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Able Corps of Local Historians 


I 92 I 





T IS now nearly half a century since the publication of 
a history of Middlesex, one of the most historic and 
progressive counties of New Jersey. The present work 
is designed to he at once a well digested resume of its 
former history, hut more particularly a continuation 
down to the present time, and covering a period of phenomenal 
development along all the many lines which go to make up the 
complex community of to-day. 

The value of the work rests in larger degree upon the 
intelligent labors of Messrs. John P. Wall and Harold E. Pick- 
ersgill, who out of their abundant local knowledge have not 
only provided nuich of the matter assembled upon its pages, 
but have otherwise abundantly aided the field editors, Messrs. 
Frank R. Holmes and Peter K. Edgar, in pointing out most 
useful sources of information. Of especial value are various 
historical papers contributed by residents who are recognized 
as entire masters of the subjects upon which they treat, and 
among whom may be named Mr. H. Brewster Willis, on Pub- 
lic Education; Mr. Adrian Lyon, on the Board of Proprietors; 
President W. H. S. Demarest, on Rutgers College; Dr. D. C. 
English, on the Medical Fraternity; Dr. Fred B. Kilmer, on 
Christ Church. 

The genealogical and personal memoirs have been pre- 
pared with all due care from such data as were accessible, and 
in each case has been submitted to the immediate subject or to 
his proper representative for verification as to fact. It is 
believed that the work, in all its features, will prove a real 
addition to the mass of annals concerning the people of the 
historic region under consideration, and that without it, much 
valuable information therein contained would be irretrievably 
lost, owing to the passing away of many custodians of records 
and the disappearance of such material. 



NOTE — The History proper Is paged continuously, extending into Volume II, and 
concluding with Index at page 503. The Biographical Department follows lmme<Jl- 
ately thereafter in Volume II, and Is paged continuously into Volume III, concluding 
with a Biographical Index. 

CHAPTER I — The Leni-Lenapes — Indian rights to the land, and how disposed 

of I 

CHAPTER II — Occupation by the Dutch — Character of the Immigrants from 

Holland 7 

CHAPTER III— Coming of the English— Title of the Duke of York and his 

land conveyances to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret 1 1 

CHAPTER IV — Settlement of the Raritan Valley — VVoodbridge and Piscataway 

— Settlers at New Brunswick and Perth Amboy 19 

CHAPTER V — The East Jersey Proprietors — Acts passed by the General 

Assembly 27 

CHAPTER VI — The Proprietary and Colonial Governors — Franklin the last 39 

CHAPTER VII — Organization of Middlesex County — Changes of Boundaries 49 

CHAPTER VIII— East and West Jersey— The final division 57 

CHAPTER IX — The early Courts — Crimes and Misdemeanors 6.3 

CHAPTER X— Study of the Soil— Mineral products 69 

CHAPTER XI — Transportation — The Indian trails — First mads and ferries — 

Water transportation — Stage wagons — Steamboats and railroads 7.^ 

CHAPTER XII — Revolutionary days — Home life of the people — The dawn of 

the Revolution — Occupation by British troops 81 

CHAPTER XIII — Middlesex men in the Revolutionary War — Notable names 

— Roster of State troops 97 

CHAPTER XIV — After the War — Organization of State government 113 

CHAPTER XV— First half of the Nineteenth Century— Political contests 117 

CHAPTER XVI — War between the States — Middlesex men bear a splendid 

part 129 

CHAPTER XVII — Finale — The Spanish-American War — The political land- 
slide of 1920 165 

CHAPTER XVIII — Visitors, Natives and Residents — Washington and Lafay- 
ette — Other notables 171 

CHAPTER XIX — Institutions of higher education — Rutgers College — Theo- 
logical Seminary of the Reformed Church — Academies and Private Schools. 185 

CHAPTER XX— Public Education— Thirty-three }ears' growth of Public 

Schools 203 

CHAPTER XXI — ^The Press — First newspapers — Later journals 229 

CHAPTER XXII — Bench and Bar — Early lawyers and jurists — Notable trials 233 

CHAPTER XXIII — The Medical Fraternity — Pioneer physicians — First Medi- 
cal Society — Various professional bodies — Founders of County and State 
Medical Societies — Prominent Deceased Physicians — Hospitals and Clinics.. 243 

CHAPTER XXIV— Manufacturing Industries— At Perth Amboy and New 

Brunswick 271 


CHAPTER XXV— City of New Brunswick— Settlement— During the Revolu- 
tion — Early Industries and Merchants — Development of City to its present 

proportions 279 

CHAPTER XXVI — City of New Brunswick, concluded — Notable Characters... 347 

CHAPTER XXVII— Perth Amboy— Settlement— Old Buildings— In the Revo- 
lution — The City of to-day 361 

CHAPTER XXVIII— City of South Amboy 397 

CHAPTER XXIX— Woodbridge and Piscataway Townships 401 

CHAPTER XXX — North Brunswick, East Brunswick and South Brunswick 

Townships 423 

CHAPTER XXXI — Monroe, Madison, Raritan and Cranbury Townships 437 

CHAPTER XXXII— Boroughs of Middlesex County 455 

APPENDIX— Military Rolls 483 

LANinxG (IK ('A!:'ris!:i-:-L\ 



When Henry Hudson, in the employ of the Dutch East India Com- 
pany, sailed up the broad waters of what was then known as the Great 
North River, now named for its discoverer, he found on its banks 
Aborigines occupants. They were members of the Algonquin family, 
and by writers on Indian antiquities have been considered as branches 
of the general Delaware nation known as the Leni-Lenapes, which in 
the Red Men's language means "original people," a title they had adopted 
under the claim that they were descended from the most ancient of 
Indian ancestry. This claim was admitted by other tribal organizations, 
who accorded to the Lcni-Lenapes the title of "grandfather," or a people 
whose ancestry antedated their own. 

Among the numerous traditions, the leading one of their origin was 
that their ancestors lived in a country far to the westward of the rising 
sun, and in the hopes of finding a red man's paradise, land of deer and 
beaver and salmon, they left their western home and journeying across 
great rivers and mountains, at last came to the western banks of the 
Namisi Sipu (Mississippi), where they met another nation migrat- 
ing like themselves. This adversary for a settlement in the east was 
the Mengwes, and for centuries these two aboriginal nations became 
rivals and enemies. Their explorations, however, were to receive a 
check, for beyond the great river lay the domain of a nation named 
Allegewi, who disputed their passage. This opposing nation, while not 
strong in numbers, was skilled in the arts of war and had reared great 
defenses of earth enclosing their village and strongholds. An alliance, 
offensive and defensive, was formed by the Lenapes and Mengwes, and 
after a severe struggle for supremacy the Allegewis were humiliated and 
exterminated and their country occupied by the victors. 

The two victorious nations then journeyed eastward. The Mengwes 
taking a northern route, finally reached the Mahicannick. "River of the 
Mountains" (Hudson river), while the Lenapes, traveling more in a 
southerly direction, rested on the banks of the Lenapi Wihittuck, the 
beautiful river, now known as the Delaware, and here they thought 
they had found their long-wished-for elysium of an Indian paradise for 
which they had left their far western home. This tradition may have 
some truthful foundation : the unfortunate Allegewis may have been the 
mound builders of the Mississippi Valley, but this is only one of the 
many profitless conjectures which have been indulged in by historical 
researchers. Indian tribes were fond of narrating long journeys and 
great deeds of their ancestors, tracing their ancestors for centuries, but 

Mid— 1 


their traditions are so clouded and involved in improbabilities and inter- 
woven with superstition that it is simply speculative on the part of 
antiquarian writers to form a decided opinion of the origin of the Amer- 
ican aborigines. 

On the arrival of the emigrants from Netherlands at the Isle of Man- 
hattan, they found dwelling there the fierce Manhattans whom De Laet 
calls "a wicked nation and enemies of the Dutch." In the adjacent 
territory the Minsie and Mohican nations were located. The Manhattans, 
who were members of the Mohican nation, occupied the range of country 
on the east side of the Hudson river to its mouth. On Long Island, 
called by the natives Sewanhacky, "the land of shells," were the savage 
Metonwacks, divided into tribes of which names of thirteen have been 
preserved ; the Canaise and Nyack were settled at the Narrows ; the 
Mantinecoes in Queens county ; and the Nissaquage, Setauket, Corchaug, 
Secataug, Patachogue, Shinnecoe and Montauk, in Suffolk county. 

The Minsies, who received Hudson with peaceful overtures and came 
daily on board his vessel to barter furs, oysters, Indian corn, beans, 
pumpkins, squashes and apples, in exchange for gewgaws and trifles, 
inhabited the country from the Minisink (a place named after them, 
where they had their council seat and fire), to Staten Island, and from 
the Hudson to the Raritan Valley. They were members of the Leni- 
Lenape, or Delaware nation, which occupied a domain extending along 
the seacoast from Chesapeake Bay to the country bordering Long Island 
Sound. Back from the east it reached beyond the Susquehanna Valley 
to the foothills of the Allegheny Mountains, and on the north joined 
the southern frontier of the hated and dreaded Iroquois. In this vast 
domain was included all of the present State of New Jersey. 

The principal tribes of the Delawares were the Unamis or Turtle, 
Unalachtgo or Turkey, and Minsi or Wolf. The latter was the most 
powerful and warlike of these tribes, and occupied the most northerly 
portion of the Delaware's country, keeping guard along the Iroquois 
border; their territory extended southward to the northern boundary 
of the present county of Hunterdon. The Unamis and Unalachtgo 
branches comprising the Assanpinks, Matas, Schackamaxons, Chiche- 
quaas, Raritans, Nanticokes, Tatelos, and many others, inhabited all 
that part of New Jersey south of the northern boundaries of the present 
Hunterdon and Somerset counties. Statisticians have computed that the 
Indian population at the time of the settlement of the Dutch at New 
Amsterdam was probably not more than two thousand souls in the 
territory comprising the present State of New Jersey. 

Before the arrival of the European explorers, the country of the 
Leni-Lenape had been invaded by the Iroquois, who had reduced the 
former nation to the condition of vassals. The Iroquois attitude, how- 
ever, was not wholly of conquerors, it was more of the character of 


protectors or masters. Their overlordship was tempered with paternal 
regard for the interests of the Leni-Lenapes in their negotiations with 
the whites, care being taken that no trespasses should be committed on 
their rights and that they should be justly dealt with. This anxious 
solicitude on the part of the Iroquois was simply to see that no others 
than themselves should be permitted to despoil the Lenapes. They 
exacted from them an annual tribute, an acknowledgment of their state 
of vassalage, and on these conditions they were permitted to occupy their 
former hunting grounds. Bands of the Five Nations were interspersed 
among the Delawares to keep a watchful eye upon them and their move- 

The Delawares regarded their conquerors with feelings of inextin- 
guishable hatred, though held in abeyance by fear. They had, however, 
a feeling of superiority on account of their ancient lineage and their 
removal from original barbarism. The Iroquois maintained an air of 
haughty superiority towards their vassals, and no longer spoke of them 
as men and warriors, but as women. This opprobrium was removed 
from the Delawares by the Iroquois through the exertions of their most 
noted chief, Teedyuscung, who by his masterly oratory and diplomatic 
shrewdness defeated the schemes of the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania 
in their attempts to defraud the Delawares of their rights in that province. 

The Indians were tenacious of the common right in which they 
claimed the ownership of the soil. They did not recognize even in their 
chiefs any right to convey lands without the general consent of the tribe, 
and often refused to submit to treaties unless they were made by their 
representatives chosen by popular vote, who met the whites in council 
and for their respective tribes ratified the deeds disposing of their lands. 
The New Jersey settlers at all times were conciliatory of their rights, 
dealing with them in a justifiable and legal way, hence there was no 
occasion for hostilities on the part of the Indians. The white settlers 
of New Jersey, however, suffered on account of the outrageous manage- 
ment of Indian affairs by the Dutch authorities at New Amsterdam. 
The Mohawks in 1643 were at war with the Weekquacsgecks, Tanki- 
tekes, and Tappeans. Director Kieft espoused the cause of the Mohawks, 
and on the night of February 23, 1643, he dispatched a force of eighty men 
to attack the Hackensacks, who were bivouacked one thousand strong 
at Pavonia, New Jersey. The unsuspecting Indians, unaware of the 
Director's secret league with their enemy, were suddenly aroused from 
their sleep by a murderous attack by the Dutch soldiers, who spared 
neither babies nor women in their inhuman massacre. This kind of war- 
fare could not fail to exasperate the natives, and in retaliation seven 
tribes entered into an alliance for a relentless war. They killed all the 
men they could find, dragged the women and children into captivity, 
burned houses, barns, grain and haystacks, and laid waste the farms and 


plantations. From the Raritan to the Connecticut not a white person 
was safe from the murderous tomahawk and scalping knife, except those 
that clustered around Fort Amsterdam. The war continued in all its 
fury for several months, when a peace was concluded which lasted only 
until October, 1643, when the Indians again went on the warpath and 
peace was not permanently secured until 1645. 

There were no further Indian troubles of any magnitude until 1655, 
when during an absence of Governor Stuyvesant to expel the 
Swedes from Delaware, five hundred warriors on the night of September 
15 landed at New Amsterdam. They were repulsed by the 
garrison and driven to their canoes. In retaliation they landed at 
Pavonia, which they laid in ashes. From thence they passed 
down Staten Island, where one hundred persons were killed, one 
hundred and fifty carried into captivity, and over three hundred 
deprived of their homes. The savages of the tribes of Hackensack, 
Tappaen, Ahasimus and others, were present and took part in this fearful 
devastation, and perpetrated inhuman barbarities, notwithstanding their 
solemn pledge to adhere to the terms of the treaty. Governor Stuyvesant 
made a treaty with the Indians which proved a final settlement of all 
difficulties as far as the Dutch were concerned. During these Indian 
troubles the inhabitants of the ancient territory of Bergen county were 
the greatest sufferers. 

The Pomptons and Mennes having sold their lands, removed from 
New Jersey about 1737. They became engaged in the Indian war of 
1755 in Northampton county, Pennsylvania, which was carried across 
the Delaware river into New Jersey. The Indians raided the settlers on 
the east bank of the Delaware in the winter of 1757-58, and twenty-seven 
murders were committed by them in Sussex county. Governor Bernard 
in June, 1758, took measures to put a stop to this hideous warfare; 
through Teedyuscung, king of the Delawares, he obtained a conference 
with the Minisink and Pompton Indians on August 7, 1758, at Burlington, 
New Jersey. This resulted in a time being fixed for a conference at Eas 
ton, Pennsylvania, and a treaty was finally signed, the Indians relin- 
quishing all their claims to lands in New Jersey, reserving the right to 
fish in all the rivers and bays south of the Raritan and to hunt in all unen- 
closed lands. A tract of land comprising three thousand acres was pur- 
chased in Burlington county by the province, and on this the few remain- 
ing Delawares of New Jersey, about sixty in number, were collected and 
settled. They remained there until 1802, when they joined their grand- 
sons, the Stockbridge tribe, at New Stockbridge, near Oneida Lake, in 
the State of New York. Several years after, they again removed and 
settled on a large tract of land at Fox River, Wisconsin, which had 
been purchased from the Menominee Indians. Here they engaged in 
conjunction with the Stockbridge Indians in agricultural pursuits and 


formed a settlement named Statsburg. There were alive in 1832 at this 
settlement about forty of the Delawares, who still kept alive the tradi- 
tion that they were owners of fishing and hunting privileges in New 
Jersey. They resolved to lay their claim before the legislature of the 
State, requesting that $2,000 be paid them for the relinquishing of their 
rights. The Legislature referred the petition to a committee who reported 
favorably upon the request, whereupon the Legislature voted the amount 
asked for, in consideration of their relinquishment of their last rights and 
claims in the State of New Jersey. 


The Dutch East India Company of the United Netherlands, who 
employed Hudson on his voyage of discovery, combined military with 
commercial operations, and was divided into five chambers established 
in five of the principal Dutch cities. Its attention was devoted more 
especially to making reprisals on Spanish commerce, purchasing slaves, 
the conquest of Brazil, etc. New Netherland was committed to the 
charge of the Amsterdam chamber. 

Five years after Hudson's voyage, a company of merchants under 
the title of the United Company of New Netherland, procured from the 
States-General of Holland a patent for the exclusive trade on the Hudson 
river. They established a trading post at New Amsterdam, on the 
present site of the Battery. A small redoubt on the site of what is now 
a part of the city of Kingston, New York, was also built ; it was known 
as the Ronduit, from whence comes the name of Rondout. In the upper 
valley of the Hudson a fort was erected upon Castle Island, near and 
below the present city of Albany. One of their navigators, Adriaen 
Block, extended the sphere of discovery by the way of the East river, 
tracing the shores of Long Island and Connecticut as far as Cape Cod. 
He sailed up the Connecticut, named by him the Fresh river, and built 
a trading post to which he gave the name of "The House of Good Hope," 
on the present site of the city of Hartford. It was more than probable 
as early as 1618 that another trading post was erected in the territory 
now comprising the State of New Jersey, which the Dutch called Achter 
Kull (or Kill); the spelling of the second name of this title by some 
historians is Coll. 

The Dutch also claimed as a part of New Netherland by right of dis- 
covery, the territory adjacent to the Delaware river, which they named 
the South river. This claim was based on Hudson having sailed a short 
distance up the waters of that river prior to his entering New York Bay. 
As early as 1623 a ship under the command of Cornelius Jacobse May 
was dispatched to take possession of this territory and effect a settle- 
ment. May entered the Delaware Bay and gave his name to the northern 
cape — Cape May. After exploring the river he landed and erected a 
fort which he named Fort Nassau, situated on the banks of a small 
stream called by the Indians Sassacknow, below the present city of 
Camden, New Jersey. 

The States-General, on the expiration of the grant of the United 
Company of New Netherland, refused to renew it, but they continued 
to trade in the territory until 1623, when the Dutch West India Company, 
a powerful mercantile association, chartered in 1621, took possession of 


the lands temporarily granted to their predecessors. The following year 
Peter IMinuit was appointed director of New Netherland ; he built Fort 
Amsterdam, and brought over new colonists who settled on Long Island. 
Staten Island and Manhattan were purchased from the Indians, but the 
settlements for the next five years were merely trading posts. 

It was in 1629 or 1630 that the council of the Dutch West India 
Company adopted plans for a more extensive colonization of New Neth- 
erland. They granted to certain individuals extensive seigniories or 
tracts of land, with federal rights over the lives and persons of their 
subjects. These tracts of land were granted, provided that a settlement 
should be effected within a specified time, besides other conditions. 
Under these provinces Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, a pearl merchant of 
Amsterdam, secured in 1630 and subsequently, a tract of land twenty-four 
by forty-eight miles in extent, comprising the present counties of Albany, 
Rensselaer and part of Columbia. Other wealthy patroons obtained 
larger grants for similar seigniories in other portions of New Netherland. 

The first Indian deed to territory along the west side of New York 
Bay and the Hudson river is dated July 12, 1630. It was for a purchase 
made by the Director-General and Council of New Netherland for 
Michael Pauw, Burgomaster of Amsterdam and Lord of Achtrenhoven, 
near Utrecht, Holland. The burgomaster also in the same year obtained 
a deed for Staten Island. The purchase on the Jersey shore of the Hud- 
son was named Pavonia. The colony established by Pauw was not a 
success, and his interests were purchased by the directors of the West 
India Company, and it became known as the West India Company's 

David Pieterson de Vries. who had made two unsuccessful attempts 
to establish Dutch settlements on the shores of the Delaware in 1640, 
turned his attention to New Netherland. He purchased in that year of 
the Indians a tract of about five hundred acres at Tappan, on the Ackter 
Kull shore of the Hudson, and gave it the name of Vriesendall. Located 
along the riverside, sheltered by high hills, with a stream to supply mill 
sites winding its course through its center, it had all the charms of nature, 
and with the erection of buildings became an ideal home, where the 
energetic owner lived for several years. Settlements were also made at 
Communapaw, Hoboken, Ahasamus, Paulus Hoeck, and throughout 
the territory were individual settlements, many of which were, however, 
destroyed in the Indian War of 1644. 

The policy of the Dutch government was to encourage the settlement 
of colonies or manors similar to lordships and seigniories of the Old 
World, by men of large fortunes, known as patroons, to whom peculiar 
privileges of trade and government were accorded. These tracts were 
sixteen miles in extent along the seashore or banks of some navigable 
river, or eight miles when both banks were occupied with an indefinite 
extent inland, the company, however, reserving the island of Manhattan 


and the fur trade with the Indians. These patroons were within four 
years from the granting of the tract to settle them with fifty persons 
upwards of fifteen years of age, and upon all trade carried on by them 
were to pay five per cent, to the company. They were also to extinguish 
the Indian titles to the land ; their tenants were not to acquire a free 
tenure to the lands, and were prohibited from making any woolen, linen 
or cotton cloth or to weave any other material, under a penalty of ban- 
ishment. This restriction was to keep them dependent on the mother 
country for the most necessary manufactures, which was in spirit with 
the colonial system adopted by all the nations of Europe. This scheme 
of colonization met with favor, and several members of the Dutch West 
India Company selected and purchased the most desirable tracts both 
on the North and South rivers, as well as the whole neck opposite New 
Amsterdam as far as the Kills and Newark Bay, together with Staten 

Directly west of these tracts stretched for miles along the waters 
of Achter Kull and to the estuary west of Staten Island, one of the most 
inviting regions in New Netherland. To these lands, in 165 1, Cornelius 
Van Wcrckhoven, one of the schepens of Utrecht in Holland, directed 
his attention. He duly notified the Amsterdam chamber of his intention 
to plant colonies or manors in New Netherland. A commission was 
thereupon given to Augustine Heermans, who resided in New Amster- 
dam, to open negotiations with the Indians to purchase these lands. 
After negotiations with the resident proprietors, Heermans purchased 
for Van Werckhoven the tract extending from the mouth of the Raritan 
creek westerly to a creek known by the name of Mankackkewacky, 
running in a northwest direction, and then from the Raritan creek north- 
erly along the river into the creek, namely, from Raritan Point, called 
Ompage, now the city of Perth Amboy, and following the line of a creek 
named Pechelesse to its head, where it met the Mankackkewacky before 
named. The land thus described included the region west of Staten 
Island from the Raritan to the Passaic rivers, and extended back into 
the country indefinitely. Three other tracts, one to the south of the 
Raritan and two on Long Island, were acquired by this enterprising 
Dutchman. This wholesale grab of territory aroused objections on the 
part of other greedy speculators, who contended it was too much terri- 
tory in the hands of one owner, and on its being referred to the Amster- 
dam chamber it was decided that Van Werckhoven could retain but one 
of the tracts in question, and he chose to locate himself on Long Island, 
and the title to the land described above reverted therefore to the original 

Thus was the colonization of New Jersey again deferred ; the ravages 
of the Indians also was a check to making any permanent settlement. 
Treaties, however, were consummated with them and the territory 
repurchased by Governor Stuyvesant, with the intention of erecting a 


fortified town. There had. however, been no village located prior to 
1660, but in the month of August of that year the right to establish a 
village in Achter Kull was granted to several inhabitants. It was named 
Bergen, from a small village in Holland. The village, located on a hill, 
now known as Jersey City Heights, grew rapidly, and in May, 1761, there 
was not a vacant lot inside of the fortifications. This was the first per* 
manent settlement on the soil of New Jersey. 

At the time of dismemberment of New Netherland by the English, in 
what was known afterwards as West Jersey, in the present counties of 
Gloucester and Burlington, there w^ere a few Swedish farmers and not 
to exceed three Dutch families established at Burlington ; it contained 
not even a hamlet. In East Jersey, whose hills had been praised by 
\'errazzani and the soil trodden by the mariners of Hudson, there were 
in its trackless and forest depths extending from the seacoast to the 
waters of the Raritan and Delaware outside of the settlement at Bergen, 
savages who roamed at will, undisturbed by the white man. 

The emigrants from Holland were of various lineage, for that country 
had long been the gathering place of the unfortunate. Refugees from 
persecution flocked to her boundaries from England and continental 
Europe. She housed from the heart of Bohemia those who were swayed 
by the voice of Huss, the Separatists from England, the Huguenots 
from France, the Protestants from the Reformation, the Walloons from 
Belgium — all came to her hospitable soil, and from there emigrated to 
the New Eldorado in the Western Continent. These early Dutch set- 
tlers were generally persons of deep religious feeling, honest and consci- 
entious, adding to these qualities industry and frugality, and the majority 
were prosperous. Their buildings followed the Holland style of archi- 
tecture, being one story, with a low ceiling, with nothing more than the 
heavy and thick boards that constructed the upper floor laid on mon- 
strous broad and heavy beams ; this portion of their dwelling they utilized 
to store their grain, and for spinning of wool, sometimes being divided 
into sleeping apartments. The fireplaces in these abodes were unusually 
large, sufficient to accommodate the whole family with a comfortable 
seat around the fire. The buildings were built large enough to admit 
of hanging within them meat to smoke. The settlers were reluctant to 
form acquaintance with strangers, lest they should be imposed upon, but 
when a friendship was formed it proved lasting. They were clannish 
in their relations to each other ; when one of the community was wrongly 
involved or in trouble, especially in litigation, they were as one man. 

At the time of the subjection of New Netherland by the English, the 
colonists were satisfied ; very few embarked for Holland ; it seemed rather 
that English liberties were to be added to security of property. The 
capitulation of the Dutch and Swedes early in October, 1664, placed the 
Atlantic seacoast of the thirteen original colonies in possession of Eng- 
land. The country had become a geographical unity. 

Afterward James II., King of England 


The English claim to the territory occupied by the Dutch had never 
been relinquished, and in 1664 Charles II. determined to remove from the 
heart of his American colonies the Dutch supremacy. The Duke of York- 
had purchased in March, 1664, the claims of Lord Stirling under grants 
which he had received from the extinct council of New England, and had 
received from the King, his brother, a charter for the valuable tract 
between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers, which was New Nether- 
land's territorial limits. New York was the name bestowed on this 
province. Energetic measures were promptly taken for the seizure of 
New Netherland. three ships being dispatched with six hundred soldiers, 
having on board Colonel Richard Nicolls, Colonel George Carteret, Sir 
Robert Carr and Samuel Maverick, as commissioners. On Friday, August 
19th, the fleet cast anchor in the outer bay of New Amsterdam. The sur- 
render of Manhattan was demanded the following day, but Stuyvesant 
retorted by a spirited protest, doubting if His Majesty of Great Britain 
was well informed, and asking if in time of peace it was judicious to 
demand a capitulation that would ofTend Holland. His argument or 
threats produced no effect upon the English commander, who refused to 
protract negotiations and threatened an immediate attack. Mortifying as 
it was for the doughty old soldier to surrender without a struggle, Stuy- 
vesant was compelled to submit to circumstances ; the majority of the 
inhabitants were unwilling to run the risk of an assault to which they 
could not hope to offer any effectual resistance in defense of a govern- 
ment with which they were discontented, and against another which 
many among them were secretly disposed to welcome. A liberal capitu- 
lation was arranged, and upon Monday, August 29th, the Dutch authori- 
ties surrendered the town and fort to the English, who immediately took 
possession. Colonel Nicolls was proclaimed deputy governor, and the 
people quietly submitted to the sway of the conquerors. 

The Duke of York conveyed the country between the Hudson and 
Delaware rivers to John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. As the 
extensive tract was thinly inhabited, the proprietaries offered favorable 
propositions to settlers. Absolute freedom of worship, and a Colonial 
Assembly, having sole power of taxation and a share of the legislation of 
the province, were among the principal inducements. The new grant 
was named Nova Caesarea, or New Jersey, from the island home of Sir 
George Carteret ; the first name, however, was finally dropped, as it was 
not popular with the settlers. 

The two proprietors were ardent sympathizers of the royal cause, 
and had been in the service of Charles I. Berkeley was the youngest 


son of Sir Maurice Berkeley and joined the royal army in operations 
against the Scots in 1638. In the Parliamentary war he was commissary- 
general for the King, governor of Exeter, and general of the forces in 
Devon. After the death of the King he went abroad with the royal 
family, and was made governor of the Duke of York's household. Hav- 
ing been created Baron Berkeley of Stratton at the time of the Restora- 
tion, he became a member of the Privy Council. Carteret was a son of 
Heller Carteret, deputy governor of the Isle of Jersey. The family was 
of French extraction, descended from the Lords of Carteret in the Duchy 
of Normandy, and had been connected with English history since the 
time of William the Conqueror. George Carteret entered the royal navy 
at an early age and for great services rendered the King he was knighted. 
At the time of the Civil War he withdrew to his home in Jersey, which 
he bravely defended as the last stronghold of the monarchy, and it became 
an asylum for the Prince of Wales and others of the royal party. He 
followed Charles II. to France and at the instigation of Cromwell was 
imprisoned in the Bastile and subsequently banished from the kingdom. 
Charles II. being in Brussels in 1659, he repaired thence and was one of 
his escort when the King was received by the city of London the follow- 
ing year. Sir George after the Restoration was appointed vice-chamber- 
lain and treasurer of the navy ; also a member of the Privy Council, and 
represented Portsmouth in Parliament. 

The trials through which these two lords had passed during the Civil 
War had brought them into intimate familiarity with the royal brothers 
and gave them great influence at court, lucrative offices were provided 
for them, and opportunities given them to promote their wealth and 
aggrandizement. The gifted Winthrop, who visited England after the 
Restoration to procure a new charter for Connecticut, by his representa- 
tions of the colonies had unwittingly excited the greed of the corrupt 
and wily parasites of the royal court. 

Berkeley and Carteret having received information of the territory 
west of the Hudson river, became eager to secure an investment in west- 
ern lands. The Duke of York having by his patent the right of sale as 
well as that of possession and rule, on June 24, 1664, conveyed to them 
for a competent sum of money the territory now known as New Jersey, 
which was then considered the most valuable of the Duke's territory. 
The concessions and agreements of the Lord Proprietors of New Jersey 
having been completed and signed Feb. 10, 1665, Captain Philip Carteret, 
a distant relative of Sir George, was commissioned governor of the new 
province. Robert Vauquelin (Sieur des Prairie) of the city of Caen in 
France, was appointed surveyor-general. 

Philip Carteret was born on the Isle of Jersey in 1639. He was the 
eldest son of Helier de Carteret, attorney-general of Jersey, and Rachel, 
his wife ; and a grandson of Peter De Carteret, jurat of the Royal Court 


of Jersey. By inheritance he was Seigneur of the Manor of La Huigue, 
Parish of Saint Peter, Jersey, but these honors did not prevent him 
leaving his native land to assume the government of a province in the 
New World. His early training on the Isle of Jersey, which retained the 
spirit of feudalism longer than more travelled parts, hardly fitted him 
to govern a people in whom the seeds of liberty and self-government 
seemed already sown. 

. The people of New England had viewed with longing eyes the lands 
located about the Achter Kull and on the Raritan. They had crossed 
the Sound from the colony of New Haven, invading Long Island, where 
they could scarcely gain a subsistence on its poor and barren soil, and 
were desirous of locating on the more fertile lands. They may have 
been, however, actuated by political reasons ; the people of New England 
under the Protectorate had enjoyed the utmost freedom in the admin- 
istration of civil affairs, and it was natural that on the restoration of 
Charles II. they should feel some misgivings as to the security of their 
rights and liberties. The colonists of New Haven were strongly embued 
with republican sentiments, and it was with the greatest reluctance that 
they consented to proclaim the new monarch and to congratulate him on 
his accession to the throne. 

The thoughts of the people of Connecticut at this time turned to the 
more liberal government of New Netherland, and negotiations were 
entered into with Governor Stuyvesant by those who had settled on 
Long Island, for lands at Achter Kull on Newark Bay. The first of those 
applicants was John Strickland, a resident of Huntington, Long Island, 
in behalf of himself and other New England people. This application 
was received by the Director-General at an opportune time, as the Dutch 
rulers had decided upon the policy of inviting republicans disaffected on 
account of the restoration of the English monarchy, to settle in their 
dominions, where they could enjoy civil and religious freedom. The 
Dutch West India Company had also adopted a charter of "Conditions 
and Privileges'' of a very liberal character. Mr. Strickland, therefore, 
received a favorable answer to his application, but no settlement was 

The people of New Haven Colony were also further disturbed by the 
action of the General Court of Connecticut, which sent its governor, 
John Winthrop, to England to procure a charter for the colony to em- 
brace the territory "eastward from the line of Plymouth colony, north- 
ward to the limits of Massachusetts colony, and westward to the Bay of 
Delaware, and also the islands contiguous." It was not strange that the 
liberal proposals of the Dutch government should meet with favorable 
reception in the towns of the New Haven Colony. A deputation was sent 
to New Amsterdam to make further inquiry and ascertain the character 
of the lands to be settled. This deputation was courteously entertained 


by the governor and council, and made so favorable a report that a 
second deputation visited New Amsterdam, with power to negotiate with 
Governor Stuyvesant for the settlement of a plantation near the Raritan 

This attempt to effect a settlement failed on account of one condition 
which the Director-General and the Council of New Amsterdam were 
unwilling to concede. The New Haven people wanted absolutely an 
independent community with all the rights of self-government. They 
were to gather a church in the congregational way ; the right of calling a 
Synod by the English churches that might be gathered in New Nether- 
land for regulation of their ecclesiastical affairs ; the right to administer 
justice in civil matters within themselves by magistrates of their own 
selection, without appeal to other authorities ; the purchase of the 
lands by the Dutch government from the natives and a full conveyance 
thereof to the associates forever ; none to be allowed to settle among 
them except by their own consent ; the right to collect debts — and a written 
charter stipulating these rights in full. All these conditions were freely 
granted except the concession of self-government without appeal, which 
would give the proposed colony greater liberty than was enjoyed by the 
other towns and settlements of New Netherland. The delegation insist- 
ing upon the fullest concession of popular rights, the conference was 
broken off. Although the negotiations were renewed at subsequent 
times, no satisfactory results were arrived at during the continuance of 
the jurisdiction of the Dutch. Later, in 1663, occurred the revolt against 
the Dutch government by the English people of Long Island, who placed 
themselves under the jurisdiction of Connecticut. An attempt made by a 
party of twenty Englishmen from Long Island to land at the mouth of 
the Raritan river with the intention of purchasing a plantation from the 
Indians, was frustrated by an armed party sent for that purpose by 
Governor Stuyvesant. 

Immediately upon the assumption of the government by Colonel 
Nicolls, the attention of those settlers who several years before sought 
removal to Achter Kull, was directed again to this inviting region. An 
association was formed, and several of their number yvere dispatched to 
New York to secure from the governor liberty to purchase and settle a 
plantation. Four weeks after the surrender of New Amsterdam, Gov- 
ernor Nicolls granted the petition of John Bailies, Daniel Denton, 
Thomas Benydick, Nathaniel Denton, John Foster and Luke Watson, 
for the settlement of a plantation of New Jersey. A tract of land was 
purchased of the Indians ; in a deed given by them the names of John 
Bayley, Daniel Denton and Luke Watson appear, while in the official 
confirmation given by Governor Nicolls the names of John Ogden of 
Northampton and Captain John Baker of New York are added. The 
tract is described as bounded "on the south by the Raritan river, east 


to the sea which divides Staten Island from the main land, to run north- 
wards up the bay until you come to the first river, and to run westward 
twice the length of the breadth of the tract from north to south." This 
tract contained 500,000 acres upland and meadows, in fair proportions, 
well watered, diversified with level plains and ranges of hill of consider- 
able elevation, the soil of the uplands being mostly of clay loam and 
shale susceptible of a high state of cultivation. It extended from the 
mouth of the Raritan on the south to the mouth of the Passaic on the 
north, a distance of seventeen miles, and running back into the country 
thirty-four miles, embracing the towns of Woodbridge, Piscataway, 
Union county, parts of the towns of Newark and Clinton, a small part 
of Morris county, and a considerable portion of Somerset county. 

Having secured absolute proprietorship, measures were taken for a 
speedy and effective occupation of the domain. The precise date when 
the settlement of what was to become Elizabethtown, was actually com- 
menced is not known. When, on July 29, 1665, Governor Carteret 
arrived on the good ship "Philip" at New York, with a party of thirty 
settlers, including eighteen male servants, a number of whom were 
French, he allowed but a few days to elapse before taking possession of 
the new province. Arriving at the Point, the entrance of the creek, 
where the Connecticut settlers had laid out their town, he was met by 
the settlers gathered about the landing to receive the newcomers. Gov- 
ernor Carteret submitted his credentials to Ogden and his townsmen. 
The enterprising settlers had unwittingly prepared a capital for the new 
governor in the primitive wilderness, and made a promising beginning 
in the way of improvements. 

The settlers of the first two or three years were mainly of one class 
and of the same origin, almost wholly New Englanders from Long 
Island and Connecticut. Very few of the planters for the first five years 
came over directly from the Mother Country. Governor Carteret, anx- 
ious for the growth of the new province, confirmed the grants of Gov- 
ernor Nicolls ; although they were repudiated by the Duke of York, he 
was lenient in forcing the terms of the concessions, and allowed the 
Hempstead Code of Laws to stand. He purchased a lot from one of 
the associates and established a residence, and, with a hoe carried on 
his shoulder, thereby intimated his intention to become a planter. He 
sent word far and wide through the colonies that New Jersey was open 
for settlement under the protection of a governor. Two years passed, 
the province commenced to grow, ships came and went, bringing settlers 
and merchandise; the Puritans of Connecticut obtained a grant on the 
Passaic river. In April, 1668, the governor issued his first call for a 
General Assembly to meet at Elizabethtown, May 25, 1668. It was 
in session five days, and enacted the Elizabethtown Code of Laws. This 
code differed but slightly from the Hempstead Code of Laws formulated 


in 1664 at Hempstead, Long Island. Differences, however, arose between 
the governor and delegates ; the former dissolved the Assembly, and for 
two years refused to call another, carrying on the government with the 
aid of his council. 

In the meantime the Lord Proprietors were involved in financial 
troubles in England ; Berkeley had been detected in the basest corrup- 
tion and had been deprived of office ; Carteret was accused of being a 
defaulter of the funds of the navy. These circumstances led to a renewal 
of a scheme to annex New Jersey to the province of New York, in 
which Colonel Nicolls had always been interested. Measures were 
accordingly taken by the Duke of York to further this scheme, which 
was nearly consummated, but by some turn of the political wheels, the 
two proprietors regained royal favors, received appointments in Ireland, 
retained possession of their charter, and Elizabethtown remained the 
seat of government, the residence of the governor and his officials. 

Between the governor and the popular branch of the government 
had grown up an irreconcilable difference. The Assembly, though the 
governor refused to convene it, met in 1670, again March 26, 1671, 
adjourning to May 14, 1671. It was then called the Assembly, or the 
House of Burgesses, and deputies were present from Elizabethtown, 
Newark, Bergen, Woodbridge and Piscataway. The governor refusing 
to preside over the Assembly either in person or by deputy, the members 
appointed Captain James Carteret, a son of Sir George, who was then 
residing in Elizabethtown, presiding officer. The occasion of Captain 
Carteret being in Elizabethtown was that he was on his way to North 
Carolina to take possession of his newly acquired domain as landgrave. 
He had been requested by his father to call upon Governor Carteret to 
confer with him in respect to the affairs of the province. The captain 
seems, in order to conciliate the aggrieved planters, to have taken their 
side, as on his elevation as presiding officer of the Assembly he issued 
a warrant for the arrest of William Pardon, the secretary of the House, 
for refusing to deliver the acts and proceedings of the Assembly, which 
had been destroyed by the order of the governor. Pardon was arrested, 
but made his escape, fleeing to Bergen, where Governor Carteret and his 
council were in session. The executive and his council issued a docu- 
ment at Bergen, May 28, 1671, declaring his purpose that unless the 
people would declare their submission in ten days he should proceed 
against them as mutineers and enemies of the government. Pardon 
was appointed to read this proclamation before a town meeting ; an 
order was issued for his arrest, his house was broken into, and all his 
movables carried away. The governor, by the advice of his council, 
determined to lay the grievances of the province before the Lord Pro- 
prietors. Thereupon he sailed for England with some of his officials, 
appointing John Berry deputy governor in his place. Captain James 



Carteret occupied the government house at EHzabethtown, making 
frequent visits to New York, and on April 15, 1673, married Frances, 
daughter of Captain Thomas Delavall, merchant and mayor of that city. 
He had hardly completed his honeymoon when he received dispatches 
and instructions from his aged father requiring him to retire from the 
scene of conflict and look after his patrimony in Carolina. Just at this 
juncture, in July, 1673, New York surrendered to the Dutch rule. By 
the treat}' of Westminster, concluded the following year between Eng- 
land and Holland, all conquests were mutually restored ; New Jersey 
consequently again passed into the hands of the English. 

Governor Carteret returned from England in November, 1674, 
Berkeley had sold his half of the province, and Sir George Carteret had 
become sole proprietor of East Jersey under a new patent from the Duke 
of York, who had received a new charter from Charles II. Time had 
softened the animosity of the people, and Governor Carteret was warmly 
welcomed. Life at the court of the Stuarts had confirmed Carteret in 
his opinions, and the Dutch rule had strengthened the spirit of freedom 
in the people, and the same disagreement arose almost at once. Not 
content to let old grievances drop, Carteret revived the old questions 
of land patents and other matters of former dissensions. The people 
offered to compromise, but the governor refused to recede from his 
position, and the people were obliged to yield. A season of comparative 
peace followed, and the province developed under Carteret's rule. 

The same ship in which Carteret sailed from England brought as a 
passenger Sir Edmund Andros, a kinsman, the newly appointed governor 
of New York. Later he became governor of all the colonies, and in his 
attempt to extend his jurisdiction over New Jersey came in conflict with 
the government of Carteret, and also with the desires and interests of 
the people, who united in common cause against a formidable enemy, 
and all former animosities were forgotten. In March, 1680, Andros 
notified Carteret that he intended to take military possession of the 
province and to erect a fort at Sandy Point. Carteret was decided in 
his opposition, but the dogmatic Andros in a cowardly way effected the 
capture of the governor, confining him in prison. Carteret was brought 
to trial for presuming to exercise jurisdiction within the bounds of His 
Majesty's letters-patent granted to the Duke of York. The jury, how- 
ever, declared him not guilty, and he was acquitted, but an order was 
appended to the judgment of the court requiring him to give security 
that he would not exercise jurisdiction either civil or military in the 
province of New Jersey. Upon his release on parole, Carteret appealed 
to the new government, and occupied his leisure in leading the life of 
a private citizen at EHzabethtown, improving his estate, the erection of 
a new house, and in getting married. In March, 1681, on receipt of 
letters from England, Governor Carteret resumed office by proclamation 

Mid— 2 


and took up the controversy with the people, which remained a matter 
of litigation until the Revolution intervened. The heirs of Sir George 
Carteret having sold their interests in East Jersey, the governor was 
superseded in November, 1682, by Deputy Governor Thomas Rudyard. 
His death occurred soon afterwards, December 10, 1682, in his forty- 
fourth year, undoubtedly hastened by the exposure and ill treatment at 
the time of his arrest by Andros. 

Carteret was an honorable man of good character, and sincerely tried 
to govern his people well, according to his lights. Unfortunately he was 
a Royalist, believing in the divine rights of kings, and could have had 
little sympathy with the Puritan religion and Roundhead politics. Taken 
as a whole, his governorship cannot be considered a failure. He was a 
man of good moral character, firmness, even temper, and simplicity. 
East Jersey developed under his rule without check or failure. He 
showed possibly a lack of adaptability, but he came to the colonies to 
rule, not to be ruled by those under his authority. 



The colonization of Elizabethtown stimulated and encouraged the 
settlement of the country laying west in the Valley of the Raritan. Dan- 
iel Pierce, with other associates residing in Newbury, Massachusetts, on 
May 21, 1666, entered into an agreement with Governor Carteret, John 
Ogden and Luke Watson, to settle two townships. The tract specified 
was known as Arthur Kull, or Amboyle, originally granted by Governor 
Nicolls to John Bailey, Daniel Denton and Luke Watson, extending 
from the Raritan river to the Rawack river and running back into the 
country, according to the Indian deed. In consideration of £80 sterling, 
one-half of this tract was transferred to Pierce, December 11, 1666. A 
week later he transferred to John Martin, Charles Gilman, Hugh Dunn 
and Hopewell Hull a third part of the land he had thus acquired. On 
December 3, 1667, Pierce was commissioned deputy-surveyor to lay out 
the bounds of a town to be known as Woodbridge, and to apportion the 
land belonging to each individual. On June 11, 1669, he and his asso- 
ciates received a charter which created the tract of land therein described 
(said to contain six miles square) into a township to consist of not less 
than sixty families. By a resolution adopted on that day, this number of 
families was not to be exceeded unless by special order of the town. 

The nine original associates were John Bishop, Robert Dennis, Henry 
Jacques, Stephen Kent, Hugh March, John Pike, Daniel Pierce, Joshua 
Pierce, and John Smith, wheelwright, to designate him from another of 
the same name, who was a Scotchman. These associates were allowed 
to retain two hundred and forty acres of upland and forty of meadow in 
addition to the regular allotment to each freeholder. The Pikes, Pierces, 
Bishops, Jacques, Kents and Marches were from Newbury, Massachu- 
setts ; Dennis, another of the associates, was from Yarmouth, in the same 
colony. John Smith was honored immediately after the organization 
of the town with the post of constable, later promoted to a deputy to 
the Assembly and an assistant judge. The town meetings were at first 
held at his house, he acting as moderator, and he appears to have been 
an esteemed citizen. There is no mention made in the records of his 
family, and his identity and his descendants become lost in the numerous 
Smiths in the vicinity. 

John Pike seems to have become the prominent man of the town 
immediately after settlement ; he was elected president of Woodbridge, 
became one of Governor Carteret's councillors, and was appointed 
captain of the militia. Major Zebulon Pike, of the Revolutionary War, 
and General Zebulon Montgomery Pike, who distinguished himself in 


the War of 1812, were of this family. Daniel Pierce was a blacksmith, 
whose father first settled at Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1637. He 
returned to Newbury, Massachusetts, soon after the settlement of Wood- 
bridge ; Joshua, his son, died in the latter part of 1670. Robert Dennis, 
thoug-h he held many offices in the township and was highly respected, 
owing to infirmities of body ceases to be mentioned after 1675. John 
Bishop was a carpenter, and though he held several prominent offices in 
the town there is no mention in any way to throw light upon his char- 
acter. Henry Jacques was also a carpenter. Stephen Kent, one of the 
earliest settlers of Newbury, was an old man on his arrival in New Jer- 
sey. Hugh March subsequently returned to Newbury. 

The majority of the first settlers came from New England, and most 
of them were descendants from the Puritans. The inhabitants of Wood- 
bridge pursued the even tenor of their ways amidst the quietness and 
sobriety of a secluded agricultural people. Woodbridge had ten thou- 
sand acres for the town and twenty thousand for adjoining plantations, 
several of these being highly improved. A court house and prison were 
there, and the possession of a charter gave to the town a peculiar con- 
sideration in the province. At the time of the transfer of East Jersey to 
the twenty-four Proprietors, March 14, 1682, Woodbridge's population 
was estimated at six hundred. The inhabitants were loyal to the Dutch 
and English governors, to the proprietaries' interests or royal preroga- 
tives, whichever had the ascendancy. Plain Samuel Dennis, justice 
under English rule, became Samuel Dennis, schepen, when the Hol- 
landers temporarily gained the supremacy. The town with equal facility 
was transferred from the province of New Jersey to the schoutship of 
Achter Kull in the New Netherland. 

Among the early settlers of Woodbridge were the Bloomfields ; 
Thomas and his son Thomas became freeholders in 1670. The elder 
Bloomfield was a carpenter by trade, and his grandson. Captain John 
Bloomfield, was in Colonel Dayton's Third Continental Regiment in 
1776. The Comptons came to Woodbridge when it was a vast forest, 
William being the pioneer settler, and he was the first white man to 
cut down the timber. His daughter Mary was the first white child born 
in the township. John French worked at his trade of mason and builder 
at an early date. The Gannitt and Grasie families were of Huguenot 
descent who settled upon Staten Island and subsequently came to New 
Jersey. Samuel Hale came from Newbury, Massachusetts, was a surgeon, 
held official relation in the Assembly, and in framing the charter of the 
township. Samuel Morse was the first town clerk and held the office 
for a score of years. He and his brother Matthew made New Jersey 
their permanent abode from the time of their arrival. Benjamin and 
Elisha Parker were not relatives, but they came about the same time 
to Woodbridge; Benjamin was a freeholder in 1670; Elisha first settled 


in Woodbridge in 1675, was appointed high sheriff of the county of 
Middlesex in 1694, represented the county in the Provincial Assembly 
and was a member of Governor Hunter's council. Richard, the ancestor 
of the Connerly family, was of Scotch descent, and came to Woodbridge 
in 1680. He settled near the "Blazing Star Ferry," on the Kill Von Kull, 
and probably kept the ferry, near which he lived. He was a joiner by 
trade. George Lockhart, a practitioner of physic, is mentioned in 1679 
as residing in Woodbridge. Peter Dessigny was another practitioner 
of physic, or "chirurgeon," and was living in the township in 1692. The 
Rev. Archibald Riddell was a passenger on the ill-fated ship "Henry 
and Francis" that brought Scot's cargo of Scottish Covenanters to 
America ; he officiated as pastor to the people of Woodbridge during his 
enforced residence in America. Another passenger on Scot's vessel, 
Robert Mcl-ellan, bought a plantation in Woodbridge, having as an 
inmate of his family Rev. Mr. Riddell. They sailed for Europe together 
in 1689. but McLellan subsequently returned and took possession of 
his lands in Woodbridge. Adam Hood or Hude was also a passenger 
in the "Henry and Francis ;" he is styled in the old records as a weaver ; 
he purchased in 1695 lands in Woodbridge, and became in 1718 one of 
the judges of the Court of Common Pleas for Middlesex county, and soon 
after the presiding judge, acting in that capacity until 1733. 

The affairs of Woodbridge were managed as in New England at 
town meetings, and in January, 1699, it became necessary to make it 
obligatory to attend these meetings under a penalty of nine pence for 
non-attendance, and upon refusal to pay the fine the delinquent was to 
be turned out of the meeting house. The early residents deemed it 
necessary to prepare against Indian attacks, and a rate was levied to 
provide ten pounds of powder and twenty pounds of lead ; the prison 
was ordered to be fortified by stockades of a half or whole tree of nine 
feet long at least, to provide a place of safety for the women and chil- 
dren, but it was never occupied. A ranger of the woods was appointed 
to prevent danger threatened by the French and Indians. These are 
the only occurrences on record intimating the existence of any appre- 
hended difficulty with the natives. The first grist mill in the township 
was erected in 1670-71 by Jonathan Dunham, and a saw mill was built 
on Rahawack river by James Bishop in 1682. In February, 1703, John 
Clake (or Cleak) was encouraged to put up a fulling mill by a grant of 
twenty acres of land on the Rahawack. The first tavern was established 
by Samuel Moore in 1683, where rum could be had for three shillings 
per gallon. The killer of wolves was allowed from ten to twenty-five 
shillings for each head. 

The early associates of Piscataway came principally from the region 
watered by the Piscataqua river, which now is a portion of the boundary 
line of Maine and New Hampshire. It is the Indian name of one of the 


eastern tribes, and the orthography of the town's name was changed 
soon after its settlement to its present form. The original grantees 
were Hugh Dunn, Hopewell Hull, John Martin, Charles Oilman, Robert 
Dennis, John Smith, John Oilman and Benjamin Hull. The names 
first mentioned in the contracts and assignments of lands in this town- 
ship were the Oilmans in 1675 ; the Blackshaws, Drakes, Hands and 
Hendricks in 1677; the Dotys (Doughtys) and Wolfs in 1678; the Smal- 
leys, Hulls and Trothers in 1679; the Hansworths, Martins and Higgins 
in 1680; the Dunhams, Laflowers (Laforge) and Fitz Randolphs in 1681 ; 
the Suttons, Brindleys, Bounds (Bound) and Fords in 1682; the Orubs 
and Adams in 1683; the Pregmores in 1684; the Davises and Slaughters 
in 1685 ; the Chandlers and Smiths in 1689. 

In the southeastern portion of the township lived members of the 
Fields family, whose ancestor came from England and settled at New- 
port, Rhode Island, in an early day. He removed to Flushing, Long 
Island, from whence John Field passed into New Jersey, purchasing 
1,050 acres 13'ing between Bound Brook and New Brunswick, along the 
Raritan river. The Oarretsons were of Dutch stock, the first of the fam- 
ily emigrating from Holland in 1658. A descendant, Hendrick Oarretson, 
was at Richmond, Staten Island, and in 1698 purchased of Jacques Poil- 
lion a farm upon the Raritan river. John Smalley is named as a free- 
holder in 1691. The Martins and Dunhams were from Dover, New 
Hampshire, and of the latter family Rev. Edward Dunham was the first 
clergyman of the Seventh Day Baptist church in Piscataway. Among 
the first members of this church were Thomas and John Fitz Randolph, 
who resided in the center of the township. They were descendants of 
Edward Fitz Randolph, a scion of an ancient family of Yorkshire who 
traced their ancestry to Count Herald Fitz Randolph, who accompanied 
William the Conqueror to England and upon whom he settled various 
estates. The American ancestor, in company with his widowed mother, 
came to New England in 1630; he married at Barnstable, Massachu- 
setts, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Blossom, and with his wife and 
their unmarried children : John, Joseph, Elizabeth, Thomas, Benjamin 
and perhaps Hope, removed from Massachusetts to Piscataway in 1668. 
Edward Fitz Randolph was a man of note and is mentioned in the rec- 
ords of Barnstable, Massachusetts, as one of the earliest settlers of that 
town ; he died shortly after coming to New Jersey. Edward Slater 
was a freeholder in the township in 1683, and owned a large number of 
acres ; he was the first clerk of the courts of the county. Vincent Rug- 
nion, the name afterwards becoming Runyon, was of Huguenot descent ; 
he removed to Piscataway in 1677, and was allotted land on the Raritan 
river. Therefore, by a cursory examination it can be readily seen that 
the first settlers of Piscataway were of more mixed nationality than the 
New England settlers of Woodbridge. 



Lhe original settlers in the vicinity of New Brunswick were Dutch 
and French Protestants. There were, however, in 1683, some English 
and Dutch plantations on the Raritan above and below the present city 
of New Brunswick, while the central part was only a swamp. In June, 
1681, John Inian and company purchased from the Indians a tract of land 
embracing ten thousand acres on the south side of the Raritan river 
opposite the township of Piscataway. This tract afterwards became 
known as the Raritan lots, and is now the lower edge of New Bruns- 
wick, running along the river to near Bound Brook. The tract was soon 
afterwards surveyed and laid out into nineteen lots having in general 
less than a half of mile of river front and about two miles deep, aggre- 
gating about six hundred and forty acres. John Inian purchased two 
of these lots in what is now New Brunswick ; to the north of his pur- 
chase, lots were sold to Gibbons, Inian, Bainbridge, Bridgeman, Miller, 
Jones, Clements, Antill and Dockwra. South of Inian's purchase, 
Thomas Lawrence bought three thousand acres ; this tract subsequently 
came into the possession of Cornelius Longfield and Governor Barclay, 
while that of Inian was purchased by Philip French, who laid out 
streets upon it and cut it up into building lots and farms. 

The first Dutch on the Raritan came about 1683, principally from 
Long Island. The condition of affairs cannot be better illustrated than 
giving extracts from a Scotchman's letter to his brother in Edinburgh. 
He writes that the Indians are nothing to fear, the country being as 
peaceable as anywhere else. There are no bears, nor ravenous beasts 
except wolves, which are harmless ; snakes are not to be noticed, as 
they give timely warning of an attack by the rattling of their tails. 
Oxen are so well taught they go sometimes in a plough or cart without 
horse or without a gad-man. Horses and cattle are as cheap as in Scot- 
land. The air, he writes, is healthful, the soil fruitful, Indian corn yielding 
commonly two or three hundred fold and oats twenty fold. He informs 
his brother that there were several reasonably good towns in the prov- 
ince of more than eighty families each, that they were no poor people, 
and the liquor they used was cider, as there was a great store of fruit. 
The old inhabitants, he states, are a most careful and infrugal people, 
their profession most part Protestants, a few Quakers, and some Ana- 
baptists, but there was a lack of preachers and he hoped his brother 
would be instrumental in filling this want. 

The point at the mouth of the Raritan river is first mentioned in the 
deed of Augustine Heermans by the name of Ompage. In the subse- 
quent deed to Bailey, Denton and Watson, no particular name is given 
to either the point or country, but the next year, Bailey transferring his 
rights to Philip Carteret, calls the country, Arthur Cull or Emboyle, 
which was written Amboyle; from these names Ambo was derived and 
conferred upon the point. In granting the charter of Woodbridge, it 


was specified that one thousand acres should be reserved in and about 
Ambo Point, one hundred acres of which were to be laid out in the most 
convenient place adjacent to the point. This reservation is a proof of 
sound discrimination and judgment of Governor Carteret, as it was a 
most eligible site tor the situation of a city. He most likely had in mind 
the opposition to his authority shown at Elizabethtown, which induced 
him to recommend the removal of the seat of government to some 
place where the interests of the proprietaries would be more regarded. 
The transfer of the province into other hands and the death of Carteret 
prevented the realization of his plans. The new proprietaries also were 
interested in establishing a city at the point, and contributed £1,200 
in furtherance of the project, but their deputy governors were slow in 
making progress, and it was not until 1684 that any effective steps were 
taken. In that year, Lawrie, the then deputy governor, received positive 
orders to remove the offices of government from Elizabethtown to what 
was then called the new town of Perth. 

In the month of December, 1685, an arrival of more than ordinary 
interest occurred at the Point. A vessel freighted with Scotchmen upon 
whom persecution had wrought the work of purification and whose souls 
had been tempered for patient endurance by sore trials and misfortunes, 
anchored in the harbor. They were Scotch Covenanters, members of 
the Cameronians, a sect of Scotch Presbyterian dissenters. James I. 
had enforced on his Scottish subjects a liturgy which the people 
abhorred. This exercise of the royal prerogative led in 1638 to the 
formation of a covenant in behalf of the true religion and freedom of the 
Kirkdom. The organization of the Scottish Presbytery was still further 
completed in the adoption of the Presbyterian form of church govern- 
ment, a Calvinistic confession of faith, and the two catechisms, which 
documents are still the standard of the Scottish Kirk. The act of English 
and Scottish parliaments against conventicles, the legalized persecutions, 
with other irritating matters, exasperated the Covenanters to a point 
where they thought forbearance ceased to be a duty. They therefore 
took up arms against the royal power and were disastrously beaten, and 
many executed and imprisoned. They largely were inhabitants of the 
Lowlands of Scotland, the Highlanders being generally adherents of 
the Roman Catholic religion or the Church of England. To these people 
America offered a refuge, and through the exertions of George Scot, 
Laird of Pitlochie, early in May, 1685, a ship of three hundred and fifty 
tons named the "Henry and Francis" of Newcastle, England, was char- 
tered. On September 5, 1685, the vessel left the harbor of Leith, Scotland, 
having on board nearly two hundred passengers, some of whom had 
been on board since the previous summer. The voyage was long and 
disastrous, fifteen weeks being consumed in crossing the ocean. A fever 
of a malignant type broke out, and the meat, owing probably to the 


length of time which had elapsed since the vessel was chartered, became 
offensive and uneatable. As many as seventy died at sea, among whom 
was George Scot, Laird of Pitlochie, his wife also, her sister-in-law, Lady 
Althernie, and her two children. 

The charge for transportation as publicly announced was £5 sterling 
for each adult, and to each of those who were unable to pay for their 
passage was promised twenty-five acres of land and a suit of new clothes 
on the completion of four years' service to those who advanced the requi- 
site amount. After their arrival, considerable difficulty took place on 
account of those that had come over without paying their passage money. 
An attempt was made to have them serve their four years' indenture in 
consideration of the expense incurred by Scot for their transportation. 
This they would not agree to, and suits were brought. The jury returned 
a verdict for the plaintiff of £5 sterling and costs. It is a difficult matter 
to determine how many of these Scotch Covenanters became permanent 
residents of Perth Amboy. A large number of them returned to Eng- 
land ; others, on the accession of William and Mary to the throne of 
England, returned to their native land. A more detailed account of those 
that remained in Perth Amboy will be given in the history of that city 
in this work. 


The following with relation to the East Jersey Proprietors, by Adrian 
Lyon, registrar of the Board of Proprietors of East Jersey, was read at 
the meeting of the Woman's Branch of the New Jersey Historical Society 
at Newark, May lo, 1916: 

On ]une 24, 1497, John and Sebastian Cabot, sailing under the author- 
ity of Henry VH. of England, reached North America, unfurled the 
royal banner and took possession in the name of the King. From this 
is derived the English title. On March 12, in the sixteenth year of the 
reign of Charles H., 1664, he granted to his brother James, Duke of 
York, the lands from the west side of Connecticut river to the east side 
of Delaware bay, together with the right of government. 

On June 24, 1664, James, Duke of York, granted to John Lord Berk- 
ley, Baron of Stratton, and Sir George Carteret, of Saltrum, Knight, 
two of His Majesty's most Honorable Privy Council, "all that tract of 
land adjacent to New England and lying and being to the westward of 
Long Island and Manhitas Island, and bounded on the east part by the 
main sea, and part by Hudson river, and hath upon the west Delaware 
bay or river, and extendeth southward to the main ocean as far as Cape 
May at the mouth of Delaware bay ; and to the northward as far as the 
northermost branch of the said bay or river of Delaware, which is 41° 40' 
of latitude, and crosseth over thence in a straight line to Hudson's river 
in 41 degrees of latitude ; which said tract of land is hereafter to be 
called by the name or names of New Caeserea or New Jersey." This 
conveyance was by the common form of lease and release, and conveyed 
the soil only, but did not transfer the right of government. 

On July 30, 1673, New York and New Jersey were taken by the 
Dutch. On Feb. 9, 1674, a treaty of peace restored the country to the 
English, and they continued in undisturbed possession until the war of 

Because the country was conquered by the Dutch and afterwards 
restored to the English, Charles II., on June 29, 1674, gave a new grant 
to James, Duke of York, similar to the former grant, and on July 29, 
1674, James, Duke of York, gave another grant to Sir George Carteret 
for that part of New Jersey as far southward as Barnegat creek. 

On July I, 1676, the quintipartite deed was executed between Sir 
George Carteret, William Penn, Gawen Lawry, Nicholas Lucas, and 
Edward Billinge, by which East New Jersey was confirmed to Sir George 
Carteret, and the partition line between East Jersey and West Jersey 
was described. This division line ran from the east side of Little Egg 


Harbour to a point on the Delaware river where it was intersected by 
the old partition line between New York and New Jersey as intended 
by the original grant from the Duke of York to Berkley and Carteret. 
This point was at 41° 40' latitude, and was some distance above the 
point where the river curves sharply to the west. This results in throw- 
ing the division line farther to the west than can be readily understood 
by those who have in mind the most northerly point of the State as it 
now exists. The situation can readily be seen by reference to the map 
in Smith's "History of New Jersey." This line is commonly known as 
the Lawrence line, because it was run by John Lawrence, a surveyor, 
in 1743. 

Sir George Carteret died in 16S0. By his will he left his widow. Lady 
Elizabeth, executrix of his estate and guardian of his grandson and heir 
and devised to six persons all his property in East Jersey, in trust for 
the benefit of his creditors. These trustees were Right Hon. John Earl 
of Bath, Thomas Lord Creive, the Hon. Barnard Greenvill, Esqr., brother 
of the =^aid Earl of Bath, Sr. Robert Atkins, Knight of the Bath, Sr. 
"Edward Atkins, Knight, one of the Barons of His Majesty's Court of 
Exchequer. On March 16, 1680, by a writing, they declared "that all 
Pattents of any Lands in the said Province granted or to be granted to 
any Person or Persons whatsoever shall hereafter be made in the name 
only of the Right Honble the Lady Elizabeth Carteret, widdow, the 
Relict and sole Executrix of the said Sr. George Carteret, deceased, and 
grandmother and gardian to Sr. George Carteret Baronet Grandsone 
and heir of the said Sr. George Carteret deceased." These trustees 
offered said property in East Jersey at public sale to the highest bidder. 
William Penn and eleven associates purchased it for £3,400, and it was 
conveyed to them on Feb. 2, 1682. Each of these twelve proprietors 
subsequently sold one-half of his respective right to a new associate, 
making twenty-four in all. 

On March 14, 1682, the Duke of York confirmed the title of the 
twenty-four proprietors to East Jersey by name as follows : Right Hon. 
James Earl of Perth, the Hon. John Drummond, Esq., of Lundy ; Robert 
Barclay, Esq., and David Barclay, Junior, Esq., of Eury ; Robert Gordon, 
Esq.. of Cluny ; Arent Sonmans, Esq., of Wallingford, all in the Kingdom 
of Scotland; William Penn, Esq., of Worminghurst in the county of 
Sussex; Robert West, Esq., of the Middle Temple, London; Thomas 
Rudyard, gentleman, of London; Samuel Groom, mariner, of the parish 
of Stepney in the county of Middlesex; Thomas Hart, merchant, of 
Enfield, in the county of Middlesex; Richard Mew, merchant, of Stepney, 
aforesaid; Ambrose Rigg, gentleman, of Gatton Place in the county of 
Surry ; Thomas Cooper, citizen and merchant-taylor, of London ; Gawen 
Lawry, merchant, of London ; Edward Billing, gentleman, of the city of 
Westminster, in the county of Middlesex; James Braine, merchant, of 


London ; William Gibson, citizen and haberdasher, of London ; John 
Haywood, citizen and skinner, of London ; Hugh Hartshorne, citizen and 
skinner, of London ; Clement Plunsteed, citizen and draper, of London ; 
Thomas Barker, merchant, of London ; Robert Turner, merchant, and 
Thomas Warne, merchant, both of the city of Dublin, in the Kingdom 
of Ireland. These included the twelve original proprietors with the 
exception of Thomas Wilcox, who had sold his entire interest to David 
Barclay. This grant is recorded in the office of the East Jersey Pro- 
prietors in Book A, page 53. 

By a letter under date of Nov. 23, 1683, addressed to the Governor 
and Council of East New Jersey, and to the planters, inhabitants, and 
all others concerned in the Province, Charles II. recognized the title of 
the twenty-four proprietors to the soil and the right of government. 
In Whitehead's "History of East Jersey under the Proprietors" he 
states that : 

"The greater number of the proprietaries being in England and 
Scotland, all orders and instructions, however minute, emanated at first 
from their councils there; but emigration and a transfer of proprietary 
rights soon brought to the province such a number of those directly 
interested in the soil, that on the first August, 1684, a board of com- 
missioners was established, comprising all the proprietaries that might 
be from time to time in the province, to act with the deputy governor 
in the temporary approval of laws passed by the Assembly — the settle- 
ment of all disputes with the planters — the purchase and laying out of 
lands, and other matters. This soon after became known as the 'Board 
of Proprietors,' and continued to have the chief management within the 
province, of those concerns which were connected with the proprietary 
titles to the government and soil. To this board was also intrusted the 
adoption of such measures as might best conduce to the advancement 
and improvement of a new town to be called 'Perth,' in honor of the Earl 
of Perth, one of the proprietaries, standing on what was then known as 
Ambo Point." 

The earliest minutes of the meetings of the proprietors are found in 
book A. B., No. i. This is entitled: "The Journal! of the procedure of 
the proprietors and proxies to proprietors of this province of East New 
Jersey from and after the 9th day of Aprill Anno dm 1685." The 
writing is hard to decipher by those not familiar with it. It soon yields 
to diligence and attention, however, and can be read with little trouble. 
This volume is interesting by reason of the fact that it contains the 
minutes to the year 1705, and thus includes the whole period during 
which the proprietors had the government of the province as well as 
the title to the soil. 

The first item is a record of a deputation of power dated Aug. i, 
1684, from Robert Barclay, Governor, and other proprietors of the 
province to Gawen Lawrie, the deputy governor, to do sundry things, 
among which was to approve and confirm such acts of Assembly as 


shall be found necessary to establish before copies could be sent to them 
for confirmation. The limitation as to the acts to be approved and the 
temporary nature of the power was shown by the concluding words : 
"But when the fundamentall Constitutions are passed in Assembly then 
to proceed according to them." 

Other powers given by this and another similar deputation of power 
dated Nov. 13, 1684, also recorded in this book, were to end all matters 
in debate between the proprietors and the former planters ; to "order, 
settle, sell, or dispose of by Pattent, the Lotts for building and other 
Lands of Perth so as may best conduce to the advance and improvement 
of that towne ;" to purchase and take lands in the Proprietors' names 
from the Indians ; to rent lands to those who may desire to settle, and 
this was to be without limit "until we see what further prospect there 
may be of sending over people enough from England, Scotland and 
other nations for that end ;" to run the several lines of division between 
the province and New York and West Jersey ; to raise out of the sale 
of lands or quit rents £180 to pay to Thomas Rudyard for his services 
while Governor; to end all controversies and differences with men of 
Neversinks and Elizabeth Towne or any other planters, expressly stat- 
ing that they would "not enter into any treaty on this side with any of 
those people who claim by Collonell Nicholl's pattent nor with any other 
that claims land by pretenses from the late Governor Carteret as being 
both an affront to the Government And of Evill Consequence to make 
things to be put of by delays and thereby hinder the settlement of our 
affairs in the province ;" to remove restrictions in favor of those who 
have purchased shares and sent over stores ; to set off twenty-five acres 
to each servant that may come into the province ; to grant warrants and 
patents, on the signature of three members of the council until the pas- 
sage of the fundamental laws ; to fill vacancies in the offices of secretary, 
surveyor general, or registrar; to lay a tax of £5 on each propriety and 
collect the same. 

The first meeting, of which the minutes are recorded in this book, 
was held at Elizabeth Towne on April 9, 1685. There were present at 
this meeting Gawen Lawrie, deputy governor; Thomas Rudyard, sec- 
retary ; Thomas Warne, John Campbell, David Mudy, John Barclay, 
Thomas Fullerton, Robert Fullerton, Thomas Gordon, and James 

At this first meeting the deputation to Gawen Lawrie was received 
and ordered to be put on record in a book to contain a journal of the 
procedure of the Proprietors. George Keith also produced his com- 
mission to be surveyor general, which was subscribed in Scotland July 
31, 1684, and in London, Aug. 8, 1684, by a major part of the proprietors. 
William Haige also produced a commission dated July 27, 1683, for the 
surveyor general's place which was still in force. Upon the production 


of these commissions a resolution was passed that George Keith should 
have a warrant for five hundred acres and also a town lot to be laid out 
to him by the governor and that further consideration of the commis- 
sion for the surveyor general be deferred until the next meeting of the 
council. Pursuant to the foregoing order it was agreed that George 
Keith should have one of the proprietors' houses, namely, "that wherein 
Thomas Warne now inhabits." 

The consideration of the laying out of Amboy was suggested and 
was deferred until the next meeting. It was brought up at the next 
meeting and an order was made by the council that a map of Perth 
Amboy be prepared. There is to be found in the office a map made on 
parchment bearing no date but entitled "A Mapp of Perth Amboy East 
New Jersey containing 1,100 Acres Subtract 30 for the Waste Ground 
Remains 1,070 Acres." This map shows plots to various persons, among 
them being Peter Sonmons, Governor Lawrie, 20 acres, William Haige, 
13 acres, Governor Robert Barclay, 25 acres, Thomas Warne, Benjamin 
Clark, George Wilcox, John Campbell, 12 acres, Thomas Gordon, 6 
acres. Many of the streets are laid out as they exist at present in Perth 
Amboy, and the roads from Perth Amboy to Piscataway and Wood- 
bridge are distinctly marked. Whether or not this is the map that was 
made pursuant to this first action of the council of course cannot be 
definitely determined, but its appearance and the names inscribed 
thereon very clearly connect it with the earliest times. 

The function of government at this time was of very little importance 
in this sparsely settled community. The greater part, therefore, of the 
action of the council of proprietors had to do with the laying out of 
lands, the granting of patents, the collection of quit rents and the pur- 
chasing of lands from the Indians. 

At the meeting held on April 10, 1685, the board resolved to hold 
meetings of the council monthly at Elizabethtown. At a meeting held 
at Elizabethtown on Friday, June 12, 1685, George Keith was made 
surveyor general in the absence of Mr. Haige. In November, 1685, a 
confirmation from Governor Barclay and several others of the pro- 
prietors in England to George Keith for the office of surveyor general 
was received and it was ordered that Keith be installed in the office. 
On page 24 of this first book of minutes there are what appear to be 
the original signatures of Gawen Lawrie, Jno. Campbell, Tho. Fulertoun, 
David Mudie, Jr., John Barclay, Geo. Willoks, Thomas Warne, R. 
Fulertoune, Thomas Gordon, John Rudyard. These signatures are made 
under date of Aug. 14, 1685. Among the places for which lands were 
granted at this early time were Amboy, Elizabethtown, Newark, Wood- 
bridge and Piscataway. 

In the midst of this celebration of the two hundred and fiftieth anni- 
versary of the founding of Newark, it is fitting to refer to some of the 
actions of the board concerning this town. 


At the meeting held on April lo, 1685, a petition was presented from 
Thomas Johnson, John Ward and several other inhabitants of Newark 
requesting a patent for the corporation of Newark. Upon consideration 
of the matter in the petition it was agreed and resolved that as there 
were patents for lands made by the former governor to several of the 
petitioners and others, it was not safe for the board and governor to 
treat upon anything in the petition until all the patents of the inhabitants 
of Newark be delivered up and surrendered to the board for the use of 
the Lords Proprietors. 

At a meeting held at Elizabethtown on Oct. 15, 1685, a petition of 
Thomas Johnson, John Ward and others to the number of eleven, call- 
ing themselves a committee in behalf of the inhabitants of the town of 
Newark, therein desiring the council to grant them a patent for their 
town and a confirmation of their just rights to their purchased bounds, 
as the same is expressed in their Indian deed of sale, they being willing 
to pay the annual rent of £10, being read, it was "agreed and ordered 
that when the inhabitants of the town of Newark shall pay all the arrears 
of quit rent for the land they already hold by patent that then this 
council will treat with them concerning the subject matter in the peti- 

On February 28, 1692, John Curtice, Edward Ball, Thomas Richards 
and George Harrieson came before the board and represented that they 
were : 

"A committee chosen by the town of Newark to discourse the board 
about an amicable and friendly accommodation concerning their lands 
which they hold of the proprietors, to have all the lands which they 
possess by legall purchase from the Indians, for a yearly acknowledge- 
ment, &c. After a long conference between the board and the aforesaid 
persons in behalf of the said town of Newark the governor with the 
consent of the members of the council proposed to the said persons that 
if the people of the inhabitants of Newark would (such of them as yet 
had not) take out patents forthwith for the lands which they possess 
and pay their arrears of quit rent for the time passed and in time coming 
that then all the old settlers and first adventurers with their associates 
should have one hundred acres of land per piece at six pence per annum 
quit rent v^'ithin the bounds of the said town of Newark. The committee 
for the town of Newark aforesaid taking the premises into consideration 
desired fourteen days' time to acquaint their town herewith and to give 
their answer, which was agreed to by this board." 

At the meeting held at Perth Amboy on April 20, 1693, it was reported 
in reference to the foregoing matter: 

"That several of the old settlers of Newark had already agreed and 
complied, and some others had offered to comply, and had petitioned to 
have the same terms granted to them as others of the pro\ince and the 
rest of their neighbors have had. After a full debate and deliberate con- 
sideration of this board it was put to the vote whether it be for the 


interest of the proprietors or not that the inhabitants of Newark who are 
old settlers of the said town should have one hundred acres of land each 
granted them at six pence per annum quit rent. It was the unanimous 
opinion of the board in the affirmative that it was for the interest of the 
proprietors to grant the request, except George Willoks who differs." 

The names of the persons to whom the one hundred acres of land 
each were granted were then given, but they are too numerous to repeat 
here. From time to time there were further petitions from the inhabi- 
tants of Newark as old settlers for one hundred acres of land at six 
pence per annum. The patents were granted upon condition that such 
of them as had old patents take out new ones and resign the old ones. 
Their names were given. 

On April 10, 1696, a petition was presented by John Curtice and 
Robert Yong, both of Newark, in behalf of the rest of the freeholders 
of said town for a patent for their streets, market places, training places, 
burial places, landing places, watering places, &c., and also two hundred 
acres for a parsonage. It was agreed and ordered they have a patent 
granted to the freeholders in common. 

The proprietors were interested in the propagation of religion, 
because it appears that they frequently granted lands for meeting houses 
and parsonages. In addition to the grants to Newark it appears that on 
Dec. 10, 1698, it was agreed and ordered that one of the old houses at 
the point and the lot on which it stands be given and allowed by the 
proprietors to be a church, for the use of the town of Perth Amboy. 
This was doubtless the beginning of St. Peter's parish, one of the oldest 
in the State. 

In the minutes of a meeting held at Amboy in November of 1685, a 
reference is made to the arrival of Lord Neal Campbell and other gen- 
tlemen to view the province. 

On Sept. 16, 1692, Colonel Andrew Hamilton produced a commission 
to be chief governor of the province, dated at London, March 25, 1692. 

The foregoing references to the minutes of the board of proprietors 
are given as examples to show the activities of the board in those early 
days. Further references cannot be made in the limited time at my 

There seems to be a break in the records of the meetings of the board 
from 1705 to 1725; but beginning on March 25, 1725, the records of the 
meetings of the council of proprietors continue with regularity until 
the present time. There is no record of any meeting, however, between 
Aug. 14, 1778, and an attempted meeting on April 23, 1782, owing 
doubtless to the Revolutionary War. On this latter date a number of 
the members of the board convened at the house of Jacob Arnold, Esq., 
of Morristown. There not being a sufficient number to form a board 
they agreed to hold another meeting at Princeton on June 3, 1782. The 

Mid- 3 


minutes from 1725 to 1764 are found in minute book A; from 1764 to 
1794 in minute book B; from 1794 to 1867 in minute book C; and from 
1867 to date in minute book D. 

On August II, 1725, the proprietors entered into an agreement by 
which it was agreed that each owner of propriety should have one vote 
for each quarter held, provided that no one proprietor should have more 
than twelve votes ; no person should be a proxy but a proprietor or 
agent for a proprietor ; that a general council of proprietors at their two 
yearly meetings should consist of ten persons (afterwards changed to 
seven persons) at least, whose interests or those they represent com- 
puted together should make up eight whole proprieties ; and that the 
president should be chosen annually and all other officers continued 
during good behavior. The minutes of these meetings instead of being 
signed by the clerk or secretary were signed by all of the members 
present. This would now be a very unusual proceeding, but it adds 
much to the interest and appearance of this early record. Many of the 
signatures are exceedingly original and some of them have the appear- 
ance as if the writer were trying to picture a bird's nest for the adorn- 
ment of the record. 

The Hon. Cortlandt Parker in an address delivered upon the occa- 
sion of the Bi-centennial Celebration of the Board of Proprietors on 
Nov. 25, 1884, makes the following reference to the minutes just referred 

"And first of all I mention, because of his absorbing interest in pro- 
prietary rights, the distinguished James Alexander. The minutes of 
the Council of Proprietors from 1725 to 1756 are a monument of the 
devotion, zeal, intelligence and unremitting and absorbing care of this 
gentleman for the interests of this Association. How much earlier he 
bestowed this attention I am not able from the material furnished me 
to say. But during this period it might be said of him that he well-nigh 
embodied the Board. If he did not with his own hand pen the minutes, 
they must have received his particular and most scrupulous supervision. 
They recount his history and the employment of his time. They refer 
to incidents now historical and most valuable to the general public." 

Reference is made in the minutes of August 24, 1743, to the agreement 
with John Lawrence to run the division line. His compensation was to 
be the sum of £140 proclamation money. A copy of the instructions 
are recorded on page 231 of minute book A and the following pages. 

Space here will not suffice to refer in particular to all of the records 
in the office of the board at Perth Amboy. There are about a dozen 
books of miscellaneous records containing copies of deeds, wills, grants, 
agreements and other documents. There are twelve books of conveyances 
of proprietary rights. There are books of warrants which are the records 
of the action of the board authorizing surveys of lands to be made for 
the proprietors entitled thereto. There are books containing the 


accounts of the proprietors as to the state of their holdings and the 
charges against the same when lands have been taken up by them. The 
records of surveys will be hereinafter referred to. 

Book C of Laws purports to be copies certified by Elisha Dobree and 
John Hyndshaw, made under the authority of King George the Second, 
under date of Dec. 13, 1743, and to which the great seal of the Province 
is affixed, of all "the Entries of the Public Commissions from all The 
Lords Proprietors of the said Province to other the Proprietors resident 
in the said Province, And Also the Entries of the Public Commissions, 
Writts, Warrants and Acts of General Assembly Granted, made and 
passed under the Seal of the said Province from and after the thirteenth 
day of November Ano Dom 1682." 

The first entry is a proclamation to the planters and inhabitants of 
the province by Robert Barclay, governor and proprietor, and the other 
proprietors of the province. It set forth that the proprietors hold them- 
selves obliged by the law of God and just laws of men to use all honest 
means to make the plantation prosperous, and that the interest of the 
inhabitants was so bound up with their own that they could not suffer 
if the inhabitants prospered nor prosper where the inhabitants were 
injured. This proclamation was expressed in the most friendly terms. 

These commissions ran to officers of the Board, public officials, such 
as justices of the peace, constables, judges of the courts for the deter- 
mination of small causes, members or justices of the court of common 
right and such other officials as had been provided for by the Acts of 
the General Assembly. I may be pardoned for stating that it here 
appears that under date of March 20, 1683, Henry Lyon, who was the 
direct ancestor of the writer of this paper, with two others were appointed 
commissioners to hear and determine small causes in Elizabethtown. 
He came to Newark with the Fairfield settlers, of which town he was 
the first treasurer, went to Elizabethtown for a time and afterwards 
returned to Newark, where he died. His was the eighth name on the 
agreement of the New Milford settlers of June 21, 1667, on which the 
name of Robert Treat was the first. 

Among the Acts passed by the General Assembly were : A Bill to 
make Void the Proceedings of some late Courts, a Bill to Settle the 
Court of Common Right; a Bill of General Laws; a Bill against 
Fugitive Servants ; a Bill for the Orderly Keeping of Swine ; An Act 
against Trading with Negroes ; An Act to Encourage the Killing of 
Wolves; an Act to Regulate Treaties with the Indians; an Act for 
Dividing the County of Middlesex into two counties ; An Act Prohibit- 
mg Selling of Strong Drink or Liquor to the Indians ; and many other 
like subjects. An Act was passed as early as 1695 for regulating schools. 
An early act provided a fine of five shillings for being drunk. Another 
provided for restraining and punishing of privateers and pirates. 


But these references must suffice in order to give some time to the 
consideration of the most important function of the Board, namely, the 
granting of land to the Proprietors and others. 

By a document bearing date April 15, 1702, the proprietors surren- 
dered to Queen Anne the powers of government, retaining in them- 
selves the title to the soil. This document refers at length to the original 
grant and states that her Majesty had been advised that the proprietors 
had no right to nor could legally execute any of the powers of govern- 
ment, but that it belonged to her in right of her Crown of England, 
and that the proprietors were desirous to submit themselves to her and 
surrender all their pretences of the said powers of government. Refer- 
ence is made in the minutes of the meeting of December i, 1702, to a 
report of Lewis Morris of his negotiations in England concerning this 
surrender. Upon this event, to use the language of Mr. Parker, in the 
address above referred to, the board "became what it ought to have 
been from the beginning, merely an association of landowners." 

Thus the twenty-four proprietors, each owning an undivided twenty- 
fourth interest, became the owners as tenants in common of all the land 
in East New Jersey. Back to them all the titles must be traced to be 
good according to the rules of law. 

Chief Justice Kirkpatrick, in the case of Arnold vs. Mundy, i Hal- 
stead's Reports, at page 67, has stated the rights of the proprietors, in 
the following language : 

"The Proprietors of East Jersey are tenants in common of the soil ; 
their mode of severing this common estate is by issuing warrants, from 
time to time, to the several proprietors, according to their respective 
rights, authorizing them to survey and appropriate in severalty, the 
quantities therein contained. Such warrant does not convey a title to 
the proprietor, he had that before ; it only authorizes him to sever so 
much from the common stock, and when so severed, by the proper 
officer, it operates as a release to him for so much. This is the case 
when the proprietor locates for himself. When he sells his warrant to 
another, that other becomes a tenant in common with all the proprietors 
pro tanto, and, in the same manner, he proceeds to convert his common, 
into a several, right. Regularly there is a deed of conveyance upon 
the transfer of this warrant for so much of the common property, and 
that deed of conveyance, and the survey upon the warrant, is the title 
of the transferee. It is true, that the survey must be inspected and 
approved by the board of proprietors, and must be carefully entered and 
kept in the' secretary's office, or in the office of the surveyor general of 
the division, but this is for the sake of security, order and regularity 
only, and is, by no means, the passing of the title. It proves that the 
title has already passed, but it is not the means of passing it." 

In the case of the Board of Proprietors against the Estate of William 
M. Force, y2 New Jersey Equity Reports, page 56, in a very exhaustive 
opinion by Vice Chancellor Pitney, he refers to the method of passing 
title by the Proprietors by a warrant of location and says : 


"These warrants of location which came to be called simply 'war- 
rants' or 'rights' were usually issued by way of dividends to each of the 
proprietors according to the amount of his holding, and when issued, 
were credited to the proprietor on a book called the warrant book, and 
as often as any land was located under them the party who had credit 
for so many acres was charged with the amount actually located. The 
fact that the most usual occasion of issuing these warrants was by way 
of dividends among the proprietors resulted in the process being termed 
by the courts a mode of partition among the proprietors." 

He also refers to the custom of the proprietors in later years of 
issuing warrants of location to outside parties who were not proprietors 
by sales with or without auction, and criticised the opinion of the court 
in the case of Jennings vs. Burnham, 27 Vroom's Reports, page 289, 
which held that the proprietors could not transfer title to their lands 
to a stranger by the use of a warrant and survey. The Vice Chancellor 
refers to the case of Cornelius vs. Giberson, i Butcher's Reports, page 
I, where such a mode of transfer had been approved by the Supreme 
Court, and states that if the attention of the court in the case of Jennings 
vs. Burnham had been called to this custom of the proprietors, and to 
the case of Cornelius vs. Giberson, the court would have come to a 
different conclusion. "For it must be observed," said he, "that the mode 
of severing titles by partition is one resting entirely in the custom of the 
proprietors, and is not in accordance with the course of the common 

Since the surrender of the powers of government in 1702, therefore, 
the activities of the Board have been confined to the granting of lands, 
and the greater part of the records in the office at Perth Amboy are 
records of such actions. 

The most usual method of making such grants was upon a warrant 
issued by the board directing that a survey be made for a certain number 
of acres. By the authority of this warrant a survey was made by a 
deputy surveyor who sent his brief certificate and description and com- 
putation thereof to the office of the board, or of the surveyor general, 
as it is commonly called. Thereupon the surveyor general made a cer- 
tificate, called a "return," stating that the deputy surveyor had surveyed 
for the person entitled to it a tract of land as described. This "return" 
was recorded in the office in the book of "Surveys" and thereby became 
the muniment or evidence of title of the proprietor or purchaser. 

There are in the office three very old books of Warrants and Surveys 
between the years 1673 and 1738. They are valuable from an historical 
point of view, but, by reason of our laws concerning the limitation of 
time in which actions for the possession of land may be brought, would 
be seldom referred to for the purpose of making title. In addition to 
these is the regular series of record books in which "surveys" or 
"returns" are recorded, beginning with 1719 and continuing in twenty- 
three books to date. 


The General Proprietors of the Eastern Division of New Jersey is 
a corporation. It is the oldest private corporation in this State doing 
business at the present time, and doubtless the oldest in this country 
It was never incorporated under the authority of any law. Its legal 
status in this respect, however, has been before the courts, and in the 
case of the Proprietors against the Force Estate, above mentioned, Vice 
Chancellor Pitney held it to be a corporation by prescription, and his 
holding was affirmed on appeal. 

Its relation to the State of New Jersey and especially to the titles to 
the soil is anomalous. It had its origin in the grant of a King to his 
"dearest Brother," of a land far away beyond the seas, over two hun- 
dred and fifty years ago. Then it was a new land, roamed by wild beasts 
and inhabited by the Indians. Its attractions were a goodly land, a 
fertile soil, the allurements of adventure, and the freedom of the vast 
unpeopled domain. Its hardships were the privations of the primeval 
forests, and the separation from the ties of the mother land. This cor- 
poration still exists and is still doing business. It is a link between the 
present and the past. Through it we are reminded of the sacrifices of 
the men in the days that have gone, and of the rewards of their labors 
which we in this busy, prosperous, civilized land, are enjoying to the full. 


The Proprietaries chose Robert Barclay, one of their members, to 
succeed Governor Carteret. He was a native of Scotland, having- been 
born in 1648 at Gordonstown in Morayshire. After finishing his educa- 
tion in Paris he was inclined to accept the Roman Catholic faith, but 
eventually followed in the footsteps of his father. Colonel Barclay of 
Urie, and joined the recently formed Society of Friends. An ardent 
theological student, a man of warm feelings, and considerable mental 
powers, he soon became known as the leading apologist of the new 
doctrine. His greatest literary production was published in Latin in 
1676 under the title of "An Apology for the True Christian Divinity," 
which is still the most important manifesto of the Quaker Society. His 
death at the age of forty-two years, October 3, 1690, robbed the Society of 
Friends of one of the most able exponents of its doctrines. Governor 
Barclay never visited New Jersey. His two brothers, John and David, 
however, became identified with the province. The former resided first 
at Elizabethtown, subsequently at Plainfield, and became a permanent 
resident of Perth Amboy about 1688, where he died in the spring of 
1 73 1 at an advanced age, with the character of a good neighbor and 
useful citizen. David, the other brother, came to the province in 1684, 
returned to Scotland, and sailed from Aberdeen in the summer of 1685 
for America, but died at sea. 

Thomas Rudyard, a lawyer and attorney of London, who had gained 
notoriety for his assistance in the trial of William Penn in that city, 
having received the appointment of deputy governor, arrived in the 
province in the early part of 1683. In his letters to parties in England 
he writes of making Elizabethtown his place of residence and of jour- 
neying to Philadelphia, stating that while there were salt marshes, the 
country was free from mosquitoes. He also writes that provisions were 
plentiful, there being vast oyster beds and fresh fish in abundance. The 
soil he pronounces as rich, and in his judgment without help it could 
be ploughed fifty j'^ears without decaying and could produce multitudes 
of winter corn. 

The stay of Governor Rudyard in the province was but short, as his 
successor, Gawen Lawrie, was appointed deputy governor in July, 1683, 
but did not reach the province until the early part of the following 
year. Governor Lawrie was another Londoner, engaged in mercantile 
pursuits in that city. As his name indicates, he was of Scotch descent, 
a staunch Quaker. He settled many colonies of Friends in his domain, 
of which he was one of the twenty-two proprietaries. He took up his 


residence at Elizabethtown, and though strenuously urged to remove 
to Perth Amboy, of which town he was regarded as one of the founders, 
he steadfastly refused, as Elizabethtown, having grown to a place of 
some pretensions, could offer to his family, who accompanied him, 
more of the comforts of life than Perth Amboy, which was just entering 
upon its existence. His administration of affairs not only gave satis- 
faction to the other proprietaries but to those he ruled over. He was 
succeeded in 1686 by Lord Niel Campbell. This scion of nobility was 
a member of the Scotch clan of Campbells, a brother of the Earl of 
Argyle. He became identified with Argyle's expedition in connection 
with the Duke of Monmouth's unsuccessful attempt to prevent the 
accession of James H. to the throne of Scotland, and became obnoxious 
to the government, being subjected to much severity and persecution. 
He was arrested and gave a bond of £5,000 to confine himself to a 
radius of six miles around Edinburgh. The animosity against the 
Campbells became so universal, besides all Protestant heritors being 
required to take the oath of allegiance and supremacy, that Lord Camp- 
bell's only resource was in flight. Leaving his wife and family, he 
embarkf-d for East Jersey in the autumn of 1685, having purchased a 
proprietary right, bringing with him or causing to be sent out after- 
wards a large number of settlers. The precise date of Lord Campbell's 
arrival in the province is not known, but he is mentioned in the pro- 
prietaries' minutes of November 27, 1685, as having "newly come out." 
His presence in the province led the proprietaries to avail themselves of 
his services as their deputy governor, and he was commissioned June 4, 
1686, and entered upon his duties the ensuing October. A change in 
the political conditions of Scotland enabled him to return to his family, 
and he left East Jersey in March, 1687. 

At the time of the departure of Lord Campbell for Scotland, Andrew 
Hamilton was a member of the governor's council and became acting 
governor of the province. A native of Scotland, while he was engaged 
in mercantile pursuits in Edinburgh he was sent to East Jersey as a 
special agent for the proprietaries. He was continued in office after 
the consolidation of the Jerseys, New York and New England, under 
the control of Sir Edmund Andros, but when the latter was seized at 
Boston, Massachusetts, in April, 1689, Governor Hamilton sailed for 
England to consult with the proprietaries. He was appointed governor 
of both Jerseys, March 16, 1692, retaining this office until 1697, when he 
was superseded by Jeremiah Basse, notwithstanding that his rule was 
satisfactory to the colonies and proprietaries. So great was the disorder 
and maladministration under his successor that he was reappointed 
deputy governor August 19, 1699, holding the office until 1701, when he 
became deputy governor of Pennsylvania. His death occurred at Perth 
Amboy, while on a visit to his family, April 20, 1703. During his term 


as governor he resided in the Brighton house at Perth Amboy, which 
had been erected on grounds near the public square as the first govern- 
ment house by the proprietaries in 1684. Hamilton was the last of the 
proprietaries' governors ; wearied out with struggling with the settlers 
in 1702, they ceded to the crown their rights of jurisdiction, whereupon 
Queen Anne joined New Jersey to New York under the government 
of Lord Cornbury. Edward Hyde (Lord Cornbury) was one of the 
first officers to desert the cause of James II., his uncle by marriage, to 
join the standard of William of Orange, in 1688. He afterwards became 
a member of Parliament, but being harassed by creditors and desirous 
of leaving England, he eagerly accepted the appointment of governor 
of New York, tendered to him by Queen Anne. Of an arrogant, despotic 
disposition, also dishonest and grasping, incessant in his demands upon 
the legislatures of the two provinces, especially New Jersey, the cries 
of discontent of the oppressed colonies reached Queen Anne's ears. He 
was superseded in the spring of 1708 by Lord Lovelace, who did not 
reach New York until the close of the year. Lord Lovelace's administra- 
tion of affairs was of short duration, as he died early in the year of 1709. 
Robert Hunter, known as Brigadier Hunter, was appointed Lord 
Lovelace's successor. A Scotchman by birth, he had risen from a humble 
station to high military rank. He was the first of the royal governors 
of New Jersey who regarded the province with sufficient favor to secure 
upon its soil anything like a permanent home. Governor Hunter arrived 
at New York in September, 1709. It was an inauspicious period for his 
own comfort, immediately succeeding the unpopular and disorganizing 
administration of Lord Cornbury, his immediate predecessor, not living 
long enough to effect any radical change. Governor Hunter's endeav- 
ors were spent in harmonizing the discordant elements around him. 
His first message to the Assembly is pregnant with good common sense : 
"If honesty is the best policy, plainness must be the best oratory ; so to 
deal plainly with you, as long as these unchristian diversions, which 
Her Majesty has thought to deserve her repeated notice, reign amongst 
you, I shall have small hopes of a happy issue to our meeting * * * 
Let every man begin at home and weed the rancor out of his mind, and 
the work is done at once. Leave disputes of property to the laws, and 
injuries to the avenger of them, and, like good subjects and good Chris- 
tians, join hearts and hands for the common good." Such and similar 
pregnant sentences had effect in inducing more cordial feelings between 
the executive and representatives of the people, but it was a work of 
time. Governor Hunter's home in Perth Amboy was on a knoll south of 
St. Peter's Church, commanding a fine view of the harbor, bay and 
ocean. Here he often retired to obtain rest from the weighty cares which 
his administration of the affairs of New York brought upon him. His 
wife, the widow of Lord John Hay and daughter of Sir Thomas Orby, 


accompanied him to America. Her death in 1716, supplemented by 
failing health and his private interests requiring his presence in London, 
he left his government in 1719, never to return. On his arrival in 
England he effected an exchange w^ith William Burnet, taking an office 
held by him in customs, and resigning in his favor the governments of 
New York and New Jersey. The post in the customs he retained for 
several years, but in 1727 was appointed governor of Jamaica. Age 
began to wear on the governor, and in 1732 he retired from public life; 
his death occurred in 1734. He had failings common to all mankind, 
but there is abundant evidence of his possessing high integrity and other 
qualities characterizing the gentleman ; the success which attended his 
administration, despite the unfavorable circumstances under which it 
was carried on, is ample proof that he was intelligent, able and perse- 

The successor of Governor Hunter derived his Christian name from 
William, Prince of Orange, who stood sponsor for him at his baptism. 
His education had been under the supervision of his father, the cele- 
brated Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury, and author of the "History of 
His Own Times," and Sir Isaac Newton. Young Burnet's education 
was improved by travel and other advantages which had resulted in 
a combination of studiousness and affability. The knowledge of men 
and books made him a pleasant conversationalist, with a remarkable 
degree of assimilation among those he was thrown in contact with. An 
inordinate lover of books, he spent large sums in their acquisition, and 
this, coupled with unfortunate investments in South Sea schemes, crip- 
pled his income. 

Governor Burnet received his appointment April 19, 1720, and 
assumed the government of New York on September 17. A few days 
afterwards he visited New Jersey and went through the usual forms of 
proclamations at Perth Amboy and Burlington. The governor was of 
large stature, combining with frank manners a dignified demeanor, his 
countenance expressed intelligence, amiability and humor combined. 
Governor Hunter, before the departure of his successor to America, 
informed him of the acquaintance he had made with leading men of 
New Jersey, which was extremely advantageous to him, as he entered 
society in the colony with some knowledge of the character as well as 
the social and political relations of the individuals composing it. The 
impressions thus derived led him to look forward to frequent and longer 
visits to New Jersey, and with that in view he purchased Hunter's resi- 
dence in Perth Amboy. 

Governor Burnet was averse to leaving the middle colonies, but on 
the accession of George II., a place had to be made for a court sycophant. 
He was appointed governor of Massachusetts, but, independent of all 
private considerations, the habits and customs of the people of Massa- 


chusetts Bay were not so consonant with his own as those he had been 
familiar with for eight years. The mandate had, however, gone forth 
and he gracefully retired. He reached Boston on July 12, 1728, but his 
administration of afifairs was of short duration, his death occurring Sep- 
tember 7, 1729. 

The new governor of New York and New Jersey was John Mont- 
gomerie, a native of Scotland. He was bred a soldier, but after being a 
member of Parliament decided to enter upon the career of a courtier. 
He became groom of the bedchamber to then Prince of Wales, after- 
wards George II. On the accession of his patron to the throne, he 
received, April 15, 1728, the appointment of the governorship of New 
York and New Jersey. Governor Montgomerie, though a person of 
good character, was dull intellectually, and was modestly conscious of 
his deficiencies, therefore he had no controversies with the legislatures. 
They reciprocated by granting him supplies which they persistently 
refused to do for several of his predecessors. His administration was 
evidently cut short by his death, July i, 1731, by smallpox, then raging 
in New York 

Lewis Morris became acting governor of New Jersey ad interim, 
serving until the arrival of the newly appointed governor, William 
Cosby. There were prospects of a popular administration at the outset 
of the new executive's government. Governor Cosby was a strict mili- 
tary disciplinarian, a colonel in the British army, of an arbitrary and 
haughty disposition, and his act of keeping the same Assembly for six 
years without dissolution made him very unpopular. His death occurred 
May 10, 1736, while still an incumbent of the executive chair 

At the death of Governor Cosby, the government of New Jersey 
devolved on John Anderson, the president of the council, but he too 
died in less than three weeks and was succeeded by the next eldest 
councillor, John Hamilton. The new executive was a son of Andrew 
Hamilton, governor under the proprietaries, and was born in Scotland. 
He first appeared in public life as one of Governor Hunter's council in 
1713, and also serv'ed in the same position during the administrations 
of Governors Burnet, Montgomerie and Cosby. He continued to admin- 
ister the government until the summer of 1738, when he was relieved 
by the appointment of Lewis Morris as governor of New Jersey, inde- 
pendent of New York. Colonel Hamilton, by which title he was known, 
tradition states possessed a high and overbearing temper, which in 
connection with domestic trials rendered his declining years, invalid as 
he was, a period of great distress and unhappiness. He resided at Perth 
Amboy in a spacious dwelling overlooking the broad bay formed by 
the junction of the Raritan river and the Sound with Sandy Hook inlet. 
His administration of the affairs of the colony was notable for two 
events — the granting of the first charter to the College of New Jersey, 


and the aid the colony gave towards the Canadian Expedition in the 
French and Indian Wars. 

Lewis Morris, the first royal governor of New Jersey independent 
of New York, was an American product. He was the son of Richard 
Morris, an officer in Cromwell's army, who emigrated from England 
to the West Indies and afterwards came to New York, purchasing three 
thousand acres, a part of which became Morrisania. Here the governor 
was born in 1671 ; he studied law, and at the age of twenty-one became 
a judge of the Superior Court of New York and New Jersey. He became 
a member of the governor's council, and bitterly opposed Lord Corn- 
bury. As a member of the Assembly he was the author of the complaint 
against his lordship which was formulated by that body, and he in 
person presented it to Queen Anne. It was mainly through his endeav- 
ors that the division was effected between New York and New Jersey in 
1738, and he became governor of the latter, holding the office until his 
death at Kingsbury, New Jersey, May 21, 1746. Colonel Hamilton again 
became invested with the chief authority, occasioned by the vacancy due 
to the death of Governor Morris, but he had for a long time been very 
infirm, and before the close of the year he also died, and was succeeded 
by the next oldest councillor, John Reading. 

The vacancy caused by the death of Governor Morris was filled by 
the appointment of Jonathan Belcher. His predecessor in office resided 
in Trenton. New Jersey, Governor Belcher chose Elizabethtown as his 
place of abode, it offering more attractions than Perth Amboy. The 
newly appointed executive by birth was a New Englander, his grand- 
father, Andrew Belcher, being on record as early as 1646 at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. His father, a second Andrew, was a provincial counselor, 
a man of wealth. At Cambridge, on January 8, 1682, the governor was 
born, spending his early life among surroundings of wealth and culture. 
A graduate of Harvard College, he sailed for Europe and spent six years 
amidst the court life of the Electorate of Hanover, where he made the 
acquaintance of the future George I. of England. Retiring to New Eng- 
land, he became engaged in mercantile trade, and in 1729 was sent to 
England as the agent of the Massachusetts Colony. He returned to Bos- 
ton the following year with a commission appointing him governor of 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire. 

Governor Belcher m his early life was not bred to the ways of 
economy, therefore in his manhood days he spent money with a prodigal 
hand and an elegant liberality. A man of society and of the world, he 
loved intrigue, and he attempted to instill into politics some of the 
methods of trade. This brought him into contention with the Legisla- 
ture of Massachusetts ; his insistence for a fixed salary as governor was 
opposed by the people. This difference of opinion was submitted to the 
British courts and the governor was fully vindicated. He then was 


offered the appointment of governor for New Jersey, which he accepted 
in 1747, landing at Perth Amboy from the British man-of-war "Scar- 
borough" on the morning of August 8 of that year. Governor Belcher 
maintained a successful administration for a decade of years, which 
was terminated by his death at Elizabethtown, August 31, 1757. He was 
a benevolent patron of the College of New Jersey, and to that institution 
he left his extensive library. 

The next governor of New Jersey was Sir Francis Bernard, educated 
at Oxford University. At the time of his appointment he was engaged 
in the profession of law in London. He landed at Perth Amboy from 
His Majesty's ship "Terrible," June 14, 1758. His administration was 
of short duration, but received the warm approbation of the people of 
New Jersey. He was transferred to become governor of Massachusetts, 
and left Perth Amboy, where he had resided during the term of his 
office, in the month of July, 1760, for his new assignment. 

Thomas Boone, appointed to succeed Governor Bernard, reached 
Perth Amboy by land from New York, July 3, 1760. The ensuing day 
the oath of office was administered and his commission was published 
with the usual formalities. There was nothing important in the matter 
of legislation during Governor Boone's brief term. On June 18, 1761, it 
was announced in New York that Governor Boone had been on April 
14, 1761, appointed to the chief authority in the province of South 

His successor, Josiah Hardy, arrived at New York on His Majesty's 
ship "Alcide," October 22, 1761, and he was met seven days later on his 
landing at Elizabethtown Point on his way to Perth Amboy by Governor 
Booth, Lord Stirling, the members of the council, gentlemen and magis- 
trates of the borough of Elizabethtown, with a military escort com- 
manded by Captains Terrill and Parker. Though the governor met 
the legislature at four different sessions, but little of any important 
legislation was passed. Owing to some differences arising between 
his superiors in England relative to the appointment of judges, he was 
recalled in 1763 and gave place to William Franklin, the last of the 
colonial governors of New Jersey. 

The birth of this last royal governor of New Jersey is shrouded in 
mystery; that it took place somewhere in the province of Pennsylvania 
is undisputable. The year is commonly acknowledged to be 1731, and 
that he was the only son, and illegitimate at that, of the noted patriot, 
Benjamin Franklin, is an established fact. Of his maternal parentage 
nothing is known ; whether he received a mother's care and love is not 
a matter of record. The sage philosopher in writing of his son in 1750 
says, "Will is now nineteen years of age, a tall, proper youth, and much 
of a beau. He acquired a habit of idleness in the expedition, but begins 
of late to apply himself to business, and I hope will become an indus- 


trious man. He imagined his father had got enough for him, but I 
assured him that I intend to spend what little I have for myself, if it 
please God that I live long enough ; and as he by no means wants acute- 
ness, he can see by my going on that I mean to be as good as my word." 
The expedition alluded to was one or more campaigns in which the 
younger Franklin served in the Pennsylvania forces on the northern 
frontiers before he was of age, rising from a subordinate position to the 
rank of captain. On his return to Philadelphia from his military exploits, 
he became in a great degree a companion and assistant of his father in 
his various scientific and professional pursuits, and subsequently him- 
self entered into official life. He acted as comptroller of the General 
Post Office, also was clerk of the Provincial Assembly, and when his 
father was sent to the frontiers of Pennsylvania to build forts accom- 
panied him. Dr. Franklin was appointed in June, 1757, colonial agent 
at London, and his son sailed with him for Europe. 

Young Franklin on his arrival in London entered upon the study of 
law in the Middle Temple, and was called to the bar in 1758. His travels 
with his father through England, Scotland, Flanders and Holland, gave 
him the opportunity of improving his mental and personal attainments 
which =uch favorable circumstances naturally afforded. Like his father, 
his society was courted by men of the highest literary and scientific 
acquirements, therefore he could not help to imbibe in such environments 
a taste for similar pursuits, and we find that when the University of 
Oxford conferred upon his talented father the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Laws for great proficiency in the natural sciences, the son was thought 
worthy of that of Master of Arts for having distinguished himself in the 
same branches of knowledge. 

It was in August, 1762, that he was appointed through the influence 
of Lord Bute, without any solicitation on the part of his father, governor 
of New Jersey. He had previously undergone a close examination by 
Lord Halifax, Minister of American Affairs, who deemed it advisable 
on account of his colonial birth and youth, he at that time being only 
thirty years of age. Governor Franklin arrived with his bride. Miss 
Elizabeth Downs, at the Delaware river, in February, 1763, and arrived 
at Perth Amboy on the 24th. He first took lodgings at Burlington, 
and finally took up his permanent residence there until October, 1774, 
when he removed to Perth Amboy. Almost immediately after his 
entrance upon his duties in New Jersey, the attitude of the British min- 
istry towards the colonies began to excite the people. Governor Franklin 
was favorably disposed towards the colonies as long as no direct oppo- 
sition to the authority of Parliament was manifested. He was visited by 
his father in 1775, who zealously strove to draw him over to the side 
of the colonies ; their conversations at times exhibited a degree of warmth 
not favorable to continued harmonious intercourse, but each failed to 
convince the other of the impropriety of the course he was pursuing. 


The son, however, followed his father's advice in avoiding duplicity, 
for he did not hesitate to give manifest tokens of his determination to 
rise or fall with the royal cause. 

The contentions between the royal governor and provincial con- 
vention or congress continued with exasperating bitterness until finally 
that body decreed that no further payments should be made on account 
of salary to the governor, and an order was issued for his arrest. A 
detachment of militia under the command of Colonel (afterwards Gen- 
eral) Heard made the arrest at Perth Amboy, June 17, 1776, Governor 
Franklin being presented with a parole which he indignantly refused to 
sign ; a guard of sixty men was placed around the executive's residence 
until communication could be had with the convention. That body 
informed the Continental Congress of the arrest, asking what disposition 
to make of the offender. Under date of June 24, 1776, the Continental 
Congress placed William Franklin under charge of Governor Trumbull 
of Connecticut, to be treated agreeable to the resolutions of Congress 
respecting prisoners. Governor Trumbull accepted the charge, and 
Franklin was quartered in the house of Captain Ebenezer Grant, at 
East Windsor. Here he remained a prisoner two years and four months, 
an exchange being at that time effected, and he arrived in New York, 
November i, 1778. He was a resident of New York until in August, 
1782, he sailed for England. In consideration of the losses he had been 
subjected to, £1,800 was granted to him by the British government, 
and he was allowed in addition a yearly pension of £800. His death 
occurred November 17, 1813. 

