel Dexter, son of Samuel Dexter, of Bos- 
ton, was born in that town May 14, 1761, and gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1781, in the class with John 
Davis and Dudley Atkins Tyng. He read law in 
Worcester and went to Chelmsford in 1786, subse- 
quently removing to Charlestown and finally to Bos- 
ton, where he became one of the most eminent 
lawyers of his day. He was a member of both 
the House and Senate in Congress, serving in the 
latter capacity in 1799 and 1800, and was appointed, 
by President John Adams, Secretary of War in 1800, 
and Secretary of the Treasury in 1801. His chief dis- 
tinction, however, he won at the bar. He lived in days 
before oratory was a lost art in the courts, and his 
arguments were masterpieces of logic clothed in lan- 
guage delighting the ear and winning the heart and 
judgment of all who heard him. His peroration in 
his speech, in 1806, in defense of Thomas Oliver Self- 
ridge, indicted for the murder of Charles Austin, the 
writer heard repeated many years since by Judge 
Nahum Mitchell, of East Bridgewater, who was in the 
court-room at the time of its delivery. Selfridge was 
a graduate of Harvard in 1797, and the father of Rear 
Admiral Selfridge, of the United States navy. He 
was a practicing lawyer and a prominent Federalist. 
Austin was the son of Benjamin Austin, an active 
and earnest Democrat, who. it was claimed by his 
son, had been abused in the newspapers by Selfridge. 
For this abuse Austin threatened to punish Self- 
ridge, and the two meeting in State Street, Boston, 
Selfridge, expecting an attack, fired the fatal shot. 
Both Selfridge and Austin occupied high social posi- 
tions, the latter being the son of a distinguished mer- 
chant and the uncle of the late James Trecothic Aus- 
tin, the Attorney-General of .Miissachusetts from 1832 
to 1S4.'! ; and intense excitement, both political and 
social, attended the trial. The writer remembere a 
capital trial about 1841, in which James T. Austin, 
the .\.ttorney-(TeneraI, \va.s opposed by Franklin Dex- 
ter for the defense, the son of Samuel Dexter, who 
successfully defended Selfridge, the slayer of Mr. 
Austin's uncle, and it was not difficult to detect, in the 
course of the trial, a trace of the ancient family feud 
which the events of ISOij had excited. The closing 
words of -Mr. Dexter's speech were as follows : 

■' I respect the dictates of the Christian religion ; I 
shudder at the thought of shedding human blood; 
but if ever I may be driven to narrow pass where 
forbearance ends and di.-grac' hrgiii-.. uuiv tl;:; rii.''>t 
arm fall palsied from its socket ii i fail to u. iei.i 
mine honor." 

Mr. Dexter died at Athens, in the State of New 
York, May 4, 1816. 

Elisha Fuller was the son of Rev. Timothy 
Fuller, of Princeton, and was born in 179.5 and grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1815, in the class with George 

Eustis, Convers Francis, Thaddeus William Harris, 
John Amory Lowell, John Gorham Palfrey, The- 
ophilus Parsons and Jared Sparks. Hs was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1823 and settled in Concord, whence 
in June, 1831, he removed to Lowell. He finally re- 
moved in 1844 to Worcester and died in 1855. 

Timothy Fuller, a brother of the above, was born 
in Chilmark, Massachusetts, July 11, 1778. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1801, and read law in Worcester in 
the office of Levi Lincoln. He was State Senator from 
1813 to 1816, member of Congress from 1817 to 1825, 
Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representa- 
tives in 1825 and member of the Executive Council 
in 1828. He was the father of Sarah Margaret Ful- 
ler (Countess d'Ossoli), Arthur Buckminster and Rich- 
ard Frederick Fuller, all of whom were bom in Cam- 
bridge during the residence of their father in that 
town. After many years' residence in Cambridge he 
removed to Groton and there died October 1, 1835. 

Caleb Butler was born in Pelham, New Hamp- 
shire, September 13, 1776, and graduated at Dart- 
mouth in 1800. He read law in Groton with Luther 
Lawrence and settled in that town, where he was the 
principal of the Groton Academy eleven years, and 
postmaster thirteen years. He devoted much of his 
time to literary pursuits and published a history of 
Groton in 1848. He died at Groton October 7, 1854. 

William L. Chaplin was the son of Rev. Daniel 
and Susanna (Prescott) Chaplin, and was born Octo- 
l)er 27, 17%. He died at Cortland, New Yoik, April 
28, 1871. 

Christopher Gore was born in Boston Septem- 
ber 21, 1758, and was the son of John Gore, of that 
town. He graduated at Harvard in 1776 and studied 
law with John Lowell. In 1789 he was appointed 
United States district attorney, and in 1796 was ap- 
pointed, with William Pinckney, commissioner under 
Jay's treaty to settle American claims against England. 
He was a member of both branches of the State Leg- 
islature, Governor of Massachusetts in 1809 and Uni- 
ted States Senator from 1813 to 1816. He died at his 
residence in Waltham March 1, 1827. 

Roger Sherman, one of the signers of th5 Decla- 
tion of Independence was a native of Middlesex 
County, and was bom in Newton April 19, 1721. Un- 
til twenty-two years of age he followed the trade of 
shoemaker, and in 1743 went to North Milford, Con- 
necticut, where he engaged in trade with an older 
brother, and in 1745 was appointed county surveyor 
of lands. He subsequently read law and was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1754, at the age of thirty-three. He 
w;iii Tt one time a member of the Assembly and in 
\7^jj wi- appointed a judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas. In 1761 he removed to New Haven and was 
appointed there in 1765 judge of the Common Pleas, 
an assistant in 1766 and later a judge of the Superior 
Court. In 1774 he was appointed member of Con- 
gress, became United States Senator and from 1784 
until his death was mayor of New Haven. In 1776 


he was one of the committee of CoDgreas appointed 
to draft the Declaration of Independence, and in 1783 
assisted in codifying the laws of Connecticut. He died 
at New Haven July 23, 1793. 

RoGEE MiNOT Sherman, nephew of the above, 
was bom in Wobum May 22, 1773, and graduated at 
Yale in 1792. He was admitted to the bar in 1796. 
and made Fairfield, Conn., his permanent residence. 
He was a member of the Assembly in 1798, of the 
Senate from 1814 to 1818, a member of the Hartford 
Convention in 1814, and judge of the Superior Court 
and the Supreme Court of Errors from 1840 to 1842. 
He died at Faii-field December 30, 1844. 

AsHER Ware was born in Sherburne February 10, 
1782, and graduated at Harvard in 1804, receiving a 
degree of Doctor of Laws from Bowdoin in 1837. 
After leaving college he was tutor at Harvard from 
1807 to 1811, and Professor of Greek from 1811 to 
1815. After admission to the bar he practiced one 
year, 1816, in Boston, and in 1817 removed to Port- 
land. .Upon the organization of the State of Maine, 
in 1820, he was made Secretary of State, and from 
1822 to 1866 was judge of the United States District 

Simon Greenleaf, though not a member of the 
Middlesex bar, was so long a resident in the county as 
Professor in the Dane Law School at Cambridge that 
he ought not to be omitted in these sketches. Mr. 
Greenleaf was descended from Eklmund Greenleaf, of 
Brixham, Devonshire, England, who came to New 
England very early and settled in Newbury in 1635, 
whence he removed about 1650 to Boston, and there 
died in 1671. The family is supposed to have been 
of French origin, and its name a translation of the 
French Feuillevert. Jonathan Greenleaf, of the 
fourth generation, lived in Newbury, accumulating 
property by ship-building and taking an active part 
in public aSaira as Representative, Senator and Coun- 
cilor. His son Moses was a ship-builder and re- 
moved to New Gloucester, Maine, where he died in 
1812. Moses Greenleaf married, in 1776, Lydia, 
daughter of Rev. Jonathan Parsons, of Newburyport, 
and Simon Greenleaf. the subject of this sketch, was 
his fourth child, and was born in Newburyport De- 
cember 5, 1783. After the removal of his father to 
New Gloucester, about 1790, Simon, left in the care of 
his grandfather, attended the Latin School of New- 
buryport, under the instruction of Michael Walsh, 
and at the age of eighteen joined his father and began 
the study of law in the oflBce of Ezekiel Whitman, 
afterwards chief justice of the Supreme Court of 
Maine. In 1805 he was admitted to the bar of Cum- 
berland County and began to practice in the town of 
Standish, Maine, whence he removed to Gray, and in 
1818 removed to Portland. When the district of 
Maine became a State in 1820, and a Supreme Court 
was established, he was appointed by the Governor 
reporter of decisions, and held office twelve years. 
During this period he published nine volumes of re- 

ports. In 1832 he resigned his position, and in 1833 
succeeded John Hooker Ashmun as Royall Professor 
in the Dane Law School, which situation he held 
until 1846, when, on the death of Judge Joseph Story, 
he was transferred to the Dane Professorship. In 1848 
failing health induced his resignation, but until his 
death he held the position of Professor Emeritus. 

Besides his volumes of reports Mr. Greenleaf pub- 
lished in 1821 "a full collection of Cases Overruled, 
Denied, Doubted or Limited in their application, 
taken from American and English Reports;" in 1842 
a "Treatise on the Law of Evidence," and at various 
times an " Examination of the Testimony of the Four 
Evangelists by the Rules of Evidence administered 
in Courts of Justice;" an edition of "Cruise's Digest 
of the Law of Real Property ; " a " Discourse at his In- 
auguration as Royall Professor,"' and a " Discourse 
Commemorative of the Life and Character of the 
Hon. Joseph Story, LL.D." He received the degree 
of Doctor of Laws from Harvard in 1834, from Am- 
herst in 1845, from Alabama College in 1852, and the 
degree of Master of Arts from Bowdoin in 1817. He 
died at Cambridge October 0, 1853. He married, in 
1806, Hannah, daughter of Ezra Kingman, of East 
Bridgewater, Massachusetts, and had fifteen children, 
of whom only one survived him. 

Abner Bartlett was a descendant of Robert Bart- 
lett, who came to Plymouth in the " Ann '' in 1623 and 
married, in 1628, Mary, daughter of Richard Warren, 
who came in the " Mayflower." He was the son of 
Abner and Anna (Hovey) Bartlett, of Plymouth, and 
was born in that town in 1776. His sister Anna mar- 
ried, in 1796, Ellis Bartlett, the grandfather of Wii- 
liaoa Lehman Ashmead Bartlett, who married Baron- 
ess Burdett-Coutts. He graduated at Harvard in 
1799 and married Sarah Burgess and settled in Med- 
ford. One of his daughters was the first wife of Rev. 
Dr. George W. Briggs, now of Cambridge. He died 
in Medford, September 3, 1850. 

Samuel Blodqet was born in Woburn, April 1, 
1724, and at the age of twenty-one was engaged in 
the expedition against Louisbourg, in 1745. He was 
before the Revolution judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas for Hillsborough County. In 1791 he became 
interested in the manufacture of duck, and in 1793 
began the construction of the canal round Amoskeag 
Falls, which bears his name. He died at Haverhill, 
September 1, 1807. 

John Hoar went from Scituate about 1660 and set- 
tled in Concord, where he died April 2, 1704. 

Daniel Bliss, son of Rev. Daniel Bliss, was born 
in Concord, March 18, 1740, and graduated at Har- 
vard in 1760. He read law with Abel Willard, of 
Lancaster, and was admitted to the Worcester bar in 
1765. He began practice in Rutland, removed to 
Concord in 1772, but retired to Fredericton, New 
Brunswick, at the time of the Revolution, where he 
became chief justice of the Provincial Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, and died in 1806. 



Thomas Heald was born in New Ipswich, New 
Hampshire, March 31, 1768, and graduated at Dart- 
mouth in 1797. He read law with Jonathan Fay 
and was admitted to the bar in 1800. He settled in 
Concord in 1813 and died at Blakeley, Alabama, in 
1821, while a judge in that State. 

John Leightou Tuttle was born in Littleton 
and graduated at Harvard in 1796. He practiced 
law in Concord, where he was postmaster, county 
treasurer and Senator, and died at Watertown, New 
York, July 23, 1813. 

John Keyes waa the son of Joseph Keyes, of 
Westford, and was bom in that town in the year 1787. 
He was the youngest son of a large family of twelve 
children, and until entering college lived with his 
father, working on his farm during the summer and 
attending the district school in the winter. His fa- 
ther reared his family during the disastrous days 
which followed the Revolution on a farm of about 
forty acres of poor soil and without a market, where 
his ancestors during four generations had before him 
struggled for a livelihood. Young Keyes, with a 
mind stronger than his body, whose constitution, nat- 
urally delicate, had been further unfitted, by a severe 
accident in his 6fteenth year, for the labors of a farm- 
er's life, gradually drifted into the paths of knowledge 
which led to a better education than that which 
most of his school and playmates were able to receive. 
With health somewhat restored he entered Westford 
Academy, boarding at home and walking daily three 
miles to school. He entered Dartmouth College in 
1805, and by careful economy and with the earnings 
of school-teaching in the winter he made the scanty 
supplies from home suffice for his college career, iMd 
graduated in 1809. Levi Woodbury, of New Hamp- 
shire, was the youngest in years and first in rank in 
his class, and it is said that the seventeen hours of 
study in the twenty-four which the robust constitu- 
tion of Woodbury permitted him without injury to 
endure, alone enabled him to compete successfully 
with his less fortunate classmate and friend. 

After leaving college he returned to Westford and 
entered as a student the law-office of John Abbott, 
then an eminent practitioner at the Middlesex bar, 
supporting himself partly by services rendered to his 
instructor and partly by teaching school.. In the 
winter of 1811-12 he taught the school in Dis- 
trict No. 7, in Concord, boarding with Samuel 
Buttricfc, and March 12, 1872, entered his name in 
the law-otfice of John Leighton Tuttle, of that town. 
At the September term of the Circuit Court of Com- 
mon Pleas in the last-mentioned year, before Judge 
Samuel Dana, he waa admitted to the Middlesex bar, 
and at once took the office of Mr. Tuttle, who had 
been appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Ninth Reg- 
iment for frontier service, and who died at Water- 
town, New York, July 23, 1813. Colonel Tuttle had 
been postmaster of Concord, and Mr. Keyes was ap- 
pointed his successor, holding the office from 1812 to 

1837, when he was removed by President Van Buren. 
Colonel Tuttle had also been county treasurer, and 
Benjamin Preacott, who was chosen to succeed him, 
having failed to give bonds, Mr. Keyes was appointed 
by the Court of Sessions in his place. He was sub- 
sequently rechosen annually until 1837, a period of 
twenty-four years. From the salaries of these offices 
he laid the foundation of a fortune which at his 
death was the largest ever inventoried in Concord. 

Mr. Keyes was early led into politics and warmly 
supported the Democratic party in opposition to that 
of the Federalists. The alluring attractions of polit- 
ical work, together with the duties of the offices, he 
held, drew him somewhat away from the more sober 
paths of his profession ; but he acquired nevertheless 
a respectable and lucrative practice at a bar which in- 
cluded Artemas Ward, Samuel Dana, Timothy Big- 
elow, Asahel Stearns and Samuel Hoar among his 
seniors, and Hosraer, Fuller, Lawrence and Adams 
among his contemporaries. Though he was engaged 
in many important causes, he was, however, • better 
known an a politician than as a practicing lawyer. In 

1820 he was a delegate to the convention for the revi- 
sion of the State Constitution from Concord, and in 

1821 and 1822 he was a member of the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives. From 1823 to 1829 he 
was a member of the Senate, in which body he was of 
sufficient consideration to attract the shafts cf his po- 
litical opponents, one of which was so libelous as to 
cause the editor who published it to be prosecuted 
and convicted. At the close of his first senatorial 
term he was nominated by the National Republican 
party for Congress, but was defeated by Edward Ev- 
erett, after a close contest. In 1832 and 1833 he was 
again a member of the Massachusetts House of Rep- 
resentatives, and during the illness of the Speaker, 
Julius Rockwell, was chosen Speaker /iro lem. From 
1823 to 1833 his party was predominant in Middlesex 
County, and his counsels prevailed with his party, 
being, as he undoubtedly was, the most popular aud 
influential man within its limits. 

Mr. Keyes waa prominent in the Masonic Order, at 
one time holding the second office in the State, and 
in the Anti-Masonic eicitementof 1834 he was an ob- 
ject of special attack, and in consequence lost his of- 
fice of county treasurer. In 1837, when removed 
from the post-office, he ended his public service. 

In town affairs he was active, but declined office, 
except that of moderator of town-meetings, to 
which he was frequently chosen. He waa a good pre- 
siding officer and waa selected to act as President of 
the Day at the bi-centennial celebration of the settle- 
ment of Concord. He waa one of the projectors of 
the Mill Dam Company, the Insurance Company, the 
Bank and Savings Institution in that town, and 
either president or director in these corporations. In 
the Lyceum, the schools and the parish he was earn- 
est and useful, and all of them have felt the impress 
of his hand and life. 



In 1816 Mr. Keyes married Ann S. Shepard, daugh- 
ter of Dr. T. Shepard, of Hopkinton, whose widow had 
removed to Concord .ind lived there, the wife 
of William Hildreth, sheriflF of Middlesex County, 
from 1810 to 1815. He had five children, of whom 
two were girls and died young, and three were sons, 
of whom one, John S. Keyes, is mentioned in this 
narrative. Mr. Keyes died at Concord, August 29, 
1844, at the age of fifty-seven. 

Abraham Fuller, son of Joseph and Sarah 
(Jackson) Fuller, was born March 23, 1720. He kept 
school in Newton four years ; was town clerk and 
treasurer of that town twenty-seven years from 1766; 
representative to the General Court eighteen years; 
delegate to the Provincial Court, Senator, councillor 
and judge of the Court of Common Pleas. He died 
April 20, 1794. 

Walter Hastings was born in Chelmsford in 
1778 and graduated at Harvard in 1799. He read law 
with Judge Prescott at Groton, and opened an office 
in Townsend, where he practiced until the War of 
1812, during which he was a colonel of a regiment. 
• At the close of the war he returned to Townsend, and 
in 1814 married Roxanna, daughter of Moses Warren, 
and died June 6, 1821. 

Nathaniel Gorham was born in Charlestown 
May 27, 1738. He was many years one of the select- 
men of the town, and its representative from 1771 tf) 
1775. He was a delegate to Provincial Congress, a 
member of the Board of War, a delegate to the State 
Constitutional Convention in 1779, a delegate to Con- 
gress in 1782-83 and in 1785-87, and its president in 
1786. He was also, for several years, a judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas. He died at Canandaigua, 
New York, October 22, 1826. 

Benjamin Gorham, son of the above, was bom in 
Charlestown February 13, 1775, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1795. He studied law with Theophilus 
Parsons, and become an eminent lawyer at the Mid- 
dlesex and Suffolk bars. He was a member of the 
General Court, and in 1820, '21, '22, '23, '27, '28, '29, 
'30, '31, '33, '35 was a member of Congress. He died 
in Boston September 27, 1856. 

Daniel Bliss Ripley, son of Rev. Ezra Ripley, 
of Concord, was born in that town in 1788, and grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1805. He died at St. Stephen's, 
Alabama, April 30, 1825. 

Joseph Story was neither a native of Middlesex 
County nor a practitioner at its bar, but he had his res- 
idence so long within its limits, and in the minds of 
persons living, who remember him, he was so identi- 
fied with Cambridgeand the Law School, of which he 
was many years the head, that a chapter on the Mid- 
dlesex Bench and Bar would be incomplete without a 
reference to his professional career and the law pub- 
lications which he left as memorials of his legal 
knowledge and indefatigable industry. He was born 
in Marblehead, September 18, 1779, and was the son 
of Dr. Elisha Story, a native of Boston, and a surgeon 

in the Revolution. He graduated at Harvard in 1798. 
and received degrees of Doctor of Laws from Brown 
in 1815, Harvard in 1821 and Dartmouth in 1824. 
The writer can do uo better than follow the text of a 
sketch of .Tudge Story published in another work, 
which contains all the facts necessary to relate, and 
which might as well be literally copied, as to be pre- 
sented in a merely remodeled form : 

Among his classmates were William Ellery Chan- 
ning, John Yamum and Sidney Willard. His edu- 
cation before entering college was received in Marble- 
head under the direction of Rev. Dr. William Har- 
ris, afterwards president of Columbia College. He 
began his law studies in the office of Chief Justice 
Samuel Sewall, in"Marblehead, and continued them, 
after the appointment of Mr. Sewall to the bench, in 
the office of Samuel Putnam, of Salem. He was ad- 
mitted to the E^sex bar in July, 1801. He was a 
Democrat in politics, and as such stood almost alone 
among the lawyers of the county. He was a member 
of the Massachusetts Houie of Representatives in 
1805, '16 and '17, a member of Congress in 1808, again a 
member of the Legislature from 1809 to 1812, and 
was chosen Speaker of the House of Representatives 
in January, 1811. 

In 1806 he advocated in the Legislature an increase 
of the salaries of the judges of the Supreme Judicial 
Court, in opposition to the prejudices of his party 
against high judicial salaries, and more especially 
against Theophilus Parsons, whom it was proposed to 
put upon the bench, tut who could not afford to 
relinquish a practice of $10,000 for a position having 
attached to it the paltry salary of $1200. Mr. Parsons 
was especially obnoxious to ths Democrats, but Mr. 
Story, with that sturdy independence which always 
characterized him, advocated and carried a bill to 
increase the salary of the chief justice to S2500, and 
of the associate justices to $2400, and Mr. Parsons 
was appointed and accepted the appointment. In 
1809 he advocated and was largely the means of se- 
curing a further increase of the salaries of the chief 
justice and the associates to $3500 and $30o0 re- 

On the 18th of November, 1811, he was appointed 
by Madison associate justice of the Supreme Court of 
United States, to fill the vacancy caused by the death 
of William Cushing, of Massachusetts, which oc- 
curred on the 13th of September, 1810. The appoint- 
ment had been previously offered to John Quincy 
Adams, who declined it Mr. Story was then only 
thirty-two years of age, and his appointment reflects 
credit on the sagacity of Mr. Madison who discovered 
in so young a man the signs of promise which his 
career afterwards fully verified. In 1820, at the time 
of the separation of Maine from Massachusetts, he was 
a delegate from Salem to the Constitutional Conven- 
tion. In 1828, Nathan Dane, who, in founding the 
Law School at Cambridge, had reserved to himself the 
appointments to its professorships, appointed Judge 



Story, Dane Professor of Law, and John Hooker 
Ashman, Royall Professor of Law, and in the next 
year, 1829, he removed from Salem to Cambridge, 
where he continued to serve until his death, on the 
10th of September, 1845. 

Aside from his learning in the law and that wonder- 
ful fluency in the use of language, both spoken and 
written, which made his learning available, nothing 
distinguished him more than his indiatry. With the 
labors of a judge constantly pressing upon him and 
the cares of his professorship, the press was kept busy 
in supplying the law libraries of the land with his 
commentaries and treatises and miscellaneous produc- 
tions. His first publication seems to have been a 
poem entitled the " Power of Solitude," published in 
Salem in 1804. lu 1805 appeared "Selections of 
Pleadings in Civil Actions with Annotations." In 
1828 he edited the public and general statutes passed 
by Congress from 1789 to 1827, and in 1836 and 1845 
supplements to these dates. In 1832 appeared " Com- 
mentaries on the Law of Bailments with Illustrations 
from the Civil and Foreign Law ; " in 1833 " Com- 
mentaries on the Constitution ; " in 1834 "Commen- 
taries on the Conflict of Laws, Foreign and Domestic, 
in Regard to Contracts, Rights and Remedies, and Es 
pecially in Regard to Marriages, Divorces, Wills, 
Successions and Judgments." In 1835 and 1836 ap- 
peared " Commentaries on Equity Jurisprudence as 
Administered in England and America;" in 1838 
"Commentaries on Equity Pleadings and the Inci- 
dents Thereto according to the Practice of the Courts 
of Equity in England and America ; ' in 1839 " Com- 
mentaries on the Law of Agency as a Branch of Com- 
mercial and Maritime Jurisprudence, with Occasional 
Illustrations from the Civil and Foreign Law ; " in 
1841 " Commentaries on the Law of Partnership as 
a Branch of Commercial and Maritime Jurispru- 
dence, with occasional illustrations from the Civil 
and Foreign Laws ; " in 1843 " Commentaries on the 
Law of Bills of Exchange, Foreign and Inland, as 
Administered in England and America, with occa- 
sional illustrations from the Commercial Law of Na- 
tions of Continental Europe; " in 1845 " Commenta- 
ries on the Law of Promissory Notes." His decisions 
in the first circuit from 1812 to 1815 are in " Gallison's 
Reports; " from 1816 to 1830 in " Mi>son's Reports;" 
from 1830 to 1839 in " Sumner's Reports," and from 
1839 to 1845 in "Story's Reports." Among his nu- 
merous other publications were an " Eulogy on Wash- 
ington," at Salem, in 1800 ; an " Eulogy on Captain 
James Lawrence and Lieutenant Ludlow," in 1813; 
" Sketch of Samuel Dexter,' in 1816 ; " Charges to 
Grand Juries in Boston and Providence" in 1819; 
" Charge to the Grand Jury at Portland," in 1820 ; 
" Address before the Sufl^olk Bar," in 1821 ; " Dis- 
course before the Phi Beta Society," in 1826 ; " Dis- 
course before the Essex Historical Society " in 1828; 
" Address at his own inauguration as Professor," in 
1829 ; " Address at the dedication of Mount Auburn," 

in 1831 ; '" Address at the funeral services of Professor 
John Hooker Ashmun," in 1833 ; "Eulogy on John 
Marshal," in 1835 ; " Lectures on the Science of 
Law," in 1838; " Address before the Harvard Alum- 
ni," in 1842, and a "Charge to the Grand Jury of 
Rhode Island on Treason," in 1845. In addition to 
this long list of his works might be mentioned a large 
number of essays and articles in magazines and re- 
views, and three unprinted manuscript volumes fin- 
ished just before his death, entitled " Digest of Law 
Supplementary to Comyns," which are deposited in 
the Harvard College Library. 

Nathan Crosby was born in Sandwich, N. H., 
February 12, 1798. He was descended from Simon 
and Ann Crosby, who settled in Cambridge in 16-35. 
The descent was through Simon, of Billerica, Josiah, 
Josiah, Josiah and Asa, a physician, who married 
Betsey, daughter of Colonel Nathan Hoit, and died in 
Hanover, N. H., April 12, 1836, at the age of seventy 
years. Nathan was one of seventeen children by two 
mothers, sii dying young, five sons receiving degrees 
from Dartmouth and two daughters marrying profes- 
sional men. Three of the brothers of Nathan were pro- 
fessors at Dartmouth. He graduated at Dartmouth in 
1820, and married Rebecca, daughter of Stephen 
Moody, a lawyer of Gilmanton, N. H. He studied 
law with Mr. Moody and with Asa Freeman, of Dover. 
His wife died January 3, 1867, and he then married. 
May 19, 1870, Mrs. Matilda (Pickens) Fearing, daugh- 
ter of James and Charity (Mackie) Pickens, of Boston, 
and widow of Dr. Joseph W. Fearing, of Providence. 
In 1826 he removed from New Hampshire to Ames- 
bury, thence to Newburyport, and, in 1843, to Lowell, 
where he succeeded Joseph Locke as judge of the 
Police Court. 

JoHK P. Robinson was born in Dover, N. H., in 
1799, and, after attending Phillips Academy, entered 
Harvard in 1819, and graduated in 1823. He read 
law in the oflBce of Daniel Webster, and in 1827 began 
practice in Lowell. He was a member of the House 
of Representatives in 1829, '30, '31, '33, '42, and a 
Senator in 1835. He was a scholar as well as a law- 
yer, and devoted no small portion of his time to classi- 
cal study. He married a daughter of Ezra Worthen, 
and died October 20, 1864. He was a man of some- 
what eccentric traits, and inveterate in his personal 
dislikes and quarrels. On one occasion, meeting a 
brother member of the bar, he said, while rubbing 
his hands with apparent satisfaction : "There will be 
hot work in hell to-night." " How is that, Mr. Rob- 
inson ? " asked his friend. " Farley died this morn- 
ing ." he replied. 

William W. Fuller, son of Rev. Timothy Fuller, 
and brother of Elisha and Timothy, already men- 
tioned, graduated at Harvard in 1813, and practiced 
law in Lowell eight years, but removed to Illinois, 
where he died in 1849. 

Nathan Brooks, son of Joshua Brooks, of Lin- 
coln, was born in that town October 18, 1785, and 



graduated at Harvard in 1809. He settled in Con- 
cord in 1813, from which town he was Representative 
to the General Court in 1823, '24, '25. In 1827 he 
waa appointed Master in Chancery, in 1829 he was a 
member of the Executive Council, and in 1831 Sena- 
tor. He married, in 1820, Caroline Downes, and had 
Caroline, who married Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar. 
He married, second, Mary Merrick, and had George 
Merrick. He died in 1863. 

Samuel Farrar, son of Deacon Samuel Farrar, 
and brother of Timothy Farrar, already mentioned, 
waa born in Lincoln, December 13, 1773, and gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1797. He was tutor at Harvard 
one year, after which he read law and settled in An- 
dover, where he waa at one time president of a bank 
and treasurer of the Theological Seminary, and died 
in 1864. 

Joseph Farrar, son of Humphrey Farrar, of Lin- 
coln, waa born in that town February 14, 1775, and 
graduated at Dartmouth in 1794. The writer is un- 
able to state where he practiced law. 

James Russell, son of Daniel Russell, of Charles- 
town, and brother of Chambers Russell, already men- 
tioned, was born in Charlestown, August 5, 1715. He 
was a Representative from Charlestown thirteen 
years, from 1746, and May 16, 1771, waa appointed a 
judge of the Court of Common Pleaa. In 1775 he 
removed to Dunatabie, andthenceto Lincoln, where he 
lived more than fifteen years. He married Katharine, 
daughter of Thomaa Graves, who died in Lincoln, 
September 17, 1778. His children were Thomas, 
who married Elizabeth, daughter of George Watson, 
of Plymouth ; Charles, a graduate of Harvard in 
1757, who became a physician ; Chambers, who died 
in South Carolina ; Katharine, who married a Mr. 
Henly, of Charlestown ; Rebecca, who married Judge 
Tyng and Judge Sewall ; Margaret, who married John 
Codman, and Sarah and Mary, unmarried. Mr. Rus- 
sell died in Charlestown. 

Nathaniel Pierce Hoar, aon of Samuel Hoar, 
of Lincoln, waa born in that town September 2, 1784, 
aod graduated at Harvard in 1810. He read law 
with his brother, Samnel Hoar, of Concord, ^pd set- 
tled in Portsmouth, N. H., in 1813. He returned to 
Lincoln, and there died May 24, 1820. 

Thomas Fiske, son of Elijah Fiske, of Lincoln, was 
born in that town about 1799 and graduated at Har- 
vard in 1819. He settled in Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, in 1826 and died in 1830. 

Amos Spauldino, son of Zebulon Spaulding, of 
Carlisle, graduated at Dartmouth in 1805 and settled, 
as a lawyer, in Audover. As a citizen of that town 
he was at one time a Repreaentative and Senator in 
the General Court. 

Joel Adams, aon of Timothy Adams, of Carlisle, 
graduated at Harvard in 1805 and waa admitted to 
the Middlesex bar in September, 1808. He aettled in 
Chelmaford and died in 1864. 

Asa Green, aon of Zaccheua Green, of Carlisle, 

' graduated at Williams College in 1807 and settled as 
i a lawyer in Brattleborough, \'ermont, where he was 
at one time postraa-^ter. 
Joseph Ai>A>rs, son of Rev. Moses Adams, of 
; Acton, and brother of Josiah Adams, already men- 
tioned, was born in .Vcton, September 25, 1783, and 
graduated at Harvard in 1803. He settled as a law- 
yer in West Cambridge and died in that town June 
10, 1814. 

Abiel Heywooo, son of .Jonathan Heywood, of 
Concord, was born in Concord, December 9, 1759, 
and graduated .-it Harvard in 1781. He studied med- 
icine with Dr. Spring, of Watertown, and settled in 
I nis native town. In 1796 he was chosen town clerk 
; and selectman; in 1802 he was appointed special 
I judge of the Court of Common Pleas and was an 
j associate justice of the Court of Se-siona from 1802 
I to the time of the organization of the County Com- 
I missioners' Court. He died in Concord in 1839. 
I Jonathan Fay was the son of Captain Jonathan 
Fay, of Westboro', and graduated at Harvard in 1778. 
I He settled in the law at Concord, where he married 
I Lucy Prescott, and died June 1, 1811, at the age of 
fifty-nine years. 

Peter Clark, son of Benjamin Clark, waa born 
in Concord and graduated at Harvard in 1777. He 
aettled in the law in Southboro' and died in July, 
1792, aged thirty-six years. 

Silas Lee, son of Joseph Lee, of Concord, was 
l)orn in that town July 3, 1760, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1784. He settled as a lawyer in what is 
now Wi.scasset, Maine, and in 1800 and 1801 repre- 
sented the district of Lincoln and Kennebec in the 
Sixth Congress. In January, 1802, he was appointed 
district attorney for the district of Maine, and in 
1807 judge of probate for the county of Lincoln. He 
held the offices of district attorney and judge until 
his death, March 1, 1814. 

James Mitchell Varxum was born in Dracut in 
1749 and graduated at Rhode Island College. After 
his admission to the bar he settled at East Greenwich, 
Rhode Island, and acquired an extensive practice. 
In 1774 he commanded the Kentish Guards and in 
January, 1775, was appointed colonel of the First 
Rhode Island Regiment. He was made brigadier- 
general February 21, 1777, and in the next winter he 
was at Valley Forge. He was at the battle of Mon- 
mouth in .lune, 1778, and in .July engaged in General 
Sullivan's expedition to Rhode Island. In 1780-82 
and 1786-87 he was a member of the old Congreaa, 
and in 1788, having been appointed judge of the Su- 
preme Court in the Northwest Territory, he removed 
to Marietta, where he died, January 10, 1789. 

Sa.muel Hoar, of Concord, was descended from 
Charles Hoar, sheriff of Gloucester, England, who 
died in that city in 1634. Hia widow, Joanna, came 
to New England about 1640 with five children, the 
sixth and oldest child, Thomas, remaining in Eng- 
land. Of these five children, Joanna married Colonel 



Edmund Quincy ; Margery married a Matthews in 
England, and in this country, when a widow, Rev. 
Henry Flint, of Braintree; Daniel went to England 
in 10.53; Leonard was president of Harvard College 
from September 10, 1672, until his death, March 15, 
1674-75 ; and John settled in Scitunte and removed 
to Concord about 1660. The mother died in Brain- 
tree, December 23, 1661. John, who settled in Con- 
cord, by a wife Alice, who died June 5, 1697, had 
Elizabeth, who married Jonathan Prescott ; Mary, 
who married Benjamin Graves, and Daniel, who mar- 
ried, in 1677, Mary Stratton. Daniel had John, 
Leonard, Daniel, Joseph, Jonathan, Mary, Samuel, 
Isaac, David and Elizabeth. Of these Daniel, the 
third son, married, in 1705, Sarah Jones, and had 
four sons — John, Daniel, Jonathan and Timothy — 
and several daughters. Of these, John married Eliz- 
abeth Coolidge, of Watertown, and was the father of 
Samuel and Leonard, of Lincoln. Of these two sons, 
Samuel married Susanna Pierce and was the father 
of the subject of this sketch. He lived in Lincoln 
and was a lieutenant in the Revolution, a magistrate, 
Representative, Senator and a member of the Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1820. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Lincoln, 
May 18, 1778, and fitted for college with Rev. Charles 
Stearns, of that town, graduating at Harvard in 1802. 
After leaving college he was two years a tutor in the 
family of Colonel Taylor, of Mount Airy, in Virginia, 
and at the close of his law studies with Artemas 
Ward, in Charlestown, was admitted to the bar in 
September, 1805, and settled in Concord. In 1806 
he declined the office of the professorship of Mathe- 
matics at Harvard, having already in his first year of 
professional life acquired a very considerable practice. 
He rose rapidly to the front rank of lawyers at the 
Middlesex bar, and in almost all important cases in 
the courts of that county he was counsel on one side 
or the other. It has been said of him that "so emi- 
nently practical and useful and so much to the point 
did he always aim to make himself, that one would 
not speak of Mr. Hoar as especially learned or saga- 
cious or eloquent, save when the precise condition of 
his cause needed the exercise of sagacity, of persua- 
sive speech or the support of learning. He threw 
away no exertion by misplaced efforts, but what his 
cause demanded he was usually able to furnish, and 
few men could juilge as well as he by what means his 
object would be best accomplished. No man was 
more safe than he as an advLser ; none more fully 
prepared to meet the varying exigencies of the forum ; 
no one, whatever his gifts of speech, more favorably 
impressed or convincingly addressed a jury. His 
style as a speaker was calm, dignified, simple, direct 
and unimpassioned, but he spote as one who was 
first convinced, before he attempted to convince his 
tribunal. While he never went below the proper 
dignity of time, place and occasion, at the same time 
he would never fail to receive from all the juries and 

bystanders at a Middlesex nisi prius term the general 
award that he was the most sincere and sensible man 
that ever argued cases at that bar. Nor was this all. 
To the measure also of a greatness even to the sur- 
prise of his friends could he raise his efforts as an 
advocate when the occasion called for a full exhibi- 
tion of his clear, strong, logical faculty, or excited 
those genuine emotions from which spring the foun- 
tains of eloquence." It may be stated as an illustra- 
tion of the simple confidence reposed by the people 
of Middlesex County in his opinion and word, that on 
one occasion, when a jury failing to agree was called 
into court by the judge, the foreman said that there 
was no misunderstanding of the law on the evidence, 
but that they were embarrassed by the fact that while 
the evidence clearly proved the prisoner guilty, Mr. 
Hoar had said in his speech for the defense that he, 
believed him innocent. 

Mr. Hoar devoted himself almost exclusively to the 
labor of his profession until 1835, when he took his 
seat as a member of the Twenty-fourth Congress. He 
had, however, previous to that time represented Con- 
cord in the convention for the revision of the Consti- 
tution in 1820, and was a member of the State Senate 
in 1826, '32 and '33. In Congress he succeeded Edward 
Everett as a Representative from the Middlesex Dis- 
trict. Soon after his single term in Congress he 
withdrew from the practice of law, and devoted him- 
self to literary and philanthropic pursuits. He was 
a member of the Harrisbiirg Convention, which nom- 
inated General Harrison for the Presidency in 1839, 
and until ten years later than that time he was an 
unwavering supporter of the Whig |)arty. 

Not long after this time events occurred with which 
Mr. Hoar was personally connected, which served as 
one of the causes of that upheaval of public senti- 
ment at the North against the institution of slavery 
which was destined to extinguish that institution for- 
ever. On the 19lh of December, 1835, the Legislature 
of South Carolina passed an act providing that any 
free negro or person of color coming voluntarily into 
the State should be warned to depart, and failing so 
to depart, on returning after such warning, should be 
publicly sold as a slave. Under this act colored 
stewards, or cooks, or sailors of vessels entering South 
Carolina ports were to be seized and placed in jail, 
and there confined until the departure of the vessel in 
which they had come, and if they failed to depart 
with their vessels, or if they returned, they were to be 
sold as slaves. After several remonstrances made by 
Massachusetts against the treatment of her citizens 
under this Act, the I^egislature, in March, 1843, pass- 
ed resolves authorizing the Governor to employ an 
agent in the port o( Charleston, " for the purpose of 
collecting and transmitting accurateinformation re- 
specting the number and names of citizens of Massa- 
chusetts who have heretofore been, or may be during 
the period of his engagement, imprisoned without the 
allegation of any crime. The said agent shall also be 



enabled to bring and prosecute, with the aid of coun- 
sel, one or more suits in behalf of any citizen that 
may be so imprisoned, at the expense of Massachu- 
setts, for the purpose of having the legality of such 
imprisonment tried and determined upon in the 
Supreme Court of the United States." On the 16th 
of March, 1844, another resolve was passed, under 
which Governor George N. Briggs employed Mr. Hoar 
on the 11th of October in that year. It is unneces- 
sary to here recount the various incidents which pre- 
ceded the enforced return of Mr. Hoar to Massachu- 
setts. He reached Charleston on the 2Sth of Novem- 
ber, and on the 5th of December the Legislature of 
South Carolina adopted the following resolutions : 

*' Retolved, That the right to t^xclude from their territories seditious 
perflOQS or others whose presence may l)e dangerous to their peace, is es* 
seotial to every indepeDdeut state. 

" Retolcedj That free ue^oes and persons of color are not citizens of 
the United Statu within the meaning of the Constitution, which confers 
upon the citizens of one statf the privileges and immunities of citizens 
in the several states. 

" Resolved^ Tliat the emissar}' sent by the State of Massachusetts to 
the State of South Caroliua,.with the avowed purpose of interfering with 
her institutions and disturbing her peace, is to he reganled in the char- 
acter he has assumed, and to be treated accordingly. 

" lietolveil. That his Excellency tlie Governor be requested to expel 
from our territory the said agent after due notice to depart ; and that 
the Legislature will nnstain the executive authority in any meaanres it 
may adopt for the purpose aforesaid." 

An agent of the Governor to carry these resolutions 
into effect reached Charleston from Columbia, the 
capital, on the afternoon of Tuesday, the 6th of 
December; but Mr. Hoar, on the representation of the 
mayor and sheriff and leading citizens, that he 
could not remain with safety, had that morning em- 
barked on his return. In the attempted performance 
of the duties of his mission he acted with coolness, 
composure, courage and good judgment. He did not 
fly from the danger, but yielded reluctantly to the 
necessities of the occasion, and Governor Briggs stated, 
in a special message to the Legislature, " that his con- 
duct under the circumstances seems to have been 
marked by that prudence, firmness and wisdom which 
has distinguished his character through his life." 
In seeming recognition of his services and approval 
of his course, the Legislature, in the following Janu- 
ary, by whom at that time the Executive Council 
were appointed, chose him one of that body. 

In 1848 Mr. Hoar, believing the nomination of Gen- 
eral Taylor an abandonment by the Whig party of 
its opposition to the extension of slavery, joined in 
the formation of the Free Soil party and presided at 
a convention at Worcester, June 28, 1848, to which 
all opposed to nominations of General Taylor and 
General Cass by the Whig and Democratic parties 
were invited. A national convention was afterwards 
held at Buffalo, and Martin Van Buren and Charles 
Francis Adams' were nominated for President and 
Vice-President. This ticket was supported by Mr. 

In 1850 Mr. Hoar was chosen Eepresentative to the 
Legislature, and by his efforts the removal of the 

courts from Concord was postponed for a season, and 
largely through his influence and speech. Harvard 
College was preserved from State control. 

In 1854 and 1855 Mr. Hoar aided conspicuously in 
the formation of the Republican party, and the 
events initiating and attending the birth of that 
party were the last in which he publicly engaged. He 
died November 2, 1856. 

Mr. Hoar married Sarah, daughter of Roger Sher- 
man, of Connecticut, October 13, 1812, who died Oc- 
tober 30, 1866. Their children were: Elizabeth, born 
July 14, 1814, and died April 7, 1878; Ebenezer 
Rockwood, born February 21, 1816 ; Sarah Sherman, 
boru November 9, 1817 ; Samuel Johnson, born Feb- 
ruary 4. 1820, and died January 18, 1821; Edward Sher- 
man, born December 22, 1823 ; and George Frisbie, 
born August 29, 1826. 

ARTEMA3 Ward was the son of General Artemas 
Ward, of Shrewsbury, Ma.saachusetts, who was the 
commander-in-chief of the Massachusetts forces at 
the beginning of the Revolutionary War, and after- 
wards first major-general under General AVashing- 
ton. General Ward held other important offices, both 
before and after the Revolution, and was known as a 
man of high principle and inflexible integrity. On 
the maternal side, Artemas Ward traced his ancestry 
to Dr. Increase Mather. He was born at Shrewsbury 
January 9, 1762. He graduated at Harvard College 
in 1783. 

After finishing his law studies he began the prac- 
tice of his profession in Westou, Massachusetts, where 
he became known and respected, both as a lawyer 
and a citizen. He was active in town affairs, being 
representative in the (xeneral Court in 1796, 1797, 
1798, 1799 and 1800, and holding other town offices. 
He was captain of a company of light infantry raised 
in Middlesex County, from September 7, 1789, to 
March 31, 1793, when his resignation of his command 
was accepted. 

In 1800 when his brother-in-law, Samuel Dexter, 
the eminent lawyer, who held high offices under the 
National Government, left Charlestown, to attend to 
his duties in Washington, Artemas Ward removed to 
Charlestown to take the place of Mr. Dexter. He 
was a member of the Executive Council in 1803, 
1804, 1805, 1808 and 1809. 

In 1810 he became a citizen of Boston, where he re- 
sided until his death. 

In 1811 he was one of the representatives from 
Boston in the General Court. He represented the 
Boston district in the Thirteenth and the Fourteenth 
Congress (from March, 1813, to March, 1817), declin- 
ing a re-election at the end of his second term. He 
was a member of the State Senate, from Suffolk County, 
in 1818 and 1819, and of the convention to revise 
the Constitution of Massachusetts in 1820. 

In 1819 he became judge of the Boston Court of 
Common Pleas, and upon the abolition of this tribu- 
nal and the establishment of the Court of Common 





Pleas for the Commonwealth, in 1821, he was ap- 
pointed chief justice of the last-named court. This 
position he retained until 1839, when he resigned. 

At the height of his practice he was invited to ac- 
cept a seat on the bench of the Supreme Judicial 
Court, but declined for domestic re.iaons. 

He was a member of the Board of Overseers of 
Harvard College from 1810 to 1844, and received the 
degree of LL.D. from the college in 1842. 

He married Catharine Maria Dexter, January 14, 
1788. Miss De.tter was the daughter of Hon. Samuel 
Dexter, then a resident of Weston, and sister of Sam- 
uel Dexter, the distinguished lawyer. There were 
seven children of this marriage, of whom the last 
survivor died in 1881. 

During the last few years of his life he was in fee- 
ble health, and seldom left his house. He died Octo- 
ber 7, 1847. 

Such are the facts which have been found as to the 
life of Artemas Ward, gathered mostly. from the rec- 
ords of his time. They tell us little of the real man, 
aa he appeared to those among whom he lived, and 
who took part with him in the action of his day — 
though from the number of responsible offices to 
which he was called, it may be inferred that he 
showed himself faithful in the performance of duty, 
and had the respect and esteem of the community. 

The present writer cannot hope to supply the defi- 
ciencies in this narrative, so as to give a true repre- 
sentation of Vrtemas Ward as he was. There seem to 
be no sources from which the necessary information 
can be procured. He left no writing of his own which 
may be referred to for the purpose, nor has much been 
written of him by others. His generation has passed 
away, and none who can properly be called his con- 
temporaries are left to tell of him. His children, who 
remembeied him with warm love and a feeling which 
was almost reverence, are gone. His descendants now 
living knew him only as one who had already en- 
tered upon the period of old age. But something 
may be added to make the account less imperfect. 

He was a mau of solid and substantial qualities- 
with no taste for ostentation or display. As a lawyer 
he devoted himself to his profession ; as a judge, to 
the duties of his position; in the various elective of- 
fices which he filled, he did the work that was to be 
done. In Congress he spoke sometimes, but not often. 

He was not a politician in the usual sense of the 
word. Yet he held decided political opinions, sym- 
pathising with the old Federal party till its dissolu- 
tion and afterwards with the Whig party. He had 
much anti-slavery feeling, being interested in the 
cause in its earlier days, before it had grown popular 
and its advocates had become a political power. 

It h;i3 been said of him : " If we should select any 
one trait as particularly distinguishing him, by the 
universal consent of those who best and those who 
least knew him, it would be his indexible regard to 
justice. . . . 

"Of his keen and resolute sense of justice others 
may speak besides his professional companions. It 
was seen in other relations than those which he sus- 
tained towards the legal interests of the Common- 
wealth. It was manifested in his political course. 
Conscientiously attached to one of the two great 
parties which then divided the nation, he gave 
a firm support to the measures which he thought 
right, and as strenuously resisted those which he 
deemed wrong. In his more private connections 
he showed the same unswerving purpose of rectitude, 
the same disapprobation of whatever was false or 
mean, the same reverence for the right." ' 

The estimation in which he was held by those 
knowing him and practicing in his court, will appear 
from the proceedings at a meeting of the Suifolk Bar, 
held Oct. 8, 1847, the day after his decease. 

Hon. Richard Fletcher, in offering resolutions at 
the meeting, spoke thus : 

" The decease of the late Chief Justice Ward is an 
event which must be deeply felt by the members of 
this bar, and I presume there can be but one feeling 
and one sentiment as to the propriety of our oflfering 
some public testimonial of our respect for his memory. 
He had reached an advanced age, and his long life 
had been usefully and honorably spent. As a man, in 
.ill the relations of domestic and social life, he sus- 
tained a most exemplary and elevated character. As 
a member of our national Legislature, his duties 
were faithfully and ably performed. As a lawyer he 
acquired and maintained a high rank. But it is in 
his judicial character that he is most known and 
more particularly remembered by the present mem- 
bers of the bar. 

" He came to the bench as Chief Justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas, under its present organ- 
ization in 1821. It will, I presume, be universally 
admitted that he was eminently qualified for the 
duties of that office. He had a matured and estab- 
lished character. He had ample store of legal learn- 
ing and habits of business admirably adapted to the 
great amount of details in the business of his court. 
He had great patience and equanimity of temper — 
qualities of great value in any station of life, but 
essential to a judge. His conduct on the bench was 
marked by uniform courtesy and kindness— crowning 
qualities of any judge of any court, without which 
any judge of any court must lose most of his dignity 
and much of his usefulness." 

Among the resolutions adopted at the meeting were 
the following : 

" Resolved, That this bar would honor hb memory, 
as well for his great worth as a man, as for the distin- 
guished ability, learning, integrity, patience and 
fidelity with which, for a long course of years, he 
discharged the important duties of his judicial sta- 

1 Sermon by Iter. E. 3. Gaunett, preached Oct. IT, 1847. 



"Resolved, That the members of this bar hold in 
grateful remembrance the courtesy and kindness 
which on the bench he uniformlyextended to them in 
the performance of their professional labors." 

Ephraiji Wood was descended from William 
Wood, who settled in Concord in 1638. William 
Wood died May 14, 1671, at the age of eighty-nine 
years, leaving a son, Michael, and a daughter, Ruth, 
the wife of Thomas Wheeler. Michael died May 13, 
1674, having had Abraham, Isaac, Thomson, Jacob, 
John and Abigail, who married Stephen Hosmer. Of 
these, Jacob married Mary Wheeler in 1697, and died 
October 6, 1723, having had Jacob, Mary, Ephraim, 
Dorcas, Hannah and Millicent. Of these, Ephraim 
married Mary Buss, and was the father of Ephraim, 
the subject of this sketch. The last Ephraim was 
born in Concord, August 1, 1733, and died in Concord, 
April S, 1814. He learned the trade of shoemaker, 
but rapidly advanced both in social and political life. 
He was chosen town clerk in 1771, selectman, assessor 
and ovei'seer of the poor, and served in these offices 
many years. He wa.s one of the judges of the Court 
of Common Pleas under the Constitution, and in 
various ways rendered important services to the com- 

J.\ME.s Temple, son of Benjamin Temple, was born 
in Concord, September 20, 1766, and graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1794. He taught the grammar school 
in Concord in 1795 and 1796, and read law with Jon- 
athan Fay, of that town. He settled in the law at 
Cambridge, and died March 10, 1802. 

William Crosby was born in Billerica, June 3, 
1770, and graduated at Harvard in 1794. He read 
law with Samuel Dana, of Groton, and settled in Bel- 
fast, Maine, where he died March 31, 1852. 

Ephraim Buttrick, son of Samuel Buttrick, of 
Concord, was born in that town about 1799 and grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1819. He was admitted to the 
3Iiddlesex bar in 1823 and settled in East Cambridge. 

John Milton Cheney, son of Hezekiah Cheney, 
of Concord, was born about 1801 and graduated at 
Harvard in 1821. He settled as a lawyer in Concord, 
and was appointed cashier of the Concord Bank in 
April, 1832. He did in 1869. 

Horatio Cook Merriam, born in Concord, grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1829, and settled in the law at 

Daniel N'eedham w^as born in Salem, Massachu- 
setts, May 24, 1822. The branch of the Needham 
family to which he belongs has for several generations 
consistently adhered to the doctrine and usages of the 
Society of Friends. 

Edmond Needham, the first .\merican ancestor on 
his father's side, arrived in this country between the 
years 1635 and 1640. The date of his birth, the name 
of his birthplace in England and the date of his 
death are not known. His force of character and 
godliness of life were well known to his contempo- 
raries, and impressed themselves upon his will, which 

I is dated " fourth month, 1677." The opening para- 
graph reads as follows : 

" The will and last testament of Edmond Needham, 
of Lyn, in New England being, blessed be God, in his 
perfect knowledge, memory, and understanding, tho' 
otherwise ill in body mak ye writin by min on hand, 
and according to min on mind, to my children and 
grandchildren as follows:" 

He left two sons, of which Ezekiel was the elder ; 
Edmond Needham (2d) was born in 1079 or 1680, 
and was married March 15, 1702. His family record, 
like those of the majority of the Friends, exhibits the 
principal lines of descent, but is extremely deficient 
in minor particulars, and fails to indicate the time of 
his birth. Daniel Needham, born December 5, 1703, 
was the father of Daniel Needham, who was born 
in 1754. He was a merchant by occupation 
and engaged in trade with Philadelphia. The 
names of his wife and the date of his death are alike 
unknown. His son James, born January 1, 1789, in 
Salem, was a tobacco manufacturer, and largely inter- 
ested in trade in South America. His moral convic- 
tions and humane sympathies were fully enlisted in 
the great anti-slavery agitation. The temperance re- 
form also found in him a wise and strong exponent. 
He married Lydia, daughter of Benjamin Breed, of 
Lynn, who was born .Tanuary 26, 1795, and who be- 
came the mother of his five children. He died in 

Daniei, the subjecr of this sketch, the son of 
James and Lydia Needham, was educated in the cel- 
ebrated Friend's School, at Providence, Rhode Island. 
In 1845 he began the study of law in the office of 
Judge David Roberts, at Salem, and was admitted to 
the bar of Middlesex County in 1847. Prior to his 
qualifications for legal practice, Mr. Needham had 
been deeply interested in the Peterborough and Shir- 
ley Railroad, and, although quite young, had been 
made one of the board of directors. While officiating 
in this capacity his moral principles were subjected to 
the severest strain ; but they resolutely bore the test, 
and thus demonstrated the real excellence of the man. 
It had seemed a matter of necessity that the Board of 
Directors should endorse the paper of the corporation 
to the amount of $42,000. When the obligations ma- 
tured, other directors put their property out of their 
hands. Mr. Needham took a wholly different course. 
.\^8 it was, there was a probability of accumulating the 
funds thus forfeited, but in case of practical repudi- 
ation there was no possibility of expunging the stain 
from his reputation. He therefore gave up his prop- 
erty to the value of $35,000, obtained an extension of 
time for the payment of the remainder of the debt and 
continued to prosecute his business. He secured from 
the New Hampshire Legislature authority to issue 
construction bonds. These he sold in the market on 
such favorable terms that his ultimate loss was less 
thau $2000. The clear gain waa an untarnished name, 
which the highest authority affirms to be of more value 






than " great riches." Thus in his twenty-sixth year 
the communiiy held the key to the future of hia 
career, which, from his known rectitude and decision, 
could not be other than honorable and beneticent. 
Fully prepared as he was for the pursuits of a legal 
practitionei, Mr. Needham prosecuted them to a lim- 
ited extent. 

Interesting himself in agriculture, he successfully 
conducted the management of several farms — one 
at Hartford, Vermont ; one at Dover, Delaware ; 
one at Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin, and others in Mas- 
sachusetts. This continued for several years. In 
1857, iu association with others, he erected a woolen- 
mill at Montello, Wisconsin. He also bought a 
grain-mill situated on the same stream, on his own 
account. In 1865 he purchased the interests of his 
partners in the woolen-mill and became its sole pro- 
prietor. The business of both mills was then carried 
on by him until 1872. Both enterprises had been 
financially profitable. In 1866 Mr. Needham was 
one of three gentlemen who successfully introduced 
the "hand fire extinguisher" into the United States. 
He was the first president of the company organized 
for its manufacture. A French invention originally, it 
was improved in several important respects, and com- 
manded a lucrative sale. 

He was appointed national bank examiner for 
Massachusetts in 1S71, an office which he held from 
1871 to 1886. One hundred and eighty-five national 
banks were in his charge, and all of these, with two 
exceptions, were located in Massachusetts. During 
his terra of office more official defalcations were 
brought to light than in the united terms of all other 
national bank examiners. The first of these was at 
the Lechmere National Bank, in 1873. Then fol- 
lowed in quick succession notably those conected 
with the Merchants' National Back, of Lowell, the 
Hingham National Bank, of Hingham, the First 
National Bank, of New Bedford, and the Pacific Na- 
tional Bank, of Boston ; more than a year before the 
collapse of the last-named institution he called at'.en- 
tion to the reckless manner in which its business 
was done ; but warning and advice were both un- 
heeded. The crash followed, and the bank itself 
came officially into Mr. Needham's hands on the 18th 
of November, 1881. Carefully husbanding ica re- 
sources and adjusting its numerous complications, he 
partially reconstructed its organization, and by direc- 
tion of the Government returned it to the hands of 
the directors ; but owing to many of its assets prov- 
ing worthless, it again passed into the hands of a 

In political life Mr. Needham's experience has 
been wide and various. In 1851 he was appointed 
to an official position on Governor Boutwell's staff, 
with the rank and title of colonel. In 1853 he suc- 
ceeded Caleb Cushing as chairman of the Democratic 
State Committee and discharged hia duties with great 
executive ability until 1854. In 1854 he was the 

Democratic candidate for Congress in the Seventh 
Massachusetts District, but was defeated by his 
Know-Nothing competitor. In 1855 Col. Needham 
purchased a large farm in Vermont and changed his 
residence from Massachusetts to that Slate. In 1857 
he was elected to the Vermont legislature from the 
town of Hartford. In 1858 he was re-elected to the 
same position. Serving on the Committee on Educa- 
tion, he saw the necessity of a Reform School and 
earnestly advocated its foundation. Success was de- 
layed, but was ultimately attained, and largely 
through his efforts. In 1859 and 1860 he represented 
Windsor County in the Vermont State Senate, and was 
a member of the Senate at the special session of 1861. 

From 1857 to 1863 he rendered valuable service to 
Vermont as the secretary of the State Agricultural 
Society. In the last of these years he represented 
Vermont at the World's Exposition of Industry and 
Art in the city of Hamburg. There he secured for 
his State the first prizes for excellence of exhibited 
Merino sheep. European competitors were at first in- 
clined to be indignant at his success, but finally 
acknowledged that it was merited. In America his 
services received due meed of applause and are still 
held in pleasant memory. 

Requested by the United States Government to pre- 
pare a report of the Exposition, he responded to the 
demand, and the result of his mission to Germany is 
given to the country in the Patent Office Report of 

Colonel Needham returned to the United States in 

1864, and re-established himself in his former home 
in Massachusetts. Elected to the lower house of the 
Legislature from Groton in 1867, he served on several 
important committees of that body. In 1868 and 
1869 he was returned to the Massachusetts State Sen- 
ate. As chairman of the committee charged with 
the duty of investigating the affairs of the Hartford 
and Erie Railroad, whose managers wished to obtain 
aid from the State, he made a thorough examination 
of its organization, business and prospects ; was 
chairman of the committee appointed to inquire into 
the advisability of permitting the Boston and Albany 
Railroad Company to issue stock to stockholders. On 
the question of granting authority to towns to sub- 
scribe for stock in aid of certain railroads, he voted 
with the minority. Subsequently, events vindicated 
the wisdom of his action. 

Colonel Needham was elected secretary of the New 
England Agricultural Society, at its organization in 

1865, and has since sustained that position. Singu- 
larly efficient in the exercise of his functions, his real 
zeal and abilities have been among the principal fac- 
tors of its success. This society has held agricultural 
fairs in all the New England States, and that with full 
share of public patronage and with exceptional pecu- 
niary success. At times responsible for the expenses 
incurred, he has skillfully conducted affairs so as to 
escape financial loss. 


As one of the most eolightened and practical citi- 
zens of the grand old Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts, he is necessarily interested in popular education. 
For twenty years he has been chairman of IheGroton 
School Committee. He was also treasurer of the 
town in the years 1853 and 1854. 

From his earliest manhood Colonel Needham has 
been an eloquent speaker and a popular lecturer. 
When lyceums were most in vogue, hisservices were in 
frequent request and his income from effective re- 
sponse quite considerable. He is a trustee of the 
Massachusetts State College, and is president of the 
Board of Trustees of the Lawrence Academy ; he has 
been several years president of the Middlesex North 
Conference, and is connected with many financial and 
eleemosynary boards as associate director or trustee. 

He has delivered numerous addresses on different 
subjects to various organizations, and enjoys the rep- 
utation of a pleasing and instructive speaker. Among 
his most widely circulated addresses, are one on the 
" Evolution of Labor," one on " Strikes, their Cause 
and Remedy," and one on " Germany," before the 
Vermont Agricultural Society. He also delivered 
two orations during the three days' ses.'ion of " New 
England at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, at 
Philadelphia;" one of these was on the " Position of 
New England at the Centennial ;" the other upon the 
"Growth and Development of Art in America" — both 
of which were 'printed in pamphlet form and bad a 
wide distribution. 

The life of Colonel Needham is a model of useful 
industry. Two States have served themselves, while 
honoring him, by elections to both branches of their 
Legislatures. Such a distinction is rare, and is fruit- 
ful of suggestion. Whether farmer, manufacturer, 
legislator, lecturer or bank examiner, he has been 
fully equal to all his relations and opportunities. 
Not less honest and upright in all his dealings than 
fearless in the execution of duty, and versatile in 
point of talent, he is ever " the right man in the right 

Colonel Needham has visited Europe three times — 
twice on business and once for recreation. He has 
traveled extensively in his own country, having been 
in California and throughout the Republic of Mexico. 
Colonel Needham was married on the 15th of July, 
1842, to Caroline A., daughter of Benjamin Hall, of 
Boston. Mr. Hall was the first importer of ready- 
made clothing from Europe, and while engaged in 
that business was involved in serious disagreement 
with the government officials. Daniel Webster acted 
as his counsel at the trial, and brought Mr. Hall vic- 
toriously through it. 

Two sons and two daughters constituted the fruit 
of Colonel Needham's first marriage ; only one of them 
is now living. Mrs. Needham died on the 30th of 
June, 1878. On the 6th of October, 1880, he was mar- 
ried to Ellen M. Brigham, of Groton, by whom he has 
two children — Marion Brigham and Alice Emily. 

Colonel Needham's son, William Chauncy Hall 
Needham, died at Columbus, Ohio, on the 11th day 
of January, 1882 — while a member of the Ohio Sen- 
ate — aged thirty-six years. He was a graduate of the 
Norwich University ; studied medicine in the Medical 
Department of Harvard University, where be took the 
degree of M.D. ; was subsequently city physician of 
Gallipolis, Ohio, and was elected one of Ohio's thirty- 
one Senators at the election of 1881. He was a man 
universally respected and beloved, leaving at his death 
a widow and two children — one son and one daughter. 
Colonel Needham's mother, at the age of ninety- 
five, is still living in the enjoyment of health and all 
her faculties. 

Benjamin Kinsman Phelps was born in Haver- 
hill Sept. 16, 1832, and was the son of Rev. Dudley 
and Ann (Kinsman) Phelps. He removed with his 
father to Groton in 1837, and, fitting for college at 
the Groton Academy, graduated at Yale in 1853. He 
read law with Benjamin M. Farley, of Hollis, N H., 
and removed to New York. From 1866 to 1870 he 
was assistant district attorney of the Southern Dis- 
trict of New Y'ork, and in 1872 and 1875 was chosen 
district attorney for the city and county of New 

Eugene Fuller, born in Cambridge May 14, 
1815, graduated at Harvard in 1834, read law with 
George F. Farley, of Groton, and was drowned at 
sea June 21, 1859. 

John Locke was descended from William Locke, 
who died in Woburn in 1720. He was born in Hop- 
kintoE Feb. 14, 1764, and graduated at Harvard in 
1792. He read law with Timothy Bigelow in Groton, 
and settled in Ashby. At one time he was a member 
of Congress, a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1820, and died in Boston March 29, 1855. 
George Morey was born in Walpole June 12, 
1789, .and graduated at Harvard in 1811. He read 
law with Luther Lawrence at Groton, and in the later 
years of his life was well known in Boston as an 
active and prominent member of the Whig party. 
He was at various times a member of both branches 
of the General Court, and a member of the Executive 
Council. He never, however, sought office for himself, 
but, proud of his State and city, he was always 
anxious to see them well governed, and unselfishly 
exerted all his influence in the selection of the best 
men for places of trust. 

George Sewall Boutwell was born in Brook- 
line, Mass., Jan. 28, 1818, and worked, when a boy, on 
a farm. He was engaged in mercantile pursuits 
many years. He kept a country store in Groton, and, 
on the death of Henry Woods, Jan. 12, 1841, he was 
appointed by President Van Buren postmaster of 
that town, holding the office until April 15, 1841, 
when he was displaced by the new Whig administra- 
tion, and Caleb Butler was appointed. Somewhat 
later he abandoned business for the study of law, and 
from 1842 to 1850 he was a member of the Legisla- 



ture from Groton. In 1851-52 he was Governor of 

Massachusetts, and in the first year of his service re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Laws from Harvard. 
In 1853 he was a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention. Previous, however, to his election as gov- 
ernor heservedas bank commissioner by appointment 
of the State executive. Between the years 1853 and 
1862 he served five years as secretary of the Board of 
Education, and a term of six years as an overseer of 
Harvard College. He was the first commissioner of 
internal revenues, serving from July, 1862, to March, 
1863, and from 1863 to 1869 was a member of Con- 
gress. From March, 1869, to March, 1873, he was 
Secretary of the Treasury, having, before his acces- 
sion to that office, been one of the managers of the 
impeachment trial of President Johnson, in 1868. 
On the resignation of Henry Wilson as United States 
Senator to take the office of Vice-President of the 
United States, to which he was chosen in 1872, Mr. 
Boutwell was chosen to fill his place, and served from 
1873 to 1877. Since 1877 Mr. Boutwell has devoted 
himself to his professional business. His home is 
still at Groton, but he has a law-office in Boston and 
one in Washington, and in the latter place is largely 
occupied with important business, both in committees 
of Congress and before the Supreme Court. 

Henry H. Fuller, the son of Rev. Timothy 
Fuller, of Princeton, and brother of Elisha, William 
W. and Timothy Fuller, already mentioned, was 
born in Princeton in 1790, and graduated at Harvard 
in 1811. He read law in Litchfield. Vermont, with 
Chief Justice Reeve and Judge Gould, and also in 
Boston. He was admitted to the Suffolk bar in 1815, 
where he practiced many years. He died in Concord, 
September 15, 1853. 

John Farwell graduated at Harvard in 1808, and 
read law with Asahel Stearns. He settled in Tyngs- 
boro' and there died November 19, 1852. 

Anson Bl'RLINg.^me was born in New Berlin, 
Chenango County, New York, November 14, 1822. 
He was educated at the Branch University, Michigan, 
and read law at the Harvard Law School. He lived 
in Cambridge for a time, and married a daughter of 
Hon. Isaac Livermore, of that town. He was a Sen- 
ator in 1852; a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion in 1853; a member of the Executive Council in 
1853; and member of Congress from 1856 to 1861. 
He was appointed Minister to .\ustria by President 
Lincoln in 1861, and was Minister to China from 
1861 to 1867, and from 1867 to his death in St. Peters- 
burg, Februarj' 23, 1870, he was in the confidential 
employment of the Chinese Grovernment. 

N.A.THANIEL Prentiss Banks was born of poor 
parents in Waltham, January 30, 1816. AVhen ahoy 
he worked in a factory, and in political sketches of 
his life he has been called the " bobbin boy." He 
was one of those boy.s whom all of us have seen, to 
whom books seemed to be a natural food and the only 
food which assimilated and nourished the system. 

With the appetite for learninr born in him, he could 
no more fail to rise than boys of another class, with 
inborn proclivities which they were unable to resist 
and overcome, were sure to fall. There is as much 
difference between various forma of human nature as 
between the stone and the feather. Both obey the 
laws of nature, and common charity should lead us 
to reflect that oftentimes he who falls makes a greater 
effort to resist the law of gravitation than he who 
rises in yielding to his uplifting law. He attended 
the common schools of his native town, and while a 
young man edited a newspaper there, and afterwards 
in Lowell. After studying law he entered into poli- 
tics and has been almost continuously in public life. 
Under the administration of President Polk he held 
a position in the Boston custom-house, and in 1849 
was a member of the House of Representatives, hold- 
ing his seat in 1850, 1851 and 1852, and during the 
iaat two years the Speaker of that body. For the 
duties of Speaker h6 possessed peculiar qualifications. 
He had a commanding presence, a good voice with a 
clear and sharp enunciation, a promptitude of de- 
cision, aclear braiu— which made him an almost ideal 
presiding officer. The writer has seen in the chair of 
the House every Speaker since 1838, including Robert 
C. Winthrop, George Ashmun, Thomas Kinnicut, 
Daniel P. King, Samuel H. Walley, Ebenezer Brad- 
I bury, Francis B. Crowninshield, Ensign H. Kellogg, 
] Nathaniel P. Banks, George Bliss, Otis P.Lord, Daniel 
I C. Eddy, Charles A. Phelps, Julius Rockwell, John 
' A. Goodwin, Alexander H. Bullock, James M. Stone, 
; Harvey Jewell, John E. Sanford, John D. Long, Levi 
1 C. Wade, Charles J. Noyes, George A. Marden, John 
! Q. A. Brackett and William E. Barrett, and he remem- 
I bers none whose administration on the whole was so 
brilliant as that of Mr. Banks. The terse, crisp and 
; well-pronounced method of putting questions to the 
I House, the thorough knowledge of parliamentary law 
] exhibited in the progress of debate, the dramatic 
I manner with which the whole business of Speaker 
was conducted, made an impression on the writer's 
mind which has never been efEiced. He believed, 
' with every good parliamentarian, that in a large ma- 
jority of questions of order a prompt ruling would be 
universally acceptable without a question of its ab- 
I solute technical correctness. He never hesitated in 
I deciding a point of order on the spot, for he was well 
aware that a ruliug postponed until the following day 
would give others as well as himself an opportunity 
to examine the question and would be less likely to 
be accepted as correct, than a ruling made at the 
moment in the heat and smoke of debate. 
In 1858 Mr. Banks was a member of the convention 
I for the revision of the Constitution, and was chosen 
j its president. He was a member of the Thirty-third, 
' Thirty-fourth and Thirty-fifth Congresses, from 1853 
to 1858 inclusive, and in 1855 and 1856 was the Speaker 
I of the House. The contest which resulted in his 
election was more protracted than any before or since, 



HDd the discretion, coolness and judgment which 
characterized him during its contibuance, gave him 
a national reputation which hia subsequent career in 
the chair only served to enhance. In the autumn of 
]857 he was chosen by the Republican party Governor 
of Massachusetts, and on the 1st of January, 1858, 
resigned his seat in Congress to assume office. As 
Governor he fully met the expectations of the com- 
munity in the performance of his official duties, 
while an address which as GT>vernor he was called 
upon to deliver at the dedication of Agassiz Museum, 
gave him a renown as a scholar, for which the literary 
world had not been prepared. 

After leaving the Gubernatoral chair he was made 
president of the Illinois Central Railroad, and occu- 
pied that position when the War of the Rebellion 
broke out. He at once offered his services to the 
President and received a commission as major-general 
of volunteers, dated May 16, 1861. He was soon after 
appointed to command the Annapolis Military Dis- 
trict, and subsequently that of the Shenandoah. No 
man had at this time a clearer conception of the char- 
acter of the war in which the nation had engaged, 
and of its probable duration. In May, 1861, about 
the time of his appointment to the Annapolis Dis- 
trict, the writer, then on a tour of survey among Mas- 
sachusetts men in the field by order of Governor An- 
drew, met General Banks at Fort McHenry, near Balti- 
more, where General Devens, then a major, was sta- 
tioned in command of a Worcester battalion. General 
Banks rode from the fort to Baltimore with him, and 
expressed bis belief that the call for troops, which 
then had been made, was wholly inadequate for a 
struggle which he confidently expected would last at 
lea^t four years. On the 24th of May, 1862, he was 
attacked in the Shenandoah by Stonewall Jackson 
and compelled to retreat. In the battle of Cedar 
Mountain, August 9, 1862, he commanded a corps 
under General Pope, and in December of that year 
succeeded General Butler as commander of the De- 
partment of Louisiana. He took Opelousas in April, 
1863 ; Alexandria in May ; and Port Hudson on the 
8th of Jnly. In March, 1864, he commanded an ex- 
pedition to the Red River, the results of which were 
not fortunate. In May, 1864, he was relieved from 
command. Like other civilian generals in the war, 
it is probable that he failed to receive from officers of 
a military education that cordial co-operation and sup- 
port which are essential to success in operations in 
the field. He came out of the war with a reputation 
for honesty, fidelity, patriotism and courage, and for 
ability as a soldier fully up to the standard which it 
might have been expected that a man without mili- 
tary experience would reach. 

In 1865 General Banks was chosen member of 
Congress again to the Thirty- ninth Congress, for the 
unexpired term of D. W. Gavit, and was re-elected 
to the Fortieth, Forty-first, Forty-second, Forty-fourth 
and Forty-fifth, and, March 11, 1879, was 

appointed United States marshal, serving until April 
23, 1888. In the autumn of 1888 he was chosen again 
to Congress — to the Fifty-first Congress — and is now 
serving in that capacity. 

Joseph Willard, son of Rev. Joseph Willard, 
president of Harvard College from 1781 to his death, 
in 1804, was born in Cambridge March 14, 1798, and 
graduated at Harvard in 1816. He settled in the law 
in Cambridge, but removed to Boston in 1829. From 
1839 until 1855 he was clerk of the Common Pleas 
Court for Suffolk, and in that year he was appointed 
clerk of the Superior Court for the county of Suffolk. 
When that court was abolished, in 1859, he was 
chosen clerk of the Superior Court of the Common- 
wealih for the county of Suffolk, and so continued 
until his death. May 12, 1865. From 1829 to 1SG4 he 
was the corresponding secretary of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, and in 1826 published a hittory of 
the town of Lancaster, and in 1858 the life of Siraon 
Willard. His son, Morgan Sidney Willard, was 
killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 

George F. Farley. — It is always a difficult, if 
not imposbible, task to portray the qualities and char- 
acteristics of an eminent man in a memoir or in his- 
tory so that he will be seen, known and judged by 
posterity as by his contemporaries. In this regard 
the painter has the decided advantage over the biog- 
rapher and the historian, for the painter, when poring 
over the face of a man, divinely, through all hin- 
drance, finds the man behind it, and so paints him 
that his fate, the shape and color of a life and soul, 
lives for his children, ever at its best and fullest. 

In attempting to write a just, accurate and full 
biographical sketch of the late George Frederick 
Farley, the writer is convinced of the impossibility of 
performing this task with any measure of satisfaction 
to himself or of justice to its distinguished subject. 

He was the son of Benjamin and Lucy (Fletcher) 
Farley, and was born in Dunstable, in the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, April 5, 1793, and graduated 
at Harvard College in 1816. He read law in the office 
of hia brother, Hon. B. M. Farley, of Hollis, in the State 
of New Hampshire, and Hon. Luther Lawrence, of 
Groton, in said Commonwealth. He was admitted to 
the bar and commenced the practice of his profession 
at New Ipswich in 1821. In the year 1831 he was a 
member of the New Hampshire General Court from 
New Ipswich, and ic the same year removed to Gro- 
ton, in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, where 
he practiced his profession until his death, November 
8, 1855. 

He inherited a strong constitution, and always en- 
joyed vigorous health. He possessed a gigantic in- 
tellect, but it was associated with the finest emotions 
and the most genial feelings. He was " rich in sav- 
ing common sense and in his simplicity absolute." 

He had no disposition to enter into political life 
nor any ambition for its laurels. 

He gave his sole and undivided attention to the 



practice of his profession, which he dearly loved, and 
which was the fit arena for the exercise aud display 
of his marvelous powers. He met without fear the 
greatest lawyers of his day in New Hampshire and 
in Massachusetts — Webster, Mason, Dexter and others 
— and always held his own. This fact is a conclusive 
test and proof of his extraordinary ability as a law- 
yer and advocate. 

la a conversation with Mr. Webster in the last year 
of his life, he used the following language in speak- 
ing of Mr. Farley : " I know him well — we have 
measured lances together. He is a very great law- 
yer." lu his brief practice in New Hampshire he 
attained very high distinction, and was retained in its 
most important causes, and encountered its most emi- 
nent lawyers. 

Upon his removal to Massachusetts he quickly dis- 
covered, by his retainer in causes of magnitude in 
Middlesex, Worcester, Essex and Suffolk Counties, 
that his fame as a lawyer and advocate had preceded 

Among these cases was one when the late eminent 
lawyer, Samuel Mann, was his junior counsel — the fa- 
mous " Convent case," as it was called — whfre a large 
number of men were indicted for the alleged burning 
of the convent. It was one of the most celebrated 
cases in the history of trials in Massachusetts. 

Mr. Farley defended all of the defendants, and with 
such consummate skill and ability that all of his 
clients were acquitted. 

In this case the Lady Superior took the stand as a 
witnesi for the Government, attired in a thick veil, 
which completely concealed her face. Mr. Farley 
requested her to raise her veil. The Lady Superior 
refused. Mr. Farley addressed the Court, demand- 
ing that the wit:ies< should lift her veil, because, he 
claimed, that his clienti had the constitutional right 
to look upon the witnesses against them face to face. 
The Court so ordered, and the veil was raised, much 
to the indignation and discomfiture of the Lady Su- 
perior, who found that the law of the convent was 
not the law of the courts. 

Among the notable criminal cases in which Mr. 
Farley was engaged, was a capital case, tried at 
Keene, New Hampshire, after he had established his 
residence in Groton. His client was indicted for the 
murder of his wife by poison. Prof. Webster, who 
analyzed the contents of the stomach of the wife, 
testified as a witness for the government. 

Mr. Farley in his keen, adroit and searching cross- 
examination of Prof. Webster, elicited the most im- 
portant fact for the defence, that he employed poisons 
as tests in his analysis, and put him into a furious 
rage by the suggestion of the probability that the 
poisons contained in his tests satisfactorily explained 
and accounted for the presence of poisons, which he 
testified he had found in the stomach. The cross- 
examination of Prof. Webster in this tr'al was merci- 
less, astute and triumphant, as the great lawyer ex- 

posed, with his imperturbable coolness and self-posses- 
sion and perfect confidence in his position, the intrin- 
sic weakness of his testimony as well as his ungov- 
ernable temper, and will be long remembered as one 
of the mastcrpieceaof cross-examination in the courts 
of that State. The verdict of the jury in this case 
was for the prisoner, and wholly due to the transcen- 
dent skill and ability with which Mr. Farley conduct- 
ed the defence. 

Hon. John Appleton, ex-chief justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the State of Maine, who was the first 
law student in the office of Mr. Farley in New Ips- 
wich and who always enjoyed his friendship during his 
life, .says of Mr. Farley : " He was an intellectual giant. 
He was one of the foremost men at the bar of New 
England. It was in the logic of his argument that 
he was strong. Grant his premises, and the conclusion 
followed necessarily and irresistibly. He made prece- 
dents rather than followed them. His logical powers 
were superior to those of any man I ever met. As a 
student in his office I was on quite intimate terms 
with him. I think if I have acquired any reputation, 
it is due in no slight degree to the advice and instruc- 
tion I received from him." 

The Hon. Amasa Norcross, of Fitchburg, Massa- 
chusptts, says of Mr. Farley: " In the early years of 
my practice it was my privilege to be engaged in sev- 
eral cases where Mr. Farley was senior counsel. I 
then had an opportunity to observe the remarkable 
intellectual powers he possessed. I thoughtthen and 
now believe that he was not then nor has he been ex- 
celled by any member of our profession in the State 
in that he was able to present a cause to a jury upon 
its facts in a manner wholly unimpassioned — I may 
say in a conversational way ; but with a precision of 
statement and with such an admirable selection of 
words as to carry to every mind the exact meaning he 
intended and to lead to the inevitable conclusion he 
was to reach. The simple, unadorned speech, yet 
most adorned with a forceful utterance and the sever- 
est logic, uttering no useless word, all supported the 
theory — the best possible for his client that could be 
constructed from the facts. His grasping of facts in 
support of his theory, with his ingenious arrangement 
of them, was simply marvelous. No case was tried by 
him without a theory and an application of evidence 
in a way that was best calculated to sustain it. As a 
man he secured the full confidence of whatever tribur 
nal he addressed. The Worcester County jurors were 
wont to say of him that he was the fairest man in 
argument they ever heard. The simple, direct and 
graceful speech employed by him controlled their 
minds, as it tended certainly to the support of that 
view of the case he had determined in hia mind as 
being best for his client. The statement of certain 
general principles involved in the case and a general 
statement of his theory, if accepted by the jury, de- 
termined the result, for the masterly argument that 
followed held thejury to the end. His treatment of 



the evidence in a given caae was oft-times philosophi- 
cal, and his felicicious use of language secured the 
fullest attention of the tribunal he was addressing 
and the breathless attention of all within sound of 
his voice. His style of argument was said to be not 
unlike that of the distinguished lawyer, Jeremiah Ma- 
son, who was practicing in the courts of New Hamp- 
shire when Mr. Farley entered the profession. Sever- 
al important causes pending in the courts of that 
State were tried by Mr. Farley in the later years of 
his profession. He was then regarded, as I happen 
to know, by the best lawyers of that State as a man 
possessing a remarkable intellect, and the peer of 
Mr. MaaoD, who also removed to Massachusetts from 
that State." 

Hon. Peleg W. Chandler, of Boston, in speaking of 
Mr. Farley, used this language : " Farley was a very 
great lawyer. I never knew his superior as a logician ; 
nor his equal, except in Jeremiah Mason.," 

Hon. Josiah G. Abbott, of Boston, writes of Mr. 
Farley: "I knew Mr. Farley from the time I was a 
8tudent-at-law, and he was in the full maturity of his 
power as long as he lived. The last ten or twelve 
years of his life I knew him very intimately. 

" He was among the ablest and strongest men lever 
knew. He was not merely a lawyer and nothing 
else. Not only was he a good classical scholar, espec- 
ially keeping bright his knowledge of Latin writers, 
but he was a most discriminating admirer of the best, 
English literature. This, I suppose, was not gener- 
ally kno.wn, for I think he always was somewhat in- 
clined to put on an appearance of brusquene^s and 
carele.tsness in reference to matters usually reckoned 
as accomplishments. 

" He had studied the law thoroughly and made him- 
self master of all its great principles and rules. 

" But through his whole life he passed no considera- 
ble time in looking up cases and authorities. 

" He looked upon the law as establishing great prin- 
ciples and rules, to regulate and govern the conduct 
of life, and whenever legal questions were submitted 
to him he settled them by a thorough and careful 
consideration of the principles upon which they de- 
pended, as he believed, and then looked for the author- 
ities to confirm/his judgment. Early in my acquaint- 
ance with him, he told me that a lawyer who de- 
pended mainly on the study and citation of cases was 
never ' worth his salt.' The true course, he con- 
tinned, for one who wishes to make himself a real 
lawyer, was to firmly and thoroughly ground himself 
on the great principles upon which the law was 
founded, and which pervaded and governed it in its 
application to human affairs, and to make them ab- 
solutely his own. His arguments and conduct of 
cases were always governed by such considerations. 
He discussed principles, making comparatively but 
slight use of cases, thus making authorities instead of 
being governed by them. 

*' To bring him up to the full measure of hia powers, 

it required a cause of importance or one having some 
features which thoroughly interested him. 

" I do not think in ordinary cases he by any means 
did justice to himself. They were not large enough 
to interest him. But when he was thoroughly inter- 
ested and aroused, either by the case itself or by the 
strength of the opposing counsel, no man could excel 
and but few — very few — equal him. I never knew any 
man who was a more perfect master of logic than 
Mr. Farley. At his best, it was difficult to find any 
weakness in his chain of reasoning. Grant his prem- 
ises, and his conclusions were impregnable. But logic 
was by no means all that gave him at times his won- 
derful power. Logic alone was never very successful 
with juries of masses of men. There must be some- 
thing to give warmth and heat to logic to make it 
living, not dead — to so adapt it and so mould and 
warm those to whom it is addressed, that it shall con- 
trol their thoughts and reason. When aroused no 
man had a greater power of impressing himself upon 
those he addressed, making thera take his thoughts 
and his reasoning as their own. Upon whatever that 
power depends, whether it is sympathetic or magnetic, 
to use a cant phrase, or comes from sheer power of 
will and force of mind, as I rather think it does, Mr. 
Farley certainly possessed it to a most remarkable 
degree. But I do not think he ordinarily manifested 
it to any great extent. I think I have heard four or 
five arguments by him, which I never did and never 
expect to hear excelled, hardly equaled. 

"In the ordinary run of cases there were men by no 
means his equals in power, who would appear as well 
as he. I always thought and I think now that Mr. 
Farley never realized the extent of his powers. 
Whatever the occasion required, he was always equal 
to and answered the demand. But I do not believe 
that supreme time ever came to him which called for 
the full measure of the great powers with which he 
was gifted. 

" As I have said, he enjoyed the classics and the best 
English literature. 

" Besides, he was interested in all new discoveries and 
new phases of thought. He kept well abreast with 
all advances made in his time, and no man could dis- 
cuss questions outside of his profession better than he, 
when he met one capable of maintaining his part in 
the discussion. With a somewhat brusque and rough 
manner he had great warmth of feeling, and when he 
was a friend, was one always to be relied upon. 

" Upon the whole, Mr. Farley impressed me as being 
one of the strongest and most remarkable men I have 
ever met with. But his case shows how very little 
there is in the life of the greatest lawyer that survives 
him long. Mr. Farley conducted trials and made ar- 
guments that showed he possessed more logic, more 
reasoning power, more mind, than is shown in many 
of the books that live for centuries or than was ever 
shown by many of the statesmen whose names have 
gone into history ; yet notwithstanding this, his repu- 



tation 13 now not much more than a tradition, only 
personally known to and cherished by a few, who 
linger upon the stage. It is only another instance, 
added to the long list, that the life of the lawyer, 
however great may be his powers, is written on noth- 
ing more enduring than sand or water." 

Although Mr. Farley tried causes all over the Com- 
monwealth and in New Hampshire, it was with the 
courts of Old Middlesex, where he won so many 
forensic victories, that his fame as a jurist must be 
most intimately associated as long as the gradually 
but surely failing memory of tradition shall hold it aa 
its own. 

There he was easily and always the leader of its bar, 
which was distinguished by many strong and eminent 
lawyers. In one notable cause tried there against the 
Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad, in which the late 
Judge B. R. Curtis was retained and acted as counsel 
for the company and Mr. Farley for the plaintiff, he 
most conspicuously exhibited his ready sagacity and 
tact. Some very handsome plans had been intro- 
duced as evidence in the case by Judge Curtis. Mr. 
Farley, in his argument to the jury, discarded these 
beautiful pictures and borrowing from one of the jury 
a piece of chalk, which every Middlesex farmer car- 
ried in his pocket, he proceeded to chalk out a dia- 
gram of the place of the accident upon the floor in 
full view of the jury, and so ingeniously employed it 
in his argument that, to use the expression of the late 
Rev. Thomas Whittemore, the president of the rail- 
way company : " Mr. Farley chalked us out of the 
case." Mr. Whittemore was so much impressed with 
the powers of Mr. Farley as manifested in that case, 
that he at once gave him a general retainer as counsel 
for his road. 

Mr. Farley always had a peculiar habit of stating 
his cases to persons whom he met while the trial was 
going on, and whom he knew as possessing sound 
common sense, evidently with a view of seeing how 
the case struck them and of eliciting from them some 
thought or suggestion which he might use when he 
came to address the twelve men of sound '" common 
sense " who were hearing and to pass upon the 

It was his custom, when consulted by clients in his 
oflBce, to hear their statements patiently, and, after care- 
fullyquestioning them as to all the facts, to give them 
his opinion without consulting the reports or the 
books. After his client had left he would say to the 
students in the office, who had been attentive listeners 
to the interview: " Perhaps you had better look into 
the reports and see if the Supreme Court and I 

It was his distinguishing habit to so exhaustively 
examine and consider his opponent's case that when 
he came to state their side of the case he surprised 
them by disclosing much stronger points than they 
had discovered, but only to their embarrassment and 
defeat by his convincing and triumphant replies 

thereto. Judge Appleton, in his letter concerning 
Mr. Farley, from which quotations have been made, 
further says, in speaking of his home, where he was 
always a welcome guest : 

" His wife was one of the saints that occasionally 
appear to bless her family and friends. Few men ever 
had a happier home than it was his forrune to enjoy. 
In his family he was genial and hospitable — delight- 
ful in conversation, a good talker — which in those days 
was estimated a high compliment. An amusing and 
true anecdote is told of Mr. Farley as a conversation- 
ist. Owing to some failure of the train from Boston 
to connect with the train at Groton Junction, as it 
was then called, but now Ayer, for Groton Centre, 
where Mr. Farley resided, he concluded, as it was a 
pleasant day, to walk from the Jtinction to his home, 
a distance of about four miles. He had for his com- 
panion in the walk the late Rev. Mr. Richards, 
formerly pastor of the Central Church, a highly 
cultivated and able man, whose acquaintance he made 
by chance at the Junction. Mr. Farley, in speaking 
of the walk and of Mr. Richards afterwards to the Rev. 
Mr. Bulkley, of Groton, Mr. Farley's own minister, 
and whose pulpit Mr. Richards came to fill on ex- 
change with Mr. Bulkley said : ' That Mr. Richards 
is a most delightful man. I met him accidentally at 
the Junction and made his acquaintance and we 
walked up to Groton.' Mr. Bulkley enjoyed this 
praise of his friend Richards very much, as he re- 
called what Mr. Richards said of Mr. Farley. He 
had told Mr. Bulkley, ' that he met Mr. Farley and 
had a highly enjoyable walk with him from the 
Junction. That he was astonished and charmed 
with Mr. Farley's wonderful conversational powers, 
for he talked all the way from the Junction to the 
Centre, while he was a delighted listener.' This is 
but another illustration of the well-known fact that a 
good talker likes a good listener." 

Mr. Farley's great and sure reliance was upon him- 
self. He was conscious of his strength, but, as is 
usual with truly great intellects, made a modest display 
of it. 

In the confideration of questions of law he made 
his own paths in the practice of his profession and 
did not seek or walk in the ways furnished by other 
minds in the publinhed reports. He possessed an 
original creative legal mind. Firmly planted in the 
principles of the common law, he applied those prin- 
ciple." to the various cases as they arose. 

In his gigantic mental laboratory all his results 
were worked out. 

Mr. Farley, at his decease, left as surviving memT 
bers of his family — his son, George Frederick Farley, 
for many years a merchant of Boston, but now de- 
ceased, and his daughter, Sarah E. Farley, and Mary 
F. Keely, wife of Edward A. Keely, a member of the 
Suffolk bar. 

In closing this necessarily very inadequate sketch of 
Mr. Farley, it is but simple justice to his memory to 



say, upon the testimony furnished therein by the able 
contemporary jurists who knew him so well, in weigh- 
ing bis character, attainments, fame and success as a 
jurist and advocate, that he had but few equals at the 
bar of New England. 

Geokge Frisbie Hoar, the youngest child of Sam- 
uel and Sarah Sherman Hoar, was born in Concord 
August 29, 1826. He studied at the Concord Acud- 
emy and graduated at Harvard in 1846. After study- 
ing law at the Dane Law School in Cambridge he 
settled in Worcester, where he was chosen representa- 
tive to the State Legislature in 1852, a member of the 
Senate in 1857 and city solicitor in 1860. He was 
chosen a member of the Forty-first, Forty-second, 
Forty-third and Forty-fourth Congresses, which cov- 
ered the period frdm 1869 to 1875, and declined a 
nomioatioQ for ihe Forty-fifih Congress. He has 
been in the Senate of the United States since 1877, 
and his third terra, which he is now serving, will ex- 
pire March 4, 1895. During his service in the lower 
house of Congress be was one of the managers on the 
part of the House of Representatives of the Belknap 
impeachment trial in 1876, and in the same year one 
of the Electoral Commission. He was an overseer of 
Harvard College from 1874 to 1880, presided over 
the Massachusetts State Republican Conventions of 
1871, 1877, 1882 and 1885 ; was a delegate to the Re- 
publican National Conventions of 1876 at Cincinnati 
and of 1880, 1884 and 1888 at Chicago, presiding over 
the convention of 1880 ; was regent of the Smithson- 
ian Institute in 1880; has been president and i? now 
vice-president of the American Antiquarian Society, 
trustee of the Peabody Museum of Archieology, trus- 
tee of Leicester Academy ; is a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, of the American Histor- 
ical Society and the Historic Genealogical Society and 
has received the degree of Doctor of Laws from Wil- 
liam and Mary, Amherst, Yale and Harvard Colleges, 
and is a member of other organizations too numerous 
to mention. 

Edmitnd Trowbeidge Dana was the son of Rich- 
ard H. Dana, the lawyer and poet, and brother of 
Richard H. Dana, Jr., the author of " Two Years Be- 
fore the Mast" He was born in Cambridge, August 
29, 1818, and graduated at Vermont University in 
1839. He read law in the Dane Law School at Cam- 
bridge and practiced a few years with his brother, 
when he went to Heidelberg to pursue his studies. 
He translated and edited works on international and 
public law and political economy after his return 
home and also resumed practice with his brother. 
He died at Cambridge May 18, 1869. The writer 
knew him well, and believes that no man in the Com- 
monwealth held out a brighter promise of prominence 
in the literature of law when his career was abruptly 
ended by death. He was a man of infinite humor, and 
his quaint illustrations of passing events are now in 
the writer's mind as he recalls his friend to memory. 

John William Pitt Abbott, son of John Ab- 

bott, already mentioned, was born in Hampton, Con- 
necticut, April 27, 1806, and graduated at Harvard in 
1827. He read law at Westford with his father and 
at the Dane Law School, was admitted to the bar in 
June, 1830, and settled at Westford, where he suc- 
ceeded his father as treasurer of the Westford Acad- 
emy, and practiced in his profession until his death in 
1872. He was a representative to the General Court 
in 1862, a senator in 1866 and for many years select- 
man and town clerk of Westford. 

John Bigelow was born in Maiden November 25, 
1817, and graduated at Union College in 1835. After 
bis admission to the bar he practiced io New York 
City about ten years, mingling literary with profes- 
sional work. In 1840 he was the literary editor of 
The Plebeian, and about that time an able contrib- 
utor to the Democratic Review. In 1848 he was made 
an inspector of Sing Sing Prison, and in 1850 became 
a partner of William Cullen Bryant, of the New York 
Evening Post. In 1856 he published a life of John 
C. Fremont, in 1861 was appointed consul at Paris, 
and from 1864 to 1866 resided in that city as Minister 
of the United States, succeeding William L. Dayton. 
He is now living in New York. 

Joseph Green Cole, son of Abraham Cole, of 
Lincoln, waj born about 1801 and graduated at Har- 
vard in 1822, and read law with Governor Lincoln, of 
Maine, in which State he settled in his profession and 
died in 1851. 

Albert Hobart Nelson, son of Dr. John Nelson, 
of Carlisle, was born in that town March 12, 1812, 
and graduated at Harvard in 1832, afterwards reading 
law in the Cambridge I<aw School. He was appointed 
chief justice of tbe Superior Ciiurt for the County of 
Suffolk on the establishment of that court in 1855, 
and remained on the bench until his resignation in 
the year of his death. He died in 1858. 

ALPHE0S B. Alger, son of Edv/in A. and Amanda 
(Buswell) Alger, was born in Lowell, October 8, 1854. 
He attended the public schools of his native town 
and graduated at Harvard in 1875. He read law in 
the office of Hon. Josiah G. Abbott, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1877, since which time he has 
been connected with the law- firm of Brown & Alger, 
of which his father is a member. In Cambridge, 
where he resides, he has been chairman and secretary 
of the Democratic City Committee, and in 1884 he 
was a member of the Board of Aldermen. In 1886 
and 1887 he was a member of the State Senate, and 
for several years preceding the present year he was 
the secretary of the Democratic State Central Com- 

John Henry Hardy, son of John and Hannah 
(Farley) Hardy, was born in HoUis, New Hampshire, 
February 2, 1847. He received his early education 
from the public schools of Hollis and the academies 
of Mt. Vernon and New Ipswich, and graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1870. After reading law at the Dane 
Law School and in the office of Hon. Robert M. 



Morse, Jr., he was admitted to the Suffolk bar in 
1S72, and began practice in a partnerehip with Geo. 
W. Jlorse, which continued two years. He then as- 
sociated himself with Samuel J. Elder and Thomas 
W. Proctor, wiih whom he continued until he was ap- 
pointed, in 1885, associate justice of the Boston Muni- 
cipal Court. At the age of fifteen Judge Hardy was 
a member of the Fifteenth Regiment of Massachu- 
setts Volunteers at the siege of Port Hudson, and, 
though young in years, exhibited a resolution and 
will worthy of veterans in the service. In 1883 he 
represented the town of Arlington in the House of 
Representatives. He married, in Littleton, August 
30, 1871, Anna J. Conaut, a descendant of Roger Co- 
uant, and daughter of Levi Conant. 

George Axson Bruce, son of Nathaniel and Lucy 
(Butterfield) Bruce, was born in Mt. Vernon, New 
Hampshire, Novj-mber 19, 1839. He was fitted for 
college at the Appleton Academy, in Mt. Vernon, 
and graduated at Dartmouth in 1861. In 1862 he 
was commissioned Fiist Lieutenant of the Thirteenth 
New Hampshire Regiment, and served as aide, judge 
advocate, inspector and assistant adjutant-general un- 
til he was mustered out, July 3, 1865. During his 
service he received three brevet promotions. He 
studied Law in Lowell, and was admitted to the Mid- 
dlesex bar in that city, in October, 1S66. During 
that year he was a member of the New Hampshire 
Legislature from his native town. He began practice 
in Boston in 1867, where he lived until 1874, when 
he removed to ^omerville, of which city he was may- 
or in 1877, J880 and 1S81. He was a member of the 
Massachusetts Senate in 1882, 1883 and 188i, and, in 
1884, its president. He married in Groton, in 1870, 
Clara M., daughter of Joseph F. and Sarah (Long- 
ley) Hall. 

Nathaniel Holmes, son of Samuel and Mary 
(Annan) Holmes, was born in Peterboro', New Hamp- 
shire, July 2, 1814. He received his early education 
at the public schools of Peterboro', and at the Chester 
and New Ipswich and Phillips Academies, and gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1837. While in college he taught 
school in Milford, New Hampshire, in Billerica and 
Leominster, aud in Weldj Academy, at Jamaica 
Plains, near Boston. After graduating he was for a 
time a private tutor in the family of Hon. John N. 
Steele, near Vienna, Maryland, and there began the 
study of law. His law studies were completed at the 
Dane Law School and in the office of Henry H. Ful- 
ler, and he was admitted to the Suffolk bar in Sep- 
tember, 1839. He settled in St. Louis, entering into 
partnership with Thomas B. Hudson, with whom he 
remained until 1846, when he became associated with 
his brother, Samuel A. Holmes, with whom he contin- 
ued until 1853. In 1846 he was circuit attorney for 
the county of St. Louis, and at later dates a director 
of the St. Louis Law Association, counselor of the St. | 
Louis Public School Board and of the North Missouri : 
Railroad Company. Ic 1865 he was made a judge of 

the Missouri Supreme Court, and resigned in 1868 to 
accept the appointment of Royall Professor of Law at 
the Dane Law School in Cambridge. In 1872 be re- 
signed his professorship and returned to St. Louis, 
but in 1883 retired from active practice and took up 
his residence again in Cambridge. 

John Quixcy Adams Brackett was born in 
Bradford, New Hampshire, June 8, 1842, and is the 
son of Ambrose S. and Nancy (Brown) Brackett, of 
that town. He received his early education in the 
public schools of his native town and at Colby Acad- 
emy, in New London, in the above-mentioned State, 
aud graduated at Harvard in 1865, in the class with 
Charles Warren Clifford, Benjamin Mills Pierce and 
William Rotch. He received the degree of Bachelor 
of Laws from Harvard in 1868, and in the same year 
was admitted to the Suffolk bar, at which he has con- 
tinued to practice until the present time. In the 
earlier day* of his practice he was associated in busi- 
ntss with Levi C. Wade two or three years, but since 
1880 has pursued his profession in company with 
Walter H. Roberts, under the name of Brackett & 

Almost continuously since his admission to the bar 
Mr. Brackett has been associated actively with poli- 
tics, and few names have been more widely known 
than his on the political platforms of the State. He 
has surrendered himself to the fortunes of the Repub- 
lican party, and little else than its dissolution would 
be likely to weaken his party loyalty. He was a 
member of the Common Council of Boston in 1873, 
'74, '75 and '76, and during the last year of his service 
was president of that body. He was a member of 
the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 
Boston in 1877, '78, '79, '80 and '81, and distinguished 
his legislative career by his advocacy and champion- 
ship of the establishment of co-operative banks, in the 
welfare of which he has maintained a deep interest. 
In 1889 he had become a resident in Arlington and 
again became a member of the House of Representa- 
tives, holding his seat three years, during the last two 
of which he was Speaker. In 1887, '88 and '89 he 
was Lieutenant-Governor, during a considerable por- 
tion of the last year acting as Governor in conse- 
quence of the continued illness of Governor Oliver 
Ames. In September, 1888, also, during an earlier 
illness of the Governor, he was called into service as 
his substitute, and in that capacity represented the 
State at the celebration in Columbus of the annivers- 
ary of the settlement of Ohio, in a manner reflecting 
honor on the Commonwealth. At the celebration at 
Plymouth on the 1st of August, 1889, he again repre- 
sented the Governor, and his speech on that occasion 
stamped him as a master of the art which in his offi- 
cial capacity he has been so often required to test. In 
September, 1889, after a somewhat earnest contest, he 
was placed in nomination for Governor by the Re- 
publican party and chosen in November following to 
serve for the year 1890. 



Few young men in Massachusetts have had a more 
successful career in llie political arena. During the 
twenty-two years which have elapsed since his admis- 
sion to the bar, sixteen, with the present year, have 
been spent in public oflBce, and his continued ad- 
vancement seems only to depend on the maintenance 
of power by the party he has served so lonp. 

Governor Brackett married, June 20, 1878, Angie 
M., daughter of Abel G. and Eliza A. Peck, of Ar- 
lington, and makes that town his home. 

MoNTRESSOR Tyler Allen, son of George W. i 
and Mary L. Alien, was born in Woburn, May 20, ' 
1844. He read law at the Boston Universitv Law ' 
School, and was admitted to the bar in 1879. He 
married, in 1865, Julia Frances Pe.asley, and while 
practicing his profession in Boston makes Woborn 
his residence. 

Joseph O. Burdett was born in Wakefield, Octo- 
ber 30, 1848. He graduated at Tuft's College in 
1867, and read law in the office of John Wilkes Ham- 
mond, in Cambridge, and was admitted to the Mid- 
dlesex bar in April, 1873. In 1874 he removed to 
HIngham, whi^re he married Ella, daughter of John 
K. Corthell. He has represented his adopted town 
in the Legislature, and during the last three years has 
been chairman of the Republican State Central Com- 
mittee. He has a law-oflBce in Boston, but still re- 
sides in Hingham. 

William Asros Bancroft was born in Groton. 
April 26, 1855, and was the son of Charles and Lydia 
Emeilne (Spaulding) Bancroft, of that town. He 
fitted for college at Phillips Academy, and graduated 
at Harvard in 1878. He read law at the Dane Law 
School and in the office of Wm B. Stevens, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1881. In 1885 he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Cambridge Street Rail- 
road, and in 1888 was appointed by the West End 
Street Railway Company its road-master, from which 
he has retired to resume his profession. Having 
given his attention soon after leaving college to mili- 
tary matters, he was made a captain in 1879 of Com- 
pany B, of the Fifth Massachusetts Regiment, which 
he had joined as a private during his freshman year 
in college, and in 1882 was chosen colonel of that 
Regiment, a position which he still holds. He has 
been a member of theCommon Council of Cambridge, 
the place of his residence, and has represented that 
city three years in the Legislature. He married, Jan- 
uary 18, 1879, Mary, daughter of Joseph Shaw, of 

John James Gilchrist was born in Medford 
Feb. 16, 1809. His father, James Gilchrist, a ship- 
master, removed while he was quite young to Charles- 
town, N. H., and carried on the occupation of farm- 
ing. John, the son, fitted for college with Rev. Dr. 
Crosby, and graduated at Harvard in 1828, in the 
class with Dr. Henry Ingersoll Bowditch, George 
Stillman Hillard and Robert Charles Winthrop. He 
read law in Charlestown, N. H., with William Briggs, 

and at the Dane Law School. After admission to the 
bar he became associated in business with Governor 
Hubbard, whose daughter, Sarah, he married in 1836. 
In 1840 he was appointed an associate justice of the 
Supreme Court, and in 1848, on the 're>ignation of 
Judge Parker, was made chief justice. On the estab- 
lishment of the Court of Claims at Washington he 
was placed at its head by President Pierce, and died 
at Washington April 29, 1858. He published a digest 
of Xew Hampshire reports in 1846, and it has been 
said of him that " in depth and extent of legal lore 
many of his judicial contemporaries may have 
equaled him, but only a few have excelled him." 

James G. Swax, the third son of Samuel and 
Margaret (Tufts) Swan, of Medford, was born in that 
town January 11, 1818. He went to California in its 
early golden days, and thence to Washington Terri- 
tory, where, in 1871, he was made probate judge. He 
was afterwards appointed inspector of customs in the 
district of Puget Sound, and stationed at Neah Bay 
three years, and, later, at Fort Townsend. Subse- 
quently he was appointed United States Commis- 
sioner of the Third Judicial District of Washington 
Territory, and in 1875 went to Alaska as United States 
commissioner, to procure articles of Indian manufac- 
ture for the Centennial Exposition. In 1857 he pub- 
lished a book entitled "The Northwest Coast; or. 
Three Years in Washington Territory," and in 1880 
gave to the town of Medford a collection of Indian 
curios for the public library of the town. 

Thomas S. Harlow was born in Castine, Me., 
Nov. 15, 1812. In 1824 his family removed to Ban- 
gor, and in 1831 he came to Boston. He taught the 
grammar school in Jledford, and graduated at Bow- 
doin in 1836. He read law with Governor Edward 
Kent, in Bangor, and for a short time edited a news- 
paper in Dover, Me. He was admitted to the bar in 
1839, and spent three years in Paducah, Ky. In 1842 
he returned to Massachusetts, and opened an office in 
Boston. In November, 1843, he married Lucy J. 
Hall, of Medford, and took up his residence in that 
town. He has always, during his residence there, 
been interested in town affairs, and won the respect 
and confidence of his fellow-citizens. He has been a 
member of the School Committee and of the Board of 
Trustees of the Public Library, and is at the present 
time a special justice of tht First Eastern Middlesex 
District Court, having within its jurisdiction the 
towns of North Reading, Reading, Stoneham, Wake- 
field, Melrose, Maiden, Everett and Medford, and 
holding its sessions at Maiden and Wakefield. 

Alfred Brewstek Ely, the son of Rev. Dr. 
Alfred Ely, of Monson, was born in that town Jan. 
13, 1817. He fitted for college at the Monson 
Academy, and graduated at Amherst in 1836. After 
leaving college he taught the high school in Brattle- 
boro', Vt., and the Donaldson Academy, at Fayette- 
ville, N. C, and read law with Chapman & Ash- 
mun, in Springfield, Mass., where he was admitted 




to the bar. In 1S48 he removed to Boston, 
where he established himself in the law, making 
Newton, a part of the time, his place of residencei 
from which town he was representative to the General 
Court in 1872. He early became an active " Native 
American," and introduced into Massachusetts in 
1846 the " Order of United Americana,'" of which for 
a time he was the president. At one time he edited, 
and perhaps owned, the Boston Daily Times and the 
Boston Ledger, and held the offices of State director 
in the Western Railroad, and commipsioner of Back 
Bay Lands. In 1861 he was quartermaster of the 
Thirteenth Connecticut Regiment, and aid-de-camp 
of Brigadier-General Benham. In 1862 he was 
assistant adjutant-general of the Northern Division 
of the Department of the South, and was at Hilton 
Head and Fort Pulaski, and in the battles of Edisto 
and Stono, and afterwards on the staff of General 
JVIorgan. He resigned in 1863. He married, first, 
Lucy, daughter of Charles J. Cooley, of Norwich, 
and second, Harriet Elizabeth, daughter of Freeman 
Allen, of Boston, and died at Newton July 30, 1872. 

David H. Masox was born in Sullivan, New 
Hampshire, March 17, 1818, and graduated at Dart- 
mouth in 1841. He lived in Newton twenty-five 
years and there died May 29, 1873. He delivered the 
oration at the centennial anniversary of his native 
town, July 14, 1864; in 1860 he was a member of the 
Massachusetts Board of Education, and December 
22, 1870, was appointed United States district attor- 

Joel Giles was born in Townsend in 1804, andgrad- 
uated at Harvard in 1829, after which he was for a 
time a tutor in the college. He was descended from 
Edward Giles, who came frorn Salisbury, in England, 
and settled in Salem. He settled in Boston, and in 
1848 delivered the Fourth of July oration in that 
city. He was a member of both branches of the 
General Court, member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1853, and died in Boston. 

John Giles, brother of the above, born in Town- 
send in 1806, graduated at Harvard in 1831. read law 
with Parsons & Stearns, in Boston, and died in June, 

Luther Stearns Cl'SHING, son of Edmund Gush- 
ing, of Lunenburg, and grandson of Colonel Charles 
Gushing, of Hingham, was born in Lunenburg, June 
22, 1803, and graduated from the Harvard Law School 
in 1826. After conducting for a time the Jurist and 
Law Magazine, he was appointed clerk of the Massa- 
chusetts House of Representatives in 1832, and 
served until 1844. In the latter year he was chosen 
a representative from Boston, and in the same year 
appointed judge of the Court of Common Pleas, re- 
maiuing on the bench until 1848. In 1845 he publish- 
ed a " Manual of Parliamentry Practice." In 18G4, 
as reporter of the Supreme Judical Court, to which 
position he was appointed after leaving the bench, he 
published twelve volumes of Reports. He also pub- 

lished " Elements of the Law and Practice of Legisla- 
tive Assemblies," " Introduction to the Study of 
Roman Law," and "Rules of Proceeding and Debates 
in Deliberative Assemblies." He died in Boston, 
June 22, 1856. 

Thomas Hopkinson was born in New Sharon, 
Maine, August 25, 1804, and graduated at Harvard in 
1830, in the class with Charles Sumner and George 
Washington Warren. He read law with Lawrence 
& Glidden in Lowell, and was admitted to the bar in 
1833. He was a representative from Lowell in 1838 
and 1847, Senator in 1845, and in 1848 was appointed 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas, resigning the 
next year to assume the position of president of the 
Boston and Worcester Railroad Company. He was 
city solicitor of Lowell in 1840, a member of the 
Constitutional Convention from Cambridge, in 1853, 
and died in that place on November 17, 1856. 

Frederick Augustus Worcester was bom in 
Hollis, New Hampshire, in 1807, and was the son of 
Jesse Worcester, of that town, and graduated at Har- 
vard in 1831. He had four brothers who were col- 
lege graduates, — Joseph Emerson, the lexicographer, 
who graduated at Yale in 1811, and died in 1865 ; 
Rev. Taylor Gilman, who graduated at Harvard in 
1823, and died in 1869; Rev. Henry A, who gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1828, and Hon. Samuel Thomas, who 
graduated at Harvard in 1830. He had two other 
brothers—Jesse, who entered Harvard in 1809 and 
died the same year, and David, who entered Harvard 
in 1828 and left college in his junior year. Frederick 
Augustus studied at Pinkerton Academy, in Derry, 
New Hampshire, and at Philips Academy before en- 
tering college. He read law with Benjamin M. 
Farley, at Hollis, and at the Harvard Law School ; 
and finished his studies with George F. Farley in 
Groton. In 1835 he went to Townsend, thence to 
Banger, but returned. He married Jane M. Kellogg, 
of Amherst. 

John A. Knowles was born in Pembroke, New 
Hampshire, April 25, 1800, and died at his home on 
South Street, Lowell, Mass., July 25, 1884, at the ags of 
eighty-four years. He was the son of Simon and De- 
borah Knowles who were natives of Hopkinton, New 
Hampshire, and was the youngest of a family of thir- 
teen children. Like almost all other boys reared in 
the farming towns of New Hampshire in the begin- 
ning of the present century, he very early learned to 
rely for support upon his own exertions. At the age 
of fifteen years he left home and engaged in the trade 
of wagon-making in Hopkinton, New Hampshire. A 
part of his time, however, was devoted to attending 
school. He seems to have very early entertained the 
fixed resolve to attain by the cultivation of his intel- 
lect a higher position in life than that of an ordi- 
nary workman. Accordingly from the age of nineteen 
years to that of twenty-four years he devoted him- 
self alternately to a course of study and to teaching 
in district schools. Subsequently, however, on ac- 



count of his feeble health and his limited pecuniary 
ability, he relinquished the cherished hope of ob- 
taining a college education, and devoted himself for 
two years to teaching school in Keene, New Hamp- 
shire, and Taunton, Massachusetts. 

Mr. Knowles came to Lowell in the autumn of 
1827, when twenty-seven years of age, and opened an 
evening school, in which penmanship (in which he 
was an expert) was the leading branch. This school, 
however, he soon relinquished, and commenced the 
study of law in the office of Elisha Glidden, who for 
nine years was an attorney-at-law in Lowell, and was 
at one time the partner of Luther Lawrence, second 
mayor of the city. 

After nearly five years spent in the office and fam- 
ily of Mr. Glidden, and in attending, at Dedham, the 
lectures of Judge Theron Metcalf, he was admitted 
to the bar in 1832, at the age of thirty-two years, and 
immediately opened a law-office in the city of Lowell. 
He continued the practice of law i.i that city until 
increasing deafness demanded his retirement. As a 
lawyer he was distinguished, not for brilliant oratory 
or persuasive eloquence before a jury, but for the 
soundness of his counsel, the conscientious fidelity of 
his service, and the purity and uprightness of his 
character. These qualities secured to him for many 
years a large office practice, and gained for him not 
only a good estate, but also an enviable name as a 
man of exalted moral character. 

Few citizens of Lowell have been called to a larger 
number of positions of trust and honor. For several 
years he was clerk of the Police Court under Judge 
Locke. In 1833 and 1834 he was city solicitor. In 
1835, 1844 and 1845 he was a representative of Low- 
ell in the General Court of Massachusetts. In 1847 
he held the office of State Senator. For several years 
he was a member of the Board of School Committee. 
From 1847 for nearly thirty years he was president of 
the Appleton Bank, resigning the office at length on 
account of impaired eye-sight. From 1848 he served 
for several years as treasurer of the Lowell & Law- 
rence Railroad. 

In every position of responsibility Mr. Knowles 
displayed a character of tran^<parent honesty and strict 
integrity. He was a man to be trusted. Though of a 
genial and complacent nature, yet, when occasion 
called and justice demanded, he knew how to " put 
his foot down firm." When he was president of the 
Citizens' Bank, an institution which, after a brief ex- 
istence, went down in the financial depression of 1837 
and the following years, he gained an enviable name 
by his firmn&sB in resisting steadfastly every attempt 
of speculators to induce him to resort to doubtful 
methods of management. 

Mr. Knowles was fond of literary pursuits. His 
pen was not idle. By his sketches of the early days 
and the early men of Lowell, read before the Old 
Residents' Historical Association, he did much to in- 
terest its members. There was in his mind a poetic 

vein, and he often repeated the flowing lines of 
Pope and other old jjoets which his memory had re- 
tained for fifty years. The writing of poems was to 
him a pleasant recreation. He was for many years 
a beloved officer of the Unitarian Church, of which 
he was one of the founders. 

Da>-iel S.iMUEL RicHAiiDSOX was born iu Tyngs- 
borough, Mass., December 1, 1816, and died at his 
residence on Nesmith Street, Lowell, March 21, 1890, 
at the age of seventy-three years. He was descended 
from a long line of New England ancestors, all of 
whom occupied such honorable positions iu life that 
it is interesting to trace his genealogical descent from 
the early settlement of Massachusetts. 

1. Ezekiel Richardson, his earliest American an- 
cestor, belonged to that large colony of Puritan Eng- 
lishman who, about 1630, under Governot John Win- 
tbrop, settled in Salem, Boston, Charlestown and 
the neighboring towns. He was a conspicuous man, 
having been on the first Board of Selectmen of 
Charlestown and representative of tnat town in the 
General Court. He subsequently served on the Board 
of Selectmen of the town of Woburn. 

2. His son. Captain Josiah Richardson, was promi- 
nent among the first settlers of Chelmsford, having 
been for fourteen years a selectman of the town. It 
is an interesting fact regarding him that he was once 
the owner of that part 6( the territory of Lowell on 
which now stand most of the large manufactories of 
that city, having, in 1688, received it by deed from 
two Indians, John Nebersha and Samuel Nebersha, 
" for ye love we bear for ye aforesaid Josiah." 

3. His son, Lieutenant Josiah Richardson, was the 
clerk and a selectman of the town of Chelmsford. 

4. Captain William Richardson, son of the latter, 
represented the town of Pelham (then a part of Mas- 
sachusetts) in the General Court. He died in 1776, 
at the age of nearly seventy-five years. 

5. His son. Captain Daniel Richardson, resided 
also in Pelham. He was for three years a soldier in 
the Revolutionary Army, and was present at the bat- 
tle of Monmouth. He died in 1833, at the age of 
eighty-four years. 

6. His son, Daniel Richardson, the father of the 
subject of this !<ketcb, was a successful attorney-at- 
luw in Tyngsborough, Mass., and served the town in 
the General Court of Massachusetts, both as Repre- 
sentative and Senator. Of his three sons, who were 
his only children, Daniel S. was the oldest, William 
A. is chief justice of the Court of Claims at Wash- 
ington, having formerly held the high office of Secre- 
tary of the United States Treasury, and George F. is 
one of the ablest lawyers of the bar of Middlesex 
County. The three brothers all graduated from 
Harvard College and the Law School, all pursued 
the study of law, all practiced their profession in 
Lowell, and all in succession were elected to the 
presidency of the Common Council of that city. It 
is aa interesting fact that for twenty-one years ona at 




least of the brothers was a member of the uciver- 

Daniel S. Richardson fitted for college at the acad- 
emy at Derry, N. H., and graduated at Harvard in 
1836, before he had reached the age of twenty years. 
In college he ranked among the first scholars of his 
cla«!>, being a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society 
and receiving the Bowdoin prize. He subsequently 
graduated from the Law School. 

At the age of twenty-three years he commenced 
the practice of law in Lowell, occupying an office in 
a location on Central Street, in which he remained 
for more than fifty years. 

He loved his profession, and to it he devoted his 
highest powers. His cases were prepared with scru- 
pulous fidelity, and all that patient research and un- 
remitting toil could do he freely gave to his clients. 
He was a lawyer and not an orator. Others might 
excel him in a popular harangue, but before a jury 
such was the force of his logic, the perspicuity of 
his language, the evident sincerity of his conviction, 
and above all the admirable thoroughness of his 
preparation, that few advocates were his peers. In 
the first case which Mr. Richardson argued before 
the full bench of the Supreme Court the celebrated 
Chief Justice Shaw so far departed from his habitual 
reticence as to say : "This case has been very well 

Mr. Richardson acquired a very extensive practice 
in civil cases. It is said that in the Massachusetts 
Reports there are more than three hundred cases 
which he took to the Supreme Court. His office was 
a school for young lawyers. Very few men have had 
around them so many students of the law. In him 
they fouud a patient and sympathizing instructor 
and friend whom they learned to love, and whose 
generous kindness they still recall with affection and 
tenderness. The honor and esteem in which his 
compeers at the bar hold him were well expressed at 
the recent memorial meeting of the J[iddlesex bar 
by General Butler, who had intimately known him 
for tifty years, in the following words : " He was one 
of the few men I ever knew who apparently had no 
enemies. The practice of the bench shows no more 
fragrant name than that of Daniel S. Richardson." 

Although the practice of the law was Mr. Richard- 
son's chosen vocation, yet his fellow-citizens recog- 
nized his merits by placing him in many positions of 
trust and honor. lu 1S42, 1843 and 1847 he was a 
member of the General Court and waa in the State 
Senate in 1862. In 1845 and 1846 he served in the 
Common Council, and was, in both years, president 
of that body. He was in 1848 on the Board of Alder- 
men. He waa for a very long time a director, and 
for sixteen years the president of the Prescctt Na- 
tional Bank. For fifteen years or more he was trus- 
tee of the State Lunati:: Asylum at Dan vers. He 
was president of the Lowell Manufacturing Company 
and director in the Lowell Bleachery and the Traders' 

and Mechanics' Insurance Company. He was presi- 
dent of the Vermont and Massachusetts Railroad 
from 1S63 to the time of his death. He was also 
formerly president of the Lowell & Nashua Railroad. 
For three years he was chairman of the commissioners 
of Middlesex County. And even yet we have by no 
means completed the full list of offices and trusts 
which occupied his busy and useful life. 

Mr. Richardson waa, during all his life, a diligent 
student. He kept himself informed in the politics, 
science and literature of the day. In 1841 he waa, 
for several months, the edit"r of the Lowell Courier, 
but his law business forbade him to continue his 
work as a journalist. As editor his motto, as he de- 
clared in his valedictory, was expressed in the fol- 
lowing couplet: 

*' Do boldly what yoa do, and let year page 
Smile wtiOD it smiles, and when it rages, rage." 

He adds, however, that he had leaned towards the 
smiling page. In religious sentiment he was a Uni- 
tarian and it has been said of him that his creed waa 
the Sermon on the Mount. In politics he was, in his 
early years, a Whig. After the Whig party be':ame 
extinct he was through life a firm and consietent 

Giles Henry Whitney, son of Abel and Abigail 
H. (Townsend) Whitney, of Lancaster, was born in 
Boston January 18, 1818. His father kept, in Boston, 
a private school for boys. The son Giles attended 
the Latin School from the age of eight to that of thir- 
teen, and finished his preparation for college with 
Frederick P. Leverett. He graduated at Harvard in 
1837, and after reading law with George F. Farlev, of 
Groton, with Washburn and Hartshorn, of Worcester, 
and at the Harvard Law School, was admitted to the 
bar in September, 1842. He practiced in Westminster 
until April, 1846, when he removed to Templeton, and 
in June, 1857, to Winchendon. He was in the Senate 
in 1851, and in the House of Representatives in 1864, 
18G6 and 1881. He married, in November, 1850, 
Lydia A., daughter of Capt. Joseph Davis, of Tem- 

Hexry Vose waa the son of Elijah and Rebecca 
Gorham (Bartlett) Vose, of Charlestown, and was born 
in that town May 21, 1817. Early afflicted with asth- 
ma, he was sent to Concord, where he lived several 
years in the family of a farmer. He fitted for college 
at the Concord Academy and graduated at Harvard 
in 1837. During a part or the whole of his college 
life he was an inmate of the family of Rev. Henry 
Ware, Jr. After leaving college he was, for a time, a 
family instructor in Western New York and read law, 
first in the office of George T. Davis, of Greenfield, 
and afterwards in that of Chapman & Ashmun, of 
Springfield, when he was admitted to the bar. He 
was a member of the Massachusetts House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1858, and on the organization of the Su- 
perior Court in 1859 he was appointed one of its 
judges. He removed to Boston soon after his appoint- 



ment; and made that place bis residence until his 
death, January 17, 1869. He married, October 19, 
1842. Martha Barrett Ripley, of Greenfield. 

Frederic T. Greenhalge was born in Clituero, 
England, July 19, 1842, aad was brought to this coun- 
try by his father in his youth. He received hia early 
education in the common schools of Lowell, and 
though he entered Harvard in 1859 he did not pursue 
the whole college course. He studied law and was 
admitted to the bar at Lowell in 1865. He was a 
member of the Common Council of that city in 1868- 
69, and received a degree of Master of Arts from 
Harvard in 1870. He was also a member of the Low- 
ell School Committee from 1871 to 1873, mayor of the 
city in 1880 and 1881, delegate to the National Repub- 
lican Convention in 1884, a representative in 1885, 
city solicitor in 1888 and was chosen member of the 
Fifty-first Congress as a Republican, in 1888. He is 
a man of fine scholarship as well as high legal at- 
tainments and of polished and winning eloquence- 
With life and health his further advancement is sure. 
Charles Theodore Russell, now living in Cam- 
bridge, is descended from William Russell, who came 
to Boston in 1640, and settled in Cambridge in 1(145. 
Mr. Russell is the son of Charles and Persis (Haat- 
ings) Russell, of Princeton, and was born in that town 
November 20, 1815. His father was a merchant in 
Princeton, clerk of the town and postmaster, represen- 
tative eight years, four years a member of the Senate 
and four years a member of the Governor's Council. 
Mr. Russell fitted for college at the Princeton Acad- 
emy, under the care of Rev. Warren Goddard, and 
graduated at Harvard in 1837, delivering the Latin 
salutatory at his commencement and the valedictory 
on the reception of the degree of Master of Arts in 
1840. He read law in the office of Henry H. Fuller 
and at the Harvard Law School, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1839. The writer, a student at Harvard at 
the time Mr. Russell was in the Law School, remem- 
bers the ease and skill in debate shown by him in the 
Harvard Union, to whose discussions the law students 
were admitted. After admission to the bar he was as- 
sociated with Mr. Fuller two years, and in 1845 en- 
tered into partnership with his younger brother, 
Thomas Hastings Russell, who graduated at Harvard 
in 1843, and had then become a member of the bar. 
Until 1855 he made Boston his residence and ihen re- 
moved to Cambridge, where he hassince lived. He was 
a representative from Boston in 1844, 1845 and 1850, 
and a Senator from Suffolk in 1851 and 1852, and from 
Middlesex in 1877 and 1878. He was mayor of Cam- 
bridge in 1861-62, has been professor in the Law 
School of Boston University, fourteen years one of 
the Board of Visitors of the Theological School at 
Andover and secretary of the board, a corporate mem- 
ber of the Commissioners for Foreign Mit^sions, mem- 
ber of the Oriental Society, president of the Young 
Mens' Christian Awociation, and delivered an address 
at its inauguration. He has written a short history 

of his native town and delivered a centennial oration 
there in 1859 and also delivered the oration in Boston 
on the 4th of July, 1852. The law-firm of which he 
■is the senior member includes, besides his brother, 
above-mentioned, his sons, Charles Theodore, Jr. and 
William E. and Arthur H., a son of his brother. Mr. 
Russell married, June 1, 1840, Sarah Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Joseph Ballister, of Boston. 

Richard H. Dana, Jr., sou of Richard H. Dana, 
a sketch of whom has been given, and grandson of 
Francis Daca, also included in this chapter, was born 
in Cambridge, August 1, 1815. His mother was Ruth 
Charlotte Smith, of Providence. He entered Harvard 
in 1831, but owing to a severe affection of the eyes, 
he was obliged to abandon study for a time, and as a 
sailor before the mast, sailed from Boston, August 6, 
1834, for the northwest coast. He reached Boston on 
his return September 20, 1836, and joined the class of 
1837, with which he graduated. He attended the 
Harvard Law School, and was admitted to the Suf- 
folk bar in 1840. He published in that year " Two 
Years Before the Mast," and at later times " The Sea- 
man's Friend," " Dictionary of Sea Terms," "Customs 
and Usages of the Merchant Service," "Sketches of 
Allston and Channing" and " To Cuba and Back, a 
Vacation Voyage." He entered at once on a success- 
ful practice, not a small portion of which, in the 
earliest years of his career, was in the defense of sea- 
men from unjust and hard usage. He was a member 
of the Constitutional Convention of 1853, and one or 
the founders of the Free Soil parly, and its successor 
the Republican party. In the trials had in Boston of 
persons charged with the unlawful rescue of a fugitive 
slave from the hands of United States officers, in the 
court-house in that city, he labored diligently and elo- 
quently, alone in some cases, and in others associated 
with Hon. John P. Hale, of New Hampshire, and se- 
cured theiracquittal. He was appointed United States 
district attorney by President Lincoln in 1861, and 
held the office until 1865. In 1866 he received the 
degree of Doctor of Laws from his Alma Mater. He 
married, August 25, 1841, Sarah Watson, of Hartford 
In 1881 he went to Italy and died at Rome, January 
6, 1882. 

Benjamin Robbixs Curtis was born in Water- 
town, November 4, 1809, and graduated at Harvard in 
1829, receiving a degree of Doctor of Laws from his 
Alma Mater in 1852. He was admitted to the bar in 
1832, and began practice at Ncrthfield, Massachusetts. 
In 1834 he removed to Boston, where he soon reached 
the front rank in his profession, meeting as his com- 
petitors in the courts Charles G. Levering, Rufus 
Choate, Sidney Bartleit and at times Daniel Webster. 
In September, 1851, he was appointed an associate 
justice on the bench of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, and resigned in 1857. In 1868 he was 
one of the counsel of President Andrew Johnson be- 
fore the Court of Impeachment, and before that time 
he was two years in the Legislature. He published in 



1S57 " Keports of the United States Circuit Court" in 
two volumes, and later twenty-two volumes of " Deci- 
sions of the United States Supreme Court" and a 
" Digest " of the same. 

George Tickxor Curtis, brother of the above, 
was born in Watertown, November 28, 1812, and grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1812. He was admitted to the 
Suffolk bar in August, 1836, and was a representative 
in the General Court from Boston from 1840 to 1844. 
He has been a voluminous law writer, of sound 
though conservative mind, and a respected authority 
on all constitutional questions. Among his published 
law works are " Rights and Duties of Merchant Sea- 
men," " Digest of the Decisionsof the Courts of Com- 
mon Law and Admiralty," " Cases in the American 
and English Courts of Admiralty," " American Con- 
veyances," "Treatise on the Law of Patents," 
" Equity Precedents," a tract entitled "The Rights of 
Conscience and Property," a treatise on the " Law of 
Copyright," " Commentaries en the Jurisprudence, 
Practice and Peculiar Jurisdiction of the Courts of 
the United States," and a " History of the Origin, 
Formation and Adoption of the Constitution of the 
United States." Besides these he has published a 
" Life of Daniel Webster." He is now a resident of 
New York, engaged in literary pursuits, and in prac- 
tice in the Unites States Supreme Court. 

William W. Story, son of Judge Joseph Story, 
was born in Salem February 12, 1819, and graduated 
at Harvard in 1S38. He read law in the Harvard 
Law School, from which he graduated in 1840. His 
father removed from Salem to Cambridge when he 
was ten years of age, and during his college and pro- 
fessional life he was a resident of that town. He 
soon abandoned the law for the more congenial pur- 
suit of sculpture, in which he has won an enviable dis- 
tinction. Among his best known works are the statue 
of Edward Everett in the Boston Public Garden, and 
that of Chief Justice Marshall at the west front of the 
Capitol in Washington. He is now in Italy, where 
most of his artist life has been passed. 

GusTAvrs ADOLPHU3 SoMERBY, SOU of Samuel 
and Hannah (George) Somerby, of Newbury, was 
born in that town November 2, 1821. He was de- 
scended from Anthony Somerby, one of the clerks of 
courts in Essex County in the seventeenth century. 
He attended school at Wayland, and read law with 
Edward ilellen, being admitted to the bar in 1844. 
He practiced in Wayland until 1852, when he re- 
moved to Waltham and joined with Josiah Rutter in 
a law partnership, which continued until 1858, when 
he removed to Boston. During his career he occu- 
pied offices in Gray's Building on Court Street, in the 
old State-House and Sears Building. He died at 
South Framingham July 24, IST'J, leaving a son, Sam- 
uel Ellsworth Somerby, who graduated at Harvard 
the year of his father's death. Mr. Somerby was a 
man of large frame and with mental powers in har- 
mony with his physical. He practiced largely at the 

Middlesex bar, where he early accustomed himself to 
the legal blows which its members were in the habit 
of giving and receiving. He was especially distin- 
guished and successful before a jury, and some of his 
greatest triumphs, in criminal cases particularly, were 
due to the boldness, almost heroic at times, with 
which he presented his case. The acquittal of Leav- 
itt Alley, on trial in Boston in 1873 for murder, will 
ever stand as a monument to his courage and shrewd- 
ness. The line of his defense was a hint, so shrewdly 
given that it rather originated the suggestion in the 
minds of the jurymen themselves than passed his own 
lips, that the son of Mr. Alley was the real criminal. 
The prisoner's witnesses and the cross-examination of 
the witnesses for the Government were so handled as 
to necessarily convey, through unseen and unex- 
pected channels, this hint to the jury, and the refusal 
to put the boy on the stand, though it was well known 
that he was conversant with many of the incidents of 
the affair, served to carry this hint home with a force 
that was sure to have an effect. The trial lasted ten 
or twelve days, and the strain upon nerve and brain 
was so Eevere that Mr. Somerby never fully recovered 
from the prostration which it induced. 

George Washington Warr|;n was born in 
Charlestown October 1, 1813, and was the son of Isaac 
and Abigail (Fiske) Warren, of that town. He was 
descended from John Warren, who appeared in New 
England in 1630. He graduated at Harvard in 1830. 
He married, in 1835, Lucy Rogers, daughter of Dr. 
Jonathan Newell, of Stow, and had a son, Lucius 
Henry Warren, born in 1838, who graduated from 
Princeton in 1860, and from the Harvard Law School 
in 1862. His first wife died September 4, 1840, and 
he married, second, Georgianna, daughter of Jona- 
than and Susan Pratt Thompson, of Charlestown, by 
whom he had two sons and three daughters. Mr. 
Warren settled in the practice of law in his native 
town, and in 1838 was a representative to the General 
Court, and senator in 1853-54. After the incorpora- 
tion of Charlestown as a city, by an act passed Feb- 
ruary 22, 1847, and accepted March 10, 1847, Mr. 
Warren was chosen its first mayor, and continued in 
office three years. From 1837 to 1847 he was secre- 
tary of the Bunker Hill Jtonument Association, and 
from 1847 to 1875 its president. He also wrote a his- 
tory of the association. In 1861 he was appointed 
judge of the Municipal Court of the Charlestown Dis- 
trict, and remained on the bench until his death, 
which occurred at Boston May 13, 1883. 

Charles Cowley was born in Eastington, Eng- 
land, January 9, 1832. He came to New England 
I with his father, who settled as a manufacturer in 
! Lowell. With a common-school education, he read 
! law in the office of Josiah G. Abbott, and was admit- 
1 ted to the Middlesex bar in 1856. He was in both 
I the army and navy during the war. Mr. Cowley has, 
! aside from his profession, devoted himself creditably 
' to literary pursuits, and in politics has sought to pro- 



mote the welfare of the laboring man. Lowell has 
always been his residence since he came to America. 

Jeremiah Crowley was born in Lowell, January 
12, 1832, and is the son of Dennis Crowley, of that 
city. He was a member of the Sixth Massachusetts 
Regiment during its three months' campaign in 1861. 
He read law in the office of John F. McEvoy, of 
Lowell, and was admitted to the Middlesex bar in 
1869. He has been a councilman and alderman of 
Lowell and a member of the State Senate. He is in 
the enjoyment of a lucrative practice in his native 

Benjamin Dean was born in Clithero, England, 
August 14, 1824, and was the son of Benjamin and 
Alice Dean. His father came to New England and 
settled in Lowell, where the subject of this sketch re- 
ceived his early education. After one year in Dart- 
mouth College, Benjamin, the son, entered, as a stud- 
ent, the law-office of Thomas Hopkinson, of Lowell, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1845. He practiced 
law in Lowell about seven years and then removed to 
Boston, where he haa since resided. He has been a 
member of the State Senate three years, a member of 
the Boston Common Council four years and repre- 
sented the Third District in the Forty-fifth Congre-s. 
For a number of years he has been a member of the 
Boston Park Commission. He married, in 1848, 
Mary A., daughter of J. B. French, of Lowell. 

Philip J. Doheety was born in Charlestown, 
January 27, 1856, and at the age of twenty graduated 
at the Boston University Law School. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar ia 1877 and has since practiced his 
profession in Boston. He has been a member of the 
House of Representatives and a member of the Board of 
Aldermen of Boston. He married, August 16, 1878, 
Catharine A. Butler, of Charlestown. 

George Stevens, son of Daniel and Tabitha 
(Sawyer) Stevens, of Stoddard, New Hampshire, was 
born in that town October 23, 1824. He was de- 
scended from John Stevens, of Chelmsford, 1662, 
through John, Henry, Daniel and Daniel. He gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth in 1849, and read law with Ira A. 
Eastman, of Gilmanton, N. H., and with Moses N. 
Morris, of Pittsfield, Mass. After teaching school 
two or three years he was admitted to the bar in 1854, 
and settled in Lowell, where he established a lucra- 
tive practice and was city solicitor in 1867-68. He 
married, September 19, 1850, Elizabeth Rachel, 
daughter of James Kimball, of Littleton, by whom he 
had three children, one of whom, George Hunter 
Stevens, was his partner at the time of his death, 
which occurred at Lowell, June 6, 1884. 

John Sullivan Ladd, son of John and Profenda 
(Robinson) Ladd, of Lee, New Hampshire, was born 
in that town July 3, 1810. He graduated at Dart- 
mouth in 1835, and read law with John P. Robinson. 
After teaching two years he settled in Cambridge in 
1839, and married, in June, 1841, Ann, daughter of 
David Babson. September 5, 1847, he married Mary 

Ann, daughter of Samuel Butler, of Bedford. He 
represented Cambridge in the General Court, was a 
member of the Constitutional Convention in 18-53, a 
member of the Common Council and in 18-31 its pres- 
ident. He was trial justice some years, and in 18-54 
was made judge of the Police Court in Cambridge, 
which position he held twenty-eight years. He died 
at Cambridge, September 5, 1886. 

Charles R. Train, son of Rev. Charles Train, of 
Fraraingham, was boru in that town Oct. 18, 1817. 
His father had two wives — Elizabeth Harrington and 
Hepsibah Harrington, the latter of whom was the 
j mother of the subject of this sketch. He was de- 
scended from John Train, of Watertown, an early 
settler. He attended the public schools of Framing- 
ham and the Framingham Academy, and graduated 
at Brown in 1837. He read law in Cambridge and was 
admitted to the bar in 1841. He settled in Framing- 
ham, representing that town in the General Court in 
1847, and in the Constitutional Convention in 185:!. 
He was district attorney from 1848 to 18-55, a member 
of the Council in 1857—58, member of Congre« from 
1859 to 1863, again a member of the General Court 
in 1871 from Boston, and Attorney-General of 
Massachusetts from 1872 to 1879. He removed to 
Boston about 1866, and died at Xorth Conway, New 
Hampshire, July 29, 188-5. 

George He.vry Gordon was born in Charles- 
town, July 19, 1825, and graduated at West Point in 
1846. He entered the mounted rifles and served 
under General Scott in the Mexican War. He was 
severely wounded at Cerro Gordo and breveted first 
lieutenant for gallantry in the field. In 1853 he vras 
made full first lieutenant, and resigned in 1854, en- 
tering the Cambridge Law School and being admitted 
to the Suffolk bar. In 1861 he raised the Second 
Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers, and .as its 
colonel was made military governor of Harper's 
Ferry. In 1S62 he commanded a brigade under 
General Banks and was made brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers June 9, 1862. He was at the second battle of 
Bull Run and at Antietam. He was also engaged ia 
operations about Charleston Harbor in 1863-64, and 
against Mobile in August, 1.S64. He waabreveted major- 
general of volunteers April 9, 1865, for meritorious 
services. After the war he was at one time United 
States collector of internal revenue, and practiced 
law in Boston until his death, about 1885 or '86. 

Thomas A. Beard was born in Littleton, New 
Hamp%hire, and practiced law in Lowell from 1842 
to 1856. He was appointed assistant treasurer by 
President Pierce and died November 6, 1862. 

George Francis Richardson was born on Dec. 
6, 1829, at Tyngsborough, Mass. He is the son of 
Daniel and Hannah (Adams) Richardson, his father 
having been an attorney-at-law and a prominent 
citizen of Tyngsborough. The ancestors of both his 
parents were honorably identified with the early 
history of New England. A more extended notice 


vt^N.Vc. r 


■i^har^^u ^ 



of the ancestry and family of Mr. Richardson is to 
be found iu the slcetch of the life of his older brother, 
Daniel S. Richardson, on another page of this work. 

Having pursued his preparatory course of study 
in Phillips Academy, Exeter, Mr. Richardson en- 
tered Harvard College in 1846, at the age of sixteen 
years. Upon his graduation from college he en- 
tered the Dane Law School in Cambridge, from 
which, at the age of twenty-three years, he gradu- 
ated with honor, having received the first prize for 
an essay. 

After being admitted to the bar and practicing 
law in Boston for two years, in 1858 he entered as 
partner the law-otfice of his brother, Daniel S., be- 
ing in that position the successor of his brother, 
William A. who had been appointed judge of Pro- 
bate and Insolvency for Middlesex County. The 
firm of Daniel S. and Geo. F. Richardson has now 
continued thirty-two years, holding at the bar of 
Middlesex County a very high reputation for legal 
learning and professional honors. 

Though devoted to the practice of his profession, 
Mr. Richardson never forgets that he is a citizen of 
Lowell. He is always alive to all that pertains to 
the welfare and honor of the city. Especially when 
the War of the Rebellion made its first demand up- 
on the self-sacrifice and patriotism of the people, he 
.stood forth as the trusted and accepted leader, 
and inspired his fellow-citizens with cour.ige and 
hope. By his efforts a company was promptly raised 
and equipped in Lowell, which had the honor of 
being the first company of three-years' men formed 
in the State of ilassachusetts. It was organized on 
the evening of the 19th of April, 1801, the day on 
which the Sixth Regiment marched through Balti- 
more. In his honor it received the name of the 
Richardson Light Infantry. 

Mr. Richardson has been placed in very many po- 
sitions of trust and honor. In 1862 and 1863 he was 
a member of the Common Council, and occupied 
the same position, as president of that body, which 
his brothers, Daniel S. and William A., had filled 
before him. In 1S64 he was in the Board of Alder- 
men. In 1867 and 1868 he was mayorof the city, having 
received his second election almost without a dis- 
senting vote. As mayor of the city he filled the 
position with great popular acceptance. His profes- 
sional practice had well equipped him for the per- 
formance of the ordinary duties of the office, and 
his intellectual culture and graceful address brought 
honor to the city on all public occasions. In 1868 
he was a member of the Republican Convention at 
Chicago which nominated Gen. Grant for his first 
election. In 1871 and 1872 he was a member of the 
Maa«achusetta Senate. At the close of his service as 
Senator, Mr. Richardson was brought to the decision 
of a very important question in respect to his future 
career. On one hand was the alluring prospect of 
political advancement, for he had already made a 

flattering record, and he possessed all the qualities 
of a successful political leader. On the other hand 
was his chosen profestion. He could not hold both ; 
he must choose one and reject the other. He de- 
liberately chose his profession, and now for eighteen 
years he has conscientiously and very successfully 
devoted himself to its arduous duties. Meantime he has 
filled such positions in social and civil life as came 
to him as a good ci'.izen, having been city solicitor, 
member of the School Board, trustee of the City 
Library, president of Middlesex Mechanic Associa- 
tion, director of the Traders' and Mechanics' Insur- 
ance Company, a director of the Prescott National 
Bank, of the Stony Brook Railroad and of the Ver- 
mont & Massachusetts Railroad, and president of 
the Lowell Manufacturing Company. He has also 
been president of the Unitarian Club and of the 
Ministry-at-Large. As trustee of the Boston Water- 
Power, he has borne the important responsibility of 
the sale of land to the amount of about three mil- 
lion dollars. 

Mr. Richardson is fondof literary pursuits. Heloves 
his library, which is especially rich in the old Eng- 
lish classics. Few lit-^rary men possess so large and 
so unique a collection of the various editions of the 
plays of Shakespeare. He is a connoisseur in 
Shakespearean literature, and his articles given 
to the press in defence of the claims of William 
Shakespeare as the veritable author of the plays so 
long attributed to him, exhibit a thorough mastery 
of his subject and a wide range of literary attain- 

Isaac 0. Barnes was in the practice of law in 
Lowell from 1832 to 1835 inclusive. His name ap- 
pears in the first directory published in 1832 with an 
office on Central Street. It is possible that he may 
have been in Lowell before the directory was issued. 
In 1833 he was associated with Francis E. Bond, hav- 
ing an office in Railroad Bank Building and boarding 
at the Mansion House. In 1834 his office was in the 
same building and in 1835 he appears in the directory 
as associated with Tappan Wentworth in the same 
building. He probably removed to Boston in 1836 
where he was at one time United States marshal. He 
died at the Bromfield House on Bromfield Street in 
that city, if the writer remembers correctly, where he 
made his home for many years. 

Edward F. Sherman was born in Acton February 
10, 1821, and went when a child to Lowell, where he 
remained until 1839. He graduated at Dartmouth in 
1843 and before entering on the study of law was for 
a time principal of the academy at Canaan, New 
Hampshire, and of the academy at Pittsfield, Mass- 
achusetts. In 1846 he returned to Lowell, where he 
read law with Tappan Wentworth, whose partner he 
was for eight years. In 1855 he was chosen secre- 
tary of the Traders' and Mechanics' Insurance Com- 
pany, and held this office sixteen years. He was a 
director in the Prescott National Bank, trnstee.of the 



Mechanics' Savings Baak, representative in 1861 
and 1866, a member of the School Committee, in 
1870 a member of the City Government, and in 1871 
mayor. He died February 10, 1872. 

Wendell Phillips, son of John Phillips, the 
first mayor of Boston, was born in Boston, November 
29, 1811, and graduated at Harvard in 1831. He at- 
tended the Harvard Law School and read law in the 
oflBces of Luther Lawrence and Thomas Hopkinson at 
Lowell. He was admitted to the Middlesex bar in 
1834, but never practiced in Middlesex County. 

Chester W. Eaton was born in Wakefield Jan- 
uary 13, 1839. He graduated from the Scientific De- 
partment of Dartmouth College in 1859, and after 
reading law at the Dane Law School was admitted to 
the bar in 1864. After some years' practice in Wake- 
field and Boston he has devoted himself largely to lit- 
erary and business pursuits and has held various im- 
portant and responsible offices in his native town. 
He married, in 1868, Emma G., daughter of Eev. Giles 
Leach, of Rye, New Hampshire. 

George Miller Hobbs was born in Waltham 
April 11, 1827, and is the son of William and Maria 
(Miller) Hobbs, of that town. He graduated at Har- 
vard in 1850, and at the Dane Law School in 1857. 
He was admitted to the bar in Boston in 1858, and 
entered practice with Hon. Edward Avery, with whom 
he has ever since been associated. He has been a 
member of the House of Representatives and of the 
Roxbury and Boston School Boards. He married, 
October 26, 1859, Annie M., daughter of Dr. Samuel 
Morrell, of Boston. 

Charles Sumner Lillet was born in Lowell 
December 13, 1851, and was the son of Charles and 
Cynthia (Huntley) Lilley, of that city. He read law 
in the office of Arthur P. Bonney, of Lowell, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1877. He has been a member 
of the Lowell Board of Aldermen, of the State Senate 
and the Executive Council. 

Charles John McLstire was born in Cambridge 
March 26, 1842. He read law at the Dane Law School 
and was admitted to the Suffialk bar in 1865. During 
the pursuit of his law studies he served as a private 
in the Forty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment. He 
has been a member of the Cambridge Common Coun- 
cil, of the Board of Aldermen of that city and a mem- 
ber of the House of Representatives. For three 
years he was assistant district attorney for Middlesex 
County, and is now city solicitor of Cambridge. He 
married, in 1865, Marie Terese, daughter of George B. 
Linegan, of Charlestown. 

John H. Morrison was bom in Westford Decem- 
ber 23, 1856, and is the son of John and Bridget Mor- 
rison, of that town. After a term at Harvard short- 
ened by sickness, he read law in the office of William 
H.Anderson, of Lowell, and at the Dane Law School, 
trom which institution he graduated in 1878. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1879 and has since prac- 
ticed in Lowell. He has been a member of the Lowell 

School Board, of the House of Representatives and 
the State Senate. He married, in 1884, Margaret L., 
daughter of James Owen, of Lowell. 

Benjamin Franklin Bdtler is the grandson of 
Zephauiah Butler, of Woodbury, Connecticut, who 
served in the Continental Army in the War of the 
Revolution. The father of Benjamin was John But- 
ler, of Deerfield, New Hampshire, a captain of 
dragoons during the War of 1812, a follower in war 
and an admirer in peace of Andrew Jackson, for 
whom the eldest of his two sons was named. After 
the war John Butler engaged in trade with the We=t 
Indies and died in March, 1819, of yellow fever at 
one of the West India islands, leaving his widow, with 
two young children and only a scanty share of worldly 
good.", to make her way and theirs in the world. The 
younger child, Benjamin Franklin, the subject of this 
sketch, was born at Deerfield on the 5th of November, 
1818, only four months before his father's death. He 
I was a delicate child, and, like many a delicate child be- 
fore and since, possessed a precocious mind, which 
sought with avidity wherever it could be found that 
mental food on which it was destined to develop and 
mature. He attended the common schools of his native 
town, and the few books which came in his way he ea- 
gerly devoured. It was aa true with him as with others 
that a few books thoroughly read gave an impulse to 
thought and nourished the intellectual powers more 
surely than that desultory reading which the bounti- 
ful library often leads to, and which ends in a scatter- 
ing mind without defiuiteness of action or a power of 
concentration. A single book, no matter what its 
title or contents may be, read carefully and reread 
sentence by sentence will in every word suggest a 
thought which, in ever-widening circles, finally covers 
and includes the whole field which the mind of man 
is able to survey. As concentrated food nourishes the 
system more than a bountiful but unassimilating 
supply, so the few plain, simple books to which young 
Butler had access met exactly the wants of mental 
digestion, exercising and nourishing it without dis- 
tracting and disordering it. 

In 1828, Mrs Butler removed to Lowell, where, by 
taking a few boarders and carefully saving her gains 
she became able to give to her children a better edu- 
cation than she had ever dared to expect. Benjamin 
was sent to Phillips Academy at Exeter, and in 1834, 
at the age of sixteen, was sent to Waterville College 
in Maine. At that college there was a manual de- 
partmentin which thestudents worked three hours in 
each day, thus earning a moderate amount of wages to 
help pay the cost of their education. Here young But- 
ler earned something, but still left college in 1838 
somewhat in debt for his college expenses. During 
his college life those keen powers of argument and 
speech, which have since characterized him, mani- 
fested themselves, and his fellow-students recall many 
an arena in which he came off victorious. 

After leaving college, oppressed by debt and with 

^ ^ /^ 



health impaired, he went with an uncle on a fishing 
voyage to theooast of Labrador, and, as he says him- 
self, "hove a line, ate the flesh and drank the oil of 
cod, came back after a four months' cruise in perfect 
health, and had not another sick day in twenty 
years." The discussions in which he often took part 
at Waterville, were either the result of a naturally 
controversial taste, or were the means of developing 
one, and in seeking a course of life to follow, he 
almost as a matter of course selected the profession 
of law. He entered the office of \S'm. Smith, of 
Lowell, the father of Henry F. Smith, whose name 
was afterwards changed to Durant and who became 
di.-tinguished at the Suffolk bar. 

In 1841 he was admitted to the Middlesex bar. On 
his examination for admission by Judge Charles 
Henry Warren, then holding a session of the Court 
of Common Pleas, questions were put to him whose 
answers impressed the judge with his acquirements 
in the principles of law. It happened that on the 
day of the examination a case was on trial before the 
judge in which the question of admitting certain evi- 
dence had somewhat puzzled him. The case was , army wiih depleted wings, which the slightest disorder 
Robert Reed :igainst Jenness Batchelder, which was < would break and destroy. 

carried finally to the Supreme Court on exceptions, , As a Democrat, Mr. Butler early engaged in politi- 
and is reported in the first of Metcalf, page 529. It ; cal activity, and almost from the date of his admission 
was an actios of assumpsit on a promissory note given ! to the bar his voice has been heard in political con 
by the defendant, when a minor, to Reed & Dudley, 
July iO, 1835, and payable to them as bearer. The 

Mr. Butler settled in Lowell, and rose rapidly in 
his profession, as he could scarcely fail to do with his 
learning in the law, his infinite resource, his boldae.-s 
and persistency in every case in which he was en- 
gaged, and his readine-s, with or without fee, to re- 
lieve the suffering and oppressed. His practice soon 
extended beyond the limits of bis own county, and in 
the courts of Suffolk he became a familiar object of 
interest. It is unnecessary to say that the son of a 
friend and admirer of Andrew Jackson, he was 
from childhood a Democrat, fully imbued with those 
principles, not always kept in view, for the support of 
which the Democratic party was created, and which 
will keep it alive through all mutations as long as our 
nation exists. He believed that .i too great centrali- 
zation of power in the hands of the general govern- 
ment was a danger to be avoided, and that the rights 
of States, not to recede .'"rom the Union, but to main- 
tain and retain certain functions, were absolutely 
essential to our nation's permanent existence and wel- 
fare. A nation with all ihe strength and dens-ity of 
power at its central point, could be aa weak as an 

defence of course was infancy. But in July, 1839, 
while the note was in the hands of the promissees, 
and after the defendant had come of age, he ver'oally 
renewed his promise to pay, to Henry Reed, one of the 

ventions and on the stump. His earliest essay in the 
political line was at Lowell, in which he successfully 
advocated the ten-hour rule, in the factories of that 
town. He was a member of the House of Represen- 
tatives of Massachusetts in 1853, and in the same 
vear a delegate to the convention for the revision of 

firm of Reed & Dudley, and the note was subse- ' the State Constitution. While a member of the 
quently endorsed to Robert Reed, the plaintiff. The | House, George Bliss, of Springfield, was the Speaker, 
plaintiff's offer to put the renewal of the promise in and the Whig party was in the ascendant. Otis P. 
evidence was objected to by the defendant's counsel, ■ Lord, of Salem, was the Whig leader of the House, 
and on the day of the examination above referred to, and, by his great abilities and unconquerable will. 
Judge Warren had sustained the objection. Mr. ^ held the Spe-.iker under his control, and always obe- 
Butler had been present during the trial, and the I dient to his wish. The altercations between Mr. 
general question was asked him by the judge, what ; Butler and the Speaker were numerous, and Mr. 
effect such a renewal of promise would have, and what | Bliss was only extricated from the perplexities into 
he thought of his ruling. The student replied that : which he was repeatedly led by the ingenious devices 
he thought the ruling wrong and the note good. I of his Democratic opponent on the floor, by the he)p- 
" Why," asked the judge. " Because," said the student, ing hand of Mr. Lord. Practically, while Mr. Bliss 
" the note was not void but only voidable, and when j was the chosen occupant of the chair, Mr. Lord was 
the verbal promise was made the note became at once ; Speaker, and Mr. Bliss was only his mouth-piece. On 
negotiable." The next day the judge reversed his rul- ! one occasion, when the Speaker, at the behest of Mr. 
ing, exception was taken and the case carried up. | Lord, added another to the long list of rulings 
Judge Warren afterwards complimented Mr. Butler ; which Mr. Butler's points of order had received, he 
on his ready and just application of the principles of I said," Mr. Speaker, I cannot complain of these rulings, 
law to the case in question, and acknowledged the | They doubtless seem to the Speaker to be just. I 
influence it had on his mind. Judge Shaw, in the | perceive an anxiety on your part to be just to the 
opinion of the Supreme Court, overruled the exccp- i minority and to me, by whom at this moment they 
tioo, and decided that though the renewal of promise | are represented, for, like Saul on the road to Damas- 
was made verbally to Henry Reed, one of the firm of ! cus, your constant anxiety seems to be, "Lord, Lord, 
Reed it Dudley, it at once became negotiable, and in I what wilt thou have me to do.' " 
the hands of Robert Reed, to whom it was passed, Mr. Butler was in the State Sen.ate in 1S59-60, and 
was good. ' in the former'year performed an important part in the 



revision of the statutes. In that year the writer was 
with him in the Senate, and had abundant opportu- 
nities to observe and measure the various qualities of 
his head and heart. Though opposed to him in poli- 
tics, he was not sufficiently blind to fail to discover 
those traits of character which have attracted to him 
the circle of friends which, like satellites, he has 
always carried with him in his social and political 
orbit. He disclosed two sides — a sharp bitterness of 
antagonism, and the warmest of hearts ; a harshness 
of deportment at one time, and at another a polish 
of manner and conversation not easily excelled ; now 
inspiring those about him wiih fear, and again as 
gentle as a child, as affectionate as a brother, as lov- 
ing as the dearest friend. His character seemed to 
consist of extremes ; like the extremes of the magnet 
one attracted, the other repelled, and no one looked 
on him with entire indifference. So, in his treatment 
of men, as he could be implacable in his antagonism 
he could never forget a friend or be faithless to his 
interests. Indeed, it has seemed to the writer as if 
his regard lor friendship and its obligations were the in- 
spiring cause of that seeming bitterness, which he has 
exhibited towards those who have attacked and de- 
nounced him. 

The Superior Court, established by the Legislature 
of 1859, was mainly the work of his hands. The old 
Common Pleas Court had, with the material of which 
it was mainly composed, evidently outlived its useful- 
ness, and the bill creating the new court was drawn 
by Mr. Butler, and has stood the tests of time and 
criticism. The retiring court, consisting of Edward 
Mellen, chief justice, and Henry Walker Bishop, 
George NLxon Briggs, George Partridge Sanger, 
Henry Morris and David Aiken, associates ; gave 
way to the new court, consisting of Charles Allen 
Chief Justice, and with him as associates, Julius 
Eockwell, Otis Phillips Lord, Marcus Morton, Jr., 
Seth Ames, Ezra Wilkinson, Henry Vose, Thomas 
Eussell, John Phelps Putnam and Lincoln Flagg 

In 1860 Mr. Butler, having passed through the 
variouii preliminary grades, was brigadier-general of 
the militia, with headquarters at Lowell. In that 
year he was a delegate to the Democratic National 
Convention held at Charleston in April. His presence 
was a familiar one in Democratic National Conven- 
tions, as he had never failed to attend one since the 
nomination of James K. Polk in 1S44. .(Ir. Parton 
says that " he went to Charleston with two strong con- 
victions in his mind. One was that conccMions to the 
South had gone as far as the Northern Democracy 
could ever be induced to go. The other was that 
the fair nomination of Mr. Douglas by a National 
Democratic Convention was impossible." General 
Butler was a member of the committee to construct a 
platform. The committee divided, making three 
reports — one by the majority adhering to the detuand 
for a slave code for the Territories and protection to 

the slave trade; one by the minority, referring all 
questions in regard to the rights of property in Slates 
or Territories to the Supreme Court, and one by 
General Butler, reaffirming the Democratic principles 
laid down at the National Democratic Convention 
at Cincinnati in 1856. The report of General Butler 
was adopted, but a nomination failed to be made, and 
the convention adjourned to meet at Baltimore on the 
18th of June. At Baltimore the convention was 
again divided. The Douglas men nominated their 
cliief for the Presidency, and Herschell Johnson, of 
Georgia, an avowed disunionist, for Vice-President. 
The other members of the convention retired and 
nominated for President John Cabell Breckenridge, 
of Kentucky, and Joseph Lane, of Oregon, for Vice- 
President. General Butler was one of the supporters 
of the latter nominations. The Douglas platform 
said, "We do not know whether slavery can exist in a 
Territory or not. There is a difference of opinion 
among us upon the subject. The Supreme Court 
must decide and its decision shall be final and bind- 
ing." The Breckenridge platform said : " Slavery 
lawfully exists in a territory the moment a slave- 
holder enters it with his slaves. The United States 
is bound to maintain his right to bold slaves in a 
Territory. But when the people of a Territory frame 
a State Constitution they are to decide whether to 
enter the Union as a slave or free State. If as a slave 
State, they are to be admitted without question. If 
as a free State, the slave-owner must retire or emanci- 
pate." In addition to the two tickets of the Demo- 
cratic party, there was the ticket of what was called 
the Bell and Everett party, with John Bell, of Ten- 
nessee, for President, and Edward Everett, of Massa- 
chusetts, for Vice-President, which constructed no 
platform and expressed no opinion on the question of 
slavery then at issue, and the ticket of the Republi- 
can party, with Abraham Lincoln for President and 
Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, for Vice-President, 
which distinctly opposed the extension of slavery 
into the Territories. 