Thus ends a mortal career whose birth placed a bar sinister on the 
Franklin coat-of-arms. He must have inherited from his maternal 
ancestor his opposition to the rights of the people, for self-government 
and independence were advocated by his sire. That he was of American 
birth and descent makes his professed loyalty to the King more offen- 
sive to the average American reader. Benjamin West, in his picture 
representing the "Reception of the American Royalists by Great Britain 
in the year 1783," makes Franklin one of the prominent personages at 
the head of a group of figures, and in a description of the picture he is 
mentioned as having "preserved his fidelity and loyalty to his sovereign 
from the commencement to the conclusion of the contest, notwithstand- 
ing powerful incitements to the contrary." Thus his disloyalty to 
American independence is flouted to the world. How different in con- 
trast to that other arch traitor, Benedict Arnold, who a few days before 
his death, clothing himself in his old Continental uniform, on his bended 
knees asked God's forgiveness for ever wearing any other. Thus has 
been imperfectly sketched the career of the proprietaries and colonial 
governors, from the little that is now known respecting the characters, 
habits, attainments or adventures of the incumbents of the executive 
office of the province of New Jersey. 




The Dutch at New Netherland took the first steps for civil organiza- 
tion of East Jersey. They established in 1661 the jurisdiction of the 
incorporated town of Bergen over the outlying and contiguous planta- 
tions on the west side of the Hudson river. The courts of Bergen under 
the supreme authority of the director-general and council of Manhattan 
were sufficient to meet all requirements of local administration over so 
limited a district of country, and were continued for more than a decade 
after the English came into possession of the country. 

In the meantime a sufficient population had settled about Newark 
bay, along the Passaic, the Raritan, and southward to the Highlands 
of the Navesink, to foreshadow in outline at least the necessity for 
erecting four original counties in East Jersey. The Legislature of 
1675 enacted that Elizabethtown and Newark make a county ; Bergen 
and adjacent plantations be a county ; Woodbridge and Piscataqua be a 
county ; and that the two towns, Middletown and Shrewsbury at Nave- 
sink, make a county. By this act the incipient counties were neither 
named nor their limits defined. Seven years later a more definite divi- 
sion was made. The General Assembly of East Jersey convened at 
Elizabethtown in 1682 passed an act erecting the counties of Bergen, 
Essex, Middlesex and Monmouth. The preamble for the erection of 
these counties states the following: "Having taken into consideration 
the necessity of dividing the province into respective counties for the 
better governing and settling of courts in the same," etc. 

Middlesex county by the legislative act of 1682 was to begin from 
the parting line between Essex county and Woodbridge, containing 
Woodbridge and Piscataway and all the plantations on both sides of 
the Raritan river as far as the Delaware river eastward, extending south- 
west to the division line of the province, and northwest to the utmost 
bounds of the county. 

By an act of the Assembly in March, 1688, Somerset county was 
incorporated. The territory thus taken from Middlesex county was its 
western border lands, the Raritan river forming part of the boundary 
lines. The reason given for this division was that those engaged in 
husbandry and manuring of lands in the valley of the uppermost part 
of the Raritan river were forced by different ways and methods from 
the other farmers and inhabitants of the county of Middlesex, because 
of the frequent floods that carry away their fences on their meadows, 
the only available land they have, and so by consequence their interest 
is divided from the other inhabitants of the county. This division, 



however, was merely nominal, and in 1709-10, by an act of the Assembly, 
Somerset was continued subjected to the jurisdiction of the courts and 
officers of Middlesex county for the want of a competent number of 
inhabitants to hold court and for juries. Courts continued to be held 
in Middlesex for the two counties as late as 1720, when Somerset county 
courts were duly organized. 

There have been a number of acts passed by the Legislature in ref- 
erence to regulating the boundary lines of Middlesex county. On January 
31, 1709-10, an act was passed determining the boundaries of the sev- 
eral counties. This act was supplemented March 15, 1713, setting the 
boundaries between Somerset, Middlesex and Monmouth counties, in 
which the line between Somerset and Middlesex should begin with the 
road crossing the Raritan at Inian's Ferry, thence to run along a road 
leading to the falls of the Delaware as far as the partition line between 
East and West Jersey. 

In accordance with this act, Somerset county extended down one 
side of the present Albany street. New Brunswick. This, however, by 
an act passed November 24, 1790, was altered, the boundary line between 
the two counties being established by the lands and tenements north- 
ward of the Raritan river to be annexed to Somerset county, while those 
south of the river were to become a part of Middlesex county. This 
act made the middle of the main road from New Brunswick to Trenton 
the boundary line between Middlesex and Somerset counties. 

The easterly bounds of Middlesex county, by an act passed November 
28, 1822, were declared to be the middle or midway of the waters of the 
Staten Island Sound, adjoining same, to the middle of the channel of 
the waters of the Sound, with the waters of Raritan river, thence to 
the eastward of the fiat or shoal which extends from South Amboy to 
the mouth of Whale creek, the beginning of the bounds of the counties 
of Middlesex and Monmouth. 

A part of Middlesex with a portion of the counties of Hunterdon 
and Burlington was taken by an act dated February 22, 1838, to form the 
county of Mercer. 

By acts of the Legislature, the western boundary of Middlesex 
county in the towns of North Brunswick and South Brunswick were 
made to conform in 1855 and 1858 with a turnpike road extending from 
Little Rocky Hill to New Brunswick. A part of the township of Wood- 
bridge, by an act of February 16, i860, within the limits of the city of 
Rahway. was annexed to Union county, and April 5, 1871, by another 
act a portion of Plainfield in Union county was annexed to the township 
of Piscataway in Middlesex county. 

The first act dividing the newly organized counties into townships 
was passed in 1693. The division in Middlesex county was into the 
corporated town of Woodbridge, the townships of Perth x^mboy, then 


known as Perth, and Piscataway. These townships were not definitely- 
defined in relation to their boundaries, and were merely settlements in 
a wide area of territory. Soon after this, nearly contemporary with the 
organization of its sister townships, North Brunswick, South Amboy 
and South Brunswick were invested with township honors. These 
three townships embraced all of the present area of Middlesex county 
south of the Raritan river, the township of South Amboy consisting of 
the eastern portion of that territory which was bounded by the seacoast 
and Monmouth county ; west of the South river, near the geographical 
center of the present county, was the northeast boundary line of the 
town of North Brunswick, which extended westward to the division 
line of Somerset county. Its southerly line, which divided it from the 
newly erected town of South Brunswick, located in the southwest corner 
of the present county limits, was very irregular in shape. 

The civil divisions of the county, consisting of these five townships 
and the cities of New Brunswick and Perth Amboy, remained undis- 
turbed until February 23, 1838, when the southermost portion of the town 
of South Amboy, about eight miles long and six wide, was erected by 
the Legislature into the township of Monroe. At this period the county 
had obtained a population of 21,894 outside of New Brunswick, divided 
as follows: At Perth Amboy, 1303; in the township of South Amboy, 
the population was 1,825; the village of the same name, situated on a 
safe and deep harbor on Raritan bay at the mouth of the Raritan river, 
twelve miles below New Brunswick, was one of the terminals of the 
Camden & Amboy railroad. The village contained an academy and 
about twenty-five dwellings. Seven miles southwest of South Amboy, 
on the line of the railroad, was Old Bridge, on the South river, a hamlet 
of about thirty-five dwellings. From this point large quantities of pine 
and oak wood were shipped to New York City. In the same township 
was Jacksonville, at the head of Cheesequake creek, where were a Baptist 
and Methodist church, and about fifteen dwellings. 

The township of North Brunswick was about eight miles long and 
seven miles broad, with a population of 5,860. The city of New Bruns- 
wick, which was incorporated in 1784, lay partly in the town of North 
Brunswick and partly in the township of Franklin in Somerset county. 
The shores of the Raritan river at this point were connected by a toll- 
bridge which was built in 181 1 at the expense of $86,687, which had 
become dilapidated, therefore of little use ; and by the railroad bridge of 
the New Jersey railroad, which passed through the city, forming a part 
of the chain of railroads from New York to Philadelphia, Baltimore and 
Washington. New Brunswick had a population of 8,693, and was the 
seat of Rutgers College ; it contained eight churches, two female semi- 
naries, one bank, about one hundred and twenty stores, and eight hun- 
dred dwellings. Four miles southeast of New Brunswick was the village 


of Washington, at the confluence of the South river with the Raritan. 
It contained about fifty dwellings, and in summer steamers plied between 
there and New York with produce of the county. 

The township of South Brunswick, about eight miles long and seven 
miles broad, had a population of 2,797. In the northeast corner of the 
township, at the intersection of the Delaware and Raritan canal with 
the New York and Philadelphia turnpike, was the village of Kingston. 
In the stagecoach days, Kingston, being on the great thoroughfare 
between New York and the South, was a favorite stopping place. In 
olden times in front of Withington's Inn and the Vantilburgh Tavern, 
there were seen halted at the same time nearly fifty stages loaded with 
about four hundred passengers. Vantilburgh's Tavern was long known 
as a favorite stopping place for Washington and the governors of New 
Jersey in passing from the eastern towns to the State capital. It was 
at this village that Washington and his army, the day of the battle of 
Princeton, eluded the enemy in pursuit by filing off the main road to 
the left of the church, while the British continued on the New Brunswick 
road, thinking the American army had gone to that place to destroy 
their winter stores. Cranbury, partly in Monroe township, was a village 
built on a single street, containing two Presbyterian churches, two 
academies, seventy-three dwellings, and about six hundred inhabitants. 
Crossroads and Plainsborough were hamlets, the former containing two 
taverns, two stores, and about fifteen dwellings; the latter, a store, a 
tavern, gristmill and a few dwellings. 

Monroe, the newly organized township, was about eight miles long 
and six miles wide, with a population of 2,453. Spotswood, on the rail- 
road, ten miles from South Amboy, was a village containing three stores, 
a grist and saw mill, two churches and fifty-two dwellings. 

The population of Piscataway was 2,828, and its incorporated limits 
were about eight miles long and six miles wide. The village of New 
Market, formerly Quibblestown, situated towards the northwest corner 
of the township, was a post-town of some fifteen or twenty houses. 
Piscataway, about three miles east of New Brunswick, was originally 
an old Indian village ; in early days it was a seat of justice for Middlesex 
and Somerset covmties ; it contained a church and about a dozen dwell- 
ings. The small village of Raritan Landing, two miles above New 
Brunswick, where there was a bridge across the Raritan river, contained 
several stores and from twenty-five to thirty dwellings. 

The ancient township of Woodbridge had an area of ten miles in 
breadth east and west and nine miles north and south, having a popula- 
tion of 4,821. Metuchen and Uniontown, on the line of the New Jersey 
railroad, contained a few dwellings. Rahway, on the border line of 
Essex county, was a flourishing village. Woodbridge, nine miles north- 
east from New Brunswick, contained three churches, an academy, a 


grist and saw mill, an extensive pottery, and fifty dwellings. Bonham- 
town was a small gathering of dwellings. 

Thus we review in retrospect a small portion of a vast republic. Four 
score of years have rolled away. The manners and customs of the 
descendants of those worthy pioneers who made the forests bloom into 
cultivated fields, have gone to their last resting place. Their sons and 
daughters in most cases have strayed away from the old homesteads 
to the more diverting and alluring life in the busy marts of the country, 
their places taken by the aliens of other lands who left the vexatious 
tribulations of their native homes in the Old World for betterment and 
success in the New World. 

In the place of the worthy pioneer traveling the dirt highway with 
his horse and wagon, is heard the buzz and whiz of the ever-destructive 
automobile propelled by the refined product of nature's oil, speeding 
over the macadamized way with lightning rapidity. The humming of 
a motor is brought to our ears, and as we raise our eyes skyward, 
instead of viewing and hearing the song and notes of a feathered visitor, 
we are greeted with the fast-disappearing aeroplane. 

There were no further sub-divisions of Middlesex county until Feb- 
ruary 28, i860, when East Brunswick was incorporated from parts of the 
townships North Brunswick and Monroe. On the same day, by an act of 
the Assembly, New Brunswick was separated from North Brunswick, 
which had been known since 1803 as the North Ward of New Bruns- 
wick. The next township to be organized was Madison, from South 
Amboy, March 3, 1869. The following year, on March 17, Raritan 
became a township, its territory being taken from Woodbridge and 
Piscataway. The township of Cranbury was formed from a part of 
South Brunswick and Monroe, March 7, 1872, and twelve hundred and 
fifty acres of the township of South Amboy was incorporated April 6, 
1876, as the township of Sayreville. 

The first courthouse and jail in Middlesex county was erected at 
Perth Amboy. In the proprietary minutes under date of May 14, 1685, 
it was ordered that a town house be built, stipulating it should be 
erected on a lot owned by one Thomas Warne. The location of this lot 
is uncertain, but it was probably one running through from High street 
to Water street, in the new town of Perth. In April, 1696, £20 was 
voted to Mr. Warne to release this lot again. However, previous to 
this, Thomas Gordon was directed to fit up one of the old houses of 
the proprietaries for a courthouse. Whether this was occupied under 
the royal provincial government is not known. 

An act was passed in 1713 for building and repairing jails and court- 
houses in the province, and Amboy was designated as the site for the 
jail and courthouse of Middlesex county. The building erected in con- 
formity with this act stood on the northeast corner of High street and 


the public square, and served for both tries and tried, the prison being 
under the same roof with the courthouse. It was also used for legis- 
lative purposes from Governor Hunter's to Governor Franklin's admin- 
istrations inclusive. It was destroyed by fire in 1765-66, accidentally, 
it is said, in the act providing for the erection of another. The second 
courthouse was erected June 28, 1766, on land donated by the inhabitants 
of Perth Amboy. It was a two-story building adorned with a cupola 
or belfry. This structure was used until the transfer of the county 
seat to New Brunswick, afterwards became a school house, but eventu- 
ally passed into private hands. The jail authorized by the same act was 
finished at an expense of £200 in 1767. It was also a two-story building 
containing rooms for the keeper's family, in addition to those for pris- 
oners. The city authorities of Perth Amboy ordered its destruction in 

In the early part of January, 1793, a matter of local interest was the 
question "where shall our new courthouse be situated?" The change 
of the county seat of Middlesex county had been sanctioned by the 
Legislature, and the two rivals for the honor and profit were Perth 
Amboy and New Brunswick. The former claimed for a matter of 
economy the courthouse should be erected in that city, which already 
had a suitable building, that it was a free port of entry, and that they 
were willing to transport ofificials, witnesses, and those interested in 
matters brought before the court, free of charge across the ferry, from 
Perth Amboy to South Amboy. New Brunswick was not behind hand 
in its offer, claiming to be the largest town, on the line of a stage route, 
the center of a prosperous agricultural country ; that the business done 
far exceeded Perth Amboy, and on the question of finance they were 
willing to contribute £300 for the building of a new courthouse in that 
city. The election was held March 10, 1793, and though there were 
2,540 ballots cast, as late as nine days afterwards only 1,900 of these had 
been counted, of which New Brunswick had 980 and Perth Amboy 900; 
this seems, however, to have settled the contest, as New Brunswick 
became the county seat. 

The common council of New Brunswick, April 29, 1793, assessed 
the inhabitants of the city for the £300 promised for the construction 
of a new courthouse. A number of the citizens who were residents of 
Somerset county refused to pay the taxes thus levied, and in the case 
of one delinquent his goods were attached. The case was carried to 
the Supreme Court, and at a session of this body at the November term, 
in 1796. Chief Justice Kinsey delivered the opinion of the court. The 
judgment of the court below was affirmed, that the corporation ordinance 
and tax were illegal, that its efifect was to compel inhabitants of the 
Somerset side of the city, who had to build and maintain a courthouse 
of their own, to assist in defraying the expenses of a public building 


in another county. The Chief Justice reiterates, "for these reasons 
alone, without entering into the peculiar circumstances which in the 
case furnish strong suspicions of intentional and premeditated decep- 
tions in this double-faced transaction, we are of the opinion that the vote 
of the 2nd of February, 1793, imposing a tax of £'300 upon the citizens 
of New Brunswick for purposes set forth, was illegal and void, and of 
consequence the assessment of it; the ordinance directing the time of 
payment, the duplicates and warrants of distress, having no valid foun- 
dation, are all likewise void." 

The decision of the Supreme Court did not, however, interfere with 
New Brunswick becoming the county seat. A court of common pleas 
had been held in that city since 1778, and £100 was expended on the 
Barracks, situated on the west side of George street near Paterson street, 
where soldiers were quartered during the Revolution. The barracks 
were destroyed by fire in 1794, and in that year the "Union" or Old City 
Hall, corner of Neilson and Bayard streets, was built and used for a 
courthouse, while a jail was erected on the site of the Bayard street 
public school. This building was utilized till about 1840, when the 
present courthouse was built, the sum of $30,000 being obtained from 
the State, borrowed from the "Surplus Revenue Fund" to aid in its 
completion. The present building has been remodeled and renovated at 
different times, making a commodious and substantial building for the 
transaction of the official business of the county. 



Lord Berkeley disposed of his interests in the proprietorship of 
New Jersey to John Fenwick and Edward Byllinge, both members of 
the Society of Friends. Fenwick in 1675 established a Quaker settle- 
ment at Salem, near the Delaware river, and claimed authority as chief 
proprietor over all parts of New Jersey southwest of a line drawn from 
Little Egg Harbor to a point on the Delaware river in the forty-first 
degree of north latitude. For a number of years the province was 
divided into East Jersey, with its capital at Perth Amboy ; and West 
Jersey, having as its capital Burlington. 

The two Quaker proprietors of West Jersey quarreled about their 
respective rights ; the tenets of their sect forbade them to go to law 
for an adjustment of their differences, and William Penn, the founder 
of Pennsylvania, was called into the matter as an arbitrator. This was 
the first introduction of that prominent member of the Society of Friends 
in the affairs of America. Byllinge, being burdened with debts, assigned 
his interests to his creditors, and the greater part of the right and title 
in West Jersey fell into the hands of William Penn, Gawen Lawrie, 
and Nicholas Lucas. The matter of ownership of the lands in the 
province of New Jersey became complicated. Lord Berkeley had sold 
his individual half of the colony, and negotiations were entered into 
between Sir George Carteret on the one side, and Penn, Lawrie, Fen- 
wick and Lucas, on the other side, to divide the province into two great 
portions Finally on July i, 1676, (O. S.) a deed was executed. East 
Jersey was to include all that portion lying northeast of a straight drawn 
line from Little Egg Harbor to the northermost boundary of the prov- 
ince on the Delaware river, and West Jersey was to consist of all the 
rest of the province granted by the Duke of York. West Jersey was 
divided into one hundred parts, ten of which were set aside for Fenwick, 
the balance to be disposed of for the benefit of Byllinge's creditors. 

Disputes having arisen between Governor Carteret and Governor 
Andros of New York, who claimed political jurisdiction over the prov- 
ince of New Jersey in the name of the Duke of York, Carteret declined 
to negotiate with Governor Andros, and the Assembly of New Jersey 
reluctantly accepted the Duke's laws. Complaints were laid before the 
Duke and the case was referred to the Duke's commissioners, who on 
legal advice being taken, decided that the original grant reserved no jur- 
isdiction and that none could be rightfully claimed. Therefore, the Duke 
signed documents relinquishing all rights over East and West Jersey. 

The heirs of Sir George Carteret in 1682 sold their rights in East 
Jersey to a society of Quakers under the leadership of William Penn, 


who had been encouraged by their success in West Jersey. The prog- 
ress of the province had l)een rapid, a smelting furnace and forge were 
in o{)eration making good iron ; horses, beef, pork, butter, cheese, pipe 
staves, breads, flour, wheat, barley, rye, and Indian corn, were exported 
to Barbados, Jamaica and other adjacent islands, also to Portugal, Spain, 
the Canaries, etc. ; whale oil, whale fins, beaver, mink, raccoon and martin 
furs were sent to England. 

The proprietor interests acquired by the Society of Friends induced 
members of that sect to emigrate to the province. Monthly meetings 
were held in East Jersey as early as 1686 at Perth Amboy and Wood- 
bridge. Their meeting houses were, however, demolished about the 
Revolutionary times, and in their old burying grounds in Woodbridge 
sleep the first of the sect in East Jersey. This burial ground in 1784 
was sold to the Methodist Episcopal church. 

Commissioners to determine the direction of the boundary line 
between East and West Jersey were not appointed until ten years after 
the deed of partition was drawn up. They were William Emly of 
Amwell, West Jersey, and John Reid, the deputy surveyor-general of 
the eastern portion of the province. Reid was a resident of the town 
of Perth, and was sent to America by the proprietaries in 1683 as a 
surveyor. It is said he was a gardener in his native country ; he was 
repeatedly a member of the Assembly, and in 1702 was appointed sur- 
veyor-general. He subsequently removed to Monmouth county and 
lived on a tract known as "Hortensia," on the east branch of the Hop 

The commissioners did not seem to be governed at all by the deed 
of partition, but determined the direction of the line according to their 
own arbitrary pleasure. The deputy governor and several of the pro- 
prietors of West Jersey, however, acquiesced in their award and placed 
themselves under bonds in the sum of £5,000 to abide by the final 
decision. The next step was the actual running out of the line. The 
East Jersey proprietors and ofifacials became anxious and appointed 
commissioners to w^ait upon the authorities of West Jersey to remind 
them of their contract and hurry their tardy steps so to have the line 
run as speedily as possible. In 1687 ^^^ line as far as a 
point on the south branch of the Raritan was surveyed to the present 
boundary line between Somerset and Hunterdon counties, there- 
fore, not to the Delaware river. To meet the conditions of the original 
agreement, a surveyor, George Keith, was furnished by the East Jersey 
authorities. Keith was a native of Aberdeen, Scotland, an eminent 
Quaker, although originally a Scotch Presbyterian. He became 
acquainted with the leading Scotch proprietaries in his native land by 
teaching a son of Governor Barclay at Theobalds, Scotland. The pro- 
prietaries appointed him in 1684 surveyor-general, and he reached the 


province the following year. He was induced by the Quakers of Phila- 
delphia in 1689 to leave Freehold, New Jersey, of which settlement he 
was the founder, to accept the superintendence of a school at that place. 
He did not, however, remain in this humble situation, but became among 
the Quakers a public speaker in their religious assemblies. Possessing 
quick natural talents improved by considerable literary attainments, 
he was acute in argument, ready and able in logical disputations and 
discussions of distinction in theological matters, but having great self- 
esteem he was apt to indulge in an overbearing disposition. His pecu- 
liarities of mind and temperament naturally made him assume the post 
of leader, and through his talents and energy he gathered around him 
followers in whom he inculcated an increased attention to plainness of 
garb and language and other points of discipline. With these religious 
tenets he connected the political doctrines of the abandonment of all 
forcible measures to uphold secular or worldly government, and the 
emanci{>ation of negroes after a reasonable term of service. 

These advanced doctrines caused a serious division in the Society 
of Friends, and as they did not meet with the general acceptance Keith 
expected, he became captious and indulged in censure and reproach, 
declaring only those that associated with him were true Quakers. Keith 
was charged with exercising an overbearing temper, also an unchristian 
disposition of mind in disparaging many of the Society of Friends, and 
his conduct was publicly denounced. His appeal to the general meeting 
of Friends at Burlington, as well as to the yearly meeting at London, 
where he appeared in person, and where his behavior was such as led 
to approval of the proceedings against him, brought his authority and 
influence to an end. Retaining a number of adherents in England, Keith- 
abjured the doctrines of the Quakers and became a zealous clergyman of 
the Established Church of England. After officiating some time in 
the mother country, in 1702 he returned to America as a missionary 
from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. He preached in 
all the colonies from Massachusetts to North Carolina, his labors being 
very successful in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York, where a 
large number of Quakers became converted to the doctrines and disci- 
pline of the Church of England. He returned to England and received 
a benefice in Sussex, where he continued until his death to write against 
the doctrines of the Quakers. 

The partition line as run by Keith was not approved by some of the 
W^est Jersey proprietors, though the award subsequently received the 
sanction and approval of William Penn. Governor Coxe, of West Jersey, 
a just and public-spirited man, above the imputation of mere self-inter- 
est, claimed that East Jersey was getting the lion's share of the award. 
He openly repudiated the Emly and Reid award, and soon brought all 
the West Jersey proprietors to his way of thinking, with the exception 


of William Penn. The East Jersey proprietors began to take up lands 
at various places near the pretended line of partition, which Governor 
Coxe protested against, and ordered the surveyor of West Jersey to 
take up in the name of that province all lands west of the Millstone and 
Raritan rivers. This would include lands within three miles of Perth 
Amboy, the town of Piscataway, and Inian's Ferry. 

The controversy over the lands continued until a compromise was 
effected by Governor Coxe and Barclay in London, September 5, 1688, 
each binding himself to fulfill the covenant in the sum of £5,000. The 
compromise partition line extended from the southwestern terminus of 
the Keith line to the north branch of the Raritan (called Pepack branch), 
a distance of about sixty miles ; from there up the north branch to near 
its head, following what is now the boundary line between Somerset 
and Morris counties and coinciding with that line at the point where it 
strikes the Passaic river ; thence it follows the Passaic, first southward 
and then northward to the mouth of Pequannock, and after ascending 
that stream to latitude 41°, turned directly east, running parallel to the 
Hudson river. The boundary line between New York and New Jersey 
had not at this time been finally determined, and was not for nearly 
seventy five years afterwards. 

The compromise line continued to be the accepted partition line 
between the two provinces until 1743. An act was passed by the Legis- 
lature in 1719 appointing a commission to ascertain and determine the 
northern station point described in the grant of the Duke of York. 
According to the quintipartite agreement, the divisional line from the 
east side of Little Egg Harbor was to terminate on the Delaware river 
in latitude 41° 40'. This commission decided that at the Fishkill, the 
northermost branch of the Delaware river, on its east bank, at an Indian 
village railed Casheightouch, was the north partition or division point 
between the provinces of New York and New Jersey, likewise between 
the eastern and western division of the latter province. This report 
and action of the commissioners and surveyors was fully concurred in, 
and ratified by the proprietors of the two New Jersey provinces. Though 
the West Jersey proprietors were anxious to run this new partition 
line, they lacked the necessary funds to pay their share of the expense. 
After many years of delay the East Jersey proprietors in 1743 assumed 
the responsibility of the expense and employed John Lawrence to run 
the division line. In running the partition line, Lawrence started on 
the east side of Little Egg Harbor and ran a random line to Cocheton ; 
he then found the station point established in 17 19, and taking his 
bearings, returned, making his corrections and marking the true line 
southward to the place of beginning. The line trees in the random line 
were marked with three notches on two sides. The side trees were 
marked with one blaze looking toward the lines. The mile trees were 


marked respectively with the number of each mile and with three 
notches on four sides. 

The establishment of the new partition line between the eastern 
and western divisions of New Jersey was to unsettle many titles of 
lands given by the respective proprietors. Many grants made by the 
West Jersey proprietors were found to be in East Jersey and vice versa. 
It was, however, mutually agreed that in such instances the equivalent 
should be given to the owners of unsurveyed land, on the other side of 
the partition line. 

The quintipartite division, by which name it became known, was 
accepted and acquiesced in by the proprietors of both the eastern and 
western sections, until the time of the settlement in 1772 of the boun- 
dary line between New Jersey and New York. Three years after the 
establishment of the New Jersey and New York boundary line, the 
proprietors of the western division commenced to claim that the tripar- 
tite indenture agreed upon by the commissioners of New York and 
New Jersey expressly stipulated the north station point. The present 
boundary line between New York and New Jersey established the 
northwest boundary point at Carpenter's Point on the Delaware, 
thirty miles south of Cocheton, thereby over two hundred thousand 
acres of land were taken from New Jersey. Hence they alleged that at 
whatever point the boundary line between New York and New Jersey 
terminated on the Delaware river, the partition line should terminate 
there also. This was the origination of the proposed line of 1775, and 
in that year the proprietors of West Jersey petitioned the authorities 
of New Jersey that the partition line might be changed. This on 
account of the Revolutionary War was never acted upon by the Legis- 
lature. A petition of similar import and intent was presented to the 
Legislature in October, 1782. The proprietors of East Jersey remon- 
strated against this petition, claiming it would be more consonant to 
reason and equity, since by the late determination and decree of the 
boundary line between New York and New Jersey the proprietors of 
East Jersey should demand of the proprietors of West Jersey one hun- 
dred thousand acres, being one-half of the quantity cut off from their 
territory by the New York boundary line. The quantities of land accord- 
ing to the lines of partition fixed and proposed were as follows : The 
angle or gore which East Jersey lost in the controversy with New 
York, amounted to 210,000 acres; this left in what is now the State 
of New Jersey, 4,375,970 acres, the half of which is 2,187,985 acres. If 
the Keith line extended to the Delaware river was to be the line of 
partition. East Jersey would have contained 2,214,930 acres, West Jersey 
2,161,040 acres, the average being in favor of East Jersey to the extent 
of 53,890 acres. By the Lawrence line. West Jersey contained 2,689,680 
acres, while East Jersey contained 1,686,290 acres, a difference of 


1,003.390 acres in favor of West Jersey. By the proposed line of 1775, 
West Jersey would have contained 3,119,260 acres, while the number 
of acres allotted to East Jersey would have been 1,256,710 acres, the 
difference in favor of West Jersey being 1,862,550 acres. There is no 
doubt, however, that there was more barren and unprofitable land in 
West Jersey than in the eastern division. The proprietors of West 
Jersey had divided their entire holdings amongst themselves except 
the rights of minors and people abroad, the amount in 1765 being esti- 
mated at 2,625,000 acres. East Jersey at this time was supposed to 
have located nearly 468,000 acres of good land, and 96,000 of pine lands. 
The rights in East Jersey sold for twenty shillings an acre for lands 
valuable for cultivation, and ten shillings an acre for pine lands, while 
in West Jersey the rights for a hundred acres could be obtained for 
from one hundred to one hundred and twenty shillings. 

This closes the history of the partition division lines, which was 
the important controversy in the province of New Jersey in the 
eighteenth century. Reconveyance of land titles, the establishment of 
county and town boundary lines, caused the demarcation between East 
and West Jersey to become an instance of the past. 


The first County Court of Middlesex county was held at Piscataway, 
June 19, 1683, Samuel Dennis presiding as president or judge, assisted 
by five assistants, namely: Edward Slater, James Giles, Captain John 
Bishop, Samuel Hall and Benjamin Hall. The clerk of the court was 
John Pike, Jr., and in accordance with the minutes there was but a single 
case tried at the town. 

The second court was held at Woodbridge, September 18, 1683, and 
thereafter courts were held alternately at Piscataway and Woodbridge, 
until June 18, 1688, when a session was held for the first time at Amboy. 
From that time until 1699 the courts were held alternately at these 
three places. The minutes of the courts between 1699 ^^^ 1708 are 
defective, but in the latter year a Court of Sessions for the counties 
of Middlesex and Somerset was held at Perth Amboy, and for a long 
time after this date courts were held at that city only. 

Stocks and whipping posts were used for punishment for crimes ; 
criminal cases of theft were punished by fines double the value of the 
goods stolen. This method of dispensing justice was no doubt due to 
the fact that there were no jails for incarceration of the prisoners. The 
first grand jury by the minutes was empanelled September 16, 1684, ^t 
Woodbridge. John English, a servant of Hopewell Hull, of Piscataway, 
having met his death by drowning in the Raritan river, May 25, 1685, 
the coroner of the county, Samuel Hull, of Woodbridge, empanelled 
a coroner's jury and held an inquest. The jurors after due deliberation, 
rendered a verdict that water was the only cause of the late lamented 
servant's death. 

The minutes of the court show that an indictment was presented by 
the grand jury against Captain John Bishop and Samuel Dennis for 
being the principals in a duel, but we have no evidence what punish- 
ment was inflicted on these disturbers of the peace of the community. 
Owing to the troubles incident to the close of the proprietary govern- 
ment, the courts appear not to have been regularly held. The last 
County Court convened at Perth Amboy on the third Tuesday of Sep- 
tember, 1699. The first Court of Sessions for the county of Middlesex 
under the Queen Anne or the provincial government, of which there 
is any record, though royal commissions had been issued as early as 
1703, was held at Perth Amboy on the second Tuesday of September, 
1708, Peter Sonmans, Esq., presiding as judge ; Cornelius Longfield, 
John Tuneson and John Drake, justices ; and John Bishop Clark, clerk. 
Scarcely a session of the court was held but suits, petty and vexatious, 
oftentimes malignant, were brought by neighbors against each other, 


while fornication, adultery and rape were a few among the many grosser 
crimes that were passed upon. 

The first Court of Common Pleas to be held in New Brunswick was 
in January, 1778, and in the minutes of the court July 21, 1778, there is 
the first mention of a courthouse at that place, the barracks located on 
King street (now George) between Paterson and Bayard streets inclu- 
sive being used as a courthouse and jail for the county. The barrack 
buildings were built of stone, being one hundred feet front by sixty feet 
in depth. 

Each town was obliged by law as early as 1668 to keep an "ordinary" 
or tavern for relief and entertainment of strangers, under a penalty of 
forty shillings for each month's neglect ; the innkeepers alone were 
permitted to retail liquors in quantities less than two gallons. This 
quantity was however reduced in 1677 to one gallon, and in 1683 the 
innkeepers were debarred the privilege of recovering debts in excess of 
five shillings. The Assembly, however, authorized the keepers of "ordi- 
naries'" to retail strong liquors by the quart. These laws led to great 
exorbitances and drunkenness in several of the towns, occasioned by 
persons selling liquor in private houses. These abuses in 1692 led to 
the establishment of an excise law by the Legislature, which was, how- 
ever, repealed the following year, and the licensing of retailers confined 
to the governor. Fines were inflicted for drunkenness, the penalty being 
one shilling, two shillings, two shillings and sixpence, for the first three 
offenses, with corporal punishment should the offender be unable to pay 
the fines ; if unruly, he was put in the stocks until he became sober. The 
fines not being excessive, did not cause the check of intemperance, and 
in 1682 offenders were treated more rigorously; each offense incurred 
a fine of five shillings, and if not paid, the stocks received a tenant for 
six hours ; constables for not performing their duties were fined ten 
shillings for each offense. The increase of punishment seems to have 
stimulated the vice, which may have been attributed to the removal of 
restrictions on the sale of liquors in small quantities. 

The tavern rates were fixed by law, and as late as 1748, with the 
standard of money at eight shillings to the ounce, the following were 
the established prices: 

Shillings Pence 

Hot meal of meat, etc 10 

Cold meal of meat, etc 7 

Lodging, per night 4 

Rum by the gill 4 

Brandy by the gill (> 

Wine by the quart 2 8 

Strong beer by the quart 5 

Cider by the (|uart 4 

Methcglin by the quart i 6 

The observance of the Lord's Day was strictly enforced ; all servile 
work was to be abstained from, also unlawful recreations and unneces- 


sary traveling; disorderly conduct was punishable by confinement in 
the stocks, fines, imprisonment or whippings. Under the administra- 
tions of the royal governors many of these early prohibitions were 
modified, the use of ardent spirits began to be considered necessary. 
Keepers of public houses were not to allow "tippling on the Lord's Day, 
except for necessary refreshments." The taking of God's name in vain 
was punishable by a shilling fine for each offense. This law was amended 
by a special act in 1682, the penalty being increased to two shillings and 
six pence ; if not paid, the offender was to be placed in the stocks or 

All prizes, stage-plays, games, masques, revels, bull-baitings, and 
cock-fights, which excited the people to rudeness, cruelty, looseness and 
irreligion, were discouraged, and punishable by courts of justice in 
accordance with the nature of the offense. The curfew laws were 
enforced ; night-walkers or revellers after nine o'clock were to be secured 
by the constable till morning, and unless excused, to be bound over to 
appear at court. The resistance to lawful authority, by word or action, 
or the expression of disrespectful language referring to those in office, 
was made punishable either by fine, corporal punishment, and, previous 
to 1682, by banishment from the province. Liars were included as 
penal offenders ; a second offense was punishable by a fine of twenty 
shillings, and if not paid, the culprit received corporal punishment or 
was put in the stocks. There was no established Thanksgiving days, 
like those introduced into New England in an early day. The General 
Assembly in 1676 designated the second Wednesday of November "a 
day of thanksgiving for God's mercy in preserving and continuing peace 
in the midst of wars around and about the province." "In consideration 
of the great deliverance of our nation from a horrid plot of the Papists 
to murder the King and destroy all the Protestants," a day of thanks- 
giving was celebrated November 26, 1679. By a proclamation of the 
governor, June 11, 1696, a day was appointed to celebrate by prayers 
the discovery of "an unsuccessful barbarous conspiracy of Papists 
against the life of William IIL" These three are all the thangsgiving 
days on record previous to the surrender of the government by the 
proprietors. Under the royal governors the first thanksgiving day there 
is any record of was November 28, 1750; a second one was October 24, 
1760, to return thanks for successes in Canada; and a third was pro- 
claimed August 25, 1763. The only fast day of which there is any 
notice extant previous to the Revolution, was April 25, 1760. 

In the early part of the eighteenth century lotteries were prevalent 
throughout the colonies, schemes were introduced into New Jersey, and 
the Legislature in 1730 passed an act prohibiting both lotteries and 
raffling, as their frequency had given opportunity for ill-minded persons 
to cheat and defraud the honest inhabitants of the province. This act 



referred more particularly to lotteries for the disposal of "goods, wares 
and merchandise." Those who were inimical to its provisions or who 
were l)lind to their deleterious influences, appear to have thought lot- 
teries for money not affected by it, and in 1748 there was hardly a town 
that did not have some scheme on foot. At New Brunswick there was 
a lottery to relieve one Peter Cochran from imprisonment for debt ; 
another at the same place was to complete a church and build a parson- 
age, the capital prize being £100. Johannes Ten Brook advertised at 
Raritan Landing in Piscataway township, a lottery, the prizes being 
real estate; another of the same kind was advertised by Peter Bodine, 
the prizes being 195 lots located at Raritan Landing, which was described 
"as a market for the most plentiful wheat country of its bigness in 
America " In the estimation of the Legislature "the ends did not sanc- 
tify the means," and towards the close of 1748 an act was passed depre- 
cating the increase of lotteries and their attendant vices, "playing of 
cards and dice and other gaming for lucre or gain," and prohibiting the 
erection of any lottery within the province under heavy penalties. This 
act was evaded by having the lotteries drawn outside of the province. 
In 1758 the provincial government authorized a public lottery to raise 
money to purchase certain lands from the Indians. This example was 
immediately seized upon as giving a license to the practice again to an 
unlimited extent. In the year 1759 a lottery to raise £1,500 for the 
benefit of a church in New Brunswick was started. This lottery was 
to be drawn on "Biles Island," and the highest prize was £1,000. The 
Legislature again interposed in 1760 by an act to prevent "the sale of 
tickets in lotteries erected outside of the province, and to more effectually 
prevent gaming;" but with great inconsistency by the same act revived 
three public lotteries for the same object as that of 1758. Schemes 
appear to have decreased in some measures for a few years, but notwith- 
standing legislative enactments, means were found to evade the designs 
of the law-makers, and lotteries continued to exist more or less numerous 
until the Revolution. 

The introduction of slavery in New Jersey was coeval with its 
settlement. There were no preventive measures adopted, and it is 
doubtful with the then prevailing views relative to the slave trade that 
any legal measures could have been devised for its prohibition. The 
Concessions of 1664-65 offered as an inducement to each freeman who 
would emigrate to Nova Cesarea one hundred and fifty acres for himself, 
and the same quantity of land for each able man-servant, and seventy- 
five acres for every weaker servant or slave over fourteen years of age 
that might accompany him. The quantity of land for the weaker servant 
or slave decreased in the three ensuing years, and in the third year the 
emigrant was entitled to only thirty acres of land for such dependents. 

Whether any slaves were actually brought into New Jersey under 
the Concessions is doubtful, but if so they must have been few in 


numbers, and after the government passed into the hands of subsequent 
proprietors it is uncertain if any were introduced. The East Jersey- 
records do not designate any of the servants brought over as slaves, 
and in all real estate deeds the word is not made use of, which it would 
have been if there were slaves to receive a less quantity of land than 
other servants. Thus the proprietors cannot be charged with the 
encouragement of the importation of slaves at the period of settlement, 
although there is no doubt of the existence of slavery before the transfer 
of the province to the Crown. As early as 1696 the Quakers of New 
Jersey united with those of Pennsylvania to recommend to their own 
sect the propriety of no longer employing slaves, or at least to cease 
from further importation of them ; this example does not appear to have 
been followed by other denominations of Christians. 

Her Majesty Queen Anne's instructions to the first royal governor 
of New York and New Jersey, Lord Cornbury, was to stop any move- 
ments that interfered with the traffic in slaves, the Royal African Com- 
pany being particularly brought to the notice of the governor as 
deserving encouragement, and that the province should have a constant 
and sufficient supply of merchantable negroes at moderate rates in 
money or commodities. At Perth Amboy there were barracks in which 
imported slaves were immured, and in almost every settlement the labor 
of the families with a very few exceptions was exclusively performed 
by black slaves. As late as 1776 it is stated there was but one household 
in Perth Amboy that was served by hired free white domestics. 

An act was passed by the Legislature in March, 1714, which provided 
for the trial of negroes for murder and other capital offenses before three 
or more justices and five principal freeholders of the country, the pains of 
death to be suffered in such manner as the aggravation or enormity of 
their crimes in the judgment of the said justices and freeholders shall 
merit and require; although the mode of trial was changed in 1768, even 
then the manner in which death should be inflicted was not specified. 
There were several executions under this act ; a negro man named 
Prince in 1729 was burned alive at Perth Amboy for the murder of 
William Cook, a white man. Perth Amboy was again, July 5, 1750, 
the scene of another of these judicial murders ; the victims, two negroes, 
were burned alive for the murder of their mistress, Mrs. Obadiah Ayres. 
The execution took place in a ravine on the north side of the town, which 
became known afterwards as "Negro Gully," and was witnessed by the 
entire black population of the town, who were summoned from their 
homes, being obliged to be present in order that they might be deterred 
from the commission of like offenses. At a later period a negro was 
hung a short distance out of Perth Amboy for theft. 

There were two or three risings amongst the negroes that disturbed 
the peace of the province. One occurred in the vicinity of the Raritan 


in 1734, and as a punishment several of the ringleaders were hung. The 
design of the insurrection was to obtain their freedom by a general mas- 
sacre, and then join the Indians in the interest of the French. An insur- 
rection was anticipated in 1772. but was prevented by due precautionary 

The number of slaves in New Jersey in 1800 was 12,422, in the next 
decade the number had decreased to 10,851, and in that year in Wood- 
bridge, with a population of 4,247, there were 230 slaves ; Piscataway, 
with a population of 2,475, had 251 slaves. The Legislature on February 
24, 1820, passed an act which gave freedom to every child born of slave 
parents subsequent to July 4, 1804, the males on arriving at twenty-five 
years of age, the females at twenty-one years of age. Under this act, 
slavery entirely disappeared from the State of New Jersey in the towns 
mentioned above, in Woodbridge, for instance, in 1840, while the free 
colored persons numbered 351 in a population of 4,821, the slaves enu- 
merated were only seven. In Piscataway in the same year, the census 
reports record a population of 2,828, of which there were 298 free colored 
persons and only three slaves ; at the taking of the next census a decade 
later, the slave element of each of these towns had entirely disappeared. 


The red shale drift in Middlesex county is a part of the great northern 
drift of the glacial epoch which covers nearly all of the northern ter- 
ritory of New Jersey. This portion is a part of the southern end of the 
great sheet covering the continent. The city of Perth Amboy stands 
on the southermost point of this particular drift bank. The red shale 
material, the predominating and characteristic constituent in the mass 
of drift, gives character to the surface of the country, the red shale 
cropping out in places. The soil has that peculiar purplish-red color 
which forms a marked contrast to the sandy soil towards the west and 
south. The forests in this drift area are quite different from those grown 
in the sandy gravelly loam surfaces. There are less chestnut and pine 
trees, which largely make up the woodlands south of the Raritan river. 

The general outline of the drift in the country is from Staten 
Island Sound on the east to the Raritan river on the south, thence west 
to near Bonhamtown to the northerly limits of the country. There is 
no shale or sandstone to be found south of the Raritan river and east 
of the South river. The former at Perth Amboy divides the two surface 
formations. This drift is, however, of yellow sand and gravel at Ford's 
Corner and several points between that place and Perth Amboy. The 
matrix of this drift consists of red shale in the form of small fragments 
and a fine red earth. In this are found pebbles, cobblestones, boulders, 
and other rock masses. Fragments of red and bluish sandstone and 
trap-rocks are abundant. The surface of much of the area is remarkably 
uneven. The hills are irregular in outline and of uneven slope, sink- 
holes and small ponds are numerous. These irregularities of the sur- 
face are a prominent feature in the higher grounds west and southwest 
of Woodbridge. The thickness of the red shale drift does not exceed 
twenty feet, though in some places it reaches nearly one hundred feet. 
No organic remains have been discovered in this drift, although it 
has been largely excavated at several points. 

The yellow sand and gravel includes the layers which form the sur- 
face materials or superficial covering of the clay district outside the 
boundaries of the red shale or northern drift which overlays it. The 
thickness of this surface formation varies from point to point even within 
the limits of a single clay bank. The materials of this sand and gravel 
formation are always stratified. The lines or layers of stratification 
sometimes are horizontal, but frequently they are wavy or gently undu- 
lating. The inclination of these layers is not uniform, the prevailing 
dip being towards the northwest. The sand and gravel generally alter- 


nate, but somewhat irregularly, and in some places there are thick beds 
of sand without any lines of gravel ; frequently a thin gravel stratum a 
few inches thick is seen lying immediately upon the clay. The sand is 
mostly of a fine white to a yellowish white granular quartz mass, which 
in some layers is mixed with earthy matter. On the north side of the 
Raritan there is less sand and a larger proportion of earth and gravel. 
The yellow sands are largely quartz in the form of grains and pebbles of 
white to yellowish transparent translucent chalcedonic varieties. Some- 
times black grains of hornblende and very small grains of magnetite 
occur with the quartz ; in some places these grains are cemented together 
by oxide of iron and make a stony mass. There is an absence of any 
quantities of spar and mica, and in the vicinity of Piscataway angular 
formation of red shale is quite abundant in the formation. Wherever 
the white sands of this formation constitute the surface, the soil is light 
and poor, and the timber is mainly yellow pine, chestnut and scrubby 
oak. The gravel has more earth in it and makes a firmer and better 
soil. The whole area of this sand and gravel formation is inferior to 
the red shale drift north of the Raritan river. This formation has been 
at times described as a drift, and must not be confounded with a glacial 
drift, as its origin is due to water. Its stratification, lines and layers 
indicate that flowing water, not ice, was the moving power. 

The tidal meadows constitute the more recent alluvial formation, the 
red shale drift, sand or gravel, being under the meadow mud. The 
boundary lines of the meadows are easily traced, the alluvium resting 
unconformably upon the older formations. At a few points valuable 
clay has been found a few feet beneath the surface of the tide meadows, 
but the expense of development has retarded the utilization of only 
that near the upland border. Investigation has proved that the clay 
beds are continuous underneath the meadows and the Raritan river, 
therefore it is evident that they were deposited before the river cut its 
present channel to the sea. 

The clay district of Middlesex county has been a source of great 
wealth and enterprise, and a factor in the industrial world. This district 
is confined to the extreme southerly part and ranging easterly, in the 
township of Woodbridge, to Staten Island Sound, thence it runs west 
and southwest into the township of Raritan to about a half mile north 
of Bonhamtown, thence in a southwesterly direction to Lawrence brook 
in the township of East Brunswick, which is its western limit. The 
southern boundary is not plainly marked, but runs in the direction of 
Jacksonville in Madison township to the Monmouth county line. On 
the northwest the clay district joins that of the red clay and sandstone 
and the frequent outcrops of the latter mark the location of the northern 
boundary easy and accurate. Towards the west the boundary is entirely 
arbitrary, but owing to geological formation is hard to determine, and 


it is possible that it extends across the State in the direction of the 
Delaware river and beyond. In the flat and sandy country south of 
the South river and stretching east as far as Jacksonville, the yellow 
sand and gravel drift reaches down to tide level, so this must be con- 
sidered the limit of the district where clay can be possibly dug, rather 
than the end of the beds. From Jacksonville to the bay shore the out- 
cropping clay marl defines the southern margin of the clay district. 
The area of the clay district in Middlesex county which has been devel- 
oped is in the neighborhood of seventy-five square miles, and it is 
estimated that in New Jersey and Staten Island the belt of country 
underlaid by the plastic clays includes an area of three hundred and 
twenty square miles, with the possibility that much other valuable clay 
land may in the future be profitably worked. 

Although the clay district borders on the tide waters of Staten 
Island Sound and Raritan Bay, and is intersected by the tide waters of 
the Raritan and South rivers, it is not like the general Atlantic slope 
of the country, of a flat surface. On the contrary, the surface is uneven ; 
north of the Raritan river the elevation exceeds thirty feet, fully one- 
third of it is over one hundred feet, and forty feet above tide water level. 

The materials of the clay formation are earthy, and no rocky or 
stony layers or beds are found within it. Sometimes the sand and 
gravel are cemented with oxide of iron, so as to form a rough building 
stone ; also, concretions of clay and oxide of iron of a stony hardness are 
found in some of the clay beds, but the layers of sand and clay of which 
the formation is made are all earthy and so soft that they can be dug 
with a spade. The whole formation is composed of a series of fire-clay, 
potter's clay, brick clay, sand and lignite. The thickness of a series of 
strata is nearly three hundred and fifty feet running parallel to each 
other, inclining towards the southeast with an average dip of about 
forty-five feet per mile. 

The agricultural district of the country is under a high state of 
cultivation, the drainage being supplied by extensive waterways that 
traverse its surface. The soil is good tillable land, abounding in differ- 
ent places in gravel and containing much sandy and clayey loam. The 
surface is generally rolling and yields abundant crops of hay, cereals and 
vegetables, interspersed with orchards. 

The mineral products of the country, if any, have not been developed. 
In the year 1748-50 several lumps of virgin copper from five to thirty 
pounds in weight were plowed up in a field within a quarter of a mile 
of New Brunswick. This discovery induced Elias Boudinot to take 
a lease of the land for ninety-nine 3^ears. He with several other gentle- 
men formed a partnership in 1751 and opened a pit about two hundred 
to three hundred yards from the Raritan. About fifteen feet deep the 
prospectors came upon a vein of bluish stone about two feet thick, 


embedded between two loose bodies of red rock, covered with a sheet 
of pure virf^in copper about the thickness of gold leaf. This bluish stone 
was filled with sparks of copper resembling- filings, and here and there 
were large lumps of copper from five to thirty pounds in weight. They 
followed this vein for almost thirty feet, when, the pit filling with water, 
it became too expensive to work. A stamping mill was erected, the 
bluish stone was reduced to a powder washed in large tubs, resulting in 
the securing of tons of purest copper which was sent to England without 
passing through fire. The cost of labor was, however, too high to 
make the venture profitable. Sheets of copper three feet square on the 
average, having a thickness of a sixteenth of an inch, were taken from 
between the rocks within four feet of the surface. At the depth of fifty 
or sixty feet a body of solid ore was found in the midst of the bluish 
vein between rocks of flinty spar, but it was however worked out in a 
few days. Work on the mine was abandoned, though the vein at that 
time showed richer developments. 


The American Indians were endowed with the instincts of the engi- 
neer. The communicating paths they made were direct and skillfully 
selected for their combination of all the natural advantages that were 
required. If their paths crossed a stream, it was at the easiest and safest 
fording place, if they traversed a swamp, it was where there was per- 
manent or solid ground ; the hills were crossed at the easiest grade ; in 
fact, they combined economy of labor and perseverance in every essential 
form. The Indian paths determined the location and course of the roads 
that were afterwards established by the early colonists. 

The most notable path established by the Indians in New Jersey was 
known as the "Minisink Path." Its starting point was near the Nave- 
sink Hills, at the mouth of the Shrewsbury river or inlet in Monmouth 
county, thence running along the southern shore of Raritan bay in a 
northerly direction through Middletown to the Raritan river in Mid- 
dlesex county, crossing at Kent's Neck near Crab Island about three miles 
above Perth Amboy. After crossing the Raritan, the path ran north- 
west to the headwaters of the Rahway river, reaching a point about 
six miles west of Elizabethtown Point, thence it ran a short distance due 
north, and for the remainder of its route north and northwest, passing 
over the mountains to the west of Springfield and Newark, traversing 
the whole of Morris and Essex counties to the Minisink Island in the 
Delaware river below Port Jervis, New York. The distance thus cov- 
ered was about seventy-five miles. These were the favorite hunting 
grounds of the Minisinks. These grounds extended throughout the 
entire valley lying north of the Blue Mountains in Pennsylvania, 
stretching from the Wind Gap in that province to near the Hudson 
river in New York. This path the Indians located, making their peri- 
odical visits to the seacoast during the season of the oyster, clam and 
periwinkles, to obtain their shells for the manufacture of wampum. 
Besides this extensive path there were many others. One ran from 
Perth Amboy to New Brunswick, where it crossed the Raritan, proceed- 
ing westward through Six-Mile Run. There was also the "Old Bur- 
lington Path" from Shrewsbury southerly through Monmouth county, 
which afterwards became a part of the highway known as the "Lower 

The earliest description of a journey between the Raritan and Dela- 
ware rivers is obtained from an original Dutch manuscript in the 
possession of the Long Island Historical Society. Jaspar Dankers and 
Peter Sluyter on December 29, 1679, started from the Falls of the Dela- 


ware (now Trenton) to cross the country eastward to Piscataway. 
There was at this time no settlement between these points. They found 
the country deluged with water, obliterating the Indian path and over- 
flooding the flats, valleys, morasses, enlarging the waterways, and pene- 
trating even to the high solid ground. They traveled about twenty-five 
miles the first day, and reaching a large body of water they encountered 
Indians, and arranged with the chief to row them across the river in a 
canoe. The river they crossed was a portion of the present Raritan. 
The vo3^agers arrived at dusk at the end of their second day's journey 
at the house of Cornelius Van Langevelt, a Dutch trader, located where 
the branch united with the Raritan river, and thence flowed to the 
Achter Kull. This was not far from the present site of New Brunswick. 
The two travelers on the first day of the year 1680 left Van Langevelt's 
trading post in a canoe for Elizabethtown Point on their way to New 

The first roads traversing New Jersey made by the European settlers 
were laid by the Dutch to connect New Amsterdam with Fort Nassau 
on the Delaware river. They must have been constructed soon after 
the building of Fort Nassau, as the intercourse between the settlements 
was principally by letters, they being dispatched across the bay to 
Elizabethtown, thence carried by runners, generally friendly natives. 
Old documents state that Peter Jegow kept a house of entertainment 
for travelers as early as 1668, about eight or nine miles below Delaware 
Falls, between what is now Burlington, New Jersey, and Bristol, Penn- 
sylvania. The statement is made that at this time there was no settle- 
ment at Perth Amboy or near it on Staten Island, nor on the south side 
of the Raritan ; there were no ferries nor were there any roads lower 
down the Raritan river than where New Brunswick now stands, which 
was the principal line of travel. Therefore there is no doubt that the 
first road that traversed New Jersey passed from New Amsterdam 
through the ba3-s and rivers by means of a ferry to a point afterwards 
Elizabethtown, thence through the towns afterward known as Wood- 
bridge and Piscataway, finally ending at what afterwards was known as 
Inian's Ferry. At this latter point two roads were formed. One of 
these, originally called the "Upper Road," later known as the "King's 
Highway," passed through the present sites of Kingston and Princeton 
to Trenton, where it crossed the Delaware river, continuing into the 
present State of Pennsylvania to Bristol, eventually to Philadelphia. 
The other road, known in early times as the "Lower Road," diverged 
from the "Upper Road" several miles west of the present site of New 
Brunswick. It afterwards was shifted within the present limits of that 
city. After leaving the "Upper Road" it went southerly and westerly 
through the township of Cranbury to Burlington, where it crossed the 
Delaware at Bristol and rejoined the "Upper Road." 


In the eighties of the seventeenth century, the only established road 
of importance in New Jersey was the Dutch thoroughfare established 
by Governor Stuyvesant. Attempts were made in 1683 to divert the 
travel from the old route to Perth Amboy. At this time Perth Amboy 
was a place of great expectations. It was a seaport having a magnifi- 
cent harbor, the seat of the proprietary government, and it was fondly 
hoped it would become the great maritime center of America. In 
response to the wishes and instructions of the proprietors. Governor 
Gawen Lawrie in 1683 projected a ferry across the Raritan at Radford 
(now South Amboy) to connect with a road through Spotswood to 
Burlington, for the purpose of connecting Perth Town and Burlington. 
A boat was run between Perth and New York. The road thus estab- 
lished was sometimes known as the "Lawrie Road," and was located 
south of the "Lower Road," and probably intersected it before reaching 

The effort to divert the travel from the old road proved ineffective, 
the King's Highway accommodating the bulk of the internal intercourse 
of the province, and the establishment of Inian's Ferry on the present 
site of New Brunswick made it the most popular route for travelers ; 
though even as late as 1716, when it had been established a score of 
years, no provision was made by the Assembly to pass over the ferry 
anything but "horse and man and foot passengers." From 1684 to 
1686 numerous roads v/ere projected and opened, some of them of con- 
siderable importance, some of them remaining in use to the present 
day. During the period from 1705 to 1713 no less than thirty-five dif- 
ferent roads were viewed, opened and established within the limits of 
Middlesex county. The only public conveyance, however, previous to 
the surrender of the province by the proprietors to the crown, was on the 
Amboy road, granted to one Dellaman, by the authority of Governor 
Hamilton, to drive a wagon for the transportation of goods and pas- 
sengers in connection with a packet boat operated between Perth and 
New York. There was no set time or fare for the trips, they being made 
irregularly. The next road of public importance in Middlesex county 
was what was known as "The Road up the Raritan." It branched from 
the main highway at Piscataway, running to Bound Brook, thence to 
Somerset county. It was one of the early factors along the Raritan for 
pioneer plantations. It did not follow the present highway, but passed 
from Piscataway in a northwesterly direction west of Metuchen, through 
Quibbletown (now New Market), thence to Bound Brook, where it 
proceeded west to what was then known as Howell's Ferry (now Lam- 
bertville). The remaining roads that were laid out in the country in 
the early days and for many years afterwards, were almost entirely local 
in their character, intending to connect the clustered neighborhoods with 
the important towns of Woodbridge, Piscataway, Perth Amboy and 
New Brup'swick. 


The Leg-islature of 1716 seems to have given more attention to the 
condition of pubHc highways. An act was passed, combining all high- 
ways that were six rods wide which had been laid out in pursuance of 
previous laws, and annulling all others. The system of laying out of 
roads was remodelled, rates of ferriage established, improvements rec- 
ommended. The ferries in existence at this period were : One from 
Perth Amboy to Staten Island, opened by Captain Billop ; one from 
Perth Amboy to South Amboy, called Redford's Ferry ; the latter place 
was also connected with Staten Island, and those already mentioned on 
the Raritan river. The ferries across the Raritan and the Sound at 
Perth Amboy were granted in 1719 to George Willocks, who erected a 
house for the accommodation of the traveling public. In 1728 Gabriel 
Steele received a patent for a ferry from South Amboy to Staten Island, 
touching at Perth Amboy. These ferries continued to be of essential 
service until traveling and transportation fell into other and more con- 
venient channels. 

In the first decade of tlie eighteenth century there was a public agita- 
tion claiming that a monopoly existed in the transportation of freight and 
passengers on the road from Burlington to Perth Amboy. Grievances 
were laid before the Assembly, but nothing was done until 1716, when 
passenger and freight rates were established. This act of the Legislature 
stimulated competition, and in 1732-33 Solomon Smith and James Moore, 
of Burlington, advertised that they intended to run two stage wagons 
between Burlington and Perth Amboy once every week, and oftener if 
business warranted it. The following year Arthur Brown operated a 
boat between New York and South River, New Jersey, freighting goods 
as w^ell as passengers from the latter point to Bordentown on the Dela- 
ware river, where they were transferred to a boat for Philadelphia. 

William Atlee and Joseph Yeats operated in 1742 a stage line between 
Trenton and New Brunswick, which was purchased in 1744 by William 
Wilson, of New Brunswick, who notified the public he would make trips 
twice a week, leaving Trenton on Mondays and Thursdays, and New 
Brunswick on Tuesdays and Fridays. A new line of stages was estab- 
lished in 1750 by Daniel O'Brien, a resident of Perth Amboy. This enter- 
prising Irish citizen informed the public that he had a "stageboat" well 
fitted for the purpose, which, "wind and weather permitting," would 
leave New York every Wednesday for the ferry at Perth Amboy. The 
following day a stage wagon would be ready to take passengers to Bor- 
dentown, where his "stageboat" would receive and carry them, and the 
freight to Philadelphia. The rates of charges were the same as charged 
via \-ew Brunswick and Trenton, and the passage was to be made in 
forty-eight hours. In March, 1752, trips were made twice a week. The 
success of this line of stages led to the formation of an opposing line. 
The passengers by this new line embarked on a boat at Philadelphia tor 


Burlington, thence by stage wagon through Cranbury to the Perth 
Amboy ferry. There a palatial passage-boat, equipped with a commo- 
dious cabin fitted up with a tea table and sundry other conveniences, 
was to carry the passengers to New York. A stage line between Phila- 
delphia and New York was instituted via Perth Amboy and Trenton in 
1756 by John Butler, to cover the distance in three days. This was 
followed about ten years later by another line that left twice a week from 
each terminal, using a covered Jersey wagon without springs to cover 
the distance in three days, at a cost to the passengers of twopence a 
mile. A third line was established in 1766, the vehicle used having 
seats on springs. The journey required two days in summer and three 
days in winter ; the cost of transportation to the traveler for a through 
passage was twenty shillings. This line connected with the Blazing Star 
ferry on the Sound, below Elizabethtown. 

A great improvement was made in stage-coaching in New Jersey 
when John Mersereau in 1772 established what became known as the 
"flying machine" route between Philadelphia and New York, the time 
of passage being fixed at one day and a half. This, however, proved to 
be too short, and two days became the scheduled time. His machines, 
which combined all of the improvements known at that date, had some 
semblance of a coach. Mersereau established another line of stages 
leaving Paulus Hook every Tuesday and Friday morning at sunrise, 
proceeding as far as Princeton ; there the passengers were exchanged 
for those that had arrived from Philadelphia. The rates of passage 
were thirty shillings for inside accommodations, outside twenty shill- 
ings, each passenger being allowed fourteen pounds of baggage, in 
excess of that amount to pay two pence a pound. By these two lines of 
stages leaving on different days, there was opportunity of leaving the 
terminal points of the route four times a week. During the Revolution, 
all regular lines of transportation were broken up, and when reestab- 
lished at the close of the war there was a retrograde movement both as to 
speed and comfort. 

The first public packet was established by Governor Lawrie in 1684 
to carry freight as well as passengers. These packets supplied the 
demand of travelers until the establishment of the land routes between 
Philadelphia and New York, and when Perth Amboy ceased to be one 
of the terminals. The packets continued to run for the transportation 
of merchandise, but became less numerous until about 1775, when there 
was but one sailing ship making the trip between Perth Amboy and 
New York. 

The use of runners and messengers for sending messages and dis- 
patches dates back many centuries. To Andrew Hamilton, proprietary 
governor of New Jersey, belongs the honor of devising a scheme by 
which a postoffice was established. He inaugurated a general post- 


office in Philadelphia on which he obtained a patent from the Crown 
in the year 1694, and which, on receipt of an adequate remuneration, he 
reconveyed to the government. It is presumed that the mails were 
carried regularly either by riders or by the wagon already mentioned. 
Governor Hamilton for some years acted as Postmaster-General over 
the infant establishment. The progress in extension of the mail routes 
was, however, slow, there being but few south of Philadelphia as late as 
1732. In 1754 the postal affairs of the colonies were placed in the hands 
of Doctor Franklin, when a marked improvement took place, though 
for some time the only offices in New Jersey were at Perth Amboy and 
Burlington, they being on the direct route from New York to Philadel- 
phia. As late as 1791 there were only six offices in New Jersey: Newark, 
Elizabethtown, Bridgeton (Rahway), New Brunswick, Princeton and 
Trenton ; Perth Amboy and Burlington being then off the mail route. 
The total receipts of these six offices in that year were $530, of which 
sum the postmasters received $108.20. A postoffice was established at 
Perth Amboy in 1793 ; others soon followed throughout the county. 

At the opening of the nineteenth century, the agitation for the build- 
ing of canals was prominent amongst the people ; this, with the intro- 
duction of steam as to navigation, was to revolutionize transportation 
facilities. The Legislature of New Jersey in 1800 empowered the gov- 
ernor of the State to incorporate a company to shorten the navigation 
of Salem creek. The first waterway development of a national character 
was the proposition to connect the largest cities in the nation by a canal. 
The agitation for the Delaware and Raritan canal began about 1804, 
and the New Jersey Legislature of that year chartered the New Jersey 
Navigation Company, which proposed to join the Delaware river with 
Raritan bay. This effort, however, led to no direct results, and it was 
not until 1824 that a private company was authorized to construct the 
canal. A joint stock company was organized, the State of New Jersey 
receiving $100,000 for the privilege of building the canal; the assent 
of the State of Pennsylvania could not be obtained for the waters of 
the Delaware river, for the project, and the premium received by the 
State of New Jersey was returned to the company. The object of the 
building of the canal was to connect the coal fields of Pennsylvania with 
the eastern markets. There was, however, a healthy opposition to the 
canal project, as the building of the railroad between New York and 
Philadelphia was being agitated. The State Legislature of New Jersey 
finally on February 4, 1830, passed an act incorporating the Delaware 
and Raritan Canal Company, and on the same day by another act brought 
into existence the Camden & Amboy Railroad Transportation Company. 

The canal was to commence at the confluence of the Crosswicks 
creek with the Delaware river at Bordentown, to run northeasterly to 
Bound Brook, thence southeasterly following the valley of the Raritan 


river to New Brunswick, a distance of forty-three and one-half miles. 
It was to be fifty feet in width and five feet deep, which was amended in 
183 1 to seventy-five feet in width and a depth of seven feet. In lieu of a 
premium, the company was to pay the State eight cents for each pas- 
senger and the same amount for each ton of freight transported. The 
traffic was largely drawn from the coal regions of Pennsylvania, but its 
usefulness as a competitor against railroad transportation became neg- 
ligible in 1871, when the Pennsylvania Railroad Company acquired a 
999-year lease of the property. 

The era of steamboat transportation in Middlesex county was of 
short duration. On the completion of the Camden & Amboy railroad, 
Robert L. Stevens built three steamboats, the "Swan," "Thistle" and 
"Independence," to connect with the railroad at the eastern terminus 
at South Amboy, to convey passengers to and from New York. In 
connection with his brothers, John L. and Edwin, they placed on the 
Raritan many fine boats, among them the well known "Raritan," "John 
Nelson," and others. The regular fare between New Brunswick and 
Perth Amboy was twenty-five cents, but as soon as a competing line 
was built by James Bishop, who placed in commission the steamboat 
"Antelope," a rivalry between the two lines reduced the fare to six and 
one-quarter cents. 

The multiplying of the railroads soon brought the outmost limits 
of Middlesex county in touch with a common center; within its area 
the lines of two great railroad systems traversed its surface. This, with 
the development of the interurban lines of trolleys and jitneys, brings 
the citizens of any portion of its limits within ready communication with 
each other. The days of steamboating and coaching are at an end, 
the whirling steam and electric conveyances annihilate space ; inter- 
course of communication travels with lightning rapidity, by the use of 
the electricity of the air, the telegraph key, and the word of the human 
mouth transmitted by telephonic connections. 



In the days antecedent to the Revolution, the inhabitants of Middle- 
sex county were enjoying an era of prosperity and happiness. The 
hardships of the pioneer settlers of the county had been overcome, and 
their succeeding generations were living in a flourishing agricultural 
district, dotted here and there with small villages. 

The modes of transportation were limited, the country roads were 
few and rugged. Journeys were mostly undertaken on horseback, vehi- 
cles being confined to heavy lumbering wagons, chaises, and gigs whose 
bodies sank down between two high wheels on wooden springs. Their 
homes were furnished with simple taste, the principal articles of fur- 
niture even in the best ordered household were not numerous. Many 
of the most costly were made of mahogany, white pine, walnut, cherry, 
or red cedar, the latter being a prime favorite, were used in the construc- 
tion of the high-backed bedsteads, chests, drawers, stands, tables and 
buffets. A slawbank or slabank, a name derived from the Dutch, signi- 
fying "sloop banck" or sleeping bench, took the place of our modern 
folding-bed. It was simply a cupboard with folding doors, and con- 
tained a bed. or more commonly a box attached to the wall by hinges 
holding the bedding, which was folded up against the wall by day and 
let down at night to serve as a bed. Occasionally it took the shape of 
a bench or sofa to sit on during the day, opening on hinges to form a 
bed by night. The housewife had her wheel for spinning wool, linen and 
cotton, also her loom for weaving these into cloth for the varied uses 
of the household. The people were respectably and comfortably clad, the 
men adorning themselves in breeches of leather, buckskin, worsted, 
homespun, stockinett, black and brown broadcloth, plush and velvet, for 
the winter, and for summer, linen, cotton, nankin, white dimity and 
drilling. Dress-coats, surtouts and great-coats were made of bearskins, 
buckskins, homespun, denim, wilton, camlet, broadcloth, velvet and 
sagatha, and a kind of serge. Cloaks and vests were made of these dif- 
ferent woven materials ; gloves were usually of leather, cotton, home- 
spun and tow ; the stockings were knit of woolen, cotton and linen yarn. 
Boots and shoes were made of calfskin, with durable soles. 

The apparel of women was still more varied, exhibiting their charac- 
teristic love of gay colors and beautiful fabrics. The assortment was 
endless, combining the useful with the ornamental. Bonnets and 
hoods of beaver, satin and bright colored silks and velvets, cloaks of 
broadcloth, white and black satin, black and blue velvet, and brilliant 
scarlet cloth ; dresses and gowns made of boundless variety of material — 



gloves knit of silk, also of leather; stockings of linen, worsted and silk; 
with shoes of cloth, silk and leather. In table service, china was rare 
as gold : plates, platters, spoons, tea and coffee pots and tankards were 
made of pewter, but so brilliantly polished as to rival the richest silver 
in lustre. Pewter and copper were largely used in ornamentation, and 
from them were made basins, ewers, pint and quart mugs, porringers, 
ladles, tea and coffee kettles. There was but little white glassware in 
use ; wine glasses, salt-cellars, tumblers and punch goblets, as well as 
china cups and saucers, were highly prized. Looking glasses and clocks 
were only found in the homes of the wealthy. Stoves were not in gen- 
eral use, wood, charcoal and turf being the only fuel, but there were 
always fireplaces provided with dogs and andirons. In the kitchens the 
huge caverns were garnished with a forest of chains and hooks, pots and 
trammels swinging on iron cranes, the fires being fed with great logs 
from four to six feet in length. 

The comforts of life were not forgotten. The men of these days 
were liberal providers as far as the creature comforts of food and drink 
were concerned. In the cellars were stored barrels of pork and beef, 
sides of bacon, carcasses of venison and mutton. Roasting pigs, ducks, 
fowls, turkeys and geese, were raised in great abundance, while the 
menu was often supplied with wild fowl, corn and beans. The water 
course furnished shad and herring plentifully in their season, and were 
laid down by the barrel and hogshead for winter use. 

The farms produced wheat, rye, buckwheat, Indian corn, potatoes, 
beans, turnips and other vegetables. From the orchards came a great 
wealth of apples, cherries, peaches and pears. Every household was 
supplied with butter, lard, eggs, molasses, sugar and honey, the last 
being common, as every farmer had his hive or more of bees. The 
common beverages were tea, cofTee, cocoa and chocolate ; the apples 
furnished cider, while metheglin was made from the honey. Nor \vere 
the stronger alcoholic drinks lacking; the hospitable host could offer 
from his Avine cellar to his guest or a tired traveler brandy, gin and rum, 
in all their variety, besides cordials and wines of all kinds. Tobacco 
smoked in pipe, and chewed, was a daily solace, while the gentility gen- 
erally used snuff. Books were rare as rubies, but the Bible or a psalm 
book was found in the most of families, and commonly constituted the 
entire library. Thus we have briefly sketched the elysium of content- 
ment that prevailed in Middlesex county, and that was soon to be visited 
by the grim visage of war. 

By the treaty of Paris, France surrendered Canada, and Spain Flor- 
ida, to England, who thereby obtained sole control of the entire territory 
in North America from the Atlantic ocean westward to the Mississippi 
river. George III., who Green, in his "History of the English People," 
says "had a smaller mind than any English King before him save James 


II.," was seated on the throne of Great Britain. The Mother Country 
thought she had gained preeminence in renown and as the acknowledged 
mistress of the seas. This success had been attained by vast expenditure 
of moneys, and had saddled upon the country a debt amounting to 
£140,000,000. It was but natural that the suggestion of Pitt, the then 
prime minister, that some steps should be taken to obtain a revenue 
from the colonies, was popular with the Crown and the people of Eng- 
land. The colonies had also made sacrifices to rid themselves of the 
French invaders and the scalping knife and tomahawk of the Indians ; 
£16,000,000 had been spent, of which five millions had been reimbursed 
by Parliament, and thirty thousand of their soldiers had fallen in the 
struggle, either in battle or by disease. The colonies, however, were 
no longer weak and inexperienced ; they had grown from childhood to 
a vigorous youth, able and willing to manifest the fact whenever it 
might become necessary. Though Parliament had exercised its power 
in regulating colonial trade for the exclusive benefit of the Mother 
Country, and to which the colonists had submitted, it never had 
attempted the levying of taxes for revenue. The English populace, 
heavily burdened with taxation, was in sympathy with the ministry and 
Parliament to tax the colonists, thinking thus to relieve themselves. 
This enmity was further enhanced by reports that were circulated in 
England that the Americans were indulging in gaiety and luxury, that 
the planters lived like princes, while the inhabitants of Britain labored 
hard for a subsistence. The returning officers represented the colonists 
as rich, wealthy, and overgrown in fortune. These statements were 
caused on account of the generous and hospitable people who since 
the wars were terminated, and having no further apprehension of dan- 
ger, the power of their late foe in the country being totally broken, 
indulged themselves in many uncommon expenses to honor those who 
had contributed to this security. The plenty and variety of provisions 
and liquors, with the borrowed use of their neighbors' silver plate, 
enabled them to make a parade of riches in their several entertainments. 
Sir Robert Walpole, prime minister of England, when it was suggested 
to levy a direct tax upon the colonies, declined making so dangerous an 
experiment, saying: "I shall leave this operation to some one of my 
successors who may possess more courage than I, and have less regard 
for the commercial interests of England. My opinion is that, if by 
favoring the trade of the colonies with foreign nations, they gain 
£500,000 at the end of two years, fully one-half of it will have come into 
the royal exchequer by the increased demand for English manufactures. 
This is a mode of taxing them more agreeable to their own constitution 
and laws, as well as our own." 

Walpole's successor, George Grenville, while he doubted the propriety 
of taxing the colonies without allowing them representation, loved power 


and the favor of Parliament, and contemplating the immense debt of 
England with a degree of horror, was ready to insist upon the colonies 
helping to bear the burden, bringing forth the famous Stamp Act. The 
act proposed to impose upon the colonists the payment of a stamp tax 
on all bills, bonds, notes, leases, policies of insurance, legal papers, etc., 
and afterwards by resolutions, additional duties on imports into the 
colonies from foreign countries on sugar, indigo, coffee, etc., it being 
openly avowed that the object in view was to raise a revenue for defray- 
ing the expenses of defending, protecting and securing His Majesty's 
dominions in America. To enforce the provisions of the act, penalties 
for violating it and all other revenue laws, might be recovered in the 
admiralty courts presided over by judges dependent solely on the King, 
without the intervention of a jury. The act and resolutions passed the 
House without a division, it being resolved "that Parliament had the 
right to tax the colonies." The colonial agents in London forwarded 
the resolutions to their respective colonies. When the intelligence 
reached America, it was regarded as the commencement of a system 
of oppression which if not vigorously resisted would eventually deprive 
them of the liberty of British subjects. The colonial Houses of Repre- 
sentatives openly defied the right of Parliament to pass unjust tax laws, 
and they were vigorously denounced by Samuel Adams and James Otis 
in Massachusetts, and the prophetic words of Patrick Henry resounded 
throughout the colonies. The agitation in America increased ; private 
citizens, members of public and corporate bodies, asserted that Parlia- 
ment had no right to tax the colonies. Political circles and clubs were 
formed ; the subject of all conversations was the fatal tax. On October 
7, 1765, committees from nine of the colonies assembled in New York, 
and in the course of a three weeks' session a declaration was made as a 
birthright of the colonists — among the rest, the right of being taxed only 
by their own consent. A petition to the King and memorials to each 
house of Parliament was prepared, in which the cause of the colonists 
was eloquently pleaded. Robert Ogden, one of the New Jersey dele- 
gates, withheld his signature on the plea that the petition and memorials 
should first be approved by the several colonial assemblies, and he was 
afterwards buried in efifigy by the people of New Jersey for this action. 
November i, 1765, was the day appointed for the Stamp Act to go 
into operation. Ten boxes of stamps in New York were committed to 
the flames. An organization known as the Sons of Liberty was organ- 
ized, who entered into an agreement to march at their own expense to 
the relief of those who put themselves in danger from the Stamp Act? 
Collectors were mobbed and maltreated, and the Act, as far as becoming 
operative, became inactive. A change occurred in the English ministry, 
the Marquis of Rockingham became the new prime minister, and Par- 
liament at its session in January, 1766, turned its attention to colonial 


affairs. The Stamp Act was repealed by a vote of one hundred and five 
against seventy-one, and the King, who was opposed to the repeal, but 
loath to proceed to force, gave his consent March 19, 1766. Thus the 
colonists scored the first victory for American independence. 

The contumacy of the colonists greatly annoyed the King and min- 
istry. Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer, of a new 
ministry under the nominal leadership of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, 
introduced to Parliament a new scheme of taxation based upon his chief's 
distinction between a direct tax and commercial imposts for regulating 
trade ; thence he proposed to lay a duty upon teas imported into Amer- 
ica, together with paints, paper, glass and lead, which were articles of 
British production, the alleged object being to raise a revenue for the 
support of civil government, for expenses of a standing army, and for 
a permanent salary to the royal governor. This bill passed Parliament 
with little opposition and received the royal assent. These acts were 
received with no favor in America, and excitement was rekindled. A 
party sprang into existence to resist in the name of right and national 
honor. The taxes were light and imposed no burden upon the colonists, 
but they felt more keenly the wrongs which affected the mind, and could 
feel no repose while honor was unsatisfied. The English ministry 
dreaded any step which seemed to encourage a prospect of a cause of 
action on the part of the colonies. The presence of the newly appointed 
officers for collecting the custom house duties did not tend to allay the 
excitement of the public mind. The excitement was enhanced at Boston 
by the quartering of two British regiments in their midst, which finally 
led to the Boston Massacre. Lord North, on becoming prime minister, 
forwarded a motion to Parliament to repeal the whole of the Townshend 
Act, except the duty on tea. This was retained in order to let it be seen 
that the right of taxation was never to be given up. 

The excitement among the colonists was maintained by popular 
meetings and discussions. The trouble was augmented by making the 
governors and judges independent of the provinces, the injustices and 
insults heaped upon Franklin by Parliament, and the irritating course 
of the English ministry. These grievances all tended to urge on the 
Americans to proceed to extremities. The attempt to force upon the 
colonists cargoes of tea brought matters to a crisis. Vessels were loaded 
with the commodity and dispatched to various colonial seaports. Public 
meetings were held protesting against this action, in which it was 
resolved that "whosoever shall aid or abet in unloading, receiving or 
vending tea" was an enemy of his country. The cargo destined for 
Boston was thrown overboard in Boston harbor ; that for New York was 
dumped into the river, and the captain of the vessel was sent back to 
England. The captain of a vessel with a cargo destined for Philadelphia 
stopped four miles below the city, and deeming it most prudent, returned 


with his cargo to England. At Charleston the teas were landed, but 
were stored in damp cellars, where they soon spoiled. 

These acts of the colonists aroused the indignation of Lord North 
and on the assembling of Parliament, March 7, 1774, he presented a 
message from the King advocating the adoption of resolutions for pun- 
ishment of the unwarrantable practices carried on in North America. 
This was the cause of the passing of a bill for the immediate removal of 
the custom house ofificials at Boston, and to discontinue the landing and 
discharging, loading and shipping of goods, wares and merchandise, at 
that town or within its harbor, commonly known as the Boston Port 
Bill. Another bill for the better regulating of the government of Massa- 
chusetts Bay was practically a complete abrogation of its charter. A 
third bill provided that any person indicted for murder or any other 
capital ofifense committed in aiding the magistracy, the offender could by 
the governor be sent to another colony or to Great Britain for trial. The 
fourth bill provided for the quartering of troops in America; and the 
fifth, known as the Quebec Act, placed the Roman Catholics and Protes- 
tants on an equality, that confirmed to Roman Catholic clergy their 
extensive landed property, allowed the administration of justice to be 
carried on by the old French law, created a legislative council to be 
named by the Crown, and enlarged the boundaries of the province as 
far as the Ohio river. It was most likely owing to these judicious 
measures that the Canadians declined taking part subsequently in the 
open resistance which the other colonies organized against England. 

These acts of Parliament were received by the colonists with strong 
expressions of determined opposition. Boston naturally became the head 
center of the revolt, and addresses assuring their support were sent by 
the other colonies to its committee appointed for that purpose. The 
subject of a General Congress of the colonies was agitated, and town 
meetings were held advocating the organization of such a body. The 
first held in New Jersey was a county meeting at Newark, June 11, 1774. 
This was followed on July 21 of that year by a political convention Avhich 
met at New Brunswick. The session lasted three days, and among the 
resolutions adopted was a recommendation for the appointment of a 
General Committee of Correspondence for the whole colony, with author- 
ity to call a Provincial Congress when in its judgment it should become 

The first Continental Congress met at Philadelphia, September 5, 
1774. It consisted of fifty-three delegates, and all the colonies were 
represented with the exception of Georgia. The delegates had generally 
been elected by the authority of the provincial legislatures, but in New 
Jersey they were chosen by a committee chosen in the several counties 
for that purpose. The New Jersey members to the First Continental 
Congress were James Kensey, Stephen Crane, William Livingston, John 


De Hart, and Richard Smith. It was not a constitutional body ; many 
of its members had been chosen irregularly ; its authority was limited to 
the willingness of the people to respect and obey its suggestions and 
mandates. It was less a congress than a national committee, an advisory 
council of continental magnitude. A declaration of rights, mild but 
deeply sincere; an address to the King, disavowing a desire for inde- 
pendence ; another to the people of England, also to the people of Canada, 
were adopted. They approved of the policy of non-intercourse with 
Great Britain, and formed an association to carry it out. The forming 
of this association, which at first constituted the revolutionary machin- 
ery, was an act of great importance. Its object was to secure the redress 
of grievances by peaceful methods, by enforcing the non-importation 
and non-consumption agreement. To carry out this purpose, commit- 
tees were formed in every county or township of the colonies, who 
worked under guidance of the Committee of Correspondence. The local 
committees marked out for persecution every loyalist who refused to 
comply with the recommendation of Congress. It was not until the 
following year that the colonists formed associations pledged to oppose 
the aggressions of the King by force of arms. This Congress sat for 
fifty-one days, when it adjourned, after having made provision for another 
Congress to meet the following May, in case it was needed. The pro- 
ceedings of the Congress were very generally and heartily approved. 
The course pursued in Middlesex county was a type of what was done 
in other counties. The inhabitants met in public town and township 
meetings in their several localities during the fall and winter of 1774-75, 
and committees of observation were chosen as follows : 

Woodbridge — Ebenezer Foster, Henry Freeman, Nathaniel Heard, 
Reuben Potter, William Smith, Jeremiah Manning, Matthew Baker, 
Charles Jackson, Samuel Force, John Pain, James Manning, John Heard, 
Daniel Moores, John Ross, Ellis Barron, William Cutter, Reuben Evans, 
James Randolph, Timothy Bloomfield, John Noe and John Conway. 

Piscataway — John Oilman, Henry Sutton, John LangstafT, William 
Manning, Benjamin Manning, Jacob Martin, Charles Suydam, Jeremiah 
Field, Daniel Bray, Jacob Titsworth, Micajah Dunn, Melanethan Free- 
man and John Dunn. 

South Amboy — Stephen Pangburn, John Lloyd, Luke Schenck, Mat- 
thew Rue, William Vance and Joseph Potter. 

New Brunswick — Azariah IDunham, J. Schureman, John Dennis, 
John Lyle, Jr., Abraham Schuyler, George Hance, Jacobus Van Huys, 
John Slight, John Voorhees, Barent Stryker, William Williamson, Peter 
Farmer, Ferdinand .Schureman, Abraham Buckalew and Jonathan Roefif. 

South Brunswick — David Williamson, William Scudder, Isaac Van 
Dyck, John Wetherill, Jr., Abraham Terhune, Jacob Van Dyck, Charles 

Windsor — James Hebron, Samuel Minor, Jonathan Coombs, Andrew 
Davison, Isaac Rogers, Ezekiel Smith and Jonathan Baldwin. 


At a meeting of this general committee assembled at New Bruns- 
wick, January i6, 1775, James Neilson, William Oake, Ebenezer Foster, 
Azariah Dunham, John Wetherill, Jonathan Coombs, Stephen Pangburn, 
William Smith, Ebenezer Foster, Matthias Balker, Jacob Titsworth, 
John Dunn, David Williamson, Jonathan Baldwin and Jacob Schenck 
were appointed a Committee of Correspondence to confer with like 
committees in the several counties of the province. 

In response to a call of the Committee on Correspondence, a Provincial 
Congress was held at New Brunswick, January 14, 1775, but little busi- 
ness of importance took place. The stage was set in the colonies, the 
chessmen placed upon the board, and the movement of the first pawn 
was awaiting the opening of actual hostilities. The first demonstration 
was to be made in Massachusetts. General Gage, then governor of that 
province, issued a proclamation offering full pardon to all the people 
except Samuel Adams and John Hancock, whom he was ordered to take 
and send to England for trial. These two patriots, fearing arrest, fled 
to Lexington. The British general, learning their hiding place, on the 
night of April 18 dispatched a body of eight hundred men to make the 
arrest and destroy the military stores collected by the Americans at 
Concord. The news of the approaching enemy spread throughout the 
country, and when the enemy reached the greensward of Lexington 
Common at sunrise the following morning, a body of forty minute-men, 
armed with their hunting guns, now to be used as weapons of defense, 
barred their passage. They were commanded by Captain John Parker, 
grandfather of the great New England preacher and abolitionist, Theo- 
dore Parker. His command to his men was, "Don't fire unless you are 
fired on ; but if they want war, it may as well begin here." The British 
met with feeble resistance and continued on to Concord, destroyed the 
little they found there, cut down the liberty pole, and burned the court- 
house. Hancock and Adams, having been notified in advance, of the 
coming of the enemy, escaped and quietly proceeded on their way to 
Philadelphia to attend the meeting of the Continental Congress to which 
they had been elected delegates. 

The news of the battle soon spread beyond the confines of New Eng- 
land. New Jersey, rejecting overtures of reconciliation, began to train 
her militia. The news reached Middlesex county, April 24, and on May 
2 following, a meeting of the General Committee of Correspondence was 
held at New Brunswick, who directed their chairman to call a Provin- 
cial Congress to meet on May 23. In response to this call, the second 
convention of the province met at Trenton, under the title of the Pro- 
vincial Congress of New Jersey. There were eighty-seven delegates in 
attendance, Middlesex county being represented by Nathaniel Heard, 
William Smith, John Dunn, John Lloyd, Azariah Dunham, John Schure- 
men, John Wetherill, David Williamson, Jonathan Sergeant, Jonathan 


Baldwin and Jonathan Deare. The Congress, though it declared its 
allegiance to the rightful authority of His Sacred Majesty, George III., 
deemed its assembling was absolutely necessary for the security of the 
province. They did not hesitate, notwithstanding this seeming loyalty, 
to assume and exercise the functions of an independent and supreme 
governing and legislative body, regardless of the authority of the royal 
governor, and unrestrained by the check of any other power than the 
will of the people. They promptly gave assuring evidence of their 
voluntary subordination to the General Congress, and their disposition 
to cooperate with it in securing the general welfare. It was ordered that 
each county should have one vote. A committee was appointed to open 
correspondence with the recently organized Provincial Congress of New 
York. Articles of Association were adopted to be sent to the Committee 
of Observation and Correspondence, with instructions to them to secure 
the signatures of the freeholders and inhabitants to support and carry 
into execution the measures recommended by Continental and Provincial 
Congresses, and pledging themselves to support all existing magistrates 
and civil officers in the execution of their duties. The most decided 
revolutionary step taken was the adoption of a bill regulating the militia 
of the colony — that one or more companies of eighty men each should 
be formed in each township or corporation, of the inhabitants between 
the ages of sixteen and fifty years, capable of bearing arms ; and an 
ordinance to raise £10,000 by taxation for the use of the province for 
the expenses of this militia. The tax was apportioned to the several 
counties the amount for Middlesex being £872 6s. 6d. The Congress 
also provided for a Committee of Safety of fourteen members, three of 
whom, with the president or vice-president, could convene Congress. The 
members of this committee from Middlesex county were Azariah Dun- 
ham, John Schureman, Jonathan Deare, Jonathan Baldwin and Nathaniel 

The second session of the Provincial Congress was also held at 
Trenton, convening August 5, 1775, continuing until August 17, 1775. 
The object of the session was to prepare for the dreaded alternative, and 
to take efficient measures for the collection of the taxes levied at a former 
session ; to provide for the government of the province, and for the per- 
petuation of the Provincial Congress as the successor to and substitute 
for the overthrown royal governor and Colonial Legislature ; to perfect 
the organization of the Friends of Liberty by the election of county and 
township committees of observation and correspondence ; to perfect the 
bill for regulation of the militia. The only change in the Middlesex 
county delegation was the substitution of Lucas Schenck for David Wil- 
liamson. The first business which occupied the attention of the Congress 
was to provide for the tax already levied, which was required to be paid 
before September 10, 1775. Delinquents and those refusing to sign the 


articles of association were to be reported to the next Provincial Con- 
gress. An ordinance was adopted ordering a new election of deputies by 
those qualified to vote for representatives to the General Assembly to 
convene at Trenton on October 3, 1775. 

Having thus provided for the perpetuation of the civil government of 
the colony, the Congress turned its attention to more effective organ- 
ization of the military strength of the province. It was thereby ordered 
that the militia should consist of twenty-three regiments, of which num- 
ber Middlesex county was to furnish two. Those inhabitants between 
the ages of sixteen and fifty that refused to enroll should be required to 
pay four shillings a month as an equivalent, and those signers of the 
enrollment list refusing to attend on mustering day were to be fined two 
shillings for each absence, not to exceed two fines a month. Each pri- 
vate soldier was to be equipped with good arms. Besides these twenty- 
three regiments of militia, four thousand able-bodied men were to be 
enlisted and enrolled to be known as "minute-men," and were to hold 
themselves in readiness to march at the shortest notice to any place 
where their assistance might be required in the province or any neigh- 
boring colony, these minute-men to be mustered into companies of sixty- 
four men. The quota for Middlesex county was six companies. The 
Congress appointed a Committee of Safety of eleven members, the Mid- 
dlesex county representatives being Azariah Dunham and John Dennis. 

The Provincial Congress up to this time had been purely provisional. 
Its deputies had not been elected in conformity with any law that had 
been enacted by a representative or authorized body, but were chosen 
on the informal call of self-constituted or spontaneous meetings or con- 
ventions. The preamble providing for a new election of deputies by the 
people now demanded a formal resort to the people as the source of 
power and authority, for choice of those who were to represent them. 
The Provincial Congress that assembled at Trenton, October 3. 1775, 
and continued its session until October 25 of that year, was composed 
of deputies elected by the people. Middlesex county had sent Azariah 
Dunham and John Dennis. This Congress was flooded with petitions 
on a multitude of subjects, from every county and from nearly every 
township. These petitions received due consideration, but the Congress 
was more materially engaged in scrutinizing the reports of the "associ- 
ation" and committees corresponding with the Continental Congress 
for the raising, organizing, and equipping and forwarding of troops ; in 
examining the state of finances of the province, estimating the expendi- 
tures required for the maintenance of the militia, and carrying on the 
government. Their attention was largely occupied in deciding com- 
plaints denouncing loyalists and sympathizers with Great Britain. The 
amount required for the defense of the colony was estimated at £30,000, 
and proclamation money was ordered printed for that amount, to be paid 


out of a sinking fund to be derived from a tax levied annually in 1784, 1785 
and 1786. Middlesex county's apportionment of the £10,000 tax was 
£827 6s. gd. One of the most important matters connected with the pub- 
lic defense was a resolution of the Continental Congress recommending 
to the convention of New Jersey the raising of two battalions of eight 
companies, each consisting of sixty-eight privates, officered by one cap- 
tain, one lieutenant, one ensign, four sergeants and four corporals. The 
privates were to be enlisted for one year at £5 a month. These bat- 
talions became known as the Eastern and Western Battalions, and on 
November 10, 1775, six companies of the Eastern were ordered to gar- 
rison the fort in the Highlands on the Hudson ; the remainder of the 
battalion on November 27, 1775, was ordered into barracks near New 
York, and were mustered into the Continental army at New York, 
December 26, 1775, under command of Lord Stirling. 

The people of Middlesex county were familiar with the sight of 
British troops before the commencement of hostilities, the English hav- 
ing erected barracks at both New Brunswick and Perth Amboy. British 
troops were in New Jersey as early as 1758, and in December, 1759, a 
battalion of Royal Scotch over four hundred strong, was quartered at 
New Brunswick. The first regular garrison was probably composed of 
the 29th Regiment of Foot, who garrisoned Perth Amboy, New Bruns- 
wick, and other towns, for a considerable period, and became very popu- 
lar in the province. It was withdrawn in November, 1771, the next 
regular garrison being a part of the 6oth Regiment, that sailed in Novem- 
ber, 1772, for Jamaica, and was succeeded by the 47th Regiment. These 
troops were called to New York in July, 1774, and partook of the dangers 
of Bunker Hill and Saratoga. The Barracks in Perth Amboy and New 
Brunswick were then taken possession of by the New Jersey provincial 

The determined stand of the Americans at Bunker Hill, the accept- 
ance of the office of commander of the American forces by Washington, 
with the success of Ethan Allen at Ticonderoga, and the American vic- 
tories in the South, caused the British government to evolve new plans 
for the conquest of the colonies. The secret policy of the government 
was to gain possession of New York and the Hudson river, thereby open- 
ing up communication between Canada and New York, and expose 
Massachusetts and the eastern colonies to the inroads of the Indians in 
the pay of the government. The opening of the second year of the War 
for Independence found Washington waiting impatiently before Bos- 
ton. His successful fortification of Dorchester Heights led to the evacu- 
ation of that city and the embarkation of the English troops and royalists 
for Halifax, Nova Scotia, at 4 o'clock on the morning of March 17, 1776. 

General Washington, leaving a force for the protection of Boston, 
with his main body of troops marched to defend New York. Sir William 


Howe, finding his quarters at Halifax not comfortable, at the close of 
June arrived at Staten Island with a large body of troops to prevent 
intercourse between the eastern and middle States, thinking thereby to 
frustrate any common plan of operation. Washington had not felt him- 
self able to occupy this island, but deemed it expedient to form a camp 
in its immediate region, and selected Perth Amboy, placing General 
Hugh Mercer in command. Troops were in consequence marched 
towards Perth Amboy, one thousand strong, among the first being four 
hundred and fifty of the Middlesex militia, commanded by Major John 
Duyckinck. It was about this time that a British brig-of-war mounting 
twelve guns entered the harbor at Perth Amboy. The Americans that 
night procured from the town of Woodbridge an eighteen-pounder gun, 
placed it behind breastworks, and at dawn opened fire upon the vessel. 
Though the latter made brisk reply, her commander retired from the 
conflict, otherwise his ship would have been sunk. 

The Committee of Safety met during the recess of the Provincial 
Congress, at Princeton, New Jersey, January 9, 1776, and established 
posts at proper distances to carry intelligence to the different parts of 
the colony. A man and horse was to be in readiness at Newark, Eliza- 
bethtown, Woodbridge, New Brunswick, Princeton and Trenton, who 
was to forward all expresses to and from the Continental Congress. This 
established the first express company in New Jersey. 

The first election that gave the right of franchise to all male free- 
holders twenty-one years of age who had lived in the province one year, 
who was worth fifty pounds and had signed the articles of association, 
took place the fourth Monday in May, 1776. The deputies elected from 
Middlesex county were Moses Bloomfield, John Wetherill, John Dunn, 
Jonathan D. Sergeant and John Coombs. This congress or convention 
deposed Governor Franklin and ordered his arrest ; it also received the 
Declaration of Independence, and declared that they would support the 
freedom and independence of the united colonies with their lives and 
fortunes and with the whole force of New Jersey. 

General Washington and his army were at the Heights of Brooklyn, 
at York Island and Paulus Hook, where the new entrenched batteries of 
the Americans were located. The citizens of New York awaited the 
conflict between the opposing armies. The British force landed on Long 
Island August 26, gave battle and obtained a complete victory. This led 
to the occupation of New York City, September 15, 1776. The American 
forces continued to lose ground around New York, and though on the 
night of October 16, 1776, General Mercer passed over to Staten Island 
from Perth Amboy to capture a force of British Hessians stationed at 
Richmond, the enemy having been warned in advance, but little was 

In November, 1776, Washington's retreat through New Jersey com- 
menced. His headquarters were at Hackensack from 19th to 21st of 


November; at Acquackanonck on the 21st; at Newark, 23rd-27th ; at 
New Brunswick, November 30th to December ist; and at Trenton, 
December 3rd-i2th ; the army crossing the Delaware the 7th. By this 
retreat New Jersey was left in the undisturbed possession of the enemy, 
the English taking possession of Perth Amboy, December i, 1776. Wash- 
ington, however, having received reinforcements, crossed the Delaware 
on the night of December 25th, and by the battles of Trenton and 
Princeton reestablished the supremacy of the American arms south and 
west of New Brunswick, and went into winter quarters at Morristown. 

This was the darkest hour of the War of the Revolution. No aid had 
been received from France. A portion of the people sympathizing with 
the invaders, the patriots were everywhere exposed to their bitter hatred, 
cupidity and treachery. Trade and industry were paralyzed, the hus- 
bandman only planted for the bare subsistence of his family. Precious 
metals had vanished from the land, paper money had little value, the 
means of the patriots were almost exhausted, and their hopes wellnigh 
extinguished. The numerous responses for volunteers for the army had 
left only old men and women and children at home ; their houses and 
garners were gleaned of every superfluity and even of the necessities of 

The British occupied New Brunswick, Perth Amboy, and their vicin- 
ity, including Six-Mile Run, Middlebrush, Piscataway, Woodbridge and 
Bonhamtown, from December 2, 1776, till June 22, 1777. It was during 
this occupation that the true character of the enemy was divulged. The 
soil was deluged with blood, they plundered friends and foes, suffered 
prisoners to perish for want of sustenance, violated the chastity of 
women, disfigured private dwellings and churches. There were also 
active hostilities, skirmishes being frequent, with varied results. The 
Jersey militia on January 5, 1777, attacked a regiment of British troops in 
the neighborhood of Spanktown (Rahway). The object of the attack 
was to secure possession of a thousand bushels of salt. The skirmish 
continued two hours, when the enemy being reinforced, the Americans 
retired from the conflict. The Sixth Virginia Regiment attacked a 
detachment of the enemy on its way to Perth Amboy from New Bruns- 
wick, causing a loss of sixty-five in killed and wounded, their commander. 
Colonel Preston, being killed, and his second in command being danger- 
ously wounded. The Americans sustained no loss in this engagement. 

There was a skirmish at Piscataway between seven hundred Amer- 
icans and about one thousand British. The latter were at first defeated, 
but returned and renewed the conflict, obliging the Americans to retire. 
The foraging and scouting parties of the Americans cut off all com- 
munication between Perth Amboy and New Brunswick excepting by 
the Raritan river. Lord Cornwallis' headquarters were at New Bruns- 
wick, and his detachment becoming short of provisions, a fleet of boats 


coming up the Raritan with the needed supplies, four or five of them 
were sunk, the others were obliged to return to New York, by the oper- 
ation of a battery of six thirty-two pounders placed in position on a bluff 
overlooking the river by the vigilant provincials. General Howe subse- 
quently attempted to open communication on March 8, in the neighbor- 
hood of Bonhamtown, but failed, narrowly escaping capture, and New 
Brunswick continued shut up until late in March. There were several 
skirmishes between the opposing armies near Bonhamtown. On the night 
of April 15, a detachment of Americans under Captain Alexander Pater- 
son, of the Pennsylvania 12th Regiment, attacked the picket guard of the 
enemy, capturing it entire, twenty-five in number. On May 10 there 
was a skirmish at Piscataway between portions of Colonels Cork's and 
Hendrick's regiments and the 71st Regiment of Scotch Regulars. The 
latter was forced to retire, but a reinforcement arriving from Bonham- 
town, the Highlanders were reinstated, although with considerable loss. 
The British did nothing against Washington. Towards the end of 
May, 1777, he advanced upon New Brunswick, from which place General 
Howe marched June 14th to take the field against him. The first division 
under Lord Cornwallis advanced to Hillsborough ; the second, com- 
manded by General De Hiester, marched to Middlebrush, with a view 
of drawing on an action if the enemy should remove from the mountains 
toward the Delaware. The Americans, however, retained their posit-^on, 
and General Howe decided to withdraw the British army from New 
Jersey, returning his troops to the camp at New Brunswick. On June 22 
the road was taken for Perth Amboy, intending to cross to Staten Island 
from thence to embark for New York. The British army crossed over 
to Staten Island, the rearguard passing Perth Amboy at two o'clock on 
the afternoon of June 30, without the least appearance of an enemy. 
This movement was a matter of great perplexity to Washington ; Bur- 
goyne was in command of a large force in Canada, advancing upon 
Ticonderoga ; in New York, preparations were under way for a sea 
expedition against either New England or Philadelphia to create a diver- 
sion in favor of Burgoyne. Washington moved his forces slowly, think- 
ing the real intention of all these measures was that the British might 
attempt to ascend the Hudson river, endeavoring to form a junction with 
Burgoyne. The British fleet went to sea, and Washington prepared to 
guard Philadelphia. The battles of Brandywine and Germantown 
decided the issue ; the British occupied Philadelphia, and Washington 
and his army went into winter quarters at Valley Forge. 

The two momentous events in the history of the American cause for 
independence were the massacre at Wyoming, and the surrender of 
Burgoyne. Thus at the close of 1777, by the first the patriots had gained 
the sympathy of foreign nations, who were dumbfounded and disgusted 
by the use of depraved Indians bought by English gold to murder and 


scalp not only men of fighting age, but defenseless men, women and 
children. In the latter event, Americans had displayed to the world 
their fearless courage, the ability of their commanders and soldiers to 
meet experienced troops and obtain a victory, when the odds were to 
their disadvantage. These two events were to bring to the American 
cause not only the gold and soldiers of France, but the cooperation of 
the entire civilized world outside of their inveterate enemies. 

The opening of 1778 found the British army in the east, quartered 
in Philadelphia, New York and Rhode Island, totaling about 33,000 men, 
while Washington had only about 15,000 to 20,000 men. Sir Henry 
Clinton, then in supreme command of the British forces, decided in June, 
1778, to evacuate Philadelphia, and remove his army to New York. Pro- 
ceeding leisurely through Haddonfield and Mount Holly, he reached 
Crosswicks and Allentown, June 24th, having in seven days marched less 
than forty miles. This slow progress was looked upon by the Amer- 
icans as if Sir Henry desired an engagement, but it was undoubtedly due 
for the protection of his wagon train, which was twelve miles long. 
Washington, leaving Valley Forge, encamped on high grounds at Hope- 
well on June 2^. 

From Allentown there were two roads to New York — one through 
South Amboy to the Hudson river, the other leading to Monmouth and 
Sandy Hook. The first was the shorter route, but Sir Henry resolved 
to take the road to Sandy Hook, as he judged it would be difficult to 
cross the Raritan river in the face of the enemy. Washington, anticipat- 
ing a battle, dispatched one thousand men towards Monmouth Court 
House, the whole army following at a proper distance. The armies came 
together near the present site of Freehold, where two or three brief 
skirmishes were fought, but the final pitched battle took place about two 
miles from that county seat. The day was one of excessive heat, nearly 
one hundred soldiers were found dead on the battlefield without even 
a mark of a bullet. The British soldiers suffered worse in this respect, 
as the clothing of the American was much lighter in weight. At the 
approach of night, both armies occupied the field of battle, and the inten- 
tion of Washington was to continue the fight the following day. The 
British, however, when darkness flooded the land at about ten o'clock, 
silently took up their march, and to the surprise of the Americans the 
morning sun showed no enemies in view. Clinton marched his army 
twenty-four miles that day, protected his immense wagon train, arrived 
at Perth Amboy, and embarked his troops for New York. General 
Washington declined to follow the retreating army in the morning. The 
battle of Monmouth was the last conflict of any importance to take place 
in the eastern colonies ; the seat of war was henceforth to be in the 
southern colonies. 


Several minor events took place in Middlesex county. A detachment 
of the New Jersey Royal Volunteers, consisting- of sixty men, on August 
19, 1777, crossed Staten Island Sound, marched twenty-seven miles into 
the interior, captured fourteen prisoners, sixty-two head of cattle, nine 
horses, destroyed property, and successfully transported their booty in 
safety to the island. Commissioners appointed by General Washington 
and Sir Henry Clinton met at Perth Amboy, April 12, 1779, to make 
arrangements for a general exchange of prisoners. Another invasion 
was made by about fifty of the "Greens" who crossed from Staten Island 
in the early morning of October 12, 1779, and secured upwards of a 
hundred cattle and horses, but a company of American troops obliged 
them to retreat, leaving most of their booty behind. The raid of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Simcoe, of the Queen's Rangers, on the night of October 
25, 1779, in which the gallant leader lost his life, was one of the most 
notable events of the success of the New Jersey militia. A band of thirty 
refugees on June i, 1780, captured ten prisoners at Woodbridge, whom 
they conveyed to New York. 

Captain Adam Hyler and Captain Marriver were enterprising priva- 
teers of New Brunswick. They cruised between Egg Harbor and Staten 
Island, and many of their exploits read like a romance. They levied 
their contributions on the New York fishermen on the fishing banks, and 
annoyed the enemy so much that an armed force of three hundred men 
was sent January 4, 1782, to destroy their boats. Hyler, the most suc- 
cessful of the two, died at New Brunswick in 1782; Marriver lived at 
Harlem, New York, several years after the war. There is scarcely a town 
or village in the State that has not its local traditions or veritable 
accounts of valiant doings in the country's cause, waiting for the patient 
chronicler to gather and preserve them. 


Two citizens of Middlesex county, Nathaniel Heard and John Neil- 
son, received the military rank of brigadier-general in the New Jersey 
State troops furnished during the Revolutionary War. General Heard 
was a native of Woodbridge, and was one of the first to take the field 
against the enemy. He raised in 1775 a body of troops which he placed 
at the disposition of the Provincial Congress and the Committee of 
Safety. He was colonel of the First Middlesex Regiment, afterwards 
colonel of a battalion of Minute-men, later was in command of a battalion 
named in his honor Heard's Battalion, then was made a brigadier- 
general and finally held that rank in the militia. He suffered a heavy 
penalty for his patriotism ; his dwelling with the outside buildings were 
destroyed by fire by the British, who also appropriated to their use a 
thousand bushels of grain, seventy tons of hay, one thousand panels of 
fence, twenty-two hogsheads of cider, and two horses ; he lost by these 
depredations over £2,000. After the Revolution, he held several offices 
under the National and State governments, being marshal of New Jersey 
and collector of revenue at Amboy under the former, and surrogate under 
the latter. 

General Neilson was of Scotch and Dutch descent, though the found- 
ers of his family in America came from Belfast, Ireland. James Neilson, 
with his brother John Neilson, a doctor, arrived in Perth Amboy in 1716. 
The former became a resident of New Brunswick before 1730, as he was 
one of the patentees for a charter obtained in that year. The mail for 
Somerset county was left at his residence, as Perth Amboy was the near- 
est post office. James Neilson engaged in the shipping and mercantile 
business, was one of the first trustees of Princeton College (then the 
College of New Jersey), was alderman in New Brunswick, judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, and a member of the Revolutionary Committee 
of Correspondence. He died at New Brunswick, March 4, 1783, in the 
eighty-third year of his age. Though far advanced in life at the 
commencement of the Revolutionary War, he was exceeded by no one 
in patriotism, believing that the injustice aimed at the colonies was clear 
and unveiled. He was a true friend to religion, and a liberal contributor 
to its support. He died childless, but owing to the early death of General 
Neilson's father, he adopted his brother's son as his own and left him his 
heir by his will. 

Doctor John Neilson, a native of Belfast, Ireland, the father of the 
General, married Joanna, daughter of Andrew Cojeman, who came from 



Holland with his mother, the widow of Andreas Cojeman. The family- 
settled on the banks of the Hudson river on the Cojeman's patent, after- 
wards removed to Raritan Landing-. Dr. Neilson died March 19. 1745, 
in consequence of an accident and while a young man. 

The only son of Doctor John and Joanna (Cojeman) Neilson was 
born at Raritan Landing, March 11, 1745, and given the name of his 
father. At the outbreak of the Revolution he was eng-aged in the ship- 
ping business with his uncle James Neilson. Fired with patriotism for 
his native country, yovmg Neilson made a strong speech to the citizens 
of New Brunswick, in which to use his own words, he "bitterly resented 
the attempt of a venal Parliament fought by an oppressive ministry to 
tax his country, stating that the only alternative was victory or slavery." 
He thrcAv himself with energ}^ into the struggle, raised a company of 
militia, and was appointed its captain. The company was called into 
service and placed under command of General Heard at the east end of 
Long Island. Captain Neilson on August 31, 1775, was commissioned 
colonel of a battalion of minute-men from Middlesex county by the Pro- 
vincial Congress of New Jersey. 