General Butler returned to Massachusetts and to 
Lowell an unpopular man, but defended his course 
wiih ability, though without success. He was the 
candidate for Governor on the Breckenridge ticket 
and received only six thousand out of one hundred 
and seventy thousand votes. He had previously been 
the Democratic candidate for the same office, and 
received fifty thousand votes. 

In December, 1860, Mr. Lincoln having been chosen 
President in November, General Butler went to 
Washington, and, in company with Southern Demo- 
crats, declared himself in unmistakable terms against 
any attempts to break up the Union. No Republican 
was more emphatic in his denunciation of the 
treasonable language which he heard. His friends 
at the Sou;h insisted that the North would not fight 
against secession. He told them that the North would 
fight, and that if the South went into a war there 



would be an end to slavery. " Do you mean to figtit 
youraelf?" they .asked. "I would," he said, "and by 
the grace of God I will.'' South Carolina seceded, 
and It wa.i expected that a delegation would come to 
Washington to present the ordinance of secession to 
the President. Mr. Black, the United States Attor- 
ney-General, had given it as his opinion that the pro- 
ceedings of South Carolina were legally definable as a 
"riot," which the forces of the United Statea could 
not be legally used in suppressing. General Butler 
said to the Attorney-General : " You say that the 
u;overnment cannot use its army and navy to coerce 
.South Carolina in South Carolina. Very well, I do 
not agree with you ; but let the proposition be 
granted. Now, secession is either a right or it is 
treason. If it is a right, the sooner we know it the 
better. If it is treason, then the presenting of the 
ordinance of secession is an overt act of treason. 
These men are coming to the White House to present 
the ordinance to the President. Admit them. Let 
them present the ordinance. Let the President say 
to them: ' Gentlemen, you go hence in the custody 
of a marshall of the United States as prisoners of 
state, charged with treason your country. 
Summon a jury here in Washington. Indict the com- 
missioners. If any of your officers are backward in 
acting, you have the appointing power; replace them 
with men who feel as men should at a time like this. 
Try the commissioners before the Supreme Court, 
with all the impcsing forms and stately ceremonies 
which marked the trial of Aaron Burr. I have some 
reputation at home as a criminal lawyer, and will 
stay here and help the District Attorney through the 
trial without fee or reward. If they are convicted, 
execute the sentence. If they are acquitted, you will 
have done something toward leaving a clean path for 
the incoming administration. Time will have been 
gained; but the great .advantage will be that both 
jides will join to watoh this high and dignified pro- 
ceeding; the passions of men will cool ; the great 
points at issue will become clear to all parties ; the 
mind of the country will be active, while passion and 
I'll judice are allayed. Meanwhile, if you cannot use 
y..ur army and navy in Charleston Harbor, you can 
'.' uainly employ them in keeping order here." 

The war followed, and on the 15th of April, 1861, 
Fort Sumter had fallen, and the President's procla- 
mation for troops was issued. A brigade cf four regi- 
ments was called for from Massachusetts, to be com- 
manded by a brigadier-seneral. The Third, Fourth, 
Sixth and Eighth Regiments were selected to go. 
The Third and Fourth went by water to Fort Mon- 
roe ; the Sixth went by land, meeting its well-known 
experience in its passage through Baltimore, and on 
the 18th of April, with the Eighth Regiment, Gene- 
ral Butler, the brigadier-general selected, started by 
rail for Washington. From this point, during his 
service in the war, his history forms a part of the 
history of his country. His arrival at Annapolis by 

water from Havre de Grace, his rescue of the frigate 
"Constitution," his possession of Annapolis and the Na- 
val Academy, his reconstruction of the railroad track 
to Annapolis .lunction and his possession of Balti- 
more are related on too many historic pages to be 
repeated in this narrative. 

The occupation of Baltimore by General Butler 
was not approved by General Scott, who sent to him, 
on the 14th of May, the following despatch: "Sir, 
your hazardous occupation of Baltimore was mtule 
without my knowledge, and, of course, without my 
approbation. It is a G«d-send that it was without con- 
flict of arms. It is also reported that you have sent a 
detachment to Frederick ; but this is impossible. Not 
a word have I received from yon as to either move- 
ment. Let me hear from you." This despatch struck 
the general with surprise, as the various despatches 
received by him from Colonel Hamilton, then on the 
staff of the lieutenant-general, certainly warranted 
the movement he had successfully made. General 
Butler was soon after removed from the Department of 
Annapolis, which included Baltimore, and commis- 
sioned major-general of volunteers, in command of 
the Department of Virginia and North Carolina, with 
headquarters at Fort Monroe. In explanation of the 
conduct of General Scott it may be said that he had 
planned a combined movement against Baltimore of 
12.000 troops, in four columns, marching from differ- 
ent posts, and was somewhat chagrined to find that 
General Butler had accomplished the occupation of 
the city with a small body of soldiers without blood- 
shed, and without even the semblance of resistance. 

The commission of General Butler as major gene- 
ral was dated May 16th, two days after his occupa- 
tion of Baltimore, and thus he became, in reality, the 
senior major-general in the service of the United States, 
It is believed, however, that General McClellan and 
General Banks received ante-dated commissions after- 
wards, and thus on paper, but not in fact, became his 
seniors. The writer saw General Butler at Fort 
Monroe soon after he assumed command at that fort, 
and during the period of four days had an opportun- 
ity of observing his aptitude for military affairs and 
the growth of discipline among the three months' 
men stationed at the fort. 

Early in August General Butler was relieved of his 
command in the Department of Virginia and North 
Carolina, and General Wool was appointed in bis 
place. His removal, however, was caused more by a 
desire on the part of the War Department to place a 
skillful and experienced officer of the army in active 
service than by any dissatisfaction with the manner in 
which General Butler had performed his duties. One 
of the first acts of General Wool was to place Gene-p 
ral Butler in command of the volunteer troops outr 
side the fort. This command included nearly all the 
troops in the department. Few were in the fort itself, 
but the constantly-arriving regiments were stationed 
at Hampton, Newport News and other points in the 



vicinity. Most of these were fresii troops, lately en- 
listed and equipped, and needed the most rigid over- 
sight and discipline to prepare them for active ser- 
vice. Nut long after he was placed in command of 
an expedition to reduce the forts at Hatteras Inlet, 
which sailed August 22d, and proved successful. On 
bis return from that expedition his command of the 
troops outside Fort Monroe ceased and he returned 
to Washington. From Washington he came to Mas- 
sachusetts, having received from the War Department 
an order, issued September 16, 1S61, "to raise, or- 
ganize, arm, uniform and equip a volunteer force for 
the war, in the New England States, riOt exceeding 
six regiments of the maximum standard of such arms, 
and in such proportions and in such manner as he 
mav judge expedient; and for this purpose his orders 
and requi-itions on the quartermaster, ordnance and 
other staff departments of the army are to be obeyed 
and answered; provided the cost of such recruitment, 
armament and equipment does not exceed, in the ag- 
gregate, that of like troops now or hereafter raised for 
the service of the United States." 

These troops embarked from Boston Feb. 20, 1862, 
under the command of General Butler, and after the 
reduction of Fort St. Philip and Fort Jackson, on 
the Mississippi River, and their surrender to Admiral 
Farragut, May 1st, he took possession of New Or- 
leans, and remained in command of the Department 
of the Gulf until the arrival of General Banks, on 
the 14th of December, 1862, who, under a general 
order dated November 9;h, assumed command. The 
cause of his removal was doubtless a diplomatic one, 
in which the French government was involved, hav- 
ing its origin in the treatment of French neutrals by 
General Butler, which our government really ap- 
proved, but which, through French spectacles, it 
might seem to disapprove by the removal of the gen- 
eral at whose hands it was received. If General But- 
ler had done nothing in the war prior to the occupa- 
tion of New Orleans, and nothing after he was re- 
lieved of his command of the Department of the 
Gulf, his administration of affairs in that city alone 
would secure to him abundant and lasting fame. The 
limits fixed for this narration will not permit a de- 
tailed account of its brilliant incidents. It is a little 
singular that by his acts in that city he should have 
dulled the glory of Andrew Jackson, the master of 
his youth and age, by robbing him of one of his titles, 
and becoming himself the hero of New 0. leans. 

He was appointed to the Department of Virginia 
and North Carolina, and during the campaign of 1861 
he participated in the military operations before 
Petersburg and Richmond as commander of the Army 
of the Jame-s. In December, 1864, he commanded 
an expedition Fort Fisher, and in November, 
1865, resigned his commission. From 1806 to 1871 
he was a membfr of Congress from the Essex Dis- 
trict, and in 1868 one of the managers of the im- 
peachment trial of Preiident Johnson. At the Re- 

publican State Convention in 1S71 he was a candi- 
date for nomination for Governor, and defeated by 
William B. Washburn. In 1879 he was an independ- 
ent candidate for Governor, and in 1882 he was 
chosen Governor by the Democratic party, and served 
through 1883. In 1883, on his re-nomination, he was 
defeated by George D. Robinson. He is still, at the 
age of seventy-two, finjoying and successfully man- 
aging a large practice, and as a statesman and poli- 
tician may be said to have, though perhaps not the 
largest, yet the most enthusiastic following of which 
any public man in our country can boast. 

Charles Edward Powers was born in Townscnd 
May 9, 1834, aud is the son of Charles and Sarah 
(Brooks) Powers, of that town. He graduated at 
Harvard in 1S5G, and, after studying medicine for a 
time, read law at the Dane Law Sjhool, and gradu- 
ated in 1858. He fettled in Boston, and has since 
made that city his place of residence and business. 

Francis Winnie Qua was born in Lisbon, N. Y., 
Sept. 2, 1845. He was admitted to the Middlesex bar 
in 1878, and settled in Lowell. Ha was a member of 
the Massachusetts House of Representatives iu 18S8 
and 1889, and served with credit to himself and to 
his constituents. He married, September 6, 1879, 
Alice L., daughter of Michael Harden, of Ogdensburg. 

Robert Alexander Southworth was born in 
Medford May 6, 1852, and is the son of Alexander 
and Helen Southworth, of that town. He graduated 
at Harvard in 1874, and, after studying law in the 
office of Charles Theodore and Thomas H. Russell, 
was. admitted to the Suffolk bar in 1876. He has been 
assistant clerk of the Massachusetts House of Repre- 
sentatives, and secretary of the Republican State 
Central Committee. In 1888 he was a memberof the 
State Senate. He now practices law and resides in 

George Clark Travis was born in Holliston, 
August 19, 1847, and graduated at Harvard in 1869. 
He was admitted to the Middlesex bar in 1872, and, 
after practicing law in his native town several years, 
removed to South Framingham, where he lived and 
practiced until 1886, when he removed to Groton, his 
present place of residence, continuing his office in 
Framingham and occupying one also in Boston. He 
married, April 5, 1871, Harriet March, daughter of 
Austin G.,and Mary Charlotte (March) Fitch, of Hol- 

John C. Dodge was born in New Castle, Maine, 
in 1810, and graduated at Bowdoin College in 1834. 
In 1842 he opened a law-office in Boston and made a 
specialty of maritime law. He represented Cambridge 
in the House of Representatives, and was a member 
of the Massachusetts Senate. He was president of 
the Board of Overseers of Bowdoin, and received from 
that college, in 1875, the degree of Djctor of Laws. 
He married, in 1843, Lucy Sherman, of Edgecomb, 
Maine, and died in Cambridge, where he had resided 
many years, July 17, 1890. 



George Bejus was born in Watertown in 1816, 
and graduated at Harvard in 1835. He read law at the 
Harvard Law School and was admitted to the bar in 
1839. He practiced law in Boston until 1858, when 
a severe hemorrhage of the lungs so far impaired his 
health as to cause him to abandon ordinary profess- 
ional employment and to spend a large part of the 
remainder of his life abroad. He was employed in 
connection with Judge Phillips in the preparation of 
a code of criminal law for Massachusetts, which, how- 
ever, was not adopted by the Legislature. He dis- 
tinguished himself in the trial of Abner Rogers a con- 
vict who killed the warden of the State Prison, being 
associated in the defence with George T. Bigelow, 
afterwards chief justice of the Supreme Court. He 
was also associated with John H. Clitford, Attorney- 
General, in the prosecution of Dr. Webster for the mur- 
der of Dr. Parkman, and the preparation of that cele- 
brated case was the work of his hands. His own earn- 
ings, with some inherited property enabled him to 
devote the last twenty years of his life to the study of 
public law, and, especially after the Rebellion lO the 
subject of belligerent and neutral rights and duties. He 
rendered valuable assistance to the Slate Department 
in the discussion of the ciaims of the United States 
against Great Britain for the depredations of the 
Alabama and other cruiserj from British ports against 
our commerce, and publisihed several spirited and 
able pamphlets as a contribution to the controversy. 
lie died at Nice, in Italy, January 5, 1878. 

John W. Bacon was born in Natick in 1818 and 
graduated at Harvard in 1843. After leaving college 
he taught for a time in the Boston High School, and 
after reading law was admitted to the Middlesex bar 
in 1846. He practiced law in Natick fourteen years, 
and from 1859 to 1862 was a member of the State 
Senate. In 1S66 he was appointed by Governor Bul- 
lock chief justice of the Jlunicipal Court of Boston, 
and in 1871 by Governor Claflin one of the justices 
of the Superior Court. He died at Taunton, March 
21, 1888. 

William Whiting was born in Concord, March 
3, 1813, and graduated at Harvard in 1833, and after 
teaching private s-chools at Plymouth and Concord, 
read law at the Harvard Law Schcol and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1838. He opened an office in 
Boston, and very early, by assiduous labor and an ex- 
haustive preparation of all cases placed in his charge, 
won a place in the front rank of the Massachusetts 
bar. He married Lydia Cu>hing, daughter of Thomas 
Russell, of Plymouth, and William G. Russell, a 
Harvard graduate of 1840, and brother of his wife, 
read law in his office and became hi.s partner in busi- 
ness. In 1864 he was appointed solicitor of the War 
Department and served three years. In 1868 he was 
a Presidential elector and ia 1872 was chosen Ri;pre- 
aentative to Congress, but died before he took his 
seat. In 1862 he published a work entitled "The 
War Powers of the President and the Legislative 

Powers of Congress in Relation to Rebellion, Treason 
and Slavery." He also published various pamphlets, 
chiefly legal arguments before the United States 
Courts, and a memoir of Rev. Joseph Harrington. 
He died at Roxbury Highlands, June 29, 1873. 

John Cochran Park was born in Boston, June 
10, 1804, and graduated at Harvard in 1824, in the 
class with George Lunt and Elias Hasket Derby. 
He was admitted to the bar about 1827 and lived to 
be the oldest member of the Suffolk bar. In the early 
days of his practice he was active in military matters 
and at various times commanded the Boston City 
Guards, the Boston Light Infantry and the Ancient 
and Honorable Artillery Company. He joined the 
last-named company in 1829, was itsadjutant in 1837, 
its second lieutenant in 1845, its first lieutenant in 
1850 and its captain in 1853. He was also the clerk 
of the company from 1830 to 1833. For many years 
he was an active and prominent member of the Whig 
party and one of the most fluent and popular speak- 
ers in its ranks. He passed through the Free Soil 
party into the Republican party, and continued his 
connection with that party until the Presidential 
campaign of 1888, when he voted for Grover Cleve- 
land. In 1851 he was appointed by Governor Bout- 
well district attorney for the Suffolk District and re- 
mained in office until 1853. In 1860 he removed to 
Newton, where he continued to reside until his death, 
which occurred April 21, 1889. He married twice, 
his first wife being a daughter of Abraham Moore, 
already referred to as an attorney, first in Groton and 
afterwards in Boston. At his death he left a widow 
and one son, another son having died of wounds re- 
ceived in the war. 

In Newton Mr. Park was appointed by Governor 
Long, in 1881, judge of the Newton Police Court, and 
remained on the bench until his death. The social 
atmosphere of Newton was especially congenial to him. 
Thrown into acircleof educated and scholarly men, he 
found a happy opportunity for the display of the rare 
literary and conversational powers which he possessed. 
In the church with which he was connected, in its 
Sunday-school and in various movements for reform, 
he found a welcome field for his naturally refined 
and philanthropic tastes. The various papers read 
by him in the Newton Tuesday Club, of which ho 
was a member, show both the tendency of his mind 
and its strength and clearness to the last. In 1877 
he read a paper on the " Morals of the Young," in 
1878 one on " Prose Writers of Fiction," in 1879 
"The Government and the Indians," in 1880 " The 
Poor and Pauperism," ia 1881 "Marriage," in 1883 
" Orators and Oratory," in 1884 "Political Parties" 
and "A Mission of Peace to the South," in 1886 
"Communism, Socialism and Strikes " and "Parlia- 
ment and Congress," and in 1888 " We, the People." 

Judge Robert C. Pitman, a member of the club, in a- 
fitting memorial, says of Mr. Park : " His career was 
as versatile as it was protracted. But few have 



touched life at so many points. AVe were reminded 
by the honors paid at his funeral of his early and 
long-continued interest in military life. We know 
the traditions of his fascinating oratory when Web- 
ster and Everett and Choate and Phillips were in 
their prime ; he served in both branches of the Legis- 
lature ; at the bar he had a long and varied career 
upon the civil and criminal side, which was crowned 
at last with faithful years of judicial duties; always 
prompt to turn aside for any service in education, 
charities or reforms, and having a life-long interest 
in religion, its services and instructions." 

John Spaulding was born in Townsend, August 
8, 1817. He is descended from Edward Spaulding, 
who came to New England about 1630, and first set- 
tled in Braintree. Edward, the ancestor, was made a 
freeman in 1640, and was one of the original grantees 
and settlers of Chelmsford in May, 1C55. By a wife, 
Margaret, who died in August, 1640, he had John 
about 1633, Edward about 1635 and Grace. By a sec- 
ond wife, Rachel, he had Benjamin in 1643 ; Joseph 
1646 ; Dinah, 1649, and Andrew 1652. Of these chil- 
dren, Andrew, who was horn November 19, 1652, and 
died May 6, 1713, married Hannah Jefes, of Billerica, 
April 30, 1674, and had Hannah, Andrew, Henry, 
John, Rachel, William, Joanna, Benoni and Mary. 
Of these, Andrew, who was born in Chelmsford, 
March 25, 1678, and died November 7, 1753, married 
Abigail Warren, February 5, 1701, and had Andrew, 
Jacob, Henry, Josiah, Ephraim, Isaac, Abigail, Jo- 
anna, James, David, Benjamin and Sarah. Of these, 
Isaac, who was born in Chelmsford, October 28, 1710, 
and died March 4, 1776, married Sarah Barrett, and 
removed to Townsend, where hia farm is still in the 
family. His children were Jonathan, Lydia, Sarah, 
Benjamin, Abigail, Lucy and Esther. Of these, Ben- 
jamin was born in Townsend, August 14, 1743, and 
died May 27, 1832. He married Mary Heald Decem- 
ber 5, 1765, and had Benjamin, Peter, Mary, David, 
Joel, Abel, Isaac, Sarah, Ephraim and Nancy. Of 
these, Benjamin, born in Townsend, April 17, 1767, 
died May 21, 1842. He married, first, Sibyl Wallace, 
March 19, 1789; second, Sibyl Sanders, August 1, 
1797, and third. Mrs. Betsey Searle, May 2, 1822. 
His children were Sibyl, Benjamin, John, Polly, 
Levi, Peter, Jonas, Abigail, Susan, Samuel and Amos. 
Of these, John, born in Townsend, May 10, 1794, 
married Mrs. Eleanor Bennett, of Boston, in 1814; 
second, Eliza Lawrence Spalding, of Shirley, June 3, 
1830, and third, Esther Pierce, of Townsend, May 22, 
1834. His children were Eliza Ann, born October 1, 
1814; John, August 8, 1817; Mary Heald, April 6, 
1820; Sibyl, September 12, 1822; Caroline Matilda, 
October 18, 1824; Abel, September 21, 1831; Ellen 
Maria, November 13,1842; Theodore Lyman, April 
21, 1845; Lyman Beecher, February 25, 1847; Theo- 
dore Eddy, May 3, 1849. and Ellen Rebecca, Febru- 
ary 23, 1854. 

Of these, John, the subject of this sketch, received 

his early education in the public schools of his native 
town :ind at Phillips Academy. In 1842 he entered 
Yale College, but on account of ill health jvas obliged 
to leave bis class in its senior year and thus failed to 
receive a degree in regular order. At a subsequent 
period, however, the degree of Master of Arts was 
conferred on him. The education which he finally 
secured was due chiefly to his own love of learning 
and his indomitable energy and perseverance. While 
working on his father's farm he was only able to at- 
tend school during eight or ten weeks in the winter, 
and the instruction thus received was supplemented 
by voluntary study during eveniDgs and rainy days 
at other seasons of the year. At the age of seven- 
teen he had prepared himself for teaching school, and 
for a short time pursued that occupation with eminent 
success. With strong health, great self-reliance and 
precocious will and energy, but with inadequate finan- 
cial aid he succeeded in obtaining a liberal education. 
In 1850 he graduated at the Dane Law School, in 
Cambridge, and, after a period of study in the law-of- 
fice of George Frederick Farley, of Groton, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1851. By his own unaided ef- 
forts he entered on bis professional career, and having 
paid his own way, he opened an olBcc in Groton, owing 
no man a dollar and with a small sum securely in- 
vented in profitable railroad stock. 

While in the oflSce of Mr. Farley he was placed in 
charge of cases in the Magistrates' Court and thus ac- 
quired some experience in the trial of cases before he 
launched his own professional bark. In this way he 
secured a class of business which, after he began 
practice on his own account, naturally fell into his 
hands — a practice which gradually extended even be- 
yond the borders of Middlesex County, and which, 
skillfully managed as it was, secured to him at a very 
early period a prominent and lucrative standing in 
his profession. 

His settlement in Groton was made in response to 
the request of many prominent citizens, who were 
anxious to have a young, active lawyer in their town, 
and they not only provided him with an office as an 
inducement for him to remain with them, but their 
continued encouragement and aid were of essential 
service to him in getting a firm foothold at the bar. 
Mr. Spaulding remained in Groton about ten years. 
When the south part of that town became a promi- 
nent railroad centre he followed the popular wave and 
practiced in that section until 1872, when he removed 
to Boston. It was largely due to his eflTorts and influ- 
ence that Groton Junction as it was called, and a part 
of the town of Shirley were incorporated, in 1871, as 
a new town under the name of Ayer. 

While practicing in Middlesex County the District 
Courts were established, and when the First Northern 
Middlesex Court was established Mr. Spaulding de- 
clined the appointment of judge, but accepted the po- 
sition of special justice, which he now holds. The 
necessary sacrifice of a large portion of his lucrative 

^/V^/'t ^ /l,l('/ ^^ t iiC 

( /A^/i/iectA^ / /yj^ty/tZ^i 



practice would scarcely, in his opinion, be justified by 
the honor which such a judicial position would bestow. 

Judge Spauldiug now resides in Boston Highlands, 
and is in the enjoyment of a well-earued and lucra- 
tive legal business, which is not likely to be soon im- 
pHired by any failure of his strong mental and phys- 
ical powers. He married, in 1802, Charlotte A., 
daughter of Alpheus Bigelow, of Weston, who died 
June 24, 1889, leaving no children. 

Judge Spaulding has, until now, well advanced in 
life, devoted himself assiduously to his professional 
pursuits, neither seeking nor accepting office, believ- 
ing that in our country few higher positions can be 
attained than that of a well-read, sound, successful 

Arthur P. Bonxey, the son of Isaac and Abi- 
gail (Stetson) Bonney, of Plympton, Massachusetts, 
was born in that town July 9, 1828. He attended the 
common schools of his native town and afterwards 
those in Lowell. He also attended the Dracut Acad- 
emy, and in the study of the languages had the advan- 
tages of a private tutor. He firsj, studied medicine 
for a time, but finally entered as a student the law- 
office of Seth Ames & Thomas Hopkinson, then in 
full practice in Lowell. After his admission to the 
bar in 1848 he opened an office in Lowell and prac- 
ticed alone until he entered the firm of his old instruc- 
tors, which assumed the name of Hopkinson, Ames & 
Bonney. In 1849 Mr. Hopkinson was appointed a 
justice of the Common Pleas Court, and the firm con- 
tinued under the name of Ames & Bonney until 1859, 
when Mr. Ames was appointed one of the justices of 
the Superior Court established in that year. Since 
that time Mr. Bonney has continued in a gradually 
enlarging business until his practice, now chiefly con- 
fined to corporations, has placed him in the front rank 
of Lowell's most prominent and wealthy citizens. In 
1855 he was city solicitor, and in 1857, 1858 and 18G1 
he was a member of the State Senate. In 1858 the 
writer was with him at the Senate board, and remem- 
bers him, though the youngest, yet one of the ablest, 
members. From 1864 to 1880 he was president of the 
First National Bank of Lowell, and from 1880 to the 
present time haa been president of the Merchants' Na- 
tional Bank. He has been also a director in the 
Lowell and Andover Railroad Corporation. He is a 
Republican in politics and a Unitarian in religion, 
and a prominent and active member of both organi- 
zations. He married Emma A., daughter of Dr. Royal 
Hall, of Lowell, and has one child, a daughter. 

Hon. Tapp.vx Wextworth was born in Dover, 
New Hampshire, February 24, 1802, and died in 
Lowell, Massachusetts, June 12, 1875. The Went- 
worth family is one of the most prominent in the 
history of England, and Tappan Wentworth was a 
lineal descendant of Thomas Wentworth, the Earl of 
Slrafibrd, whom the genius of Macaulay has made for- 
ever famous. 

William Wentworth was the first immigrant of his 

name to America, and was one of the Rev. John 
Wheelwright's company at Exeter, in 1638. 

After that he resided at Wells and then in Dover, 
iu the church of which he was a ruling elder. 

He was the father of four sons, from one of whom 
Governor John Wentworth was descended ; from an- 
other, the Hon. John Wentworth, of Chicago, and 
from the other two, by a union in the line, the Hon. 
Tappan Wentworth. 

Three of the Wentworths were Grovernors of New 
Hampshire. Of these, John Wentworth was commis- 
sioned Lieutenant-Governor in 1711 ; Benning Went- 
worth was appointed Governor in 1741, and held the 
office until 1767 ; John Wentworth, his nephew and 
successor, held the same dignity until the com- 
mencement of the Revolutionary War. In that mem- 
orable struggle for human rights he conscientiously 
adhered to the Royal cause. 

The Wentworth Governors had granted the charter 
of Dartmouth College, and had endowed it by giving 
the lands upon which its edifices now stand, and had 
fostered it so long as they had the power. 

William Wentworth, the first American founder of 
the family, was twice married ; was the father of 
ten children, and died March 16, 1696. Benjamin 
Wentworth, his youngest son, born in Dover, married 
Sarah Allen, in 1697, by whom he had eleven chil- 
dren, and died in August, 1728. William Wentworth, 
eldest son of Benjamin, was born August 14, 1698, 
and was twice married. Of his twelve children, 
Evans was born December 25, 1750, married Dorothy, 
daughter of Ezekiel Wentworth, March 19, 1772, and 
died in August, 1826. Of his nine children, Isaac, 
father of Tappan, was born August 13, 1776; married 
Eleanor, daughter of Thomas Gowdey ; was the father 
of eleven children, and died in 1827. 

Tappan Wentworth received his elementary educa- 
tion at the common schools and the classical school at 

During his early manhood he spent about three 
years at Portsmouth, employed in a grocery store, 
from whence he went to South Berwick, Maine, and 
served successively in the stores of Benjamin Mason 
and AlphonsoGerrish, as clerk. 

But Tappan Wentworth possessed abilities, force 
and ambition that demanded a wider field than that 
within the limits of a country store. He manifested 
deep interest in politics. A spirited article written 
by him, advocating the re-election of William Bur- 
leigh member of Congress from the York District, at- 
tracted that gentleman's attention, and induced him 
to offer his tuition in the study of law to Tappan 
Wentworth. The offer was accepted, the course of 
legal preparation finished, and he was admitted to 
the bar of York County in 1826. 

Seven years of successful practice in South Berwick 
and Great Falls followed his admission. In Novem- 
ber, 1833, he removed to Loweil, with savings to the 
amount of about $7000 in his possession. 



Mr. Wentworth's first public service was rendered 
as a member of the committee which drafted the first 
city charter of Lowell in 1836. He was the Whig 
lawyer on the committee, and Joseph W. JIansur the 
Democratic. He was elected to the Common Council 
the same year, re-elected in 183", '39, '40, '41, and offi- 
ciated as president the last four years. In 1848—49 
he represented his fellow-citizens in the Senate of 
Massachusetts. In 1851 he was returned asrepresen- | 
tativeto the lower house of the State Legislature, and i 
also in 1859, 1860 and 1863. In 1865-66 he was again j 
representative in the State Senate. He was an active i 
Whig advocate — a statesman of the Webster school ] 
throughout the best days of the Whig organization — 
and on the " stump "di.splayed the qualities of a prac- ' 
tical and an argumentative orator. 

In the fall of 1852, Tappan Wentworth was elected 
as a Whig to the National House of Representatives, 
by a vote of 4341, as against 4240 cast for Henry : 
Wilson, Coalitionist. ' 

The Worcester -.Egia' at the time of his election, I 
said: "The election of this gentleman to Congress ' 
from the Eighth District over Henry Wilson, the 
master-spirit of coalition, has given great satisfaction 
to the Whigs in all j,-i,o ,jf ihc State. 

" To any who know Mr. Wentworth, it is needless 
to say that his election is an important contribution 
to the talent and ability of the next Congress — as a 
clear-headed and forcible speaker, he will have no 
superior in the Massachusetts delegation, while as a 
working member he will be eminently useful." 

While in Congress he was a member of the House 
Committee on Commerce, aud introduced several im- 
portant measures. Among them was a re<olution to 
see what legislation is necessary to regulate or pro- 
hibit the introduction into the United States by any 
foreign government or individual of any foreigners, 
either insane, blind or otherwise disabled. On this 
resolution he spoke at considerable length. 

The matter was referred to the Committee on Com- 
merce, which subsequently reported a bill that passed 
into law, and that covers the entire subject. In 
1854 he delivered a powerful and eloquent speech, in 
opposition to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska 

The cordial relations which had so long existed be- 
tween Mr. Wentworth and President Pierce, and also 
between himself and Attorney Genera! Caleb Cushing, 
were of great advantage to him, although he was in 
the Whig opposition to their Democratic administra- 
tion. Through them he quickly established friendly 
relation.s with the several members of the Cabinet, and 
also with the Democratic Speaker, who showed his 
appreciation of Mr. Wtntworth's abilities when he 
appointed the difi'erent Standing Committees. 
relations with the chiefs of the esiiting adraiaistra- 
tion, which enabled him to serve his constituents 
more beneficially than he otherwise could have done, 
were used by his opponents to create distrust of his 

fidelity, and to defeat him when a candidate for re- 

The public life of Mr. Wentworth was closely iden- 
tified with the growth and prosperity of the city of 
Lowell, and he was already ready to assist in any 
public enterprise, and liberally supported all the city 

He was projector and president of one of the State 
railways, and at the time of his death was presideut 
of the National Rubber Company, of Providence and 
Bristol, R. I. 

His life-work, however, was his profession, and to 
that were given his talents, which were of a com- 
manding chaiacter. 

He always received the careful attention of both 
judge and jury. His legal record was brilliant and 
successful, and his place in the profession was in the 
front rank. 

Judge Nathan Crosby, in his eulogy on Mr. Went- 
worth, said : " He was not long in selecting Dartmouth 
as his donee. He was a New Hampshire man, his 
kindred had laid the foundation of the State, and had 
chartered and founded the college." 

His will bequeathed all his property, which he said 
would not take long to reach 8500,000 to Dartmouth 
College in the following words : " All my real estate 
stocks in corporations and debts due me, I give, devise 
and bequeath to Dartmouth College, in fee simple, 
and forever, to be used for the purposes of said Col- 
lege, in such manner as the proper officers who may 
have the management and control of the general 
funds of the College, may from time to time deter- 

The bequest was charged with limited legacies and 
annuities, and will bear in all coming time, one-half 
the expenses and reap one-half the benefits and glory 
o/ this college. " In all the relations of life," wrote 
an early friend familiar with him as husband, father, 
sen and brother, " he mostemphalically and nobly did 
his duty, and his record is written on high." 

" When he once gave his friendship, remarked Mr. 
John McNeil, his biother-in-law, " it was for life, and 
to the end. Even if the object proved unworthy, he 
let go with more reluctance and regret than most men." 

A large portion of his law library was bequeathed 
to the city of Lowell, for the use of the bar of Lowell, 
practicing in the Police Court. Mrs. Wentworth after- 
wards furnished in good taste and fitnes-s a library- 
case for 'he books, surmounted with the Wentworth 
coat-of-armi, with the superscription " Wentworth 
library,' and also gave largely from her own library 
to till its shelves. 

After the death of 5Ir. Wentworth a largely attend- 
ed meeting of the Middlesex bar passed some highly 
eulogistic resolutions, expressive of their appreciation 
of his character and abilities, and of their sense of 
his loss. 

Tappan Wentworth was married, on the 20th of 
Jauuary, 1842, to Anne, daughter of Genl. Solomoa 



McNeil, of Hillsboro', N. H., .1 granddaughter of 
Gov. Pierce, and a niece of President Franiilin Pierce. 
In all respects she was a help-meet for him. An only 
child, a son, Frederick Tappan Wentsvorth, was born 
March 7, 1843, and died April 17, 1853, of a sudden 
illness. His death w.os a sore affliction to his parents. 

Mrs. Wentworth, surviving her noble husband, has 
gracefully and touchingly completed the great act of 
his life. 

JosiAH G. Abbott, now living in Boston, is de- 
scended from George Abbott, of Yorkshire, England, 
who came to New England about 1640, and settled 
at Andover, in 1643. The ancestor married, in 
1647, Hannah, daughter of William and Annie 
Chandler, and died December 24, 1681. His widow 
married Rev. Francis Dane, the minister of Andover, 
and died June 11, 1711. William Abbott, son of the 
ancestor, boru November 18, 1657, married, June 2, 
1682, Elizabeth Gray, and had a son Paul, born 
March 25, 1697, who removed from Andover to Pom- 
fret, Connecticut, about 1722. Paul had a son 
Nathan, born in Andover April 11, 1731, who mar- 
ried, in 1759, Jane Paul, and had a son Caleb, who 
married Lucy Lovejoy, and for a second wife, Debo- 
rah Baker. Caleb had a son Caleb, born February 
10, 1779, who was a merchant in Chelmsford, and 
married Mercy, daughter of Josiah Fletcher. The 
children of the Caleb were — Mercy Maria, born 
January 24, 1808, deceased August 21, 1825; Lucy Ann 
Lovejoy, born Sept. 16, 1809 ; Caleb Fletcher, born 
Sept. 8, 181 1, who graduated at Harvard in 1831, and 
settled as a lawyer in 1835 in Toledo, Ohio; Josiah 
Gardner, the subject of this sketch, and Evelina 3Iaria 
Antoinette, born Sept. 14, 1817. 

Josiah Gardner was born in Chelmsford, Novem- 
ber 1, 1815, and attended the Chelmsford Academy, 
at one time under the care of Ralph Waldo Emer- 
son, principal. He recalls with special interest 
the impression which Mr. Emerson, then unknown, 
by his gentle seriousness and great purity, made 
on his youthful mind. He graduated at Harvard 
in 1832, in the class with Henry Whitney Bel- 
lows, Charles T. Brooks, George Ticknor Curtis, 
E^tes Howe, Charles Mason, Albert Hobart Nelson, 
Samuel Osgood, George Frederick Simmons and 
many others who acquired position and fame. In 
such a class, though the youngest member, Mr. 
Abbott secured a creditable rank. After leaving 
college he read law with Nathaniel Wright and Amos 
Spaulding in Lowell, and at the Dane Law School in 
Cambridge. He was prepared for admission at the 
bar in September, 1835, but a serious illness delayed 
his admission uutil December of that year, when, 
barely twenty years of age he entered on his profess- 
ional career as a partner with Mr. Spaulding, one of 
his instructors. After a business connection of two 
years with Mr. Spaulding he practiced alone until 
1840, when he became connected with Samuel Apple- 
ton Brown. 

On the 21st of May, 1855, the Common Pleas 
Court, so far as Suffolk County was concerned, was 
discontinued by law, and the Superior Court for the 
County of SafTolk was established. The judges com- 
missioned for this court by Governor Gardner were, 
Albert Hobart Nelson, chief justice, and Judges Hunt- 
ington, Nash and Abbott, the subject of this sketch, 
associates. On the resignation of Chief Justice Nel- 
son, who died in 1858, Charles Allen was appointed 
by Governor Banks as his successor. Judge Abbott 
resigned in June, 1858. In 1859 both the Common 
Pleas Court and the Superior Court for the County of 
Suffolk were abolished, and the Superior Court for 
the Commonwealth was established. It was due to 
the manner in which he and his associates adminis- 
tered the Superior Court that the Court of Common 
Pleas was abolished and courts on the same basis as 
the Superior Court established for all the State. 
Judge Abbott, on his return to practice, still lived in 
Lowell, but had his office in Boston, and engaged, 
however, in a law business which extended into many 
of the counties of the State. In 1860 he declined a 
seat on the bench of the Supreme Judicial Court, and 
in 1861 removed to Boston, where he has since that 
time lived. 

In 1837, at the age of twenty-two he was a member 
of the House of Representatives and in 1842 and 1843, 
member of the Senate. In the latter year he was 
chairman of the Judiciary Committee of the Senate, 
an unusual honor for one who had served so short a 
time, and was also editor of a tri-weekly paper in Low- 
ell for the year 1840, the year of the hard cider cam- 
paign. He was also a member of the staff of Gov- 
ernor Marcus Morton. In 1853 be was a delegate 
from Lowell to the convention for the revision of the 
Constitution, and in 1875 and 1876 was a member of 
Congress. While in Congress he was a member of the 
commission to determi ne the election of President, and 
has been the Democratic candidate for Governor 
several limes and repeatedly the Democratic candi- 
date in the Legislature for United States Senator. 
He has been a delegate to the Democratic National 
Conventions of 1844, '64, '68, '72, '76, '80 and '84; 
a delegate at large, and chairman of the Massa- 
chusetts delegation at all but that of 1844. He 
has been at various times intimately connected with 
corporations and business enterprises, having been 
president of the Hamilton Manufacturing Company 
of Lowell, of the Atlantic Cotton-Mill of Lawrence, 
of the Hill Manufacturing Company and the Union 
Water-Power Company of Lewiston, Maine, and of 
the Boston and Lowell Railroad Company. He has 
also been a director of the North American Insurance 
Company of Boston, and vice-prei^ident of several 
savings institutions. Throughout his career, how- 
ever, he has always made politics and financial and 
other occupations subservient to his professional voca- 
tion, and never permitted them to distract his mind 
firom his legitimate professional studies and pursuits. 



His business in the courts has brought him in con- 
tact with the ablest men of the Massachusetts bar, 
including Choate, Curtis, Bartlett and Whiting, of 
the Suffolk bar, and Farley, Butler and Sweetser, of 
the Middlesex bar, and in the contests with these 
giants in the law in which he has engaged he has 
shown himself their peer. With General Butler in 
his earlier years he was often associated as his se- 
nior, and in later times he has often been pitted 
against him in the legal arena. With Mr. Choate he 
was obliged to exert all his powers, and make use of 
all his learning. With Mr. Butler it was necessary 
to be armed at all points and be constantly on the 
alert against surprises while Mr. Farley at times dis- 
played a wonderful keenness of logic which needed 
all his legal and forensic strength to meet and if pos- 
sible overcome. No man at the bar in our Common- 
wealth has been more industrious in bis profession or 
performed more unremitting labor. It is safe to say 
that during fifteen years of his career he was engaged 
in the trial of causes before the courts or referees or 
auditors or committees of the Legislature three hun- 
dred days out of the three hundred and sixty-five in 
the year. The writer has bad the opportunity of ob- 
serving his skill in the management of important 
causes, and has discovered in him a faculty, not com- 
mon among lawyers of tersely and concisely selecting 
and treating the strong points in his case before a 
jury, making them the means of a counter-attack 
against the strong points of his opponent, and, like a 
skillful general, piercing the centre of his antagonist's 
line of battle while the movements against his wings 
were left unopposed. 

Judge Abbott married, July 18, 1838, Caroline, 
daughter of Edward St. Loe Livermore, chief justice 
of the Supreme Court of New Hampshire, and has 
had two daughter and seven sons. His two daughters 
were Caroline, who married George Perry, son of the 
late Dr. Marshal S. Perry, of Boston, and Sarah, who 
married William P. Fay. Of his sons, Edward Gard- 
ner was born September 29, 1840, and graduated at 
Harvard in 1860. At the breaking out of the war of 
1861 he raised the first company of three years' vol- 
unteers for the Second Regiment of Massachusetts, 
and as brevet major was killed at the battle of Cedar 
Mountain. Henry Livermore, born January 21, 1842, 
also graduated at Harvard in 1860, at the age of eigh- 
teen years, and while major of the Twentieth Regi- 
ment of Massachusetts and brevet brigadier-general 
waa killed in the Wilderness. Fletcher Morton, born 
February 18, 1843, waa commissioned captain in the 
Second Regiment of Massachusetts and served on the 
staff of General William Dwight. Though in many 
battles, in which he exhibited conspicuous gallantry, 
he served three years in the war without a scratch. 
He afterwards studied medicine, but is not in prac- 
tice. Samuel Appleton Browne was born March 6, 
1846, and graduated at Harvard in 1866. He enlisted 
at the age of sixteen in the New England Guards 

Regiment, but was not called into service, and entered 
college. He is now engaged in the profession of law. 
Franklin Pierce, the fifth son, attended the Dane Law 
School at Cambridge, and is now practicing law- 
Grafton St. Loe graduated at Harvard in 1877 and is 
also in the law. Holker Welch Abbott, the seventh 
son, is an artist. Judge Abbott received the degree 
of Doctor of Laws from Williams College in 1862. 
He is now living in Boston, and at the age of seventy- 
four assiduously engaged in the labors of his profes- 
sion, with mind and body unimpaired and with the 
promise of years of labor for his own honor and credit 
and for the community in which he is held in uni- 
versal respect. 

Theodore Harrisox Sweetser was born in 
Wardsboro', Vermont, in 1821, but attended the com- 
mon schools of Lowell and Phillips Academy in his 
youth and entered Amherst College. He left college 
before graduation and taught school in Lowell and 
afterwards entered as a student the law-office of 
Tappan Wentworth, in that city. After his admission 
to the bar he was associated for a time with Mr. 
Wentworth in business and afterwards at different 
times with Benjamin Poole and William Sewall 
Gardner. He was in the Common Council of Lowell 
in 1S51, city solicitor in 1853, '54, '59, '60 and '61, in 
the Legislature from Lowell in 1870, and the Demo- 
cratic candidate for Governor and member of Con- 
gress. In 1879 he removed to Boston and there died 
May 8, 1882. His mother was a sister of Solomon ■ 
Sirong, one of the judges appointed to the bench of 
the Common Pleas Court when it was established, in 
1821. Mr. Sweetser was recognized by the members 
of the bar as one of the ablest in their ranks, and his 
ability and reputation drew to him a large and lucra- 
tive business. He married a Miss Derby, who died 
before him, and their only daughter, the wife of Willis 
Farrington, lives in Lowell. 

George Merrick Brooks, the son of Nathan and 
Mary (Merrick) Brooks, of Concord, was born in that 
town in 1824, and graduated at Harvard in 1844. 
He rfad law with Hopkinson & Ames, of Lowell, and 
at the Dane Law School in Cambridge, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Lowell in 1847. He settled in 
his native town and married, in 1851, Abba Prescott, 
who died leaving no children. In 1865 he married 
Mary A. Dillingham, of Lowell, who is the mother of 
two children, both daughters, the older of whom is 
nineteen. Mr. Brooks has been selectman five years, 
was in the Massachusetts House of Representatives 
in 1858, and in the Senate in 1859. In 1869, '70, 
'71, '72 he was a member of Congress, hav- 
ing been chosen at his first election to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the resignation of George S. Boutwell 
to take the position of Secretary of the Treasury under 
President Grant. Before the close of the second Con- 
gress, of which he was a member, he resigned to take 
the position of Judge of Probate for Middlesex 
County, to which he had been appointed by Governor 



'^/.y//^^ /-,/j^ ?/ 



Washburn. He has been president of the Middlesex 
Institution for Savings, a director in the Concord 
N'ational Bank, and a trustee of the Concord Public 
Library. He is still Judge of Probate and held in 
the highest esteem throughout the county. 

John Shepaed Keyes, son of John and Ann S. 
(Shepard) Keyes, of Concord, was born in that town 
Sept. 19, 1821, and attended, in his youth, the com- 
mon schools of his native town, and Concord 
Academy, and fitted for college under the care of 
private instructors. He graduated at Harvard in 
1841, and read law with his father and Edward Mel- 
len, of Wayland, and in the Dane Law School, at 
Cambridge, and was admitted to the bar in March, 
1844. He opened an ofiBce in Concord, and until 
1853 was engaged in practice. In 1849 he was a 
member of the ilassachusetts Senate, and in 1853 was 
appointed sheriff of Middlesex County, and served 
under his appointment until his office was made 
elective, when in 1856 he was chosen by the county, 
and served until 1860. In 1860 he attended, as a 
delegate, the Kepublican National Convention at 
Chicago, and in April, 1861, was appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln United States marshal for Massachu- 
setts, and served until August, 1866, when he re- 
signed. He then retired to his farm in Concord, was 
water commissioner and road commissioner, and in 
1874 was appointed by Governor Talbot, acting Gov- 
ernor, standing justice of the Central Middlesex 
District Court, and still holds that otfiee. He deliv- 
ered the oration at Concord ou the Fourth of July 
in the centennial year 1876, and was president of the 
day on the celebration of the 250th anniversary of 
the seltlement of the town, in 1885. 

An interesting incident in the life of Mr. Keyes is 
one connected with his membership of the Senate, in 
1849. In that year the Senate consisted of forty 
Whigs, and the House of Representatives had 260 
members. Forty years after, in 1889, only two of the 
Senators were living, and only four of the House 
could be heard of as yet in active life. In that year 
these six, including Charles Devens and John S. 
Keyes, of the Senate, and George S. Boutwell, Nathan- 
iel P. Banks, William Claflin and Henry L. Dawes, 
dined together, and the record of the men is suf- 
ficiently remarkable to be stated in this narrative. 
Three of the six had been Governors of Ma.°sachu- 
setts, four Representatives in Congress, three United 
States marshals for Massachusetts, two members of 
the President's Cabinet, two United States Senators, 
two major-generals in the army, one president of the 
ilassachusetts Senate, one Lieutenant Governor of 
Massachusetts, one Speaker of both the Mass- 
achusetts and United States House of Representa- 
tives, two judges. In 1849 three were Whigs and 
three Democrats, and in 1889 all Republicans. 

Mr. Keyes married, Sept. 19, 1844, Martha Lawrence 
Prescott, of Concord, and has had six children, two 
of whom died in infancy. Two daughters are living, 

one of whom is married, and a son, Prescott Keyes, 
who graduated at Harvard in 1879, read law with 
Charles R. Train and at the Dane Law School, in 
Cambridge, and is now in practice in Suffolk and 

Edward Mellen was born in Westboro', in Wor- 
cester County, early in the century and graduated at 
Brown University. After admission to the bar he 
settled in Wayland, in Middlesex County, where he 
soon acquired a large practice. He was a hard stu- 
dent and became so well versed in the reports that 
on almost every point of law which had been decided 
in the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts he 
could readily quote the case in which it was involved. 
He was leading counsel in many important cases, 
and it is said that at the December Middlesex term 
of the Court of Common Pleas in 1843 he tried twen- 
ty contested cases and secured verdicts in nineteen. 
In 1847 he, with Charles Edward Forbes, was ap- 
pointed to the Common Pleas bench to fill vacancies 
occasioned by the resignation of Emory Washburn 
and Harrison Gray Otis Colby. In 1854 he was 
made chief justice on the death of his predecessor, 
Daniel Wells, and retained that position until the 
court was abolished, in 1859. During his career as 
judge he was most assiduous in the performance of 
his duties, shirking no work, always taking volumin- 
ous notes and making exhaustive charges to the jury. 
After he left the bench he settled in Worcester, 
where he continued in successful practice until his 
death, which occurred at Wayland in 1875. 

William Adams Richaedson, son of Daniel and 
Mary (Adams) Richardson, was born in Tyngsbor- 
j ough, November 2, 1821. His father, a native of 
Pelham, New Hampshire, was a brother of William 
M. Richardson, who, for twenty years, was the chief 
justice of that State and married Mary, daughter of 
William Adams, of Chelmsford, for whom the subject 
I of this sketch was named. William Adams Richard- 
son prepared for college at the Groton (now Law- 
i rence) Academy, at Groton, of which institution he 
: has been for nearly thirty years one of the trustees. 
I He graduated at Harvard in 1843 and at the Dane 
1 Law School in 1846. He also read law for a time in 
the office at Lowell of his brother, Daniel S. Rich- 
] ardson, whose sketch has already been given, and was 
admitted to the bar in Boston July 8, 1846. On the 
i next day after his admission he went into business 
! with his brother, under the firm-name of D. S. & 
I W. A. Richardson. This partnership continued until 
; 1S58, when he was appointed judge of Probate and 
I Insolvency for Middlesex County. He then left, his 
I brother removing his office to Boston, and not long 
j after changing his residence to Cambridge. 
j In 1849 he was chosen to fill a vacancy in the 
i Common Council of Lowell and being again a mem- 
^ ber of the Council in 1853 and 1854 was, during both 
I of these years, president of that body. In November, 
1846, he was appointed judge advocate of the second 



division of Massachusetts Volunteer Militia with the 
rank of a major, and held that otfice several years. 
In 1850, the last year of the service of Governor 
Brigg^, he was a member of the staff with the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. la March, 1855, he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners to revise the Stat- 
utes of Massachusetts, who reported the revision 
which finally became the General Statutes of 1860. 
On the 27th of December, 1859, he was appointed 
wiih George Partridge Sanger, by a resolution of the 
Legislature of Massachusetts, a commissioner to edit 
and superintend the publication of the General Stat- 
utes and prepare an index to the same. 

On the 7th of April, 1856, he was appointed judge 
of Probate for Middlesex County, holding office uniil 
July, 1858, when that office was abolished, and, as 
has been stated, he was appointed judge of Probate 
and. Insolvency. Ic 1863 he was chosen by the Leg- 
islature of Massachusetts one of the overseers of 
Harvard College for the term of six years, and the 
law under which the overseers are chosen by the 
alumni was based on a plan devised by him. In 
1869 he was chosen for another term of six years by 
the alumni, but before the expiration of his term he 
removed from the State. 

On the 27th of March, 1867, he was appointed with 
Judge Sanger, already mentioned, as his associate in 
editing and publishing the General Statutes, an edi- 
tor of the annual supplement to the " General Stat- 
utes," which was continued until the " General Stat- 
utes " were superseded by the " Public Statutes " in 

On the 20th of March, 1869, he was appointed 
assistant secretary of the treasury, and held that 
office until March, 1873, when, ou the retirement of 
George S. Boutwell, the secretary, he was appointed 
his successor. On the 23d of April, 1869, he was ap- 
pointed one of the justices of the Superior Court of 
Massachusetts, but declined the appointment to con- 
tinue iu the office of assistant secretary of the treas- 

After the great fire in Boston had burned and de- 
stroyed the stereotype plates of the " General Stat- 
utes" and "Supplement," he was associated in 1872, 
with Judge Sanger under a resolution of the Legisla- 
ture in preparing and editing a second edition of 
both. On the 17th of March, 1873, he was appointed, 
as has beeu stated. Secretary of the Treasury, and held 
that office until he was appointed in June, 1874, one 
of the judges of the Court of Claims at Washington, 
being promoted January 20, 1835, from the position 
of associate judge to that of chief justice, which he 
still holds. His associates on the bench are Charles 
C. Nott, Gleani W. Schofield, Lawrence Weldon and 
John Davij. 

On the 7th of June, 1880, he was appointed by Con- 
gress to edit and publish a supplement to the Revised 
Statutes of the United States, with notes and refer- 
ences, which was issued in 1881, and contains the 

legislation from 1874 to that year. Since ISSO Mr. 
Richard.son has been one of the professors of law in 
Georgetown University, and has received a degree of 
Doctor of Laws from Columbia University in 1S73, 
Georgetown in 1881, Howard in 1S82 and Dartmouth 
in 18S6. 

In April, 1890, Congress passed an act continuing 
the publication of the supplement to the Revised 
Statutes of the United States down to March, 1891, 
to be prepared and edited by Mr. Richardson. 

At various times during the residence of Mr. Rich- 
ardson in Lowell he was a director in the Appleton 
State and National Bank, president of the Wameait 
State and National Bank, one of the corporators, trus- 
tees and finance committee of the Lowell Five Cent 
Savings Bank, and one of the directors of the Merri- 
mack Manufacturing Company. He was also vice- 
president and president of the Middlesex Mechanics' 

Mr. Richardson married, October 29, 1849, Anna 
M. Marston, of Machiasport, Me., who died in Paris, 
France, March 26, 1870, leaving one child, Isabel 
Richardson, now the wile of Ale.'candtr F. Magruder, 
surgeon in the navy, now living in Washington. 

The record of Mr. Richardson shows him to have 
been an active, industrious man, not only learned in 
the law, but pos^essipg business habits and general 
traits of character which have deserved and won the 
confidence of the world. 

Samuel Appleton Browne, was born in Ipswich 
November 4, 1810, and read law with Nathan D. Ap- 
pleton at Alfred, Me. He practiced law in Lowell 
after his admission to the bar in 1840, and was asso- 
ciated with Josiah G. Abbott until Mr. Abbott was 
appointed to the bench of the Superior Court for the 
County of Suffolk in 1855. He was a member of the 
Massachusetts Senate two years, and died January 
27, 1867. 

William Ecstis Russell is the son of Charles 
Theodore and Sarah Elizabeth (Ballister) Russell, of 
Cambridge, whose sketch has already been given, and 
was born in that city. He graduated at Harvard in 
1877, and, haviog studied law with his father, was 
admitted to the Suffolk bar, and is in business with 
his father, Charles Theodore Russell ; his uncle, 
Thomas Hastings Russell ; his brother, Charles Theo- 
dore, Jr.; and his cousin, Arthur H., the son of 
Thomas Hastings, and has his office in Boston. 
Though so young a man, he has been the mayor of 
his native city from 1885 to 1889, and in 1888 and 
1889 was the candidate for Governor of Massachusetts 
of the Democratic party. The two campaigns in 
which he was engaged were, on the whole, the most 
remarkable gubernatorial campaigns ever made in 
Massachusetts. His speeche.'', which were numerous 
and able, gave him a national reputation, which 
promises a career of brilliancy and advancement. 

William Ellison Parmenter is the son of 
William Parmenter, of East Cambridge, who is re- 





membered as a distinguished Democratic politician. 
He graduated at Harvard in 1836, and, after reading 
law, was admitted to the Suffolk bar. He always had 
his office in Boston until his appointment to the 
bench of the Municipal Court in that city, of which 
he is the chief justice. His residence is in Arlington. 

John Wilkes Hammond ' was born in that part of 
Kochester, in Plymouth County, Massachusetts 
which is now Mattapoisett, December 16, 18.37, being 
the first-born of two children of John Wilkes Ham- 
mond and Maria L. (Southworth) Hammond. His 
ancestors bad been residents of Plymouth County 
for more than two centuries. His father was a 
house carpenter, — an intelligent and respectable 
man, — who, dying when the .subject of this sketch 
was five years old, left a widow and two children 
without property. The name of their son, who 
had been christened James Horace Hammond, ivas 
changed by act of the Legislature, after the death of 
his father, to John Wilkes Hammond. 

His mother, an intelligent woman, and of great 
energy and perseverance, provided for her children 
by leaching school, keeping boarders, and such other 
means as her ingenuity suggested, giving them the 
benefit of good mental and moral training. John was 
apt to learn, but was not physically strong, and for 
his health, in the summer of 1855 he went upon a cod- 
fishing cruise, of several months, to the Grand Bank 
of Newfoundland, in a schooner from Plymouth. 

Supplementing what he had learned in the public 
schools of Mattapoisett by an attendance of some 
months in the Barstow Academy of that village, he 
enteredTufts College in the autumn of 1857. Here, by 
school-keeping and other means, he worked his way 
through college, graduating at the head of his clais 
in July, 1861. 

Finding himself, at this, time, about five hundred 
dollars in debt, he taught in the high schools of 
Stoughton and Tisbury, until September, 1862, when 
he enlisted as a private in Company I, Third Massa- 
chusetts nine-months' Infantry, and served with this 
regiment until it was mustered out in June, 1863. 

During his service in the army he narrowly es- 
caped being taken prisoner at the attack of the rebels 
on Plymouth, N. C. 

After his return from the war he commenced the 
study of medicine, but finding it not to his taste, 
abandoned it, and taught for a time in the high 
schools of South Reading (now Wakefield) and Mel- 
rose, — studying law, the latter part of the time, in the 
office of Sweetser & Gardner, in Boston. 

With this preparation, and an attendance of one 
term at the Harvard Law School, he was admitted 
to the bar, at the Superior Court, Cambridge, in Feb- 
ruary, 1866. 

In March he commenced practice in Cambridge, 
where he has ever since resided. 

1 CoDtribated. 

On August 15th of the same year he married Clara 
Ellen, only child of Benjamin F. and Clara (Foster) 
Tweed. Of the issue of this union there are three 
children, — Frank Tweed, Clara Maria, and John 

Mr. Hammond began practice with a high ideal of 
the legal profession, regarding it as a means of pre- 
venting rather than promoting litigation. Acting on 
this conviction, he uniformly advised clients to settle 
difficulties, if possible, without recourse to trial. 

Though an entire stranger in Cambridge, and des- 
titute of the aid of influential friends, he soon gained 
the confidence of the community, as was shown by 
his election to several municipal offices — as member 
of the School Committee and of the Common Council. 
In 1872 and 1873 he represented Cambridge in the 
General Court. 

In the mean time his legal practice had rapidly in- 
creased, and in 1873 he was elected city solicitor, — an 
office which he held continuously, by annual election, 
until March 10, 1886. At this time, having been 
appointed by Governor Robinson associate justice of 
the Superior Court, he left a large and increasing 
legal practice, resigned the office of city solicitor and 
entered at once upon his duties as judge. 

Members of the bar, who practiced in the courts 
with him, uniformly speak of him as having attained 
a high standing both as a counselor and an advo- 

As an advocate he showed excellent judgment in the 
presentation of the evidence before the jury, and was 
persistent in behalf of his client. His arguments 
were never long, but strictly confined to the points at 
issue, and were delivered with a straightforward ear- 
nestness that was very effective with juries. He was 
equally strong before the bench. 

The experience which Mr. Hammond had in the 
courts, and especially that as city solicitor, were 
an admirable training for his duties as judge. The 
opinions which he had been called upon to give to 
the several departments of the city government, and 
which, in case of litigation, it became his duty to 
maintain in court, were largely of a judicial char- 
acter. As a judge he fully maintained the reputa- 
tion he had acquired as a lawyer. 

Chaeles Edward Powers,^ son of Charles and 
Sarah Brooks Powers, was born in Townsend, May 9, 
1834, [See biographical sketch of Charles Powers.] In 
his boyhood he attended the public schools, and had the 
advantages and full benefit of a thorough education, 
having graduated from the institution of New Hamp- 
ton, N. H., and was afterwards private pupil of Prof, 
Knight, of New London, N. H., in the higher mathe- 
matics, for which he had great fondness. He entered 
Harvard University, at Cambridge, in 1853; gradu- 
ated and took the degree of A. B. in 1856, afler 
having passed a rigid examination, and was awarded 

- Contributed. 



the grade of " magna cum laude." After taking the 
degree it was his intention to study medicine and 
surgery, with the view of becoming a surgeon, and for 
that purpose he entered the medical school in Boston. 
He had, however, but commenced his new studies, 
when he learned of the very sudden death of his 
esteemed father, which event obliged him to leave the 
school and devote himself to his father's business, 
which he very successfully carried on for a time, and 
after settling up the estate he concluded to study 
law, and entered the Law School of Harvard Uni- 
versity for that purpose, from which he graduated, 
and took the degree of LL.B. in 1858. In 1859 he 
formed a co-partnership with Hon. Linus Child and 
Linus Mason Child, under the tirm-narae of Child & 
Powers, " attorneys and counselera-at-law," and 
opened law otfices in the city of Boston, where they 
have since remained, Mr. Child, Sr., having died 
some years ago. 

Soon after commencing the active practice of the 
law the street railways of Boston were beginning to 
be built and put in operation. Mr. Powers was 
one of the few only, in those early days, who believed 
in their success, and he at once embarked in the 
enterprise, became a large owner, and was made 
a director and president in several of ihem. For 
many years, he and his firm were the acting counsel 
for many of them, and remain so to this day. 

Soon after becoming a resident of Boston Mr. 
Powers became a very active Free Mason. He was 
made the Master of a lodge ; for several years was the 
Eminent Commander of Boston Commandery of 
Knights Templar ; and for several years was the 
Grand Master of the Select and Eoyal Masons of 

Mr. Powers has never been an aspirant for political 
office. Some years since, and immediately after the 
great fire in Boston, he was prevailed upon to accept 
the nomination for the City Council of Boston, and 
thereupon both political parties put him in nomina- 
tion, and for two years he was unanimously elected. 
After servingthe two years in the City Council, he was 
nominated and elected on the " Water Board " of the 
city, where he served until the water-works were put 
into the hands of commissioners. It may be said of 
Mr. Powers that he is regarded as an energetic, saga- 
cious man, quick to apprehend, fertile in resource, and 
one who does thoroughly that to which he turns his 

Mr. Powers was married in 1858 to Miss H. E. 
Fessenden, daughter of Hon. Walter Fessenden, of 
Townsend, and has two daughters — Marion (Mrs. 
Lamar S. Lowry) and Florence Agnes (Mrs. Henry 
McLellan Harding). They have both received an 
European education, having been abroad six or seven 
years for that purpose; and while thus abroad, Mr. 
Powers visited them every year, and made extensive 
travels with them. In religion Mr. Powers is a Uni- 
tarian, having become a member of the College 

Chapel Church in 1S5G. He has always enjoyed the 
best of health, never having had a sick day in his life. 
To a large degree he inherited his father's noble 
physique and constitution, and we trust that he may 
coMtinue to eujoy good health for very many years to 

Samuel King Hamilton' comes from Maine, the 
good old State that has been nursing mother to so 
many sons of genius, who have by worthy deeds in 
other fields, reflected honor on the gracious parent 
who bore them. 

Mr. Hamilton was the youngest son of Benjamin 
R. and Sarah (Carl) Hamilton, and was born July 27, 
1837, at Carl's Corner, in Waterborough, York County, 
Maine. He was descended from a sturdy, strong- 
headed Scottish ancestry, which first took root in 
American soil at Berwick, Me., about 1GG6. The 
boyhood and youth of Mr, Hamilton were spent on 
the horue farm, where he became used to the rugged, 
healthful life of the New England husbandman, and 
early learned " what trees make shingle,'' while a 
naturally strong mind developed with all the rapidity 
of which surrounding circumstances would permit. 
A district school furnished the rudiments of knowl- 
edge, but a hungry and restless mind soon compassed 
its curriculum, and reached out with still eager long- 
ing for something laiger and better than it had 

The parents recognized in the last of their six stal- 
wart sons, as in others before him, the presence of a 
spirit too aspiring for its native acres, and wisely pro- 
vided him an opportunity to pursue his studies at 
Limerick Academy, and later in theSaco High School, 
where, with enthusiastic diligence under accomplished 
instructors, the youth of Waterboro' made rapid strides 
in the educational course, and in February, 185G, had 
ihe courage to apply for the the position of teacher of 
a village school, and first wielded the emblem of mag- 
isterial authority in the Ford District of his native 
town, with conspicuous success. 

Leaving the High School inSacoin 1856, with hopes 
of future usefulness crystallizing into earnest pur- 
pose to deserve success, and still following the beck- 
oning hand of fair Science, young Hamilton entered, 
in September, 1856, the Chandler Scientific Depart- 
ment of Dartmouth College, and graduated with honor 
in the class of 1859. He had mostly paid his own 
way through by teaching school in winters and by 
other employment, and now with resolute courage and 
glowing hopes he pressed forward for the final equip- 
ment for his chosen profession of the law. Before 
graduating from college he had already entered as a 
student the busy office of Hon. Ira T. Drew, at Al- 
fred, Maine, where, remaining several years, varied by 
teaching school at Wakefield, Massachusetts, and as 
principal of Alfred Academy, and assisting in a large 
general practice in York County, he so demonstrated 

1 Bj Chtster W. Eatuo. 


, ^ ^2^^^^^^ 




his capacity and abilify in the legal profession, that 
in 1862, having been admitted to the York County 
bar, he was received by Mr. Drew as a partner under 
the firm-name of Drew & Hamilton. There was no 
kicking of heels for clients in that office, but the bus- 
ness cf the partnei'ship rapidly expanded, and the 
firm had a high reputation all over the country. In 
1867 the partnership was dissolved, and Mr. Hamil- 
ton opened an office in Biddeford, where he estab- 
lished his residence and met with ample success. He 
was an alderman of the city two years, and in 1871 
was chosen, as a Democrat, to represent Biddeford in 
the Maine Legislature, where he made his mark as a 
busy, influential member. In December, 1872, Mr. 
Hamilton moved to Wakefield, Massachusetts, enter- 
ing into partnership with Chester W. Eaton, a col- 
lege classmate, with law-offices at Boston and Wake- 
field. This partnership was dissolved in 1878, Mr. 
Hamilton continuing his office in Boston, where his 
soundness as an adviser and his ability as an advocate 
were becoming more and more recognized in the bus- 
iness world. He retained his residence in Wakefield, 
where he was highly valued as a citizen and a lawyer. 
Mr. Hamilton has been greatly interested in the pros- 
perous development, and especially the educational 
concerns, of his adopted town. He has served nine 
years on the Board of School Committee, six years of 
which time he was chairman of the Board, as chair- 
man of selectmen two years, and many years as chair- 
man of trustees of Beebe Town Library, and has as- 
sisted in the promotion of various important enter- 
prises in the town. In 1883, when the people of 
Wakefield were about erecting a handsome and com- 
modious brick school-house they voted unanimously 
in open town-meeting that the same should be called 
the " Hamilton School Building," in recognition of 
Mr. Hamilton's valuable and public-spirited services 
in behalf of the Wakefield schools. Mr. Hamilton has 
been treasurer of the Pine Tree State Club, of Boston, 
since i's organization, and was delegate to the 
National Democratic Convention in 1880, from the 
Fifth Congressional District of Massachusetts. 

Though the business office of Mr. Hamilton has 
been located in Bo.^ton, his practice has extended 
largely over Middlesex County, and his form and 
voice are well known to court and jury in Boston, 
Cambridge, Lowell, Maiden and Wakefield. His 
office practice is also large, and he has obtained a 
special distinction for legal knowlege and acumen 
in respect to the organization and management»of ] 
corporutions. Mr. Hamilton has been in demand as I 
a platform speaker in many hot political campaigns, I 
and by his abounding good nature and ready wit is j 
popular even among his opjionentf. He still resides i 
in Wakefield, and is one of the foremost in all local 
movements for public improvements. I 

ilr. Hamilton was married in Newfield, Maine, 1 
February 13, 1867, to Annie E., daughter of Joseph i 
B. and Harriet X. Davis. Thev have no children. 


William H. Anderson's' earliest American an- 
cestor waa James Anderson, one of the sixteen origi- 
nal proprietors of the town of Londonderry, N. H., a 
class of sturdy, uncompromising Presbyterians, who, 
seeking greater religious freedom, emigrated from 
Ireland to New England in the year 1719. 

Their ancestors, many years before, had fled from 
the persecutions which the Presbyterian Church suf- 
fered in Scotland, and, crossing the narrow channel, 
had settled in the fertile fields of the North of Ireland. 

James Anderson settled in that part of London- 
derry now called Derry, and his oldest son received 
his father's "second division," or "amendment land," 
which comprised a large tract lying on Beaver Brook, 
in the southern part of the town. A portion of this 
tract has been handed down from fkther to son for 
five generations, to the subject of this sketch. Such 
instances are now quite rare even in New England, 
and it is not strange that, combining so many natu- 
ral attractions and historic associations, Mr. Ander- 
son has delighted to improve it and make it a place 
of his frequent resort. 

On this farm Mr. Anderson was bom Jan. 12, 1836. 
His father, Francis D. Anderson, was a well-known 
resident of the town, and was frequently placed by his 
fellow-townsmen in offices of trust and honor. His 
mother, Jahe Davidson, of the adjoining town of 
Windham, N. H., although a life-long invalid, is well 
remembered for her superior qualities of mind and 
heart and her Christian fortitude and patience under 
great suffering. 

Mr. Anderson, after passing his boyhood on his 
father's farm, pursued his preparatory course of liber- 
al study at Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, N. H., 
and at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. He 
entered Yale College in 1855, at the age of nineteen 
years, and graduated in 1859. After graduation he 
went to Mississippi, and was a tutor in a private fam- 
ily in thatState,and in New Orleans until 
the autumn of 1860, when ill health compelled him 
to return North. 

He commenced the study of law in the office of 
Morse (Isaac S.) and Stevens (George) in Lowell, and 
continued in their office till his admission to the 
bar in December, 1862. The firm of Morse & Stev- 
ens being then dissolved, he became a partner with 
Mr. George Stevens on the Ist of January, 1863. This 
business relation continued until April, 1875, a period 
of nearly thirteen years, and only ceased because of 
the election of Mr. Stevens as district attorney for 
Middlesex County. 

Messrs. Stevens and Anderson were the first tenants 
of the building known as Barristers' Hall, at the cor- 
ner of Central and Merrimack Streets, after its 
change from religious to secular uses, acd Mr. Ander- 
son has now (1890) occupied the same office for more 
than twenty-five years. 

> ContriliuteU. 



In 1868 and 1869 Mr. AnJerson was a member of 
the Common Council of Lowell, and in the latter year 
he was president of that body. For several years he 
was a member of the School Committee. In 1871 and 
1872 he was a member of the Massachusetts House 
of Representatives. 

Since the latter date he has held no public office, 
but has devoted himself closely to the practice of his 
profession, having found by experience that the law 
is indeed a jealous mistress and that she cannot be 
too assiduously wooed. 

Mr. Anderson possesses qualities which admirably 
adapt him to the practice of his profession. Cool and 
deliberate in judgment, thoughtful and dignified in 
manner, patient and thorough in investigation, he 
readily impresses upon hjs clients the conviction that 
their in:ere3t8 are safe in his hands. He enjoys an 
extensive practice and holds a high position at the 
bar of Middlesex County. 

The eleeant residence of Mr. Anderson, on the 
heights of Belvidere, overlooking the Merrimack, is not 
surpassed in attractiveness and beauty by that of any cit- 
izen of Lowell. The broad and well-shorn lawn in front, 
the wood-crowned height."* of Centralville across the 
stream, the charming views both up and down the 
river combine to form a scene of no ordinary loveliness. 

On Oct. 1, 1868, Mr. Anderson married Mary A., 
daughter of Joseph Hine, of Springfield, Mass. His 
only child, Francis W, was born Dec. 20, 1877. 

Marcellus Coggan.' — The subject of this sketch 
belongs distinctly to the class of self-mude men. 
He was born in Bristol, Lincoln County, Maine, 
the second of four children of Leonard C. and Betsey 
M. Coggan. He obtained his early education in the 
district school of his native town, and later followed 
the sea in the coasting trade between Maine and the 
southern ports and the West Indies. Not satisfied to 
follow a seafaring life, when a young man he entered 
Lincoln Academy, New Ca-tle, Me., and there pre- 
pared for Bowdoin College, which he entered in 1868, 
and through which he made his way by hnrd work, 
teaching in public schools and acaderaie-i during the 
winters, and graduating with honor in 1872, at the 
age of twenty-five. 

Immediately afterwards he was engaged as princi- 
pal of Nichols Academy, in Dudley, Worcester 
County, Mass, and remained there until 1879. Nich- 
ols Academy is an old institution of learning, well- 
known in Worcester County, and at times in its his- 
tory had enjoyed great prosperity, but when Mr. Cog- 
gan took charge it was undergoing a period of de- 
pression. With the management of the new princi- 
pal it took on new life and energy, and entered upon 
a new period of prosperity, which it has since main- 
tained. While in Dudley Mr. Coggan took an active 
Jjart in town affairs, and waa a member of the School 
Committee for four years. 

1 Cnntribtlteil. 

I During all this time, and ever since leaving college, 
Mr. Coggan had the legal profession in view, and read 
j law steadily while engaged in teaching. In 1879 he 
I gave up his position as principal, and removed hin 
residence to Maiden, entering at the same time the 
law-office of Child & Powers, in Boston. In 1S81 be 
was admitted to the Suffolk bar, and his success in 
practice was immediate and steady. In 1886 he 
formed a partnership with William Schofield, at that 
time instructor in the Law of Torts at the Harvard 
Law School, and the firm have since ('one business 
under the name of Coggan & Schofield in Maiden 
and Boston, and have risen steadily in business and in 
the estimation of the public. 

Upon taking up his residence in Maiden Mr. Cog- 
gan at once became active in public affair.-", joining 
various local organizations. In 1880 he was elected 
a member of the School Committee, and was an active 
and efficient member of the board for three ye^rs. 
During that time questions of great importance to 
the educational interests of the city were agitated, 
and Mr. Coggan impre.ssed himself upon the citizens 
as a man of decided opinions, and of the courage to 
maintain them. In 1884, by the persuasion of 
friends, he ran as an independent candidate for the 
office of mayor, the regular nominee of the 
city convention, and was defeated ; but his friends 
were so encouraged by the resul s of his canvass that 
he was induced to run again as an independent can- 
didate in 1885, and was elected over the regular 
nominee, Hon. Joseph F. Wiggin. 

Mr. Cogjan a.ssumed the office of mayor of Maiden 
in January, 1886, and was the fourth in succession in 
that office since the incorporation of the city — a sig- 
nal tribute to bis character anj ability, since he had 
been a resident of the city only since 1879. His ad- 
ministration as mayor was succe.-sful, and in 1886 he 
was re-elected, without opposition, by an almc st 
unanmous vote, for the ensuing year. Perhaps the 
strongest feature of Mr. Coggan's administration was 
his enforcement of the prohibitory law. The city, in 
1885, had voted " No License," and during the first 
year of Mr. Coggan's mayoralty this vote of the 
people was thoroughly enforced, in a manner which 
attracted wide ai ten) ion, and with results which were 
very gratifying to the friends of temperance. In the 
second year of his office Mr. Coggan continued in all 
departments the vigorous policy which had marked 
his first year. He refuied a nomination for a third 
term, and retired from office at the end of 1887. 
Since that time he has taken no active part in poli- 
tics, but has devoted himself exclusively to his pro- 
fession. In his political principles Mr. Coggan has 
been a consistent and life-long Republican. 

In 1872 Mr. Coggan married Luella B. Robbins, 
daughter of C. C. Robbins and Lucind.i Robbins, of 
Bristol, Me., and three children have been born to 
tiiem of that marriage. 

Mr. Alfred Hkjienway, one of the leading law- 

<^^J t^t^>-g^, 



yers of the Jlassachusetts bar, was born in Hopkin- 
ton, Mass., Auguat 17, 1839. He fitted for college in 
his native town and graduated at Yale University in 
the clas9 of 1861. He studied law at the Harvard 
University Law School, and was admitted to the bar 
in Suffolk County July 1-3, 1863. He has since then 
resided and practiced in Boston, and has steadily 
risen in his profession, alike in the extent of his prac- 
tice and in reputation as a lawyer. He has delivered 
law lectures at the Lasell Seminary, is one of the ex- 
aminer.^ for admission to the Suffolk bar, and has 
been president of the Yale Alumni A.ssociation in 
Boston. But he has mainly confined his attention to 
the immediate duties of his profession, in which he is 
a close student, and in which he is recognized as one 
of the most successful members. His familarity with 
the reports and the readiness with which he cites the 
cases bearing on any mooted point have especially 
won him reputation. Very few lawyers are better 
grounded in the principles of the law or m familiar 
with its authorities. He is much in court, tries cases 
with ability, is now largely engaged as senior counsel, 
and before a jury or the court has a ready speech, an 
agreeable manner, and an earnest, convincing and 
logical power of statement and argument. He is a ! 
member of the law-firm of Allen, Long & Hemenway, I 
his partners being Stillman B. Allen, Esq. and ex- I 
Governor John D. Long. Mr. Hemenway was ten- 
dered an appointment upon the bench of the Superior 
Court by Governor Ames, but he declined the honor. | 

It cannot be expected that in this narrative sketches 
would be given of all the prominent members of the 
Jliddlesex bar. .Already the space assigned to this 
chapter has been exceeded, and the writer must ex- 
clude from his list the names of many lawyers who 
deserve a place in this record. There ire General 
James Dana, of Cbarlestown, recently deceased, the ; 
.son of Samuel Dana, already referred to ; Marshal 
Preston, of Billerica; Constantine C. Estey, of Fra- 
mingham ; Theodore C. Hurd, clerk of the courts; 
B. B. Johnson, of Waltham, who has been mayor of 
that city, and is active and prominent in the prohib- 
itory cause ; Henry F. Duraut, son of William Smith, 
who changed his name, and who, after a short prac- 
tice in Lowell, became a successful member of the ! 
Suffolk bar; Richard G. Colby, city solicitor of Low- | 
ell in IS42; Isaac S. Morse, city solicitor of Lowell 
from 18oU to 1852, and afterwards district attorney ; 
.Vlpheus A. Brown, city solicitor of Lowell in 1858 
and 1862 and ISii-'i ; William B. Steven.s, of Stone- 
ham, district attorney for the Northern District; J. H. 
Tyler, register of Probate and Insolvency; .\rthur , 
W. Austin ; Thomas Wright, of T,awrence, son of Na- 
thaniel Wright, of Lowell; J. Q. A. (tritiin, the bril- 
liant lawyer and legislator, cut off in the full prom- 
ise of an eminent career ; Shermac Hoar, of Walt- 
ham, and Josiah Rutter, of Waltham — but all these 
must only be referred to by name, while many [ 
more, worthy of menliun, must bo omitted altogether. I 

The chapter will close with a list, as complete as the 
writer has been able to make it, of the lawyers now 
practicing in the county. 