Such was the public appreciation of Colonel Neilson's ability and 
patriotism that he was urged early in 1776 to take a seat in the Con- 
tinental Congress of that year, which was to take under consideration the 
grave measure of the Declaration of Independence. His presence in his 
native State being deemed so necessary, he was led to decline the honor. 
A copy of the Declaration of Independence, however, was forwarded to 
him by Congress, and he was solicited to use his efforts for it to receive 
a favorable reception in his part of New Jersey. A meeting consisting 
of a large portion of the inhabitants of New Brunswick was held in the 
public streets to hear the document read, and a violent opposition was 
feared. Colonel Neilson, fearless of personal danger, read the instrument 
to the people, and at its conclusion was greeted with loud cheers by so 
great a majority that the opponents of the measure did not dare to avow 

In the dark and gloomy days of 1776, when Washington's army was 
reduced to a mere handful and the country's cause was trembling in the 
balance, Colonel Neilson, in command of the Second Regiment Middle- 
sex County Militia, during September and October, was stationed in 
Bergen and Essex counties. His command in December retired with 
Washington's army to the west bank of the Delaware river. On the last 
day of that gloomy year, under orders of General Washington, Colonel 
Neilson with other New Jersey militia officers was directed to proceed 
to New Jersey to use their exertions to call together and embody the 
militia of the State. The efforts of these and a few other brave men at 
this critical time, and the patriotic response of the State militia, made 


possible the victories of Trenton, Princeton and Monmouth, which 
turned the scale from deep despondency and finally resulted in the estab- 
lishment of American independence. 

Colonel Neilson with a detachment of his regiment surprised and 
captured every man of an outpost of refugees stockaded on an island in 
the river about three miles below New Brunswick, without firing a gun. 
In acknowledgment of his services he was appointed, February 21, 1777, 
brigadier-general of militia. During the winter of 1777 the British troops 
were quartered at New Brunswick, their commander, Lord Howe, mak- 
ing his headquarters at Colonel Neilson's residence on Burnet street. In 
the months of September, October and November, 1777, the colonel was 
in service in the lines at Elizabethtown with the militia of Middlesex and 
Somerset counties. He served in Monmouth county in June and July, 
1778, being a part of the time under command of General Dickerson, and 
a part holding a separate command. The Assembly and Council, Novem- 
ber 6, 1778, elected him a delegate to the Continental Congress, but he 
never took his seat, as his services could not be spared from the State. 

In the spring and summer of 1779 he commanded the militia on the 
lines of Elizabeth and Newark. He was appointed September 20, 1780, 
deputy quartermaster-general for the State of New Jersey. This position 
threw upon him great responsibility, as the State failed either by taxes 
or loans to provide for the support of the army. The currency was 
depreciated, and forage, food, clothing and transportation were hard to 
obtain. He continued in this position until the close of the war. His 
useful and honorable Revolutionary career was terminated by his appoint- 
ment, June 28, 1782, as one of the commissioners to settle the remaining 
accounts caused by the depreciation in the money value of their pay with 
the New Jersey troops. 

After the war he succeeded to the property and business of his uncle, 
and carried on an extensive trade with Lisbon, Maderia, and the West 
Indies. He was still, however, called upon for services to the public ; he 
was delegate to the State Convention called to consider the adoption of 
the Federal Constitution, and of its forty members was the last survivor ; 
he was one of the commissioners to build bridges over the Hackensack, 
Passaic and Raritan rivers ; and was a prominent member of the Assem- 
bly in 1800 and 1801. General Washington never passed through New 
Brunswick without calling on General Neilson, and Lafayette at the 
time of his visit to this country in 1824 presented him with a sword, and 
evinced the warmest pleasure in seeing him again. General Neilson was 
an elder in the New Brunswick Presbyterian church, clerk of the session 
fifty years, and a member of the board of trustees of Rutgers College 
from 1782, until his death March 3, 1833. 

The colonels of the New Jersey Line were : Jacob Hyer, John Taylor, 
Robert Taylor, John Webster and John Wetherill. Hyer was from 


Princeton, and was first lieutenant-colonel of the Third Middlesex Regi- 
ment ; afterwards became its colonel. He was a "fine old gentleman of 
the olden times," and was at one time an innkeeper, but was also engaged 
in his trade of hatter. Of John and Robert Taylor there is little known. 
Colonel Webster was a resident of Piscataway, where he was a farmer 
on a large scale. He was first a captain in the First Middlesex Regiment, 
afterwards successively its lieutenant-colonel and colonel. Colonel 
Wetherill was from South Brunswick, and at the commencement of the 
war was colonel of the Second Middlesex Regiment. 

Two other citizens of New Brunswick ranked as colonel in the Revo- 
lutionary War. Anthony Walton White was born near New Brunswick, 
July 7, 1750, the only son of Anthony White and Elizabeth Morris, a 
daughter of Governor Lewis Morris. His ancestors were of a martial 
strain of blood. The progenitor of the family, Anthony White, a royalist, 
left England shortly after the execution of Charles L, settling in Ber- 
muda. His son, also named Anthony, served with the army in Ireland 
until the Battle of the Boyne. Leonard, the latter's eldest son, was an 
officer in the British navy ; and his eldest son, Anthony White, lived in 
New York in 1715 ; son of the latter and father of the subject of this 
narrative was a lieutenant-colonel in the British army during the French 
and Indian War in 1753. 

As early as 1761, Anthony Walton White, although only eleven years 
of age, was owing to paternal influence in possession of several official 
sinecures. He continued a nominal holder of these offices, pursuing his 
studies in the meantime under his father, whom he in turn assisted in 
care of his estate, until the outbreak of the Revolution. In October, 
1775, he also was appointed an aide to General Washington, and the 
following February was commissioned by Congress lieutenant-colonel 
of the Third Battalion of New Jersey troops, and as such commanded the 
outposts of the army under Washington, continuing in service in the 
army of the North until 1780, when he was appointed a colonel. 

In July, 1780, Colonel White fitted out on his own credit two regi- 
ments with which the following spring he joined General Gates' army in 
the South. His command was engaged in skirmishes with General Tarle- 
ton's troops until the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Between 
1781 and 1783 he was with General Wayne in the Carolinas and Georgia. 
He unfortunately, however, became security for the debts of officers and 
men of his command, which he was obliged to pay, thereby depleting 
his fortune. In the spring of 1783 he married Miss Margaret Ellis, a 
young lady possessing great beauty and wealth, who resided in Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. He resided from 1783 to 1793 in New York, but 
after that lived in New Brunswick, where he died February 10, 1803. In 
his late life his fortunes were again impoverished, and the fortune of his 


wife was wrecked through the improvidence of a friend who had been 
intrusted with its care, and his efforts to obtain relief from Congress 
on account of his expenditures for men in the service of the government 
proved unavaiHng. 

The ancestors of Colonel John Bayard were of French and Dutch 
extraction. Samuel Bayard, a son of Rev. Balthazar Bayard, a French 
Protestant divine and professor, died in his native country before his 
widow and children emigrated to America. The widow was a daughter 
of Rev. Balthazar Stuyvesant, and a sister of Peter Stuyvesant, the 
famous director-general of New Netherlands, whose wife was a sister of 
Samuel Bayard, his brother-in-law. The widow with her four children 
accompanied her brother to New Amsterdam. She was a person of 
imposing presence, highly educated, with great business capacity, and, 
like her brother, had an imperious temper. Petrus, her son, a native of 
Alphen, South Holland, engaged in mercantile pursuits, also in real estate 
transactions. Among his many purchases of the latter was in connection 
with a party of Labodists of lands in Cecil county, Maryland, known as 
the Labodie Tract of Bohemia Manor. Petrus died in New Amsterdam 
in 1699. His son Samuel, with his brother-in-law, Hendrick Sluyter, in 
1698 removed from New Amsterdam to Bohemia Manor, where he built 
a substantial brick mansion. James, his son, came into possession of the 
"Great House" in Bohemia Manor at the time of his mother's death in 
1750. Here he spent his life, one of the most influential and active citi- 
zens of Eastern Maryland. In the "Great House" were born, August 11, 
1738, John Bubenheim and James Asheton Bayard, twins. They attended 
the famous Nottingham Institution in Maryland, then under the super- 
vision of Rev. Samuel Finley ; subsequently they were placed under the 
private tutelage of Rev. George Duffield, the famous Presbyterian theo- 
logian. The brothers at the age of eighteen years went to Philadelphia, 
John, dropping his middle name of Bubenheim, entered the counting- 
house of John Rhea, while his brother took up the study of medicine. 
John Bayard later engaged in mercantile pursuits, becoming one of the 
leading importers and merchants of the Quaker City. He was amongst 
the first to protest against the exactions of the British government, and 
his name heads the list that signed the non-importation agreement of 
October 25, 1765. When the period of aggression took place, he was 
found at the forefront of the struggle. He was appointed a member of 
the Committee of Correspondence, a delegate to the Provincial Conven- 
tion, and early identified himself with the Sons of Liberty. 

In 1775 three battalions of Associators were organized in Philadel- 
phia, and Bayard was commissioned major of the second, subsequently 
promoted to the colonelcy, and saw active service during the next two 
years. He was in camp with his command at Bristol, Pennsylvania, 


shortly before Washing-ton's crossing of the Delaware. For his services 
at the battle of Princeton he received the personal thanks of Washington, 
During the year 1777, Colonel Bayard divided his time between his mili- 
tary and civil duties. He was appointed March 13 of that year a member 
of the State Board of War, and four days later was elected speaker of 
the Assembly. When Lord Howe and the British army approached 
Philadelphia, Colonel Bayard resumed his military duties and partici- 
pated in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown. Later, when hos- 
tilities were discontinued for the winter, he again returned to 
the performance of his executive duties. In 1780 he served as a member 
of a committee to report the causes of the falling ofT of the State rev- 
enues. He was chosen October 13, 1781, to a seat in the Supreme Execu- 
tive Council, serving until November 4, 1782; soon after he was com- 
missioned a judge of the High Court of Appeals. He took his seat as a 
member of the Continental Congress, November 22, 1785. His retire- 
ment from active business took place in 1788, when he removed from 
Philadelphia to New Brunswick, where he built a handsome residence in 
which he entertained many distinguished guests. In 1790 he was made 
mayor of his adopted residential city, and afterwards commissioned a 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Somerset county. His death 
took place at New Brunswick, January 7, 1807. 

Prominent in the medical history of the American army was Charles 
McKnight. He was the eldest son of Rev. Charles McKnight, for nearly 
forty years a much esteemed and highly respected clergyman of the 
Presbyterian church, and one of the early trustees of the College of New 
Jersey. Of Scotch descent, his forbears emigrated to Ireland at the time 
of the "Ulster Plantation," which took place at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. The reverend gentleman was of such pronounced 
patriotism for the American cause that he became obnoxious to the 
Tories, and at an advanced age in 1777 was imprisoned by the British, 
who treated him with great cruelty. Upon his release from captivity he 
survived but a short time, his death occurring January i, 1778. A 
younger son of the worthy clergyman, an officer in the New Jersey Line, 
was also confined to the prison ships in Wallabout bay, Long Island, 
now the present site of the Brooklyn Navy Yard ; he perished during- his 
imprisonment, thus joining the great army of martyrs to the cause of 
independence. The future surgeon-general of the American army was 
born at Cranbury, October 10, 1750; after receiving an excellent educa- 
tion he graduated in the class of 1771 from Princeton College. He sub- 
sequently studied medicine with the celebrated surgeon, Dr. Shippen, of 
Philadelphia, and owing to his marked abilities was appointed, April 11, 
1777, senior surgeon of the Flying Hospital, Middle Department; at the 
age of thirty years he was made surgeon-general of the American army, 


serving until January i, 1782. Dr. McKnight then became Professor of 
Surgery and Anatomy in Columbia College, New York. He gained dis- 
tinction as a practitioner and teacher, not only in his native country, but 
also in Europe. A life of constant activity was, however, relinquished in 
his forty-first year, owing to a pulmonary affection, the result of an 
injury received during the war, and which caused his death. Dr. Mc- 
Knight, although an eminent physician, was particularly distinguished 
at home and abroad as a practical surgeon, and at the time of his death 
was without a rival in this branch of the medical profession. Dr. 
McKnight's only son, John M. Scott McKnight, was a prominent physi- 
cian of New York City. A grandson, Charles McKnight Smith, though 
a native of Haverstraw, New York, soon after obtaining his medical 
degree located at Perth Amboy, where he continued practice until his 
death in 1874. being at that time one of the oldest physicians in practice 
in the State. He was for many years health officer of Perth Amboy, a 
vestryman of St. Peter's Church in that city, and collector of the port 
in 1841 and at intermediate periods till his death. 

A noted early physician of New Brunswick who gained military fame 
in the Revolutionary War was Moses Scott. A native of Neshaminy, 
Bucks county, Pennsylvania, he early became infatuated with military life, 
and at the age of seventeen years joined the unfortunate expedition of 
General Braddock. At the capture of Fort Duquesne, then a commis- 
sioned officer, he resigned and entered upon the study of medicine. He 
removed to New Brunswick before the commencement of the Revolution- 
ary War, and on February 14, 1776, was commissioned surgeon in the 
general hospital of the Continental army. He supplied himself with 
medicines and surgical instruments which he obtained from Europe 
chiefly upon his own credit ; but on the enemy invading New Bruns- 
wick he narrowly made his escape and the outfit of medical supplies was 
emptied into the streets by the British soldiers. Congress took the entire 
direction of the medical staff of the army in 1777, and Dr. Scott was com- 
missioned as senior physician and surgeon of the hospitals and assistant 
director-general. He was present at the battles of Trenton, Princeton, 
Brandywine and Germantown. At the restoration of peace he resumed 
his medical duties at New Brunswick, where he continued to reside until 
his death, December 28, 1821. 

Among the line officers of the regiments of the New Jersey State 
troops ranking as lieutenant-colonel was Samuel Crow, of Woodbridge, 
who was successively a captain in the First Regiment of Middlesex, then 
a major, and subsequently lieutenant-colonel of that regiment. Jonathan 
Deare was originally from Princeton, New Jersey, but must have 
removed before the commencement of hostilities to Amboy, as at a 
meeting held to discuss measures for the relief of the country, April 28, 


1775, he was appointed one of the standing committee of correspondence 
for the north ward of that city. He attended the Provincial Congress 
held May 5, 1775, taking his seat as a member from Middlesex county, 
and not especially from Amboy. He was also a vestryman of St. Peter's 
Church of Perth Amboy from 1770 to 1774. His name appears first with 
rank of major, to a pledge signed by officers of the First Regiment of 
Militia in the county of Middlesex, dated February 24, 1776. Having 
been promoted to lieutenant-colonel, he resigned in March, 1778, to 
become collector of customs for the eastern district of New Jersey. His 
fee book while naval officer at Amboy from June 8, 1784, to February 8, 
1788, in possession of the New Jersey Historical Society, shows the 
entrance of fifty-two sailing vessels and the clearance of fifty during 
that period. 

Azariah Dunham was the son of Rev. Jonathan Dunham, a resident 
of Piscataway. He was a civil engineer, residing before the opening of 
the war at New Brunswick. He was a member of the Colonial Assembly 
in May, 1775, and during the preceding year a member of the conference 
held in the city of New York, of delegates from the sister colonies to 
adopt measures to protect the menaced liberties of the people. He was 
a member of the first Provincial Congress of New Jersey, also of the 
Committee of Safety. Colonel Dunham was lieutenant-colonel of the 
Second Battalion Middlesex Militia, but resigned to devote his attention 
to the duties of superintendent of purchases, also to raise troops and sign 
bills of credit for the Eastern Department of New Jersey, a position to 
which he had been elected by the Provincial Congress and which he 
filled until the close of the war. There is little known of Micajah Dunn 
and Richard Lott. Thomas Hadden, a resident of Woodbridge, was 
first a captain, then major, and afterwards lieutenant-colonel in the First 
Middlesex Regiment. William Scudder was from a family of millers, 
and his grist and fulling mill at Scudder's mills was totally destroyed by 
the British. He was first major and afterwards lieutenant-colonel of the 
Third Middlesex Regiment. 

Amongst those line officers who held the rank of major was John 
Dunn. He was a member of the family of that name largely identified 
with the township of Piscataway, who furnished not less than fifteen offi- 
cers and privates of the name of Dunn to the American army. Major 
Dunn was first a major in Colonel Heard's battalion of minute-men, and 
afterwards held the same rank in Colonel Samuel Forman's battalion of 
detached militia, and subsequently was first major of the First Middlesex 
Regiment. John Lyle, a tanner, of New Brunswick, was first a captain 
and then a major in the Third Middlesex Regiment. Another patriotic 
tanner was Robert Nixon, of South Brunswick, who was first a captain in 
a troop of light-horse, was brevetted major, and finally was first major of 



the Third Middlesex Regiment. Samuel F. Parker, a son of the pioneer 
printer, James Parker, of Woodbridge, was first a captain in Colonel 
Forman's battalion of Heard's brigade, and afterwards a major in same. 
Samuel Randolph, of Piscataway, was first a captain and then a major in 
the First Middlesex Regiment. John Van Emburgh, a resident of New 
Brunswick, was successively second and first major of the Second Mid- 
dlesex Regiment. He was taken prisoner by the enemy at Tom's River, 
New Jersey, May 14, 1780, but soon effected his escape. He was promi- 
nently identified with the Presbyterian church at New Brunswick, serv- 
ing as one of its trustees. There is little known of Edgar Clarkson. 
Thomas Egbert and Reuben Potter held the rank of major in the New 
Jersey militia. Thomas Stelle or Steele, from the town of Piscataway, 
was a captain and afterwards paymaster of the Middlesex Militia. John 
Van Kirk held the rank of quartermaster. 

We append the names of the company officers and privates of the 
Middlesex men in the Revolutionary War : 


Addis, Simon. 
Anderson, Andrew. 
Barron, Ellis. 

Barr, . 

Bonny, James. 
Chambers, David. 
Combs, Thomas. 
Conover, William. 

Curtis, . 

De Bow, James. 
Dey, John. 
Dunn, Hugh. 
Ferguson, Josiah. 
Frazier, David. 
Freeman, Matthew. 
Guest, Moses. 
Guest, William. 
Gulick, Joakim. 
Harnott, George. 
Hartipee, William. 
Hope, . 

Barricklo, Farrington. 
Cape, John. 
Dean, Stephen. 
De Groot, William. 
Drake, John. 
Field, Jeremiah. 
Fisher, Charles. 
Gilliland, David. 
Lott, George. 

Bareford, Lewis. 
Carman, Stephen. 
Dunn, Ephraim. 
Gordon, Archibald. 


Hulick, . 

Jaquish, — • . 

Johnston, Heathcote. 
Lupardus, Christian. 

Lupp, . 

Manning, Jeremiah. 
Manning, William. 
McCulIough, Benjamin 
Moore, James. 
Morgan, James. 
Nevius, Peter. 
Pain, John. 
Perrine, Peter. 
Piatt, Jacob. 

Piatt, . 

Piatt, . 

Randolph, Asher Fitz. 
Randolph, Nathaniel Fitz. 
Randolph, Reuben. 
Ross, Robert. 
Schenck, John. 

McDowell, Andrew. 
Morgan, Nicholas. 
Mount, John. 
Persall, John. 

Van Pelt, — . 

Voorhees, Daniel. 
Voorhees, John L. 
Edgar, David. 
Marsh, Ralph. 

Grove, Samuel. 
Hampton, John. 

Morford, . 

Morgan, James, Jr. 

Schuyler, Abram. 

Scudder, . 

Sebring, Jacob. 

Skinner, Richard. 
Smalley, David. 
Statsors. John. 
Stelle, Thompson. 
Stout, Samuel. 
Ten Eyck, Jeremiah. 
Van Deventer, Jacob. 
Van Nest, Peter. 
Van Winkle, Simeon. 
Voorhees, John, Jr. 

Wentzel, . 

Wetherill, . 

Wetherill, . 

Williamson, William. 

Wood, . 

Woolsey, . 

Mersurall, Jacob. 
Schureman, James. 
Skilton, Joseph. 
Terhune, Abram. 
Thompson, George. 
Thompson, John. 
Thompson, John. 

Phares, John. 
Randolph, Lewis F. 
Suydam, Hendrick. 



Lott, Daniel. 

Buckalew, Josiah. 
Burlew, Josiah. 
Covenhovcn, Peter. 
Dailey, John. 
Davison, William. 
De Hart, William. 
Disbrow, Daniel. 

Ball, William. 
Crow, Garret. 
Dunn, John. 

Coddington, Robert. 

Adams, John. 
Addis, Simeon. 
Alger, Archibald. 
Allen, Henry. 
Allen, Jonathan. 
Allison, Seth. 
Anderson, John. 
Anderson, Joseph. 
Appleby, Ambrose. 
Applegate, Andrew. 
Applegate, Charles. 
Applegate, Nathaniel. 
Applegate, Noah. 
Applegate, Robert (i). 
Applegate, Robert (2). 
Applegate, Thomas. 
Applegate, William. 
Applegate, Zebulon. 
Armstrong, Robert. 
Armstrong, William. 
Arnold, James. 
Arnold, John. 
Arnold, Lewis. 
Arvin, James. 
Arvin, John. 
Arvin, Peter. 
Asbondon, William. 
Ashton, Robert. 
Atten, Evert. 
Attenger, John. 
Ayres, Benjamin. 
Ayers, Ezekiel. 
Ayres, Jacob. 
Ayers, Jedah. 
Ayers, Nathan. 
Ayers, Reuben. 
Ayers, Samuel. 
Ayres, Elric. 
Ayres, Lewis. 
Ayres, Obadiah. 
Ayres, Isaac. 
Ayres, Phineas. 
Badcock, Joseph. 
Bailey, Daniel. 
Bailey, Richard. 
Baker, Cornelius. 


Flinn, Benjamin. 
Griggs, John. 
Lyle, Moses. 
Alarsh, Joshua. 
Messier, Simon. 
Morgan, Abraham. 
Nevius, Peter. 

Green, John. 
Height, David. 
Isleton, Jonathan. 

Hortrick, Barent. 


Baker, John. 
Baldwin, Caleb. 
Baldwin, Enos. 
Baldwin, Woolsey. 
Baley, John. 
Barclay, Lewis. 
Barkelow, Coonrod. 
Barkelow, Henry. 
Barkels, Farronton. 
Barkels, John. 
Bastedo, Leo. 
Bateman. Daniel. 
Bayles, Daniel. 
Bayles, Richard. 
Bayles, Samuel. 
Bennet, Abraham. 
Bennet, Hendrick. 
Bennet, William. 
Bennington, Israel. 
Bercount, Daniel. 
Bergen, Christian. 
Berlew, Abraham. 
Bicknel, John. 
Bigner, Michael. 
Bingle, James. 
Bishop, Aaron. 
Bishop, James. 
Bishop, John. 
Bishop, Richard. 
Bishop, Shotwell. 
Bishop, William. 
Bisset, Andrew. 
Black, Alexander. 
Black, Benjamin. 
Blackford, David. 
Blackford, Nathan. 
Blackford, Phineas. 
Elanchard, Clark. 
Elanchard, Isaac. 
Blane, Robert. 
Bloodgood, John. 
Bloomficld, Elias. 
Bloomfickl, Ezekiel. 
Bloomfield, John. 
Eloomfield, Jonathan. 
Bloomfield, Moses. 

Nefies, Peter. 
Obert, Henry. 
Sutton, Joseph. 
Thompson, James. 
Voorhees, William. 
Williamson, Isaac. 

Letts, Francis. 
Toms, Michael. 

Van Derventer, John. 

Bloomfield, Nathan. 
Bloomfield, Thomas, Jr. 
Bloomfield, Thomas. Sr. 
Bloomfield, William. 
Boice, George. 
Bonger, John. 
Boorum, Hendrick. 
Boorum, John. 
Boorum, Nicholas. 
Borhies, James. 
Bowers, John. 
Bowman, Andrew. 
Bowman, Peter. 
Bowne, John. 
Bradbury, Hezekiah. 
Bradbury, Hosea. 
Bradley, Robert. 
Brecourt, Solomon. 
Brewer, Thomas. 
Brickcourt, Daniel. 
Briggs, John. 
Britton, Joseph (i). 
Britton, Joseph (2). 
Broockes, John. 
Brotherton, David. 
Brotherton, William. 
Brower, Thomas. 
Brown, Benjamin. 
Brown, James. 
Brown, John. 
Brown, Joseph (i). 
Brown, Joseph (2). 
Brown, Joseph (3). 
Brown, Lewis. 
Brown, Peter. 
Brown, William. 
Brown, Zebulon. 
Buckalew, Alexander. 
Buckalew, Cornelius. 
Buckalew, Edward. 
Buckalew, Frederick. 
Buckalew, Gilbert. 
Buckalew, Isaac. 
Buckalew, John. 
Buckalew, Peter. 
Buckalew, Runvon. 



Buckalew, Samuel. 
Buckalew, William. 
Bullin, James. 
Burcourt, David. 
Burdine, James. 
Burding, Abel. 
Burlen, Alexander. 
Burlen, Edward. 
Berlen, Frederick. 
Berlen, Frederick, Jr. 
Burlen, Gilbert. 
Burlen, Samuel. 
Burlen, Thomas. 
Burlen, William. 
Burlen, Peter. 
Burrill, Robert. 
Burwell, Robert. 
Cahill, James. 
Camburn, Joseph. 
Camp, John. 
Campbell, Benajah. 
Campbell, Dugal. 
Campbell, Eliscus. 
Campbell, Ellis R. 
Campbell, John. 
Campbell, Lewis. 
Campbell, Nathaniel. 
Campbell, Robert. 
Campbell, Spencer. 
Cafon, Levi. 
Cafon, Robert. 
Carlisle, William. 
Carman, Richard. 
Carr, Samuel. 
Carson, Joseph. 
Carter, Richard. 
Caterline, Ebenezer. 
Caywood, John. 
Caywood, Thomas. 
Caywood, William. 
Celly, Jesse. 
Chamberlain, John. 
Chamberlain, Joseph. 
Chamberlain, Lewis. 
Chambers, James. 
Chapman, Daniel. 
Chapman, James. 
Childs, John. 
Cheeseman, John. 
Cheeseman, Joseph. 
Cheeseman, Samuel. 
Cheeseman, William. 
Cheeseman, Zachariah. 
Clark, Alexander. 
Clark, Benjamin. 
Clark, Eli. 
Clark, Peter. 
Clark, William. _ 
Clarkson, Jeremiah 
Clarkson, Randolph. 
Clarkson, Iraker. 
Clarkson, James. 
Clarkson, Lewis. 
Clinton, James. 
Cock, John. 
Coddington, Enoch. 
Coddington, James. 

Coddington, John. 
Colleger, Joseph. 
Coloni, Caleb. 
Combs, Jonathan. 
Combs, Samuel. 
Combs, Stephen. 
Combs, William. 
Compton, Ephraim. 
Compton, Gabriel. 
Compton, John. 
Compton, Samuel. 
Con, Elisha. 
Condon, John. 
Conger, David. 
Conger, John. 
Conger, Jonathan. 
Connel, Michael. 
Connelly, John. 
Connelly, Ned. 
Connelly, William. 
Cook, David. 
Cook, Elisha. 
Cook, Peter. 
Cornelius, John (i) 
Cornelius, John (2). 
Cornell, Peter. 
Cornell, Roeliff. 
Cornell, Elisha. 
Corriell, Abraham. 
Corriell, David. 
Corsat, Anthony. 
Cortelyou, Hann. 
Cortelyou, John. 
Cortelyou, Roeliff. 
Cotheal, Alexander. 
Covenhoven, Francis. 
Covenhoven, Garret. 
Covenhoven, John. 
Covenhoven, Lucas. 
Covenhoven, Restes. 
Covenhoven, William. 
Covert, John. 
Covert, Thomas. 
Craig, Daniel T. 
Craig, David. 
Crane, Seth. 
Craw. Thomas. 
Crawford, William G. 
Creasey, Alexander. 
Creasey, William. 
Creasey, Andrew. 
Crow, Abraham. 
Crow, Eleseus. 
Crowell, David. 
Crowell, Edward. 
Crowell, Joseph. 
Cuffee, Amos. 
Culver, Nathaniel. 
Culvert, Azariah. 
Cutter, John. 
Cutter, Kelsey. 
Cutter, Samuel. 
Cutter, Stephen. 
Dally, Jeremiah. 
Dally, "Samuel. 
Daniels, Jeremiah. 
Daniels, Randolph. 

Damets, Richard. 
Davidson, George. 
Davidson, John. 
Davis, Benjamin. 
Davis, David Rhay. 
Davis, Edmond. 
Davis, John. 
Davis, Lewis. 
Davis, Nathan. 
Davis, Peter. 
Davison, James. 
Davison, Jediah. 
Davison, Jeptha. 
Davison, John. 
Davison, Thomas. 
Davison, William. 
Dean, Abraham. 
Dean, Daniel. 
Dean, Jacob. 
Drake, Abram. _ 
Drake, Benjamin. 
Drake, Cheeseman. 
Drake, Chesur. 
Drake, Elisha. 
Drake, Ephraim. _-« 
Drake, George. 
Drake, Joseph. 
Drake, Samuel. 
Drake, Simon. 
Dungan, Samuel. 
Dunham, Asher. 
Dunham, Davis. 
Dunham, Elijah. 
Dunham, Enoch. 
Dunham, Frazee. 
Dunham, Jacob. 
Dunham, Jehu. 
Dunham, John (1). 
Dunham, John (2). 
Dunham, Jonathan. 
Dunham, Joseph. 
Dunham, Joshua. 
Dunham, Samuel. 
Duryea, Frederick. 
Duryea, John. 
Dunn, Benjamin. 
Dunn, Clawson. 
Dunn, Daniel. 
Dunn, Enoch. 
Dunn, Ephraim. 
Dunn, Gershom. 
Dunn, Ichabod. 
Dunn, Isaac. 
Dunn, James F. 
Dunn, Jeremiah. 
Dunn, Joel. 
Dunn, Moses. 
Dunn, Philip. 
Dunn, Reuben. 
Dunn, Thomas. 
Dye, Amos. 
Dye, Daniel. 
Dye, James. 
Dye, John. 
Dve, Joseph. 
Dye, Lawrence. 
Dye, Thomas. 



Eastburn, Robert. 
Eastburn, Thomas. 
Eastwood, Amariah. 
Edgar, James. 
Edgar, William. 
Egbert, James. 
Egbert, Lewis. 
Egerton, Matthew. 
Ellason, Daniel. 
Ellason, Joseph. 
Ellason, Samuel. 
Ellason, Seth. 
Elliott, Daniel. 
Ellis, Joseph. 
Ellison, Samuel. 
Elston, Andrew. 
Emmons, Isaac. 
English, David. 
English, Robert. 
Ensley, Daniel. 
Erwin, John. 
Estle, William. 
Evans, Crowell. 
Evans, James. 
Evans, William. 
Everingham, John. 
Farey, Amariah. 
Farmer, George. 
Farmer, Jasper. 
Farmer, Nathan. 
Farmer, Peter. 
Feather, John. 
Field, Benjamin. 
Field, Dennis. 
Field, Elnathan. 
Field, Jeremiah B. 
Field, John. 
Field, John B. 
Field, Jonathan. 
Field, Richard. 
Field, Richard R. 
Fisher, Jacob. 
Fisher, John. 
Fisher, William. 
Flat, John. 
Flood, Stephen. 
Force, Samuel. 
Force, Thomas P. 
Fordyce, John. 
Forman, Isaac. 
Foster, Nathaniel. 
Fourat, Henry. 
Frazee, Benson. 
Frazee, Hiram. 
Frazee, Morris. 
Frazee, Moses. 
Frazy, Benjamin. 
Frcdenburgh, Wm. 
C/arrits, John. 
Garritson, John. 
Garritson, Peter. 
Gibbs, John. 
Gibson, David. 
Gibson, Richard. 
Gibson, William. 
Gilliland, David. 
Gilliland, Matthew. 

Gillman, Charles. 
Gillman, John. 
Gillman, John, Jr. 
Gilmore, Charles. 
Godden, Amos. 
Goodwin, Amos. 
Gordon, Archable. 
Gordon, Ezekiel. 
Gordon, James. 
Gordon, Samuel. 
Gordon, William. 
Graham, James. 
Griffith, John. 
Griggs, James. 
Griggs, Samuel. 
Griggs, Thomas. 
Grove, John. 
Grove, Robert. 
Grove, Samuel. 
Grosvendike, John. 
Grosvendike, Samuel. 
Guest, Henry. 
Guest, John. 
Gulacar, Lewis. 
Gulick, Abram J. 
Gulick, Benjamin. 
Gulick, Cornelius. 
Gulick, James. 
Gulick, Peter. 
Gume, John. 
Hagerman, Barret. 
Hagerman, Garret. 
Hagerman, Henry. 
Halfpenny, Isaac. 
Halfpenny, James. 
Halfpenny, John. 
Hall, William. 
Hampton, James. 
Hansell, Anthony. 
Harber, Edward. 
Harber, Obadiah. 
Harbourt, Edward. 
Harculus, William. 
Harriott, Samuel. 
Harris, David. 
Harrison, George. 
Harrison, Isaac. 
Hart, Cornelius D. 
Hartman, Christian. 
Hartman, Conrad. 
Hartman, Cornelius. 
Hatfield, John. 
Hank, Jacob. 
Hayback, Solomon. 
Hazling, Richard. 
Hedden, Jos. 
Hendrickson, Cornelius. 
Hendrickson, Oaky. 
Herbert, Obediah. 
Herbert, Robert. 
Herrod, Samuel. 
Higbey, Henry. 
Higbey, John. 
Higbey, Obadiah. 
Higgins, Jediah. 
High, Nathan. 
Hight, John N. 

Hill, John. 
Hillyard, Wm. 
Hinds, William. 
Hoagland, Abram. 
Hoagland, John. 
Hoagland, William. 
Hobbs, David. 
Holeman, Thomas. 
Holl, Jacob. 
Holloway, Richard. 
Holten, Ephraim. 
Holton, Jos. 
Holton, Peter. 
Hooper, William. 
Horn, John. 
Horn, Stephen. 
Horn, William. 
Horner, Timothy. 
Hartwick, John. 
Houke, Tobias. 
Hudson, Nathaniel. 
Hudson, Samuel. 
Hulick, Henry. 
Hulick, John. 
Hulet, William. 
Hull, Benjamin. 
Hull, John. 
Hull, Reuben. 
Hulst, John. 
Hulst, William. 
Hunt, James. 
Hutchings, Isaac. 
Hutchinson, Cornelius. 
Huyler, William. 
Isleton, Matthew. 
Isleton, Samuel. 
Jackson, Lewis. 
James, Thomas. 
Jamison, Alexander. 
Jaquish, Jonathan. 
Jeffries, John. 
Jewell, Ichabod. 
Jewell, William. 
Job, Richard. 
Jobs, Samuel. 
Johnson, Andrew. 
Johnson, Barrent. 
Johnson, John. 
Johnson, Lewis. 
Johnson, William. 
Johnson, Jacob. 
Jonas, John. 
Jones, David. 
Jones, James, 
jordon, John. 
Jorney, John. 
Keenan, Peter B. 
Kelly, Abraham. 
Kelly, Jesse. 
Kemp, John. 
Kent, Phineas. 
King, George. 
Kinsey. James. 
Kipp, Robert. 
Knowles, Jesse. 
Knox, Joseph. 
Lain, Abraham. 



Laing, Abraham. 
Laird, Richard. 
Lake, Benjamin. 
Lake, William. 
Lambert, David. 
Lambertson, Cornelius. 
Lambertson, David. 
Lambertson, Elijah. 
Lambertson, Garret. 
Lambertson, John. 
Lambertson, Joshua. 
Lambertson, Simon. 
Lambertson, Thomas. 
Lane, Isaac. 
Lane, Jacob. 
Lane, John. 
Langstaff, Henry. 
Langstaff, James. 
Langstaff, John. 
Leach, Richard. 
Leforge, Benjamin. 
Leonard, William. 
Leonard, William (2). 
Lester, Samuel. 
Letts, Elijah. 
Letts, Elisha. 
Letts, John. 
Letts, William. 
Lewis, John. 
Lickran, Jacob. 
Light, Peter. 
Lile, John, Sr. 
Lile, John, Jr. 
Lile, Moses. 
Lincoln, John. 
Lurcom, Jacob. 
Lurcom, John. 
Lipes, John. 
Lisk, John. 
Liston, John. 
Levins, Richard. 
Livingston, William. 
Livingston, Robert. 
Loiskerom, Jacob. 
Longstreet, Aaron. 
Longstreet, Samuel. 
Lorton, James. 
Lorton, John. 
Lott, Abraham. 
Lott, Gershom. 
Lott, Henry. 
Lott, John. 
Lott, Peter. 
Loughborough, John. 
Loucherry, Elias. 
Low, Benjamin. 
Luke, John. 
Luker, Benjamin. 
Luston, Jonathan. 
Lusbay, Abraham. 
Lyon, William. 
Magee, James. 
Manning, Andrew. 
Manning, Benjamin. 
Manning, Enoch. 
Manning, David. 
Manning, John, Sr. 

Manning, John, Jr. 

Morgan, Elijah. 

Manning, Phineas. 

Morris, John. 

Manning, Samuel. 

Morris, Randolph. 

Manning, Thomas. 

Morris, Reuben. 

Maple, Stephen. 

Morris, William. 

Maple, William. 

Morrison, James. 

Martin, Nathaniel. 

Morse, Randolph. 

Martin, Benjamin. 

Morton, Joseph. 

Martin, Daniel. 

Moses, Randolph. 

Martin, David. 

Moss, James. 

Martin, Eliakim. 

Mount, Hezekiah. 

Martin, Gershom. 

Mount, Humphrey. 

Martin, Irenais. 

Mount, Joseph. 

Martin, Isaac. 

Mount, Richard. 

Martin, James. 

Mount, William. 

Martin, John. 

Mulford, James. 

Martin, Joshua. 

Mullen, William. 

Martin, Lewis. 

Munday, Benjamin. 

Martin, Merrick. 

Munday, Clarkson. 

Martin, Michael. 

Munday, Gabriel. 

Martin, Moses. 

Munday, Henry. 

Martin, Mulford. 

Munday, Martin. 

Martin, Nathan. 

Munday, Nicholas. 

Martin, Nathaniel. 

Munday, Peter. 

Martin, Robert. 

Munday, Reuben. 

Martin, William. 

Munday, Samuel. 

Mason, William. 

Myers, John. 

Matterson, Aaron. 

Myler, Cornelius. 

Mattison, Jacob. 

Myseler, Simon. 

McAfee, Benjamin. 

Neifes, Garret W. 

McAfee, Richard. 

Neifes, John. 

McDowell, Thomas. 

Neifus, William. 

McFadden, Connoly. 

Nephus, Jacob. 

McGee, John. 

Nevins, Peter, Sr. 

McGee, William. 

Nevins, Peter, Jr. 

Melvin, Daniel. 

Newton, Gilbert. 

Melvin, George. 

Newton, William. 

Melvin, John. 

Nickolds, Lewis. 

Melvin, Thomas. 

Nickson, Alexander 

Merrill, Richard. 

Nifius, Garret. 

Mershon, Henry. 

Nixon, Richard. 

Mershon, Robert. 

Noe, Andrew. 

Mershon, William. 

Noe, James. 

Messerol, Charles. 

Noe, John. 

Messerol, Jacob. 

Norris, William. 

Messerol, John. 

Oakley, Abraham. 

Messerol, Nicholas. 

Obart, George. 

Messerol, Peter. 

Obart, John. 

Messerol, William. 

Obart, Peter. 

Messier, Abram. 

Obert, George. 

Mickel, John. 

Ockeman, Garline. 

Miers, John. 

Ockeman, John. 

Miller, Holse. 

Ogden, Benjamin. 

Miller, Marsh. 

Ogden, John. 

Miller, Noah. 

Olden, John. 

Minor, William.- 

Orman, Benjamin. 

Mitchell, John. 

Orman, Stephen. 

Moon, Jacob. 

Outsell, Frederick. 

Moore, David. 

Overt, George. 

Moore, James. 

Pack, Edward. 

Moore, Matthias. 

Pain, Isaac. 

Moore, Samuel. 

Pangborn, Peter. 

Morehead, Andrew. 

Pangborn, William. 

Morgan, Abraham. 

Panoman, Peter. 

Morgan, John. 

Parker, John. 

Morgan, Philip. 

Parr, Thomas. 

Morgan, Ephraim. 

Patrick, Samuel. 



Paul, John. 
Paul, Benjamin. 
Pearson, Benjamin P. 
Pence, William. 
Perrine, Andrew. 
Perrine, Daniel. 
Perrine, Henry. 
Perrine, John. 
Perrine, Joseph. 
Perrine, Matthew. 
Perrine, William. 
Perry, Thomas. 
Pettit, Daniel. 
Pettit, David. 
Pettit, Edward. 
Petty, Andrew. 
Phares, Amariah. 
Phares, Andrew. 
Phillips, Ralph. 
Piatt, John. 
Pike, Asher. 
Pike, James. 
Pike, Thomas. 
Plum, John. 
Porter, Nathaniel. 
Potter, Enoch. 
Potter, Gilbert. 
Potter, Joseph. 
Potter, Robert. 
Potts, Samuel. 
Powell, Thomas, 
Powelson, Powell. 
Powers, John. 
Pricket, Isaac. 
Pricket, John. 
Pricket, Stephen. 
Pricket, Williarfi. 
Prolan, Garret. 
Provost, David. 
Provost, Jasper. 
Provost, John. 
Provost, Jonathan. 
Provost, Peter. 
Quackenboss, Isaac. 
Ray, John. 
Reclan, John. 
Reanalds, James. 
Reed, James. 
Reed, Peter. 
Reed, John. 
Rice, Richard. 
Richmond, William. 
Richero (?), Abraham. 
Rino, William. 
Robbins, Jesse. 
Robertson, Joseph. 
Robinson, Andrew. 
Roe, Asabel. 
Roff, Ebenezer. 
Rolan, George. 
Rolen, James. 
Roler, George. 
Rolcr, William. 
RoUe, Moses. 
Rose, William. 
Ross, Isaac. 
Ross, John. 

Ross, William. 
Rowland, Jacob. 
Rowlinson, William. 
Rue, Matthew. 
Runnals, Jas. 
Runyan, Asa. 
Runyan, Enoch. 
Runyan, Hugh. 
Runyan, Job. 
Runyan, Richard. 
Ryder, Bernardus. 
Ryder, Garret. 
Ryder, John. 
Ryder, William. 
Ryon, William. 
Salard, Benjamin. 
Sanderson, John. 
Sands, Jos. 
Sarvis, David. 
Schenck, Garret. 
Schenck, Jos. 
Schenck, Peter F. 
Schenck, Roeloff. 
Schureman, Abraham. 
Scott, John. 
Scott, Thomas. 
Scott, William. 
Sebring, George. 
Sedam, James. 
Sedam, Ryke. 
Selleler, William. 
Selover, Isaac. 
Service, John. 
Service, Joseph. 
Service, William. 
Sharp, Jonathan. 
Shaw, David. 
Sheldon, Ephraim. 
Shippey, John. 
Sherd, Hugh. 
Shotwell, Manning. 
Shubart, James. 
Shubart, John. 
Simpson, Abraham. 
Skillman, Jacob. 
Skinner, John. 
Skinner, William. 
Skitton, Thomas. 
Slayback, Abel. 
Slover, John. 
Smalley, John. 
Smith. Andrew. 
Smith, Gideon. 
Smith, Hezekiah. 
Smith, Jeremiah. 
Smith, John. 
Smith, Simeon. 
Smith, William. 
Smock, Hcndrick. 
Smock, Robert. 
Snap, George. 
Snedeker, Cornelius. 
Snedeker, Garret. 
Snedeker, Isaac. 
Snedeker, Jacob. 
Snedeker, John. 
Soden, John. 

Soden, Thomas. 
Solomon, John. 
Sofer, Benjamin. 
Sofer, Jonathan. 
Sofer, Joseph. 
Sofer, Reuben. 
Soulan, Benjamin. 
South, Elijah. 
South, Isaac. 
South, William. 
Southard, Zachariah. 
Sparling, Abraham. 
Sparlipg, Isaac. 
Sparling, James. 
Sparling, John. 
Sparling, Jos. 
Sparling, Peter. 
Spencer, Jos. 
Stanbury, Joshua. 
Stanley, Isaac. 
Starkey, William. 
Stelle, Abel. 
Stelle, Isaac. 
Stelle, Jacob. 
Stelle, Jonah. 
Stelle, Jos. 
Stelle, Samuel. 
Stephens, Jos. 
Stephenson, John. 
Stephenson, William. 
Stewart, David. 
Stillwell, Daniel. 
Stimas, Christian. 
Stinton, Jos. 
Stone, David. 
Stone, William. 
Stoneker, John. 
Storey, Daniel. 
Storey, John. 
Storey, William. 
Stotehoff, Peter. 
Stout, Abel. 
Stout, John. 
Strieker, Cornelius. 
Stultz, Henry. 
Stultz, Jacob. 
Stultz, Peter. 
Sudam, John. 
Sullivan, Patrick. 
Sunderland, Thomas. 
Sunderlin, John. 
Surl, William. 
Sutphen, Dirck. 
Sutphen, James. 
Sutphen, James (2). 
Sutton, Henry. 
Sutton, Henry (2). 
Sutton, Jeany. 
Sutton, John. 
Sutton, Joseph. 
Sutton, Nihcmiah. 
Sutton, Peter. 
Sutton, Peter (2). 
Sutton, William. 
Suydam, Cornelius. 
Suydam, Charles. 
Suydam, Jacob. 



Suydam, Simon. 
Swart, Baltus. 
Swart, Stephen. 
Talmage, Thomas. 
Tallyon. Peter. 
Tomton, Francis. 
Tappan, Abraham. 
Tappan, Isaac. 
Taylor, Lewis. 
Taylor, William. 
Ten Broeck, William, 
Tewell, Enoch. 
Tharp, Baker. 
Tharp, Benjamin. 
Thaxton, John. 
Thomas, William. 
Thompson, William. 
Thomson, Charles. 
Thomson, Cornelius. 
Thomson, David. 
Thomson, Hugh. 
Thomson, James. 
Thomson, John. 
Thom, Richard. 
Thormell, Benjamin. 
Thormell, Israel. 
Thorp, Jonathan. 
Till, Peter. 
Tillny, Peter. 
Tindall, John. 
Tindall, Richard. 
Tindall, William. 
Tombs, Lewis. 
Totten, John. 
Totten, Thomas. 
Touratee, Peter. 
Toy, John. 

Trembley, Alexander. 
Trout, Jacob. 
Turner, Daniel. 
Underdunk, Isaac. 
Updyke, Clement. 
Updyke, William. 
Van Arsdalen, John. 
Van Arsdale, Urias. 
Van Campen, Gideon. 
Van Cleaf, Michael. 

Van Derbeck, Benjamin. 
Van Derhoven, James. 
Van Derveer, Abraham. 
Van Derventer, Christian. 
Van Derventer, Isaac. 
Van Derventer, Jacob. 
Van Derventer, James. 
Van Deursen, William. 
Van Dyke, Hendrick. 
Van Harlingen, John. 
Van Hess, Garret. 
Van Hess, John. 
Van Kirk, Arthur. 
Van Kirk, Jameson. 
Van Kirk, William. 
Van Zandt, John. 
Van Lew, Frederick. 
Van Mickler, John. 
Van Nest, Henry. 
Van Nice, John. 
Van Nortwick, Samuel. 
Van Orsdol, Cornelius. 
Van Orsdol, Isaac. 
Van Orsdol, Jacob. 
Van Orsdol, John. 
Van Ostrand, John. 
Van Pelt, Joseph. 
Van Pelt, John. 
Van Pelt, Jacob. 
Van Pelt, Isaac. 
Van Pelt, Abraham. 
Van Sickle, John. 
Van Sickle, Stephen. 
Van Tilburgh, Henry. 
Van Tilburgh, John. 
Van Tilburgh, William. 
Vantine, Abraham. 
Vantine, Ephraim. 
Vantine, Isaac. 
Van Winkler, Everet. 
Van Zandt, Peter. 
Vaugh, Jacob. 
Vliet, William. 
Voorhees, Abraham. 
Voorhees, James J. 
Voorhees, James R. 
Voorhees, James. 

Voorhees, Nicholas. 
Voorhees, William. 
Voorhees, Garret R. 
Voorhees, Jacob. 
Voorhees, Martines. 
Voorhees, Daniel. 
Voorhees, John R. 
Vreeland, Abraham. 
Waldron, Chris. 
Walker, Asher. 
Walker, Francis. 
Walker, Robert. 
Walker, Samuel. 
Wall, James. 
Wartenby, William. 
Wartenabe, WiUiam. 
Watre, Jacob. 
Webster, Thomas. 
White, John. 
White, Samuel. 
Whitehead, Moses. 
Whitehead, Samuel. 
Whitlock, William. 
Wickoff, Garret. 
WickoflF, Jacob. 
Wilcocks, Isaac. 
Wilkins, Jeptha. 
Willett, Hawsthorn. 
Willett, Samuel. 
Williams, Isaac. 
Williams, Stephen. 
Williamson, Henry. 
Willis, Henry. 
Willis, Joseph. 
Willis, Samuel. 
Willock, William. 
Wilmouth, Lazarus. 
Wilson, Daniel. 
Wilson, Garret. 
Wilson, Isaac. 
Woghun, John. 
Wooding, James. 
Wortman, David. 
Wright, Smith. 
Wyckoff, John. 

Kcpruduced fruni an uld engraving 


The long and arduous struggle for liberty and independence was at 
last ended. Freed from all foreign domination, with a vast territory in 
possession, with a prospect of advancement in wealth and population, 
the momentous question to be settled was a unity of action amongst 
the former colonies. The days of reconstruction had come, and the 
next step in national greatness was the welding of the various sectional 
difficulties into a form of universal government that would maintain the 
prestige of a nation. In the southern tier of colonies now operating 
under State governments, the important issue was the preservation of 
slavery, while those of the northern tier in many cases had promulgated 
laws leading to the abolishment of this evil. The long and destructive 
war had exhausted the resources of the country, trade and commerce 
were destroyed, the mechanics were ruined, agriculture was withered, 
and the relations of man to man, hardly defined by law, were not recog- 
nized and acted upon on the principles of justice and equity. A moun- 
tain of debt pressed upon the people, and they were on the very brink 
of anarchy and political destruction. Here was a crisis to be met, as 
the Articles of Confederation under which the war had been prosecuted 
in the latter years of the Revolution possessed no power to effect and 
maintain a permanent union of the States. 

The Continental Congress, while it had the power to make and con- 
clude treaties, could only recommend the observance of them. It could 
appoint ambassadors, but could not defray their expenses ; could borrow 
money on the faith of the Union, but they could not pay a dollar ; could 
make war and determine on the number of troops necessary, but could 
not raise a single soldier. For years efforts were made by those most 
interested in a State government to enlarge the powers of the Continental 
Congress, but their efforts failed on account of State jealousies and 
interests. Therefore the Confederation was fast expiring of its own 
debility. Difficulties arose with foreign nations, a commercial treaty 
could not be effected with Great Britain, and Spain would not allow 
the free navigation of the Mississippi river until the limits of Louisiana 
and the Floridas were definitely settled. Meanwhile the Valley of the 
West was filling up with great rapidity, and the people of that region 
were fearful that their interests would be sacrificed to the commercial 
policy of the Atlantic States. Many amongst the most prominent char- 
acters of the country advocated a monarchial form of government. 

The first concessions made by the States, which was the forerunner of 
the formation of a republican form of government, was made by Vir- 



ginia, which in March, 1784, ceded all her claims to the Northwestern 
Territory to Cong-ress. This act was followed by New York, Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut and South Carolina, making like concessions of their 
northwest territories, which culminated in the celebrated Ordinance 
for the Government of the Northwestern Territory passed by Congress, 
July 12, 1787, and its principles were the foundation of the civil polity 
of a considerable portion of the country. 

In the older States, two great parties were formed which pursued 
distinct objects with systematic arrangement, which have been described 
by the eminent jurist, John Marshall, in the following words : 

The one struggled for the exact observance of public and private con- 
tracts. Those who composed it were the uniform friends of the regular 
administration of justice and of a vigorous course of taxation which 
would enable the State to comply with its engagements. By a natural 
association of ideas they were also in favor of enlarging the powers of 
the federal government, and of enabling it to protect the dignity and the 
character of the nation abroad and its interest at home. The other party 
marked out for themselves a more indulgent course. They were uni- 
formly in favor of relaxing the administration of justice, of affording 
facilities for the payment of debts, and of suspending their collection and 
of remitting taxes. The same course of opinion led them to resist every 
attempt to transfer from their own hands into those of Congress, powers 
which others deemed essential to the preservation of the Union. 
Wherever this party was predominant, the emission of paper money, the 
delay of legal proceedings and the suspension of taxes, were the fruits of 
their rule. Even where they failed to carry their measures, their strength 
was such as to encourage the hope of succeeding in a future attempt. 
Throughout the Union, the contests between these parties were annually 
revived, and the public mind was perpetually agitated with hopes and 
fears on subjects which affected essentially the fortunes of a considerable 
portion of society. This instability in principles which ought to be ren- 
dered immutable, produced a long train of ills ; and is believed to have 
been among the operating causes of those pecuniary embarrassments 
which influenced the legislation of almost every State. The wise and 
thinking part of the community who could trace evils to their source, 
labored unceasingly to inculcate opinions favorable to the incorporation 
of some principles into the political system, which might correct its 
obvious vices, without endangering its free spirit. 

In this deplorable state of affairs, an initiating step was taken by the 
Assembly of Virginia, which appointed commissioners to consider the 
state of the trade of the United States, and to meet with commissioners 
from the other States at Annapolis, Maryland, in September, 1786. This 
meeting was held, the convention consisting of only two commissioners 
from New York three from New Jersey, one from Pennsylvania, three 
from Delaware, and three from Virginia. Nothing was done with ref- 
erence to the especial object of the meeting, but a second convention 
was recommended to meet at Philadelphia in the following May for the 


revision of the Constitution of the Federal Government to render it ade- 
quate to the exigencies of the Union. 

Congress did not at first view the resolution of this convention 
favorably, being in doubt whether it was constitutional on account of 
its not originating in that body as provided by the Articles of Confeder- 
ation. Their views, owing to the acts of armed insurgents against the 
laws of some of the States, tended to produce a reaction in their decision ; 
accordingly, they passed a resolution recommending the States to elect 
delegates to the convention. Acting under the authority, the several 
States except Rhode Island proceeded to the appointment. of delegates 
to the Federal Convention. 

A number of the deputies to the Federal Convention appeared on May 
14, 1787, at the State House, in the city of Philadelphia. A majority of the 
States, however, were not represented, and an adjournment was taken 
until May 25th, when nine States were represented and the convention 
was duly organized. The New Jersey delegation was headed by William 
Livingston, who had succeeded the renegade governor William Franklin, 
and had been the able executive head of the State government during 
the period of the Revolution. The Middlesex county representatives 
in the delegation were John Neilsoti and William Paterson ; the former, 
however, failed to attend the convention. 

In the proceedings of the convention, William Paterson took an 
important part. He introduced on June 15th a set of nine resolutions 
which became known as the New Jersey Plan. They differed from 
the Virginia Plan, as they favored only one branch of the Legislature, 
whose powers were derived from the States ; instead of one executive 
head, it favored several. This became known as the State Sovereignty 
Plan. Although this failed to meet the endorsement of a majority of the 
delegates, it formed the basis of a compromise. 

William Paterson, the introducer of the New Jersey Plan, was a 
native of Ireland, and in 1747, then being only two years of age, came 
to America with his parents. The elder Paterson located at Trenton, 
afterwards at Princeton, finally at Raritan (now Somerville). Young 
Paterson graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1763, read law 
under Richard Stockton, and was admitted to the bar in 1769. He first 
practiced in Bromley, Hunterdon county ; removing to Princeton, he 
was associated with his father and brother in a mercantile business. The 
year 1775 marked the commencement of his public career, when he was 
chosen delegate to the Provincial Congress ; he was secretary of that 
body at its two sessions, also of the Congress that met at Burlington 
in 1776. On the organization of the State government, he became attor- 
ney-general, which was a hazardous position, as in performance of his 
duties he was obliged to attend the courts in the various counties, thus 
exposing himself to capture by British soldiers. On the restoration of 


peace, he took up his residence in New Brunswick and resumed his 
law practice On the formation of the Federal Constitution he became 
one of two senators from New Jersey. This seat he resigned after per- 
forming its duties for a single year, to become governor of New Jersey. 
During his leisure time for the next six years he codified the statutes of 
Great Britain, which prior to the Revolution were in force in New Jersey, 
together with those enacted by the State Legislature before and after 
separation from the Mother Country. While engaged in this task he 
was appointed by President Washington as associate justice of the 
Supreme Court of the United States. His last judicial act was to pre- 
side in the United States Circuit Court in New York in April, 1806 ; his 
health was now visibly declining, and he withdrew from all active con- 
cerns, and died September 9, 1806. 

The Federal Constitution was unanimously ratified by the convention 
of New Jersey, December 17, 1787, this action being only preceded by 
the conventions of Delaware and Pennsylvania. Thus New Jersey 
became an integral part of a constituted federal government, and the 
inhabitants of Middlesex county, as one of the units of the State, became 
a progressive and prosperous community, and, as the future years flowed 
on, to increase in wealth and enterprise due to the stability of her indus- 
tries and the loyal, energetic efforts of her citizens. 


In the days of Washington, the people's adoration for the Nation's 
defender and a successful termination of their war troubles precluded 
any political division or the formation of rival political parties. The 
leaders of the then so-called Federalist party in many cases were well 
known to the citizens of Middlesex county. Washington during his Rev- 
olutionary career had often been seen by the people within its limits. 
Hamilton in his early youth was a student at an academy in Elizabeth- 
town, and in the military movements later in New Jersey took an active 

The New England aristocrat Adams in his frequent ofificial visits to 
the Continental Congress and while Vice-President, passed through New 
Brunswick on his journey to the national capital. At the expiration of 
Washington's second term as President, Adams became his logical suc- 
cessor, and it was not until towards the end of his presidential term, 
when he naturally was a candidate for reelection, that any decided oppo- 
sition to his continuance in office commenced to be demonstrated. 
Thomas Jefferson, who was the first to fill the office of Secretary of State 
in Washington's administration, resigned in 1793. The following year, 
on being offered an appointment, he replied, "No circumstances will ever 
more tempt me to engage in anything public." But notwithstanding this 
determination, he became a candidate in 1800 for the presidency of the 

The administration of Adams had been turbulent and in no way har- 
monious for the country. Though the second President of the United 
States was a man of ability and purity of character, he was also quick, 
inflammable, sanguine, impatient of opposition, and desirous of popular 
applause. The attitude of affairs with respect to France on his accession 
to office was by no means free from difficulty and danger. Many of the 
members of Congress advocated open hostilities with that country. 
Washington was persuaded to become the commander of an army to 
operate against France. The Naval Department was formed, and author- 
ity was given to the President to borrow $5,000,000 for the public service. 
While these arbitrary actions were popular with the masses, the Federal 
party by the passage of the alien and sedition laws by Congress in 1798 
received a setback that hastened and ultimately caused its downfall. The 
opposition party in Congress at this time was known as the Republican 
party, and, being in the minority, retired from active duty, waited their 
time for a favorable opportunity to bring their views of State power and 


influence to bear upon the people. The year 1799 opened with extensive 
military preparations for war : the elections held that year had resulted 
in favor of the Federalists, this being especially the case in the South, 
where considerable changes had taken place in favor of the government. 

Jefferson and his colleagues were energetically placing the doctrines 
of the Republican party before the people, and the opposition of Hamil- 
ton and his followers to Adams' reelection, the latter boldly denouncing 
that portion of the Federal party who did not favor his measures, as a 
British faction, were the forerunners of an exciting presidential election 
in 1800. In the election in the State of New York for members of the 
Legislature in the early part of that year, the political parties were nearly 
equally balanced. Hamilton, as the leader of the Federalists, was opposed 
by Aaron Burr, who devoted himself to harmonizing the differences 
amongst the Republicans, and by his political astuteness and ability 
succeeded in electing the candidates of that party to the State Legisla- 
ture. Though this was a decided victory, this defeat of the Federal party 
in national politics was not lessened by the results of the New York elec- 
tion. There was a decided opposition to the nomination of Adams for 
President, but the Federal members of Congress held a caucus in May, 
1800, which resulted in the selection of John Adams and Charles Cotes- 
worth Pickney as their candidates. The Republicans placed their depend- 
ence for success on Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr. 

The political parties were known as the Anglo-Federal, the Simple 
Federalists, and Republican parties. In Middlesex county, Jefferson was 
denounced as an atheist and an enemy to all revealed religion. By his 
election to the ofifice of President, the claims were made that he would 
become a hereditary president with unlimited power and a permanent 
autocracy. The Republican candidate for the council was James Morgan, 
who was opposed on the Federal ticket by Ephraim Martin. The nomi- 
nees of the Republicans for the Assembly were: John Heard, Phineas 
Manning, John Morgan, and Joseph Randolph. Those named for that 
ofifice on the Federal ticket were John Neilson, Gershom Dunn, William 
Edgar and Benjamin Manning. The Federalists were triumphant in 
New Jersey, and their candidates for the Council and Assembly were 
elected in Middlesex county. 

The counting of the electoral votes by the United States Senate 
resulted in Jackson and Burr receiving each a total of seventy-three 
votes, which was a clear majority of the whole number. This resulted in 
carrying the choice for President to the House, each State to be entitled 
to one vote, which on the thirty-sixth ballot resulted in favor of Thomas 
Jefferson for President and Aaron Burr for Vice-President. In this 
election, Hamilton and the Federalist leaders were actively engaged, as 
they considered Jefferson a far less dangerous man than Burr. Hamilton 


claimed that Jefferson had some pretensions to character, while Burr was 
devoid of any principles whatsoever only for his own aggrandizement, 
comparing and naming him as the "Cataline of America." Hamilton was 
thus able by his severe denunciations of Burr to overcome the bitter 
repugnance of the Federalists to Jefferson, which resulted in his choice 
for President. The Republican press was jubilant over the final election 
of Jefferson and Burr, and their encomiums were of an extravagant 
nature, as follows : "Resplendently Glorious, a complete victory obtained 
by virtue over vice, republicanism over autocracy, and the consequent 
downfall of Hamiltonians, Pickeronians, British agents and old Tories." 

In the election for Governor following the inauguration of Jefferson 
as President, the Republicans succeeded in electing a native of Middlesex 
county to that office. Joseph Bloomfield was esteemed as a sound legis- 
lator and a judicious leader. As a presidential elector in 1792, he voted 
for Washington and Adams, but soon afterwards became an avowed 
opponent of Adams and, becoming friendly with Jefferson, he became a 
leader of the Republicans in New Jersey. In 1801 he was elected Gov- 
ernor, and was reelected each succeeding election until 1812, excepting in 
1802, when there was a tie for the office between himself and Richard 
Stockton, and for a year the duties of that office was performed by the 
vice-president of the council. Governor Bloomfield was born in Wood- 
bridge, in 1755, attended a classical school, studied law, and was admit- 
ted to the bar. He resigned from the Continental army in 1778, having 
been commissioned a major. His political and official life commenced 
with his discharge from the army, continuing until near the time of his 
death at Burlington, New Jersey, October 3, 1825. 

In the fifth presidential election, while the Republicans carried New 
Jersey for Jefferson and Clinton, the Federalists in Middlesex county 
were successful in electing their candidates to the Assembly by an aver- 
age majority of one hundred and fifty votes. The Assembly was, how- 
ever, controlled by the Republicans, the only other counties in the State 
represented by Federalists being Bergen, Burlington and Cape May 
counties, the Assembly standing thirty-eight Republicans to fifteen Fed- 

Toward the close of Jefferson's second administration, the embargo 
question with all its perplexing ramifications not only occupied the atten- 
tion of Congress, but was a vital factor in the political life of the country. 
The mooted question whether Jefferson would be a candidate for a third 
term was finally settled by his fixed determination to retire to private life. 
He allowed his mantle to fall upon his favorite, James Madison, who with 
George Clinton became the Republican candidates. The Federalists, 
divided as a party, with hardly any chance of success, selected General 
C. C. Pinckney and Rufus King as their candidates. Middlesex county 


still remained true to her Federalist attachments, the electors of that 
party receiving 155 1 votes to 1216 cast for the Republican candidates. 
James Voorhees, James Parker, and George Boice were elected on the 
Federalist ticket to the Assembly, with majorities averaging 331. 

James Parker, mentioned above, was a leader in public affairs. He 
was a descendant of Elisha Parker, a pioneer of Woodbridge, from Mas- 
sachusetts, and a son of James Parker, a leading citizen of Perth Amboy, 
a captain in the French and Indian War, who afterwards was engaged as 
a merchant in New York and was for many years mayor of his native 
city. A man of large landed property and vigorous intellect, he was one 
of the founders of the American Episcopal church in New Jersey. 

James the younger was a man of great ability and public note. He 
graduated from Columbia College, New York, in 1793, but on account of ' 
the death of his father when he was only twenty-one years of age he 
became the virtual head of his family. He managed the large landed 
interests left by his father, which his intimately practical knowledge of 
law and sagacious mind fitted him to perform. His entrance into public 
life was in 1806. A thorough Federalist, he was, nevertheless, not a par- 
tisan, and this with his independence, integrity and remarkable capacity 
made him exceedingly influential. He was a statesman as well as a 
speaker, one of the originators of the fund for free schools, a leader in the 
prohibition of the domestic slave trade. In 1790 one-twelfth of the popu- 
lation of the United States were slaves. The gradual emancipation act in 
the early part of the nineteenth century was adopted in the Northern 
States. In New Jersey there was an organized movement to abolish 
slavery as early as 1786, when the New Jersey Abolition Society, com- 
posed mostly of Quakers, received a charter from the Legislature. 

Mr. Parker, both as a member of the Legislature and as foreman of 
the Middlesex grand jury, protected the negro and did much to save his 
State from the disgrace of slavery. Like his father, he was for many 
years mayor of Perth Amboy, also an originator and director of the 
Delaware and Raritan canal and a commissioner to settle the boundary 
line between New Jersey and New York. He served with distinction in 
the National House of Representatives, winning from his colleagues the 
cognomen of "Honest James Parker," and distinguishing himself as a 
champion of the right of petition and as a guardian of the finances of the 
Union. After leaving Congress and until his death, April i, 1868, he was 
first a Whig and then a Republican, a staunch supporter of the LInion 
and of emancipation. 

The presidential contest in 181 2 was enlivened by the war with Great 
Britain. Madison had acceded to the views of the war party, which 
caused a split in the Republican party. The regular party nominees were 
Madison and Gerry, while those in opposition named Clinton and Inger- 


soil. The Federalists, hoping to profit by the division in the ranks of 
their opponents, mostly voted for Clinton and Ingersoll. The voters of 
Middlesex county, therefore, deprived of a regular Federalist nomination, 
cast their ballots for electors for President and Vice-President for Clinton 
and Ingersoll, though they elected to the Assembly a solid delegation 
consisting of James Parker, James Voorhees and Ercucries Beatty, the 
first mentioned receiving 1,780 votes to 1.427 cast for the highest can- 
didate on the opposition ticket. James Schureman, a Federalist, was 
elected over John James, a Republican, to the council by a majority of 343. 

The War of 181 2 played no important part in the history of Middlesex 
county. Her soil was not invaded by a foreign foe, and her seacoast was 
ably defended by the United States navy from any inroads or attacks of 
the enemy's battleships. President Madison commissioned Governor 
Bloomfield a brigadier-general in the army, and early in 1813 his brigade 
reached Sacketts Harbor, New York, but soon after their commander 
was transferred to take command of a military district with headquarters 
at Philadelphia, where he remained until peace was restored. Middlesex 
county furnished sailors and soldiers for the navy and army, but there 
were no detailed companies from the county in active service. 

In the autumn of 1816, the war having closed, the popular agitation 
was as to candidates for the presidential nomination, Madison, following 
the example of his predecessor, decided to retire to private life. The pre- 
dominance of Virginia was still in evidence when James Monroe became 
an avowed candidate. There was some opposition to his nomination 
from those who disliked the rule of the "Old Dominion." but on balloting 
in senatorial caucus on the respective claims of the candidates, James 
Monroe and Daniel D. Tompkins were selected by the Republicans. The 
Federalists, with no hope of success, selected as their candidate Rufus 
King, leaving to the electors the choice for Vice-President. Though the 
Republicans carried New Jersey for their candidates, electing their Rep- 
resentatives to Congress, Middlesex county still stood faithful to the 
Federalists, choosing Ercucries Beatty to the council and James Parker, 
Allison Ely, Jr., and Hezekiah Smith to the Assembly. 

There was no opposition to the reelection of Monroe and Tompkins 
in 1820. This period in American history became known as "The era of 
good feeling," when the Republican, afterwards known as the Demo- 
cratic party, was the only political organization. Monroe received all the 
electoral votes of the States excepting one that was cast in Massachu- 
setts for John Quincy Adams. Internal improvements and tariff legisla- 
tion was the cause of the breaking up of the harmony in the political 
affairs of the nation. These harmonious times were, however, to cause a 
break in the political aspect of Middlesex county ; while the Republicans 
elected Andrew Kirkpatrick to the council, James Cook, also a Republi- 


can, defeated David E. Paten for the Assembly by a vote of 925 to 793. 
Ercucries Beatty and John T. McDowell, Federalist candidates, defeated 
their opponents by a vote 866 to 859. The Republicans had a majority in 
the Assembly of thirty-four. 

The contest for the presidency in 1824 presented new names for can- 
didates. The success of Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812 and Indian 
wars in the South made him a popular candidate, while John Quincy 
Adams, William H. Crawford and Henry Clay had an army of admirers. 
This was the first appearance of the Whig party in a presidential election, 
and it had selected for its candidate the "Great Commoner" from Ken- 
tucky, Henry Clay. The political excitement was intensified by the visit 
of the illustrious Lafayette, "the hero of two worlds." New Jersey 
showed her preference in the presidential campaign by choosing electors 
favorable to Andrew Jackson. Middlesex county, however, gave John 
Quincy Adams a plurality of eighty votes ; Robert M. Chesney was 
elected to the council ; and J. T. McDowell, David Schenck, and J. F. 
Randolph to the Assembly. The electoral college failed to cast a major- 
ity for a presidential candidate, and the matter, in accordance with laws 
governing such cases, came before the House of Representatives, which 
elected John Quincy Adams as President. 

The presidential campaign of 1828 was one of shameless abuse of 
private character, and slanderous imputations of everything vmworthy 
and disgraceful. On the wave of this sea of scandal the Democratic party 
was successful in electing "Old Hickory," otherwise known as Andrew 
Jackson ; Middlesex county still stood true to her Federalist ins-tincts, 
though that name as a political party had been dropped, but in the 
embers of its dying fires had arisen an organization known as the Peo- 
ple's party, which was dubbed by the press as the Administration party. 
New Jersey as a State gave its vote to John Quincy Adams, the counties 
carried by Jackson being Sussex, Warren, Morris and Hunterdon. The 
majority for the Administration party in Middlesex county was 598; 
while its candidates for the council and Assembly received majorities 
from 132 to 355, James Fitz Randolph was elected to Congress to fill a 
vacancy caused by death. This gentleman was a native of Middlesex 
county, who after receiving a common school education served an appren- 
ticeship in the printing business. He became editor in 1812 of a weekly 
paper published in New Brunswick called "Fredonia," in which capacity 
he continued thirty years. He was a collector of internal revenue, clerk 
of the Common Pleas Court, and was representative in Congress from 
1828 to 1833, and after his retirement was president of a bank in New 
Brunswick for ten years. He was the father of Theodore Frelinghuysen 
Randolph, the twenty-fourth Governor of New Jersey. 


Middlesex county was visited in the summer of 1832 by the Asiatic 
cholera; it commenced its ravages about the close of June, continuing 
until about October first, leaving in its path desolation and death. With 
a battle-cry of protection to the school fund and no monopolies, the 
National Republican party was launched in 1832 against the Jackson 
Administration party. Middlesex county swung into line underneath its 
banners and elected their candidates on that ticket to the Assembly. 
This body was composed of forty-two members of the National Republi- 
can party to twenty-two Jacksonians, thus was the New Jersey Assembly 
added to the hotbed of Federalism. The State, however, cast its electoral 
votes for Jackson and Van Buren ; the Middlesex county electoral vote 
was for Henry Clay, he having a majority of eighty votes. The changing 
of the complexion of the New Jersey Assembly was a great reaction. In 
the House of 1830 there were eighteen National Republicans to forty-six 
Jacksonians. The following year this had been changed to thirty-one 
Jacksonians to thirty-three National Republicans, and in two years from 
1830 the Jacksonians' majority of twenty-eight had been changed to 
twenty for the National Republicans. 

In the presidential election of 1836 the electoral vote of New Jersey 
was in the hands of the Legislature, for the reason that by an Act of 
Congress the election of the electors of the several States should take 
place thirty-four days prior to the meeting of the electoral college, which 
was fixed in 1836 on December 7th. The New Jersey State Legislature 
by an act passed in 1807 required the presidential election to be held the 
first Tuesday in November, this being in 1836 thirty-six days before the 
meeting of the electoral college. This difficulty also occurred in 1808, 
when the responsibility devolved on the Legislature. The New Jersey 
electoral vote in the thirteenth presidential election was cast for Harrison 
and Granger, the candidates of the Whig ticket. The Whig nominee for 
council, George T. McDowell, received a majority of only twenty votes. 
Three of the Van Buren candidates, William C. Alexander, Thomas 
Edgar and Samuel C. Johns, with George P. MoUeson, an anti-Jacksonite, 
were elected to the Assembly. The county went for Harrison and 
Granger by a majority of two hundred and fifty. 

In the presidential election of 1820 the Democratic party strived to 
elect Van Buren for a second term. The Whigs presented their defeated 
presidential candidate of 1836. There was unprecedented excitement 
during the campaign, and more attention was bestowed upon politics and 
the numerous questions at issue than had ever been the case at any 
previous time. There was hardly a definable limit to the conventions, the 
speeches, the political phamphlets, the newspaper engineering, on the 
thousand topics which were brought forward and debated at the time. 
The "hard cider" campaign with its log cabins fully supplied with barrels 


of cider all over the country, in hamlets, villages and cities, marked an 
important epoch in the political history of the United States. Van Buren 
as candidate of the Democratic party carried only seven States — New 
Hampshire, Virginia, South Carolina, Illinois, Alabama, Missouri and 
Arkansas, the Whigs being triumphant in every State north of the Mason 
and Dixon line with the exception of those mentioned above, and gaining 
victories in some of the Southern and border States. In Middlesex 
county, though prodigious efforts were made by the Administration 
party, a full Whig delegation was elected to the Assembly. Harrison and 
Tyler received a majority of 310 votes, which was a gain of 159 over the 
majority given Harrison and Granger. 

In the campaign for the fifteenth election for President, the Whigs 
were handicapped by the administration of afifairs by President Tyler, 
who by the death of General Harrison filled the executive chair. They 
presented as their candidate Henry Clay, who received the cognomen 
"The Friend of Popular Rights." The war-cry of the Whigs was the 
purification of the Federal Government, the maintenance of a protective 
tariff, the distribution of the moneys from the sales of the public lands, 
the maintenance of the Union. The Democratic party was condemned 
for the corrupt system of making Federal offices bribes, for the destruc- 
tion of the existing tariff laws, the increase of taxation, the extension of 
territory already too vast for safe government. 

The nominee on the Whig ticket for Vice-President was Theodore 
Frelinghuysen, a native of New Jersey, who spent the later years of his 
life in New Brunswick, where he died April 12, 1861. Mr. Frelinghuysen 
was a man of great piety, possessed of the deepest religious feelings, and 
was well known by the sobriquet "The Christian Statesman." He was 
endowed with a power of quick and determined action and the leadership 
of men, which secured for himself a success in the affairs of the world. 
He was equally successful as educator, lawyer and statesman. He had 
filled the position of United States Senator, and declined a seat on the 
Supreme Court bench of the State. After the defeat of the Whig ticket, 
he became chancellor of the University of New York, and in 1850 he 
resigned this position to become president of Rutgers College, which 
office he held until his death. 

Middlesex county gave the Clay and Frelinghuysen ticket a majority 
of 304, electing a solid Whig delegation to the Assembly. The Third 
Congressional District, which combined with Middlesex county, Hunter- 
don, Mercer and Somerset counties, elected John Runk, a Whig, as Rep- 
resentative, by a majority of only twenty-seven votes. 

The Whigs in 1848, passing over the claims of Henry Clay and Daniel 
Webster for their candidates, selected General Zachary Taylor as their 
standard-bearer. The Democrats, with a split in their ranks in New York 


State, placed in nomination Lewis Cass, his running mate being William 
O. Butler. The Whig candidate had distinguished himself in the war 
with Mexico, and the candidate for Vice-President, Millard Fillmore, was 
a prominent statesman of the Empire State. The split in the Democratic 
party, mentioned above, consisted mainly of dissatisfied politicians in 
New York State who met in convention at Utica in that State and nom- 
inated Martin Van Buren for President. The Free-soil party, consisting 
mainly of Abolitionists, in a convention held in Buffalo, New York, 
endorsed the nomination of Mr. Van Buren, selecting as their candidate 
for Vice-President Charles Francis Adams. 

Previous to 1848 the New Jersey State elections had been held in 
October, and the polls for voting had been kept open two days. The 
presidential election in 1848 was the first time the ballots for National 
and State offices were cast on the same day, and the time of voting was 
limited to one day. A distinct opposition was made by the Clay Free 
Soil Whigs to the candidates for President and Vice-President on the 
Whig ticket, and they were even more antagonistic to their own party 
than they were to their Democratic opponents. The normal majority of 
the Whigs in Middlesex county was not, however, materially diminished. 
A solid Whig delegation was elected to the Council and Assembly, the 
majority in these bodies on joint ballot being twenty-three in favor of the 
Whig party. Middlesex was the banner Whig county in the State, every 
town giving "Old Zack" for President a majority, with the exception of 
South Amboy, which was carried by Cass by a majority of 211. 

The presidential campaign of 1852 was devoid of any political excite- 
ment. Both of the great parties set aside their legitimate leaders, and 
turned for their candidates to those who had distinguished themselves by 
military exploits in the Mexican War. There was also injected into the 
campaign the Free-soilers, who met in convention at Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, nominating John P. Hale, of New Hampshire, for President, 
and George W. Julian, of Indiana, for Vice-President. Though General 
Winfield Scott had gained more distinction than his opponent in the mili- 
tary operations in Mexico, he was badly defeated by General Franklin 
Pierce, who received the largest electoral vote ever cast for a presidential 
candidate previous to this period, he receiving in the electoral college the 
x^otes of all the States with the exception of Vermont, Massachusetts, 
Tennessee and Kentucky. The Whigs of Middlesex county, however, 
gave a majority of one hundred and eighty for their presidential candi- 
date, electing Martin A. Howell in the First Assembly District, Abraham 
Everett in the Second District, and Josephus Shann, a loco-foco, in the 
Third District. Samuel Lilly, a Democrat, member of the medical profes- 
sion, was elected representative to Congress. 


To the student of the political history of the country the presidential 
campaign of 1856 was to see the dissension between the free and slave- 
holding States that was afterwards to culminate in open hostilities. The 
waning power of the South in the United States Senate by the creation 
of free States in the Great West, which they had bitterly fought in the 
State of Kansas, curtailed the extension of slavery. The Democrats pre- 
sented as their candidates James Buchanan and John C. Breckinridge. 
The newly formed Republican party had for their standard-bearers John 
C. Fremont. "The Great Pathfinder." and William L. Dayton, a prominent 
citizen of New Jersey. The political situation was further complicated 
by the introduction of the American party, with Millard Fillmore and 
Andrew Jackson Donelson as its candidates. This split in the ranks of 
old Whig party placed Middlesex county for the first time in the Demo- 
cratic column, her vote for President being for Buchanan 2,468, Fre- 
mont 1,200, and Fillmore 1,979. In the Third District, Garnett B. Adrian 
was elected to the Thirty-fifth Congress. The newly elected member of 
Congress was of French extraction ; his paternal grandfather settled in 
Ireland, fleeing from his native France, with his two brothers, from reli- 
gious persecution following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. He 
was a man of fine cultivation, remarkable for his brilliant wit and versa- 
tile power of conversation. He engaged in his new home in teaching, 
married, and reared a family of five children. Of these, Robert, the 
eldest, early developed an aptitude for learning that amounted to genius. 
The death of his parents when he was fifteen years of age changed his 
life as a pupil to that of a teacher. In the rebellion of 1798 he commanded 
an Irish company, but on account of his independent spirit gained the ill 
will of the government, and a reward was offered for his capture. His 
having been wounded by one of his men gave rise to a rumor of his death, 
and he eventually escaped to America disguised as a weaver. Here he 
became noted for his mathematical talents, and after being in charge of 
several academies in 1810 was called to the professorship of mathematics 
and natural philosophy in Queen's (Rutgers) College ; subsequently he 
was elected to the chair of natural philosophy at Columbia College. 
Returning to Rutgers in 1826, he accepted after three years a professor- 
ship in the University of Pennsylvania, of which institution he was also 
vice-provost. He returned to his home in New Brunswick in 1834, and 
from that time until his death, August 10, 1843, with the exception of 
three years, he relinquished teaching. Garnett B., his son, was born in 
New York City, December 20, 181 5. After receiving a collegiate educa- 
tion he entered the law office of his brother, Robert Adrian, at New 
Brunswick, and remained in continuous legal practice until his death on 
August 17, 1878. He inherited the genius of his father and a good deal 
of his independent spirit. He was recognized by the members of the 


bar of the State as a leg-al light of the highest order, a favorable, ready, 
witty, eloquent speaker, who had few equals in the State. In politics a 
Democrat of the old school, he was an ardent adherent of Stephen A. 
Douglas. After his two terms in Congress he retired from active politics. 

The campaign for the presidential election in i860 opened with four 
political parties in the field. The Republicans, who had nominated Abra- 
ham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin, declared that freedom was the nor- 
mal condition of all the territories, and that slavery could exist only by 
the authority of municipal law. The Democratic party was divided ; the 
radical pro-slavery wing, whose candidates were John C. Breckinridge 
and Joseph Lane, declared that no power existed that might lawfully 
control slavery in the territories, and it was the duty of the national gov- 
ernment to protect the institution. The other wing of the party, whose 
platform assumed not to know positively whether slavery might or might 
not have lawful existence in the territories but expressed a willingness to 
abide by the decision of the Supreme Court, had for its candidates 
Stephen A. Douglas and Herschel V. Johnson. The National Constitu- 
tional Union party adopted as its platform, "The Union, the Constitution, 
and the enforcement of the laws," and declined to express any opinion 
upon any subject. Its candidates were John Bell and Edward Everett. 
The conflict waged desperately from July to November. New Jersey was 
the only State in the Union that presented a ticket which combined 
fusion electors opposed to the Republican nominees. This ticket received 
a majority of 650 in Middlesex county, but in the electoral college the 
Republican candidates received four votes, the other three being cast 
for the ticket headed by Stephen A. Douglas. In the Third Congres- 
sional District, William G. Steele, a Democrat, was elected by a majority 
of 2,115. The State Senate consisted of eleven Republicans to ten 
Democrats, the Middlesex representative being Abraham Everett, a 
Republican. Three Democrats — Elias Ross, James T. Crowell and 
Orlando Perrine, were elected in Middlesex county to the Assembly by 
a majority of two hundred. 

Abraham Lincoln in the electoral college received the combined votes 
of the State north of the Mason and Dixon line, with the exception of 
three votes in New Jersey. Breckinridge carried all the Southern 
States with the exception of Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee, whose 
entire vote was received by Bell. Douglas, the idol of the Democratic 
party, received the three votes of New Jersey and nine from Missouri. 
The Republican party had won its first national victory, and the seeds 
were sown that was to cause slavery to be forever removed as a national 
issue. Grimvisaged war to take place before the consummation of 
this momentous question, father was to be arrayed against son, brother 
against brother, and the country was to be plunged into the horrors of 
civil war. 


The smoke from the guns that were fired at Fort Sumter had hardly 
dissolved in the air when President Lincoln issued his proclamation 
calling for seventy-five thousand militia to serve in the Union army for 
three months. The quota of this call for New Jersey was 3,120, or four 
regiments of 750 men each. The War Department also required that 
in addition to the regiments called, a reserve militia should be organ- 
ized as rapidly as possible. Governor Olden, who at this period filled 
the executive office of the State, issued a proclamation directing all 
individuals or organizations to report for duty within twenty days. The 
whole State rose with glorious unanimity to vindicate the majesty of 
insulted law. The banks pledged a fund of $451,000 to support the 
governor in his extraordinary expenses, of which sum the State Bank 
of New Brunswick subscribed $25,000. The first regimental offer was 
made by the First Regiment of the Hunterdon Brigade, under date of 
April 18, 1861. The first company actually mustered into service was the 
Olden Guards, a militia organization of Trenton, on April 23, 1861. 
New Jersey was a carnival of patriotism from one end of the State to 
the other; volunteers came forward so rapidly that the quota of the 
State was completed on April 30, 1861, and the regiments stood ready 
to march to the seat of war. 

The four regiments were quickly mustered into a brigade known as 
the New Jersey Brigade, afterwards as the First Brigade. There was 
not in this brigade an organized company from Middlesex county. 

Governor Olden selected for commander of the First Brigade, Theo- 
dore Runyon, a prominent lawyer of Newark, then about thirty-eight 
years of age, and who had for some years manifested a deep interest 
in military affairs. General Runyon, though not born in Middlesex 
county, was a descendant of Vincent Rognion, a native of France, and 
one of the early settlers of Piscataway township. On May 2, 1861, the 
brigade embarked by the way of Annapolis for Washington, and on the 
6th reported to General Scott. The three thousand Jerseymen were 
thoroughly armed and equipped, and their arrival at the capital city was 
hailed with pleasure, as they could be depended on to repel all assaults. 
In the First Brigade of the New Jersey Volunteers, which was mustered 
into service under the call of the President for three-year volunteers, 
in the First Regiment of Infantry, Middlesex county had three full 
companies, C, F and G, while some of the members of companies A, B 
and E were from that county. 



First Rc^gimcnt — The First Regiment, with other members of the First 
Brigade of three-year volunteers, left Trenton on June 28, 1861, and 
immediately on arrival in Virginia formed a part of General Runyon's 
division of reserves in the battle of Bull Run, aiding materially in cover- 
ing the retreat of the Union forces on that fatal day. Immediately after 
the battle, the regiment w^ent into camp near Alexandria, Virginia. 
Major Philip Kearny, having been commissioned a brigadier-general, 
w^as put in command of the New Jersey troops. The fall and winter 
months were passed in camp duties. On October 15 a detachment of 
the First Regiment fell in with the enemy cavalry, when a brisk skirmish 
took place ; after emptying a number of saddles, they retired with a loss 
of three or four killed. In the spring of 1862 the regiment was ordered 
to Burke's Station, on the Orange & Alexandria railroad, to protect 
laborers. The First Regiment was finally advanced to Fairfax Court 
House, and a detachment was sent forward to Centreville, where the 
remainder of the regiment shortly after joined them. Thus this regi- 
ment that was the last to leave Centerville at the first Bull Run, had the 
honor of being the first to occupy the place in the second advance. The 
brigade in April, 1862, was attached to the First Division of the First 
Army Corps, was advanced to Bristow Station, and took a position two 
miles from Warrenton Junction, at Catlett's Station. This was a stra- 
tegic movement to engage the attention of the enemy while General 
McClellan transferred his main body of the army by transports to the 
Peninsula. The First Regiment, as part of the First Brigade, abandon- 
ing their position at Catlett's Station, returned to Alexandria, where it 
embarked on steamers for the rendezvous at the mouth of the York 
river, thence proceeding to Yorktown, and finally to West Point, on 
the York river. Here the regiment was disembarked and deployed as 
skirmishers, and a sharp engagement took place with some of the best 
soldiers of the rebel army. A junction was finally effected with McClel- 
lan's army near the White House, whence the regiment advanced to 
Chickahominy, remaining in camp at this point about two weeks. 

The fighting for the possession of Richmond had commenced, and 
on the night of May 21 the First Regiment was detailed to guard a 
working party. Six days later the regiment, leaving its entrenched 
camp on the right bank of the Chickahominy, moved down to Wood- 
bury's Bridge, where the brigade was formed into two lines, and though 
the odds of position and numbers were against them, the Jersey Blues 
fought steadily on until nightfall. One by one their officers were shot 
down, and though the day was lost, it was not the fault of the New Jersey 
Brigade, which went into action with 2,800 stout-hearted men, of whom 
but 965 wearied, scarred and dark with grime of battle, answered to their 
names in the solemn midnight when the morning camp was reached. 
In the First Regiment, Major David Hatfield was wounded, and subse- 


quently died of his injuries ; Captain E. G. Brewster was killed ; while 
Captains Way, Mount and others were wounded ; the total loss of the 
regiment being 21 killed, 78 wounded and 60 missing. The following 
morning the First Brigade was withdrawn to the woods in the rear of 
the battlefield, where it rested until midnight, when it marched towards 
Savage Station, pausing to take part in the battle of Malvern Hill, and 
finally reached Harrison's Landing, where it found a brief respite. 

In the latter part of July, General John Pope was appointed to com- 
mand the forces designated as the Army of Virginia, with instructions 
to make fresh demonstrations against Richmond from the Rappahan- 
nock in order to effect a diversion in favor of General McClellan's army. 
The First Regiment, now numbering about three hundred men, in con- 
nection with other regiments of the First Brigade, was sent forward by 
rail to Bull Run bridge, where it was supposed that there was no more 
formidable body of enemy than gangs of guerillas. This, however, was 
found to be a mistake, and the Jersey troops were confronted by the 
enemy's forces, who gave battle, causing sad havoc amongst their ranks. 
Stonewall Jackson, who was present on the field of battle, afterwards 
said he had rarely seen a body of men who stood up so gallantly in the 
face of overwhelming odds as did the Jersey troops on this occasion. 
By the official statement the First Regiment casualties in this engage- 
ment were, one killed, 47 wounded, 80 taken prisoners. 

General Pope, realizing his dangerous position, pushed forward all 
of his available forces upon Centerville. Here General Kearny's division 
advanced against General Stonewall Jackson, stationed near Gainesville. 
At this point a large part of both armies became engaged, victory and 
repulse following each other in quick succession, and Pope, struggling 
with a hope of reinforcements that never came, was badly beaten. The 
army was withdrawn to a position near Centerville, where the First 
Brigade as a part of Franklin's Corps joined the main army. General 
Lee determined to harass the right wing of Pope's army, advanced 
General Jackson's army toward Fairfax Court House, where on the eve- 
ning of September ist they were confronted by two divisions of Sumner's 
Corps, and subsequently by Kearny's Division, the latter closing the 
fight by driving the enemy from the field. The victory, however, was 
a costly one. General Kearny being shot dead when almost within the 
rebel lines, on a reconnaissance. 

Here fell on the field of battle a beau ideal of an American soldier. 
General Philip Kearny, though not a native of Middlesex county, was 
descended from a family that was connected with its history in the 
eighteenth century. It was in 1716 that Michael Kearny, then residing 
in Monmouth county, purchased a lot of ground in Perth Amboy and 
soon after removed thither. He was originally from Ireland, and before 
coming to Perth Amboy had married for his second wife, Sarah, daughter 


of Lewis Morris, governor of the province of New Jersey. Mr. Kearny 
had not been long a resident of Perth Amboy when various offices were 
bestowed upon him. He was secretary of the province, surrogate, clerk 
of the Assembly, also of the Court of Common Pleas. His eldest son, 
Philip, was eminent as a lawyer, and married (first) Lady Barney 
Dexter, whose maiden name was Ravaud ; the issue of this marriage was 
Philip, Elizabeth, Susannah and Ravaud. The eldest Philip resided for 
many years at Perth Amboy, but finally removed to Newark, locating 
on what was known as the Kearny homestead. There he lived until 
his death, and his son Philip, who married Susan Watts, succeeded to 
his father's estate. These were the parents of General Philip Kearny, 
who was born in New York City, June 2, 1815, while his mother was 
there visiting relatives. Graduating from Columbia College in 1833, 
young Kearny visited Europe, and while there was especially impressed 
by the manoeuvering of the armies. Returning to New York, he studied 
law, but by the death of his grandfather, John Watts, in 1836, he inherited 
$1,000,000. He then turned his attention to army life, and was commis- 
sioned second lieutenant in the First United States Dragoons. He 
served through the war with Mexico, and lost his left arm at the battle 
of Cherubusco, being brevetted major for his gallantry. After the close 
of the war he built on his property, "Belle Grove," on the Passaic, a 
French chateau, and on the broad acres of the old homestead exercised 
his horses, which he had imported from Europe. At the outbreak of 
the Civil War, after oiTering his services to the United States and his 
native State without success, he aided in the organization of the First 
New Jersey Brigade. He was commissioned brigadier-general, and it 
was through his superb soldierly qualities and masterly drill that the 
First Brigade came to be noted for its wonderful efficiency and esprit 
de corps. 

The weary and footsore soldiers of the First Regiment were not 
yet to find rest. General McClellan was again in supreme command, and 
the regiment was moved towards South Mountain, taking part in the 
battle of Crampton Pass, Maryland, where three brigades of the rebels 
under General Howell Cobb were advantageously posted. After a short 
but severe engagement, the rebels were routed, the First Regiment 
sufifering a loss of seven killed and thirty-four wounded. The battle of 
Antietam followed in three days, and though this was one of the blood- 
iest and costliest of the war, the First Regiment was not actually 
engaged, it being stationed in a woods for forty-two hours, six of which 
they were exposed to a severe artillery fire. Lee with his bleeding 
columns, leaving his dead on the field of battle, crossed the Potomac, 
effecting a lodgment in Virginia and leisurely retreating down the Val- 
ley, awaiting the development of McClellan's programme. 

The First Regiment remained in Maryland until October 2, when 
it crossed the Potomac to participate in the movement against Freder- 


icksburg. The regiment was formed in line of battle and was also 
engaged in picket duty. The battle of Fredericksburg terminated the 
campaign of 1862, and the First Regiment went into winter quarters 
near Falmouth, Virginia, where it rested for four months in comparative 

In the spring of 1863, General McClellan was succeeded in the com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac by General Joseph Hooker. The 
latter, determined upon a movement against the enemy, crossed with 
the bulk of his forces the rivers Rappahannock and Rapidan, and took 
position at Chancellorsville. The First Brigade, now a part of the 
Sixth Corps, crossed the Rappahannock three miles below Fredericks- 
burg on the morning of April 29, 1853. On the evening of May 2nd, the 
First Regiment attacked and drove in the enemy's pickets, holding the 
ground thus obtained. The regiment moving rapidly through Freder- 
icksburg, proceeded some three miles in the direction of Chancellorsville, 
where it formed in line of battle and advanced until Salem Church was 
reached. Here the enemy was strongly posted, and the veterans of 
Longstreet stood resolutely at bay. Though the First Brigade did not 
write a new victory on its banners, it proved itself once more worthy to 
march and fight in the van of the battle-beaten Army of the Potomac. 
The regiment remained on the field during the whole of the following 
day, but was not engaged except as a support to batteries. On the 
night of the 4th the entire army withdrew, the First Regiment proceed- 
ing by slow marches to its old camping grounds. The First Regiment 
loss at the battle of Chancellorsville was 7 killed, 71 wounded, and 27 

General Lee having defeated Hooker's movement against Richmond, 
determined upon an offensive campaign, and early in June again crossed 
the Potomac, taking position on free soil. General Meade having suc- 
ceeded General Hooker, came up with the advance of the enemy at 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The First Regiment, prior to this movement, 
had participated in various aimless marches in Virginia. The regiment 
crossed the Potomac at Edward's Ferry on the afternoon of June 27 
and marched rapidly forward to Manchester, where it arrived July i. 
The following day, by a forced march of thirty-six miles, it reached 
Gettysburg, and at once was sent into position on the left of the line. 
The fighting being mainly on the right and center, the First did not 
become engaged on the decisive day of the battle except on the picket 
line. After the defeat of the enemy, the regiment on July 19 crossed the 
Potomac, went into camp near Warrentown, and on September 15 
removed to Culpeper Court House. During the month of October it 
participated in movements along the Rappahannock, but subsequently 
went into camp at Warrentown, whence it removed to Rappahannock 
Station, and early in December to near Brandy Station, where it remained 
in winter quarters until late in April, 1864. 


On May a, 1864, having fully matured his plans, General Grant, who 
was in supreme command, set all his columns in motion. The First 
Regiment as a unit in these decisive attacks on the enemy which were 
terminated by Lee's surrender at Appomattox, valiantly performed its 
part. It was present at all the important engagements with the enemy 
on the Peninsula in Virginia and in the Shenandoah Valley. It took 
part in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Spottsylvania Court 
House; North and South Anna River, Hanover Court House, Tolopo- 
tomy Creek. Cold Harbor, before Petersburg, Snicker's Gap, Strasburg, 
Winchester, Charlestown, Opequan, Fisher's Hill, New Market, Mount 
Jackson, Cedar Creek and Middletown, Hatcher's Run, Fort Stedman, 
capture of Petersburg, Sailor's Creek, Farmville, and Lee's surrender 
at Appomattox. 

On May 24, 1865, the regiment marched through Richmond on its 
way northward. It encamped four miles from Georgetown, D. C, on 
June 2, and after a short time the regiment was mustered out of service 
and proceeded to Trenton, New Jersey, where it was dissolved and 
ceased to exist. 

Ninth Regiment — The Ninth Regiment was raised under authoriza- 
tion from the War Department to recruit a regiment of riflemen. Com- 
panies A and B were from Middlesex county. The recruiting for the 
regiment was begun in September, 1861, and the first muster was made 
at Camp Olden, Trenton, on October 5. The regiment was soon filled 
to the maximum, and remained in camp until December 4, when it pro- 
ceeded to Washington. It was armed with Springfield rifles, and was 
more fully equipped than any regiment which up to that time had left 
the State. The regiment went into camp on the Bladensburg turnpike, 
where it remained until January 4, 1862, when it proceeded to Annapolis 
to become a portion of Burnside's expedition to North Carolina. It was 
assigned to the brigade of General Jesse L. Reno, and embarked for 
Fortress Monroe, January 10. Arriving at its destination, sail was made 
for some point southward. On February 6 all the vessels arrived off 
Roanoke Island, which separates the Pamlico and Albemarle sounds, 
and where the Confederates were in force with entrenchments, batteries 
and gunboats. The fleet steamed directly up Pamlico Sound led by a 
dozen gunboats under the command of Commodore Goldsborough. The 
Ninth Regiment as part of Reno's command was placed in the second 
line of attack, and remained inactive about a half a mile from the scene 
of hostilities. The order for advance was soon given, and the regiment 
entered the swamp and up to hips in water advanced to within one 
hundred yards of the enemy's fort. Here a vigorous fire was opened on 
the enemy, which was responded to by the batteries pouring a storm of 
shot and shell into the regiment. The rebel guns were, however, 
silenced by the sharpshooters picking ofif their cannoneers. The Con- 


federates retreated about 11 o'clock. The conduct of the Ninth was 
highly courageous, the enemy admitting after the battle that they did 
not suppose a body of troops could operate in the swamp, as this opera- 
tion on the rebel flank made it possible to secure the great success of 
the day. By order of General Burnside, "Roanoke Island, Feb- 
urary 8, 1862," was emblazoned on the Ninth's banners in compliment 
for their gallantry on that day. The Ninth lost in the battle, 9 killed and 
25 wounded. The capture of Roanoke Island gained the key to all the 
inland waters of North Carolina, thus interrupting communications 
which at that time were essential to the enemy. 

The Ninth remained on the Island until early in March; on the nth 
of that month it sailed down the sound to Hatteras Inlet to participate 
in an attack on Newberne. In the line of battle before that city, the 
Ninth occupied the extreme left. Discovering a movement on his left 
flank. Colonel Heckman, in command of the regiment, reversed his 
left wing in time to repel a fierce attack of the enemy, the regiment then 
resumed a direct attack, silencing the Confederates' artillery by their 
sharpshooters. The Federal troops had made several charges, and on 
the solicitation of Colonel Heckman, General Reno ordered the Ninth to 
make a charge. Dashing eagerly forward, leaping from ditch to ditch, 
wading knee-deep in mire, rushing over pitfalls through almost impene- 
trable abattis, the irresistible assailants swept up to the earthworks, 
climbed the blood-stained slippery sides and captured the whole line 
of fortifications in their front, with six guns. The flags of the Ninth 
waved from two of the enemy's redans, while the right guidon floated 
from a third. Soon the entire division took complete possession of the 
Confederate works mounting some sixty-nine cannons. The river bat- 
teries in the rear were evacuated, thus leaving the land and water 
approaches to Newberne open, all that remained being to march in and 
take possession. The Ninth camped at the junction of the Trent and 
Neuse rivers about four miles from the captured fortifications, remaining 
until April i, when it proceeded to Newport Barracks, where its head- 
quarters remained during the siege of Fort Macon. On July 26, six 
companies of the regiment took part in an expedition to Young's Cross 
Roads. The next three months were spent in reconnoitering and guer- 
illa warfare. The regiment on October 30, 1862, joined General Foster's 
expedition against Tarborough, while two brigades were transported 
by water to Washington, and the third, which included the Ninth, 
marched overland. It was on the morning of November 2 the column 
was first attacked by rebel rangers, and after marching some nineteen 
miles it became evident that an engagement was imminent. Two Massa- 
chusetts regiments having been forced to retire, the Ninth was ordered 
to the rescue. Running through the ranks of the Massachusetts regi- 
ments, the Ninth dashed past the fort of the enemy, halting upon a 


high clay bank beyond the swamp. Here parties were detailed to find 
convenient fords, but on receiving a report that the river could be 
crossed by infantry, Colonel Heckman placed a battery in position to 
open fire with canister on the enemy, then ordered the Ninth to cross 
over the burning bridge into the works of the Confederates. The latter 
fled precipitately, leaving considerable property behind. Few achieve- 
ments of the North Carolina campaign were more gallant than this 
passage of a burning bridge, and the rout of the enemy strongly posted, 
by a single regiment. The expedition moved forward in the direction 
of Tarborough, but learning that the enemy had been reinforced, it 
was determined to return, the Ninth reaching Newport on November 12. 

In accordance with an order from the War Department dated Novem- 
ber 18, 1862, the regiment was reduced from twelve to ten companies, A 
and L being disbanded, and the enlisted men transferred to other com- 
panies of the regiment. Company M was designated as Company A. 
In December, 1862, the regiment took part in Colonel Heckman's expe- 
dition to destroy railroad junctions in North Carolina, in which it took 
part in engagements with rebel forces at Deep Creek, Southwest Creek, 
before Kinston, Whitehall and Goldsborough. On December 24, a 
beautiful stand of colors costing seven hundred dollars, was presented 
to the Ninth by the Legislature of New Jersey. 

The year 1863 opened with the Ninth in camp in North Carolina, a 
part of what was known as "The Star Brigade." In the early part of that 
year it took part in several minor expeditions, but for the greater part 
of the time was in camp at Morehead City. In July, 1863, an expedition 
was undertaken into the interior of North Carolina, and the Ninth took 
part in an engagement near Winton in that State. Many of the Ninth 
being sick with chills and fever, the regiment was ordered to Carolina 
City, where it remained unemployed for a month and a half. On October 
18, 1863, the regiment broke camp and proceeded to Newport News, 
Virginia, where it remained during the remainder of the year. 

The term for which the Ninth had volunteered having in the early 
part of 1864 nearly expired, two-thirds of the regiment immediately 
reenlisted for three years in the war, being designated "Veteran Volun- 
teers." This number entitled them to a veteran furlough, and on Febru- 
ary 2, 1864, they sailed for Jersey City, thence proceeding to Trenton, 
where their arms were stored and the men scattered for their homes. 
The portion of the regiment that did not reenlist, in a reconnaisance at 
Deep Creek, Virginia, fell in with a body of rebels who compelled them 
to retreat. 

The gallant Ninth, strengthened by a number of recruits, once more 
set its face towards the battlefields. Reaching Portsmouth, Virginia, 
March 17, 1864, it proceeded to Getty's Station, where it reunited with 
General Heckman's command. This command sailed up Chuckatuck 


river, landing April 15 at Cherry Grove, where the enemy w^ere met 
and engaged by several companies of the Ninth, The command return- 
ing to their camp at Getty's Station, was transferred to Yorktown, 
finally sailing to Fortress Monroe. The Ninth disembarked at Bermuda 
Hundred, on the south side of James river, being the first to land. 
Bivouacking about two miles from the river on the morning of May 
6, the division moved forward, the Ninth as usual having the post of 
honor and of danger. Moving steadily forward, the regiment at noon 
came within sight of Petersburg, and advanced steadily to Port Wal- 
thall Junction, where the enemy were strongly posted. Here it met a 
superior force of the enemy and after two hours' fighting was obliged 
to retire ; the Ninth losing four killed and 30 wounded. The following 
day the regiment was engaged in fighting, but it was less severe than 
the preceding day. The morning of the 9th an advance was made 
southward to Swift Creek, three miles from Petersburg. The enemy 
was driven two or three miles with heavy loss, the Unionist soldiers 
tearing up the railroad track between Petersburg and Richmond. Both 
armies held during the night the ground occupied during the day. The 
loss of the Ninth was one man killed and nine wounded. The Ninth 
was not again engaged until the 12th, when the whole army again 
advanced, encountering the enemy on the Richmond and Petersburg 
turnpike. Night closed active operations, both armies resting on their 
arms, skirmishing was resumed at daylight, the enemy being gradually 
driven at all points of the line. The morning of the 14th the artillery 
opened vigorously upon the enemy. Companies D and G of the Ninth 
were deployed as skirmishers and compelled the enemy to fall back to 
their fortifications During the 15th while a sharp musketry fire was kept 
up all day, no general demonstration was made. The extreme right of 
Heckman's command was held by the Ninth. The commanding general 
had repeatedly asked for reinforcements which had been denied him. At 
midnight the rebels moved out of their works strongly massed, and 
rushed just before daylight upon the pickets ; they were forced back, but 
the i6th was to be a sad day for the "Star Brigade." Under cover of a 
dense fog, five picked brigades in columns debouched, left the rebel 
fortifications, drove in the Union pickets, and pressed forward on a 
run for the main line. Though they were repulsed, the rebels executed 
a flank movement on the extreme right, and the Ninth, defending that 
position, having no artillery and being greatly outnumbered, was 
obliged to give way. The Ninth lost heavily in this battle, which is 
named in the reports as Drury's Bluflf, one hundred and fifty being killed 
and wounded. The regiment at the commencement of the engagement 
had nineteen officers, thirteen of whom were killed and wounded and 
three taken prisoners. Among their dead officers was their commander, 
Colonel Abram Zabriskie. During the next week the Ninth was more or 


less coii'^tantly engaged in skirmishing, severe fighting at times, and on 
being ordered to Cold Harbor on June 3, became engaged with the 
enemy. While the fighting was continued along the whole line the 
following day the Ninth was not engaged. On the 12th General Smith's- 
army withdrawing from its position, the Ninth covered his rear and 
marched directly to White House, where it embarked and sailed to Ber- 
muda Hundred. The total loss of the regiment during the operations 
at Cold Harbor was five killed and thirty wounded. 

After reaching Bermuda Hundred, nine companies of the Ninth, with 
a part of the Twenty-third Massachusetts, were with other troops united 
under the title of Provisional Brigade, and attached temporarily to the 
Tenth Corps ; with this organization the Ninth took part in the move- 
ments before Petersburg, Virginia, fighting forty days in the rifle pits. 

The fighting of the Ninth in Virginia was ended, and on September 
17 it proceeded to Bermuda Hundred, embarked for North Carolina, 
reaching Morehead City and proceeded to its old camp at Caroline 
City. On October 21, one hundred and eight men whose terms of serv- 
ice had expired, left the camp for Trenton, New Jersey, to be mustered 
out. The Ninth remained in North Carolina until the close of hostilities, 
taking part in several engagements — Gardiner's Bridge, Foster's Bridge, 
Butler's Bridge, Southwest Creek, Wise's Fork, and Goldsborough. 

The Ninth during its term of service participated in forty-two battles 
and engagements. Entering the service with 1,042 men and at various 
times strengthened by recruits, the mean strength of the regiment when 
mustered out was only six hundred. The regiment as an organization 
was mustered out of the United States service at Greensborough, North 
Carolina, July 12, 1865, and proceeded by rail to Danville, Virginia. On 
the 15th it embarked at City Point for Baltimore, reaching Trenton the 
following day, where it was furloughed until the 28th when the final 
discharge papers were issued, and on the day following the Ninth Regi- 
ment, after nearly four years of service, ceased to exist. 

Fourteenth Regiment — The Fourteenth Regiment was mustered into 
the service of the United States, August 25, 1862, leaving Freehold for 
the seat of war, nine hundred and fifty strong, September 2, 1862. The 
regiment was composed of excellent material. Companies D, H. I and K 
were largely from Middlesex county ; there were also a number in Com- 
panies C and E who were citizens of the county. Reaching Baltimore, 
the regiment was dispatched to guard Monocacy Bridge. Receiving 
advice of the advance of General Lee into Maryland, the regiment was 
transferred to Elysville. The Confederates burned the bridge crossing 
the Monocacy, and the Fourteenth was ordered to rebuild it. Here for 
nine months the regiment remained inactive ; owing to poor rations 
during the winter, a great deal of sickness ])revailed, seventy-five deaths 
occurring. This period of inactivity came to an end after the battle of 


Chancellorsville, when the Fourteenth was ordered to Harper's Ferry 
and took position on Maryland Heights. Here it remained two weeks, 
when General Meade assumed command of the Army of the Potomac 
and ordered the position abandoned. The regiment then marched to 
the relief of the Union army at Gettysburg, but did not join the main 
army until July 9, and on the afternoon of the 17th crossed the Potomac 
at Edward's Ferry, going into camp at Bealton Station. The Fourteenth 
at this time numbered eight hundred men, and for five weeks camped 
along the Rappahannock. 