The following were, in 1889, engaged in practice in 
the towns set against their names : 

.\cton— F. C. Naah, A. A. Wyman. 
1 ArliDgton— John H. Handy. Wnj. Parmenter, W. H. H. Tuttle. 
[ .Uhby— S. J. Bradle«. 

.\6blaud— George T. Higley. 
I Ayer — Warren H. .Mwood. C. A. Batchelder, George J. Bums, James 
' Gerriah, Levi Wallace, C. F. Worcester. 
: Bedford— George R. BHud, Elibu G. Loomis, George Skiltnn. 
BelDioDt — Frederick Dodge. 
Cambridge — .\iigiisliDe J. Daly. 
1 Caiubridgeport— George C. Bent, John Cahill, H. C. Holt, Edwtn H. 
! Jose. J. E. Kelley, G. A. A. Pevey, Charles G. Pope, I. F. Sawyer, Henry 
I H. Winslow. 

East Cambridge — Felix Conlon, Freeman Hunt. Edward B. Mallej, 
I Charles J. 3tclntire. Lorenzo Marrett. 

Concord — G. M. Brooks, George Heywood, Eben Rockwood Hoar, 
Samuel Hoar, .John S. Keyes, Prescott Keys. George A. King, Charles 
I Thompson. C. H. Walcott. 

Evfrett— Dudley P. Bailey, C. C. Nichols, George A. Ssltmarsh, G E. 

Framingham (South) — Walter Adams, John W. Allard, Condtantlne C. 
Esty, Charles S. Forbes, Ira B. Forbes, W. \. Kingsbury, Sidney A. 

Holliston — W. A. Kingsbury. 
Huitsan — James T. Joslin, Ralph E. Joslin. 

Lexington — Robert P. Clapp, George H. Reed, J. RoBSell Reed, Augns- 
tUB E. Scottt. 

Littleton — George \. Sanderson. 

Lo^vell. Julian Abbott, James C. .\bbott, W. H. .Audeison, Wm. P. 
airry, George W. Batchelder. C. R. Blaisdell, .V. P. Blaisdell, Harvey 
,\. Brown, C. E. Burnham, George A, Byam, James H. Carmicliael, G. W. 
Clement, Ch. H. Conant, Wm. F. Courtney, Charles Cowley. Jeremiah 
Crowley, John Davis, Dan Donahue, Thos. F. Enhght, Philip J. Farley, 
Peter A. Kay, Fred. A. Fisher, John F. Frye, F. T. Guillet, Joe. H. Gnil- 
let, Ch. s Hadloy, S. P. Hadley, John J. Harvey, J. T. Haskell, P. J. 
Hour. J. J. Hogon, John L. Hunt, Louis H. Kileski, J. C. Kimball, Jooa. 
Ladd. Alfred G. Lamson, G. F. Lawtou, F. Lawton, Ch.S. Lilley, Fred P. 
Marble. John Marreii, J N. .^larshall, Martin L. Hamblet, John T. 31»a- 
leiaon. John W. McEvoy, Ed. D. SluVey, Albert M. Moore. Jno. H. Mor- 
rison. Isaac S. Moore, Wm. F. Courtney. Junies Stuart Murphy, Bernard 

D. o'Conuell, Myron Penn, J. J. Picknian, George W. Poore, Irving S. 
Poller, Nallian D. Pratt, Ed. B. guinn, Francis W. Qnay, John W. Reed, 
Dan M. llichardpfttu, George P. Ricliardbou, George R. Richanlsoo. J. 
F. .Savage, C. W. Savage, .\. P. Sawyer, Luther E. Shepstd, George H. 
Stevens, Solou W. Stevens, L. T. Trnll, .\. C. Vamum, George M. Ward. 
Herbert R. Wliite, S. B. Wjnian. 

Maiden— Charles E. Abljott, George D. -Vyers, Harry H. Barrett, Har- 
vey L. Boiitwell. C. M. Bruce, Orren H. Carpenter. Marcellus Cogg«n. 
W. B. de Las Casas, E. E. Eaton, (."harles R. Elder, George H. Fall, J. 

E. Farnham, P. J. McGinre. Edwin fj. Mclnnes, J. H. Millett, J. W. 
Pettingill, M. F. Stevens, Arthur H. Wellniun. 

Marlboro' — Samuel N. Aldricb, W. N. Davenport, Heman S. Fay, 
Gale I. McDonald, Edward F. Johnson, J. W. McDonald, J. F. J. Otter- 

Maynai-d — Thomas Hillis, J. W. Reed. 

Medford— Thomas S. Harlow, Benjamin F. Hayes, F. H. Kidder, W. 
P. Martin, C. F. Paige, B. E. Perry, C. G. Plunkett, D. A. Gleaaon 
(West), George J. Tufts (West). 

Melrose- E. c. Morgan, W. H. Roberts. 

N'alick— P. H.i'ooney, F. .M. Forbnsb, James McManiis, H. C. Mnlli- 
^-lUi. H. G. Sleeper, i liarles IJ. Tirrell.G. I». Tower, L. H. Wakefield. 

Newton — I. C. Ivy, J. c. Kenneily, George A. P. Codwire (Lower 

Ileadiiic— Si.lon llancmft, Cliaiiiiccy P. Iiidd, E. T. Swift. 

Somen ille — Selw.vli /.. Bowuiaii, Brown A .\lger, .John Haskell But- 
ler, .loliii K. I.'iuipy, Herbert A. ('Iirtpin, D. F. Crane, Joseph Cummings, 
Samuel C. Darling Michael F. Farrell, Oren S. Knapp, Charles S. Lin- 
coln, Thomas F. Maguire, .\. .\. Pyrry, (.'harles G. Pope, Isaac Story, 
Francis Tufts, L. R. Wentworth. 

Sl.iuehaiii— D. F. liriggs, A. V. Lynile, .V. S. Lynde, William B. 



Tewkabury— Charlea R Blaindell. 

Wakefield— Dean Dudley, Chester W. Eaton, FreemAn Evans, S. K. 
Hamilton, Wintield C. Jordan, Wm. E. Rogers, fieorge H. Towie, Ed- 
ward A. Upton. 

Waltham— Allen J. Mayberry, Thomas Curley, T. B. Eaton, D, 
French, John L. Harvey. Sherman Hoar, B B. Johnson, A. J. Lathrop, 
Dudley Roberts, R. M. St.irf, Tharles F. SInne, F M. Stone, T. H. Arm- 

Watertown— I. V, Bemia, F. E. Crawford, J. J. Sullivan. 

Wayland— R. T. Lombard. 

Weston— .\ndrew Fieke, Charles H. Fiske. 

Wilmington— Chester W. Clark. 

Winchester- A B. Coffln, .<. .1. Elder, J. H. Fulsom, i5eorge S. Little 
field, Eugene Tappsn, .\. l.'. Vinton, J. T. Wilson. 

Woburn— Charles D. Adnins, M. T. Allen. B. E. Bond, Parker L. O'n 
verse, Francis P. Curran, 1. W. ,t E. F. Johnson, John G. Jlaguiie, 
Wro. N. Titua. 





We have been urged on tlie score of long residence 
in the county, to write something For this book. 

Under so vague a commission, many topics suggest 
themselves, and we fall back on our native town of 
Cambridge, where the qualification above mentioned 
is most available. 

We have a few words to say about Revolutionary 
recollections connected with our town, but rely 
chiefly on our topographic memory to give pleasure 
in noting the changes wrought by time. First, how- 
ever, a loyal word for our county. 

It is a fair territory. It has its mounts of vision, 
whence one beholds spread out beneath him the 
plenty, prosperity and peaceful content which, viewed 
thus largely, belong to the domain of poetry. We 
have our two, (sufficiently) broad rivers, which pay 
their daily tribute to Ocean and receive back a 
briny .acknowledgment of their loyalty ; others are 
accessories only to larger streams. We have silvery 
lakes in which secluded Xature views herself with 
satisfaction. We have, here and there, pleasant sug- 
gesiions, at least, of forest. 

Without prejudice to sister counties, we think we 
have all the gradations from wild nature, to a comely 
civilization, in fair proximity to perfection. The his- 
tory before us, tells of our progress, from the one point 
to the other. 

Middlesex is rich in Revolutionary incident. Cam- 
bridge was a part of the route by which both detach- 
ments of the British troops went to Concord on the 
10th of April, 1775. The first party of SOO was con- 
veyed from Boston to Lechmere's Point (now East 
Cambridge) in boats, and passing over the marshes to 
what then, and also in our boyhood, was called Milk 
Row, in Cambridge, went by that avenue from the 
Charlestown, to the West Cambridge (now Arlington) 

The reinforcement under Lord Percy, coming over 
Brighton Bridge, must have proceeded straight from 

Harvard Square up North Avenue. About 1846 a 
venerable inhabitant of our town told us that on the 
19th of April, being then a boy apprentice to a tailor, 
he saw from a building just north of our present poat- 
otfice (which we remember) Lord Percy's detach- 
ment pass by. 

It is well enough to fix the spot whence the young 
'prentice gazed unconsciously at the beginning of a 
Revolution. Such places seem like telegraphic 
points between the past and the present for the imag- 

Somewhere about 1850 a venerable colored man 
appeared at our doors asking some transient hospi- 
tality. His extreme age suggested inquiry. It ap- 
peared that he was living in Lexington in 1775, and, 
as it seemed, belonged to a Captain Parker of that 
town. By his own account he lived on very easy 
terms in the household. Being asked if he remem- 
bered what is called the Battle of Lexington, he 
replied that he saw it, and knew all about it. Here, 
then, an ej'e-witness of a memorable event. Unso- 
phisticated as he appeared, he was the very man to 
give some simple incident of the day whose pictur- 
esque effect he might not himself appreciate. 

When refreshed he was put on the witness stand. 
"Xow then tell us about the battle." " Well, you see I 
had Cap'n Parker's horse to take care on that day. 
Well I come out there and the dust was a flyin' and 
the guns a firin' and the blood a runnin'. You see, I 
had taken care of Cap'n Parker's horse." This was the 
amount of what could be got from him about the 
Battle of Lexington. He was then asked if he re- 
membered anything about Bunker's Hill. " Yes, I 
was there. I remember all about it." " Well, how 
was that?" "Well, the British Gen'l he come out 
and drawed his sword and the 'Merican Gen'l he 
come out and drawed his sword, an' then they all 
went at it and fit till the blood run knee deep." So 
much for our antiquarian discovery. 

In our boy days many small story-and-a-half build- 
ings (so-called) on the present North Avenue re- 
minded one of the Revolutionary epoch. They had 
witnessed the passage of Lord Percy's nine hundred, 
and probably added their part, to the number of 
his assailants. 

These memories of the beginning of the war are 


contiDued in Cambridge by the occupation of the 
college buildings by our troops, and by Washiuglon's 
occupation of llie present LongCellow house as head- 

We now turn to Harvard College at its foundation. 

Governor Wintbrop came to Salem, which was 
already settled, and thence to Boston, in 1630, bring- 
ing the charter of the Colony with him. To quote 
from a note to his journal : " 7th mo., 14th day, 1638, 
John Harvard, Master of Arts in Emanuel College, 
Cambridge, deceased, and by will gave the half of 
his estate, amounting to about 700 pounds, for the 
erecting of the college." The General Court had in 
1636 "agreed to give 400 pounds toward a school or 
college. ..." From Winthrop we find that on the 22d 
of August, 1642, " Nine bachelors commenced at Cam- 
bridge ; they were young men of good hope and per- 
formed their acts so as gave good proof of their pro- 
ficiency in the tongues and arts." 

''The general court had settled a government or 
superintendency over the college, viz. ; all the 
magistrates and elders over the six nearest churches 
and the president, or the greatest part of them. 
Most of them were now present at this first com- 
mencement, and dined with the college, with the 
scholars' ordinary commons, which was done of pur- 
pose for the students' encouragement, etc., and it gave 
good content to all." 

This was such an occasion as one endeavors to re- 
produce to his fancy by the dim light of the time. 
The simple procession (for we are sure there must 
have been one) marched silently, with no incident of 
pomp, save possibly the square cap ; and whether 
even the president wore that, is a question beyond 
us to answer. The squirrel crossed its track, and 
when arrived wild woodliind sounds intruded on the 
Latin disputations. Doubtless a group of cows from 
the " Great Pasture " gathered not very far from the 
present new gateway, and watched, ruminating, 
the unaccustomed gathering. For all the little 
world around Cambridge that could quit work, came 
to that commencement and admired the new college, 
magnificent to eyes now so accustomed to homely 
surioundings. The college yard, now so called, must, 
we think, have been in a very rough state in 1642. 
The trees or their stumps must have occupied a 
considerable portion of it. The ground where Uni- 
versity Hall now stands must have been a bog or a 

While our college was being thus peacefully in- 
augurated, civil war was beginning in England, 
where the Puritan soon proved the affinity between 
religious, and civil, liberty. But for political pre- 
caution we should probably have had our Cromwell 
and Ireton and Desborough Streets in Boston. 

We should like to know how and how far our first 
commencement was made a holiday. Probablv the 
services of the day were a sufficient excitement to 
the sober, industrious settlers. Possibly a little 

" strong waters" circulated in a serious manner; that 
article had so many sanitary aspects that coincided 
with a festive inclination. It was good to keep out 
the cold in winter. It coalesced beneficially with the 
heat in summer. It good in a general way as an 
antidote to climatic influences and a hopeful sort of 
application in almost all e.xigencies. Although our 
fathers had not learned to judge it with the severity 
of our times, they were cautious in its use. They had 
disused the practice of drinking toasts because of its 
tendency to excess. Whatever the mode of enjoy- 
ment af^r the services were over, it was quiet and 
decorous, and all broke up in good season for their 
return by daylight over such paths as might then be. 
Our cows were driven home from the Great P.isture 
at sundown, and all the village was probably asleep 
by nine. 

Our fathers confined themselves so much to Scrip- 
ture knowledge and discussion that one would hardly 
have expected them to open the gates of classical 
learning to their children. One would suppose that 
the ungodly miscellany of the heathen mythology 
would have been as obnoxious to them as the cross in 
the colors. Perhaps they curtailed that portion of 
literature. But Latin was the Lingua Franca of 
theology ; Greek was the language of the New Testa- 
ment and Hebrew of the Old. Their first object 
was to raise up a body of learned ministers who 
should defend and preserve their theological opinions 
to the latest generation. To do this a knowledge of the 
language was deemed necessary. 

We who view the college and country now well ap- 
preciate the interest of that first commencement. 
The university of to-day, with its 1200 students and 
its 150 or so of instructors casts a kindly look back 
on its niter ego of 1642. The tide of youth has now 
flowed through it for two and a half centuries, run- 
ning Iree and strong and ever increa.sing in volume. 

It is a pleasant feature of the college that grim 
Time within its precincts assumes his nearest to a 
cheerful and beneficent aspect. He dispenses very 
much with his scythe, and is content to show his 
hour glass to the young men to remind them of the 
disintegrating tendency of the hour and the minute. 

One turns from the tumultuous succession of ob- 
jects and sounds in the outside world to rest his eyes 
on the calm of the college precincts, where the com- 
merce is all in ideas and all the working day is "High 

The "scholars," as they used to be styled, have 
always made an amicable society among themselves, 
the personal relations of the individual being mostly 
confined to his class, in which every good fellow, 
whatever his circumstances, was cordially regarded 
by all. 

The college and the town grew up from infancy to- 
gether, and have always maintained pleasant relations 
with each other. 

This book is designed to give a minute view of 


each town, as well xs a history of the collective 
county. We think a topographic sketch of our 
town as it was seventy years since would be interest- 
ing, to the elder inhabitants at least, who do not en- 
joy so large a retrospective privilege as ourselves. 
Cambridge, with ics numerous in-dwellers from all 
parts of the country, who contract associations with 
the town, is somewhat cosmopolitan, and has many 
more than its citizens to be interested in its history. 
The Cambridge of our childhood seventy years since 
must have very much resembled itself of seventy 
years earlier. It had been, like other inland places, 
a farming town until its growth in the neighborhood 
of the college precluded that occupation there. We 
of that neighborhood spoke of going to Harvard 
.Square as going " down in town ; " those more remote, 
as going " down to the village." In the now Harvard 
Square stood " Willard's Hotel," the same building 
in which now (.M.ty, 1890) the passenger-room of the 
railroad is. " Willard's" was the resort of the mod- 
erns — I.e., the less "advanced" people — men whose 
memories were of General Bonaparte, of the Embargo 
and the last war. Porter's tavern was the presu- 
mable resort of the ancients, whose remembrance 
might reach back to Bunker Hill, or possibly to the 
ni:issacre at Fort William Henry. 

This building was of two stories, jrambrel roofed and 
of hospitable aspect, with a more modern hall for 
<lancing attached, the great place for public gayeties in 
our boyhood. This building is still standing, devoted 
to new purposes. On the left of Willard's, and on the 
corner of Dunster Street, was our principal grocer; 
on the right another grocer's shop, with the post- 
office in the rear ; then a passage way, and then our 
only effective dry-goods shop, at the corner of 
Brighton Street. All these buildings are still stand- 
ing. At the easterly corner of Dunster Street, facing 
on Main, was a house of some antiquity, where our 
first regular apothecary's shop made its appearance. 
Thence to Holyoke Street was vacancy. On the east- 
erly corner of Holyoke, facing on Harvard Street, 
stood our book-store, with a printing-office on the 
second Koor, and wooden stairs on the outside on 
Holyoke Street — a thin, long, three-story building; 
next, east of that, a very old red house, with a tradi- 
tional flavor about it of Bradish, a famous pirate of 
our colonial times. We have some notion that Cap- 
tain Kidd wa-s mentioned ;is a fellow-lodger. If evi- 
ilcnce is ;Lsked for, we can add that there have been 
rumors of an iron pot of coin cliscovered in the cellar. 
This all will allow to be corroborative. But tradition 
alone, hein^ vox po/iuli, is sufficient for our purpose. 
This incident imparts a fine aroma of maritime ad- 
venture to Harvard Street. 

Next to the red house was a small bake-house, and 
at the westerly corner of Linden Street a three-story 
wooden house. Passing Linden Street, the whole 
s<|uare next, we think, may have been occupied by 
the quite stately Borland house, which st.auds far 

back from Harvard Street. Passing Plympton Street, 
there was a piece of land running from a point one or 
two hundred feet down Plympton Street, round to 
and a little distance down Bow Street. It contained 
pear and mulberry trees only. 

Opposite this land, on the present Harvard Street 
(which in our boyhood was called from there the 
Middle Road), stood the old parsonage, and next this, 
easterly, the modern Dana house, built in our boy- 
hood. There was no building in sight beyond this 
on Harvard Street, and on Main Street from Bow 
Street there was no dwelling visible but the Judge 
Dana house between the present Dana and Ellery 
Streets. Beyond this there was one house on the left; 
none on the right before reaching the present Inman 

The open ground extending from Church Street to 
Waterhouse Street was called, except the part occu- 
pied by roads, the Common. Agriculture lingered 
in the neighborhood of the college. Jarvis Field 
was still occupied as farm land. We have seen Indian 
corn growing where, the Scientific School, and Gym- 
nasium now stand. 

There were no street lamps save, for a few years, 
four, on the walk in front of the college buildings. 
People walked at night by faith — that is, such confi- 
dence as they might have in their knowledge of the 
ups and downs that lay in their invisible path. There 
were no names of streets; people in giving a direc- 
tion, approximated as well as they could : " Down by 
the ' meetinus,' " " Down by the Hayscales," " Down 
by the Mash " (marsh), " Up by Miss Jarvis's.'' 

The present Kirkland Street was built up about 
1821. There was then standing there, a little below 
Oxford Street, a dilapidated, untenantable " Fox- 
croft " house. The present Cambridge Street, then 
" Craigie's Road," had one house, visible from the 
Delta, on it. The road presented then quite a forest 
vista to those looking down it. At the end of the 
Delta was what was called the Swamp. This extend- 
ed some little distance till it met the woods on the 
left side of the road. 

On Brattle Street, from Ash Street, there was but 
one house, the Vassal house, on the southerly side, as 
far as Elmwood Avenue, and considerably beyond ; 
on the northerly side there were six or seven. Mount 
Auburn Street from the present police station, to 
Elmwood .V venue was a solitude. 

We had a true old Puritan " meeting-house," which 
did credit to our artificers of 1756. We recollect those 
who were men in our childhood with muct respect as 
excellent workmen and citizens. Since the introduc- 
tion ot machinery the skill required, of the carpenter 
at least, is very much diminished. Within our "meet- 
inus," as it was usually called, all was creditable to 
the workmen employed and to the liberal zeal of the 
parish. The pulpit was quite elaborate and in good 
taste. The pews had their panels and mouldings (if 
that is the right term). The spire was perhaps a 


little wanting in bulk, but as an emblem of man 
dwindling as he approaches the celestial regions it 
was good. The pews were left to the proprietor to 
paint, or not, as he pleased. The " Boys' Gallery " 
which perhaps was somewhat akin to a penal colony, 
was unpainted. 

The Massachusetts colonists early established a 
trade with the West Indies, exchanging their fish and 
lumber for sugar and molasses. Their abundant wood 
enabled them to turn the latter article into rum. 
This became a very cheap commodity ; if we remem- 
ber rightly a quart of new rum could be bought for 
six cents in our young days. We all know the evils 
that rum brought with it and the gradual awakening 
of the country to appreciation of them. 

In our town, rum (considering that as the repre- 
sentative liquor) gave rise to a set of philosophers, 
who preferred desultory labor, with frequent intervals 
for reflection and contemplation. They were gener- 
ally good-natured and pleasantly disposed, and per- 
haps somewhat relieved the picture of steady industry 
in town and college. They had a strong social bent, 
considering society as the most obvious and easy 
means of enlarging the mind. 

One incident will show their genial and hospita- 
ble turn. A young man, a neighbor of ours, on a 
summer evening met another young man at one of 
their gatherings, who professed himself a stranger in 
town. After a long and hilarious session our neigh- 
bor asked him if he would not come and lodge with 
him that night. He accepted the offer gratefully and 
they set out. When they came into the Common our 
neighbor stopped, took his coat and hat off and threw 
them down. "Hello! what are you up to?" said 
his friend. " AVhy this is where I sleep,'' said our 
neighbor. The very broad philanthropy of the act 
strikes one. This man was a stranger ; it was enough, 
he shared his bed with him. 

Our friend undoubtedly frequented a three-cent 
place of entertainment. At Willard's a " drink " was 
six cents, at the stores three ; at Willard's, too, " soda 
water '' was sold, then something phenomenal, which 
as boys we only heard of. 

We might tell of the wages paid in our boyhood, as, 
for instance, ten or twelve dollars a month (with board) 
to first-rate young men from the country, for care of 
barn and wood-house, with occasional farm work. A 
dollar a week to young women of the same quality, of 
our Spanish silver currency of four-pences (or fo'pen- 
ces) 6} cents, nine-pences 121, pistareens 20 and 
dollars, besides our own bank-notes and cents, and it 
may be some silver. We might speak of the heredi- 
tary household economies, of the salt-fish, sternly util- 
itarian, the brown bread, the Indian pudding (which 
we respect, but do not love) and other articles suggest- 
ing the necessary frugality of earlier times. For 
prices, we think we recollect Java coffee at fourteen 
centa the pound, beef and mutton at twelve and a 
lialf (i. e. nine-pence); but let us remind the householder 

that money was but a third as plenty as to-day, or less. 
Meanwhile the fare in the four-horse stage-coach that 
went twice a day to Boston was twenty-five cents. 

We ought to mention the dame school, where very 
little children, sat on wooden blocks and larger ones 
on benches, where virtue was rewarded by a tinsel bow 
pinned (temporarily) on shoulder ; and her froward sis- 
ter naughtiness, with head down, a tear in the eye and 
a finger in the mouth, was obliged to stand a certain 
time with a black one attached in the same way. It 
was here that we read in Miss Hannah Adams' Historj- 
of the Due d'Anville's unfortunate naval expedition, 
and how the admiral of the fleet "fell on his sword," and 
saw as we read, from time to time, the mast of the college 
sloop looking over the opposite house ; thus associat- 
ing the Duke and the College Sloop in our memory. 

We have said nothing of our navigation. It consist- 
ed entirely of the above-mentioned college sloop. 

She was a good, honest, innocent craft, and lies 
pleasantly at anchor in our memory. 

We have said nothing of our nearest neighbor, Cam- 
bridgeport, whom we ought to mention as having fur- 
nished a very good private school for our and her 
own boys, which has left many friendly memories. 


CAJ/BRIDGE-( Contimitd). 


.\X account of the Indians of Cambridge must nec- 
es."ari;y involve a partial history of the ilassachusetts 
tribe, since the Indians of all this region were known 
generally under that name; aud because the arbitrary 
limits of patents, grants and plantations were all un- 
known to them, and they had no idea of town, county 
or colony lines. Moreover, the Indians seldom had 
anv permanent dwelling-place, and were accustomed 
to move at different seasons and in different years 
into various parts of the country. We begin then 
with a brief account of the Massachusetts tribe or di- 
vision of the New England Indians. For the present 
purpose we need not go back further than 1()04— '>, 
when Sieur Samuel de Champlain, with his captain, 
Sieur de Monts, sailed along the coast from the St. 
Croix River as far as Eastham harbor, upon Cape 
Cod. It was Champlain who named !Mont Desert, 
because, unlike most of the islands and headlands 
along the coast, it was "destitute of trees." He lo- 
cated '• Norumbegue " as our Penobscot River, and 
upon this the Indians who swarmed along the shores 
told him lived their great " King," Bessabez (the 
English called this " King" Bashaba). The Indians 
hereabouts he called the " Etechemins," (and the name 


included the Indians of the Kennebec at the same | 
time). These Indians conducted him to the falls of | 
" N'orumbegue," and there " Bessabez " came to visit 
him, the place of their meeting being doubtless the 
site of the present city of Bangor. The interest of 
this voyage to us now is the record of the numerous 
crowds of Indians all along the shores. Champlain 
describes the natives of the Maine coasts as "swarthy, 
dressed in beaver-skins, etc.," of large stature and, in 
general, intelligent and friendly, until after Way- 
month's sojourn in their vicinity and his capture of 
some of their people, after which they were auspi- 
cious and timid. It was in June, 1605, that they 
passed beyond the Kennebec and along the lower 
part of Maine to Massachusetts. Champlain calls 
the inhabitants the Almouchiquois. Everywhere the 
shores seemed full of natives hunting, fishing and 
paddling out in canoes to trade with the strangers. 
From his descriptions and maps the course of his 
voyage may be traced quite accurately, although the 
names he gave have mostly passed away. His ship 
anchored inside "Richmond Island," as it was after- 
wards called, and the Indians came down upon the 
shore on the mainland and built a huge bonfire and 
danced and shouted to attract their attention. Cham- 
plain gives a very minute account of this locality, 
from Black Point to beyond the river which he wrote 
Chouacoet, as he understood the Indian name, but 
which the English called Saco. They mingled freely 
with the natives and traded with them. The Indians 
are described as |)rosperous and well-favored, with 
many plantations upon which they were engaged in 
cultivating the soil. He says they had not before 
noticed any tilling or cultivating by the Indians. 
Their method, as he marked and described it here, ap- 
plies, doubtless, to that of the Massachusetts Indians. 
In place of ploughs the Indians used a sort of 
wooden spade. They dropped three or four kernels 
of corn in a place, and then [)iled about a quantify of 
loose earth mixed with the shells of the " Signoc," 
or what we call the " Horsefoot-crab," of which there 
were immense numbers along the shores. These hills 
were about three feet apart. In the "hill" with the 
corn they also dropped a few beans. They planted 
squashes and pumpkins also among the "hills," and 
this method has been but little changed since their 
day. They planted in May and gathered in .Septem- 
ber. Coasting southward along the lands which he 
describes, his vessel at last enters Boston harbor, 
and is anchored, probably, nearly opposite Charles- 
town Xavy Yard, and near the East Boston shore 
From this anchorage they observed many fires all 
along the surrounding shores, and many of the In- 
dians coming down to the shores to see them. Some 
of their crew were sent on shore with presents and 
with the Penobscot Indian, Pauounias, and bis wife ; 
but these Indians could not understand the natives, 
who were of the same tongue as those at Saco. They 
did not therefore find out the name of their chief- 

All around the shores there was " a great deal of land 
cleared up and planted with Indian corn." He says: 
" The country is very pleasant and agreeable, and 
there is no lack of fine trees. The Indians here had 
the 'dug-out' wooden boats instead of the birch-bark 
canoes ; they had not seen any of these before, and 
he says, they were constructed by the slow process of 
burning out the trunk of a tree from one side with 
hot stones. They used stone hatchets and axes to cut 
down the trees ; and their weapons were pikes, clubs, 
bows and arrows. Continuing southward, crowds of 
Indians came to the shores at all points, showing that 
at the time the country was populous and, as it 
seemed, the natives were prosperotis and at peace. 
It was midsummer, 1605, when Champlain visited 
Massachusetts. He did not at this time explore the 
rivers of the Bay, but mentions the Charles, which 
he named the " Du Guast," in honor of Pierre du 
Guast, commander of the expedition, whose title was 
"Sieur de Monts." The English named it for their 
King. Champlain supposed this river flowed from 
the West, from the country of the Iroquois. Such, 
in brief, was the general condirion of the Indiana 
along the coast in 1605. We pass now to a more par- 
ticular account of their condition, as the English set- 
tlers found them in 1620, and onward. It will be 
remembered that Champlain called all the Indians, 
from the Kennebec to the South, as far as he went, by 
the general name, " Almouchiquois." 

The earliest definite accounts we have of the In- 
dians, who lived upon the peninsula between the 
Mystic and Charles Rivers are somewhat meagre and 
unsatisfactory. They belonged to, and seem to have 
been the central portion of the formerly large and 
powerful tribe of the Massachusetts. Some of their 
old men told our earliest settlers that the dominion of 
their great Sachem had once extended as far as the 
Wampanoags and Narragansetts on the south, to the 
Connecticut River on the west, and to the Penna- 
cooks on the north. Nothing, however, as to the 
limits, is certain. There is a tradition, apparently 
supported by evidences which will appear fiirther on, 
that upon the peninsula between the Mystic and 
Charles was situated the rendezvous of this formerly 
great tribe. It was here that they used to gather from 
the south, bringing their products of the land and 
water; from the north, with the barter of beaver and 
other furs, and from the interior, where the people 
were called, by those living on the coast, Nipmncks, 
or "fresh-water" Indians. All the Bay, from Nahant 
toCohasset, seems to have been a sort of capital, with 
many considerable sub-tribea and sagamores, subject 
to this great Sachem of the Massachusetts, whose 
chief seat is said, by one tradition, to have been 
within the limits of Dorchester, upon a hill near the 
place now called Squantum. 

But the strength and glory of this great tribe had 
departed long before the English came in contact 
with them, and even before that terrible plague of 



1615-17, which swept away by for the greater part 
of the coast Indians, from the Kennebec to Ilhode 
Island. Of that devastating scourge we have many 
corroborating accounts, araonir which one of the most 
vivid is given by Mr. Thomas Morton, of "ilerrj' 
Mount" fame, in that curious book of his, entitled 
"New EogHsh Canaan." It will be seen tliat, like 
all accounts of that period, it is mixed with strange 
and crude superstitions. He relates the destruction 
of the crew 6f a French ship, by the Wampanoags, 
and tells that one of the Frenchmen, who was spared, 
rebuked them for their wickedness, and told them that 
God would punish and destroy them ; whereupon the 
Indians answered that "they were so many that God 
could not kill them." "lu a short time after," says 
Morton, — 

*'The band of God fell beavily upon them willi such a mortall 
Eiroake that they ilied on heap", m they lay in their houses, and the 
living that were able to shift lor theniselveR, uoultl runlie away aud let 
thaiu dy, and let their carkaees ly nlntve the Rroiiiid without buinal. 
Fur ill a place where many inhabited llrere Imlli l>efn hut one left alive, 
to tell what becauio of the rest; the living being {as it Beenif I not able I 
tu bury (he dead. They were left for crow cs, kites, and veniiiu to pnay 
ii|M,n. And the boucs and ekiiMa upon the sevenill pliicew of their habi- 
tations made aiirli a spectacle after my coniming into thoHo partK, that as 
I tnivailed in that forrest nero the Mossuchusaels, it seemed to lue a 
uew-fouud Golgutba." 

There is, also, in Captain John Smith's account of 
New England (written in England in 1(530), a pass- 
age giving a similar story ot tlie great plague, and 
adding the particulars that the pestilence carried off 
"all the Massachusi^tts, some five or six hundred in 
number, leaving only thirty living, of whom their 
enemies killed all but two." Captain Smith says he 
cannot vouch for the truth of this, but that " it is 
most certaine that there was an exceeding great 
plague amongst them, for where I have seene two or 
three hundred, within three years after remained 
scarce thirty," His first visit was in 1614, his second 
in 1617. We learn, also, from the writings of Sir 
Ferdinando Gorges (whose agent, Richard Vines, 
with a comrade, spent the winter of 1C15-16, prob- 
ably, at Winter Harbor, and lodged in the wigwams 
with the natives who died by scores of the plague, 
while these two were unaffected by iO, that pre- 
vious to this plague the Indian tribes aiong the 
coast had been greatly decimated by some powerful 
tribes who had fallen upon them, plundering and 
destroying, from Casco Bay to Plymouth and the 
country beyond. These fierce invaders came along 
the coast from the east, and were known to the Massa- 
chusetts aa Tarratines, and were said to have as their 
great Sachem that mystical personage whom the East- 
ward Indians called the " Bashaba," whose chief seat 
was upon the Penobscot River, whom Champlain 
called Bessabez, as above noted ; and the Indians who 
met the first explorers of the coast of Maine declared 
that this "Bashaba" was the great king of the whole 
country, as far as they knew. There are some evi- 
dences that the Mohawks had been appealed toby the 
tribes of -Massachusetts, and had helped them to beat 

back the Tarratines, but, in tlieir turn, had fallen 
upon their allies and injured them more even than 
the enemies had done. After that came the great 
plague, and aaraiii, after that had passed, it is proba- 
ble that the Ti-rratiues or Mohawks, or both, invaded 
the remnants of the tribes, who, perhaps, for safety, 
allied themselves with the Wampanoags, as, at the 
coming of the Pilgrims in 1620, their Sachem, Massa- 
soit, seems to have been the acknowledged head of 
the tribes as far north as the Merrimack. 

The ter^itor^• embracing the parts to the north and 
west of Boston was, during the years preceding the 
coming of the Pilgrims, owned by the Sachem Nane- 
pas-hcmet. to whom also the local tribes were in sub- 
jection, while the inland tribes, the Nipmucks — jirob- 
ably their kindred — were in friendly alliance. Wliile 
each chief of a tribe seems to have been independent 
in the control and discipline of his own people, there 
was always an authority referred to by most of the 

Massasoit seems to have owned no such authority 
himself nor did any of his people refer to any higher 
than his. The same is true of Philip, his son, alter 
the death of his father ai;d brother. Miantonomah 
and his son Canonchet, Sachems ot the Narragansetts. 
acknowledged no higher rulers. Passaconaway, of 
the Pennacooks, seems to. have been of like rank ; and 
tne indications are that Nanepashemet, in his d;iy, 
had held a like position before pestilence and war 
had wasted his people. 

It is said that, before the war with the Tarratines, 
Nanepashemet had lived at Lynn, and after that re- 
tired to the peninsula formed by the Mystic and 
Charles Rivers, and there fortified a hill against the 
approach of his enemies. The Pilgrim, Bradford, in 
his journal, says that the Eastern Indians came at 
harvest time to plunder the Massachusetts of their 
corn. Mr. Hubbard, of Ipswich, writing fifty years 
later, said that the Tarratines made war upon these 
Western Indians " upon the account of some treachery 
of the latter." 

The first authentic reference we have to the Massa- 
chusetts, as a tribe, is found in the early annals of the 
Pilgrims, in a work published in England in 1622 by 
G. Mourt, and popularly known since as " Mourt's 
Relation," G. Mourt was probably George Morton, 
one of the Plymouth Company, and an associate of 
Bradford and Winslow, who doubtless furnished the 
items of his " Relation " from their journals. 

Part IV. of his work gives an account of a journey 
of a party of the Pilgrims from Plymouth to the home 
of the Massachusetts, " and what happened there. ' 
The account begins: 

" It seemed good to the Company in geneiall that, though the Massa- 
chnsets bad often threatened us (as we were informed), yet, we should 
go amongst them, partly to see the countrcy, partly to make peace with 
them and partly to procure their trucke. For tbc>* ends the i;overnour 
cliuee ten men, fit fur the purpose, and sent Tisnuanliim and two other 
Salvages to bring us to speech with the people and interpret for ue. We 
s«l out about midnight; the tyde then eerving for us; we snppoaing it 


to be neerer then it 19, thoucht to bo ihore next nioi-ning beLinieB; 
but it prvved well neere twetitie Leagues from Xew Pliniuutb. 

'•Wre came to the bottome of tbe O^y, but being late wee ancliored 
and Iiiy iu the Shallop, not having secne nny of the [leople. Ac " 

Tlie account tells that on the next day they went 
on shore and sent Tisquantum (Squanto) to find the 
Indians, who were at a distance up in the country. 
The place where they landed, and where they found 
a quantity of lobsters which had been caught by the 
natives, was near a "cliffe," and was probably the 
rocky point in Quincy Bay known as " the Chapel," 
at Squantum Head. 

They found the Sachem of the tribe here dwelling 
to be Obbatinewat, who owned allegiance to Massa- 
.soit, and treated them kindly. He told them he did 
not dare to remain in any stated place, for fear of the 
Tarratines, and he said, too, that the Squaw-Sachem, 
dwelling across the Bay beyond the river (the Charles), 
was his enemy. He referred to the Squaw-Sachem as 
the "Queene of the JIassachusetts," or gave the Pil- 
grims that idea. Obbatinewat next day consented to 
accompany them to visit this "Queen." 

They crossed the Bay, with its "at lest fiftie 
islands," and at night came to the place where the 
Squaw-Sachem lived ; but the Indians, going on shore, 
found no one, and so they returned and all remained 
on board the shallop all night. On the ne.\t day 
they went ashore, leaving two men to care for the 
shallop (this was on October 1, 1621), and "marched 
in Arraes" three miles up into the country, where 
they found corn-fields where some corn had just been 
gathered, and a house, probably a common wigwam, 
had been pulled down. Going on a mile or more, 
they came to a hill, on the top of which was a house, 
altogether different from any other Indian houses 
which they had noticed. This was built upon a 
scartbid raised upon poles some si.^ feet from the 
ground. This house would seem to have been a sort 
of observatory. Beyond this hill, " in a bottome," 
they found a fort, covering a circle, some forty to fifty 
feet in diameter, and enclosed with poles thirty or 
forty " foote " long, as " thick as they could be set one 
by another." A trench was dug on each side of this 
palisade, "breast high." Atone point there was an 
entrance to this fortress across a bridge. In the midst 
of this fortification there was the frame of a house, 
and here Xanepashemet, their former king, was 
buried. The location of this fort is supposed to have 
been to the southeast of Mystic Pond, in West 3Ied- 
ford ; and near the supposed site, in 1862, a skeleton 
was exhumed, which was thought by some to be that 
of the old Indian "King," as there was found with it 
a pipe with a copper mouthpiece. About a mile 
farther on, upon the top of a hill, the Pilgrims found 
another such fort, and they were told that here Nane- 
pashemet had been killed, and no one had lived here 
since his death. It is probable that he was killed in 
the raid of the Tarratines in 1619, when the pesti- 
lence had left him defenceless, and too old and weak 
to escape by flight. 

The English remained upon this hill and sent their 
Indian guides forward to find the people and reassure 
them, so that they might have a talk and trade with 
them. They found the Indian women not far away, 
and having pacified them, they brought the English 
to them, within a mile of the fort on the hill. These 
women had fled before them, but carrying a large 
amount of corn, some of which they now prepared 
for the entertainment of the English. It was long 
before any of their men could be induced to appear ; 
and at last only one, and he shaking with fear. The 
English traded with them what they could, using them 
kindly and dealing fairly, promising to return again 
before long with more means of trade and asking the 
Indians to save all their furs for them, which they 
promised. Nearly all the women followed them down 
to their boats for the sake of trading, selling the fur 
clothes which they wore, and replacing them with 
boughs of trees lashed about them. And so they 
parted with them amicably; though their Indian 
guides urged them to plunder the women and take 
their furs without paying for them. 

They missed their chief purpose, which was to gain 
an interview with the Squaw-Sachem, or Queen of 
the Massachusetts. The Indian women reported her 
a long distance away, so that they could not go to her. 
The journey here described seems to have been 
through the present limits of Charlestown, Somerville 
and Medford, to the southeast side of Mystic Pond, 
the party probably following along the high laud by 
the old trail, well known, of course, to their guide.s. 
The picture shows how weak and helpless the once 
powerful tribe of the Massachusetts had become. It 
is probable that the main body of the tribe was with 
the " Queen," but in all there could have been only 
a few hundred who were inhabiting the country be- 
tween the two rivers, and as far back as Concord, 
where the eminent historian of that town, Mr. Shat- 
tuck, thinks the " Queen " had her residence at this 
time. The contrast here shown with the condition of 
the Indians in 1605 declares the terrible havoc of the 
plague and their wars. Little more is known of this 
tribe after this, until the settlements were begun in 
Massachusetts Bay. In April, 1629, in their direc- 
tions to those who came over to settle the plantation 
in the bay, the authorities of the " New England Com- 
pany," say : 

"If any of the Salvages pretend right of inheritance to- all or any part 
of the lands granted in our pattent, we pray you endeavor to pnrchafle- 
their tytle that we may avoyde the least scruple of iotrasion." 

According to this direction, the settlers sought to 
obtain the lands of the Indians by fair purchase,, 
though the prices paid would seem, to us now in- 
credibly small, some trinket or article of clothing, or 
arms and ammunition being paid for a tract of land.. 
But we must remember that the people had a whoI& 
continent of free land before them ; and on their part,, 
the Indians had no idea of land values or titles, and 
1 only a few of their wisest, began to think, of the re- 


suit of this constant giving up of their land. Their 
attachment to any particular locality was tribal rather 
than personal; and when the English sought to obtain 
a title by purchase, it was found that the ownership of 
the land waa in a vague sort of way vested in the 
Sachem or sagamore of the tribe. The first settlers in 
Boston and vicinity were careful to secure titles to their 
lands from the highest authority of the Massachusetts 
tribe. At the time of their coming that authority was 
the Squaw-Sachem, widow of Nanepashemet, who, 
some time after his death, married the chief Pow-wow, 
or " Medicine-Man " of the tribe, whose name was 
Webcowitsor Wibbacowits. This marriage, however, 
did not transfer any of her hereditary rights or titles 
to him ; and he seems not to have been recognized as 
a ruler, or anything more than a Pow-wow, as before 
the alliance. It was probably by the precaution of 
the English that he was joined in the deeds given by 
the Squaw-Sachem. Just when the earliest of these 
deeds were given is uncertain, but not certainly until 
after 1629-30. It is probable that at the beginning 
of the settlements upon the peninsula between the 
Mystic and Charles Rivers, and the surrounding ter- 
ritory, the settlers, as soon as might be, obtained 
deeds from the Squaw-Sachem. In order that there 
might be no question about the titles gained from the 
Indians, the General Court, March 13, 1(538-39, em- 
powered Major Edward Gibbons to agree with the 
Indians for the laud within the bounds of Watertown, 
Cambridge and Boston. Subsequent deeds and rec- 
ords show that the conveyance was made by the 
Squaw-Sachem to Watertown and Cambridge, 
although no deed or copy of deed has been preserved, 
so far as is known. The first deed, relating to any of 
these lands given by the Squaw-Sachem, was dated 
April 18, 1639. 

D^ed of S'lunuhSacheni and Webcoiret to the inhabitants of Chnrlestovnie. 

•' Wee, Wdbcowet A Squaw Sachem, do sell unto the iuhabilaurs of 
Charlestowne, all tbe hind within the lines granted them by the Court 
excepting the fiirmea A: the ground on tho West of tlie two Great Puuda 
called Misticke Ponds from the South t»ide of Mr. NowcU'a hitt, neere 
the upper end of the punds, unto the little ninnet that cometh from 
Cupt. Cooke's mill, which the Squaw reseneth for their own use for her 
life, for the Indiana to phint nnd hunt upon ; and tho wenrc ubove tlie 
ponds they niso reserve for tbe Indians to fish :it while the S<|uuw 
(Sachem Itvelli, and after tlie death of Sqiiaw Sachem ehee doth ti-ave at 
her lands from BIr. Mayhues house to neere Salem to the present Gov- 
ernor John Wintbrop, Sen'., 3Ir. Increase Nowell, Mr. John Wilson A; 
Mr. Edwanl Gibons, to diKpone of, and all Indians to depart, and fur sut- 
tisfaction from Churlestown, Wee acknowledge to have received in full 
eattiflfaction, twenty und one coates, nineteen futhoms of Wampum i\: 
three huBhelauf Come. In witnecis whereof, wee have hereunto set our 
hands the daj & yxure abuve named. 

" the Marke of SyUA, Sachem, 
the Marke of Weucowet." 

In the Middlesex Court Files, in the case of "Charles- 
towne vs. Glaison," relative to the possession of some 
of these lands, dated April 1, 1662, there are several 
very interesting papers, among them the original of 
the above deed, and a deposition of Edward Johnson 
concerning this conveyance of Squaw-Sachem. It is 
here given on account of ita casual references to the 
Indian Queen^ etc.: 

" Edward Jnhnson, aged CO years, witnessctli : 

" That ;ib' one or two and twenty years itjrce the di-poncnt ln-inj at 
the wii;ffaiii of S.jiia S;Kheni. there was ji'stnt M'. Iucn':i.-t.' Nowt-il, 
Majt-r KJwnrd GiblKjiis", Leift. Siirague and Ldwanl <'onvfn;s, and .s>.me 
othecs of Charlestowne, at w I' time, according to the ililiTprt-lali-'ri ••( 
her and her husband's meaning by the ab«»ve uauieii ^liijnr Kdwiud(;ilt- 
bons, they did grant und sell unto Charlestowne, ail their laud witliin 
the limitt-i of Charlestowne except that on the W<'st sido of the ponds 
called ^lislicke, where their Wigwam Ilieo stood, w^i" they reserved for 
term of her life, A after her ik-cease they did then declare it should 
come and rumaine to Ju^ Wintlirop Es<^^ Mr. Increase Nowell, Mr. Jii" 
Wilson Jt the above named Major Eiluurd Gibbons, A; the jieitoiia attd 
cuntnict this dejKmanT. at his retunie Ilutiie. did enter into his day-buoke 
from rcmetiibranco y of thia is y* whole truth rcmben-d, so sayih 

*' Sworne in Court 4 {jt) ir.Gt) KnwAUi> JolI^^o^■. 

03 atteot TiiuMAa I»A.NroitTn, Record'. 
"Vera Copia 


It was evidently considered the safest course lor 
the inhabitants to ?ecure the reversion of all the 
Indian lands reserved, in order thai after the .Siu:iw- 
Sachem's death they might not be troubled with any 
heirs or other claimants, and niijrht also be rid of the 
Indians. And for these and other reasons Major 
Edward Gibbons (who was well iK-tjuainted with the 
Indians and their language, and possessed apparently 
special influence over the .Sjuaw-Sachem, as well as 
power in the colony) again became active in the mat- 
ter, and this time the ^fquaw-Sachem executes a deed 
of gift to Jotham Gibbons, the young son of M;ijf»r 
Cribbons, conveying the reversion of all her land** 
hitherto reserved. The following is the deed : 

*' Be it knowne unto all men by these presents that wee. Wclxrowiict* 
and the Sqna Sachem of Misticke, wife of tbe -aid Webcowitps. calliim 
to minde and well ci'DBlderiiig the uinny kindnesse." and henctirts «e 
Imve received from the iiatids of (tiptaine Kduord Gibones, of Iiosti>n, 
in New Kngland, in parte of rei|uitall whereof and for oiir tendei' b've 
and good retpcct that wee doe beiir to Jotliani Gibones Sonne and heifu 
apparent of the .-^id.Captain Giboues, doe hereby, of our own motion and 
accord, give and grant unto the wiiU Jotham Gil>t>ne8 the reversion of 
all that parcell of land which lyes against the pondes at Misticke ufi-re 
said, together with the said poniies, all which wee reserved from ( harles. 
towne and Cambridge, late called Newtowne, and all hereditaments and 
appurtenances thereunto belonging after the death of me, the said Squa 
Sachem. To have and to hold the said Reversion of the saiii pan.ell of 
lands and pondes and all and fiingnlare the premises with the appurte- 
nances unto the said Jotham Gibones, his heirea and as^ignes forever. 
In witnesse whereof woe have hereunto sett our hands and seales the 
thirteenth day of the Eleventh monetb in the year so declared by 
Christians one thousand s,\x hundred thirty and iiyne, and in tbe fif- 
teenth yet re of the Itaigne of King Charles of Kugland, and willing 
that these be recorded before our much honored flriends, the Governor 
of the Massachubeits Bay in New England and the rest of the Mugi»- 
trates there for i>er]»eluall remembrance of this thing. 

" Signed, sealed and delivered 
in the presence of 

"KouF-RT Li CAR, The Squa Sachem's marke. 


RoUEKT GiLLAM. Webcowites' marke." 

This original document is preserved in the court 
tiles of Middlesex County. An imperfect copy also 
is in the Massachusetts Archives, volume 30, page 1. 

The transactions with the Squaw-Sachem went on 
up to near 1660. The English seem to have treated 
her with marked consideration, and to have faithfully 
performed their promises to her in their payments of 
corn, * coat es," etc. Many items appear in Cambridge 
Records relating to these transactions. 


It would appear that after the death of Nanepashe- 
met, the Squaw-Sachem exercised little control over 
acy of the Massachusetts Indians south of the Charles 
River. These seem to have become subject to llassa- 
soit. There were several noted Sachems among 
them, like Chickatawbut, who claimed to be rightful 
owner of the lands about Boston, and from whom the 
Boston settlers bought them ; ' Kutahamakin, who 
lived upon the Neponset River, and sold what is now 
Milton to the English; Wampatuck, son of Chickataw- 
but, etc. To the north, Masconomo, Sagamore of Ag- 
awam (Ipswich). These repudiated the authority of 
the Squaw-Sachem, and, indeed, all authority was 
merged into English rule, when the Sachems, in 
1643, formally submitted to the General Court and 
put themselves under the protection of the English. 

It is said that Nanepashemet left five children, and 
four of their names are given in the "History of the 
Lynn," by Mr. Lewis, viz.: 1. Montowampate, Sachem 
of Saugus, called by the English " Sagamore James." 

2. A daughter, called by the English " Abigail." 

3. Wonohaquaham, Sachem of Winnesimet, known 
to the settlers as " Sagamore John.'' 

4. Winnepurkitt, or "George Rumneymarsh," but 
after he succeeded his brother " James" as Sachem of 
Saugus, called " Sagamore George." It was Winne- 
purkitt who, according the story in Morton's " New 
Canaan," married the daughter of Paasaconaway, the 
great Sachem of the Pennacooks. Upon Morton's 
story is founded the legend of Whittier's poem, " The 
Bridal of Pennacook." 

Squaw-Sachem died sometime before 16G2, as in 
April of that year suit was beguu by the town of 
Charlestown to recover the lands granted to Jotham 
(ribbons in reversion, from F. Gleison, who was then 
in possession, Maj. Gibbons and his son having died 
several years before. The small-pox scourge of 1G33, 
almost utterly destroyed the people of Nanepashemet's 
sons at Rumneymarsh, Saugus, Nahant and Marble- 

The glowing accounts of the first explorers of the 
coast of North America were greatly disappointing 
to those who came into the country to settle in 1620 
and soon after. We have seen that the pestilence and 
war had been especially destructive to the great Mas- 
sachusetts tribe. The death of their chief Sachem 
had broken the tribe into factions, which neither the 
Squaw-Sachem uor any one of the lesser Sachems of 
the tribe seems to have had the disposition or power 
to re-unite. But the pestilence and war and poverty 
and constant fear had broken their spirits, and they 
had no feeling of hostility or resistance when the 
English came, but rather found them a protection 
from their hereditary enemies. The Massachusetts 
Indians had nothing but their lands which the English 
wanted, and these, by command of the government, 
they easily obtained in a legal way. The Indians 
were glad to oe allowed to remain in the vicinity of 
their old homes and near the English, and to be tolera- 

ted even through half-contemptuous pity and ill-con- 
cealed distrust. 

The people of the town of Cambridge seem to have 
maintained unbroken terms of friendship with the 
Indians, and to have tacitly allowed them many 
privileges which elsewhere had been refused. They 
made them useful also in many ways, employing them, 
both men and women, upon their farms, though they 
did not generally consider them reliable, capable or in- 
dustrious. There is no doubt that their hereditary ten- 
dency to vagrancy still clung to them. The people of 
the Squaw-Sachem, as we have seen , after the settlement 
of Charlestown and Cambridge, etc., gathered to the 
lands reserved for them at the Mystic Ponds. There 
was another company of Indians on the south side of 
Charles River at Nonantum, within the bounds of 
what was then Cambridge (now Newton.) These 
Indians were under the Sachemship of Kutshamakin, 
who claimed to be " Sachem of Massachusetts." 
Waban was the chief man of this Nonantum colony, 
though not a Sachem. His wife was Tasunsquam 
daughter of Tahattawan, Sachem of Concord, which 
relation doubtless gave him some authority ; but he 
was a man of intelligence and ability, and it was 
largely due to these qualities in him that, under the 
earnest Christian zeal of John Eliot, of Roxbury 
and the equally earnest and wise direction of Major 
Daniel Gookin, of Cambridge, this small village at 
Nonantum reached the highest point of Christian civil- 
ization ever attained by any American Indians. The 
history of this little colony on Nonantum is, however, 
synonymous nearly with the history of the Christian 
Indians, which is not properly a matter for this chapter, 
but as that movement had its actual formal beginning 
here in the wigwam of Waban at Nonantum, it may 
be proper to note a few points. We may see at a 
glance, what I think has never been particularly 
referred to in a published account, that the forlorn 
condition of the Massachusetts Indians, their help- 
lessness, abject poverty and broken spirit, put them 
in a condition to receive any word of life from the 
English, which might in any way give them courage 
or restore a way of hope. And then again, opposition 
to the efforts of Mr. Eliot to convert the Indians, was 
baaed upon the same reason of their Sachems and 
rulers, which they gave for not formally submitting 
to English laws : either process destroyed the author- 
ity of the hereditary ruler of the tribe. The Massa- 
chusetts Indians in the vicinity of Boston and Cam- 
bridge, had come almost imperceptibly under the 
control and direction of the colonial laws. The result 
was that hardly more than the name of authority was 
left to the Sachems, and little objection was made to 
the christianizing endeavors of Mr. Eliot and Major 

Rev. Mr. Eliot, who came over in 1631, and was 
settled over the church in Roxbury, early appreci- 
ated the opportunity and realized its importance. He 
began soon to fit himself for the work, by gaining a 



thorough knowledge of the iDdian language; and also 
prepared the public, especially of England, for assist- 
ing the work, by publishing tracts in London, giving 
account of the great field for missionary enterprise, in 
which the French Catholics had been so succe-sful. 
In both his personal preparation and in the public 
mind he was successful. His tracts published in Lon- 
don stirred up the whole kingdom with a missionary 
fervor, and from the churches and from benevolent 
people contributions poured into the fund of the 
" Society for Propagating the Gospel in New Eng- 
land," until about £12,000 had been collected and 
invested in real estate in England, the income of 
which was to be expended in missionary work among 
the Indians of New England, to pay the wnges of 
school-teachers and missionaries. But the General 
Court of Massachusetts were not behind in zeal, and 
in 1G46 (before the society in London had been 
organized) passed an act for the same end as above. 
Upon the 28th of October, 1646, Mr. Eliot, in com- 
pany with Major Gookin and two others, went to 
Nonantum.and there, in the large wigwam of Waban 
for the first time preached (in their own language) to 
an Indian congregation, mainly called together by the 
endeavors of Waban, the chief man, though not 
Sachem, of Nonantum. Mr. Eliot continued preach- 
ing through a part of the winter and the following 
spring. Many of the prominent ministers and laymen 
often attended these meetings, and sympathized and 
assisted as actively as possible in his work. Among the 
foremost of these were Rev. Thomas Shepard, Major 
Gookin and Mr. Dunster, of Cambridge. It wasearly 
realized that these Indians must be reduced to ways 
of civilized life as well as taught Christian doctrine. 
It was soon seen that they must be taught something 
of the industrial arts. A large tract at Nonantum 
was set apart for the occupancy of the Indians, and it 
was sought to gather all within the neighboring towns 
to this place. Those who came were encouraged to 
cultivate farms and build better houses. They were 
furnished with farming and carpenter's tools, etc. 
They surrounded their town with ditches and stone 
walls, planted orchards and laid out regular roads and 
streets, enclosing their fields with fences. The young 
men were taught trades ; many learned farming by 
working upon the farms of the English. 

At Nonantum (where all Indian history for Cam- 
bridge and other towns near by centres at this 
period) the first civil laws for regulating an Indian 
. community were established. The success of the 
colony at Nonantum had encouraged Mr. Eliot to 
widen his efforts, and itinerant teachers were fitted 
among the natives and sent to the various tribes to 
open the way for Mr. Eliot; and six communities of 
" Christian Indians" had been established by the ef- 
forts of Mr. Elict and Major Daniel Gookin, who had 
been made superintendent of the general work in New 
England. These communities were located in 1674 
in what are now the towns of Canton, Grafton, 

Marlborough, Tewksbury, Littleton and Hopkinton. 
.Some five or six others, called the " New Praying 
Towns," were started. But we must follow the for- 
tunes of the Nonantum village. 

In 1050, at the earnest wish of the friends of the 
Christian Indians, led by Mr. Eliot, a township of 
six thousand acres, on the Charhs River, at Natick, 
was granted for the u^e of said Christian Indians for a 
town. This Indian town was regularly laid out in 
1651, and thither that year Waban and the Nonantum 
Indians removed, and thereafter became identified 
with that flourishing community. 

In Bacon's " History of Natick " this town is de- 
scribed as consisting of ''three long streets, two on 
the north side and one on the south side of the river, 
with a bridge eighty feet long, and eight feet high, and 
stone foundations., with the whole being built by the 
Indians themselves. To each house on these streets 
was attached a piece of land. The houses were in the 
Indian style." But one of the houses was built in 
English style, large and commodious. This was used 
on week-days as a school-house, and a.-s a church on 

Waban was chosen ruler of the town and proved a 
wise, prudent and useful leader. He was active in 
gathering the Indian church at Natick. He died in 
fullness of years, having survived the terrible disap- 
pointments and shared the persecutions imposed 
upon the Christian Indians by the bitter prejudices of 
the people at large during the war with Philip and 
his allies, 1675-77. When, to satisfy the popular 
rage, their village was broken up, and all were .seized 
and carried down the harbor and imprisoned upon 
Deer Island through the winter and spring, Waban, 
then seventy-five years old, went with them and shared 
all their privations, and lived to return again with 
them to their village, though, as Major Gookin relates, 
he was near dying at their return to Cambridge, where 
they were received and kindly treated by many who 
had formerly known them. Waban himself and 
some others of those who were very sick were received 
into Major Gookin's own house and cared for by him- 
self and wife and friends till they recovered. There 
was no place where the Indians had more friends, or 
more powerful friends, than in Cambridge. Captain 
Thomas Prentice was the first of the military leaders 
to conduct the friendly Indians as soldiers into the 
war, and commended them earnestly for what they 
accomplished. The leading men of the Colony, the 
Governor and Council and the magistrates, and nearly 
all the military leaders believed in the Christian In- 
dians, and urged their employment in the war ; but 
the bitter jealousy and prejudice of the people pre- 
vailed for the time, and the Indians, so willing and 
proud to serve, and so much more capable of carrying 
on the peculiar tactics of Indian warfare than the 
slow and cumbersome ranks of the colonial militia, 
were thus shut out, persecuted, insulted, and many 
driven into hostility by the popular frenzy against all 



Indians. When the General Court finally decided, by 
the advice of all the highest military leadersi, that an 
Indian company should be raised and put into the 
field, and carried out the order, with Capt. Samuel 
Hunting as the captain, our arms first began to pre- 
vail and the hostile Indians to lose heart. An at- 
tempt, also at Cambridge, was made to impart a lib- 
eral education to some choice Indian youths; Mr. 
Eliot proposed and the London Society were pleased 
to try the experiment. Many youths were started 
upon the course, but few survived the training to enter 
the colleges. Most of them died from confinement or 
changed habit of diet, or got disheartened by their 
unequal competition with Englishmen. There were 
two very promising youths from Martha's Vineyard, 
named Joel and Caleb. Joel, the most hopeful of 
these, when within a few months of taking his degree, 
went home for a brief visit, and on the return passage 
the vessel was wrecked off Nantucket Island and Joel 
was drowned. Upon the Triennial Catalogue of 
Harvard College, in the year 1(365, appears the name 
of the only one of these Indians ever graduated — 
"Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck, Indus." Caleb, not long 
after he took his degree, died at Charlestown of con- 
sumption. The history of the Indians of Cirabridge 
closes really with the end of the Xonantum Colony 
and its merging in Natick. The latter continued as 
an Indian town from lli')l-17<)2. Thomas Waban, 
son of the first Waban, was fairly well educated and 
was town clerk for many years. Thomas Waban, .Jr., 
was his son, and both joined in a deed to Samuel 
Unipatowin in 1719. The church was formed in 
16()0, and was broken up in 171H. In 1749 the 
Indian population of the town was 166. In 1797 it 
was twenty, and in 1826 none were left. 

Besides Rev. Mr. Eliot and Jlajor Gookin, the prin- 
cipal men engaged in this effort to Christianize the 
Indians lived in Cambridge, so that the town may 
well deserve its distinction as the seat of America's 
first and greatest University. The General Court 
appointed one of the English Magistrates to join with 
the chief ruler of the Indians in keeping a higher 
court among them ; and this court had the power of 
the usual County Court. The first magistrate ap- 
pointed was Daniel Gookin, in 1650; and for about 
three years of his absence, soon after. Major Hum- 
phrey Atherton was appointed; but he dying at the 
end of that time. Major Gookin was again appointed, 
and served until the abrogation of the Colonial Char- 
ter, in 1686. The record of a court held by him 
among the Indians at Wabquissit in 1674, illustrates 
his course of proceeding. 

Mr. Eliot preached a sermon, and " then I began a 
court among the Indians. And first, I approved their 
teacher, Sampson, and their constable. Black James, 
giving each of them a charge to be diligent and faith- 
ful in their places. Also I exhorted the people to 
yield obedience to the gospel of Christ, and to those 
set in order there. Then published a warrant, or 

order, that I had prepared, empowering the constable 
to suppress drunkenness, Sabbath-breaking, especially 
pow-wowing and idolatry ; and, after warning given, 
to apprehend all delinquents, and bring them before 
authority to answer for their misdemeanor; the smaller 
faults to bring before Wattaaacompanum, ruler of the 
Nipmuck country ; for idolatry and pow-wowing, to 
bring them before me." 

It may be of interest to add, that the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel among the Indians has 
held its organization to the present, having been 
active, more or less, in dispensing the funds among 
the remnants of the New England tribes; and nearly 
always, I think, the directors have been chiefly resi- 
dents of Cambridge, and worthy successors of Eliot 
and Gookin. 


CAMBRIDGE -(Continued), 


The founding of Cambridge was a part of the great 
religious and political movement of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. It was a Puritan movement, 
having its rise in England, but accomplishing its 
chief work in this western continent. Our own emi- 
nent historian has written : " Civilized New England 
is the child of English Puritanism. The spirit of Puri- 
tanism was no creation of the sixteenth century. It 
is as old as the truth and manliness of England." 
Another of our historical writers has given it as his 
judgment that if it had not been for Puritanism po- 
litical liberty would probably have disappeared from 
the world ; and that the time of Cromwell's triumph 
was the critical moment of history. 

It is not necessary to trace the course of events which 
the name Puritan suggests. The connection of our 
own history with it can be briefly told. The authority 
of the Church of Rome had been renounced, but there 
came in its place the authority of the Church of Eng- 
land. Ecclesiastical government was vested in the 
King and the nobility. They ruled, and the people 
were expected to submit. The statutes were many 
and explicit, and there were enough martyrdoms to 
prove their force. " The truth and manliness of Eng- 
land " could not render an unbroken .assent and an 
unfailing obedience. Many refused to be content 
with the transfer of authority and the advantage 
which had come with it. They wanted a larger refor- 
mation. From the nature of their demand they were 
called Puritans. Their demands were broad and 
were steadily enlarged. Liberty, reform, purity, re- 
ligion mark the progress of their thought and the in- 
crease of their purpose. For th* most part, they pro- 
posed to remain in the national church, there to 



work for its improvement. To what they deemed 
wrong they would not consent, but thc-y would not 
separate themselves from the church which they loved 
and in which they had all the rights to which any 
were entitled. Against them was turned the force of 
State and Church. The Court of High Commission 
was set up for their harm and the cruelty of the 
English Inquisition directed against as good and loyal 
men as England ever knew. Clergymen were de- 
posed, imprisoned, killed. Against Englishmen such 
methods have never prevailed. Violence failed of its 
end when it encountered such men. When James 
came to the throne the Puritans hoped for better 
things. They appealed to him for a truer Sabbath, a 
shorter liturgy, better music in the churches, aud tor 
ministers who should combine ability, fidelity and 
integrity. The King granted them an interview at 
Hampton Court and replied to them in terms which 
left no hope. " If this be all your party have to say, 
I will make them conform, or I will harry them out of 
this land, or else worse." That was in 1004. In 
160.5 Thomas Shepard was born. 

There was nothing good to be looked for in Eng- 
land. Was there any hope beyond its shores? Some 
thought so and crosied to the Low Countries. Some 
concealed themselves and waited. Some had already 
left the National Church. As early as 15G7, perhaps, 
there waa " the Privye Church in London." About 
1580 there was a permanent Congregational Church 
of Englishmen. The new churches had their own 
teachers and conducted their own affairs. The Congre- 
gational Church at Scrooby, in Nottinghamshire, with 
Clyfton, Robinson, Brewster, and Bradford, removed 
to Amsterdam and Leyden, and finally crossed the 
wide sea aud found a sanctuary and a home, and made 
an illustrious record of faith and devotion. 

Yet, in 1620, only a few of the Puritans were Pil- 
grims. But their principles were gaining power. 
The contests with James during his troubled reign 
increased the force of the people as against the au- 
thority of the King. His methods were not suited 
to win approbation. " I hear our new King hath 
hanged one man before he was tried. 'Tis strangely 
done." Four years before James disappeared the 
Court of High Commission renewed its severity and 
made it more certain that liberty must consent to 
exile. Buckingham sought to beguile men whom he 
could not suppress, and hindered their action by the 
hopes he aroused. By degrees they came to see that 
all this meant nothing ; more and more, there was 
talk of making a New England. John W"hite, rector 
of Trinity Church in Dorchester, on the Channel, 
proposed to the ship-owners to found a settlement on 
these shores, that the sailors who came here might 
have a home when they were not at sea, so that their 
spiritual interests might be cared for when they were 
far from the churches. Not very much came of the 
project, which perhaps meant more than was avowed. 
Soon men of means were planning a colony here. 

They obtained the charter under which Massachusetts 
lived for fifty-five years, and other ships sailed "into 
the West as the sun wont down." Naunikeug was 
settled and became ."^-aleni. The charter said nothing 
of religious liberty. It is probable that the colonists 
thought they could secure this by sailing three thou- 
sand miles, and that the government thought it could 
be prevented, however far away. Four weeks from 
the arrival at Naumkeag the colonists formed them- 
selves into a church, assenting to a covenant and or- 
daining a minister. It does not appear that they at 
first intended to leave the Church of England. But 
they had come "to practise the positive part of church 
reformation, and ])ropagate the Gosjjel in America," 
and this was the form which their wisdom approved 
and their position demanded. If they had not formally 
anticipated this, they were, at least, prepared for it. 
Here was another Congreirational Church upon our 

The Puritan spirit continued to .issert itself in Eng- 
land. In 1029, Aug. 2Cth, John ^Vinthr()p and eleven 
others entered into an agreement at Cambridge, "be- 
neath the shadows, and, perhaps, within the very 
walls of that venerable University, to which New 
England was destined to owe so many of her brightest 
luminaries and noblest benefactors " — " Upon due con- 
sideration of the state of the Plantation now in hand 
for New England, . . . it is fully and faithfully 
agreed amongst us, and every one of us doth hereby 
freely and sincerely promise and bind himself, on the 
word of a Christian, and in the presence of God, 
who is the searcher of all hearts, that we will so 
really endeavor the prosecution of this work, as, by 
God's assistance, we will be ready in our persons, with 
such of our several families as are to go with us, and 
such provisions as we are able conveniently to furnish 
ourselves withal, to embark for the said Plantation 
by the first of March next, at such port or ports of 
this land as shall be agreed upon by the Company, to 
the end to pass the seas (and in God's protection), to 
inhabit and continue in New England." There were 
certain provisions which prudence dictated, but which 
proved no impediment, and in 1030 they came in the 
"Arbella" to Salem, bringing their charter, and with it 
the government of the colony. Before the close of 
that year seventeen vessels had crossed from the Old 
World to the New, and a thousand persons had come 
in them. The new colonists found much distress at 
Salem, from sickness and scarcity of food. After less 
than a week for rest and inquiry, Winthropsetout with 
a party to find a place of settlement which would be 
open to them and more promising. ^Mishawum, or 
Charlestown, was fixed upon as the capital town, 
and on the 30th of July, 1030, a church was organ- 
ized with a covenant, and on the 27th of August 
the Reverend John Wilson -was chosen teaching- 
elder and solemnly set apart for his sacred otBce. Mr. 
Wilson had been for several years a minister in the 
Church of England, but had been su-ipended and si- 



lenced for non-conformity, and was ready to identify 
himself with those who were seeking a larger liberty. 
There was difficulty in securing a good supply of 
water at L'harlestown, and many of the church moved 
across the river. Among these were the Governor, 
the minister, and other leading men. In this way the 
Church became the First Church in Boston, of which 
"some have been heard to say, they believed it to be 
the most glorious church in the world." 

It is well to ask who these men were who were thus 
making a permanentpolitical and ecclesiastical estab- 
lishment on this continental Western Reserve. There 
can be no better witness than our own historian. Pal- 
frey. He quotes the words of " the prejudiced Chal- 
mers " : " The principal planters of Massachusetts 
were English country gentlemen of no inconsiderable 
fortunes ; of enlarged understandings, improved by 
liberal education ; of extensive ambition, concealed 
under the appearance of religious humility." For 
himself he writes in a more genial temper: "The 
Puritanism of the first forty years of the seventeenth 
century was not tainted with degrading or ungraceful 
associations of any sort. The rank, the wealth, the 
chivalry, the genius, the learning, the accomplish- 
ments, the social refinements and elegance of the time 
were largely represented in its ranks." " The lead- 
ing emigrants to Massachusetts were of the brother- 
hood of men who, by force of social consideration as 
well as i)f intelligence and resolute patriotism, 
moulded the public opinion and action of England in 
the first half of the seventeenth century." " In pol- 
itics the Puritan was the liberal of his day." " They 
will live in history," said another eminent citizen, 
" as they have lived, the very embodiment, of a noble 
devotion to the principles which induced them to es- 
tablish a colony, to be ' so religiously, peaceably and 
civilly governed ' as thereby to incite the very 
heathen to embrace the principles of Christianity." 

Such were the men who began the ecclesiastical 
history of the Massachusetts Colony to which New- 
town belonged. The circumstances under which they 
came here have been already alluded to, yet it is just 
to let one of their own number speak. John Winthrop 
had been chosen Governor before he left England. 
He was then forty-two years old, a scholar, a statesman, 
of good rank and generous property. " Commanding 
universal respect and confidence from an early 
age, he had moved in the circles where the highest 
matters of English policy were discussed by men who 
had been associates of Whitgil't, Bacon, Essex and Ce- 
cil." He has left a statement of " Reasons to be con- 
sidered for justifieinge the undertakers of the intended 
Plantation in New England, and for incouraginge such 
whose hartes God shall move to ioyne them in it." reasons need not be given here in full ; yet they 
should be read, that we may know what purposes and 
thoughts moved those into whose laliors we have 
entered. A few points may be cited here. 

" 1. It will be a service to the Church of great conse- 

quence to carry the gospel into those parts of the 

" 2. All other churches of Europe are brought to 
desolation, and our sinnes, for which the Lord be- 
ginnes allreaddy to frowne upon us and to cutte ua 
short, doe threaten evil times to be coming upon 
u"), and whoe knowes but that God hath provided 
this place to be a refuge for many whom he means to 
save out of the general! callamity ? . . . 

".3. This land growes weary of her inhabitants. 

"4. The whole earth is the Lord's garden, and he 
hath given it to the sonnes of men; . . . why then 
should we stand striving here for places of habita- 
tion, etc.? . . . and in the mean time suffer a whole 
continent as fruitful and convenient for the use of 
man to lie waste without any improvement? 

"6. The Fountains of Learning and Religion are soe 
corrupted as (besides the unsupportable charge of 
their education) most children are perverted, cor- 
rupted and utterlie overthrowne by the multitude 
of evill examples, etc., etc. 

" 9. It appears to be a worke of God for the good of 
bis Church, in that he hath disposed the hartes of 
soe many of his wise and faithful servants, both min- 
isters and others, not only to approve of the enter- 
prise, but to interest themselves in it. some in their 
persons and estates, others by their serious advise and 
heipe otherwise, and all by their praierl for the weal- 
fare of it." 

Having considered this general statement of the 
motives and sentiments of the leading minds which 
were first here, we are prepared to take up our local 
history. But we must return to England to find the 
beginning of our church life. The early history of 
Cambridge, much more than the later, centres in a 
few men, whose personal character and teaching gave 
form to the thought and action of the churches. 
This was especially true at the beginning and war- 
rants, indeed requires, a presentation of the men who 
were the leaders. Cambridge was peculiar in having 
had a double beginning, under the guidance of men 
of special eminence. 

The first man to be named was Thomas Hooker, 
who was born in Leicestershire, England, in 158(5. 
He was a graduate and lellow of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge. Of his youthful promise Cotton Mather 
makes this record : " He was born of parents that 
were neitherunable nor unwilling to bestow upon him 
a liberal education ; whereunto the early, lively 
sparkles of wit observed in him did very much en- 
courage them. His natural temper was cheerful and 
courteous ; but it was accompanied with such a sen- 
sible grandeur of mind as caused his friends, with- 
out the help of astrology, to prognosticate that he 
was born to be considerable." He began to preach 
while he was connected with the university. He 
pursued his ministry at Chelmsford and had great 
success in it. Au incident which has been preserved 



illustrates his fervor. He preached from time to 
time in his own county, and one of the chief bur- 
gesses of tiie town of Leicester, who was for some 
reason greatly opposed tohim,setacompany of tiddlers 
to play in the church-yard to counteract and break 
up the preaching. But the preacher's voice was strong 
and clear, and was easily heard above the noise of the 
hostile strings. The burgess found himself listening to 
the preacher and went to the church-door that he 
might hear better, and was won by the earnest 
minister and made a friend of the faith which he 
had striven to oppose. Results of this kind were of 
small account to those who were ruling the church 
in their own interests. Mr. Hooker was a firm ad- 
herent to the doctrines of the Church of England, 
but to some of its ceremonies he could not conform. 
He was too conspicuous to be tolerated in his dissent,- 
when obscure men were sent to the prison and 
beyond. In 1630 Mr. Hooker was silenced for non- 
conformity by a spiritual court in session at Chelms- 
ford. It is a testimony to the man that forty-seven 
ministers of the Church of England sent to the 
Bishop of London a petition in his behalf, in which 
they bore witness "that they knew Mr. Hooker to be 
orthodox in his doctrine, honest in his life and con- 
versation, peaceable in his disposition, and in no 
wise turbulent or factious." It was of no avail. The 
decree had been signed and sealed. But he con- 
tinued to labor for the religious welfare of the com- 
munity in private ways. Even this he could not 
pursue. He had been ordered to appear before the 
Court of High Commission, and put under a bond 
of fifty pounds. His friends advised him to forfeit 
the bond and avoid the perilous trial. They paid 
the bond and he crossed over to Holland, where for 
three years he carried on his ministry. For a part of 
the time he was associated at Rotterdam with the 
Rev. William Ames, who was abroad for the same 
reasons which had exiled Hooker. Mr. Ames is re- 
ported to have said that " he had never met a man 
who was equal to Mr. Hooker as a preacher or a 
learned disputant." But he was not willing to re- 
main in a strange and foreign land. At that time 
the Puritan emigration was going forward, and among 
those who had gone out seeking after a country of 
their own were many who knew Mr. Hooker and ap- 
preciated his greatness! Some had been under his 
ministry. There was a strong desire that he should 
go with them across the sea and be their teacher in the 
New World. He regarded this as a divine call. It 
was enforced by the impo.'sibility of remaining in 
England. He had returned, but the officers of the 
law were at once in pursuit of him. He decided to 
accede to the request which had been made. He 
kept out of the public view as much as he could until 
July, 1633, when he sailed from the Downs. Even 
then he was constrained to hide himself until the 
ship was well out at sea. After a voyage of six weeks 
the ship reached Boston Harbor. There were two 

other passengers who were to be honorably prominent 
here — John Cotton, who at once was chosen teacher 
of the First Church in Boston ; and Samuel Stone, 
who was to be Mr. Hooker's associate through all his 
ministry in New England. The voyage must have 
been interesting. The men enjoyed their liberty 
and improved it. There was a sermon every day, 
and usually three. To Mr. Cotton a child was born, 
who, after his baptism in Boston, was named Seaborn. 
The name has a quaint look in the Latin Quinquen- 
nial of Harvard College, with the class of 1051, — 
Marigena Cotton. It is the second name in the list, 
which indicates the rank of the father. It is said 
that there was no playfulness among the Puritans, 
but it is at least in tradition that the people, said re- 
garding the ministers who came in the " Griffin," 
that three great necessities would now be supplied, 
for they had Cotton for their clothing, Hooker for 
their fishing, and Stone for their building. 

The ministers were warmly welcomed, and with 
good reason. They were an accession of strength. 
The colonists at that time were " men of eminent 
capacity and sterling character, fit to be concerned in 
the founding of a State." Dr. Palfrey has finely 
said: "In all its generations of wealth and refine- 
ment, Boston has never seen an a.ssembly more 
illustrious, for generous qualities or for manly 
culture, than when the magistrates of the young 
colony welcomed Cotton and his fellow-voyagers at 
Winthrop's table." 