The regiment still was located in Virginia, and on October 30 was 
engaged in its first active engagement, at Locust Grove, where it suf- 
fered a loss of 16 killed and 58 wounded. The enemy retiring on the 
approach of night, General Meade ordered a withdrawal across the 
Rapidan, and on December 4 the regiment went into winter quarters at 
Brandy Station. At this time the regiment had fit for duty six hundred 
men. The monotony of the winter quarters was not disturbed until 
February 6, when an unsuccessful attempt was made to cross the Rapi- 
dan river. General Grant having been placed in command of the Army 
of the Potomac, orders were issued May 3, 1864, for a forward movement 
against the enemy now concentrated in the Wilderness. Here the Four- 
teenth was engaged for several hours, fighting valiantly and losing 
heavily. On the second day the enemy retired, and Grant advanced his 
columns, concentrating around Spottsylvania Court House, and late in 
the afternoon the Fourteenth again went into action. The six days fol- 
lowing were occupied in manoeuvering and skirmishing; on the night 
of the 21 St General Grant commenced a flanking advance to the North 
Anna, the Fourteenth crossing at Jericho Ford, thence, with the other 
regiments of the brigade, it proceeded to Nole's Station and destroyed the 
Virginia Central railroad for a distance of eight miles. During Grant's 
retrograde movement north of the Chickahominy, the Fourteenth was on 
the skirmish line. The army resumed its advance on the morning <bf 
June I ; after marching fifteen miles the enemy's position at Cold Harbor 
was reached, the Fourteenth being in front. Here a terrific battle ensued, 
the Fourteenth losing in two hours 240 killed and wounded. In the 
second day's fight the Fourteenth also took a part, losing several 
men. Grant having arrived at the conclusion that General Lee's position 
was impregnable, wisely decided to pass the Chickahominy far to Lee's 
right ; thence move across the James river, to advance against Richmond 
from the south. The Fourteenth was carried by transports to Bermuda 
Hundred, where it was united with Butler's army, then investing Peters- 
burg. It was engaged on the Weldon railroad in tearing up tracks, when 
a large force of the enemy appeared, and in an action that followed the 
regiment lost forty men in killed and prisoners. 

General Early's successful raid in the Shenandoah region caused 
General Grant to transfer the Third Division of the Sixth Corps from 


the front of Petersburg to that seat of war. The Fourteenth was the 
first regiment to reach Monocacy. Here on July 9, dispositions were 
made for battle, the Fourteenth being on the extreme left. The Con- 
federates enveloping the Union lines, forced them to retreat ; the Four- 
teenth in this engagement suffered severely. Every line officer with the 
exception of Captain J. J. Janeway, of Company K, was either killed or 
wounded, but happily the regiment extricated itself from its peril and 
at last found safety six miles distant, at New Market. The whole num- 
ber of the casualties in the Fourteenth was 10 killed, 69 wounded, and 
five missing. Of the 950 men that left New Jersey, but ninety-five were 
left for duty on the night of July 8, 1864, without an officer to command 
them. Captain Janeway received a wound after taking command that 
obliged him to leave the battle field. 

This engagement, while disastrous to the Union forces, is believed 
by historians of the war to have retarded the Confederate's advance on 
Washington. The delay thus occasioned enabled divisions of the Union 
army to reach the capital before General Early was enabled to accom- 
plish the object of his expedition. The regiment remained at Ellicott's 
Mills until the nth, when it proceeded by rail to Baltimore to join in the 
pursuit of Early, who was now retreating. On the 15th it crossed the 
Potomac at Edward's Ferry, pushed through Leesburg and Snicker's 
Gap, eventually reaching Harper's Ferry to take part in Sheridan's cam- 
paign in the Shenandoah Valley. This expedition moved against the 
enemy August 10, 1864, but no general action took place until August 19, 
when the enemy was attacked at Opequan Creek. The Fourteenth by the 
means of recruits had augmented its numbers to three hundred men ; 
their loss in this engagement was 7 killed, 62 wounded, and one missing. 
Its greatest loss, however, was Major Vredenburg, who while at the head 
of his regiment, ordering a charge upon a rebel battery, was struck by 
a shell and instantly killed. The following morning. Early having taken 
position at Fisher's Hill, Sheridan crossed Cedar Creek, and on the 22nd 
gave battle, which lasted three hours, the casualties of the Fourteenth 
being ten killed and thirty wounded. 

The great battle of the campaign was yet to be fought, that of Cedar 
Creek. Sheridan had gone to Washington on business, and the wily 
Early on October 18 moved his entire army across the mountains sepa- 
rating the branches of the Shenandoah. Under cover of fog and dark- 
ness, the Eighth Corps was attacked on both flanks, the enemy capturing 
twelve hundred prisoners, twenty-four guns, and much camp equipage. 
The Eighth, aroused from its morning slumbers, was unable to make any 
great resistance. The Sixth Corps, of which the Fourteenth Regiment 
was a member, had more opportunity to rally, and held the rebels in check 
for a time. A general retreat was ordered ; the Union forces fell back 
five miles and reformed their line of battle. Then Sheridan appeared 


on the scene, having made his famous ride from Winchester. Riding 
along the lines, he inspired the men by speaking to them, stimulating 
them to new endeavors, and prepared them for a fresh encounter, saying 
as last w^ords to them the effective sentence, "We are going to lick 
them out of their boots." The soldiers, with these words ringing in their 
ears, assumed the ofifensive. After considerable manoeuvering, a charge 
was ordered, the enemy was driven back, the trains, artillery and other 
trophies recaptured, defeat converted into victory, by the inspiring 
spirit of Sheridan. The Fourteenth Regiment, which took an active 
part, lost heavily. It remained in the vicinity of Winchester until 
December 3, when it proceeded to Washington, thence by transports 
to City Point, whence it advanced and occupied a position on the Wel- 
don railroad. Here the regiment was reorganized, having received 
recruits to the number of two hundred, and remained in winter quarters 
until late in March, when orders were received to join the armies operat- 
ing against Richmond. 

In the last grand advance of the Army of the Potomac, the Four- 
teenth Regiment, as usual, was in the advance. It participated in the 
engagement at Hatcher's Run, the assault on Fort Stedman, which 
resulted in the speedy downfall of Petersburg, and the surrender of 
Lee at Appomattox. The Fourteenth, now reduced to one hundred 
men, proceeded to Barksdale, where it remained in camp until April 
24, when it moved to Danville to take part in General Sherman's opera- 
tions against General Johnston. Almost simultaneously news was 
received of Johnston's surrender, and the war was ended. The regiment 
remained at Danville until May 16 when it proceeded by rail to Rich- 
mond, whence it marched to Washington, and on June 8 was reviewed in 
that city. It was formally mustered out of service June 19, proceeded 
to Trenton the following day, and on the 29th received final payment. 
The men who had shared so many perils together for nearly three years 
exchanged farewells, and separated to again join the old familiar paths 
of peace. 

Ttventy-eighth Regiment — The Twenty-eighth Regiment was recruited 
in Middlesex, Monmouth, Ocean, Camden and Gloucester counties, and 
mustered into the United States service for nine months. The regiment 
might be rightly named "Middlesex's Own," as of its ten companies 
Company A was recruited in Middlesex and Monmouth counties, while 
Companies B, C, D, F, I and K were raised wholly in Middlesex county. 

The Twenty-eighth was mustered into service at Freehold, Septem- 
ber 22, 1862, nine hundred and forty strong. The regiment reached 
Washington on the night of October 5, encamped on Capitol Hill, and 
was furnished a few days afterwards with Springfield muskets. On the 
13th the regiment marched into Virginia, where after several different 
camping stations it finally on December 8 proceeded to Falmouth. Here 
it was attached to the First Brigade, Third Division, Second Army Corps. 


The plans for a demonstration against Fredericksburg having been 
matured, the Twenty-eighth crossed the Rappahannock river, marched 
into position, and about ten o'clock in the morning of October 12 was 
ordered into line and at once advanced upon the enemy. The advance 
was made in the face of a murderous fire, the ranks of the regiment being 
terribly thinned, not less than one-fifth of the regiment having been 
wounded or killed. Still, however, the command stood firm, deliberately 
opening fire upon the enemy from the shelter of a ravine, holding their 
position tenaciously until night put an end to the conflict. Darkness 
coming on, the Twenty-eighth withdrew to the town, leaving on the 
field nearly two hundred of the six hundred who had advanced in the 
morning. From first to last the men fought with the same heroism, the 
same cool determination, as the veteran troops around them. 

The regiment remained in camp until April 28, when Hooker's move- 
ment against the enem}- having commenced, it marched to United States 
Ford, where it was detailed for picket service. Two days later it led the 
advance in crossing the river, and pushed forward immediately to the 
Chancellor House. The regiment formed in line of battle May 2, but was 
not engaged until the following day, when it was detached from the 
brigade and posted in a woods some three or four hundred yards distant. 
A reconnaisance was made, and it was discovered that the regiment was 
close upon the rebel line. The enemy suddenly made an attack in great 
force on the front and right flank of the regiment, causing the line to 
give way. The Twenty-eighth, though vastly outnumbered, behaved 
with characteristic gallantry, delivered a vigorous fire, and retired to its 
position with the brigade. The loss of the regiment in this action w^as 
some thirty killed, wounded and missing. During the 4th and 5th the 
regiment remained in line of battle but was not engaged, the fighting 
having shifted to another part of the line. On the 6th the regiment 
withdrew from its position and returned with the army to the camp near 
Falmouth. Here it remained until June 14 when Lee having started 
towards the Upper Potomac, Hooker's army moved in pursuit, the 
Twenty-eighth marching by way of Stafford Court House and Dumfries 
to Fairfax Station. Here, its term of service having expired, it was 
diverted from the route pursued by the army and proceeded to Wash- 
ington, thence it was sent to Freehold, and on July 6, 1863, was mustered 
out of service. 

Thus has been briefly sketched the part that Middlesex county took in 
the war between the States. Many of her citizens were connected with 
other regimental organizations. A number were members of Companies 
A, B and H of the Sixteenth Regiment, better known as the First Regi- 
ment of Cavalry, which was authorized by an order given by President 
Lincoln, August 4, 1861, to William Halsted, to raise a regiment of volun- 
teer cavalry in the State of New Jersey. 





Non-Commissioned Staff. — Provost, Wil- 
liam S., sergt. Co. G, May 18, 1861 ; 
sergt.-maj. Sept. 21, 1861 ; pro. to 2d 
lieut. Co. K, nth Regt., July 15, 1862; 
pro. to 1st lieut. Co. B, May 4, 1863; 
disch. Oct. 9, 1863, dis. 

Company A. — Dunham, Samuel H., ist 
sergt. May 16, 1861 ; disch. at Gen. 

Hosp., Fairfax Sem., Va., July 9. 1862, 

Crossan, Cornelius, recruit, Aug. 13, 1861 ; 

disch. at Camp Banks, Va., Jan. 22, 1863, 


Company B. — Kelly, Edward, private, 
April 25, 1861 ; re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863 ; 
served in Co. A, ist Batt. ; must, out 
July 20, 1865. 

O'Brien, Michael, private, April 25, 1861 ; 
must. out. July 22, 1864. 

Wickoff, Peter, private, April 25, 1861 ; 
killed in action at Manassas, Va., Aug. 
27, 1862. 

Williamson, William H., private, April 25, 
1S61 ; taken prisoner at Wilderness, 
May 6, 1864; died of scurvy at Ander- 
son ville, Ga., Nov. 26, 1864; buried at 
Nat. Cem., Andersonville. 

Whitlock, George W. H., private, June 15, 
1861 ; must, out June 2^, 1864. 

Company C. — Roberts, Edward F., sergt.. 

May 22, 1861 ; ist sergt. June 8, 1861 ; 

1st lieut. July 2, 1862; pro. capt. Co. H, 

Nov. 4, 1862 ; must, out June 2:^, 1864. 
Phelan, Thomas C, sergt., May 22, 1861 ; 

1st sergt. Aug. 4, 1862; 2d lieut. Oct. 7, 

1862; resigned Feb. 12, 1863. 
Smith, J. Kearney, corp., May 22, 1861 ; 

sergt. June 7, 1861 pro. adjt. 27th Regt. 

Oct. 9, 1862; pro. capt. Co. K, Nov. 11, 

1862; res. Dec. 22, 1862; bvt. maj. U. S. 

Vols. March 13, 1865. 
Stumpf, Philip, Corp., May 22, 1861 ; 

sergt. Sept. 26, 1861 ; ist sergt. Jan. 10, 

1863; must, out June 22, 1864. 
Benton, William H., ist sergt.. May 22, 

1861 ; disch. at Camp Sem., Va., Sept. 

19, 1861, dis. 
Faller, John, corp., May 22, 1861 ; killed 

in action at Gaines' Farm, Va., June 27, 

Hallman, Henry, corp.. May 22, 1861 ; 

sergt. Aug. 6, 1862; killed in action at 

Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. 
Magnice, Patrick, corp., Jan. 16, 1862; 

sergt. July 7, 1862; disch. at U. S. Army 

Hosp., Phila., by order War Dept., Oct. 

II, 1864. 
Carrigan, Thomas, private, May 22, 1861 ; 

corp. July 2, 1862; paroled prisoner; 

disch. May 10, 1865. 

Cody, Martin, private, May 22, 1861 ; de- 
serted at camp near Belle Plain, Va., 
Dec. 10, 1862. 

Conover, Thomas, private. May 22, 1861 ; 
corp. April 2, 1862; killed in action at 
Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 12, 1864. 

Cox, James, private. May 22, 1861 ; killed 
in action at Crampton's Pass, Md., Sept. 
_ 14, 1862. 

Cheesman, George, private. May 22, 1861 ; 
deserted July 27, 1861, at Camp Prince- 
ton, Va. 

Dilling, Henry, private, May 22, 1861 ; 
trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Nov. 15, 1863 ; 
disch. therefrom April 27, 1864. 

Disbrow, William H. H., private, May 22, 
1862; deserted July 27, 1861, at Camp 
Princeton, Va. 

Foster, John, recruit, Oct. 13, 1861 ; de- 
serted April 17, 1862; returned to duty; 
sentenced by G. C. M. to make good 
time lost; served in Co. A, ist Batt.; 
must, out June 29, 1865. 

Guinot, Jean F., private, May 22, 1861 ; 
deserted Tan. 20, 1863, at camp near 
White Oak Church, Va. 

Hamilton, William, private. May 22, 1861 ; 
died at field hosp., May 6, 1864, of 
wounds received in action at Wilder- 
ness, Va. 

Hamilton, Archy, private, May 22, 1861 ; 
must, out June 22,, 1864. 

Lott, Thomas, private, May 22, 1861 ; 
must, out June 22, 1864. 

Mullin, Patrick, private, May 22, 1861 ; 
deserted Sept. 20, 1862, near Williams- 
port, Md. 

Miller, Henry, private, May 22, 1861 ; 
must, out June 22, 1864. 

Noe, Adam, private, May 22, 1861 ; de- 
serted July 9, 1863, at Emmittsburg, Md. 

O'Neil, John, private, May 22, 1861 ; died 
of typhoid fever, etc., at hospital near 
Mechanicsville, Va., June 15, 1862. 

Perry, John J., corp., May 22, 1861 ; killed 
in action at Gaines' Farm, Va., June 27, 

Reilley, Michael, private, May 22, 1861 ; 
trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Sept. i, 1863; 
returned to company Jan. 28, 1864 ; corp. 
Dec. 8, 1862; must, out June 23, 1864. 

Roberts, Charles H., corp. May 22, 1861 ; 
died at Master St. Hosp., Philadelphia, 
Sept. 20, 1862, of wounds received in 
action at Gaines' Farm, Va. 

Stafford, Joseph, private. May 22, 1861 ; 
died at U. S. Army Hosp., Baltimore, 
Md., May 23, 1864, of wounds received 
in action at Spottsylvania, Va. 

Stafford, Thomas, private. May 22, 1861 ; 
must, out June 23, 1864. 

Sharbock, William, private, May 22, 1861 ; 



disch. at U. S. Army Gen. Hosp., Phila- 
delphia, Oct. 22, 1862, dis. 

Tappan, David B., private, May 22, 1861 ; 
killed in action at Salem Heights, Va., 
May 3. 1862. 

Welsh, Dennis, private. May 22. 1861 ; de- 
serted at camp near Belle Plain, Va., 
Dec. 10. 1862. 

Winchester, Perley F.. Corp., May 22, 
1861 ; missing in action at Salem 
Heights, Va., May 3, 1863; supposed 

Wittenburg. Bustav. private. May 22, 1861 ; 
must, out June 23, 1864. 

Company E. — Ailt, Joseph, private. May 
23, 1861 ; disch. at U. S. Army Gen. 
Hosp., Newark, N. J., Oct. 7, 1862, dis. 

Casney, James H.. private, May 23, 1861 ; 
deserted April 18, 1863; re-enl. Dec. 28, 
1863; served in Co. A, 1st Batt. 

Rosser, Warren, recruit, Aug. 28, 1862; 
trans, to navy April 18, 1864. 

Company F. — Elkin, Isaac L,. F., ist sergt.. 
May 25, 1861 ; 2d lieut. vice Voorhees, 
resigned, Sept. 21, 1861 ; pro. to ist lieut. 
Co. H, Oct. 7, 1862; trans, to Co. D, 
March 14. 1863 ; pro. to adjt. Sept. 20, 
1863 ; disch. as a paroled prisoner March 
12, 1865. 

Blue, Albert L., sergt., May 25, 1861 ; ist 
sergt. Sept. 21, 1861 ; 2d lieut Oct. 7, 
1862; pro. 1st lieut., Co. I, Dec. 25, 
1862; must, out June 23, 1864. 

DeHart, James W., sergt., May 25, 1861 ; 
1st sergt. Nov. i, 1861 ; must, out June 
22,. 1864. 

Smith, George, sergt, May 25, 1861 ; must, 
out June 23, 1864. 

Taylor, George W., sergt.. May 18, 1861 ; 
disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Philadel- 
phia, June 26. 1862, dis. 

Croken, John H., ist corp.. May 18, 1861 ; 
1st sergt. Dec. 8, 1862; deserted March 
I, 1863, while on furlough. 

McElhaney, Thomas, corp.. May 25, 1861 ; 
sergt. Aug. i, 1863; re-enl. Dec. 28, 
1863; served in Co. B, ist Batt.; must, 
out June 29, 1865. 

Garrigan, Miles, corp.. May 18, 1861 ; 
sergt. Nov. i, 1862; killed in action at 
Fredericksburg, Va., May 3. 1863. 

Hughes, William S., private. May 25, 1861 ; 
re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863; served in Co. B, 
1st Batt; must, out June 29, 1865. 

Voorhees, Richard B., corp.. May 25, 1861 ; 
private, April 18, 1863; must, out June 
23, 1864. 

Moffett, Benjamin L., corp.. May 25, 1861 ; 
sergt. Sept. i, 1862; 2d lieut. March 10, 
1863 ; killed in action at Wilderness, 
Va.. May 8, 1864. 

Souville, Lloyd A., corp., May 18. 1861 ; 
disch. at U. S. Army Gen. Hosp., Wash- 
ington, D. C, Dec. 13, 1862, dis. 

Page, Enoch, corp.. May 18, 1861 ; disch. at 
U. S. Army Gen. Hosp., Philadelphia, 
Sept. 20, 1862, dis. 
Croken, James A., musician, June 17, 1861 ; 

disch. at Trenton, N. J., July 30, 1864. 
Blake, Price P., wagoner. May 18, 1861 ; 
killed in action at Spottsylvania, Va., 
May 0, 1864 ; buried at Nat. Cem., Fred- 
ericksburg, Va. 
Barry, Richard, private, June 10, 1861 ; 
corp. Nov. I, 1862; died at Fredericks- 
burg, May 6, 1864, of wounds received 
in action there. 
Britton, Edward M., private, May 18, 
186 1 ; Corp. July i, 1863; must, out 
June 23, 1864. 
Burns, James, private, Mav 18, 1861 ; died 
at U. S. A. Hosp., West Philadelphia, 
Aug. 7, 1862, of wounds received in ac- 
tion at Gaines' Farm, Va. 
Burke, Peter, private. May 18, 1861 ; disch. 

Nov. 4, 1862, to join regular army. 
Boyce, Ambrose, private, June 5. 1861 ; 
died July i, 1862, of wounds received 
in action at Gaines' Farm, Va. 
Breese, William H. H., private, May 18, 
1861 ; deserted July 31, 1861, at Camp 
Princeton, Va. 
Cain, Felix V., private, June 10, 1861 ; 
disch. at U. S. Army Gen. Hosp., Balti- 
more. Md., Nov. 6, 1862, dis. 
Currie, Thomas, private. May 18, 1861 ; 
disch. at U. S. Army Gen. Hosp., Ports- 
mouth Grove, R. I., March 5, 1863. dis. 
Cook, Samuel, private, May 18, 1861 ; 
disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp.. Ports- 
mouth Grove, R. I., Jan. 9, 1863, dis. 
Christian, Henry P., private, May 18, 1861 ; 
disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Annapo- 
lis. Md.. Feb. 16, 1863, dis. 
Carroll, Thomas, private. May 18, 1861 ; 
disch. at White Oak Church, Va., Jan. 
3, 1863, dis. 
Cherry, John B., private. May 18, 1861 ; 
disch. at Camp Olden, Trenton, N. J., 
June 20, 1861, dis. 
Churchward, Abraham, private, May 18, 
1861 ; deserted June 10, 1861, at Camp 
Olden, Trenton. 
Dunn, George A., private. May 18. 1861 ; 
taken prisoner at Wilderness, Va., May 
6, 1864; died at Andersonville. Ga., Oct. 
8, 1864; buried there in Nat. Cem. 
Dunn, Patrick, private, June 5, 1861 ; 
trans, to Co. F, 4th Regt., June 4, 1864; 
re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863 ; died at Winches- 
ter, Va., Sept. 20, 1864, of wounds re- 
ceived in action there, buried there. 
Dobson, Alexander, private. May 18, 
1861 ; killed in action at Wilderness, 
Va., May 6, 1864. _ 
Dobson, Henry, private, May 18, 1861 ; 
deserted July 18, 1863, on march to Get- 
tysburg, Pa. 
Dinton, James, recruit. Sept. 25, 1861 ; 
corp. Nov. I, 1862; 1st sergt April 3, 



1863; re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863; com. 2d 
lieut. Co. F. 33d Regt., Dec. i, 1864; 
not mustered; pro. ist lieut. Co. A, ist 
Batt., Feb. 2, 1865; served in Co. C, ist 

Engster, John J., private. June 5, 1861 ; 
disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Philadel- 
phia, Jan. 16. 1863, dis. 

Finnegan, Edward, private, June 10, 1861 ; 
corp. March i, 1863; sergt. Julv i, 1863; 
must, out June 23, 1864. 

Ferguson, Philip, private, May 18, 1861 ; 
deserted July 18, 1863, on march to Get- 
tysburg, Pa. 

Ferguson, Daniel, private, May 18, 1861 ; 
re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863 ; served in Co. C, 
1st Batt.; must, out June 29, 1865. 

Ferry, James, private. May 18, 1861 ; disch. 
at Camp Banks, Va.. Jan. 12, 1863, dis. 

Fank, Charles, private. May 18, 1861 ; 
must, out June 23, 1864. 

Fleming, Christopher, private. May 18, 
1861 ; disch. at Camp Seminarv, Va., 
Feb. 3. 1862, dis. 

Gaisbauer, Charles, private. May 18, 1861 ; 
deserted Oct. 25, 1862, at West Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Gack. Jacob, private. May 18, 1861 ; disch. 
at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., Dec. 27, 
1862, dis. 

Guernsay, Silas, private, May 18, 1861 ; 
re-enl. Feb. 11, 1864; served in Co. B, 
1st Batt. ; must, out June 29, 1865. 

Haggerty, Bernard, private, May 18, 1861 ; 
corp. Sept. I, 1862; sergt. Nov. i, 1862; 
private, Feb. 25, 1864; sergt. March i, 
1864; must, out June 23, 1864. 

Hooker, George W., private, May 18, 
1861 ; sergt. March i, 1863; died "at U. 
S. A. Hosp., Fredericksburg. Va., May 
14, 1864, of wounds received in action 
at Wilderness, Va. 

Henry, Walter M., private. May 18, 1861 ; 
Corp. Nov. I, 1862: trans, to Vet. Res. 
Corps Nov. 15, 1863; disch. therefrom 
May 21, 1864. 

Hazard, John N.. private. May 18, 1861 ; 
corp. Sept. I, 1862; deserted July 16, 
1863 ; returned to duty Feb. 10, 1864 ; 
must, out Dec. 10. 1864. 

Hickey, Thomas, private, May 18. 1861 ; 
must, out June 23, 1864. 

Hoagland, Wyckoff V., private. May 18, 
1861 ; re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863; served in 
Co. C, 1st Batt.; must, out June 29, 

Hutchinson, John H., private. May 18, 
1861 ; corp. May 25. 1861 ; must, out 
June 23, 1864. 

Jackson, Charles C, recruit, Sept. 24, 1863; 
trans, to Co. K ; served in Co. B, 1st 
Batt..; must, out June 29, 1865. 

Kemp, Thomas, private. May 18, 1861 ; 
must, out June 23. 1864. 

Kinney, Daniel, private, May 18, 1861 ; 

Mid— 10 

corp. March i, 1863; must, out June 

23, 1864. 
Klein, John H., private. May 18, 1861 ; 

disch. at Camp Seminary, Va., Feb. 7, 

1862, dis. 
Lester, John H., private, May 18, 1861 ; 

disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., West Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Dec. 24, 1863, on account of 

wounds received in action ; leg ampu- 
Lowry, James, private, May 18, 1861 ; 

re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863 ; served in Co. 

A. 1st Batt.; must, out June 23, 1864. 
McGrath. Morris, private. May 18, 1861 ; 

disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., Newark, Jan. 

20, 1863, dis. 
McDonald, Martin, private, May 18, 1861 ; 

must, out June 23, 1864. 
I^IcGovern, Peter, private. May 18, 1861 ; 

disch. at Alexandria, Va., Jan. 15, 1863, 

Meyers, Julius, private. May 18, 1861 ; 

must, out June 23, 1864. 
INIiller, John, private, May 18, 1861 ; must. 

out. June 23, 1864. 
T\lartin. John, private. May 18, 1861 ; must. 

out June 22, 1864. 
?*Torris, John, private, May 18, 1861 ; killed 

in action at Gaines' Farm, Va., June 27, 

AfcSpaden, James, private, Aug. 13. 1861 ; 

disch. at Camp Seminary, Va., March 

4, 1862, dis. 
O'Connor, John, private, June 5. 1861 ; 

trans, to Mississippi gun-boat "Flotilla" 

Feb. 22, 1862. 
O'Neil, John, private, May 18, 1861 ; must. 

out June 23, 1864. 
Osman, George H., private, May 18, 1861 ; 

disch. at Camp Seminary, Va., Oct. 18, 

1861, dis. 
Plum, Benijah M.. private, May 18. 1861 ; 

disch. at U. S- A. Gen. Hosp., Fortress 

Monroe, Va., Sept. 18, 1862, dis. 
Pixton, Henry A., private. May 18, 1861 ; 

must, out June 23. 1864. 
Page, John D., private, May 18, 1861 ; 

disch. U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Fairfax 

Seminary, Va., Sept. 13, 1862, dis. 
Prall. David B. S., private, June 18, 1861 ; 

died at Richmond, Va., July 5, 1862, of 

wounds received in action at Gaines' 

Farm ; prisoner of war. 
Perdan. Charles A., private. May 18, 1861 ; 

deserted ]\Iay 26. 1861, at Camp Olden, 

Trenton, N. J. 
Ryno, Joseph, private, May 18, 1861 ; 

disch. at Convalescent Camp, Alexan- 
dria, Va., Oct. II, 1862, dis.; sergt. May 

25, 1861. 
Reed, Stephen M., private. May 18, 1861 ; 

re-enl. Feb. 11, 1864; served in Co. B, 

1st Batt.; must, out July 6, 1865. 
Reames, Patrick H., private. May 18, 1861 ; 

must, out June 23, 1864. 



Rhodes, Edward, recruit. May 19, 1864; 
served in Co. B, ist Batt. ; must, out 
June 29, 1865. 

Riker. Joseph L- private, May 18, 1861 ; 
disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., June 2, 1862, dis. 

Rover. Moses H., private, May 18, 1861 ; 
disch. at Camp Seminary, Va., Nov. 4, 
1861, dis. 

Swan, George W., private, May 18, 1861 ; 
disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Dec. II, 1862, dis. 

Stout, William A., private. May 18. 1861 ; 
re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863; served in Co. B, 
isl Batt.; must, out June 29, 1865. 

Smith, Edward W., private. May 18, 1861 ; 
Corp. Oct. 20, 1863; must, out June 23, 

Soden, James D., private, May 18, 1861 ; 
dishonorably disch. Aug. 9, 1863, at 
Warrenton, Va. ; deserted at Camp 
Princeton, July 28, 1861 ; returned to 
duty July 18, 1863. 

Smith, James, private. May 18, 1861 ; 
disch. at Camp Olden, June 18, 1861, dis. 

Ten Broeck, Van Renseler, private, Aug. 
13, 1861 ; Corp. Nov. i, 1862; deserted 
June 28, 1863; returned to duty; disch. 
by order War Dept, May 17, 1865. 

\'an Tillburgh, William, private, May 18, 
1861 ; deserted April 28, 1863; at White 
Oak Church, Va. 

Voorhees, George W., private. May 18, 
1861 ; disch. Dec. 11, 1862, to join regu- 
lar army. 

Welsh, Michael, private. May 18, 1861 ; 
must, out June 23, 1864. 

Welsh, Patrick, private, May 18, 1861 ; 
disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Newark, 
May 14, 1863, dis. 

Welsh, Thomas, private, May 18, 1861 ; 
must, out June 23, 1864. 

Wilson, George, private, June 5. 1861 ; 
died at U. S. A. Hosp., Washington, D. 
C, of wounds received in action at Cold 
Harbor, Va. ; buried at Alexandria. 

Company G. — Gilman, Howard M., 1st 

sergt., May 28, 1861 ; sergt.-maj. July 

20, 1862; 2d lieut. vice Wyckoff, pro. 

Aug. 16, 1862; 1st lieut. Co. E, Nov. 27, 

1862, vice Taylor res.; must, out June 

23, 1864. 
Way, Alexander M., capt.. May 28, 1861 ; 

pro. maj., July 21, 1863; brev. lieut.- 

col. and col. March 13, 1865. 
Meserole, Nicholas W., sergt.. May 23, 

1861 ; disch. at Trenton. Oct. 6, 1862, to 

accept a com. as ist lieut. Co. G, 133d 

Regt. N. J. State Vols. 
Van Liew, Augustus D., corp.. May 28, 

1861 ; sergt. Sept. i, 1862; re-cnl. Dec. 

28, 1863; served in Co. B, ist Batt.; 

disch. at hosp., Newark, by order War 

Dept., Aug. 9, 1865. 
Halstead, Isaac S., private, May 23, 1861 ; 

deserted April 28, 1863, at White Oak 

Clnirch, Va. ; corp. May 28, 1861 ; pri- 
vate April II, 1862. 
Dansbury, William F., corp.. May 23, 1861 ; 

disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., New York 

City, Dec. i, 1862, dis. 
Buzzee, Alexander, private, May 23, 1861 ; 

must, out June 23, 1864. 
Buzzee, George R., musician. May 23, 

1861 ; taken prisoner at Wilderness, 

Va., May 5, 1S64; died at Florence, S. 

C, Dec. 16, 1864. 
.Abrahams, Austin, recruit, Aug. 15, 1861 ; 

served in 4th Regt. ; must, out Aug. 26, 

Buckley, John, private. May 23, 1861 ; 

taken prisoner at Wilderness, Va., May 

6, 1864; died at Andersonville, Ga., June 

27, 1864. 
Bogart, Charles C, private. May 23, 1861 ; 

re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863; trans, to Vet. Res. 

Corps March 25. 1865 ; disch. therefrom 

Oct. 25, 1865. 
Clayton, William H., private. May 23, 

1861 ; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp.. 

Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 16, 1862; re-enl. 

Feb. 26, 1864; disch. March 28, 1864, 

Davis, William L., recruit, Aug. 15, 1861 ; 

disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Jan. 5, 1863, dis. 
Delhanty, John, recruit, Aug. 15, 1861 ; 

re-enl. Dec. 28, 1863 ; served in Co. B, 

1st Batt.; must, out June 29, 1865. 
De Hart, Jacob S., private, May 23, 1861 ; 

must, out June 23, 1864. 
Lawrence, John, recruit, Aug. 15, 1861 ; 

Corp. Jan. i, 1863; disch. at Strasburg, 

Va., Aug. 14, 1864; served in Co. D, 4th 

Lewis, John T., recruit, Aug. 15, 1861 ; 

trans, to Co. G, 4th Regt. ; must, out 

Aug. 20, 1864. 
Lewis, William H., private. May 23, 1861 ; 

must, out June 23, 1864. 
Long, Edward B., private. May 23, 1861 ; 

disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Sept. 29, 1862, dis. 
Minturn, Edward, Jr., private. May 23, 

1861 ; disch. at New Brunswick, N. J., 

Oct., 29, 1862, to accept a promotion. 
Minturn, Benjamin G., private. May 23, 

1861 ; disch. at Belle Plain, Va., Dec. 

18, 1862, to accept com. as ist lieut. Co. 

C, 92d Regt. N. J. State Vols. 
Mesrole, William, private, May 23, 1861 ; 
killed in action at Gaines' Farm, Va., 
June 27, 1862. 
Phillips, Theodore F., sergt.. May 23, 

1861 ; killed in action at Wilderness, 
Va., May 6, 1864; buried at Fredericks- 
burg, Va. 
De Hart, James H., private, May 23. 1861 ; 
Corp. Oct. 2S, 18162; disch. to join the 

Signal Corps U. S. A. 



Price, George W., Jr., private, May 23, 
1861 ; Corp. April 23, 1863; must, out 
June 23, 1864. 

Peacock, John, private, May 23, 1861 ; 
disch. at Trenton, Nov. 2, 1864; paroled 

Rausch, Peter, private. May 23, 1861 ; died 
of typhoid fever at Regt. Hosp., at Har- 
rison's Landing, Va., July 31, 1862. 

Seibert, George, private, May 23, 1861 ; 
disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Jan. 15, 1863; disability. 

Skillman, David, recruit, Aug. 15, 1861 ; 
must, out Aug. 19, 1864. 

Smith, Osceola, private, May 23, i86r ; 
disch. at Fairfax Seminary, Va., Sept. 
6, 1861, disability. 

Vanderbilt, Cornelius, private. May 23, 
1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864. 

Van Duyne, Isaac, private. May 23, 1861 ; 
trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, July i, 1863. 

Van Fleet, Abraham, private. May 2^, 
1861 ; disch. at Convalescent Camp, 
Alexandria, Va., March 16, 1863 ; disa- 

Van Liew, John H., fifer, May 28, 1861 ; 
corp. Dec. 8, 1862; must, out June 23, 


Gulick, William A., sergt.-maj., Sept. 23, 
1861 ; disch. at Newberne, N. C, for 
disability, April 25, 1862. 

Company A. — Grover, Charles, 1st sergt. 
Sept. 17, 1 861 ; 2d lieut. vice Muller, 

must, out; res. Oct. 30, 1864. 
Stillwell, Symmes H., sergt., Sept. 17, 

1861 ; must, out Dec. 8, 1864. 
Applegate, Arunah D., sergt., Sept. 17, 
1861 ; 1st sergt. Jan. 18, 1864; re-enl. 

Jan. 18, 1864; 2d lieut. vice Grover, res.; 

res. May 13, 1865. 
Mount, John G., corp. Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

must, out Sept. 22, 1864. 
Clayton, David C, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

corp. April 24, 1862; sergt. Sept. 6, 

1864; must, out Dec. 8, 1864. 
Messroll, Charles, corp., Sept. 17, i86r ; 

must, out Dec. 7, 1864. 
Wood, Reuben V. P., corp., Sept. 17, 1862; 

sergt. Sept. 18, 1863; re-enl. Jan. 18, 

1864; 1st sergt. Jan. i, 1865; com. 2d 

lieut. May 22, 1865; not must.; must. 

out July 12, 1865. 
Applegate, John, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

re-enl. Nov. 25, 1863; disch. at New 

York City by telegraphic instruction 

War Dept., May 4, 1865. 
Arlow, Robert, private, Sept. 17, 1862; 

must, out Oct. IS, 1864. 
Hoagland, Cornelius B., private, Sept. 17, 

1861 ; Corp. July i, 1863 ; re-enl. Nov. 

25, 1863; sergt. Nov. I, 1864; must, out 

July 12, 1864. 
Clayton, William, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

re-enl. Nov. 25, 1863 ; missing in action 

at Drury's Bluff, Va., May 16, 1864; 

died at Florence, S. C, Nov. 18, 1864. 
Cook, James, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; re- 
enl. Jan. 18, 1864; must, out July 12, 

Carman, Luke K., private, Sept. 5, 1864; 

must, out June 14, 1865. 
Dugan, Thomas, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

died of typhoid fever at Newberne, N. 

C., April 30, 1865. 
Fisher, Henry C, recruit, Feb. 29, 1864; 

corp. Dec. 8, 1864; must, out July 12, 


Garry, John, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; re- 
enl. Jan. 18, 1864; disch. by order War 

Dept., May 4, 1865. 
Harris, William, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Sept. i, 1863; 

disch. therefrom Nov. 10, 1865. 
Ives, Milton J., private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

must, out Dec. 7, 1864. 
Kelley, John E., recruit, Feb. 22, 1864; 

must, out July 12, 1865. 
Messroll, B. Isaac, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

re-enl. Jan. 18, 1864; must, out July 12, 

McGintay, Michael, private, Sept. 17, i86r ; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Sept. i, 1863; 

disch. therefrom March 18, 1864. 
Eonham, Lucius C, corp., Sept. 17. 1861 ; 

sergt. June 15, 1863; re-enl. Jan. 18, 

1864; 2d lieut. Co. H Sept. 10, 1864; 

1st lieut. March 16, 1865 ; capt. vice 

Applegate, promoted; must, out July 12, 

Rolfe, George N., private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. ; disch. there- 
from Sept. 21, 1864, 
Poxberry, Joseph, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

must, out Dec. 7, 1864. 
Stults, Simeon, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

must, out Sept. 22, 1864. 
Scully, John, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; died 

at field hosp., July 9. 1864, of wounds 

received in action at Petersburg, Va. 
Snediker, Howard, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

must, out Dec. 7, 1864. 
Stout, William K., private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 

re-enl. Jan. 18, 1864; disch. at hospital, 

Newark, May 3, 1865. 
Stults, Salter S., private, June 5, 1862; 

died at Charleston, prisoner of war, Oc- 
tober, 1864. 
Silvers, William H., recruit, Feb. 29, 1864; 

died at field hospital near Petersburg, 

Va., Aug. I, 1864. 
Vanhise, Andrew M., private, Sept. 17, 

1861 ; re-enl. Jan. 18, 1864; must, out 

July 12, 1865. 
Vandervere, David G., private, March i, 

1864; trans, to S. R. S. March 24, 1864. 
Witcraft, Albert, private, Sept. 17, 1861 ; 



re-cnl. Jan. i8, 1864; must, out Tulv 12, 

Company B. — Blackenv. Moses C. corp., 
Sept. iS, 1861 : sergt. May 28, i8()3; re- 
enl. lanuarv-, 1864; must, out July 12, 

Bennett. John, corp., Sept. 18, 1861 ; sergt. 
June II, 1862; re-enl. Nov. 26, 1863; 2d 
lieut. March 16, 1865; ist lieut. mcc 
Sheppard, pro. April 10, 1865; must. 
out July 12, 1865. 

De Hart, Theodore, corp., Sept. 18, 1861 ; 
sergt. Oct. 16, 1863; must, out Dec. 7, 

Hoyes, Eugene M., sergt., Sept. 18, 1861 ; 
drowned at foot of Barclay street, New 
York City, Oct. 24, 1863 ; while on fur- 

\'anderhoef, Robert B., private, Sept. 18, 
1S61 ; must. out. Dec. 8, 1864. 

Lawrence. John, private, Oct. 6, 1861 ; 
disch. at Beaufort, N. C, Oct. 18, 1862, 

Currie, Edward, corp., Sept. 28, 1861 ; de- 
serted Sept. 5, 1863, at New Brunswick, 
N. J., while on a furlough. 

Acker, Francis, recruit, Feb. 26, 1864; 
must, out July 12, 1865. 

Butterworth, Jonathan, private, Sept. 18, 
1861 ; disch. at Newberne, N. C, May 
30. 1863, dis. 

Buckley, Thomas, private, Sept. 26. 1861 ; 
disch, at Morehead City, N. C, Nov. 17, 

1862, dis. 

Boudinot, William B., private, Sept. 26, 

1861 ; disch. at Camp Olden, Trenton, 

Nov. 2. 1861, dis. 
Bloodgood, Phincas F., private, Sept. 26, 

1861 ; disch. at Morehead City, N. C, 

Oct. 23, 1862; wounded accidentally. 
Boorman, Edgar J., private, Oct. 12, 1861 ; 

disch. at Camp Olden, Trenton, N. J., 

Nov. 2. 1861 ; dis. 
Brecse, Henry, private, Oct. 4, 1861 ; disch. 

at Morehead City, N. C, Nov. 17, 1863, 

Carolan, Patrick, recruit, Oct. 6, 1864. 
Cosier, John W., private, Sept. 26, 1861 ; 

disch. at Newberne, N. C, May 30, 1863, 

Clcrkin. John, private, Sept. 18, 1861 ; must. 

out. Dec. 7, 1864. 
Church, George W., private, Oct. 8, 1861 ; 

re-cnl. Nov. 26, 1863; disch. at New 

'i'ork May 4, 1865, by order War Dept. 
Coburn, Charles A., private, Sept. 18, 1861 ; 

Deserted April, 1863; returned to duty 

July 27, 1864; must, out Dec. 8, 1864. 
Cahill. Francis, private, Sept. 18, 1861. 
Crawford, James, private, Sept. 18, 1861. 
Pierson. John L., corp., Sept. 18, 1861 ; 

disch. at Helena Island, S. C, March 28, 

1863, dis. 

Collins, William, private, Sept. 26, 1861 ; 
deserted Oct. i, 1861, at Camp Olden, 
Trenton, N. J. 

Dye, Walter J., private, Sept. 18. 1861; 

deserted Oct. 2, 1861, at Camp Olden, 

Trenton, N. J. 
Dye, Isaac S., private, Sept. 18, 1861 ; 

trans, to Co. C, 4th Regt., Aug. 21, 1861. 
Danberry, Henry M., private, Sept. 26, 

1861 ; disch. at Newberne, N. C. May 

30. 1863, dis. 
Danberry, William, private, Sept. 18, 1861 ; 

disch. at Annapolis, Md., Jan. 22, 1863; 

paroled prisoner. 
Dock, Isaac, wagoner, Oct. 2, 1861 ; re- 
enl. Jan. 18, 1864; must, out July 12, 

Deady, John, private, Sept. 18, 1861 ; 

disch. at Trenton, N. J. ; paroled pris- 
Disbrow, Ferdinand, private, Oct. 16, 

1S61 ; died at Hosp. Roanoke, N. C, of 

wounds received in action at Roanoke 

Island, N. C. 
Dye, Walter, private, Sept. 2, 1861 ; disch. 

at Newport News, Va., Nov. 20, 1863, 

Fowler, Joseph W., private, Sept. 26, 1861 ; 

disch. at Newberne, N. C, Nov. 17, 

1862, dis. 

Gould, Richard N., private, Sept. 18, 1861. 
Gray, David V. D., Sept. 18, 1861 ; disch. 

at Norfolk, on detached service Sept. 

22, 1864. 
Hall, Reuben, private, Feb. 27, 1862; 

Harrison, George W., private, Aug. 15, 

Hughes, Theodore V., private, Sept. 18, 

1 861. 
Houghton, Michael, Sept. 18, 1861 ; trans. 

to Co. C, 4th Regt. 
Hagerty, Daniel, private, Sept. 18, 1861 ; 

must, out Dec. 8, 1864. 
Hopkins, Simon F., private, Sept. 29, 

Johnson, William, private, Dec. 3, 1861 ; 

re-enl. June 18, 1864; must, out July 

12, 1865. 
Labone, Wallace W., private, Sept. 20, 

1861 ; disch. at Morehead City, N. C, 

Nov. 17, 1862, of wounds received in 

action at Roanoke Island. 
Lally, Patrick, private, Sept. 27, 1861 ; 

disch. at Newberne, N. C, March i, 

1863, dis. 

Lawless, Peter, private, Sept. 24, 1861. 
Moore, William H., Sept. 20, 1861. 
Moore, Thomas B., private, Aug. 29, 1861 ; 

missing in action at Drury's Bluff, Va., 

May 16, 1864. 
Murphy, James, private, Sept. 5, 1862. 
Morris, William, private, Oct. 8, 1861 ; 

re-enl. Dec. 20, 1863 ; must, out July 

12, 1865. 
Meyers, John, private, Sept. 18, 1861 ; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps.; disch. Sept. 

21, 1864. 



Munslow, Isaac P. H., private, Oct. i, 
1861 ; deserted at Camp Olden, Tren- 
ton, Nov. 2, 1861. 

McClay, James, private, Sept. 18, 1861 ; 
disch. at Trenton, N. J., Dec. 31, 1864, 

McAndrew, Allen, recruit, Jan. 12, 1864. 

Montaloo, Frank, recruit, Feb. 11, 1864. 

Nevius, Benjamin F., recruit, Jan. 5, 1862. 

Prall, James, musician, Oct. 2, 1861 ; re- 
enl. Jan. 18, 1864; must, out July 12, 

Pierman, Garret V., recruit, Feb. 27, 1864. 

Reynolds, James, private, Sept. 26, 1861 ; 
disch. at Morehead City, N. C, May 7, 
1863, dis. 

Silcox, Bergen, private, Sept. 24, 1861. 

Shardlow, William, private, Sept. 18, 1861. 
Skillman, Joakin, private, Sept. 18, 1861 ; 

deserted Jan. 8, 1862; returned to duty 

Aug. I, 1864; must, out July 12, 1865. 
Sherry, Peter, private, Sept. 18, 1861 ; 

disch. at Trenton, N. J., May 10, 1865. 
Sheehan, John, private, Sept. 18, 1861. 
Smith, George, recruit, Sept. 2, 1862. 
Tutenberg, Henry M., private, Sept. 18, 

Van Deventer, John, private, Sept. 18, 

1861 ; trans, to Co. C, 4th Regt. 
Voorhees, John C, private, Oct. 8, 1861 ; 

disch. at Newberne, N. C, June 23, 

1862, dis. 
Voorhees, John H., private, Oct. 5, 1864. 


Company C. — Bonnell, William, recruit, 

Sept. 13, 1864; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Culver, William, recruit, Feb. 9, 1864; 

trans, to Co. H. (See Co. H). 
Cheesman, Augustus, recruit, Sept. 9, 

1864; trans, to Co. K (see Co. K). 
Christian, Henry P., recruit, Sept. 5, 1864; 

disch. at draft rendezvous, Trenton, N. 

J., Oct. 2, 1864; rejected by medical 

Dunham, Samuel H., recruit, Sept. 12, 

1864; must, out June 15, 1865. 
Timmins, William H., recruit, Sept. 12, 

1864; trans, to Co. K (see Co. K). 
Young, Peter R., recruit, Aug. 11, 1864; 

trans, to Co. I (see Co. I). 
Company D. — Conover, James W., capt., 

Aug. 15, 1862; died at Frederick City, 

Md., Aug. 4, 1864, of wounds received 

at Monocacy, Md., July 9, 1864. 
Bookstover, Henry D., ist lieut. Co. K, 

Aug. 25, 1862 ; capt., vice Conover, died ; 

disch. May 22, 1865, disability. 
Conine, Henry J., ist lieut., Aug. 15, 1862; 

pro. capt. Co. A. Nov. 21, 1863; killed 

in action at Monocacy, Md., July 9, 1864. 
Craig, William H., 2d lieut., Aug. 15, 1862; 

1st lieu., vice Conine, promoted Nov. 21, 

1863; capt. Aug. 9, 1864; not mustered; 

disch. Nov. 8, 1864, on account of 

wounds received at Monocacy, Md., July 

9, 1864. 
Fletcher, James, ist sergt, Co. I, Aug. 11, 

1862; 1st lieut., vice Craig; disch. Nov. 

9, 1864; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Riddle, James H., ist sergt., Aug. 13, 1862; 

2d lieut., vice Craig, pro.; com. ist 

lieut. Aug. 9, 1864; not must.; disch. 

Oct. 17, 1864, dis. 
Lane, Gilbert, sergt., July 28, 1862; ist 

sergt. Aug. 31, 1864; com. 2d lieut., Co. 

E, June 26, 1865 ; not must. ; must, out 

June 18, 1865. 
Reed, John T., sergt., July 28, 1862; disch. 

at Trenton by order War Dept., May 3, 

Winder, Jacob S., corp., July 28, 1862; 

sergt. July 10, 1863 ; must, out June 

18, 1865. 
Borden, Richard, corp., Aug. 18, 1862 ; 

sergt. Dec. 7, 1863; disch. at Trenton 

by order War Dept. May 15, 1865. 
Conk, Jackson, corp., July 28, 1862; sergt. 

Aug. 31, 1864; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Emmons, John B., private, Aug. 13, 1862; 

corp. July ID, 1863 ; disch. at U. S. A. 

Gen. Hosp., Newark, May 3, 1865. 
Brown, Joseph, private, July 20, 1862; 

Corp. March i, 1864; must, out June 18, 

Duncan, Robert T., corp., Aug. 11, 1862; 

disch. at Trenton, N. J., by order War 

Dept. May 3, 1865. 
Jolees, Charles S., corp., Aug. 7, 1862; 

disch. at U. S. Army Gen. Hosp., New- 
ark, N. J., May 3, 1865. 
Lacore, William, corp., July 28, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Hampton, Grandon, corp., July 28, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Stillwagon, William, private, July 28, 1862; 

Corp. Aug. 31, 1864; disch. at U. S. 

Army Gen. Hosp., Newark, N. J., May 

3, 1865. 
Matthews, John H., private, Aug. 26, 1862; 

corp. Aug. 31, 1864; must, out June 18, 

Harvey, Cornelius, musician, July 26, 1862 ; 

pro. to principal musician May i, 1863. 
Anderson, William A., private. July 29, 

1863 ; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Applegate, Asher, private, Aug. 29, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Allen, John, private, Feb. 10, 1865; trans. 

to Co. D, 2d Regt.; must, out July 11, 

Addison, William, private, July 28, 1862; 

died of chronic diarrhoea at Brandy 

Station, Va., Jan. g, 1864. 
Armstrong, Jacob J., private, July 30, 1862; 

died near Petersburg, Va., Dec. 30, 1864, 

of wounds received in action near that 

Anderson, Henry, recruit, March 10, 1864; 



deserted March 20, 1864, at draft ren- 
dezvous, Trenton, N. J. 
Eennett, Joseph L., private, Aug. 12, 1862 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Bond. William R., private, July 28, 1862 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Brewer, Isaac, private, Aug. 12, 1862 

must, out June 18, iSiSs. 
Brown, William L., private, Aug. 12, 1862 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Brower, Charles A., private, July 28, 1862 

disch. June i, 1865, wounds received in 

action at Cold Harbor; leg amputated 
Bowden, Charles J., recruit, Feb. 13 

1865; trans, to Co. D, 2d Regt. ; must 

out July II, 1865. 
Brown, Nelson P., private, Aug. 20, 1862 

trans, to Yet. Res. Corps Jan. i, 1865 

disch. therefrom June 29, 1865. 
Brown, Matthias, recruit, March 3, 1864 

trans, to Co. E, trans, to Co. D, 2d 

Regt.; must, out July 11, 1865. 
Barker, Robert, private, July 26, 1862 

died of chronic diarrhcEa at Philadel- 
phia, Pa., April 19, 1865. 
Bills. William H., private, Aug. 13. 1862 

killed in action at Cold Harbor, Va., 

June I, 1864. 
Brown, Peter, recruit, Feb. 25, 1864; died 

at Richmond, Va., July 9, 1864, of 

wounds received in action ; prisoner 

of war. 
Clayton, Edward, private, July 29, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Clayton, William, private, Aug. 7, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Clayton, William H., private, Aug. 12, 

1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Clayton, John V., private, July 29, 1862; 

disch. at U. S. Army Gen. Hosp., New- 
ark, Jan. 28, 1864, dis. 
Clayton, Thomas, private, Aug. 12, 1862; 

disch. at Newark, Aug. 19, 1865, dis. 
Caffery, Charles S., private, Aug. 13, 

1862; disch. at Newark, Jan. 28, 1864, 

Condit, Charles, recruit, Sept. 20, 1864; 

trans, to Co. C; disch. at Newark by 

order War Dept., May 3, 1865. 
Cook, Abram N., private, Aug. 12, 

1862; disch. at Newark by order War 

Dept., May 3, 1865. 
Cook, Andrew J., private, Aug. 12, 1862 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Cook, Samuel, private, Aug. 12, 1862 

must, nut June 18, 1865. 
Curtis, Charles H., Corp., Aug. 13, 1862 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Dec. 19, 1864 

disch. therefrom June 20, 1865; corp 

Oct. I, 1863. 
Cottrcll, Daniel G., recruit, April 4, 1865 

trans, to Co. D, 2d Regt., June 18, 1865 

trans, to Co. K. 
Church, William, ist scrgt., July 28, 1862 

killed in action at Monocacy, Md., July 

9, 1864. 

Camp, George H., private, July 28. 1862; 

died of chronic diarrhoea at Brandy Sta- 
tion, Va., Feb. 9, 1864. 
Dow, Clinton, private, July 30, 1862; must. 

out June 18, 1865. 
Duncan, Joseph P., private, Aug. 11, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Dismond, William, Aug. 13, 1862; de- 
serted Feb. 7, 1863, at Monocacy, Md. 
Emmons, Charles W., private, July 28, 

1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Estell, Andrew J., private, Aug. 13, 1862; 

died of typhoid fever at Frederick City, 

Md., Dec. 30, 1862. 
Estell, James, private, Aug. 13, 1862; 

killed in action at Cold Harbor, Va., 

June I, 1864; buried there in Nat. Cem. 
Ford, David, private, Aug. 13, 1862; must. 

out June 18, 1865. 
Gaskin, Benjamin W., private, July 24, 

1862; disch. at Newark, Dec. 13, 1864, 

Girard, Frederick, private, July 24, 1862; 

disch. Nov. 4, 1862, to join regular 

Gravatt, John, private, Aug. 12, 1862; 

disch. at Newark Sept. 30, 1863, dis. 
Gorman, William, private, Aug. 12, 1862; 

killed in action at Monocacy, Md., July 

9, 1864. 
Hagerman, Nicholas, corp., July 28, 1862 ; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 15, 1864; 

disch. therefrom June 26, 1865. 
Hall, Joseph, recruit, Feb. i, 1865; trans. 

to Co. D, 2d Regt. 
Holmes, Edward, private, Aug. 11. 1862; 

disch. at U. S. Army Hosp., Baltimore, 

Md., Sept. 26, 1863, dis. 
Hawkins, James, recruit, Feb. 10, 1864; 

died at Field Hospital, Winchester, Va., 

of wounds received in action at Cedar 

Creek, Oct. 19, 1864. 
Havens, Edward, private, Aug. 12, 1862; 

died of typhoid fever at Frederick City, 

Aid., Dec. 20, 1862; buried at Antietam, 

Imlay (or Emley), Thomas, private, Aug. 

12, 1862; trans, as a deserter to Co. L, 

1st Cav. Regt., Aug. 29, 1863. 
Imlay, John, private, Aug. 12, 1862; must. 

out June 18, 1865. 
Jamison, Isaac, private, Aug. 13, 1862. 
Jones, James, recruit, Feb. 11, 1865; 

trans, to Co. D, 2d Regt. 
Lawyer, Joseph J., private, Aug. 12, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Lewis, Joseph O., private, Aug. 12, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Lewis, William H., private, Aug. 5, 1862; 

died of chronic diarrhoea at Freehold, 

N. J., Dec. 7, 1863. 
Longstreet, Abraham, private, Aug. 12, 

1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Matthews, Charles T., private, July 30, 

1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 



Matthews, James H., private, Aug. 13, 
1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 

McDermot, Charles V., private, Aug. 13, 
1S62; disch. at Trenton by order War 
Dept. May 15. 1865. 

Matthews. Charles J., private, July 28, 
1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps March 
1=;. 1864; disch. therefrom June 18, 

Minton, James F.. private, Aug. 8, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Minton, William H.. private, Aug. 28, 

1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Moore, William S., private, Aug. 13, 1862; 

disch. at Trenton by order War Dept. 

May 3. 1865. 
Morton, David W., private, Aug. 13, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Morton, Nicholas P., private, Aug. 13, 

1862; disch. at hosp.. West Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Oct. II, 1864, dis. 
Martin, Levi, private, Aug. 12, 1862; died 

of pneumonia at South Amboy, Dec. 11, 

Patterson, Caleb, private, July 24, 1862 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Parker, Jonathan, recruit, Feb. 13, 1865 

trans, to Co. D, 2d Regt. 
Pettit, Richard B., private, Aug. 13, 1862 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Pullen, Charles, private, Aug. 12, 1862 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Pullen, William H. H., private. Aug. 12 

1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Reed, Joseph, private, Aug. 12, 1862; must 

out June 18, 1865. 
Reynolds, John T., private, Aug. 13, 1862 

disch. at U. S. Army Gen. Hosp., New- 
ark, May 4, 1865. 
Reynolds, William P., private, Aug. 13 

1862; corp. July 10, 1863; must, out 

June 18, 1865. 
Riddle, Hyers, private, Aug. 13. 1862 

trans, to U. S. navy April 10, 1864. 
Runyon, Robert H., private, Aug. 11, 1862 

died of chronic diarrhoea at Washing 

ton, D. C, Sept. 24, 1863. 
Sherman, Gordon, private, July 24, 1862 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Sherman, Benajah, recruit, Aug. 24, 1863 

trans, to Co. D, 2d Regt. 
Sherman, James W., private, Aug. 13 

1862; trans, to U. S. navy. 
Shores, William A. N., private, Aug. 12 

1862; killed in action at Monocacy, Md. 

July 9, 1864 ; buried at Antietam. 
Soden, Daniel P., private, Aug. 11, 1862 

killed in action at Cold Harbor, Va. 

June I, 1864. 
Stimax, James, private, July 28, 1862 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Strickland, Alexander, private, July 28 

1862; must, out June 18. 1865. 
Strickland, Joseph, sergt, July 28, 1862 

died of chronic diarrhoea Dec. 3, 1863. 
Sutton, Charles, private, July 24, 1862 

trans, to Co. E, Oct. 11, 1862; must, out 

June 18, 1865. 
Sullivan, Daniel, private, Aug. 12, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Truax, John, private, Aug. 13, 1862 ; disch. 

at Trenton by order War Dept. May 3, 

Van Dusen, Jeremiah, private, Aug. 12, 

1862; died at Philadelphia, Pa., of 

wounds accidentally received at Win- 
chester, Va., Oct. 31, 1864. 
Wagoner, Reuben H., private, Aug. 2, 

1862; disch. at U. S. Army Hosp., New- 
ark, May 3, 1865. 
Van Kirk, Henry, corp., July 24, _ 1862; 

died of chronic diarrhoea at Washington, 

D. C, Sept. 25, 1863. 
Yard, Alexander, private, Aug. 12, 1862; 

trans, as a deserter to Co. L, ist Cav., 

Aug. 29, 1863. 
Yetman, Tunis, private, July 23, 1862; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps April 17, 1864; 

disch. therefrom Sept. 9, 1864. 

Company E. — Bayard, Cornelius, private, 

Aug. 12, 1862; died of pneumonia at 

Monocacy, Md., April 12, 1863. 
Bodwell, James L., capt., Aug. 25, 1862; 

disch. Dec. 30, 1864; by order of War 

Bloth, William, corp., Aug. 12, 1862; 

sergt. April i, 1865; must, out June 18, 

Dunham, John B., private, Aug. 9. 1862; 

died of chronic diarrhoea at Newark, 

N. T., Jan. 18. 1864. 
Doll. "Joseph, private, Aug. 13, 1862; corp. 

Feb. 2, 1863; disch. at Trenton by order 

War Department. May 3, 1865. 
Noe, Elmer, private, Aug. 4, 1862; killed 

in action at Cold Harbor, Va., June i, 

Potter. David J., private, Aug. i, 1862; 

deserted April 28, 1863, at Monrovia, 

Struby. Lewis B., corp., Aug. 13, 1862; 

disch. at Trenton, N. J., May 3. 1865. 
Turner, William F., private, July 25, 

1862; trans, to navy April 19, 1864; 

disch. June 14, 1865. 
Yeteman, Hubbard R., musician, Aug. 20, 

1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 

Company H.— Wanser, Jarvis, ist sergt, 
Aug. II, 1862; pro. to 2d lieut. Co. F, 
May 7, 1864; 1st lieut. vice Bailey, pro. 
Aug. 9, 1864; pro. capt. Co. B, Dec. i, 
1864; must, out June 18, 1865. 

Everingham, Alexander L., sergt., Aug. 5, 
1862; disch. at Trenton by order War 
Dept. May 3. 1865. 

Hutchinson, John, sergt., Aug. 12, 1862; 
m.ust. out Tune 18, 1865. 

Provost, William D., sergt, Aug. 15, 1862; 
killed in action at Cold Harbor, Va., 
June I, 1864. 



Ingraham, William I., sergt., Aug. 5, 1862; 
ist sergt. May 18, 1864; com. 2d lieut. 

June j6, 1865; not must.; must, out 

June 18, 1865. 
Fairgrieve, George B., corp., July 28, 1862 ; 

disch. at hosp., Newark, N. J., May 3, 

1865, by order War Dept. 
Provost. David, sergt., Aug. 12, 1862; 

killed in action at Monocacy, Md., July 

9. 1864. 
Van Dorn, John H., corp., Aug. 14. 1862; 

killed in action at Cold Harbor, Va., 

June I, 1864. 
Carman, Alfred, corp., Aug. 13, 1862; 

killed in action at Locust Grove, Va., 

Nov. 27, 1863. 
Lott, Henry, private, Aug. 11, 1862; de- 
serted Sept. 18, 1862; returned duty 

Feb. 5, 1863; disch. at Trenton, May 3, 

Higgins, James P., Corp., Aug. 16, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Van Hise, George W., corp., Aug. 18, 

1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. i, 

1865; disch. therefrom July 21, 1865. 
Bradley, Roderick, musician, Aug. 13, 

1862; pro. to prin. musician May i, 

McDonnell, John, musician, Aug. 13, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Anderson, Henry A., private, Aug. 4, 1862; 

drowned near Frederick City, Md., July 

3, 1863. 
Applegate, Thomas F., private, Aug. 14 

1862; killed in action at Cedar Creek 

Va., Oct. 19, 1864. 
Anderson, Joseph, private, Aug. 4, 1862, 

killed in action at Monocacy, Md., July 

9, 1864. 
Arbuthnot, Charles, private, Oct. 20, 1864 

trans, to Co. H, 2d Regt. 
Brewer, William, private, Aug. 2, 1862 

died at rebel prison at Richmond, Va. 

March 22, 1864. 
Boorman, Cornelius, private, Aug. 11 

1862; killed in action at Monocacy, Md. 

July 9, 1864. 
Burton, Thomas A., private, Aug. 14, 1862 

died in rebel prison, Richmond, Va. 

April I, 1864. 
Cunningham, William, private, July 29 

1862 ; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Carhart, George W., private, Aug. 9, 1862 

killed in action at Cold Harbor, Va 

June I, 1864. 
Camp, Gilbert M., private, Aug. 18, 1862 

disch. at Trenton, N. J., May 3, 1865 

order War Dept. 
Davidson, James, corp., Aug. 18, 1862 

disch. at hosp., at Newark, May 26, 

1865, dis. 
Erwin, Joseph W., corp., Aug. 13, 1862 

pro. hosp. steward Jan. 31, 1865. 
Emhoff, Frederick, private, July 28, 1862 

deserted Aug. 29, 1862, at Freehold, 


Emmons, James H., private, Aug. 14, 

1862; corp. June i, 1863; must, out 

June 18, 1865. 
Garigan, Thomas, private, July 31, 1862; 

deserted Aug. 6, 1862, at Freehold, N. J. 
Griggs, Van Winkle, private, Aug. 15, 

1862; died at rebel prison, Danville, Va., 

Dec. 16, 1864. 
Grover, Samuel, private, Aug. 13, 1862; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps March 15, 1864; 

disch. therefrom June 26, 1865. 
Hendricks, William, corp., Aug. 4, 1862; 

killed in action at Monocacy, Md., July 9, 

Hagle, Frederick, private, Aug. 16, 1862; 

disch. at Trenton, N. J., May 3, 1865. 
Hoagland, William, private, Aug. 15, 

1864; killed in action at Monocacy, Md., 

July 9, 1864. 
Joily, Joseph, private, Aug. 7, 1862; died 

at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Alexandria, 

Va., Dec. 4, 1863, of wounds received 

at Locust Grove, Va., Nov. 27, 1863. 
Kensell, Kasimer, private, July 28, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Linder, Frederick, private, Aug. 13, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Leggett, John W., corp., Aug. 14, 1862; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. i, 1865; 

disch. therefrom July 24, 1865. 
Little, James, private, Aug. 9, 1862; killed 

in action at Cold Harbor, Va., June i, 

Lett, William F., private, Aug. 15, 1862; 

sergt. Nov. i, 1863 ; must, out June 18, 

Logan, George, private, Aug. 16, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
McLaughlin, Patrick, private, July 25, 

1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps June 

16, 1864; disch. therefrom July 13, 

Mehan, Thomas, private, Aug. 20, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Mount, David, private. Aug. 9, 1862: 

disch. at hosp., Newark, N. J., May 18, 

1S65; dis.; corp. Dec. i, 1863. 
Miller, Peter, private, Aug. 4, 1862; disch. 

at Trenton by order War Dept. May 3, 

McDermot, Luke, private, Aug. 11, 1862; 

deserted Feb. 18, 1863, at Monocacy, 

Newton, Thomas, private, Aug. 11, 1862; 

deserted Sept. 17, 1862, at Monocacy, 

Pcrrine, William, private, Aug. 18, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Quinn, Michael H., private, Aug. 18, 1862; 

disch. at Brandy Station, Va., Jan. 24, 

1864, dis. 

Ryan, Thomas P., sergt., July 22, 1862; 
disch. at Frederick City, Md., May 15, 

1865. dis. 

Rue, Peter, private, Aug. 4, 1862; killed 



in action at Locust Grove, Va., Nov. 

27, 1863. 
Rue, Alfred S., corp., Aug. 11, 1862; 

disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Feb. 8, 1865, dis. 
Richards, Elias, private, Aug. 9, 1862 

deserted Aug. 18, 1862, at Freehold 

N. J. 
Silvers, Elwood K., private, Aug. 16, 

1S62; killed in action at Opequan, Va 

Sept. 19, 1864. 
Smith, Thomas, private, Aug. 18, 1862 

died of typhoid fever at Brandy Station 

Va., April 2, 1864. 
Sickles, Tilton, private, Aug. 11, 1862 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Sept. 30, 1863 

disch. therefrom Jan. 22, 1864. 
Sperling, Daniel D., private, Aug. 11 

1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Sickles, Solomon, private, Aug. 18, 1862 

disch. at hosp., Bristol, Pa., June 6, 

1865, dis. 
Snediker, James B., private, July 25, 1862 

killed in action at Cold Harbor, Va 

June I, 1864. 
Snediker, Daniel P., corp., Aug. 12, 1862 

disch. at hosp., Newark, May 4, 1865 

by order War Dept. 
Sherman, Charles, private, Aug. 12, 1862 

disch. at Bristol, Pa., May 3, 1865. 
Schultz, John, private, Aug. 13, 1862 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Sodan, William H., private, Aug. 11, 1862 

died June 11, 1864, at Gen. Hosp., 

Washington, D. C, of wounds received 

at Cold Harbor, Va. 
Silvers, John, corp., Aug. 12, 1862, trans. 

to Vet. Res. Corps ; disch. therefrom 

July 27, 1865. 
Stewart, John J., recruit, Oct. 20, 1864; 

trans, to Co. H, 2d Regt. 
Thomas, Charles, private, Aug. 9, 1862; 

deserted Jan. 18, 1863, at Monocacy, 

Van Hise, Thomas, private, Aug. 15, 1862; 

killed in action at Locust Grove, Va., 

Nov. 27, 1863. 
Van Pelt, Jacob, private, Aug. 18, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Van Dusen, Robert A., corp., Aug. 14, 

1862; pro. to hosp. steward Jan. 31, 

1865; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Van Dusen, Elwood R., private, Aug. 14, 

1862; corp. June i, 1863; must, out 

June 18, 1865. 
Williams, James R., private, Aug. 12, 

1S62; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Oct. 

17, 1864; disch. therefrom July 6, 1865. 
Walters, William, private, Aug. 13, 1862; 

disch. at hosp., Newark, N. J., Dec. 19, 

1863, dis. 
Whitlock, John, private, Aug. 16, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 

Company L — Nolan, Wilson, corp., Aug. 
12, 1862; private, Sept. 12, 1862; de- 

serted April 28, 1863; returned to duty 

Feb. 8, 1865; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Davis, Henry M., corp., June 26, 1862; 

deserted Aug. 30, 1862, at Freehold, 

N. J. 
Wilson, Cornelius V., musician, July 24, 

1862; deserted June, 1S63 ; returned 

to duty Aug. 31, 1863; must, out June 

18, 1865. 
Weldon, Charles M., private, Aug. 11, 

1862; disch. at Alexandria, Va., Nov. 

7, 1864, dis. 
Browning, William A., private, July 31, 

1862; deserted May i, 1864, at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
Bruce, Garret, private, Aug. 9, 1862; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Nov. 15, 1863; 

disch. therefrom July i, 1865. 
Bruce. Joseph, private, Aug. 9, 1862 ; died 

at Camp Parole, Annapolis, Aug. 26, 

1864, of wounds received in action at 

Monocacy ; leg amputated. 
Bradford, George H., private, July 26, 

1862; trans, to navy April 19, 1864. 
Garrison, Almerain, private, July 24. 1862; 

must, out June 27, 1865. 
Hoagland, Ralph, private, Aug. 8, 1862; 

trans, as a deserter to Co. H, ist Cav- 
alry, Aug. 28, 1863. 
Johnson, Theodore, private, Aug. 9, 1862 ; 

deserted Sept. 2, 1862; returned to duty 

Sept. 29, 1863 ; disch. May 4, 1865, by 

order of War Dept. 
Payton, William, private, July 30, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Perdun, Abraham V., private, Aug. 11, 

1862; killed in action at Locust Grove, 

Va., Nov. 27, 1863. 
Rively, George W., private, Aug. g., 1862; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps March 16, 

1864; disch. therefrom July 7, 1865. 
Rogers, Jefferson H., private, Aug. 22, 

1862 ; killed in action at Locust Grove, 

Va., Nov. 27, 1863. 
States, Samuel B., private, Aug. 12, 1862; 

killed in action near Petersburg, Va., 

April 2, 1865. 
Smock, George S., private, Aug. 15, 1862; 

corp. Sept. 14, 1862; sergt. July 9, 1864; 

2d lieut. vice Fisher, disch. Jan. 21, 

1865 ; must, out June 27, 1865. 
Stonaker, Charles S., private, Aug. 14, 

1862; disch. at Trenton by order War 

Dept., May 3, 1865. 
Smith, Henry, private, Aug. 11, 1862; 

died at hosp., Washington, D. C, June 

17, 1864, of wounds received in action 

at Cold Harbor. 
Stroble, John, private, Aug. 11, 1862; 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Voorhees, Wyckoff, private, July 24, 1862; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. i, 1865; 

disch. therefrom Aug. 7, 1865. 
Ward, John, private, Aug. 31, 1862; de- 
serted Sept. 2, 1862; returned to duty 

April 17, 1863; must, out June 18, 1865. 



Wriplit, John, private, July 30, 1862; 

Corp. Ian. 28, 186=;; must, out June 18, 

Wilson. Jacob, private, Aug. 6, 1862; 

killed in action at Monocacv Bridge, 

Aid., July 9, 1864. 
Young, Peter R., private. Aug. 14, 1862 ; 

disch. at hosp., Newark, N. J., Dec. 11, 

1863, dis. 

Company K. — Janeway, Jacob J., capt., 
Aug. 23, 1862; pro. to maj. Sept. IQ, 
1864; lieut.-col. vice Hall, res. Dec. 13, 
1864; brev. col. April 2, 1865. 

Manning, John L., sergt., Aug. 6, 1862 ; 
1st sergt. Nov. 12, i8i52; ist lieut. Co. 
I, Oct. 8, 1864; capt. z'icc Janeway, pro. 
Dec. 13, 1864: must, out June 18, 1865. 

Fisher, John G., ist sergt., Aug. 11, 1862; 
pro. sergt-maj. Nov. 10, 1862; pro. 2d 
lieut. Co. I, Jan. 11, 1864; com. 1st lieut, 
Co. E, June 20, 1864; not must.; disch. 
Aug. II, 1864, on account of wounds 
received in action. 

Danberry, Edgar, sergt., Aug. 6, 1862 ; 
private June 30, 1864; disch. by order 
War Department May 3, 1865. 

Hoaglann, James V., sergt., July 22, 1862; 
trans, to Vet. Res. Corps March 15, 
1865 ; disch. therefrom July 12, 1865. 

Hoagiand, John V., corp., July 12, 1862: 
deserted June 4, 1863, at Mount Airy, 

Holden, Horatio, sergt., Aug. 11, 1862; 
trans, to U. S. Signal Corps Feb. i, 
1864; disch. therefrom June 19, 1865. 

Kents, Naum, sergt., Aug. 11, 1864; com. 
2d. lieut. Co. B, June 26, 1865; not must.; 
must, out June, 1865. 

Meyers, Isaac W., corp., Aug. 11, 1862; 
died of scurvy at Raleigh, N. C. ; pris- 
oner of war. 

Stout. George H., corp., Aug, 11, 1862; 
disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Washing- 
ton, D. C, Oct. 20, 1864, disability. 

Ryno, David, corp., July 25, 1862 ; died of 
consumption at Monocacy, Md., March 
21, 1863. 

Terrill, John N., corp., Aug. 11, 1862; 
must, out June, 1865. 

Siddlcs, Abram G., corp., Aug. 6, 1862; 
deserted March 10, 1863, at Mt. Airv, 

Gardiner, William G., musician, Aug. 4, 
1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 

Buckalew, Jacob, private, Aug. 14, 1862; 
must, out June 18, 1865. 

Buckalew, Frederick, private, Aug. 12, 
1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 

Boice, Uriah, private, Aug. 18, 1862; trans, 
to Co. K, 2d Regt. 

Eritt, George, private, Aug. 13, 1862; 
must, out June 18, 1865. 

Bennett, Hugh M., private, Aug. 4, 1862; 
trans, to Vet. Res. Corps June 15, 1864; 
discharged therefrom July 8, 1865. 

Beihl, John, private, July 31. 1862; trans. 

to Vet. Res. Corps; disch. therefrom 

July 8, 1865. 
Carver, Daniel, private, Aug. 15. 1862; 

died of fever at Monocacy, Md,, Dec. 7, 

Culver, Jonathan, private, Aug. 14, 1862; 

disch. at the U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., New- 
ark, Aug. 12, 1864; disability. 
Culver, William, recruit, Feb. 9, 1864; 

died at U. S. A. Hosp., Washington, D. 

C, June 26, 1864, of wounds received in 

action at Cold Harbor, Va., lune i. 

Dixon, George T., private, July 31, 1862; 

deserted April 12, 1864, at Newark, 

N. J. 
Disbrow, James T., private, Aug. 14, 1862; 

died of diarrhoea at Andersonville, Ga., 

April 3, 1864. 
Daly. Henry, recruit, June i, 1863; killed 

in action at Cold Harbor, Va., June i, 

Freese, George, private, Aug. 15, 1862; 

disch. at Annapolis Junction, Md., May 

4. 1865. 
Geipel, Adam, corp., July 29, 1862; must. 

out June 18, 1865. 
Garrigus, Jacob W., private, Aug. 13, 

1862; corp. March 22, 1863; sergt. 

March 2, 1864; ist sergt. Nov. 20, 1864; 

com. 2d lieut. Co. B, June 26, 1865; not 

must. ; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Galligan, David, private, July 29, 1862; 

killed in action at Locust Grove, Va., 

Nov. 27, 1863. 
Grogan, William, substitute, Aug. 30, 

1864; trans, to Co. E, 7th Regt. 
Hendricks, Isaac, private, Aug. 15, 1862; 

disch. at Trenton, June 28, 1865. 
Hatfield, William H., private, Aug. 18, 

1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Hardy, Jacob, private, Aug. 12, 1862; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, June 15, 1864; 

disch. therefrom July 5, 1865. 
Hagaman, John M., private, Aug. 11. 1862; 

died of diarrhoea at Andersonville, Ga., 

July 28, 1864; buried there. 
Hoagiand, Henry L., private, July 22, 

1862; trans, to Co. A Oct. 11, 1862; 

disch. Nov. 15, 1862, to join regular 

Hustwait, Thomas, recruit, Feb. 22, 1864; 

trans, to Co. K, 2d Regt. 
Irving, Edward B., recruit, Feb. 15, 1864; 

trans, to Co. K, 2d Regt. 
Lynch, Peter, private, July 31, 1862; disch. 

at Frederick City, Md., May 3, 1865, 

order War Dept. 
Lake, Henry S., recruit, March 11, 1864; 

disch. at Newark, N. J., June 18, 1865, 

wounds received in action before Peters- 
burg, Va. 
Marsh, Vincent R., private. Aug. 15, 1862; 

corp. June 28, 1863; sergt. July 9, 1864; 

pro. 2d lieut. Co. F, Oct. 11, 1864; pro. 



1st lieut. Dec. i, 1864; capt. z'ice Patter- 
son, pro., Jan. 30, 1865; must, out June 
18, 1865. 

Messrole, Joseph, private, Aug. 4, 1862; 
disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., Newark, N. J., 
Dec. 27, 1862; disability. 

Outcalt, William E., private, Aug. 15, 
1862; disch. at Trenton, by order War 
Dept., May 3, 1865. 

Patterson, Thomas A., corp., July 22, 
1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 

Riley, James, private, July 26, 1862; 
must, out June 18, 1865. 

Sylvester, John, private, Aug. 20, 1862; 
disch. at Newark, Aug. 3, 1864, disa- 

Schenck, William H., corp., Aug. 11, 1862; 
trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 19. 1864; 
disch. therefrom July 14, 1865. 

Sperling, Ephraim D., private, Aug. 18, 
1862; corp. July 9, 1864; sergt. Nov. 20, 
1864; must, out June 18, 1865. 

Smith, George, private, Aug. 13, 1862; de- 
serted Sept. I, 1862, at Freehold, N. J. 

Schurm, Nicholas, private, Aug. 12, 1862; 
must, out June 18, 1865. 

Stout, Luke, private, Aug. 5, 1862; died 
of fever at Monocacy, Md., March 31, 
1863; buried at Antietam, Md. 

Schenck, Aaron P., private, Aug. i, 1862; 
killed in action at Cold Harbor, Va., 
June I, 1864; buried there. 

Ten Broeck, Van Rensselaer, private, Aug, 

5, 1862; died of consumption at hosp. 

Newark, N. J., Dec. 24, 1863. 
Ten Eick, Cornelius, private, Aug. 11 

1862; disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., AnnapO' 

lis, Md., May 4, 1865. 
Ten Eick, John, sergt., Aug. 11, 1862 

killed in action at Monocacy, Md., July 

9, 1864. 
Thomas, Henry C, private, Aug. 13 

1862; mustered out June 18, 1865. 
Tunison, Cornelius W., Jr., private, Aug. 13 

1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 15 

1864; disch. therefrom June 29, 1865. 
Taylor, Benjamin F., private, Aug. 18 

1862; must, out June 18, 1865. 
Van Deventer, Charles, private, Aug. 8, 

1862; deserted Nov. 14, 1862, at Mon 

ocacy, Md. 
Voorhees, Stephen, private, Aug. 14, 1862 

corp. Feb. 10, 1864; killed in action at 

Cold Harbor, Va., June i, 1864. 
Van Duyn, William, private, Aug. 8, 1862 

died of disease at New Brunswick, N. J. 

June 12. 1863. 
Wessel, James, private, Aug. 12, 1862 

killed in action at Cold Harbor, June i 

Wilmot, George, corp., Aug. 13, 1862 

must, out June 18, 1865. 
Walters, John, private, Aug. 13, 1862; de- 
serted Sept. I, 1862, at Freehold, N. J 


Wisewell, Moses, col., Sept. 15, 1862; 

must, out July 6, 1863. 
Roberts, Edward A. L., lieut.-col., Sept. 

15. 1862; cashiered Jan. 12, 1863. 
Wiidrick, John A., capt., Co. B, 2d Regt., 

Jan. 21, 1862; lieut.-col. vice Roberts, 

cashiered, Feb. 11, 1863; must, out July 

6, 1863. 
Wilson, Samuel K., Jr., maj., Sept. 15, 

1862; must. out. July 6, 1863. 
GuHck, William A., adjt., Sept. 15, 1862; 

res. Dec. 3, 1862. 
Robins, Benjamin A., ist lieut., Co. F, 

Sept. 15, 1862; adjt. vice Gulick, re- 
signed, March 19, 1863. 
Berdine, William, q. m., Sept. 15, 1862; 

dismissed Feb. 26, 1863. 
Martin, Moses, private, Co. I, Sept. 15, 

1862; q. m., vice Berdine, dismissed, 

March 11, 1863; must, out July 6, 1863. 
Newell, William D., surg., Sept. 15, 1862; 

must, out July 6, 1863. 
Baker, Benjamin N., asst. surg., Oct. 2, 

1862; must, out July 6, 1863. 
Berg, Joseph F., Jr., asst. surg., Sept. 29, 

1862; must, out July 6, 1863. 
Page, Christian J., chaplain, Sept. 15, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 

Non-Commissioned Staff. — Giles, John H., 
private, Co. F; pro. to sergt.-maj. Sept. 
22, 1862 ; must, out July 6, 1863. 

Ford, Charles P., private, Co. K; pro. to 

q. m.-sergt. Sept. 22, 1862 ; must, out 

July 6, 1863. 
Furness, William T., private, Co. K ; pro. 

to com. -sergt. Sept. 22, 1862 ; must. 

out July 6, 1863. 
Murphy, Arthur C, private, Co. I ; pro. 

to hosp. steward Sept. 22, 1862; must. 

out July 6, 1863. 

Company A. — Dobson, John, ist sergt., 

Aug. 25, 1862; 2d lieut. Feb. 11, 1863; 

1st lieut. vice Appleby, discharged, 

March 11, 1863; must, out July 6. 1863. 
Lefferts, Henry D. B., sergt., Aug. 25, 

1862; 2d lieut. Z'ice Dobson, promoted, 

March 11, 1863; must, out July 6, 1863. 
Barcalow, John L., sergt., Aug. 22, 1862; 

must, out July 6, 1863. 
Vandevender, Christopher, corp., Aug. 25, 

1862 ; must, out July 6, 1863. 
Dobsons, George, private, Aug. 28, 1862; 

corp. May 6, 1863 ; must, out July 6, 

Floyd, Charles F., musician, Aug. 27, 

1862; disch. at Trenton, N. J., March 

26. 1863, dis. 
Cozzens, William H., corp., Aug. 27, 1862 ; 

sergt. March i, 1863; must, out July 6, 

Appleby, William M., corp., Aug. 25, 1862; 

must, out July 6, 1863. 



Applecrate. William, private. Aur. 28, 

1862"; disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., Wash- 
ington, D. C, Feb. 22, 1863. dis. 
Buckelew, Frederick C, Corp., Aug. 26, 

1862 : must, out July 6, 1863. 
Bush, George P., private, Aug. 2y, 1862 

must, out with regiment July 6, 1863. 
Bennett, Issac S.. private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regiment July 6, 1863. 
Bowne, Edmond C, private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bloodgood, William R., private, Sept. i 

1862; disch. at Philadelphia, Pa., Feb 

5, 1863, dis. 
Craven, John F., private, Sept. i, 1862; 

died of sunstroke at camp near Fal- 
mouth. \'a.. May 18, 1863. 
Culver, Augustus, private, Aug. 25, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Compton, James, private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Culver, Jonathan, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Cole, George N., private, Sept. I, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Craven, James L., private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Conoly, John, private, Sept. i, 1862, 

corp. March i, 1863; must, out July 6 

Dolan, Patrick, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Emmons, Gordon, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
French, William, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Gaston, Forman, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Heardman, John, private. Aug. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hawkins, Cornelius H., private, Sept. i 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Imly, William B., private, Sept. i. 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Letts, Isaac, private, Aug. 28, 1862; disch 

at U. S. A. Hosp., Newark, April 23 

1863, dis. 
Letts, William, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., Philadelphia 

Pa., Feb. 16, 1863, dis. 
Lisk, Theodore, private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
McGee, John L., private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
McKeag, Thomas, private, Sept. i, 1862, 

killed in action at Fredericksburg, De- 
cember 13, 1862. 
Pope, John W., private, Aug. 27, 1862 

died of typhoid fever at hosp. 3d Div 

2d Corps, March 12, 1863. 
Ferdun, Farmer, private, Aug. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Pcarsall, Nelson, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Perdun, Charles A., private, Aug. 28 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 

Roller, Abraham, private, Aug. 27, 1862; 

deserted at Washington, D. C, Jan. 14, 

Richards, Andrew, private, Sept. i, 1862; 

disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Ports- 
mouth, R. L, March 19, 1863, dis. 
Reynolds, Archibald, private, Sept. i 

1862 ; disch. at Baltimore March 8, 1863 

Snoden, Forman S., private, Aug. 25, 

1862; must, out wtih regt. July 6, 1863 
Straley, Jacob, private, Aug. 2-], 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Smith, Jacob S., private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Smith. George, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Service, Theodore, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6. 1863. 
Smith, Charles, private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6. 1863. 
Smith, Horatio E., private^ Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Vandevender, Theodore, private, Aug. 25 

1862; disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp. 

Washington, D. C, Jan. 22, 1863, dis. 
Ward, Israel, private, Aug. 25, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Wheeler, Samuel, private, Aug. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Yates, Samuel, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., Newark, N. J., 

March 3, 1863, dis. 

Company B. — Chamberlain, Alfred, sergt., 

Aug. 26, 1862; must, out with regt. July 

6, 1863. 
Davison, John J., Jr., ist sergt., Aug. 26 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Standford, Jacob T., sergt., Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Eudd, Charles G.. sergt., Sept. 10, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Brown, Alfred, sergt., Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Barnes, William E., corp., Aug. 26, 1862 

disch. at camp near Falmouth, Va., Dec 

24. 1862, dis. 
Dutcher, George W., corp., Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Herron, William R., corp., Aug. 26, 1862 , 

died at Washington, D. C, of wounds 

received in action at Fredericksburg 

Va., Dec. 13, 1862. 
Ferris, Charles E., corp., Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Rue, Edwin, corp., Aug. 27, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Shann, Peter, corp., Aug. 27, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Gulick, Spencer, corp., Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Henson, Patrick, must. Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Amion, William, private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 



Applegate, Thomas, private, Aug. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1S63. 
Applegate, Jacob S., private, Aug. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bennett, Martin, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bennett, Isaac, private, Sept. i, 1862 
disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., Phila., Pa 
Feb. 5, 1863, disability. 
Bergen, George D., private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Brady, Alexander, private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Colby, Allen F. G., private, Aug. 28, 1862 
disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., Washington, 
D. C, of wounds received in action at 
Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862; leg 
Crawford, George W., private, Sept. 2 
1862 ; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Conover, Edwin, corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Dean, Aaron, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Davison, William V. P., corp., Aug. 29 
1862 ; died of diarrhoea at Washington 
D._ C, Feb. 17. 1863. 
Davison, George, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1862. 
Dey. Alfred W., corp., Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Davidson, David A., private, Sept. i. 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Everingham, Charles, private, Aug. 29 
1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Erwin, William E.. private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 

Fisher, Henry C., private, Aug. 26, 1862 

^ must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 

French, Cornelius V. N., private, Aug. 26 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 

Fate, Peter, private, Aug. 30, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Fine, John, private, Aug. 29, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Forman Selah G., private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Griggs, Reuben, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Graft, John, private, Aug. 26, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Grant, Brazilla, private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Gavitt, Ellison P., private, Aug. 26, 1862 
died at Washington, D. C, of wounds 
received in action at Fredericksburg 
Dec. 13, 1862. 
Glenning, Daniel F., private, Sept. 5. 1862 
disch. at Fort Schuyler Harbor, N. Y, 
March 31. 1862, on account of woimds 
received in action at Fredericksburg, 
Dec. 13, 1862; arm amputated. 
Hart, Noah L., private, Sept. i, 1862 
disch. at Convalescent Camp, Alexan- 
dria, Va.. Feb. 25, 1863; disability. 
Hammel, John F., private, Sept. i, 1862; 
must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 

Hart, George S., private, Sept. i, 1862 

nmst. out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hulse, Samuel, private, Aug. 27. 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hulse, Thomas L., private, Aug. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hoffman, Solon, private. Sept. 9, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Haggerty, Henry C, private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Johnson, David, private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6. 1863. 
Jamison, Joseph J., private, Aug. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Johnson, John N., private, Aug. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Jolly, Thomas, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

died at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 14 

1862, of wounds received in action there 
Legitt, Anthony A., private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Lake, William C, private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Labaw, George F., private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Linder, John, private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Larkin, Francis E., private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
McDougall, Orlando, private. Aug. 26, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
McDougall, Robert, private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Moran, Patrick, private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Mount, William G., private, Aug. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Morse, Garret S., private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Merryott, vSamuel, private, Aug. 27. 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Merryott, Peter B., private, Aug. 29. 1862 

disch. at the U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Wash- 

ineton, D. C, Jan. 5, 1863, disability. 
Mcllvain, William, private, Sept. i, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Millette, William P., private, Sept. i, 1862; 

disch. at army hosp., Washington. D. C, 

Feb. 17, 1863, on account of wounds re- 
ceived at Fredericksburg. 
Monighan, James, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Newton, William, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Perrine, Charles H., private, Aug. 26, 

1862; disch. at hosp.. West Philadelphia, 

Feb. 4, 1863, disability. 
Penson, Henry H., musician, \ug. 26, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Pullen, George E., private, Aug. 28, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Rumphy, Carl, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Rhodes, William D., private, Aug. 26, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Rodgers, William H., private, Aug. 26, 



1862 ; died of typhoid fever near Fred 

ericksburg, Va., March 12, 1863. 
Rue, Matthias A., private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Reamer. Parker B., private, Aug. 28, 1862 out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Snediker, James, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Snediker, John, private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Snediker. Forman, private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Sedam, John L., private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Silvers. Isaac, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Silvers. Henry, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Soden, Joseph, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

disch. at camp near Falmouth, Va 

April 10, 1863, disability. 
Sparlin, Nelson, private, Aug. 29, 1862, 

disch. at U. S. A. Hosp., Washington, 

D. C, March 13, 1863, on account of 

wounds received in action at Fredericks- 
burg, Va. 
Stultz. Lewis D., private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Slover. Stephen, private, Sept. 2, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Thompson, John, private, Aug. 26, 1862; 

died near Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 25, 

1862, of wounds received in action there. 
Taylor, Eugene Z., private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
\'an Lieu, Edwin F., private, Aug. 29, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Vantilburg, John, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Van Arsdale. Peter P., private, Aug. 26, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Wines, John A., private, Aug. 29, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 

Company C- — Calder, Henry C, 1st sergt., 

Aug. 30, 1862; must, out July 6, 1865. 
Sofield, Daniel W., sergt., Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out July 6, 1865. 
Hillyer, Isaac, sergt., Aug. 30, 1862; must. 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Erokaw, Isaac C, sergt., Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Brantingham, Henry, sergt., Aug. 30, 1862 ; 

killed in action at Fredericksburg, Va., 

Dec. 13, 1862. 
Conway, Robert S., sergt., Sept. 2, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Leston, Joseph C, Jr., capt., Sept. 3, 1862; 

must, out July 6, 1863. 
Stelle, William H., ist licut. Sept. 3, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Conover, Samuel K., 2d licut., Sept. 3, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Gunther, Gustav, corp., Sept. 6, 1862 ; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Clawson, John V., Jr., corp,, Aug. 30, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 

Dayton, Isaac S., corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Munday, Thomas J., corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hummer, Adam, Jr., corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1S63. 
Stelle, George D., corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Coulter, William, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

corp. April 15, 1863; must, out with 

regt. July 6, 1863. 
Drake, Henry C, musician, Sept. 2, 1862; 

must, out July 6, 1863. 
Giles, Joel, musician, Sept. 2, 1862; must. 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hummer, Adam, Sr., wagoner, Aug. 30, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Field, Jeremiah R., corp., Aug. 30, 1862; 

killed in action at Fredericksburg, Dec. 

13, 1862. 
Adams, Wesley, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Baker, Samuel, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

died of typhoid fever at Newark, March 

22, 1863. 
Bauchman, Benjamin H., private, Aug. 30 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Blackford, Jeremiah F., private. Aug. 30 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Boice, Cyrus, private, Aug. 30. 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Boice, George D., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

killed in action at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Dec. 13, 1862. 
Brundage, Warren, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Car, Andre, private, Aug. 30, 1862; disch 

at Camp in field April i, 1863, dis. 
Clawson, Jonathan F. R., private, Aug, 

30, 1862; must, out with regt. July 6 

Compton, Israel, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Conger, Charles, corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

disch. at camp in field April i, 1863. dis 
Cooper, Joseph, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Corsoflf, Rudolph, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Cronk, Munson, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Dayton, Simon R., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Dudling, Benjamin, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Davis, Jeremiah, private. Aug. 30, 1862 

disch. at Philadelphia, Pa., Gen. Hosp 

April 4, 1863, dis. 
Davis, William B., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

disch. at U. S. A. Cxen. Hosp., Newark 

N. J., March 31, 1863, dis. 
Drake, Calvin, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

disch. at U. S. A. Gen. Hosp., Newark 

N. J., March 2, 1863, dis. 
Dunham, Daniel V., private, Sept. 4 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 



Dunham, George A., private, Sept. 4 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Dunham, Samuel S., private, Sept. 2 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Dunlap, James, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Drum, Jeremiah, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Dutlinger, Kasper, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
End, Felix, private, Aug. 30, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Fisher, Charles, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Freeman, James B., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Garretson, Ralph, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Giles, George F., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Giles, John V., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Giles, George, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

disch. at Washington, D. C., March 12 

1863, dis. 
Gleason, Michael, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Green, Clarendo D., private, Sept. 4, 1862 

killed in action at Fredericksburg, Dec, 

13, 1862. 
Harris, Lewis, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Henderson, William W., private, Aug. 30, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Lake, Philip, private, Sept. 2, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Lake, George, private, Sept. 2, 1862 

disch. at Washington, D. C, Jan. 15 

1863, dis. 
Lane, Aaron H., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

died of diarrhoea, Washington, D. C 

Dec. 27, 1863. 
King, Lewis, private, Aug. 30, 1862 ; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Martin, John, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Matchet, Amos, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Merrell, John, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

disch. at Falmouth, Va., Jan. 1, 1863 

Langstaff, Joel F., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

killed in action at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Dec. 13, 1862. 
Merrell, William C, private, Aug. 30 

1862; died at hosp., Washington, D. C 

Jan. I, 1863, of wounds received in 

McCray, Martin, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

killed in action at Fredericksburg, Va., 

Dec. 13, 1862. 
Mundy, Phineas, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Pennington, Nathan C., private, Aug. 30, 

1862 ; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Richards, Jacob, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 

Randolph, Joel D. F., private, Aug. 30, 

1862; disch. at Newark, N. J., April 8, 

1863, dis. 
Robinson, Thomas, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Ryno, Lewis, private, Aug. 30, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Ryno, Augustus, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

died of injuries at Washington, D. C 

Jan. 22, 1863. 
Runyon, Peter F., private, Sept. 3, 1862 

killed in action at Fredericksburg, Va, 

Dec. 13, 1862. 
Shiney, George H., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Smith, David S., private, Aug. 30._ 1862 

died of typhoid fever at Washington 

D. C, Jan. 13, 1863. 
Soper, Mahlon, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Stelle, Isaac R., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Stelle, John N. private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Straven, William, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Taylor, Gilbert B., private. Sept. 15, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Ten Broeck, John, private, Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Tingley, Charles D., private. Aug. 30, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Titsworth, Calvin D., private, Aug. 30 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Toupet, Charles W., private, .\ug. 30 

1862; died at Washington, D. C, Jan 

I, 1863, of wounds received in action. 
Van Nest, Thomas, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Van Nest, William, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Wendover, William A., private, Aug. 30, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Wooding, Benjamin, private, Sept. 3, 1862 

disch. at hosp., Newark, N. J., March 

4, 1863, dis. 

Company D. — Dunham, William H., capt., 

Sept. 4, 1862; must, out July 6, 1863. 
Hatfield, Augustus, ist lieut., Sept. 4, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Cook, William J., 2d lieut., dismissed Feb. 

26, 1863. 
Voorhees, John H., ist sergt., Aug. 27, 

1862; 2d lieut. vice Cook, dismissed, 

Feb. 27, 1863 ; must, out with regt. July 

6, 1863. 
Randolph, Alexander F., corp., Aug. 27 

1862; sergt. Dec. 13, 1862; ist sergt 

March i, 1863; must, out with regt 

July 6, 1863. 
Cause, Andrew, Jr., sergt., Sept. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Denton, Charles, sergt., Sept. 27. 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bauer, Morris, sergt., Sept. 27, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 



Dunn, Isaac E., sergt., Aug. 27. 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6. 1863. 
Martin, Alexander, corp., Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bergen, Adrian W., corp., Aug. 20, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Ten Broeck, Gabriel H., Corp., Sept. 3 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Alcutt, Howard J., Corp., Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Oakey, David V., corp., Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Cathcart, Merrit G., corp., Sept. 2. 1862. 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hall. Reuben, musician, Aug. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Danberry, ]Mark, musician, Aug. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Agnew, Robert E., private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Applegate, Oscar, corp., Aug. 27, 1862 

disch. at Convalescent Camp, Alexan- 
dria, Va., Feb. 23. 1863. dis. 
Baird. David S., private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Baker, Nicholas, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Ballou, Francis, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Barton, William, private, Aug. 2y, 1862 

m.ust. cut with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bass, Phineas, private, Aug. 26, 1862 

nuist. out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Beggs, Joseph, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bergen, John, private. Aug. 29, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Boice, Theodore, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bowman, Isaac L., private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bradley, William H., private, Aug. 26, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Brannagan. Thomas, private, Sept. 2 

1S62; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Buzzee, John, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Capes, Reuben, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Carolan, John, private, Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Carrigan, Eugene, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

disch. at Convalescent Camp, Alexan- 
dria, Va., Feb. 19, 1863, wounds received 

at Fredericksburg. 
Castner, James J., private, Sept. 2, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Cavilier, Isaac, private, .-Xug. 29, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Churchward, Geo. W., private, Aug. 29, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Coddington, Martin S., private, Aug. 30, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6. 1863. 
Combs, Benjamin P., private, .-Xug. 29, 

1862; killed in action at Fredericksburg, 

Va., Dec. 13, 1862. 

Cummings, George W., private, Aug. 29, 

1862; died at hosp., Washington. D. C, 

Jan. 14, 1863, of wounds received in ac- 
tion at Fredericksburg. 
Davidson, Enos A., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Ferote, Simeon, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Ferote, William, private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Finch, James H., private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
I'oster, Francis, private, Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
French, John, private, Sept. 2, 1862 

killed in action at Fredericksburg, Dec 

13, 1862. 
Ferguson, Edward, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

deserted Dec. i, 1862, at Washington 

D. C. 
Gamble, William, private, Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Gcrhardt, Frederick G., private, Aug. 30, 

1862; disch. at Convalescent Camp 

Alexandria, Va., April 2, 1863, dis. 
Grace, Hubert, private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Grogan, William, private, Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Haggerty, James, private, Sept. 3, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hargrove, James, Aug. 29, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Haviland, Joseph T., private, Aug. 26 

1862; disch. at Falmouth, Va., Feb. 15 

1863, disability. 
Hendrickson, George W., private, Aug. 29, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Hickey, Thomas, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Holman, George, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1862. 
Holcomb, Theophilus M., private, Aug. 28, 

1862; died of fever at New Brunswick 

N. J., April I, 1863. 
Jeffries, Joseph C, private, Sept. I, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Jeffries, John, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Jones, John J., private, Sept. i, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Kenna, Thomas, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Lally, ]\Iartin, private, Sept. 2, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Lovett. Richard, private, Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
McLaughlin, Michael, private, Sept. I 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Meyers, John, private, Aug. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Miller, Adam, private, Sept. i, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1S63. 
Marsh, William, private, Sept. 2. 1862 

killed in action at Chancellorsville, May 

3, 1863. 



McDavitt, Francis, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

deserted Oct. 12, 1862, at Washington 

D. C. 
Mooney, William, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Morris, Michael, private, Sept. 3, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Oakey, Blanchard, private, Aug. 26, 1862 

discb. at Washington, D. C, Feb. 12 

1863, disability. 
Oliver, Francis, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

killed in action at Fredericksburg, Va 

Dec. 13, 1862. 
Peyton, John, private, Sept. 2, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Quinn, Henry, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

died at Washington, D. C, Jan. 11, 1863, 

of wounds received in action at Fred- 
Reed, John, private, Aug. 30, 1862; killed 

in action at Chancellorsville. May 3, 

Romage, George, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Ross, George W., private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Sanderson, Walter E., private, Aug. 29 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Shand, James, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Shellady, George W., wagoner, Sept. 8 

1862 ; disch. at Falmouth, Va., March 3 

1863 ; disability. 
Skirm, James, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Smith, Henry G., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Stryker, David S., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Suydam, Peter W., private, Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Tallman, George H., private, Aug. 30, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Taylor, Joseph, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Thompson, Walter, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

deserted Sept. 19, 1862, at Freehold 

Trout, Garret, private, Aug. 27, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Van Arsdale, James C, private, Aug. 29, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Van Natta, Aaron, private, Sept. 3, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Van Nortwick, Henry W., private, Aug, 

29, 1862; must, out with regt. July 6 

Van Syckel, Jacob, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Watson, John, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6. 1863. 
Wilson, Cornelius B., private, Aug. 26, 

1862 killed in action at Fredericksburg, 

Va., Dec. 13, 1862. 
Wright, Lewis, private, Aug. 31, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 


Company F. — Inslee, Isaac, Jr., capt., Sept. 

15, 1862; must, out July 6, 1863. 
Robins, Benjamin A., ist lieut., Sept. 15 

1862; pro. adjt. March 19, 1863; must, 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Wester field, John W., 2d lieut., Sept. 15 

1862; resigned Oct. 31, 1862. 
Marsh, Seymour, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

2d lieut. znce Westerfield, resigned, Feb 

II, 1863; must, out with regt. July 6 

Barton, John, sergt., Aug. 30, 1862; ist 

sergt. May i, 1863; must, out with regt 

July 6, 1863. 
Coats, Charles, sergt., Sept. i, 1862; must, 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
McClarence, John S., sergt., Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Harriott, David H., sergt., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Stroud, William F., sergt., Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Martin, Augustus, corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Grace, Thomas, corp., Sept. 2, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Giles, David S., corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Munn, John, corp., Aug. 30, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1&53. 
Bloodgood, William H. H., corp., Aug. 30 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Payne, Jeremiah F., corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Baldwin, William R., corp., Sept. 26, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Baldwin, Alfred, corp., Sept. 3, 1863; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bogart, John H., musician, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bessler, John, musician, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Barton, Augustus, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bedam, Charles, private, Sept. 3, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bergen, Charles W., Aug. 30, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Blair, David, private, Sept. 2, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bloomfield, Edwin A., private, Sept. 2 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Bones, John, private, Sept. i, 1862; must, 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bowman, Henry, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Brobell, Ulrich, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

died at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 14, 

1862, of wounds received the previous 

day in action. 
Burns, Christopher, private, Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Cahill, Dennis, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Challhepp, John, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 

1 62 


Claus, Tames, private, Aug. 30, 1862; must. 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Clayton, Asher M., private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Collins, Arthur, private, Aug. 26, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Connolly, Edward, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Conners, Patrick, private, Sept. "i, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Coddington, William K., ist sergt., Sept. 

2. 1862; disch. at Washington, D. C, 

April 17, 1863, on account of wounds 

received in action at Fredericksburg, 

Cook, Henry, private, Sept. 3, 1862; must. 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Cushing, Patrick, private, Aug. 29, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Cutter, Joseph, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

killed in action at Fredericksburg, Dec. 

13, 1862. 
Debold, Peter, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
DeWitt, John C, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

died of measles near Falmouth, Va., 

Jan. 15, 1863. 
Doty, William, private, Sept. 2, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Dunning, George C, private, Sept. 3, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Dunnigan, John, private, Sept. i, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Foley, Dennis, private, Aug. 26, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Fouratt, George E., private, Aug. 26, 1862 ; 
^ must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Freeman, John J., private, Sept. 2, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Furlong, William, private, Aug. 26, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Frazee, Henry, private, Sept. 2, 1862; 

disch. at hosp., Phila., Pa., Feb. 9, 1863, 

Gardner, Francis, private, Sept. 3, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Garretson, Albert G., private, Aug. 26, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Giles, John H., private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

pro. to sergt.-maj. Sept. 22, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Gilman, Charles D., sergt., Aug. 30, 1862; 

died of typhoid fever near Falmouth, 

Va., Jan. 24, 1863. 
Grace, Thomas K., private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Haggerty, William, private, Sept. 3, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hauxhurst, Richard F., private, Sept. 3, 
1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hone, Frederick, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Jackson, John T., private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Jaques, Mortimore, private, Sept. 3, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 

Johnson, James H., private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Keller, Christopher, private, Aug. 26, 1862 ; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Kervin, John, private, Aug. 26, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
McElhaney, William, private, Aug. 29, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
McClay, John, private, Aug. 28, 1862; 

deserted Sept. 25, 1862, at Freehold, 

N. J. 
McGrail, Patrick, private, Aug. 28, 1862; 

died at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 15, 

1862, of wounds received in action there 
on the 13th. 

Manning, Thomas, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 
disch. at Point Lookout, Md., April 10, 

1863, disability. 

Mott, Samuel, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

disch. at hospital. New York Harbor, 

Feb. 14, 1863, wounds received in ac- 
tion at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 

Moffett, George B., private, Aug. 3, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Morris, George B., private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Mulligan, William F., private, Aug. 28, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Munn, David C, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Oliver, Thomas A., private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Patterson, William H., private, .Aug. 30, 

Payne, Bethune D., private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Pressler, Edward, private, Aug. 28, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Roxbury, Andrew J., private, Aug. 28, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Ruddy, Robert, private, Sept. 2, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Toms, Crowell M., private, Sept. 2, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Temple, Alfred S., private, Aug. 28, 1862; 

deserted Sept. 25, 1862, at Freehold, 

N. J. 
Tucker, Patrick, private, Aug. 28, 1862; 

deserted Sept. 25, 1862, at Freehold, 

Valentine, Mulford D., private, Sept. 2, 

1862; must out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Webber, John, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Welsh, John, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Wright, George A., private, Sept. 2, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Welsh, David G., wagoner, Sept. 2, 1862; 

died at Washington, D. C, of wounds 

received at Fredericksburg, Va. 
Young, Henry, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Young, Henry S., private, Sept. 2, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 



Young, Theodore, private, Sept. 2, 1862; 
must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 

Company K. — Storer, George, capt., Sept. 

20, 1862 ; must, out July 6, 1863. 
Bresnahan, James, ist lieut., Sept. 20 

1862; dismissed by order War Dept 

May 15, 1863. 
Conk, Thomas, 2d lieut, Sept. 20, 1862 

disch. Jan. 2, 1863. 
Bolton, John T., ist sergt., Aug. 30, 1862 

2d lieut. vice Conk, disch. March i 

Stillwell, Aaron, sergt., Aug. 30, 1862, 

1st sergt. March i, 1863; must, out with 

regt. July 6, 1863. 
Fowler, Charles S., sergt., Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Thorn, William, Jr., corp., Aug. 30, 1862; 

sergt. March i, 1863; must, out with 

regt. July 6, 1863. 
Thomas, David, corp., Aug. 30, 1862 ; 

sergt. March i, 1863; must, out with 

regt. July 6, 1863. 
Van Dusen, David, corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Thorn, Andrew C, corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hudnet, William, corp., Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Fowler, John C, corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hulsehart, Peter, corp., Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Barber, Peter, corp., Aug. 30, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Drake, Isaac, corp., March i, 1863; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Thorn, Timothy S., corp., March i, 1863 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Buzzee, Aaron, musician, Aug. 2Q, 1862. 
Laforge, John, wagoner, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Applegate, Noah, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Arose, Elisha, private, Sept. i, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Arose, Abraham, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

died of typhoid fever near Falmouth 

Va., March 14, 1863. 
Bloodgood, Peter, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bloodgood, Michael, private, Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bogart, Abraham, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out witti regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bolton, Thomas O., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Bray, George W., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Brock, William, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

deserted Feb. 20, 1863, at Philadelphia 

Compton, Henry, private, Aug. 29, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Culver, George, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must out with regt. Jiily 6, 1863 

Dayton, John D., private, Sept. 2, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Dewan, Michael, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

deserted Jan. 14, 1863. 
Disbrow, Cortlandt, private, Aug. 30, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Dunn, Thomas, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

missing in action at Fredericksburg, Va., 

Dec. 13, 1862; supposed dead. 
Durham, John, private, Aug. 30, 1862;. died 

at U. S. A. Hosp., at Washington, D. C, 

of wounds reed, in action at Fredericks- 
Ford, Charles P., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Furman, William H., private, Aug. 30, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Furness, William T., private, Aug. 30, 

1862 ; must, out with regt July 6, 1863 
Githens, Joseph M., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Gordon, Embly S., private, Sept. 22, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hagar, Abraham C., private, Aug. 30, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863 
Hogar, David, private, Sept. 22, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hansell, Cornelius, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

deserted Jan. 14, 1863, at hosp., New 

York Harbor. 
Hanzey, Charles, private, Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hoagland, John H., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Hulsehart, Cornelius, Jr., private. Sept 

2, 1862 ; must, out with regt. July 6, 

Hunt, Robert, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Jackson, Robert, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
King, Robert, private, Aug. 28, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Keough, Thomas, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

deserted Sept. 23, 1862, at Camp Vred 

enburgh. Freehold, N. J. 
Lester, Francis W., private, Sept. 2, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Letts, George V., private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Martin, James, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
McGraw, Isaac, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

killed in action at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Dec. 13, 1862. 
McGrath, John, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
McNally, James, private, Aug. 30. 1862 

must, out with regt July 6, 1863. 
Miller, Charles, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Mullenfels, William, private, Aug. 30 

1862; must, out with regt July 6, 1863 
O'Brien, William, private, Aug. 30, 1862 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Prink, Jacob, private, Sept. i, 1862; must 

out with regt. July 6, 1863 



Rightmire, William H., private, Sept. 2, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Rogers, Henry A., private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Seward, George H., private, Aug. 30, 1862 ; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Seward, John A., Jr.. private, Aug. 30, 

1862; must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Shaffer, Philip, private, Aug. 30. 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Smith. Charles, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

missing in action at Fredericksburg, 

Dec. 13, 1862. 
Soden, James, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Stephens, Miller, private. Aug. 29, 1862; 

must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Stolt, John, private, Aug. 30, 1862; must. 

out with regt. July 6, 1863. 
Van Nest, Jacob M., private, Aug. 30, 

1862; must! out with regt. July 6, 1863. 

Voorhees, Peter P., private, Aug. 30, 1862; 
disch. at Convalescent Camp, Alexan- 
dria, Va., Feb. 17, 1863, dis. 

Roberts, Jonathan R., private, Aug. 30, 
1862; disch. for disability in camp, Vir- 
ginia, Nov. ID, 1862. 

Robert, Isaac, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 
disch. for disability near Washington, D. 
C, Jan. 3, 1863. 

Passell, John V., musician, Aug. 30, 1862; 
disch. at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., 
March 8, 1863, dis. 

Heenan, Martin, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 
disch. at Baltimore, Md., March 3, 1863, 

White, Lewis A., sergt., Sept. i. 1862; 
disch. at Convalescent Camp, Alexan- 
dria, Va., June 6, 1863, dis. 

Warner, Benjamin, private, Aug. 30, 1862; 
must, out with regt. July 6, 1863. 

Company A. — Smith, John, private, March 

11, 1864; trans, to Co. M. 
Clifford, James, private. 

Company B. — Page, Charles W., sergt., 

Aug. 5, 1861 ; re-enl. Jan. i, 1864; 

killed by accident Nov. 3, 1864. 
Pomeroy, Christopher F., private, Aug. 7, 

1861 ; disch. at Washington, D. C, May 

29, 1862, dis. 
Van Derveer, Arnold H., private, Aug. 31, 

1861 ; sergt. May 5, 1862; re-enl. Feb. 

I, 1864; sergt. May 20, 1864; must, out 

July 24, 1865. 
Wilson, William H., private, Aug. 26, 

1861 ; re-enl. Jan. i, 1864; sergt. Jan. 

15, 1864; 2d lieut. Co. G Jan. 30, 1865. 

Company H. — Stewart, Alexander, ist 
sergt., Aug. 22, 1861 ; 2d lieut. Co. E 
May 4, 1862; res. Dec. 22, 1862; pa- 
roled prisoner. 

Marks, Charles W., private, Oct. 4, 1862; 
in hosp. at Washington May 31, 1865. 

Lawrence, James, Jr., sergt., Aug. 21, 1861 ; 
disch. at Convalescent Camp, Alexan- 
dria, Va., April 14, 1863. 

Bailey, Cornelius. 

Cause, Robert B., corp., Aug. 27, 1861 ; 
sergt. June 15, 1862; pro. sergt. -maj. 
Feb. 4, 1863 ; pro. 2d lieut. Co. G, Aug. 

12, 1863; 1st lieut. Co. E, March 29, 1864; 


capt. vice Robins, pro. Nov. i, 1864; 
must, out July 24, 1865. 

Senker, Henry, private, Aug. 21. 1861 ; 
Corp. Aug. 22, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. 
Corps. Aug. I, 1863; disch. therefrom 
Jan. 30, 1864. 

Suydam, Peter H., saddler, Sept. 7, 1861 ; 
pro. saddler sergt., 3d Batt., Feb. 19, 1862. 

Shulthise, Jacob; Alston, William; An- 
drews, Edward ; Anderson, Garret T. ; 
Applegate, George ; Auld, James M. ; 
Bohn, James ; Bush, John ; Collhip, John ; 
Christ, Leonard; Corridan, James; 
Cochran, John ; Cone, Daniel ; Ectil, 
John ; Foster, John ; Foller, Michael ; 
Gray, D. Eugene; Glenn, William; 
Hunt, Jonathan ; Hart, David ; Hinckly, 
Charles; Hinckle, Theodore; Hudson, 
William ; Hardy, Pyatt ; Jackson, Wil- 
liam ; Kelly, Walter; Kohler, John; 
Labar, Henry B. ; Letts, George; Letts, 
John ; Messroll, Jonathan ; McClellan, 
James ; McLaughlin, James ; Norman, 
Benjamin; Oaks, John; Oliver, John; 
Plum, John; Porter, William; Par- 
dunn, Charles A; Rappleyea, William; 
Reeder, George ; Suydam, Stephen ; 
Snyder, John ; Snyder, Stephen ; Stev- 
ens, William; Telus, Charles; Van 
Note, Peter; Van Heise, Anthony; 
Van Dervere, Arnold; Voorhees, 


In the words of the immortal Shakespeare, "Grim visaged war had 
smoothed her wrinkled front," and the veterans of the grand armies of 
the Republic had returned to their peaceful vocations ; the banker to 
attend to his financial obligations ; the lawyer to his clients ; the doctor 
to his patients ; the farmer to his agricultural pursuits ; the mechanic 
to engage in the industrial enterprises of the country. 

While Grant was hammering at the gates of Richmond, the nine- 
teenth presidential election was held. Lincoln, the "Great Emancipator," 
was a candidate for reelection ; associated with him was An'drew John- 
son, who had been Senator from Tennessee and military governor of that 
State. Johnson, while he was of southern nativity and a strong adherent 
of the Democratic party, having supported Breckinridge and Lane in 
i860, was, however, a pronounced Unionist. The substituting of another 
candidate by the Republicans for the New Englander holding the office 
of Vice-President (Hamlin) for one of southern birth, was to conciliate 
the Border States, and thereby weaken the geographical lines dividing 
the combatants. The Democrats placed in nomination General George 
B. McClellan and George H. Pendleton. The campaign was enlivened 
by torchlight processions carried on by an organization amongst the 
Republicans called the "Wide Awakes," and stump orators who 
harangued the crowds upon the necessity and advisability of Lin- 
coln's reelection ; while their opponents dwelt on the military exploits of 
their candidate, whose defeats in his attempts to capture Richmond 
were not laid to the superiority of the enemy's forces, but to political 
machinations at the National Capital. Though the Democratic candi- 
dates received in the electoral college only twenty-one to their Repub- 
lican opponents' 212 votes. New Jersey, true to her Democratic principles, 
gave a majority of 7,301 for McClellan and Pendleton, of which Mid- 
dlesex county contributed seven hundred. This, however, was a distinct 
gain for the Republicans over the previous State election in 1862, when 
Joel Parker, the Democratic candidate for governor, received a majority 
of 14,597. In Middlesex county Amos Robbins, a Democrat, was elected 
to the Senate, the delegation to the Assembly consisting of one Repub- 
lican and two Democrats. 

The assassination of President Lincoln by a fanatic, and an attempted 
conspiracy against the lives of other officials, cast a shroud of mourning 
throughout the land. Johnson, who succeeded to the presidency, 
antagonized the Republican leaders in his favoritism to the reconstruc- 
tion of the States that had been in revolt against the Union. The con- 


vention of that party in 1868 nominated the strongest logical candidate 
for the presidency, the conqueror of Richmond, General Ulysses S. 
Grant ; his associate on the ticket was Schuyler Colfax. The Democrats 
turned to the Empire State for their presidential candidate and selected 
Horatio Seymour, who had been governor during two years of the Civil 
War. Associated with him was Francis P. Blair, of Missouri, for Vice- 
President. New Jersey was carried by the Democrats by a decreased 
majority ; the Middlesex majority was 365. Theodore Frelinghuysen 
Randolph, a native of New Brunswick, the Democratic nominee for 
governor, secured a majority of 418 in the county. One Republican and 
two Democrats were elected to the Assembly. In the Third Congres- 
sional District, John Taylor Bird, of Flemington, was elected to the 
Forty-first Congress. 

At the time of the reelection of General Grant in 1872, there was in 
New Jersey a landslide for the Republicans, they receiving a majority 
of 15,200, which was the largest ever given any presidential candidate 
up to that time. Every ward in the city of New Brunswick went Repub- 
lican ; two of the three members of that party were elected to the Assem- 
bly. The Republican electoral ticket received in Middlesex count}' a- 
majority of seven hundred. Amos Clark, Jr., of Elizabeth, a Republican, 
in the Third District, was elected to the Forty-third Congress. 

The Republican majority obtained in 1872 was overcome in 1876 by 
the Democrats in New Jersey. With victory floating from their ban- 
ner, they gave Tilden and Hendricks a plurality of 12,445. This was 
largely due to the reports circulated by the Democrats that Rutherford 

B. Hayes, the Republican candidate, was a Sunday man and strongly 
temperance, which caused many of the German residents of the State 
to vote the Democratic ticket. Middlesex county not only supported the 
Democratic ticket by a plurality of 570, but elected George C. Ludlow, 
a resident of New Brunswick, to the Senate, and a full delegation to the 

In the memorable State election in 1877, General George B. McClel- 
lan, the Democratic candidate for governor, had been a resident of the 
State since his retirement from the army. New Brunswick gave his 
Republican opponent, William E. Newell, a majority of 534; the other 
districts of Middlesex county favored McClellan the second, giving a 
majority of 170; the third, 210 — thus reducing Newell's majority in the 
county to 154. 

In the presidential election of 1880, Middlesex county was still 
strongly Democratic, the first district, which consisted of New Bruns- 
wick, gave a majority of 652; the second, 156; the third, 559. James H. 
Van Cleef, of New Brunswick ; Manning Freeman, of Metuchen, and 
Stephen Martin, of South Amboy, were elected to the Assembly. George 

C. Ludlow, a resident of New Brunswick, was elected governor by a 
plurality of 651. 


In the three succeeding presidential elections, Middlesex county 
loyally supported the Democratic candidate, Grover Cleveland, a son of 
New Jersey. His majority in the county in 1884 was 171, notwithstand- 
ing that the Republican candidate for Assembly, John Carson, in one 
of the districts received a majority of 784, and John Martin, of South 
Amboy, and Edward S. Savage, of Woodbridge, on the Democratic 
ticket, were elected by only fifteen majority. In 1888 the county gave 
a plurality of 1,148 for Cleveland and Thurman ; the Assembly delega- 
tion elected consisted of two Democrats and one Republican. 

The election in 1892 was a Democratic landslide, the national ticket 
receiving an increased plurality. In Middlesex county, three Democratic 
members of the Assembly were elected ; also, the congressional district 
elected John T. Dunn, of Elizabeth, a Democrat, to the Ffty-third Con- 

The State election in 1895 in New Jersey was a forerunner of the 
Republican landslide that took place the following year; for the first 
time in thirty years the Republicans elected their candidate for governor 
by a plurality of 26,900 votes. The adherence of the western Democrats 
under the leadership of William Jennings Bryan to the fallacy of free 
silver with an unlimited coinage at a standard of sixteen to one, coupled 
with the opposition to the McKinley tariff bill for the protection of 
American industries, was to solidify the people of New Jersey and cause 
the desertion of many Democrats of that State to the Republican party, 
which advocated hard money and protection to the American wage 
earner. Although Bryan, whose oratorical achievements at the Demo- 
cratic convention in 1896 where he delivered his famous "Cross of Gold" 
speech made him the candidate of the party for President, and during 
the campaign he delivered political speeches in the State, the Repub- 
licans were triumphant in New Jersey, giving a plurality of 87,692 for 
the McKinley and Hobart electors. To this plurality Middlesex county 
contributed 3,328. For the first time in the election of members of the 
Assembly, instead of voting by districts the three candidates were elected 
by the entire vote of the county. Their pluralities varied from 2,650 to 
2,776, and Alexander Charles Letterst, of Menlo Park; Jacob H. Whit- 
field of New Brunswick, and James Fountain, of Browntown, were the 
successful candidates. 

The next notable natural event that the people of Middlesex county 
were called upon to take part in was the Spanish-American war. It was 
on February 16, 1898, that the naval disaster at Havana, Cuba, occurred, 
resulting in the sinking of the battleship "Maine." Throughout the 
length and breadth of the land the cry went forth, "Remember the 
'Maine'." The country's ultimatum was handed the Spanish govern- 
ment April 20, 1898, which was immediately followed by the President's 
call for 125,000 volunteers. Enrollment officers were opened in the 


State and the quota of New Jersey was soon filled. Then came Dewey's 
victory at Manila Bay, and an additional call by the President for 7^,000 
volunteers. Middlesex county readily filled her part of the State's quota, 
which was dispatched to the regimental camps of the newly created 
army. While these troops took no part in active warfare, they were 
decimated by diseases contracted in the southern mobilization camps. 
The destruction of the Spanish fleet and the surrender of the Spanish 
army at Santiago virtually closed the war. 

In the campaign of 1900, the Republican plurality in Middlesex 
county was 2,156, the members of the Assembly, State senator and 
governor on that ticket receiving about the same plurality. The vote 
of the county in the presidential campaign in 1904 was for the Republican 
electoral ticket 10,116, to 7,005 cast for the Democratic electors; the 
Republican Assembly candidates were elected by about the same plu- 
rality. The presidential election of 1908 was devoid of any great political 
excitement, and the Republican party maintained its normal majorities. 
The vote cast for the Republican electors in Middlesex county was 
11,261, the Democratic electors receiving 7,941. The same plurality was 
obtained for members of Congress and members of the Assembly. 

In the State election two years later, the Democrats placed at the 
head of their ticket for governor, Woodrow Wilson. Mr. Wilson was 
not a native of the State, and though he was a graduate of Princeton 
College in 1877 his career in the State did not commence until September, 
1890, when he entered upon his duties as professor of jurisprudence and 
political economy in Princeton University. This department of the 
University was divided in 1895, when he was assigned to the chair of 
jurisprudence and as the result of a large gift by Cyrus H. McCormick 
of Chicago two years later he was promoted to the McCormick profes- 
sorship of jurisprudence and politics. He was elected president of the 
University in 1902, and resigned both that ofifice and his professorship 
immediately after his nomination for the office of governor of New Jer- 
sey. The nomination of Governor Wilson by the Democrats, though it 
was his first appearance in the political life of the State, was to turn the 
tide of Republican supremacy. Middlesex county gave the Democratic 
nominee a plurality of 1,894, and at the same time elected a Democratic 
congressman in the district and three members of the Assembly. 

The election of Governor Wilson by a plurality of 49,056 made him 
a prominent candidate for the presidential nomination. His State pre- 
sented his name at the convention held at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1912, 
and after the taking of a number of ballots he became the party's nom- 
inee. The Republican party was handicapped by the organizatioti within 
its ranks of a Progressive party, each of whom nominated a candidate 
for President, thereby making it a triangular fight for the election. Mid- 
dlesex county divided its allegiance to the Republican party, casting the 


following vote: Republican, 4,730; Progressive, 5,050; Democratic, 8,177. 
The split in the Republican ranks caused the election of a Democratic 
senator and assemblyman. Four years later, when the Democratic 
nominee for President was reelected, Middlesex county retained her 
nominal plurality, giving the Democratic electors 11,851 votes to 9,975 
cast for the Republican electors. Joseph S. Frelinghuysen, the Repub- 
lican candidate for United States senator, received in the county a 
majority, while Thomas J. Scully, a Democrat, was reelected to Con- 
gress after a recount granted by the Supreme Court. His opponent on 
the first face of the returns receiving a plurality of fourteen, the recount 
gave Mr. Scully a plurality of 203. A Republican delegation was elected 
to the Assembly. 

The nation again made a peremptory call to arms in the spring of 
1917. The Continental War, better known as the World War, had 
been raging for over two years, and had reached such a condition of 
affairs that threatened the peace and happiness of the citizens of the 
country, and it became evident that the United States must take her place 
in the defense of the rights of humanity. Middlesex county was thus 
called upon again to give of her population and wealth for the upholding 
of those principles which are the foundation and soul of every republic. 
To every call made upon her citizens, the responses were patriotically 
and bravely met. Many of her sons made the supreme sacrifice, while 
others were maimed for life ; her citizens responded liberally to the 
financial aid of the government. The war between the Allies and the 
Central Powers is of so recent occurrence that it does not become the 
part at present of local history ; in the township histories, however, will 
be found a record of the Roll of Honor. 

In the State election of 1919, the question of prohibition was the 
paramount issue, the political parties becoming known as "wet" or 
"dry." The governor elected was Edward I. Edwards, on a Democratic 
"wet" platform, though the Republicans carried Middlesex county by a 
plurality of 376. The Democrats, however, elected one of the members 
of the Assembly, who beat the lowest candidate for that ofifice on the 
Republican ticket by two hundred plurality. 

In the radical wave that swept over the political landscape in 1920, 
the immediate cause in which was woman suffrage and the high cost of 
living, Middlesex county was not backward in doing her part. For 
member of Congress she gave the Republican candidate 23,380 votes, 
while his Democratic opponent received 13,714. With this as an exam- 
ple, it is needless to say that State, district and county were carried by 
overwhelming pluralities for the Republican candidates. 




The bays and rivers of the Atlantic coast of New Jersey in the early part 
of the eighteenth century were visited by the buccaneers that infested 
the ocean. The harbor of Amboy and the Raritan river were amongst 
their places of rendezvous. Famous amongst this gentry was Captain 
William Kidd, a Scotchman by birth. He entered the merchant marine 
service in his youth and distinguished himself as a privateersman against 
the French in the West Indies. He became actively engaged against 
the pirates that infested the waters near New York, out of which port 
he sailed. A company was formed in England to suppress piracv, and 
amongst its shareholders were King William III., the Earl of Bellernont 
(afterwards governor of Massachusetts and New York), and Robert 
Livingston, of New York, and other men of wealth and influence. The 
"Adventure Galley," a ship of 287 tonnage, was purchased, and Kidd 
was appointed commander. Of the booty obtained from privateering, 
the King was to receive one-tenth, the balance to be divided amongst 
the other shareholders. The "Adventure Galley" arrived at New York 
July 4, 1696, and was well provisioned; its crew numbered one hundred 
and fifty-four. The ship sailed for Madagascar, the chief rendezvous of 
the pirates who infested the India seas. A year passed, rumors reached 
England that Kidd had turned pirate, and the royal shareholder and 
his associates perceiving the necessity of taking action, orders were 
issued to the colonial governors to arrest their erstwhile piratical partner. 
In the spring of 1699, Kidd appeared in the West Indies in a vessel loaded 
with treasure. Leaving this ship in the bay on the coast of Hayti, he 
sailed in a sloop with forty men, his objective point being Boston, where 
the Earl of Bellemont was then located as governor of Massachusetts. 
On arriving off the coast of Rhode Island, he sent his legal representa- 
tive to inquire how his partner would receive him. Bellemont's answer 
was such that Kidd proceeded to Boston, where he was arrested, sent 
to England, tried on the charge of piracy and murder, and was executed 
May 24, 1721, protesting his innocence. It is an admitted fact that 
his trial was grossly unfair, and that he was made a scapegoat to shield 
the sins of men in higher walks of life. Bellemont received the treasure 
hid by Kidd on Gardiner Island, also that which was on the sloop, which 
aggregated over $70,000, but there is no evidence to show what distri- 
bution he made of the plunder secured by piracy. There is little doubt 
that considerable treasure was buried by Kidd on the shores of Long 
Island after his return from his piratical expeditions, but that Amboy 
or part of the Raritan river were favored is scarcely possible. Still, the 


residents of that section of the country have made various searches for 
the hidden gold, though no attempt has resulted in obtaining the least 
portion of the filthy lucre. A boulder at Perth Amboy known as "the 
big rock" was overturned, but expectations were not realized. Numerous 
pits were dug in what was known as the "Cedars," and even the Episco- 
pal church-yard was invaded by a digging expedition, but no financial 
gains were obtained. Kidd and his buried treasures have long since been 
forgotten, and the reign of the pirates along the New Jersey Atlantic 
coast came to an inglorious end about 1725. 

It was in the vicinity of Cranbury that the devoted and pious evan- 
gelist, David Brainerd, in 1745 labored to make religious converts of 
the Indians. This self-sacrificing champion of the works and teachings 
of his Divine Master was at this time in the twenty-seventh year of his 
age. He had been expelled in 1743 from Yale College for disobeying 
orders, refusing to acknowledge his error in attending prohibited meet- 
ings of those who were attached to the preaching of Whitefield and Ten- 
nent. He at that time resolved to become a missionary amongst the 
Indians, and commenced his theological studies. His first labors were 
amongst the Stockbridge Indians in the vicinity of Kinderhook, New 
York. Here, though he was feeble in body and often ill, he lived in a 
wigwam, sleeping on straw, his food being boiled corn, hastypudding 
and soup. 

Of this itinerancy in Middlesex county we quote extracts from his 
journal. It was in the afternoon of August 8, 1745. He preached to 
the Indians, their number being sixty-five men, women and children. 
The public discourse was from Luke xiv: 16-23; and after the sermon, 
followed by personal solicitations on the part of the missionary, both 
the old and the young bowed in mercy and rejoiced in Christ Jesus. The 
following day another public meeting was held, the evangelist's text 
being the parable of the sower, his concluding remarks were a few words 
spoken from Matthew xi 129. The shades of night were falling when the 
services ended, and there was a deep agitation amongst the Indians ; 
some of them seemed to be in great distress to find and secure an inter- 
est in the great Redeemer ; almost every one was praying and crying, and 
on every side was heard Guttunimau kalunimeh, Guttiimmau kalummeh, 
i. e. "Have mercy upon me, have mercy upon me!" The assiduous duties 
of the young missionary caused his health to suffer, compelling him in 
the summer of 1747 to leave his chosen field of work. He lingered until 
the autumn of that year, being then only twenty-nine years of age, his 
spirit passing from earth October 9, 1747. 

It was on the heights surrounding New Brunswick that Washington's 
first meeting with Hamilton took place. In the retreat of the American 
army through Jersey after the disastrous battle of Long Island, 
Washington's intentions were to make a stand against the enemy at New 


Brunswick, but his rapidly dissolving army was not strong enough to 
risk an engagement. On the Heights of New Brunswick, near the pas- 
sage of the Raritan river, Hamilton, then a captain of artillery, with his 
fieldpieces effectually checked the advance of the enemy, thus giving 
Washington several hours start of the pursuing British army. From the 
river bank the commander-in-chief's attention was attracted by the 
courage and skill displayed by the young officer of artillery. He ordered 
his aide-de-camp to ascertain who the officer was, and at the first call 
to the army to bring him to headquarters. In the interview that ensued, 
Washington quickly discovered in the young patriot and warrior those 
qualities of head and heart that gained him renown in his after life. 

General Washington during the Revolutionary War was frequently 
in Middlesex county. On his journey to New York to be inaugurated the 
first President of the United States, accompanied by Charles Thomson, 
Colonel Humphreys, and his favorite body servant, he was a guest on 
the night of April 22, 1789, at the Cross and Key Tavern in Woodbridge, 
now Rahway. He was escorted to the hotel by the Woodbridge cav- 
alry, under command of Captain Ichabod Potter. 

The visit of the illustrious Lafayette, "the hero of two worlds," to 
the United States, was a memorable event in the summer of 1824. He 
was received with honor and distinction throughout the whole country, 
and, during the course of his travels, celebrations, processions, dinners, 
illuminations, bonfires, parties, balls, serenades and rejoicings, attended 
his way from the moment he set foot on American soil until his embark- 
ation to return to his native France. He visited New Brunswick, and 
was there entertained by his companion in arms, General John Neilson. 
At Woodbridge, on September 24, 1824, one of the special features of 
his reception was the presence of sixteen little girls dressed in white, 
each bearing on her bosom a letter made of marigolds which together 
formed the words "Welcome Lafayette." 

Amongst those who attained distinction in the national and State 
annals of the country, who were natives of Middlesex county, none 
deserve a more prominent place in its history than James Schureman. 
Born in New Brunswick in pre-revolutionary times, his youth fell upon 
those days that were inflamed with great waves of indignation which 
wrought momentous changes in the history of the world. On the eve 
of the hostilities with the mother country, while a private in a militia 
company, the captain of which was urging his command to volunteer in 
the colonial army, not one responding, Schureman, stepping from the 
ranks, addressed his fellow soldiers in such moving and impassioned 
terms that a sudden reaction took place, the majority of his associates 
immediately pledging themselves for the war. The company thus 
formed gave effective services at the battle of Long Island. 

Schureman was taken prisoner during the war, near Lawrence 


Brook, three miles south of his birthplace. After being confined in a 
guardhouse in that locality he was removed to a sugar house in New 
York City. By bribing the guard, he obtained the privilege of the 
prison yard. One night liquor was given the sentinels, and our youthful 
adventurer dug through the walls of the prison, making his escape and 
joining the American army at Morristown. Schureman was a man of parts, 
and his qualities included statesmanship as well as those of a soldier. 
He was a member of the Continental Congress, represented his con- 
gressional district in the lower house of Congress, and was for two years 
a member of the Senate. He was at one time mayor of New Brunswick, 
and a member of the New Jersey Assembly. He died in New Brunswick, 
January 24, 1824. 

The lawyer, soldier and governor, Joseph Bloomfield, was born at 
Woodbridge, in 1755, the son of Dr. Moses Bloomfield, 'and a descendant 
of Thomas Bloomfield, the American pioneer ancestor who settled at 
Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1638. After receiving a classical educa- 
tion at Deerfield, Cumberland county. New Jersey, he studied law at 
Perth Amboy under Cortlandt Skinner, and entered upon practice at 
Bridgton. His legal activities were speedily interrupted by the war, 
and in February, 1776, he was commissioned captain of the Third New 
Jersey Regiment, destined to be ordered to take part in the expedition 
against Canada. The regiment having reached Albany, New York, 
learned of the Continental repulse at Quebec, and was dispatched to the 
Mohawk Valley to overawe the Indians. The following November it 
was marched to Ticonderoga, and there Captain Bloomfield was 
appointed judge advocate, ranking as major, but resigned his commis- 
sion in 1778. 

His political and official life dates from his resignation from the 
army. In the fall of 1778 he was chosen clerk of the Assembly, and was 
for several years register of the Court of Admiralty. In 1783 he became 
attorney-general of the State, resigning from that office in 1792. As 
presidential elector in 1792, he voted for Washington and Adams, but, 
contracting a friendly acquaintance with Thomas Jefferson, he became 
a prominent leader of the Democratic party. At this period, in point 
of ability he has been compared with Alexander Hamilton, the great 
leader of the Federalists. As a general of militia he was called into 
service to take part in quelling the Whiskey Insurrection in Pennsyl- 
vania. He was the first governor of the State elected on the Demo- 
cratic (then called the Republican) ticket. In the fall of 1801 the State 
Legislature was for the first time Democratic, and General Bloomfield 
received thirty votes for governor against twenty cast for Richard 
Stockton. The following year the parties were equally divided, and 
though there were attempts to compromise, all propositions were refused 
by the Democrats, therefore there was no choice for governor and the 


vice-president of the Council, John Lambert, performed the duties of 
the executive office. The next year Governor Bloomfield received thirty- 
three votes and Richard Stockton seventeen, and in 1804 he had thirty- 
seven to his opponent's sixteen votes. Afterwards until 1812 he was 
reelected without opposition. 

At the breaking out of the War of 1812, President Madison commis- 
sioned Governor Bloomfield a brigadier-general in the army. His bri- 
gade reached Sacketts Harbor in 1813, but its commanding officer was 
soon transferred to the command of a military district with headquarters 
at Philadelphia, where he remained until peace was declared. The 
Democrats of his district elected him to Congress in 1816, and he was 
reelected in 1818. He was very appropriately placed at the head of the 
committee on Revolutionary pensions, and owing to his energy and 
perseverance introduced and caused to be enacted bills granting pen- 
sions to Revolutionary War soldiers and their widows. Governor Bloom- 
field died at Burlington, New Jersey, October 3, 1825. 

Alexander Henry was a man of no common abilities. He was by no 
means a mere adventurer, but possessed great intellectual curiosity 
and had a talent for observation. In all his wanderings in the wild 
Northwest he faithfully kept a journal which even in condensed form 
aggregated nearly one thousand pages. This journal, which was in 
manuscript, was utilized by Dr. Eliot Coues as the basis of his "New 
Lights on the Early History of the Greater Northwest," published in 
three volumes in 1897. This noted fur trapper and trader was born in 
New Brunswick in 1739. Arriving at manhood, he joined the army of 
Sir Jeffrey Amherst, and in 1760 he took part in the expedition against 
Montreal. The surrender of that important post opened a new market, 
and our young adventurer was induced to engage in the fur trade. The 
following year he went to Fort Mackinaw, at that time one of the prin- 
cipal trading posts. Securing the friendship of a Chippewa Indian, he 
was adopted as his brother, thus his life was saved in the massacre that 
took place at that post June 4, 1763. Henry thereafter lived with the 
Indians, wearing their dress and speaking their language. In 1764 he 
went to Fort Niagara, where he commanded an Indian battalion, and 
after the defeat of Pontiac he reengaged in the fur trade, extending 
his travels to the Rocky Mountains. He organized with David Thomp- 
son the Northwest Company, for which he acted as fur trader and busi- 
ness manager, Thompson serving as official geographer and explorer. 
They extended their journeys to the Pacific ocean, including the Red 
River of the North, the heart of the Rocky Mountains and the Columbia 
river. Henry resided at Astoria, or Fort George, and from that post 
traded in all directions. He was drowned near there, May 22, 1814. 

A son of Piscataway, James Manning, was born October 22, 1738. 
His great-grandfather, Jeffrey Manning, was one of the earliest settlers 


in Piscataway township, and on his maternal side he was descended from 
the Fitz Randolphs, another pioneer family of his native town. He 
graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1762, and the following 
year was ordained as an evangelist and traveled throughout the colonies. 
While at Newport, Rhode Island, in July, 1763, he suggested the estab- 
lishment of a college to be conducted by the Baptists. He was solicited 
to draw up a plan, and a rough charter was laid before the General 
Assembly and was passed by that body after a warm debate, largely 
through the personal influence of Mr. Manning. Having received a call 
to Warren, Rhode Island, he organized a church of fifty-eight members 
and became its pastor. At the second meeting of the corporation for 
founding and endowing a college or university, held in September, 1765, 
Mr. Manning was chosen president, and the institution became known 
as the Rhode Island College. Its name was changed, however, in 1S04 
to Brown University, in honor of Nicholas Brown, one of its munificent 
benefactors. In May, 1770, the college was removed to Providence, 
Rhode Island, and President Manning, resigning his pastorate, devoted 
his time to the college, filling the chair of professor of languages. Dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War the college doors were closed, the students 
prosecuting their studies at home. The college exercises were resum.ed 
May ^y, 1782. President Manning was a delegate to the Continental 
Congress, 1785-86, and it was largely through his endeavors that Rhode 
Island adopted the Federal Constitution. While at family prayers he 
died of apoplexy, in Providence, Rhode Island, July 29, 1791. 

From old Middlesex county came Luther Martin, born in New 
Brunswick, February 9, 1748. He graduated from the College of New 
Jersey in 1766, and studied law at Queenstown, Maryland, supporting 
himself by teaching. He was admitted to the bar in 1771, and the 
following year located in Williamsburg, Virginia, where he commenced 
the practice of his profession. However, he finally settled in Somerset 
county, Maryland, and in 1778 was appointed attorney-general of his 
adopted State, and vigorously, almost rigorously, prosecuted the Tories. 
He was a member of the Continental Congress in 1784-85, also of the 
Constitutional Convention in 1787, and in the latter body took an active 
part in opposition to the proposed constitution, finally leaving the 
hall rather than sign ihe document. Jefiferson a few years later chris- 
tened him with the sobriquet "the federal bulldog." He also opposed 
the ratification of the constitution by the State of Maryland, bitterly 
denouncing the license allowed by that instrument to the African sla\e 
trade, and declared that God viewed with an equal eye the poor African 
slave and his American master. True, however, to the instincts of a 
lawyer, his next public appearance was as a staunch supporter of the 
constitution, when he acted as counsel for Judge Samuel Chase, impeached 
before the United States Senate. This trial is memorable on account of 


the excitement it produced, the ability with which it was defended, and 
the nature of the defendant's acquital. Mr. Martin resigned his attor- 
ney-generalship in 1805, after twenty-seven years of service, and ev'en 
then had the largest practice of any lawyer in Maryland. Two years 
later he was one of the counsel for Aaron Burr, on trial for high treason 
at Richmond, Virginia. He was appointed in 1814 Chief Justice of the 
Court of Oyer and Terminer for the city and county of Baltimore, but 
the court was abolished in 1816. In February, 1818, he was again 
appointed attorney-general of Maryland, but two years later suffered a 
stroke of paralysis and was thrown entirely upon the charity of his 
friends. The Maryland Legislature in 1822 passed an act wholly 
unparalleled in American history, requiring every lawyer in that State 
to pay annually a license fee of five dollars, the money to be paid over to 
trustees "for the use of Luther Martin." His abilities as a lawyer were 
of the very highest order, some authorities regarding him among the 
best which the country ever produced. He died at the home of Aaron 
Burr, in New York City, July 10, 1826. 

The first limner of whom the American annals of art makes mention, 
was John Watson, who came to this country from Scotland about the 
vv-ar 1715. After his first visit to America he reMtrned to Europe and 
brought thence many pictures which, with those of his own composition, 
formed the first collection of paintings of which there is any knowledge 
in this country. When he became a resident ot Amboy he was in great 
poverty, but his circumstances improved from the exercise of his artistic 
talents. What became of his collection of paintings is unknown ; only a 
few of his miniature sketches in India ink ire extant, which are toler- 
ably well executed, among them a series of drawings of himself at 
different ages, original sketches of Governor Burnet, of New Jersey, 
Governor Keith, of Pennsylvania, Governor Spotsv/o-zid of Virginia, 
judge Bunnel and other distinguished men, showing that some notoriety 
was enjoyed by the painter. He was unmarrit^d. His penurious habits 
and love for unlawful interest gained for him the titles of miser and 
tisurer. He died August 22, 1768, aged 83 years ; his remains are interred 
in the rear of St. Peter's Church at Perth Amboy 

In Perth Amboy, February 19, 1766, was born William Dunlap, an 
American painter and author. He was the on}v child of Samuel Dunlap, 
a son of a merchant of Londonderry, Ireland. The elder Dunlap was 
a soldier in "Wolfe's Own," and was wounded on the "Plains of Abra- 
nam." After the French War, then a lieutenant in the 47th Regiment, 
he- was stationed at Perth Amboy, where he married, and retired from 
military life and became engaged in keeping a general store. The boy- 
hood of the future painter and author was passed amongst the stirring 
events of the Revolution. His education was limited to a nursery school 
under an Irish schoolmaster whom he stigmatizes from his own memoirs 

Mid— 12 


as being in the usual acceptance of the word "bad." The martial 
spirit of his father was evinced in his offspring- by the latter becom- 
.•ng in the early part of 1776 a member of a corps of boys, whose caps 
v/ere adorned with the motto "Liberty or Death!" and were called "The 
Governor's Guards." These boys proved serviceable auxiliaries to the 
American officers, by watching the sentinel'^ and guards and reporting 
any observed failing in duty or discipline. He vividly ])ortrays in his 
memoirs the pillage of the British soldiers of Lhe houses of Piscataway, 
and the distress of the men, women and children of that village. 

Dunlap in his seventeenth year began to paint portraits, and in the 
summer of 1783 executed one of Washington. The next s[)ring he went 
to London, and for several years was a pupil of Benjamin West. After 
his return to America he tried various pursuits, including painting, lit- 
erary work, theatrical management, etc., but at the age of fifty-one, after 
repeated failures, he became permanently a painter. He executed a series 
of pictures on subjects selected by West and somewhat after his style, 
which were exhibited in various parts of the United States. He was 
one of the founders of the New York Academy of Design. His "History 
of the American Theatre," published in 1832, and "Arts of Design in the 
United States," are standard works. He also wrote a number of plays, 
a biography of Charles Brockden Brown, and a posthumous publication, 
the "History of New Netherlands," in two volumes, in 1840. His death 
occurred September 28, 1839. 

Two noted members of the New Jersey bar, though of different eras, 
natives of Middlesex county, were Joseph Warren Scott and Cortlandt 
Parker. The former was born in New Brunswick, November 28, 1778, 
the son of Dr. Moses Scott, already mentioned in this work. His ances- 
tors were of Scotch extraction, the original American settler, John Scott, 
grandfather of Joseph Warren Scott, emigrated to America at an early 
date, settling in Bucks county, Pennsylvania. Prior to the Revolution, 
Dr. Scott removed to New Brunswick. 

Joseph Warren Scott, named for the American patriot, attended the 
schools of his native town, and graduated at the age of seventeen years 
from Princeton College. He at first selected the medical profession for 
his future calling, but disliking his professional studies he decided to 
become a clergyman ; finally, after a short course in theology, he resolved 
to embrace the legal profession. He therefore became a student in the 
office of General Frederick Frelinghuysen, in New Brunswick, and was 
licensed as an attorney in 1801. After his admission to the bar he began 
practice, from which he retired about 1840, resigning a large and lucra- 
tive clientage. A profound lawyer, an able barrister and counsellor, the 
only official position he held was prosecutor of the pleas for the county 
of Middlesex. An accomplished gentleman, well versed in the Latin 
tongue, he corresponded with his friends in that language. He was like- 


wise an excellent English scholar and thoroughly acquainted with the 
old poets. He died in New Brunswick, in May, 1871, having nearly 
reached the great age of ninety-three years. 

Cortlandt Parker was born in the Parker Mansion in Perth Amboy, 
June 27, 1818. The Parker family was early identified with Perth 
Amboy. Elisha Parker, under date of April 19, 1675, was granted 182 
acres in Woodbridge, on the highway leading to Piscataway. In Novem- 
ber, 1694, he was appointed high sheriff of Middlesex county. He was 
a member of the Provincial Assembly, also of Governor Hunter's council. 
His notable characteristics were a good father, a kind master, and a 
sincere Christian. He died June 30, 1717, and by the records he seems to 
have been married three times, and had several children. John, a son 
by Hannah Rolph, was born November 11, 1693, and married Janet, 
a daughter of Dr. John Johnstone. He was engaged in business in New 
York but always resided at Perth Amboy. He held several minor offices, 
but was appointed by Governor Burnet in October, 1719, one of his 
council, and continued a councillor from that time until his death in 
1732. James, second son, born in 1725, was the only one that left issue. 
On his becoming of age he entered the provincial military service and 
embarked for the northern frontier with the rank of captain. Returning 
from this campaign, he engaged in mercantile business in New York, 
his transactions being principally confined to the West Indies. Captain 
Parker in 175 1 took up his abode permanently at Perth Amboy, engrossed 
in attending to large landed interests possessed by the family. He 
became a member of Governor Franklin's council, also mayor of Perth 
Amboy, and a delegate to the Provincial Congress, but did not attend its 

At the time of the Revolution, Captain Parker maintained a strict 
neutrality, owing to his large landed interests. He removed his family 
to a farm in Bethlehem, Hunterdon county, where they resided until 
peace was declared, when they removed to New Brunswick, but later to 
Perth Amboy. As he took no part in the war, his property escaped 
confiscation. Captain Parker was a man of tall stature and large frame, 
possessing a mind of more than ordinary strength and vigor. He died 
October 4, 1797. Of his children, James, the youngest child, mentioned 
elsewhere in this work, was the father of Cortlandt Parker. The latter 
graduated from Rutgers College in 1836 with first honors and as valedic- 
torian of his class. He studied law in the offices of Theodore Freling- 
huysen and Amzi Armstrong, both of Newark, and was admitted to 
the bar in September, 1839. In his political affiliations imbued with the 
doctrines of Hamilton, derived from his ancestors, he advocated the 
principles which became the basis of the Republican party, of which 
he was one of the founders in New Jersey. In his career throughout the 
changing political conditions, Mr. Parker maintained an active and 


patriotic interest, frequently addressing his fellow-citizens on questions 
of the day, exercising a potent influence by his counsels, and contribut- 
ing to the press many papers distinguished for dignity and solidity of 
treatment and argument. Though continuously and intimately identi- 
fied with politics for sixty-five years, he occupied a unique personal 
position ; with a single exception of a local office, though at various times 
offered National and State appointments, he repeatedly declined the 

As an orator, Mr. Parker enjoyed a reputation for force, scholarship, 
and the particular type of eloquence appealing to the intelligence of men, 
which harmonized with the dignity and strength manifested in his public 
career, his writings, and his well known individual characteristics. In 
his personality he was remarkable for a physical constitution of great 
vitality, nurtured throughout life by a vigorous but orderly regime, 
possessed of a commanding figure and to the end of his life as erect 
as in youth ; with a distinction of manners and address and a nature of 
warm sensibilities and strong attachments and sympathies. He lived 
at Newark, with a summer residence at Perth Amboy. His death took 
place in 1907. 

The American capitalist and railroad king, Cornelius Vanderbilt, in 
1817 became captain of a steamboat plying between New York and New 
Brunswick, at a salary of $1,000 a year. The following year he com- 
manded a larger and much better boat on the same line, and removed his 
family to New Brunswick. Here his wife managed a hotel, and on 
May 8, 1821, his eldest son, William H. Vanderbilt, was born, first see- 
ing the light of day amongst the pans and beds of a country hostelry. 
Thus was New Brunswick introduced into the "Four Hundred" of New 

A pioneer in the steamboat and railroad history of Middlesex county 
was James Neilson, a son of General John Neilson. His birth took place 
in New Brunswick, December 3, 1784. He inherited the enterprise of 
his north of Ireland ancestry with the persistence of the Holland blood 
of his mother. His father being engaged in ship building, young Neilson 
while only a youth of seventeen realized the importance of steam for 
transportation. We find him as early as 1810 treasurer of the New 
Brunswick Team Boat and Steam Boat Company. He became amongst 
the active originators of a canal to connect the waters of the Delaware 
river with the Raritan river. This enterprise was so hampered by the 
Legislature of Pennsylvania that it was abandoned. Another charter 
for a canal was obtained from the New Jersey Legislature, but a con- 
solidation was effected with the parties interested in building a railroad 
under the title of the Delaware & Raritan Canal and Camden & Amboy 
Railroad Company. This property was afterwards leased in 1871 to 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company for 999 years. 


James Neilson continued his interests in transportation, being- in 
1831 treasurer of the New Brunswick Steamboat and Canal Transporta- 
tion Company, which was in 1852 absorbed by the Camden & Amboy 
Railroad Company. In 1835, realizing the shipping business of New 
Brunswick must be eventually cut off by the canals and railroads, Mr. 
Neilson, with others, incorporated the New Brunswick Manufacturing 
Company. A mill was built for the manufacture of printing cloths, which 
were sold after his death to the Norfolk & New Brunswick Hosiery 
Company, the whole property having passed into his hands. Mr. Neilson 
died at New Brunswick, February 21, 1862. 

Middlesex county contributed to the gubernatorial chair of New 
Jersey, Theodore Frelinghuysen Randolph, born in New Brunswick, 
June 24, 1816. He attended Rutgers Grammar School, but in 1840 
removed to Vicksburg, Mississippi, where he engaged in mercantile 
pursuits. Returning to New Jersey in 1852, he located in Jersey City 
and became interested in mining and transportation of coal and iron, 
and was president of the Morris & Essex railroad for many years. He 
was a representative in the Legislature, a State senator, and elected 
governor in 1869. He was United States senator from New Jersey, 
1875-81, and a member of the Democratic National Committee. He 
died at Morristown, New Jersey, November 7, 1883. 

Amongst those who spent their boyhood days in Middlesex county 
was Zebulon Montgomery Pike. His parents were natives of Wood- 
bridge, where their son spent his youth. His father was an officer in 
the army of the United States, and the son having received a common 
school education, acquiring also some knowledge of advanced mathe- 
matics and of the French and Spanish languages, entered as a cadet in 
a company under his father's command serving on the western frontiers. 
He was subsequently commissioned ensign and then lieutenant in the 
First United States Infantry Regiment. His life was uneventful, merely 
a routine of military duties, until 1805, when the government having 
acquired the Louisiana Purchase, he was ordered to trace the sources of 
the Mississippi river. This expedition consumed eight months, marked 
with much exposure and frequent perils, but was successful. The young 
commander was then ordered to undertake a second perilous journey 
of hardship and exposure in exploring the interior of the Territory of 
Louisiana. It was during this expedition that Captain Pike discovered 
the great mountain that bears his name. When war was declared 
between the United States and Great Britain, in 1812, Colonel Pike was 
commanding his regiment on the northern frontier. The following year 
he was made a brigadier-general and given the command of the forces 
dispatched against York (now Toronto) in Canada. The American 
forces landed near York April 27, 1813, and were led by General Pike 
in person against the British works. It was expected at any moment 


that a flag of surrender would be raised by the enemy, when a tremen- 
dous explosion of a British magazine took place, throwing a number of 
stones with great force in every direction, one of which struck General 
Pike on the breast, inflicting a mortal wound. The American troops 
soon reformed, and passing their wounded commander were hailed by 
the words, "Push on, brave fellows, and avenge your general." While 
General Pike was being carried from the field, the British struck their 
colors. The brave general, when informed of the surrender, heaved a 
heavy sigh and smiled, but he lingered only a few hours, his death taking 
place on the commodore's ship. 

Another distinguished citizen of New Jersey who roamed the streets 
and lanes of New Brunswick in his youthful days was Jonathan Dixon, 
for thirty-one years a justice of the Supreme Court of his residential 
State. Born in Liverpool, England, July 6, 1839, ^is father, Jonathan 
Dixon, in 1848 came to America and was followed two years later by his 
family, settling in New Brunswick. Here young Dixon attended Rutgers 
College, graduated in 1859, took up the study of law, and on his admis- 
sion to the bar removed to Jersey City. He was appointed to the 
Supreme Court in 1875, a position he honorably filled until his death at 
Englewood, New Jersey, May 21, 1906. 

For twenty-one years New Brunswick was the residence of the chief 
of the Supreme Court of the State — Andrew Kirkpatrick. He was 
descended from an honorable and noteworthy Scottish lineage, the sec- 
ond son of David Kirkpatrick, the American progenitor of the family. 
The future chief justice was born at Mine Brook, New Jersey, February 
17, 1756, and in 1775 graduated from the College of New Jersey, now 
Princeton University. His father, who was an ardent Presbyterian, 
wished him to become a minister, and after his graduation he studied 
divinity, but his preference was in the direction of the law, and finally 
he became a student in the office of William Paterson, of New Bruns- 
wick. He was admitted to the New Jersey bar in 1785, and for a short 
time practiced in Morristown, but losing his library and office equipment 
by fire, he returned to New Brunswick, where he became noted for his 
great native ability, untiring industry, and stern integrity. In January, 
1798, he entered upon the office of Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court, which he held for six years, when he became Chief Justice of that 
court till 1825. His decisions were marked by extensive learning, great 
acumen, and power of logical analysis ; and his strictly logical mind and 
great personal dignity, coupled with his other qualities, made him one 
of the great historical characters of the New Jersey bench. Among his 
many excellent qualities, he was especially esteemed and admired for 
his keen sense of justice, his consideration and loyalty. He died in New 
Brunswick in 1831. 

The twenty-eighth governor of New Jersey, George C. Ludlow, was 


born in Milford, Hunterdon county, New Jersey, April 6, 1830. He 
entered Rutgers College at the age of sixteen, graduating in the class of 
1850, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1853, and engaged in prac- 
tice at New Brunswick. He soon won the confidence and esteem of all who 
came in contact with him, by his undoubted integrity and devotion to 
the interests of his clients. An intense Democrat, he took a conspicuous 
part in politics, but never held office until 1876, when he was elected to 
the State Senate. Declining a renomination, he became in 1880 the 
Democratic nominee for the governorship, was elected that year, and 
came into office January 18, 1881, his term expiring January 21, 1884. He 
died December 18, 1900. 

Woodbridge Strong, a son of Professor Theodore Strong, was born 
in Clinton, Oneida county, New York, February 21, 1827, his father at 
that time being professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Ham- 
ilton College. Soon after his birth, his father became a member of the 
faculty of Rutgers College, occupying the same chair, and was one of 
the most distinguished mathematicians in the country. Young Strong 
entered Rutgers College in 1847, ^^^o commenced the study of law with 
John Van Dyke, of New Brunswick, afterwards a justice of the Supreme 
Court. During the gold fever of 1849 ^^ went to California, but returned 
to New Jersey, where he resumed his studies and was admitted to the 
bar in 1852. He was judge of the Middlesex County Court of Common 
Pleas from 1874 to 1879, ^"^ again from 1896 to 1906. 






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Rutgers College, originally called Queen's College in honor of Queen 
Charlotte, was founded by royal charter November lo, 1766, twenty 
years after the College of New Jersey, now Princeton University, had 
been founded on the one side, and twelve years after King's College, now 
Columbia University, had been founded on the other side. The Dutch 
people, members of the Reformed Church from the Netherlands, were 
not quite willing to devote their zeal for learning and their pride of 
institutions to either existing college. The movement for a foundation 
of their own had begun early in the century with the Rev. Theodorus 
Jacobus Frelinghuysen ; it was substantially fostered by his son, the 
Rev. Theodorus Frelinghuysen ; and it came to accomplishment espe- 
cially through the efforts of the Rev. Jacobus Rutsen Hardenbergh, the 
Rev. Johannes Leydt, and the elder, Hendrick Fisher. The college 
apparently did not begin work at once, nor was its location at once 
determined, nor is there extant any copy of the charter of 1766. In 
1770, March 20, the second charter was granted, differing in only slight 
degree from the first. It was granted by George III. through William 
Franklin, Governor of the Province of New Jersey. A copy of this 
charter of 1770, printed in the very year of its granting, is in possession 
of the college. It is very full and explicit in its provisions. It was so 
wisely and liberally drawn that very few and slight amendments have 
seemed necessary or desirable in the one hundred and fifty years since. 
The occasion of its granting is stated to be a petition from the ministers 
and elders of the Dutch Reformed churches presented to William Frank- 
lin, Esq., Governor of the Province of New Jersey, and expressing the 
need of the churches for an educated ministry and the need of an institu- 
tion at home to provide the appropriate education. The charter, there- 
fore grants "that there be a College, called Queen's College, erected in 
our said Province of New Jersey, for the education of youth in the 
learned languages, liberal and useful arts and sciences." The words thus 
expressing the original purpose of the College are so broad and far- 
reaching that, unchanged, they cover the ideals and activities of the 
twentieth century college. The charter creates a corporate body of 
forty-one members, twelve of whom shall be a quorum, and makes such 
board of trustees self-perpetuating, all its members to be elected by the 
board itself, except the Governor, Chief-Justice and Attorney-General of 
the Province (later the State) of New Jersey, who shall always be 
members ex-officio. The charter appoints by name the original thirty- 


eight other trustees. The Governor, it is provided, shall be president 
at meetings of the trustees if he is in attendance. Ample powers are 
given by this admirable charter for all appropriate management of mat- 
ters of property and instruction, for granting of degrees, and use of the 
college seal. 

In 1781 certain amendments to the charter were ordained by the 
Legislature of New Jersey. For one thing, an oath of allegiance to the 
government of New Jersey was substituted for the original oath of alle- 
giance to the crown. For another thing, an original provision restricting 
the number of ordained ministers among the trustees to one-third of the 
whole number was repealed. In 1799, by act of the Legislature of New 
Jersey, the act of 1781 was repealed, but its provisions in efifect were 
reenacted, together with further amendment that oath to support the 
Constitution of the United States be required of each trustee on his 
taking office. In 1825, by act of November 30, the charter was amended 
by the substitution of the name "Rutgers College" for "Queen's College," 
and the corporate title was ordained to be "The Trustees of Rutgers 
College in New Jersey." In 1859 the charter received, by act of the 
Legislature, a further amendment, providing a more liberal property- 
holding right than that originally conferred. More recent general laws 
of the State have made such right entirely unlimited. In 1920 an 
amendment was adopted removing from the charter any aspect of it 
which might be regarded as sectarian. 

The motto of the College is not contained in the charter. It was 
adopted at a very early time, however, having been suggested, no doubt, 
by the Rev. John H. Livingston, who returned from the University of 
Utrecht in 1770 and became at once a leader in church and college affairs. 
"Sol Justitiae Illustra Nos" is the motto of the University of Utrecht. 
The motto of Rutgers (Queen's) College was made "Sol Justitiae et 
Occidentem Illustra." 

1770-1825 — The trustees created by the charter, in session at Hacken- 
sack, May 17, 1771, decided to locate the College at New Brunswick. 
Hackensack desired the College, and was strongly advocated as the 
place for it. New Brunswick was chosen apparently because of a some- 
what larger subscription obtained there, and because of its greater con- 
venience to an expected constituency among the German churches in 

College work, it seems, was actually begun in November, 1771, under 
Frederick Frelinghuysen, a graduate of Princeton, Class of 1770. Soon 
associated with him and succeeding him was John Taylor. They were 
called tutors. Both became colonels in the American army, both were 
trusted counselors of the American leaders, and yet both held steadfast 
relation to the College during the troubled years of war. While they 
were absent in the field or in council, late in the decade, John Bogart, 


an earlier graduate of Queen's, maintained the work of instruction. At 
times the work, driven from New Brunswick by the British occupation, 
was located at Hillsborough, now Millstone, or at North Branch, now 
Readington. The students were drilled as a military company, that 
they might be ready for active service, if called. Probably Dr. Harden- 
bergh presided in some measure, from the first, over the destinies of the 
infant College, as he had been forward in its organizing, for the diploma 
of Simeon De Witt, Class of 1776, bears his name as president. 

For more than fifty years the College had little growth, and at times 
its doors were closed. Yet notable men presided over it and taught in it, 
and men of later distinction were graduated from it during the period. 
Dr. Hardenbergh's informal and formal service as president continued 
until 1790; after him the Rev. William Linn, D. D., was acting president 
until 1794, and from 1794 to 1810 the Rev. Ira Condict, D. D., served in 
the same way. Then came the presiding in full office of Dr. John H. 
Livingston, from 1810 to 1825. A distinguished professor of the early 
part of the nineteenth century was Robert Adrain, LL. D., the great 
mathematician. Before the eighteenth century had closed, among the 
graduates were Peter Kimble, President of the Council of New Jersey; 
James Schureman, United States Senator; Simeon De Witt, Chief 
Geographer of the American Army, Surveyor-General and Chancellor of 
the State of New York ; Jeremiah Smith, member of Congress, Governor 
of New Hampshire, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New 
Hampshire ; Pierre Van Cortlandt, member of Congress ; Samuel Kenne- 
day Jennings, President of Washington College ; John Frelinghuysen, 
Brigadier-General ; and many clergymen of the Reformed Dutch Church 
and other denominations. In the early part of the nineteenth century 
some of the distinguished graduates were Jacob Green, Professor at 
Princeton ; Edward Mundy, successively Lieutenant-Governor, Attor- 
ney-General, and Justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan ; Charles C. 
Stratton, Governor of New Jersey; Robert B. Croes, D. D., of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and Samuel Judah, Speaker of the House 
of Representatives of Indiana, and United States District Attorney. 

1825-1850 — The name of the College was changed by the trustees 
from Queen's to Rutgers in 1825, in honor of Colonel Henry Rutgers, 
"as a mark of their respect for his character and in gratitude for his 
numerous services rendered the Reformed Church." Colonel Rutgers 
was a resident of New York City, the first president of the Board of 
Direction of the Church, and a foremost supporter of all good causes. 
After the College received his name he followed earlier donations to it 
with a gift of $5,000. In the same year (1825) the Rev. Philip Milledoler, 
D. D., became president; he served until 1840, when the Honorable A. 
Bruyn Hasbrouck, LL. D., succeeded him, to serve until 1850. From 


the beginning of this period until the present day Rutgers has never 
closed its doors. During the period, the second quarter of the nineteenth 
century, the College naturally had more vigorous growth, gained a 
larger faculty, added buildings and graduated increased classes. Perhaps 
most famous among the professors were Theodore Strong, LL. D., the 
great mathematician, and Alexander McClelland, D. D., the great 
teacher of languages. The life and service of a college are largely 
defined by the men it trains, and the list of graduates of this time deserves 
more rehearsing than space permits. Near the mid-point is the cele- 
brated class of 1836, including Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, United 
States Senator and Secretary of State ; Joseph P. Bradley, Justice of 
the Supreme Court of the United States ; William A. Newell, member 
of Congress, Governor of New Jersey, and Governor of Washington ; 
Henry Waldron, member of Congress; Cortlandt Parker, president of 
the American Bar Association ; George W. Coakley, Professor in the 
University of New York, and Alexander Brown, the banker. In other 
classes we find Peter Vredenburgh, Justice of the Supreme Court of 
New Jersey ; John Romeyn Brodhead, the historian ; George W. Brown, 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Bench of Baltimore ; Robert H. Pruyn, 
United States Minister to Japan ; Theodoric R. Westbrook, Justice of 
the Supreme Court of New York; Garnet B. Adrain, John W. Ferdon, 
William S. Kenyon and Augustus A. Hardenbergh, members of Con- 
gress; Charles H. Van Wyck, United States Senator; George H. Sharpe, 
Major-General, U. S. A., and Surveyor of Customs, Port of New York, 
and Henry R. Baldwin, physician. Well known ministers of denomina- 
tions other than the Reformed Church are in the list in no small num- 
ber, such as Hugh Hamill, for thirty-six years principal of Lawrence- 
ville School, and Eugene A. Hoffman, dean of the General Theological 
Seminary of the Episcopal Church, New York City. Especially note- 
worthy is the roll of graduates of this time entering the ministry of 
the Reformed Church — pastors, missionaries, professors. It is a long 
list ; a few names, of most recent memory, perhaps, suggest the part 
that Rutgers has played in the service and leadership of the "Dutch 
Church": John Forsyth, Professor at Princeton and Rutgers, Professor 
and Chaplain at West Point; Talbot W. Chambers, of the Collegiate 
Church ; David D. Demarest and John De Witt, of the New Brunswick 
Seminary; William H. Steele, James A. H. Cornell and Cornelius E. 
Crispell ; William J. R. Taylor and Abraham R. Van Nest, David Cole, 
Goyn and John V. N. Talmadge, Paul D. Van Cleef, Charles Scott, 
president of Hope College ; John L. See and J. Romeyn Berry, Ezra W. 
and Joseph Collier, Samuel D. and Joseph Scudder, T. Romeyn Beck, 
John Gaston and William H. Ten Eyck. One, the Rev. John F. Mesick, 
D. D., LL. D., of the class of 1834, died in 1915, at the age of 102, having 


been for some years the oldest living graduate of any college or uni- 

1850-1875 — In 1850 the Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen, LL. D., 
became president. He was distinguished in the life not only of College, 
but also of Church and State. He was president of the American Bible 
Society and he was candidate for Vice-President of the United States 
with Henry Clay, candidate for President. He served until 1863, and 
was succeeded by William H. Campbell, D. D., LL. D., who was called 
from professorship in the Theological Seminary and who served the 
longest term of any president of the College thus far, nearly twenty 
years, retiring in 1882. During the third quarter of the nineteenth cen- 
tury there was still marked progress in the College life and usefulness. 

It was natural that at this time, as even more in recent years, 
the study of science should have peculiar advancement and claim a place 
nearer to that always accorded the classics. The leader in this scientific 
development, and at the same time a great friend of the classics, was 
George H. Cook, Ph. D., LL. D., who was professor from 1853 until his 
death in 1889, and vice-president of the College from 1864, and who as a 
man and scientist rendered incalculable service to the State of New Jersey. 

The marked event in the College history in this connection is 
the organizing of the Scientific School and the declaring of the Trustees 
of Rutgers College, maintaining such school, to be the State College for 
the Benefit of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. This action of 
the State was based upon the so-called Morrill act of the Congress of 
the United States, 1862. Perhaps it did not seem at the time or for 
some years after to be of very great importance to the College. But as 
the years have passed, and the national and State emphasis has increased, 
the relation has proved to be a vital and most valuable one, greatly 
increasing the College's power and field of usefulness, as like relation 
has been vastly fruitful in every other State of the Union. A Board of 
Visitors was created, its members to be appointed by the Governor 
of the State. Among the professors of the time were Dr. Howard Crosby, 
Dr. David Murray and DeWitt T. Reiley ; also Drs. T. Sandford 
Doolittle and Jacob Cooper, and Edward A. Bowser, whose service 
extended far beyond the period. More buildings were erected, and the 
line of graduates was unbroken. There can be only most moderate 
suggestion of the men who were sent forth : Judge Richard L. Larre- 
more, Governor George C. Ludlow, Judge Henry W. Bookstaver, Justice 
Jonathan Dixon, Justice Abram Q. Garretson, Vice-President Garret A. 
Hobart, various Congressmen, various officers in the Federal army ; 
Edward G. Janeway, the foremost physician of his time; Edward A: 
Bowser, the mathematician ; Alexander Johnston, professor at Prince- 
ton ; many ministers, among them Rev. Drs. Joachim Elmendorf, Charles 


I. Shepard, Edward P. Terhune, William Irvin and John B. Thompson; 
Edward W. and Samuel E. Appleton, of the Episcopal Church ; Cornelius 
L. Wells, William R. Duryee, Silas D. and John Scudder, John B. 
Drury, Egbert Winter, Charles W. Fritts, Francis A. Horton, Charles 
H. Pool, Judges G. D. W. Vroom, William H. Vrendenburg, and Wil- 
lard P. Voorhees ; George William Hill, foremost scholar of his genera- 
tion in astronomical mathematics. A large proportion of the graduates 
of the time are, of course, living, among them Albert S. Cook, head of 
the Department of English at Yale University; Ichizo Hattori, Governor 
of Hiogo Ken, Japan, and vice-president of the University of Tokio; 
John C. Smock, the geologist ; Dr. J. Preston Searle, dean of the New 
Brunswick Seminary ; and Dr. Graham Taylor, of the Chicago Seminary, 
besides the many in the pastorate and missionary service of our own and 
other churches. A remarkable number are in the very successful prac- 
tice of other professions and in most important legal, commercial and 
banking relations. 

1875-1900 — As the last quarter of the nineteenth century began, 
Dr. Campbell was still serving as president. At his retiring in 1882, 
Merrill E. Gates, Ph. D., LL. D., succeeded him and served until 1890. 
In 1891 Austin Scott, Ph. D., LL. D., became president, and his service 
in the office continued until 1906. Steady growth marked the period, 
a developing of the corps of instruction and of the students in attend- 

A marked feature of the time was the new emphasis by College, State 
and Nation on the State relation to the College. The national govern- 
ment entered upon a much larger and more generous scheme of educa- 
tional work through such State institutions. Great State universities 
and colleges were springing up, and the State of New Jersey entered 
into new and enlarged cooperation with its College. The College itself 
seemed to come to new and clearer and higher conception of the duty 
and opportunity given it by the relation existing. Among the professors 
there were: Dr. Cook, until his death in 1889; Dr. Doolittle, until his 
death in 1893 ; Dr. Cooper, whose service continued into the twentieth 
century, until his death in 1904; Dr. Bowser, whose active service also 
continued until 1904, and emeritus relation until his recent death ; Dr. 
Carl Meyer, from 1869, until his death in 1901 ; Francis A. Wilber, from 
1879, until his death in 1891 ; Dr. George W. Atherton, whose service 
was from 1869 to 1882, and Dr. Peter T. Austen, from 1877 to 1890. The 
graduates of this period are to-day widely scattered in the various pro- 
fessions and industries of our own and other lands. Naturally, out of 
the increased study of science, characteristic of the time and of colleges 
and universities in general, the number of those in scientific and indus- 
trial vocations has especially increased. While, therefore, we find 


among the graduates of these recent years men in political life like 
Foster M. Voorhees, some time Governor of New Jersey, and M. Linn 
Bruce, some time Lieutenant-Governor and later Justice of the Supreme 
Court of New York, and men in the ministry such as Rev. Drs. Paul F. 
Sutphen, of Cleveland; William R. Taylor, of Rochester; William P. 
Merrill and Henry E. Cobb, of New York; William L Chamberlain, of 
New Brunswick, and Professors John H. Gillespie and John H. Raven, 
of the New Brunswick Seminary, and a host of our pastors and mis- 
sionaries, and physicians and lawyers in distinguished practice, the 
leaders of great enterprises in the scientific and business world are 
conspicuous, as Leonor F. Loree, president of the Delaware & Hudson 
Company, and Charles L. Edgar, president of the Edison and other light- 
ing companies of Boston. Men in educational work also are in emphatic 
evidence, as the late Egbert L^Fevre, LL. D., dean of the Medical 
School of New York University; the late Edward B, Voorhees, D. Sc, 
director of New Jersey Experimental Stations ; John E. Hill, C. E., pro- 
fessor of Civil Engineering in Brown University ; J. Livingston R. Mor- 
gan, Ph. D., professor of Physical Chemistry in Columbia University; 
Frank R. Van Horn, Ph. D., professor of Geology in Case School of 
Applied Science, and many others. 

1900-1920 — In the twentieth century thus far, Rutgers has had great 
advancement. Dr. Scott continued as president until 1906, though on 
leave of absence during 1905-6, and the Rev. W. H. S. Demarest, D. D., 
LL. D,, called from professorship in the New Brunswick Seminary, has 
been president since 1906, the first graduate of the College in that office. 
During the twenty years the campus has been extended and the College 
farm greatly enlarged, seven new buildings have been built, the course 
of instruction has been broadened and strengthened, the faculty has 
been enlarged, the number of undergraduates has increased to nearly 
700. Short courses in agriculture have been established ; a summer 
session is maintained, and extension courses are widely given. An 
affiliated college for women was founded in 1918. 

The buildings now are : Old Queen's College, whose cornerstone 
was laid in 1809; the Alumni and Faculty House (formerly the Presi- 
dent's House), built in 1841-42; Van Nest Hall (1845), accommodating 
the English and Oratory, the Y. M. C. A. and the Philoclean Society ; 
Daniel S. Schanck Observatory (1865); Geological Hall (1871), with 
its museum and departments of Geology and Physics ; Kirkpatrick 
Chapel (1873), with also the Fine Arts room and president's office; New 
Jersey Hall (1889), with the Experiment Station and Departments of 
Agriculture, Botany and Biology; Winants Hall (1890), the dormitory; 
Robert F. Ballantine Gymnasium (1894); the Ceramics Building (1902); 
Ralph Voorhees Library (1903); the Short Course Building (1906); 


the Engineering Building (1908-9); the Chemistry Building (1910); 
and the Entomology Building (1911); the Agricultural Building (1914); 
the John Howard Ford Dormitory (1914). 

The courses of instruction lead to the degrees of A. B., Litt. B., and 
B. Sc. The Bachelor of Arts course includes Greek or Latin among its 
liberal studies, required and elective. The Bachelor of Letters course 
includes liberal studies with modern languages. The Bachelor of Sci- 
ence course allows greater privilege in the study of science and offers 
several distinct groups of study to the choice of the student, a general 
science group, or a well-developed technical group in agriculture or 
biology or chemistry or ceramics or civil, electric or mechanical engi- 
neering. There are now over seventy men on the teaching staff. The 
senior professors are Dr. Francis Cuyler Van Dyck, Physics, Emeritus; 
Dr. Austin Scott, Political Science ; Dr. Louis Bevier, Jr., Greek ; Dr. 
Alfred A. Titsworth, Civil Engineering ; Dr. John C. Van Dyke, Fine 
Arts — all so well known, with others of later appointment, throughout all 
the College constituency. 

The number of students now enrolled in degree courses is 700 : Stu- 
dents in short courses, 150; in the Women's College, 180; in the summer 
session, 550; bringing the total registry to nearly 1,600, exclusive of many 
hundreds in extension work. 

The College and the State — The Land Grant Act or Morrill Act of 
the Congress of the United States in 1862 provided for a grant of land 
to a College for the Benefit of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts in each 
State of the Union. The act describes each such college as one "where 
the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical 
studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning 
as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts." The State of New 
Jersey did not found a new college, but availed itself of the Federal 
Act by entering into relations with Rutgers. The land assigned to the 
State realized at its sale $116,000. This amount is held in trust and the 
interest is annually paid to the Trustees of Rutgers College in New 
Jersey. A later Act of Congress, known as the second Morrill Act, and 
a still later supplement, provide a certain annual amount, known as the 
Morrill Fund, from the Federal Treasury. Other acts, known as the 
Hatch Act and Adams Act, create and maintain an Experiment Station 
at the College, a department of research, not instruction, under the 
College's administration ; and the Smith-Lever Act puts its extension 
work also in charge of the College. 

It was the purpose of the Federal Acts to stimulate and secure in 
each State similar acts, that each State should cooperate with liberal 
support. The State of New Jersey entered upon such cooperation when, 
in 1890, it created certain scholarships for New Jersey students which it 
annually supports. Since that time it has established a department of 

ki''i"(ii-:ks (,()IJ.K(;k 



clay-working and ceramics and short courses in agriculture which it 
definitely maintains. It has also in more recent years provided equip- 
ment for certain scientific departments. It is now beginning to provide 
buildings at the College Farm for the advancement of the work of 
instruction and experiment in agriculture which in New Jersey, as 
well as in all other States, is attaining such remarkable importance and 
such high academic recognition. The State is fortunate in having a 
college of old foundation and traditions to administer its higher educa- 
tion, and the College is honored in the charge thus committed to it. 
The State's Board of Visitors possesses a direct connection with the 
work. In 1917 by act of the Legislature the State College was also des- 
ignated the State University of New Jersey. 

Property and Endowment — The College Campus, known in part as the 
Queen's Campus and in part as the Neilson Campus, has been acquired 
in largest part by gift. Mr. James Parker, of Perth Amboy, was donor 
of part of the Queen's Campus and the remainder was secured from his 
estate in 1808. The Neilson Campus has been given by Mr. James 
Neilson, of New Brunswick, during the last twenty years, in portions 
sufficient for the erection of buildings from time to time, and in greatest 
part in 1906, and in final part in 1920. The area of the Neilson Campus 
is now being extended by purchase. The College Farm, purchased in 
part nearly fifty years ago, and recently extended to area of about 350 
acres by purchase and by gifts, lies at the other end of the town from the 
College Campus. The Athletic Field, for many years allowed to the 
College use by its owner, Mr. James Neilson, has now been deeded by 
him to the College. 

Queen's College, the Faculty and Alumni House (formerly the Pres- 
ident's House) and Van Nest Hall (named in honor of Abraham Van 
Nest, Esq., a generous benefactor of the College) were erected by general 
subscription, the funds being secured chiefly among the people of the 
Reformed Church parishes in New York and New Jersey. The Observa- 
tory was the gift of Mr. Daniel S. Schanck, of New York City. Geological 
Hall was erected by funds received from general and various sources. 
Kirkpatrick Chapel carries the name of its donor, Mrs. Sophia Astley 
Kirkpatrick, of New Brunswick, who made the College a beneficiary of 
her will. Winants Hall, the Dormitory, was the gift of Mr. Garret E. 
Winants, of Bergen Point. Ballantine Gymnasium was the gift of Mr, 
Robert F. Ballantine, of Newark. New Jersey Hall, the Ceramics Build- 
ing, the Short Course Building, the Agricultural Building, a Horticul- 
tural Building now being erected, and a new Ceramics Building now 
planned, have been provided by the State of New Jersey for special 
work maintained by it. The Ralph Voorhees Library carries the name 
of its donor. The Engineering Building and the Chemistry Building 
have been erected by funds in part at the disposal of the College and 



in part borrowed, awaiting the needed donations. The Ford Dormitory 
is the gift of John Howard Ford. 

The Class of 1882, the Class of 1883, and the Class of 1902 have 
erected College Gates, and many classes have placed windows in the 
Chapel. The Henry R Baldwin Memorial Gates were the gift of many 
friends and associates of Dr. Baldwin. In the Library is the Henry 
Janeway Weston Memorial room ; and in the Fine Arts room. Queen's 
Building, is the Thomas L. Janeway Memorial collection. In the 
Museum of Geological Hall are many collections bearing the names of 
their donors, the Lewis C. Beck collection, the George H. Cook collec- 
tion, the John H. Frazee collection, and the Albert H. Chester 
collection. In the Library and New Jersey Hall are the George D. Hulst 
collection and the John B. Smith collection of Lepidoptera. In the 
Library also is the James B. Laing collection of coins. The value of 
buildings, equipment and collections now probably reaches nearly 

The funds of the College have been acquired j^ varied amounts at 
various times from many donors. The larger part of the endowment, 
received from general sources, is included in a general fund. There are 
many special funds, however, maintenance, beneficiary and prize funds 
which bear special names, some of them memorial. The Anna Atkins 
Heckscher Fund, $200,000, is the gift of August Heckscher, Esq. The 
Hill Professorship, a foundation of $75,000, is the gift of Rev. Dr. and 
Mrs. William Bancroft Hill. The Blair Trust Fund was the gift of 
Mr. John I. Blair, the Gould Memorial Fund was the gift of Miss Helen 
M. Gould, the Hobart Memorial Fund was the gift of the Hon. Garret A. 
Hobart, the Voorhees Professorship Fund was the gift of Mr. Abraham 
Voorhees, and the Bookstaver Fund was a bequest from the Hon. Henry 
W. Bookstaver. Beneficiary trust funds bear the names of Brownlee, 
Hedges, Knox, Mandeville, Smock, VanLiew, Voorhees and Van Ben- 
schoten. Prize funds bear the names of Appleton, Brodhead, Cooper, 
Bussing, Smith, Spader, Quick, Suydam, Upson, Vail, Van Doren and 
Van Vechten. There are two Fellowship Funds, the gifts respectively 
of James H. Blodgett and John Arent Vander Poel. Library funds bear 
the names of their donors, Robert H. Pruyn, P. Vanderbilt Spader and 
Benjamin Stephens. Mr. Robert F. Ballantine gave a fund to maintain 
the building which bears his name ; and Mr. Garret E. Winants gave a 
fund to maintain the building which bears his name. A Lectureship Fund 
has been given by Luther Lafiin Kellogg, Esq. Other special funds bear 
the names of Baldwin, Demarest, Duryee, Elmendorf, Suydam, Wes- 
ton, Beardslee, Lansing, Raven, Upson, Cook, Halsted, Hardenbergh, 
Horton, Sleght, Patterson, Taylor, Canfield, Nevius, Van Pelt. The 
Henry Rutgers Fund is held in trust for the College by the General 
Synod of the Reformed Church in America. The entire endowment of 


the College is now about $1,500,000, about $500,000 having been received 
in 1919-1920, from a successful million-dollar campaign, $500,000 remain- 
ing yet to be paid in. 

The Board of Trustees — The Charter of 1766 named as the original 
Trustees, in addition to the Governor, President of the Council, Chief 
Justice and Attorney-General, men whose names were familiar in the 
Provinces and the churches of the time. The Charter of 1770, with only 
slightest variation, names the same men. Sir William Johnson, Baronet, 
is first. Then follow the names of ministers, Johannes Henricus Goet- 
schius, Johannes Leydt, David Maurinus, Martinus Van Harlingen, 
Jacob R. Hardenbergh and William Jackson, of the Colony of New 
Jersey ; Samuel Verbryk, Barent Vrooman, Maurice Goetschius, Eilardus 
Westerlo, John Schuneman, of the Province of New York ; Philip 
Wyberg and Jonathan Dubois, of the Province of Pennsylvania. The 
names of laymen conclude the list: Hendrick Fisher, Peter Zabriskie, 
Peter Hasenclever, Peter Schenck, Tunis Dey, Philip French, John 
Covenhoven, Henricus Kuyper, of the Colony of New Jersey, Esqrs., and 
Simon Johnson, Philip Livingston, Johannes Hardenbergh, Abraham 
Hasbrouck, Theodorus Van Wyck, Abraham Lott, Robert Livingston, 
Levi Pauling, John Brinckerhoff, Nicholas Stillwill, Martinus Hoffman. 
Jacob H. Ten Eyck, John Haring, Isaac Vrooman, Barnardus Ryder, of 
the Province of New York, Esqrs. 

During the years since, nearly a century and a half, both State and 
Church have continued to be represented in the body of Trustees by 
men of distinction in all professions and in public affairs. Naturally, 
the States of New Jersey and New York have given most of the mem- 
bers ; naturally, ministers and elders of the Reformed Church have 
always been a large and influential element ; and, naturally, the gradu- 
ates of the College have been increasingly represented. 


The Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church in America 
had its origin in the desire to educate young men for the ministry in 
this country instead of being dependent for supply upon Holland and 
particularly upon the Classis of Amsterdam. The church had become 
divided on the difference of opinion of this important question, into 
the Coetus and Conference parties, the controversy lasting for many 
years. The Coetus party struggled for independent American judica- 
tories and the establishment of a university with regular advantages 
for a theological training. With these objects in view, the Rev. Theo- 
dore Frelinghuysen was commissioned in May, 1756, to solicit for funds 
in Holland. His departure, however, was delayed four years, and this, 
with the unhappy schism in the church, defeated the movement. Eight 
years after this, J. H. Livingston, who was studying for the ministry 


in Holland, proposed to his American friends that both of the contending 
parties should fix upon a youth and send him to that country to be 
specially trained for a professor in the American churches, thus ulti- 
mately healing the schism and providing for the churches to be supplied 
with satisfactory ministry. 

This plan seems not to have been entertained, and Mr. Livingston 
forming the acquaintance of Dr. Witherspoon, who had been called 
from Europe to take the presidency of the college at Princeton, sought 
to secure arrangements for the education of ministers for the Reformed 
Church at that institution. This, however, was opposed by the party 
leaders in America, also that of the Conferentie to establish a divinity 
professorship in King's College. The subsequent articles of union stipu- 
lated that the professors of theology were to be chosen from the Nether- 
lands by the advice of the Classis, and should not have any connection 
with any English academies, but should deliver lectures on theology in 
their own houses. They were not intended to be parsons ; a fund was to 
be raised for their support. No endowment, however, was immediately 
obtained, some of the most influential churches standing aloof from the 
union ; the disturbed political condition of the country was also another 
factor, and matters were deferred until after the close of the Revolution, 
the Synod in the meantime advising the students to study at their con- 
venience with Drs. Livingston, Westerlow, Rysdyck, Hardenbergh or 

While the subject of a professorship was pending, the trustees of 
Queen's College sought to carry out the plans of the Coetus party by 
calling Rev. John Brown, of Haddington, Scotland, to become their 
professor of divinity ; he, however, declined. They subsequently wrote 
to the Classis of Amsterdam and to the Theological Faculty of Utrecht, 
to recommend to them a professor of theology to be also president of 
the college and a member of the ecclesiastical judicatories in America. 
The Synod endorsed the action of the trustees in 1774, and the following 
year Dr. Livingston was recommended by the Classis and Faculty, but 
no action was taken, owing to the outbreak of hostilities. 

At the close of the Revolution, the subject of the professorship occu- 
pied the attention of the churches. Dr. Livingston was in favor of 
opening a divinity hall in New Brunswick, stating as his reason that 
it was the most central point for all portions of the Reformed Church — 
the Dutch in New York and New Jersey, and the Germans in Pennsyl- 
vania. This the Synod opposed, deciding to locate the chair in the city 
of New York; Dr. J. H. Livingston, in October, 1784, was chosen Pro- 
fessor of Theology, and Dr. H. Meyer, pastor of Totowa and Pompton 
Plain churches. Professor of Languages. Dr. Livingston entered upon 
his duties May 19, 1785, and for a number of years was very poorly 
supported by the Synod. Only the more wealthy of the students were 


able to meet the high cost of living in the city, the more indigent class 
was obliged to pursue their studies with their pastors at home. This 
induced the Synod to appoint authorized lectors in theology to accom- 
modate the country students. Dr. H. Meyer, of Pompton, was appointed 
in 1786, and, six years later, Dr. Soloman Froeligh, of Hackensack, and 
Dirck Romeyn, of Schenectady. 

The Synod in 1791 took active measures towards raising a fund for 
the endowment of the theological professorship. The work was, how- 
ever, suspended for two years owing to a proposition from Queen's 
College, repeating their proposition of 1773. The Synod finally decided 
that they could not recommend to the college a Professor of Theology 
for its presidency until that institution was properly endowed. This 
decision caused an influence to be brought on the General Synod for an 
independent theological professorship, the Classis of Hackensack urging 
the establishment of such a school at once, claiming that a professorship 
connected with Queen's College could only be a subordinate ofifice. A 
committee appointed by the General Synod in June, 1794, reported that 
no union could be effected with Queen's College as long as it was situ- 
ated at New Brunswick, and that it should be removed to Bergen or 
Hackensack. This committee also reported that the Divinity School 
could not flourish in New York on account of the expense of living, 
and its continuance there prevented the raising of a fund, recommending 
that it be removed to Flatbush, where a classical academy existed, or 
to some other point. 

The Synod accepting the recommendations of its committee. Pro- 
fessor Livingston in the spring of 1796 removed to Flatbush. The 
number of students at once doubled ; everything appeared encouraging. 
The Synod, however, failed to meet the financial requirements of the 
school, and. Dr. Livingston's health failing, he deemed it advisable to 
return to New York. Thereupon the Synod distributed the school into 
three equal parts, thinking that different localities would become inter- 
ested by having a professor residing among them. Drs. Forleigh and 
Romeyn were raised to the rank of professors, and in 1800 two pro- 
fessors of Hebrew were appointed — Revs. John Bassett and Jeremiah 
Romeyn. Thus matters remained until the year 1806, with every day 
the prospects of the professoriate growing more dark and dubious. The 
uncertainty of location seemed to destroy every effort in its behalf. 

At this time the trustees of Queen's College made another proposition, 
which prepared the way for the ultimate success of the institution. The 
trustees proposed to unite with the theological professoriate, and this 
was sanctioned by the General Synod with the proviso that all moneys 
raised in the State of New York should be applied to the endowment of 
the theological professorship. 

In the covenant agreed to between the parties, the trustees of the 


college promised to combine the literary interests of the college with 
a support to evangelical truth, and the promotion of an able and faithful 
ministry in the Dutch Church ; that the funds raised in New York should 
be appropriated to the support of the theological professorship in the 
college, and to the assistance of poor and pious young men preparing 
for the ministry. The trustees were to hold the funds, and should call 
the Professor of Theology elected by the Synod as soon as the funds 
would allow. A board of superintendents was to be appointed by the 
S3nod to superintend the theological professorship, to be known by the 
name of "The Superintendents of the Theological Institution in Queen's 
College." The Synod was to provide money for a library, and both 
parties were to unite in erecting the necessary buildings, and the pro- 
fessional fund was to be used for that purpose if needed. Funds were 
collected in New York ; in less than a year Dr. Livingston was called by 
the college trustees as their Professor of Theology. He did not imme- 
diately remove to New Brunswick, but he opened the seminary in 
October, 1810, with five students. 

The Rev. Elias Van Bunschooten donated $17,000 to the institution, 
to be used in the support of youths educated for the ministry. Dr. 
Livingston made his first report to the Synod in 1812, and three years 
later that body, with contributions received from the church in Albany 
and New Brunswick, elected Rev. John Schureman as Professor of 
Pastoral Theology and Ecclesiastical History. After his death in 1818, 
the second professorship embraced the department of Oriental Litera- 
ture and Ecclesiastical History. His successor, Rev. John Ludlow, 
continued in this department five years, when he was succeeded by Rev. 
John De Witt. The further endowment of the institution now became 
necessary ; Dr. Livingston opened a subscription in 1822 to which nearly 
$27,000 was subscribed within a year by the Particular Synod of New 

The Particular Synod of Albany in the fall of 1825 subscribed $27,000, 
for the endowment of third professorship. The death of Dr. Livingston 
occurred a short time previous to this event, but he lived long enough 
to see that success was certain, that the institution for which he had 
sacrificed so much during forty years of his life, was at last established 
on a firm foundation. It was not, however, until after his death that the 
theological institution was fully organized by a full complement of 
professors — De Witt, Millendoler and Woodhull. 

The Synod now purchased the college buildings in payment of the 
obligation of the trustees to them. The trustees had saved the professor- 
iate in 1807 by taking it under their care; the Synod now saved the 
college from extinction by a similar kindness. The theological pro- 
fessors became professors also in the college, which was reopened under 
the name of Rutgers College. The theological professors were relieved 
from further duties in the college about 1861. 


The want of a theological hall separate from the college building 
became a needed want as early as 185 1. The students, complaining of 
the high cost of board in New Brunswick, united in a memorial stating 
their difficulties and wants, which was presented to the faculty, who 
transmitted it to the board of superintendents. The board took immedi- 
ate action and their efforts were crowned with success. At the personal 
solicitation of Dr. Ludlow, Mrs. Anna Hertzog, of Philadelphia, donated 
$30,000 for the erection of a building that should be called "The Peter 
Hertzog Theological Hall." Colonel James Neilson donated land valued 
at $14,000, and other lots were given by David Bishop, Charles P. Day- 
ton, Francis and Wessel Wessels, of Paramus, New Jersey, their prop- 
erties forming a complete rectangle. The new building was speedily 
erected, containing dormitories, refectory, lecture rooms, chapel, and 

The Synod in 1864 transferred the college property back to the 
trustees, and the next year the covenants of 1807 and 1825 were finally 
annulled. The money thus accruing was devoted to the erection of 
professorial residences then in course of erection. In the same year the 
fourth professorship, that of Sacred Rhetoric and Pastoral Theology, was 
created, and Dr. David D. Demarest was elected to this position. Sub- 
scriptions and moneys were received in 1867 amounting to $62,233.09; 
the balance remaining after the establishment of the fourth professorship 
was to be used in finishing the three professorial residences. A large 
amount of these subscriptions proved worthless, and the Synod in 1868 
appointed an agent to raise $100,000 to complete the endowment of the 
seminary and for payment of the debt of the Synod. An endowment 
of $60,000 was received from James Suydam for the establishment of a 
chair of Didactic and Polemic Theology, and the Synod very appropri- 
ately attached his name to the professorship. Extensive improvements 
and repairs were made to the Peter Hertzog Hall, including water and 
heating by steam. The noble gift of James Suydam Hall, which was 
erected on one side of Hertzog Hall, was dedicated June 5, 1873. It 
contained a spacious gymnasium, chapel, museum, and four lecture 
rooms. In front of it a bronze statue of Mr. Suydam was placed by 
friends — a well deserved tribute to the memory of a liberal benefactor 
of the seminary, whose contributions exceeded $200,000. 

On the other side of Peter Hertzog Hall stands the Gardner A. Sage 
Library, presented by a citizen of New York, Gardner A. Sage, to the 
General Synod, and dedicated June 6, 1875. In addition to this gift of 
the building, Colonel Sage paid the salary of the librarian, the services 
of the janitor, coal, and other incidental expenses. He contributed 
$2,500 for the purchase of books, which was augmented by the efforts of 
Dr. Cornell, who secured $50,000 for the library, chiefly in subscriptions 
of $2,500 each. These moneys were given not for the investment but 


to l)c spent in the purchase of books. The present librarian is John C. 
Van Dyke, and the collection now amounts to over 56,000 volumes and pamphlets. In 1878, Nicholas T. Vedder, of Utica, New York, 
by the donation of $10,000, established a course of lectures to be delivered 
by Reformed (Dutch) Church members to the students of the seminary, 
and of Rutgers College on "The Present Aspect of Modern Infidelity, 
Including Its Catise and Cure." The General Synod accepted the gift 
and established the "Vedder Lectures on Modern Infidelity." This lec- 
tureship is not existent now, owing to the failure of the endowment fund 
— no fault of the donor. Colonel Sage, in connection with Mr. Suydam, 
presented to the General Synod a professorial residence at the cost of 
$18,000. These gentlemen left at their respective deaths, large sums for 
the endowment of the buildings erected by them, and of the grounds and 
other buildings. Mr. Sage endowed also the chair now named for him. 
These two men altogether more than doubled the previous endowment, 
as they have again been doubled since 1890 by gifts from many donors, 
such as Mrs. Ann F. Carver, niece of Mrs. Hertzog, John S. Bussing, and 
Miss Anna M. Sandham. 

The faculty of the seminary has at different times consisted of a 
number of noted educators and scholars. Prominent among these not 
already mentioned were Revs. James S. Cannon, Alexander McClelland, 
Samuel A. Van Vranken, William H. Campbell, Samuel M. Woodbridge, 
Joseph F. Berg, Abraham B. Van Zandt, William V. V. Mabon. John 
DeWitt, besides many others. The present president of the faculty is the 
Rev. J. Preston Searle, D. D. The Seminary now has five professorial 
chairs, three "lectorships," and employs three instructors, making a 
teaching force of eleven. It has also three endowed lectureships. 


Little is known of the early private schools of New Brunswick pre- 
vious to the beginning of the nineteenth century. From 1800 to 1850, 
private schools were taught by Charles Poole, Samuel Seymour, Charles 
Burnham, John G. Tarbell, Charles Spaulding, Luke Egerton, Aaron 
Slack, Thomas Hobart, Benjamin Mortimer, Miss McLaughlin, Miss 
Sally Vickers, Mrs. and Miss Bell, Miss Johnson, Abram Ackerman, 
Samuel Walker and Professor David Cole. Boys were mostly the pupils, 
but some of the schools taught boys and girls. As teacher of girls 
exclusively during this period, mention is made of Miss Hays, Madam 
McKay, Miss Nancy Drake, Miss Whiting and Miss Hannah Hoyt. 

One of the earliest private schools in the city was known as the 
"Lancasterian." I»y the will and testament of William Hall in 1803, 
after various bequests, the remainder of his property was left in trust to 
be expended in educating poor children in the city of New Brunswick. 


This ti-ast amounted to about $4,000, and by an act of the Legislature 
a board of trustees was created. This board had its first meeting June 
8, 1809, but it was not until April 16, 1814, that the first teacher, Shep- 
hard Johnson, was appointed. A building known as the Queen's College 
was removed to Schureman street, and on June i, 1814, the school was 
opened with thirty-five free and six pay pupils. The school was con- 
ducted for many years on the "Lancasterian or Monitorial plan." Mr. 
Johnson resigned November 20, 1816, and Henry B. Poole was appointed 
his successor. The latter resigned June 30, 1818, and was succeeded 
by Zerophon T. Maynard. His successor was Mr. Harrison, who 
retained the position of principal until the close of 1831, and February 
25, 1832, Elihu Cook was appointed to the place. He resigned in 1838 
and A. W. Mayo became principal. The school was temporarily sus- 
pended in 1853, remaining closed until December i, 1855, when Mr. 
Mayo again took charge of the school, which flourished for over a quarter 
of a century, but finally succumbed to the public school system. 

The private schools of to-day consist of the Rice Industrial Literary 
Institute, conducted by Ellen M. Rice, on Comstock street; the Misses 
Anable's School on Bayard street ; and the Rutgers Preparatory School 
on College avenue. There are also the parochial schools in charge of 
Sisters of Charity, connected with the Roman Catholic parishes of St. 
Peter, Sacred Heart, St. John the Baptist, St. Lanislaus, and St. Agnes 

There were in the other towns of the county in early days, before the 
introduction of public schools, academies supported by contributions 
from the inhabitants of the towns. Among these was the Woodbridge 
Academy, which was built in 1793 and gained a farfamed notoriety. It 
was built by Jonathan Freeman at a total cost of £342 2s. and 4d. Many 
of the early residents of the county were educated at this institution. 
The building was finally sold in 185 1, the site being utilized for the 
erection of a district school. Another noted academy located in Wood- 
bridge was opened as a high school in 1822 by Professor James Schuyler; 
this school was attended by scholars from neighboring localities. It was 
first known as Elm Tree Inn, but its name was afterwards changed to 
Elm Tree Institute. 

()Ll)l-:.\ TIMK SCHOOI, 

iiii': oi.i) SI \(,i': COACH 

Kriirnrlmiions I'rnm old rn<iravin<>< 



Note — For more than a half a century, the Public Schools of Middlesex County 
have been under the superintendency of father and son, Rev. Ralph Willis and H. 
Brewster Willis. By reason of this unusual circumstance, I have been induced to 
write this brief sketch of the Public Schools of Middlesex County, keeping in mind 
those who have rendered more than ten years of public school service continuously in 
supervisory, teaching and administrative positions in the same district. It is quite pos- 
sible that some names of those worthy, and some important facts have been omitted; 
if so, I trust the omission will be forgiven, as I have sought the fullest information. 

School service is a patriotic service. The preservation and continuation of our 
present form of government depends very largely upon the public schools of our land. 
It is high time that more public appreciation shoulil be expressed of the service ren- 
dered by those working in the Second Line of National Defense. 

H. Brewster Willis. 

July I, 1920, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Ralph Willis was appointed Superintendent of Schools of the County 
of Middlesex more than fifty years ago by Governor Joel Parker, about 
the time the Legislature discontinued local township school superin- 
tendents. For a period of twenty years he continued in office, improving 
the County Public School System, a record of which may be found in 
the Annual State School Reports. 

In his last report to the State Board of Education the following 
appears: "I retire from the office with a grateful sense of the honor 
conferred upon me by so many reappointments ; with a consciousness 
of honest efforts in the performance of my duties; and with pleasant 
memories of the respect and kindness of all with whom I have been 
officially connected." His official mantle fell upon the shoulders of his 
son, H. Brewster Willis, in 1887. 

He died March 17, 1895, highly esteemed by all who knew him, 
as a faithful and successful school official. 

In 1897, County Superintendent H. Brewster Willis attempted to 
have the United States Flag float from every school house in Middlesex 
county. He discovered that the school law would not permit the Boards 
of Education to expend public school money for United States Flags. 
Upon this discovery, a campaign was conducted among the Boards of 
Education, teachers and pupils, and, through entertainments and dona- 
tions, the school districts raised the sum of $3,000, which amount pro- 
vided United States flags of varied dimensions and quality, to every 
public school property in the county. 

In 1898, the County Superintendent drew an amendment to the school 
law, which included the purchase of United States Flags among the 
items which the Board of Education might purchase out of the fund 
for current expenses. This amendment became a law, and the purchase 


of United States Flags was made permissible by Boards of Education 
out of school funds. In 1900, by a further Act of the Legislature, the 
Boards of Education were compelled to purchase United States Flags 
and display the same upon or near each public school property, each 
school day and at such other times, as said Board of Education deemed 

Correspondence with the Secretary of State of the respective States 
of the Union in 1898, revealed the fact that Middlesex county was the 
first county to uniformly display the United States Flag over all its 
school houses, and that the State of New Jersey was the first State to 
require by law the United States Flag to float upon or near every public 
school building in the State. 

City of New Brunswick — In the very early days there was established 
a free-school, conducted under the Lancasterian Plan. This famous 
school was located in the old four-room wooden building on Schureman 
street. Part of the building was occupied as the living quarters of the 

Under the township act, the New Brunswick schools were known 
as School District No. i. In 1890, and since that date, modern ward 
schools have been erected. 

At the present time this city has six large graded elementary schools, 
well equipped; Junior High, and a most modern Senior High School, 
comparing favorably with any high school in the State in a city of the 
same population. The graduates of eight elementary schools in dis- 
tricts immediately surrounding the city, attend this high school. The 
graduates of the Senior High School are admitted on certificate to the 
leading colleges and universities. At this date the teaching force num- 
bers 175, exclusive of a number of evening school teachers and those 
who are teachers in classes for foreign born residents. The total enroll- 
ment is about 5,400 pupils. Population 32,779. A large number of the 
school population attend the excellent Parochial Schools. 

Among the City Superintendents who have rendered valuable serv- 
ice in the development of the city school system, might be mentioned 
Henry B. Pierce, Charles Jacobus, Ellis A. Apgar, George G. Ryan, 
William Clinton Armstrong, George H. Eckels and the present City 
Superintendent, Ira T. Chapman. 

Among the teachers who have served continuously in the city system 
for many years are Misses Eleanor S. Lott, Anne Castner, Cecelia Bou- 
dinot, Mary Castner. Cornelia Schroeder, Amanda Voorhees, Annie 
Rastall, Grace E. March, Carolyn Plechner, Emma A. McCoy, Saidee 
Felter, Josephine Masso, Angie Wray, Blanche Johnston, Mr. Henry 
Miller, Miss Sarah O. Whitlock, Mr. George W. Wilmot, Misses Susie 
Crabiel, Saidee A. Smith, Chrissie Bartle, Jessie M. Gray, Selma Erick- 
son, Margaret Wall, Bertha Dewald. Permelia Wray. May U. Bogan, 


Maude Hart, Suzanne J. Price, Martha Dewald, Mr. George H. Brooks, 
Misses Faye Van DeVenter, Helen Morrison, Jessie Morrison, Myra 
Selover, Katherine Boudinot, Mrs. Kate C. Marsh (formerly Miss Kate 
C. Garland) ; Misses Marjorie Deshler, Sadie Leary, Elsie Dunham, Mrs. 
Josephine de Percin (formerly Miss Josephine Paulus); Misses Edith 
Richardson and Laura Hughes. 

Many of the most distinguished professional and business men have 
served long and well upon the Board of Education, among those who 
have served for a period of ten years or more, mention might be made 
of Garret Conover, John Cheeseman, Thomas N. Doughty, John S. Stew- 
art, Abram R. Provost, Robert L. Hoagland, John Helm, Joseph 
Eldridge, E. Leon Loblein, Charles E. Tindell, James A. Morrison, 
Henry G. Parker, Anthony Viehman, A. L. Smith, Otto O. Stillman, 
George C. Ludlow, Theodore G. Nelson, Henry R. Baldwin, Robert J. 
Smith and A. W. Winckler. It is worthy of note that H. B. Zimmerman, 
Nelson Dunham and Henry L. Janeway each served for a period of 
twenty-two years, and that Morris Bauer has been connected with the 
Board of Education of the city for a period of twenty-four years. 

The sum of $408,340 has been raised for the next school year, which 
is an indication of progress. The school system is up-to-date, and with 
the completion of the school buildings now being erected, the citizens of 
New Brunswick may justly be proud of its educational privileges. 

City of Perth Amboy — While private schools were maintained for 
the children of the well-to-do, education in the public schools was some- 
what delayed. A private school was established in the early days in 
what was known as the "State House," then the home of the Governor of 
East Jersey, and later known as The Westminster. 

The earliest record of an attempt to found a system of public schools 
is contained in a minute of a public meeting, bearing date January 9, 
1788. The work of the public schools was carried on for many years in 
the City Hall, or in rented rooms, until 1780, when the first public 
school building was erected, and in a greatly enlarged capacity still 
serves, and is known as School No. i. 

In 1895, the city took on a new life, and its growth developed a fine 
system of schools consisting of thirteen large, well equipped elementary 
schools and an up-to-date, capacious High School. Pupils from sur- 
rounding districts enjoy the privileges of the High School. Graduates 
of the High School are admitted on certificate to twenty-two colleges and 
universities. The teaching corps numbers over two hundred, and the 
total enrollment is thought to be 8,500. Population 41,707. 

Charles C. Hommann, James S. White, Adrian Lyon and Samuel E. 
Shull have rendered valuable service as City Superintendents. Mr. 
Shull has been City Superintendent continuously for a period of twenty- 
five years, and his leadership is very generally recognized. 


It is worthy of note that the following named have taught for many 
years: Miss M. Emma MacWilliam, Mr. Edgar H. Kleinhans, Mr. 
Charles Dietz, Misses Jennie Pemberton, Anna Joslin, Mary P. Meade, 
Grace Hawk, Edith L. Sofield, Mr. Joseph F. Walker, Misses Harriet 
Eraser, Katharine McCormick, Mary Morris, Lillian E. Fretz, Mary E. 
Hansen, Grace Carman, Anna Major, Agnes Hardiman, Nellie Shean, 
Ida B. Miller, Mamie B. Miller, Alice Hegstrom, Sue Franke, Rose 
McCormick, Rose M. Blume, Genevieve Frank, Bertha Oxenford, 
Blanche Van Syckle, Margaret Connor, Caroline Kimball, Mr. Henry S. 
Hulse, Mr. Will W. Ramsay, Misses Augusta D. Martin, Wealthy D. 
Heinzleman, Pauline Philo, Margaret J. Slugg, Ellen M. Ostrye, Lillian 
M. Cause, Margaret E. Boughton, Ingeborg Oksen, Margaret Martin, 
Harriet H. Meade, Alice M. Clack, Philomena Martin, Emma Clausen, 
Bertha Brown, Helena M. Wright, Ruth W. Hancock, Lucy Woglom, 
Leisa F. Henry, Mabel Lanning, Elsie J. Snyder, Besse R. Hunter, Jetta 
Stacey, Florence Leathers, Florence Garretson, Virginia Miller, Leila 
Arnold, Katharine A. Martin, Harriet Webster, Esther Laurey, Mr. 
Mark R. Lefler, Mr. Glenworth Sturgis, and Miss Mabel E. Treen. 

Mr. John K. Sheehy has served as a member of the Board of Educa- 
tion for ten or more years and as president of the Board for a number of 
years. The sum of $200,000 for maintenance has been raised for the 
next school year. The public school system of the city of Perth Amboy 
has kept pace with its remarkable growth. 

City of South Amboy — For many years the town of South Amboy 
comprised two school districts, each containing one school building, in 
the township of Sayreville, viz., Park School and Raritan School. One 
of the original school buildings is still in use, however, very much 
enlarged and modified. 

In 1880 the town of South Amboy became a borough, and in 1908 
the borough was incorporated into the city of South Amboy, and 
recently School No. i has been remodeled into a fine high school build- 
ing, with all modern facilities and containing a junior and a senior high 
school department. At this date the teaching force includes thirty or 
more teachers, exclusive of the vocational evening school teachers. The 
school enrollment has reached about nine hundred. This is exclusive of 
pupils attending large Parochial Schools. Population 7,897. 

In considering the names of those who were in school supervisory 
positions in this municipality, should be mentioned the names of James 
Corkery, Miss Kate McCoy, Miss Mary Thomas, R. M. Fitch, and City 
Superintendent O. O. Barr, who has been in charge of the city schools 
for the past six years. 

Among the teaching corps who have served continuously for many 
years are Misses Laura Rutan, Kate C. Bogart, Katharine O'Connor, 
Mary J. Watson, Mary E. Buchanan, Mrs. Florence Matteson (formerly 


Miss Florence Coker), Misses Helen Brown, Martha Buchanan, Ruth 
Campbell, Edna M, Agan, Margaret Gallagher, Cecilia McGonigle, Helen 
Applegate and Mary Mack. 

The two names that stand out conspicuously as school board men 
who have rendered long and valuable service are Frank E. DeGraw, who 
served eighteen years; and Alonzo L. Grace, who gave his services for 
eleven years. The last appropriation for school purposes called for 
$42,250. Under the recent administration the school system of this 
municipality has greatly improved, and the quality of the high school 
work is recognized in college entrance examinations. 

Borough of Diinellen — In the beginning of the last half century, the 
school district of Dunellen possessed a one-room school on the site of 
the present Whittier School. In 1880 this building was added to and 
remodeled into a modern four-room school building, with greatly 
increased school facilities. 

In 1885 the village of Dunellen was formed into a borough from the 
township of Piscataway. 

Quite recently the Lincoln School building was erected, providing 
eight very desirable school rooms, and at the present time the Whittier 
School building is being again enlarged at a cost of nearly $100,000. 
Upon the completion of this building the borough of Dunellen will have 
two very excellent elementary school buildings. The school enrollment 
of the borough is about 700 pupils, and those who complete the eighth 
year are permitted to attend the Plainfield High School. Population 


Among the school supervisors of recent years in this borough> we 
recall E. W. Oley, Lester Meseroll, Guy H. Rentschler and M. Burr 
Mann, who has been supervising principal for the past two years. The 
teachers who have served long and well in this district are Misses Imo- 
gene Smith, Fannie Smith, Ritie G. Brokaw, E. May Higgins, Ethel C. 
Rogers and Mary H. Lindsley. 

Among the school board men who have given their services for more 
than ten years are August F. Todd ; Arthur J. Hanley and Theodore 
W. Day, who has just completed his twentieth year of service on the 
Board of Education. 

The appropriation made for the current expenses for the coming 
school vear of this district is $28,400. The school facilities of this munici- 
pality are quite up-to-date, especially with the privilege of sending eighth 
year pupils to so excellent a high school as Plainfield maintains. 

Borough of Helmetta — The growth of the Helmetta school shows a 
progressive transition from a one-room frame building, erected in 1885, 
to a new brick building of modern construction containing five rooms, 
erected in 1912. 

The school of Helmetta was one of the first propositions considered 


by Mr. George W. Helme when he built the early snuff mills in the vil- 
lage of Helmetta, said to be named after Mr. Helme and one of his 
daughters. The founder of the village of Helmetta was very greatly 
interested in public education, and the George W. Helme Company has 
always befriended the public school interests of the borough and county 

Originally, this district was a portion of East Brunswick township, 
and was known as School No. 74. In 1888 it became a borough. The 
school facilities are considered among the best in the county. It has 
approximately 200 school population, and transports its eighth year 
pupils to the Jamesburg High School, upon the completion of the ele- 
mentary school course. Population 687. 

The school supervision has been in charge of Miss Lizzie F. Straub 
for the past thirty years, and her faithfulness and usefulness have been 
recognized and appreciated by the citizens of the borough. The teach- 
ers who have served faithfully for a number of years are Mrs. Jessie R. 
Colburn (formerly Miss Jessie R. Henkel), Misses Alida E. Franklin and 
F. Lillian Franklin. 

Among the School Board men who have given their services for over 
ten years are Clinton M. Clemmons, Robert J. Franklin, Sr., Walter B. 
Helme, James Deming, and Chester A. Burt, who served for a period of 
twenty-one years The names of Welcome G. Clemmons and William 
H. Clemmons will always be associated with Helmetta schools. 

Appropriation has been made for current expenses for the coming 
school year of $6,000. For a borough of its size, its school facilities 
compare very favorably with others, and is likely to do so as long as the 
George W. Helme Company officials reside in the borough. 

Borough of Highland Park — The first public school in Highland Park 
was organized in 1885 in a private house, with Miss Chrissie Bartle as 
the first teacher. In 1886 a one-room school building was erected on 
the site of the present Lafayette School. From time to time, by reason 
of the increased school population of the borough, additional rooms and 
wings were added until at the present time the Lafayette School is a 
large, well-equipped elementary building with spacious grounds. Quite 
recently two new buildings of modern type, of four rooms each, known 
as the Hamilton and Irving Schools, have been erected, and yet the 
school accommodations are wholly inadequate. 

The borough was formed in 1905, since which time a very unusual 
growth in school population has taken place. The erection of a new 
up-to-date building with a spacious auditorium and gymnasium is now 
being contemplated to fill a much needed want. It is quite likely that 
the school population of the borough of Highland Park has increased in 
a larger percentage than any other district in the county within the past 
decade, with the exception of one district. The district furnishes very 


excellent elementary school privileges, and sends those leaving the 
elementary school to the New Brunswick High School, where they have 
very excellent instruction. The enrollment is nearly 900 school chil- 
dren. Population 4,866. The corps of teachers at present number over 

Among those who have had a leading part in the school supervision 
of the borough are Thomas G. Van Kirk, J. A. Wilson, Justin Warbasse, 
Frank E. Spring, and F. Willard Furth, the present supervising principal. 
Misses Mabel W. Stoothoff, Blendina Smock and Bertha Snediker have 
served for a number of years faithfully in the school system. Among 
the School Board men who have rendered faithful and efficient service 
for a number of years, the name of Condit S. Atkinson is most fre- 
quently mentioned 

The sum of $67,800 has recently been appropriated for current school 
expenses for the coming school year. The borough is growing in leaps 
and bounds and its citizens are ambitious to keep pace in educational 
matters. Considerable community school work is being well directed 
by school organizations. 

Borough of Jameshurg — In 1887 the village of Jamesburg was incor- 
porated into a borough out of a portion of the territory of the township 
of Monroe. 

For more than thirty years pupils attended the one-room school 
located on the Old Englishtown road. Later a two-room building was 
erected on a lot adjoining the Presbyterian church. This building was 
destroyed by fire. A two-room building was erected where the elemen- 
tary school building now stands. By reason of the growth of the bor- 
ough and the appreciation of the course of instruction by those living 
outside of the borough, not only the elementary school facilties have 
been greatly enlarged, but a modern high school has been erected. The 
high school diplomas are recognized by the normal schools and col- 
leges. The school population of the municipality is about 700. Popu- 
lation 2,671. 

Charles Stout, Forman Coosaboom and Curtis A. Deveney have had 
charge of the school supervision of the borough for a number of years. 
Mr. Deveney, the present supervising principal, has been at the helm 
for the past fifteen years, and his good work is generally recognized. 
Among the teachers who have rendered a considerable term of service 
are Charles L. Stout, Misses Maggie Pownall, Blendina Smock and 
Hilda Baremore. John H. Baremore has been a valuable member of 
the School Board for more than thirteen years, and John Waddy has 
rendered efficient service as a School Board man for more than twenty 

The appropriation for the ensuing year for current school expenses 
is $17,843. By reason of the large elementary school population the 

Mid— 14 


Board of Education has decided to build another modern school building 
At a cost of $85,000, adjoining the present high school building. Not 
less than seven borough and township school districts adjoining and 
surrounding the Jamesburg High School transport in large numbers 
the graduates from the eighth year. This school under the present effi- 
cient management offers very excellent high school facilities. 