Samuel Stone was born at Hertford, in England, 
and was educated at Emmanuel College. He was for 
a time a minister at Towcester, in Northamptonshire, 
where his ability and industry were conspicuous. But 
he could not yield a full conlbrmity to the ceremonies 
of the F^tablished Church, and it seemed to be good to 
him, as to so many others, to seek a more open country. 
His connection with Mr. Hooker was a fortunate one 
for them both. Those who had invited Mr. Hooker 
to be their minister preceded him. They began to 
make their settlement at Mount Wollaston, in what 
is now the town of Quincy, where Captain Woilasion 
had come, with some thirty or forty persons, a few 
years before. But in Governor Winthrop's journal, 
under the date of August 14, 1632, we have this entry • 
"The Braintree company, which had begun to sit 
down at Mount Wollaston by order of court, removed 
to Newtown. These were Mr. Hooker's company." 
It is supposed that they were called the Braintree 
Company because they came from Braintree, a town 
about forty miles from London. What Newtown was 
at that time will be learned from another part of this 
history. But the coming of these settlers was a nota- 
ble addition to its numbers and character. The set- 
tlement had begun in 1631. There was a project for 
a town which should be the seat of government for 
the colony. In the judgment of the Governor and 
assistants and others " it was a fit place for a beautiful 
town." The project was not carried out, but the new 



town was a place of importance and had the promise 
of growth. The town was carefully laid out and made 
a good appearance. A visitor early described it as 
"one of the neatest and best compacted towns in New 
England, having many fair structures, with many 
handsome contrived streets. The inhabitants most of 
them are very rich and well stored with cattle of all 
sorts." There were very few persons here, but there 
were men of force and enterprise among them, and 
they were destined to permanence and renown. How 
many came from the Braintree Company cannot be 
told. But there was a notable growth, so that in 
11)32 there were nearly a hundred families in the 
town. But there was no church here and no minister, 
and there is no record of public religious services. 
But Prince's Annals for 1632 tell that in " this year 
is built the first house for public worship at Newtown 
(after called Cambridge), with a bell upon it.'' The 
records of the town do not mention this house, but 
there is an agreement in December, 1032, " that every 
person under subscribed shall meet every first Monday 
in every month, within the meeting-house, in the 
afternoon, within half an hour after the ringing of the 
bell." The meeting-house was on the west side of 
Water, (now Duuster) Street, near its intersection with 
Spring, now ilt. Auburn Street. The site is marked by 
a stone in the foundation of the modern building now 
upon the ground. It must have been small and plain. 
There is no description of it, but the church erected 
about the same time in Boston had mud-walls and a 
thatched roof. An order had been passed that in 
Newtown no man should " build his chimney of wood, 
nor cover his roof with thatch." It is probable that 
the house here was of logs. Many years after its 
erection a vote was passed in town-meeting that the 
church should be repaired "with a four square roofe. 
and covered with shingles.'' It was a startling change 
to those who were accustomed to the cathedrals and 
stately churches of England, to come into these dark 
and narrow walls. It was a part of the price they 
paid for the liberty they sought, and they were not 
the men to complain of the terms. They were equal 
to the demands of their place and their work. 

Upon their arrival " Mr. Hooker and Mr. Stone 
went presently to Newtown, where they were to be 
entertained." We can imagine the gladness of the 
coming. On the Uth of October, 1633, Wiuthrop 
makes the brief record. ." A fast at Newtown, where 
Mr. Hooker was chosen pastor and Mr. Stone teacher 
in such a manner as before at Boston." The church 
was the eighth gathered in the Massachusetts Bay 
colony, but the precise date of its organization has not 
been preserved. 

Only a few months later than this the people of the 
town were planning for a removal. At the General 
Court, in May, 1634, "Those of Newtown complained 
of atraitness for want of land, especially meadow, and 
desired leave of the Court to look out either for en- 
largement or removal, which was granted." At the 

session in September, 1634, this question of the re- 
moval of Newtown occupied nearly all the time. In 
the previous July, "Six of Newtown went in the 
'Blessing' (being bound to the Dutch plantation) to 
discover Connecticut River, intending to remove their 
town thither." The report was favorable, and the 
town asked permission to move. " It was alleged by 
Mr. Hooker as a fundamental error, that towns were 
set so near each to other." Much objection was 
made, and enlargement was offered by Boston and 
Watertown, and the removal was not effected. It was 
but a temporary arrangement. In May, 1636, Gov- 
ernor Winthrop has to enter in his journal, "Mr. 
Hooker, pastor of the Church at Newtown, and the 
rest of his congregation, went to Connecticut; his' 
wife was carried in a horse-litter, and they drove 160 
cattle, and fed of their milk by the way." Trum- 
bull's account of the journey is worth copying. 
"About the beginning of June, Mr. Hooker, Mr. 
Stone, and about a hundred men, women and children, 
took their departure from Cambridge, and traveled 
more than a hundred miles, through hideous and 
trackless wilderness, to Hartford. They had no guide 
but their compass, made their way over mountains, 
through swamps, thickets, and rivers, which were not 
passable but with great difficulty. They had no cover 
but the heavens, nor any lodgings but those which 
simple nature afforded them. They drove with them 
a hundred and sixty head of cattle, and by the way 
subsisted upon the milk of their cows. Mrs. Hooker 
was borne through the wilderness upon a litter. The 
people generally carried their packs, arms and some 
utensils. They were nearly a fortnight on their jour- 
ney. This adventure was the more remarkable, as 
many of this company were persons of figure, who 
had lived in England in honor, affluence and delicacy, 
and entire strangers to fatigue and danger." Thus 
did Nesvtown found Hartford. 

Although Mr. Hooker was here but a short time, 
still his work, and through him the influence of the 
Church, were extended. His influence in ecclesias- 
tical affairs reached beyond the limits of his own 
township. There was need of wise leadership. The 
principles of church life were clear, but the methods 
were not so plain. The conditions were new and 
there was no definite agreement upon modes of ad- 
ministration, "until Mr. Cotton and Mr. Hooker 
came over, which was in the year 1633, who did clear 
up the order and method of Church government, ac- 
cording as they apprehended was most consonant to the 
Word of God.'' Their maturity and experience were 
of the highest value to the new churches and com- 
munities. Hooker worked with the other ministers 
for the common good of the colony. He was one of the 
preachers at the Thursday Lectures. He was a coun- 
selor and friend of men in public station. He was 
appointed by the General Court "to di:4pute" with 
Roger Williams in his controversy with the authori- 
ties. When Endicott cut the cross from^he English 



flag, Mr. Hooker yielded to public and private im- 
portunity and wrote Iiis opinion " Touching the Crosse 
in the Banners." He wrote calmly and plainly : "Not 
that I am a friend to the crosse as an idoll, or to any 
idollatry in it ; or that any carnal fear takes me asyde 
and makes me unwilling to give way to the evidence of 
the truth, because of the sad consequences that may 
be suspected to flowe from it. I blesse the Lord, my 
conscience accuseth me of no such thing ; but that as 
yet lam not able to see thesinfullness of this banner 
in acivfl use." It is plain that the influence of this 
minister was much wider than his parish bounds, and 
that the influence was for order and peace, and for 
the establishment of the stable principles of life. 
His influence did not end with his removal to Con- 
necticut. But at tills point of his removal the ecclesi- 
astical history of Cambridge begins again. We may, 
for the present, take leave of Hooker with the elegiac 
lines written by Cotton in his honor : — 

"To see three things woa holy .\ii8tin'8 wish, — 
Rome in lier flower, Clirist JeaiiB in the flesh, 
And P.-iul in the pulpit ; lately men might see 
Two first, and mure, in Uooker's ministry. 

" Zion in bennty is a fuirer sight 
Than Rome in flower, with all her glor>' diglit ; 
Yet /.ion's beauty did most clearly shine 
In Hofiker's rule and doctrine, both divine.'^ 

The history which we are tracing begins again with 
the Puritan movement in England. Again it is one 
man with whom, at first, we have to do. 

Mention has already been incidentally made of 
Towcester. It ia a small town in Northamptonshire. 
The old brick houses are, for the most part, on one 
street, which has a very red appearance as the visitor 
looks upon it. He is struck with the unusual num- 
ber of inns — The Talbot, Albion, Plough, Dolphin, 
Wheat Sheaf, Nelson's Arms — and is unable to 
account for their presence, or to find for them any 
visible means of support. They are easily accounted 
for by the fact that the town was once on the stage 
road between Chester and London. Then, doubtless, 
there was a stir of travel and business. This ia of the 
past. Quiet prevails in the houses and in the bear- 
ing of the people. There ia a fine stone church, a 
part of which dates from the end of the twelfth or 
the beginning of the thirteenth century. The mas- 
sive tower goes back to Edward IV. Around the 
church are the graves of many generations, and near 
by is the pleasant vicarage, where the Rev. James 
Mountain resides. Across the lane is a cabinet- 
maker's establishment, which, in the old time, was a 
home for monks. In the wall around the yard are 
niches which once must have held sacred images. 
Here the good men had their daily walk and medita- 
tion. At a later day the house was used for the parish 
schools. Something of modern life is seen in the 
town in a fine building devoted to municipal pur- 
poses. A Congregational and a Baptist Church, and 
perhaps others, mark the presence of dissent, though 
they are much less impressive than the house of the 

establishment. There are two or three hamlets out- 
side the main town, and nearly three thousand people 
now inhabit the pleasant quietness. 

With this English town Cambridge has a natural 
;ind interesting connection. For it was in Towcester 
the man was born whose name was to be historic 
among us. The old church-book in Towcester has 
one brief record before which a Cambridge man 
pauses in reverence. In the long list of baptisms, 
reaching through centuries, he reads: "Thomas, 
Sonne to William Shepard, 9 November." He was 
borne on the fifth of November, 1U05, ' called the 
Powder Treason Day,' at that very houre of tbe day 
when the Parliament should have been blown up, 
. . . which occasioned my father to give me the 
name Tliomas, because he sayed I would hardly be- 
lieve that ever any such wickedness should be 
attempted by men against so religious and good 
Parlaraent." William Sbepard w.os a prosperous 
grocer, "a wise, prudent man, the peacemaker of 
the place." As there was in Towcester no preaching 
which satisfied him, he removed to Banbury that he 
and his household might be '" under a stirring minis- 
try." The mother died when Thomas wa.s four years 
old. His childhood had little brightness or promise 
in it. He was sent, when very young, to his grand- 
parents at Fosaecut, "a most blind town and corner," 
where he was " put to keep geese, and other such 
country work," while his own interests were neglected. 
Then he was sent to his uncle at Apthorp, "' a little 
blind town," where he learned "to sing and sport, as 
children did in those parts, and to dance at their 
Whitson-Ales." When he returned home he was 
harshly used by his stepmother, and his father 
sent him to a free school in Towcester, kept by a 
Welshman, who was very cruel to him, so that he 
was discouraged in his lessons, and often wished he 
was a keeper of hogs and beasts instead of a school- 
boy. He was ten years old when his father died, and 
his brother took the place of both father and mother 
to him. He had been in a hard school ; but he had 
received strong religious impressions and had taken 
an earnest hold upon life. At fourteen, though " very 
raw and young," he was admitted a pensioner at 
Emmanuel College. Here he faced new perils. He 
became proud of bis attainments, neglected his relig- 
ious duties, and strayed into bad company and evil 
ways. Shame and remorse came to him, and the 
searching preaching of the master of the college per- 
suaded him to make for himself a serious and manly 
life. "I saw the Lord gave me a hart to receive 
Xt.. with a naked hand even a naked Xt., and so hee 
gave me peace." He left college with a high reputa- 
tion for scholarship and with the customary honors 
of the university, and with new purposes and desires. 
Before we go further we ought more distinctly to 
note the influence of Emmanuel College upon our 
ecclesiastical life. It was the college of Thomas 
Hooker, Samuel Stone, Thomas Shepard, John Har- 



vard. At Cambridge the Puritan influence was 
especially strong, and at Emmanuel the strongest. 
It was the heart of the greatest movement of modern 
times. Emmanuel was founded in 1.584. Walter 
Mildmay, chancellor and counselor of Elizabeth, 
purchased the ground, on which a university of the 
Black Friars, the Preaching Friars, had stood, and 
on this rose the college which he founded and en- 
dowed. He was a leader among the Puritans, and he 
sought in his way to advance and extend their prin- 
ciples. The story goes that the Queen met him soon 
after the college was opened, and greeted him with, 
"So, Sir Walter, I hear you have erected a Puritan 
foundation." " No, madam, far be it from me to 
countenance anything contrary to your established 
laws ; but I have set an acorn, which, when it be- 
comes an oak, God alone knows what will be the fruit 
thereof." Fifty years later, when Harvard was a 
student. Fuller wrote: "Sure I am at this day it 
hath overshadowed all the university." Even then 
its shadow, rather its brightness, had fallen on a land 
three thousand miles away. It was a stubborn, wil- 
ful college. The traditions required that churches 
and chapels should be built on a line running east 
and west. Mildmay set hb chapel on a Hue running 
north and south. The breaking from tradition was 
the assertion of liberty. On the lofty pediment are 
the arms of the college — a lion rampant, holding a 
ehaplet, which drew out this tribute in Greek: 

"Thy eniblfniB fair, and lioD bol'i. 

Well plenserl Enimantiel'fi Houee, 1 Rfe ; 
If »^nch ii rank lliy lion»hoiil. 
What niichty things thy men must h^ !" 

This was the place, this wa.s the life, into which 
the boy Thomas Shepard entered, whose air he 
breathed, teaching he received, whose mas- 
ters he revered, whose scholars he knew, from 
which he came forth a man. He took his Bachelor's 
degree in Irt23 and became Master of Arts in 1627. 
His life was beginning; what should he do next? He 
had been used to Puritan training from his youth up ; 
but, not without .scruple, he received deacon's orders 
in the Established (.'hurch. He was given an ap- 
Doiiitment as :i lecturer. This was a Puritan office, 
designed to furnish preachers where there was no 
proper ministry. The appointment was for three 
years. It was a needy place to which he was sent, 
but his labors were successfiil, and there he won to 
himself his steadfast friend, Roger Harlakenden, 
whose mortal part was afterwards laid in our old 
burying-ground where Shepard was to join him. 

It is almost telling Hooker's story over again to 
relate that the young minister was not allowed to do 
his work in peace. He was charged with being "a 
non-conformable man, when for the most of that time 
I was not resolved either way." He finished his 
three years and remained a few months longer, at the 
request and charge of the people, when he was sum- 
moned before Laud, the Bishop of London — " our 

great enemy," Winthrop calls him. The Bishop was 
more angry than was becoming to his sacred office, 
and his sentence was more explicit than pastoral : 
" I charge you that you neither preach, read, marry, 
bury, or exercise any ministerial functions in any 
part of my diocese ; for if you do, and I hear of it, 
I'll be upon your track and follow you wherever you 
go, in any part of this kingdom, and so everlastingly 
disenable you." Laud was building better than he 
knew. The story need not be followed out in its 
details. The young man spent a. few months with 
the Harlakendens, becoming more fixed in his Puri- 
tan ideas. " Then the Bishop fired me out of this 
place." He accepted an invitation to Yorkshire, where 
he was chaplain to the family of Sir Richard Darley. 
There he was kindly treated, very kindly, inasmuch 
as the knight's kinswoman, Margaret Tauteville 
became Margaret Shepard. But the old hostility 
found him out and he came to Northumberland. He 
removed again and was silenced again. Then he 
"preached up and down the country, and at last pri- 
vately in Mr. Fenwick's house." While he was thus 
being loosed from Church and country, divers friends 
in New England asked him to come over to them, and 
many in Old England desired him to go and promised 
to accompany him. He resolved to accede to their 
request. His " little booke," with his own account of 
his life, remains as an invaluable memorial of the 
man. In this he gives the reasons for his consent to 
leave the country. " I saw no call to any other place 
in Old England." " I saw the Lord departed from 
England when Mr. Hooker and Mr. Cotton were gone> 
and I saw the harts of most of the godly set and 
bent that way, and I did think I should feel my 
miseries if I stayed behind." " My dear wife did much 
long to see me settled there in peace and so put me 
on to it." " Tho" my ends were mi.xt and I looked 
much to my own quiet, yet the Lord let me see the 
glory of those liberties in N. England, and made 
me purpose, if ever I come over, to live among God's 
people as one come out from the dead, to his praise." 
" I did hope my going over might make them to fol- 
low me." " -My liberty in private was dayly threat- 

He sailed with his wife and child late in the year 
1634. They encountered a violent storm and were 
nearly lost. They reached the land, where his child 
soon died and was privately buried. He began to 
question if he had gone too far in separating from 
the " Assemblies in England." He spent the winter 
in Norfolk, busy with his pen now that his lips were 
closed. In the spring he went up to London, where 
with difficulty he evaded the officers of the law, and 
in August, 1635, he sailed the second time, with his 
wife and another son, his brother, Harlakenden, and 
other precious friends. It was in the ship "Defence," 
" very rotten and unfit for such a voyage." Through 
many storms and many fears they were brought in 
safety ; and on the 3d of October, 1635, they 



reached Boaton, where they were welcomed by many 
friends. On the second day after their arrival Shep- 
ard and his family came to Newtown, where he found 
Hoolcer and Stone, whom he had known in England. 
Hooker had been his teacher and counselor. Stone 
had succeeded to his lectureship, and had taken it to 
Towcester, where he had done much for his towns- 
people. It must have been helpful to Shepard to 
find these men ready to receive him and introduce him 
to his new work. The new-comers enjoyed for a few 
months the society of the veterans of 1632 and 1633, 
who were about to seek the wilds of Connecticut. 
Very serious and interesting their intercourse must 
have been. The arrival was well timed, for Shepard 
could take up the work of Hooker, the new settlers 
could purchase the houses which were to be deserted, 
and the new church could stand in the place of the 
old. The account of the transfer is given in the " lit- 
tle booke:" " Myself and those that came with me 
found many houses empty and many persons willing 
to sell, and here our company bought off their houses 
to dwell in until we should see another place fit to 
remove into, but having been here some time diverse 
of our brethren did desire to sit atille and not to re- 
move farther, partly because of the fellowship of the 
churches, partly because they thought their lives 
were short and removals to near plantations full of 
troubles, partly because they found sufficient for them- 
selves and their company. Hereupon there was a 
purpose to enter into church fellowship, which we did 
the yeare after, about the end of the winter." 

The minister's house waa in what is now the 
college yard, on the site now occupied by Boylston 
Hall. There Hooker lived and Shepard after him. 
The place of the meeting-house has been already 
mentioned. A few of the old families remained when 
their neighbors had gone, and became a part of the 
new community ; for the affairs of the town passed into 
new bauds and there was a new church. On 
the 1st day of February, 1636, the church waa 
organized. The record of that day muat be copied 
from the journal of Governor Winthrop, who was 
undoubtedly more than an eye witness : 

" Mr. Shepard, a godly minister, came lately out 
of England, and divers other good christians, intending 
to raise a church body, came and acquainted the 
magistrates therewith, who gave their approbation. 
They also sent to all the neighboring churches for 
their elders to give their assistance at a certain day 
at Newtown, when they should constitute their body. 
Accordingly at this day there met a great assembly, 
where the proceeding waa aa followeth : 

" Mr. Shepard and two others, who were after to 
be chosen to office, sat together in the elder's seat ; 
then the elder of them began with prayer ; after this 
Mr. Shepard prayed with deep confession of sin, 
etc., and exercised out of Eph. v., that he might make 
it to himself a holy, etc., and also opened the cause 
of their meeting ; then the elder desired to know of 

the churches assembled what number were needful 
to make a church, and how they ought to proceed in 
this action. Whereupon some of the ancient ministers 
conferring shortly together gave answer: That the 
scripture did not set down any certain rule for the 
number; three (they thought) were too few, because by 
Matt, xviii. an appeal was allowed from three, but 
that seven might be a fit number ; and for their pro- 
ceeding they advised that such as would join should 
make confession of their faith and declare what 
work of grace the Lord had wrought in them, which 
accordingly they did. Mr. Shepard first, then four 
others, then the elder and one who was to be deacon 
(who had also prayed) and .mother member ; then 
the covenant was read and they all gave a solemn 
assent to it. Then the elder desired of the churches 
that if they did appoint them to be a church, they 
would give them the right hand of fellowship. Where- 
upon. Mr. Cotton (after a short speech with some 
others near him), in the name of the churches, gave 
his hand to the elder with a short speech of their 
assent, and desired the peace of the Lord's presence 
to be with fhein. Then Mr. Shepard made an ex- 
hortation to the rest of his body about the nature of 
their covenant, and to stand firm to it, and commended 
them to the Lord in a most heavenly prayer. Then 
the elder told the assembly that they were intended 
to choose Mr. Shepard for their pastor (by the 
name of the brother who had exercised), and desired 
the churches that if they had anything to except 
against him, they would impart it to them liefore ihe 
day of ordination. Then he gave the churches thanks 
for their assistance, and so left them to the Lord." 

In this simple, reverent, democratic method the 
church entered upon a career which has already 
lasted for more than two hundred and fifty years. It 
was the union of men and women who were of one 
faith and of one character and purpose, and who were 
living together, and in fellowship with their neigh- 
bors, who were of a like mind. The covenant to 
which they agree<l has not beeu preserved. We can 
readily believe that it waa essentially the same aa 
that of the First Church in Boston, which was probably 
written by Governor Winthrop : 

" In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in 
obedience to hia holy will and divine ordinance. 

"We, whose names are hereunder written, being 
by his moat wise and good providence brought 
together into this part of America, in the Bay of 
Massachusetts ; and desirous to unite ourselves into 
one congregation, or church under the Lord Jesus 
Christ, our head, in such sort as becometh all those 
whom he hath redeemed and sanctified to himself, 
do here solemnly and religiously (aa in his most holy 
preaence) promise and bind ourselves to walk in all 
our ways according to the rule of the gospel, and in all 
sincere conformity to his holy ordinances, and in 
mutual love and respect each to other, so near as God 
shall give us grace." 



Concerning this covenant and ita adoption on the 
other side of the river, the present distinguished re- 
presentative of the name of the first Governor has 
said : "That old covenant is one under which any 
man might well be willing to live and to die. . . . 
Beyond all doubt, that day, that service, that coven- 
ant, settle the question that Congregationalism was 
to be the prevailing order, and for a long time the 
only order in early New England. Nor, let me add, 
have I ever doubted for a moment that Congregation- 
alism was the best and the only mode of planting and 
propagating Christianity in this part of the country 
in those old Puritan times." 

This ancient covenant, with the necessary change 
in the opening sentence of the covenant proper, is 
still in use in the First Church in Cambridge. 

The fathers did not think it necessary to make a 
statement of doctrine which should be original and 
peculiarly their own. They agreed substantially with 
other reformed churches. They had separated from 
the Church of England chiefly upon matters of wor- 
ship, discipline and government, and found it desir- 
able to make a certain confession for their churches. 
.Vccordingly in 1648 they formed and published " The 
Cambridge Platform of Church Discipline, gathered 
out of the Word of God, and agreed upon by the 
elders and messengers of the churches assembled in 
Synod.'' The name of this platform indicates the 
place of its formation. The Westminster Assembly had 
just made its historic statement of faith, and to this 
the Cambridge .Synod unanimously expressed its 
.issent. Ill the Preface it is said, "This Synod, having 
perused and considered, with much gladness of heart, 
and thankfulness to God, the Confession of Faith 
published of late by the reverend' assembly in Eng- 
land, do Judge it to be very holy, orthodox and judicious 
in :ill matters of faith ; and do therefore freely and 
fully consent thereunto, for the substance thereof 
Only in those things which have respect to church 
government and discipline, we refer ourselves to the 
platform of church discipline agreed upon by this 
present assembly; and do therefore think it meet, 
that this Confession of Faith should be commended 
to the churches of Christ amongst us, and to the 
honored Court, as worthy of their due consideration 
and acceptance."' 

We have, therefore, the constitution under which 
the church here began its work. The documents are 
of the highest interest, not only for their use here, 
but as a part of the history of the times, and a me- 
morial of the thought and life of earnest men who 
were working out a great purpose. 

The date of Jlr. Shepard's ordination is not 
known. Xt the organization of the church notice 
was given that it was proposed to make him their 
pastor, and his ordination must have soon followed. 
The Shepard company numbered some sixty persons, 
as nearly as can now be determined, and with them 
were some who had remained when the Hooper com- 

pany went away. The new church included among 
its members men of influence, whose names were 
prominent in other relations. There was Roger Har- 
lakenden, of that house which protected and sup- 
ported the young Shepard and his family in the days 
of their persecution, who came with them to this 
country. " He was a very godly man, and of good use 
both in commonwealth and in church ;'' and Richard 
Charapney, ruling elder, descended from Sir Henry 
Champney, one of the thirty brave warriors who 
fought in 1066 under William the Conqueror; and 
Samuel Green, who came in 1632, for fifty years a 
printer, whose greatest work was the Indian Bible; 
and Matthew Day, the first known steward of the 
college ; and Thomas Cheeseholme, the second stew- 
ard of the college; and Edward Winship, for many 
years honored by election to public office ; and 
Nathaniel Eaton, of whom we do not boast, though 
he was the first head of the embryo college ; and the 
first of the Sparhawks, the house which in difierent 
generations gave the church four deacons, and served 
the community in other offices of trust ; and Edward 
Collins, the deacon, father of famous sons ; andHenry 
Dunster, the first president of the college, "as true 
a friend," says Mr. Quincy, " and as faithful a ser- 
vant as this college ever possessed ;" and Thomas 
Danforth, Daniel Gookin, Herbert Pelham, Elijah 
Corlet. These selected names suggest a goodly list 
for the day of beginnings. We should add John 
Bridge, who owned land here in 16.S2, who was 
early made a deacon in the church, and was select- 
man and representative, whom Thomas Shepard 
named when he was giving his reasons for coming 
hither. " Diverse people in Old England of my 
dear friends desired me to goe to N. E., there 
to live together, and some went before and writ to 
me of providing a place for a company of us, one of 
which was John Bridge, and I saw diverse families 
of Xtian freends, who were resolved thither to goe 
with me." The statue of this stout-hearted Puri- 
tan stands on Cambridge common, in front of the 
church which bears the name of Shepard. 

In any account of the early religious life of Cam- 
bridge special mention should be made of Margaret 
Shepard. She was evidently a woman of strong char- 
acter, and her influence over her husband was constant 
and helpful. She was unwilling to stay at Butter- 
crambe, where he found her, and she came with him 
into the difiiculties which were besetting him. Her 
faith and hope reached out to the land beyond the 
sea. She longed to see him established here in peace, 
and urged him to yield to the persuasions of his 
friends. His description of her and hia manner of 
alluding to her are worth noting by those who imag- 
ine there was nothing tender in the Puritan character. 
" The Lord taught me much of His goodness and 
greatness, and when He had fitted a wife for me He 
then gave me her, who was a most sweet, humble 
woman, full of Christ, and a very discerning Xtian; 



a wife who was most incomparably loying to ue, and 
every way amiable and holy and endowed with a very 
sweet spirit of prayer." The ocean voyage was very 
hard for her, with her young child. To his son he 
writes that his mother " did loose her life by being 
carefull to preserve thine, for in the ship thou wert so 
feeble and froward, both in the day and night, that 
hereby she lost her strength and at last her life. The 
uhip, in a storm, tumbling suddenly on the one side, 
my wife, having the child in her arms, was almost 
pitched with her head and child in her arme-^^ agaynst 
a post in the ship; and, being ready to fall, shee felt 
herself pluckt back by shee knew not what, whereby 
ghee and the child were agayne preserved ; and I cannot 
ascribe this to any other but the angels of (iod, who 
are ministering spirits for the heirs of life." When 
he has mentioned the formation of the church he 
adds : "A fortnight after my deare wife Margaret 
dyed, being first received into Church fellowship, 
which, aa she much longed for the Lord did so 
sweeten it unto her, that she was hereby exceedingly 
cheered and comforted with the sense of God's love, 
which continued until her last gaspe." 

The full plan of the New England fathers contem- 
plated five church oiBcers — the pastor and teacher, 
who were called elders, the ruling elder, deacon and 
deaconess. It does not appear that Cambridge had 
a deaconess, at least under that name. These officers 
were to be chosen and ordained by the church in 
which they were to serve. The pastor's special work 
was to "attend to exhortation, and therein to admin- 
ister a word of wisdom." He was to apply the pre- 
cepts of the Scriptures to the conduct of men. The 
teacher was to "attend to doctrine, and therein to 
administer a word of wisdom." The one, therefore, 
had what we should term the practical, and the other 
the doctrinal part of the present clerical office. Both 
were to administer the sacramects of the Church. 
Both, also, were " to execute the censures." The 
earliest church here had both pastor and teacher, 
Hooker and Stone, but in the church which took its 
place the two officers seemed to have been combined 
from the beginning. The ruling elder was to attend 
to the discipline of the church and to take the lead in 
all matters of business. "To feed the flock of God with 
a word of admonition, and, as they shall be sent for, 
to visit and pray over their sick brethren." The of- 
fice was not of long continuance. In fifty years from 
the settlement of the country it had fallen into com- 
parative disuse, although it was continued here until 
near the close of the century. The deacon was to be 
a man proved and found blameless. His was " to re- 
ceive the offerings of the church and to keep the trea- 
sury of the church, and therewith to serve the tables 
which the church is to provide for — as the Lord's table, 
the table of the ministers, and of such as are in neces- 
sity, to whom they are to distribute in simplicity." 
Some churches had one deacon, some two, some three. 
The number of elders varied in different churches. 

The ruling elders in Cambridge, so far as there is 
any record, were Edmund Frost, who was made a 
freeman in 1636, and died iu 1672; Richard Champ 
ney, a freeman in 1636, died 16G9 ; James Clark, a free- 
man in 1647, ordained ruling elder in 16S2, died 
1699; .James Stone, a freeman iu 1665, ordained 1682, 
died 1683. 

The deacons who served in the seventeenth ceutury 
were Thomas Marriot, John Bridge. Nathaniel Spar- 
hawk, Edward ( 'ollins, Gregory Stone. Thomas Cheese- 
holme, John Cooper, Walter Hasting. Nathaniel Spar- 

We have seen something of the appointments of 
the church in men and iu principles; it may be in- 
teresting to look at some of the methods of their eccle- 
siastical life. "The public worship," says an early 
writer, " is in as fair a meeting-house as they can pro- 
vide; therein, in most cases, they have been at great 
charges." If we could go within the simple building 
which first served for a sanctuary, we should find a 
rough room, divided by a central passage, and fur- 
nished with benches. On one side of the house the 
males would sit, and the females on the other. Veiy 
likely some of the men would have carnal weapons, 
for prudential reasons. The pulpit would be a stand 
or desk within a railing, and, in its plainness, in 
keeping with its environment. On the Lord's Day 
the bell would call the people, although, for some rea- 
son, we find that a drum was used at one time. In 
the town records for 1640 is an entry of " fifty shil- 
lings, paid unto Thomas Langliorne for his service 
to the town in beating the drum these two years past." 
It wiis common to have an hour-glass in the church, 
bv which to measure the time of the services. When 
the people became able to arrange the meeting-house 
according to their idea of the fitness of things, the 
ruling elders had a seat below the pulpit, and the 
deacons a seat a little lower down, where they faced 
the congregation. The pulpit was tlien an elaborate 
structure, under a sounding-board. The boys had a 
place by themselves in one of the galleries, with a 
tithingman for their particular benefit. In 1666 
"Thomas Fox is ordered to look to the youth in time 
of public worship." In 1669 there was complaint 
that sundry persons were spending their time unprof- 
itably outside the meeting-house, and the constable 
was ordered to see " that they do attend upon the 
public worship of God." 

In many cases the meeting-house was finished and 
furnished by degrees. At first benches were jiut iu ; 
then a man would obtain a deed of a space on the floor, 
some six feet square, and erect a pit, or pew, upon it. 
He was to keep his pew in repair and " maintain all 
the glass against it." When there was no such pri- 
vate arrangement the people had seats assigned to 
them according to rank or property or age. This was 
called "dignifying" the house. Here is an order for 
1658 : " That the elders, deacons and selectmen for 
the time being shall be a constant and settled power 



for regulating the sitting of persons in the meeting- 
house from time to time as need shall require." We 
have the appointment for 1662; it runs this way: 
"The Committee for ordering the seating of people 
in the meeting-house, being met at the ordinary, ap- 
pointed — 

" Bro. R. Jackson's wife to ait there where Sister 
Kempster was wont to sit. 

" Mrs. Upham with her mother. 

" Ester Sparhawke in the place where Mrs. Up- 
ham is removed from. . . . 

" Joanna Winship in the place where Ester Spar- 
hawke was wont to sit. . . . 

" Ens. Samuel Greene to sit at the table. . . . 

" Goode Gates at the end of the Deacons' seats." 

The congregation usually walked to the meeting- 
house or rode on horseback. For the convenience of 
those who rode, in IGG.*) " the Townsmen do order the 
Constables to make a convenient horse-block at the 
meeting-house and causeway to the door." 

In the New England customs the congregation met 
as early as nine o'clock on Sabbath mofning and 
about two in the afternoon. The services consisted of 
prayer, singing, reading and expounding the Scrip- 
tures, for it was generally considered improper to 
read them without e.v position — " dumb reading," they 
called it. There was also a sermon by the pastor or 
teacher. As they accounted a man a minister only to 
his own congregation, when one was In the pulpit of 
another clergyman it was common for the ruling 
elders of the place to give bim authority to speak in 
some such form as this : " If this present brother hath 
any word of exhortation for the people at this time, 
in the name of God let him say on." To "say on " 
was to " prophesy." An hour was regarded the 
proper length for a sermon, although upon occasions 
the preacher might "take another" The ser- 
mon was usually preached without a manuscript in 
the early days. The prayer was, of course, extempo- 
raneous. Children were baptized in the meeting- 
house, generally ou the next Sabbath after their birth. 
The pastor or teacher stood in the deacons' seats, as 
that was an " eminent place," and, with an address to 
the church and the parents and two prayers, adminis- 
tered the ordinance. " No sureties were required." 
The Lord's Supper was administered once in each 
month at the morning service. The form was very 
much like that which now prevails in Congregational 
Churches. Persons were received to membership in 
the church in public, but with more of examination 
and profession than is common now. There is now in 
the library of the New England Historic Genealogical 
Society a small manuscript volume in Mr. Shepard's 
writing, entitled, " The Confessions of Diverse Pro- 
pounded to be Received and were Entertained aa 
Members." There are fifty confessions, some of them 
very brief and some quite extended. Cases of disci- 
pline were more openly dealt with than is common 
now. This was iu accordance with the spirit of the 

times. Every Sabbath afternoon there was a contri- 
bution. One of the deacons stood up in his place and 
said, " Brethren of the congregation, now there is 
time left for contribution ; wherefore as God hath 
prospered you, so freely offer." " On some extraordi- 
nary occasions," says an old writer, " as building and 
repairing of churches or meeting-houses or other 
necessities, the ministers press a liberal contribution, 
with effectual exhortation out of Scripture." Then 
the people passed up to the deacons' seat with their 
offerings. "The magistrates and chief gentlemen 
went first, then the elders, then all the congregation 
of men and most of them that are not of the church, 
all single persons, widows, and women in absence of 
their husbands." Money and papers were dropped 
into a box. If the offering were "any other chattel," 
it was set down before the deacons. The writer first 
quoted says, " I have seen a fair gilt cup, with a cover, 
offered them by one, which is still used at the Com- 
munion." It was customary for visitors in the con- 
gregation to make an offering, which was called "the 
strangers' money," and was often stipulated for by 
the clergyman aa a perquisite of his office. At first 
the minister's salary was paid from the voluntary 
contribution made on the Sabbath, but this soon gave 
way to the system of taxation. In 1657 there is a 
vote in the town records, appointing the deacons or 
other townsmen " to make a levy of two hundred and 
forty poupds for the maintenance this year and full 
payment of the debts of our reverend pastor." In 
1665 the selectmen " ordered that all, persons that do 
contribute to the ministry of this place do, upon the 
first second day of May next, appear before the dea- 
cons and selectmen, to clear the payment of their 
dues for time past, or send in writing a receipt 
thereof under the hand of our pastor or deacons, and 
that for the future every one do annually attend the 
order at the same time; the place of meeting to 
be at the meeting-house, and the time by eight of the 
clock in the morning." In the list of salaries given 
to different ministers during the first twenty years 
of the Massachusetts Colony, Mr. Shepard's sal- 
ary is stated .at seventy pounds. This was among the 
largest salaries of the time. Two are given at ninety 
pounds, and they decrease gradually to thirty pounds. 
At almost every point we can see where the fathers 
were swinging away from the customs of the church 
with which they had formerly been connected. Thus, 
marriage was not a sacrament, but a civil contract, 
entered into by the parties before a magistrate. This 
marrying by a magistrate was for the Pilgrims " ac- 
cording to the laudable example of the Low Coun- 
tries in which they had lived." To perform this 
ceremony was nowhere found in the New Testament 
to be laid on the miiiisters as a part of their office. 
Winthrop mentions a great marriage to be solemnized 
in Boston, when the bridegroom invited his minister 
to preach on the occasion. "The magistrates sent to 
him to forbear. We were not willing to bring in the 


cu3tom of ministers performing the solemnity of mar- 
riage, which sermons at such times might induce; 
but if any minister were present, and would bestow a 
word of exhortation, etc., it was permitted." 

In a similar way funerals were stripped of the cere- 
monies which had attended them abroad. The dead 
were no longer buried with imposing rites beneath 
the floor of the church or iu consecrated ground, but 
were laid in some convenient enclosure without even 
a prayer. Lechford, writing in 1C41, says : "At bur- 
ials nothing is read, nor any funeral sermon made, but 
all the neighborhood, or a good company of them, 
come together by tolling of the bell, and carry the 
dead solemnly to his grave, and then stand by him 
while he is buried. The ministers are most com- 
monly present." No burial was allowed on the Sab- 
bath, except by leave obtained from a Justice. It was 
long the custom at the burial of a woman for the wo- 
men to walk first in the procession ; the men when 
the funeral was that of a man. Funerals were some- 
what expensive, although not in the same way as at 
present. This was especially the case when a person 
of note had died. Wine, cider, gloves were provided. 
In one case, at Ipswich, at the funeral of a ministen 
in 1768, the bearers were furnished with gold rings, 
one of which was given to " a candidate who was 
preaching for them," and the attending ministers re- 
ceived eighteen pairs of white leather gloves. At 
length an .act was passed to retrench extraordinary 
expenses at funerals. 

They kept none of the former holy days except the 
Lord's Day, associating the observance of the other 
days with superstition and oppression. But they in- 
stituted days of public fasting and thanksgiving. In 
addition to the Sabbath services there was a weekly 
lecture. They gave great heed to the training of the 
young in religion and good learning. Cambridge was 
early divided into districts, which were assigned to 
certain persons who were to see to the catechizing 
and educating of the youth. In " New England's 
First Fruits," published in London in 1643, we read: 
" And by the side of the C'olledge a faire Grammar 
School, for the training up of young schollars, and fit- 
ting of them for Academical Learning, that still as 
they are judged ripe, they may be received into the 
Colledge ; of this schoole Master Corlet is the Mr., 
who has very well approved himselfe for his abilities, 
dexterity and painfulnesse in teaching and education 
of the youth under him." Mr. Corlet taught for 
nearly fifty years and acquired a high reputation. 
Cotton Mather speaks of him as "that memorable old 
schoolmaster in Cambridge, from whose education 
our colledge and country have received so many of its 
worthy men, that he is himself worthy to have his 
name celebrated." 

" 'Tia Oorlet'a paioa, and CheeTer'a, we must owu, 
Tbat thon. New EoglaDd, are Dot Scythia grown." 

In 1648 ia an order that a part of the Common shall 

be sold '"for the gratifying of Mr. Corlet for his pains 
in keeping a school in the town." In 1644 the Gene- 
ral Court granted, on the petition of Cambridge and 
Charlestown, one thousand acres of land to be for- 
ever appropriated to a grammar school, and also made 
a grant of two hundred acres to .Mr. Corlet. In lUti2 
his scholars were so few that the town made him an 
allowance often pounds. The town afterwards voted 
him an annual grant of twenty jiounds. 

The instruction in the family and school was sim- 
ple compared with that which is now given. There 
were no spelling-books, no English grammars — little 
of what is now considered essential. Children learned 
to read from the Bible, taking in moral and religions 
instruction with the letters and words. An out-df- 
door life gave the youth object-lessons and teaching 
in practical mechanics. 

Printing in this part of America began here. The 
first printer was Stephen Day, who brought out "The 
Freeman's Oath," in 1039. An Almanac by William 
Pierce, Mariner, came in the same year, and thf next 
year a PsRlra-book. The singing in the churches 
was without instrumental accompaniment. This was 
thought to be forbidden by the words of Amos, "I will 
not hear the melody of thy viols." It wiis compared 
to the idolatrous performance which Nebuchadnezzar 
delighted in — "the sound of the cornet, tlute, harp 
sackbut, p.saltery and dulcimer, and all kinds of mu- 
sic." Through the first century there were not more 
than ten different tunes, it is said, and few congrega- 
tions could sing more thau five. In the singing it 
was customary for the ruling elder, or deacon, or some 
other proper person, to read the hymn line by line 
and give out the tune. Tlie amount read at each 
time was increased in some cases, and finally the 
whole hymn was read at once by the minister. The 
version of the Psalms in use here was probably that 
made by Sternhold and Hopkins, which was printed at 
the end of the Bible. This was not satisfactory, and 
a number of prominent divines were appointed to 
make a new version. Thomas Shepard gave the com- 
mittee instruction in a stanza which makes us recon- 
ciled to the omission of his name, — 

" Vou Roxb'ry poetd, keep clear of tlie crime 
of miaaing to give ua very good rhyme — 
And you of Dorcbeater, yuur venca leugtbeD, 
Bat witb tbe text'a own words yuii will tbeiu etrengtbeii." 

The book came out in 1640, and was well received. 
It was revised by Mr. Dunster and received the addi- 
tion of "Spiritual Songs." It passed through seventy 
editions, and was used extensively in Great Britain, 
especially in Scotland. It was in use in some Ameri- 
can churches till after the Revolution. It was entitled 
"The Bay Psalm Book," and afterwards "The New 
England Version of the Psalms." One verse from 
the Twenty-third Psalm will give some idea of the 
character of the work : — 

"Tbe Lord to mee a Sbepbeard is, 
Want therefore shall Dot T. 



Hee io tbe folds of tender-gnuao, 
Dotti caii!M» niee iluwne to lie: 

To waters calliie He gently leads, 
Restores my soule doth [lee : 

He doth in paths of righteousnes 
For His name's sake lead mee." 

It has seemed well to glance at the customs of the 
father!), that we may see something of the life which 
was once going on here. Many of their usages seem 
strange to us, but if we bad been born into them 
they would have suited us as well aa they did others. 
The men and their ways must be estimated with 
reference to their time and place and work. It should 
be kept in mind that the ruling spirits here were men, 
gentlemen, scholars. Newtown had her share of the 
choice wheat which came from the sifting of a nation. 
These men knew literature. Shakespeare died in 
1616, and possibly some of these men knew him. 
Bacon died in 1626. Milton was born in 1608. Our 
fathers stood close to them. Sir Henry Vane-jtvas 
chosen Governor of Massachusetts in March ot the 
same year in which the present First Church in Cam- 
bridge was organized. 

" Vane, yooug in years but in vige counsel old, 
Than whom .\ Itetter Senator ne'er held 
The helm of Rome— * * « 

* On thy tiiTii hand Religion leans 
Id peace, anil reckons thee her eldest suD.'* 

It was a goodly company which was here, in an 
open country. Liberty, intelligence, piety were re- 
vered and enjoyed. We are reclaiming some of their 
methods, for their principles were excellent even 
when their administration was at fault. There was 
life here. The woods and streams otfered recreation 
to the boys when their tasks were done. The girls 
had ([uiet enjoyment in their homes. Morality was 
abroad. ''One may live there from year to year, and 
not see a drunkard, hear an oath, or meet a beggar." 
In this practical .tge it shoulil stand for much, that in 
their great endeavor they were successful. 

But it is time that we resumed the history of events 
connected with the church. The early annals are not 
complete, but we have enough to enable us to trace 
the course of events from the beginning. There are 
no full records of the church before 1696. But there 
is a church book, which was opened in 1637 or 1638, 
in which are matters of interest, although the book 
was largely devoted to financial matters. Shepard'a 
autobiography reveals some things which were per- 
sonal to him, but also of interest to the church. The 
records of the town are closely related to the history 
of the church. There are biographies and histories 
which treat of men and events with which the church 
here was intimately connected. There is material for 
a much fuller history than can be given in these pages. 
The reader who desirea more will find much satisfac- 
tion in the " History of Cambridge," by Rev. Lucius R. 
Paige, D.D. To his work any one must make con- 
stant reference who attempts to write of Cambridge. 
A book of "Lectures on the History of the First 

Church in Cambridge" was published in 1873, and 
some portions of the lectures are reproduced here. 
The list of freemen in the Colony is of great service 
in determining who were members of the church, so 
long as only church members could be full citizens. 
Mr. Mitchel prepared an interesting catalogue, which 
he entitled "The Church of Christ at Cambridge, in 
N. E. ; or, the Names of all the members thereof that 
are in Full Communion ; together with their children 
who were either baptized in this Church, or (coming 
from other churches) were in their minority at their 
present joyning ; taken and registered in the 11 
month, 1658." The catalogue was continued through 
Mitchel's ministry. Beginning with 1696,' we have a 
full list of members. There are two subordinate 
lists, which also begin in 1696, — "Persons who owned 
the Covenant and were baptized ; " " Persons who 
owned the Covenant in order to their children being 
baptized." Of the meaning of these titles there will 
be occasion to speak hereafter. 

As a part of the ecclesiastical history of Cam- 
bridge, should be reckoned the founding of Harvard 
College. In 1636, the same year in which the present 
First Church in Cambridge was organized, in the 
autumn of the year, the General Court made an ap- 
propriation " equal to a year's rate of the whole 
colony," for the establishment of a college. "The 
Court agree to give Four Hundred Pounds towards a 
School or College, whereof Two Hundred Pounds shall 
be paid the next year, and Two Hundred Pounds 
when the work is finished, and the next Court to ap- 
point where and what building." In 1637 the Gen- 
eral Court appointed twelve prominent men " to take 
order for a College at Newtown." The name of the 
town was soon afterward changed to Cambridge, be- 
cause so many who were interested in the new t^ollege 
had been educated at the University of Cambridge. 
In 16.38 John Harvard, a non-conforming clergyman, 
a minister at Charlestown, bequeathed half his prop- 
erty and his library, of some three hundred volumes, 
to the new college, upon which his name was placed. 
"The value of this bequest was more than double the 
entire sum originally voted by the Court." In that 
year the first college class was formed. On the new 
college gate is the inscription which relates the pur- 
pose of the men who thus established the institution, 
as it was written in 1642: ".A.fterGod had carried us 
safe to New England, and we had builded our houses, 
provided necessaries for our livelihood, reared con- 
venient places for God's worship, and settled the civil 
government, one of the next things we longed for 
and looked after was to advance learning and perpet- 
uate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate 
ministry to the Churches when our present ministers 
shall lie in the dust." Thomas Shepard was one of 
the twelve men to whom the establishment of the 
college was intrusted. The reasons given for erecting 
the college here were that this was "a place very 
pleasant and accommodate," and "under the ortho- 



dox and soul-flourishing ministry of Mr. Thomas 
Shepheard." It has been said that that Massachu- 
setts Assembly was " the first body in which the peo- 
ple, by their representatives, ever gave their own 
money to found a place of education." Thus upon 
the shore of the unplanted sea, three thousand miles 
from the schools in which they had been nurtured, 
on the borders of an uutraversed wilderness, among 
perils and privations, in the greatness of their hearts 
these exiles, builders, prophets, founded their school 
of learning and religion. They gave it a worthy 
name. Of John Harvard, Thomas Shepard wrote, 
"This man was a scholar and pious in his life, and 
enlarged toward the country and the good of it in 
life and death." This was a college of the people. 
John Harvard was the son of a prosperous butcher. 
His mother was the daughter of a Stratford alderman. 
She was three times married, and there came into the 
hands of her eldest son money from the butcher, 
cooper and grocer, and money from his brother, a 
cloth-worker. It was a college for the people, and 
devoted to their advantage. Its method and spirit 
were to make men, that a nation might be made. The 
influence of the Colonial clergy was naturally pro- 
nounced in the college, aa it was in the community. 
In 1642 the Board of Overseers was established, and 
the teaching elders of Cambridge, Waterto wn, Charles- 
town, Boston, Roxbury and Dorchester were made 
members of it. The ministers gave as they were able, 
and the people aided their generous design. The list 
of donations is as pathetic as it is creditable. Out of 
the homes came the benefactions, — a great silver salt 
and a small trencher salt, a silver tankard and a pew- 
ter flagon, a silver goblet and a silver bowl, a fruit- 
dish and a sugar-spoon, thirty ewe sheep and nine 
shillings' worth of cotton cloth. Friends abroad sent 
their gifts and blessing to a cause which they held in 

There is no need that the history of the college 
should be told here. But it should be marked that 
its establishment was a part of the religious life of 
the Colony and that from the beginning it was closely 
connected with the Cambridge church. We find Mr. 
Shepard at one time addressing a memorial to the 
commissioners of the United Colonies, asking a general 
contribution for the maintenance of poor scholars, to 
the end " that the Commonwealth may be furnished 
with knowing and understanding men, and the 
churches with an able ministry." He begs that it 
may be recommended to every family throughout the 
plantation, able and willing to give, to contribute a 
fourth part of a bushel of corn, or something equiva- 
lent to this, as " a blessed means of comfortable pro- 
vision for the diet of such students as stand in need 
of support." The plan waa approved and adopted. 
This was the first provision made in New England 
for the benefit of indigent scholars. What he asked 
others to do he did himself. What was done in other 
churches was done in his church. 

The administration of Nathaniel Eaton, the first 
principal of the college, was very unpromising and 
must have given the church much trouble. His 
faults were notorious, and he was dismi-seed from his 
office and excommunicated from the church. He 
entered the Church of England and became the vio- 
lent enemy of those who had trusted him and been 
deceived. Mr. Shepard's relation to this man, and 
his conscientiousness and charity, are revealed in 
the record in his little book : " The sin of Mr. Eaton 
was at first not so clearly discerned by me ; yet after 
more full information I saw his sin great, and my 
ignorance and want of wisdom and watchfulness over 
him very great, for which I desire to mourn all my 
life and for the breach of his family." 

It must have been to Mr. Shepard and the church 
a great relief and an especial joy when, in 1*340, the 
Reverend Henry Dunster was made president of the 
collage. Of him Mr. Shepard writes : " The Lord 
about a year after graciously made up the breach by 
one Mr. Dunstar, a man pious, painfull and fit to 
teach and very fit to lay the foundations of ihe 
domesticall aflairs of the college; whom God hath 
much honored and blessed." 

Mr. Shepard seems to have been at this time in an 
unusually happy frame of mind. " Thus the Lord 
hath been very good unto me, in planting the place 
I lived in with such a mercy to myselfe, such a bles.s- 
ing to my children and the country, such an oppor- 
tunity of doing good to many by doing good to stu- 
dents, as the school is." 

Thus the church and the college began to move 
on together, with one general design. It has been 
noticed that Margaret Shepard died very soon after 
reaching Newtown. In 10.37 Thomas Shepard mar- 
ried .Joanna, the daughter of Thomas Hooker, his 
predecessor here. His record is as follows : " Oct., 
1637. The yeare after these wars in the country, 
God having taken away my first wife, the Lord gave 
me a second, the eldest daughter of Mr. Hooker, a 
blessed store ; and the i^ord hath made her a great 
blessing to me to carry on matters in the family with 
much care and wisdom and to seeke the Lord God of 
her father." She is described as a woman of remark- 
able loveliness and wisdom. But alter less than 
nine years of married life she, too, was taken away. 

Those were exciting days in which things were 
starting in this new world. The events may not 
seem to us very large, but they were of vast import- 
ance in that time of beginnings. When the church 
here was organized trouble had already started in the 
Colony in connection with that resolute and restless 
woman whose name is " dismally conspicuous in the 
early history of New England." Mrs. Ann Hutchin- 
son had been attracted from England by her desire to 
continue to enjoy the preaching of Mr. Cotton. Her 
husband, who had left a good estate in Lincolnshire, 
is described as " a man of very mild temper and weak 
parts, and wholly guided by his wife." She was des- 



tined to encoanter men who would not be so submis- 
sive. They came in the fall of 1634, and she soon 
showed herself a kind neighbor, especially to the 
sick, and won the esteem of the people, over whom 
her attentions and abilities gave her influence. She 
became connected with the Boston Church and be- 
fore long avowed doctrines at variance with those 
commonly held here. Her house in Boston was 
where the Old Corner Book Store now stands. 

In October, 16.3H, Governor Winthrop gives this 
account of her : " One Mrs. Hutchinson, a member of 
the church in Boston, a woman of ready wit and bold 
spirit, brought over with her two dangerous errors : 
1st, that the person of the Holy Ghost dwells in a 
justified person. 2d, that no sanctification can help 
to evidence to us our justification. From these two 
grew many branches, as 1st, our union with the Holy 
Ghost, so as a Christian remains dead to every spir- 
itual action, and hath no gifts nor graces other than 
such as are in hypocrites, nor any other sanctification 
but the Holy Ghost himself." A person was to find 
the evidence that he was a Christian in an immediate 
revelation made to his own soul. To receive this doc- 
trine was to be under a " covenant of grace." To de- 
pend upon other evidence, such as conduct and prom- 
ise, was to be under " covenant of works." There 
were thus two parties. The party which Mrs. Hutch- 
inson headed was called by two borrowed names — 
FamiliatH and Antinomians. We need no testimony 
to tell us what the people of Cambridge were talking 
about in those days. We can readily reproduce the 
ecclesiastical life, as it was manifested in sermons and 
discussions, in the meeting-house and on the street. 
But we have Thomas Shepard's record : " N'o sooner 
were we thus set down and entered into church fel- 
lowship, but the Lord exercised us and the whole 
country with the opinions of Familists, begun by Mrs. 
Hutchin.son, raised up to a great height of Mr. Vane, 
too suddenly chosen fiovernor and maintained too 
obscurely by Mr. Cotton, and propagated too boldly by 
the members of Boston and some in other churches." 
Mrs. Hutchinson's views" spread rapidly. She gath- 
ered weekly as.semblies of women before whom she ex- 
pounded her opinions and denounced the ministers 
who were opposed to her. Ignorant men and women 
were put forward as preachers, with the boast that they 
could excel the " black coats " who had been trained 
at the " Ninniversity." The a.ssociations of common 
life became infected by the disputes. Even the 
inarching of troops which had been raised to assist 
Connecticut against the Indians was opposed on "the 
ground the officers and soldiers were too much under 
a covenant of works." It is difficult to comprehend 
this, until we remember that religious opinions were 
intimately and vitally connected with public and 
private afiairs. Even English congregations in Hol- 
land had gone to pieces by falling upon similar con- 
tentions. The Colony here was in serious peril. The 
towns and churches in the country were, for the most 

part, opposed to the troublesome woman. Boston 
was her stronghold, though even there she was stoutly 
resisted by Winthrop, Wilson and others. Vane, the 
boy Governor, entered into the strife" with all possible 
zest." The majority of the General Court were against 
Mrs. Hutchinson, and ordered that its session of 1637 
should be held at Newtown. Here, on the 17th of May, 
the court met, in an excitement which threatened civil 
war. Mr. Wilson, the minister, in his zeal, got upon 
the bough of a tree, and there made a speech, advis- 
ing the people to look to their charter, etc., etc. 
There was an election of Governor, and Winthrop was 
chosen. Vane soon afterwards returned to England, 
and one element of the strife was removed. After 
discussion there was the prospect of a peaceful settle- 
ment of the difficulties, and the ministers, with the 
consent of the magistrates, called an ecclesiastical 
synod. It was the first synod held in America, and it 
met with the church in Newtown. It was a grave 
and reverend assembly which was thus convened in 
the humble meeting-house near the river. Mr. Shep- 
ard opened the firstsession with a " heavenly prayer." 
Mr. Hooker, of Hartford, and Mr. Bulkeley, of Con- 
cord, were the moderators. The sessions contin- 
ued for several weeks. Eighty-two opinions were con- 
demned vvith great unanimity. Among these were the 
peculiar views of Mrs. Hutchinson and her adherents 
Certain questions of church discipline which had 
arisen were decided, and with freedom of speech mat- 
ters were carried on peaceably and " concluded com- 
fortably in love." Mr. Shepard made a record of 
the chief business in thiswise : " These errours, thorow 
the grace and power of Christ, were discovered, the de- 
fenders of them convinced and ashamed, the truth 
established, and the consciences of the saynts settled ; 
there being a most wonderful presence of Christ's 
spirit in that a.'tsembly held at Cambridge, 1637, 
about August, and continued a month together in 
publike agitations ; for the issue of the synod was 
this : 1. The Pekoat Indians were fully discomfited, 
for as the opinions arose, wars did arise, and wifen 
these began to be crusht by the ministry of the Elders 
and by opposing Mr. Vane and casting him and others 
from being magistrates, the enemies began to be 
crusht and were perfectly subdued by the end of the 

" 2. The magistrates took counsel and exiled Mr. 
Wheelwright, Mrs. Hutchinson and diverse [landers 
whom the Lord did strangely discover, giving most of 
them over to all manner of filthy opinions, until 
many that held with thera before were ashamed of 
them ; and so the Lord within one year, wrought a 
great change among us." 

Mrs. Hutchinson was tried before the General Court 
for railing at the ministers and continuing her lectures 
in defiance of the Synod. A sentence of banishment 
was passed, but as it was winter she was committed to 
a private house in Roxbury. Her conversation there 
was so offensive that the church in Boston cited her to 



appear and answer to the charge of holding gross 
errors. She retracted some of her opinions and was 
admonished for holding others. She was placed 
under instruction, and not only retracted all the 
peculiar opinions imputed to her, but went so far as to 
say that she had never held them. A question of 
veracity was raised and decided against her, and she 
was excommunicated for having " impudently per- 
sisted in untruth." This was the end of her power and 
party here. She was ordered to leave the juris- 
diction. With some of her friends she went first to 
Rhode Island. In her banishment her heart turned 
to Vane and she wrote him of her experience. In 
1638, or near that time, we find Roger Williams 
writing of these exiles: " I find their longings great 
after Mr. Vane, although they think he cannot returne 
this year ; the eyes of some are so earnestly fixed 
upon him that Mrs. Hutchinson proposeth if he come 
not to New, she must to Old England." Her after- 
life was troubled and troublesome. She became a 
widow, and finally moved to a place within or near 
the Dutch border, wliere the whole family, except a 
daughter of eight years, was murdered by the Indians. 
But after her departure from Massachusetts a long 
period of tranquillity was enjoyed here. Mr. Shep- 
ard gratefully acknowledges that by (tod's great care 
and goodness this town had been " kept spotless from 
the contagion of the opinions." This was un- 
doubtedly due in large measure to Mr. Shepard's 
influence, and it is given by him us one of the reasons 
which led the General Court to decide to place the 
new college here. 

There were many matters to be settled by study and 
experience in the new enterprise which had been 
undertaken in the New World. The founders were 
not quite separate from those who had been left. In 
the year in which Shepard began his ministry 
here, some of the Puritan ministers in England, 
hearing that the churches on this side had adopted 
a new and questionable mode of discipline, sent a 
letter of inquiry upon the matter. The questions were 
concerning a form of prayer and a liturgy ; the 
proper subjects of infants' baptism and admission 
to the Lord's table ; the removal of members from 
one church to another ; the relation of a minister to 
his own church and to other churches, and similar 
things. There was a careful discussion, in which 
Shepard bore his part, and he joined with Mr. Allen, of 
Dedham, in the publication of a work explaining and 
defining the usages here. This solved various per- 
plexing matters and gave satisfaction to the English 
brethren. Upon the principles which it expounded 
the churches conducted their atiairs, until it became 
desirable to have a more formal constitution. In 
1646 the General Court took up the matter of calling 
a Synod. It was seen at once that it would not do 
for the government even to seem to impose any laws 
or methods upon the churches. They had done with 
all that. But it was recommended that a Synod 

should be called. This was done, and the Synod met 
in Cambridge in the autumn of 1646, and after 
necessary adjournments was finally convened in 
1648. It was a noble gathering. There were men in 
it who had won fame in the mother-land and were 
illustrious here. An old writer has truly said, 
"They were Timothys in their houses; Chrysostoms 
in their pulpits ; Augustines in their disputations." 
Of the Cambridge platform mention has been made 
in another connection. Its promotion was a notable 
event in the ecclesiastical life, and its name is a house- 
hold word. 

(3ur national connection with the Indians is far 
from satisfactory. It is pleasant to relieve the picture 
by brighter shades from the earliest times. The set- 
tlers had it as a distinct purpose to be of service to 
the heathen whom they found here. Preaching was 
sustaineil among them by legal permission. Their 
rights were protected by a special court. The people 
sought to be just in their dealings with them. The 
college turned its attention to their education. A 
brick building was erected lor their accommodation 
by the Society for Propagating the Gospel, and was 
known as the Indian College. Several entered as 
students, but only one attained to academic honors. 
There was an effort to train up a native ministry, but 
this proved ineffectual. John Eliot has gained an 
immortal name by his efibrts for their benefit. In his 
labors he had the counsel and assistance of Thomas 
Shepard. Eliot's first permanent missionary station 
was established at Nonantum, in I'ambridge, in 
1646. To the congregation gathered there Shepard 
gave his care and work. He wrote tracts which were 
translated into the Indian tongue. A long letter writ- 
ten by him to a friend in England is entitled, " The 
Clear Sunshine of the Gospel Breaking Forth Upon 
the Indians in New England." He called it " An 
Indian Sermon." 

Daniel Gookin, a member of the Cambridge 
Church, was an earnest co-worker with Eliot and 
Shepard. He removed here from Virginia in 1644, 
and attained military and political station. He was 
made superintendent of all the Indians who had sub- 
mitted to the government of Massachusetts ; was one 
of the licensers of the printing-press, and in 1681 was 
appointed major-general of the Colony. He was a 
man of integrity and force. His monument is in the 
old church-yard. His son was the fourth pastor of 
the Cambridge Church. 

Eliot's translation of the Indian Bible was printed 
here by Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson. 
This was the first Bible printed in America. It was 
followed by numerous works in the Indian language. 
The Reverend Dr. Albro has said, " Thus Cambridge 
has the honor of furnishing the first Protestant tract 
in a heathen language, as well as the first heathen 
mission and the first Protestant translation of the 

Several events of less importance may properly find 



a place at this point in the narrative. It is interest- 
ing to find the n.ime of the minister and the affairs of 
the church in the public records. The General Court 
which met here in 1636 made a grant of fifty pounds 
to Mr. Thomas Shepard. In the town records of 1638 
ia a grant to him of two and two-thirds acres of land 
on the road to Charlestown. In 1647 there is a grant 
of six acres of meadow land. In 1650 there is an en- 
try stating that three hundred acres of land beyond 
Watertown Hill had been formerly given to Mr. 
Shephard and also two hundred acres more near Mr. 
Samuel Shepard's farm. In 1640 Mr. Shepard was 
brought into great embarrassment through the de- 
pressed financial condition of the colonists. It 
was a time of extremity. There was no money. 
Mr. Shepard's salary was then seventy pounds, payable 
in corn, which in this year was made legal tender for 
new debts. The emergency was so pressing that a 
removal to Connecticut was discussed. Mr. Hooker 
urged this removal upon his son-in-law in a lay letter 
which has been preserved.' He wrote, " I cannot see 
in reason but if you can sell and the Lord afford any 
comfortable Chapman, but you should remove. For 
why should a man stay until the house fall on his 
head? . . . If I were in your places, I should let 
those that must and will transport themselves as they 
see fit, in a way of providence and prudence. I would 
reserve a special company, but not many, and I would 
remove hither." The matter was of painful interest. 
To Mr. Shepard it was of deep personal concern. It 
threw him upon his habit of almost morbid self-ex- 
amination and self-depreciation. In hia " Meditations 
and Experiences,'' under date of Feb. 14, 1640-41, he 
writes, " When there was a Chunli uieetinf^ to be re- 
solved 'il'oul our goiity mrai/, [viz., to .\[alabesfd:'\, I 
called on myself .as poor, and as unable to resolve 
my.^elf, or to guide others or myself in any action, as 
a Beast." In (October, 1640, the Court proposed to 
make to Cambridge a grant of Shawshine for a village. 
In 1643-44 the grant was made. Lands at Shawshine 
were assigned to some persons, which gave others more 
room, and the church and elders stayed in their 

In 1648, at a general town-meeting, it was voted 
that there should be a farm laid out of a thousand 
acres, and improved for the good of the church, and 
that part of the church that shall here continue. In 
1655 Shawshine w.ts incorporated as Billerica. The 
thought of removal seems in this adjustment to have 
passed away. The census of 1647 gives as the number 
of ratable persons in the town, one hundred and 
thirty-five, with ninety houses. 

.■Vmong the entries in the old church-book are some 
which are characteristic of the simplicity of the 
times. " Item, Mr. Harlakingdon gave the church a 
legacye of 20/. wch we received a young cow for it of 
Mr. Pelham in the beginning of the year 1640. We 

' Paige'd '■ History uf Oambhdge," p. 40. 

gave the summers milk of the cow to brother Towne 
and brother John French ; the first calfe dyed. The 
winteringe cost to .Tohn Stone, 25'. wch sum the sec- 
ond calfe was sold for. The second summers milke wee 
gave to sister Manninge and brother John French. 
The 3d summers milke was yelded Elder Frost and 
alsoe all the winteringe of it. The beginning of the 
year 1643 we yelded it Elder Frost for his owne ; at 
that time it was worth but 5'." This fall in the value 
of the church cow was due to a general decline. In 
1640 Winthrop says that "cattle and all commodities 
grew very cheap." In Roger Harlakenden's will, in 
1638, is a bequest of forty pounds to Mr. Shepard, 
" and to our elders that wch is in their hands, and to 
the pore brethren of our congregation twentye pounds 
to be ordered by Mr. Shepard." 

There is a list of the weekly contribution which in 
nine months came to nearly fifty pounds. There are 
records like these : 

S. s. d. 
Imprimis for eleven quarts of red wine for the use of tbe Lonla' 

tabell upou the *J^ )tay the tenth nioDth at 15'^ a quart . ... o 11 9 
.\ nil for bread for the Lords* table at that time ij*!. For a mea- 

denger to go for the wine 12^ 1 8 

Pd for a tether pillow to put in the cushion to the desic 5^ ; it 

waved tt^^ " 5 

Payd for sendinge a messenger (goodmao Cracl(bone) to Char- 

lestowne and Ro.Ybury to atuyne Itelpe for preachinge iu our 

pastor's wealcness 2 

Payd to gooilman Line for 5 quarts and J/$ pint of wiue . . . . o li rt 

Payd by brother Towne for hia half year's allowance ] j 

.\ud payd him for 5 times goinge with mesaagea to the church . u 3 4 
liiveu to our brother Uall the 11'^ of tbe 4<i> month toward the 

rearing of his liouse that was blown down 1 u 

For the refreshing of my brother Sill iu lime of fayntnes, sent 

him 4 pintaof sack, 2'4'' 2 4 

Payd to my brotlier ( 'atie for goiuge to Salem for a message to 

Mr. Philips when lie was about to come to us o u 

Payd the hynian that brought Mr. Philips and for his guuds, 

bringing from Salem when lie removed Iu us 

There are several other entries relating to Mr. 
Philips. He was the Rev. .lohn Phillips. It is clear 
from this record, that it wa.s proposed to make him the 
associate of Mr. Shepard, as the teacher of the church. 
He came here from Salem in 1639, and in 1640 " took 
office" in Dedham. It is not known why this change 
was made in his plans. At Dedham it was regarded 
as a special providence that he had not settled else- 
w here, but could come with his gifts and his fame to 
be the minister there. The house which he built "anent 
Charlestowne lane, with the land adjoining and wood 
lot," was sold by the town to Thomas Danforth, the 
Deputy for fifty pounds, and the property long 
remained in the Danforth family. 

A few more extracts maybe made from the old 
accounts : 

c t. .(. 
f 163'J.] To Elder Frost we sent the 15 of the ^^ month in beefe, 

cheese, candle und money to buy corne, in alt 20^ 10 

Payd my brother Towne his half year's allowance .10* 1 10 

Payd him for paynes taken more than ordinary in mskiog 

cleane tbe meetinge hou^e iu the time of ita repayreinge 12* 12 
Payd for ^ times going to call the church together at 8'' a time 


1164:1,] Payd our brother Manuiuge for a belrope 1 6 

[1644.] Payd Mr. Palgrave for physic for our sister Albooe ..026 



For 4 yeara' rent for our aiater Albooe (beside 5 montba' time al- 
lowed her for about 7' charges in repayer w'l" she did) I aay i 
years -1 " 

[1&45.] Payd for a goat for goody Albone to gooduian Prentisa .0 11 

Elsewhere we find these records: 1646, Nov. 5. 
The Townsmen ordered " that there shall be fifty 
shillings paid unto Tho. Langhorne, for his service 
to the town in beating the drum, this two years last 

In 1642 " It is ordered that, according to an order 
of Court, made the last General Court for the towns- 
men to see to the educating i-hildren, that John Bridge 
shall take care of all the families of that side the 
highway his own house stands to by Bro. Winship's," 
and so on dividing the town into six parts. 

In the course of time the meeting-house came to need 
attention. It deserved it, for its constant and ius 
occasional service. There the church had itsbeginning. 
There, it appears, the first Harvard commencement 
was held in 1642. There the Cambridge Pl.itform was 
framed in 1648. Other events of great importance to 
the community found a place within its lowly walls. 

In February, 1649, at a meeting of the whole town, 
" it was voted aud agreed by a general consent, that the 
meeting-house shall be repaired with a 4-squaie 
roof and covered with shingles, and the charge there- 
of levied upon the inhabitants of the town by equal 
rate. "Either because it was found cheaper to build a 
new house, or a new house was desired, or .another site 
was preferred, three weeks later : " It was voted and 
agreed that the five men chosen by the tow n to repair 
the meeting-house shall desLst from the same and 
agree with workmen for the building of a new 
house about forty foote square, and covered as was 
formerly agreed for the other." It was also agreed that 
the new house should stand on " Watch-house Hill. 
This was very near the place where Dane Hall now 
stands, and near the parsonage. 

But it was not to be given to Thomas Shepard to 
fill the new sanctuary with the sound of the "silver 
trumpet, from whence the people of God had often 
heard thejoyful sound of the gospel." His constitution 
had never been vigorous, and his labors and trials 
must have impaired his health. He describes himself as 
" very weak and unfit to be tossed up and down and to 
bear persecution." Besides his public sorrows, there 
were afilictions in his own house which grieved his sen- 
sitive heart. One child had died in England; two 
children died here. His wife died soon alter his com- 
ing. His second wife died in less than nine years 
after their marriage. Yet his life was not altogether 
sad. He married for the third time. The third wife, 
Margaret Boradell, or Borrowdale, the sister of ".John 
Borrowdale, of London, Gentleman," became the wife 
of his successor. Four sons remained to him when 
he died, three of whom served in his own profession. 
The fourth died in his youth. 

In August, 1649, when returning from a meeting of 
ministeis at Rowley, " he fell into a quinsie, with a 

symptoniatical fever," and on the 25th day of the 
month he passed away from earth. A writer of his 
own time mentions the death of Mr. Hooker, and Mr. 
Phillips, of Watertown, and that of" the holy, heavenly, 
soul-affecting, soul- ravishing minister, Mr. Thomas 
Shepard, pastor of the church at Cambridge, whose 
departure was very heavily taken by all the people of 
Christ round about him ; and now New England, that 
had such heaps upon heaps of the riches of Christ's 
tender, compassionate mercies, being turned from his 
dandling knees, began to read their approaching rod, 
in the bend of his brow and frowns of his former favor- 
able countenance towards them." 

On the day of his death, with perfect memory and 
clear understanding, Mr. Shepard made his will, 
with a brief statement of his faith, and gave small be- 
quests to his sons and a few friends, and left the rest of 
his estate to his wife. The inventory of his posses- 
sions amounted to £810. Some of his last words have 
been preserved. To several young ministers who 
visited him not long before the end, he said, " Your 
work is great, and calls for great seriousness. As to 
myself I can say three things : that the study of every 
sermon cost me tears; that before I pre.iched a sermon 
I got good by it myself; and that I always went up 
into the pulpit as if I were to give up my account to 
my master." He was solicitous regarding the one 
who should take his place, and when he found that 
the man of his choice had commended himself to his 
people, he was content to depart. So he died, in the 
forty-fourth year of a large life. His mortal part was 
laid in the village graveyard. But nothing now 
marks the spot. His work is his memorial. 

** UiB name and oltice sweetly did agree ; 
Shepard by name, and in his miniiitry." 

It is evident that Mr. Shepard was greatly esteemed 
and with good reason. He was a thoughtful, labor- 
ious man. He was a scholar. His words are good 
reading to-day. Some one has made the calculation 
that in Jonathan EJdwards' famous " Treatise con- 
cerning the Religious Affections," of the two hundred 
and thirty-two quotations, more than one-half are 
from Shepard. He took time to prepare himself for 
his public work. It is said that he always finished 
his preparation for the pulpit by two o'clock on 
Saturday afternoon, accounting " that God would 
curse that man's labors who goes lumbering up and 
down in the world all the week, and then upon Satur- 
day goes into his study, when, .as God knows, that 
time were little enough to pray in and weep in and 
get his heart into a frame fit for the approaching Sab- 
bath." Some of the terms in which he was named 
have been given. He was " that gracious, sweet, 
heavenly-minded, and soul-ravishing minister, in 
whose soul the Lord shed abroad his love so abund- 
antly that thousands of souls have cause to bless God 
for him." "' A man of a thousand, and endowed with 
abundance of true, loving knowledge for himself and 



others; yet his natural parts were weak, but spent to 
the full." 

** Sbepheard*s sweet sermons from thy blessing came " — 
" Oh Christ why dost thou Shepheard take away, 
In erring times, when sheepe most oft do stray ? " 

We are permitted to see the influence of Mr. Shep- 
ard upon certain individuals, and from them to infer 
his influence on others. This belongs in the annals 
of the early church as a part of the church life. 

Edward Johnson came hither for the second time 
in 1636, a zealous Puritan. He arrived when the 
Antinomian conversation was at its height, and was 
nearly beside himself through the commotion. Leav- 
ing Charlestown, " turning his face to the sun, he 
steered his course toward the next town ; and after 
some small travel, he came to a large plain. No 
sooner was he entered therein, but hearing the sound 
of a drum, he was directed toward it by a broad 
beaten way. Following this road, he demanded of 
the next man he met what the signal of the drum 
meant. The reply was made that they had as yet no 
bell to call men to meeting, and therefore made use 
of a drum. ' Who is it,' quoth he, ' lectures at this 
town ? ' The other replies, ' I see you are a stranger 
new come over, seeing you know not the man ; it is 
one Mr. Shepard.' ' Verily,' quoth the other, ' you 
have hit the right. I am new come over, indeed, and 
have been told since I came, that most of your min- 
isters are legal preachers ; and, if I mistake not, they 
told me this man preached a finer covenant of works 
than the others. But, however, 1 shall make what 
haste I can to hear him. Fare ye well.' Then has- 
tening thither, he crowdeth through the thickest; 
where having stayed while the glass was turned up 
twice, the man was metamorpho.'ied ; and was fain to 
hang down the head often, lest his watery eyes should 
blab al)road the secret conjunction of his afl'ections, 
his heart crying loud to his Lord's echoing answer, to 
his blessed spirit, that caused the speech of a poor, 
weak, pale-complexioned man to take such impres- 
sion in his soul at present, by applying the word so 
aptly, aa if he had been his privy counselor ; clearing 
Christ's work of grace in the soul from all those false 
doctrines which the erroneous party had aflrighted 
him withal; and he resolves, the Lord willing, to 
live and die with the ministers of New England 
whom he now saw the Lord had not only made zeal- 
ous to stand for the truth of his discipline, but also 
for the doctrine, and not to frive ground one inch.'' 
Mr. Johnson wa» a man of learning and property 
and had a leading part in the erecting of a church 
and town at Woburn and in the administration of 
public aflTairs. 

As we read the names of those who were in college 
during these years, we have another indication of the 
iafluence of the church. Out of this happy semi- 
nary, writes Cotton Mather, " there proceeded many 
notable preachers, who were made such very much 
by their sitting under Mr. Shepard's enlightening and 

powerful ministry." Among these young men was 
William Hubbard, long the most eminent solicitor in 
Essex County ; and Samuel Mather, of that house 
whose name and deeds are intertwined with the 
early church history of the Colony; and Samuel 
Danforth, tutor and fellow of the college ; and Wil- 
liam .\mes, and John Brock. There were John 
Rogers, president, and William Oakes, pastor and 
president; and Leonard Hoar, president; and Samuel 
Phillips, " an incomparable man, had he not been 
the father of Samuel." 

There was another student, of whom special men- 
tion must be made. This carries our narration for- 
ward. At the head of the names of the class of 1647 
stands Jonathan Mitchel, Mr. Socius. He was born 
in 1624 in Yorkshire, " of pious and wealthy par- 
ents," who sought " to make him learned by a proper 
education." In his tenth year he had a "sore fever," 
which " settled in his arm with such troublesome 
effects, that his arm grew and kept a little bent, 
and he could never stretch it out right." When 
he was about eleven years of age his parents were 
driven out of England by the " unconscionable impo- 
sitions and persecutions of the English hierarchy." 

They reached Boston in August, 1635. The family 
settled in Connecticut, and for several years the boy 
was employed in secular afl'airs. But he longed for 
a " learned education," and prevailed on his father to 
allow him to enter college, which he did in 1645. 
" He had a clear head, a copious fancy, a solid judg- 
ment, a tenacious memory, and a certain discretion, 
without any childish laschete or levity in his be- 
havior, which commanded reipect; ... so that 
. . . they that knew him from a child, never knew 
him other than a man." He has come down to us 
as the " Matchless Mitchel." His serious impres- 
sions began very early, and were deepened and 
guided in the village church. In his own words : 
" Unless it had been four years living in heaven, I 
know not how I could have more cause to bless God 
with wonder, than for these four years." After grad- 
uating he was made a fellow of the college, and was 
for a time a tutor. 

His services as pastor were sought by several of the 
most considerable churches in the country. " The 
Church of Hartford in particular, being therein 
countenanced and encouraged by the Reverend Mr. 
Stone, sent a man and horse above one hundred 
miles to obtain a visit from him, in expectation to 
make him the successor of their ever-famous 
Hooker." There he preached his first sermon, and 
on the next day he was invited to become the minis- 
ter of the church. Large inducements were oflfered 
him. He did not accept the proposals, because 
before his journey Mr. Shepard, with the principal 
persons here, had prayed him to return to them, " aa 
he did upon divers accounts most belong to Cam- 
bridge, and Canbridge did hope that he would yet 
more belong unti them." He preached here on the 



12th of August, 1649. In the evening Mr. Shep- 
ard told him " This is the place where he should, by 
right, be all the rest of his days ; and inquiring of 
some goodxpeople how Mr. Mitchel's first sermon was 
approved among them, they told him very well. 
Then said he, my work is done ! " In less than a 
fortnight Shepard's work was indeed done. Mitchel 
received a unanimous invitation to become the pastor 
in his place, and he was ordained on the 21st of 
August, 1650. The neighboring pastor performed 
the service of ordination, and the Reverend John 
Cotton gave him the right hand of fellowship on be- 
half of the mini.sters and churches. His esteem for 
those who had made him their minister is manifest 
in his own words : " They were a gracious, yavowry- 
spirited people, principled by Mr. Shepard, liking an 
humbling, mourning, heart-breaking ministry and 
spirit ; living in religion, praying men and women. 
Here I might have occasion of many sweet heart- 
breakings before God, which I have so much need 

His entrance into his parish was complete. He 
was to have married Sarah, the daughter of Mr. Cot- 
ton. When he " addressed himself unto the vener- 
able old Mr. Cotton for leave to become his son-in- 
law," Mr. Cotton, " prognosdcating the eminence 
which he would arrive unto, gave leave unto it." 
" But the immature death of that hopeful young 
gentlewoman" prevented "so desirable a match." 
"The young gentlewoman whom his predecessor had 
married a little before his decease, he now also mar- 
ried upon the general recommendations of that 
widow unto him ; and the epithalamiums with which 
the students of the college then celebrated their mar- 
riage withal were expressive of the satisfaction 
which it gave unto all the good people in the vicin- 
ity." Thus, on the 19th of November, 16.'>0, Marga- 
ret Shepard became Margaret Mitchel. In the fol- 
lowing Maythe General Court confirmed a deed 
" Wherein is conveyed to Mr. Jonathan Mitchell, 
now husband of Margaret, the relict of the said Mr. 
Sheapheard, a dwelling-house, yards, orchards, and 
seven acres of land adjoining thereunto, in behalf of 
his said wife." 

Thus hopefully, happily, the second pastorate of 
the church began. The man was prepared for the 
work, but there came with it enough of adversity to 
make proof of his courage and constancy. It is sin- 
gular that his first public trial came from one from 
whom he could have expected only comfort and sup- 
port. Henry Dunster, president of the college, 
waa, to use the language of Cotton Mather, " unac- 
countably fallen into the briars of antipaedobaptism ; 
and being briar'd in the scru|)le3 of that persua- 
sion, he not only forbore to present an infant 
of his own unto the Baptism of our Lord, but also 
thought himself under some obligation to bear his 
teatimony in some sermons against the administra- 
tion of baptism to any infanta wjatsoever." Mr, 

Dunster had come from England in 1640, holding or- 
dere, it is supposed, in the English church, but in 
strong sympathy with the Puritan movement. He 
had a high reputation for piety and learning, and was 
almost immediately called to preside over the col- 
lege, with the title of president. Mr. Shepard de- 
scribes him as " a man pious, painful and fit to teach, 
and very fit to lay the foundations of the domesticall 
affairs of the College, whom God hath much honored 
and blessed." He was received to the church here as 
an accession of strength. He preached in the neigh- 
boring churches with great acceptance. After Mr. 
Shepard's death he was called " to supply " the va- 
cant pulpit. He was in accord with the doctrines of 
the church, although he thought that baptism by im- 
mersion was to be preferred. In his confession be 
said, concerning baptism : " I believe that only be- 
lievers and their seed ought to be received into the 
church by that sacrament. . . . .Vnd as children, 
so those that come to mature age ought to be re- 
ceived into the church by ba])tism. .\nd concerning 
the outward elements, something there is concerning 
sprinkling in the Scripture; hence not offended 
when it is used." It appears to have been in 16.i2 
that he changed his views regarding the baptism of 
children. The change, which he publicly announced 
and defended, created a marked sensation. It must 
have made the staple of much of the social and eccle- 
siastical life of the community. We quote again 
from the " Magnolia ; " " The brethren of the 
church were somewhat vehement and violent in their 
signifying of their dissatisfaction at the obstruction, 
which the renitencies of that gentleman threat- 
ened on the peaceable practice of infant baptism, 
wherein they had hitherto walked; and judged it 
necessary for the vindication of the church's name 
abroad in the country, and for the safety of the 
congregation at home, to desire of him that he 
would cease preaching as formerly, until he had bet- 
ter satisfied himself in this point now doubted by 
him." "The overseers of the college became solici- 
tous that the students there might not be unawares 
ensnared in the errors of the President. Where- 
fore they labored with an extreme agony, either to 
rescue the good man from his own mistake, or to re- 
strain him from imposing them upon the hope of the 
flock." The points at issue caunot be discussed here. 
They were of the greatest importance in the minds of 
those who had the church and the college in their 
charge. The doctrine in question was a part of their 
life, and was hallowed by the most sacred associations. 
If Dunster could claim consideration on account of 
his character and office, it was, on the other hand, 
specially important that such a man should be right. 
This they felt and they acted on their conviction. 
Their fear went further than this. For a hundred 
years the name .Anabaptist had been connected with 
fanaticism and extravagance. In Germany this sect 
denied the authority of magistrates, opposed all laws, 



made war against governments, rejected nearly all 
the Christian doctrines, and was K^ilty of the most 
seditious and vicious practices. There is no ne- 
cessary connection between the belief out of which 
the name sprang and the enormities into which many 
rushed who held it. Nothing could be further from 
such conduct than the behavior of Dunster. It 
is not the only time that men have been frightened 
by a word. The name increased the dread with which 
the opinions of the president were regarded. In 
view of the horror which belonged with the name of 
Anabaptist, it is not very surprising that in 1644 
there was a decree of the Court that any person who 
should openly condemn or oppose the baptizing 
of infants, or should go about secretly to draw others 
from the approbation or use of the ordinance, or 
should purposely depart from the congregation where 
it was administered, or deny the lawful authority of 
the magistracy, and should obstinately continue in this 
opposition after due time and means of conviction, 
should be sentenced to banishment. Two years after 
this decree the Court declared, " For such as differ 
from us only in judgment, . . . and live peaceably 
amongst us, without occasioning disturbance, etc., 
such have no cause to complain ; for it hath never 
been as yet put in execution against any of them, 
although such are known to live amongst us." It 
was hard for the church to rebuke a man like 
President Dunster, who had been lo them as a pas- 
tor. It was a hard position in which Mitchel was 
placed. He felt himself " embarrassed in a contro- 
versy with so considerable a person, and with one who 
had been his tutor, and a worthy and a godly man." 
He was slow to proceed to the action which seemed 
to be demanded. He thought the church too much 
excited, and said " that some light and less heat 
would do better." But he was greatly oppressed. 
"This business did lie down and rise up, sleep and 
wake with me." He labored in private with Dunster, 
but it was of no avail. He fasted and prayed ; he 
sought help from neighboring ministers; then pub- 
licly and formally ■)pposed the new teaching of his 
venerated president. " It was a dismal thing to me, 
that I should live to see truth or peace dying and 
decaying in poor Cambridge." He is said to have 
" preached more than half a score of ungainsayable 
sermons" upon the subject which occupied the mind 
of the church, and to have rendered service to other 
churches in the same cause. 

The magistrates asked the ministers to examine 
into the matter and to inform them " how the matter 
standi with him in respect of his opinions." Accord- 
ingly a conference of ministers and elders was held 
for two days in Boston, in February, 1653—54. The 
president could not be* drawn from his opinions 
by persuasion or argument, and on the 3d of May, 
1654, the General Court commended it to the over- 
seers of the college and the selectmen of the several 
towns, not to permit any person to be continued in 

the office of instructing the youth in the college or 
schools who " have manifested themselves unsound 
in the faith, or scandalous in their lives, and not giving 
due satisfaction according to the rules of Christ." 
The president probably thought that this vote was 
directed against himself, and he thereupon addressed 
a letter to the General Court tendering the resignation 
of his office. The Court referred the matter to the 
overseers, instructing them " to make provision, in case 
he persist in his resolution more than one month (and 
inform the overseers), for some meet person to 
carry on and end that work for the present." He 
could have retained both his office and his opinions, if 
he could have consented to be silent in regard to his 
dissenting views. This was out of the question. 

On the 30th of July, 1654, " Mr. Dunster spoke to the 
congregation in the time of the public ordinance, to 
the interruption thereof, without leave, which was 
also aggravated in that he, being desired by the Elder 
to forbear and not to interrupt an ordinance of Christ, 
yet notwithstanding he proceeded in way of com- 
plaint to the congregation, saying I am prohibited to 
speak that in Christ's name which I would have testi- 
fied. Bu'. " in his following speech" he declared his 
views regarding the baptism of children, in which he 
was at variance with the church. In the following 
.\pril he was indicted by the grand jury " for disturb- 
ance of the ordinances of Christ upon the Lord's day 
at Cambridge ... to the dishonor of the name 
of Christ, his truth and minister." The Court, after 
hearing the evidence, ordered that " at the next Lec- 
ture at Cambridge," Mr. Henry Dunster " should (by 
such magistrates as should then be present) be 
publicly admonished, and give bond for his good be- 
havior." He acknowledged that he had said, in sub- 
stance, the things which were alleged, but he denied 
that he was conscious of doing or saying anything 
contemptuously or in open contempt of God's word or 
messengers. In .July, 1655, the overseers informed 
Mr. Dunster that the welfareof the college and of the 
colony made his removal necessary. In October he 
gave in his tinal resignation. Thus his fourteen 
years of zealous and helpful service came to an end. 
Mr. Dunster was left in a peculiarly difficult posi- 
tion. With no office and a blemished repute, though 
with a blameless life, in which way could he turn? 
He petitioned the General Court that he might re- 
main in his house until his accounts were settled, and 
that he might be allowed to "prosecute the spiritual 
and temporal weal of the inhabitants" of the colony, 
" in preaching the Gospel of Christ, teaching or train- 
ing up of youth, or in any other laudable or liberal 
calling, as God shall chalk out his way, and when, and 
where, and in what manner he shall find acceptance." 
His petition was denied. The reply was signed R. 
Bellingham, Governor. Mr. Dunster sent in another 
petition begging for himself and his family the privi- 
lege of remaining' in the president's house till a re- 
moval could be more easily accomplished. The first 



reason he gave for his request shows the propriety of 
it. " The time of the year is unseasonable, being now 
very near the shortest day, and the depth of winter." 
The Court granted him leave to remain till the 
following March. In due time Mr. Dunster moved to 
Scituate, where for a few years he was employed in 
the ministry, serving, though probably not as pastor, 
the church which had for about twelve years enjoyed 
the teaching of the Rev. Charles Chauncy, who was 
made Dnnster's successor in the presidency. He died 
in 1659. In his will he mentions his " reverend and 
trusty friends and brethren, the president of the col- 
ledge and the pastor of the church of Cambridge." 
He gave gifts to both and made them appraisers of 
his library. He directed that his body should be 
taken to Cambridge, there to be interred by his lov- 
ing wife and other relatives. He was brought back a.s 
he desired and laid in the old church-yard. The stone 
which marked the grave has disappeared. A new 
slab, with an elaborate Latin inscription in Dunster's 
memory, lies over the grave in which probably Mr. 
Mitchel was laid. The monument should be removed, 
but the fame of Dunster will survive though the place 
of burial is not known. The esteem in which be was 
held by Mr. Mitchel is evinced by an elegy which 
he wrote in his memory, a portion of which may well 
be copied to show the spirit of the writer : 

"iWhere faith id Jesna ia aincere. 
That aoul , he eaviog, pardooeth ; 
What waota or erron viae be there. 
That maj aDd do conaiat therewith. 

"Aod though we be imperfect here, 
And io one miDd can't often meet. 
Who know in part, in part may err, 
Though faith be one all do not aee't. 

**Tet maj we well the reet obtain 
In ererlaating bliaa above. 
Where Christ with perfect sainta doth reign. 
In perfect light and perfect love ; 

"Then ahall we all like-minded be, 
Faith'a nnity ia there full grown ; 
There one truth all both love and see, 
And thence are perfect made in one." 

President Chauncey was inaugurated November 27, 
1654. He was a notable addition to the church. He 
was of Trinity College, Cambridge, and a successful 
and eminent minister in the English Church. But 
he was of those who could not consent and conform 
to all which was required, and he was suspended and 
silenced by America's benefactor — Archbishop Laud. 
" Few suffered more for non-comformity than he, by 
fines, by gaols, by necessities to abscond, and at last 
by an exile from his native country." He came to 
New England and found a home in Scituate. But 
things improved in England, and he was invited to 
relurn to his former charge at Ware, in Hert- 
fordshire. He came to Boston, intending to em- 
bark, when the invitation to the college changed his 
plans. Ee was then sLxty-two years old. His salary 
waa a hundred pounds per annum. For seventeen 

years he held his important office, "and by the man- 
ner in which he filled his station fully sustained his 
high character for talents, learning and piety, and 
satisfied the expectation of the public." " It is a re- 
markable fact that the church in Cambridge, with 
which he connected himself, considered his residence 
at that place so great a blessing that in a year or two 
afler he came there they kept a whole day of thanks- 
giving to God for the privilege by which they were 
thus distinguished." 

There was another important discussion upon the 
subject and subjects of baptism in which Mr. Mitchel 
had a prominent part. The first settlers here wero 
for the most part members of the church, and their 
children were duly baptized. But in the course of time 
there came on another generation of children, many 
of whose parents had not renewed their baptismal ob- 
ligations and had not connected themselves with the 
church. By the rules then in force these persons 
could not have their children baptized. Yet it was 
felt that the children of persons who had been bap- 
tized should be regarded differently from Indians or 
others who were living in paganism. It was held by 
many that if baptized persons, even if not considered 
regenerate, were willing to renew the baptismal cove- 
nant and become subject to church discipline, their 
children could properly be baptized. This feeling 
and practice were growing in the churches, when a 
synod of the elders and messengers of the churches 
was called. This was held in Boston in the spring of 
1662. Jlr. Mitchel was a member of the synod. The 
result of its deliberations was the declaration of the 
independence of each church and the duty of the 
communion of churches — that is, Congregationalism. 
In regard to baptism, the synod framed what is his- 
torically known as the Half-way Covenant, which 
granted baptism to the children of certain persons 
who were not considered qualified for admission to 
the Lord's table. The result was chiefly composed 
by Mitchel, and its defense fell largely upon him. It 
was an important element in the ecclesiastical life of 
the town. In connection with this there arose the 
practice of administering baptism to adults who were 
not esteemed regenerate, but who owned the covenant 
and submitted themselves to the care of the church 
and were of proper moral character. This gave such 
persons a better standing in the community, and was 
of especial value so long as suffrage was confined to 
church members, and there were many persons who 
otherwise would be denied the full privileges of citi- 
zens, though fitted for it by age and character. The 
Cambridge records have three lists of persons in some 
kind of connection with the church. These have 
already been mentioned. 

The list of the " Persons, adults, who owned the Cov- 
enant and were baptized " extends to 1782, and is 
quite largely made up of negro servants. The use of 
the Half-way Covenant gradually became less common, 
until it finally ceased. A recent writer remarks : 



'• The Half-way Covenant, the concession of the 
church, in order to a more pliable connection with 
the State, was still in force afier the State had been 
practically divorced from the Church — a continual 
source of weakness and depression. It had been, 
indeed, one object of the Half-way Covenant to over- 
come the Anabaptist principle by attaching increased 
importance to baptism." In his time, Jonathan Ed- 
wards took strong ground against it. " Most of the 
Puritan churches accepted his principles, banished 
the Half-way Covenant, and took on the form which 
they still retain." During Mitchel's ministry there 
was excitement in Cambridge from a very different 
source. In 1650 "an accursed and pernicious sect of 
heretics, lately risen up in the world, who are com- 
monly called Quakers," made their appearance in 
Boston. The severe measures which were taken to 
suppress them did not accomplish their purpose. 
There was not much trouble in Cambridge, but 
enough to disturb the little scholastic community. 
"Elizabeth Horton went crying through the streets 
that the Lord was coming with fire and sword to 
plead with them." She was " laid hold of by a blood- 
thirsty crew, and early in the morning had before 
Thomas Daofort and Daniel Coggings (two wicked 
and bloody magistrates), who committed her, and 
whose jayler thrust her into a noisome, stinking dun- 
geon, where there was nothing to lie down or sit on, 
and kept her there two days and two nights, without 
helping her to bread or water; and because one Be- 
nanuel Bovver (a tender Friend) brought her a little 
milk in this her great distress, wherein she was like 
to have perished, they ca-it him into pri.son for enter- 
t.aiiiing a stranger, and fined him five pounds. They 
ordered her to be sent out of their coasts towards 
Rhode Island, and to be whipped at three towns, ten 
stripes at each, by the way." 

She came back to Cambridge, was again put in 
prison, and whipped three times, as before. Thus she 
passes out of this history. But Benanuel Bowers 
remains. His wife was Elizabeth Dunster, whom 
President Dunster, in his will, calls "my Cousin 
Bowere," with a legacy of five shillings apiece to her 
and her children. The Bowers family held all those 
of the Cambridge congregation who are known to 
have openly avowed the sentiments of their distin- 
guished kinsman. In lGr,C< ilr. Bowers was arraigned 
before the County Court " for absenting himself from 
the ordinance of baptism, and was only admonished." 

It appears to have been in 16i')2 that the first Qua- 
ker missionaries came to Cimbridge. Benanuel Bow- 
ers was then a Quaker, and the law was enforced 
against him by Danforth and Gookin. His wife and 
daughter suffered with him in the same faith. At the 
County Court in 16fi3 he was convicted of absenting 
himself from church for about a quarter of a vear and 
of entertaining Quakers in his family. He was fined 
twenty shillings for his absence from church, and four 
pounds for his hospitalitv, with three shillings bv way 

of costs. Year after year he was fined for the absence 
of himself and wife from church. ' In 1666 he was 
fined for coming into the meeting-house with his hat 
ou ; in 1673 for "slandering and reviling the court, 
and for servile labor upon the Lord's Day; " in 1676, 
for " profane and wicked cursing." After a time he 
refused to pay fines, and passed more than a year in 

From time to time he petitioned for release. He 
claimed that he had attended worship according to 
his own faith and conscience. He complained of 
hard usage. He appealed to those who knew him to 
bear witness to his charac^r. " I am about sixty 
years of age, thirty of which I have dwelt within 
about a mile of Cambridge town. What my life and 
conversation hath been amongst them, and what I 
have suffered these fifteen years for not going to the 
public meeting, is well known to many of my neigh- 
bors." In 1677 the court ordered that the marshal- 
general should levy upon the estate of Bowers the 
fines which had been imposed on him, and that there- 
upon he should be set at liberty. 

But his troubles were not ended by his release. 
While in prison he vented his rage at his treatment 
in "a paper of scurrilous verses, wherein the honored 
Mr. Danforth and others were defamed." He sent 
the verses by his wife to the house of Mr. Danforth, 
who laid the matter before the Court. The magis- 
trates sentenced Bowers to be severely whipped with 
twenty stripes or to pay a fine of five pounds. 

Mr. Bowers went to church on one occasion, at least, 
in 1677, when, after the services were closed, he stood 
on a bench and began to speak to the people. Mr. 
Cakes, who was then the minister, tried to stop him, 
but did not succeed. He gave him leave to reply to 
anything which had been said if he would do it on a 
week-day. Major Gookin commanded the constable 
to carry him out of the meeting-house, but he con- 
tinued to bring his charges against Magistrate Dan- 
forth, and desired the church to take notice thereof. 
In December Bowers and his wife were convicted of 
slandering the magistrate, and were sentenced to be 
openly whipped fifteen stripes apiece and to pay five 
pounds apiece in money, and to stand committed un- 
til the sentence was executed. This is substantially 
the history of the sad Quaker episode, so far as the 
records of Cambridge present it. 

In 1681 and 1682 Mr. Bowers was fined for non-at- 
tendance on public worship, but of the latter years of 
his life very little is known. 

The witnesses of his will were men of prominence 
— one of them the president of the college, and the 
others orthodox ministers. " This fact," remarks Dr. 
Paige, "justifies the presumption that he did not re- 
gard them as persecuters, and that they did not con- 
sider him to be an arch-heretic." 

From this more public life of the Cimbridge Church 
and minister we return to local affairs. What was 
Cimbridge then? From an estimate made by the 



selectmen in 1647, two years before Shepard's death, 
it appears that llftre were here 13.3 ratable persous, 
ninety houses, about 2G00 acres of land, 20S cuws, 131 
oxen, twenty horses, with other proiieity of ditferent 
kinds, making up a valuation of less than £1*000. 
Johnson describes Cambridge in l(i.j2, as "compact 
closely within itself, till of late years some few strag- 
gling homes have been built. It hath well-ordered 
streets and comely, completed with the fair building 
of Harvard College. The people are at this day in a 
thriving condition in outward things." He confirms 
what others Have said, " that they have hitherto had 
the ministry of the word, by more than ordinary in- 
strument.' Attention was given to the cultivation of 
orchards. The orchard of the college is mentioned in 
the town record. The first license for an inn appears 
to have been given in 1652. In 1656 a committee was 
appointed to execute the order of the General Court 
for the improvement of all the families in spinning and 
clothing. In 1662 Mr. Mitchel and Captain Daniel 
Godkin were appointed " Licensers of the press.'' 
About the time of Mr. Mitciiel's nomination the 
second meeting-house was completed on Watch-house 
Hill. It must have been a conspicuous building as it 
stood "forty foot square'' on that eminence. In 
1()52 the church agreed to divide the farm in Shaw- 
shine, and assigned 500 acres to Mr. Mitchel. In 1656 
the people on the south side of the river requested 
that they might have " the ordinances of Christ 
amongst them, distinct from the town." The town 
did not think it expedient to grant this request and 
thus divide the church. A few years later the inhab- 
itants of Cambridge village had become so numerous 
that they formed a distinct congregation, and they 
were freed from contributing towards the ministry on 
the north side of the river, so long as an able ministry 
was sustained on the south side. In 1664 a new 
church was organized in Cambridge village. The 
village was incorporated as a distinct town in 16S7-8, 
and in 1691 received the name of Newtown, which 
had long before been surrendered here. The protest 
which Cambridge made against the ambitious design 
of the village is almost ludicirous as we read it now. 
' Now that Cambridge cannot spare what they desire 
we bhall thus prove : " " That our town is thus situa- 
ted, narrow and long on each wing, Watertown and 
Charlestown nipping us up close on each side, there 
needs no proof. . . . We must be no town, nor 
have no Church of Christ nor ministry among us, in 
case we be clipped and mangled as the petitioners 
would have." "These long-breathed petitioners, 
finding that they had such good success that they 
could never cast their lines into the sea but something 
was catched, they resolved to bait their hook again." 
It is strange reading now, but it wasvery serious deal- 
ing then. 

The records preserve various matters of detail in the 
parish life. In 1660 sundry young men received per- 
mission "to build a gallery on the south beam." 

In 16ii6 Mr. Jlitchel received a furllier grant of land. 

Among financial affairs is a vote in lii57 appointing a 

committee to ni.ike a levy of £240 for ihe niainlen- 

■ ante this year, ;uid I'm- the payment of the debts of 

[ our reverend pastor. Mr. Mitchel. In the accoiini.i 

are these items: 

c •. .!. 

20,3,67. tu bro. oUes when he went to Ilebubotb, in Bilrer, u 

'J2t 4. 07. r;Lyd to Duniell L'heavera fur veall to Mr. Cbuuncy 

when he was sick 5 

3, 1-, 07-.^. Piiyil to 3li-3. Dabfurth in ber husband's al'»;uce 
in silver, Ibe bunie of ^ shillings fur wine, 
sugar and spice at (lie hiiriall uf Mrs. Chaun- 
cy who deceased the 24 of tlic 11''' 07 ... . 1 '» " 

27. 4, OS. Paid tu.Tohn Sheapheuld lur a fi.wer gallon but. 

tell to bring ^acli for Ibe sacrament n ". '• 

The times which we have been revie^ving were 
eventful days tiir England. Thomas Shepard died in 
the year in which Charles I. was beheaded, and the 
Commonwealth declared. It was a period which 
called for all the prudence uf the Colonies. They ad- 
mired the valor of Cromwell, who was the champion 
of their own ideas. But they refrained from asking 
any favors from the Puritan Parliament. Massachu- 
setts kept silent when Cmmwell was made a monarch. 
She was able to ahelter three men who had signed the 
death-warrant of the Kiug and tleil from the ven- 
geance of Charles II. (Ji'these,Whalley and Gofle caine 
immediately to Cambridge, where they intended to 
reside. The .Vet of Indemnity from which they were 
excluded did not reach this country for several 
months. .Meanwhile, and for months afterward, they 
were treated with consideration, though at last there 
was a division of feeling among the magistrates re- 
garding their duty. They were admitted into the best 
society here. They .attended public worship and lec- 
tures, and took part in private ilevotional meetings, 
and were received to the Lord's Table. In showing 
them such favors, Mr. Mitchel was not aware of their 
exact relation to their government. He wrote after- 
wards in his own vindication : " Since I have had op- 
portunity, by reading and discourse, to look into that 
action for which these men suffer. I could never see 
that it was justifiable." It is plain that the people 
had enough to talk about during Mitchel's pastorate. 
There was the case of Dunster, and of the Quakers. 
The Half-way Covenant was a lasting theme for con- 
versation. Events of interest were taking place 
beyond the seas. The Waldenses were persecuted by 
the Piedmontcse : Pascal died, and Jeremy Taylor ; 
the first idea of a steam-engine was suggested. '"The 
Pilgrims' Progress" was published. Eliot's Bible was 
printed. London was smitten with the great plague 
and devastated by the great fire. The Triple Alli- 
ance was formed for the protection of the Nether- 
lands, and there were other events of importance, of 
which tidings came in the ships whose arrival was 
eagerly awaited. 

But the end came to the busy and prosperous min- 
istry of the " matchless Mitchel." In the summer of 
1668, "in an extreme hot season," after he had been 



preaching from the words, " I know that thou wilt 
bring me to death, and to the houie appointed tor all 
living," a putrid fever arrested him with a mortal 
malignity, and on the 'Jth of July "it pleased God 
to take him to rest and glory," in the forty-fourth 
year of his age. His departure caused a great lamen- 
tation among his own people and throughout the 
churches. "The chief remaining pillar of our min- 
istry," as Hale ventured to designate him, had fallen. 
Only one sentence has come down to us from his last 
hours. To a young man standing by his bed he said: 
'■ My friend, as a dying man, I now charge you that 
}'ou don't meet me out of Christ in the day of Christ." 
In the old church records is an entry of £S 13«. »d., 
paid in silver, by the appointment of the committee 
fi)r the minister's house, unto the Deputy-Governor, 
Mr. Francis Willoughby, for the discharge of Mr. 
Mitchel's funeral. There is this entry, also: "To 
Goodman Orton, of Charlestown, for making atapaul- 
ing to wrap Mr. Michell, and for doing something to 
his coffing that way, 4s." This was made necessary 
by the time and manner of his death, and his own 
condition; for, as Cotton Mather narrates, "Mr. 
Mitchell had, from a principle of godliness, used 
himself to bodily exercise; nevertheless he found 
it would not wholly free him from an ill habit of 
body. Of extreme lean, he grew extreme fat." His 
body was wrapt in the cerecloth, tansy was strewed 
about it, and he was laid in " God's Acre," in all 
probability in the grave now covered by Henry Dun- 
ster's memorial slab. 

The testimony to the life and work of Mr. Mitchel 
does him the highest honor. Mather pronounced it 
an eminent favor of God to the church to have "their 
great breach thus made up, with a man so much of the 
spirit and principles of their former pastor, and so 
excellently qualified with respect to the college." 
His labors were "wonderfully blessed; for very many 
of the scholars bred up in his time (as is observed) do ! 
>avor of his spirit for grace and manner of preach- 
ing, which was most attractive." He " was a mighty 
man in prayer, and eminent at standing in the gap." 
Mather says: "Though he was all along in his 
preaching as a very lovely song of one that hath a 
pleasant voice, yet, as he drew near to the close of 
his exercises, his comely fervency would rise to a mar- 
vellous measure of energy. He would speak with 
such a transcendent majesty and liveliness that the 
people would often <hake under his dispensations as 
if they had heard the sound of the trumpets from 
the burning mountain, and yet they would mourn to 
think that they were going presently to be dismissed 
from such an heaven upon earth." 

He took a prominent part in the affairs of the col- 
lege of which he was an alumni and a fellow. 
"The college was nearer unto his heart than it was to 
his house, though next adjoining it." He was a hard 
student himself, an "over-hard student,'' one says, 
and "he loved a scholar dearly; but his heart was 

fervently set upon having the land all over illumin- 
ated with the spirit of a learned education. To this 
end he became a father to the college which had been 
his mother." President Chauncy said : " I know 
no man in this world that I could envy so much as 
worthy Mr. Mitchel." Richard Baxter said of him, 
" that if there could be an CEcumenical Council of the 
whole Christitn world, that man would be worthy to 
be the Moderator of it." Increase Mather exhorted 
the members of the college: "Say each cf'you, 
Mitchel shall be the example which I shall imitate." 
The Quinquennial Catalogue gives the names of many 
who must have come under his influence. Among 
the students of his time were William Stoughton, 
Leonard Hoar, Michael Wigglesworth, Thomas Shep- 
ard, Increase Mathers, Samuel Willard, Solomon 
Stoddard, Abraham Pierson, and others whose names 
came to be well known. While we read such tributes 
to the man, it is almost painful to look upon his 
estimate of himself. He wondered what the people 
of God saw in him, that they so much desired his 
labors among them. Kept from preaching by a hoarse 
cold, he makes this record: "My sin is legible in 
the chastisement: cold duties, cold prayers (ray 
voice in prayer, i. e., my spirit of prayer, fear- 
fully gone), my coldness in my whole conversa- 
tion — chastisement with a cold ; I fear that I have 
not improved my voice for God formerly as I 
might have done, and therefore he now takes it from 
me." He wrote long lamentations at the death of 
several lovely children in their infancy, and humbled 
himself with his bereavement. The churches sought 
his assistance in difficult matters and relied on his 
judgment; yet he felt his own unfitness for such ser- 
vice. "Sometimes I am ready to resolve to put forth 
myself no more in public work, but keep myself silent 
and unengaged, as I see others do." In view of 
death he "fell to admiring the manifold grace of God 
unto him, and exclaimed: 'Lord, thou callest me 
away to thee; I know not why, if I look to myself; 
but at thy bidding I come.' " When he was gone " it 
was feared there would be few more such ripe grapes 
to be seen growing in this unthankful wilderness." 
Jlr. Sibley writes: "The universal sentiment and 
grief were expressed in several quaint epitaphs like 
the following : " 

" All epitaph upon the deplored tleath of that super-emiittiU minuter of the 
gotpel, Jlr. Jonathan Mitchell. 

" Here lye^ the d.irlins of bis time, 
Mitchell, expired in his prime ; 
Who four yeiu-d abort of forty-seven 
Wiu found full ripe and plucked fur Keaveo. 
Wns full of pmdent zeal und love, 
K.-iilh, Patience, Wisdom from alxive ; 
New England's stay, next ages story, 
The Chiirclie^ Oeiunie; the colledi;e glory — 
Angels iniiy s|ieak him ; \h ! not I, 
(WliMse wtirtli 's above hyperbole) 
Iliit ft)r our lus^, wei't in uiy p*»wer, 
I'd weep an everhi^ting shower." 

J. 3. 



" Epitayhium. 
Here liea witbio this comprehensive :ipati, 
The Chnrcbea, Courlsaiid Countries .loimtbau, 
He that speaks Mitcliell, gives tbe scbuul tbe lie, 
Friendsbip in Him gained an ubiquity.** 
YiveL pott funera tirtut. 

F. D, 

It was more than three years before tbe church had 
another pastor. In the interim the pulpit was occu- 
pied by President Chauncy and others. In 1669, De- 
cember 20, the town voted that " fifty pounds be paid 
to Mr. Chauncy and such as labor among ns in preach- 
ing the word," and thirty pounds to " Mistris Mitchell.'' 
A yearlater forty-five pounds was voted to Mr. Chaun- 
cy and thirty to Mrs. Mitchell. The religious work 
of the church was carried on, although there was no 
pastor. In February, 1668-69, certain fitting men were 
appointed to catechize the youth of the town. The 
town was divided into districts for this purpose. In 
May, 1669, "The selectmen, taking into considera- 
tion, upon the complaint of some of the idleness and 
carelessness of sundry persons in the time of public 
worship, upon the Sabbath day, by keeping without 
the meeting-house, and there unprofitably spending 
their time, whereby God's name is dishonored, — they 
do order, for the time being, that the constable shall set 
a ward of one man during the time of public worship, 
one in the forenoon and another in the afternoon, to 
look unto such persons, that they do attend upon the 
public worship of God, that God's name and worship 
be not neglected nor profaned by the evil miscarriage 
of such persons.'' The town also improved the time 
and prepared for a new minister by building a par- 
sonage. The ministers had hitherto lived in their own 
house. In 1669, July 5, a committee was appointed 
"to take present care to purchase or build a conve- | 
nient house for the entertainment of the minister that 
the Lord may please to send us to make up the breach 
that his afflicting providence hath made in this place; 
and that the charge thereof be levied on the inhabit- 
ants, as is usual in proportion in the maintenance of 
the ministry." In the following September the church 
voted to sell its farm at Billerica, and that the pro- 
ceeds be improved for the building of a house for the 
ministry. In the ancient church-book there is the 
record of a committee which was "chosen for that 
purpose, which tooke care for the same, and to that 
ende bought fower akers of land of widdow Beale to 
set the house upon, and in the yeare 1670 theare was 
a house earected upon the sayd land of 36 foote long 
and 30 foote broad ; this house to remayne the 
church's and to be the dwelling place of such a min- 
ister and officer as the Lord shall be pleased to supply 
us withal, during the time hee shall supply the place 
amongst us. The chargis laid out for the purchas 
of the land and building of the house and barne, in- 
closing the orchyard and other accommodations to 

£ ». d. 

Ttae pnrcliu of tbe laud in caab 40 o 

The building and finishing the house 2ri3 .s r. 

Tbe biiildint; tbe barne 4'i u 'J 

Tbe inclosing fbe orcliyard and yarvis, and repayring tbe 
fencis, building an ulfice-littutse, and planting an orcliyard 
with tiees, and Sfeliug winie part of the bouse, and laying 
a duble Iloore on some part of it 27 1 10 

The house was on the north side of Harvard Street, 
nearly opposite Chestnut, now (Plympton) Street, 
within the present college grounds, and on a glebe of 
four acres. We may follow the house-building a step 
further by copying another record. 

" In the yeare 1676 the hall and hall-chamber were 
sealed, and another floore of bords was layed upon 
the chichin chamber. The particular chargis : 

>. d. 

1 8 

7 8 

o ■> 

8 10}^ 

c -i'.: 

20 busbeles of limp and tbe feching it 

f^OO uf earth, G> M, a bushel of haver, I" 

:; peckea of— it looks like — shreds, 1* G'i; lampblack, S-* 

iiJOU nalli, S', luj.j'' 

Tbe uifl^ons' worke 1 

For brickes, and sand, and help to brick tbe luchea .... 4 

We may copy two other records which belong to 
this period. 

3Iarcb G, lCGg.-9. To Deacon Stone by a pair of sbooes and a 
pound of sugar, because tbe deacon had 
silver though ihcy cost him i> t'A, had but '^ C 

26, 4, 1670. Payd in silver, by the apoyntment of the C'omittee 
for tbe mynister bouse unto the deputie gover- 
nor, Mr. Francis Willougbbly, by Deacon Stone 
and Thomas Cbesholm, as appears by bis dis- 
charg web Deocn Stone bath for the discharg 
of 3Ir. Mitchell's funerall tbe sum of eight 
pounds, thirteen shillings, six pence. I say the 
sum of 8 13 i; 

In 1668, the year in which Mr. Mitchel died, the 
church invited Mr. William Stoughton, or Stoutton, 
as the old record gives it, to become the pastor. He 
graduated in the class of 1650, and afterwards studied 
divinity and preached in England with acceptance. 
He returned to New England in 1662, and was re- 
peatedly asked to become the^ninister of Dorchester, 
his birth-place. Though he was "an able preacher 
and very pious," he was not " persuadable to take 
any office charge in any church." He was therefore 
" chosen into the magistracy, and he rendered much 
important service to the colony. His benefactions to 
the college exceeded those of any other person dur- 
ing the century." Not long before his death he 
erected a College Hall which took his name. This 
Hall was taken down in 1780, and in 1804-5 another 
Stoughton Hall was erected on a site nearer the north 
side of the yard. Failing to secure Mr. Stoughton as 
the minister, the church turned its eyes to one who 
had been favorably known as a student. The old 
record must tell tbe story. "After sume time of seek- 
ing God by prayer the Lord was pleased to guide the 
church to make theare application to Mr. Urian 
Oakes in Old England, which to further the same 
theare was a letter sent from the church with a mes- 
senger namely, Mr. William Manning with a letter; 
alsoe sent by seaverall magistrates and ministers to in- 
vite him to come over and be an officer amongst us, 
which he after counsell and advice did except but 



devine providence did hinder him for tliat yeare by 
reuson of a sickness the Lord was pleased to visit his 
wife withall and afterward tooke her away by death 
which hindered him for that yeare. The church the 
next yeare renewed againe theare call to him by 
another letter, but then he was hindered by an ague 
that he was long visited withall in the yeare 1670. 
Thease providences interfering, the church was in 
doupt wheather to waip;ht any longer, but after sume 
debate the church was willing to waight till che 
spring in the yeare 1671, and then had an answer 
early in the yeare of his purpose to come over that 
summer, which was accomplished by the good provi- 
dence of God, hee arriving in New England July the 
3, 1671, and finding good acceptance both by the 
church and towne and in the country and joined a 
member with our church and was ordained pastur of 
our church November the eight 1671." 

Urian Oakes was born in England about 1631, 
and was brought to New England in his childhood. 
He "was a lad of small, as he never was of great stat- 
ure." But he seems to have been an amiable boy, 
for observers "make this reflection, If good nature 
could ever carry one to heaven, this youth has enough 
to carry him thither." He was precocious, and pub- 
lished "a little parcel of astronomical calculations." 
He graduated in 1649, and continued to reside at the 
college and board in Commons till 1653. "He 
returned into his native country about the time of 
the Rump." After serving for a time as chaplain to 
a person of note he was settled in the ministry at 
Tichfield, in Hampshire, where he labored with great 
devotion. In 1662 he was silenced with other non- 
Conformists; but after a time, " when the heat of the 
persecution was a little abated, he returned unto the 
exercise of his ministry." His friends here watched 
his course, and when the time came invited him to 
come back and be the minister of Cambridge. To 
this he consented, as we have seen, and aa the 
"Magnolia" expresses it, "The good stork flew' over 
the Atlantic Ocean to feed his dam." In the public 
records is an account of a meeting of the church and 
town to express thanks to Mr. Oakes for leaving Eng- 
land and coming hither, and the continued desire 
that he would join in fellowship here, that he might 
be made the pastor, and to entreat him to remove 
himself and his family into the new minister's house. 
The deacons were authorized to provide for his ac- 
commodation, and it was voted " that half a year's 
payment forthwith be made by every one, according 
to their yearly payment to the ministry; and the one- 
half of it to be paid in money, and the other in such 
pay as is suitable to the end intended." We have this 
record: "August the 9th 1671. Delivered to Wil- 
liam Manning sixty pounds in silver to pay Mr. 
Prout toward the transportation of Mr. Urian Oakes, 
his family and goods, and other disbursements and 
for Jithu Taylor his passage, I say payed him the just 
sum of 60/.0. 0. Let it be taken notice of that Mr. 

Prout does demand thirteen pounds more due to him." 
Another record shows that Mr. Prout's claim was 
satisfied: "Disbursed for Mr. Oakes' transportation 
from Old England with his family 73/." Mr. Oakea 
was ordained to the ministry here, November 8, 1671. 
The expenses of the ordination are worth mentioning 
for the light they throw on the customs of the times: 

£ .. d. 



It. 3 biuhela of wheats 15 

It. 2 bushels % of malt 10 

It. 4 galluDS of wine 18 

It. for beffe 1 10 

It. for mutton 1 i 

It. for 301 of butter . '. 15 

It. for foules U 

It. for sugar, spice and fruit« and other sniA 11 things 1 

It. for labour 1 

It. for washing the tuhle lining 6 

It. for woode 7' 7 

It. auit7'>, 3<'.; bread 64 9 

8 6 


9 17 3 

£ I. d. 

Gathered bj contribution of the church the Saboth before the 
ordination for the aayde occasion 4 7 1 

Aod the ruoiainderof the charge waa defnt jed out of the week- 
ly contributlona 5 10 2 

9 17 3 

In 1673, Mr. Oakea preached the annual election 
sermon, in. which he declared himself heartily " for 
all due moderation." " Many a man hath a good 
heart and aSiections under the bad conduct and ill 
steeridge of a very weak bead. Nevertheless I 
must adde (as I have great reason) that I look upon 
an unbounded toleration as the first born of all 
abominations." He reminded his hearers that Neir 
England " is originally a plantation not for trade but 
for religion." Mr. Oakea was elected a fellow of the 
college soon after his ordination. After the death of 
Mr. Chauncy, Leonard Hoar, a clergyman and 
physician, was chosen president of the college. He 
was the first graduate to be placed in this exalted 
position, which has since always been filled by a 
graduate. President Hoar had not been in office 
long before trouble came to him. The account of 
them does not beloug in this narration. But the man 
" who was last year highly courted to accept the 
place, was now by some wished out of it again." 
There soon came to be " uncomfortable notices and 
debates." The students took a strong dislike to the 
president, and did what they could to annoy and 
injure him. Cotton Mather says, they " turned 
cudweeds and set themselves to travestie whatever he 
did and said." " I can scarcely tell how," but he fell 
" under the displeasure of some that made a figure 
in the neighborhood. . . . In a day of temptation 
which was now upon them, several very good men did 
unhappily countenance the ungoverned youths in 
their ungovernableness." Mr. Oakes was closely 
connected with college aflTairs, but his relations to the 
president are not clearly defined. In 1673, with 
Thomas Shepard and two others, he resigned his seat 
in the corporation. Ho was reelected, but did not 



accept the appointment till March 15, 1G75, the day 
on which President Hoar resigned. Mr. Oakes 
suffered much at the time of these diliiculties in the 
college. "Mr. Oakes hath had a distemiier hang 
upon him, which hath much weakened him. the 
greatest occasion of which is, I think, some exercise 
of mind." Governor Lovett adds that Mr. Oakes 
" thinks it is the remayne of his sickness long 
agoe in England. I have been afraid lest he may 
be of noe long continuance witli us, but a graine of 
hopes that he may get over it." Mr. Oakes was 
asked to accept the presidency of the college. This 
he declined to do. He was asked to accept the ollice 
pro Icmjiore. " In answer thereto he declared a deep of his unfitness for the work ; ytt, considering 
the present exigency the society was now in and con- 
fiding in the overseers seasonably tn trndeavor the 
settling a fit person for that work, manifesting his to accept of that place for a time, God 
enabling by health and strength, and so far as his 
church consented." The Legislature " ordered an 
* allowance r.f (me hundred pounds in money by the 
year." In October, IC"."), the General C^jurt thanked 
him for his care and pains, and desired him "to con- 
tinue hi.» labors as President of the s^aid College- 
which hath been, by the bleising of* God, of so great 
advantage." "He did the services of a President even 
as he did all other services, faithfully, learnedly, in- 
defatigably." In February, 1G79-80, he was again 
unanimcusly chosen president by the fellows, and 
the House of Representatives voted that "for the 
better encouragement of himself and also of the 
church for providing help for carrying on that work, 
which hereby he may be in part diverted from, or 
need iissistance, this Court doth order that fifty 
pounds per annum, in country pay, be allowed the 
Ileverend Mr. Oakes, in the considerations aforesaid, 
over and above the hundred pounds in money alreidy 
settled, provided he accept the presidentship." He 
finally consented to this pernistent appeal and was 
inaugurated on Commencement Day, 1680. He 
was not to serve the college much longer. 
He had been long subject to a quartan ague, 
and "was at la<it seized with a maligrumt 
fever." " When he had lain sick about a day or 
two, . . . his church coming together with ex- 
pectation to have the Lord's Supper on the Lord's 
Day administered unto them, to their horror found 
the pangs of death seizing their pastor, that should 
have broken to them the bread of life." The end 
came on the 25th of July, 1681, in the tenth year of 
his ministry here and in the fiftieth year of his age. 
He was borne to his grave in the ancient God's 
Acre. The memorial slab which marked the grave has 
been taken away for some ignoble use, but another 
stone, with an elaborate inscription in Latin, has 
supplied its place. There is one memento of his 
burial iu an entry in the college books, where are 
" charges of £16 16«. M. for scarfs and gloves, and 

t'S 14s. for twelve rings at Mr. Oakes' funeral." 
Increase Mather's testimony may .-tand fur many which 
could be given: " It may. without refiectiun upon any. 
be truly said, that he was uiie of the greatest lights 
that ever shone in this part of the world, or that is 
ever like to arise in this horizon." 

Mr. Oakes' ministry fell in disturbed times. Not 
only was the college in a disorganized state, but the 
Colony itself was in peril. The reading of Dr. 
Palfrey's " History of New England " will recall the 
continuous events which kept the whole comumiiity 
excited and alarmed. It was a day when every man 
who loved New England and believed in its liberty 
and loyalty was forced to do his best thinking. The 
men of Cambridge were not lacking in this. It i.i a 
part of the civil history, but it is a part of the 
ecclesiastical history al^o. The encroachment-s of 
the British government upon the privileges of the 
charter were unceasing A few months alter 
Oakes' death the King declared his resolution to have 
the charter, with all its powers, " legally evicted and 
made voitl." In 1<!S4 a decree was parsed vacating 
the charter. " Massachusetts, as a body politic was 
no more. The elaborate I'abric, '.hat had been fiftv- 
four years in building, was leveled with the dusl." 
We have only to read of these things to know what 
ministers and people were saying and doing in tlmse 
days which tried their souls. 

There was much excitement, too, through the re- 
newed activity of the -Vnabaptiats and < Quakers. Rev. 
Samuel Danforth, in a letter to his brother Thomas, in 
I 1670, writes: "The truth is, matters are so circum- 
stanced that a man can hardly come into any company 
and enter into any discourse, but before he is aware 
he finds himself in the like fan and sieve as that 
whe.'ein Satan winnowed Peter in the high priest's 
hall." The views and teachings of Mr. (Jakes on the 
limits of toleration have been already given. In 
June, 1671, just before the arrival of Mr. Oakes from 
England, the freemen of Cambridge presented to the 
General Court a long memorial, in which they recited 
their atfiictions because of Quakers, Anabaptists and 
Fanii lists, and |>etitioned "that the laws here estab- 
lished against the wicked practices of these obstinate 
offenders may be fully executed, all discontentments 
that may tend to give any discouragements thereto 

The witchcraft delusion, which had its centre in 
Salem and thence spread widely, was at a period later 
than that we are reviewing. There was trouble from 
this cause here, as in other places. .\ woman " crazed, 
distracted and broken in mind " was imprisoned oa 
suspicion, but was acquitted when tried. A woman 
named Kendal was accused and put to death through 
false witness. Rut as early as 16.30 there had been 
trouble here. The widow Winifred Holman and tier 
daughter, Mary, who lived where the Botanic Garden 
now is, were accused by her opposite neighbor, John 
Gibson, and his wife and son and daughter. A war- 



rant was issued for the arrest of the Holinans, but 
there is no account of their trial, and it is probable 
that no indictment could be found against them. But 
they were not content with this termination of the 
matter, and they brought suit against their accusers 
for defamation and slander. The church came to 
their help. Deacops John Bridge and Gregory Stone 
and others certified that Winifred Holman was well 
known to them, and that she "is diligent in her call- 
ing, and frequents public preaching and gives diligent 
attention thereucto." Judgment was given against 
the mother, but the daughter sustained her case 
against John Gibson, Jr., and he was required to ac- 
knowledge that he had " wronged and scandalously 
slandered her," or eUe to pay her five pounds. He 
chose to make the acknowledgment and to have her 
forgiveness of his trespass. Those who wish to read 
the mass of wearisome testimony are referred to Dr. 
Paige's " History of Cambridge." 

As we pass from the third minister of the church 
we may set at the line of transition a portion of the 
elegy which he composed in memory of one whom 
he describes as " that reverent, learned, eminently 
pious, and singularly accomplished divine, my ever- 
honored brother, Mr. Thomas Shepard, the late faith- 
ful and worthy teacher of the Church of Christ, at 
Charlestown, in New England: 

"i>h ! that I were a poet now ia grain I 
How wuiild I invocAte the muses aU 
To <leigii their presence, lend tlieir rtowing rein, 
And help to ^race dear SUepard'fl fimerai ! 

How would I paint our griefs, and succors borrow 
From art and fancy, to linui out our sorrow ! 

Caiuhrid'je i^roans under this so lie.aTT cross. 

And .iyuipathizes with her sitter dear — 
Renews her grief afresh for her old loss 
< 'f her own Shepard, ami drop:^ many a tear — 
Cambridge and Charlestown now joint mourners are. 
And this tremendous loss between them share." 

It has seemed best to make this narrative of the 
early history of Cambridge somewhat full, because it 
is the beginning of a long coarse of events, and the 
remoteness of the time gives a special interest to all 
which is connected with it. From this point the 
record must be more general. But for nearly eighty 
years longer the ecclesiastical history of Cambridge 
is the history of one church and is, therefore, in good 
measure, the property of all the churches which have 
gathered around it. 

In the old church-book good Deacon Cooper places 
this amoDg "severall providencis of God to the 
church of Cambrigd : " " Mr. Oakes, our pastor, being 
chosen to be president of the college about a year 
before his death, it pleased the Lord to guide our 
church to give 5Ir. Nathaniel Gookin a call to be helpful 
in the ministry in order to call him to office iu time 
convenient, which some time after our pastor's death 
our church did give him a call to the office of pastor 
which call he did accept of and was ordained pastor 
of our church November 15, 1()S2. Also, there were 
ordained the same day two Ruling Elders of our 

church, namely, Deacon John Stone and Mr. Jonas 
Clarke, to the office of Ruling Elders." 

The accouut of the ordination expenses resembles 
that which has been given in the case of a former 
minister. It includes: "Provision for 80 persons. 
For burnt wine, sugar, brandy before dinner. Wine 
for the messengers in the morning; for cakes and 
rosewater, loaf sugar and spice, butter and pork." 
The total cost was £13 14s. 2d. The Rev. Nathaniel 
Gookin was a son of Major-General Daniel Gookin, 
the associate of the Apostle Eliot in his labors for the 
Indians, and a man distinguished for his int^rity 
and benevolence. The son was born in Cambridge, 
October 22, 1656. He graduated in 1675. He was, 
therefore, twenty-six years old when he was ordained. 
i.e3S is known of him than of the other ministers of 
the church. The records of his time are very incom- 
plete. It is strong testimony to his ability and char- 
acter that he was called to be the associate of Presi- 
dent Oakes, and was afterwards placed over the 
church. Judge Sewall gives an account of the ordi- 
nation : " Mr. Sherman ordains Mr. Nath. Gookin 
pastor of Camb. Church. Mr. Eliot gives the right 
band of fellowship, first reading the Scripture that 
warrants it. Mr. Sherman, Eliot and Mather laid on 
hands. Then Mr. Grookia ordained Deac. Stone and 
Mr. Clarke Ruling Elders. The presence of God 
seemed to be with his people. Mr. Jona. Dan forth, 
the Deputy Governor's only son, lay by the wall, 
having departed on Monday morning (13th) of a 

Mr. Gookin married Hannah, the daughter of Ha- 
bijah Savage, who was the grandson of the noted 
Ann Hutchinson. Mr. Gookin was a fellow of Har- 
vard College. His son and grandson were succes- 
sively ministers of Hampton, N. H., and were highly 
commended for their worth and work. Of the latter 
it is said that he was " both ways descended from those 
who have been stars of the first magnitude." 

There are not many traces of the ministry of our 
Mr. Gookin. There is an account of the money paid 
him from time to time for his services. The amounts 
vary, being sometimes le:s than a pound, at other 
times ten pounds or more. There is a record of the 
contributions on the Sabbath. The sum collected in 
this way was usually about one pound. Of the pas- 
tor's salary about fifty pounds appears to have been 
collected in the church. It is interesting to notice 
the care which was taken of the poor. Contributions 
for their relief — and frequently for a single person — 
were made on the Sabbath. We have the careful 
record of the sums raised and the uses to which they 
were applied. There were collections occasionally 
for the redemption of captives. At one period "the 
scholars" mfide their contribution, which was en- 
tered by itself and appropriated, according to their 
wish, for the benefit of the minister. The students' 
contribution is only found, however, in the interval 
after Mr. Gookin's death. These items are signifi- 



cant. Contributions were taken in 1683 for Joseph 
Green, in 1684 for Moses Eyers, in 1685 for Thomas 
Grould, who were in " Turkey slavery." In 1GS6 there 
was a collection for poor Frenchmen who had come 
here for shelter, and in 1692 for " York captives with 
the Indians." In 1686 seven pounds were giveG to 
John Parker, at the " Village," whose house had been 
burned. Another contribution was for the relief of 
Widow Crackbone and her son, " her being dis- 
tracted." In 1689 Widow Arrington and her family, 
"they being under the afflicting hand of God, her 
sons were taken away by death, and her daughter and 
a grandchild." The sum in cash was £6 ISs. The 
sum in common pay was £1 2s. 6rf. 

In 1680 statistical returns were made by a commit- 
tee in response to an order of the General Court, — 121^ 
families were reported, and 169 ratable polls, or 
males sixteen years of age. The annual allowance to 
the pastor is given as £51 in money; in goods and 
provisions £78 13«, ; "Sum is £129 13». Od., with his 
dwelling in the house built for the ministry, with four 
acres of land adjoining thereunto; also about twenty 
loads of wood annually carried to his house." That was 
for Mr. Oakes. In June, 1680, it was voted to give Mr. 
Gookin £100 for that year and to pay the remainder 
to Mr. Oakes. June 28, 1680, it was " Voted and 
agreed that five hundred acres of the remote lands, 
lying between Oburne, Concord and our head-line, 
shall be laid out for the use and benefit of the minis- 
try of this town and place, and to remain to that use 
forever." In 1682 the " Farmers" who were living 
in what is now Lexington complained that they were 
too far from the church, the nearest of them being 
five miles distant, and petitioned the General Ciiurt 
that they might be set oil' as a separate parish. Cam- 
bridge made opposition and the petition was refused. 
It was made again in 1684, and yet again in 1691, 
when it was granted, and the " Farmers" were allowed 
" to provide for themselves a person that may be meet 
and able to dispense unto them the word of God." 
A separate service was soon established, but it was 
not till 1696 that a church was formed and a minister 

Nothing of marked importance seems to have been 
done in the town during Mr. Gookin's pastorate. Mr. 
Mitchel was still kindly remembered, for in 1G87 a 
grant often pounds was made to "Mistress MitcheJ." 
The corporation of the college in 1691 appropriated 
five pounds toward the repairing of the meeting- 
house, "provided that this present allowance shall 
not be drawn into a precedent for the future, and that 
the selectmen shall renounce all expectation of such 
athingfor the future." But if things werequiet in the 
town there was enough abroad to engross the minds 
of the people, for in this time James II. ascended 
the throne and entered on his troubled and bloody 
reign, to be thrust down and driven out when William 
and Mary assumed the crown at the hands of the 
people, and brought in a new era, with new liberties 

for these Colonies. The " Glorious Revolution " must 
have stirred the subjects of the English throne who 
were 3000 miles away, and must have entered into the 
thanksgiving and the preaching and talking along 
the streets, and in the church and the home. In 1689 
the new sovereigns were proclaimed in Boston with 
much ceremony. Doubtless Cambridge was there, 
bearing its part in all which was done. Then fol- 
lowed ttie war with the French and Indians, in which 
the Cambridge people shared the common burden 
and peril. In Massachusetts, in connection with the 
expedition against Canada, in 1690, the first paper 
money was issued by the Colonies. It was a curi- 
osity which the students and towns-people must have 
seen and talked about. 

Meanwhile the minister's work went on. In asmall, 
oblong, leather-covered book, now the property of the 
Shepard Historical Society, and having in it the names 
of Joseph Baxter, of the class of 1693, and Benjamin 
Collman, of the class of 1692, afterwards the first min- 
ister of the Brattle Street Church in Boston, are re- 
ports of sermons preached by Mr. Gookin in 1690, when 
ihese young men were in college. Occasionally there 
is the report of a sermon by some other preacher. 
The sermons were on thoughtful, vigorous themes, 
and we may believe were worthy of the preacher and 
his hearers. In doctrine they were in accord with 
the faith of the churches. Mr. Gookin seems to have 
attended closely to his personal work, and not to have 
been diverted from it by public afl'airs. 

At length we come upon this entry in the old book : 
" Mr. Nathaniel Gookin, our pastor, departed this 
life 7th day of August, 1692, being the Sabbath day 
at night, about nine or ten ft'clock at night." It 
must, however, have been the 14th of August that the 
end came. The record was made some time after the 
event, and continues : " Elder Clark departed this 
life 14th January, 1699 or 1700, being the Sabbath 
day. Our pastor Mr. Nathaniel Gookin's wife, 
Hannah, died 14th day of May, 1702, and was buried 
16th day of May at the town's charge." Her grave is 
in the old burying-ground and is plainly marked ; 
the grave of Mr. Gflokin is not now marked, but a 
monument by the side of his wife's, from which the 
inscription has crumbled away, is supposed to cover 
the spot where the fourth minister of the Cambridge 
Church was buried. In the November after his 
death, at a public meeting of the inhabitants of the 
town, it was voted that "the selectmen should make 
a money-rate to pay the expenses and defray the 
charges, which amounted to about £18 in money, of 
our Pastor Gookin's funeral charges.'' 

We close the record of this brief life with entries in 
Judge Sewall's diary — " Monday, August 15, Mr. 
Joseph Eliot comes in and tells me the amazing news 
of the Rev''. Mr. Nathaniel Gookin's being dead ; 'tis 
even as sudden to me as Mr. Oakes' death. He was 
one of our best Minister:-, and one of the best friends I 
had left. 



■' August 16, 1692. I went to the Fast .at Rosbury 
and from thence to the Funeral of Mr. Gookin. Mr. 
Mather, Allen, Morton, Willard, Bayly, Hobart, 
Bearers. Has left a Widow, a Son and Daughter." 

After the death of Mr. Gookin the pulpit was filled 
by various preachers. We have a long list of their 
names, with the amount paid to each. Among the 
names are Mr. Mather and Mr. Brattle. The amount 
paid for a single sermon was ten shillings ; for a whole 
day's service one pound was the regular stipend. The 
gifts of the students seem to have been added to the 
amount granted by the people. There is a pleasant 
record which tells us that during this interval Mr. 
Increase Mather preached much, and gave his pay to 
Mrs. Hannah Gookin, widow. She was also paid for 
entertaining the ministers who preached at this time. 
The Rev. Increase Mather was unanimously invited 
to assume the pastoral care of the church ; but the 
people among whom he had labored for thirty-six 
years were not willing to release him, and this, with 
other obstacles to his removal, led him to decline the 
proposal. But it is a sign of the importance and 
standing of the church, that it dared look so high for 
a minister, and call a man of Mr. Mather's promi- 

After the office had been vacant for four years, the 
Rev. William Brattle w.os invited to become the min- 
ister of the church, and he accepted the call. He 
had supplied the pulpit after Mr. Gookin's death and 
he was ordained as the minister November 25, 1696. 
He was thirty-four years old and came of a wealthy 
and prominent family. He graduated in 1680, and 
was alterwards tutor and fellow in the college. He 
wai one of the first to be made Bachelors of Divinity, i 
In 1688-89, he was in Europe with his friend Samuel 
Sewall, who wished to be with Mr. Mather, who was I 
seeking to advance the interests of the Colony, which 
was without a charter or a settled government. Judge | 
Sewall's diary has records of the visit: " February i 
7th. Mr. Brattle showed me Gresham College, by j 
Mr. Dubois his kindness and cost. 1 

" February Uth. Mr. Brattle and I went to Covent 
Garden and heard a Consort of Musick. ! 

"July 8th. Went with Mr. Brattle and swam in 
the Thames, went ofl" from the Temple Stairs, and 
had a wherry to wait on us. . . . I think it hath 
been healthful and refreshing to me." 

The church records are complete from the time of 
Mr. Brattle's accession. He made an entry of the day 
when he "' succeeded the Rev. Mr. Nathaniel Gookin, 
and was ordained a minister of .Tesus Christ and a 
pastor to the rtock at Cambridge, November 2.5, 1696, 
per the Rev. Mr. Inc. Mather. The Rev. Mr. Morton, 
Mr. Allen and Mr. Willard laid on hands. The Rev. 
Mr. Sam' Willard gave the right hand of fellow- 
ship. JJeus 'it (j/orin, Amen." He preached his own 
ordination sermon from the words, " I have planted, 
Apollos watered ; but God gave the increase." .\ 
sermon was preached on the same occasion by Mr. 

Mather from Revelation i. 16: "And he had in his 
right hand seven stars." Mr. Brattle's independence 
was shown in his refusal to have an elder, who was a 
layman, join in the laying on of hands. The charges 
of the ordination are entered as about £20. There 
was "laid out about the repairing of the ministerial 
house for Mr. Brattle £10 18' 8"." The salary of the 
minister had been fixed after Mr. Gookin's death, 
when the town voted " to give to the next minister 
that the church and town shall settle among them 
ninety pounds per annum, in money, so long as he 
shall carry on the work of the ministry in Cambridge." 
In 1712-13 it was " voted, that the sum of ten pounds 
per annum be added to the salary of the ministry in 
this part of the town, instead of the annual custom of 
carting of wood ; so that the said salary is an hundred 
pound per annum.'' But the custom of carting wood 
to the parsonage was not entirely abandoned at that 
time. There are long lists of the donors of wood. In 
1697 Mr. Brattle received twenty-two loads, and he 
usually received more than that till the custom was 
changed. There are also accounts of wood for which 
he paid. There is in 1697 a long list of donations 
headed : " Sent in since November 3d, the day that I 
was married." The list extended through more than 
a year, and is composed of articles for his table, with 
the names of the givers and the value of their gifts. 
The beginning is in this way : 

"Goody Gove, 1 pd. Fresh Butter, 8".; Mrs. Bord- 
man, 1 pd. Fr. Butter, 8'.; Doct. Oliver a live Pork, 
2V; Sarah Ferguson, 1 pig, 1*. 9"." The Cutter Gene- 
alogy has a list of gifts to Mr. Brattle, in '97, in- 
cludiug from Mrs. Amsdel a " rib-spair of pork." 

There are in the records accounts of similar dona- 
tions afterwards. His private affairs are closely as- 
sociated with his public relations, and we have an- 
other account which is entitled : " Housekeeping 
Dr., since we were married November 3, 1697." The 
list opens with " 2 powthering Tubs, 9'.; 1 Tub of 
Beef 154 pds. salted October 29, £1 18'. 6".; wine w° 
married and wine to "** day, £3; Bear 19'. 6"." 

At the end of the church-book are various state- 
ments regarding the minister's gardening, the weather, 
etc. Of 1697 we read, "The winter this year was a 
very severe winter for cold and snow. The ground 
was covered with snow from the beginning of Decem- 
ber to the middle of March; many snows one upon 
another; in February it was judg£d to be three foot 
and a half deep on a level." " Charlestown ferry was 
frozen up ao that the boat did not go over once from 
January 17 to February 28, in which time I rode over 
upon the ice." The summer following this hard win- 
ter was a very fruitful summer. In February and 
March, 1700, he was planting his garden. 

In 1696-97 there was important action by the 
church concerning the reception of members. The 
subject occasioned much discussion. The result was, 
in brief, that persons desiring to enter the church 
should be excused, if they so desired, from a public 



relation of their religious experience, and should 
privately give satistactioQ to the elders regarding 
their religious character. The minister was to state 
to the chjirch the trround of his satisfaction with the 
candidates some time before they were to be admitted, 
and they were to be propounded in public, that if any 
one knew any reason which should justly bar them 
from communion he could privately inform the eiders. 
The vote of the church upon receiving persons who 
had been duly propounded was to be taken by 
"handy vote, or silence, or any other indifferent 
sign," at the discretion of the elders. Those who 
were accepted by the church were publicly to make 
" profession of their faith and repentance in their 
covenanting with God." This method does not differ 
essentially from that which is now employed in Con- 
gregational Churches. It leaves the whole matter 
with the church, and the application of the general 
principles will depend upon the spirit of each church 
in each case. During Mr. Brattle's ministry of twenty 
years, 364 persons were admitted to the church ; 724 
children were baptized. 

In February, 1700, .Mr. Brattle was " taken sick of 
a feaver," and was " very ille, near to death.'' In 
about a fortnight he was able to be out — " Deo sit 
gloria. Amen." He was often interrupted during 
his ministry by pains and languiahments. .A.t length 
the end came to him, also. February 15, 1716-17, 
"The ReV. Mr. Brattle, Pastur of the church of 
Christ in Cambridge, departed this life." He had 
borne his sufferings " with great patience and resigna- 
tion, and died with peace and an e.xtraordinary 
serenity of mind." "He was greatly honored at his 
interment." It was the day of " The Great Snow," 
and the principal magistrates and ministers were 
detained here for several days. 

Let Judge Sewell give his account of these events : 
" 1716-17, February 15, 6. The Rev". Mr. William 
Brattle died last night at midnight. He was a Father 
to the Students of Harvard College and a Physician, 
My Fast Friend. I wish it be not portentous tha?. 
Two such great men should fall in one week. Deu» 
averiat omen." The reference is to the Rev. Ebenezer 
Pemberton, of Boston, who died on the 13th. 

"Febr. 16, 7. Is a great Storm of Snow and Sleet 
so that the burying of Mr. Pemberton is put off to 
Monday, and notice sent accordingly. Feb. 18, 2. 
O'eat storm of snow; yet good going under foot. 
Mr. Pemberton is buried between 4 and 5, in 3Ir. 
Willard'sTomb. Feb. 20. . . . About ^ an hour past 
one my son and I set out for Mr. Brattle's Funeral in 
Capt. Belcher's slay ; got thither in good time. 
Bearers, President Mr. Auger, Mr. Hancock, Mr. 
Wadswortb, Mr. Bradstreet, Mr. Stephens. Scarves 
and Rings. Governour and Govr. Dudley went first; 
Govr. Usher and Sewall 2d. \Vere many ministers 
there; Mr. Rogers and Fitch, from Ipswich, came 
home from the Burying-place. Cousin Elithrop 
drove. Got home very seasonably. Another snow 

I coming on. Laiis Deo. Fel). 21, 5. Extrionliriary 
I storm of snow ; yet many were at Lecture to hear 
I Mr. Colman pre.ach the Funeral Sermon of ^Ir. Pem- 
I berton and Mr. Brattle, from .Tuo. 9 : 4. Compared Mr. 
j Pemberton to Elijah : Mr. Brattle to After 
I Lecture the storm increases much, grows more vehe- 
I ment." 3Ir. Brattle remembered the church in his 
last testament: " As a close to this part of my will, 
I it is my desire to consecrate, and with humility I 
bequeath and present to the Church of Christ in Cam- 
bridge- (my dearly beloved flock), for a Baptismal 
I Basin, my great silver basin, an inscription ujion 
j which I leave to the prudence of the Reverend Presi- 
dent and the Rev. Mr. Simon Bradstreet." 
! The character of Mr. Brattle was held in general 
I esteem. He was a man of marked politeness and 
j courtesy, of compassion and charity. He had a large 
I estate and he scattered his gifts with a liberal hand, 
1 yet without ostentation. He was patient and pacific 
■ in hi.s temper, and ".seemed to have equal respect to 
! good men of all denominations." "With humility 
[ he united magnanimity ; and was neither brihei! hy 
I the favor nor overawed by the displeasure of any 
man." He of "an austere and mortified life, yet 
I candid and tolerant towards others." He liad great 
learning and ability, and bore a high reputation as a 
l)reacher. His manner in the pulpit was " calm atid 
soft and melting." His sermons show that he was 
thoroughly of the Puritan school in theology; yet in 
ecclesiastical usages he was liberal. When the Brat- 
tle Street Church was founded in Boston, by men who 
sought larger liberties in the ordering uf their ecclesi- 
astical affairs, the movement enlisted his sympathy. 
When ilr. Colman was called to this Manifesto 
Church, Mr. Brattle wrote to him : " .\s for my own 
part, I shall .account it a smile from heaven upon the 
good design of these gentlemen, if you can send them 
answer of peace." Of himself he wrote in I'l'): " I 
can't but look upon myself .is a standing instance of 
the infinite power and infinite goodness of (jod. " 
His friend, Mr. Colman, said of him: "They that 
had the happiness to know Mr. Brattle knew a very 
religious, good man, an able divine, a laborious, 
faithful minister, an excellent scholar, a great bene- 
factor, a wise and prudent man, and one of the best 
of friends. The promotion of religion, learning, 
virtue and peace everj'where within reach was hi.s 
very life and soul, the great busiuess in which he was 
constantly employed, and in which he principally 
delighted. Like his good Lord and Master, he went 
(or sent) about doing good. His principles were 
sober, sound, moderate, being of a catholic and pacific 

His relation to the college has been mentioned. 
In the absence of President Mather in England "the 
administration of the college," writes Mr. Sibley, 
" was carried on by the Tutors, John Leverett and 
William Brattle. . . . These two wise and effi- 
cient officers appear to have constituted the whole 



College Faculty, and to have had almost exclusive 
direction of the studies and discipline." After the 
death of his brother, in 1713, Mr. Bratlle, who was 
his sole executor, acted as treasurer of the college for 
two years, "and in 1715 delivered to h'n successor 
nearly three thousand eight hundred pounds of per 
sonal estate, and a real estate yielding two hundred 
and eighty pounds.'' 

.^ little is known of Mr. Brattle's life in smaller 
mutters. He was a singer. Judge Sewall has an 
entry in 1701 : " I went to the Manifesto Church. 
. . . They sang the second part of the sixty-ninth 
Psalm. Mr. Brattle set it to Windsor tune." At an 
earlier date Mr. Brattle sets Oxford tune. 

In 1708 the judge remonstrates with Mr. Henry 
Flint regarding the application of saint to the apos- 
tles and evangelists. " He argued that saying Saint 
Luke was an indifferent thing; and "twas commonly 
used; and therefore he might do it. Mr. Brattle 
used it." 

Again, he cites Mr. Brattle as one of the men who 
had respect to nature and Uid not cut off their hair 
and put on a wig. In 1702 he had this cheerful 
entry: '• Mr. Brattle came to us and smoked a pipe." 
The town records give us the close: "tJth Febru- 
ary, 171<!-17. At a meeting of the inhabitants 
orderly convened, voted, that the charges for wines, 
scarfs, and gloves for the bearers at the funeral of our 
late Pastor, Rev. Mr. William Brattle, be defrayed by 
the town, under the direction of the deacons and se- 
lectmen ' 

There are here and there in the public records 
items of more or less interest in connection with the 
church. There is a vote that a pew be made and set 
up in the soutlnvest corner of the uieeting-house for 
the family of the minister; Mr. John Leverett and 
Dr. James Oliver have convenient places [)rovided 
for their families. Here is a tax ordered, payable in 
money, for repairing the meeting-house, ringing the 
bell and sweeping. The little meeting-house bell was 
given to the farmers and a new one was received from 
Captain .Andrew Belden, who received thanks in re- 
turn. The school-house wa.s ordered to be rebuilt. A 
public contribution was taken for the relief of suf- 
ferers of a recent fire. .V grant was made to Mrs. 
Hannah Gookin to pay her house-rent in 1701. The 
selectmen, with the consent of the pastor, who was 
deeply interested in the transaction, were "empow- 
ered to rent about five hundred acres of land laid out 
for the ministry, so that it shall become profitable to 
the university." Then, in February, 1703, at a town 
meeting, it is voted "that the inhabitants apprehend ' 
it necessary at this time to proceed to the building a j 
new meeting-house, and in order thereunto there I 
was chosen ' a committee of seven, "to consider of; 
the model and charge of building said meeting-house, 
uiid report of the same to the inhabitants.'' In 170(3 ' 
the third uieeting-house was built on or near the site > 
ot the second, and the first service in it was held on ' 

the 13th of October in that year. The corporation 
of the college voted £60 towards the building of this 
house, and instructed Mr. Leverett and the treasurer 
to "take care for the building of a pew for the Presi- 
dent's family,'' and about the students' teats ; "the 
charge of the pew to be defrayed out of the college 

There was, in 1722, special interest in the church, 
when "Mr. Judah Monis, a Jew by birth and educa- 
tion, being converted to the Christian faith, owned 
the covenant, and uas baptized and declared a mem- 
ber in full communion with the Church of Christ, 
after a prayer and discour.-'e made by Mr. Colman, 
from John v. 4G, and a discourse of his own from 
Psalm cxvi. 10, answering the common objections of 
the Jews against Christ's being already come, and 
giving a confession of his faith in the close. Sang 
part of the UOth Psalm, which solemnity was per- 
formed in the College Hall. Soli Deo Gloria." Mr. 
Monis was a useful member of the church, and a fund 
left by him is still used for the benefit of the widows 
and children of Congregational ministers. He was 
an instructor in the college from 1722 to 1760. " All 
the students, except the freshmen, were obliged to 
attend, four days in the week, the exercises of Judah 
Moms, a converted Jew, who was instructor in Hebrew, 
unless specially exempted." 

XJie period we have just been reviewing presents 
many events which must have engaged the minds of 
the good people here. Queen Mary died in 1094, and 
William III. in 1702. In 1697 the peace of Rvswick 
closed the war between England and France. The 
next reign was largely occupied by the " War of the 
."Spanish succession." Thus even this country wixs for 
twenty-five years preceding the peace of Utrecht kept 
in the commotion of war, which reached this side ot 
the sea. A large part of the men were in actual ser- 
vice, while those at hume were compelled to guard 
their houses and families against treacherous foes. It 
is estimated that during these wars not less than eight 
thousand of the young men of New England and 
New York fell in battle or by disease contracted in 
the service. Most of the households mourned for 
friends dead or carried into cruel captivity. It was a 
gloomy time; the resources of the country were 
greatly reduced, fields were untilled, towns lay in 
ashes. The reign of Anne was marked by the con- 
stitutional union of England and Scotland, which 
ended the prolonged contest between those countries. 
The reign was marked, also, by i's progress in science 
and literature. It was the time of Addison, Steele, 
Pope, Swift, Locke and Newton. Some of the glories 
and advantages of England's " Augustan Age " were 
enjoyed in the New England. 

We return to our own modest history. After Mr. 
liruttlc's death the church proceeded carefully to se- 
lect a man who .should enter into the place he had 
left vacant. A meeting of the church was held April 
19, 1717. President Leverett opened the meeting 



with prayer. After deliberation nominations were in 
order, and three clergymen were propoaed for the 
office to be filled : Henry Flint, Jabez Fitch and Na- 
thaniel Appleton. A ballot was taken and Mr. Ap- 
pleton was found to have thirty-eight votes and Mr. 
Flint eight. An effort was made to make the vote 
unanimous by a hand ballot, and all but two are said 
to have lifted up their hands. " The moderator con- 
cluded the meeting with returning thanks to God for 
the peaceable and comfortable management of the af- 
fairs of the church. Laus Dm." The election gave 
great pleasure to the corporation of the college, who 
chose the new minister to be a fellow in Mr. Brat- 
tle's place, not even waiting for his ordination. 

Mr. Appleton was born at Ipswich December !>, 
1693, and was the son of the Hon. John Appleton, 
one of the King's Council, and for more than twenty 
years a judge of Probate in Esse.x County. His 
mother was the eldest daughter of the Reverend 
President Rogers. He graduated in 1712, and, 
although receiving generous proposals to enter into 
business, adhered to his purpose to prepare himself 
for the ministry. He was ordained pastor of the 
church October 9, 1717. Dr. Increase Mather preached 
on the occasion from Ephesians iv. 12, and gave the | 
charge. Dr. Cotton Mather extended the right hand 
of fellowship. Mr. Angier, of Watertown, and Mr. 
Rogers, of Ipswich, joined them in the laying on of 
hands. This was the beginning of a ministry which 
reached into its sixty-seventh year, the longest which 
the church has known. The written records of his 
labors as pastor comprise little more than long lists 
of persons received to the church, of adults and j 
children baptized and of persons married. The 
summing up gives us 2048 children baptized and 90 
adults. There were 784 admitted to the fellowship of 
the church. But figures give but a poor idea of the 
work of so long a ministry and of its results. 

His connection with the college continued until 
1779 — more than sixty years. He filled the office of 
fellow with fidelity and discretion, and essentially 
promoted the interests of this "important seminary." 
At the commencement in 1771 the college conferred 
on him the degree of Doctor of Divinity, in consider- 
tion of his " having been long an ornament to the 
pastoral character, and eminently distinguished for 
his knowledge, wisdom, sanctity of manners and use- 
fulness to the churches, and having for more than 
fifty years exerted himself in promoting the interests 
of piety and learning in this society, both as a min- 
ister and as a Fellow of the Corporation." This honor 
was the more marked in that it had only once been 
conferred, and that instance was seventy-eight years 
before, when Increase Mather was the recipient. 

Traces of his faithfulness as a minister are to be 
seen through the church records, with the mention of 
events which concerned his relation to the church. 

We come upon his vigilance in 1731 and after- 
wards, when certain persons had fallen into open sin. 

In February, 1734-35, the church and congregation 
met in solemn a.ssembly and spent the forenoon in 
prayer and preaching. The sermon was from Ezra 
xiv. 5, 6. In the afternoon several votes were passed, 
expressing the apprehension of a sad decay of piety, 
and rehearsing the many ways in which persons hud 
proved false to their covenant, and run into innumer- 
able temptations and hazarded their souls. They 
feared that these evils resulted from a neglect to 
watch over one another, as they had covenanted to 
do. With deep contrition they promised to amend 
their lives, to discountenance sinful practices, and to 
deny themselves even their lawful liberty to prevent 
others from stumbling. They promised to be watch- 
ful and helpful. They voted, finally, that a suitable 
letter should be prepared by the pastor and sent to 
the inn-holders and retailers of ardent spirit.s, exhort- 
ing them to do all they could to |>revent intemper- 
ance, gaming or any disorder at their houses. These 
general measures do not seem to have been sufficiently 
effective, for two years later, at a meeting of the 
church, a committee was appointed to consult with 
the pastor " about such measures as shall be thought 
most likely under the Divine blessing to reform the 
growing disorders that are among us." The commit- 
tee in its report advised that nine of the brethren be 
appointed "to inspect and observe the manners of 
professing Christians, and such as are under the care 
and watch of this church." They were to inquire into 
an)' sinful and disorderly behavior of which they 
might hear, and administer admonition with faithful- 
ness and tenderness. If such private treatment did not 
succeed, they were to advise with the pastor about more 
public action. In the case of such open and scanda- 
lous offences as required the notice of the church, 
they were to bring the matter properly before the 
church. But the appointment of the committee was 
not to excuse other Christians from the usefulness to 
which they were pledged. The committee was ap- 
pointed and entered upon its work. The plan ap- 
pears to have worked well, for year by year afterwards 
we have a record like this: "The brethren voted to 
choose a Committee to inspect the manners of pro- 
fessing Christians, etc., according to the method 
agreed upon April 19, 1737." The church was evi- 
dently striving to fulfill its own obligations, and at 
the same time not to encroach on the freedom of any 
person. The offences were real, would be real now, 
and there was an honest effort to bring them to an 

Another matter entering largely into the records 
concerns the lands belonging to the church. These 
have already been mentioned more than once. There 
is a catalogue signed " N. A.," and entitled " Lands 
belonging to the Church and Congregation in Cam- 
bridge for the Use of the Ministry." The list in- 
cludes three small lots of four, eight and three acres, 
and a lot of forty acres in Menotomy, called Bare 
Hill. Besides these there was a lot of twenty acres in 



Newton, " the gift of Mr. Thomas Beale to the church 
of Christ in this place and town of Cambridge, 
whereof he was a member." There was, also, a farm 
of five hundred acres at the farther end of Lexington, 
towards Bedford, given in former time by the pro- 
prietors of the town for the use of the ministry. It 
was found expedient early in Mr. Appleton's minis- 
try to sell the land in Newton and Lexington. The 
proceeds of the former were invested in bonds, and 
the income was to be used as the church should 
direct. Of the money received for the Lexington 
lands, £130 was reserved for the erection of a parson- 
age; the rest was applied to the purposes of the orig- 
inal donation. Inasmuch as the proceeds of the 
Lexington farm were to be for the minister's benefit, 
he made an arrangement with the town whereby he 
was to receive two-thirds of the interest which ac- 
crued from the investments of the money received 
by the sale of the land. The remaining third was to 
be added, by the minister's proposal, to the princi- 
pal. The fund was to be in the hands of a treasurer 
nominated by the minister and approved by the 
town. Mr. Appleton solemnly charged the people of 
the parish to abide strictly by the arrangement which 
had been made, and never suffer the third of the in- 
terest to be applied to any other use than the increasing 
of the fund. He expressed the hope that no succes- 
sor of his in the ministry would ever desire or de- 
mand more than two-thirds of the interest money. 
" Nay, let me add, what some of you may easily 
compute, that by keeping this vote and agreement, 
of adding one-third of the interest to the principal, 
sacred and inviolable, that by the 3d or 4th generation 
it will of itself afford a comfortable and decent sup- 
port for a minister, without any tax upon the people." 
We can trace this matter further. The minister of 
1800 writes that this fund, by its own accumulation, 
and by the addition of the product of ministerial 
lands sold in 179.5, h«s become greatly auxiliary to 
the support of the ministry. From time to time a 
committee was appointed to examine into the state 
of the church stock of moneys, bonds or notes in the 
hands of the deacons. In 1773 such a committee 
made a long report, in which they recommended that, 
alter allowing the funds to increase by interest for 
fourteen years, for the next fifteen years one-third of 
the interest should be used for the support of the 
ministry, and that after that time two-thirds of the 
fund should be employed in this way, and the re- 
mainder added to the principal. In order that the 
fund might be further increased, the committee rec- 
ommended, also, to the members of the church, 
whenever they came together " to commemorate the 
death and sufferings of Him who spared not to shed 
His pVecious blood for us, they would express their 
thankful remembrance of the benefit they have re- 
ceived, by cheerfully contributing a small part of the 
substance with which God has blessed them for the 
important purposes of continuing and spreading 

amongst mankind that pure and undefiled religion 
which Christ appeared on earth to propagate." They 
entered into an elaborate statement " to show that a 
very small part of our substance, properly applied, 
would produce a very considerable effect " in enlarg- 
ing the resources of the church. 