Borough of Mctiichcn — Many years ago the present school district of 
the borough of Metuchen was known as Franklin School District, No. 
15, township of Raritan, and the building was known as the Franklin 
Civic House, a one-story building with one room. This large room was 
divided into two rooms, one of which was used by the Presbyterian con- 
gregation for weekly prayer meetings, and the other for public school 
purposes. In 1872 a two-story frame building was built on the site of 
the present high school building, and in 1907 the present high school 
building was erected. More recently, Mr. Charles S. Edgar, now 
deceased, donated a plot of groimd containing seven acres for school 
purposes, upon which an up-to-date elementary school has been erected 
and designated as the "Edgar School." These two buildings, together 
with a movable two-room building, adjoining the high school, furnish 
very excellent school accommodations, for a school population of about 
800 children. Population 3,334. 

The names which stand out the most prominently as school super- 
visors in this district, are A. T. S. Clark, Henry Anderson, and Thomas 
G. Van Kirk, the present incumbent, who has occupied the position of 
supervising principal for more than twenty years, serving the township 
of Raritan for six years and the borough since its formation in 1904. 
Misses Anna Cheeseman and Martha C. Vogel, and Mrs. Jasper H. 
Hogan (formerly Miss Emma Siemons), have been faithful and effi- 
cient teachers in this district for a number of years. Prominent among 
the School Board men, are the names of Thorfin Tait and that "grand 
old man," Robert Bruce Crowell, recently deceased, who served on the 
School Board continuously for nearly half a century. 

The recent appropriation for current school expenses was $29,960. 
The high school graduates are received in the normal schools and col- 
leges upon evidence of graduation. The citizens of Metuchen have 
always manifested a pride in the work of the public school. 

Borough of Middlesex — For many years the district now included in 
the borough of Middlesex, which was formed in 1913, had but a single 
one-room school, known as Harris Lane School. This building, which is 
still standing, was erected over one hundred years ago, and is possibly 
the oldest existing school building in the county of Middlesex. The land 
on which the building stands was donated to the community by Mr. 
Hendrick Smock. The teachers were paid by the parents of the pupils 
attending, and the money for the erection of the school house was raised 
by public subscription. 


The Pierce, Watchung and Parker schools, all elementary, accommo- 
date the 500 school population with some difficulty. Population 1,852. 
At a recent meeting the district voted the sum of $112,000 for an up-to- 
date, fireproof school building with all modern equipment, much to the 
credit of the public-spirited citizens of the borough. 

Mr. William Love has been in charge of the school supervision since 
the borough formation, and the results of his work are very commenda- 
ble. The name of Miss Nora B. Henderson, who taught in the township 
of Piscataway for a number of years and in the borough of Middlesex 
since its formation, a total experience of twenty-six years, is a household 
name in the community. 

The men who were most interested in the educational facilities of the 
new borough were Max F. Wirtz, James V. N. Polhemus, Louis V. 
Poulson, Stewart C. Crouse, Clinton M. Cary, John L. Douglass, Bayard 
Naylor, Augustus C. Ramsey, Everett A. Gowdy, John H. Sebring and 
Joseph White. 

The recent appropriation for current school expenses was $41,483, 
and this amount, together with the amount appropriated for the new 
building, makes a total appropriation of $153,483. The elementary 
school graduates attend the Plainfield and Bound Brook high schools. 
For its age, this young borough is exceedingly promising in educational 

Borough of Milltozvn — The village of Milltown was formerly a por- 
tion of East Brunswick and North Brunswick townships, separated by 
a stream known as Lawrence brook. The first school was located some- 
where back of the Methodist church. Later a two-room school on Main 
street, was erected. 

Milltown was formed into a borough commission in 1888, and erected 
a four-room school building. Later, the borough commission became a 
full-fledged borough, and a fine modern eight-room school was erected 
on a desirable lot, donated to the borough by Mr. James Ford, a resident 
of New York City, who for many years was interested in Milltown. 
Later there were four more rooms added to the building, which at the 
present time is wholly inadequate for a school population of 600 chil- 
dren. Population 2,573. 

The men who have been most prominent in the school supervision 
of the district are E. W. Merritt, Warren A. Roe, Harry R. B. Meyers, 
and the present incumbent, Stephen F. Weston, who very recently has 
taken charge. The teachers who have served for a considerable period 
in the school are Misses Eva Benham and Annie Merritt. Miss Grace 
Shaw is now completing her tenth year of faithful service. J. Milton 
Brindle, Howard S. DeHart and George Heyle have served more than 
ten years each on the Board of Education. The sum of $28,750 has been 
raised for the next school year, and the sum of $65,000 has recently been 


voted for the purchase of a playground and the erection of an additional 
school building. With these additional school accommodations. Mill- 
town school facilities will be abreast with boroughs of like population. 

Borough of Roosevelt — The district known as Roosevelt was formerly- 
known as Blazing Star District, No. 22, and a part of Woodbridge town- 
ship. The borough of Roosevelt was incorporated in 1906. At that time 
there was a thirteen-room school in Chrome section of the borough ; a 
four-room school in the Carteret section, and a one-room school at 
the East Rahway section, which school was later discontinued. 
So marvelous has been the growth in valuations and population that 
in order to provide adequate school accommodations, addition after 
addition to the school buildings became necessary in order to accom- 
modate 2,000 children of school age. Population 11,047. 

The borough has a teaching corps of about fifty teachers. Some 
seventy-five high school children attend the Rahway High School, and 
many of the high school graduates have attended the New Jersey Normal 
Schools and Columbia University. 

The school supervision has been in charge of Miss Barbara V. Her- 
mann as supervising principal for the past thirteen years. The teachers 
who have served faithfully for ten years or more in said borough are 
Miss Catherine Hermann, principal of the Carteret section school : 
Misses Anna Devereux, Mary Devereux, Mary Connolly and Ethel 

The School Board men who have served faithfully for more than ten 
years are Edward J. Heil, Matthew A. Hermann, Charles H. Morris, 
Frank J. Born, Patrick J. Coughlin, George W. Morgan and Valentine 
Gleckner. Appropriation has been made for current expenses for the 
coming school year of $83,862. The school system of the borough of 
Roosevelt is one of the most complete elementary systems in the county. 
Its equipment, including its home-making department, will compare 
favorably with any borough of the State, of the same population. 

Borough of Sayreville — Prior to 187 1 the village of Sayreville was a 
part of the township of South Amboy. In this year the town of South 
Amboy was incorporated into a borough by a special Act of the Legisla- 
ture. The remaining section of the township was named after James R. 
Sayre, one of the founders of the Sayre-Fisher Manufacturing Company, 
which at that time was the only industry in the township, but to-day 
it is conceded to be one of the largest industries of its kind in the world. 
The school trustees of the district, which was then known as Dis- 
trict No. 37, advocated and erected a school building at a cost of $4,000, 
which was then and still is known as School No. i in said district. This 
district has recently been made the borough of Sayreville. At the present 
time, the district embraces three school buildings, the school property 
at Ernston having been taken by the Government during the war. The 


school population numbers about 600. The graduates of the elementary- 
school attend high school in South Amboy and New Brunswick. Popula- 
tion 7,181. 

Mr. Jesse Selover has been supervising principal of this district for 
fourteen years, or more, having acted previously as principal of No. i 
School for a period of five years. Among the teachers who have served 
faithfully and well for the past ten years or more, are Misses Mercy 
Hillmann, Emma Arleth and Catherine Samsel. Mr. James N. Blew, 
now deceased, served as a School Board man for a period of twenty years 
and Mr. George L. Sullivan for more than ten years. 

The current expense appropriation for the coming year is about 
$25,000, and at a recent meeting an appropriation of $105,000 was voted 
for a new school building which has been greatly needed for a number 
of years. With the completion of the new building, the borough of 
Sayreville will have reason to be proud of its public school accommoda- 
tions and instruction. 

Borough of South River — The borough of South River was formerly 
a part of the township of East Brunswick. Later it was made a commis- 
sion by special Act of the Legislature, and at a comparatively recent 
date it was made a full fledged borough. Until 1908 the three-room brick 
building, with several additions, met the school requirements. After 
that date the growth of the borough necessitated additional school build- 
ings. No. 2 and No. 3, buildings of considerable size, have been erected 
to meet the demands of the school population, and No. 3 is used for 
High School purposes. The school population is about 1,300, and the 
teachers number ^6. Population 6,596. 

Those most prominently in charge of the school supervision of recent 
years have been William Campbell, Francis P. O'Brien, Louis J. 
Kaser, William H. Connors, and T. Frank Tabor, who has been super- 
vising principal for the past three years. Among the teachers who have 
served long and well in this district are Misses Sarah T. M. Brown, Mary 
Stadler, Estelle Van Arsdale, Theresa Smith and Jessie Henderson. 
Their long term of faithful service justifies special mention. Mr. George 
Allgair has been a member of the School Board for twenty-four contin- 
uous years, and Rev. William J. Kern for a period of ten years. 

The sum of $55,998 has been appropriated for the current expenses 
for the coming school year, and $155,000 for alterations to School No. i. 
School No. I, while among the most substantially built school buildings 
of the county, has become antiquated, and the Board of Education is 
planning to make either substantial alterations or erect a new building. 
When this has been accomplished, the borough of South River will have 
provided ample and modern school accommodations for the school popu- 
lation, which is increasing very rapidly. 

Borough of Spotswood — The borough of Spotswood was formerly a 
part of the township of East Brunswick, and became a borough in 1908. 


For many years the one-room school taught by Miss Eugenia Dimmick 
was well known throughout the county for its high grade of work. Later 
an additional room was added, and Mr. Thomas G. Van Kirk became the 
principal. In 1901, the old school building was used for a fire department, 
and an up-to-date four-room brick building was erected across the road- 
way immediately opposite the old building. This borough has a school 
population of about 250, and at present necessitates half-day classes in 
some of the grades. Population 704. 

School supervision has been in charge of Miss Anna Fitts, who has 
taught in the district for a period of twenty-six years, and has been act- 
ing as supervising principal for the past eleven years. The names of 
Roy P. Stillwell and Mark W. Swetland appear prominently as princi- 
pals of the school, immediately prior to the borough formation. Mr. 
John O. Cozzens has been a member of the Board of Education contin- 
uously for a period of forty-four years, and is the dean of School Board 
men of the county. Mr. Charles DeVoe has rendered many years of 
valuable service as a School Board man. 

The sum of $3,027 has been appropriated for the current school 
expenses during the coming year. This district is in need of additional 
school accommodations. At least two rooms should be added at once 
to the present school building. The grounds are ample and well kept. 
The graduates of this school are transported by automobile to the James- 
burg High School. 

Toumship of Cranbiiry — The history of the Cranbury schools dates 
from the organization of the first church in 1738. There is a record of an 
Indian mission school about 1756, established by David Brainard. Later, 
two district schools were organized, one known as the South Cranbury 
School, and the other as the Bunker Hill School. These schools were 
separated by a considerable lake, and continued to vie with each other 
until the new grammar school was built in 1896. The Board of Educa- 
tion closed the school at Cranbury Neck and Wycofif's Mills, and trans- 
ported the pupils to a central grammar school. This transportation 
necessitated an enlargement of the grammar school building to eight 
rooms, with a manual training room equipment. 

In 1919, that portion of the township of Cranbury commonly known 
as Plainsboro, was set off by the Legislature into the new township of 
Plainsboro. This separation leaves one large elementary school building 
in the township, to which children are transported by a number of con- 
veyances. The graduates of this elementary school are transported by 
autos to the high school in Hightstown. The school population of Cran- 
bury township is about 250, and the corps of teachers is eight in num- 
ber. Population 1,083. 

Valuable service was rendered during the two-school period by Miss 
Ella Davis (later Mrs. Amzi Duncan), and Miss Holmes. Miss Laura 


Scudder has been a teacher in said district continuously for a period of 
twenty-two years, and Miss Anna L. Ervin for a period of sixteen years. 
For the past eight years Mr. Floyd L. Evans has occupied the position 
of supervising principal of said district. 

Mr. William F. Pcrrine and Howard J. Butcher have been board 
members continuously for over twenty-five years, and John V. B, 
Wicoff, R. S. Mason, E. S. Barclay, S. H. Perrine, D. J. Wilson and 
J. H. Conover have served on the Board of Education for a period of 
more than ten years. The current expense appropriation for the coming 
year was $13,300. This district requires additional school accommo- 
dations of at least two rooms and an auditorium. These improvements 
are now being considered by the Board of Education. 

Township of East Brunswick — Some years ago, the township of East 
Brunswick included what is now known as the borough of South River, 
borough of Helmetta, borough of Spotswood, and a portion of the bor- 
ough of Milltown. The oldest building in the district is the Weston's 
Mills School, No. 2, which is still standing, but abandoned. It is situated 
near the location of the old tollgate on the New Brunswick and Old 
Bridge turnpike. Theie are five school buildings within the district, 
three of which are graded schools. The graduates from the elementarv 
school are transported to the high school at South River and the high 
school at New Brunswick. The school population is about 500 and the 
number of instructors 12. Population 1,857. 

The school supervision of this district has been in charge of Mr. 
John F. D. Heineken for a period of twenty-one years. Misses Kathryn 
A. Newmyer and Mae A. Newmyer have rendered valuable service as 
teachers continuously for more than ten years in this district. Nine 
years of valuable service was rendered by Mr. Harry R. B. Meyers as 
principal of School No. 7, Dunham's Corner, immediately prior to his 
election as supervising principal of the borough of Milltown. Dr. I. C. 
Crandall has served upon the School Board for twenty-one years, and 
Mr. Henry Warnsdorfer for more than ten years. The current school 
expense appropriation for the coming year is $8,500. 

The townships of Sayreville and Madison send a considerable num- 
ber of pupils to the Old Bridge School, in which there is not sufficient 
room for desirable work, and, unless said townships erect additional 
school buildings for the accommodation of their pupils, it will be abso- 
lutely necessary for the Board of Education to enlarge the present school 
building at Old Bridge. The township territory remaining, after the 
formation of four boroughs, presents a difficult problem to the school 
administrators, the solution of which will ultimately be a consolidation 
of schools, with transportation. 

Township of Madison — Madison township contains seven public 
schools. The building located in the Morristown section is undoubtedly 


the oldest building in the township. The school population in the district 
is about 400. The graduates of the elementary school attend the high 
schools at Jamesburg, Matawan and Perth Amboy. Population 1,808. 

The school administration of this district was in charge of Mr. Asburj- 
Fountain for more than ten years. He was succeeded three years ago 
by Mr. Raymond E. Voorhees, the present supervising principal. Miss 
Marguerite Winter has given twenty-four years of continuous service in 
the Morristown district, and it would be difficult to overvalue her work 
in that community. Mrs. Lambertson (formerly Miss Bessie Warne), 
and Miss Viola Wilson have given more than ten years, respectively, of 
teaching. The School Board men, who have rendered more than ten 
years of service, are Edward Barker, John Otto, Michael Schulmeister 
and D. H. Brown. 

Appropriation has been made for current expenses for the coming 
school year of $8,802. By reason of the proximity of so many school 
children living on the Madison township line near the village of Old 
Bridge, and the establishment of the sections known as Nos. i and 2, 
Brunswick Gardens, a new four-room school building is very much 
needed and should be located centrally, so as to provide school accom- 
modations for the children of these three sections. The Board of Educa- 
tion realizes the condition, and will undoubtedly meet the requirements 
of the law. 

Township of Monroe — In the early days the township of Monroe had 
seven schools. The same school locations still exist with improved 
school buildings. The school population numbers about 300 pupils, and 
all of the graduates of the elementary schools attend the Jamesburg 
High School or Hightstown High School. Population 2,006. 

The school supervision has been in charge of the following super- 
vising principals : Messrs. William H. Connors, Roy R. Stillwell, Harris 
A. Jamison and Raymond E. Voorhees, who is the present supervisor. 
Miss Rebecca T. Allen has rendered faithful service in this district for 
a period of twenty-nine years continuously. Mr. Daniel W. Clayton, 
Mr. George Mount and Mr. James H. Tilton have served upon the Board 
of Education for many years. Mr. Daniel W. Clayton was a charter 
member of the County School Board Association, and has been its 
treasurer ever since its organization. The current expense appropria- 
tion for the coming school year is $12,000. 

The schools known as Gravel Hill, Dey Grove, Pleasant Grove and 
Old Church, should be closed, and the pupils transported to a new, 
up-to-date school building in a central location. 

Township of North Brunszvick — There are four school buildings in the 
township of North Brunswick, the oldest of which is Oak Hill, which 
is known to have been in existence for more than eighty years. The 
earliest record (1861), reveals the fact that George B. Wight, who later 


became the Rev. George B. Wight, was the teacher. Mr. Wight entered 
the Civil War, and later he became one of the best known Methodist 
ministers in the State. 

The other schools are known as Red Lion, Livingston Park and 
Adams. The city of New Brunswick has recently taken a portion of 
North Brunswick township into the city limits, which will to some extent 
affect the attendance in the Livingston Park School. The graduates 
from the elementary schools attend the New Brunswick High School. 
The school population numbers 200. Population 1,399. 

Mrs. Anna Williams has given seventeen continuous years of school 
service in this district, and Mrs. Ruckman (formerly Miss Mamie F. 
Tracy), has taught in this district for fourteen years. Miss Bessie M. 
Schoenly, the supervising principal, has been in charge for the past five 
years. Mr. Thomas W. Buckelew has been a member of the School 
Board for thirty years, and Mr. Edward W. Suydam has served for a 
period of over ten years. 

The appropriation for this district for current expenses is $11,480. 
The board is wisely transporting the children from the Oak Hill school 
to the graded school at Milltown. It has purchased a valuable lot upon 
which to erect a new school building at or near Berdine's Corner. A 
new one-room school building has just been completed at Adams Sta- 
tion, which is known as an Italian settlement. This new building will 
give much needed relief to the Red Lion Graded School, which was 
greatly overcrowded. 

Township of Piscataway — Fifty years ago, the township of Piscataway 
included within its borders what are now known as the borough of Dun- 
nellen and the borough of Middlesex. There were seven small ungraded 
schools, with seven teachers. Now there are three large graded schools 
and one ungraded school, with a corps of twenty-four teachers. The 
school building at New Market, South Plainfield and Brunswick avenue, 
are large and well equipped schools. The school population is about 
1,000 pupils. The graduates of the elementary schools attend the high 
school at Plainfield, New Brunswick and Bound Brook. Population 


The school supervision has been in charge of Mr. Alfred Wilson 
(now principal of one of the largest schools in Newark), and Mr. William 
F. Mets, who has occupied the position of supervising principal of the 
township for the past fifteen years. Misses Meta F. Soper, Carolyn 
Van Pelt, Harriet I. Gregory and Mabel A. Bowers, and Mr. Frank 
Meskill, have taught successfully and continuously for many years in 
the district. Among the men who have served more than ten years upon 
the School Board are: Everett Marshall, A. G. Nelson, John Geary, 
J. F. Ten Eyck and F. O. Nelson. The appropriation for the approaching 
year is $47,141. By reason of the increase of school population in South 


Plainfield, another graded school building is required to provide the 
school accommodations demanded by law. The Board of Education is 
already considering such a building, and when it shall have been erected, 
Piscataway school district will have reason to feel proud of its public 
school facilities. 

Toxoiship of Plainsboro — What is now known as the township of 
Plainsboro has had only one school building in its territory for many 
many years. The rapid growth of the community required buildings 
providing four school-rooms. The people of the district have voted 
$50,000 for the purpose of erecting an up-to-date four-room school, of 
Princeton stone, with spacious auditorium, home-making department, 
shower baths, electric light, with ample recreation grounds. School 
population of this district is 125. Population 800. 

The school supervision has been in charge of Mr. Floyd L. Evans, 
who has acted in the capacity of supervising principal for the past ten 
years. Miss Luella Hults has taught in this community for a period of 
ten years. Mr. John V. B. WicofT, who as a young man attended the old 
one-room school, has for many years been the firm and progressive 
friend of the public school interests of Plainsboro, and together with 
Mr. H. W. Jefifers, was largely instrumental in the formation of the dis- 

Appropriation has been made for current expenses for the coming 
year of $4,000. Since the recent formation of this new district, which 
includes a portion of the territory of Cranbury and South Brunswick 
townships, a number of prominent men have become interested in the 
character of the school facilities and the government of the township ; 
among them are Mr. Henry W. Jefifers, superintendent of the Walker- 
Gordon Dairy Farms, and a number of officials from the Rockefeller 
Institute. This locality catches the educational echo from old Prince- 
ton College. Graduates from the elementary department are transported 
to the Princeton High School. The school facilities of this new town- 
ship are full of promise. 

Toivnship of Raritan — The township of Raritan, prior to 1904, con- 
tained ten school districts, nearly all one-room school buildings. In 1904, 
the borough of Metuchen was formed, and in 1906 the borough of High- 
land Park was organized out of the territory of Raritan township, thus 
removing from the township all the graded school buildings. In 1908, 
a movement for larger and better schools was begun, which resulted in 
the building of two four-room school buildings in the following year. 
The population in the Piscatawaytown-Lindenau section grew so rap- 
idly as to necessitate an up-to-date eight-room brick building, which 
at the present time is inadequate. The school population is about 1,100, 
and is distributed so widely over the district that transportation is 
required in several directions. Population 5,419. 


For a number of years, Mr. Thomas G. Van Kirk was supervising 
principal of the district. He was succeeded by Mr. Charles Runyon, who 
has acted in the capacity of supervising principal for the past sixteen 
years. The names of Wilfred R. Woodward, Miss Dillie F. Thornall, 
Miss Susan M. Fillips, Mrs. Charles Runyon (formerly Miss Jennie E. 
Serviss), Mrs. Elizabeth L. Swackhamer, Mrs. Charlotte R. Haas, Miss 
Clara E. Runyon, Mrs. George Carman (formerly Miss Josephine Flana- 
gan), and Samuel R. Brash, are worthy of notice for long terms of service, 
especially Misses Susan M. Fillips and Dillie F. Thornall, who have 
taught in the district continuously for twenty-eight years ; and Mrs. 
George Carman and Mr. Wilfred R. Woodward, for a period of twenty- 
four years. The administrative line of work has been largely con- 
trolled by William T. Woerner, who has been a member of the board 
continuously for thirty-six years, William Carman, 35 years, and Jerry 
W. Letson, who served on the board for a period of more than ten years. 

The appropriation for the coming year is $60,000. The district has 
recently raised for new buildings $250,000. It is proposed to pur- 
chase a desirable lot of considerable size on the trolley line between 
Metuchen and Fords, and erect an up-to-date eight-room building, and 
to add six or eight rooms to the Piscatawaytown building. When these 
improvements shall have been made, the district will have excellent 
school facilities, considering the awkward territory left in the township 
after taking away the borough territory of Metuchen and Highland Park, 

Township of South Brunswick — Some years ago the school system 
of the township of South Brunswick consisted of thirteen schools, twelve 
of which were one-room rural school buildings, Kingston being the only 
two-room school building in the district. Three new buildings have 
more recently been erected — one single room building at the Ridge, two 
four-room buildings, one at Dayton, and one at Monmouth Junction. 
The old school buildings at Mapleton, Scott's Corner, Little Rocky Hill 
have been abandoned. The school population of the township is about 
650, and the graduates of the elementary schools attend the high school 
at Jamesburg, Princeton and New Brunswick. Population 2,666. 

For a number of years the Rev. J. N. Folwell occupied the position 
of supervising principal. His successor, Mr. Floyd L. Evans, has been 
in supervisory control for the past thirteen years. The teachers who 
have taught in this district for a number of years are Misses Margaret 
Terhune, Mary A. Green, Henrietta M. Osborne and Gertrude W. Shann. 
Among those who have served on the Board of Education are Mr. Salter 
S. Selover, thirty-two years; Mr. Frank W. Stout, twenty-nine years; 
Mr. William Perkins, ten years. 

The sum of $27,000 has been appropriated for current expenses for 
the coming year. From present indications, it would appear that within 
the near future a large graded school of eight or more rooms should be 


erected at or near Dayton, to which the children from Pleasant Hill, Road 
Hall, Fresh Ponds and Deans could be transported. Great difficulty has 
already been experienced in securing teachers for these one-room rural 
schools. The remedy is consolidation of one-room schools, which would 
also be a blessing to the children. 

Township of Woodbrid^e — Previous to the year 1876, the only schools 
outside of Woodbridge proper were Iselin, Locust Grove, Six Roads and 
Fords, Rahway Neck and Blazing Star. About this time the Woodbridge 
grammar school was constructed, which was the most noticeable school 
building in this section of the county. In 1906 the borough of Roosevelt 
was formed, leaving within the district of Woodbridge eight school 
buildings, most of which are up-to-date school buildings with most 
modern appointments. 

The district maintains a central high school, a central grammar school 
and six elementary schools which prepare the children for the gram- 
mar school previous to their attendance at the high school. The special 
teachers of the high school faculty supervise the drawing, music, manual 
training, the manual arts, penmanship and physical training, in these 
outlying elementary schools. The school population approaches 3,000 
children. Population 13,423. 

Mr. John H. Love has been the supervisory officer of the district 
for a period of twenty-five years, being the dean of supervisors in Mid- 
dlesex county. The following are the names of teachers who have 
rendered valuable service in this district: Misses Annie Richards, Viola 
E. Dunham, Ethel A. Inslee, Jennie D. Garthwaite, Grace C. Huber, Mr. 
Isaac H. Gilhuly, Misses Margaret Lockwood, Helen V. Ensign, Helen 
Lorch, Louise A. Huber, Rena Allen, Mrs. Ruth K. Green, Misses Orpah 
Harvey, Beatrice L. Meyer, Stella J. Wright, Grace A. E. Bayliss, Julia 
E. M. Bayliss, Sophie K. Johnson, Edith G. Hinsdale, Mrs. Mary La- 
Forge (formerly Miss Mary S. Clark), Mrs. Adelaide Noble (formerly 
Miss Adelaide Paxton), Mrs. Jeanne Travis (formerly Miss J. Jeanne 
Adams), and Mrs. Hazel Matthews (formerly Miss Hazel Gilhuly). Mr. 
Everett C. Ensign has been a member of the Board of Education for 
a period of twenty-four years, and Mr. Howard A. Tappen, Mr. Howard 
R. Valentine, Mr. Charles Farrell and Mr. Melvin Clum for more than 
ten years. 

The school appropriation for next year is $196,997. The school 
facilities of Woodbridge township will bear a favorable comparison, 
from the standpoint of school buildings, equipment and supervision, with 
any township school district in the State, with a similar population and 
valuation. Woodbridge has always been a leader in educational matters. 

The following is a table of comparison of thirty-three years of growth : 

School Phases. 

Number of Male Teachers Employed 

Number of Female Teachers Employed 


















3,454, 100 









Average Salary Paid to Male Teachers 800 

Average Salary Paid to Female Teachers 550 

Total Number of Pupils Enrolled 8,850 

Average Daily Attendance 6,000 

Value of School Property 270,000 

Total District School Appropriation 60,000 

Total State School Appropriation 70,000 

Total Amount Received from all Sources 130,000 

Honor Roll — So many of the residents of the county have rendered 
such long and valuable public school service in Middlesex county that I 
take pleasure in mentioning the names of those who have served suc- 
cessfully and continuously for many years, hoping that the public vj'iW 
appreciate these faithful workers upon whom depend Business Enterprise ; 
Good Citizenship; Public Security; State Pride; National Prosperity — 
aye, the very perpetuity of our institutions depend upon our Public 
School Teachers, Public School Officials, Public School Facilities. 

The following named have been supervising principals, with an 
active service for more than ten years ; years of service : 

Samuel E. ShuU (Supt.) Perth Amboy, 25; John H. Love, Wood- 
bridge, 25; Miss Lizzie F. Straub, South Amboy, 20; John F. D. Heine- 
ken, Milltown, 19; Thomas G. Van Kirk, Metuchen, 19; Charles Runyon, 
New Brunswick, 17; William F. Mets, New Market, 15; Curtis A. 
Deveney, Jamesburg, 15 ; Jesse Selover, South River, 14; Floyd L. Evans, 
Dayton, 13; Barbara V. Hermann, Chrome, 13; Anna Fitts, Spots- 
wood, 13. 

The following named have served as teachers, in active service for 
more than twenty years ; years of service : 

Fifty Years — Eleanor S. Lott, New Brunswick. 

Thirty to Forty Years — Mary Castner, New Brunswick, 35 ; Cecelia 
Boudinot, New Brunswick, 35; Cornelia Schroeder, New Brunswick, 34; 
Annie Richards, Woodbridge, 34; M. Emma MacWilliam, Perth Amboy, 
33; Katharine O'Connor, South Amboy, 33; Mary Stadler, South River, 
33 ; Sarah T. M. Brown, South River, 33 ; Gertrude W. Shann, Kingston, 
33; Amanda Voorhees, New Brunswick, 31 ; Viola E. Dunham, Wood- 
bridge, 30; Miss Meta F. Soper, Metuchen, 30; Mr. Charles Dietz, Perth 
Amboy, 30. 

Twenty to Thirty Years — Jennie Pemberton, Perth Amboy, 29 ; Mary 
J. Watson, South Amboy, 29; Carolyn Plechner, New Brunswick, 28; 
Dillie F. Thornall, Metuchen, 28; Susan M. Fillips, Metuchen, 28; Mar- 
guerite Winter, Cliffwood, 27; Susie B. Felter, New Brunswick, 26; 
Sarah O. Witlock, New Brunswick, 25 ; Margaret Terhune, New Bruns- 
wick, 25 ; Emma A. McCoy, New Brunswick, 24 ; Anna Joslin, Perth 
Amboy 24; Wilfred R. Woodward, New Brunswick, 24; Mrs. Josephine 
F. Carman, Metuchen, 24; Josephine Masso^ New Brunswick, 23; Angie 
Wray, New Brunswick, 23 ; Edith L. Sofield, New Brunswick, 23 ; Kath- 
arine McCormick, Perth Amboy, 23 ; Edgar H. Kleinhans, Perth Amboy, 
23 ; Mrs. Florence C. Matteson, South Amboy, 23 ; Blanche Johnston, 
New Brunswick, 22 ; Joseph F. Walker, Perth Amboy, 22 ; Mary P. 
Meade, Perth Amboy, 22; Grace Hawk, Perth Amboy, 22; Mary E. 
Buchanan, South Amboy, 22 ; Laura Scudder, Cranbury, 22 ; Henry 


Miller, New Brunswick, 21 ; Adelle Williams, Perth Amboy, 21 ; Frank 
Meskill, South Plainfield, 21 ; Henrietta M. Osborne, Dayton, 21 ; Ethel 
A. Inslee, Woodbridge, 21; George W. Wilmot, New Brunswick, 20; 
Susan Crabiel, Milltown, 20; Harriet Eraser, Perth Amboy, 20; Helen 
Brown, Perth Amboy, 20 ; Estelle Van Arsdale, South River, 20 ; Mercy 
Hillmann, South Amboy, 20. 

Names of those who have rendered unusually long term of service 
but not on the Honor Roll by reason of change of district : 

Blendina Smock, New Brunswick, 36 years; Nora B. Henderson, 
Freehold, 35 ; Chrissie Bartle, New Brunswick, 35 ; Anna Cheeseman, 
Metuchen, 29. 

Names of those who have rendered unusually long term of service, 
but have retired with pension : 

Amanda E. Van Nuis, Perth Amboy ; *Anne Caster, New Brunswick ; 
Rebecca T. Allen, Hightstown ; Louise H. Connell, Emma Oilman, Ella 
Kent, Frances Kent, Perth Amboy ; Laura Rutan, Kate C. Bogart, South 
Amboy ; Mary Wakeham, Laura Wilson, New Brunswick ; *Isabelle 
Huff, *Mary E. Vaughan, Perth Amboy ; *Sarah J. Price, *Elizabeth 
Heward, New Brunswick. 


Names of School Board members, with address and years of service : 

Forty to Fifty Years — John O. Cozzens, Spotswood, 42. 

Thirty to Forty Years — William T. Woerner, New Brunswick, 36; 
William Carman, Metuchen, 35; Salter S. Selover, Jamesburg, 32; 
Thomas W. Buckelew, New Brunswick, 30. 

Twenty to Thirty Years — Frank W. Stout, Monmouth Junction, 29; 
William F. Perrine. Cranbury, 26; Howard J. Butcher, Cranbury, 25; 
Everett C. Ensign, Woodbridge, 24; George Allgair, South River, 24; 
Chester A. Burt, Helmetta, 21 ; L C. Crandall, Old Bridge, 21 ; Theodore 
W. Day, Dunellen, 20. 

Note — Mr. R. Bruce Crowell, of Metuchen, N. J., who recently died, 
had served as a member of the Board of Education for fifty years. 

Realizing that there would be a much greater proportional return 
from combined effort than from individual effort, the following organiza- 
tions have been established for a number of years and have been very 
helpful from the viewpoint of better preparation, unity of purpose, socia- 
bility and community interests : 

Teachers' Library — Twenty-five years ago there was organized a 
Teachers' Library, composed of one hundred and fifty professional works, 
established in the third story of the old Free Circulating Library, corner 
of George and Paterson streets. New Brunswick, New Jersey. The 
object of this library was to provide the most recent professional publi- 
cations for the use and benefit of the teachers of the county. The 
board of managers consisted of H. Brewster Willis, County Superin- 
tendent, president ; George G. Ryan, Superintendent of Schools of the 


City of New Brunswick, vice-president; Alfred J. Wilson, Supervising 
Principal of Piscataway Township, secretary ; Samuel E. Shull, Superin- 
tendent of Schools of the City of Perth Amboy; Harry Cathers, John 
F. D. Heineken, R. M. Fitch, librarians ; Thomas G. Van Kirk, recorder. 

This library is now established in desirable rooms in the Free Public 
Library on Livingston avenue, New Brunswick, containing over 3,000 
volumes, with a librarian in attendance. New works are added yearly. 
This library is considered one of the best teachers' libraries in the State 
of New Jersey. The management of the library at present is as fol- 
lows : H. Brewster Willis, president; Ira T. Chapman, Oscar O. Barr, 
vice-presidents ; Thomas G. Van Kirk, secretary ; Samuel E. Shull, treas- 
urer ; John F. D. Heineken and Miss Kathryn A. Newmyer, librarian. 

School Board Association — The Middlesex County School Board Asso- 
ciation was organized twenty-four years ago ; H. Brewster Willis was 
elected president; John H. Wade, vice-president; William Carman, sec- 
retary; and Daniel W. Clayton, treasurer. The following persons were 
present and became charter members of the Association, in addition to 
the officers: Brognard Betts, Edward S. Hammell, John Evans, Ferdi- 
nand E. Riva, William H. Clemmons, Welcome G. Clemmons, John H. 
Kuhlthau, Manning Freeman, William Fitz Randolph, Aaron W. Deane, 
George P. Smith, Charles W. Fisher, D. E. Lowrie, John C. Morris, 
Rev. J. A. Trimmer and Wilson S. Frederick. The object of the Asso- 
ciation was to meet the State and county school officials, consider public 
school interests generally, and exchange views upon the administrative 
and professional lines of school work. Several of the governors of the 
State, all of the officers of the State Department, a considerable number 
of State Senators and Assemblymen, together with the leading educators 
of the State and from other States, have appeared before this organiza- 
tion on important school matters. 

This is the first organization of its kind in the State, and it is believed 
the first of the kind in the country ; its direct object being to prepare 
School Board men for their responsible duties. At present the mem- 
bership of this Association nun^bers two hundred, and the management 
is under H. Brewster Willis, president; Samuel E. Shull, Ira T. Chapman, 
Oscar O. Barr, vice-presidents ; Daniel W. Clayton, treasurer ; William 
Carman, secretary, and Thomas G. Van Kirk, assistant secretary. It is 
rather noticeable that County Superintendent Willis, County Surrogate 
Daniel W. Clayton and ex-Sheriflf William Carman have continued for 
a period of twenty-four years officials in this Association. 

Supervising Principals* Association — The Supervising Principals' 
Association was organized eighteen years ago with H. Brewster Willis, 
County Superintendent, president; John F. D. Heineken, secretary; 
Asbury Fountain, treasurer, together with Harry Cathers, Thomas G, 
Van Kirk, J. N. Folwell, William Campbell, John H. Love, Russel M. 


Fitch and others, at the Sewaren House, Woodbridge, in 1902. The 
object of this organization was to prepare and enforce uniform courses 
of study, rules and regulations for the government of schools, distribute 
printed matter to pupils, teachers and parents, secure from the boards 
of education the necessary district school stationery, and hear the leading 
school men of the State on important school problems. 

This organization at present has a membership of thirty supervising 
principals, and has been an educational force in the school matters of 
the county. The present officials of the Association are : H. Brewster 
Willis, president ; Samuel E. Shull, Ira T. Chapman, Oscar O. Barr, 
vice-presidents; John F. D. Heineken, secretary; Floyd L. Evans, assist- 
ant secretary. This organization is the first of its kind to be established 
m the State. Nearly all of the counties have now fallen in line. 

District Teachers* Association — In 1902 each of the borough and town- 
ship school districts of the county organized a monthly teachers' meeting. 
Each district was organized by a president, vice-president, secretary and 
treasurer, with a distinct yearly program approved by the County Super- 
intendent, and usually included special papers to be prepared by one or 
more of the members, the review of a pedagogical work which had pre- 
viously been assigned, an address from an outside school man, and a 
class demonstration. The pedagogical works used by these associations 
were secured at the Teachers' Library from the large number of writers 
on theory and practice, history of education, school administration, psy- 
chology, physical training, agriculture, manual arts, domestic science, 
moral education, ethics and miscellaneous works. 

At the close of the school year a report has been made by the presi- 
dent and secretary of the work accomplished and filed the same in the 
office of the County Superintendent. These monthly meetings have 
afforded an opportunity for a demonstration of the best teaching in the 
county, and created a sociability among the teachers, especially in the 
rural sections. The high school commencement exercises, the elemen- 
tary school closing exercises and the annual field day demonstrations 
and exercises are under the control of these district organizations. 

Parent-Teachers* Association — For some years Middlesex county has 
had the benefit of the active work of a County Council Parent-Teachers' 
Association, with local district associations. Very many of the substan- 
tial improvements to school buildings and the ornamentation to the 
school grounds are the result of the activity of the Parent-Teachers' 

The officers of the County Council of Parent-Teachers' Association 
are as follows: Mrs. Charles A. DeRussy, of Woodbridge, president; 
Mrs. W. O. Whitney, of Highland Park, vice-president; Mrs. A. N. 
Mullin, of Highland Park, secretary ; Mrs. G. H. Boynton, of Wood- 
bridge, corresponding secretary ; Mrs. George G. Johnson, of New Bruns- 
wick, treasurer. 


There is not a county in the State, where there is more professional 
help for teachers than in Middlesex. 

County Vocational Schools — At the regular meeting of the County 
School Board Association held in the city of Perth Amboy, on the 31st 
day of January, 1914, a resolution was passed instructing the president 
of the Association, Mr. H. Brewster Willis, to appoint a committee of 
five, of whom the County Superintendent should be one, to investigate 
the necessity for and to consider the advisability of County Vocational 
Schools, and to submit the findings of the committee in a report to this 
Association, at an early date. 

Mr. Willis appointed as members of this committee, Mr. A. Clayton 
Clark, superintendent of the Raritan Copper Works, Perth Amboy; 
Mr. Howard V. Buttler, president of the Buttler-Howell Co., New 
Brunswick ; Mr. Douglas J. Fisher, of the Sayre & Fisher Co., Sayre- 
ville; Mr. John V. B. Wicoff, counsellor-at-law, Plainsboro. The com- 
mittee made a thorough investigation of school and industrial condi- 
tions in the county, and visited a number of vocational schools in this 
and other States. This committee reported that 1,113 pupils had left 
the schools of the county during the previous year, before they had com- 
pleted the eighth year of work ; that these children were not prepared 
for life work; that out of sixty representative manufacturing industries 
in the county, fifty-four were favorable to the establishment of voca- 
tional schools. A definite recommendation was made to the effect that 
County Vocational Schools should be established in Middlesex county. 

The report of this committee was submitted to Hon. Peter F. Daly, 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas, who appointed the same gentle- 
men who had so ably served as an investigating committee, as members 
of the Board of Education of the Vocational Schools. The members of 
the newly appointed board organized as follows: Mr. A. Clayton Clark, 
Perth Amboy, president ; Mr. Howard V. Buttler, New Brunswick, vice- 
president; Mr. Douglas J. Fisher, Sayreville; Mr. John V. B. Wicoff, 
Plainsboro ; Mr. H. Brewster Willis, New Brunswick, secretary ; Mr. 
Thorfin Tait, Metuchen, treasurer, (all college men), on November 2, 

The board made a very careful search throughout this State and 
other states for a suitable man, in education and vocational experience, 
to act as a County Director of Vocational Schools. Clifford E. Parsil, 
assistant to James E. Dougan, headmaster of the Newark Boys' Voca- 
tional School, was the unanimous choice of the county board, and his 
successful administration for the past five years is the best evidence of 
the fact that the board acted wisely in its selection. 

Vocational School No. i, at New Brunswick, was opened in Septem- 
ber, 1915. A building on Guilden street, which had formerly been used 
for public school purposes, was equipped with woodworking machinery 

Mid— 15 


and benches, a drafting- room, and a room where the related academic 
subjects could be taught. On opening day about thirty-five boys reported 
for work, but before the first term was well under way there were but 
two or three vacancies. The school at that time was equipped to accom- 
modate fifty-four boys. In September, 1916, a printing department was 
added to School No. i, and this increased the capacity to seventy-two 

Within the past year the board has erected an up-to-date strictly 
vocational school building, at an approximate cost of $120,000, with a 
capacity for the industrial instruction to 150 boys. This building is 
located on a very desirable site on Easton avenue, in the city of New 
Brunswick, directly opposite to Buccleuh Park, where the boys have 
the privilege of enjoying all the facilities of the park and the athletic 
grounds. The building is equipped with most modern facilities, includ- 
ing a spacious and well furnished auditorium, named after Hon. Peter 
F. Daly, judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Middlesex county, 
who has been such a staunch advocate of the County Vocational Schools, 
and furnished by the donation of $1,500 from Mr. Joseph Hayden, of 
Omaha, Nebraska, a friend to the school. Mr. Floyd S. Stein, principal, 
is the head of the woodworking department; Mr. Frank M. Tomer, head 
of the drafting ; Mr. Alfred J. Cardinal and Mrs. Bertha L. Schaeffer in 
charge of the academic subjects; Mr. Morton H. Roby, head of the 
printing, and Mr. William F. Van Pelt, head of the auto repair depart- 
ment. The foundry and electrical departments will be opened in due 

The Guilden Street School property, since the opening of the new 
school building in October, 1919, has been used as a County Vocational 
School for Girls, in which is taught practical dressmaking, practical cook- 
ing, food values, food selection and purchasing, household accounts, 
hygiene, home nursing, together with the academic branches. The direct 
object of the school is to teach young girls all phases of American home 
making. Miss Carolyn Argast, of Columbia College (principal), is head 
of the practical dressmaking department ; Mrs. Alice B. Rose is in charge 
of all phases of the cooking and food department, and Miss Elizabeth 
Wallack is in charge of the academic department. 

In September, 1916, County Vocational School for Boys, No. 2, was 
opened in the city of Perth Amboy. The building was made of brick, 
and especially constructed for the purpose. At this center a very large 
and well equipped machine shop was established ; mechanical drafting 
and related academic subjects are taught, and instruction given in indus- 
trial chemistry, requested by and generously supported by the large 
industries of the city maintaining chemical laboratories. This property 
has recently been purchased by the board for $20,500. Mr. John M. 
Shoe (principal), is at the head of the machine shop department; Mr. 


Albert Gardner, drafting; Mr. Otto B. Durholtz, related academic sub- 
jects ; Mr. Joseph Tatton, head of the department of industrial chemistry. 

Plans and specifications have been prepared for an additional building 
on the five unoccupied lots, adjoining the present school, at a cost not 
to exceed $135,000. The County Board of Estimate has acted favorably 
upon this building proposition. 

In addition to the day courses for boys, the board has maintained 
since 191 5 evening schools in three centers — the city of New Brunswick, 
the city of Perth Amboy, and the city of South Amboy, in which about 
800 men and women received instructions in carpentry, pattern making, 
mechanical drafting, architectural drafting, show card writing, machine 
shop practice, automobile repairing, shop mathematics, agriculture, 
dressmaking, millinery and cooking. 

The County Vocational Schools have graduated about fifty boys who 
are holding their own in the industrial world. 

In view of the critical condition of industry, Middlesex county may 
justly feel proud of the vocational schools she owns and maintains for 
the boys and the girls who have received elementary academic instruc- 
tion and desire to prepare themselves for the industries. The demand 
for vocational education is a widespread one, and is rooted in the social 
and economic changes of the times. 

The Boards of Chosen Freeholders have given substantial help in 
the establishment of the County Vocational School system. The mem- 
bers of the Board of Chosen Freeholders who made the appropriation 
which made possible the organization of County Vocational Schools 
were : A. J. Gebhardt, director, New Brunswick ; Andrew Ely, Dayton ; 
William D. Casey. Roosevelt; Alfred Kerr, South Amboy, and Theodore 
Cohn, New Brunswick. 

The members of the Board of Chosen Freeholders who voted the 
appropriation to provide permanent buildings for the County Vocational 
School in the city of Perth Amboy and in the city of New Brunswick 
are: William S. Dey, director, South Amboy; Clarence M. Haight, 
Dunellen ; E. Leon Loblein, New Brunswick ; Frederick Gebhardt, Sr., 
New Brunswick ; Louis J. Belloff, New Brunswick ; F. William Hilker, 
Perth Amboy, and Christian Jorgensen, Perth Amboy. 

For friendly help in the public school work during the past thirty- 
three years, I am pleased to mention the State Department of Public 
Instruction ; the County Press ; Rutgers College ; the several school 
organizations, and in the preparation of this brief sketch I am pleased to 
acknowledge the aid of Mr. Clifford E. Parssil, Middlesex County 
Director of Vocational Schools ; the Supervising Principals ; and Miss 
Anna J. Lagerstedt. who has been the efficient secretary of the County 
Superintendent for the past fourteen years. 



It was to be expected that the first periodical published in Middle- 
sex county would be issued from its first printing office, and this 
occurred in 1758, when James Parker, who had established the first 
office in the State, near what is now the corner of Perth Amboy avenue 
and Grove street, in Woodbridge, issued the first number of "The New 
American Magazine," published monthly for years and edited by Samuel 
Nevill, of Perth Amboy, who wrote under the nom de plume of "Syl- 
vanus Americanus." Each number was of forty pages octavo, and 
contained a variety of instructive and entertaining matter. Mr. Parker, 
to whom further and more complete reference is made in the chapter on 
Woodbridge township, was a remarkable man, and, with Governor 
Joseph Bloomfield and General Zebulon Montgomery Pike, were the 
most prominent men in the history of the township of Woodbridge. He 
published the second volume of "Nevill's Laws of New Jersey," and 
established "The Gazette," in New Haven, the first newspaper in Con- 
necticut. His most important contribution to history was made in 1765, 
when he printed at Burlington, for Samuel Smith, the historian, the first 
issue of the "History of New Jersey." 

In 1866, James E. Berry commenced the publication of the weekly 
"Woodbridge Gazette," and continued it for about two years, at the end 
of which time he engaged in mercantile business in New York, and dis- 
continued the publication. In the spring of 1876, Colonel Alfred W. 
Jones, of Virginia, who had formerly been interested with Henry Farmer 
in the publication of the "Middlesex County Democrat," at Perth Amboy, 
established the weekly "Independent Hour" at Woodbridge, and con- 
tinued its publication until 1879, when he removed to Virginia, and 
Peter K. Edgar, who had been the local editor, purchased the paper and 
published it until 1900, when he disposed of the property and the plant 
was removed to Gloucester county. 

Henry B. Rollinson, of the "Rahway Advocate," commenced the 
publication of the "Woodbridge Register" in 1896, which was finally 
merged in the "Woodbridge Leader," a weekly, owned by a syndicate, 
and which is still published. Maxwell W. Logan, who had been oper- 
ating a printing office for several years, issued the "Weekly Independent" 
in 1919, and is still publishing it in connection with "The Mosquito," 
which he purchased from H. E. Pickersgill, of Perth Amboy. 

The first newspaper published in New Brunswick, of which there is 
any record, was the "Political Intelligencer and New Jersey Adver- 
tiser," edited by Shepard Kollock, of Delaware, in 1783. In 1779, Kol- 


lock, a lieutenant in Colonel John Lamb's artillery regiment, of the 
Revolutionary army, started the "New Jersey Journal" at Chatham, 
Morris county. Like many of his successors, Kollock had much trouble 
in collecting from his subscribers, and offered to take in payment any- 
thing from firewood to needles, and fresh country produce of every 
description. He carried on a general store at Chatham, selling tea and 
negro boys and girls, Bibles and rum, calicoes and hoes, "chocolat" and 
turnips. At the close of the war in 1783, he removed to New Brunswick, 
where until 1785 he published the above-mentioned paper in one of the 
buildings belonging to Queen's (now Rutgers) College. He died in 
Elizabeth in 1839, aged eighty-eight, after having acceptably filled many 
offices of profit and trust in Union county. The paper was succeeded 
in 1792 by "The Guardian and New Brunswick Advertiser," published 
by Abraham Blauvelt, of Tappan, New York, and circulated for many 
years in Middlesex, Somerset and Monmouth counties. 

The "New Brunswick Fredonian" was established April 10, 181 1, by 
James and David F. Randolph, brothers, of Piscataway township. 
They were experienced printers, having served an apprenticeship in the 
office of the "Alexandria (Virginia) Gazette." They were active in all 
social, religious and political movements in the city, county and State. 
From 1828 to 1832 James was a member of Congress and was the 
father of Governor and United States Senator Theodore F. Randolph. 
In 1854, John F. Babcock, of New York, who had been foreman of the 
paper for two years, purchased the plant and added a daily edition. Mr. 
Babcock was probably the most aggressive and influential editor the 
county has ever known. A forcible and interesting writer, absolutely 
fearless and progressive, his editorials always commanded respect and 
caused comment, and were of the greatest value to his party. From the 
first he became a prominent leader of the Republican party, was for 
years secretary of the State Senate, and was one of the founders and 
successively secretary and president of the State Editorial Association. 
He disposed of the paper in 1886 to a syndicate, who renamed it "The 
Press." After retiring from the editorship of "The Fredonian," Mr. 
Babcock was for several years manager and instructor in the printing 
office connected with the State School for Boys at Jamesburg. 

The "New Brunswick Times and General Advertiser" was estab- 
lished June I, 1815, by Deare & Myer, and a number of years later pur- 
chased by Albert Speer, a prominent Democrat, and conducted by him 
until his death in 1869. For a brief period, subsequent to 1846, he advo- 
cated the Free-Soil principles, which induced Alphonso E. Gordon, of 
Philadelphia, to start the "New Jersey Union" as a regular Democratic 
organ in 1847, and the "Daily News" in 1851. In 1855, Mr. Speer 
returned to the Democratic fold, and Mr. Gordon sold him his daily and 
weekly and removed to Grand Rapids, Michigan. In 1871 Mr. Gordon 


purchased "The Times" and published it until 1890, when it passed into 
the hands of a syndicate composed of Millard F. Ross, Judge J. Kearney 
Rice, William H. Price, Oliver Kelly, W. Parker Runyon and Edwin W. 

In 1880, Hugh Boyd, a native of Bangor, Ireland, who for a number 
of years was a compositor, reporter and city editor of "The Times," 
purchased from Albert L. Blue and Joseph Fischer, the "Home News," 
which had been established by them a few months before. Mr. Boyd's 
success was rapid, and has been continuous. A man of untiring energy 
and a born journalist, he soon built up a flourishing printing business in 
addition to the increased circulation of his daily and weekly papers. He 
now publishes the daily and weekly "Home News," and the daily (on 
Sundays) "Times." He also acquired the plants of both "The Free- 
donian" and "Times." His career is a bright example to all ambitious 
editors and printers. 

Other publications which had an ephemeral existence in New Bruns- 
wick were, with their editors and publishers, as follows : "The Mail," 
William H. Fiske ; "The Mosquito," J. Morgan Macom ; "Catholic Rec- 
ord," E. J. McMurtry and Eugene A. Morris; "Watkin's Weekly," 
Charles A. Banks ; and the "Jeffersonian Magazine." 

The "Perth Amboy Times" was published in 1858-59 by Augustus 
Watters. of Newark, a poet of considerable reputation, who is still living. 
This was antedated by "The Mirror," which existed for about one year. 
In 1868 Colonel Alfred W. Jones and Henry Farmer, of Orange, founded 
the "Middlesex County Democrat," which, after several changes, passed 
about 1884 into the control of St. George Kempson, who also in 1892 
began the publication of the "Middlesex County Herald," the first daily 
published in the city. 

In 1879, James L. and William H. Tooker, of Port Jefferson, New 
York, issued the first number of the "Perth Amboy Republican," and 
published it for many years until it passed into the control of Misses 
Louise and Georgia Boynton, of Sewaren, and eventually was disposed 
of to the present owners, Messrs. Runyon, Olmstead and Clevenger, who 
changed the name to the "Evening News," and have recently erected a 
large and handsome brick building on the corner of Madison avenue and 
Jefferson street. Cortlandt L. Parker published "The Gazette," and 
Wilbur La Roe and the late James L. Wight "The Chronicle," both 
weeklies, for several years. Recorder H. E. Pickersgill, among his multi- 
farious duties, still finds time to publish "The Jersey Mosquito." 

George W. Burroughs began the publication of the "Cranbury Press" 
in 1885. He has had much newspaper experience, and for several years 
managed the "New Brunswick Fredonian." He publishes a neat and 
interesting weekly, and has established a good printing business. 


J. Eraser Kempson, a brother of St. George, published the "Metuchen 
Inquirer" for a number of years, and was succeeded by "The Recorder," 
still published by Charles A. Prickitt. 

Other journals published in the county are: The "Roosevelt News," 
Thomas Yorke ; the "South Amboy Citizen," M. N. Roll, and the "Dunel- 
len Call," Publishing Company. 

In preparing this brief sketch of "The Eourth Estate" in Middlesex 
county, much of the data has been very difficult, and in some cases almost 
impossible, to obtain, and we are much indebted in this regard to 
Recorder H. E. Pickersgill and Mr. James L. Tooker, of Perth Amboy, 
and Mr. John P. Wall, and Librarians Osborne and Graham, of the Rut- 
gers College Library, New Brunswick. P. K. E. 


Shcnviii!-:; the ■\Maine'" MDiuiment. 



.Sdi.i II i:i;s' .\.vi 1 .s.\i i,(ii;s' ak ixr.\i i;\'r. mow r.urxsw ick 


Lawyers were in regular practice in this county at an earlier period 
than in any other county in East Jersey, except Bergen. This may 
be due to the fact that Perth Amboy, being intended as the capital of 
the county, drew thither soon after its founding many men who had 
studied law and politics in the schools of England and Scotland. 

The first records of counselors being called in the county courts was 
at the General Quarter Sessions of the Peace, held in Perth Amboy in 
September, 1708, when the names of Francis Sites, John Lofton and 
Corse Froam, "counselors," were called. Thomas Gordon, of Pitlurg, 
Scotland, who came to Perth Amboy with the first settlers in 1684, was 
Chief Justice of the Province in 1709, Attorney-General in 1719, and 
became a very prominent and useful citizen. In 1692 he was made 
Judge of Probate, and in 1694 an officer of the customs, Perth Amboy 
having been made a port of entry. He was the representative of the 
county in the General Assembly from 1703 to 1709, and a portion of the 
time speaker of the House. From 1710 to 1719 he was Receiver-General 
and Treasurer of the Province. 

Thomas Farmer came to Perth Amboy from Staten Island in 171 1, 
and was made Chief Justice in 1728. Philip Kearny, born in Monmouth 
county, settled in Perth Amboy in 1716, and was made secretary of the 
Province, clerk of the Assembly and of the Court of Common Pleas in 
1720. He practiced law in this and other counties for thirty-four years. 
Cortlandt Skinner, of Perth Amboy, practiced in this and other counties 
from 1742 until he left the country at the commencement of the Revolu- 
tion. He was Attorney-General of the Province and speaker of the 
General Assembly under the Crown, which position he continued to 
occupy until 1775. He was a strong loyalist; but disapproved of the 
arbitrary measures of the British ministry toward the Colonies, as 
calculated to force them into an effort to secure their independence. In 
consequence of a letter written to his brother in January, 1776. the 
latter being an officer in the British army, the Continental Congress 
ordered that he be arrested and kept in safe custody. He had, however, 
taken refuge on an English man-of-war, and after the war went to Eng- 
land, where he remained until the end of his life. 

The first county court was held in Piscataway, June 19, 1683, by act 
of the General Assembly, and by virtue of a commission published under 
the seal of the Province and signed, by order of the Council, by Governor 
Thomas Rudyard, dated March 28, 1683, the officers being as follows: 
Samuel Dennis, president, or judge; assistants — Edward Slater, James 


Giles, Captain John Bishop. Samuel Hall and Benjamin Hull. John 
Pike. Jr.. of Woodbridge, was made clerk, and Geoffrey Manning, mar- 
shal, or crier. A single case was tried at the session, in which Slater, 
one of the assistant judges, acted as bail for the defendant. We wonder 
what our lawyers would say now if one of our judges should attempt to 
follow the example of his predecessor in 1683. 

The second court was held at Woodbridge on September 18 of the 
same year ; and thereafter it continued to be held alternately at Piscata- 
way and Woodbridge until June 28, 1688, when it is recorded to have 
been held for the first time at Perth Amboy. From that time until 1699 
the courts were held alternately at the three above-mentioned places. 

There is a break in the records from 1699 till 1708, when it appears 
that a "Court of Sessions for the County Middlesex and Somerset" was 
held at Perth Amboy. For a long time after this date, courts were 
held at Perth Amboy only, and the now separate counties were always 
named conjointly in the record as one county, as in the above instance. 
The above record is taken from a venerable parchment-bound manu- 
script in the county clerk's ofifice, containing the minutes of the county 
court from its first session, June 19, 1683, to February 22, 1720. It is in 
the original handwriting of the several county clerks — John Pike, 
Edward Slater and others. The last eleven pages of the book is an 
original record of the acts of the road commissioners appointed by the 
General Assembly in 1704, and comprises a period from June 14, 1705, 
to July 13. 1713. 

New Brunswick is first mentioned in the records of our county 
courts April 7, 1724, when two surveyors of roads and two constables 
were appointed for it. Courts of Common Pleas for the county were 
first held in New Brunswick in January, 1778, and a courthouse is first 
mentioned in connection with the city on July 2, 1778, when "the Bar- 
racks," on George street, near Paterson, where the soldiers of the 
Revolution were quartered, were granted by the Legislature, to be used 
until a suitable building could be erected. Prior to this, and as early 
as May 21, 171 7, there was a courthouse and jail at Perth Amboy. In 
1794 the Barracks were burned, and the "Union," or Old City Hall, was 
built and used as a courthouse until about 1840, when the present build- 
ing was erected at a cost of about $30,000, with money obtained from the 

Lewis Morris, whose name appears as a lawyer at the county bar in 
1742, was at that time Governor of the Province and resided in the 
gubernatorial mansion at Perth Amboy. He was an eminent jurist, 
and the first Governor appointed who was a native of the Province, and 
was very popular with the people. He was also the first Governor who 
was not also Governor of New York. In 1738 a royal commission 
arrived from England for him as Governor of New Jersey, separate 
from New York ; he served until his death in 1746. 


Richard Stockton, of Princeton, then a part of this county, was a 
judge of the Supreme Court before the Revolution, and a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. He was the ancestor of the famous family 
of that name in the State. Robert Hunter Morris was Chief Justice 
from 1738 until his death in 1764. His son Robert also resided in New 
Brunswick, and was the first Chief Justice under the Constitution, having 
been elected by the joint meeting of the Legislature in 1777. In 1790 
President Washington appointed him judge of the United States District 
Court for New Jersey, a position he occupied until his death in 1815. 

Governor Joseph Bloomfield was born at Woodbridge, in 1755, read 
law with Cortlandt Skinner, and was admitted to the bar in 1776. In 
1783 he was elected by the joint meeting Attorney-General, in 1801 was 
elected Governor and for eight years thereafter reelected without oppo- 
sition. He was also a gallant soldier in the Revolution. 

Andrew Kirkpatrick was born in Somerset county, in 1756, but 
spent the greater part of his life in New Brunswick. He studied law 
with Governor William Paterson, and was admitted in 1785. In 1803 
he was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and served for 
twenty-seven years, a longer period than any other judge except Isaac 
Smith. James S. Nevius was born in Somerset county, but practiced his 
profession in New Brunswick. He served as a justice of the Supreme 
Court for fourteen years, and at the end of his second term removed to 
Jersey City, where he died in 1859. George Wood was born in Bur- 
lington county, read law with Judge Stockton, was admitted in 1812, 
and commenced to practice in New Brunswick. He was probably one 
of the ablest lawyers at the bar; but his reputation is not confined to this 
county and State. He removed to New York after a few years, and 
was considered the equal of the best practitioners of the metropolis. 
Joseph Warren Scott, son of Dr. Moses Scott, of New Brunswick, was 
born in 1779. He was a profound student of the law and an eloquent 
advocate. He served in the war of 1812, and retired with a colonel's 
commission. From 1844 until his death in 1871, he was president of the 
New Jersey Society of the Cincinnati. 

George P. Molleson was born in New Brunswick in 1805, and was 
prosecutor for one year, and Attorney-General from 1841-44. 

Cortlandt Parker, son of James Parker, was born in Perth Amboy, 
in 1818. He graduated at Rutgers College in 1836, read law with Hon. 
Theodore Frelinghuysen, and was admitted to the bar in 1839. He 
began practice in Newark, being associated with Joseph P. Bradley, 
afterward justice of the United States Supreme Court, and Frederick 
F. Frelinghuysen, later United States Senator and Secretary of State. 
In 1857 Governor Newell appointed him prosecutor for Essex county, 
a position he filled for ten years, and was the only public office he ever 
accepted. He was generally acknowledged for many years to be the 


head, and at his death was the oldest and most distinguished active 
representative of the New Jersey bar. He declined nominations to 
Congress, a judgeship in a court to adjust the Alabama Claims, and the 
ambassadorships to Russia and Austria. In connection with Chief 
Justice Beasley and Judge Depue of the Supreme Court, he revised 
the laws of the State. He received the degree of Doctor of Laws from 
Princeton University and Rutgers College, and was president of the 
American Bar Association for several years. He was a prominent mem- 
ber of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and was one of their most trusted 
and active legal advisers. His sons are: Major-General James Parker, 
of the United States army ; Congressman R. Wayne Parker ; Supreme 
Court Justice Charles W. Parker; Chauncey and Cortlandt Parker. 

William H. Leupp was born in this county, and admitted to the bar 
in 1827. He distinguished himself as an able advocate and lawyer, and 
died after a successful career of nearly a half century. Henry V. Speer 
was born in New Brunswick, graduated from Rutgers College, was 
admitted to the bar in 1834, and up to the time of his death, in 1869, 
was an active and brilliant advocate. He was Senator from 1856-58. 
Joseph F. Randolph was admitted to the bar in 1825, and made a justice 
of the Supreme Court in 1845. -^^ the expiration of his term he returned 
to New Brunswick and formed a partnership with ex-Mayor McDowell. 
He died in Jersey City, in 1S70. 

The first trial held in the present courthouse was that of the State vs. 
Peter Robinson for the murder of Abraham Suydam, president of the 
Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of New Brunswick. John Van Dyke 
was the prosecutor, assisted by Attorney-General Molleson, a brilliant 
orator. Van Dyke was an eloquent and able advocate, especially in 
presenting a case before a jury. He was the law partner of A. V. 
Schenck for eight years, removed to Trenton in 1855, and later was 
appointed a justice of the Supreme Court. David Graham, the celebrated 
criminal lawyer of New York, was counsel for the defense, and moved to 
quash the indictment on the ground that it did not specify the degree 
of murder, and cited a number of cases in the courts of the Southern 
States. Chief Justice Hornblower overruled the motion, remarking that 
he did not think it necessary to go south of Mason and Dixon's line to 
ascertain the law to settle the degrees of murder in New Jersey. 

William B. Paterson, grandson of ex-Governor Paterson, was 
admitted to the bar in 1806, was a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1844, and the father of the late William Paterson, of Perth 
Amboy. His son William was born in Perth Amboy in 1817, graduated 
from Princeton, and admitted to the bar in 1838. Between 1845 ^"^ 
1878 he was mayor of Perth Amboy for twelve years. In 1882 he was 
a judge of the Court of Errors and Appeals and served from 1883-89. 
He published a number of works, among which were "Poems of Twin- 


Graduates of Princeton," which were deservedly popular. John C. 
Elmendorf was born near Somerville in 1814. He read law with Judge 
Nevius, and in 1839 removed to New Brunswick, where he resided for 
the remainder of his life. He was prosecutor for fifteen years, after 
which he became a register in bankruptcy. Robert and Garnett B. 
Adrain were sons of Professor Robert Adrain, a distinguished scholar 
and mathematician, who came from Ireland in 1798 and was connected 
successively with Columbia and Rutgers colleges. Robert was a suc- 
cessful lawyer, and served a term as surrogate. Garnett read law with 
his brother, was admitted to the bar in 1836, and became eminently 
successful both as an advocate and counselor. He was recognized by 
the bar as a legal light of the highest order, and a forcible, ready, witty 
and eloquent speaker who had few equals in the State. He was a 
member of Congress from 1857-61. 

Abraham V. Schenck was born in New Brunswick, in 1821, read law 
with Henry V. Speer, was admitted to the bar in 1843 ^^^ took part in 
many of the most important causes in the county. He had the distinc- 
tion, in the case of the State vs. Hart Moore, county collector, of obtain- 
ing a favorable decision from the Court of Errors, reversing the action 
of the lower courts. In this case the question arose whether the act 
of the Legislature which extended the time of the prosecution of public 
officers in the State from two to five years was an ex post facto law. Mr. 
Schenck maintained that it was, and that it impaired the defendant's 
vested rights under the Constitution. Supreme Court Justice Scudder 
overruled him, and he carried the judgment of conviction, by writ of error, 
to the Supreme Court, where Chief Justice Beasley affirmed the judg- 
ment of the court below ; but the Court of Errors and Appeals reversed 
the judgments of the lower courts, and fully sustained Mr. Schenck. 
This was one of the most important decisions in the State, and attracted 
the attention of the leading journals of the country. The "Central Law 
Journal," July 29, 1881, declared that Mr. Schenck's argument before 
the Court of Errors was the ablest ever made in that court. He was 
prosecutor of the pleas from 1871 to 1877, and during that time not a 
single indictment was quashed, nor one of his convictions reversed, or 
carried to a higher court for review. 

Woodbridge Strong was born in Clinton, New York, and came to 
New Brunswick when quite young. He graduated from Rutgers College, 
read law with John Van Dyke, and practiced his profession in the city 
during his entire life, except during 1849-1850, when he was in the 
West, and from 1874-1879 and 1896-1905, when he was law judge. He 
was an excellent lawyer, and made a very acceptable judge. A genial 
and cultured gentleman, he was deservedly popular with the profession 
and with the people. His sons, Alan H. and Theodore, became lawyers, 
and were partners until the former was made general counsel for the 


Penns}-lvania Railroad Company, and removed to Philadelphia. Theo- 
dore remained in New Brunswick and succeeded his brother as local 
counsel to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. He was Senator from 

George Craig Ludlow, Governor from 1881-84, was born in Milford, 
Hunterdon county, in 1830. At the age of five years his parents 
removed to New Brunswick, where he resided until his death. He read 
law with William H. Leupp, and was a careful, able lawyer, and enjoyed 
a lucrative practice. He was Senator from 1877-79, ^^^ president in 
1878. He was a Supreme Court justice from 1895-1901. James M. 
Chapman was born in Perth Amboy in 1822 and read law with Judge 
Elias Ogden. He practiced principally in New York. He was mayor of 
Perth Amboy in 1869-70. Willard T. Voorhees was born in New Bruns- 
wick in 185 1, read law with Judge Strong, and had a large practice until 
appointed Supreme Court Justice in 1908; he died in office in 1914. 
Captain James Parker, a nephew of Cortlandt Parker, was born in 
Newark, Ohio, and graduated at the United States Naval Academy in 
1852, but resigned, studied law, and was admitted to the Ohio bar in 
1857. In 1861 he rejoined the navy, served throughout the Civil War, 
and retired with the rank of lieutenant-commander. In 1891 he became 
a member of the county bar, made his residence in Perth Amboy, and 
practiced during the remainder of his life. John W. Beekman was born 
in Somerset county in 1846, and admitted to the bar in 1875. He was 
city attorney of Perth Amboy from 1877-95 and made District Court 
judge in 1909. He was an Assemblyman from 1891-93, and appointed 
United States District Attorney for New Jersey in 1894, and resigned 
in 1896. James H. Van Cleef was born in Somerset county in 1841, and 
admitted to the bar in 1867. He was for several years counsel to the 
Board of Freeholders, and corporation attorney for New Brunswick. 
From 1898-1900 he was Senator, and for several terms mayor of the city. 

Charles T. Cowenhoven was born in New Brunswick, read law with 

A. V. Schenck, and was admitted to the bar in 1865. He was the first 
law judge of the Common Pleas, and was appointed in 1869 and again 
in 1885. His successors have been Woodbridge Strong, Andrew Cogs- 
well, J. Kearny Rice, Theodore B. Booraem, Adrian Lyon and Peter F. 
Daly. The records previous to 1862, as to the prosecutors, have been 
kept in such manner that it is difficult to obtain accurate information. 
John C. Elmendorf served from 1847 to 1857; George A. Vroom, 1857-62; 
and Elmendorf, 1862-67. Since then the appointees have been Charles 

B. Herbert, Abraham V. Schenck, C. T. Cowenhoven, J. Kearny Rice, 
Robert Adrain, John S. Voorhees, George Berdine, Theodore B. Boo- 
raem, George S. Silzer, William E. Florence and Joseph E. Strieker. 

J. Kearny was born in Washington, D. C, in 1849, read law with 
Judge Strong and was admitted in 1876. From 1882-90 he was prose- 


cutor, was made law judge in 1890 and United States District Attorney 
in 1896. Theodore B. Booraem was born in New Brunswick in 1861, 
read law with A. V. Schenck, was law judge from 1901 to 1909, and 
prosecutor from 1909-12. Adrian Lyon was born in Pluckamin in 1869, 
read law with James S. Wight, and was admitted to the bar in 1892. 
He was assemblyman 1899-1900, law judge 1909-1910, judge of District 
Court of Perth Amboy 1901-10. Since 1899 he has been president of 
the Perth Amboy Savings Institution, and for many years registrar 
of the Board of Proprietors of East Jersey. Robert Adrain, son of Gar- 
nett B. Adrain, was born in New Brunswick in 1853, read law with his 
father, and was admitted to the bar in 1876. He was prosecutor from 
1890-1896, and appointed other years ad interim. He was Senator from 
1889-94, and president 1891-93. John S. Voorhees was born in Somerset 
county in 1855, read law with his uncle, Frederick Voorhees, and 
admitted to the bar in 1879; he was prosecutor from 1896 to 1904. Peter 
F. Daly was born in New York, in 1867, and the family removed to 
New Brunswick in his boyhood. He read law with James H. Van Cleef, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1888. He was deputy surrogate from 
1892-1902, and surrogate from 1902-12. He was appointed law judge 
in 191 1, and reappointed in 1916. George S. Silzer was born in New 
Brunswick, in 1870, read law with Judge Rice, was admitted to the bar 
in 1892, was made prosecutor in 1912, and Circuit Court judge in 1914. 
He was Senator from 1907-13. His circuit consists of Passaic, Union, 
Somerset, Sussex and Warren counties. William E. Florence was born 
in New Brunswick in 1865, read law with Judge Willard Voorhees, was 
admitted to the bar in 1887, was prosecutor from 1914-16, and Senator 
from 1917-1919. Joseph E. Strieker was born in Wittingau, Bohemia, 
in 1870, read law with Wallis, Bumsted & Edwards, attended the New 
York Law School, and was admitted to the bar in 1897. He was made 
assistant prosecutor in 1912, and appointed prosecutor in 1916. 

Charles C. Hommann was born in Wisconsin, in 185 1, read law with 
Charles Morgan, of South Amboy, and was admitted to the bar in 1880. 
He was corporation attorney of Perth Amboy for several years, and was 
appointed District Court judge for Perth Amboy in 191 5, and reap- 
pointed in 1920. H. Brewster Willis was born in this county, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1881. He has been counsel to the Board of Free- 
holders, and for over thirty years county superintendent of the Board 
of Education. Ephraim Cutler was born in Woodbridge in 1854, gradu- 
ated from Rutgers College, read law with Andrew Dutcher and Magie & 
Cross, and was admitted to the bar in 1877. He was a member of the 
township committee from 1884-89, and for three years its chairman ; 
assemblyman 1888-89, counsel for several years of the township com- 
mittee, and president of the Board of Education. Frederick Weigel 
was born in New Brunswick, in 1859, read law with Senator Adrain, and 


was admitted to the bar in 1883. He has been corporation attorney for 
many years. James S. Wight was born in Warren county in 1859, 
read law with Bedle, Muirheid & McGee, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1S83. He was city clerk and attorney for Perth Amboy for many 
years. His son, Andrew J., was born in Perth Amboy in 1886, studied 
with his father, and was admitted to the bar in 1907; he was an Assem- 
blyman in 1918. Joseph H. Thayer Martin was born in Woodbridge, 
graduated from Harvard University and its Law School, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1899. He is a partner of ex-Judge Guild, of 
Newark : he was an Assemblyman in 1904-1905, and is counsel for the 
Woodbridge Township Committee. 

Freeman W'oodbridge was born in Saratoga, New York, in 1866, read 
law with Judge Strong & Sons, and was admitted to the bar in 1892. 
He w^as appointed judge of the District Court of New Brunswick in 191 1 
and still. holds that position. For many years he has been a member 
of the Board of Managers of the New Jersey Reformatory. Edward W. 
Hicks was born in New Brunswick in 1868, read law with John S. Voor- 
hees, and was admitted to the bar in 1890. He was an Assemblyman 
in 1894-5, and judge of the District Court of New Brunswick from 
1901-11. Alfred S. March was born in New Brunswick in 1876, read 
law with Van Cleef, Daly & Woodbridge, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1900. In 1907 he formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, Judge 
Freeman Woodbridge, which continued until 191 1, when the latter was 
made District Court judge. He has been a member of the Board of 
Aldermen, and in 1917 was appointed a member of the Public Utility 
Commissioners, from which he resigned last year. Schuyler C. Van 
Cleef was born in New Brunswick in 1873, read law with his father, 
Senator Van Cleef, and was admitted to the bar in 1900. Thomas Brown 
was born in England, in 1877, while his parents were sojourning in 
that country. He was brought to this country, and has always resided 
in this county. He graduated from the New York Law School in 1905, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1907. He was elected Senator in 1918 
by a plurality of 1,378 over James A. Edgar. Last year he served on 
the committees on highways, municipal corporations, riparian rights, 
taxation. New Jersey Reformatory, Soldiers' Home, Epileptic Village, 
and Industrial School for Colored Youths. 

Frederick W. De Voe was born at Old Bridge, in 1889, attended the 
New York Law School, and was admitted to the bar in 191 5. He 
resides at Milltown, with an office in New Brunswick. He was elected 
to the Assembly 1918-19. C. Raymond Lyons was born in New Bruns- 
wick in 1894, graduated from Fordham University in 1916. and was 
admitted to the bar 1917 ; he was elected to the Assembly in 1919. 

A number of eminent jurists have presided in the Middlesex 
Circuit, and none more so than Judge Vredenbergh, of Freehold, of 



whom it was said that his charge to the jury in criminal cases was more 
dreaded by the counsel for the defense than the arguments of their 
opponents. An amusing story is told of one of our circuit judges in the 
old days, who was very arbitrary in his rulings, and often aroused the 
ire of the lawyers. Upon one occasion a counselor, being much exas- 
perated by the judge's course, suddenly seized his books and papers, 
strode wrathfully toward the door and had just reached it, when the 
judge loudly exclaimed : "Stop, sir !" The counselor obeyed, and His 
Honor continued : "Are you trying to show your contempt for this 
court?" Sweeping him a low bow, the lawyer replied : "Oh, no, sir; I am 
only trying to conceal it." 

Mid— 16 


As the smoke of the battle is disappearing and the echoes of the 
terrible World War are dying out, men are looking backward, reviewing 
the past and drawing helpful lessons for a better and more prosperous 
future. We are taking great pride in the part America played in the 
war and we are not ashamed of the record the medical profession 
played. We are conscious of the fact that New Jersey and Middlesex 
County were not slack in making full contributions to the vast amount 
of sacrifice of time, money and life that resulted in the achievement of 
victory. But we take no superficial view by confining our thought and 
investigation to the recent past as we estimate the valor of our troops 
and the devotion and efficiency of our surgeons and set high estimates 
on their bravery and their persistency. It is not a matter of mere coin- 
cidence that as we are contemplating and drawing lessons from the 
recent war, that following that war so closely our minds have been 
occupied, stirred and thrilled by the contemplation of the Landing of 
the Pilgrim Fathers on our shores three hundred years ago. As we 
have thought of their heroic deeds and sacrifices that demonstrated 
the nobility of their characters and their sublime and persistent devotion 
to truth and righteousness, we are led irresistibly to that wider, fuller, 
more comprehensive view that takes in the three centuries of the past 
and to give proper consideration to the influences of bygone generations 
that have given to the American manhood of today the stamp of char- 
acter that has made possible noble living and great achievements. The 
Pilgrim Fathers laid the foundation for America's greatness. We feel 
justified in taking a very brief portion of the allotted small space to 
query whether the medical profession does not owe much to one member 
of that noble band, as will further appear. 

Dr. Charles Howard Bangs, in the "Boston Medical and Surgi- 
cal Journal" of December, 1920, gives an interesting account of Samuel 
Fuller, the Pilgrims' Doctor — the first doctor in the Colonies of whom 
we have any record — who came with the Pilgrims in the Mayflower. 
Dr. Bangs says: "He ministered not only to the Pilgrims and the natives, 
but was also called upon to render medical assistance among the Puri- 
tans as well. At the call of humanity, wherever his services were needed, 
he performed the duties of his profession from Cape Cod to Cape Ann, 
serving from 1620 until his death in 1633. * * He earned the title of First 
Resident Physician of New England, ministering to the spiritual as 
well as the bodily needs of all the colonists, endearing himself to all 
by his professional ability and by his upright life. Governor Endicott 
of the Massachusetts Bay Colony wrote to Governor Bradford highly 


commending Dr. Fuller for the great services he had rendered. He was 
a man of decided usefulness in the business affairs of the Colony ; was 
the eighth signer of the Mayflower Compact. He was an ideal physician." 
We have digressed from our subject to cite his life and work because the 
early physicians of Middlesex County — like McKean, Cochran, Bloom- 
field, Scott and others had much of his character and devotion to duty. 

No attempt will be made to give a lengthy detailed account of the 
conditions existing in East Jersey in the seventeenth and early eighteenth 
centuries. Quacks abounded in the Colonies and Middlesex County had 
its full share of them. 

Dr. Shrady, in his "History of the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, of New York City," refers to barbers as surgeons in New York 
— then New Amsterdam — says that in February, 1652: "On the petition 
of the Chirurgeons of New Amsterdam, none but they be allowed to 
shave, the Director General and Council understanding that shaving 
doth not appertain exclusively to Chirurgery, but is an appendix there- 
unto ; that no man can be prevented operating upon himself, nor to do 
another this friendly act provided it be through courtesy, and not for 
gain, which is hereby forbidden." It was added, "Ship Barbers shall 
not be allowed to dress wounds nor administer any potions on shore 
without the previous knowledge and special consent of the Petitioners, 
or at least of Johannes La Montague." Dr. Shrady refers that those 
petitioners were Hans Kierstede, Jacob H. Verrevanger and Jacob 
L'Oragne — the only surgeons then known to be in New Amsterdam. 
It is an interesting fact Dr. Shrady records — that a descendant of Hans 
Kierstede, Christopher Kierstede, graduated from the Albany Medical 
College in 1846, practiced in New York and vicinity over half a century 
and died at his home in Jersey City, N. J., January 23, 1903, aged 81 

Whitehead in his contributions to the "History of Amboy," cites 
the following: "Charles Gordon of Woodbridge, writing to his brother, 
Dr. John Gordon, March 7, 1685, after describing the salubrity of the 
climate, said: *If you design to come hither yourself, you may come as 
a planter, or as a merchant, or as a doctor of medicine. I cannot advise 
you, as I can hear of no diseases here to cure, but some agues, and some 
cutted fingers and legs, but there are no want of empiricks for these 
already abound. I confess that you could do more than any yet in 
America, being versed in Chirurgery and Pharmacie, for here are abun- 
dance of herbs, shrubs and trees and no doubt medicinell ones for making 
drugs, but there is no Imployment this way.'" Yet there is definite rec- 
ord of the prevalence of malarial fevers, smallpox, venereal disease, 
yellow fever and epidemics of "Throat Distemper," at different times 
from 1638 to 1736. 

Again, in the "New York Gazette," January 18, 1732, it is stated 
"The smallpox spreads very much in this Province and in New Jersey, 


also at Amboy, New Brunswick and Thereaway. Many have been 
inoculated and not one of them have died, but have had the distemper 
very easy." That was true of smallpox a little later when Dr. John 
Cochran, one of the most eminent physicians of New Brunswick, rented 
a house there — three miles from the center of the town — in which during 
the winter and spring- of 1774-5 he inoculated 400 persons, without a 
death occurring. Kaim in 1748 and Winterbottom in 1796 say that 
women constituted the greater number that administered medicine. 
Smith, in his "History of New York," says: "Few physicians are eminent 
for their skill. Quacks abound like the locusts of Egypt. * * The pro- 
fession is under no kind of regulation." 

Doubtless an advance in medicine in New Jersey occurred during 
the French and English War, 1758-1766. Dr. Toner's "Medical Progress" 
says : "The war gave, perhaps the first material improvement to the 
condition of medicine in America. The English army was accompanied 
by a highly respectable medical stafiE, most of whom landed in New 
York and continued for some years in the neighboring territory, afford- 
ing to m.any young Americans opportunity of attending military hospi- 
tals and receiving professional instruction." That was the case in 
New Jersey and notably in Middlesex County. The Port of Perth 
Amboy was one of the best in the country and that city was one of 
the favorite gathering places of medical men, as Dr. John Lawrence, 
referred to elsewhere, used to say, that his residence in Amboy in those 
early days "was the happiest part of his life, for the reason that the 
officers of the Crown, resident there, formed a social circle superior to 
that of New York or Philadelphia." New Brunswick had a reputation 
somewhat similar, especially during the years 1774-79 when the Barracks 
built there housed may hundreds of the English troops. The earliest 
physicians in Middlesex county of whom our records speak were : 

1. Henry Greenland, of New Brunswick, was the first physician in 
Middlesex County of which there is any reliable record. He lived in 
Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1662 and in Kittery from 1665-1672. He 
had a good education and was an able physician, but passionate and being 
a Royalist he became involved in many quarrels with the Puritans, which 
caused him to leave the Province and he came to East Jersey about 
1675 and settled at "The River," as New Brunswick was then called. 
He practiced here to a very limited extent ; kept a tavern on or about 
the site of the R. W. Johnson residence on the east bank of the Rari- 
tan ; he was the captain of the Piscataway military company organized 
for protection against the Indians. 

2. John Johnstone was born in Edinburgh in 1661 ; came to this 
country about 1685 ; first practiced in New York ; removed to Perth 
Amboy in 1706. In 1709-10 he was a member of the Provincial Assembly 
of New Jersey. Soon after he returned to New York and served as Mayor 
of the city from 1714-1718; but he returned to Amboy and thereafter re- 
sided there. He represented Middlesex County in the General Assembly 
of the Province thirteen years, during ten of which he held the office of 


Speaker. He was one of the Commissioners appointed to settle the 
boundaiy line between New York and New Jersey. He died September 
7, 1732. The Philadelphia Weekly Mercury in an obituary notice of him 
said that "he died very much lamented by all who knew him, and to 
the unexpressible loss of the poor w-ho were always his particular care." 
He was a very skilled physician and a man of estimable character and 
abounding charity. 

3. Lewis Johnstone, a son of John, was born in 1704; he adopted 
his father's profession ; went to Leyden, Holland, for his medical educa- 
tion ; returned to this country and practiced medicine in Perth Amboy. 
He was "a physician of highest reputation by all who knew him. He 
held a high place in the respect and confidence of his associates in the 
profession." He died November 22, 1773 ; left a very large estate. He had 
immense tracts of land in New Jersey. 

4. George Lockhart, of whom there is little known. He was a 
resident of Woodbridge ; a "practitioner of physic," in 1689. Dr. Wickes 
in his History of Medicine says that in 1683, he then being in England 
"the Proprietaries mention him as possessing, according to his own 
statement, a considerable plantation in the Province, and 'desirous of 
having the Marshall's place,' he offering in case they would grant him 
the commission and a lot of ten acres in 'Perthtown,' to build them a 
prison and town house" There is no record of the commission. 

5. Adam Hay was a resident of Woodbridge as early as 1737, of 
whom little is known. In 1739 he was one of the vestrymen of St. 
Peter's Episcopal Church at Perth Amboy. His will — Adam Hay 
"Doctor of Physick" of Woodbridge, was dated November 12, 1739. 

6. W^illiam Farquhar, moved from New York to New Brunswick, 
where he is known to have resided before 1740, for about ten years. He 
then returned to New York. He married here a daughter of Thomas 
Farmer, who w^as one of the Provincial Justices of the Supreme Court and 
who represented Middlesex in the General Assembly from 1740-43. 
After the death of his wife, Dr. Farquhar married a daughter of Gov- 
ernor Colden of New York. 

7. John Van Beuren is known to have lived in New Brunswick as 
early as 1741 as in that year it is on record that Philip French leased to 
"John Van Beuren of the said city — Chirurgeon," some property. 

8. Hezekiah Stites of Cranbury, and — 

9. Robert McKean, of Perth Amboy, biographical notes of both 
will apj)ear later. 

10. Henry Dongan, was a Surgeon's Mate; he had charge of 300 or 
400 of the English Troops, quartered in the Barracks that w-ere built in 
New Brunswick in 1758. When the troops left New Brunswick, he 
remained and practiced medicine. In his advertisement announcing his 
])ractice he stated that he had had thirteen years practice in the army. 
He joined the Medical Society of New Jersey, May 10, 1774. 

11. Alexander Ross, practiced medicine in New Brunswick, he was 
originally from Scotland ; later from the Island of Jamaica. He resided 
at "Ross Hall" on the east bank of the Raritan ; probably actively 
engaged in his profession, as he had at least one student who subse- 
c|uently practiced in that city. Dr. C. A. Floward, referred to later, who 
subsc(|ucnt to Dr. Ross' death married his widow^ who was a daughter 
of Thomas Farmer, one of New Brunswick's most prominent justices 
and Assembly representatives. 


12. Nehemiah Ludlum was one of the earliest physicians in Cran- 
bury. He graduated in Princeton in 1762. In 1768 he joined the Medi- 
cal Society of New Jersey, but died on October 28 of that year. The 
inscription on his tomb says he was 29 years of age at death. 

13. John Griffith of Rahway, and — 

14. Thomas Wiggins of Princeton, referred to later — Rahway and 
Princeton were then in Middlesex County. 

These men, and doubtless others of whom we have no record were 
able, conscientious devoted practitioners, most of whom had lofty con- 
ceptions of their profession's future possibilities in the service of human- 
ity that led them to consider how they could best unite the profession 
and thereby become better qualified to practice their high and holy 
calling. Thomas F. Gordon, in his "Gazetteer and History of New Jer- 
sey," published in 1834 says: "No portion of the history of this great 
country is more filled with cause for grateful exaltation than the State 
of New Jersey — none can boast greater purity in its organization — none 
more wisdom, more happiness in its growth." That is true, and when 
the medical part of that history is considered, there is abundant cause 
to be proud of the contribution that the members of the medical pro- 
fession within the bounds of Middlesex County made in initiating and 
establishing a State-wide organization of the medical profession thereby 
making possible the development and wonderful growth of the science 
and art of medicine, as other States have followed New Jersey's example 
until all the States and territories have now their organizations, and has 
led in these later years and made vast progress in the development of that 
great branch of its activities which is the profession's glory — Preventive 
Medicine — which has for its object the eradication of all preventable 
disease — the profession sacrificing its material interests in the blessing of 

The organization of the Medical Society of New Jersey was con- 
ceived by the physicians of Middlesex County — Drs. Kean, Cochran and 
Bloomfield — who enlisting a dozen others in that and the adjoining 
counties issued the call for the memorable meeting at New Brunswick 
on July 23, 1766. That call was inserted in the "New York Mercury" and 
was as follows : 

A certain number of practitioners of physic and surgery in East New 
Jersey, having agreed to form a Society for their mutual improvement, 
the advancement of the profession and promotion of the public good, 
and desirous of extending as much as possible the usefulness of their 
scheme, and cultivating the utmost harmony and friendship with their 
brethren, hereby request and invite every gentleman of the profession 
in the Province, that may approve of their design, to attend their first 
meeting, which will be held at Mr. Duff's, in the City of New Bruns- 
wick, on Wednesday, the 23d of July, at which time and place the Con- 
stitution and Regulations of the Society are to be settled and subscribed. 
East New Jersey, June 27, 1766. 


Seventeen practitioners, mainly of Middlesex, Somerset and what is 
now Union counties, met on the appointed day and adopted "Instru- 
ments of Association and Constitutions of the New Jersey Medical 
Society," which was a model document showing the need of such united 
association and the methods of securing efficiency for attaining its three- 
fold object — Mutual Improvement, Advancement of the Profession, 
Promotion of the Public Good. This document was signed by : Bern 
Budd. John Griffith, John Cochran, James Gilliland, Thomas Wiggins, 
Robt. McKean, Chris. Manlove, Moses Bloomfield, Wm. Burnet, Law- 
rence V. Derveer, Isaac Harris, Joseph Sackett, Jr., Jona. Dayton, Wil- 
liam Adams. 

On the same day the Society elected Dr. Robert McKean president; 
Chris. Manlove, secretary, and John Cochran, treasurer — the first and 
last named were Middlesex county physicians. In addition to the 14 
above signers appear as present Drs. Pezant, Blatchley and Camp. 

Then began the history of one of the greatest events that has occurred 
in Middlesex county or in the State of New Jersey. It is impossible to 
rehearse even briefly the record of that Society, the results of its work on 
the State and Nation. To do so would require the tracing of all the influ- 
ence that has flowed from that one day's meeting if we would know all. 
All that the Society enabled its originators and those who came after 
them to do, or the better to do, in saving human life and in relieving 
the sufferings of men never can be fully estimated. The facts that 
should be stated are: (i) That the Society's records show that the last 
one of the three objects for which it was created — The Public Good — 
has been its chief concern and that the other two objects have been 
largely contributory thereto; (2) That the Middlesex County Society's 
members have contributed their full share in its work and have been 
honored with official positions in its management to an unusual degree, 
serving in office as follows: 

President — Robert McKean, 1766; John Cochran, 1768; Thomas Wig- 
gins,^ 1774 ; Hezekiah Stites, 1775 ; John Beatty,^ 1782 ; Moses Bloomfield, 
1785; Moses Scott, 1789; John Griffith, 1790; Lewis Dunham, 1791, 1816; 
Isaac Harris, 1792; Lewis Morgan,- 1809; Charles Smith, 1811; John 
Van Cleve, 1815, 1S18; Augustus R. Taylor, 1822, 1830; E. F. R. Smith, 
1832; J. T. B. Skillman. 1847; Ezra M. Hunt, 1864; Henry R. Baldwin, 
1878; David C. English, 1897. 

Vice-President — Enoch Wilson, 1816; Jacob Dunham, 1826; George 
McLean,' 1839; Ezra M. Hunt, 1861-63; Henry R. Baldwin, 1875-77; 
D. C. English, 1894-96. 

Corresponding Secretary — William Van Deursen, 1822-26; Aug. R. 
Taylor, 1844-5. 

Recording Secretary — John Van Cleve,' 1820-23; William Van Deur- 
sen, 1827. 

Treasurer — Ephraim E. R. Smith, 1818-30; Henry R. Baldwin, 1865- 


Stan(='ing' Committee — Chairmen — Aug. R. Taylor, 1824, 1827; 
Charles Smith, 1826, 1834; William Van Deursen, 1830; J. T. B. Skillman, 
1842; D. C. English, 1891-93. Three years, all three members of it were 
Middlesex men ; and members from that county have served on it for 
more than 134 years of its existence ; it was instituted at the May 9, 1820, 

The Monthly Journal of the Society was begun in 1904; since 1906, 
Dr. D. C. English of Middlesex has been and still is its editor. There 
is one example of many that might be cited of the work of Middlesex 
County members — that of Ezra M. Hunt, who for six years led the fight 
before Governors and legislators for a State Board of Health until in 
1877 victory crowned his, his fellow workers' and the Society's earnest 

About one quarter of the State Society's ninety-one members up 
to the year 1796, and of the additional fifty-five members from 1796 to 
1818 were Middlesex County physicians, so that while the practitioners 
of that county were not organized as a county society until 1816, it is 
a question whether they might not claim that they were organized in 
1766 in a far wider sphere of activity than they could have exerted if 
their field had been confined to the limits of that county. But in 1816 
the Society secured the passage of a new Act to Incorporate the Medical 
Society of New Jersey, passed at Trenton, February 16, 1816, which 
authorized the reorganization of the State Society and provided that its 
annual meeting thereafter should be constituted by delegations from the 
District or County Societies which were to be formed, under the pro- 
visions of that Act. 

A meetine of the State Society was held May 7, 1816, when Dr. John 
Van Cleve was chosen chairman and a Board of Fifteen Managers was 
elected — ten of whom were from Middlesex County and they elected 
the Society's officers as follows : President, Lewis Dunham ; vice-presi- 
dent, Enoch Wilson ; treasurer, E. F. R. Smith ; corresponding secretary, 
Aug. R. Taylor; recording secretary, Wm. McKissack — four of the five 
Middlesex physicians. Five County or District Societies ordered to be 
formed and Drs. Jacob and Lewis Dunham, E. Wilson, M. Freeman, 
Charles Smith, Nath. Manning, R. T. Lott and John Van Cleve were ap- 
pointed to organize Middlesex, which they did in New Brunswick on June 
13, 1816, and at the State Society meeting May 12, 1818, its first delegation 
was received. The splendid history of this County Society cannot be 
rehearsed in any detail, its early records are reported lost or mislaid, 
nor is it necessary ; the fact should be emphasized that the all-important, 
essential basis of a medical society's value, its greatness and its influ- 
ence is not because of its perfect, well-oiled machinery, but in the char- 
acter and devotion of the men who compose its membership. The major 
part of the balance of this will refer to some of the societies and organiza- 


tions they founded for the public good, and also a few brief biographical 
sketches of the men. 

It should be observed, however, that the effect of the new law 
organizing county societies was remarkably beneficial to the State and 
County Societies' growth and prosperity. The State Society's member- 
ship increased from a few scores to 400 in the sixties, to 898 in 1900 and 
in 1921 to over 2,200, the County Society from about a dozen members 
when organized, to 40 in 1904 and 86 in 1921. It is believed that the 
publishing of the monthly Journal by the State Society — in place of the 
annual volume of "Transactions," contributed largely to the increase. 
Another fact is to be noted — members were received by both societies 
with great care. The proper preliminary as well as medical education 
as essential qualifications for licensure was insisted on. The creation 
of the State Board of Medical Examiners by the legislature in 1890 has 
been of service, as they are specifically required by the law to license 
only those who have the prescribed educational qualifications. Since the 
creation of that Board 2,730 applicants have taken the examination and 
440 were rejected. During the year 1920, 43 were examined, one of 
whom failed and one was expelled. It should be remembered that there 
were no medical colleges in the United States until 1769 when King's 
College established one and about the same time there was one in 
Philadelphia, and it is a matter of special interest that Middlesex County 
came very near to having two medical colleges. Queen's, now Rutgers, 
did have one, and Princeton, then within the bounds of Middlesex 
County, made two attempts and in the second would probably have suc- 
ceeded had not the eminent Dr. John Van Cleve — on whom they de- 
pended, died. Queen's did organize three times under the efiforts of Dr. 
Nicholas Romayne, with its school located in New York City, but 
because of opposition from New York finally abandoned the medical 
school. It actually granted 79 degrees as follows: 1792 three of Med. 
Bac. — one of them being Dr. Charles Smith of New Brunswick — and four 
honorary degrees of M. D. ; in 1793, six degrees of M. D. and two hon- 
orary degrees ; then in the second attempt, in 1812, five degrees of M. D. ; 
in 1813, one degree of M. D. ; 1814, two M. D.'s ; 1815, seven M. D.'s ; 
1816, six M. D.'s. On the third attempt — in 1827, were conferred 27 
M. D.'s and nine honorary M. D.'s; 1830, honorary degree of M. D. on 
two and in 1831 two more honorary M. D.'s; in 1832 two M. D.'s and in 
1835 one honorary M. D. Solomon Andrews of Perth Amboy was one 
of the number who received the degree of M. D. in 1827. 

The loss or misplacement of records by their custodians has com- 
pelled the author of this article to give an utterly inadequate report of 
the work of the Middlesex physicians of the past. The data that fol- 
lows of organized work, mainly of the recent past and the brief bio- 
graphical notes concerning many of the workers, will g-ive some slight 


conception of the magnitude of that work. The biographies will partially 
show that the Middlesex physicians were not only able men devoted to 
the profession, but they were also patriots serving their country in times 
of war, in the Revolutionary War, the Civil War and the great World 
War especially. (General Washington had no abler surgeons whom he 
more appreciated than Drs. Moses Scott and John Cochran of New 
Brunswick). In civic life the same devotion was manifested by service 
as mayors (New Brunswick had four of the best in her city's record), 
in City Councils, in educational institutions, in various public health, 
public welfare and civic righteousness movements. And their contri- 
butions in the promotion of the religious life in their various communi- 
ties was marked by service as elders, deacons, trustees and otherwise 
that showed them to be mindful of the fact that they were worthy 
members of a high and holy calling — worthy followers of the Pilgrims' 
"Good Doctor Fuller," as he was called. 

It is impossible for the mind to conceive, certainly of the pen to 
describe, the full results of the two meetings held in New Brunswick on 
July 23, 1766 and June 13, 1816. We refer in brief outline without 
comment, to a few of the results following those meetings : The organ- 
ization of County and City medical societies, insane asylums, hospitals, 
dispensaries, infirmaries, sanitary associations, the State Board of Health 
and the various local boards, now in every city, town and township, with 
their health officers, medical school inspectors, clinics, etc., doing an 
immense amount of charity work for the public good ; then, as we glance 
beyond the confines of the State, New Jersey appears as the Parent 
Society, leading other States in the establishment of such societies until 
now every State and Territory has its society, and from these have come 
the American Medical Association, the Pan-American Association, the 
Educational Medical Congress, the American Public Health Association, 
the College of Surgeons and other societies scattered throughout the 
land, whose members are devoting their time and efforts, as specialists 
in the various departments of medical, surgical, obstetrical and other 
branches of science, in the advancement of the profession. It should 
be remembered when speaking of the science, art and literature of the 
profession, that there was no true science in those early years. The 
dawn of true science really began in the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury ; the art was very slow in its development and progress and the 
literature would about fill the "five-foot shelf." It should also be 
remembered that the wonderful discoveries that caused the profession's 
great advancement have been made since the middle of the nineteenth 
century, e. g,, the telegraph, telephone, improved methods of travel, the 
microscope, the x-ray and other instruments for precession in diagnosis, 
the laboratories with their various scientific tests, the antitoxins, vac- 
cines, sera, and the institutions like the Rockefeller and other research 



organizations for the promotion of scientific knowledge and the art that 
applies it. 

It is not strange that, in view of the above facts and the importance 
of maintaining and advancing the profession's standing and the promo- 
tion of its greatest efficiency in the service of humanity, that the State 
and County Societies in 1920 were compelled to take action and the 
following committees were appointed : 

I\Ieml:)ers of the Middlesex County Medical Society, February i, 1921, 
and their residences : 

President, George W. Fithian, Perth 
Amboy ; vice-president, Barth M. Howley, 
New Brunswick; secretary and reporter, 
Matthew F. Urbanski, Perth Amboy ; 
treasurer, David C. English, New Bruns- 

New Brunstnck — John F. Anderson, 
Grover T. Applegate, James O'Carrington, 
William J. Condon, E. Irving Cronk, 
Thomas A. Devan, James L. Fagan, Ralph 
J. Faulkingham, Anthony Gruessner, Ben- 
jamin Gutmann, Florentine M. Hoffman, 
Charles V. Halst, William Klein, George 

F. Leonard, Mortimer H. Linden, Pauline 
A. Long, John F. McGovern, Robert L. 
McKiernan, Charles F. Merrill, Daniel L. 
Morrison, Herbert W. Nafey, J. Warren 
Rice, Laurence P. Runyon, Charles E. 
Saulsberry, James P. Schureman, Fred. 
W. Scott, Arthur L. Smith, Charles J. 
Sullivan, Howard C. Voorhees. 

Perth Amboy — Morris S. Coble, Judson 

G. Cottrell, Edward W. Hanson, Joseph E. 
Hay, Frank C. Henry, John L. Lund, Wil- 
liam London, William H. McCormick, 
John L. MacDowall, Jacob J. Mann, Mar- 
tin S. Meinzer, Charles W. Naulty, Wil- 
liam E. Ramsay, J. Virgil Shull, Isadore 
Seigel, Charles I. Silk, Bern. H. Sirott, 
Benjamin F. Slobodien, John V. Smith, 
George W. Tyrrell, John G. Wilson. 

IVoodbridge — Ira T. Spencer. 

Carteret — Herbert L. Strandberg. 

Chrome — Samuel Messenger. 

Roosevelt — John J. Reason. 

Metuchen — Stanley Eiss, Alfred L. Ellis, 
Clarence A. Hofer, A. Clark Hunt, Lans- 
ing Y. Lippincott. 

Dunellen — George W. Longbothum, 
Thomas H. Piatt, Jr. 

Netv Market — William J. Nelson. 

M Hit own — Norman N. Forney, Ferd E. 

Dayton — Edgar Carroll. 

Cranbury — Benjamin S. Van Dyke. 

Franklin Park — James C. Dunn. 

Sayreville — Jesse H. Beekman. 

South River — Charles B. Burnett, Mel- 
vin M. Hunt, Sarah Evans Selover, A. 
Lincoln Woods. 

South Amboy — Selden T. Kinney, Eu- 
gene A. Meacham, J. Francis Weber. 

Behnar — Clarence M. Slack. 

Jamesburg — John L. Suydam. 

New York City — A. Schuyler Clark, 
Henry H. Janeway.* 

•Dr. Janeway died February 1, 1921. 

Dr. Bonn W. Hoagland is also in Wood- 
bridge, but his membership is in the Union 
County Society. 

Permanent Delegates to the State Society. Nominated by the 
County Society and Elected by the State Society : Drs. C. H. Andrus,* 
John Helm,* Edw. B. Dana,* A. Treganowan,* C. H. Voorhees,* F. M. 
Donahue.* David Stephens,* John G. Wilson, Edgar Carroll, A. Clark 
Hunt, Arthur L. Smith, Frank C. Henry. 

Physicians practicing in Middlesex county not members of the 
County .Society at present : Drs. Ira C. Crandall, Old Bridge ; J. J. Col- 
lins, Woodbridge ; George S. Dudley, C. T. Maas, New Brunswick; 
E. H. Eulner, South Amboy, Joseph S. Marks, Chrome ; Jacob C. Shinn, 
H. D. Zandt, Jamesburg; Myron J. Whitford, Dunellen. 

Middlesex Physicians in World War Service: Drs. Judson G. Cottrell, 
George W. Fithian. Edward K. Hanson,* John L. Lund, Benj. F. Slo- 




bodein, of Perth Amboy; Drs. William J. Condon,* James L. Fagan, 
Anthony Gruessner, Charles F. Merrill, John F. McGovern,^ Robert L. 
McKeernan,* Herbert W. Nafey,$ James P. Schureman, of New Bruns- 
wick; J. Francis Weber,| of South Amboy. 

A number of others served on the Local Exemption Boards: Drs. 
E. I. Cronk, G. W. Fithian, I. C. Crandall, B. S. Van Dyke, Edgar Carroll. 

The following served on the County Advisory Exemption Board : 
Drs. J. G. Wilson, chairman ; John F. Anderson, F. M. Donohue, Benj. 
Gutmann, G. T. Applegate, B. M. Howley, L. Y. Lippincott, C. W. 
Naulty, Jr., C. I. Silk, A. L. Smith, C. J. Sullivan. 

Several Middlesex physicians were enrolled in the Medical Reserve 
Corps, U. S. Army, and also in the Volunteer Medical Service Corps, 
authorized by the Council of National Defense and approved by the 
President of the United States. 

The following have been officers of the Society since its organization 
in 1816: 

Presidents — Charles Smith, 1816, 1822, 
1826-28, 1836-37; Matthias Freeman, 1817; 
Nathaniel Manning, 1818; Jacob Dunham, 
1819, 1825, 1829; William Van Deursen, 
1820; Josiah B. Andrews, 1821 ; Lewis A. 
Hall, 1830; Jacob T. B. Skillman, 1831 ; 
James Clark, 1834; E. F. R. Smith, 1835, 
1840; Samuel Abernethy, 1841 ; Ellis B. 
Freeman, 1842, 1846; John H. Van Deur- 
sen, 1843; Azariah D. Newell, 1844-45 
(No meetings were held from 1845-1857) 
Augustus F. Taylor, 1857; Clifford Mor- 
rogh, 1858, 1881 ; J. T. B. Skillman, i860 
Henrv M. Stone, 1861 ; Henry R. Baldwin 
1862-64, 1882; Ezra M. Hunt, 1865; Am- 
brose Treganowan, 1866, 1871, 1887 
Charles Dunham, Jr., 1867; Charles H 
Voorhees, 1868; Samuel St. John Smith 
1870; David C. English, 1872; Rush Van 
Dyke, 1873 ; Clarence M. Slack, 1874, 1898 
William E. Mattison, 1875 ; Nicholas Wil- 
liamson, 1876; Thomas T. Devan, 1877 
P. A. Shannon, 1878; Charles H. Andrus 
1879, 1890; J. Warren Rice, 1880, 1894 
Thomas L. Janeway, 1884; Frank M. 
Donohue, 1885, 1904, 1916; A. Van Nest 
Baldwin, 1888; David Davis, 1889; John 
Helm, 1891; Edward B. Dana, 1892; 
Staats Van Deursen Clark, 1895 ; Arthur 
L. Smith, 1896; John G. Wilson, 1897; 
John L. Suydam, 1899; William M. Moore, 
1900; A. Clark Hunt, 1901 ; Edward E. 
Haines, 1902; William E. Ramsey, 1903; 
William V. McKenzie, 1905 ; Henry H. 
Janeway, 1906; Edgar Carroll, 1907; Ferd 
E. Riva, 1908; John C. Albright, 1909; 
Benjamin Gutmann, 191 1; John L. Lund, 
1912; Howard C. Voorhees, 1913; Frank 

C. Henry, 1914; Martin S. Meinzer, 1915; 
Clarence A. Hofer, 1917; Eugene A. 
Meacham, 1918; Norman N. Forney, 1919; 
Lawrence P. Runyon, 1920; George W. 
Fithian, 1921. 

Secretaries — John Van Cleve, 1816; Wil- 
liam Van Deursen, 1817-1836; Jacob T. B. 
Skillman, 1836-1846; Henry R. Baldwin, 
1857; Charles Dunham, Jr., 1858; L. Fred. 
Baker, 1859; Joseph S. Martin, i860; 
Samuel E. Freeman, 1861-1864; George W. 
Stout, 1865; James W. Meeker, 1866-1868; 
David Stephens, 1868-1874, 1888-1889; 
Rush Van Dyke, 1874-1876; William E. 
Mattison, 1876-1880; George G. Clark, 
1880-1882; William Mabon, 1884; A. Van 
Nest Baldwin, 1885 ; Frank M. Donohue, 
1886; John Helm, 1887; William M. 
Moore, 1903-1904; Alfred L. Ellis, 1905- 
1907; Benjamin Gutmann, 1908-1909; 
Howard C. Voorhees, 1910-1911 ; Martin 
S. Meinzer, 1912-1913; Fred L. Brown, 
1914-1917; William H. McCormick, 1918; 
Charles J. Sullivan, 1919; Herbert W. 
Nafey, 1920; Matt. N. Urbanski, 1921. 

Treasurers — Jacob Dunham, 1816-1818; 
William Van Deursen, 1818; Nathaniel 
Manning, 1819-1825; John Adams Pool, 
1825-1838, 1839; Garret P. Voorhees, 1838; 
Ellis B. Freeman, 1840-1844; E. F. R. 
Smith, 1844-1846; Henry M. Stone, 1857- 
1860; John C. Thompson, i860; J. S. Mar- 
tin, 1861-1866; F. S. Barbarin, 1866-1868; 
Charles Dunham, Jr., 1868-1875; Thomas 
T. Devan, 1875; David C. English, 1876 
to date. 

Reporters to the State Societx — Ezra M. 
Hunt, 1862-1864, 1868-1869, 1882; Ambrose 

•In U. S. Navy, 
tin U. S. Army. 
tDr. Weber received a medal for meritorious service from General McRae. 