The church records present various matters which 
were of importance in their day and are still interest- 
ing. We have Mr. Appleton's wood account, begin- 
ning in 1729 : " My good friends and neighbors have, 
for several years past, in the fall of the year, brought 
me a considerable quantity of wood gratis, some 
years between thirty and forty loads, sometimes 
above forty loads, which good and laudable custom, 
that had been dead for some years before the Rever- 
end Mr. Brattle's death, was revived by good Father 
Pattin about ten years ago, and continued by the 
friendship of the people." Then follow the names of 
the donors year by year, with the quantity of their 
gifts. In 1732 the people of the northwesterly part 
of the town were formed into a separate precinct, 
and in 1739 a church was gathered there. To this 
new church the church here gave £25 "to furnish 
their communion-table in a decent manner." In 
1731 and 1734 additions were made to the commu- 
nion service of the church here by private gifts. In 
1740 " the Hon. Jacob Wendell, Esq., from his re- 
gard to this place," presented " to the minister of the 
first church, for the time being, a large handsome 
Bible for the use of the church," and the gift was 
suitably acknowledged. 

There was another change in regard to the method 
of receiving members. Those who wished had al- 
ready been excused from a public recital of their re- 
ligious experience. In 1757, at a church-meeting, 
" some of the honorable brethren of the church 
moved that for the future it might not be insisted 
upon with such who should be .idmitted into the 
church to come forth and stand in the front alley or 
aisle at the time of iheir admission ; alleging that it 
was disagreeable and surprising to some persons, and 
had been offered by way of objection by some per- 
sons, and had been such a stumbling-block to them 
as to prevent their offering themselves for admission ; 
and considering it was but a mere circumstantial 
thing, and a matter of indifference, and considering 
also that the practice of other churches allowed per- 
sons to stand in their own proper places, all the time 
of admission. Therefore, the brethren agreed to 
leave the matter to the discretion of the pastor, at the 
same time manifesting that they did not insist upon 
the standing in the aisle or alley, and that they 
should be well satisfied if they appeared in any of the 
seats or pews that joined upon the front alley, so as 
to be fairly before the pastor and in view of the as- 
' sembly ; and to this no one of the brethren offered 
'■ the least objection, although they were desired to do 
I it if they had any objection to offer." This action 
marks the willingness of the church to regard the 



wishes of each person in nil matters which had not a 
distinct and essential religious character. 

We are brouglit in our survey to the days ot'llio Rev- 
olution. As early as 176-3 the people of the town 
had formally instructed their representatives to give 
no aid to the operation of the Stamp Act, but to do 
all they could for its repeal. They ordered that their 
action should be recorded in the towu-books, " that 
the children yet unborn may see the desire that their 
ancestors had for their freedom and happiness." The 
part which Cambridge had in the events of the weary, 
costly, glorious years which followed is not to be 
told here. Cambridge was long the headi|uarters of 
the American army, and the meeting-house stood in 
the midst of stirring scenes. It opened its doors and 
extended its kind offices to the soldiers who mustered 
around it. There Washington and his companions 
in arms came to worship. There the delegates from 
the towns of the States met in 1779 and framed 
the Constitution of the Commonwealth, which the 
next year was ratified by the people. The preaching 
of the pastor, his prayers, those of his church, glowed 
with patriotic fire. We know tbe men. Here in 
1774, when public and private affairs wear a gloomy 
aspect, they are found keeping a day of humiliation 
and prayer, as in other places. Yet they kept up the 
work of the church, for on this very Fast Day they 
choss two deacons. 

There is a glimpse at the times in the simple 
receipts which are in the church-book, signed by the 
minister in acknowledgement of his salary. There 
is one when he received £3. 2^. in Continental bills, 
which, " although they are exceedingly depreciated 
yet, considering the contributions and subscriptions 
they have afforded for my relief, and considering the 
additional grant they have made to my salary for 
1778, 1 accept of this in full for my salary for the year 
1777." His salary had been £100, and could not 
have been greatly increased, yet the next year he 
gave a receipt for £C00, and the next for £750, and in 
1783 for £2000 paper currency, and £25 silver cur- 
rency. There is a touching pathos in the statement 
by the good man as he took his bills and called them 
money, " although they are greatly depreciated." 

He was close upon ninety years of age. We find the 
fact of his advanced years creeping quietly into the 
records. 1777, April 25 : " Whereas our Rev. and 
very aged pastor is at present under such bodily in- 
firmities as to render it doubtful whether he will be 
able to admini-ter the sacrament on the approaching 
Sabbath, voted, in such case, it is agreeable and is the 
desire of this church that the Hon. and Rev. Presi- 
dent Langdon should administer the same, and at any 
other time when necessary occasion calls for it." The 
following Thursday was to have been a day of " Public 
Fasting and Prayer," but " the aged pastor, through 
bodily disorders was unable to carry on the services of 
the Fast, neither could help be obtained, so that there 
was no public service on the Fast." By 1782 the peo- 

ple had come to talk seriously of the need of " a more 
fixed and settled provision for the preaching and ad- 
ministering the gospel oidinauces among them," and 
it was decided by the church that it was desirable to 
settle another minister if the right man could be 
procured, and the parish committee was desired to 
consult the parish in regard to the matter. We have 
3Ir. Appleton's record of July 30, 17S3, which " was 
observed as a day of Fasting and Prayer by the 
church and congregation to seek of God divine direc- 
tion and assistance in the important ariair of procur- 
ing a more fixed and settled preaching and adminis- 
tration of the word and ordinances among us, con- 
sidering the very advanced age and growing infirmi- 
ties of their aged pastor. The Rev. Mr. Eliot began 
with prayer; Rev. Mr. Cusbing preached A..^^. ; Rev 
Mr. .Jackson began with prayer; Rev. Mr. Clarke 
preached v. M." As the general desire of the brethren 
of the church, ■' as well as in compliance with his 
own inclination and earnest wislies," the pastor called 
a meeting ot the church for the purpose of choosing 
one to be his colleague in the ministerial office, 
if the church should see fit. When the meeting was 
held the pastor was unable to attend and Deacon 
Aaron Hill was moderator. A committee was ap- 
pointed "to wait on the President of the University 
and re<iuest him to pray wiili the brethren on the 
present occasion." The president complied with the 
request, and received the thanks of the brethren. It 
was voted by a large majority to proceed to the 
choice of an associate pastor, and the Rev. Timothy 
Hilliard was chosen to that office. The parish con- 
curred in this action and Mr. Hilliard accepted the 
invitation. A council of the churches of the vicinage 
was called, and on the 27th of October, 1783, Mr. 
Hilliard was installed. He preached on the occasion 
from Titus ii. 15: " Let no man despise thee." The 
Rev. Mr. Clarke, of Lexington, prayed before the 
charge, which was given by the Rev. Dr. Cooper, of 
Boston. The Rev. Mr. Cushing, of Wallham, gave 
the right hand of fellowship. " The greatest order, 
decency and sobriety were observable through the 
whole, -yo/t Z>co Gluv'ui." 

Mr. Appleton soon gave over the church-book into 
the care of his colleague, which was virtually the re- 
linquishment of the start' of office, which his decrepit 
hand could no longer hold. In the following Febru- 
ary "he departed this life, in the ninety-first year of 
his age and sixty-seventh of his ministrj'." 

" 1784, February 15. This day his funeral solem- 
nity was attended. The body was carried to the 
meeting-house. Rev. Mr. Cushingof Waltham, prayed. 
The surviving pastor of this church delivered a fun- 
eral address. A funeral anthem was sung, after which 
the procession advanced to the burying-place, aira the 
body was admitted to the tomb." 

A long Latin epitaph covers the stone upon his 
grave. After the Latin are two lines in his own tongue: 
" They that be wise shall shine a.s the brightness of the 


iirmameot, and they that turn many to righteousness, 
as the stars forever and ever." 

We have had mauv indications ot' the character of 
the sixth minister of tlie First Church in Cambridge, 
and of the esteem in which he was held. Testimony 
to the man is abundant — in his work, in his published 
discourses, and in the tributes of those who knew him. 
The words of Dr. Holmes, one of his successors, are 
plain and strong : " Dr. Appleton, if venerable for 
his age, was more venerable for his piety. His relig- 
ion, like his whole character, was patriarchal. Born 
in the last century, and living till near the close of 
this, he brought down with him the habits of 'other 
times.' In his dress, in his manners, in his conversa- 
tion, in his ministry, he may be classed with the Puri- 
tan ministers of revered memory, who first came to 
New England. His natural temper was cheerful ; 
but his habitual deportment was grave. Early conse- 
crated to God, and having a fixed predilection for the 
ministry, he was happily formed by the union of good 
sense, with deep seriousness, of enlightened zeal with 
consummate prudence, for the pastoral office. He 
preached the gospel with great plainness of speech, and 
with primitive simplicity. Less concerned to please 
than to instruct and edify, he studiously accommoda- 
ted his discourse to the meanest capacity. To this end, 
he frequently borrowedsimilitudes from familiar, some- 
times from vulgar objects ; but his application of them 
was so pertinent, ami his utterance and his air were so 
solemn, as to suppress levity and silence criticism. . . 
So great was the ascendency which he gained over 
his people, by his discretiim and moderation, by his 
condescension and benevolence, by his fidelity and piety 
that, while he lived, they regarded his counsels as 
oracular; and, since his death, they mention not his 
uame, but with profound regard and veneration." 

Dr. .Vppleton was esteemed a wise man by the 
neighboring churcho, and his advice was sought, 
ilis own church was '' reaiiectable for wealth, iuflu- 
enceaiul numbers," but his infiuence was felt through- 
outthe |)r(ivince. His portrait by Copley hangs among 
those of other worthies, on the college wall, and fit- 
tingly represents him holding in his hand a volume 
of Dr. U'atts, entitled, " Orthodo.xy and Charity." 
His manuscripts wore burned in Boston in the fire of 
17i)-l. But a goodly number of his sermons are in print, 
with a work published in 1728 with the title, "The 
Wisilomof Gi)d in the Redemption of JIan." He left 
a legacy of forty pounds for the benefit of the poor of 
the church; and one of twenty-six pounds^Ias-sachusetts 
currency, to the colK'ge for a scholarship, in addition 
to thirty pounds previously given by him. 

Mr. Appleton was married, in 1720, to Margaret 
daughter of the Rev. Henry Gibbs, of Watertown. 
The tradition of the manner in which he obtained his 
wife, by a device which sent his rival in pursuit of 
his runaway horse, indicates that while his prudence 
was "consummate," his deportment in his youth was 
not alw.nys severely grave. Twelve children were born 

to him. One son was a merchant in Boston and a 
zealous patriot during the Revolution, and for many 
years was commissioner of loans. Two daughters 
married clergymen. 

Before we pass to the next miuistry there are a few 
others events which should be mentioned. After Mr. 
Appleton had been invited to the church, a committee 
was appointed by the town to consider the expediency 
of raising the meeting-house, so that an upper tier of 
galleries could be put in. The college agreed to bear 
one-seventh part of the expense of this alteration, on 
condition that certain parts of the house should be 
reserved for the use of the scholars. The project seems 
to have been abandoned. In 1746 the parish proposed 
to repair the meeting-house, and the college agreed to 
pay a portion of the cost. There was a difference of 
opinion regarding the work which should be done, 
and the extensive repairs were given up; but it would 
appear that the immediate necessity was met by mak- 
ing the roof tight, and mending the windows, doors 
aud seats. 

It is very probable that some thought the time was 
not remote when a new house would be required, and 
that it would not be good economy to spend much 
money on the old building. In 1753 the inhabitants 
voted, to build a new meeting-house upon some part of 
the hill, op which their house was then standing. The 
college agreed to pay one-seventh part of the cost 
upon certain conditions, and with proper care that 
their action should not be taken as a precedent. The 
students were to have the improvement of the whole 
front gallery, and one of the best pews was to be set 
apart for the president. A petition was sent to the 
General Court, asking such help in the affair as should 
seem meet to the legislative wisdom and generosity. 
The college afterward agreed to add twenty pounds 
to its previous subscription. There was a protracted 
negotiation with the college, butat last, November 17, 
17oi'>, the house was raised. Divine service was first 
performed in it July 24, 1757. This, the fourth meet- 
ing-house, remained until 1S33. President Quincy 
has said of it, " In this edificft all the public commence- 
ments and solemn inaugurations during more than 
seventy years were celebrated, and no building in 
Massachusetts can compare with it in the number of 
distinguished men who at different limes have been 
assembled within its walls." There Washington and 
his officers worshipped. There the Constitution of 
Massachusetts wa^ framed. There Lafayette received 
the address of welcome in 1S24. A large stone Irom 
the foundation, one which had very likely served the 
preceding houses, has been built into the walls of the 
Shepard Memorial Church, inscribed with the date 

In 1740-50 a committee was appointed by the par- 
ish " to treat with the governors of the college, in 
order to their assisting of .said precinct in the support 
of Mr. Appleton." 

.\ law was passed that if any dog was found in the 



raeeting-houae on the Lord's Day, in time of public 
worship, the owner should be fined. 

Provision was made for the care of the " French 

The court-house was to be rebuilt, as far as possi- 
ble, from the materials of the meeting-house about to 
be taken down. 

In 1761 an Episcopal Church was opened here, at 
the desire "of five or six gentlemen, each of whose 
incomes was judged to be adequate to the mainten- 
ance of a domestic chaplain. A missionary was ap- 
pointed to the care of the church by the English So- 
ciety for Propagating the Go.^pel in Foreign Parts." 

In 1704 the college suffered a severe loss by the burn- 
ing of Harvard Hall, which contained the library, 
the philosophical apparatus and other things of value. 
This was of great interest to the church. 

In 1747 the inhabitants on the south side of the 
river had made known their desire to be formed into 
a separate religious precinct. There was opposition 
to this, and the proposal was defeated. It was re- 
newed with much pertinacity in 1748, 1749, 1758, 
1774. Religious services were held there, and a 
meeting-house erected, and in 1779 the people on the 
south side were incorporated " as a separate precinct, 
with authority to settle a minister, and to provide for 
his support by a parish tax." Certain persons were 
by name exempted from the taxing, so long as they 
preferred not to be reckoned in the new precinct. 

In 1780 the church members on the south side of 
Charles River in Cambridge presented a petition to 
the church, signifying their desire to be dismissed 
and incorporated into a distinct church, for enjoying 
ihe special ordinances of the gospel more conven- 
iently by themselves." The church complied with 
the request, and, on the 23d of February, 1783, the 
church was organized. The Rev. John Foster was 
ordained to the pastoral care of the church November 
4, 1784. 

It was during Dr. Appleton's ministry that George 
Whitefield was arousing and exciting the country by 
his marvelous preaching. In 1740 he came to Cam- 
bridge to see and to preach, and he made a sad report 
of what he saw. 

He found the college with the president, five tutors 
and about a hundred students. As he viewed mat- 
ters, the college was " not far superior to our univer- 
sities in piety and true Godliness. Discipline is at too 
low an ebb. Bad books are become fashionable 
amongst them. Tillotson and Clarke are read in- 
stead of Shepard and Stoddard and such like evan- 
gelical writers; and, therefore, I chose to preach on 
these words : ' We are not aa many, who corrupt the 
Word of God ; ' and God gave me great freedom and 
boldness of speech. A great number of neighboring 
ministers attended, as. indeed, they do at ail other 
times. The president of the college and ministers of 
the parish treated me very civilly. In the afternoon 
I preached again, in the court. I believe there were 

about seven thousand hearers. The Holy Spirit 
melted many hearts." President Quincy intimates 
that ^\'■hitefield had been misinformed about the col- 
lege by some disatt'ected persons. His preaching here 
seems to have had results which were approved. The 
visiting committee of the overseers, in 1741, reported 
that " they find, of late, extraordinary and happy im- 
pressions of a religious nature had been made on the 
minds of a great number of students, by which means 
the college is in a better order than usual, and the 
exercises of the professors and tutors better attended." 

Tutor Fly nt wrote of Whitefield: "He appears to 
be a good man, and sincerely desirous to do good to 
the soul of sinners ; is very apt to judge harshly and 
censure in the severest terms those that differ from 
his scheme. ... I think he is a composition of a 
great deal of good and .some bad, and I pray (lod to 
grant success to what is well designed and acted by 

The college faculty retaliated the charges brought 
against the college in the hot discussions of the time 
by publishing their testimony against Whitefield, call- 
ing him very hard names. He replied, and the con- 
troversy went on. " Whitefield was sore beset. In 
letters to various friends he expressed more diffidence 
than might have been expected from a young man 
who had drunk so deeply into the intoxication of 
popular applause." He saw something of his error. 
" I certainly did drop some unguarded expressions in 
the heat of less experienced youth, and was too pre- 
cipitate in hearkening to and publishing private in- 
formation." He assured the faculty of his "sorrow 
that he had published his private information ... to 
the world." Twenty years later, when the library had 
been burned, he gave to the college his "journal and 
a collection of books; and also by his influence he 
procured a large number of valuable books from 
several parts of Great Britain." 

In all these events the church in Cambridge was 
most deeply concerned. The times required all the 
discretion of the ministers. At a meeting of the As- 
sociation of Camb-'idge and the neighboring towns, in 
January, 1744— 45, "the Rev. Mr. Appleton, having 
applied to his brethren " for advice, after prayer and 
discussion, " it was unanimously voted that it is not 
advisable, under the present situation of things, that 
the Rev. Mr. Appleton should invite the Rev. Mr. 
Whitefield to preach in Cambridge. And they ac- 
cordingly declared, each for themselves respectively, 
that they could not invite the said gentleman into 
their pulpit." 

June 27, 1745, there appeared this notice in the 
Boston Weekly JS''ews Letter: "Whereas, it is reported 
in the Gazette or Journal, of this week, that the Rev. 
Mr. Whitefield preached last Saturday at Cambridge, 
to prevent misapprehension and some ill consequences 
which may arise from thence, you are desired to give 
j'our readers notice that he preached on the Common, 
and not in the Pulpit; and that he did it, not only 



without the consent, but contrary to the mind of the 
Rev. 5Ir. Appleton, the minister of the place.'' 

But the church here felt "The Clreat Awakening" 
which had begun at Northampton in 1734, under the 
powerful preaching of Jonathan Edwards, and had 
spread to the surrounding towns and quickened the 
Boston churches. The visits of Whitefield and Ten- 
nent enlarged the interest which the churclies here 
were feeling. We have the testimony of Tutor 
Flynt's diary : " Many students appeared to be in a 
great concern as to their souls, first moved by Mr. 
Whitetield's preaching, and after by Mr. Tennent's 
and others, and by Mr. Appleton, who was more close 
and art'ecting in his preaching after Mr. Whitefield's 
being here." 

With this we close our account of Mr. Appleton's 
ministry and pass to that of his axsociate and succes- 
sor. The death of Dr. Appleton left his colleague 
the sole pastor of the church. This had doubtless 
been foreseen in his settlement. The Rev. Timothy 
Milliard was the son of a worttty farmer and deacon, 
and was born in Kensington, N. H., in 1746. In his 
youth he showed an unusual facility in acquiring 
knowledge, and manifested an amiable and cheerful 
disposition. President Willard, who was his contem- 
porary in college, bore witness that " while he was a 
student he made such advances in the various 
branches of useful learning as laid the foundation for 
that eminence in his profession to which he afterward 
attained. . . . His pulpit [lerformances from the first 
were very acceptable," whereon he was called to 
preach. He graduated with high honor in 17(>4. In 
1768 he was ai>pointed cliaplain of Castle William. 
After a few months in that service he wiis appointed 
a tutor in Harvard College. He discharged his du- 
ties with fidelity and success for about two years and 
a half, when he w:i8 invited to become the minister of 
BarnsUible, where he wa.s ordained, A|>ril 10, 1771. 
He remaine<l in that position about twelve years, dis- 
charging its duties with his usual diligence. He was 
highly esteemed iis a preacher and a pastor, not only 
in his own parish, but through that part of the coun- 
try. The chill, damp air of the sea had an unfavor- 
able ertect upon his health, and he w;i8 obliged to 
resign his charge. He was soon invited to Cam- 
bridge, and was installed here, as we have already 
seen. He continued in the ministry here until his 
death, which occurred on the Lord's Day morning. 
May 9, 1790, when he was in the seventh year of his 
ministry here, and the forty-fourth year of his age. 
The records of his pastonite are made up of the usual 
parochial events. There were one hundred and forty- 
five baptisms, and twenty-three persons were received 
to the church. The '" Committee to inspect the man- 
ners of professing Christians " seems to have been 
discontinued after Dr. Appleton's death. Care was 
taken of the funds belonging to the church, provision 
was made for the poor, and the legacy of the late pas- 
tor was applied according to his directions. The years 

of the Revolution, and those which immediately fol- 
lowed it, were a dreary time for the churches. Many 
persons had been drawn away from the restraints of 
the law and the infiuence of the sanctuary and ex- 
posed to the excitement and temptation of a soldier's 
life, often among the unprincipled strangers from 
other lands. With the war uppermost in men's 
minds, religion sufi'ered a decline. Errors of belief 
and practice, corruptions of divers kinds, came in like 
a fiood. The Sabbath lost its sacredness, the Bible 
its authority, the church its sanctity. The preacher's 
task was doubled. The minister here felt the force 
of the condict and the greatness of the issue. Mr. 
Hilliard was thoroughly in earnest. Both the learned 
and the unlearned were profited by his judicious, in- 
structive, practical teachings. His sermons were of 
cost to him, and hence were of value to his hearers. 
The government of the college regarded him as " an 
excellent model for the youth under their care who 
were designed for the desk, and considered his intro- 
duction into this parish a most happy event." He 
excelled in public prayer, and was "tenderly atten- 
tive to the sick and afilicted." His temper was ami- 
able, candid, liberal. While not ranking among 
what are called popular preachers, he had fine pulpit 
talent, and his ministrations were highly acceptable 
to the churches. His reputation was increasing 
when he died. He had much influence in ecclesias- 
tical councils and associations, and his brethren paid 
him a marked respect. He was watchful of the wel- 
fare of the College of which he was a son and an 
overseer. In person he was rather spare, of a medium 
height, with an intellectual and attractive counte- 
nance. His portrait in the library of the Shepard 
Memorial Church presents him with a grave face and 
the aspect of a man thoroughly devoted to his sacred 
calling. His last illness was very short, and he met 
death with the calmness which was becoming in such 
a man. He mentioned his peo[>le with affection, and 
with satisfaction testified '' that he had not shunned 
to declare to them the whole counsel of God, having 
kept nothing back through fear or any sinister views." 
His "bereaved, afi'ectionate flock" erected a monu- 
ment to his memory, and inscribed upon it the vir- 
tues that adorned his life, — " In private life cheerful, 
atfable, courteous, amiable ; in his ministerial charac- 
ter, instructive, serious, solemn, faithful." 

Dr. Holmes tells us that "all the ministers, since 
Mr. Mitchel, have resided at the parsonage." The 
minister's house, which was built in 1670, became di- 
lapidated in the course of years, and in 1718 the town 
made a grant " of two hundred .ind fifty pounds for the 
building of a new parsonage-house, provided the sum 
of one hundred and thirty pounds of the said money be 
procured by the .sale of town, proprietary or ministry 
lands." It would appear, however, that additions were 
made to the old bouse. Dr. Holmes states, in 1800, that 
" the front part of the present house at the parsonage 
was built in 1720." In 1843 the house was taken down. 



Mr. Hilliard died in 1790. His publications were 
five sermons, including a Dudleian Lecture. 

It waa to be nearly two. years before the church had 
another minister, and his ministry was to be most 
eventful. There were then in Cambridge a few 
more than two thousand people. In ten years there 
was a growth of three hundred and thirty persons. 
The buildings and grounds of the college gave char- 
acter to the town, and near at hand were the meet- 
ing-houae of the First Church, the Episcopal Church, 
the county court-house and jail, and the Grammar 
School-house. In 1800 the historian writes : " West 
Boston Bridge, connecting Cambridge with Boston, is 
a magnificent structure. ... It is very hand- 
somely constructed ; and when lighted by its two 
rows of lamps, extending a mile and a quarter, pre- 
sents a vista, which has a fine effect. The bridge 
waa opened for passengers November 23, 1793, seven 
months and a half from the time of laying the first 
pile. The bridge cost $76,700. A toll was '• granted 
to the proprietors for seventy years." "The erec- 
tion of this bridge has had a very perceivable influ- 
ence on the trade of Cambridge, which, formerly, was 
very inconsiderable." There were then in the town 
"five edifices for public worship, and six school- 
houses." " The grounds of Thomas Brattle, Esquire, 
are universally admired, for the justness of their 
design, and the richness, variety and perfection of 
their productiong. In no part of New England, prob- 
ably, is horticulture carried to higher perfection 
than within his enclosure." 

Cambridge was an inviting place of residence when 
the eighth minister came to the ancient church. He 
was born in the town of Woodstock, now in Connec- 
ticut, but then within the bounds of Massachusetts. 
He graduated at Yale College in 1783. His college 
life lay within the days of war. He felt the stir of 
the times, but pursued his studies with diligence and 
was considered one of the most accomplished schol- 
ars in his class. In his sophomore year he connected 
himself with the College Church. In the year fol- 
lowing his graduation he waa in South Carolina. 
While there the church and society at Midway, Ga., 
learning that be intended to enter the ministry, in- 
vited him to preach for a year, and, in 1783, he be- 
gan his labors there. This church and society had 
removed from Dorchester, Mass., about the year 1700, 
and had first settled in South Carolina, at a place 
which they named Dorchester. Some fifty years 
later they moved to Georgia. The society was 
broken up and dispersed by the war, and the meeting- 
house, with most of the dwellings and the crops, 
were burned by the British troops. On the return of 
peace the people came back to their old home and 
resumed their common life. It waa at this new 
beginning that Mr. Abiel Holmes, then in the twen- 
ty-first year of his age, waa called to their service. 
When he waa about to return to the North, in the 
following year, he was earnestly solicited to obtain 

ordination and then to resume his ministry in Geor- 
gia. He consented to this, and was ordained in the 
College Chapel at New Haven, on the 15th of Sep- 
tember, 178.5. The sermon, by the Rev. Levi Hart, 
of Preston, Conn., was entitled : " A Christian min- 
ister described, and distinguished from a pleaser 
of men." The prayer of ordination was by President 
Stiles. He went back to (teorgia and continued 
his labors there for about four years longer, when it 
was found that his health was unfavorably affected 
by the Southern climate, and he resigned his charge 
and came to New England. Mr. Holmes was in- 
vited to preach at Cambridge with a view to his set- 
tlement, and was soon called to the pastorate. He 
replied : " In respect to the office of which you 
have asked my acceptance, I can truly say that I con- 
sider it above my years and improvements. But the 
singular candor with which you received me and my 
ministrations while 1 was with you, and the remark- 
able unanimity with which the transactions relative 
to my proposed settlement among you were con- 
ducted, silence my objection on this head.' A coun- 
cil was called in the usual manner and it met at the 
parsonage. President Willard was chosen moderator. 
After the examination the council adjourned for din- 
ner at Mr. Owen Wariand's. After dinner the 
brethren of the church received the pastor-elect to 
membership. Then the council, with the pastor-elect, 
preceded by the church and as many of the otuer in- 
habitants of the parish as were present, proceeded 
to the meeting-house, where the services of installa- 
tion were held. The sermon wa.s by Rev. James 
Dana, D.D., of New Haven , from the words, " My 
doctrine is not mine, but his that sent me." The 
record closes in this way : " Throughout the whole 
process the greatest order, decency and harmony were 
observable. Soli Deo Gloria." 

Thus the Rev. Abiel Holmes entered upon his long 
pastorate here. In his first sermon after his installa- 
tion he said : " The place in which I stand reminds, 
me of my venerable predece.ssors in the ministry. 
. . . Other men labored, and I am entered into 
their labors. Such an one as Paul the aged no 
longer addresses you from this pulpit, but a youth 
who would have esteemed it a .•'ingular honor, as a 
son with a father, to have served with him in the 
gospel. May the examples and counsels of your 
worthy pastors who have gone to rest be long kept in 
faithful remembrance among you ; and may the re- 
collection of their excellent characters excite your 
present minister to fidelity in the very arduous and 
important work to which he is reservedly devoted." 

The records of the church during Mr. Holmes' 
ministry are in his own handwriting, which is almost 
as plain as printing, and they exhibit the method 
and accuracy which marked his whole life. From 
these records and collateral sources we are able to 
make out the history of those years. The chrono- 
logical order will be followed, for the most part. 



The first matter in the records proper of this period 
is the report in 1792 of " a committee appointed to 
inquire into the state of the church stock and of the 
fund appropriated to the poor of the church." It 
appears that the deacons had in their charge £356 
19«. Sid., which was nearly all invested and drawing 
interest. One-third of the interest was to be paid to 
the treasurer of the parish, by vote of the church. 
In the account of the fund for the poor, the deacons 
were charged with £82 7«. Sid., which had been 
properly distributed, or was still invested, except a 
very small balance. The deacons declared their 
agreement to the report of the committee. The 
church passed a vote of thanks to " Deacon Hill for 
his generous services in providing for the communion 
and negotiating the funds of the church." This ex- 
amination was repeated annually, and the vote of 
acknowledgment was regularly passed for several 
years, enlarged, however, by thanks " to the deacons 
in general for their services in behalf of the Church." 
The last of these monetary statements was made in 
1830, when the funds of the church had increased to 
$3236.99, and the fund for the poor to $667.18. 

The first statement made by the deacons is signed 
by Aaron Hill, Gideon Frost and James Munro. In 
the same year Deacon HiH died after a service of 
eighteen years, and Captain John Walton was chosen 
to fill the vacancy. He died thirty-one years after- 
wards, in 1823. In 1803 Deacon Frost died, ailer 
serving twenty years, and Mr. William Hilliard was 
chosen in his place. Concerning him the pastor 
wrote, in a note: " He is in his twenty-sixth year, is 
a son of my worthy predecessor in the ministry, and, 
though recently admitted into our church, has been 
several years a member of a church in Boston, and 
has had frequent communion with us." He remained 
in office until his death, in 1836 — a period of thirty- 
two years. Deacon Munro died in 1804, having been 
twenty-one years in this office. In his place, Mr. 
.losiah Moore was chosen. He served for nine years, 
and died in 1814. His house stood where the Shep- 
ard Memorial Church was afterwards erected. 

In 1818 Mr. James Munroe was elected deacon. 
The record proceeds in this way : " Sept. 6. — After 
the morning sermon (Lord's Day), the pastor, having 
admitted four members in full communion into the 
church, mentionefl the election of Brother .lames 
Munroe to the office of Deacon, and his acceptance. 
The deacon-elect, signifying his acceptance by taking 
his seat, this day, with the deacons, near the Com- 
munion-table, rose, on being addressed by the pastor, 
who briefly stated to him the duties of the office to 
which he was elected, exhorted him to fidelity, and 
announced him a deacon of this church. In the 
concluding prayer, immediately following, he was 
commended to the peace and blessing of God." He 
remained in this office until his death, in 1848. Of 
Deacons Hilliard and Munroe a later pastor said : 
" In many respects dissimilar, they were alike in 

their love of the truth, in their zeal for the glory of 
Christ, and in their efforts and sacrifices for the 
welfare of the church." 

In this connection we may bring together a few 
changes in regard to the Communion of the Lord's 
Supper. It had been the usage of this church to 
have this ordinance administered once in eight weeks. 
This caused inconvenience, as the particular days 
were not specified. Accordingly, in 1797, at the 
suggestion of the pastor, the church decided to have 
the communion on the first Lord's Day of every 
other month, beginning with January. 

In September, 1816, there is this entry : " It had 
been the usage of the church, at the Communion ser- 
vice, for the members to remain in their own pews. 
To lessen the time and to facilitate the duties of this 
service, on the suggestion of the deacons, the pastor 
recommended it to the communicants to seat them- 
selves in the pews on the broad aisle. These pews 
were, accordingly, occupied at the Communion this 
day." In 1825 the time for the lecture preparatory 
to the communion was changed to the evening, and 
it was voted '' that the examination of the annual 
accounts of the church take place at the lecture pre- 
vious to the first Sunday in March." At the same 
meeting it was voted that the Sabbath service from 
September to March should begin at half-past two 
o'clock, and during the rest of the year at half-past 
three. In 1826 " two of the tankards and two cups 
were recast, and two cups altered in such a manner 
as now made seven cups of a uniform shape and size. 
A new silver spoon and six Britannia-ware dishes, 
more adapted to the use for which they are designed, 
were also procured." 

There arc three cases of church discipline on rec- 
ord in this period. All were for offences which would 
nt any time demand attention, and the proceedings 
were marked by carefulness and fidelity. The first 
case was settled by the satisfactory confession of the 
offender, after the admonition of the pastor had 
brought him to repentance. The second resulted in 
excommunication, after persistent efforts to bring the 
offender to amendment. Four years afterwards, upon 
her contrition and desire for forgiveness and restora- 
tion, she was taken again into the fellowship of the 
church, and the pastor " exhorted the members to 
conduct toward her accordingly." The third instance 
was that of a man who had "renounced his Christian 
profession . . . and proved himself to be, not merely 
an apostate from the Christian Church, but an enemy 
to the Christian religion." The earnest efforts of the 
church to reclaim him were ineffectual, and he was 
finally cut off from the membership which he had 

Let ua turn to pleasanter things. In 1805 a com- 
mittee, consisting of the pastor and two others, was 
appointed to consider the expediency of " procuring 
religious books for the use of the members of the 
church. The report recommended that a contribu- 



tion should be made by the church for that purpose, 
and this course was adopted. The committee prepared 
a list of about twenty volumes, which were deemed 
suitable for the designed object. The list began with 
" The Holy Bible." Then followed " Leslie's Short 
and Easy Method with Deists," Baxter's "Saints' 
Rest," Doddridge's "Rise and Progress of Religion," 
" Wilberforce on Christianity," and kindred works. 
It is clear that the reading was to be of a very de- 
cided character. The books named were highly and 
deservedly approved in the churches. If they are 
not much read now, it is to be doubted whether works 
of a higher order have supplanted them. The esti- 
mated cost of the books proposed was $13.50. The 
deacons were desired to solicit donations of money, or 
of any of the books which had been designated, that 
the library might be started. The response was gen- 
erous, and the library was established and placed under 
the care of the church, which was annually to choose 
a librarian and a committee on books. The title 
agreed upon for the new organization was " The Li- 
brary of the First Church." The pastor was chosen 
librarian. Probably the project was his in the begin- 
ning. A catalogue was printed, embracing 109 books. 

This is the place to bring together a few other mat- 
ters of a similar character. In the summer of 1815 a 
Sabbath-school was opened at the meeting-house, with 
the design of promoting " the moral and religious im- 
provement of children and youth." During three 
summers the school was taught by Miss Mary Mun- 
roe and Miss Hannah Tenney. Five other young 
ladies came to their assistance, and Mr. James Farns- 
worth, master of the grammar school, tendered his 
services for the instruction of boys. " More than 
eighty children of both sexes received instruction at 
the Sabbath-school. They were taught to read and 
to commit to memory select portions of the Bible, 
catechisms, hymns and prayers, and to answer Cum- 
mings' questions on the New Testament. Books and 
tracts were early provided for their use. In 1819 the 
pastor presented the design and needs of the school to 
the congragation, "and a collection was afterwards 
taken for purchasing small books to be distributed 
among the children as an encouragement for punc- 
tual attendance, correct lessons and good behavior." 

" In 1827 books and tracts were collected by sub- 
scription for a juvenile library." A Board of Trustees 
was chosen, of which the pastor was the head. He 
was also librarian. In July, 1831, seven trustees 
were elected, and Miss Mary Ann Sawyer became 
librarian. The trustees were authorized to make se- 
lections from the library in order to form a Sabbath- 
school library for the Shepard Sunday-school. Weare 
now carried beyond Dr. Holmes' pastorate, but it 
seems best to continue this account of the school. In 
1832 it was voted that " Mr. Stephen Far well, then 
superintendent in the Sabbath-school, be appointed 
and requested to deliver the books selected for the 
use of the Sabbath-school." Afterward, in 1835, a 

Sabbath-school society was formed " for the purpose 
of promoting more effectually Sabbath-school instruc- 
tion," and both libraries for the young were trans- 
ferred to its care, and were brought together under 
the name of " Juvenile and Shepard Sabbath-school 

We now come to transactions affecting the connec- 
tion between the church and the college. From the 
Brst they had held their Sunday services together, 
and the relation had been very intimate. In 1814 
the corporation and overseers decided that it was best 
for the members of the college to hold religious ser- 
vices by themselves. It was thought that this change 
would secure services which would be more directly 
appropriate to those connected with the college, and 
would give an opportunity for transferring to Sunday 
certain discourses which had been delivered on a 
week-day. The approved practice of other colleges 
favored the change. The completion of University 
Hall, which contained a commodious chapel, made 
a good occasion for the proposed measure. It was 
designed to have a church organized and to have re- 
ligious ordinances duly administered. Members of 
the college government, with their families, and 
students, graduates and undergraduates were to be the 
only stated communicants. A committee, including 
the reverend president, wjis appointed to notify the 
minister and congregation of the parish of the design, 
and " to express the sentiments of regard and frater- 
nity felt by the members of the several college Boards, 
and the desire of Christian and friendly communion 
between the two societies." President Kirkland, as 
chairman, addressed a letter to the pastor, and the 
church and congregation, laying the matter before 
them in appropriate terms. He said: "The ties of 
neighborhood and friendship, the sympathy and re- 
gard naturally produced by a communion in religious 
acts, and the experience of edification and comfort in 
attendance upon your services, combine to make us 
wish to continue going to the house of God in com- 
pany." The committee expressed the belief that the 
separation, although in some respects painful and un- 
desirable, would, on being viewed in all its bearings, 
receive approval. A conference was held to determine 
the future relations of the parish and college. When 
the proposals of the college had been received, the 
church voted " that the reasons assigned for the pro- 
posed measure, so far as it respects this church, are 
entirely satisfactor)-, and that the church is ready to 
concur in the change." Those who were to leave the 
old church for the new one were to be dismissed in the 
customary manner. Five delegates, with the pastor, 
were appointed to assist in the formation of the new 
church, and the pastor was " requested to reciprocate 
the assurance of regard and fraternity so kindly ex- 
pressed by the university toward us.'" The pastor ac- 
cordingly replied to the letter of the president in 
words fiill of feeling. He said : " Allowing ourselves, 
however, to be influenced on this occasion by no other 



consideratioQ than a regard to the best interests of 
the university, we cannot but acquiesce in a measure 
designed for its benefit. Our prayer to God is that it 
may, in ail respects, be of Icindly and salutary influ- 
ence, and paiticularly that it may conduce to the re- 
ligious interests of the university — a seminary conse- 
crated ' to Christ and the Church.'" The president 
and fifteen others signed the covenant upoc which the 
church was to be formed. This is dated " Harvard Col- 
lege, November G, 1814." The record of the church 
closes with the statement that " on the morning of 
Lord's Day, November, 1814, the church was organ- 
ized at University Hall, in the presence and by the as- 
sistance of the pastor and delegates of the First Church 
in Cambridge." It was an interesting and important 
event in the history of both church and college. 

In the following year the pastor made a discovery 
of great interest and value. There was no catalogue of 
the members of the church in its earliest years, though 
many names could be inferred from the fact that a 
freeman was of necessity a member of the church. 
Even with this method but a portion of the names 
could be obtained. But in 1815 Dr. Holmes found 
among the collections of the Rev. Thouiaa Prince, 
who had been the minister of the old South Church 
in Boston, and who died in 1708, a manuscript regis- 
ter, in the handwriting of Rev. Jonathan Mitchel, 
containing a list of the members of the church under 
this title: "The Church of Christ at Cambridge, in 
New England. The names of all the members thereof 
that are in full communion ; together with their 
children who were either baptized in this church or 
(comiug from other churches) who were in their mi- 
nority at their parents' joyning, taken and registered, 
in the 11 month, 1658." Dr. Prince was a noted col- 
lector of books and papers relating to the history of 
New England, and he doubtless regarded this paper 
as of rare worth. The church directed that this list 
should be bound up with the records, and that blank 
leaves should be left for the record of other papers. 
It is much to be regretted that the list of members 
cannot be continued through the years which inter- 
vened before the settlement of Mr. Brattle. This is 
now impossible. 

Another blank-book was to be procured " for the 
preservation of the reports on the state of the church 
stock, etc.," and other important papers suitable to be 
preserved with them ; such as Acts of the Legislature 
relative to parish and ministry lands, the setting off 
of parishes within the town of Cambridge, etc., etc. 

In 1807 Dr. Holmes left the ancient house in which 
the ministers had so long resided, and removed to the 
house in Holmes' Place, so well known through the 
writings of his son, Oliver Wendell Holmes. "The 
gambrel-roof house" remained in the family until a 
few years since, when it passed into the possession of 
the college. It was subsequently taken down ; but 
the work of the photographer will preserve the fa- 
miliar appearance of it. 

In 1807 a meeting-house was erected in that part 
of the town which was already rejoicing in visions of 
commercial prosperity, and which, in anticipation of 
its importance, had been made a port of entry and 
was designated as Cambridgeport. That part of the 
town had been under the care of the minister of the 
First Church, "who was wont in his visits to dis- 
tribute catechisms and hymn-books, and to question 
the children upon religious doctrines and duties." 
The new church will have its own place in this nar- 
ration. But some things concerning it properly be- 
long here. " In 1805 Royal Makepeace and others 
were incorporated for the purpose of building a meet- 
ing-house, by the name of Cambridgeport Meeting- 
House Company, and the next year they proceeded 
to erect a large brick edifice on Columbia Street, be- 
tween Harvard Street and Broadway, which was dedi- 
cated Jan. 1, 1807, and was the first house of public 
worship in Cambridgeport." The sermon of dedica- 
tion was preached by Dr. Holmes. " By an act passed 
March 1, 1808, the proprietors of the meeting-house, 
together with ail the inhabitants and estates in the 
Fifth School District in Cambridge, east of Dana 
Street and a line extended in the same direction 
northerly to Charlestown (now Somerville), and south- 
erly to the river, were incorporated as the Cambridge- 
port Parish; and, Feb. 2, 1809, the proprietors (re- 
serving private ownership of pews) conveyed to the 
parish the meeting-house and lot, containing two 
acres, together with a parsonage lot at the northeast- 
erly corner of Harvard and Prospect Streets." A 
church was organized iu connection with the new 
parish, July 14, 1809. The first pastor was settled in 
1814. In a small book, entitled "Two Hundred 
Years Ago; or, a Brief History of Cambridgeport 
and East Cambridge, with details of some of the early 
settlers. A Christmas and Birthday gift, for young 
persons," we are taken back to that day. " At the 
close of this year we had the satisfaction of knowing 
that we were to have a permanent minister, Mr. 
Thomas Brattle Gannett having accepted our unani- 
mous call, to the great joy of all the parish. He was 
installed pastor of the Cambridgeport Parish January 
1st, 1814. Notwithstanding the roads were almost 
impassable, the church was filled to overflowing." 
Dr. Holmes preached at the ordination of Mr. Gan- 
nett, from the words "I am made all things to all 
men, that I might by all means save some." One 
who afterwards wrote the history of that church, said 
of the sermon and the preacher, " It reads as placid 
as he looked. ... It is another instance of that 
now lost art of felicitously weaving in Scripture lan- 
guage with the texture of every sentence and the 
expression of every thought, which gave such pecu- 
liar unction to the most common utterances of the 
older divines." Mr. Gannett was bom in Cambridge, 
February 20, 1789, and graduated at Harvard College 
in 180'.). He remained with the church for twenty 
years, when he was dismissed at his own request, after 



"a singularly blameless ministry." He took no act- 
ive part in the theological contest which here fell in 
the years of his pastorate, " but devoted himself en- 
tirely to the inculcation of those moral duties and 
Christian graces which become the true disciples of 
Christ." After his resignation he resided in Cam- 
bridge for ten years, holding jthe office of town clerk 
in 1840-42, and serving as a Representative in the 
General Court in 1834, 1835, 1837, 1838. He removed 
to South Natick in 1843, and there ministered to the 
Unitarian Church. There he died, April 19, 1851. 

Among other memorials of Dr. Holmes' ministrj' is 
" A sermon delivered at the Episcopal Church in 
Cambridge, by the request of the Wardens and Vestry, 
December 25, 1809, in celebration of the nativity of 
our Blessed Saviour. By Abiel Holmes, D.D., Minis- 
ter of the First Church in Cambridge." The text 
was, "The desire of all nations shall come." At 
that time the Episcopal Church was for the most part 
supplied by lay readers. Affixed to the sermon is 
this note : " At a meeting of the congregation be- 
longing to the Protestant Episcopal Church in Cam- 
bridge, January 7, 1810 — voted. That the thanks of 
thia Society be presented to the Rev. Dr. Holmes 
for the learned and appropriate discourse by him de- 
livered in this Church, on the last Christmas day ; 
and that he be requested to furnish a copy of the same 
for the press." The note is signed William Winthrop, 
Sen. Warden. 

In connection with the service of song in the house 
of the Lord it is of interest to find one of Dr. Holmes' 
sermons inscribed, " This day Watts's Psalms and 
hymns introduced instead of Tate and Brady." It was 
preached in the afternoon of June 29, 1817. The 
text was. "Let the word of Christ dwell in you 
richly in all wisdom ; teaching and admonishing one 
another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, 
singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord." 

Some extracts from the sermon will show its spirit 
and show, also, the hope of the preacher. " To the 
skilful performance of the choir we are much indebted 
for the order and harmony, the solemnity and effect, 
with which this part of Divine service is performed. 
The style of sacred music is, of late years, essentially 
improved ; and the exclusion of light and unhallowed 
airs, so foreign to the solemnity of the subject and the 
place, is itself highly favorable to our improvement 
in piety and devotion and, at the same time, more 
easily admits the union of a great proportion of the 
assembly in this common duty, — the social praise of 
Almighty God. Let us not, then, leave this interest- 
ing, improving and delightful service to be performed 
wholly by others. Let none be listless, or indifferent 
to it. Let none regard it as a mere entertainment. 
Above all, let none either p«rform, or hear it per- 
formed, with levity. Let us all be supplied with 
books. Let those who can, with any propriety, bear 
a part in singing the high praises of Gt>d ; and let the 
rest have their eyes fixed on the psalm or hymn 

that is sung, and Join with the understanding and 
affections in the sublime employment, and thus make 
melody, at least in their hearts, to the Lord. And 
here, my brethren, I would suggest to you the pro- 
priety of performing this part of the service, even 
when we do no more than perform it in heart, in a 
standing rather than in a sitting posture." 

An organ was placed in the church in 1827, and the 
sermon on music was repeated, with the insertion of 
these remarks : " The introduction of an organ, 
instead of diminishing, should increase the number 
of singers in the congregation. It is not, you will re- 
member, intended as a substitute for the voice, but as 
an aid to it. It may be accompanied by those who 
are not thoroughly skilled in mu.sic, though great 
care should be taken not to violate either the time 
or the harmony. In the use of this instrument, it is 
hoped and believed great regard will be shown to the 
spiritual nature of the worship which it is in- 
tended to aid. It is not meant for an entertainment, 
but for an improvement; not simply todelight the ear, 
but to inspire the heart. It will not, I trust, be suf- 
fered to overpower the vocal music, of which it should 
be but an accompaniment. Let us have the distinct 
articulation of the human voice, that it may not give 
an uncertain sound, or be so merged in the sound of 
an instrument, that the meaning cannot be under- 
stood. Let us remember, my brethren, that we are 
required to sing with the spirit and with the under- 
standing." Whatever improvement? the ye.ira may 
liave brought, the opinions and desires of Dr. 
Holmes are as timely to-day as when they were tirst 

We are brought now to events of a more weighty 
and less pleasing nature. In 1827 there was formed 
" The First Evangelical Congregational Church in 
Cambridgeport." The distinctive word in this title 
is "Evangeiical." That word had come to bear a pre- 
cise, and, in some degree, a denominational signifi- 
cance. It marks the controversy which engaged the re- 
ligious world in this region and had very serious results 
for many churches. Into the general movement we 
do not propose to enter. We are only to recall facts, 
without opinions. So far as the First Church in Cam- 
bridge is concerned, the facts are in print, in rare 
pamphlets and in local histories, and need only a 
brief rehearsal in these pages. 

On the 20th of July, 1827, a memorial, signed 
by sixty-three members of the parish, was presented 
to Dr. Holmes, remonstrating with him for discon- 
tinuing professional exchanges with certain clergy- 
men, and recommending a return to his former cus- 
tom. It was not a question of courtesy, but one of a 
much graver nature. We must go back a little. As 
early as 1787 Unitarianism, which had been adopted 
by many persons, ministers and others, became a 
"substantial reality " in this community by the action 
of the society worshipping in King's Chapel, Boston, 
which modified the English Liturgy it had been 



using. The minister had changed his own doctrinal 
views, and the change in the service of the church 
followed. For many years this remained the only 
conspicuous church in New England which was con- 
fessedly Unitarian. The new views, however, extended 
and became very intiuential. By the time which we 
are now reviewing, a large part of the ministers of the 
churches in this neighborhood had embraced the new 
principles of belief. "The Unitarian Association" 
was formed about this time. Of course, all this 
changed the relations in which ministers stood 
toward one another. Freedom of professional inter- 
course became restricted. There were men of all 
degrees of conviction and confession, with extreme 
men on both sides and those of moderate views 
standing between them, some nearer one end and 
some nearer the other. The minister here knew all 
this, and was affected by the movement in which he 
was not disposed to take a prominent part. But it came 
to pass here, as elsewhere, that some ministers who 
had been invited to his pulpit no longer received 
such proposals. It was less the fact than the occa- 
sion and meaning of it which attracted attention and 
led to the action which has already been mentioned. 
A large majority of the legal voters in the affairs of 
the parish were found on the Unitarian side. They 
complained of the change in the pastor's practice, 
and asserted that he was changing the policy of the 
church, and deviating from the custom of his immedi- 
ate predecessors, and departing from the views which 
had governed his own procedure and shaped his 
own preaching. They complained that, while he 
excluded some ministers whom they liked to hear, 
he introduced other preachers whose teaching was 
offensive to them. (Jut of this state of things grew 
the memorial, in which the signers grateftilly testi- 
fied to the order, peace and harmony with which the 
church and society had walked together, and ex- 
pressed their fear lest there should arise disaffection 
and disunion in consequence of the pastor's action. 
They requested him '"to exchange a reasonable pro- 
portion of the time with such respectable clergymen 
of liberal sentiments in this vicinity as had hereto- 
fore been admitted into his pulpit, and with others of 
similar character." The pastor replied, in dignified 
terms, that he thought a personal interview with him 
would have been more favorable to truth and peace. 
To show that the charge complained of was not alto- 
gether on one side, he said that some liberal ministers 
were of the opinion that such exchanges as were pro- 
posed were not desirable. He added: "The subject 
is believed to be uniformly left to the discretion of 
the pastors, who are, or ought to be, the best judges 
of what is profitable for their hearers, and who are 
bound religiously to determine what is right and 
consistent for themselves." We cannot pursue the 
controversy, which waa prolonged and intense. The 
effort of the parish was to secure the preaching of 
Unitarian ministers for a portion of the time by 

exchanges, or by the settlement of a colleague, or by 
the introduction of such ministers at times when 
there waa no established service. To neither of 
these measures would Dr. Holmes consent. He 
claimed that he must adhere to the principles of the 
church during its entire history ; that he could not 
depart from them, or suffer others to lead the people 
away from them. The Shepard Historical Society 
has a written document which he prepared and en- 
titled, " Religious Principles of the Ministers of Cam- 
bridge." By citations from their writings, he traces 
the line of doctrinal teaching from Shepard to him- 
self, and adds : " Doctrines held and taught by the 
present pastor from the commencement of his min- 
istry here to this time ; collected from his discourses on 
the anniversary of his installation." The object was 
to show that he was continuing the instruction for 
which he was called to the church. The church 
upheld the pastor in his course, and expressed their 
approval of his teaching. They remonstrated in 
writing against the action of the parish. " Let us 
not attempt to drive from ub a man by ixrging upon 
him a course of mea-sures which, should he submit 
to them, would render him a stranger among his 
brethren, not satisfy those who make the demand, 
and would leave him dishonored in his own eyes and 
in theirs. . . . We also apprehend tjiat, were the 
females of this parish allowed to come here and 
speak, a majority of them would entreat you to for- 
bear ; and we would hope that we shall not be regard- 
less of their feelings, because they are not allowed the 
poor privilege of begging you to consider them." It 
became evident that the matter was not to be settled 
by discussion, and men turned to the congregational 
method of relief. The parish proposed to the pastor 
that an ecclesiastical council should be called to 
advise in the premises. The church and a minority 
of the parish declared that usage in New England, 
and invariably in this parish, required that the 
church and parish should concur in all matters 
touching the settlement or the removal of a min- 
ister. It was, therefore, proposed that the church 
should be a party in calling the council. To this 
the parish refused to accede. The parish said that 
if the church were admitted " they would make all 
the resistance in theii power to the attempts of the 
parish to remedy the evils of which they complained, 
and would give Dr. Holmes all their assistance and 
support in his opposition to the principles and wishes 
of the parish." The church was not allowed to join 
in calling the council. Dr. Holmes said "that he 
was not at liberty to overlook or to interfere with the 
equitable claims of the church, and that he would 
consent to a mutual ecclesiastical council, if regularly 
called, according to the usage of our churches; that 
is, by the church and parish together." 

The discussion effected nothing, and the parish 
proceeded to call an ex parte council, which assembled 
in the Old Court-House on the 19th of May, 1829. It 



was composed of the representatives of six Unitarian 
churches. A copy of the complaint against the pas- 
tor was given to him before the meeting of the coun- 
cil. When the council assembled Dr. Holmes denied 
its jurisdiction, and the church and a minority of the 
parish also remonstrated. The council, by a commit- 
tee, gave Dr. Holmes and the remonstrants an oppor- 
tunity to present further information. The pastor 
received the committee with his accustomed courtesy 
and replied " that he had no further communication 
to make to this council." The complaint of the par- 
ish was heard, evidence was received, an argument 
was made by the counsel of the parish, Hon. Samuel 
Hoar. The council finally voted " that the First Par- 
ish in Cambridge have sufficient cause to terminate 
the contract subsisting between them and the Rev. 
Dr. Holmes as their minister, and this council recom- 
mend the measure as necessary to the existence and 
spiritual prosperity of the .society." The parish ac- 
cepted and confirmed the " result " and voted, June 
8, 1829, that the " Rev. Dr. Abiel Holmes, be, and he 
hereby is, dismissed from his office of minister of the 
gospel and teacher of piety, religion and morality in 
said parish, and that all connection between said 
Holmes as such minister, or teacher, and said par- 
ish, do and shall henceforth cease." A grant of three 
months' salary was made " to said Holmes, on equit- 
able principles, but not as legal right," and he was to 
have the use and occupation of the real estate held by 
him as pastor of the parish "until the 25th day of 
January next, but no longer." 

In a communication made on the 12th of June the 
committee of the parish inform Dr. Holmes that 
'they have employed a preacher to supply the pulpit 
in the meeting-house of the First Parish in Cam- 
bridge on the next ensuing Sabbath, that they will 
procure and employ a preacher or preachers for the 
succeeding Sabbaths, and that your services will not 
be required or authorized in the public religious ser- 
vices in the meeting-house in said parish hereafter." 
Dr. Holmes had not consented to the council, but 
had entered his protest against it. He did not accept 
ita result. He wrote in reply to the notice which had 
been served on him : " I now give notice to you, and, 
through yea, to the inhabitants of the parish, that I 
still consider myself as the lawful minister of the par- 
ish, and hold myself ready to perform any and all the 
duties, in or out of the pulpit, which belong to my 
office as pastor of the First Church and Society in 
Cambridge." The closing communication was ad- 
dressed to Dr. Holmes by the parish committee. 
They say, " In answer to your said letter, said com- 
mittee, in behalf of said parish, state to you that said 
council had jurisdiction of the complaint exhibited to 
said council against you ; that said result is legal and 
valid; that said dismission from said office conforms 
to said result and to law ; that your connection with 
said parish as their minister is legally dissolved; that 
you are not the minister or pastor of said parish, nor 

have you been such minister or pastor since said dis- 
mission ; that as such minister or pastor you do not 
owe any such duties as aforesaid to said parish, and 
that said parish refuses to accept from you any ser- 
vice, or services, as such minister or pastor thereof. 
Hereafter you cannot occupy nor use the pulpit of the 
meeting-house of said parish, as it will be exclusively 
appropriated to such preacher or preachers as said 
parish shall employ to supply it." 

Thus the pastor of thirty-eight years was turned 
from the door of the meeting-house. There was but 
one course open to the church, and that was to with- 
draw from the meeting-house from which their min- 
ister was excluded. The church and pastor crossed 
the street and began religious services in the Old 
Court House, in the presence of " a full, attentive and 
solemn assembly." On his last Sabbath in the meet- 
ing-house Dr. Holmes preached from the words, " I 
have no greater joy than to hear that my children 
walk in truth." The next Sabbath morning he 
preached from the words, " Beloved, think it not 
strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, 
as though some strange thing happened unto you ; but 
rejoice inasmuch as ye are partakers of Christ's suf- 
ferings; that, when his glory shall be revealed, ye 
may be glad also with exceeding joy." The encour- 
agement was commended to " all who are in affiiction, 
and especially to the church and the attendant wor- 
shippers constrained to assemble in this place." 

"The whole number of members belonging to the 
church at that time was about ninety, fully two-thirda 
of whom followed the pastor and attended upon his 
ministry. The number of male members was twen- 
ty-one, fifteen of whom were the uniform friends and 
supporters of the pastor, and two only took an ac- 
tive part in the measure s of the parish " for his dis- 
mission. Of the whole number who usually wor- 
shiped in the meeting-house previous to the separa- 
tion, about one-half withdrew and worshiped 
statedly w here the church and pastor continued their 

On the 17th of June, 1829, an advisory council 
met at the invitation of the church and pastor. 
After hearing the statements which were made by 
those who sought advice, the council reached this 
" result : " " As Dr. Holmes is still, according to ec- 
clesiastical usage, the pastor and minister of the 
First Church and parish in Cambridge, and as the 
parish has by its votes excluded him from its pulpit, 
the council approve the course pursued by him in 
continuing to perform parochial duties whenever and 
to whomsoever he may have opportunity, and advise 
him and the church and other friends of truth not to 
forsake the assembling of themselves together, but 
to maintain Divine worship and the celebration of 
Divine ordinances." The church accepted this ad- 
vice and resolved to follow it faithfully. As the 
church was now separated from the parish, after a 
union of nearly two hundred years, it was necessary, 



in accordance with the custom of the times, to or- 
ganize another society, which should include persona 
who were not members of the church, and should be 
in the place of an organized parish in connection 
with the church. Such a society was formed, and it 
was voted unanimously that it should be called 
" The Holmes Congregational Society." Dr. Holmes 
declined the proffered honor, and advised that the new 
society should bear the name of the first minister 
of the church. In accordance with this wiah the 
new body took the title which it still bears- 
" The Shepard Congregational Society." The pastor 
could not connect himself with this organization, 
because he held that he had not been legally or reg- 
ularly dismissed from his connection with the old 
parish, which he had served so long. But the church 
joined itself to the new society in order to main- 
tain " the worship and ordinances of the gospel, ac- 
cording to the established principles and usages of 
Congregational churches in this Commonwealth." 

In the records is an account of a meeting of the 
church held on the 20th of November, 1829, at the 
house of Mr. Jacob H. Bates. The record is too 
long to be copied here, and it is already in print. It 
begins : " Whereas the Rev. Dr. Holmes, the pastor 
of this church, has been excluded by a committee of 
the First Parish in Cambridge from the desk and 
sanctuary where he has so long officiated, under pre- 
tence that he is legally dismissed from office," and 
after declaring the views of the church in regard to 
Dr. Holmes and the parish, continues ; " In consid- 
eration of all the circumstances, and having con- 
sulted with the Rev. Dr. Holmes, our pastor, whose 
relation to ua as a church we wish to hold sacred and 
inviolate, and finding that in present circumstances 
the choice of a colleague pastor meets with his en- 
tire approbation ; therefore, voted, 1st, that until 
such time as our rights, with those of our pastor, shall 
be respected, and the privileges of the gospel minis- 
try be enjoyed, as heretofore, in connection with the 
First Parish in Cambridge, we will, as a church, ac- 
cede to the invitation of the Shepard Congregational 
Society and co-operate with it. . . . Voted, 2d, that 
in pursuance of their object, and subject to the sev- 
eral conditions expressed in the first vote, the church 
now unite, and call Mr. Nehemiah Adams, Jr., who 
has been heard by us for several Sabbaths with high 
approbation, and in whom we have full confidence, 
to the office of colleague pastor in this church in 
connection with the Rev. Dr. Holmes as senior pas- 
tor." The society concurred in this vote, and Mr. 
Adams was called. The salary offered him was $850 
for the first year, to be increased ?^50 each year 
until $1000 was reached. It is said, however, that 
by private subscription the salary was made $1,000 
from the beginning. The invitation waa given and 
accepted. The Baptist Church of Cambridgeport 
kindly offered its house for the service of ordination. 
The council met on the 17th of December, 1829. 

Twenty-three churches were represented. The libt 
of ministers contains many names well known then 
and afterwards. There were John Codman, William 
Jenks, Lyman Beecher, Edward Beecher, Benjamin 
B. Wisner, Moses Stuart, George W. Blagden, Sam- 
uel M. E. Kettle, better known as William M. 
Rogers. Dr. Codman waa moderator. The action 
of the previous advisory council was submitted by 
the church, and a remon.strance which had been pre- 
sented to the pastor-elect by a committee of those 
members of the church who had remained with the 
parish. After the preliminary proceedings com- 
mon in such cases the services of ordination were 
held. The sermon was preached by Professor Stuart, 
and Dr. Holmes gave the charge to the pastor. Mr. 
Adams was born, in Salem, Mass., February 19, 1806, 
and graduated at Harvard College in 1826, and at 
Andover Theological Seminary in 1829. -His ser- 
vices were sought elsewhere, but he was persuaded 
to accept the Cambridge invitation. It was thought 
by many that he was especially needed at a time 
when the faith of churches and individuals was 
in question. Dr. Holmes was in hia sixty-sixth 
year, and did not feel equal to the labors which were 
incident to the new conditions of the church. 

Dr. Holmes' sermons, at this period, give an insight 
into the state and feeling of the people. One manu- 
script is marked, " June 7,1829: in meeting-house." 
Another, "June 14, 1829: a.m. Camb. Court-house." 
These have been already mentioned. One sermon 
is marked: " Dec. 20, 1829, a.m., 1st Sabbath after 
ordination of Mr. N. Adams." The text w.os happily 
chosen: " Now if Timotheus come, see that he may 
be with you without fear; for he worketh the work 
of the Lord, as I also do." He said : " Receive him. 
Treat him with candor and equity; preserve unity 
and peace ; and pay an attentive and serious regard 
to his ministry." 

The services of the Sabbath were divided between 
the two ministers — the senior preaching in the morn- 
ing and the junior in the afternoon and evening. 
The congregations were good, especially in the even- 
ing, when many visitors would come to hear the new 
minister in a place usually devoted to other purposes. 
There were large additions to the membership of the 
church. Meetings for prayer and religious confer- 
ence were held for a time in private houses, and were 
finally established in a large room fitted up for that 
purpose, in the house at the northwest corner of Mt. 
Auburn and Brighton Streets. There were times 
when the people carried their own lamps for the 
evening services, which gave the bystanders a chance 
to use their cheap wit. 

When they felt able to do so, the church and so- 
ciety erected a meeting-house on the corner of Mt. 
Auburn and Holyoke Streets. To do this they needed 
and procured the assistance of many friends, near 
and remote. Indeed, they were assisted, at first, in 
3up[)orting their regular services. It is believed that 



tke senior pastor drew no salary after the separation. 
The land for the new house was given by Mias Sarah 
Ann Dana. It is .said that Dr. Holmes was the 
largest contributor to the building fund. Ground 
was broken at six o'clock on the morning of the 5th 
of August, 1830. On the 2l3t of September the 
corner-stone was laid with an address by Rev. Sam- 
uel Green, of Boston. One sentence will show some- 
thing of the feeling which marked the occasion : 
" We speak with pride and boldness, as becometh the 
descendants of Puritans on Puritan ground."' On 
the 23d of February, 1831, the house was dedicated 
with a sermon by the senior pastor from Jeremiah 
vi. 16: "Thus saith the Lord, Stand ye in the ways, 
and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good 
way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your 
souls." The new house was much admired. Henry 
Greenough was the architect. Washington Allston 
furnished the plan of the house and had much pride 
in the building. He liked to take strangers at even- 
ing to a particular spot, about a hundred yardssouth- 
east of the church, where he would bid them mark 
the simple beauty of the unassuming structure, re- 
peating the familiar lines: 

"If thou would'tit view fair Melrose aright, 
Go visit it by tbe pate mooDligbt." 

A silver plate enclosed in a box of lead was placed 
under the corner-stone, with this inscription : 

"To Jmub Cbrirt and tbe Cbarcb, The Pillai and Ground of tbe Troth 
— Firat Church and Shepard Society, in t.'ambridg« : 

Abiel Holmes, ) „ 

., ' f Pastor* ; 

Nbuemi&u Adams, i 

William Hilliabo, ) ^ 

, „ [■ Deacons. 

James Munkoe, J 

ixi September, MDCCCXXX." 

But the troubles were not over. In 1831 Abel 
Whitney, deacon of the First Parish Church, de- 
manded certain articles of church property, to wit : 
the church fund, the poor's fund, the communion 
service and baptismal basin, the church record and 
papers, the library and a few minor things. The 
demand was refused, and a suit at law was begun 
against Deacons Hilliard and Munroe, as represent- 
ing the church, and they were held to answer in the 
sum of five thousand dollars. The church appointed 
a committee to take legal advice and to defend the 
church so far as it could be done, or, if it was neces- 
sary, to surrender the property. They found that by 
a decision of the Supreme Court of the State the 
church could not retain the property and it was ac- 
cordingly given up under the constraint of the 
decision. The decision under which they were 
obliged to do this was given in 1820, in what is 
known as the Dedham case, or, more exactly, Baker 
and another vs. Fales. The rule laid down was this: 
" Where a majority of the members of a conerega- 
tional church separate from the majority of the par- 
iah, the members who remain, although a minority, 
constitute the church in said parish, and retain the 
rights and property belonging thereto." The Court 

drew a broad distinction between the church in its 
civil and its ecclesiastical position: "That any num- 
ber of the members of a church, who disagree with 
their brethren, or with the minister, or with the par- 
ish, may withdraw from fellowship with them and 
act as a church in a religious point of view, having 
the ordinances administered and other religious 
offices performed ; it is not neces.sary to deny, indeed, 
this would be a question proper for an ecclesiastical 
council to settie, if any should dispute their claim. 
But as to all civil purposes, the secession of a whole 
church from the parish would be an extinction of the 
church; and it is competent to the members ot the 
parish to institute a new church, or to ingraft one 
upon the old stock if any of it should remain; and 
this new church would succeed to all the rights of the 
old in relation to the parish." It was not denied that 
there could be a church without a " in an 
ecclesiastical sense." There was nothing to be done 
under this construction of law but to give up the 
property. This was done and a receipt wa.s taken on 
the 2Sth of December, 1331, for'"tlie church fund 
and poor's fund, belonging to .said church, amount- 
ing, in money and securities for money, to the sum 
of four thousand one hundred and fifty- four dollars 
and three cents ; also, the communion service 
of said church, consisting of four .silver tankards, 
seven silver cups, one silver spoon, six britan- 
nia dishes, two napkins, one table-cloth and basin, 
four books of church records, and sundry tiles 
of papers, and a trunk and box containing the same; 
also, the library of books, with the shelves for the 
same, and nine dollars and ninety-nine cents for the 
same." The church fund was originally constituted 
by the gift of fifty pounds by a member ol' the church, 
and largely increased by contributions of the church 
members at the Lord's Supper. "A part of the 
church plate was given to the church, and the rest 
was purchased with its own funds." The baptismal 
basin was the gift of the Rev. William Brattle, "to 
the church of Christ in Cambridge, my dearly beloved 

Those were trying days for the men who had left 
the parish, but their faith was strong. For a time 
they used private plate at the communion services. 
Then the junior pastor came into the possession of 
the " small book " of Thomas Shepard, and by its 
publication a communion service was obtained. 

In September, 1831, the senior pastor found that 
his age and increasing debility prevented him from 
performing the duties of his office and he asked re- 
lease. The church consented to his request. He 
preached his farewell sermon October 2, 1831, from 
the text : " For now we live, if ye stand fast in the 
Lord." He bore witness to the steadfastness of the 
people in the time of their trial and to the goodness 
of God. " Let this house which we have built for 
the honor of his name be at once a monument of 
our gratitude and a temple for his praise." The 



impression was unspeakably touching when, after his 
sermon, he gave out the seventy-first Psalm : 

" GimI of my L-bildhuml aud luv yoiitb, 
Tbe guide uf all my daya, 
I bavc declared tby beaveiity truth, 
Aud told thy noudruus waya, 

" Wilt thou forsake my hoary haira, 
Aod leave my faintiDg heart ' 
Whoahall duataiu my dinkiii)^ years. 
If God. my strength, depart'" 

But Dr. Holmes was still to live among his old 
friends, and where his presence and counsel would be 
at the service of the church and the town. He 
preached a double sermon in February, 183G, on 
the two hundredth anniversary of the founding 
of the church. He preached his last sermon 
to his people on the 22d of February, 1837. The 
subject was : "The vanity of life a reason for seeking 
a portion in heaven." .\n illness of a few weeks 
brought his long and useful life to a close. A severe 
paralytic shock rendered him almost helpless. But 
the end was in peace and charity. He said that he 
wished his injuries written in sand. He died on 
Sunday morning, June 4, 1837, in the seventy-fourth 
year of his age. The church-bells were ringing as he 
passed away ; they were afterwards tolled in tribute 
to his worth, and in witness to the respect of the 
community. His first wife was the daughter of 
President 8tiles. His second wife, the daughter of 
Hon. <Jliver Wendell, long survived him and re- 
ceived the affectionate liomage of ail who knew her. 
The body of Dr. Holmes was at first laid in the 
ancient buryiiig-place, but waa reranved to Mount 

Tbe ministry of Dr. Holmes was, with one e.x- 
ception, the longest which the church lias known. 
He stood at the centre of the parish and the town, 
and his influence was widely felt. He was a friend 
to the college of which he was an overseer. He was 
greatly interested in historical studies and published 
a " History of Cambridge " in 1800. He printed many 
sermons, preached on special occasions. His largest 
work was " The Annals of .\merica from 1492 to 
1826." He was actively connected with the Massa- 
chusetts Historical .Society. He was one of the 
founders of the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, and of the .\merican Education Society, 
and was a member of the American Academy of Arts 
aud Sciences. He received the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity from the University of Edinburgh about 
1805, and was made Doctor of Laws by Alleghany 
College in 1822. His life was long and full and 
helpful in every direction. His old friend, Dr. Jenks, 
said of him : " That blending of moderation and 
modesty with firmness and decision of character, 
where decision and firmness .ire needed, constitute, if 
I mistake not, an enviable or rather a desirable dis- 
tinction. . . . Never in extremes or chargeable 
with extravagance, his deportment and character 

united, in no common degree, the gentleman, the 
scholar and the Christian." Some who were children 
in his day recall his kindly manner towards them, 
and they like to tell how, as he walked the streets 
with his well-remembered cane, he would pause at a 
group of children, and, with a pleasant question and 
a word of counsel, would draw from his capacious 
pocket a handful of confectionery and distribute it 
among the listeners, who had learned to expect it. 
They tell how, a few weeks before his death, he stood 
before the pulpit and gave a good book to each 
member of the Sabbath-School as they passed before 
him. His name is engraven on the tablet in the 
Shepard Memorial Church, and his initials are on one 
of the pillars at the door. His name is on the mon- 
ument in the church lot in the Cambridge Cemetery. 
But his best memorial is his work. At the installation 
of his successors in 1830 and in 1867, at the dedication 
of the meeting-houae in 1872, at the 250th 
anniversary of the foundation of the church, a hymn 
written by him was sung. With the last two verses 
we close this sketch of his ministry : 

" Here may the church thy cause inaiotaiD, 
Thy truth with peace aud love. 
Tilt her last eartb-tiom live agaiu 
With tbe firat-boru above. 

" O glorious cbaoge 1 From conflict free. 
The church, — uo danger high, — 
From militaDt od earth, shall be 
Triumphant iu tbe sky." 

For nearly three years after the retirement of Dr. 
Holmes, Mr. Adams remained the pastor of the 
church. In February, 1834, he was invited to be- 
come the pastor of the Essex Street Church and 
Society in Boston. Bethought it his duty to accept 
this invitation. With reluctance the church gave its 
consent, and he was released from his office here, 
with the approval of a council, on the 14th of March. 
This is the only instance in the long history of the 
church in which a minister had left it to assume tbe 
care of another church. Mr. Adams was here in a 
critical time, when his labors were especially needed, 
and large results attended his work. After a long and 
fruitful ministry in Boston, Dr. Adams died in 1878. 
He had published many religious books, which were 
widely read and which will preserve his name and 
character when those who knew him and enjoyed his 
friendship have all passed on. 

For thirteen months the church had no pastor. 
But Dr. Holmes was here, still a father to his people. 
In October, 1834, a call was extended to Rev. Oliver 
E. Daggett, but this was declined. A call was ex- 
tended to Rev. John A. Albro, and this was accepted, 
and he was installed April 15, 1835. Mr. Albro was 
born in Newport, Rhode Island, August 13, 1799. He 
studied for the law and entered upon its practice at 
Mansfield, Connecticut, and there he united with 
the First Church. After spending about two years in 
the law, he entered the Theological Semiuary at 



Andover, to prepare for the ministry. He graduated 
in 1827, and was ordained at Middlesex Village, in 
Chelmsford, Massachusetts. There came a division 
there as there came here, and in many other places. 
After about two years there he became the minister 
of the Calvinistic Congregational Church in Fitch- 
burg, Massachusetts, where he was installed in 1832. 
Three years later he came to Cambridge, where he 
was to have a pastorate of thirty years. The popula- 
tion of the town was then about 6,000. The church 
was still small and its pecuniary ability limited. 
But the place was attractive and he was qualified to 
enjoy it and adorn it. His salary at first was $850 
and was to be increased $50 each year till it was 
$1000. He was to have a suitable dwelling-house at 
a rent not exceeding $200. If his salary for the 
second and third years did not cover his expenses he 
was to have a further grant, not exceeding $50 per 
year. Soon after his installation a parsonage was 
built on Holyuke Street, and in this he resided until 
his death. The original meeting-house contained 
sixty-six pews. In 1840 ten pews were added. In 
1844 the house was enlarged and twenty more pews 
were provided. In 1852 there was another enlarge- 
ment, making room for 130 pews on the Hoor. There 
was a small gallery at the south end of the house. At 
his installation the church had 101 members. In 1852 
there were 244 and in 1865 there were nearly 300. 

In 1848 Mr. Albro was made a Doctor of Divinity by 
Bowdoin College and in 1851 Harvard conferred the 
same honor upon him. In 1852 he visited Europe, 
through the liberality of his people. In 1860 the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of his installation was cele- 
brated by the church and society, when abundant 
witness was borne by his own people, and his neigh- 
bors, and by the college, to the esteem in which he 
was held for his learning and character and fidelity. 
His labors were not restricted to his parish. He 
served on the School Committee. He gave the address 
at the consecration of the Cambridge Cemetery. He 
was a manager in the Massachusetts Sabbath-Uchool 
Society, and always enlivened the meetings of the 
PublicatioD Committee " by his genial and keen 
criticisms, and made them instructive by his learn- 

He was the friend and advocate of the Puritan 
faith and order in the churches. He was conserva- 
tive in temper and had no fondness for innovation. 
His preaching was Scriptural and logical, and help- 
ful to his hearers. He could lead the songs of the 
church with his voice and direct them by his taste 
and skill. He excelled in conversation, and it was a 
rare enjoyment to listen to him as his spirit and wit 
illumined his words. He had for many years a class 
of college students with whom he read portions of 
the Greek Testament, which he expounded with the 
•wealth of his learning and his piety, hearingand ask- 
ing questions. " Many theologians refer to the 
principles of interpretation which he gave them* as 

laying the foundation of their interest and success in 
Biblical studies." 

On the 12th day of March, 1865, the congregation 
was surprised by a letter from the pastor in which be 
resigned his oflBce. He had contemplated taking 
this step at the close of thirty years of service, and 
the time was at hand. The resignation was accepted 
with deep emotion and many expressions of affection 
and gratitude. On the 15th of April, 1865, his pas- 
torate ended. But he remained in the parsonage and 
was in many ways still the minister of the people, 
preaching and serving in other offices of religion. 
He had no desire for another settlement, but he 
preached in neighboring churches. On the 16th of 
December, 1866, he preached for the last time. It 
was at West Roxbury. When near the close of his 
sermon a pallor overspread his face. He laid his 
hand on his heart, and then on his head. He finish- 
ed the service, resumed hi.s seat and became insensi- 
ble. He was removed to his temporary home at the 
house of a deacon of the church, where he regained 
consciousness, and with it his wonted calmness and 
peace. Quietly, patiently, in faith and hoi)e, he 
waited till the end came on the 20th. On .Monday 
his venerated form was brought to his old church and 
a few days later the last ministries of religion were 
performed in the darkened church. He was laid to 
rest in the Cambridge Cemetery, as he had desired, the 
first tenant of the lot belonging to the church — the 
Shepard lot. An appropriate stone marks his grave, 
a granite monument bears his name, with the names 
of all the ministers of the church who have finished 
their course. 

This long narrative has reached its closing serttences. 
In October, 1865, the minister of the South Church and 
Parish in Augusta, Me., was invited to become the 
minister of the First Church in Cambridge. The in- 
vitation was necessarily declined. It was renewed in 
December, 1866, and under changed conditions it was 
then accepted. Accordingly the Rev. Alexander 
McKenzie (Harvard 1859, Andover 1861, S.T.D. 
Amherst 1879) was installed January 24, 1867. In 
1872 a new church of stone was opened and dedicated 
on Garden Street, corner of Mason. The chapel on 
Mason Street was finished in the following year. 
The parsonage on Garden Street was built in 1872. 
Dr. McKenzie is still the minister of the First 
Church in Cambridge and the Shepard Congrega- 
tional Society. The Rev. Leonard S. Parker, A.M., 
is the assistant minister. 