Trepanowan, 1865, 1890-1891 ; Henry R. Nest Baldwin, 1892-1896 ; Arthur L. Smith, 

Baldwin. 1870-1873; David C. English, 1897-1910; Benjamin Gutmann, 1911-1914; 

1874-1877; Charles H. Andrus, 1878-1879, Anthony Grnessner, 1915-1916; Fred L. 

1889; Thomas L. Janeway, 1880-1881 ; Brown, 1917-1919; Herbert W. Nafey, 

Frank M. Donohue. 1883-1888; A. Van 1919-1920; Matthew F. Urbanski, 1921. 

Societies Organized by Middlesex County Physicians: 

The Medical Section of the Rutgers Club was practically the New- 
Brunswick Medical Society as its membership was composed entirely 
of physicians of that city and Milltown. It was organized February 14, 
1917, when Drs. L. P. Runyon, A. L. Smith, B. Gutmann, H. C. Voor- 
hees, F. E. Riva. C. E. Saulsberry, D. C. English, B. M. Howley, F. L. 
Brown, F. W. Scott, I. E. Cronk, C. J. Sullivan, G. Merrill, J. F. Ander- 
son, J. P. Schureman, N. N. Forney, F. M. Hoffman and H. W. Nafey 
met in the Alumni Hall of Rutgers College, and received an offer from 
the Rutgers Alumni Club of the use of their club house, which was 
accepted, an organization was effected. Constitution and By-laws adopted 
constituting as members physicians who were alumni of the College 
and other physicians of New Brunswick becoming members of the 
Rutgers Club by election and payment to the club of annual dues. Dr. 
Runyon was elected chairman of the organization ; Dr. Smith vice- 
chairman ; Dr. Nafey, secretary and treasurer; Dr. Brown, reporter. 

The officers for 1920-21 are: Dr. D. C. English, chairman; Dr. Hoff- 
man, vice-chairman ; Dr. C. W. Merrill, secretary and treasurer. The 
Society meets monthly except in July and August. One meeting, held 
at the residence of Dr. English, should have special notice. It was held 
in September, 1920, to do honor to the New Brunswick young men who 
had studied inedicine and achieved great success in practice in Newark 
and New York— Drs. L. F. Bishop, A. S. Clark, J. F. Hagerty, H. H. 
Janeway. J. L. Trainor, E. H. Pool and Bernard Daly, the latter having 
sacrificed his own life in the saving of another's life. 

Perth Amboy Medical Society was organized May 26, 1919. The 
present officers are: President, Dr. William E. Ramsay; vice-presi- 
dent, Dr. M. F. Urbanski; secretary, Dr. Charles W. Naulty, Jr.; treas- 
urer. Dr. Martin S. Meinzer. The Society meets every second month 
except in July and August. 

The New Jersey State Microscopical Society. Organized by Dr. 
J. W. Meeker, in 1871. He had bought a fine microscope a few years 
before and Prof. G. H. Cook and Prof. F. C. Van Dyck had been meeting 
at Dr. Meeker's residence experimenting with it. In 1871 most of the 
following doctors of the city met and organized this Society : Drs. J. W. 
Meeker, C. Morrogh, C. Dunham, H. R. Baldwin, D. C. English, C. H. 
Voorhees. N. Williamson, with Prof. Van Dyck, Rev. Samuel Lockwood 
and Julius Bloom, all New Brunswick men. They held frequent meet- 
ings, three of them public ; at one Liquid Air was exhibited and dis- 
cussed ; at another a sym]H)sium on the Microscope, its uses in medical 
science. In 1880 the Society was incorporated and in 1881 its enroll- 
ment was 59 active and corresponding members. February 18, 1914, 
the name was changed to "The New Brunswick Scientific Society;" its 
membership embracing men of all scientific professions. 

The New Jersey Sanitary Association was formed to create a strong 
public sentitnent in favor of the earnest efforts to create a State Board 
of Health as Governors and Legislators had been indifferent. It was not 
a Middlesex organization, but Dr. Ezra M. Hunt was the originator and 


inspirer of doctors and prominent laymen of our County and State. It 
had a powerful effect in securing the State Board in 1877 and Dr. Hunt 
became the leader in establishing and conducting the work for many 
years. His son, Dr. A. Clark Hunt, of Metuchen, is Chief of the Bureau 
of Medical Supervision and is the editor of the Bulletin published by 
the Board. He was president of the New Jersey Sanitary Association 
last year 

The Board of Health in New Brunswick was instituted in 1879 with 
Dr. H. R. Baldwin as president. The Health Officers have been in suc- 
cession as follows : Drs. Edward A. Reiley, Thomas L. Janeway, A. Van 
Nest Baldwin, Staats V. D. Clark, Benjamin Gutmann and E. Irving 
Cronk, the last named was elected in 1910 and is still serving. 

There were 520 deaths in 1920 in the city, the death rate was 1.5 per 
1,000 of population. 

The Board of Health in Perth Amboy was instituted in 1879. Dr. 
Matthew F. Urbanski is president of the Board. Charles S. Thompson, 
D. V. S., is the Health Officer. There were 498 deaths in Perth Aml^oy 
in 1920, the death rate was 11.46 per 1,000 of population. 

Dr. J. V. Smith is Health Officer of the Port of Perth Amboy, 
appointed by the Governor of the State. Dr. Charles W. Naulty, Jr., has 
been Medical Officer in charge of the Perth Amboy Quarantine since 
1907. The Medical Inspectors of Schools are Drs. Jacob J. Mann and 
William H. McCormick. 

Welfare Committees — During the year 1920 Welfare Committees 
were appointed in the various counties to guard against legislation tend- 
ing to destroy the efficiency of the profession in serving the public. 
The Middlesex County Committee is : Drs. B. M. Howley, F. M. Hoff- 
man. C. I. Silk, F. L. Brown and B. S. Van Dyke. 

Professional Guilds — There were also established in each of the 
counties Professional Guilds to oppose harmful legislation, in which 
physicians, dentists, druggists and nurses have been deeply interested. 

The Middlesex County Guild's officers are : President, Dr. B. F. 
Howley : vice-president, Henry H. Petz, druggist ; treasurer. Dr. P. L. 
Schwartz, dentist; secretary, Miss Marie Nielson, nurse; chairman 
executive council, Dr. D. C. English. A State Professional Guild has 
also been formed. 

The writer calls the reader's attention to what he regards as the 
best and most important part of this article — that which sets forth the 
lives and activities of those who made the State and County Societies 
what they were, and the medical profession's record one that is worthy 
of our pride and of our undying devotion in best efforts to sustain its 
high standing and greatest efficiency in blessing humanity. We deeply 
regret our inability to give biographies also of the long list of "Other 
Deceased Physicians of Middlesex County." Many of them belonged 
to that grand class known as "Country Doctors," who often denied 
themselves comfort and needed rest, responding to calls day or night, at 
any distance, to relieve suffering patients. 

Never in the history of our country and the world has there been 
greater need of contemplating and imitating the lives and service of 


such men as Samuel Fuller and the devoted godly men who were 
founders of our State and County Societies. We need to bear in mind 
that the greatness and achievements of the founders and deceased mem- 
bers of our County Society came from the facts that they were actuated 
by the consciousness that they belonged to a high and holy calling 
and that thev were governed by a deep sense of their personal responsi- 
bility in dealing with the lives and health of those whom they served. 
The sense of responsibility is ever the foundation principle of all true, 
manly service, and the sine qua non of all great achievements. 

After the biographical sketches we will give a brief outline in tabular 
form, of the present activities of the Middlesex County practitioners. 
They look forward to the future with no fear, notwithstanding the 
attempts to drag down scientific medicine, to stop its marvelous progress 
and destroy its efficiency, as they are sure that the right will triumph 
over ignorance and prejudice. The added burden that has been laid upon 
the profession — of educating the public through the Welfare Committee 
and the Professional Guild, concerning the fact that the profession's 
position, taken 154 years ago — that the three-fold object of its organiza- 
tion were — Mutual Improvement, Advancement of the Profession and 
the Public Good, still remain and will ever remain the same. The his- 
tories of both State and County Societies prove that the Public Good 
has been the chief object. We are encouraged in the belief that the 
efforts to educate the public will succeed, by the results of similar efforts 
on the Pacific Coast. Two bills were introduced in the California legis- 
lature — one to prohibit vaccination in the State ; the other for the 
prevention of vivisection ; they were submitted to popular vote in the 
election last November with the following result: -For the anti-vaccina- 
tion law, 359,987; against it, 468,911. For the anti-vivisection 
law, 272,288; against it, 527,130. Also in the Oregon legislature a 
constitutional amendment was introduced against compulsory vaccina- 
tion ; it was submitted to popular vote, with the result: For it, 63,038; 
against it, 127,200. Surely a good beginning. Medicine is making great 
advance. The medical research institutions are greatly increasing the 
knowledge of etiology and diagnoses of diseases and thereby enabling 
the profession not only to cure but also stamp out preventable diseases. 
Smallpox, yellow fever, the bubonic plague, have been practically wiped 
out except where ignorance and prejudice exist ; other diseases have 
been greatly lessened ; tuberculosis, syphilis and cancer have been the 
hardest problems in recent years, but they are beginning to yield. The 
public should stop and think what this preventive work and what the 
general public health work, the hospitals, the clinics, etc., mean in cut- 
ting down the profession's incomes and mightily promoting the Public 


Biographical Sketches of Middlesex Founders of the State Society : 

Robert McKean, Perth Amboy, was in 1757 ordained to the Mission 
of New Brunswick, by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts. He removed to Perth Amboy in 1763. Previous to 
his settlement in Amboy, his mission embraced the towns of Piscataway 
and Spotswood. He devoted himself to the conscientious discharge of 
his duties, as far as a somewhat delicate constitution would permit, and 
made occasional visits to Readingtown, twenty-five miles distant. He 
was also a practicing physician. That he was distinguished as such 
and for his zeal in promoting the science of medicine, is illustrated by 
the fact that he was one of the original seventeen medical men who 
organized the New Jersey Medical Society in July, 1766. He was the 
first signer to its "instruments of Association and Constitutions," and 
received the honor of being its first president. 

In a letter dated October 12, 1767, Rev. Dr. Chandler, of Elizabeth- 
town, informed the Society that "wasted away with tedious disorder, the 
worthy, the eminently useful and amiable Mr. McKean is judged by his 
physicians to be at present at the point of death." He adds, "a better man 
was never in the Society's service." He died October 17, 1767, and he 
was buried in the graveyard of St. Peter's Church in Amboy. His mon- 
ument now stands there, erected by Hon. Thomas McKean, an early 
Governor of Pennsylvania, bearing the inscription : 

In memory of Robert McKean, M. A., Practitioner of Physic, etc., and Missionary 
from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, to the City of 
Perth Amboy, who was born July 13, 1732. N. S., and died October 17th, 1767. An 
unshaken friend, an agreeable companion, a rational Divine, a skillful Physician and in 
every relation in life a truly benevolent and honest man. Fraternal love hath erected 
this monument. 

Dr. Stephen Wickes, in History of Medicine in New Jersey and of its 
Medical Men, says : In the early history of the colonies, the practice of 
the healing art was chiefly in the care of the clergy. Many of them 
were men of profound minds and highly educated. 

John Cochran, of Scotch-Irish ancestry, was born in Chester County, 
Pennsylvania, September, 1730. About the time he completed his 
medical education, the war of 1758 between England and France began 
in America. As there were no great hospitals in the Colonies he realized 
that the army would be a good school for improvement in medicine and 
surgery. He obtained appointment of surgeon's mate in the hospital 
department and continued in that office during the war, enjoying the 
friendship and advice of several English physicians. While lying off 
Oswego in a British vessel during that war, a shot from the French 
fleet entered the place where he was operating and carried away the 
operating table and his instruments. He at last quitted the service with 
a high reputation as a practitioner, and settled first in Albany, New York, 
where he married a daughter of General Schuyler. In a short time he 
removed to New Brunswick, New Jersey, where he continued to practice 
medicine with great success. He rented and maintained a house, "within 
three miles of New Brunswick," for the reception of patients who wished 
to be inoculated for smallpox, and he attended over 400 there during the 
winter and spring of 1774. He was one of the founders of the State 
Medical Society in 1766 and in 1769 was elected its president. He 
became a zealous Whig and when hostilities commenced in the War of 

Mid— 17 


the Revolution, he was driven from New Brunswick by the British, who 
burned his house. The Doctor offered his services in 1776 as a volunteer 
in the hospital department. General Washington appreciated his ability 
and recommended him to Congress in the following words: 

I would take the liberty of mentioning a gentleman whom I think highly deserving 
of notice, not only on account of his ability, but for the very great assistance which he 
has afforded us in the course of this winter, merely in the nature of a volunteer. This 
gentleman is Dr. John Cochran, well known to all the faculty. The place for which he 
is fitted, and which would be most agreeable to him is, Surgeon-General of the Middle 
Department. In this line he served all the last war in the British Service and has distin- 
guished himself this winter particularly in his attention to the smallpox patients and 
the wounded. 

He was appointed April 10, 1777, Physician and Surgeon General in 
the Middle Department. In October, 1781, Congress commissioned 
him Director General of the Hospitals of the United States and he was 
attached to headquarters, to General Washington's staff. His pay was 
five dollars per day. After the war the cordial relations formed in the 
war between General Washington and Dr. Cochran were continued, as 
appears from a letter from the former which is published in Irving's 
"Life of Washington," Vol. Ill, page 477. The historian remarks : "It is 
almost the only instance of sportive writing in all Washington's corre- 
spondence." It was concerning an invitation to a dinner party at head- 
quarters. West Point, 1779, at which Mrs. Cochran and Mrs. Livingston 
were to dine with him. He was often addressed by Washington and 
Lafayette as "Dear Doctor Bones." Soon after the war he removed to 
New York and resumed practice of his profession. Upon the adoption 
of the new constitution, President Washington, retaining "a cheerful 
recollection of his past services," nominated him to the office of Com- 
missioner of Loans for the State of New York. A stroke of paralysis 
subsequently caused him to resign and he went to Schenectady, where 
he died on April 6, 1807. 

Moses Bloomfield, Woodbridge — He was born December 4, 1729; was 
for forty years a practitioner of medicine at Woodbridge, New Jersey ; 
he was a man of more than ordinary ability ; was considered one of the 
best physicians of his day. He became a member of the State Society 
in 1776 and was active and efficient in its service. He was its secretary 
in 1767; its president in 1785. He was a representative in the Provincial 
Congress and the General Assembly. He was commissioned surgeon 
United States Hospital, Continental Army, May 14, 1777; was an upright 
magistrate ; an elder in the Presbyterian Church. He died August 14, 
1791. The "New Jersey Journal" of August 31, 1791, in an obituary 
notice of him, said : "He maintained an eminent character as a scholar, 
a physician and a Christian. He served in civil offices of trust and honor. 
* * He was benevolent and liberal to the poor, religious without 
bigotry. * * In his death the State has lost a worthy citizen and the 
Presbyterian Church an important member." 

James Gilliand, New Bnmswick, was born in that city. Was one of 
the founders of the State Society in 1766; the following year, as he 
proposed to embark for Europe, the Society gave him credentials as a 
member in good standing and well qualified as a practitioner of medicine. 
We have found no other records of him. 

John Griffith was born November 19, 1736. He resided in Rahway — 
then in Middlesex county, where for many years he practiced medicine 


and war, lugnly esteemed as a physician and citizen. He was one of 
the founders of the State Society, was elected its president in 1790, 
delivering the following year an able dissertation on pulmonary con- 
sumption. He died August 23, 1805. He had a son, Thomas, who 
practiced medicine many years in Newark, who was a member of the 
State Society. 

Isaac Harris was born and educated in East Jersey in 1741. He settled 
in Quibbletown — now New Market, where he practiced several years 
and where he owned an elegant residence and farm. He removed to 
Salem county in 1771 where he practiced many years. He was one of 
the founders of the State Society in 1766 and was elected its president in 
1792. In the Revolutionary War he was commissioned Surgeon in Gen- 
eral Newcomb's Brigade, State Troops. One son — Isaac — practiced in 
Salem county, another son — Samuel — in Camden, and a grandson — 
Henry S. — in Belvidere. The doctor died in 1808; on his tombstone it 
is stated, "He sustained the character of an eminent physician, an upright 
civil magistrate and a faithful elder and deacon of the Church of Christ." 

Thomas Wiggins was bom in Southold, Long Island, in 1731. Gradu- 
ated at Yale College in 1752. He removed to New Jersey and settled in 
the practice of medicine at Princeton, New Jersey, where for many years 
he was greatly esteemed practitioner of medicine and Christian gentle- 
man. He was one of the founders of the State Medical Society in 1766, 
was its president in 1774 and its secretary in 1781 and 1782. He was 
treasurer of the College of New Jersey in 1786-7. He was an elder in 
the Presbyterian church, to which he bequeathed a house and a tract 
of land, which for many years was used as the manse. When the Con- 
tinental Congress was in session in Princeton, he extended the hospitali- 
ties of his house to General Washington and his lady. He died in Prince- 
ton on November 14, 1801. 

Organizers of the Middlesex County Medical Society : 

Lewis Dunham was born in New Brunswick in 1754; he was the great- 
great-grandson of Edmond, who was the first white child born in Mid- 
dlesex county. His father, Azariah, was an active Revolutionary patriot. 
In 1775 he was a member of the Colonial Assembly from Middlesex; 
was a delegate to the Provincial Congress. He commenced practice in 
New Brunswick and continued it until the breaking out of the war; was 
commissioned surgeon of the Third Regiment February 21, 1776; sur- 
geon Third Battalion November 28, 1776. He became a member of the 
State Medical Society in 1783, and was one of its most active members; 
was secretary in 1883 and 1884; was elected its president in 1791, and 
again in 1816. He died August 26, 1821. 

The inscription on his monument in the Presbyterian graveyard contains these 
words : "Few men have ever shown greater energy of character wisely and uniformly 
directed in all the relations of life. Truely a patriot during the whole war of Independ- 
ence, he was to his country a devoted son. In peace he resumed his profession and dur- 
ing a practice of more than forty years he was indefatigable beyond expression," etc. 

Jacob Dunham was a brother of Lewis ; was bom in New Brunswick, 
September 29, 1767. He attended lectures in Philadelphia when he was 
twenty years of age ; was a classmate of the eminent Dr. W. P. Dewces 
and there was always a close intimacy between them. The doctor's 
practice was an extensive one, covering a wide territory. He was 


elected a member of the State Society November 6, 1792; was its treas- 
urer from 1808 to 1815. He died August 7, 1832. 

Enoch Wilson — We have not been able to trace Dr. Wilson historically, 
but we have found in the State Society transactions that he was corre- 
sponding secretary of the State Society in 1815 ; in 1816 and 1817 he 
was one of the managers; also in 1816 and 1817 he was vice-president 
of the State Society and one of the censors for Middlesex county. He 
was very regular in attendance at the State Society meetings. 

Matthias Freeman was born in Woodbridge, where he practiced many 
years ; he was very highly esteemed ; was elected a member of the State 
Society in 1808; was regular in attendance and served on important com- 
mittees ; was a member of the Board of Managers ; a censor for Middle- 
sex county several years. 

Charles Smith was born near Princeton 1768; graduated from Prince- 
ton College 1786; studied medicine with Dr. Moses Scott; received the 
degree of M. D. from Queen's (now Rutgers) College in its first class 
to graduate 1792; became Dr. Scott's partner and married his daughter. 
He served as surgeon in State troops during the Whiskey Insurrection 
in 1794; was elected a trustee of Rutgers College 1804. He was a skilled 
and successful practitioner, one of the most accomplished of his day ; 
was elected a Fellow of the College of P. & S., New York City in 1814. 
He was corresponding secretary of the State Society 1807 and 1808; 
vice-president in 1810 and president in 1811. He died May 7, 1848. He 
left an estate of about $150,000. Our State Society took action on his 
death which characterized him "One of the most learned and skillful 
members of the profession in the State." 

Nathaniel Manning is said to have belonged to the family that came 
to Perth Amboy in the "Caledonia" from Scotland in 171 5. He received 
his medical education under the tuition of the "Faculty of Philadelphia ;" 
he presented testimonials from them as to his proficiency in medicine 
when he joined the State Medical Society in 1767. He first practiced in 
Metuchen and was considered an able physician. He graduated from 
the College of New Jersey in 1762, and is noted in its catalogue as a 
clergyman. In 1771, being about to leave the province, he applied to 
the State Society for a certificate of character as a physician, which was 
granted. He went to England in 1771 and was soon afterward ordained 
by the Bishop of London for Hampton Parish, Virginia. In 1775 he was 
its incumbent. 

Ralph P. Lott studied medicine with Dr. Hezekiah Stites of Cranbury; 
he attended lectures in Philadelphia ; attended as a delegate from Mid- 
dlesex county several meetings of the State Society; was one of the 
committee appointed to organize the Middlesex County District Society. 
He had a large practice and accumulated considerable property. He 
died September 17, 1845, i^i the seventy-fifth year of his age. 

John Van Cleve was born at Maidenhead, now Lawrence, Mercer 
county, 1778; graduated from Princeton in 1797; studied medicine 
with Drs. Stockton and Maclean ; graduated from the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, New York City, in 1819, was associate in partner- 
ship for several years with Dr. Stockton. He was held in great respect 
as a man of talent and skill in his profession, so much so that at a 
meeting of the college trustees held September 27. 1825, the following 
resolution was adopted : "Resolved. That the president and faculty be 
empowered to make such a temporary arrangement with Dr. Van Cleve 


for the introduction of lectures on medicine, or the auxiliary branches 
of knowledge, as they may think proper, and to make thereon at the 
next meeting of the board." This was intended to be merely preliminary 
to the establishment of a medical department in the college, with Dr. 
Van Cleve as its head. His death the following year put an end to any 
further action. 

Van Cleve joined the society at the time of its reorganization June 

23, 1807, and was ever thereafter one of the most active and influential 
members. He was corresponding secretary 1810-15; president 1815, 
again in 1818; recording secretary 1820-24. He was for many years a 
ruling elder of the Presbyterian Church of Princeton, a trustee of the 
college and a director in the Theological Seminary. He died December 

24, 1826. 

Prominent Deceased Physicians in Middlesex : 

Moses Scott was one of the noblest of the early physicians of Middlesex 
county. He was born in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, in 1738. At 
seventeen years of age he went with the unfortunate expedition under 
Braddock. At the capture of Fort Du Quesne he had risen to be a com- 
missioned officer, but he resigned his position and began the study of 
medicine and at about 1774 commenced practice at New Brunswick and 
soon gained a high reputation as a practitioner. But he was a patriot 
and he entered the service on February 14, 1776, commissioned sur- 
geon of the Second Middlesex Regiment, and subsequently surgeon in 
the General Hospital, Continental Army. He procured from Europe a 
large supply of medicines and surgical instruments, but most of it fell 
into the hands of the enemy on their sudden invasion of New Brunswick 
when he barely escaped capture, as they entered his house and ate his 
prepared dinner. In 1777 Congress having taken the entire direction of 
the medical staff, commissioned Dr. Scott as Senior Physician and Su**- 
geon of the Hospitals and Assistant Director General. He was at the 
battles of Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine and Germantown and was 
near General Mercer when he fell at Princeton. On the restoration of 
peace he resumed practice at New Brunswick. He became a member 
of the Medical Society of New Jersey in 1782 and was very active in its 
work; was elected its president in 1789. In 1814 he was made a Fellow 
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. In early life he 
made a profession of religion, was ever loyal to the church and for 
many years a most efficient elder, as well as treasurer of the Board of 
Trustees of the Presbyterian Church. He died on December 28, 1821. 
One daughter married Dr. Charles Smith, another daughter married Dr. 
Ephraim F. R. Smith, both of New Brunswick. 

Hezekiah Stttes, of Cranbury, was descended from one of the original 
emigrants to New England who lived to the extraordinary age of 122 
years. Little is known concerning the doctor's early years. When the 
State Medical Society was formed in 1766 he was 40 years of age and 
had been in practice several years ; he became a member of the State 
Society in 1767 and was elected its president in 1775. 

Melancthon Freeman was born in Piscataway, New Jersey, in 1746. 
He practiced several years in Metuchen. He was commissioned "Sur- 
geon of State Troops, Colonel Forman's Battalion, Heard's Brigade, June 
21, 1776." A son and a grandson, each bearing his name, were physicians. 

Henry Drake was born in New Brunswick in 1773. His father was 
James Drake, the proprietor of the famous Indian Queen Hotel, where 


several noted tra\ elers by the stage route between New York and Phila- 
delphia rested en route. The State Medical Society often met "at the 
house of James Drake." Though a man of some skill, Dr. Drake soon 
abandoned practice and assumed management of the hotel, doubtless 
without any regret expressed by the profession as he was not a man 
of high moral character. 

John Lawrence was born in Monmouth county, graduated from 
Princeton College in 1764 and from the University of Pennsylvania in 
1768, being one of the first to receive a medical degree in America. He 
began practice in Perth Amboy in 1776, where he was very successful 
for a few years when he went to New York, but in 1783 returned to 
New Jersey and settled in Freehold, where he died April 29, 1830, aged 
83 years. 

Charles A. Howard studied medicine with Dr. Alex. Ross in New 
Brunswick and after the death of his preceptor in 1775, married his 
widow. Being in sympathy with the British he was under guard of 
the Council of Safety in New York, upon taking the oath of abjuration 
and allegiance he returned to New Brunswick, settled at "Ross Hall" and 
engaged in practice, acquiring reputation as a surgeon and was held in 
high social position. He joined the State Medical Society in 1786. He 
was a warden in Christ Church in 1790. He died September 21, 1794. 

John Galen Wall was born at Middletown, December 17, 1759. He 
joined the State Medical Society in 1783. He practiced for a short time 
at Perth Amboy, then removed to Woodbridge. He was thirteen years 
in practice in those places. He died in January, 1798. 

Isaac Ogden, bom in 1764. studied medicine and settled at Six Mile 
Run, where he had an extensive practice. He became a member of the 
State Medical Society in 1788. About the year 1820 he removed to New 
Brunswick, where he died in 1829. "He was a man of purest life, a 
practical Christian, promoting the interests of religion by every means 
in his power." 

Ephraim Fitz-Randolph Smith was born near New Brunswick in 
1786; studied medicine with Dr. Moses Scott; graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania Medical School in 1808 and began practice in 
New Brunswick. He served as treasurer of the State Medical Society 
from 1817 to 1829; was elected vice-president in 1830 and president in 
1832. He was an eminent physician. For many years he was president 
of the leading banking institution in the city; served as mayor of the 
city in 1842. He retired from practice in 1854. He was an earnest 
Christian man who died in the faith of the Gospel of Christ, May 4, 1865. 

Wn.LL\M Van Deursen was born in New Brunswick, May 16, 1791 ; 
after graduating from Queen's College in 1809, he studied medicine and 
graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, in 
1814. He first settled in practice at Imlaystown, but very soon removed 
to New Brunswick, where he secured an extensive practice ; was espe- 
cially distinguished for his skill in surgery. He had many students who 
entered the {)rofession from his office. For more than fifty years he was 
the leading physician of the city. He was elected a trustee of Rutgers 
College, New Brunswick, in 1814. He had a son, Dr. John H., who 
practiced in New Brunswick, and also a grandson. Dr. D. Clark Van 
Deursen, who practiced there a short time and then in Somerset county. 

John Adams Pool was born in New Brunswick — at the Landing — in 
1796. He studied medicine and was licensed by the Medical Society of 


New Jersey, receiving his diploma from Dr. Lewis Dunham, then presi- 
dent, November 13, 1816. He practiced medicine but to a very limited 
extent. He was very active in the State and County Medical Societies, 
often serving in official position. He died May i, i860. A grandson, 
Dr. Eugene H. Pool, is an able practitioner and professor in medical insti- 
tutions in New York City. 

Samuel Abernethy, of Rahway, was born February 26, 1806; gradu- 
ated in Medicine from the University of Philadelphia in 1830 and after 
one year in hospital there settled in Rahway, then in Middlesex county, 
where he practiced until his death, February 13, 1874; he had an exten- 
sive practice and was an eminent physician and surgeon. 

Solomon Andrews — The only information we have been able to get 
concerning him is that he received the degree of M. D. from Rutgers 
College in 1827; that he was given his diploma by Dr. Isaac Pearson, 
president of the State Society that year ; that he was Collector of the 
Port of Perth Amboy in 1844-45 and that he was the inventor of the 
locks used in the United States mail pouches. He died October 20, 1872. 

Jacob T. B. Skillman was born at Three Mile Run, Somerset county, 
March 10, 1794. He graduated from Union College in 1819 and after 
spending three years teaching he removed to New Brunswick and began 
the study of medicine, completing the course under Dr. A. R. Taylor ; 
he was licensed to practice by the State Medical Society, receiving his 
diploma November 8, 1825. He began practice in Woodbridge, but 
after three years removed to Rahway and two years later to New Bruns- 
wick, where for thirty years he had the respect of all who knew him 
for his ability, modesty, kindness and strict integrity. For several years 
he was a faithful office bearer in the First Reformed Chvirch of New 
Brunswick. He died June 26, 1864. 

C. McKnight Smith was born at Haverstraw, New York, September 
29, 1803, son of Samuel Smith, lawyer and on mother's side grandson 
of Dr. Charles McKnight, a prominent surgeon in the American army 
during the Revolutionary War. Dr. Smith studied medicine and grad- 
uated from the Medical College, New York, in 1827 ; commenced prac- 
tice in St. Mary county, Maryland, and soon after settled in Perth 
Amboy, where until the time of his death he was recognized as the most 
prominent physician ; few underwent more arduous work and exposure 
than he. President Harrison appointed him Collector of the Port of 
Perth Amboy in 1842 ; President Taylor appointed him to the same 
office in 1848 and President Grant reappointed him in 1869 and again in 
1873. For many years he was health officer of the city. For 30 years he 
was a vestryman of St. Peter's Church, of which the first president of our 
State Society was formerly the rector. He was an exceedingly active 
and efficient member and officer of our State Society. He died at Perth 
Amboy February 3, 1874. 

George J. Janeway was born in Philadelphia, October 14, 1806; gradu- 
ated from the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 
1830; in 1831 he went to Paris and studied in the French hospitals; 
returned to New York in 1832 and practiced there during the cholera 
outbreak there; he removed to New Brunswick in 1847, where he con- 
tinued to practice over 40 years. He was of a kind and genial disposition, 
a benevolent, unselfish man, serving devotedly the poor and needy. He 
was mayor of New Brunswick in 1869 and 1870. He was long a devoted 
and beloved elder in the First Presbyterian Church. He died September 


i6, 1889, aged 83 years. He was the father of Prof. E. G. Janeway, M. D., 
of New York City. 

Clifford Morrogh was born in Ireland in 1821 ; his father, mother and 
their ten children came to America in 1834. He studied medicine and 
graduated from the University of the City of New York in 1847 ! came 
to New Brunswick with his brother, Dr. Archibald Morrogh, who prac- 
ticed here a short time and then went to the West Indies. 

Dr. C. Morrogh was called the Irish doctor ; he met with some oppo- 
sition at first, but his skill as a surgeon soon gave him a commanding 
position and his progress was rapid ; his reputation extended far beyond 
the city and even the State ; he was the first to use chloroform in that 
section of the State, in amputating a leg from each of two colored people 
at request of Dr. A. F. Taylor, township physician ; soon after he oper- 
ated on a lad for stone in the bladder, the first time it had been done in 
the city ; subsequently he performed that operation thirty-two times. 
An operation that won him great praise was for carious bone of ankle 
joint, the first time it was performed in this country, with modifications 
in operating original with him. With all his great skill he was exceed- 
ingly modest, rarely consenting to prepare papers, though two or three 
are published in the State Society's transactions. He excelled in diag- 
nosis ; a man of mechanical genius, if he had not a splint at hand he 
made one and he devised three or four surgical instruments. He also 
drew the designs for a sailing yacht that took two prizes. He responded 
to calls for service after several of the great battles of the Civil War. 
He was a director of the State Bank ; director of the New Brunswick 
Savings Institution twenty-nine years, and its vice-president a few years. 
His financial ability was shown in St. Peter's R. C. Church, of which he 
was treasurer ; he issued bonds to the amount of $60,000 for it which 
he placed, and when he went to Europe in 1868 but a few thousand 
dollars were outstanding; he was largely instrumental in securing chimes 
costing $4,000 for the church. He was the leading surgeon of the State 
and his many excellent qualities of mind and heart won for him great 
respect. He died March 13, 1882. 

Charles Dunham was born in New Brunswick in 1830; he was a 
grandson of Dr. Jacob Dunham. He studied medicine and graduated 
from the University of Pennsylvania Medical Department in 1850; began 
practice at Bordentown but the next year removed to New Brunswick, 
where he acquired an extensive practice. He served several years as a 
member of the board of public school trustees and was prominent in 
Masonic organizations. He died December 9, 1875. 

Charles H. Voorhees was born in New Brunswick. August 3, 1824; 
graduated from the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, in 1850, 
and began practice in New Brunswick that year. He was very active 
in the County and State Medical Societies and often represented the 
latter in national organizations. He was a member of his city's Board 
of Health and was county physician for sixteen years. He served as 
surgeon of New Jersey Volunteers in the Civil War from 1862 to 1865. 
He died May 13, 1900. 

Henry R. Baldwin, of New Brunswick, was born in New York City, 
September 18, 1829. His ancestors were Hollanders on the maternal 
side ; paternally they were among the original settlers of 1639 in Con- 
necticut. In early life he came with his parents to New Brunswick ; 
graduated from Rutgers College in 1849, studied medicine and gradu- 


ated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York in 1853 ; 
served as resident physician at Bellevue Hospital eighteen months. In 
December, 1855, he settled in New Brunswick and practiced there until 
his death on February 3, 1902. His practice was very extensive, so 
that he was glad to have his son, who graduated in medicine in 1882, 
associated with him until the son's death in 1897, 

He was one of the most faithful members of both County and State 
Medical Societies; he was treasurer of the State Society from 1866 to 
1874, when he was elected third vice-president and in June, 1877, was 
elected president ; he served on the Business Committee as chairman 
fourteen years and on the Fellows' Prize Essay Committee several years. 
He was a member of several medical societies ; was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Griggs, in 1897, one of the managers of the State Hospital for the 
Insane ; he was surgeon of the Pennsylvania Railroad for this section ; 
was president of the staff of Wells Hospital from its organization in 
1889 until his death ; also was president of the City Board of Health. 

He sought also the public good as a citizen ; was for two terms an 
Alderman; served 12 years on Board of Water Commissioners; and 
on the Board of Education 17 years; he was elected a trustee of Rutgers 
College in 1884 and that college conferred on him in 1893 the honorary 
degree of LL. D. His friends erected beautiful gates at one of the 
entrances to the college grounds to his memory. 

He was an officer of the Second Reformed Church of New Bruns- 

Ezra M. Hunt was born in Metuchen, New Jersey, January 4, 1830; 
after a preparatory course at Irving Institute, Tarrytown, he entered 
Princeton College in 1845, graduating in 1849; studied medicine under 
Dr. Abraham Coles ; received the degree of M. D. from the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, in 1852; he began the prac- 
tice of medicine in his native town in 1853; was appointed lecturer on 
Materia Medica in Vermont Medical College ; the next year he was 
elected Professor of Chemistry in the same institution, but in 1855 he 
resumed practice in Metuchen, continuing until he joined the army in 
1862, as assistant surgeon of the 29th New Jersey Infantry ; after two 
months he was placed in charge of the Calvert Street Hospital, Balti- 
more, Maryland, and remained there till his term expired, when he 
returned to Metuchen and again resumed practice. 

He was a prominent member of the Middlesex County Medical 
Society. In 1864 he was elected president of the State Society of which 
he was a most influential member and frequently represented it in na- 
tional and international medical societies. He was one of the most 
influential members of the American Public Health Association and 
was its president in 1883. To his untiring efforts as our State Society's 
leader in the movement was largely due the organization of the State 
Board of Health in 1877, and he was chosen as the one best fitted to 
conduct its work and he served most efficiently for many years. 

The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by Lafayette College 
and that of Sc. D. by Princeton College. In 1888 he was elected an 
honorary member of the Epidemiological Society of London, England. 
A prominent writer, in a sketch of his life said : "The secret of Dr. Hunt's 
life of activity, faithfulness, earnestness and perseverance, is to be found 
in his deep personal piety and consistent humble Christian life — his firm 
unwavering trust in God." He died in Metuchen, July i, 1894. 


Nicholas \\'illiamson was born in New Brunswick, March 9, 1845. 
After an excellent preliminary education he studied medicine with Dr. 
H. R. Baldwin and graduated from the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, New York City, in 1872, and began practice in New Brunswick. 
He was an able physician and had a large practice, and yet he had time 
to. act the good citizen in the service of his city and also to serve his 
God in official position in his church. He was twice elected mayor of 
New Brunswick and served with conspicuous ability. 

Universally respected by all, he died August 15, 1902, and his loss was 
mourned by all. 

Frank M. Donohue, New Brunswick, was born in that city, August 
17, 1859, after a liberal education, he studied medicine with Dr. Clifford 
Morrogh ; graduated from the New York University Medical College 
in 1881 and was associated with his preceptor in practice until the death 
of the latter in 1882, when he assumed entire charge of the very exten- 
sive practice they had had, and as the minute adopted by the County 
Society said — "by the exhibition of similar skill and efficiency he became 
the w^orthy successor of that distinguished surgeon." He took a deep 
interest in the work of the County Medical Society ; was three times 
its president and though a busy practitioner was regular in attendance 
and contributed largely to the scientific programs. His annual reception 
of its members at his beautiful summer residence — Cedar Crest — were 
occasions of greatest pleasure. He served two terms as chairman of 
the State Society's Business Committee and was reelected for the third 
term two months before his sudden death, June 28, 1919. His services 
in the New Brunswick hospitals were very strenuous and remarkable 
in results. He was a manager several years and for two years chair- 
man of the board of managers of the Boys' Home at Jamesburg; was a 
director and vice-president of the People's Bank, a director of the New 
Brunswick Trust Company and a member of the funding committee of 
the managers of the New Brunswick Savings Institution. He served 
three years as Sinking Fund Commissioner of the City. As a member 
of the Advisory Medical Examining Board during the World War he 
served so actively and faithfully that it is a question if it was one of the 
factors contributing to his last illness. His death has been universally 

Henry Harrington Janeway was born in New Brunswick in 1873; 
graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1898. He 
settled in practice in New Brunswick in 1902 ; removed to New York 
City in 1907, where he practiced till a few weeks before his death. He 
was a member of the New Jersey State and also of the New York State 
Medical Societies ; a Fellow of the American Medical Association ; a 
member of the National Society for Cancer Research ; the National 
Radium Society ; the National Society for Experimental Medicine ; the 
New York Academy of Medicine and the Harvey Society. He was 
attending surgeon and chief of the Radium Department of the Memorial 
Hospital. His specialty was Cancer Therapy, of which disease he died 
February i, 1921. He continued his membership in the Middlesex 
County Medical Society till his death. 

Bernard A. Daly was l>orn in New Brunswick, April 5. 1876: he studied 
medicine and graduated from the University of Medicine, Richmond, 
Virginia, in 1899. He located first at Harrison, New Jersey, was presi- 
dent of the local health board during a severe epidemic of smallpox. He 


died at Newark from the effects of an infected wound of arm in operating 
on a patient, whose life was saved at the expense of his own, November 
2, 1903. 

Other Deceased Physicians of Middlesex County, many of whom 
were druggists as well as practicing physicians : 

Drs. D. C. English, Sr., J. W. Meeker and David Stephens, New 
Brunswick ; J. C. Albright and J. H. Price, South Amboy ; P. W. Brake- 
ley, Dunellen. Many had very extensive town and country practice as 
Drs. Ambrose Treganowan and G. W. Stout, South Amboy ; H. S. Clow, 
J. C. Holmes and H. C. Symmes, Cranbury ; R. J. Brumagen and H. B. 
Garner, Spotswood ; A. P. Knappen, Jamesburg; S. M. Disbrow, Old 
Bridge ; C. H. Andrus, Frank Decker, Herman Gross, Metuchen ; John 
C. Thompson and H. B. Poole, South River; Lewis Drake, D. E. Decker 
and S. P Harned, Woodbridge ; Wallace Coriell, Elias Runyon, A. S. 
Titsworth and D. P. Vail, New Market and Dunellen; H. Martyn Brace 
and Henry M. Stone, Perth Amboy. 

Besides the above, we have records of: 

Drs. Josiah B. Andrews, L. Fred Baker, F. S. Barbarin, John J. 
Bissett, L. S. Blackwell, Geo. E. Blackham, George W. Britton, Fred 
W. Buckelew, Charles V. Buttler, John H. Carman, James Clark, F. F. 
Corson, J. H. Crawford, Edward B. Dana, David Davis, Ireneas P. 
Davis, John J. De Mott, Thomas T. Devan (Rev.), Lewis A. Hall, 
Edward E. Haines, Theodore Hardenberg, John Helm, George J. Howell, 
W. W. Hubbard, Eugene A. Hults, D. Brainerd Hunt, Ellsworth E. 
Hunt, A. C. Hutton, Thomas L. Janeway, Cornelius Johnson, Nich. 
Kaemerer, W. P. Keasbey, E. B. P. Kelly, A. S. Knight, William Knight, 
H. D. B. Lefferts, J. W. Leighton, Henry Levy, Samuel Long, William 
Mabon, J. I. Marcley, Caroline H. Marsh, William Martin, W. V. Mc- 
Kenzie, William M. Moore, Lawrence O. Morgan, J. L. Mulford, Aza- 
riah D. Newell, F. B. Norton, Henry T. Pierce, John Pierson, Moses 
Pierson, Edward A. Reiley, Frederick Richmond, John B. Richmond, 
H. D. Robinson, George H. Sears, A. Sophian, Clifford M. Stelle, Nelson 
Stelle, Roland H. Stubbs, Benj. E. Tomlinson, J. L. Van Deventer, 
Rush Van Dyke, D. Clark Van Deursen, John H. Van Deursen, J. S. 
Van Marter, Garret I. Voorhees, Van Meulen, James B. Wain- 
right, J. Leon White, W. S. Willis, William V. Wilson, C. E. Wood- 
ward, Edwin B. Young. 

A few of the above named doctors, after practicing in the county 
several years, moved to other States where they practiced and died. 

The following, among other matter, indicates the activities of mem- 
bers of the Middlesex County Medical Society. 

Military Hospital in New Brunswick — The "Pennsylvania Packet," June 
17, 1779, had the following: We hear from New Brunswick in New 
Jersey that out of upwards of 1,500 sick who were admitted in the Mili- 
tary Hospital in that place since November last, only 22 have died. This 
extraordinary success in the management of the sick (compared with 
former years) has been justly ascribed, next to the diligence and care of 
the surgeons, to the plentiful and punctual supplies of stores and neces- 


saries of all kinds for the sick, by the present Purveyors of the Hospital. 
— N. J. Archives, Vol 3, Second Series. 

Perth Amhoy City Hospital — This Hospital was organized in 1889. 
It is governed by a Board of Directors of which Mr. S. Riddlestorffer 
is president ; Adrian Lyon is treasurer ; I. R. Holt, secretary, and Miss 
M. P. Blauvelt, R. N., is superintendent. There were 1,425 patients 
admitted in 1920; free patients, 210; pay patients, 1,215. There were 
discharged: Cured, 968; improved, 309; unimproved, 53; deaths, 95; 
remaining January i, 192 1, 47. The cost per patient per day was $2.38. 
There were 125 babies born in 1920. 

There is a Nurses' Training School from which 10 graduated last 
year. There are 28 pupil nurses. The members of the Surgical Staff 
are: Drs. J. G. Wilson, Dean, G. W. Tyrrell, F. C. Henry, M. S. Mein- 
zer. Medical Staff: Drs. J. L. Lund, W. E. Ramsay, C. I. Silk and G. 
W. Fithian. Specialists : Drs. J. L. MacDowell, Eye, Ear, Nose and 
Throat; C. I. Silk, Radiographer, and J. V. Shull, Anaesthetizer. There 
is also a Consulting Staff: Drs. Ill, Lambert, Thompson, Booth, Brewer, 
Reisman and Dwyer. 

The Nezv Bmnsivick Hospital — During the winter of 1883 the city 
physicians provided a course of lectures on the subject: "First Aid to 
the Injured" and as a result the Hospital Aid Association w^as formed. 
The necessity of a Hospital was felt and in February, 1884, a number 
of ladies met and organized an Association, "Whose object and aim 
was the securing of a hospital for the City of New Brunswick," and in 
March, 1885, the New Brunswick City Hospital was organized. A cot- 
tage was hired in Commercial avenue and in 1887 a larger house was 
secured and a matron placed in charge. In 1888 the Directors raised 
$3,000 to purchase a lot for a new hospital and Mrs. Grace T. Wells 
erected thereon a fine building in memory of her husband, to be called — 

The John Wells Memorial Hospital — The Board of Directors consisted 
of John N. Carpenter, president; James Neilson, vice-president; Nahum 
Kent, treasurer, and Miss Alice Campbell, secretary. 

The Medical Staff consisted of Drs. H. R. Baldwin, N. Williamson, 
C. H. Voorhees, D. C. English, F. M. Donohue and S. V. D. Clark, with 
Dr. A. V. N. Baldwin, Curator. 

In 1916 the name of the hospital was changed and is now — 

The Middlesex General Hospital— It has had a remarkably successful his- 
tory under both recent names. A few years ago a large additional building 
was erected. Two years ago a Victor Radiograph Machine was intro- 
duced at a cost of nearly $2,000, contributed by the Medical Staff. 
Recently Drs. Smith and Gutmann purchased sixty milligrams of radium 
which will be used there. 

The report for the year ending February 28. 1921, shows : In hospital 
March i, 1920, number of patients, 51 ; admitted to wards during the 
year 377, and to private rooms 474, a total of 902 treated; births, 131. 
Discharged: Cured, ^199; improved, 104; unimproved, 20; died, 44. 
Patients remaining in hospital February 28, 35. 

The present Medical and Surgical Staff is : Drs. L. P. Runyon, presi- 
dent ; B. Gutmann, vice-president; F. L. Brown, secretary; D. C. English, 
consulting physician, with Drs. A. L. Smith, J. P. Schureman, F. E. 
Riva, F. M. Hoffman, N. N. Forney, F. W. Scott, H. W. Nafey, D. L. 
Morrison, B. M. Howley, J. F. Anderson, G. F. Leonard, and as dental 
surgeons: E. S. Griggs, H. Iredell and F. L. Hindle. 


Last year the hospital met with a great loss in the death of the 
president of the Board of Directors, who had served many years, Mr. 
C. J. Carpender. Mr. William H. Leupp is now president of the Board, 
and Miss E. B. Strong is secretary. 

St. Peter's General Hospital — This hospital established thirteen years 
ago has made an excellent record and its success has been due to a 
considerable extent to the efforts of Monsignor O'Grady and Dr. Frank 
M. Donohue, whose deaths two years ago have been keenly felt by the 
hospital authorities and the public. The Thirteenth Annual Report of 
the work done during the year 1920 has been issued. It shows one of 
the busiest and most successful of its existence. 3,620 patients were 
admitted — 1,740 males and 1,880 females. In addition there were 2,195 
outside patients. There were discharged : Cured, 3,340 ; improved, 41 ; 
unimproved, 21; deaths, 53; besides 57 that were in a dying condition 
when admitted; 98 remained in the hospital December 31, 1920. 

The average cost per day per patient was $1.96. There were 1,363 
free patients, 2,061 pay and 196 half pay patients. There were 1,294 
operations — major and minor. There were 249 births, 6 Cesarean sec- 
tions. There is an excellent Training School for Nurses ; 7 graduated in 
1920; there are now 7 in the senior class and 9 in the junior. The 
interior management of the institution is in charge of the far famed 
Grey Nurses of Montreal. About 21,000 patients have been admitted 
and treated in this hospital since it was organized. 

Gradwohl Laboratories — In order to carry out the American Medical 
Association requirements, it was found that neither of the hospitals in 
New Brunswick had an adequate laboratory. The Staff of the Middlesex 
Hospital suggested that Dr. R. L. McKiernan be made Urologist and 
that he should obtain the Gradwohl Laboratories of which he should be 
the Director, which he did. The chief aim and leading work he will 
do is in assisting the physicians in making diagnoses by means of all 
the up-to-date methods used in a modern laboratory, and giving every 
aid by means of bacteriological, biological, chemical, histological and 
serological analyses, particular stress to be laid on serological work, 
performing the Wassermann and Hecht tests on every blood specimen, 
so that no possible mistake will be made. As urologist Dr. McKiernan 
has rendered good service in the Middlesex Hospital and he will do like 
service in St. Peter's General Hospital, as well as assist the city physi- 
cian generally. 

Anti-Tuberculosis Clinics in New Brunswick and Perth Amboy were 
opened in June, 1917, through the efforts of the State Tuberculosis 
League, cooperating with the County Advisory Committee. In Perth 
Amboy there are two clinics a week held at the City Hospital with Dr. 
Charles I. Silk in charge. In New Brunswick the clinic is held once a 
week at the State Clinic Rooms, adjoining the Middlesex General Hos- 
pital, with Drs. F. L. Brown and Benj. Gutmann in charge. 

The Perth Amboy Clinic report for the year 1920 is as follows : New 
patients, 308; Clinic attendance — new, 200; old, 140; total, 340; deaths, 
63; sent to Sanatoria: Bonnie Burn, iii; Glen Gardner, 3; total, 114; 
sputum examinations were: positive, 13; negative, 87; total, 100; also 
Von Pirquet tests: 48 positive, 8 negative, 5 doubtful, total 61 ; 15 visits 
were made to schools. Two Registered Nurses are employed. The 
Clinic is held at 217 Smith street. 

The New Brunswick Clinic report for six months — June to December, 
1920, was as follows: Calls from office, 1,013; new patients, 28; deaths, 


13; clinic attendance, 73; sent to Sanatoria: Bonnie Burn, 5; White 
Haven, i ; total, 6. The efficient nurse who was in charge the year before 
left January i, 1920, and another could not be obtained until June, the 
Clinic was thereby closed. From June, 1917, to June, 1920 — except the 
6 months referred to, had 879 cases, of which 431 were positive, 415 nega- 
tive and 33 suspicious. 

Venereal Climes — These are conducted under the auspices of the United 
States Public Health Service, the State Board of Health, cooperating 
with the local Health Board. 

The New Brunswick Clinic was opened January 6, 1920, with Dr. 
R. L. McKiernan as Director, at the Middlesex General Hospital, and 
notwithstanding some disfavor, it has steadily advanced, though the 
need of a more active cooperation on the part of the city government 
with the Health Officers, has been felt. During the year 1920 the record 
has been as follows : Total number of cases of syphilis, 197 ; of gonor- 
rhoea, 233; mixed cases, 12; total, 442; number of visits to the Clinic, 
1,965. The results have been: Gonorrhoea cases absolutely cured, 53; 
syphilis cases rendered non-infectious, 190; Wassermann tests, 112; 
smears for gonococci examined, 281. 

The Perth Amboy Clinic, with Dr. W. H. McCormick as Director, 
is doing like work, and although the Clinic has had considerable difficulty 
in perfecting organization, it gives promise of accomplishing a great 
work. The figures of work done have not yet been published. 

Baby Welfare Clinics — The Perth Amboy Qinic is held weekly, Wednes- 
day, 10 to 12 A. M., at the Public Library. Dr. Wm. London in charge. 
The report is: Number of babies examined, 150; number of visits to the 
Clinic, 781. 

The New Brunswick Clinic is held weekly in the Washington Public 
School building. It is in charge of Dr. E. Irving Cronk. There were 
1,141 babies cared for during the year 1920 with no deaths. Weights 
and measurements were taken and helpful advice given to mothers. 

David C. English, M. D. 




Perth Amhoy and Vicinity — ^The manufacture of clay products has 
always been one of the most important industries of the county, and 
the most prominent figure in that branch of business was the late Alfred 
Hall, of Perth Amboy, who was born May 22, 1803, in Meriden, Con- 
necticut. At an early age he went to Cleveland, Ohio, and for fifteen 
years was successfully engaged in the manufacture of brick. During 
that period, in 1842, he invented and patented a brick-moulding machine, 
which was adopted generally by the trade and is still universally used 
throughout the country. In 1845 he located in Perth Amboy and erected 
a factory for the manufacture of fire-brick. In 1856 a portion of the 
buildings were destroyed by fire, and were at once replaced by extensive 
brick buildings containing many improvements. Rockingham and yel- 
low ware and terra cotta were also made later on. In addition to the 
Perth Amboy works, A. Hall & Sons had a similar plant of about the 
same capacity, for the manufacture of fire-brick at Buffalo, New York, 
and one at Towanda, Pennsylvania, for red brick, which produced 
about 2,250,000 brick annually, one million of which were of the char- 
acter of Philadelphia front brick. When in full force the three plants 
produced about 5,000,000 fire-brick and 2,250,000 red brick annually. 
Edward J., Mr. Hall's eldest son, was in charge of the Buffalo and 
Towanda works. 

Mr. Hall retired from the presidency of the Perth Amboy Terra Cotta 
Company in 1880, and organized a company to erect new works, which 
were completed about 1882, and were the most extensive of any in 
the United States. In a letter to the State Geologist in 1881 he wrote : 

"I am doing all I can to develop and bring into use the great varieties 
of clay, which should be a great source of wealth to the State of New 
Jersey. We have in our employ men of all nationalities, who are familiar 
with the working of clay in all parts of the world, and their opinion is 
unanimous that the red and other colored clays of New Jersey are 
superior for making terra cotta to any in the world. There are also 
many clays that are now considered worthless that show qualities that 
I think will be of great value when applied to the uses for which they 
are adapted. Perth Amboy is the natural centre for the manufacture 
of architectural terra cotta, both on account of the abundance of the 
raw material and the great facilities for shipping, the docks here having 
been unimpeded by ice all through the last severe frost. The present 
works cannot supply the increasing demand, the sales of the six months 
ending December 31st, amounting to $72,916. January ist there were 
orders exceeding $55,000, and several large works for which terra cotta 
is specified and for which estimates have been given, aggregate nearly 
$200,000 more. Perth Amboy ought to become as noted for terra cotta 
as Trenton is for pottery." 


Mr. Hall was connected with the Terra Cotta Works until a short 
time before his death. The manufacture of brick and terra cotta has 
been benefited to an almost unlimited extent by Mr. Hall's inventions 
and improvements. He was a broad-minded, public-spirited citizen, and 
took a great interest in public afifairs, having three times been elected 
mayor of the city, and in 1882 was president of the Fire-Brick Makers' 
Association of the United States. 

Henry Maurer, a native of Germany, came to Perth Amboy in 1875 
from New York, where he had been in business for many years, and 
purchased the fire-brick works of Joseph Forbes, near the mouth of 
Woodbridge Creek. He expended over $50,000 in enlarging and im- 
proving the plant, and proceeded to manufacture fire-brick, red brick, 
gas retorts, furnace blocks, tile, hollow brick and French roofing tile. 
The works are now equal to any of the kind in the country, and contain 
many of Mr. Maurer's valuable inventions. He died a number of years 
ago, and the business is conducted by his sons. 

About 1883, Edward M. Keasbey, who had been mining clay for 
several years in what is now known as Keasbey, in connection with his 
brother, A. Q. Keasbey, of Newark, erected a factory where they manu- 
factured building brick, and later on fire-proofing materials. This was 
the forerunner of a large plant consisting of three extensive buildings, 
and a similar one at Lorillard, in Monmouth county, now owned and 
operated by the National Fire-Proofing Company, of Pittsburgh, of 
which Henry M. Keasbey, a son of one of the brothers above mentioned, 
is president. This corporation owns and operates thirty plants and does 
an immense business. 

Adam Weber, of New York, erected large works at Keasbey about 
thirty years ago, and manufactured fire-brick, gas retorts, etc. In 1905 
he sold the plant to the Didier-March Company, who operated it until 
a few months ago, when it passed into the hands of another company. 

The American Encaustic Tiling Company began business in 1913, 
manufacturing wall tile, and also dealing in decorative tile in colors, 
employing about ninety men. The officers are : Emil Kohler, president, 
and H. D. Lillibridge, vice-president and general superintendent. 

The C. Pardee Company purchased the Eagleswood property about 
1900, and erected Steel and Enameled Tile Works. The former has since 
passed into the control of other parties, who continue the business and 
retain the Pardee name. 

Abel Hansen does a large business at Fords, manufacturing bath 
tubs, tanks, basins, toilet fixtures, etc., all of porcelain, using the native 

The Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Company, with offices corner 
of High and Fayette streets, commenced business in Brooklyn in 1882, 
and removed to Perth Amboy two years later. The first property the 


firm purchased was the old cork factory of William King, at the foot 
of Commerce street. From that small beginning has arisen the large 
plant, fronting on Staten Island Sound, and composed of forty buildings. 
All varieties of chemical goods are manufactured, and about four hun- 
dred men and boys are employed. The present large and beautiful 
office building was erected in 1910. In addition to the large business 
done in the United States, the firm has a very considerable trade with 
Mexico and South America. A New York office is maintained at 609 
Sixth avenue. The officers are Franz Roessler, president ; William H. 
Hamm, vice-president and treasurer ; and P. Schleussner, secretary. 

The Standard Underground Cable Company was established on High 
street in 1898, the cable department being first installed. In 1902 the rod, 
wire, weather-proof and rubber departments were added. From 1914- 
1918 the plant was largely employed by the United States government 
and produced vast quantities of tubes and other war materials. The 
daily output is from 300,000 to 400,000 pounds of various products. The 
average number of employes, under normal conditions, is about 1,500. 
The executive offices are in Pittsburgh, and the present officials are as 
follows : J. W. Marsh, president (from the foundation of the corpora- 
tion); P. H. W. Smith, of Pittsburgh, C. J. Marsh, of New York, and 
C. C. Baldwin, of Perth Amboy, vice-presidents ; C. M. Hagen, of Pitts- 
burgh, secretary and treasurer; and H. W. Fisher, assistant secretary. 

The Perth Amboy Dry Dock Company, with W. Parker Runyon, 
president, and Charles D. Snedeker, secretary and treasurer, was incor- 
porated in 1887, ^"d developed from a marine railway established in 
i860. Since the incorporation, four dry docks have been installed, with 
a capacity of 2,500 tons, eight piers, 370 to 400 feet long, floating equip- 
ment, electric and air-welding plants, complete power equipment, der- 
ricks, blacksmith and machine shops, sawmills, etc. The average 
number of employes is between three hundred and four hundred. 
Adjoining frontage, recently purchased, gives the plant a water front 
of over one thousand feet. The Emergency Fleet Corporation of the 
United States Government Shipping Board has been building a number 
of modern drydocks, with a view of placing them with reliable estab- 
lished shipyards for operation, giving the shipyard owners the privilege 
of purchasing them upon reasonable terms. The Perth Amboy Com- 
pany was awarded one of these docks, with a capacity of one thousand 
tons, and it is now installed. 

The Raritan Copper Works, on the site of the old John R. Watson 
fire-brick works, was erected in 1898 by the Lewissohn Brothers, of 
New York, and the first copper was produced in April of the following 
year. The business consists of the refining of copper and its by-products 
— silver, gold, platinum, palladium, selenium and tellurium. Several 
years later the works passed into the control and became a subsidiary 

Mid— 18 


corporation of the Anaconda Mining Company. The average number 
of employees is 1,400. Mr. A. C. Clark is the general manager. 

The American Smelting and Refining Company established a large 
plant fronting on the Staten Island Sound in 1895 for the refining of 
lead and copper ores, and other branches of the business. In conse- 
quence of the inability to secure a sufficient number of employees about 
one-half of the plant is closed at the present writing, the working force 
being only about seven hundred; formerly 1,800 men and boys were 
employed. J. F. Austin is the general manager. 

New Briinsunck — The wall paper business of Janeway & Company, of 
New Brunswick, was started by John P. Hardenbergh in 1844, in two 
small buildings on Water street, the wall paper being printed on hand 
presses. In 1846, Henry L. Janeway, who was born in Philadelphia and 
came to New Brunswick in 1833, bought an interest in the business, 
and the firm introduced the first machine for printing wall paper. It 
was made in the machine shop of Haley Fiske, of the city, and was a 
very crude affair. Later on an improved machine was made in the 
locomotive works at Paterson, which printed four colors and worked 
very satisfactorily. In those early days Mr. Janeway invented the plan 
for a machine for hanging wall paper while in the drying process, by 
passing it over ropes on grooved pulleys. It was made in William 
Waldron's machine works, in the city, and remained a secret for eight 
years, although it was never patented. Later on a foreman, who had 
been in the employ of Hardenbergh & Janeway, introduced it into other 
factories. The plan has been greatly improved since then, but the main 
idea remains the same. About 1850, William R. Janeway, brother of 
Henry L., bought Mr. Hardenbergh's interest, the firm became Janeway 
& Company, and an office was opened in Maiden Lane, New York. 
Steam power was installed in 1846, and many additions were made to 
the factory, which were continued from year to year until 1876, when 
the storehouse on Water street was built, and the plant continually 
enlarged until it covered the entire block. The works were destroyed 
by fire, February 7, 1885, the warehouse alone being saved. Rebuilding 
was immediately commenced, and the new factory was occupied October 
ist of the same year. The main building had five floors, 65x315 feet, and 
the warehouse four floors, 70x160 feet, with a frontage on the Delaware 
and Raritan canal of 315 feet. The equipment included engines of 120 
horsepower, boilers of 240 horsepower, and sixteen printing presses, 
and employed a working force of over 200. The capacity of the works 
was from ten to twelve million rolls of paper annually. The paper 
was sold all over the United States and Canada, and over twenty-five 
salesmen were employed. Mr. Janeway's generosity to the employees 
during the winter of the great fire, when the factory was destroyed, 
was most praiseworthy. Among other benefactions, he replaced the 


destroyed tools of the print cutters, which were very valuable. He 
died in 1909, and the business and factory were sold in 1914. He was 
a trustee of the First Presbyterian Church for thirty-six years, trustee 
of Rutgers College since 1862, member of the Board of Education for 
twenty-two years and its president for seven years, director of the New 
Brunswick Mutual Fire Insurance Company, charter member of the 
company who built the City Water Works, member of the Water Board 
for four years, and a bank and gas company director for forty-two years. 

In 1863, Belcher & Nicholson, the latter being a former member of 
the firm of Janeway & Company, established a wall paper factory in 
New Brunswick, manufacturing chiefly bronzes and what are techni- 
cally known as French drawn stripes and mouldings. In 1870, Charles 
J. Carpender, and in 1872, Colonel Jacob J. Janeway, came into the 
business, and the firm of Janeway & Carpender was formed. A factory 
165x50 feet was erected, fifty employees engaged, and the business greatly 
enlarged, including the printing of blanks, satins, tints, gold and silver 
paper. The great specialty is the French drawn stripes and mouldings. 
The former are used in paneling a room in imitation of fresco, the 
mouldings being surmounted by caps and corners to complete the panels. 
The drawn stripes, which are made by but one other firm in the country, 
are combinations of shades and stripes, which take the place of figures 
in wall paper. Over seven hundred and fifty styles of paper are kept 
in stock, and salesmen travel through the United States and Canada, 
selling a vast amount of goods. Mr. Carpender died several months ago. 

United States Rubber Company — In 1839, Christopher Meyer, a native 
of Hanover, Germany, came to New Brunswick, to put up for Horace 
H. Day a steam engine and machinery for the first manufacture of 
rubber goods in the city. Mr. Day was then having carriage and 
rubber shoes failures. Mr. Meyer made his first essay at manufacturing 
under the Goodyear patent, inventing and improving machinery, and 
perfecting the progress of rubber shoe making. He discovered a plan 
by which the disagreeable odor of the rubber was almost entirely elimi- 
nated, and the cloth and shoes rendered more durable, a plan which 
was only surpassed by the subsequent discovery of the process of vul- 
canization. Mr. Day refused to recognize the value of this process, 
and the two parted. For about two years Mr. Meyer operated a small 
plant at the Landing Bridge, and in 1843 J. C. Ackerman, of New Bruns- 
wick, proposed to build for him a factory on the site of the old Milltown 
grist mill, which was done, James Bishop joining with Mr. Meyer in 
the management. Shirred goods, carriage cloth and rubber shoes were 
manufactured, and also rubber pontoon bridges for United States 
government use in the Mexican War, until 1845, when the factory was 
destroyed by fire, including Mr. Meyer's residence, leaving him almost 
penniless. John R. Ford, a New York merchant, came to his aid, and 


together they rebuilt the works, and the firm of Ford & Company con- 
tinued business until 1850, when a joint stock company was organized 
under the general law under the name of the Ford Rubber Company. 
Four years later the name was changed to the Meyer Rubber Company, 
and continued as such, with Mr. Meyer as president and Mr. Ford 
as treasurer. In 1877 he organized the New Jersey Rubber Shoe Com- 
pany, erected large buildings in Little Burnet street, and manufactured 
boats, shoes, canes, etc. He also established the Novelty Rubber 
Works in Neilson street, above the railroad bridge, for the manufacture 
of hard rubber. The goods manufactured amounted to about $600,000 
annually, and included every possible variety of hard rubber goods, 
as follows : Buttons in great variety, smokers' requisites, as pipes, pipe- 
stems and bowls in great diversity of shapes and sizes ; pipe and 
tobacco boxes, cigar cases, match boxes, etc., crochet hooks, knitting 
pins and tatting needles, and a variety of articles used in trimming ladies' 
dresses. Round rulers of all sizes, also hotel, restaurant, billiard, poker 
and jewelers' checks, elegant canes, and many other goods under the 
name of Yankee Notions. These articles were shipped to all parts of 
the world. Germany and England were a large market, also Cape 
Town, South Africa, Australia, Central and South America, in addition 
to the large quantities sold to pipe manufacturers and dealers in this 
country. The rubber business is still continued in New Brunswick 
under the title of the United States Rubber Company, with James Desh- 
ler as president. 

Mr. Meyer became interested in the rubber business in New Bruns- 
wick when it was in its infancy, and to him alone is largely due its 
development, which has made such rapid progress among the most 
important manufactures of the country. This interest increased under 
his management and superior ability from a business of a few thousand 
dollars until it reached several millions annually. He may well be 
classed among the self-made business men, and a shining example of 
what ambition and a will to succeed under adverse circumstances may 

In 1887 Robert W., James W. and Edward M. Johnson secured the 
old Parsons Mill property, near the Pennsylvania railroad, and began 
the manufacture of absorbent and surgical dressing materials. In 1893 
the old Novelty Button Works was purchased, and in 1900 the cotton 
mill was erected. The property of the Norfolk and New Brunswick 
Hosiery Company was acquired in 1908, and the company has been 
continually enlarging and improving the plant. In 1897, having had 
much difficulty in shipping their goods by rail, the company secured 
two steam freight boats, which from that time to the present have made 
daily trips to New York during the navigable season. During the late 
European War the company, under the direction of the Red Cross, 


supplied the armies of the United States and the Allies with all the 
absorbent cotton, gauze bandages and other surgical supplies that were 
needed. The average number of employes is 2,000. Robert W. John- 
son, Sr., the president, died in 1910. The present officers are James W. 
Johnson, president ; Frank Jones and Robert W. Johnson, vice-presi- 
dents ; Robert C. Nicholas, secretary ; and Charles A. McCormick, 

The Neverslip Manufacturing Company was organized in February, 
1896, with Robert W. Johnson, president; James W. Johnson, vice- 
president ; and William J. McCurdy, secretary and treasurer, for the 
manufacture of horseshoes, calks and tools. On May 29, 1917, the 
Manufacturers' Iron and Steel Company was incorporated, which 
included the Neverslip Manufacturing Company, of New Brunswick ; 
the Neverslip Manufacturing Company, of Montreal, Canada ; and the 
Bryden Horseshoe Company, of Catasauqua, Pennsylvania, with the 
following officers : James W. Johnson, president and general manager ; 
Robert C. Nicholas, vice-president and secretary ; George F. McCormick, 
treasurer; and H. Morley Holton, assistant treasurer; directors: J. W. 
Johnson, R. C. Nicholas, G. F. McCormick, Paul E. Miller, H. Morley 
Holton, Sidney B. Carpender and Royal W. Mattice. The average 
number of employees in the New Brunswick plant is 125, and only 
adjustable calks and tools are made. 

The Consolidated Fruit Jar Company was organized December 14, 
1871, in its present building on Water street, by R. W. Booth, of New 
York, for the manufacture of sheet and cast metal goods, and at first 
made principally fruit-jar tops and can screws. Later on, bottle caps, 
collapsible tubes, oil cans and sprinkler tops for toilet waters and per- 
fumes were manufactured. The average number of employees is 330, 
and the output is disposed of to manufacturers and jobbers. The officers 
are : Henry B. Kent, president ; Charles P. Buckley, vice-president, and 
Benj. W. Erickson, secretary and treasurer. 

In 1852 George Buttler and John Y. Brokaw began to manufacture 
sash doors, blinds, shelving, stair work, counters, office fixtures, etc., 
and many years after the firm became the Buttler-Howell Company, 
with the following officers: Howard V. Buttler, president; Abram S. 
Howell, vice-president and treasurer; Robert V. Buttler, secretary, and 
G. Harold Buttler, superintendent. The firm makes a specialty of lay- 
ing hardwood floors and the interior finishing of houses. A stockroom 
for the sale of goods is maintained in Elizabeth. 

One of the oldest industries in the city was the carriage factory of 
John Van Nuis, built by him in 1810 on Albany street. The wood- 
work, blacksmithing, trimming and painting were done in separate 
buildings, with a repository in front. In 1813 he shipped some car- 
riages to Norfolk, Virginia, and found a ready sale, and finally established 



an agency there. His sons made trips through the South and eventually- 
extended the trade to North and South Carolina. In 1840 a repository 
was opened at Mobile, where carriages were sold over a territory of 
500 miles around the city. In 1858, when the Civil War appeared immi- 
nent, the Southern business was abandoned. The firm lost much money 
and was never able to regain its immense business. The factory was 
closed in 1915. 

Other manufactures are mentioned in the chapters on Woodbridge, 
Piscataway, East Brunswick, and the Boroughs of South River, Hel- 
metta, Jamesburg, Sayreville, Roosevelt and Middlesex, and the city 
of South Amboy. 

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In the seventeenth century, where New Brunswick now stands there 
was a dense cedar forest interspersed with a swamp. A mystic tradition 
which the ancient records do not verify states that the first inhabitant 
Daniel Cooper, settled where the postroad afterwards crossed the river, 
and kept a ferry. This Cooper was one of the early purchasers and 
settlers under the proprietors, and his name appears as such on the 
schedule to the Elizabethtown Bill. This record states that his tract 
of land of two thousand acres was on the "Passack" river, and there- 
fore the conclusion is drawn that it did not extend as far west as the 
Raritan river, therefore he had no connection with the early settlement 
of New Brunswick. 

In Watson's "Annals of Philadelphia" is preserved an item from 
William Edmundson's Journal. An early traveler in East Jersey in 1675, 
he made a journey southward from New York, and in going from Mid- 
dletown to the Delaware river, accompanied by an Indian guide, they 
lost their way in the wilderness, and were obliged to return to the 
Raritan river to enable them to discover the proper course. He tells 
of coming to a "small landing from New York," which was no doubt 
the crossing of the path where afterwards Inian's Ferry was established. 
These early travelers wended their way along a small path, with no 
tame animal in sight, kindling in the wilderness a fire by the side of 
which they slept, and finally reaching Delaware Falls, now the site of 
the city of Trenton. 

It was on November 10, 1681, John Inian and company bought two 
lots which form the principal site of the city of New Brunswick. The 
tract thus purchased had a mile of river front and was two miles in 
depth. Inian, in connection with Joseph Benbridge and others, peti- 
tioned the Governor and Council on March i, 1682, for a patent of the 
lands they had purchased from the Indians. The warrant was for six 
thousand acres but it appears that the surveyor had laid out 7,680 acres 
without the reservation of the seventh that was the proportion of the 
proprietors. The Council, however, determined that the petitioners 
should have patents for the land, John Inian to receive one thousand 
acres, and all others five hundred acres each on payment of one half- 
penny an acre, the overplus of the tract to be appropriated to the pro- 
prietors in lieu of their seventh. A map made in 1685 by John Reid, 
at that time first deputy surveyor under the proprietors, gives the situ- 
ation and outlines of nineteen lots designated as the "Raritan Lots," 
lying on the mouth of South river, past the present site of New Bruns- 


wick to Bound Brook, seventeen of which have each about a half a mile 
of river front by about two miles in depth, and extending in a south- 
westerly direction inland. Beginning at the mouth of South river, the 
first of these lots is marked to "Law Baker, and contains 1,300 acres; 
the next to "C. P. Sommans," 1,000 acres; the next to "Governor Bar- 
clay," 500 acres ; the next to C. Longfield, 500 acres ; the two next to 
"John Inians," each 640 acres. This last is shown on the map to be the 
"fording place," designated by a hand pointing towards it, also by the 
word "falles" written opposite. This was the original site of New 
Brunswick ; the falles were a rocky rift extending across the river, mak- 
ing the stream so shallow it could be easily crossed at low water in a 
wagon or on horseback. 

Soon after Inian's settlement, he operated a ferry, and on April 19, 
1686, he addressed a communication to the Governor and Council of 
East Jersey, stating that at considerable expense he had made a road 
to Delaware Falls from his house on the Raritan, which was six miles 
shorter than a former road, and had furnished himself with all accommo- 
dations as boats, canoes, etc., for ferrying over the Raritan river all those 
traveling with horses and cattle. He desired the board to settle the 
rates to be charged for transportation across the Raritan, but whether 
it was legally established as a ferry at this time is doubtful. The pro- 
prietors, however, on November 2, 1697, granted the ferry for the lives 
of Inian and his wife and to the survivor at a rental of five shillings 
sterling per annum. 

The place continued to be called Inian's Ferry, though it was vari- 
ously corrupted into Inions, Innions, Onions and Inyance, in the public 
acts and records as late as 1723. In that year, there being only one 
street in the hamlet, called Broad street and now Burnet street, the county 
court was petitioned by Henry Freeman, William Harris, Timothy 
Bloomfield and Dirck Van Aersdalen, asking to lay out a road and two 

John Inian was unquestionably a man of some consequence in the 
community. Besides being an associate justice of the court, he was a 
member of Governors Hamilton's and Basse's councils, and was often 
designated in the records as "Captain John Inians." 

The earliest use of the name New Brunswick is found in the minutes 
of the county court, April 7, 1724, when two surveyors of the roads and 
two constables were appointed. After this date it ceased to be called 
by the name of Inian's. Though this was ten years after the accession 
of the House of Brunswick to the throne of Great Britain, it is pre- 
sumable that the future city was named in its honor. At this early 
period of settlement the population was very small, although it was 
beginning to overshadow the older settlements of Woodbridge, Perth 
Amboy and Piscataway, and its importance as a commercial center was 


at least flattering. The adjacent territory was rapidly filling up with 
settlers, and quoting James Alexander, who settled at Inian's Ferry in 
1715, there were at that time only four or five houses in the thirty miles 
between Inian's Ferry and Falls of the Delaware (Trenton). Fifteen years 
later there was almost a continuous line of fences and houses of farm- 
ers engaged in raising wheat, and as New Brunswick was the nearest 
landing, it became the store house for their produce. This caused the 
embyro town to increase in population, and a plot of ground in the 
center of the village commanded as high a price as the same size lot in 
the heart of New York City. 

About this period several Dutch families immigrated from Albany, 
New York, bringing with them building material and locating along the 
public road. They were men of considerable property and enterprise ; 
prominent amongst them were Dirck Schuyler, Hendrick Van Deursen, 
Dirck Van Veghten, Abraham Schuyler, John Ten Broeck, Nicholas 
Van Dyke, and Dirck Van Alen. The arrival of these Dutch settlers 
gave a fresh impulse to trade. The principal streets were Burnet, Water 
and Albany, with a few buildings on Church, the inhabitants living 
along the river as far south as Sonman's Hill, extending north a short 
distance above the ferry ; the increased population and activity resulted 
in the incorporation in 1730 of the township of New Brunswick. 

Peter Kalm, a professor of the University of Abo in Swedish Finland, 
who visited North America in 1748 as a naturalist, under the auspices of 
the Swedish Royal Academy of Science, gives this description of New 
Brunswick : 

About noon we arrived at New Brunswick, a pretty little town in a valley on the 
west side of the river Raritan. On account of its low situation it cannot be seen coming 
from Pennsylvania before arriving at the top of the hill which is close to it. The town 
extends north and south along the river. The town-house makes a pretty good appear- 
ance. The town has only one street lengthwise, and at its northern extremity there is a 
street across. Both of these are of considerable length. One of the streets is almost 
entirely inhabited by Dutchmen who came hither from Albany, and for that reason they 
call it Albany street. On the road from Trenton to New Brunswick I never saw any 
place in America, the towns excepted, so well peopled. 

The greater part of New Brunswick's trade is to New York, which is about forty 
English miles distant. To that place they send corn, flour in great quantities, bread, sev- 
eral other necessaries, a great quantity of linseed, boards, timber, wooden vessels, and all 
sorts of carpenter's work. Several small yachts are every day going backward and for- 
ward between these two towns. The inhabitants likewise get a considerable profit from 
the travelers who every hour pass through on the high road. 

Notwithstanding all this, the embyro town must have been of very 
diminutive proportions, for a little over a quarter of a century later, 
in fact a year before the opening of the Revolutionary War, John Adams, 
afterwards President of the United States, describes it as follows: 
"Went to view the village of New Brunswick. There is a Church of 
England, a Dutch church and a Presbyterian church in this town. There 
is some little trade here; small craft can come up to this town. We saw 
a few small sloops. The river is very beautiful. There is a store build- 


ing for barracks,* which is tolerably handsome ; it is about the size of 
Boston jail. Some of the streets are paved, and there are three or 
four handsome houses ; only about one hundred and fifty families in the 

The granting of a Royal city charter to New Brunswick, December 30, 
1730, established two cities in Middlesex county, which was at that time 
the only county in America to embrace within its limits chartered munici- 
palities. It was not for the growing density of population that there 
was a demand for the forming of cities, it was not a result of a necessity, 
the real movement being for an essential unity, which was evidenced 
by the fact that a greater part of these cities were in the middle of the 
colonies, the only notable exceptions being Annapolis and Albany. The 
first corporation seal of the new city is described as follows : On the right 
side of the seal, the goddess of agricultural bounty is represented by 
a sheaf of wheat alongside a pair of scales ; the motto reads Alma sed 
Alcqua, signifying "kindly but just." On the left side appears a ship 
riding at anchor in the Raritan, typifying commerce. The words Laeta 
revcrtor may be freely translated 'T am glad to return home." 

The petitioners for the Royal Charter were Thomas Farmar, Jacob 
Okey, James Hude, Dolin Hegerman, Lawrence Williamson, Duncan 
Hutchinson, Derrick Schuyler, William Okey, Paul Miller, William 
Williamson, Abraham Bennet, Cort Voorhees, James Neilson, John 
Balding, besides others. The boundaries were described as all that 
tract of land beginning at the mouth of South river upon the bounds 
of the city and precincts of Perth Amboy, and from thence following 
the said bounds up the said river unto the post road that leads from 
Perth Amboy to Burlington, and along said road to Milston brook or 
river from thence down the same brook or river as it runs into the 
country road that leads from Trenton to Inian's Ferry, thence easterly 
along the said road unto a brook called the Mile run about a mile dis- 
tant from said ferry, thence down the said brook as it runs (including 
the same) unto the mouth thereof where it empties itself into Raritan 
river, thence on a line to the north side of the said river, thence down 
the said river as it runs (including the same to high water mark on the 
northeasterly side thereof) unto the bounds of Perth Amboy aforesaid, 
and from thence along the said bounds to the point of beginning. 

The charter appointed Thomas Farmar mayor, and a board of alder- 
men, consisting of William Cox, Jacob Okey, Dolin Hegeman, William 
Cheesman, Josiah Davison and Law Williamson. There was another 
corporated body called in the charter "assistants," but known as the 
Common Council. The members appointed for this board were John 
Thomson, Cort Voorhees, Minne Voorhees, Henry Longfield, William 
Williamson and John Van Dyck ; James Neilson was made clerk ; Evan 

*The barracks were located on George street, between Bayard and Paterson 


Drummond, sheriff; Alexander Moore, treasurer; Thomas Marshall, 
coroner; John Dally to be sergeant of the mace, the mayor to have the 
honor of having a mace borne before him. The overseers of the poor 
were John Van Nuys, Daniel Fitch and John Stevens. David Lee and 
Michael Moore w^ere made constables. Elections were to be held annu- 
ally on the second Thursday in April, although it reads in original 
document the second Tuesday. The first meeting held under the city 
charter was on March 16, 17301. Among the early ordinances passed 
in the first score of years of the city government was a curfew law for- 
bidding a negro, mulatto or Indian slave above the age of fourteen in 
the streets after ten o'clock, unless with a certificate from master or 
mistress, or carrying a lantern with a lighted candle; a market place 
was appointed under the court room ; hucksters were not to sell until 
the first two hours of the market had expired. Viewers of chimneys 
were appointed to prevent fire; no hay, straw, shingles or shavings of 
wood were to be within six inches of any chimney. Constables were 
to make strict search and inquiries about strangers, and furnish the 
mayor with a list of their names. Children and servants were forbidden 
to play on the Lord's Day. 

The paving of streets early engaged the attention of city govern- 
ment, the firing of guns and throwing of squibs or other fireworks in 
the streets was strictly prohibited ; citizens were required to provide 
leather buckets to be used in case of fire. The curfew law for slaves 
was amended in 1738, fixing the hour at nine instead of ten o'clock. 
Citizens were forbidden to entertain or lodge any stranger for the space 
of twenty-four hours unless they notified the authorities ; every violation 
of this ordinance was subject to a fine of twenty shillings. The taverns 
were prohibited from selling liquid refreshments on the Lord's Day. 
A market house, thirty feet in length and fourteen feet in width, was 
built in 1743 by subscriptions. Tuesdays and Saturdays were designated 
as market days. The following year a night watch was established from 
nine o'clock in the evening until daybreak. The venerable Thomas 
Farmar continued to occupy the mayoralty chair until 1747, when he 
was succeeded by James Hude. The city at about this time provided 
a fire engine which had been purchased in New York City. James Hude 
continued in the office of mayor until 1762. A new charter was granted 
the city by George III. on February 12, 1763, but devoid of its legal 
verbiage there is little difference in its importance from the one secured 
from George II., thirty-three years before. The third occupant of the 
mayoralty chair was William Ouke or Oake, who administered the 
duties of the office until his death in 1778. The next executive officer of 
the city was William Harrison, who served as mayor until the adoption 
of the new charter. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution, the citizens of New Jersey assem- 
bled at New Brunswick for the purpose of formulating plans for the 


protection and support of the new-born Republic. The old town on 
the Raritan was honored by being- the meeting- place of the first Provin- 
cial Council of the colony. After this meeting the name of New Bruns- 
wick hardly appears on the pages of the country's history. The city, 
however, played its part in the stirring events of the time. It harbored 
within its walls an element, wealthy and aristocratic, who exerted so 
overshadowing an influence over their less fortunate neighbors that it 
was impossible to tell who were for or against the patriotic cause. 
There were many who were avowed Tories, and a number of citizens 
who took the oath of allegiance proved treacherous to the cause they 
had sworn to support. Laying as it did in the path of the two armies 
crossing and recrossing New Jersey, with the varying fortunes of war, 
it suffered to an extent which few cities were subjected. The winter 
of 1776-77 found it in possession of a large force of the British army, 
with Lord Howe, its commander-in-chief, his headquarters being on 
Burnet street, in the Neilson house, while the Hessian commander, De- 
Heister, occupied the Van Nuise house on Queen street. The hill beyond 
the Theological Seminary was fortified ; a post erected at Raritan Land- 
ing; another two miles below the city on Bennet's Island. The British 
officers were quartered upon the inhabitants ; citizens compelled to 
abandon their residences ; business was suspended ; schools and churches 
broken up — the whole town being under the sway of the enemy. The 
British remained in possession about six months, Lord Cornwallis having 
command of the post. In the winter of 1777 the British were cut off 
from the base of their supplies at Amboy, and a fleet was started up 
the Raritan to relieve their necessities. The Americans planted a 
battery of six guns below New Brunswick that destroyed five of the 
boats, the remainder returning in a crippled condition to Amboy. Gen- 
eral Howe at this time made an unsuccessful attempt to open communi- 
cation by land. The farmers throughout the neighborhood were com- 
pelled to deliver over their stores to the enemy ; buildings were fired, and 
barns torn down to supply lumber for the construction of a temporary 
bridge over the Raritan ; and most wanton cruelties were inflicted. The 
British were not, however, allowed to remain in undisturbed possession 
of the city. Colonels Neilson and Taylor continually harrassed them. 
The former organized a secret expedition against Bennett's Island. With 
a picked command of two hundred men, sometime before daybreak on 
February 18, 1777, he surprised the British garrison, capturing one 
captain, several subordinate officers, and fifty-five privates, besides a 
quantity of munitions of war. The British finally in the summer of 
1777 evacuated New Brunswick. 

The romantic exploits of those who have been named by a historian 
as the "Commanders of New Brunswick's Navy in the War of the Revo- 
lution," had their effect on the British forces. Prominent among these 


was William Marriner, a shoemaker by trade, who at the outbreak of 
hostilities joined Lord Stirling's regiment. Being of a daring and adven- 
turous spirit, he was given full swing in his operations to harrass the 
British. His success was phenomenal on June 11, 1777, when with 
twenty-six picked men he crossed from New Brunswick to Flatbush 
in two flat bottom boats and made a night attack, capturing Sherbrooke 
and Bache, two noted Tories. Numerous other sorties were made by 
Marriner on Flatbush, and captures of noted Tories, specie, and other 
property. He kept up this method of warfare until he was captured 
and paroled, his exchange being effected by Colonel Simcoe, who ex- 
plained to General Clinton, the British commander, that Marriner had once 
saved his life when a soldier was about to bayonet him as he lay sense- 
less on the field of battle. The capture and parole of Marriner removed 
him from all active participation in any more raids. He lived to a green 
old age, and in his later years kept a public house on John street, near 
Nassau street, New York City, where he died in 1814, aged eighty-five 
years, from injuries by being thrown from his wagon. 

Worthy successors of Captain Marriner were one of his associates. 
Captain Dickie, and Captain Adam Hyler. The latter was one of the 
most daring American officers in this part of the country, having the 
rare faculty of inspiring his men with his own spirit of venture and 
daring. His usual plan was to glide out of his hiding place, pass quickly 
down the river, make his captures, and return. The enemy, having 
heavier vessels, did not dare to follow him, owing to the shallow and 
treacherous channel of the river. Amongst his many exploits mention 
is made of the following: On the night of April 15, 1781, he brought 
the Hessian Major Moncreif and an ensign, with their servants, from 
Long Island. The following week he captured the pilot boat of Captain 
David Morris, and two other boats between Robin's Reef and Yellow 
Hook. Two of his whale boats visited Nicholas Schenck, a Tory, living 
three miles south of Flatbush, carrying off plate and money. Two 
months later he again visited Long Island, capturing Colonel Lott and 
two slaves ; the former was supposed to be rich, and though his cup- 
boards were searched, little silver was obtained, but two bags were 
taken supposed to contain about $3,000, but on opening them they 
yielded only half pennies belonging to a church at Flatbush. The British 
were determined to capture Huyler, and on January 7, 1782, dispatched a 
command in six boats under Captain Beckwith. They landed at New 
Brunswick at five o'clock the following morning and captured all of 
Hyler's boats. This was a hard blow to the venturesome captain, but 
he immediately rebuilt his little navy, and early in June he was back 
at his old tricks. He captured two fishing boats near the Narrows, and 
on July 21, with Captain Dickie and three twenty-four oared boats, 
attempted to capture a British galley at Princess Bay. This proved 


unsuccessful, and was his last raid, as his death occurred September 6, 
1782. after a tedious and painful illness, the cause of which was an 
accidental wound in the knee received while cleaning his gun. His 
death removed the principal leader of this band of free lances. His 
place was taken by Captain Storer, who promised to become a genuine 
successor of Hyler, but the spirit of venture in the men seemed to have 
died out with the death of their leader; they either went into the regu- 
lar service or drifted to other scenes of excitement ; it was not long 
before New Brunswick's small but active and destructive navy became 
a matter of unrecorded history. 

In the first charter obtained from the State Assembly in 1784, New 
Brunswick was raised to the dignity of a city. Within its limits were 
the present city and townships of North and East Brunswick. From 
1784 to 1801, New Brunswick was governed by a president, register, 
four directors and six assistants, all twelve of whom constituted a single 
chamber known as the common council. They were elected by the 
people, but by a new charter obtained in 1801, the governor and legisla- 
ture appointed a mayor, recorder and three aldermen, holding office for 
five years, and meeting together in common council, with six councilmen 
elected annually by popular vote. The mayor had some judicial author- 
ity, presiding over the mayor's court ; the recorder had about the same 
jurisdiction as at the present time ; the aldermen until 1838 had the 
criminal authority of the present justice of the peace. 

At the opening of the nineteenth century the city of New Brunswick 
was noted as a shipping and commercial point. Among the early ship- 
owners was John Dennis, whose place of business was on Little Burnet 
street; his sloops were named "Cluster Valle," "May," "Elizabeth," and 
"General Lee." We find also the "Polly," owned by Barnet D. Kline ; 
the "Catherine," a sloop of forty-five tons burthen, whose master was 
James Richardson. The "Sally" of forty tons had as master John Voor- 
hees. A larger sloop was the "Maria," Simon Hillyer, master ; one of 
thirty-four tons burthen, the "Ranger," was in charge of Caleb Anthony. 
The names of some of the other sloops were Duy Knick's boat, "Ger- 
natia," "The Hope for Peace," and "Independence." "The Neptune," a 
schooner, Andrew Brown, master, was succeeded in 1784 by the "Poet 
Moses Guest." In 1799 the "Hannah," a sloop of forty-five tons, had for 
master John Brush ; the "Eliza," commanded by James Richmond, was 
a sloop of fifty-nine tons burthen. During the early part of the cen- 
tury the "Lawrence," owned by Peter I. Nevivis, was in the carrying 
trade ; she was too large to navigate the Raritan above the city. These 
vessels made voyages to the Bermudas, Bahamas, Jamaica, and His- 
paniola in the West Indies ; also to Charleston, South Carolina ; Wil- 
mington, Delaware; Newberne, North Carolina; Savannah. Georgia; 
Newport, Rhode Island ; besides other ports. Among the cargoes shipped 


from New Brunswick in the last two years of the eighteenth century- 
were thirty-four tons of iron ore to New Bedford, Massachusetts; 1,800 
bushels of grain ; twenty-six barrels of pork ; twenty-two sides of leather, 
to Boston, Massachusetts ; to Wareham, Massachusetts, thirty-five tons 
of iron ore ; also another shipment of fifty tons of iron ore was made at 
the same time. Carriages were shipped to the South, and the vessels 
brought back sweet potatoes and other products. The sloops and 
schooners varied from thirty to eighty tons burthen, and used lateral 
boards for centre boards. 

With the restoration of peace came a revival of business and con- 
sequent increase of travel between New York and Philadelphia. The 
highways were in a deplorable condition, and travelers gladly availed 
themselves of the water routes, which were less tiresome and much 
more comfortable than the bolstered wagons, the stage coaches of that 

The first civil magistrate under the new charter was Azariah Dun- 
ham, who served until 1796, when Abraham Schuyler became his suc- 
cessor. After five years' service. Mayor Schuyler retired, and his 
successor, James Schureman, was inaugurated in 1801. At the opening 
of the nineteenth century the population of New Brunswick was about 
two thousand souls. Among its principal merchants were Robert East- 
burn, Jacob R. Hardenbergh, Samuel Clarkson, Samuel Barker, all 
located on Church street ; William Lawson, Jr., near the Market ; Perez 
Rowley, S. J. and H. Rudderow, on Albany street; and George Young, 
Jr., on Peace street, who dealt in dry goods, groceries, medicines, etc. 
The hardware merchant was Willett Warne, on Albany street. Build- 
ers could purchase lumber from James Richmond or William Forman, 
the former could also supply plaster, grass seeds, etc. ; John Dennis, 
Jr., carried on a varied business — lumber, plaster, paints, etc., could 
rent a house, or sell a ticket or arrange for freight by the packets and 
sailing vessels; Michael Pool, on Queen street, dealt in hats and furs; 
while Williams & Leslie were watch and clock makers, dealing also in 
plated ware, silver knee buckles, etc., with a branch store at Trenton. 
Thomas Brush conducted a land and intelligence office, was also an auc- 
tioneer, and could sell houses, lots, plantations, negro men, wenches and 
children, let or hire them for service. Miss (?) Burnet at her Young 
Ladies' High School taught French, music, dancing, etc. The letters for 
Somerset, Scotch Plains, Raritan Landing, Amboy, North, South and 
Middle Branches, Cranbury, Bonhamtown, Millstone, Stony Hill, Pis- 
cataway, Basking Ridge, Spotswood, Bridgewater, Six Mile Run, etc., 
all came to New Brunswick on account of its being the nearest post- 
office. The office was located on Albany street, below Neilson street. 
John Voorhees was appointed the first postmaster, November 16, 1790; 
he was succeeded by Peter Keenan, March 20, 1793, who on December 


31 of that year gave way to Robert Hude, who after serving only six 
months was replaced on July i, 1794, by Jacob Tallman. News from 
Europe, six weeks in transit to the city, when it arrived was eagerly 
read, as the citizens were deeply interested in the war of France and 
England then in progress. On business trips to New York, the city's 
merchants generally proceeded by private conveyances to what is now 
Jersey Cit}- and Hoboken, where they crossed New York harbor either 
in a sail or row boat, the journey taking the better part of three days. 
Stray negroes were occasionally put in jail ; if no owners appeared, they 
were sold to pay the expense of arrest and jail fees. 

In the first decade of the nineteenth century, the population of New 
Brunswick increased 1,017, making the total 3,042, of which 2,826 were 
free white males and females, 53 blacks, 164 slaves. The number of 
families was 469 inhabiting 375 dwellings. Internal communications 
were by stage coach to Elizabeth and New York, also to Trenton and 
Philadelphia, and by water a line of sloops carried freight and passengers 
to New York, Albany, Troy and other points. The two newspapers 
of the day were "The Fredonian," a staunch supporter of Jeffersonian 
policies, and "The Guardian, or New Brunswick Advertiser," a Feder- 
alist sheet in opposition to the national administration. The religious 
denominations were Reform, Episcopal, Presbyterian and Baptist; a 
Methodist Episcopal church was organized in 181 1. The New Bruns- 
wick Bank was chartered in 1807, the State Bank in 1812. Mail facili- 
ties depended on the roads — if they were dry, mail arrived ; if muddy, 
there was delay. William Ten Broeck was appointed postmaster April 
I, 1801. and filled the office until April 28, 1810, when Bernard Smith 
succeeded him and removed the office to the south side of Albany street, 
below George street, where it remained until it was removed to the cor- 
ner of Church and Dennis streets. 

In mercantile trade, the leading men conducting general stores were 
Ayers & Freeman, Dennis & Kinnan, Peter Buckelew, on Queen street ; 
R. S. Garretson on Church street ; Van Dorn, Beekman & Company, and 
Dunham Brothers, also kept a general supply of merchandise; James 
Richmond offered pine boards for sale ; Israel Freeman had two establish- 
ments where he carried on coach and sign painting : Peter Perrine had 
a cut nail factory opposite the Dutch church ; L. Deare traded in wall 
paper; while K. Newell & Company kept a fine assortment of dry goods, 
also selling good brandy and raisins, at their store, corner of Church 
and Queen streets. Schureman, Perrine & Company dealt in Delaware 
river shad. John C. Davie, Samuel Hunt and James Seabrook were 
tailors. The hostelry opposite the public market, known as "Sign of the 
Paddock," had for landlord Marimus W. Warne; Simpson & Bray, on 
the wharf near the old market house, sold fish. Even those days were 
employment offices carried on in Church street by Samuel Walker. The 


citizens were supplied with white lead and oil by Robert Eastburn, Sr., 
on Church street; he also dealt in drugs, paints, books on history and 
divinity ; also dye woods and family medicine chests. Benjamin Earner 
manufactured tobacco, while Stephen Scale was a pump maker, with a 
shop on Church street. Coaches were made by Thomas McDowell, on 
Schureman street; Moses Guest carried a stock of shoes and groceries 
on Burnet street; Mr. Desabaye, a piano dealer, was located on 
George street, while on the north side of Church street Henry Plum 
had a brass foundry. Thomas Eastburn was a hardware merchant on 
Church street ; ale and porter were brewed by John Dorey, at the New 
Brunswick Brewery. On Water street was Henry C. Guest & Company, 
dry goods and groceries ; William Naid was a bookbinder ; Samuel H. 
Day, on Burnet street, catered to the female sex with his stock of mil- 
linery and shoes ; a sadler was Charles Rarsbeck on Queen street, and 
the White Hall Tavern was kept by Mr. Degraw. On Burnet street, 
Bernard S. Judah dealt in oil and window glass ; while Edward Sullivan 
carried a stock of shovels, tongs, copper tea kettles, looking glasses and 
dry goods. Among the coachmakers were John Van Nuis and Nathan- 
iel McChesney, on Albany street, and William Roland on Schureman 
street. Joslin & Mulford had their harness shop on Albany street, and 
Price & Meeker were cabinet makers on Church street. The public were 
supplied with earthenware by E. J. Mackey, corner of Liberty and George 
streets, and with wool for spinning and hatters' use by Thomas Letson. 
Aaron M. Freeman, another harness maker on Peace street, could also 
supply the infantry caps for soldiers. George White, corner of Burnet 
and New streets, sold shovels, molasses, jewsharps, muslin, gun-flints, 
lump sugar, bellows, corkscrews, etc. Next door, liquor could be 
obtained from Captain Powers. Douwe D. Williamson and David Abeel 
had an ironmongery and lumber yard on Burnet street. French was 
taught to the ladies by Mary Ann Guest, and S. C. Aiken taught writing. 
At the foot of Easton avenue on Albany street was Josiah Simpson's 
book and stationery store, with a circulating library ; this business was 
purchased in January, 181 2, by Charles D. Greene. Dr. Ira Condict also 
had a private circulating library to which a person could become a mem- 
ber by paying a small annual dues; he died in 181 1 and his library was 
sold. Dancing academies were in evidence. Mr. Kennedy opened one 
in the early part of January, 1812. Mr. Berault also held dancing school 
in Keyworth's tavern, and he politely informed the male sex that no 
gentleman was allowed to dance with boots on, on public evenings. 

The Washington Benevolent Society was organized December 2, 
181 1 ; it was a patriotic society opposed to President Madison and his 
foreign policy. A hall was built by Nicholas Van Brunt, for the use of 
the organization, which was formally dedicated July 4, 1813, with appro- 
priate ceremonies 



The ferry across the Raritan river accommodated the public for over 
a century. The Inian rights were acquired by Thomas Farmer in 1716, 
by an Act of Assembly, toll rates were fixed for a horse and man, four 
pence, for a single person two pence. In 1732 Thomas Farmer conveyed 
his ferry rights to Philip French in consideration of £300. It was not, 
however, until 1790 that agitations were started to build a bridge; that 
year James Parker, of Perth Amboy, gave notice that he would apply to 
the legislature for a toll bridge across the river Raritan. This movement 
coming from a citizen of Perth Amboy was not entirely for the benefit 
of New Brunswick. Perth Amboy was then a seaport with consider- 
able foreign commerce, and the object of the people of that city was 
to shorten the distance of the agricultural districts around New Bruns- 
wick so trade could be diverted to their own seaport. The legislature 
having passed an act to build a bridge at New Brunswick, appointed 
commissioners to designate a site. They met February 21, 1791, at the 
tavern of John Lane. Subsequent meetings were held and it was decided 
to build at the foot of Albany street. The bridge, completed in 1796, 
was an open structure. The stone for facing the original piers was 
freighted from Blackwell's Island, the outside casing of stone was filled 
with shale quarried on the east side of the Raritan river, mixed with 
cement. The original cost of the bridge was $86,695.71. 

At the commencement of the second war with England, a majority of 
the citizens of New Brunswick were opposed to the acts of the national 
administration. On April 15, 1812, a requisition was made by the United 
States government on the State for 5,000 men, who were furnished and 
placed under the command of Major-General Ludlow. A company of 
ninety men of the Fifth Regiment, United States Infantry, encamped at 
New Brunswick on the night of April 17, 1812, on their way from Ellison's 
Island to Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Governor Ogden passed through the 
city November 2, 1812, traveling to Trenton. He was met at Clarkson's 
Tavern by Captain Veghte's company of Light Dragoons and a large 
number of citizens on horseback, who accompanied him to the heights, 
where Captain Neilson's company of artillery and Captain Scott's com- 
pany of infantry, attended by the artillery band, awaited his arrival. He 
was officially welcomed at the Queen's Hotel by Mayor Schureman, and 
after dinner was escorted by the dragoons and a delegation of citizens 
as far as Princeton. The New Jersey legislature on November 9, 1812, 
passed an act deprecating the war, but on the i6th a general order was 
issued requiring all companies whether of cavalry, artillery, light infan- 
try, or riflemen, to hold themselves in readiness to take the field on 
twenty-four hours' notice. The city companies made all necessary 
preparations, and reported themselves ready. The patriotism of the 
citizens was intensified on the receipt of the intelligence of Captain 
Decatur's victory over the frigate "Macedonian." On December 10, 


1812, the day following the battle, seventy of the brave tars of the 
"Wasp" passed through the city on their way to Washington. As the 
war progressed, politics grew bitter, a memorable campaign took place 
in January, 181 3, when James Schureman was elected to Congress on 
a peace ticket. He was succeeded in the mayoralty chair by James 
Bennett. Party feeling was antagonistic ; the city was divided on the 
war issue, John P. Cowenhoven, Bernard Smith, James Randolph and 
Jarvis Brewster were the leaders of the war party ; and the Schuremans, 
Neilsons, Hardenberghs and Elmendorfs lined up in favor of peace. 
The political pot was boiling; meetings were held on one night to 
denounce the war, and on the next in favor of it. The elections were 
dominated by the peace party. At this time, the city was partly in 
Middlesex and partly in Somerset county, the center of Albany street 
forming the boundary line, to the considerable annoyance of voters. As 
the war progressed, the citizens did not fail in their patriotism, as New 
Brunswick was well represented in the army and navy. The citizens 
dreading an attack by the British, every man by suggestion of the 
common council, was required to provide himself with a gun and twenty- 
four rounds of ball cartridges. A code of signals was arranged with 
Perth Amboy, to be used in case the enemy should enter the river at 
that place. No definite action was taken looking towards the safety of 
the city, which was the central meeting place of the militia for sur- 
rounding country. The brigade judge advocate for Middlesex county, 
William Dunham, and the brigade board, met once a month for trans- 
action of business relative to the militia of the county, at Colonel Peter 
Keenon's tavern in New Brunswick. There was great animosity between 
the regular troops and the militia. The companies that volunteered 
from New Brunswick did so with the understanding that they were to 
defend the river and city in case of an attack. The militia claimed they 
could not be forced to do garrison duty or any of the other duties 
required of the standing army, nor could they be compelled to leave 
their own State to wage a foreign war. The militia were drafted and 
driven from their homes into camps and placed under regular army 
officers. To add to their discontent, they were not properly cared for 
and could not obtain sufficient food. This caused groups of the militia 
to desert and leave for their homes. A party of these discontented militia 
reached New Brunswick July 5, 1813, and had hardly entered the town 
before they were captured by a troop of regular cavalry, and this pre- 
cipitated a free fight, in which the town people took part. Such dis- 
turbances became frequent until Mayor Schureman appointed a special 
committee to make a protest against any more of the militia being sent 
out of the State. Robert Boggs was also appointed to call the atten- 
tion of the governor to the defenseless condition of the city ; the execu- 
tive promised to do what he could, but nothing was accomplished. 


It was not until the second presidential call for troops, on July 14, 

1814, that New Brunswick's patriotism was thoroughly aroused, and 
she promptly furnished four fully uniformed and armed companies — 
the New Brunswick Artillery, Captain Neilson ; New Brunswick Horse 
Artillery Captain Van Dyke ; Captain Scott's Light Infantry ; and the 
New Brunswick Rifles under Captain McKay. These companies were' 
ordered to hold themselves in readiness to march under orders from 
Brigadier-General William Coleman, who was in command at Paulus 

The people were still in fear of an attack, and a committee was 
appointed by the common council, September 11, 1814, to inquire into 
the defenses of the city. They reported that the four companies had 
been ordered outside of the State, and that the three companies still 
remaining in the city were not armed ; they suggested that a demand 
should be made for the return of the volunteer companies, and a requi- 
sition made on the governor for arms for the three companies of militia. 
While this report was received and adopted, no practical results were 
obtained. On receipt of the signing of the treaty of peace in February, 

181 5, in response to a proclamation of the mayor the public buildings 
were illuminated, flags and banners waved, and cannons boomed. The 
citizens welcomed the return of peace and relief from the weary days 
of war. 

After the restoration of peace, New Brunswick became the depot 
for the reception of grain from the counties of Warren, Hunterdon, 
Sussex, Somerset, also Northampton, Pennsylvania, and the country 
along the upper Delaware. Large wagons drawn by four and six horses 
and carrying twenty-eight barrels of flour, sometimes as many as five 
hundred a day, came down the valley of the Raritan. At Raritan Land- 
ing were large store houses which received the grain, the sloops would 
take on a half a cargo, then drop down to New Brunswick, complete 
their load, and proceed to their destination. The White Hall tavern was 
headquarters for news, where the grain merchants could congregate, 
consult a New York paper, and fix the market prices. The New Bruns- 
wick shippers paid cash for merchandise, while at Newark and Philadel- 
phia barter was used. 

The successful application of steam for the purpose of navigation 
was to revolutionize the slower methods of transportation. The State 
of New York had granted to Livingston and Fulton the exclusive 
right of steam navigation. Under this right, John R. and Robert James 
Livingston had purchased the right of navigating the waters of the 
Raritan to New Brunswick — the head of navigation on that river. They 
placed on this water route the steamboat "Raritan," but in 1818 Thomas 
Gibbons placed upon the same route the "Bellona," a steamer of one 
hundred and sixteen tons, regularly registered at the port of Perth 


Amboy for the coasting trade under the United States law. The Liv- 
ingstons secured an injunction restraining Gibbons from using his 
boat, claiming the exclusive right of steam navigation on the Raritan. 
Gibbons denied this right and sued for damages ; the ablest legal talent 
of the period was employed ; after elaborate arguments by learned 
attorneys and exhaustive opinions by the presiding justices, judgment 
was rendered for the plaintiff, thus establishing an important judicial 
principle, namely, the right of comity in steam navigation between 
adjoining States under the Federal Constitution. Competing lines were 
soon organized, and rivalry became active and exciting, the inhabitants 
turning out in crowds to welcome the arrival and departure of the 
steamboats. The region surrounding Bordertown and Burlington was 
a great peach growing section, and wagon after wagon load of this 
delicious fruit was sent to the wharfs at New Brunswick for transporta- 
tion to New York and other eastern points. The Delaware and Raritan 
canal was completed during the year 1833, ^^^ the shipment of products 
was stimulated ; the annual exportation of corn reached 300,000 bush- 
els ; rye, 57,000 bushels; and a few years later 1,000,000 bushels passed 
down the river. Such was the magnitude of trade that the Raritan 
was rated as one of the three greatest rivers in the country as to ton- 
nage. This increase of business called many other steamboats into 

In 1828 the city's population was about 5,000; there were 750 dwell- 
ings, over a hundred stores, and twenty taverns. The city's compact 
population was bounded by George and New streets ; south of New 
street, houses could be numbered on the fingers of one hand, barring 
out Burnet street, which led to the steamboat dock. The old stone 
mansion on the corner of Livingston avenue and Carrol place, was built 
in 1760 by Henry Guest; here Tom Paine was barricaded by his hosts, 
the Guests, from the violence of a royal mob, seeking to punish him 
for his treasonable writings. Here, too, were written those poems of 
the son of Moses Guest, afterwards published in Cincinnati, among which 
figure that gem, "To Pave or Not to Pave," and the humorous satire, 
"Toll Bridge." The aristocracy lived on Little Burnet street, in a row 
of elaborately finished brick houses. The dry goods marts were on 
Burnet street, the shops on Church street, grain warehouses on Water 
street, where also were the hotels for traders. The trade was largely 
wholesale, the northwestern counties of the State and the country along 
the Delaware forwarding grain, and supplied in turn with fish, salt, dry 
goods and merchandise. The country south of the city towards Mon- 
mouth county was little better than a desert of sand ; this was before 
the mines of marl had been exploited. 

The death of Mayor Bennett causing a vacancy, James Schureman 
was again appointed mayor; he filled the office until 1824, when Dr. 


Augustus R. Taylor became his successor for a term of five years. David 
F. Randolph became postmaster February 15, 1819, succeeded May 12, 
1820, by William Meyer, who removed the office to Church street, above 
Neilson street, afterwards to Albany street, near Neilson street, and 
finally to what was known as No. 30 Albany street, where it remained 
until 1841. 

In the early part of June, 1817, when President Monroe inaugurated 
the presidential swing around the circle, he was entertained by the citi- 
zens of New Brunswick. In October, 1824, General Lafayette came and 
was lionized by the common council, who extended him a reception at 
an expense of two hundred and fifty dollars. The General passed 
through the city again on July 15, 1825, when he was given another 
reception by the citizens. The Asiatic cholera in 1832 caused the 
authorities to create the office of health officer. The first incumbent was 
Dr. William Van Dursen ; the second and last was Dr. A. R. Taylor. 
The cholera continued forty-seven days, with 174 cases, of which fifty- 
two proved fatal. Another presidential reception took place in 1833, 
when General Andrew Jackson was entertained by the common council, 
June 12. 1833, at an expense of $500 for a banquet, etc. The city on 
June 19, 1835, was visited by a tornado. Two dark clouds appeared on 
the heavens, and joining together a full blown tornado swept on a path 
of devastation, through Six Mile Run and Middlebush towards the 
city. It was about five o'clock in the evening when the hurricane with 
a fearful violence took an easterly course, threatening Albany and 
Church streets, actually striking at the heads of Paterson, Bayard, 
Liberty and Schureman streets, whence it took its destructive way 
across Neilson and Burnet streets, killing several people in its path; 
thence it proceeded over the Raritan to Piscataway, and on to the 
seacoast. Schureman, Liberty and Burnet streets were a mass of ruins; 
over one hundred and twenty dwellings, exclusive of stores and store- 
houses, were destroyed or greatly damaged. The loss reached $150,000; 
the razed parts were speedily rebuilt, and the industry and commerce 
of the city received no serious check. 