It has been most convenient, and according to pre- 
cedent, to trace to its present estate the history of the 
church "in an ecclesiastical sense." The church, 
"as to all civil purposes," to borrow another phrase 
of the Supreme Court, is best known as the First 
Parish Church. The names are sufficiently distinct 
to prevent confusion. We have now to trace the 
course of the First Parish Church from the time of 
the separation— on the 12th of July, 1829. Abel 



Whitney was chosen deacon and Sylvanus Plympton 
clerk or scribe of the church. The Rev. William 
Newell was called to the pastoral office. Mr. Newell 
was born in Littleton, Mass., February 25, 1804. 
His school and college career was very brilliant- 
He entered the Boston Latin School in 1814, and 
graduated at Harvard College in 1824, the second 
scholar in his class. Dr. John Pierce wrote in his 
diary, " The IL oration of Newell, on early prejudices, 
was tinely written and delivered." His subject, as 
given by his son and biographer, was, " Duties of 
College Students as Men and as Citizens." In 1825 
he was appointed usher in the Latin School. The 
tendencies of his mind carried him towards the min- 
istry, and he entered the Harvard Divinity School, 
where he graduated in 1829. He wished to delay his 
settlement for a year at lesist, as his health was uncer- 
tain. But he was sought by the church in Cam- 
bridge, as we have seen, and he was here ordained 
May 19, 1830. His salary was $1000 for the first four 
years, and then $1200, in equal quarterly payments. 
" His active connection with the parish was severed 
March 31, 1868. But his heart never could be sep- 
arated from his people. In the long interval between 
his own retirement and the settling of a successor 
many parochial duties continued to fall to his share." 
" He came to Cambridge in delicate health, and 
found himself, without any accumulated stock of ex- 
perience or any store of addresses, obliged to con- 
tribute two sermons a week, and to conduct the min- 
isterial duties of a large parish — a parish, too, some- 
what formidable from its connection with the college 
and the number of retired ministers who had come to 
settle in the university town ; while, on the other 
hand, a section of his auditors stood on the level of 
plain, practical life. . . . He succeeded as well as it 
was possible to succeed in satisfying the natural 
claims of one class and the other." In 1832 the 
parish sold to the college the land on which its meet- 
ing-house stood, and the house now occupied by the 
parish church was erected. It wjis dedicated Decem- 
ber 12, 1833. The college had cerUiin reserved rights 
in the house, and the commencement exercises were 
held there until 1X73. When Mr. Xewell was settled 
there was a partial connection of Church and State, 
by which every townaman was required to pay his 
part toward the support of public worship. Changes 
ia the law were made in 1833 and 1835, and it was 
declared that no person " shall hereafter be made a 
member of any parish or rel'giuus society without his 
consent in writing." The whole matter was compli- 
cated and made more perplexing by the financial 
connection between the church and the college. 

Mr. Newell came to Cambridge in the year follow- 
ing the division of the church. A protest against his 
settlement as minister of the parish was presented to 
the ordaining council, but, like other protests, had no 
effect. " He met the storm of hostility by absolutely 
refusing to engage in religious controversy and by ig- 

noring enmity." When the twenty-fifth anniversary 
of Dr. Albro's settlement was celebrated, Dr. Newell 
wrote a letter, expressing his " respect for your able 
and faithful pastor, with whom, during the whole pe- 
riod of his ministry, my personal relations, notwith- 
standing our theological differences, have always 
been pleasant and friendly." He spoke of " the 
kindly feeling which I hope will always subsist, not 
only between your pastor and myself, but also be- 
tween the societies with which we are connected — 
branches as they are of the same old stock, descended 
from the same old Congregational family, looking 
back, amidst their honest differences of opinion, with 
common pride to a common ancestry." Dr. Albro 
expressed the comfort he had in knowing that he had 
lived in so much harmony with his " neighbors of 
different persuasions." 

Mr. Newell received the Doctorate of Divinity from 
Harvard College in 1853. We may quote again from 
his filial biographer : " His manners were as courteous, 
his heart as open and his attentions as constant to the 
poorest as to the richest member of his congrega- 
tion. ... As the years of his ministry passed on, and 
as age approached, his face seemed to grow constantly 
more radiant and benignant. Some have felt such a 
presence on the streets and in the marts of business 
as a benediction which seemed to leave behind a 
sweetening and consecrating influence." His suc- 
cessor said of him: "The most marked characteristic 
of his habit of mind was its complete and childlike 
simplicity, a sweet, gracious, unstudied naturalness, 
whose ways were so plain and straight that formal 
phrases could not fitly follow them." He said there 
was no need to recall the beauty of the life which for 
fifty years had been lived in this community by the 
faithful man and earnest minister. 

Dr. Newell's last illness was prolonged and painful, 
but was borne with wonderful patience and cheerl\il- 
ness and faith and hope. What seemed to others the 
valley of shadows was to him the valley of light. 

His release came on the 28th of October, 1831, " in 
the presence of those dearest to him. Conscious al- 
most to the end, his last characteristic farewell was 
thanks for the happiness which their love had con- 
ferred on his life." 

The Rev. Francis G. Peabody, Harvard 1869, be- 
came the next minister of this church, and was 
succeeded by the Rev. PMward H. Hall, Harvard 
1851. Under his charge the church has remained in 
continued prosi)erity. 

It has seemed best to trace the history of the First 
Church and Parish a.-i fully as the limits of this work 
will allow, inasmuch as it is, for the most part, a his- 
tory to which all the churches of Cambridge are re- 
lated. For the greater portion of the time this is the 
entire ecclesiastical history of the town. As we are 
now brought into times much nearer to our own, the 
historical sketches may well be briefer and in more gen- 
eral terras. The wiser plan appears to be to group the 



,- ! 

churches of each name and class, instead of present- 
ing them in chronological order. It is proposed, 
however, to make the order of the groups and the 
arrangement within each group chronological. In 
accordance with this principle we continue the ac- 
count of the Trinitarian Congregational Churches of 

In the preparation of these historical sketches con- 
stant use has been made of Dr. Paigne's invaluable 
" History of Cambridge." Other material has been 
furnished by different churches, and will be used, so 
far as practicable, in the form in which it was pre- 

It does not seem necessary in thi.s account of the 
churches of Cambridge to continue the history of the 
churches which have been at different times set ofl' 
from the First Church, and are now in other towns. 

Congregational Churches. — The First Churcli 
in Cambridge was organized February 1, Ifi.Sti. 

The First Evangelicttl Conijrfffntioiial Church in 
Catnbridgeporl was organized September 20, 1827. 
Towards the close of the year 1S2») the Rev. Dr. Beecher 
commenced a course of public weekly lectures at 
Cambridgeport. " It was instituted at the rfquest of a 
few individuals who had, for .some time previous, 
been connected with the Hanover Street Church in 
Boston, under the pastoral care of the Rev. Dr. 
Beecher. . . . They were kindly furnished by the 
Baptist Society, ander the pastoral care of the Rev. 
Bela Jacobs, with the use of their meeting-house for 
this purpose." This was at the time when theologi- 
cal controvery was agitating and dividing the 
churches. It was thought expedient to found a church 
in Cambridgeport which should maintain and teach 
the Trinitarian or " Evangelical " doctrines. Meet- 
ings were held at the house of Dr. J. P. Chaplin, on 
Austin Street, where the project was considered and 
plans were laid for carrying it into effect. There the 
council met to organize the church — on the same day 
on which the new meeting-house was dedicated. This 
house was on Norfolk Street, at the corner of 
ington Street. Evening meetings were usually held 
at Dr. Chaplin's house until September, 1841. A vestry 
was built after the meeting-house, probably iu 1834. 
The meeting-house was of wood and was several times 
enlarged. But it was found necessary to provide a more 
commodious place of worship, and a brick house was 
erected on Prospect Street, which is still used by the 
church. The old house was sold, and wa.s used for lec- 
tures and other purposes until it was burned, Novem- 
ber 7, 1854. The new house was dedicated June 30, 
1852. The cost of the house was :?23,184.01. The 
first pastor of the church was Rev. David Perry, from 
April 23, 1829, to October 13, 1830. • He was followed 
by Rev. William A. Stearns, from December 14, 1831, 
to December 14, 1854. This was much the longest 
pastorate which the church has enjoyed, and it was 
rich in its usefulness. The first meeting-house was 
twiceenlarged and the new house erected. Dr. Stearns 

was a man of learning and wisdom, of prudence and 
charity, and of a many-sided efficiency. The church was 
greatly strengthened during his ministry, and he had 
the esteem of the whole community for his goodness 
and dignity and ability. He resigned to accept the 
presidency of Amherst College, which he held for the 
rest of his life. Mr. Stearns was born in Bedford, 
JIassachuseets, March 17, 1805 ; graduated at Harvard 
College in 1827, and at the Andover Seminary in 1831. 
He died June 8, 1876. 

Dr. Stearns was followed by the Rev. Edward W. 
Gilman, (Yale, 1S43) who was pastor from Septem- 
ber 9, 1,S.J6, to October 22, l.'iSS. 

Rev. James O. Murray (Brown University, 18501 
was installed May 1, 18iil, and served until February 
ti, 1S65. He is now profe.-.sor in Princeton College, 
which made him Doctor of Divini,ty in 1867. 

Rev. Kinsley Twining (Yale, 1853) was installed 
September 12, 1867, and re-signed April 28, 1872, to 
become pastor of the Union Congregational Church 
in Providence, R. I. Rev. William S. Karr (Amherst, 
1851) was pastor from January 15. 1873, to November 
22, 1S75, when he became professor in Hartford Theo- 
logical Seminary. Rev. James S. Hoyt (Yale, 1851) 
was installed September 14, 1876. 

He was afterwards pastor of the (.'ongregational 
Church in Keokuk, lows, until his death, in 1890. 
Rev. David N. Beach ( Yule) was installed 1884, and 
is now pastor of the church. By the last report the 
church had 600 members. 

.Vs a part of the history of the church in Prospect 
Street, a place should here be given to its work at 
Stearns' Chapel. .V Union Sabbath-School was es- 
tablished in 1852, which after a few years passed into 
the control of the Congregational Church. In 1863 
a chapel was built on Harvard Street, to which the 
name of Stearns was given. Rev. Edward Abbott 
\ University of the ( 'ity of New York, 1860) took charge 
of this mission January 1, 1865. November 21, 1865, 
a church of fifty-one members was organized as the 
Stearns Chapel Congregational Church, and Mr. .\bbott 
installed as pastor. Mr. .Abbott retired in November, 
1869, after efficient service, «nd Rev. George R. Leavitt 
(Williams, 18611) was installe<l May 4, 1870. The 
chapel, which had been enlarged in 1867, became 
too small for the growing church which went out and 
became the Pilgrim Congregational Church. Ser- 
vices were continued in the chapel under the care of 
Rev. Edward Abbott, and another church, was formed 
October 16, 1872, as the Chapel Congregational 
Church, and Rev. John K. Browne (Harvard, 1869) 
was installed as its pastor. He retired September 16, 
1875, and was appointed a missionary of the Ameri- 
can Board at Harpoot, Eastern Turkey. Rev. Robert 
B. Hall (Williams, 1870) was installed December 29, 
1875, and after a promising beginning of his work was 
removed by death November 2, 1876. 

Rev. Marvin D. Bisbee became the acting pastor 
April 1, 1877, and on the 18th of April, 1878, he was 



installed as pastor. On account of impaired health 
he resigned his office and was formally dismissed July 
3, 1881. He is now librarian of Dartmouth College. 
September 4, 1S81, Rev. Thomas K. Bickford assumed 
the duties of acting pastor. March 2, 1883, the church 
was incorporated as the " Chapel Congregational 
Church in Cambridgeport." About the same time 
Mrs. Caroline A. Wood, the widow of Caleb Wood, 
and a member of the church in Prospect Street, made 
■A very large gift for the erection of a meeting-house, 
on condition that it should be called the Wood Me- 
morial Church, in memory of her husband. The gift 
was accepted and a commodious and attractive house 
was erected on the corner of Austin and Columbia 
Streets. It was dedicated April 30. 1884, and on the 
following day Mr. Bickford was installed as pastor. 
By act of the Legislature February 28, 1884, the name 
of the church was changed to " Wood Memorial 
Church in Cambridgeport."' 

Stearns' Chapel was again at the disposal of the 
church which had built it, and sustained in good mea- 
sure the services in it. Religious services, including 
preaching and a Sunday-school, were resumed, and 
Rev. Robert E. Ely, from the Union Theological Sem- 
inary, was placed in charge of the work which is under 
the supervision of the church in Prospect Street, by 
which the mission is chietly sustained. The atfairs of 
the mission are prospering, and it is thought that an- 
other Congregational Church will soon be formed in 
Stearns' Chapel. 

Serond Eraii-jelirn/ ('onifregadonol Churrh. — This 
church was organized ilarch 30, 1842, by persons who 
were generally "Zealous advocates of the immediate 
abolition of slavery.'' They erected a meeting-house 
at the corner of Austin and Temple Streets, and dedi- 
cated it January 3, 1844. The tirst minister. Rev. 
.losephC. Lovejoy (Bowdoin, 1829), was installed Janu- 
ary 2ti. 1843, and he continued in office until May 10. 
18.53. Rev. Charles Pjckard ( Bowdoin, 1842) was the 
minister from April 2ti, 18.')4. to March 21, 18.5.i. Rev. 
Charles Jones was the minister from May 25, 1855, to 
< ictober lij, IXo'. Rev. George E. .\llen (Brown 
University. 1^50) was installed May 20, 1S.58, and he 
resigned July 12. IStil. .Vfter a series of discourage- 
ments, by advice of a council, the church was dis- 
banded October 3, 18iJ'). .Many of the members 
uniied with the Pilgrim Church, furnishing more than 
:il200 to aid in building the church on Magazine 
Street. The meeting house, which was no longer 
needed by the society, was sold, and was burned Sep- 
tember tj, 18lj5. 

Thi' Emni/e/ica/ Churrh at EaM Cambridge was or- 
ganized September 8, 1842. In 1843 a meeting-house 
was erected at the northeasterly corner of Second and 
Thorndike Streets. The tirst pastor was Rev. Fred- 
erick T. Perkins (Yale, 1839), who was ordained Jan- 
uary 11, 1813, and resigned May 2li, 1851. He was 
followed by Rev. Joseph L. Bennett (Amherst, 1845), 
who was installed July 1, 1S.j2, and resigned Febru- 

ary 18, 1857. Rev. Richard G. Greene was pastor 1858- 
60; Rev. William W. Parker 1861-64; Rev. Nathan- 
iel Mighill (Amherst, 1860), 1864-67; Rev. Heman 
R. Timlow was acting pastor in 1867-70. Then Samuel 
Bell was installed November 1, 1870, and resigned 
May 29, 1872. Rev. D. W. Kilburn supplied the pul- 
pit afterwards. In 1876 the meeting-houae was pre- 
sented to the Day Street Church in West Somerville, 
and was taken down and removed for the use of 
that church, by which it is now occupitd. The East 
Cambridge Church had become greatly reduced in 
numbers by the removal of its members and the 
changes in the population around it, and it was there- 
fore disbanded. 

The North Avenue Congregational Church was or- 
ganized September 23,1857. It was at first ealied the 
Holmes Congregational Church, and was connected 
with the Holmes Congtegational Society, which was 
formed in North Cambridge in September, 1857. In 
1866 the name North Avenue was substituted for 
Holmes. .V chapel was built in 1857, and called the 
Holmes Chapel. In this worship was maintained 
until it was too small for the congregation, when it 
was sold to a new Methodist Society. The Holmes 
Society bought the meeting-house of the old Cam- 
bridge Baptist Church, and moved it bodily to the 
corner of North Avenue and Roseland Street. It was 
dedicated by its new owners September 29, 1867. It 
was afterwards enlarged to meet the wants of the 
growing congregation, and it is still the home of the 
church. The church at its formation had forty-three 
members, some of whom were from the First Church. 
Xt the last report there were 512 members. 

The tirst pastor was Rev. William Carruthers 
(Bowdoin, 1853), who was installed January 2, 1861, 
and dismissed February 21, 1866. Rev. David O. 
Mears (.A.mherst, 1865) was ordained and in.stalled 
October 2, 1867. .\fter a successful ministry he re- 
tired July 1, 1877, to become the pastor of the Pied- 
mont Church, in Worcester. Rev. Charles F. Thwing, 
(Harvard, 1876, Andover, 1879) was ordained and in- 
stalled September 25, 1879, and resigned October 29, 
1886, to become the pastor of Plymouth Church in 
Minneapolis. Rev. Walters .Alexander, D.D. (Yale, 
1858, Andover, 1861), waa installed October 28, 1886, 
and has remained the pastor of the church until his 
recent resignation of the office. 

PHijrim Con'iregationnl Church. — An account of the 
origin of this church has already been given. The 
fuller sketch which follows has been prepared by one 
of the officers of the church and is printed in full. 

In 1852 a mission Sabbath-school was established 
in the lower part of Cambridgeport, which was for 
some time carried on by the First and Second Con- 
gregational, the Methodist and the Baptist Churches, 
acting together. Within a few years, however, all 
these churches except the First Congregational relin- 
quished their connection with ihe work. In 1863 
the Stearns Chapel was built on Harvard Street, near 



Winsor, primarily for the accommodation of this 
school. The chapel was soon opened for religious 
meetingB on Sunday and Wednesday evenings, and 
preaching services were held on Sunday aflernoons 
with a good degree of regularity. The success of 
these efforts was such that the First Church was led 
to consider the question of organizing another 

In the autumn of 1864 Rev. Edward Abbott was 
invited to " take charge of the Stearns Chapel for 
one year." He began his work Sunday, January 1, 
1865, and on November 21st of the same year a 
church of fifty-one members was formed. It was 
called the Stearns Chapel Congregational Church, 
and Mr. Abbott was installled as its first pastor. Of the 
fitty-one members, eighteen came by letter from the 
First Congreg.ational Church, seventeeu from the 
Second Congregational Church (which disbanded at 
about this time), and four from churches outside of 
Cambridge; while twelve made their first public con- 
fession of faith. 

The growth of the church was rapid. In Decem- 
ber, 1867, it became necessary to enlarge the chapel. 
Mr. -Vbbott resigned the pastorate in November, 1869, 
and on the 4th of the following May Rev. George R. 
Leavitt was installed as his successor. It had now 
become evident that the church ought to leave the 
mission chapel, and build a larger meeting-house. 
A majority of the attendants at the Stearns Chapel 
lived on the southerly side of Main Street, in a part 
of the city where there was no Congregational 
Church. It was consequently decided to build in 
that section, and a lot was bought at the corner of 
Magazine and Cottage Streets, in April, 1870. The 
corner-stone of the new house was laid May 13, 1871, 
and the building was dedicated January 4, 1872. 
The cost of the lot and the building was nearly forty 
thousand dollars. 

Early in 1871 the name of the organization was 
changed to The Pilgrim Congregational Church, and 
a petition was laid before the Legislature for a special 
act of incorporation, giving the church the right to 
hold property and do all its own business, without a 
parish or society. At that time such a form of 
church life was almost unknown, and was impossible 
without special legislative enactment. The petition 
was granted, however, and The Pilgrim Church be- 
came a legal corporation. February 22, 1885, Mr. 
Leavitt tendered his resignation, in consequence of a 
call to Cleveland, Ohio, and on the 10th of March he 
was formally dismissed by an ecclesiastical council. 
Soon afterward a call was extended to Rev. George 
A. Tewksbury, of Plymouth, Mass., and on the 7th 
of May he was installed as the third pastor of Pil- 
grim Church. He held this office about four years, 
and was dismissed March 5, 1889. Rev. Charles 
Olmstead, formerly of Oswego Falls, N. Y., suc- 
ceeded Mr. Tewksbury, being installed July 9, 1889. 

At the outset the church adopted the plan of free 

sittings and voluntary offerings. None of the pews 
are assigned to individuals or families, but all are 
strictly free. The expenses of the church are met 
entirely by the free-will ofierings of the people, which 
are gathered by passing boxes throughout the house 
at each Sunday preaching service. The old custom 
of having two sermons every Sunday, forenoon and 
afternoon, has never been .abandoned. 

The church has received a total of over eleven 
hundred members, and its present membership is 
about six hundred and fifty. 

Wood Memorial Church. — An account of the forma- 
tion of this church has been given. It moved from 
Stearns' Chapel to its new house in 1884. Mr. Bick- 
ford retired from the pastorate May 26, 1887, after a 
ministry which had been of signal advantage to the 
church. Rev. Isaiah W. Sneath became the acting 
pastor September 1, 1887, and was finally installed as 
pastor June 20, 1888. The church had in February, 
1890, a membership of 195, with a Sunday-school of 
395 members. 

Unitarian Churches. — The First Parish Churrk 
was organized February 1, 1636. The account of this 
church has already been given. 

Cambridf/eport Parish. — An account has already 
been given of the organization of this parish. The 
meeting-bouse corporation was formed in 1805, the 
meeting-house dedicated January 1, 1807, the parish 
organized in 1808, and the church formed July 14, 
1809. The first minister. Rev. Thomas Brattle Gan- 
nett, was ordained January 19, 1814, and was the .pas- 
tor till 1834. He died in 1851, at the age of sixty- 

The second pastor was the Rev. Artemas B. Muzzey 
(Harvard, 1824), who was installed January 1, 1834, 
and continued in the office until 1846. Mr. Muzzey is 
still living in Cambridge. He has been especially in- 
terested in historical studies, and as a native of Lex- 
ington has appropriately published a book of 
" Reminiscences and Memorials of Men of the Revolu- 
tion, and their Families." The third minister was 
the Rev. John F. \V. Ware (Harvard 1838), who was 
installed November 29, 1846, and retired April 1, 1864. 
He resigned to take charge of a society in Baltimore, 
and afterwards was the minister of the Arlington St. 
Church, in Boston, until his death, in 1881. 

Rev. Henry C. Badger was installed January 15, 
1865, and he resigned on .account of ill health Octo- 
ber 1, 1865. He is now connected with the Cartographi- 
cal Department of the library of Harvard College. 

The Rev. George W. Briggs, D.D., was installed 
April 3, 1867, and is still pastor of the church. He 
graduated at Brown University in 1825 and at the 
Harvard Divinity School in 1834. He received his 
Doctorate of Divinity from Harvard in 1855. The 
Rev. John Tunis, a graduate of the Harvard Divinity 
School in 1882, was installed as colleague pastor April 
11, 1889. 
During Mr. Ware's ministry the society increased 



largely, and in 1854 the church was remodeled and 
new pews took the place of the old ones. After Dr. 
Briggs' accession to the pastorate of the church the 
society was so much enlarged that in 1872 it was 
found necessary again to remodel the church and to 
increase the number of pews. A new vestry was fit- 
ted up in the basement. The first meeting-house was 
of brick, and stood on the west side of the square 
bounded by Broadway and Harvard, Columbia and 
Boardman Streets. This house was so much injured 
by the wind in 1833 that it was abandoned, and the 
new house was erected on Austin Street. This is now 
the home of the church, — the place of worship, and 
the centre of its religious and philanthropic activities. 
A Sunday-school was established by the society in 

The Third Congregational Society was incorporated 
June 16, 1827, and in that year it erected a brick 
meeting-house at the corner of Thorndike and Third 
Streets, East Cambridge. The church was organized 
March 3, 1828. The first pastor was Rev. Warren 
Burton (Harvard, 1821). He was installed March 5, 
1S28 and resigned in 1829, and the Rev. James D. 
Green (Harvard, 1817) was installed January 6, 1830. 
He resigned in 1840 and afterward filled various civil 
otfices.. He was the first mayor of Cambridge. His 
successors were Rev. Messrs. Henry Lambert, George 
G. Ingersoll, Frederick W. Holland, Frederick N. 
Kiiapp, William T. Clarke, Henry C. Badger, Rufus 
P. Stebbins, Stephen G. Bulfinch and Samuel W. 
McDaniel. The latter resigned in 1874. The changes 
in that part of Cambridge made it impracticable to 
continue the services in the church. In 1887 the 
Cambridgeport Parish and Church in Austin Street 
received the fund of the society and became responsi- 
ble for its custody and use. In connection with this 
arrangement the society in Austin Street, by an act of 
the Legislature, took the name of the Third Congrega- 
tional Society in Cambridge. The house in East 
Cambridge was sold in 188(3, with the organ and bell, 
and has since been used by the Church of the Ascen^ 
sion (Episcopal). 

T/te Lee litreet Society was organized in 1846. Most 
of the original members, with the first pastor, had 
been connected with the Cambridgeport Parish. The 
church was organized April 9, 1847. The first meet- 
ing-house was built on Lee Street and dedicated 
Jlirch 25, 1847, and burned Jlay 20, 1855. Another 
house was erected on the same lot and dedicated 
January 23, 1850. 

Rev. Artemas B. Muzzey was the pastor from Sep- 
tember 7, 1846, till February 20, 1S54, when he re- 
signed. He was followed by Rev. Henry R. Harring- 
ton (Harvard. 1834). from February 11, 1855, to April 
1, 1865. He was followed by Rev. Abram W. Stevens^ 
who was installed November 26, 1865 and retired 
November 1, 1870. Rev. John P. Bland, of the 
Harvard Divinity School (1871), was ordained Sep- 
tember 0, 1871. But the Lee Street Society had become 

reduced in strength by the death or removal of 
most of its original members, and it was at length 
thought best to accept a cordial invitation to re- 
turn to the church and society in Austin Street. 
"The result was accomplished satisfactorily to all 
concerned and the union waa consummated without a 
dissenting voice." 

The church on Lee Street was bought by the city, 
and is now temporarily used by the Latin School. 

The Allen Street Congregational Society {Unitarian) 
was organized October 8, 1851, in North Cambridge. 
Several of the members resided over the line, in 
Somerville. A meeting-house was built at the comer 
of Allen and Orchard Streets, on land given for that 
purpose by Mr. Walter M. Allen. The house was 
finished in February, 1853, and was destroyed by fire 
March 19, 1865. Another house, erected on the same 
site, was completed in December, 1865, and was after- 
wards enlarged. In 1869 it was found expedient for 
the society to unite with the Universalist denomina- 
tion, and its latest history will be found in connection 
with the Universalist Churches. 

University Church. — An account has already been 
given of the organization of a church in connection 
with Harvard College in 1814. That was nearly 
fifteen years before the separation of the First Church 
from the parish, and the new church was formed with 
the approval and assistance of the old church and its 
minister. But the new church became allied with 
the Unitarian movement and its ministers were from 
that branch of the church. Services were held in the 
new College Chapel in University Hall and the pres- 
ident with the Faculty of the Theological School, 
officiate. In 1858 Appleton Chapel was completed, 
and the services of the College Church have since been 
held there. The pastors and preachers, in addition to 
President Kirkland, have been Rev. Henry Ware, 
D.D. (Harvard, 1785), from 1814 to 1840 ; Rev. Henry 
Ware, D.D., Jr. (Harvard, 1812), from 1840 to 1842; 
Rev. Convers Francis, D.D. (Harvard, 1815), from 1842 
to 1855 ; Rev. Frederic D. Huntington, D.D. (Amherst, 
1842), from 1855 to 1860; Rev. Andrew P. Peabody, 
D.D. (Harvard, 1826), from 1860 to 1881. Since that 
time the services of the University Church have been 
discontinued. After Dr. Peabody's resignation the 
chapel pulpit was supplied by different ministers who 
were invited by the college authorities. In 1886 Rev. 
Francis G. Peabody (Harvard, 1869), was appointed 
Plummer Professor of Christian Morals, and a board 
of five preachers was appointed to administer with 
him the religious affairs of the college. The five 
preachers were Rev. Edward Everett Hale, D.D., 
Rev. Phillips Brooks, D.D., Rev. Alexander McKen- 
zie, D.D., Rev. Richard Montague, Rev. George A. 
Gordon. The preachers are appointed annually. 
Rev. Theodore C. Williams, Rev. William Lawrence, 
Rev. Lyman Abbott, D.D., Rev. Brooke Herford, 
D.D., and Rev. Henry Van Dyke, D.D., have been 
added to the board, from which some of the original 



members have retired. The Plummer professor and 
the preachers couduct the service of morniog prayer, 
and a Sunday evening service in which they are 
assisted by other clergymen. 

Peotestant Episcopal Churches. — Christ 
Church. — The introduction of the Episcopal Church 
into Cambridge has been mentioned already in its 
chronological place. A fuller account can be given 
here, compiled, for the most part, from the narrative 
written by Rev. Dr. Hoppin for the "History of the 
American Episcopal Church." " Several worthy gen- 
tlemen of the town of Cambridge," members of the 
Church of England, petitioned the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Paris to grant 
them a missionary who thould officiate for them and 
for others in neighboring towns, and for such college 
students as were in the English Church. They named 
the Rev. East Apthorp, a Fellow of Jesus College, 
Cambridge, England, as a suitable man for this ser- 
vice. Mr. Apthorp was appointed in 1759. Arrange- 
ments were made for building a church. The original 
subscription for this purpose is dated at Boston, April 
25, 1759. The building committee was composed of 
well-kuown men: Henry Vassal, Joseph Lee, John 
Vassal, Ralph Liman, Thomas Oliver, David Phips. 
They employed "a masterly architect," Mr. Peter 
Harrison, of Newport, R. I." "Christ Church, built 
from his designs, at a cost, not including the land, of 
about £1300 sterling, seems to have been always re- 
garded as an edifice of superior elt-gance." Mr. Ap- 
thorp spoke of it as "adding to the few specimens 
we have of excellence in the fine arts." Archdeacon 
Bamaby, in his " Travels," published in 1760, says of 
the house and the minister, "The building is elegant, 
and the minister of it, the Rev. Mr. Apthorp, is a very 
amiable young man of shining parts, good learning, 
and pure and engaging manners." The establishment 
of the Church of England ia this colony was met 
with resistance. Mr. Apthorp, published in 1763, 
" Considerations on the Institution and Conduct of 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel." The 
Rev. Jonathan Mayhew replied, the Archbishop of 
Canterbury replied to him, and Dr. Mayhew and Mr. 
Apthorp continued the conlroveisy. Upon his seule- 
ment here, Mr. Apthorp " built a spacious and costly 
mansion, the unwonted splendor of which caused many 
remarks." Dr. Mayhew wrote : "Since the mission 
was established in Cambridge, and a very sumptuous 
dwelling house (for this country) erected there, that 
town hath been often talked of by Episcopalians, cs 
well as others, as the proposed place of residence for 
a bishop." Dr. Hoppin wiites: "No doubt Mr. Ap- 
thorp's situation in Cambridge was rendered uncom- 
fortable by this controversy, and he the more readily 
embraced theopportuuity of preferment in England." 
He received in 1765 an appointment from Archbishop 
Seeker, and returned to England, where " he died at 
the advanced age of eighty-four, and was buried with 
great honor in the chapel of Jesus College, Cam- 

bridge." His death occurred on the 16th of April, 

The church was erected on Garden Street, on land 
adjoining the old burying-ground. " A piece cf land 
one hundred feet square was bought of Mr. James 
Reed for £16 2s. Ud., iawlul money." "This, with 
the same quantity bought of the Proprietors of the 
common and undivided lands of the Town of Cam- 
bridge and taken in from the commons, foimed the 
church lot. The price paid to the Proprietor was £13 
6s. id., lawful money, the church also paying for the 
removal of the Pounds." The church was opened 
for divine service October 15, 1761. After Mr. Ap- 
thorp's retirement the Rev. Mr. Griffith officiattd 
from December, 1764, to May, 1765. In June, 1707, 
the Rev. Winwoud Serjeant became the missionary 
for the church, and he remained in this office until 
the breaking out of the War of the Revolution. Dr. 
Caner writes to the society, June 2, 1775: "Mr. Ser- 
jeant of Cambridge, l\as been obliged, with his family, 
to tly for the safety of their lives, nor can I learn 
where he is concealed. His fine church is turned 
into barracks by the rebels, and a beautiful organ 
that was in it broke to pieces." Another writes in 
1778: " Mr. Serjeant's parish at Cambridge is wholly 
broken up. The elegant houses of these gentlemen 
who once belonged to it are now occupied by the 
rebels." Mr. Serjeant ditd at Bath, England, Sep- 
tember 20, 1780. 

While the American Army was in Cambridge it is 
probable that service was occasionally performed in 
the church. There is a record of a service held on 
Sunday, the ia»t day of 1775, " at the request of Mrs. 
Washington. There were present the General and 
lady, Mrs. Gates, Mr. Custisand a number of othert." 
But the house " was left for manv years in a melan- 
choly and desecrated condition, the doors shattered 
and all the windows broken out, exposed to rain 
and storms, and every sort of depredation ; its 
beauty gone, its sanctuary defiled, the wind howling 
through its deserted aisles and about its stained and 
decaying walls ; the whole building being a disgrace 
instead of an ornament to the town." No effort ap- 
pears to have been made for the renewal of divine 
worship till the beginning of the year 1790. The 
edifice was then repaired, and on the 14th of July 
was reopened for service, and Rev. Dr. Parker, rector 
of Trinity Church, Boston, preached from Ephesians 
ii. 19-22. " The Rev. Joseph Warren had been ' put 
into Deacon's orders ' by Bishop Seabury, for Christ 
Church, and officiated till Easter, 1791. The 
Rev. Dr. Walter and the Rev. William Montague, 
as assistant, then served conjointly for a time. 
Readers were employed, among them Theodore 
Debar, afterward Bishop of South Carolina, and Jon- 
athan Mayhew Wainwright, afterward Provisional 
Bishop of New York." In 1826 the building was re- 
paired and reopened July 30, 1826, " a sermon 
being preached by the Rev. George Otis, A. M., one 



of the faculty of Harvard College. Of those who have 
in later days served this ancient parish as rectors, two 
are now bishops of the church, the Right Rev. Drs. 
Vail and il. A. De Wolfe Howe. Of those who have 
temporarily .served in this congregation, the Rev. Dr. 
John W^illiams is now Bishop of Connecticut, and the 
Rev. Horatio Southgate was the Missionary Bi.-ihop 
in Turkey." Mr. Otis was chosen rector, and declined 
the office on account of his college engagements, but 
" he continued to otBciate for the church, and was vir- 
tually its minister, till his lamented and untimely 
deatli, at the age of thirty-two, February 25, 1828." 
Rev. Thomas W. Coit, D.D., was rector from Easter, 
1829, to Easter, 1835; Dr. Howe for a few months in 
1836 and 1837; Dr. Vail from Easter, 1837, to Easter, 
1839. The Rev. Nicholas Hoppin became the rector 
in November, 1839. He was a graduate of Brown 
University in 1831. The congregation increased 
under his rectorship, and in 1857 the church edifice 
was enlarged by an addition of twenty-three feet to its 
length. Changes were also made in the interior. A 
chime of thirteen bells was procured by subscription 
:i:id placed in the belfry of the church, where they 
were rung for the first time on Easter morning, 1860. 
After a succe>sful ministry of thirty-four years, much 
the longest which the church has known. Dr. Hoppin 
resigned, April 20, 1S74. He continued to reside in 
Cambridge, where he was held in great respect. 

The next rector of Christ Church was the Rev. 
William Cliauricy Langdon, D.D., who, after a few 
years of faithful service, resigned the parish, and was 
succeeded by the present rector, Rev. James F.Spald- 
ing, D. D. 

St. I'cli-r'i C/iurrh,^ JIain Street, Carabridgeport. — 
This parish was organized (October 27, 1842. A lot of 
land on Magazine Street, near Perry, was given as a 
site for the church, but this location being considered 
entirely out of town, it w;is exchanged for a lot on 
Prospect Street, near the corntr of Harvard, on 
which a church was at once built. The parish was 
admitted into union with the Diocese at the annual 
meeting of the convention in 1843. 

The movement for a new church building began in 
1S64, and the loundation of ihe present church, cor- 
ner of Main and Vernon Streets, was laid in that 
year. The work proceeded slowly ; in September, 
1806, worship wa^ begun in the Sunday-school room, 
and the church was opened for service on the Sunday 
after Christmas, 1S67 ; but owing to the fact that it 
was not fully paid for, its consecration could not take 
place until Octoberl', 1673, when that ceremony 'was 
performed by Right Rev. B. H. Paddock, ;t being his 
first public otficial act after his consecration as 
Bishop of the Diocese. 

In the forty-seven years of its history the parish 
has been in charge of nine ditferent clergymen. 
Rev. Edward M. Cfushee (Brown University, 1S.38) 

1 CoutuiuuicatcJ. 

was rector from Easter, 1875 ; but at the present time 
(February, 1890) the rectorship is vacant. 

St. Philip's C/mrch, - Whton Street. — This church 
was built by Rev. Edward M, Gushee while he was rec- 
tor of St. Peter's Church, chiefly at his own expense. 
The formal benediction of the foundation took place 
on Sunday, November 28, 1886, and the church was 
opened for service on Sunday, June 12, 1887. Mr. 
Gushee continued to serve both churches until Eas- 
ter, 1888, when he resigned the rectorship of St. 
Peter's and devoted himself entirely to St. Philip's, 
of which he still remains in charge. In the summer 
of 1888 the church was enlarged by lengthening 
both chancel and nave and the addition of a tran- 
sept. The congiegation is not represented in the 
meetings of the Diocesan Convention, not havicg 
been admitted into union with the Diocese. 

T/ie Church of the Ascension, ' East Cambridge, and 
61!. Bartholomew's, Cambridgeport, are canonically 
called " Missions," having no parochial organization 
and no representation in the Diocesan Convention, 
but they are not dependent on any parish. 

St. Bartholomew's has been in existence about two 
years and is now under the care of Rev. David G, 
Haskins, D,D. 

The first service for the Mission of the Ascension 
was held on Whit-Sunday, 1875, by Rev, Wm, War- 
land in the present church, which was then owned by 
the Third Congregational Society, 

In May, 1886, the building, with the organ and bell, 
was bought for the Church of the Ascension. There 
is no clergyman in regular charge at the present time. 

St. James' Parish,' Cambridge. — The circumstances 
It-ading to the organization of this parish are of more 
than ordinary interest, as its growth has been one of 
the noticeable features of the religious life of the city. 
In 1860 the Rev. Frederic D. Huntington, D.D„ 
Plummer Professor of Christian Morals in Harvard 
University, and previously a Unitarian, had been 
ordained to the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, Four years later he resigned his otBce in the 
university. His organization and rectorship of Em- 
manuel Church, Boston, followed this step. Another 
result was the organization of the " Church Union," 
a fervent society of young churchmen of Boston and 
vicinity, dedicated to aggressive effort in the line of 
church extension. Living at this juncture in Cam- 
bridge, and connected with the mother parish of 
Christ Church, was the Rev. Andrew Croswell, a 
retired Episcopal clergyman in impaired health. 
Stimulated by the zeal and activity around him, he 
looked about for a suitable place at which himself to 
try a mission work, and pitched upon North Cam- 
bridge, then an almost outlying and detached precinct 
of the city, beginning a mile or more above the col- 
lege buildings at Harvard Square. There he hired a 
hall, and, with the co-operation of Samuel Batchelder 

- LuuiluiiijijatciJ. 




and George Dexter, two devoted laymen, honored 
Cambridge names, the first service was held on the 
evening of Christmas Day, 186-4, the rector of 
Emmanuel Church, Boston, now Bishop of Central 
New York, preaching the sermon. The hall was 
Atwill's, on the corner of North Avenue and Eussell 
Street. Here the mission continued under Mr. Cros- 
well's ministry until its growth led to its rem oval to 
the abandoned bank buildiug on the avenue near 
Porter's Station, which was fitted up for a chapel and 
occupied as such until 1871. Meantime a parish of 
the Episcopal Chorch had been organized under the 
legal title of the Free Church of St. James, on the 
18th of June, 1866, with the Rev. Andrew Croswell as 
rector, which position he filled till the building 
of the little church on Beech Street, the gift of a 
Cambridge lady deeply interested in the mission, 
and erected on land secured by Mr. Croswell with the 
aid of other friends. The corner-atone of thfs church 
was laid June 30, 1871, and the building was conse- 
crated December 21st following. Mr. Croswell's 
health obliging him about this time to retire from 
the rectorship, he was succeeded by the Rev. W. H. 
Fultz, and he in turn, in 1873, by the Rev. T. S. 
Tyng, a grandson of the Rev. Dr. Stephen H. Tyng, 
of New York. Fresh from the Episcopal Theologi- 
cal School in Cambridge, Mr. Tyng brought to this 
his first rectorship great ardor and indefatigable 
industry, and during the five years of his ministry 
the parish, though still small and feeble and strug- 
gling, made steady gains. The planting of St. 
John's Church, Arlington and the building of St. 
James' Chapel, West Somerville, were part of the 
visible fruits of Mr. Tyng's energetic work. In 1878 
Mr. Tyng resigned, having offered himself as a mis- 
sionary to Japan, and was succeeded by the Rev. 
Edward Abbott, formerly a Congregationaliat min- 
ister, and a resident of Cambridge since 1865 
(founder and first pastor of what is now the Pilgrim 
Congregational Church), who had lately been con- 
firmed in the Episcopal Church, and was about be- 
coming a candidate for its ministry. Mr. Abbott vir- 
tually took charge of the parish in September, 1878, 
and is now (1890) still its rector. The growth of the 
parish in the past twelve years has been vigorous and 
marked. The purchase of land in the rear of the 
Beech Street Church and the erection thereon of a 
Parish House, and later the purchase of the sightly 
and historic Davenport estate, on the corner of the 
avenue and Beech Street, and the completion thereon, 
in 1889, of a large, new and beautiful stone church, 
are the two most notable outward signs of their pro- 
gress. Of this church Bishop Huntington laid the 
corner-stone in August, 1888. The new St. James' 
Church is considerably the largest Episcopal Church 
in the city, and Ln many respects one of the most im- 
pressive and attractive of all its religious edifices, 
having a capacity of nearly, if not quite, 800 per- 
sons, and posseiising one of the most spacious and 

beautiful chancels in the State. This feature of the 
building is a memorial to the late James Greenleaf, 
of Cambridge, with whom the late Rev. Andrew 
Croswell, first rector of the parish, was connected by 
marriage. Through all these years the parish has 
been deeply interested and earnestly active in all 
good works, especially in behalf of missions at home 
and abroad, and has been a liberal giver according to 
its means. A flourishing Sunday-school, a numerous 
Ladies' Missionary Society, a Men's Benefit Society, 
a Young Men's Guild, a Young People's Missionary 
Society and a temperance society are among its ftctiv- 
ities. Its present number of communicants is about 

The Episcopal Theological School. — 'This institu- 
tion was incorporated in 1867. It had long been felt 
that a tbeological seminary was needed to provide a 
ministry for the church in New England, and espe- 
cially when Cambridge offered so excellent an oppor- 
tunity to reciuit and prepare candidates." "Several 
attempts to establish the seminary had been made, 
but had not been successful. The Rev. J. H. Hop- 
kins, later Bishop of Vermont, for nearly two years 
taught several young men in a house which he occu- 
pied in Cambridge. But as he was elected to the 
episcopate, and expectations in regard to finances were 
not realized, the matter was given up." 

But in 1S67 Benjamin T. Reed, of Boston, revived 
the scheme aud conveyed to trustees selected by him- 
self, the sura of 6100,000, " accompanied by an inven- 
ture of conditions." The title of the property is in 
the bands of five lay trustees who fill their own vacan- 
cies. -There is also a Board of Visitors consisting of 
the bishop of the Diocese, with three clergymen and 
three laymen. la regard to the instruction; "The 
aim has been to be independent of all schools of 
thought or parties, and to make the teaching as com- 
prehensive as the church itself, and as impartial to- 
wards all loyal members thereof." 

In 1869, Mr. R. M. Mason built St. John's Memo- 
rial Chapel " for the free accommodation of officers 
and students of the school and of Harvard College, 
and of the public on such terms as the trustees may 
fix." In 1873 Mr. Amos A. Lawrence built a dormi- 
tory, which was completed in 1880. In 1874 Mr. 
Reed gave the library and class-room building, and at 
his death, soon after, bequeathed to the seminary the 
reversion of his estate. In 1875 Mr. John A. Burn- 
ham built the refectory. There have been other gifts 
of money and land. " The actual donations have 
amounted to §426,500." The " property actually on 
hand is worth S381,500." "The ultimate reversion 
of the estate of the founder will render the endow- 
ment of the school one of the largest in America." 
The buildings make a very attractive group on Brat- 
tle Street, and the affairs of the school are in a flour- 
ishing condition. The Rev. John S. Stone, D.D., was 
dean of the school until 1876, when he retired. The 
Rev. George Zabriskie Gray, D.D., was then chosen 



dean, and filled the office with great usefulness and 
acceptance until his death in 1889. The Rev. Wil- 
liam Lawrence (Harvard, 1871) is now the dean of the 

The course of study covers three years, with pro- 
vision for post-graduate studies. The catalogue of 
the school for 1889-90 gave 43 students. About 200 
students have been connected with the school. 

Baptist Churches. — Tke First BaptUt Church} 
— The First Baptist Church wa3 organized " at the 
house of Mr. Samuel Hancock," in Cambridgeport, 
Dec. 17, 1817, seventeen males and twenty-nine fe- 
males then subscribing to the " Articles of Faith and 
a Covenant." Measures had been taken already to 
erect a house of worship. February 10, 1818, Wil- 
liam Brown and Levi Farwell were chosen deacons, 
both of whom acted in that capacity for twenty-six 
years. February 25, 1818, the church was publicly 
recognized in its own house of worship, situated on 
the corner of Magazine and River Streets. The house 
was built of wood and was three times enlarged to 
meet the wants of the increasing congregation. It 
was burned January 22, 1866. December 25, 1867, on 
the 50th anniversary of the organization of the 
church, a new and elegant structure of brick, cost- 
ing §90,000, was dedicated. This house was also 
burned to the ground February 3, 1881, but a new and 
still finer building was erected and dedicated, free of 
debt, October 15, 1882. 

The first pastor of the church was Bela Jacobs, for- 
merly of Pawtuxet, R. I., who filled the oflSce from 
1818 to 1833. The time of his ministry was one of 
great prosperity, and though the church was, during 
this period, the mother of three other churches, she 
was compelled to enlarge her own facilities to accom- 
modate the increasing congregation. A .short aud 
uneventful pastorate of two years succeeded, during 
which Stephen Lovell, of New Bedford, was the in- 
cumbent of the office. This was followed by the call 
of Joseph W. Parker, a student in Newton Theolog- 
ical Institution, who was ordained and installed as 
pastor Dec. 11, 1836. This pastorate continued seven- 
teen years, and was one of great prosperity to the 
church. The congregation greatly increased, though 
eightv-three members of the church with their fami- 
lies were dismissed to form the Old Cambridge Bap- 
tist Church. March 25, 1855, Sumner R. Mason, of 
Lockport, N. \., was installed, whose labors were 
greatly blessed through sixteen years. August 26, 
1871, Dr. Mason was killed in the terrible railroad 
disaster at Revere. During this period the Broad- 
way Baptist Church went forth from the First Church 
Jan. 1, 1873, H. K. Pervear, of Worcester, became 
pastor and continued in the office for seven years. 
Large additions were made to the church, the net in- 
crease being from 423 to 538. Sept. 1. 1879, W. T. 
Chase, of Lewiston, Me., entered upon the duties of 


the pastorate and remained with the church until 
1884, the church numbering at the close of his pastor- 
ate 656. He was followed by the present incumbent, 
James McWhinnie, of Portland, Me., May 18, 1884. 

The "Inman Square Mlision" is tinder the care of 
this church. In 1887 a commodious chapel was pro- 
vided for the use of the mission. A flourishing Sun- 
day-school and regular Sunday and weekly services 
are held there. Among the deacons of the church 
Josiah W. Cook has held the office for forty-six years. 
Deacon Joseph A. Holmes has been clerk of the 
church for more than forty-five years. 

The Second Baptist Church.— la 1824 a Sabbath- 
school was established in East Cambridge by members 
of Baptist Churches in Boston, who subsequently sus- 
tained preaching on one evening of the week in a 
room of the Putnam School-house. In 1827 a meet- 
ing-house was built on Cambridge Street, at the 
corner of Fourth. This house was burned April 14, 
1837. A house of brick was erected on the same site, 
and dedicated January 11, 1838. A church was or- 
ganized September 3, 1827. The first pastor was 
Rev. John E. Weston, who was ordained October 10, 
I 1827, and resigned April 4, 1831. His successor waa 
j Rev. Jonathan Aldrich, (Brown, 1826), from June 3, 
' 1833, to June 19, 1835. Rev. Bela Jacobs was in- 
I stalled August 23, 1835, and served until May 22, 
1836, when his sudden death ended his vuseful and 
honored life. His successors have been Rev. Nathan- 
iel Hervey, 1836 to 1839; Rev. William Leverett, 
1840 to 1849; Rev. Amos F. Spalding, 1852 to 1856; 
Rev. Hiram K. Pervear, 1858 to 1865 ; Rev. Frank 
R. Morse, 1865 to 1867 ; Rev. George H. Miner, 1868 
to 1872; Rev. Hugh C. Townley, 1873 to 1875; Rev. 
George W. Holman, Rev. H. R. Greene, Rev. N. M. 
Weeks and Rev. Burton Crankshaw, who is now the 
pastor. Mr. Crankshaw came to this country from 
England in 1872. He graduated at the Newton 
Theological Seminary in 1889. Under his ministry 
the church is pursuing its work with renewed energy 
and hope. 

The Old Cambridge Baptist Church^ was organized 
August 20, 1844, with a membership of nearly ninety 
persons, almost all of whom had formerly belonged 
to the First Baptist Church in Cambridgeport. Its 
first house of worship was on land bought from Har- 
vard College, at the corner of Kirkland Street and 
Holmes Place. Services of dedication and of recog- 
nition of the church and installation of the first pas- 
tor. Rev. E. G. Robinson, D.D., LL.D., in after-years 
president of Brown University, were held October 23, 
1845. Just twenty-one years later, October 23, 1866, 
the building was sold, and after removal to the corner 
of North Avenue and Roseland Street, where it now 
stands, became the church-house of the North Avenue 
Congregational Society. The land waa resold to Har- 
vard College, and what waa perhaps the most desirable 

2 Communicated. 



place in Cambridge for a church, had not its limits 
then been so small, became by enlargement a fine 
site for the attractive Hemenway Gymnasium of the 
University. With the proceeds of the sale of house 
and land, and with what Dr. Paige, in his "Historj- of 
Cambridge," calls "contributions on a magnificent 
scale," provision was made for the present place of 
worship, between Harvard and Main Streets, near 
Qiiincy Square, the dedication of which took place 
September 29, 1870. 

lu the Civil War the church had its doers of patri- 
otic service at home and its martyrs in the field. 

The most striking recent event in thi.s summary of 
the church's external history was the fire on Sunday, 
January 20, 1889, by which the interior of the chape] 
was destroyed and the main building damaged. After 
an interval of nine months, during which the hospi- 
talities of the Uciversity and of the First Parish were 
enjoyed (those of the Shepard Congregational .So(.;iety 
being proffered with equal kindness), the house was 
reopened October 27, 1889. 

At the date of writing, February, 1890, the church 
has been without a minister for nearly a year and a 
half, the pastorate of the Itev. Franklin Johnson, 
D.D., which began with the year 1884, having termi- 
nated in September, 1888. The church at present 
numbers some 450 members. 

With its history of only forty-five years it seems al- 
most a new-comer among the venerable institutions 
of this ancient home of piety and learning ; yet the 
communion to which it belongs had here a notable 
representative of its genius and teudencies at a very 
early period of the history of Cambridge, in the per- 
son of the first president of the college, whom it re- 
gards with just fondness as a spiritual ancestor. 

The pastors of this church have been Rev. Ezekiel G. 
Robinson, D.D. (Brown University, 1838), from Octo- 
ber 23, 1845, to September 13, 1846. 

Rev. Benjamin L. Lane, from December 30, 1846, 
to March 8, 1849. 

Rev. John Pryor, D.D., from March 25, 1850, to 
July 26, 1861. 

Rev. Cortland W. Anable, D.D., from June 21, 1863, 
to October 27, 1871. 

Rev. Franklin Johnsoa, D.D., from December 31, 
1873, to September, 1888. 

The North Avaiue Baptist Church^ had ita origin 
in a Mission Sunday school. The first session was 
held on the last Sunday of September, 1846. 

In the territory now known as the Fifth Ward of the 
city there was then no religious service held and no 
religious society existing. At the first gathering 
there were jjresent forty-five persona. Permission to 
use a room in the Winthrop School-house was ob- 
tained from the city government, through the Hon. 
James D. Green, first mayor of the city. The history 
of this religious interest is coeval with the corporate 

1 CommuDicateU. 

life of the city. The privilege of occupying a room 
in the school-house was suddenly withdrawn on the 
18th of July, 1852. This withdrawal left the young 
interest in straits, but the apparent calamity was only 
a blessing in disguise. It threw faithful Chri^^tian 
workers back on God and their own resources. A lot 
of land on North Avenue, near the corner of Russell 
Street, was at once leased from the city, plans for a 
small chapel were secured, the funds for its immedi- 
ate erection subscribed, and on the 31st day of Octo- 
ber, of the same year, the little company entered their 
new abode. The city government kindly permitted 
the school to occupy its old quarters during the erec- 
tion of the chapel. 

This chapel was named "Our S.ibbath Home," by 
the first superintendent, Mr. E. R. Prescott. The 
prime movers in this enterprise were chiefiy members 
of the West Cambridge (now Arlington) and Uld 
Cambridge Baptist Churches. 

As early as February, 1848, the school was admitted 
into the " Boston Baptist Sabbath School Teachers' 
Convention." During the winter of 1852-53 reli- 
gious services were held weekly, on Thursday even- 
ings, in the chapel. In 5Iay, 1853, regular Sabbath 
services were begun. Rev. A. M. Averill, of the 
Newton Theological Institution became the "perma- 
nent supply." In this work of maintaining the 
preaching of the Gospel, Christian people of other 
faiths generously participated. 

.\a organization known as the North Cambridge 
Evangelical Association was formed, and for a short 
time controlled the business aifuirs of the new enter- 
prise. It was soon deemed advisable, however, to or- 
ganize a regular Baptist Church, as a large majority 
of those interested were already members of that de- 
nomination. Accordingly, on the 22d day of ilarch, 
1854, a company of thirty men and women formed 
themselves into such a body, adopting articles of faith 
which, "for substance of doctrine," were in accord 
with the tenets and usages of the Baptist denomina- 
tion. Public recognition services were held on the 
6th of xVpril, following. Mr. Averill became the reg- 
ular pastor of the young church, and under his ad- 
ministration it greatly prospered. In the meantime 
there had been formed the "North Cambridge Baptist 
Society." This body was composed of prominent 
members of the church and congregation. Under 
the existing laws, a church, as such, could not legally 
hold property. The aid of Dr. J. R. Morse, a well- 
known physician, justice of the peace, and afterward 
deacon of the North Avenue Congregational Church, 
was invoked. The forms of law were duly observed 
and the society commissioned for its import sut work. 
Some of the leading members of that day are still 
foremost in activity and fidelity'. Mr. Henry K. 
Glover, the first chairman, still magnifies that office, 
having been elected to it each successive year since. 
Mr. Warren Sanger, the first clerk, filled that office 
for twenty-one consecutive years; is still a member 



of the society and retains an unabated interest in its 
welfare. The society has been called upon during its 
brief history to build three houses of worship. In 
all three cases, the chairman of the Building Com- 
mittee has been Mr. C. W. Kingsley, — a fact which 
needs no comment. The organization of this society 
was demanded by the growth of Sunday-school and 
church. The question of location was long and anx- 
iously discussed, and at last settled by the generous 
gift from Mr. Henry Potter of a lot of land upon 
which the present edifice in part stand:". Of many 
sites considered this has proven the most eligible, and 
the older members of the church and society still 
keep the donor's "memory green." 

During 1854 the first meeting-house was built, and 
dedicated to the worship of God in February, 1855. 
The chapel was moved across "The Avenue" and 
attached to the rear of the church, affording ample 
facilities for work, as was supposed, for many years to 
come. In less than ten years, however, the Sunday- 
school had outgrown its surrounding', and in the sum- 
mer of 1865 the chapel was enlarged and beautified, 
and on the nineteenth anniversary reopened with 
appropriate services. In the year 1884 the Sunday- 
school and church were once more straitened for room. 
The question of enlargement could be deferred no 
longer. In April, 1885, the work of removing the 
chapel, enlarging and remodeling the old meeting- 
house, was begun. In November the new and com- 
modious chapel was opened for divine service, and on 
the ISth of May, 1886, theentire edifice was rededicated 
to the worship of God. The whole cost of the enlarge- 
ment and renovation was fifty-four thousand dollars. 

The spacious lot of land on the northerly side of the 
church, containing nine thousand square feet, was the 
gift of Mr. Henry R. Glover. 

The original chapel was given to the First Baptist 
Church, and is now known as the Innian Square 
Baptist Mission Sunday-school. The church during 
its life of thirty -six years has had four pastors : Eev. 
A. M. Averill (Newton Theo. Inst.), Rev. Joseph A. 
Goodham, (D. C. 1848i, Rev. Joseph Colver Wight- 
man, (B. W. 1852.) Rev. Wm. S. Apsey (Madison 
Univ., 1861). The last-named became pastor in 
October, 1868, and is the present incumbent. From 
the first the work of the Sunday-school has been a 
prominent feature. The church was the child of the 
school. The progress of the school has been solid and 
uninterrupted. It looks now (1890) as if the stakes 
would soon have to be strengthened, and the corda 
lengthened of this promising department of Chris- 
tian endeavor. 

The Brnndway Baptist Church}. — A Sabbath-school, 
consisting of twenty-eight scholars and fifteen teach- 
ers, was opened December 10, 1860, in a room at the 
corner of Harvard and Clark Streets, under the 
patronage of the First Baptist Church. In 1861 a 

1 Cuiiiniuuii-':itetl. 

commodious chapel was erected for the school and 
for religious meetings, on the southerly side of Har- 
vard Street, near Pine Street. The school held its 
first meeting in this chapel January 12, 1862. It 
was dedicated ad a house of worship February 9, 

It was deemed advisable to open the chapel for 
regular public worship on the Sabbath Services 
were commenced on the first Sabba'h in March, 1863, 
the committee having secured the services of Rev. 
William Howe (Waterville College, 1833), founder 
and pastor of Union Church, Boston, (now Union 

The attendance so increased that within the year 
the chapel was enlarged. Subsequently it was sold 
and removed to the corner of Harvard and E^ex 

This Christian enterprise became so successful that 
it was deemed advisable to constitute a gospel church. 
Accordingly, on May 9, 1865, a church, consisting of 
fifty members, was organized and Rev. William Howe 
chosen pastor. The public services of recognition of 
pastor and church were held in the First Baptist 
Church June 25, 1865. 

Enlarged accommodations being required, measures 
were taken to secure a suitable house of worship, 
which resulted in the purchase of a lot on Broadway, 
corner of Boardman Street, and the erection of an 
edifice sixty-eight feet by sixty-four, which was dedi- 
cated November 22, 1866, with appropriate religious 
services; sermon by the pastor. 

Rev. Wm. Howe continued his pastorate until ill 
health and advancing age compelled him to resign in 
July, 1870. He received the degree of D.D. from 
Colby University July, 1885. Dr. Howe continues 
to reside in Cambridge, without pastoral charge. 

October 25, 1870, Rev. Henry Hinckley, H. U., 
received a unanimous call to the pastorate and was 
installed December 13th following. After serving the 
church very acceptably eight years, he resigned 
October, 1878, to accept a call from the church in 
East Lynn, Mass. 

In February, 1879, Rev. A. C. Williams, from New 
Jersey, was called to the pastorate as successor to Mr. 
Hinckley. Mr. Williams resigned in May, 1882, and 
removed to Hinsdale, N. H., where he died suddenly 
July 12, 1883. 

A call was extended, September 22, 1882, to Rev. 
E. K. Chandler (Madison University) ; former pas- 
torales: Rockford, III., Saco, Me. Mr. Chandler 
entered upon his duties as pastor November 1. After 
a successful pastorate of seven years, he resigned 
September 15, 1889, to accept a call from the church 
in Warren, R. I. He received the degree D.D. in 

June 26, 1889, the church edifice was damaged by 
fire, which made it necessary to make quite exten- 
sive repairs. It wiis accordingly enlarged and re- 
modeled at an expense of about $17,000. 



January 17, 1890, Rev. Asa E. Reynolds (M. U.) 
former pnstorafes : Natick, Mass., Wallicgford, Conn. 
— received the unanimous call to the church to be- 
come its pastor. He entered upon his work March 
2d, and was publicly recognized March 20, 1890, 
when the church edifice was rededicated and opened 
for public services. 

Charles River Baptut Church^ — The Charles River 
Baptist Church had its origin in a Sunday-school, 
which was begun by members of the First Baptist 
Church, 1870, in the upper rooms of a dwelling-house. 
No. 8 Magazine Court. The first session was held 
April 3d, with an attendance of twenty-four children. 
Meetings for prayer and teaching the children con- 
tinued to be held in this place until October 30, 1870, 
when a new chapel, which had been erected during 
the summer at an expense of about SS-iOO, on the 
corner of Magazine Street and Putnam Avenue, was 
occupied. This was of wood, Grothic in style, seventy 
feet long and thirty-three feet wide, with an addition 
in the rear for the infant class of the Sunday-school 
capable of seating about seventy- five persons. The 
main room had seats for about 300. This chapel was 
dedicated November 29, 1870. 

The school at this time numbered 180 teachers and 
scholars. Regular preaching services were begun in 
July, 1874, and continued under the charge of Rev. 
J. P. Thorns, and subsequently Rev. G. T. Raymond, 
to the time of the formation of the church — 1876. 
The congregation at this time averaged about 120 
in attendance. 

In June, 1873, an incorporated association had been 
formed, called the Charles River Baptist Chapel As- 
sociation, which held the property under a trust deed, 
meeting quarterly. This association, acting con- 
jointly with a committee chosen each year by the 
First Baptist Church, sustained and continued the re- 
ligious interest. April 10, 1876, a meeting was held 
to consider the matter of church organization. The 
outcome of this meeting and another held April 25th 
was the formation of the present church, adopting the 
old incorporated name, with the change of " chapel " 
to " church." Soon after the Articles of Faith, the 
covenant and constitution and by-laws were adopted 
and signed by forty persons, all presenting letters of 
dismission from some Baptist Church. The council, 
composed of delegates from neighboring Baptist 
Churches, convened June 8, 1876, and public recogni- 
tion services were held the same evening. Moder- 
ator, Rev. H. K. Pervear ; clerk. Rev. Henry Hinck- 
ley. Rev. D. C. Eddy, D.D., preached the sermon. 
The church was received into the Boston North Bap- 
tist Association in September, 1876. 

October 5, 1876, a reorganization of the church was 
made for the purpose of forming the present corpora- 
tion, with some changes in the by-laws. The pur- 
pose of the corporation, as set forth, is "to maintain 

1 CoinmuDicated, 

the public worship of God, to support evangelical 
preaching, and to observe the ordinances appointed 
by Christ, according to the usuages of the Baptist 
denomination." In 1878 the church asked for and re- 
ceived a release of the trust-deed from the First Ba[)- 
tist Church to enable a title deed to be made for 
them. Thus the new church became the owners of 
the land, building and personal property at a nominal 
cost to them of §3000. 

June 16, 1889, the cornerstone of the present hou^e 
of worship was laid, and during the summer and the 
early part of the following year the edifice was 
erected. The building is a handsome brick structure, 
with brown-atone trimmings, located on the original 
lot, the old chapel being removed to the rear for ves- 
try purposes. The style is Romanesque. The audi- 
torium contains a number of memorial windows ; 
seating capacity, about 550. The present membershii) 
of the church is 220. 

The following have been the pastors of the church: 
Rev. F. B. Dickinson, from 1870 to 1878 ; Rev. C. H. 
Rowe, from 1878 to 1881 ; Rev. G. E. Horr, from 1882 
to 1883; Rev. W. C. Richmond, the present pastor, 
settled 1884. 

UxiON Baptist Churches. — The meeting-house 
of the Union Baptist Church, upon Main Street, was 
erected in 1882. The pastor of the church is Rev. 
Jesse Harrell. The society is flourishing under his 

Universalist Churches. — TTie First Universalisl 
Society in Cambridge was incorporated February 9, 
1822. For some years there had been occasional re- 
ligious services conducted by Rev. Hosea Ballon and 
others in a school-house on Franklin Street. The 
society erected a meeting-house at the junction of 
Main and Front Streets, and this was dedicated De- 
cember 18, 1822. A church was organized June 19, 
1827. The first pastor was Rev. Thomas Whittemore, 
who was born in Boston January 1, 1800. He served 
the church from April, 1822, until May, 1831. He 
was prominent in his denomination and an active 
citizen after his retirement from the pastorate of this 
church. He died March 21, 1861. His successor was 
Rev. Samuel P. Skinner, who began to preach for the 
church in 1831. In 1832 he removed to Baltimore. 
He died in 1858. He was followed by Rev. Lucius 
R. Paige, who was born in Hardwick March 8, 1802. 
He began to preach in 1823, entered upon his minis- 
try here in 1832, was installed July 8, 1832, and re- 
signed July 1, 1839. He received the degree of A.M. 
from Harvard College in 1850, and of D.D. from 
Tufts College in 1861. He preached for nearly thirty 
years after his retirement from the pastorate. Dr. 
Paige has continued to reside in Cambridge, whsre 
he is held in the highest esteem. He has served as 
town clerk and city clerk, as treasurer of the Cam- 
bridgeport Savings Bank, and cashier and president 
of the Cambridge Bank. He has published various 
religious books, and also a history of his native town. 



He has also published a" History of Cambridge," which 
is invaluable to auy who would know the long story o' 
the origin and growth of the town, and especially to 
any one who has occasion to write concerning it. Dr. 
Paige is an active and honored member of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society. 

Rev. Lemuel Willis was the nexi minister, from 
1S42 to 1S45. Rev. Luther J. Fletcher was installed 
in 1846, and he resigned in 1848. Rev. Edwin A. 
Eaton was the minister from 1849-52. Rev. Charles 
A. Skinner was installed in 1853 and he resigned in 

1867. Rev. Benjamin F. Bowles was installed in 

1868, and resigned in 1873. Rev. Oscar F. Safford 
was installed in 1874, and he served until 1885. The 
present pastor is Rev. Alphonso E. While (Dartmouth 
College. 1865), who was installed October 13, 1886. 
I.T 1889 the meeting-house was moved from the con- 
spicuous place it had occupied — in order that Front 
Street might be widened to make a proper approach 
to the Harvard bridge — and was placed on Inman 
Street, where it has been greatly improved and fur- 
nishes a convenient and attractive place of worship. 

The Second Univeraalist Society was incorporated 
February 11, 1823. For a time meetings were held in 
a school-house on Third Street, East Cambridge, and 
afterwards in the meeting-house of the Unitarian 
Society. In 1834 a hall was hired for the services, 
and in 1843 this was purchased and enlarged and con- 
verted into a meeting-house. In 1865 this was sold 
and a house was built on Otis Street. This was dedi- 
cated September 26, 1866. Rev. Henry Bacon was 
the first settled pastor; he began in 1834 and resigned 
in 1838. He was followed by Rev. El bridge G. 
Brooks, 1838 to 1845; Rev. William R. G. Mellen, 
1845 to 1848; Rev. JIassena Goodrich, 1849 to 1852; 
Rev. Henry A. Eaton, 1S55 to 1857 ; Rev. Henry W. 
Rugg, 1858 to 1861 ; Rev. S. L. Roripaugh. January, 
1862, to the end of the year; Rev. James F. Powers, 
1863 to 1866 ; Rev. Henry I. Cushman, 1867 to 1868 ; 
Rev. Frank Maguire, 1868 to 1871; Rev. Sumner 
Ellis, from 1872 to 1874. Rev. Henry I. Cushman was 
"stated supply" from November 11, 1874, and Rev. 
William A. Start from September 4, 1875. Rev. 
William F. Potter supplied the pulpit from 1879 to 
1881. Rev. Clarence E. Rice was the pastor from 1883 
to 1887. Rev. Isaac P. Coddington, a graduate of the 
Theological School in Canton, N. Y., became the 
pastor in 1889, and now fills that office with success. 

Tli^ Third L'niversalist Society was the successor of 
the Allen Street .Congregational Society (Unitarian), 
an account of which has been given in connection 
with the Unitarian churches. This society assumed 
its new name and new relations in 1874. The first 
minister of the new Universalist parish and church 
was Rev. James Thurston, who was installed in 1853 
and resigned in 1854. Rev. Caleb D. Bradlee fol- 
lowed, 1854 to 1857. Rev. John M. Marston was in- 
stalled 1858, and resigned in 1862. Rev. Frederick 
W. Holland served for two years, when Mr. Marston 

resumed the pastorate. He resigned in 1867. Mr. 
Charles E. Fay preached statedly for the church for 
about a year, when he was appointed a professor in 
Tufts College. Rev. William A. Start was installed 
April 10, 1870. Under his ministry the society in- 
creased and the church building was enlarged. He 
resigned in 1874. Rev. Isaac M. Atwood became the 
pastor in 1874, and remained until 1879. During his 
pastorate a new brick church was erected in a promi- 
nent place on North Avenue. Mr. Atwood was made 
the president of the Theological Department of the St. 
Lawrence University, Canton, N. Y. Rev. Charles 
W. Biddle, D.D., of Lynn, was called to the pastoral 
office, and entered upon his duties December 1, 1879. 
Under his care the society is enjoying an enlarged 

Methodist Episcopal Churches. — TTie First 
Methodist Episcopal Society was formed in East Cam- 
bridge in 1813. Before that those who were connected 
with this denomination attended church in Boston or 
Charlestown. The first meetings were in private 
houses. The first " Class" was formed in 1818. The 
first Methodist sermon in Cambridge, it is believed, 
was preached in the house of William Granville, by 
Rev. Enoch Mudge. Worship was sustained for a 
time in a school-house. In 1823 a small chapel was 
built. The first stated preacher at Lechmere Point 
was Rev. Leonard Frost, in 1823, In 1825 a brick 
house of worship was dedicated, at the corner of 
Cambridge and Third Streets. After about forty-five 
years this house was demolished and a larger house 
was erected on the site. This was of brick, and was 
dedicated December 12, 1872. The church has had a 
very active and useful career. Its history has been 
written by the Rev. Albert Gould and was published 
in the Cambridge Daily, March 11, 1889. 

The ministers since the close of Dr. Paige's list are 
as follows : Rev. George W. Mansfield, retired in 
1878; Rev. George Whifaker, D.D., served 1879-81 ; 
Rev. John N. Short, 1882-84; Rev. Samuel L. Graeey, 
1885-86; Rev. Albert Gould, 1886-89; Rev. S. E. 
Breen, 1889-90; Rev. C. H. Hannaford is now the 
minister in charge. 

Harvard Street Church. — In 1831 a " Class" of six 
members was formed, according to the usage of the 
Methodist Church. At first it met in or near Har- 
vard Square, but was removed to Cambridgeport. 
From this " Class " has grown the Harvard Street 
Church. Meetings for public worship were held in 
" Fisk Block," on Main Street, and afterwards in the 
Town House. In 1842 a meeting-house was built on 
Harvard Street at a cost of about S6,000. This was en- 
larged in 1851, and burned in 1857. Another bouse 
was built on the same site, at an expense of $17,- 
000, dedicated October 13, 1858, and burned March 
15, 1861. The present brick meeting-house was ded- 
icated November 19, 1862. During Dr. Chadbourn's 
pastorate, 1882-84. the house was thoroughly reno- 
vated, and was enlarged by an addition on the west 


side for a ladies' parlor. In March. 1890. the ir.em- 
berahip of the church was 375. The average attend- 
ance at the Sahbalh-^chool was about 360. The 
Young People'.H Society numbered ninety. The con- 
gregations are large and the work of the church is 
pursued with efficiency and success. A lady is em- 
ployed as a parish mis-ionary and her work is of 
great value. All the affairs of the church are re- 
ported as in excellent condition. 

The church appears in the minutes for the first 
time in 1841, when the first appointment was made. 
The ministers who have followed those given in 
Paige's History are as follows : Rev. W. E. Hunting- 
ton, 1877-79 ; Rev. Joseph Cummings, D.D. (W. U., 
1840), 1880-81 ; Rev. G. S. Chadbourn, D.D. (W. U., 
1858), 1882-84 ; Rev. \V. H.Thomas, D.D., 1885-87; 
Rev. C. S. Roger-s D.D. (W. U , 1858), 1888. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church in Old Cam- 
bridijc was organized June 3, 1868. A chapel for- 
merly owned and used by the Holmes Congregational 
Society had been purchased and removed to a lot on 
North Avenue, opposite the Common. This was re- 
dedicated on the day the new society was formed. 
It has been used since that time by the Methodist 

The ministers of this church have been Rev. Abra- 
ham D. Merrill and Rev. James Mudge, 1868-69; 
Rev. Samuel Jackson, 1870-71 ; Rev. Plmy Wood, 
1872; Rev. James Lansing, 1873; Rev. Mr. Beiler, 
1873; Rev. David K. Merrill, 1874-75; Rev. Charles 
Young, 1876 to 1878; Rev. Alexander Dight, 1878 to 
1881; Rev. Austin H. Herrick, 1881 to 1882 ; Rev. J. 
W. Barter, 1882 to 1885; Rev. \V. H. Marble, 1885 
to 1888. Rev. George H. Cheney a.»sumed the charge 
of the church in 1888 and remains in the pastoral 

Grace Methodist Episcopal Church. ' — This church 
originated in a Sunday-school which began its work 
in Williams Hall, April 17, 1870, in connection with 
the Cambridge Temperance Reform Association, the 
first ofiicers being J. A. Smith, superintendent ; A. P. 
Rollins, assistant superintendent ; S. C. Knights, 
secretary ; G. C. W. Fuller, treasurer, and D. B. 
Harvey, librarian. 

Representatives of the Methodist, Baptist and Con- 
gregationalist Churches Were associated in the work, 
which was so prosperous that within two months of 
its organization eighty-seven members, with an aver- 
age attendance of seventy-five, were reported. 

The sessions were held in the morning till Octo- 
ber, when they were changed to the afternoon, upon 
which change nearly all who were in any way con- 
nected with the Baptist and Congregationalist 
Churches — about two-thirds of the school — withdrew. 

Notwithstanding this, the secretary reported a 
, membership January 1, 1871, of ninety-three and a 
library of 275 volumes. 

' CoQioiunicated. 

The feeling becoming very strong that there ought 
to be a church organized in connection with this 
school, and as preliminary to that, a lot of land on 
Cottage Street was secured for a chapel. 

As nearly all the workers were now Methridists, it 
was decided at a meeting at the house of A. P. 
Rollins, in March, 1871, to organize a church to be 
known as the Cottage Street Methodi^t Episcopal 
Church of Cambridgeport. This was done at a 
meeting at the house of W. J. A., April 5, 
1871, when seventeen persons, principally members of 
Harvard Street Methodist Epi.^copal Church were so 
organized by Rev. David Sherman, D.D., presiding 

The Sunday services were held in Williams' Hall 
till Oct. 15, 1871, when they were transferred to Odd 
Fellows' Hall, where they were cor.tinued till the 
chapel was dedicated in June 19, 1872, with a debt 
upon it of SIOOO. This soon became too small for the 

In 1882 a church site on the corner of Magazine 
and Perry Streets was purchased for $5500, and on 
the 16ih of November, 1886, the corner-stone of the 
church was laid, and on June 19, 1887, the week of 
dedicatory services began. 

In August, 1872, the trustees organized under arti- 
cles of incorporation as the. " Trustees of the Cottage 
Street Methodist Episcopal Church of Cambridge- 

The pastors of this church have been chronologi- 
cally as follows : 

Rev. David Patten, D.D., Rev. Luman Boyden, 
Rev. Isaac Row (afterwards missionary to India)) 
Rev. W. L. Lockwood, Rev. Jarvis A. Ames, Rev. J. 
W. Barker, Rev. Duncan McGregor, Rev. Alfred 
Noon, Rev. J. W. Higgins, Rev. N. B. Fisk, Rev. 
Albert Gould, Rev. S. E. Breen, who is now the min- 
ister of the church. 

St. PauVs African Methodist Episcopal Church is at 
the corner of Portland and Hastings Streets. The 
organization of the church was made in 1873. It was 
reorganized in 1878. 

The Rush African Methodist Episcopal Church for 
several years worshiped in a hall on Main Street. 
In 1888 a convenient house was erected on School 
Street. The present minister is Rev. G. L. Black- 

Another Methodist society, in 1890, began services 
in a hall on lower Main Street, under the care of Rev. 
Mr. Brockett. 

The Reformed Episcopal Church, under the 
name of St. Luke's, was organized a few years since 
in Cambridgeport, and has since maintained religious 
services. It has no church building as yet, but is do- 
ing its work quietly and steadily for the public good. 
The present pastor is the Rev. C. H. Tucker. 

Roman Catholic Churches.— TAe Parish of St. 
Peter's Church was formed in January, 1849, by Rev. 
Manasses P. Dougherty. His pastorate was long and 



fruitful, and he was hichly esteemed within hia par- 
ish aud beyond its bounds. St. Peter's Church, on 
Concord Avenue, was consecrated in 1849. Rev. Mr. 
Dougherty died in July, 1877. He was succeeded by 
Rev. J. E. O'Brien, who died in July, 1888. He was fol- 
lowed by Rev. John Flatley, who is now in charge 
of the parish, assisted by Fathers Broderick and 

SI. Mary's Church.^ — "The parish of St. Mary's 
Church was organized, in 1860, by Rev. Manasses P. 
Dougherty, who performed the duties of pastor in 
connection with his charge of St. Peter's Church 
until Jlay, 1867, when he was succeedtd by Rev. 
Thomas Scully, who had previously served" as 
chaplain of the Ninth Regiment of Massachusetts 
Volunteers. The spacious brick church of the parish 
is on Norfolk Street, at the corner of Harvard Street. 
The sketch which follows has been prepared for this 
work and begins with the erection of the church. 

The site was first occupied by the Cambridge Town 
Hall, which was destroyed by fire. It was purchased 
by Catholic citizens for the purpose of building a 
church. June 7, 1866, work was begun on the 
foundation, and on Sunday, July 15, 1866, the corner- 
stone was laid with impressive ceremonies of the 
Catholic ritual by Right Rev. John J. Williams, as- 
sisted by Revs. M. P. Dougherty, J. Donahue, J. 
Scully aud other priests. The sermon was preached 
by Father Hitzelberger, S. J., and there were present 
about 4000 people. In May, 1867, the Bishop of the 
Diocese appointed Rev. Thomas Scully to this new 
parish, formed from the East Cambridge and Cam- 
bridge Parishes, and commonly called Cambridgeport. 
The new church was unfinished and just roofed. 
Sunday, June 0, 1867, the pastor of this new mission 
took formal charge. On Sunday, March S, 1868, the 
church was formally dedicated bv Bishop Williams. 
The preacher was Rev. G. F. Haskins, of Boston. 
The architect was Mr. James Murphy, of Providence, 

Two valuable estates adjoining the church, known 
as the Luke and Howe estates, were, within a short 
time, purchased by the parish. The Luke house be- 
came the pastoral residence and a convent school for 
girls was erected on the Howe estate, .and given in 
charge to the sisters of the congregation of Notre 
Dame, whose Mother House is in Montreal, P. Q. 
In lS7o a building sixty-five feet square, three stories 
high, was erected on land close to the church, and in 
September, of same year, opened as a parochial 
school for boys. In 1876 the sisters of the congrega- 
tion were recalled to Montreal and the sisters of 
Notre Dame took charge of the girls' school with 
twelve classes. In the spring of 1876 the Dodge 
estate, on Essex