The third city charter was obtained in 1838. The Whigs that year 
had obtained the popular ear in New Jersey, as well as a few years before 
in New Brunswick. The party wanted to obtain control of the common 
council, then in possession of their opponents ; by the aid of their assem- 
blyman, George P. Molleson, the political cards were shuffled and a 
new charter granted. It made all the City Fathers elective for one year ; 
though not changing their number or composition, they were to form 
only a single chamber. The judicial power of the aldermen was sac- 
rificed, justices of the peace being appointed for five years. Though 
there were remonstrances and attempts by the members of the com- 
mon council, to thwart the act of the legislature, thus quietly lifted 


from official life and patronage, they were obliged to bow to the inevit- 
able. Jacob R. Hardenbergh (1829-30) and Cornelius L. Hardenbergh 
(1830-38) were the two last occupants of the mayoralty chair by appoint- 
ment. The first mayor under the new charter was Dr. Augustus Taylor. 

On January 3, 1836, a new locomotive named "New Brunswick," 
with thirteen cars full of guests, and decorated with banners bearing the 
names of the counties, cities and villages along the route, operated by 
the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company, was received 
by a committee of citizens in carriages, who escorted the visitors over 
Albany street bridge to a hotel, where a sumptuous feast was served. 
At this time all trains stopped across the river, and passengers were 
transferred across the bridge in stages at a cost of six and a half cents 
each. The railroad company built a bridge during the year 1837, the 
first train crossing the river to the depot on Somerset street, January 
I, 1838. The company bought the franchise from the New York and 
Philadelphia Turnpike Company, rebuilding the bridge and using it 
until they constructed a wooden railroad and wagon bridge on the site 
of the present railroad bridge. The advent of a railroad and the com- 
petition of the canal practically killed the shipping trade of New Bruns- 
wick, as it allowed the farmers to send their products direct to market 
from stations near their farms, and New Brunswick became a deserted 
village when the railroad came to town, to be revived, however, in the 
future, by her manufacturing industries. 

At the opening of the fourth decade of the nineteenth century. New 
Brunswick doffed the swaddling clothes of an infant municipality and 
assumed the air of a modern city. Though the marshal had been since 
1784 a regular official of the city, either elected by the people or chosen 
by the council, also a night watch established, it was not until 1835 that 
a police force was organized. In August of that year, Peter V. Spader 
and John Nafey were duly appointed to protect the citizens from crime 
and disorder. This primitive force has gradually increased, and in 
1857 a chief of the force was for the first time elected. 

The second mayor under the new charter was David M. Vail, who 
held the office one year and was succeeded in 1841 by Littleton 
Kirkpatrick. The newly elected mayor was a son of Chief Justice Kirk- 
patrick and his wife Jane, daughter of Colonel John Bayard, a distin- 
guished patriot and soldier of Revolutionary fame. He was a graduate 
of Princeton College, a lawyer by profession. He afterward became a 
member of Congress for one term, and had been surrogate of the county 
for five years. On the appointment of Samuel C. Cook, August 7, 184T, 
who succeeded as postmaster Ephraim F. Randolph, who held the office 
six months, the location of the office was changed to No. 217 Neilson 
street, where it remained for twenty years. Mr. Cook was succeeded 
March 9, 1843, by John Simpson, and the latter in turn by Henry San- 
derson on March 14, 1849. 


The destinies of the city were presided over for the next score of 
years by able citizens who had gained distinction as manufacturers, 
bankers, or members of the legal and medical professions. The suc- 
cessor of Mayor Kirkpatrick was Fitz Randolph Smith, who served one 
term; his successor in 1843 was John Acken, who was reelected. The 
next mayor was a member of the Middlesex county bar, William H. 
Leupp, who was succeeded in 1846 by a brother attorney, John Van Dyke. 
Judge Van Dyke was afterwards a member of Congress (1847- 1851), 
also a judge of the Supreme Court of New Jersey ; he was again mayor 
after his retirement from Congress, from 1852 to 1853. In his later life 
he removed to Minnesota. The next occupant of the mayoralty chair 
was Martin A. Howell, and succeeded in 1848 by Dr. Augustus F. Taylor, 
this being his second election to the office. Dr. Taylor was a son of a 
medical practitioner, a native of the city who had been New Bruns- 
wick's mayor, 1824-29. The elder Taylor was a son of a professor of 
mathematics and natural philosophy in Queen's College, who removed 
to Schenectady, New York, to occupy the same chair in Union College. 
In that city the newly elected mayor was born ; graduated from Rutgers 
College, studied medicine and though he had not been licensed to 
practice, during the period of the Asiatic cholera in the city he was 
placed in charge of a hospital devised by the citizens. His successor 
in 1849 was D. Fitz Randolph, who was reelected, and was followed in 
185 1 by Peter N. Wycoff. As stated before, his successor was Judge 
Van Dyke. For the next two terms John B. Hill occupied the executive 
chair. He was a descendant of an English family that settled in New 
Brunswick when it was in its infancy, and at the time of his election 
was president of the National Bank of New Jersey. His successor, 
Abraham V. Schenck, was a native of the city, and an attorney of high 
repute. His successor in 1857 was John Bayard Kirkpatrick, a brother 
of Littleton Kirkpatrick, who had been an official of the United States 
Treasury. Mayor Kirkpatrick was elected for two terms but resigned 
and was succeeded in 1859 by Tunis V. D. Hoagland, who in turn gave 
place to Peter C. Onderdonk, a prominent manufacturer ; he was suc- 
ceeded in i860 by Ezekiel M. Paterson. The thirteenth mayor under 
the new charter was Lyle Van Nuis, who was also mayor for two terms 
from 1861 to 1863. 

New Brunswick in 1845, with a neighborhood of 9,000 inhabitants, 
presented an enterprising city with its courthouse, jail, eight churches, 
college buildings, bank, one hundred and twenty stores and eight hun- 
dred dwellings. Though the streets immediately on the river were 
narrow and the ground low, in the upper part of the city the roadways 
were wide and there were many fine buildings. Two bridges crossed the 
Raritan, though the Albany street bridge was dilapidated and not much 
used. The railroad bridge was also used for wagons and foot passengers. 


the trains crossing the river overhead on the upper portion of the bridge. 
This continued to be the mode of travel for several years, until the citizens 
deeming it unsafe, the New Brunswick Bridge Company was incor- 
porated and a new bridge was constructed at the foot of Albany street. 
This bridge was conducted by the company until July 3, 1875, when it 
was purchased by the county for $58,000 and made free. There had 
been paid in bridge tolls over $300,000 from November i, 1795, to the 
time of its purchase by the county. The freeing of the bridge was cele- 
brated by a procession, headed by Darrow's Cornet Band, that marched 
through the streets of the city, the sidewalks lined with people who, 
to exhibit their joy, waved flags and handkerchiefs. The reason of this 
demonstration was that the proprietors of the bridge had for several 
years resisted all attempts for the purchase of the property by the county, 
thus retarding the growth and prosperity of the city. New Brunswick, 
which had been partly located in Somerset county, was by an act of 
legislation in 1854 freed from the Somerset jurisdiction. The custom of 
having officials under different names to constitute a common council 
for local legislation over which the mayor presided was persisted in until 
1862, when the mayor and recorder were dropped from that body, and a 
president of the common council was elected. This action dropped the 
ambiguous title, "The Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and Common Coun- 
cil," and from a division of four different divisions, all meeting together 
made a compact body of twelve aldermen. 

The office of city physician was established in 1849, o" the second 
approach of the Asiatic cholera. The first to be appointed to the office 
was Dr. A. D. Newell. The second period of the cholera lasted ninety- 
seven days, there being two hundred and twenty-one cases, of which 
one hundred and fifteen proved fatal. The election for the city fathers 
was first held in the town meetings, then election districts were estab- 
lished, first two, afterwards three; and in 1863 the city was divided into 
six wards. The town meetings were first held in the old courthouse. 
This building, known as "Union Hall," was purchased in 1842 by the 
city and named City Hall. It continued to be used until 1853, when a 
new city hall was built on Liberty street. It was not until after the 
consolidation of the city and township of New Brunswick in 1861 that 
any other officers than the mayor, recorder, members of the council, etc., 
were elected by the people. After this period there were chosen a 
mayor, recorder, six aldermen, six common councilmen, an assessor, 
collector, justices of the peace, chosen freeholders, judges of election, 
school superintendent, town clerk, surveyors of the highways, con- 
stables, commissioners of appeal and overseer of the poor; these from 
time to time lengthened until in 1877 the citizens were called upon to 
vote for ninety-nine officials, of whom three were general and ninety-six 
ward officers. The vote cast had largely increased ; there is no record 


previous to 1844, Avhen the ballot was taken by "show of hands ;" that 
year the total poll was only 304; this had increased to 3,918 in 1877. 

The city in 1850 having about 10,000 inhabitants, a company was 
formed for the introduction of gas. Owing to circumstances, this com- 
pany relinquished its franchises, and the following year John W. Stout, 

E. ■M. Paterson, Peter Spader, David Bishop, Benjamin D. Steele and 
]\Ioses F. Webb received a legislative charter for the manufacture of 
gas. A company being organized, John W. Stout became president, 
with John B. Hall, secretary, superintendent and engineer. The erection 
of works was immediately proceeded with, pipes were laid, and a gas 
holder built on the corner of \\^ater and Washington streets. The water 
supply for the city is taken from Lawrence's brook, southeast of the 
city limits. The works were constructed in 1864, the water being raised 
by steam pumps to a reservoir. The New Brunswick Water Company, 
the owner of the works, transferred their interests to the city April 30, 
1873, which from this time to the adoption of a commission form of 
government was managed by a board of water commissioners, their term 
of service being three years. 

New Bnmswick was to receive her seventh city charter in 1863. 
Legislation, however, did not greatly affect the provisions of the pre- 
vious charter. The term of office of the mayor was made two years. 
The first mayor under the new charter was Richard McDonald ; his 
successors have been as follows : Augustus T. Stout, 1865 ; John T. 
Jenkins, 1865-67; Miles Ross, 1867-69; Dr. George J. Janeway, 1869-71; 
Garret Conover, 1871-73; Thomas DeRussy. 1873-75; Isaiah Rolfe, 
1875-77; Dewitt T. Reiley, 1879-81; William S. Strong, 1881-89; James 
H. Van Cleef, 1889-95; Nicholas Williamson, 1895-1902; George A. 
Viehmann. 1902-04; William S. Myers, 1904-06; Drury W. Cooper, 
1906-08; W. Edwin Florance, 1908-10; John J. Morrison, 1910-14; Austin 
Scott, 1914-15; Edward F. Farrington, 1915-18; John J. Morrison, 1918. 
New Brunswick adopted the commission form of government March 7, 
191 5, under the State law for governing cities, passed by the legisla- 
ture of 1914. 

The location of the postoffice was still of transitory migration. On 
the appointment in 1861 of John T. Jenkins as postmaster, the office 
was removed to 40 Dennis street, afterward to No. 202 Neilson street, 
and later to Burnet street, opposite Commerce square, where it remained 
during the occupancy of the office of Joseph F. Fisher, appointed April 
5, 1869. and his successor, Levi B. Jarrard, October 26, 1881. When John 

F. Babcock became postmaster. June 7, 1883, he proposed to remove the 
office to the old Masonic Hall — this raised a storm of protest from the 
merchants ; as the city did not at that time possess a free delivery system, 
the location was considered too far uptown. Though a petition was 
circulated and signed by hundreds of citizens, Mr. Babcock was tri- 


umphant. Here the office remained during the occupancy of Robert 
Carson, who was appointed February 2.^, 1885, and William H. Price, 
who became postmaster April 4, 1887. On the reappointment of Robert 
Carson, January 6, 1892, he removed the office in July of that year to 
the corner of George and Paterson streets, where it continued under 
Charles D. Deshler, appointed April 4, 1896, and his successor, Charles 
W. Russell, who took charge in April, 1900; until it was removed to its 
present permanent home, built by the government at an expense of 
$125,000, October i, 1903. The present incumbent of the office, Peter 
H. S. Hendricks, succeeded Postmaster Russell, May 29, 1913. Rural 
delivery was established December 15, 1900; there are now six routes. 

New Brunswick's great industrial awakening had its birth in the 
thirties and forties of the last century. The city at that time was largely 
college ruled, its streets with a few exceptions unpaved, no gas 
or sewers, was supplied only with well water for drinking purposes, 
which was in danger of being contaminated in the lower portion of the 
city by the drainage from the upper section, thus being menaced with 
epidemics of typhoid, though science had not at that period taken cog- 
nizance of the dangerous properties of drinking water thus exposed. 

Though there were industries previous to this period, they were of 
primitive character. New Brunswick in early days being a seaport, it 
was natural that a shipbuilding industry would be generated, hence 
an important industry in that line was carried on by the Orams, the 
Runyons, the Hoaglands, the Kemptons, and the Waterhouses. Large 
fleet schooners and sloops, also seagoing craft for coast service, as well 
as barges, were built. Luke Hoagland constructed several yachts for 
the New York Yacht Club, notable among them the "Minnie," a prize 
winner; the "Siren," and "Ibis," then the largest steam yacht of the 
squadron. He afterwards built launches and torpedo boats for the 
government. When New Brunswick ceased to be a seaport, these indus- 
tries died a natural death. An industry of antiquity was the carriage 
manufactory of John Van Nuis, who as early as 1810-11 built a factory 
on Albany street, consisting of several frame buildings arranged as a 
quadrangle. From 181 3 to 1840 the Van Nuis carriages were known 
throughout the Southern States. The business after his death was 
conducted by his three sons — Lyle, Robert and James, who had been 
his partners. The death of his two brothers caused a change in the 
firm name, and Lyle Van Nuis in 1867 became the sole owner. The repu- 
tation of their work was second to none, and a line of handsome carriages 
was always kept in stock ; the change to the modern transportation, 
however, sounded the knell of carriage repositories. 

The father of the foundation of the present industrial life of New 
Brunswick was Martin A. Howell, a native of New Brunswick. He 
combined the sterling qualities of his paternal grandfather, who was 


of Welsh descent, with the craftiness and hardheadedness of his maternal 
grandfather, who came from the land of the Scots. Young Howell's 
qualifications were energy, economy, and untiring industry, with which 
he overcame many youthful disappointments and difficulties. He finally 
in 1837 erected what was the first manufactory built in the city for the 
production of wall paper, one of the first erected for that industry in 
the United States. It was operated on Water street, by canal water- 
power, and from an annual production of $8,000 grew and increased in 
a few years to $150,000. It was two years later that Horace H. Day, 
in his little shop on Dennis street, turned out carriage cloth made by 
spreading over cloth, rubber dissolved in turpentine, and shoes made 
from rubber uppers fitted on leather bottoms. In the shipping trade 
of New Brunswick at that time was a young man, James Bishop, whose 
vessels plied between New York and Para, South America, and through 
his agent at that point he came to know of the inexhaustible supply 
of rubber on the banks of the Amazon river and its tributaries. Know- 
ing the value of this Brazilian product, he readily became interested in 
its exportation and became a pioneer in the rubber industry. The rubber 
trade antecedent to its development as an industry in the United States 
was recognized in Europe. The valuable properties of the gum were 
utilized about 1767, when it was oflFered in a stationer's store in London 
in cubes an inch square at three shillings sixpence, as an eraser of pencil 
marks. Mackintosh, a haberdasher, in 1823 patented a varnish com- 
pounded by dissolving rubber gum in coal oil ; with this liquid he 
smeared fabrics, thus rendering them waterproof. Even to this day, 
Mackintosh is the general term for all waterproof material. Subse- 
quently, other patents were taken out in England for the manufacture 
of shirred goods, availing of the properties of the elasticity of the gum 
for that purpose, but beyond that English inventors never ventured, leav- 
ing the more important inventions to the Americans. The pioneer in 
the successful manufacture of rubber goods in America was E. M. 
Chaffee, a native of Massachusetts. He invented a machine in 1832 
that would spread upon cloth a preparation of rubber gum dissolved 
in turpentine, to which was added lamp black. This made the material 
waterproof, and was successfully used for goods exposed to the elements, 
such as covers for life preservers, coaches, storm hats, or sou'westers. 
ChafTee, to extend his manufacturing, organized a stock company with 
which Daniel Hayward became identified, but in producing the cloth 
in large quantities it became uneven and inferior in quality. Charles 
Goodyear and his brother Nelson also engaged in experimenting, and 
while they met with some success in elastic goods, in other appliances 
they produced a material that became sticky when exposed to heat or 
became hard when exposed to cold. The rubber shoes were a solid 
piece of unglazed rubber, which fitted closely over the leather shoe and 


was ungainly looking, like an ugly black stocking. They also made a 
shoe with uppers of leather, while between the soles was placed a cloth 
smeared with a compound of rubber gum. Here in New Brunswick, 
Horace Day was keeping pace with them, and the interesting spectacle 
was presented of four young men — Chaffee, Hayward, Goodyear and 
Day — all penniless, but with an abiding faith in themselves and their 
own inventive powers. In 1838 there came to New Brunswick to assist 
Mr. Da)^ a German, Christopher Meyer. He was of a naturally ingenious 
turn of mind, with some knowledge of machinery. Mr. Day engaged 
his services for two years in perfecting patterns and machinery for 
operating in the manufacture of rubber goods. The Goodyear vulcan- 
ization process came out in 1844; Mr. Day claimed the right of using it 
for the New Jersey Rubber Shoe Company, which he had established 
in 1839, basing his claim on the plea that it was an unpatented English 
invention, and began making improved shoes. This resulted in law- 
suits in which Mr. Day was finally vanquished. His assistant, how- 
ever, Mr. Meyers, spent his evenings in making his patterns, and soon 
had his machinery ready for a beginning. Through the assistant of 
James Bishop, who granted him financial aid, he started in a small way 
at Landing Bridge, on the canal, manufacturing rubber shoes and rubber 
carriage cloth. This undertaking he eventually sold, and in 1845, asso- 
ciated with John R. Ford, he rebuilt his factory that had been destroyed 
by fire. The Ford & Company in 1850 became a corporation, the Ford 
Company, and four years later its name was changed to the Meyer 
Rubber Company. After Mr. Day's unsuccessful litigation, the New 
Jersey Rubber Shoe Company met with varied changes. They manu- 
factured rubber blankets for the use of the soldiers during the Civil 
War, but the works finally came into the possession of Mr. Meyers and 
others who formed the New Jersey Rubber Company in April, 1870. 
Previous to this Messrs. Meyers and Ford had built in 1858 the Novelty 
Rubber Company mills on Neilson street, above the railroad bridge for 
the manufacture of hard rubber articles. Their output soon amounted 
to $600,000 annually, an endless variety of articles being manufactured 
and shipped to all parts of the world. The firm of Onderdonk & Letson 
had acquired the Goodyear rights for manufacturing rubber boots and 
shoes, which they disposed of in 1849 to the New Brunswick Rubber 
Company, who employed three hundred hands, doing an annual business 
of about $700,000. All these rubber industries have long since ceased 
to exist under their former names, the manufacture of rubber boots 
and shoes in New Brunswick being confined at the present day to the 
United States Rubber Company, having salesroom in New York City 
and Chicago, Illinois. 

It was some years after the Delaware & Raritan Canal was in opera- 
tion that Commodore Robert F. Stockton, with the idea of utilizing 



to advantage the fall of water between the upper and lower level of the 
locks in New Brunswick, induced his friend James Neilson to join with 
him in the erection of a plant for a cotton spinning mill, the power to 
operate the works to be derived from the canal. This scheme was put 
into practice and carried on for some years, giving employment to men 
and women, and is cited as the first organized industry in the city ofifering 
employment to either sex. The cotton milling, however, was not remu- 
nerative ; the buildings remained idle until 1866, when parties interested 
in Norfolk, Connecticut, in the manufacture of yarn, who had invented 
a machine to produce knit goods, wishing to obtain another location, 
bought the works and established in New Brunswick the Norfolk and 
New Brunswick Hosiery Company. This was one of the enterprising 
industries of the city, with extensive works located on the corner of 
Neilson and Hamilton streets until a few years ago, when it discontinued 

The early endeavors in the manufacture of wall paper have been 
mentioned. In 1844 John P. Hardenbergh commenced the manufacture 
of wall paper on Water street. He disposed of his interests in 1849 to 
William R. Janeway, the firm becoming Janeway & Company. The early 
factory, measuring forty feet by twenty-five feet, soon gave way to an 
immense structure facing on Water street, which with other buildings 
covered two acres of grounds. Here ordinary wall paper was printed 
from maple rollers, gilt paper and water colors from maple blocks. 
The printing machines were made by the Waldron Machine Works, 
established by William Waldron in 1848. These machines were after- 
wards made by this concern for exportation to Europe, the business 
being still carried on by descendants of the original founder, on the 
River road, under the style of the John Waldron Company. The busi- 
ness of Janeway Company extended from Maine to California ; the 
competition became severe, but Janeway & Company with their exten- 
sive facilities for business outlived all competition. Wall paper is 
manufactured at the present day in New Brunswick by Janeway & 

The manufacture of shoes was at one time a leading factor in the 
industrial life of the city. The genesis of the industry was in 1856, when 
one Felter, with a shop at the head of Deleven street, employed two 
hands in the making of hand-sewed shoes. This grew into an industry, 
with a factory located on Bayard street between Neilson and George 
streets, where employment was given to over three hundred hands, nearly 
half of whom were females. The weekly production was over five 
thousand pairs of boots and shoes — men's and boys' boots and shoes; 
ladies' misses' and children's shoes, sewed and nailed, having a yearly 
production value of over $400,000. In the old courthouse, John Boundey 
in the early sixties started a shoe factory employing about fifty hands, 


from which he removed, finally locating on Spring street near Albany 
street. An extensive strike by the Knights of St. Crispin in February, 
1 87 1, caused the outgrowth of shoe factories to be operated on the 
cooperative plan. This caused the formation in New Brunswick of 
the firms of Motisher & Shyers, and Vosper & Kramer, young men who 
for a time conducted a thriving business. Mr. Kramer in 1879 purchased 
the interest of his partner, and established a shoe factory on Hamilton 
street near Division street, where he for several years carried on an exten- 
sive shoe trade. In the year 1877 Frank E. and James T. Kilpatrick 
formed a firm for the manufacture of leather shoes, styled Kilpatrick 
&: Company. A large brick factory on the corner of Neilson and Hamil- 
ton streets was occupied ; women's, misses' and children's grain, pebble, 
goat and kid, also men's, youths' and boys' calf and fine calf splits boots 
and shoes were manufactured. While the firm did an extensive home 
trade, they also found a market for their productions in the Eastern and 
Southern States. 

Among the present industries of New Brunswick is the Consolidated 
Fruit Jar Company, established in 1858 and incorporated in 1871. They 
commenced operations under the combined patents of three or four 
former factories, with a paid up capital stock of $500,000. They are the 
proprietors and manufacturers of the Mason fruit jar trimmings ; Boyd's 
and Chace's oillers, can screws, spouts, and general white metal goods, 
making a specialty of collapsible tubes, rectal and nasal tubes, sprinkler 
tops for perfumes and toilet waters and tooth powders. Their factory 
is situated on Water street, near Railroad street. 

Among other prominent industries was the saw mill of Isaac Rolfe 
& Son, which was established by Mr. Rolfe in company with G. W. 
Metlar, on Burnet street, at the foot of New street. The old Neilson 
mill, which supplied the public with sawed lumber, had for many years 
been shut down. The new mill measured 180 feet on Burnet street, was 
300 feet deep, and had a canal front of 340 feet. Engaged in a kindred 
enterprise was William S. Van Doren's sash and blind factory midway 
between Morris and Oliver streets, on Neilson street. The business 
was started in 1852 by William Wright, but was purchased in 1866 by 
Mr. Van Doren, who enlarged the works. He suffered considerable loss 
by fire in November, 1872, which destroyed half of his premises, but 
within a month the factory was in operation again. There was estab- 
lished in 1856 another sash and blind factory on John street, foot of 
Morris street, by A. J. Butler, where a large amount of work was pro- 
duced annually. Mr. Butler was also interested in a pottery located on 
Burnet street, which was celebrated for its line of terra cotta. 

One of the thriving industries of its day was the furniture manu- 
factory of Cornelius Powelson. The business sprang from a small shop 
on the corner of New and George streets ; the trade increased, and in 


1S47 ^ four-story brick structure was erected on the corner of George 
and Schureman streets, where exclusive first-class furniture and uphol- 
stery work was made for customers all over the country. Equally 
unique was the confectionery establishment of William Frank, who 
opened in 1850 a small place on the east side of Peace street for the 
sale of candies ; to this was afterwards added toys imported from Ger- 
many, and the manufacture of French and American candies in over 
two hundred varieties. His wholesale trade was limited to the various 
country towns within twenty miles of the city. Three brothers by the 
name of McCrellis in 185 1 established on Somerset street a factory for 
the manufacture of carriages, wagons and sleighs. A large number of 
workmen were employed, and it soon became one of the most extensive 
manufacturing firms in the city. Mention has already been made of 
the Waldron Machine Works ; there was also the National Iron Works, 
established in 1847 by Elijah Kelly, that specialized in rubber goods 
machinery, also manufactured a newly patented powder-making machine. 
The Empire Machine W^orks made improved knitting machines. The 
New Brunswick Carpet Company was established in 1871 for the manu- 
facture of tapestry Brussels carpets. They built extensive brick build- 
ings covering some three acres of grounds on Water street near Somerset 
street. They employed nearly three hundred hands, producing nearly 
$1,000,000 worth of goods annually. The business was relinquished in 
1877, the company closing their works. In a large substantial brick 
factory on the corner of Hamilton and Union streets, in 1882, D. McNair 
& Son were actively engaged in the manufacture of buckram, mosquito 
netting and light muslin, employing a large number of hands, weaving 
these materials which had a continual demand in the market. The senior 
Mr. McNair established the business in the early sixties of the past 
century The Home Valley Preserving Company was established in 
1884 by Benjamin F. Holmes with a capital stock of $25,000; the com- 
pany were growers and packers of all kinds of fruits and vegetables, 
also conducted a farm of two hundred acres within the city limits, in a 
high state of cultivation, besides contracting for the products of some 
three hundred or more acres in the immediate vicinity. The factory 
purchased and utilized for this industry was originally the old Raritan 
Steam Mills, a brick structure on Water street. The tin containers 
were manufactured on the premises ; some six hundred thousand cans 
comprising apples, pears, peaches, plums, grapes, strawberries, rasp- 
berries, blackberries, cherries, etc.. corn, asparagus and other vegetables, 
also poultry, beef and mutton, jams and jellies, were preserved and 
packed annually. 

Today the principal manufacturing industries not already mentioned 
are the laboratory and chemical establishment of Johnson & Johnson, 
which gives employment to 2,100 hands; the Neverslip Works, manu- 


facturing Red Top horse shoe calks, horses' and mules' shoes, soft steel 
rivets, with branch offices at Catasauqua, Pennsylvania; Montreal, 
Canada ; New York. Chicago and Boston ; employment is furnished for 
about 250 employees. The cigar manufacturing industry is one of the 
most thriving of New Brunswick ; Bayuk Brothers & Company employed 
in the neighborhood of 300 males and females ; the New Brunswick 
Cigar Company have on their payroll 750 employees ; the Forty-four 
Cigar Company, Incorporated, gives employment to 185 ; the Cans Broth- 
ers have about 85 in their employ; the Tri-State Cigar Company has 
employment for about 40; and there are other small cigar manufacturers. 
William Black & Company do an extensive business in supplying these 
and other manufacturers with cigar boxes. 

Besides the United States Rubber Company, previously mentioned, 
who carry on their payroll 500 employees, there are engaged in the rubber 
industry the Howe Rubber Company, who manufacture automobile 
inner tubes, employing 225 hands; and the Indian Tire and Rubber 
Company, who manufacture hard rubber goods, furnishing employment 
to 400. The Somerset Rubber Reclaiming Works are situated on George 
road. There are two machine shops manufacturing knitting machine 
needles — the Loyal T. Ives Company, employing in that industry about 
250 employees, and Fred J. Potter Company, on Somerset and Bethany 
streets, while knitting machinery is made by the Crawford Manufactur- 
ing Company and the Kilboum Manufacturing Company. The manu- 
facture of aprons is carried on by J. M. Barkelew & Company on the 
corner of Weldon street and Remsen avenue. Instead of a carpet factory 
there are two weaving establishments that convert rags into carpets and 
rugs. The Ringwalt Linoleum Works are also engaged in the manufac- 
turing of floor coverings. 

The Brunswick Refrigerating Company at their plant at the end 
of Jersey avenue, manufactures refrigerating and ice making machinery, 
employing 175 hands. The National Musical String Company on 
Georges road, near the city line, gives employment to 125 hands; musi- 
cal strings and harmonicas are produced. The Janeway Button Com- 
pany, employing 150 hands, are engaged in producing a vegetable ivory 
button. The New Brunswick Brass Foundry produces brass, bronze 
and aluminum castings. The Cronk Manufacturing Company furnishes 
doors, sashes, mouldings, interior finish, mantels, tiles and packing cases. 
The Consolidated Fruit Jar Company, already mentioned, employs 325 
hands. The Webb Wire Works on Liberty street manufactures musical 
wire and is vhe largest factory in the United States for the production 
of this article of merchandise. The Wright-Martin Aircraft Corporation, 
of which the celebrated engineer, General George W. Goethals, was 
president, occupied during the war the plant of the Simplex Automobile 
Company on Jersey avenue, near Sandford street. Here aviation and 



Liberty engines were manufactured, three shifts being employed daily 
during the duration of the war, employment being given to over 8,ooo 
employees. The works are now operated by International Motor Com- 
pany, who employed at the present time about 1,500 hands. These 
industries have been further dealt with in another chapter of this work, 
devoted to the manufacturing industries of the county. 

The introduction of rapid transit marked an important era in the 
history of New Brunswick's progress and enterprise. The legislature 
on February 13, 1867, by an act granted a charter for a street railway 
which included an ordinance of the city for a franchise passed November 
30, 1866. The parties interested in this charter never availed themselves 
of its privileges. Matters laid dormant until in September, 1885, when 
George W. Ballou and F. M. Delano, residents of New York, came to 
the city, looking for an opportunity to develop street railway territory. 
After the investigation of several routes, they employed C. T. Cowen- 
hoven as their counsel to take the necessary steps to procure them a 
legal status. Judge Cowenhoven discovered the existence of the former 
charter, and that it was still alive and effective. In February, 1886, he 
secured from the surviving charter parties a transfer of their rights to 
the New Brunswick City Railroad Company. This corporation after 
being duly organized elected C. T. Cowenhoven, president ; George C. 
Tolle, secretary ; Carroll Sprigg, treasurer, and Josiah Tice, superinten- 
dent. The directors were C. T. Cowenhoven, R. H. Becker, George 
Berdine, C. W. Kent, all of New Brunswick, and F. M. Delano, Carroll 
Sprigg. George W. Ballou, all of New York. 

While these movements were in progress, Woodbridge Strong, rep- 
resenting New York capitalists, filed a certificate of incorporation under 
the general incorporation act for the New Brunswick & Suburban 
Railway Company. The two eminent attorneys, Cowenhoven & Strong, 
soon locked their legal horns, and a struggle was commenced before 
the city council as to which company should be granted the city fran- 
chise. This rivalry soon assumed a partisan aspect, but was of short 
duration, it being decided in favor of the Cowenhoven road. The ordi- 
nance granting the New Brunswick City Railway Company the franchise 
was passed by the common council, March 26, 1886. Work on the 
railroad began on Somerset street, but in a week's time, owing to lack 
of material, it was suspended until May 26, 1886, when a formal contract 
was made with Philip Richardson, of New York, to build and equip the 
road, he agreeing to have it in running order September 15, 1886, which 
was in compliance with the terms of the ordinance granting the fran- 
chise. Mr. Richardson sublet the contract to Thomas B. Conway of 
New York, who commenced work about July i, pushing it forward with 
vigor until September i, when he stopped and filed a mechanic's lien 
for the work already done. This trouble was settled in a few days, 


George W. Ballou furnishing funds to meet the indebtedness to the 
contractor. This delay necessitated an application to the city council 
for an extension for completion to October 15, which was granted. 

In the meantime Judge Cowenhoven resigned the presidency. The 
railroad from its inception has been known as "the Cowenhoven road," 
to distinguish from "the Strong road." Judge Cowenhoven had been 
its godfather at its birth and during its sickly infancy ; it was to his 
patience and perseverance that its completion was due; he had fulfilled 
every pledge given to the public or the city council, and shirked no 
legal or moral obligation in connection with the enterprise. He resigned 
the presidency and directorship in the company and was succeeded by 
F. M. Delano. 

The road was opened for public travel October 14, 1886, and in honor 
of the occasion the city buildings, business blocks and residences were 
decorated with flags and bunting. Soon after noon, along George street 
the people began to collect ; five cars were promptly lined up, the first 
carried Union Cornet Band, the second, members of the city council 
and press, the others being filled with the clergy and citizens. The 
train started at half past two o'clock and proceeded to the Elmwood 
Cemetery ; on its return trip passed St. Mary's Orphans' Home, finally 
landing the passengers at the Central Hotel, where the cars were given 
over to the public for a free ride during the afternoon. The invited 
guests were entertained with a collation given at the hotel ; while salads, 
both lobster and chicken, with bread sandwiches, cold ham and corned 
beef, played an important part on the menu, the liquid wants of the 
invited guests were not neglected, as both brandy punch and claret punch 
added their charms, to be dispensed to the hungry and thirsty partici- 
pants. The tracks for this road were laid on College avenue, but later 
were taken up and the Easton avenue route substituted. 

The days of street horse car railroads have long since passed into 
oblivion ; those of the elder generation can recall when they had to 
leave their comfortable seats to place their shoulders at the front or 
back of the car to help the overworked equines to proceed on their 
journey Electricity in course of time was applied to the street railroad 
system of New Brunswick, and with its introduction the city became 
the center of a trolley system diverging north, south, east and west, 
giving connection with New York, Philadelphia, and neighboring cities 
and towns. 

The oldest fire organization formed in New Brunswick was in 1764, 
when a bucket company was established; in 1796 two engines were 
purchased by the city. There had been previous to this several dis- 
astrous fires. In the dead of night on February 17, 1741, the home of 
Philip French, with its entire contents, was destroyed. The residence 
was one of the largest and most complete in the province of New Jersey, 


and had only been built a year. Mr. French and his family hardly 
escaped with their lives ; two of his daughters were forced to jump out 
a window two stories high. A noted conflagration was that of April 14, 
1768, when a fire broke out in the house of Widow Dilldine ; the residence 
of the widow, also the bake shop and house of John Van Nordan, Jr., 
were a total wreck. A high wind spread the flames across the street 
to the house of James Neilson, which was destroyed, with cooper shop 
and bottling establishment. The dwelling house and store of Peter 
Vandenburg and the residence of Widow Cramer were also burned ; 
with the help of the military and citizens, adjoining buildings were 
pulled down to stop the progress of the flames. At one o'clock on the 
morning of February 28, 1771, a fire broke out in the barn of John 
Dennis, which resulted in the loss amounting to over £1,000. During 
the occupation of the city by General Howe and the British troops, the 
house of Brook Farmer, with adjoining residences, was completely 
destroyed by fire. 

The Washington Engine Company was organized October 11, 1795. 
They were equipped with buckets only ; later a hand engine was supplied, 
and in 1867 the first steam engine was purchased, which was kept in use 
until 1902, when another engine was purchased from the American 
Steam Engine Company. The Neptune Engine Company was organized 
within the same year. Its first home was on the Christ Church grounds, 
corner of Neilson and Church streets. The company was reorganized 
and at the time they received their first hand engine became known as 
the "Red Jackets." Later the company removed to the corner of Bayard 
and Neilson streets. In 1857 they were housed in the City Hall on 
Liberty Street, but in December, 1877, they removed to New 
Street. The first steam engine was purchased in 1865; it was 
replaced by a La Franc engine in 1888. The Phoenix Engine Company, 
organized in 1798, had three engines before receiving their first steam 
engine, an Amoskeag apparatus, March 31, 1866. This was replaced in 
1902 by a Metropolitan engine. The first home of the company was on 
Little Burnet street. Later they were located on the corner of Neilson 
and Bayard streets. Their third removal was to the old City Hall on 
Liberty street, and finally to their present quarters on Dennis street. 

The first great conflagration took place in 1796, when nearly the 
entire city was wiped out. The State at that time appropriated $5,000 
for the relief of the sufiferers. The Christ Church steeple was struck 
by lightning on Washington's birthday in 1802, causing the spire to 
burn to the l>ase of the tower, when a snowstorm put the fire out. In 
1813 the city was visited by another disastrous fire; this was of an 
incendiary origin. A negress nursing a real or fancied grievance against 
a resident of the city, fired his house in revenge. Five years later there 
were twenty-five wells in the city to be used for fire protection, and in 


1818 fifteen more were added. It was about the year 1820 that the 
common council named nine citizens to act as "bagman." Their duties 
were to attend fires, with large leather bags in which to place valuables 
and remove them to a place of safety. This was one of the first salvage 
corps organized in the State. A fire broke out October 18, 182 1, in a 
paint shop near Dennis and Church streets. The flames quickly spread 
to the Schenck homestead; it was thought at first that A. V. Schenck, 
later a mayor of the city, then an infant of two weeks, had perished, 
but later developments revealed the fact that the baby had been bor- 
rowed by a neighbor before the commencement of the fire. Two hotels 
and stables on Water street were destroyed by fire July 11, 1832. In 
that year the Raritan Engine Company was formed with a roll of thirty 
members. Their first apparatus was the box engine originally used by 
the Phoenix Company. The company's first home was a frame building 
on the corner of George and Schureman streets, where it remained for 
fifty years. After a temporary location of seven years, the company 
secured quarters on Remsen avenue. Previous to obtaining its Clapp 
& Jones steam engine in 1881, it had used several hand apparatuses. 
The company was furnished with a new engine in 1907. The Protection 
Engine Company's history dates back prior to the year 1830, when it 
was located on George street. In 1843 ^t moved to George and Somerset 
streets, and is now ensconced in a handsome building on Wall street. 
Like other companies in the city, it started out with a hand engine. 
After it entered the city department it was supplied with a Hope steamer, 
which was replaced in 1885 by a Silsby engine. Before the organization 
in 1835 of a Hook and Ladder Company, ladders were placed in the 
homes of various citizens for the use of firemen. An up-to-date truck 
was purchased in 1876. The White Hall Hotel stables were for a sec- 
ond time destroyed by fire July 3, 1834. A large fire took place May 
21, 1842, when the Raritan Hotel near the depot was destroyed. The 
Liberty Hose Company was organized July 31, 1853. It was later 
equipped with combination wagon with hook and ladder outfit, chemical 
apparatus and a full supply of fire hose. The Hibernia Engine Company 
started in 1865 with a hand engine, which was replaced by a Dennison 
steam engine in 1871. 

Among the other important fires of the city was that of the Baptist 
church in 1849; the previous year the steamboat "Raritan" on its pas- 
sage from New Brunswick to New York was totally destroyed ; the 
machine shop of Randolph & Holmes, July 15, 1850, the rubber factory 
on the corner of New and Drift streets in 1853 also suffered loss by fire. 
The fire on Commerce square occurred January 15, 1862; the Star Lin- 
seed Oil Works were a total loss November 21, 1871 ; was rebuilt and 
burned again in September, 1875. The Canal stables suffered a loss by 
fire October 24, 1873, and were totally destroyed by another fire March 



i6, 1874. The grocery stand of Suydam & Nevius succumbed to the 
flames in November, 1875, and in the same year the old Swan stables 
near Washington street were destroyed by fire. The Augustus Hyatt 
Rubber Company's works on Neilson street suffered a complete loss of 
property and machinery in 1876; the same year fire broke out in Charles 
Lemon's dwelling on the corner of Suydam and Drift streets, its owner 
being consumed in the flames. 

The Pennsylvania railroad's wooden bridge was burned November 
9, 1878. Its successor was an iron structure which in turn was replaced 
by the present stone bridge, the first train passing over the latter May 
II, 1903. The railroad shops on Easton avenue were the scene of a 
fire November 22, 1879. The next year, June 30, Hammell's store was 
reduced to ashes and George Rebotham was killed ; the same year, 
November 20, the old ice house at the upper lock was destroyed. The 
important fire in 1882 was February 28, when the Holmes canning shop, 
foot of Albany street, was a total loss ; the following year, on May 6, 
Jarrod's cigar factory was burned. The great oil train fire occurred 
February 7, 1883, Frank Deeman, brakeman, and Patrick Dougherty 
were burned to death. The fire was caused by two oil trains colliding 
on the Pennsylvania railroad bridge. The flaming oil ran into the 
sewer and reaching the buildings of Janeway & Company, completely 
destroyed the building. The well known landmark "The Rink," was 
burned July 28, 1891. The steamboat "New Brunswick," when on its 
regular trip between New Brunswick and New York, was consumed by 
fire August 7, 1902. It was a total loss, and the remains of the steam- 
boat were towed to Gregory's Graveyard at Perth Amboy. The large 
factory of Janeway & Carpender on the corner of Schuyler and Pater- 
son streets was destroyed by fire in 1907; the present factory was then 
built in Highland Park. Fire swept the plant of the Empire Foundry 
Company on Jersey avenue, March 19, 1909, causing a loss of $100,000, 
the pattern storage house, the engine house and one or two other small 
buildings were destroyed. The plant was originally built by the New 
Brunswick Foundry Company in 1897. Gray iron castings, gas and 
coal stoves and automobile cylinders were manufactured. 

The present paid fire department of six companies is equipped with 
four steamers, one hook and ladder truck, one chemical engine ; all of 
automobile construction. 

Free Public Library — The foundation of a public library in New 
Brunswick was agitated in the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
when a meeting was called January 15, 1796, for establishing such an 
institution. The library of Rutgers College, founded thirty years pre- 
vious to this, was exclusively for the use of the students. The fifteen 
gentlemen who attended the primary meeting agreed that a share in 
the new library should be five dollars, subject to an annual tax of one 



dollar and fifty cents. The name chosen was the "Union Library Com- 
pany." It was located on the northwest corner of Albany and Neilson 
streets. The librarian was John Hill, who continued to perform the 
duties until his death in 181 1, when he was succeeded by Miss Hannah 
Scott. During the War of 1812, the library was wholly suspended, but 
later was revived by a few of the original members. 

A second library was incorporated in 1820, but in May of the fol- 
lowing year the two libraries were merged into one, under the name of 
the "New Brunswick Library Company." This company continued in 
existence for over a quarter of a century, but finally suspended; the 
books were consigned to the trustees of Rutgers College for safe- 
keeping. In May, 1868, they were transferred to the Young Men's 
Christian Association for the foundation of their library, and continued 
under their control until 1888, when the directors presented about 
2,900 volumes to the New Brunswick Free Circulating Library, incor- 
porated March 3, 1883, which was opened to the public March 23, 1883. 
This was the first free circulation of books in New Jersey ; previous 
to this date, while a number of libraries had free reading rooms, a 
charge was made for the home use of the books. The library was 
situated in a small frame house on the corner of George and Church 
streets ; afterwards moved to a building on the northwest corner of 
Albany and Peace streets. 

At the municipal election in 1890, the question whether the library 
should be supported by taxation was submitted to the people, and 
resulted in practically a unanimous vote in its favor. The Free 
Public Library of New Brunswick was incorporated and began its work 
April I, 1891. The Free Public Library and Free Circulating Library 
both moved in 1892 to the southwest corner of George and Paterson 
streets, which they continued to occupy until November 17, 1903. The 
city of New Brunswick was presented by Andrew Carnegie in 1902 
with $50,000 for the purpose of erecting a library building, on condition 
that the city engaged to contribute $5,000 a year for its maintenance 
and support, and provide a suitable site for the building. A lot was 
purchased by the city on Livingston avenue, between Morris and Welton 
streets, on which was erected the present building. Notable donations 
of books have been received at various times, among which mention is 
made of the Ladies' Book Club of 1,141 volumes, and the New Bruns- 
wick Book Club of 310 volumes. The Free Circulating Library was 
disbanded May 8, 1907, and its 10,480 books were given to the Free 
Library ; the cash balance of the former, amounting to $2,800, was 
expended for new books, making a total of 26,000 volumes on the shelves 
of the Free Library, and increased at the present time to 40,462 vol- 
umes; the circulation for the year 1920 was over 108,000 volumes. The 
present librarian is Miss Mary A. Walker, who has been connected 
with the institution for over a score of years. 



There was established by the Board of Education in 1921 a Public 
School Library Advisory Board of six members, for the purpose of 
extending and adding the school libraries of the city. The members of 
the board are : John P. Wall, chairman ; Mrs. Robert C. Nicholas, vice- 
chairman ; Miss Susan V. Knox, secretary ; Mr. George A. Osborn, 
Mrs. Ira T. Chapman and Mrs. A. L. Smith. 

The "New Brunswick Times," now published at New Brunswick, 
New Jersey, as "The Sunday Times," is one of the five oldest newspapers 
in the United States, having first appeared as the "Guardian and New 
Brunswick Advertiser" in 1792 as a weekly. It has the distinction of 
having been published in three centuries. 

Its founder, Abraham Blauvelt, who was born in Tappan, Rockland 
county. New York, was one of New Brunswick's leading citizens. Under 
his direction the "Guardian and New Brunswick Advertiser" was a 
staunch Federal organ, and had quite a circulation in Central New 
Jersey. On June i, 1815, the name was changed to the "New Bruns- 
wick Times and General Advertiser." The paper was then published 
every Thursday by Deare and Myer, at Washington's Head, New 
Brunswick. The subscription rate was $2.50 per annum, the same rate 
at which it is now published, one hundred twenty-nine years later. Then 
Albert Speer became the publisher and the newspaper became Demo- 
cratic in principle. Mr. Speer continued the publication until his death 
in 1869. The "Daily News," started by Alphonso E. Gordon in March, 
185 1, and a new Democratic paper, the "New Jersey Union," first 
issued in May, 1847, also by Mr. Gordon, were sold by him to Mr. 
Speer. He combined all three papers under the name of the "New 
Brunswick Times." On his death, William B. Guild of Newark bought 
the paper and in November, 1869, published "The Daily Times." Mr. 
Gordon returned from Grand Rapids, Michigan, on December 28, 1871, 
and again became owner of "The Times." He conducted it very suc- 
cessfully for several years, being offered $35,000 for the business at one 
time. Mr. Gordon became a United States marshal under the admin- 
istration of Grover Cleveland, and for a time the paper was run by 
subordinates. In 1890, former State Senator John Carpender of Clinton, 
New Jersey, became its owner. 

Two years later the Times Publishing Company bought it out. This 
stock company was composed of Millard F. Ross, William H. Price, 
James Deshler, Oliver Kelly, W. Parker Runyon, J. Kearney Rice and 
Edward Furman. The paper was made an eight-page daily and other- 
wise improved. It still remained Democratic in politics. J. D. Chandlee 
acted as editor until 1896, when Francis W. Daire succeeded him. On 
September 11, 1906, he purchased the stock, with the exception of four 
shares to continue the life of the corporation, and became owner as 
well as editor. He sold his stock in May, 1908, to Linn E. Wheeler, 


who was editor until October 25, 1909, when he resigned. Samuel M. 
Christie succeeded him. 

The control of the paper was purchased on May 15, 1912, by J. David 
Stern, no change being made in the staff until January 23, 1913, when 
Mr. Christie resigned as editor and George D. Johnson was elected his 
successor. In May, 191 5, the "New Brunswick Times" was purchased 
by the Home News Publishing Company, and George C. Ingling was 
made editor. A year later, on May 16, 1916, it was discontinued as a 
daily, and has since been published as "The Sunday Times" under the 
same management and editor. The paper is independent in politics, its 
chief policy being to boost every movement for the welfare of the city. 

Board of Trade — With a clear vision of what might be achieved for 
the advancement of the city by the cooperation of the merchants, manu- 
facturers and professional men, a conference of public-spirited citizens 
was held May 10, 1909, to discuss the organization of a Board of Trade 
in New Brunswick. Those who took an active interest in the movement 
felt that a time had arrived when the interests of the city could be better 
advanced by the formation of some civic or commercial body to serve 
as a clearing house for many of the activities that were likely to develop 
with the further growth of the community. The list of men interested 
comprised Henry G. Parker, Charles A. McCormick, George A. Vieh- 
mann, William R. Reed, Edward W. Hicks, P. P. Runyon, H. B. Zim- 
merman, Peter F. Daly, Neilson T. Parker, James Mershon and George 
Berdine. A committee of twelve was named to submit plans for an 
organization, with Mr. George A. Viehmann as chairman. Mr. H. G. 
Parker, president of the National Bank of New Jersey, was the first 
president. Mr. F. M. Yorston was chosen secretary, and served con- 
tinuously in that capacity until February 12, 1920. Fresh impetus was 
given to the work of the Board of Trade on January 12, 1910, when 
eighty-seven new members were elected, and twenty-six more names 
were added at the meeting held February 9, 1910. 

Each successive year saw an increased membership and a broadening 
of the activities of the organization with a corresponding benefit to the 
city. It took the lead in all movements for civic improvement, and in 
June, 1916, a comprehensive plan for a "city planning" scheme was 
prepared by Mr. H. J. March under its direction. Although nothing 
has as yet been accomplished along these lines, the matter was revived 
several months ago when the Rotary Club had Mr. March outline the 
details of his plan at a public meeting, and all of the various organiza- 
tions of the city were asked to name a representative to serve on a 
committee to take up the matter with the City Commission. Some day 
New Brunswick will have a definite City Planning Scheme, and it will 
owe its success to the preliminary work conducted by the Board of 



Good government is a subject in which the organization has displayed 
great interest. Its members have advocated clean, honest and efficient 
government in city, county and State affairs throughout its existence. 
It started the campaign for a Commission Form of Government in June, 
191 1, v^hen resolutions v^ere adopted committing the Board to that 
movement, and its members fought valiantly for the change until it w^as 
ultimately accomplished. 

The interests of the taxpayers, both of the city and county, have 
always appealed to the Board of Trade. Through its active work in 
following the affairs of the county, the burden of repairs incident to the 
two big bridges spanning the Raritan river — the one between Perth 
Amboy and South Amboy, and the bridge at the foot of Albany street 
to Highland Park — were both taken over by the State Highway Com- 
mission, thereby relieving the taxpayers of Middlesex county of an 
annual expense for maintenance of approximately $50,000; and the erec- 
tion of a new bridge at Perth Amboy at an estimated cost of $2,500,000, 
of which $1,000,000 will be paid by the Federal government, the balance 
representing an expense the county would have had to bear had the 
present bridge not been taken over. 

The Board took up the matter of the bond issue in connection with 
the building of the Cranbury turnpike, and the ultimate outcome of the 
matter was a saving of $334,000 to the taxpayers. The organization 
made a fight for the annexation of the Lincoln Gardens Section to the 
city, which was finally accomplished, and it resulted in adding a pro- 
gressive community and giving New Brunswick additional railroad 
siding facilities. Repeatedly, the Board has gone on record in favor 
of "open specifications" for road work, and the efforts of Mr. S. P. 
Leeds, president of the Chamber of Commerce of Atlantic City, to free 
the State from the grip of the patent pavement trust, has had the 
endorsement of the organization. 

When the rate of fare charged for commutation tickets between New 
Brunswick and New York was increased to twelve dollars in 191 1, the 
Board of Trade championed the cause of the commuters. The fight was 
won, and approximately from $10,000 to $12,000 a year was saved to 
the commuters until the Federal government took over the big trans- 
portation lines and arbitrarily raised the rates. 

In civic affairs the Board of Trade has always been found as sponsor 
for every movement that meant a Bigger and Better New Brunswick. It 
recommended a Paid Fire Department ; appointive School Board ; Voca- 
tional School System ; a filtration plant for the Water System ; a Traffic 
Ordinance ; better paved sidewalks and improved streets — and had much 
to do with the extension of a sewer system to a part of the city which 
was quickly developed into a residential section. 

Much work has been done by the Board of Trade towards better 
shipping facilities for New Brunswick and vicinity. Just before the 


war, the Pennsylvania railroad had agreed to spend nearly $100,000 for 
a new freight station and yard facilities. When the railroad is in better 
shape financially, this will probably be done. The Lehigh Valley 
railroad industrial siding is now within a mile and a quarter of Highland 
Park, to which point it will be extended before long. The extension 
of the express service has been accomplished both in the city and High- 
land Park. 

Through the work of the Board of Trade it is estimated that more 
than a score of important industries have been located in and near the 
city, and there has been spent for plants and equipment approximately 
$8,000,000. The Simplex Automobile Company was brought here in 
1910. Through an agreement whereby the Board of Trade agreed to 
assume a certain part of the taxes of that concern, the Company remained 
in the city, enlarged its plant and its payroll was considerably increased. 
It was followed by the Wright Martin Automobile Company, which in 
turn was succeeded by the Wright Aeronautical Corporation. When 
the Armistice was signed, November 11, 1918, there were close to eight 
thousand war workers employed in this one big essential industry. 
Many other industries, too, had their share of war work, and the city 
enjoyed a wave of unparalleled prosperity due to the high wages that 
were being paid to the workers. 

In 1915, when the movement was launched for the establishment of 
the New Jersey College for Women, it had the endorsement of the 
Board. The organization has always stood back of Rutgers College, the 
Rutgers Preparatory School and the school system of New Brunswick, 
the interests of which the members have always sought in advance. 

New Brunswick distinguished itself in all of the Liberty Loan cam- 
paigns by always subscribing more than the quotas assigned to it, 
which was true in the United War Work campaign, and all subsequent 
benevolent drives. The Board of Trade did its full share in all of these 

In 1919 the Retail Merchants' Division was formed, and the history 
of this adjunct of the Board is along the lines of the parent organiza- 
tion. It has conducted various campaigns of all kinds, "dollar day 
sales," and its cooperation in the work of the Board of Trade advances 
the interests of the merchants in every respect. 

Early in the history of the organization conferences were held with 
Congressman Benjamin F. Howell regarding the improvement of the 
Raritan river, the need of which has long been apparent. Many years ago 
steamers plied between New Brunswick and New York, and it was 
through one of these lines that Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt earned 
the foundation of his great fortune. In November, 191 1, Wilfred H. 
Schoff, secretary of the Atlantic Deeper Waterways Association, ad- 
dressed the Board. In June, 1913, a committee had a conference with 


Congressman Thomas J. Scully. In December, 1916, Hon. J. Spencer 
Smith, of the State Board of Commerce and Navigation, spoke before the 
Board. It soon developed that the lack of a terminal at New Brunswick, 
which would provide a docking place for boats, miUtated against all 
efforts for deeper water. The Federal government in 1919 adopted the 
policy that no waterway would be improved unless the municipality 
provided adequate terminal facilities. 

Then the advocates of deeper water had their attention directed to 
the need for a better channel when the Eastern Potash Corporation 
began the erection of its immense potash plant on the banks of the 
Raritan river, about two miles below the city. The announcement that 
this company planned to bring tank steamers carrying eight thousand 
barrels of crude oil from Mexico for fuel purposes, made it apparent that 
the steamers would not be able to land at the dock of the company until 
the Raritan river was deepened. 

About this time the Raritan Terminal and Waterways Association 
was projected. It is made up of the affiliated civic and governing bodies 
of nine municipalities on the Raritan river and bay, and New Brunswick 
took an active part in its organization, and the Board of Trade has 
several of its members numbered among the directors. This organiza- 
tion has advocated deeper channels to New Brunswick, and its ultimate 
object is to make Perth Amboy, South Amboy, Keyport and New Bruns- 
wick all seaports. As a result of its work, a hearing on the project was 
held at New Brunswick in December, 1920, by Colonel J. N. Sanford, 
the district engineer, for the purpose of determining the need for making 
the channel fifteen feet in depth to New Brunswick. Also, the chief of 
engineers recommended $100,000 for the Raritan river, but the river 
and harbor bill was reduced from $36,000,000 to $12,000,000, and the 
Raritan river appropriation was cut proportionately. Because of the 
importance to the commercial growth of New Brunswick, the deepening 
of the Raritan river will be advocated by the Waterways Association, 
backed by the Board of Trade, until it is finally accomplished. 

The annual banquets of the Board of Trade have been notable affairs 
throughout its existence, and some of the best after-dinner speakers in 
the country have spoken before its members. Among them are Hon. 
J. S. Frelinghuysen, United States Senator from New Jersey; J. Adam 
Bede, the former humorist of Congress; Dr. Charles A. Eaton, Hon. 
John H. Fahey, of Chicago ; Rev. S. Parkes Cadman, of Brooklyn ; Hon. 
Charles S. Whitman, former Governor of New York; Haley Fiske, 
president of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company; Dr. Frank 
Crane, the noted writer ; former Governor J. F. Fielder ; Mayor J. Hamp- 
ton Moore, of Philadelphia ; Job E. Hedges, of New York, and others. 

The Board of Trade of New Brunswick holds membership in the 
United States Chamber of Commerce, the New Jersey State Chamber 


of Commerce, the Atlantic Deeper Waterways Association, and the 
Raritan Terminal and Waterways Association. The officers are : Presi- 
dent, Prof. Ralph G. Wright; first vice-president, William G. Bearman; 
second vice-president, Harry Weida; third vice-president, Elmer E. 
Connolly ; treasurer, William Van Nuis, Jr. ; secretary, C. S. Atkinson. 
The list of former presidents follows : Henry G. Parker, George A. Vieh- 
mann (deceased), Charles A. McCormick, William R. Reed, Leonard 
S. Webb, E. P. Darrow, Robert Carson, O. O. Stillman, S. B. Carpender, 
and P. J. Young. 

Clubs and Societies — The New Brunswick Historical Club was in ex- 
istence several years before its complete organization, August 17, 1875. 
A constitution and by-laws were adopted in 1871, members' names were 
annexed as -oon as they were admitted. The club held annual meet- 
ings at Rutgers College until 1878, when a suite of rooms was fitted 
up in the Booraem House on Church street. The expenses being heavy, 
after a year the club became inactive, but through the efiforts of a few 
literary citizens, it was revived, becoming one of the leading organiza- 
tions of its kind in the eastern section of New Jersey. Meetings are 
held the third Thursday in each month during the college year, in 
the Fine Arts room, Rutgers College. 

Inspired with the spirit of good fellowship and a desire to extend 
the principles of International Rotary, a group of twenty-three business 
men met at the Hotel Klein in May, 1920. Subsequent meetings were 
held, and James Orr, of the Elizabeth Rotary Club, attended the pre- 
liminary meetings and explained the scope of the organization and did 
some excellent work in aiding with the formation of the Rotary Club 
of New Brunswick. 

The Club then adjourned for the summer months, and on September 
9, 1920, the charter was presented to the Club, with the following enrolled 
as charter members : C. S. Atkinson, Lawrence Ballou, William G. 
Bearman, Harry F. Beldon, Elmer B. Boyd, Charles H. Bruns, G. Harold 
Buttler, Sydney B. Carpender, Rev. C. J. Culp, Walter B. Flavell, H. J. 
Long, Alex. Merchant, Henry Moraff, John J. Monigan, Ramon Mon- 
talvo, Jr., Dr. R. L. McKiernan, Clififord Parsil, Martin E. Roach, H. R. 
Segoine, Bert Stowell, F. V. Terrill, Harry Weida, Dr. H. F. Zerfing. 

The following officers were elected: President, Ramon Montalvo, Jr.; 
vice-president, F. V. Terrill ; secretary. Dr. R. L. McKiernan ; treasurer, 
Rev. C. J. Culp ; sergeant-at-arms, Harry F. Beldon. Directors — Harry 
F. Beldon, Sydney B. Carpender, Rev. C. J. Culp, Walter B. Flavell, 
Dr. R. L. McKiernan, Ramon Montalvo, Jr., Martin E. Roach, Frank V. 
Terrill, Harry Weida. 

Twenty boys who had never been on Broadway enjoyed the hospi- 
tality of the Club at Christmas, and the Hippodrome, with many other 
interesting sights, will be pleasant thoughts in years to come. Through 


the efforts of the Club a Municipal Christmas Tree was enjoyed at 
Christmas, and the singing of carols was a rare treat for the citizens. 

The Club took an active interest in the Red Cross Campaign, and 
over $500 was raised towards the campaign fund. The generosity of 
the Club was enjoyed by the boys of the Rice Industrial School (col- 
ored) when about forty boys were given a Christmas dinner at the 
Y. M. C. A., and each presented with several toys. A Ladies' Night 
was enjoyed by the members and their wives, February 23, 1921, at Hotel 
Klein. The Club was well represented at the Poughkeepsie Conference 
and at "Jersey Day," held at the McAlpin Hotel, New York, when 
twenty-six out of thirty-three members were in attendance, which was 
a remarkable showing for an out-of-town luncheon. 

The Club increased in numbers during the first year of its existence, 
and it became an organization that displayed an active interest in all 
matters affecting the civic welfare of the city. 

Although organized here so recently as March 23rd of the present 
year (1921). the New Brunswick Den of Lions body has had an auspi- 
cious beginning, and has scheduled an array of activities j^romising of 
great benefit to the city in all its varied relations. It is one of a multitude 
of "Dens" throughout the country, whose membership is of the best, 
representing every profession, but mainly of active business men who 
are necessarily brought into intimate association with public affairs. 
Its meetings are at the noon hour, and their declared purpose is "For the 
promotion of greater efftciency through the exchange of experiences, 
ideas and methods." 

The New Brunswick Den already numbers forty members — citizens 
of every walk of life — who are interested in the welfare of the city, 
both materially and morally, and whose patriotism is of the highest 
order. They realize that the present time is one of the greatest im- 
portance, burdened with problems such as have never before been 
known — with business embarrassments, with conflicting interests, with 
varied views as to legislation and governmental authority in the com- 
munity, the State and the Nation. At the base of all this is the individ- 
ual citizen, whom the Lions seek to bring into intimate association with 
his fellows, that they may through consultation and united effort exert 
a potent influence upon society and in all the channels of citizenship 
duty, upholding and maintaining that which is best for city. State and 
Nation, and furthering by all that in them lies, all proper movements 
looking to the betterment of mankind and the establishment of a reign 
of peace throughout the world. 

The organization of the New Brunswick Den of Lions was effected 
on the date before mentioned, at Hotel Klein, when the following officers 
were elected: Norman H. Smith, president; John J. Morrison, Edward 
J. Houghton and Walter C. Sedam, vice-presidents ; Edward H. Mon- 
aghan, secretary and treasurer ; and the following named trustees : Har- 


court St. P, Ward, Dr. Edwin I. Cronk, Dr. Philip L. Schwartz, Frederick 
Gowen, James A. Harkins and Raymond P. Wilson. 

Among the clubs organized for athletics and sports are the New 
Brunswick Boat Club, incorporated in 1892, having a clubhouse at 
Albany street bridge. The New Brunswick Country Club, organized 
in 1894, is located on the River road near the New Market road. The 
New Brunswick Yacht Club, incorporated in 191 1, maintains rooms 
on Albany street, and a station near Albany street bridge. The New 
Brunswick Gun Club has a house and rifle range on the River road. 

Religious associations and clubs are the Young Men's Christian 
Association, the Young Men's Hebrew Association, and Christ Church 
Club, whose objects and aims are to foster church life and church 
work among the males of the parish, to promote Christian and social 
fellowship among its members. The Catholic Club was organized May 
4, 1869. The Love and Brotherhood Hebrew Society meets on Burnet 
street. There are also miscellaneous associations, societies and clubs, 
whose members are interested in the social, benevolent or business 
interests of the city. 

The Charity Organization Society of New Brunswick was established 
in October, 1884, for the promotion of whatever tends to the permanent 
improvement of the condition of the poor; first, by aiding and directing 
those who have gifts to bestow ; second, by suppressing professional 
begging by preventing indiscriminate giving. The Children's Indus- 
trial Home on Somerset street was established in 1877, for the reception 
of girls and boys between the ages of three and ten years, instructing 
and providing for them until old enough to be placed in good homes, 
or becoming of age, when they can care for themselves. The institution 
is controlled by a directorate of twenty-seven ladies and gentlemen, 
and accommodation is given to about seventy inmates, the average being 
about fifty. 

The Humane Society, organized in 1806, distributes coal to the worthy 
poor during the winter season. The city is divided into thirteen dis- 
tricts under the charge of resident managers. The Middlesex County 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was incorporated in 
1884, and the Middlesex County District Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals in 1907. The Dorcas Society and Day Nursery 
was established in 1813, and holds meetings at No. 14 French street. St. 
Mary's Orphan Asylum, a Roman Catholic institution under the control 
of the Diocese of Trenton, was founded in 1883. It is located on Easton 
avenue, opposite Huntington street, and is under the charge of the 
Sisters of St. Francis. 

Banking and Insurance — The early financial history of New Bruns- 
wick seems to have been attended with more or less disaster. The first 
bank was the Bank of New Brunswick, in 1807, founded by Jacob R. 



Hardenbergh and others, and locally known as Hardenbergh's Bank. It 
was located at the corner of George and Paterson streets, and continued 
to do business for over a quarter of a century, suspending about 1834. 

The State Bank of New Brunswick was chartered under an act of 
the legislature of 1812, entitled "Act to Establish State Banks." This act 
also chartered banks in Camden, Trenton, Elizabeth, Newark and Mor- 
ristown. The directors named in the charter were Robert Lee, Bernard 
Smith, Phineas Carman, Henry V. Low, John Outcalt, John Bray, 
Jonathan Hutchings, Jonathan Squire, John Brewster, Daniel Perrine, 
Robert McChesney, Jacob Snyder and Jacob Van Winckle. The bank 
did business in the old State Bank building at the corner of Peace and 
Albany streets. The first cashier was Daniel W. Disbrow, and its 
presidents were Charles Smith, F. R. Smith, John B. Hill, John R. Ford 
and Abraham Voorhees. During the money panic of 1873 the bank 
closed Its doers, September 13, but paid all its liabilities and was resus- 
citated the following October by means of contributions from stock- 
holders and others amounting to $750,000. It failed a second time, 
March 31, 1877, when its affairs were placed in the hands of Colonel 
John W. Newell as receiver. 

The third bank to be incorporated and the successor of the Bank 
of New Brunswick, was the Farmers' and Merchants' Bank of New 
Brunswick. The act of incorporation passed the legislature February 
26, 1834. Its first president was James F. Randolph, who was succeeded 
by Charles Dunham, who gave way to Abraham Suydam. The first 
cashier was Lewis Carman. The bank first did business on Burnet 
street, but subsequently removed to Church street, where it remained 
until by a special State charter the Bank of New Jersey succeeded to 
its business and as agent liquidated its affairs. The Bank of New 
Jersey was chartered June 19, 1854; its first president was John Van 
Dyke, and its cashier Moses T. Webb, who became president after 
the resignation of Mr. Van Dyke in 1859. The vacancy thus created 
was filled by the appointment of John T. Hill as cashier, in which 
office he remained only a short time, when Isaac H. Voorhees became 
his successor. Mr. Webb, on receiving an important commission in 
the army in September, 1861, was succeeded in the presidency by 
Garrett G. Voorhees. In February, 1864, John B. Hill became president, 
and November 22, 1864. the Bank of New Jersey took advantage of the 
new National Bank Act and was re-incorporated as a national bank, with 
the title of the National Bank of New Jersey. The act of incorporation 
was for twenty years, and was renewed in 1884 and 1904. 

The First National Bank of New Brunswick, under the presidency 
of Israel H. Hutchings, which had been organized with a capital stock 
of $100,000, was merged in 1870 with the National Bank of New Jersey. 
The capital stock of the National Bank of New Jersey is $250,000, and 




its banking building was situated on the corner of Church and Neilson 
streets. Mr. Hill's death occurring in 1874, he was succeeded as 
president by James Dayton, who died in 1877; his successor was Mahlon 
Runyon. Mr. Runyon died in 1884, when Lewis T. Howell became 
president, serving until his death in 1903, when he was succeeded by 
V. M. W. Suydam, who resigned January 1908, and Henry G. Parker, 
who had been cashier since January i, 1894, was elected president, a 
position which he now fills. The bank remained at the corner of 
Church and Neilson streets until 1910, when the present eight-story 
building on the corner of George and Church streets was erected. This 
seemed at the time an ambitious plan, there being one hundred offices 
to rent in the building, but its success was immediate, as all rentable 
space was taken within six months of the completion of the building. 
The bank shows a continuous existence since the first charter taken in 
1808 as the Bank of New Brunswick, which was succeeded by the 
Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank, and in turn was succeeded by the Bank 
of New Jersey, the latter becoming the National Bank of New Jersey. 
Its deposits have grown rapidly ; at the time of moving into the new 
quarters they amounted to $2,200,000, and at the present time are over 

The People's National Bank was organized in March, 1887, and 
opened for business the following May 16. Its first banking office was 
on the southeast corner of Neilson and Church streets. The growth 
of this bank was phenomenal. With a capital stock of $100,000, it 
soon accumulated undivided profits, and on June 3, 1895, i^ removed 
to its present banking building on the corner of George and Church 
streets. Its first president was George W. Devoe, who died November 
20, 1890, and was succeeded by present incumbent, Benjamin F. Howell, 
The surplus of the bank is $200,000, with undivided profits amounting 
to $25,000. 

The New Brunswick Trust Company, located at 352 George street, 
was chartered in 1902. The company transacts a general banking 
business, and acts as executor, trustee, guardian, agent for investing 
personal funds and separate estates, etc. It also acts as trustee under 
mortgage issued by a municipality or corporation to secure bond issues. 
Its capital stock is $100,000, and there is a large undivided surplus. 

The Middlesex Title Guarantee and Trust Company was organized 
in 1907, to do a general trust business and especially to examine and 
guarantee titles to real estate, and has established a thorough system 
covering Middlesex county. Much of its success is due to the energy 
and activity of its first president, George A. Viehmann. Its office is 
at No. 40 Paterson street, and since the death of Mr. Viehmann in 1918, 
August C. Streitwolf has filled the office of president. 

The New Brunswick Savings Institution was incorporated March 


15, 1851, and established its banking house at 17 Albany street. The 
first president was Garrett G. Voorhees ; secretary and treasurer, Neilson 
Dunham. The present location is the corner of George and Church 
streets, in a banking building erected in 1888. The bank has always 
been conducted in a careful and conservative manner. The deposits 
range over $3,000,000, and a handsome surplus has been accumulated. 
The president is Nicholas G. Rutgers ; the secretary and treasurer, 
Charles A. Dunham. 

The Dime Savings Bank was incorporated by an act approved 
February 7, 1871. It commenced business at 137 George street, and 
deposits were received from ten cents upwards, on which interest was 
allowed from first of each month. The first directors were : Levi D, 
Jarrard, Lyle Van Nuis, A. V. Schenck, Henry De Hart, Henry K. 
Howe, Garrett G. Voorhees, Jehiel K. Hoyt, Robert G. Miller, Peter 
I. Stryker, Uriah De Hart, John V. H. Van Cleef, Henry N. Marsh, 
Adrian Vermeule, George C. Ludlow, Amos Robins, Joseph L. Mul- 
ford, Jacob E. Stout, Garret Conover, John M. Cornell and Miles Ross. 
Even with this formidable array of names it failed to be prosperous, 
and finally suspended in 1886, its depositors receiving a dividend of 
sixteen cents on the dollar. 

The New Brunswick Fire Insurance Company was organized 
December 27, 1826, and commenced business May i, 1832. Its original 
capital stock was $50,000, and for over seventy years it did purely local 
business. In 1903 the capital stock was increased to $200,000, the man- 
agement being vested in an able directorate consisting of George A. 
Viehmann, president ; D. L. Morrison, vice-president ; Charles D. Ross, 
secretary ; and E. B. Wyckofif, assistant secretary ; these, with Theodore 
F. Hicks, William B. Lloyd, W. L. Perrin, W. F. RoUo and M. F. 
Ross, formed the board of directors. The business was soon extended 
into twenty-eight States, and in 1908 premiums received amounting 
to $460,000. The capital stock has been increased several times, at 
present being $500,000. It is represented in most of the States, except- 
ing those generally known as of the Pacific Slope and a few of the South- 
ern and Western States. The death of Mr. Viehmann in 1918 caused the 
election of Charles D. Ross as president. The vice-presidents are Daniel 
L. Morrison and I. D. Clark ; the secretary and treasurer, E. B. Wyckoff. 
The general office of the company was formerly at No. 40 Paterson street ; 
in August, 1920, removed to a new building constructed by the com- 
pany, and devoted exclusively to its business, on Bayard street, oppo- 
site the court house. 

In the forties and fifties of the past century, there was an epidemic 
of organizing assessment fire insurance companies under the general 
laws of the State. Among these in 1846 was formed with a euphonic 
title, the New Brunswick Mutual Fire Insurance Company. Its busi- 


ness was simply local, being confined to writing policies of insurance 
on real estate risks in Middlesex county. The general office of the 
company is confined to the legal offices of its president, W. E. Florance, 
in the National Bank of New Jersey building on George street, who, 
with J, W. Helm as secretary, are its executive officers. 


First Presbyterian Church — The first authentic date in the history 
of the church is 1726, when Gilbert Tennent became its pastor. Its 
organization may have preceded this settlement, but the loss of the 
church records in 1776 places its history for its first half century with 
no authentic testimony. The old records were supposed to have been 
destroyed during the Revolution, when the house of Dr. Moses Scott, 
a prominent elder, was entered and plundered by British troops. A 
wooden building was erected by the congregation in 1727, small and 
unpretentious, on Burnet street, just north of Oliver street, in the 
center of the old Presbyterian burying ground. The accepted tradi-^ 
tion is that this building was set on fire and destroyed by the British 
in their attack on New Brunswick. 

The first great controversy in the Presbyterian church in this 
country was the disruption in 1741, which was not healed until 1758. 
The question between the elements which were known as "Old" and 
"New," was, briefly, whether or not revivals were to be encouraged, 
and whether piety or education was most important in the gospel 
ministry. Of the "New" side, Gilbert Tennent was the acknowledged 
leader. The New Brunswick church, which had been first connected 
with the Presbytery of Philadelphia, was in 1733 transferred to that 
of East Jersey; subsequently, when the Presbyteries of East Jersey 
and Long Island were merged in 1738 in that of New York, it was 
set off with other churches to form the Presbytery of New Brunswick. 
Here we have the origin of a Presbytery that has exerted in the course 
of its long history a more commanding influence than any other in 
the Presbyterian body. In the history of the church at this time, the 
terms the "New Side" and the "New Brunswick party" are constantly 
occurring as interchangeable. Between this party and the Synod of 
Philadelphia, the "Old Side," the Presbytery of New York occupied 
for a time an intermediate position. It finally came into organic union 
with the Presbytery of New Brunswick, the united body growing into 
the Synod of New York, which on the reunion of 1758 outnumbered 
the "Old Side" three to one, and included within itself the best part of 
the vigor and piety of the Presbyterian body. 

Mr. Tennent removed to Philadelphia in 1745, and the congregation 
was left without a settled pastor for several years. There is a tradition 
that Rev. Thomas Arthur was pastor from 1746 to 1751. The minutes of 



the Presbytery show that a temporary supply was appointed in 1760, 
which was repeated from time to time until 1768, when Rev. Israel 
Reed became pastor. In 1784, solid facts are obtainable. Lots were 
purchased, and the following year church walls were up and under 
cover, but the edifice was not actually completed for several years. The 
structure stood on the corner of George street, fronting on Paterson 
street. It was built of bricks painted yellow, hence became known as 
the "Old Yellow Church." An act of incorporation was obtained in 
1784; two years later the congregation relinquished its partial claim 
on Rev. Israel Reed, and Rev. Walter Monteith was called to the 
pastorate. The congregation being short of funds, in 1786, applied to 
the Legislature for the questionable aid of a lottery. This scheme was 
entitled "The Elizabethtown and New Brunswick Church Lottery ;" the 
highest prize was $2,000, the lowest $20. The net result to the New 
Brunswick church was £665 13s. 5d., proclamation money. This 
amount proved inadequate to discharge all debts, which were stated 
to be, March 30, 1786, £1,426 3s. 2d., and was not finally liquidated 
until May 6, 1801. The next pastor. Rev. Joseph Clark, installed Janu- 
ary 4, 1797, died suddenly in office, October 20, 1813. He was a most 
impressive preacher, of commanding influence, and left the church 
with one hundred and twenty-seven members, nearly double the num- 
ber at his accession. Rev. Leverett J. F. Huntington was installed 
pastor December 5, 181 5. His services were particularly attractive 
to the young, and during his pastorate, in the year 1816, the Sabbath 
school was established. It was the first in the city to be organized, 
like the original ones in England, for neglected children rather than 
those of Christian families. Mr. Huntington died May 11, 1820, and 
Rev. Samuel B. How was installed pastor in 1821. His term of service 
was brief, as on July 25, 1825, Rev. Joseph H. Jones was installed. 
Under his pastorate the church immediately entered on a new 
career. A parsonage was built in 1827; and a new church fronting on 
George street instead of Paterson street, was dedicated December 15, 
1836, at the cost of $23,328.26. Dr. Jones was a man of rare gifts, both 
in pulpit and parish. He had the hearts of the congregation with him 
and its cooperation in all his eflforts. He resigned in 1838 to accept a 
call to the Sixth Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia. The member- 
ship of the church when he left was 411 souls. The congregation next 
enjoyed the ministry of Rev. Robert Birch, who was Installed March 
4, 1839; ^^^ pastorate was short, being terminated by his death, Septem- 
ber 12, 1842. Then followed one of the longest pastorates in the history 
of the church. The Rev. Robert Davidson was installed May 4. 1843. 
Gas was introduced, and repairs made on the session house in 1852; 
a year or two later a thorough refurnishing of the church was under- 
taken. Dr. Davidson's pastoral relations were dissolved in September, 


1859, and Dr. Howard Crosby, Professor of Greek in Rutgers College, 
was elected pastor on February 18, 1861. His occupancy of the, office 
was brief, as Rev. William Beatty was installed as pastor June 2, 1863. 
He was in charge of the congregation about four years, when he resigned 
to accept a call to the Shadyside Church of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
The installation of Rev. A. D. L. Jewett took place March 2, 1868. The 
organization of the church was completed in 187 1 by the election of 
deacons ; the eldership was increased in 1873. Dr. Jewett's labors during 
the latter portion of his term were interrupted by continued ill health. 
He resigned October 16, 1874, and on May 17, 1875, Rev. Thomas 
Nichols was installed. His successor in 1879 was the Rev. W. J. Mc- 
Knight, who continued in the pastorate until 1892, and the following 
year was succeeded by Rev. William W. Knox. Dr. Knox was to serve 
the congregation for nearly a quarter of a century. He was made pastor 
emeritus in 1917, and the next year the Rev. Cordie J. Culp, the present 
incumbent, was chosen his successor. 

Hungarian Evangelist Reformed Presbyterian Church — This was 
organized July 21, 1904. The organization ceremonies were held in 
the chapel of the First Presbyterian Church, where the congregation 
commenced holding meetings. It was largely through the assistance 
of Rev. J. Kozma, of Perth Amboy, that the organization was effected. 
The rapid growth of the congregation soon required larger accommo- 
dations, and a church was procured on the corner of Easton avenue 
and Hamilton street. The first regularly installed minister was Rev. 
Paul Hamborsky, who served until he decided to join the ranks of 
those ministers who were working under the Conventus of the Reformed 
Church of Hungary. Through his influence the congregation for a 
time joined this church organization ; the original members not being 
satisfied with this transaction, took the matter before the courts and 
eventually won the control of the church property. This litigation 
was the cause of a great unrest and difficulties amongst the congrega- 
tion, and religious services were suspended. The Easton Avenue 
Church was exchanged for the present edifice on the corner of Bayard 
and Schuyler streets, formerly occupied by St. James Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. After the retirement of the Rev. Hamborsky from the 
ministry, the Rev. Ladislaus Gerenday was called as pastor ; he remained 
in charge until 1916, when he was succeeded by the present pastor, 
Rev. Sigismund Laky, who resigned the charge of a large congregation 
at Bridgeport, Connecticut, to accept the position. The church is a 
member of the New Brunswick Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church 
of the United States. There is a membership of two hundred, besides 
a large number of co-believers who attend the regular services. The 
auxiliary societies of the church are: The Lorantflfy Sussannah Ladies' 


Aid Society, the Daily Vocation Bible Class, and the People's Christian 

Christ Church* — The Church of England early sent its missionaries 
into the colony of New Jersey. Along the Raritan there were established 
churches at Amboy, Spotswood and Piscataway. In 1701, "The Vener- 
able Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts" was 
formed, and its missionaries were sent out to the churches and formed 
new parishes. Keith and Talbot, the first missionaries from this society, 
covered New Jersey, holding services among the English residents of 
New Brunswick. One of the early historians of Christ Church laments 
the loss of its early records. The fragments which remain are largely 
the reports of these missionaries. 

In 1745, Skinner, the first missionary to Perth Amboy, reports, "Zeal 
for God's work among the inhabitants of New Brunswick has stirred 
them up to the building of a Church." The next year he reports, "the 
inhabitants of New Brunswick have petitioned to send them a mission- 
ary ; they have erected a church of stone which may be of great service 
not only to themselves, but to the well settled country extending many 
miles, in which many of the inhabitants profess the faith of the Church 
of England, and others who were formerly dissenters seem well affected 
towards it." 

New Brunswick's Carnegie, Philip French (1745), presented the 
tract of land on which the church was built. Mr. Skinner's statement, 
"they have erected a church," was somewhat premature, as the records 
show that more than ten years later the church was still in the course 
of construction, and in 1773 the steeple was nearing completion. The 
land given by Mr. French is that on which the church now stands on 
the corner of Church and Neilson streets. The size of the original 
structure, as reported by the Society, was fifty-five feet long, forty-five 
feet wide and twenty feet high. The first edifice followed closely the 
lines of the English parish churches which the builders had left behind; 
a "noble window of small panes of glass covered almost the entire east 
end." The building was of stone, and tradition has it that it was put 
together mainly by the hands of the faithful parishioners. The tower 
as originally constructed remains as a part of the present edifice, a 
monument of striking beauty, linking the present with the past. 

The Society sent as its first stated missionary the Rev. Mr. Wood, 
characterized as "a gentleman, bred to physic and surgery," as well as 
theology. Mr. Wood's parish reached from Elizabethtown to Trenton, 
and his medical practice extended from New York to Philadelphia. He 
remained two years, and removed to Nova Scotia. 

The Society "then thought proper to fix on the Rev. Samuel Seabury 

•This narrative is by Dr. Fred B. Kilmer, of New Brunswick. 


who arrived happily on the 25th of May, 1754, and was received 
with a most hearty welcome from the inhabitants, who appeared very 
susceptible to the Society's goodness in sending a missionary to them, 
and disposed to do everything in their power to show their encourage- 
ment. * * The church is a very handsome stone building which, when 
finished, will hold a large congregation, and this it is proposed to do 
the ensuing summer. It is generally well filled. * * As there was no 
visiting teacher, at the present time, of any sort, he had the satisfaction 
of having persons of various denominations come to it, and he hoped 
they would in the course of time, through the grace of God, conform." 

Rev. Samuel Seabury was the son of Samuel Seabury, an Episco- 
palian clergyman, who had formerly been a Congregational minister. 
After graduation at Yale (1748), he went to Scotland and studied medi- 
cine, but turning his attention to theology, took orders in England, and 
became the Society's missionary at New Brunswick. His is an illus- 
trious figure in the church annals. From New Brunswick, he removed 
to Grace Church, Hempstead, Long Island (1752), thence to St. Peter's, 
West Chester, New York, (1766). At the latter place he established 
a church school. At the breaking out of the Revolutionary War, he 
adhered to the Crown and became chaplain of the Royal forces. During 
the strife he was, on one hand, subject to severe handling by the patriots, 
and on the other hand given the degree of Doctor of Divinity by Oxford 
University. At the close of the conflict he went to England, bearing 
the recommendation of some of the clergy of New York and Connec- 
ticut, and was consecrated the first American Bishop of the Episcopal 

In 1757, the Parish of Christ Church "returned their thanks for the 
Society's goodness in appointing the Rev. Dr. McKean to succeed their 
late missionary, Rev. Samuel Seabury. It was with great pleasure they 
saw the Church of England, by the benevolence of the Society, raising 
its head in an infant country." Dr. McKean arrived in New Brunswick 
in 1757' ^"d was kindly received by his congregation. He had friends 
at court, and the second year of the reign of George II., Christ Church 
became a body corporate under the name of "The Rector, Wardens 
and Vestrymen of Christ Church of the City of New Brunswick." It 
is under this charter, bearing the great seal of his Majesty, that it still 
elects its vestrymen and wardens and holds its corporate power. 

Dr. McKean was a prominent figure in medical circles. He was 
active in organizing the New Jersey Medical Society, and was its first 
president. Upon the removal of Dr. McKean to Pennsylvania (1763), 
the mantle fell upon Hon. Edward Antill, "a man of most exemplary 
life and singular piety, who undertook to read prayers and singing 
every two Sundays in New Brunswick, and every other two Sundays in 
Piscataway, until the arrival of a missionary." 


In 1762, it was agreed to unite Piscataway to the mission at New 
Brunswick, and the Rev. Leonard Cutting was appointed to the mission. 
In a report to the Society it is stated "in New Brunswick there are about 
150 families, most of them in moderate circumstances. * * In this 
town there are three churches — the Church of England, the Baptist 
church, and a Presbyterian meeting house, the members of which live 
together in a friendly manner without disputes or animosities on ac- 
count of religion." He reports that "his communicants at present are 
about twenty-five. He catechises the children of New Brunswick and 
Piscataway every Sunday. The congregation at New Brunswick has 
agreed upon £40 per year, and will allow £20 currency for house rental 
until they can afford to purchase a glebe." In 1769, he reports "with 
pleasure that in New Brunswick the same catholic spirit prevails, all 
denominations living together without dispute or animosity." In Pis- 
cataway, he states "the church is well filled, and the people appear 
serious and affected." In removing to Hempstead, a year later, he 
reports that "the church had increased in numbers, and the communi- 
cants had increased to thirty-four." 

The next incumbent was the Rev, Abraham Beach, who showed 
himself to be not only a missionary but a diplomat and leader of no 
mean order. His report to the Parent Society shows "that his con- 
gregation are frequented by serious people of all denominations." He 
organized the parish, taught catechism to the children and the negroes ; 
the church was repaired and the steeple completed. The Society Pro- 
ceedings for 1773 state that "The Rev. Dr. Beach's mission is in good 
state. He endeavoreth by kind and candid treatment to overcome the 
prejudice of dissenters ; and hath experienced the good effects of it in 
several instances." 

In 1774 Dr. Beach wrote the Society "how heartful are the American 
disputes to the clergy ;" he assures the Society "that he has endeavored 
to promote moderation, peace and good order." Then came the storm 
cloud of the Revolution. The parish was rent asunder, and received 
a baptism of blood and fire. Mr. Beach has been characterized as 
"mildly loyal," and as "neutral" he deplored the political agitation which 
preceded the struggle as "hurtful to the church and to the clergy." He 
strove "to promote moderation, peace and good order." He "hoped at 
all times to preserve a conscience void of offense toward God and man." 

At the inception of the struggle, the congregation at once divided ; 
the Loyalists fled to the British lines ; the Patriots, in fair numbers 
and of sturdy mien, remained until the British army took possession of 
New Brunswick. The Church of England and its adherents in this 
crisis were under the ban. Christ Church has the unique record of 
being open during the whole of the struggle. Mr. Beach's records show 
a fairly continuous regularity in church services even in times when 


shot and shell broke over the steeple. He went about attending to the 
sick, baptizing, uniting in marriage, burying the dead. He ministered 
in neighboring parishes from which the clergy fled. He was ever at 
his post. His home just without the city was supposed to be neutral 
ground, but this did not prevent its being pierced with bullets. During 
the whole time he received no remittance from the Society and no pay 
from the church. At the close of the Revolution, Mr. Beach accepted 
the position of assistant minister of Trinity Church, New York, but 
he still retained a fostering care over Christ Church. He became an 
important factor in the formation of the Episcopal Church in the United 

Long prior to the war, efforts had been made to secure the appoint- 
ment of a Bishop for the Colonies, but strong forces opposed the setting 
up of a Bishop in America. The controversy waxed strong and became 
a part of the inciting cause of the Revolution. With the dawn of peace 
all changed ; the Church in the United States had become separated from 
the Church of England through the acts of war. At the invitation of 
Dr. Beach, a few of the scattered clergy from New York, New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania gathered in Christ Church to "consider the state of 
the Church." Among them was the Rev. William White, of Phila- 
delphia (afterwards Bishop). The session continued for two days, 
and plans were laid to promote a union of the churches in the several 
States. During the session a document was made out in which the 
name "The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States" was 
used for the first time. At this meeting the right of lay delegates in 
the councils of the churches was established. The sessions were the 
beginning of the line of general conventions — the great governing body 
of the Episcopal Church. Thus within the walls of Christ Church the 
American Church had its origin and received its name. 

Rev. Mr. Beach was active in the formation of the diocese of New 
Jersey, in 1785; the first convention looking to that end was held in 
Christ Church. Mr. Beach preached the sermon, and was chosen 
president and delegate to the General Convention. All during the for- 
mation period of the diocese, Mr. Beach attended the conventions, giving 
wise counsel in the formation of the canons and regulations for the 
government of the church, and the revision of the Book of Common 
Prayer. With a record of seventeen years as minister of Christ Church, 
and twenty-five years in Trinity Parish in New York, he retired to his 
household at New Brunswick, where he died in 1828. He was buried 
in Christ Church yard, and a marble tablet to his memory adorns the 
walls of the edifice. 

Hamilton Rowland was elected rector of the parish in 1786; he 
removed to Nova Scotia at the end of one year ; from the time of Mr. 
Rowland's removal (1787), the church was without a rector until 1791, 


when the Rev. Henry Van Dyke was chosen minister of the parish ; 
he served until 1793 or 1794. 

The parish was again vacant until 1799, when the Rev. John Henry 
Hobart, then a student at Princeton, was "invited to perform divine 
service for the congregation for one year," and "the sum of $266.67 
was allowed for such services." Rev. Mr. Hobart, apparently much to 
his disadvantage, fulfilled his contract for the year, and afterwards 
attained a high place in the church. He became assistant minister of 
Trinity Parish, New York, succeeding Dr. Moore as Bishop of New 
York. He was also Bishop of Connecticut for three years. He was 
instrumental in opening the Theological Seminary in New York, and a 
member of the faculty. He was a prolific writer and a most energetic 
Christian gentleman. With Mr. Hobart's departure from Christ Church, 
"Mr. Beasley was invited to read prayers until a rector could be pro- 

The minutes of the wardens and vestrymen beginning with 1790 
have been preserved. The first pages of these records are filled with 
quaint references to the "Church Lottery." This calls to mind the 
fact that in the colonial days lotteries were the financial fashion, and 
were considered as legitimate as is today the placing upon the market of 
authorized financial securities. Colleges, churches, societies and indi- 
viduals floated lotteries under government license. At least three lot- 
teries were drawn for the benefit of Christ Church, and there is no 
record that any of them were markedly successful from a monetary 
point of view. The records of the "settlements" of the last one (issued 
about 1790) was disastrous. The church was defrauded of money col- 
lected by some of its agents, quarrels and lawsuits ensued. Much harm 
was done with little or no good. In 1800, Mr. Charles Cotton was 
engaged to take charge of the parish, and remained for one year. 

A most auspicious era of the parish history begins with the record 
of the warden and vestrymen of March, 1801 : "Resolved and agreed 
unanimously that the Rev. John Croes be invited to accept the perma- 
nent rectorship of this Church at a salary of $375 per annum." This 
call was made in conjunction with the trustees of Queens (Rutgers) 
College, who desired his services as headmaster of the Grammar School. 

Mr. Croes' rectorship was long and eventful. His was the task of 
reconstruction of a parish which had been scattered and rent by war 
and by frequent change of ministers since the departure of Mr. Beach. 
He organized the congregation and established sound systems of 
finance ; the latter included the sale of pews at auction. He inaugurated 
a Missionary Society and opened a Sunday School. He overcame the 
long existing prejudice against the "English" Church, and made it a 
center of religious life in the community. 

An interesting incident of his time occurred in February, 1803, when 


the spire of the church was struck by lightning and wholly consumed ; 
the buiding itself was in imminent danger of being destroyed. This 
was a severe blow to the struggling parish. The spire had only recently 
been repaired and its restoration was a matter of over $3,000, a most 
formidable burden under the conditions. By heroic efforts of the con- 
gregation, the citizens of New Brunswick, and friends outside of the 
parish, the spire was rebuilt within a few months. In 1808, Mr. Croes 
gave up his position in the College, but for a time he taught in the Young 
Ladies' Seminary conducted by Miss Hay. 

Rev. Mr. Croes took an active part in the work of the diocese, and in 
1815 he was chosen as its first Bishop. He did not resign his rectorship, 
but cared for the parish and diocese conjointly. He was almost simul- 
taneously chosen Bishop of the Diocese of Connecticut, but chose to 
accept that of New Jersey. A notable event of his rectorship was the 
remodeling of the interior of the church edifice. In the first construction 
the chancel was placed at the east end (Neilson street) of the church, 
but the pulpit and reading desk were on the north or Church street 
side. In 1814 the whole was changed by placing the pulpit and reading 
desk and chancel at the east end and turning the pews so as to face 
that end. A gallery was also installed. In the early days a bass viol 
and a violin were introduced to furnish music; in 1788 an organ was 
installed which cost $100, but in Mr. Croes' time it is recorded that Mr. 
William Leupp presented the church with a new instrument and became 
organist. The services of the church under the Bishop would be con- 
sidered simple in these days of elaborateness. At the time, those not 
in sympathy with the church made strong objections to their ritualistic 
formality. The fast and festival days were observed in great regularity, 
Easter Day and Christmas Day being as now "high" days. Baptisms 
were mainly held in the church, the first font being a stone bowl carved 
by hand and set in a log. The present handsome marble font was the 
gift of Edward Antill, and has been in use since some time before the 
Revolution. Funerals were held at the homes of the deceased ; the 
bodies were either buried on the land of the departed or in the church 
yards. Weddings were seldom held in the church. For many years 
the church was not heated in any manner. In 1800 wood fires were 
introduced; coal fires came in 1829. The church was lighted with can- 
dles and oil, a feature being an elaborate glass chandelier hanging in 
the center of the nave. 

During Bishop Croes' rectorship a Sunday school building was 
erected on the west side of the church lot. Following the lead of such 
parishes as Trinity, the church erected buildings on the Church street 
side of its property and rented them for business purposes. The venture 
was only moderately successful and later they were torn down. 

The Rev. Mr. Croes was of Polish parentage (born 1762). While 



yet a lad he entered the Revolutionary army. His education was mainly 
under private tutors in Newark, New Jersey. He became a tutor in 
the Newark Academy, meanwhile preparing himself for the University. 
His first charge was at Swedesboro, New Jersey, and his second at New 
Brunswick. He was of commanding presence, being over six feet in 
height. His biographers pay great tribute to his urbanity, strong in- 
tellectuality, sound common sense, clear judgment, and general business 

In 1830, he asked that his son John Croes, Jr., be appointed assistant 
in the parish, and to this the vestry acceded. Bishop Croes entered into 
rest, July 30, 1832. He was buried under the chancel of the church 
wall. His son, Rev. John Croes, Jr., succeeded him as rector. This 
position he held until 1839, when owing to ill health he resigned, and 
took up missionary labors at Keyport, New Jersey. He died in 1849. 

The year 1839 marks the beginning of a long and successful rector- 
ship of the Rev. Alfred Stubbs, who while still a deacon came into the 
parish almost directly from the General Theological Seminary. The 
following year he was elevated to the priesthood by Bishop Doane, and 
instituted to the rectorship of the parish. Though but twenty-four years 
of age, he grasped the responsibilities of his office and began a remark- 
able career. Time after time in reports to the convention appear state- 
ments showing an increase in the numbers ; "the parish is in a prosperous 
condition. * * the harmony and peace which prevail encourages the 
hope that our people are also increasing in spirituality." 

Each year marked material progress, there were additions to the 
church property, new furnishings and adornments for the church. In 
1842, Mr. Charles M. Leupp presented a new organ, and in 1846 a rec- 
tory was purchased at 100 Bayard street, and the same year a plot of 
ground next to that of the original tract, known as the "Vickers prop- 
erty," was bequeathed to the parish by Mrs. Mary Leupp. In 1852, the 
entire church edifice, with the exception of the tower, was taken down 
and rebuilt. During the rebuilding, services were held in the Presby- 
terian Session House on George street, which was kindly loaned for the 
purpose. In rebuilding the edifice, all of the stone of the first structure 
was utilized, together with a fresh supply taken from the original quarry. 
The new building consisted of a nave 50x75 feet, with a semicircular 
chancel 20 feet in depth. The architecture was Norman style, and with 
only a slight change constitutes the present edifice. It was at this time 
that the stained glass windows were installed. Out of the original par- 
ish, Dr. Stubbs created three new parishes — St. John's, Somerville 
(1852), St. Luke's, Bound Brook (1862). St. John the Evangelist at New 
Brunswick (1861). In 1874, a commodious brick Sunday school building 
was erected on the church grounds. 

Some twenty young men who were members of the parish during 


Dr. Stubbs' ministry, were admitted to Holy Orders ; these included two 
of the rector's sons, the Rev. Alfred H. Stubbs, the Rev. Francis H. 
Stubbs, and the Rev. A. B. Baker, Dr. A. B. Carter, Rev. Eugene and 
Charles Hoffman, Edward and Samuel Appleton, Rev. Guy Leacock, 
Henry H. Long, Edward B. Boggs and John Cornell. 

One incident in Dr. Stubbs' life focused upon him, and incidentally 
upon the parish, a nation-wide and, at the time, unpleasant notoriety. 
This was the celebrated controversy with the Rev. Stephen H. Tyng, 
rector of the Church of the Holy Trinity, New York — the trial question 
as to whether the clergy are bound to obey the laws of the church. In 
later times he counted among his friends those who had opposed him 
at the trial, including Dr. Tyng himself. In 1882, failing in health. Dr. 
E. B. Joyce was called as assistant to Dr. Stubbs. 

Dr. Stubbs entered into rest, December 12, 1882. He was buried in 
a spot selected by himself at the foot of the tower, and a tablet upon 
the wall of the tower and in the chancel of the church is erected to 
his memory. Dr. Stubbs had been entrusted with a prominent place in 
the councils of the church, and was beloved by his fellow-citizens ; "the 
fine ability and excellent scholarship which distinguished him were 
intensely devoted to Christ and His Church." 

The Rev. E. B. Joyce came to Christ Church Parish while yet in 
deacon's orders, as assistant in 1882 ; at the death of Dr. Stubbs he was 
called to the rectorship (1883). Under his guidance the congregation 
moved forward spiritually and materially, and was marked by an in- 
crease in church attendance and interest in the service and work of the 
parish. He formed many parish organizations and guided their work. 
The church was renovated throughout, hardwood floors put in, a new 
pulpit and chancel furniture installed. In 1892 he formed a surpliced 
choir of male voices under charge of Prof. George W. Wilmot. In the 
same year a new rectory was purchased at 56 Bayard street ; a new and 
commodious parish house was erected at the corner of Neilson and 
Paterson streets. An innovation at the time was the organization of 
young men called Christ Church Club, who gave attention not only 
to the parish and church affairs, literature and the like, but who installed 
a bowling alley, gymnasium and poolroom. A week of service commem- 
orating the 150th anniversary of the church was held in 1892. 

While all of Mr. Joyce's efforts were far from sensational, one ser- 
mon delivered in 1890 attracted widespread attention and was published 
in pamphlet form by the Central Nationalist Club. This was a sermon 
on the text, "Am I My Brother's Keeper?" In this sermon the relations 
between capital and labor and the church's duty therein were discussed 
in a way that was markedly prophetic of the discussions so abundant 
in later years. During his rectorship, early celebrations of Holy Com- 
munion each Sunday were instituted, and for a time daily services were 
held in the church. 


Mr. Joyce graduated from Yale College and the General Theological 
Seminary, and in 1916 the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred 
upon him by Rutgers College. Failing health compelled Mr. Joyce to 
resign his rectorship, and he was made rector emeritus, which position 
he still holds, beloved and honored by his parish and throughout the 

The Rev. Herbert Parrish, who had supplied the pulpit during Mr. 
Joyce's illness, was called to the rectorship May i, 191 5, and under his 
guidance the parish has retained its traditions of progress and vigor 
which has marked its entire history. In 1917 an important movement 
toward church unity was started in which Christ Church under Mr. 
Parrish took an active part. Services were held on Sunday evenings 
in rotation in Christ Church, the First and Second Reformed Churches, 
and the First Presbyterian, in which services the choirs and clergy of the 
respective organizations united. The parish took an active part in the 
nation-wide campaign of the Episcopal Church in 1919, the rector 
being campaign chairman for the diocese. Under Mr. Parrish the con- 
gregation has made great advancement. It has discharged all indebted- 
ness, some of long standing. It has established an endowment fund. 
The pews have been made free. It has more than quadrupled contribu- 
tions for missionary purposes. Mr. Parrish possesses exceptional powers 
as a preacher and teacher, and is able to gather a goodly congregation 
even in these times when church attendance is not popular. 

Christ Church holds a remarkable record for growth and strength. 
Of exceptional character have been its rectors and distinguished laymen. 
After one hundred and eighty-years it can look to the future with trust 
and confidence. 

St. John the Evangelist — A movement was started in 1852 among the 
congregation of Christ Church to establish another parish in New 
Brunswick. The mother church was too small to accommodate its 
congregation, and was not strong enough in finances or numbers to 
bear the expense of erecting a church edifice in another section of the 
city. It was at this time decided to build an addition to the church 
and establish another parish later. Other obstacles interposed ; it was 
not, however, until i860, under the rectorship of the Rev. Alfred Stubbs, 
that money was raised for the building of a mission chapel on the present 
site of St. John the Evangelist. The cornerstone was laid November 
28, i860, and the new chapel was consecrated December 27, 1861, when 
Rev. Louis Bevieu Van Dyke was chosen by the vestry to officiate as 
deacon in charge. He was succeeded in 1864 by Rev. Alfred B. Baker 
as assistant in charge. 

St. John's drew away from Christ Church and was organized as an 
independent parish, April 25, 1866. The Rev. Edward B. Boggs became 


the first pastor of the new parish. He was succeeded in 1869 by Rev. 
Charles Edward Phelphs. The church building comprised only one 
room ; in 1885 the edifice was considerably enlarged and beautified by 
the addition of a tower, transept and parish room, these alterations 
costing over $10,000. 

Rev. Charles E. Phelphs resigned in 1898 and was appointed rector- 
emeritus. The Rev. W. Button Dale, after acting as assistant minister 
for one year, was elected rector, assuming the duties of the incumbency 
on Easter Day, 1898. He resigned March 31, 1909, to accept a call to 
Rumsen, New Jersey, and the present rector. Rev. Edward Wheeler 
Hall, was called by the congregation and was installed as rector in 
July, 1909. An addition to the rear of the church building was built in 
1909 at an expenditure of $3,000. 

The First Reformed Church — This is the oldest church organization 
in the city of New Brunswick. Its corporate title is, "The Ministers, 
Elders and Deacons of the Congregation of New Brunswick." 

Guillaem Bertholf, a resident of Hackensack, as a lay worker fre- 
quently visited this section. As voorleser in the Holland church, he 
rendered invaluable services in a large portion of Northern New Jersey. 
So acceptable were his services as reader and comforter of the sick that 
he was sent to Holland in 1693 for ordination. Upon his return he had 
the spiritual oversight of all the Holland communities in New Jersey. 
His work resulted in the organization of many Reformed churches, 
including those in the vicinity of New Brunswick. 

A church was erected as early as 1703, about three miles west of 
the present city limits. The congregation which worshipped there soon 
divided to form two churches, now known as the Reformed Church of 
Franklin Park, and the First Reformed Church of New Brunswick. 
From the early maps and records of the city it appears that the first 
church was built about 1714, at the corner of Schureman and Burnet 
streets. The earliest church record is dated April 12, 1717. The archives 
of the church contain a complete register of baptism and the list of 
church members and officers from 1717. The second church edifice 
was erected on the present site in 1767. This was built of stones which 
were brought up the Raritan on sloops from Hell Gate. When this 
building was demolished to make way for a new one, these stones were 
used in the walls of the present structure which was dedicated in 1812. 

The first pastor of the church was Rev. Theodorus Jacobus Freling- 
huysen. He also served the churches at Raritan (Somerville), Six 
Mile Run (Franklin Park), and North Branch (Readington). Mr. 
Frelinghuysen came directly from Holland, bringing with him a school- 
master. Jacobus Schureman, who was also chorister and voorleser. 
These men were the progenitors of many distinguished citizens who 


have rendered signal service to the State. The next three pastors were 
closely connected with the college also. Rev, Johannes Leydt was a leader 
in the movement resulting in the founding of Queen's College, later 
known as Rutgers College. Rev. Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh, D. D., in 
1786 became the pastor of the church and also president of the college. 
He was a staunch personal friend of General Washington. His suc- 
cessor in the pastorate, Rev. Ira Condict, D. D., was also vice-president 
of the college and professor of moral philosophy. 

During the two hundred years of its history, the church has been 
served by fifteen pastors. Besides those mentioned, the list includes 
John Schureman, D. D., Jesse Fonda, John Ludlow, D. D., Isaac Ferris, 
D. D., James B. Hardenbergh, D. D., Jacob J. Janeway, D. D., Samuel 
B. How, D. D., Richard H. Steele, D. D., Thomas C. Easton, D. D., P. 
Theodore Pockman, D. D., and Jasper S. Hogan, D. D. 

For manv years the "Old First" has been popularly known as the 
"Town Clock Church," on account of the clock in the steeple, placed 
there and maintained by the city. Many of the stones in the cemetery 
around the church mark the resting places of some of the most honored 
leaders in the Reformed Church in America. Prominent among these 
is the Scudder monument testifying to the pioneer missionary zeal of 
the family which has given a total of more than one thousand years 
to foreign missionary service. The church itself has been greatly ad- 
mired, and its picture is included with a score of other historic churches 
which are regarded as the best specimens of ecclesiastical architecture 
in the country in the colonial days. 

Second Reformed Church — This was organized by members of the 
First Reformed Church in 1843. The first pastor was Rev. David D. 
Demarest, who was called in 1843 ^^'^ continued in charge for nearly 
ten years, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Samuel M. Woodbridge, 
who continued until 1857, when he resigned to take the chair of ecclesi- 
astical history in the Theological Seminary. The Rev. Hugh N. Wilson 
became pastor in 1858, and the cornerstone of the present church on 
the corner of George and Albany streets, was laid October 26, 1857, 
the building being completed and dedicated April 10, 1861. The next 
pastor was the Rev. John W. Schenck, who supplied the pulpit from 
February, 1863, to June i, 1866. The same year the Rev. Chester D. 
Hartranft was chosen pastor, continuing until 1878. The long pastorate 
of the Rev. Mancius H. Hutton commenced October 17, 1879, continuing 
over thirty years until his death, December 19, 1909. The next pastor 
was Rev. John A. Ingham, who was installed March 2, 1910, serving 
till December i, 1920. The chapel adjoining the church was erected in 
1895, as a semi-centennial memorial. The present membership is 312, 
the church properties being valued at $200,000. 


The Suydam Street Reformed Church — The Suydam Street Reformed 
Church was organized October 30, 1884, with fourteen members. The 
Rev. William H. Campbell, D. D., who had just resigned the presidency 
of Rutgers College, was its first pastor. He was installed January 11, 
1885. The cornerstone of the church was laid July 6th the same year. 
In October, 1889, Dr. Campbell resigned, and his son, the Rev. Alan D. 
Campbell, was invited to supply the pulpit for three months and then 
was called to the pastorate of the church. He served it faithfully until 
his death, April i, 1913. In 1892 the parsonage was built on Livingston 
avenue. The present pastor. Rev. George H. Payson, supplied the pulpit 
for two years, at the same time occupying the Chair of Ethics and Evi- 
dences of Christianity in Rutgers College. In 191 5 he resigned his 
professorship and accepted a call to the church and was installed in 

Other Churches — For the benefit of the German population of the 
city, the Third Reformed Church was established in 185 1. The Rev. 
Francis M. Serenbets was chosen pastor, continuing until 1854. The 
following year the Rev. Franz Schneevius was called, remaining until 
1858, when he was succeeded by Rev. J. Hones. The Rev. Prof. Carl 
Meyer took charge in the early sixties of the last century, the congre- 
gation worshipping in a small frame building erected in 1857 on Guilden 
street. On the organization of the St. John's German Reformed Church 
in 1861, the members of the Third Reformed Church united with that 
church, making the total membership sixty. The congregation wor- 
shipped in a frame building on the corner of Albany and George streets. 
The first pastor was Rev. A. Hocking, who resigned in 1864, when Rev. 
I. N. Steiner had charge of the congregation for a year. The third 
pastor, Rev. Oscar Lohr stayed only a few months ; his successor, the 
Rev. Charles Banks, was installed in 1868, remaining until 1904, when 
he was succeeded by the Rev. M. H. Qual. 

The church property was sold on the corner of Albany and George 
streets and the congregation built a cement block structure capable of 
seating five hundred persons, on the corner of Livingston avenue and 
Suydam street. The name of the congregation was changed to the 
Livingston Avenue Reformed Church ; services are given in both the 
German and English languages. The present pastor, the Rev. W. H. 
Bollman, succeeded